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Sample records for cucumber seedlings electronic

  1. Indoleacetaldehyde in Cucumber Seedlings 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, William K.; Brown, Hugh M.

    1978-01-01

    The presence of indoleacetaldehyde in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) cotyledons was demonstrated by thin layer chromatographic RF values in three solvent systems, by the formation and hydrolysis of a bisulfite adduct, and by chemical reduction to indoleethanol and oxidation to indoleacetic acid. Bioassays indicated a minimum indoleacetaldehyde content in etiolated cotyledons of 0.7 μg per kg fresh weight. Tissue samples from all parts of both green and etiolated cucumber seedlings reduced exogenously supplied indoleacetaldehyde to indoleethanol. PMID:16660219

  2. Multiple amine oxidases in cucumber seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percival, F W; Purves, W K

    1974-10-01

    Cell-free extracts of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. National Pickling) seedlings were found to have amine oxidase activity when assayed with tryptamine as a substrate. Studies of the effect of lowered pH on the extract indicated that this activity was heterogeneous, and three amine oxidases could be separated by ion exchange chromatography. The partially purified enzymes were tested for their activities with several substrates and for their sensitivities to various amine oxidase inhibitors. One of the enzymes may be a monoamine oxidase, although it is inhibited by some diamine oxidase inhibitors. The other two enzymes have properties more characteristic of the diamine oxidases. The possible relationship of the amine oxidases to indoleacetic acid biosynthesis in cucumber seedlings is discussed.

  3. Cucumber Seedling Indoleacetaldehyde Oxidase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Peter J.; Brown, Hugh M.; Purves, William K.

    1978-01-01

    Extracts of light-grown Cucumis sativus L. seedlings catalyzed the oxidation of indole-3-acetaldehyde to indole-3-acetic acid. No added cofactors were required. Inhibitor studies indicated that the enzyme is a metalloflavoprotein. While indole-3-aldehyde, benzaldehyde, and phenylacetaldehyde partially inhibited the oxidation of indole-3-acetaldehyde, suggesting that they may serve as alternative substrates, it is proposed that indoleacetaldehyde is the major substrate in vivo. 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid strongly inhibited the indoleacetaldehyde oxidase activity, and it is proposed that this enzyme may be subject in vivo to feedback inhibition by indole-3-acetic acid. The enzyme was activated by brief heating or by treatment with mercaptoethanol. PMID:16660220

  4. Melatonin Increases the Chilling Tolerance of Chloroplast in Cucumber Seedlings by Regulating Photosynthetic Electron Flux and the Ascorbate-Glutathione Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hailiang; Ye, Lin; Wang, Yuping; Zhou, Xiaoting; Yang, Junwei; Wang, Jiawei; Cao, Kai; Zou, Zhirong

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to monitor the effects of exogenous melatonin on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) chloroplasts and explore the mechanisms through which it mitigates chilling stress. Under chilling stress, chloroplast structure was seriously damaged as a result of over-accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), as evidenced by the high levels of superoxide anion (O2−) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). However, pretreatment with 200 μM melatonin effectively mitigated this by suppressing the levels of ROS in chloroplasts. On the one hand, melatonin enhanced the scavenging ability of ROS by stimulating the ascorbate–glutathione (AsA–GSH) cycle in chloroplasts. The application of melatonin led to high levels of AsA and GSH, and increased the activity of total superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR, EC 1.6.5.4) dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR, EC 1.5.5.1), glutathione reductase (GR, EC1.6.4.2) in the AsA–GSH cycle. On the other hand, melatonin lessened the production of ROS in chloroplasts by balancing the distribution of photosynthetic electron flux. Melatonin helped maintain a high level of electron flux in the PCR cycle [Je(PCR)] and in the PCO cycle [Je(PCO)], and suppressed the O2-dependent alternative electron flux Ja(O2-dependent) which is one important ROS source. Results indicate that melatonin increased the chilling tolerance of chloroplast in cucumber seedlings by accelerating the AsA–GSH cycle to enhance ROS scavenging ability and by balancing the distribution of photosynthetic electron flux so as to suppress ROS production. PMID:27999581

  5. Propagation of Cucumber Seedlings in Different Organic and Inorganic Media

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    H. Cinkilİc

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate the possibility of using grape marc and cinder an alternative media to peat for cucumber propagation and find out the results.In the study;normal grape marc, normal grape marc+25% süper coarse perlite, ground grape marc+25% süper coarse perlite, cinder+25% süper coarse perlite, peat+25% süper coarse perlite and peat were used, the best results were obtained from grape marc + 25% super coarse perlite in stem diameter, number of true leaves, weight of seedling, width of seedling, length of leaves and width of leaves; from peat + 25% super coarse perlite in length of seedling, length of seedling with root, weight of root, weight of seedling with root and length of root. The cinder which is the residue of burned coal, gave the worst results in all seedling properties.

  6. [Thermal dissipation pathway in cucumber seedling leaves under hypoxia stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yong-xi; Sun, Jin; Wang, Li-ping; Shu, Sheng; Guo, Shi-rong

    2011-03-01

    A water culture experiment was conducted to study the relationship between photosynthetic thermal dissipation and xanthophyll cycle in cucumber seedling leaves under hypoxia stress (the dissolved oxygen concentration in nutrient solution was 0.9-1.1 mg x L(-1)). Under the hypoxia stress, there was a significant decrease in the quantum yield of PS II photochemistry rate (phi(PS II)), net photosynthetic rate (Pn) under saturation light intensity, quanta yield (AQY), and maximal photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), suggesting that the photoinhibition of the seedling leaves was induced. Meanwhile, the thermal dissipation (NPQ) and the allocation of dissipation energy (D) by antenna increased, but the photochemical quenching apparent (q(p)) decreased, suggesting the enhancement of thermal dissipation in cucumber leaves under hypoxia stress. A positive correlation was observed between NPQ and xanthophyll de-epoxidation state (DEPS), and both of them were promoted by ascorbic acid (AsA) and inhibited by 1,4-dithiothreitol (DTT), suggesting that xanthophyll cycle was the major pathway of photosynthetic thermal dissipation in cucumber seedling leaves under hypoxia stress.

  7. [Allelopathy of different plants on wheat, cucumber and radish seedlings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Huimin; Guo, Hongru; Huang, Gaobao

    2005-04-01

    By means of bioassay in laboratory and field, this paper studied the allelopathy of 18 kinds of plants in Gansu Province on the seedlings of wheat, cucumber and radish. The results showed that the aqueous extract of the stems and leaves of Artemisia annua, Solanum nigrum and Datura stramonium had the strongest allelopathy on test receptor plants, and their synthetic inhibitory effect (SE) was 47.66%, 32.89% and 26.63%, respectively. The SE of Xanthium sibiricum, Portulaca oleraca, Cephalanoplos segetum, and Chenopodium album was 21.71%, 20.93%, 20.83% and 20.2%, respectively, while Vicia amoena (SE 3.5%), Setaria viridis (SE 2.2%), and Cymamchum chinense (SE 1.97%) had a weaker allelopathy. Chenopodium ambrosioides (SE - 1.03%), Polygonum caespitosum (SE - 1.63%) and Avena fatua (SE 5.33%) had no evident allelopathy, but Artemisia annua affected the seedling height and fresh weight of radish, cucumber, wheat and maize, with the SE being 54.07%, 38.46%, 33.35% and 20.88%, respectively. Artemisia annua had a 44.70% of SE on wheat growth, and thus, had a certain value to develop and use.

  8. Effects of Exogenous Cinnamic Acids on the Growth and Physiological Characteristics of Cucumber Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In order to study the effects of exogenous cinnamic acids on plant growth, contents of photosynthetic pigment, root activities and ATPase activities of root membrane at cucumber seedling stage, the seedlings of Shandong Mici cucumber were tested. The results showed that seedlings growth, contents of photosynthetic pigment, root activities and ATPase activities of root membrane were inhibited by cinnamic acids. The growth and root activities of seedlings were significantly cinnamic acids, whereas ATPase activities exhibited a higher sensitivity and greatly decreased in the soil amended with 50 mg kg-1 cinnamic acids. These results suggested that cinnamic acids could induce a stress condition, and the stress intensities increased with enhanced cinnamic acid concentration.

  9. Higher Chilling-Tolerance of Grafted-Cucumber Seedling Leaves upon Exposure to Chilling Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jian-yong; TIAN Hai-xia; LI Xin-guo; MENG Jing-jing; HE Qi-wei

    2008-01-01

    The roots of figleaf gourd (Cucurbita ficifolia, as rootstock) could improve the resistance of cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Jinyan 4, as scion) to low temperature. In this experiment, the root activity and photosynthetic activity of photosystems in the own-rooted and grafted-cucumber plants were studied at chilling temperature (4℃) under low irradiance (100 μmol m-2 s-1 PFD). Compared with dark adaptation seedlings, the chlorophyll a fluorescence transient curve and the oxidizable P700 (P700+) of both the own-rooted and grafted seedlings decreased, and PS2 and PSl of the own-rooted seedling leaves were more inhibited than that of grafted ones at the end of chilling stress. The reduced triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC), which was used to reflect the root activity, kept stable in grafted seedling roots at the end of chilling stress, while it decreased noticeably in the own-rooted seedling roots. These results implied that the root system activity of the grafted seedling roots was higher than that of the own-rooted ones. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was higher in both the grafted seedling roots and leaves than that in own-rooted seedlings at both room temperature and chilling temperature. Upon exposure to chilling stress, the malondialdehyde (MDA) content, which reflects the degree of lipid peroxidation, increased markedly in the own-rooted seedling roots and leaves and kept stable in the grafted-cucumber seedlings.

  10. Difference of Low Temperature and Low Irradiance-Resistance between Figleaf Gourd and Cucumber Seedlings Related to Mineral Elements Uptake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jian-Yong; GUO Shang-Jing; LI Xin-Guo; MENG Jing-Jinga; HE Qi-Wei

    2009-01-01

    We have repotted that the roots of fig, leaf gourd (Cucurbita ficifolia, as rootstock) could improve the resistance of cucumber seedlings (Cucumis sativus L.cv. Jinyan 4, as scion) to 6 h stress at low temperature and low irradiance [1]. In this experiment, the relationship between the mineral elements uptake and photosynthetic activity of photosystems in figleaf gourd and cucumber seedlings were to be studied during low temperature (8 C) stress under low irradiance (100 μ. mol m-2 s-1 PFD) for 5 days. Compared with control seedlings, the maximal photochemical efficiency of PS2 (Fv/Fm) and the oxidizable P700 (P700+) of both figleaf gourd and cucumber seedlings decreased, and beth Fv/Fm and P700+ were lower in cucumber leaves than in figleaf gourd seedlings at the end of the stress. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was higher in beth leaves and roots of figleaf gourd than in leaves and roots of cucumber at both room temperature and low temperature. However, the product rate of O 2 was lower in figleaf gourd leaves than in cucumber leaves. Upon ex-posure to the stress, the malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased markedly in leaves and roots of figleaf gourd and cucumber seedlings, and it grew faster in cucumber seedlings than that in figleaf gourd seedlings. Under adaptive conditions, some mineral elements (Such as Cu, Zn, Mn and Mg) have different contents in leaves and roots between figleaf gourd seedlings and cucumber seedlings. However, at the end of the stress these elements were accumulated apparently in both leaves and roots of figleaf gourd accompanied by no obvious change in cucumber seedlings.

  11. Effects of Exogenous Silicon on Photosynthetic Capacity and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Chloroplast of Cucumber Seedlings Under Excess Manganese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Jian-peng; SHI Qing-hua; WANG Xiu-feng

    2009-01-01

    Effects of silicon on photosynthetic parameters and antioxidant enzymes of chloroplast in cucumber seedlings under excess Mn were studied. Compared with the control, excess Mn significantly inhibited net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance, as well as the maximum yield of the photosystem Ⅱ photochemical reactions (Fv/Fm) and the quantum yield of photosysytem Ⅱelectron transport(φPSⅡ),application of Si reversed the negative effects of excess Mn. In the further investigation, it was obtained that application of Si significantly increased the activities of enzymes related with ascorbate-glutathione cycle including ascorbate peroxidase (APX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) and glutathione reductase (GR) in cucumber chloroplast under excess Mn, this could be responsible for the lower accumulation of H2O2 and lower lipid peroxidation of chloroplast induced by Mn, and resulted in keeping higher photosynthesis.

  12. Roles of auxin transport and action in the gravity-regulated morphogenesis of cucumber seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Y.; Shimizu, M.; Hotta, T.; Dai-Hee, K.; Yanai, K.; Kamada, M.; Fujii, N.; Miyazawa, Y.; Takahashi, H.

    Cucumber Cucumis sativus L seedlings develop a specialized protuberance peg on the lower side of the transition zone between the hypocotyl and the root when seeds germinate in a horizontal position The peg plays an important role in pulling seedling out from the seed coat We have reported that cucumber seedlings potentially develop a peg on each side of the transition zone but peg development on the upper side is suppressed in response to gravity Auxin is the primary factor responsible for the induction or the suppression of peg formation Here we investigated the roles of auxin transport and action in the gravity-regulated formation suppression of the peg in cucumber seedlings When cucumber seedlings were treated with inhibitors of auxin efflux carrier a peg was formed not only on the lower side but also on the upper side of the gravistimulated transition zone suggesting that activation of auxin efflux carriers is required for the suppression of peg formation To identify auxin efflux carriers involved in the suppression of peg formation by graviresponse we isolated six cucumber cDNAs of PIN auxin efflux carrier genes and investigated their mRNA accumulation and protein expression Our results show that CsPIN1 and CsPIN6 could play a role in the redistribution of auxin in the transition zone To understand auxin action on peg formation suppression we next examined the transcriptional regulators for the expressions of auxin-responsive genes The results suggest that a higher level of auxin in the lower side of the

  13. Gravimorphogenesis of Cucurbitaceae plants: development of peg cells and graviperception mechanism in cucumber seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, H; Fujii, N; Kamada, M; Higashitani, A; Yamazaki, Y; Kobayashi, A; Takano, M; Yamasaki, S; Sakata, T; Mizuno, H; Kaneko, Y; Murata, T; Kamigaichi, S; Aizawa, S; Yoshizaki, I; Shimazu, T; Fukui, K

    2000-06-01

    We examined the effect of microgravity on the peg formation of cucumber seedlings for clarifying the mechanism of gravimorphogenesis in cucurbitaceous plants. The spaceflight experiments verified that gravity controls the formation of peg, hypocotyl hook and growth orientation of cucumber seedlings. Space-grown cucumber developed a peg on each side of the transition zone of the hypocotyl and root, indicating that on the ground peg formation is regulated negatively by gravity (Takahashi et al. 2000). It was found that the auxin-regulated gene, CS-IAA1, was strongly expressed in the transition zone where peg develops (Fujii et al. 2000). In the seedlings grown horizontally on the ground, CS-IAA1 transcripts were much abundant on the lower side of the transition zone, but no such differential expression of CS-IAA1 was observed in the space-grown cucumber (Kamada et al. 2000). These results imply that gravity plays a role in peg formation through auxin redistribution. By the negative control, peg formation on the upper side of the transition zone in the horizontally growing seedlings might be suppressed due to a reduction in auxin concentration. The threshold theory of auxin concentration accounted for the new concept, negative control of morphogenesis by gravity (Kamada et al. 2000). Anatomical studies have shown that there exists the target cells destined to be a peg and distinguishable at the early stage of the growth. Ultra-structural analysis suggested that endoplasmic reticulum develops well in the cells of the future peg. Furthermore, it was found that reorganization of cortical microtubules is required for the change in cell growth polarity in the process of peg formation. The spaceflight experiment with cucumber seedlings also suggested that in microgravity positive hydrotropic response of roots occurred without interference by gravitropic response (Takahashi et al. 1999b). Thus, this spaceflight experiment together with the ground-based studies has shown that

  14. Analysis of peg formation in cucumber seedlings grown on clinostats and in a microgravity (space) environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, B. M.; Cosgrove, D. J.

    1999-01-01

    In young cucumber seedlings, the peg is a polar out-growth of tissue that functions by snagging the seed coat, thereby freeing the cotyledons. Previous studies have indicated that peg formation is gravity dependent. In this study we analyzed peg formation in cucumber seedlings (Cucumis sativus L. cv Burpee Hybrid II) grown under conditions of normal gravity, microgravity, and simulated microgravity (clinostat rotation). Seeds were germinated on the ground, in clinostats and on board the space shuttle (STS 95) for 1-2 days, frozen and subsequently examined for their stage of development, degree of hook formation, number of pegs formed, and peg morphology. The frequency of peg formation in space grown seedlings was found to be nearly identical to that of clinostat grown seedlings and to differ from that of seedlings germinated under normal gravity only in a minority of cases; approximately 6% of the seedlings formed two pegs and nearly 2% of the seedlings lacked pegs, whereas such abnormalities did not occur in ground controls. The degree of hook formation was found to be less pronounced for space grown seedlings, compared to clinostat grown seedlings, indicating a greater degree of decoupling between peg formation and hook formation in space. Nonetheless, in all seedlings having single pegs and a hook, the peg was found to be positioned correctly on the inside of the hook, showing that there is coordinate development even in microgravity environments. Peg morphologies were altered in space grown samples, with the pegs having a blunt appearance and many pegs showing alterations in expansion, with the peg extending out over the edges of the seed coat and downwards. These phenotypes were not observed in clinostat or ground grown seedlings.

  15. Interactive Effects of Drought Stresses and Elevated CO2 Concentration on Photochemistry Efficiency of Cucumber Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-Ming Li; Bin-Bin Liu; Yang Wu; Zhi-Rong Zou

    2008-01-01

    To reveal and quantify the interactive effects of drought stresses and elevated CO2 concentration [CO2] on photochemistry efficiency of cucumber seedlings, the portable chlorophyll meter was used to measure the chlorophyll content, and the Imaging-PAM was used to image the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and rapid light response curves (RLC) of leaves in two adjacent greenhouses. The results showed that chlorophyll content of leaves was reduced significantly with drought stress aggravated. Minimal fluorescence (Fo) was increased while maximal quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm) decreased significantly by severe drought stress. The significant decrease of effective quantum yield of PSll (Y(Ⅱ)) accompanied by the significant increase of quantum yield of regulated energy dissipation (Y(NPQ)) was observed under severe drought stress condition, but there was no change of quantum yield of nonregulated energy dissipation (Y(NO)). We detected that the coefficient of photochemical quenching (Qp) decreased, and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) increased significantly under severe drought stress. Furthermore, we found that maximum apparent electron transport rate (ETRmax) and saturating photosynthetically active radiation (PPFDsat) decreased significantly with drought stress aggravated. However, elevated [CO2] significantly increased FvlFm, Qp and PPFDsat, and decreased NPQ under all water conditions, although there were no significant effects on chlorophyll content, Fo, Y(Ⅱ), Y(NPQ), Y(NO) and ETRmax. Therefore, it is concluded that CO2-fertilized greenhouses or elevated atmospheric [CO2] in the future could be favorable for cucumber growth and development, and beneficial to alleviate the negative effects of drought stresses to a certain extent.

  16. Assessment of Salicylic Acid Impacts on Seedling Characteristic of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. under Water Stress

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    Hossein MARDANI

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Impacts of various concentrations of salicylic acid (SA on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. seedling characteristic were evaluated under different water stress levels by using a factorial arrangement based on completely randomized design with three replications at experimental greenhouse of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. The studied factors included three water deficit levels (100% FC, 80% FC, and 60% FC considered as first factor and five levels of SA concentrations (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1 mM as second factor. Results showed that foliar application of SA at the highest concentration enhanced leaf area, leaf and dry weight while decreased stomatal conductance under high level of water deficit stress. Though, severe water deficit stress sharply raised the SPAD reading values. In general, exogenous SA application could develop cucumber seedling characteristic and improve water stress tolerance.

  17. [Effects of chlorophyllin-iron on osmotic adjustment and activities of antioxidantive enzymes in cucumber seedlings under suboptimal temperature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Wang, Xiu-feng; Zhang, Fan-yang; Wei, Min; Shi, Qing-hua; Yang, Feng-juan; Li, Yan

    2014-12-01

    Cucumber cultivar 'Jinyan 4' was subjected to suboptimal temperature treatment of 18/12 degrees C (day/night) in the growth chambers. A solution culture experiment was conducted to study the effect of exogenously spraying 5 mg x L(-1) chlorophyllin-iron solution on plant growth, the content of proline, soluble sugar, MDA and activity of peroxidase in the leaves of cucumber seedling under suboptimal temperature. Application of chlorophyllin-iron showed prominent effects on mitigating the stress of suboptimal temperature on growth of the cucumber seedlings, significantly increasing the plant height, leaf area, shoot dry mass, the contents of soluble sugar and proline and the activities of SOD, POD, CAT and APX. Exogenously spraying chlorophyllin-iron could promote the accumulation of proline and soluble sugar, raise the activities of antioxidant enzymes, decrease the membrane lipid peroxidation and improve the adaptability of cucumber seedlings under suboptimal temperature.

  18. Endogenous salicylic acid accumulation is required for chilling tolerance in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chun-Juan; Li, Liang; Shang, Qing-Mao; Liu, Xin-Yan; Zhang, Zhi-Gang

    2014-10-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is an important plant hormone, and its exogenous application can induce tolerance to multiple environmental stresses in plants. In this study, we examine the potential involvement of endogenous SA in response to chilling in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings. A low temperature of 8 °C induces a moderate increase in endogenous SA levels. Chilling stimulates the enzymatic activities and the expression of genes for phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and benzoic acid-2-hydroxylase rather than isochorismate synthase. This indicates that the PAL enzymatic pathway contributes to chilling-induced SA production. Cucumber seedlings pretreated with SA biosynthesis inhibitors accumulate less endogenous SA and suffer more from chilling damage. The expression of cold-responsive genes is also repressed by SA inhibitors. The reduction in stress tolerance and in gene expression can be restored by the exogenous application of SA, confirming the critical roles of SA in chilling responses in cucumber seedlings. Furthermore, the inhibition of SA biosynthesis under chilling stress results in a prolonged and enhanced hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulation. The application of exogenous SA and the chemical scavenger of H2O2 reduces the excess H2O2 and alleviates chilling injury. In contrast, the protective effects of SA are negated by foliar spraying with high concentrations of H2O2 and an inhibitor of the antioxidant enzyme. These results suggest that endogenous SA is required in response to chilling stress in cucumber seedlings, by modulating the expression of cold-responsive genes and the precise induction of cellular H2O2 levels.

  19. Effects of 24-Epibrassinolide on Antioxidant System in Cucumber Seedling Roots Under Hypoxia Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANG Yun-yan; GUO Shi-rong; LI Juan; DUAN Jiu-ju

    2007-01-01

    This article aims to study the effects of exogenous 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) on the changes in ROS, activities of antioxidative enzymes and antioxidants in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedling roots under hypoxia stress. Seedlings of a hypoxianormoxic or hypoxic nutrient solutions that were added or not added with 10-3 mg L-1 EBR. Under hypoxia stress, the ROS levels and the lipid peroxidation were significantly increased in the roots upon exposure to hypoxia stress, which were inhibited by EBR application. The EBR treatment significantly increased the seedlings growth and SOD, APX, GR activities, and contents of AsA and GSH under hypoxia stress. From the results obtained in this study, it can be concluded that oxidative damage on seedling roots by hypoxia stress can be considerably alleviated and the tolerance of plants was elevated.

  20. Developmental Characteristics and Cinnamic Acid Resistance of Root Border Cells in Cucumber and Figleaf Gourd Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAO Yong-xu; ZHANG Yong-ping; ZHANG Hong-xin; TIAN Yong-qiang; GAO Li-hong

    2013-01-01

    Root border cells (RBCs) originate from the root tip epidermis and surround the root apices. In this study, we evaluated the developmental characteristics and the roles of RBCs in protection of root apices of cucumber and ifgleaf gourd seedlings from CA toxicity. The formation of RBCs and the emergence of the root tip occurred almost simultaneously in root apices of cucumber and ifgleaf gourd seedlings. CA ranging from 0 to 0.25 mol L-1 inhibited root elongation and decreased root cell viability in the root tip, moreover the inhibitory effects of CA were more signiifcant in the CA-sensitive cucumber than in the CA-tolerant ifgleaf gourd. Removal of RBCs from root tips led to more severe CA induced inhibition of root elongation and decline in root cell viability. Increasing CA levels and treatment time decreased the relative viability of attached and detached RBCs. CA also induced a thicker mucilage layer surrounding attached RBCs of both species. Additionally, a signiifcantly higher relative cell viability of attached RBCs and thicker mucilage layers were observed in ifgleaf gourd. These results suggest that RBCs play an important role in protecting root tips from CA toxicity.

  1. Effect of some Trichoderma spp. isolates on promoting growth of cucumber seedlings under greenhouse conditions

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    M. Taghinasab Darzi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was performed to investigate the effect of some Trichoderma spp. isolates as growth promoters of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. seedlings under greenhouse conditions. Inoculai of 19 Thrichoderma spp. isolates were prepared from disinfected wheat grain. The upper half of the soil in pots (containing field soil and sand was mixed with these inoculai at 3% ratio and the pots were irrigated with tap water for 28 days. After four weeks, the seedlings were sampled for growth comparison on stem length, root length and total fresh weight. The results showed that some isolates improved significantly the cucumber seedlings’ growth and others had inhibitory effect. Application of Trichoderma spp. 17 and T. longibraciatum increased stem length more than 74% as compared to control. Also, these isolates increased significantly P<0.05 the total fresh weight about 40% and 25%, respectively, as compared to control. Furthermore, Trichoderma sp. 19 decreased significantly the stem length, root length and total fresh weight as compared to control. These results show the ability of Persian Trichoderma spp. isolates in promoting cucumber growth and its potential for other plants.

  2. Impact of Methyl Jasmonate on Enhancing Chilling Tolerance of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. Seedlings

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    F. Saydpour

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cucumber is a warm season crop that suffers from chilling injury at temperatures below 10°C. In recent years, jasmonates have been used for reduction of chilling injuries in plants. An experiment was, therefore, conducted to test whether methyl jasmonate (MeJA application at various concentrations (0, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.15 mM through seed soaking or foliar spray would protect cucumber seedlings, subjected to chilling stress. Results showed that MeJA application decreased chilling index, ion leakage, malondialdehyde content and hydrogen peroxide free radical and increased growth parameters, proline contents, chlorophylls contents and antioxidant activity. Although, seed soaking method provided better protection compared to foliar spray method, the highest cold tolerance was obtained with 0.15mM MeJA application in both application methods that caused low level of chilling index (1.67, malondialdehyde content (0.11 nm g-1 FW, hydrogen peroxide free radical (0.22 nm g-1 FW and ion leakage (32.87%. In general, it may be concluded that MeJA could be used effectively to protect cucumber seedling from damaging effects of chilling stress at the early stages of growth.

  3. Effects of cinnamic acid on the physiological characteristics of cucumber seedlings under salt stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xuezheng; WANG Hua; WU Fengzhi; LIU Bo

    2007-01-01

    Effects of cinnamic acid on the physiological characteristics of cucumber(Shandong Mici)seedlings under salt stress were studied,and the best concentration and treatment time were ascertained.The results showed that cinnamic acid relatively increased the leaf relative water content and the chlorophyll content,decreased plasma membrane permeability,mitigated membrane damage,inhibited the accumulation of malondialdehyde(product of membrane lipid peroxidation),and promoted the activity of membrane protective enzymes such as super oxide dismutase and peroxidase,therefore improving the adaptabilities of cucumber to salt stress.It is concluded that the best treatment time of cinnamic acid is in the two euphylla period,and the best treatment concentration of cinnamic acid is 50 μmol/L.

  4. [Allelopathic effects of Lycoris radiate on radish, cucumber, tomato and rape seedlings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hongyun; Zhang, Yanning; Feng, Pingzhang; Zhang, Heng

    2006-09-01

    The laboratory test showed that Lycoris radiate water extract had a stronger inhibitory effect on the seed germination and seedling growth of radish, cucumber, tomato and rape. After treated with 0.0125 g x ml(-1) of the extract, tomato seed could not germinate, but the seed germination inhibition rate of rape, radish and cucumber was only 17.73%, 14.97% and 2.65%, respectively. Under the same concentrations of the extract, sprout growth was inhibited more strongly than root growth. L. radiate methanol extract could inhibit the sprout and root growth of endosperm-removed wheat and sorghum, and the effect was stronger for sorghum than for wheat. All of these illustrated that L. radiate extracts mainly inhibited non-photosynthesis activity, but could also inhibit photosynthesis activity to some degree.

  5. Use of Spent Mushroom Substrate as Growing Media for Tomato and Cucumber Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Run-Hua; DUAN Zeng-Qiang; LI Zhi-Guo

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate weathered spent mushroom substrate (SMS),made from spent Flammulina velutipes mushroom substrate,as a growing medium for nursery seedlings.Two vegetable species,cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.cv.Jinchun No.2) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.cv.Mandy),were grown in 8 media of SMS in various ratios with perlite or vermiculite.A mixed substrate of peat with perlite (1∶1; v∶v) was used as the control (CK).The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design under greenhouse conditions.Prior to sowing,some physical and chemical properties of the growing media were determined.Results showed that all the mixtures had desirable physical and chemical properties for their use in nursery tomato and cucumber seedlings except for the T4 (SMS∶vermiculite =1∶1;v∶v) and the T8 (SMS∶perlite =2∶1; v∶v) mixtures.Compared with the CK,increased plant height,leaf area,fresh weight,dry weight and index of seedling quality were found in the T3 (SMS∶vermiculite =2∶1; v∶v) and T6 (SMS:perlite =4∶1; v∶v) growing media.SMS should be considered as an alternative for the widely used but expensive and resource-limited peat in greenhouse cultivation.

  6. Low Root Zone Temperature Limits Nutrient Effects on Cucumber Seedling Growth and Induces Adversity Physiological Response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Qiu-yan; DUAN Zeng-qiang; MAO Jing-dong; LI Xun; DONG Fei

    2013-01-01

    Effects of root-zone temperatures (RZT) (12°C-RZT and 20°C-RZT) and different N, P, and K nutrient regimes on the growth, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and antioxidant enzyme in cucumber seedlings were investigated in hydroponics. Strong interactions were observed between RZT and nutrient on the dry weight (P=0.001), root length (P=0.001) and leaf area (P=0.05). Plant dry weights were suppressed at low RZT of 12°C, while higher biomass and growth of cucumber seedlings were produced at elevated RZT of 20°C under each nutrient treatment. Growth indexes (plant height, internode length, root length, and leaf area) at 12°C-RZT had less difference among nutrient treatments, but greater response was obtained for different nutrients at high RZT. RZT had larger effects (P=0.001) on cucumber seedling growth than nutrients. In addition, N was more effective nutrients to plant growth than P and K under low root temperature to plant growth. Higher hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), malondialdehyde (MDA), soluble sugar (SS) contents in leaves were observed at 12°C-RZT in all nutrient treatments than those at 20°C-RZT, indicating the chilling adversity damaged to plant growth. In general, antioxidant enzyme had larger response under low root-zone temperature. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were higher in both leaves and roots while peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) showed large different action in leaves and roots at both the two root-zone temperature.

  7. Auxin efflux facilitator and auxin dynamism responsible for the gravity-regulated development of peg in cucumber seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hideyuki; Watanabe, Chiaki; Fujii, Nobuharu; Miyazawa, Yutaka

    Cucumber seedlings develop a protuberance, peg, by which seed coats are pulled out just af-ter germination. The peg is usually formed on the lower side of the transition zone between hypocotyl and root of the seedlings grown in a horizontal position. Our previous spaceflight experiment showed that unilateral positioning of a peg in cucumber seedlings occurred due to its suppression on the upper side of the transition zone because seedlings grown in microgravity developed a peg on each side of the transition zone. We also showed that auxin was a major factor responsible for peg development. There was a redistribution of auxin in the gravistimu-lated transition zone, decreasing IAA level on the upper side, and IAA application induced a peg on both lower and upper sides of the transition zone. In addition, peg was released from its suppression in the seedlings treated with inhibitors of auxin efflux. Namely, two pegs devel-oped in the TIBA-treated seedlings even when they were grown in a horizontal position. These results imply that a reduction of auxin level due to its efflux is required for the suppression of peg development on the upper side of the transition zone in a horizontal position. To under-stand molecular mechanism underlying the negative control of morphogenesis by graviresponse in cucumber seedlings, we isolated cDNAs of auxin efflux facilitators, CsPINs, from cucumber and examined the expressions of their proteins, in relation to the redistribution of endogenous auxin and peg development. We isolated six cDNAs of PIN homologues CsPIN1 to CsPIN6 from cucumber. By immunohistochemical study using some of their anti-bodies, we revealed that CsPIN1 was localized in endodermis, vascular tissue and pith around the transition zone of cucumber seedlings. In cucumber seedlings grown in a vertical position with radicles pointing down, CsPIN1 in endodermal cells was mainly localized on the plasma membrane neighboring vascular bundle but not on the plasma membrane

  8. Gravity-induced modification of auxin transport and distribution for peg formation in cucumber seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamada, M.; Fujii, N.; Higashitani, A.; Takahashi, H.

    Cucumber seedlings grown in microgravity developed a peg on each side of the transition zone between hypocotyl and root, whereas seedlings grown in a horizontal position on the ground developed a peg on the concave (lower) side of the gravitropically bending transition zone. Using an auxin-inducible gene, CS-IAA1, we showed that upon gravistimulation the auxin concentration on the upper side of the horizontally placed transition zone is reduced to a level below the threshold necessary for peg formation. In this study, to elucidate the role of auxin in the lateral placement of peg formation, we measured the contents of endogenous auxin in the transition zone. The content of free IAA was lower and conjugated IAA was more abundant on the upper side of the transition zone of the gravistimulated seedlings compared with the lower side. These results support the idea that a decrease in auxin level due to a modification of auxin transport or metabolism causes the suppression of peg formation on the upper side of the transition zone in a horizontal position. Cucumber seedlings treated with auxin transport inhibitors exhibited agravitropic growth and developed a peg on each side of the transition zone. Application of auxin transport inhibitors caused an increase in CS-IAA1 mRNA (an auxin-inducible gene) at the transition zone. To analyze auxin transport system for peg formation, we isolated auxin influx carrier, CS-AUX1, and auxin efflux carrier, CS-PIN1, from cucumber plants. The accumulation of CS-AUX1 and CS-PIN1 mRNAs was observed at vascular tissue and epidermis in the transition zone. The level of CS-AUX1 mRNA was lower on the upper side of the transition zone in a horizontal position. The results suggest that the transition zone is an additional source of auxin, and that both influx and efflux of auxin in the cells of the transition zone control cytoplasmic concentration of auxin for peg formation.

  9. Gravity-regulated formation of the peg in developing cucumber seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, H.; Scott, T. K.

    1994-01-01

    It has been proposed that peg formation in the vascular transition region (TR zone) between the hypocotyl and the root in Cucurbitaceae seedlings is a gravimorphogenetic phenomenon. Initiation of the peg became visible 36 h after imbibition when cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Burpee Hybrid II) seeds were germinated in a horizontal position at 24 degrees C in the dark. Simultaneously, sedimented amyloplasts (putative statoliths) were apparent in the sheath cells surrounding the vascular strands, and in the cortical cells immediately adjacent to them, in the TR zone. In contrast, the other cortical cells, some of which were destined to develop into the peg, contained amyloplasts which were not sedimented. These results suggest that the graviperception mechanism for peg formation may be like that of statoliths in shoot gravitropism. By 48 h following imbibition, the cells of the TR zone still had sedimented amyloplasts but had lost their sensitivity to gravity, possibly because of their maturation.

  10. Boron toxicity is alleviated by hydrogen sulfide in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bao-Lan; Shi, Lei; Li, Yin-Xing; Zhang, Wen-Hao

    2010-05-01

    Boron (B) is an essential micronutrient for plants, which when occurs in excess in the growth medium, becomes toxic to plants. Rapid inhibition of root elongation is one of the most distinct symptoms of B toxicity. Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is emerging as a potential messenger molecule involved in modulation of physiological processes in plants. In the present study, we investigated the role of H(2)S in B toxicity in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings. Root elongation was significantly inhibited by exposure of cucumber seedlings to solutions containing 5 mM B. The inhibitory effect of B on root elongation was substantially alleviated by treatment with H(2)S donor sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS). There was an increase in the activity of pectin methylesterase (PME) and up-regulated expression of genes encoding PME (CsPME) and expansin (CsExp) on exposure to high B concentration. The increase in PME activity and up-regulation of expression of CsPME and CsExp induced by high B concentration were markedly reduced in the presence of H(2)S donor. There was a rapid increase in soluble B concentrations in roots on exposure to high concentration B solutions. Treatment with H(2)S donor led to a transient reduction in soluble B concentration in roots such that no differences in soluble B concentrations in roots in the absence and presence of NaHS were found after 8 h exposure to the high concentration B solutions. These findings suggest that increases in activities of PME and expansin may underlie the inhibition of root elongation by toxic B, and that H(2)S plays an ameliorative role in protection of plants from B toxicity by counteracting B-induced up-regulation of cell wall-associated proteins of PME and expansins.

  11. Changes in the soil microbial community after reductive soil disinfestation and cucumber seedling cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xinqi; Liu, Liangliang; Wen, Teng; Zhang, Jinbo; Wang, Fenghe; Cai, Zucong

    2016-06-01

    Reductive soil disinfestation (RSD) has been proven to be an effective and environmentally friendly way to control many soilborne pathogens and diseases. In this study, the RSDs using ethanol (Et-RSD) and alfalfa (Al-RSD) as organic carbons were performed in a Rhizoctonia solani-infected soil, and the dissimilarities of microbial communities during the RSDs and after planting two seasons of cucumber seedlings in the RSDs-treated soil were respectively investigated by MiSeq pyrosequencing. The results showed that, as for bacteria, Coprococcus, Flavisolibacter, Rhodanobacter, Symbiobacterium, and UC-Ruminococcaceae became the dominant bacterial genera at the end of Al-RSD. In contrast, Et-RSD soil involved more bacteria belonging to Firmicutes, such as Sedimentibacter, UC-Gracilibacteraceae, and Desulfosporosinus. For fungi, Chaetomium significantly increased at the end of RSDs, while Rhizoctonia and Aspergillus significantly decreased. After planting two seasons of cucumber seedlings, those bacteria belonging to Firmicutes significantly decreased, but Lysobacter and Rhodanobacter belonging to the phylum Proteobacteria as well as UC-Sordariales and Humicola belonging to Ascomycota alternatively increased in Al- and Et-RSD-treated soils. Besides, some nitrification, denitrification, and nitrogen fixation genes were apparently increased in the RSD-treated soils, but the effect was more profound in Al-RSD than Et-RSD. Overall, Et-RSD could induced more antagonists belonging to Firmicutes under anaerobic condition, whereas Al-RSD could continuously stimulate some functional microorganisms (Lysobacter and Rhodanobacter) and further improve nitrogen transformation activities in the soil at the coming cropping season.

  12. Effects of Phenolic Acids on Growth and Activities of Membrane Protective Enzymes of Cucumber Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Feng-zhi; HUANG Cai-hong; ZHAO Feng-yan

    2002-01-01

    Two phenolic acids P-hydroxy benzoic acid and cinnamic acid were designated as four concentrations (0, 50μmol/L, 100μmol/L, 150μmol/L) to investigate the effects of phenoic acids on the growth and the activities of membrane protective enzymes of cucumber seedlings. The results showed that both phenolic acids inhibited the seedlings growth. The inhibitory effects were increased with the concentration of phenolic acids increasing and the time of treatment prolonging. Seedlings treated with A150 (P-hydroxy benzoic acid, 150μmol/L), B50 (cinnamic acid, 50 μmol/L), B100 (cinnamic acid,100μmol/L), B150 (cinnamic acid, 150μmol/L) showed significantly shorter in plant height , smaller in leaf area. and lighter in fresh weight. The inhibitory effect of cinnamic acid was comparatively stronger than that of P-hydroxy benzoic acid. For protective enzymes system, compared to control, the POD activity increased at all concentrations of P-hydroxy benzoic acid during the treatment but increased at first then decreased before increased again at last at all concentrations of cinnamic acid . In the case of CAT, its activity increased at first, then decreased, and increased again at lower concentrations of phenolic acids. However, at higher concentrations the activities decreased at first, then increased a little, decreased continuously at last. In addition, the treatments of phenolic acids led to an increase then a decreaseof SOD activity and an increase of MDA content in the seedlings. All above indicated the accumulating of free radicalsand destruction of protective enzymes at higher concentrations of phenolic acids.

  13. Influence of enhanced UV-B radiation on the chloroplast pigments and photosynthesis rate in cucumber seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Rybus-Zając

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of increased UV-B radiation (16 kJ/m2 per day on the level of chloroplast pigments and rate of photosynthesis and growth of seedlings of cucumber in two stages was examined. In the cotyledons subjected to UV-B radiation content of chloroplast pigments and photosynthesis rate was higher than in controls. In the leaves of 3-week-old seedlings increased UV-B radiation limited chloroplast pigments level, intensity photosynthesis and growth.  

  14. Effects of grafting with pumpkin rootstock on carbohydrate metabolism in cucumber seedlings under Ca(NO3)2 stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Wen-wen; Li, Lin; Gao, Pan; Li, He; Shao, Qiao-sai; Shu, Sheng; Sun, Jin; Guo, Shi-rong

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of grafting on the carbohydrate status and the enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in self-grafted and grafted cucumber seedlings using the salt-tolerant pumpkin rootstock 'Qingzhen 1' (Cucurbita maxima × Cucurbita moschata) under 80 mM Ca(NO3)2 stress for 6 d. The growth of self-grafted seedlings was significantly inhibited after the treatment of Ca(NO3)2 stress, whereas the inhibition of growth was alleviated in pumpkin rootstock-grafted seedlings. Ca(NO3)2 stress increased the contents of the total soluble sugar, sucrose and fructose, but decreased the starch content in rootstock-grafted leaves. However, compared with self-grafted plants, rootstock-grafted seedlings were observed with a higher content of sucrose and total soluble sugar (TSS) under salt stress. Rootstock-grafted seedlings exhibited higher activities of acid invertase (AI), neutral invertase (NI) and phosphate sucrose synthase (SPS) of sucrose metabolism in leaves than that of self-grafted seedlings under salinity. Moreover, the activities of fructokinase (FK), hexokinase (HK), phosphofructokinase (PFK) and pyruvate kinase (PK) of glycolysis were maintained at a higher level in leaves of rootstock-grafted seedlings after Ca(NO3)2 stress. Additionally, rootstock-grafting decrease the high percentage enhancement of key enzymes gene expression in glycolysis in the scion leaves of cucumber seedlings induced by salt stress. These results suggest that the rootstock-grafting improved salt tolerance, which might play a role in elevated sucrose metabolism and a glycolytic pathway regulated by the pumpkin rootstock.

  15. Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Communities on Soil Quality and the Growth of Cucumber Seedlings in a Greenhouse Soil of Continuously Planting Cucumber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yan; CHEN Ying-Long; LI Min; LIN Xian-Gui; LIU Run-Jin

    2012-01-01

    A pot experiment was performed to determine the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) communities on soil properties and the growth of cucumber seedlings in a degraded soil that had been used for continuous cucumber monoculture in a greenhouse for 15 years.In the experiment,AMF communities (created by combining various AMF species that were found to be dominant in natural farm soil) were inoculated into the degraded soil,and then the soil was planted with cucumber.Inoculation with AMF communities did not affect soil pH but increased soil aggregate stability and decreased the concentrations of salt ions and electrical conductivity (EC) in the soil.Inoculation with AMF communities increased the numbers of culturable bacteria and actinomycetes but reduced the number of fungi. AMF communities increased plant growth,soluble sugar content,chlorophyll content,and root activity compared to non-mycorrhizal or a single AMF species treatments. Improvements of soil quality and plant growth were greatest with the following two communities:Glomus etunicatum + G.mosseae + Gigaspora margarita + Acaulospora lacunosa and G.aggregatum + G.etunicatum +G.mosseae + G.versiforme + G.margarita + A.lacunosa.The results suggested that certain AMF communities could substantially improve the quality of degraded soil.

  16. Effects of exogenous 5-aminolevulinic acid on PIP1 and NIP aquaporin gene expression in seedlings of cucumber cultivars subjected to salinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, F; Qu, D; Zhao, Y Y; Hu, X H; Zhao, Z Y; Zhang, Y; Zou, Z R

    2014-01-22

    Aquaporins play a direct role in plant water relation under salt stress, but the effects of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) on aquaporin gene expression in salt-treated plants remain unknown. This study investigated the potential effects of exogenous ALA (50 mg/dm3) on aquaporin expression levels under salt stress (75 mM NaCl) in the salt-sensitive (Jinchun No.4) and the relatively salt-tolerant cucumber (Jinyou No.1) seedlings. The expressions of cucumber PIP aquaporin gene (CsPIP1:1) and cucumber NIP aquaporin gene (CsNIP) were analyzed in 20-day-old seedling leaves at 2, 4, 8, 16, and 24 h after ALA treatment. After treatment with saline alone and ALA alone, CsPIP1:1 and CsNIP gene expression levels in the 2 cucumber cultivars increased to maximum at 2 h. The aquaporin gene expression in salt-treated cucumber seedling leaves was considerably higher than that in leaves subjected to exogenous ALA. Further, the aquaporin expression levels in Jinchun No.4 were higher than those in Jinyou No.1, reaching 5.20- and 2-fold induction levels, respectively. After treatment with both ALA and NaCl, the CsNIP gene expression was downregulated in both the cucumber cultivars, while that of CsPIP1:1 decreased at 2 h and then increased to 3.8-fold in Jinchun No.4. In Jinyou No.1, CsPIP1:1 gene expression gradually increased to 2.3-fold at 4 h, followed by a decline in expression. The results indicated that ALA might delay and counteract the upregulated expression of CsPIP1:1 and CsNIP genes in cucumber seedlings under NaCl stress. Thus, salt tolerance of cucumber seedlings might be enhanced by ALA application.

  17. Ethylene is involved in brassinosteroids induced alternative respiratory pathway in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. seedlings response to abiotic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijie eWei

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Effects of brassinosteroids (BRs on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. abiotic stresses resistance to salt, polyethylene glycol (PEG, cold and the potential mechanisms were investigated in this work. Previous reports have indicated that BRs can induce ethylene production and enhance alternative oxidase (AOX pathway. The mechanisms whether ethylene is involved as a signal molecule which connected BR with AOX in regulating stress tolerance are still unknown. Here, we found that pretreatment with 1 µM brassinolide (BL, the most active BRs relieved stress-caused oxidative damage in cucumber seedlings and clearly enhanced the capacity of AOX and the ethylene biosynthesis. Furthermore, transcription level of ethylene signaling biosynthesis genes including ripening-related ACC synthase1 (CSACS1, ripening-related ACC synthase2 (CSACS2, ripening-related ACC synthase3 (CSACS3, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase1 (CSACO1, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase2 (CSACO2 and CSAOX were increased after BL treatment. Importantly, the application of the salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM, AOX inhibitor and ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor aminooxyacetic acid (AOA decreased plant resistance to environmental stress by blocking BRs-induced alternative respiration. Taken together, our results demonstrated that ethylene was involved in BRs-induced AOX activity which played important roles in abiotic stresses tolerance in cucumber seedlings.

  18. Effects of polyamines on K+,Na+ and Cl- content and distribution in different organs of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings under NaCl stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Suping; JIA Yongxia; GUO Shirong; ZHOU Guoxian

    2007-01-01

    Seedlings from the salt-sensitive cucumber cultivar Jinchun No.2 and the salt-tolerant cucumber cultivar Changchun Mici were exposed for 8 days to 50 mmol/L NaCl in the absence or in the presence of exogenous foliar spraying PAs [putrescine (Put),spermidine (Spd),and spermine (Spin)1 mmol/L] to compare the effects of different kinds of polyamines (PAs) on plant tolerance to salinity.This paper studied the effects of exogenous PAs on K+,Na+ and Cl- in different organs of cucumber seedlings.The results showed that K+ content as well as the ratios of K/Na and Cl/Na decreased,while Na+ and Cl- concentrations increased in salt-treated cucumber seedlings.The differences in K+,Na+ and Cl- content and the K/Na and Cl/Na ratios were greater for the salt sensitive cultivar Jinchun No.2 than for the salt-tolerant cultivar Changchun Mici.Cucumber seedlings treated with exogenous polyamines and combined with salinity exhibited a higher level of K+ accumulation and lower levels of Na+ and Cl- accumulation compared with the seedlings treated only with salt stress.Among the three kinds of polyamines,Spd and Spm were more effective in inhibiting the accumulation of Na+ and reduction of K+.However,Put was more effective in reducing Cl- accumulation.Furthermore,all of the three kinds of exogenous polyamines could increase the ratio of K/Na,improving the absorption and transport selectivities of K+ and Na+ from stems to leaves for both cultivars.In conclusion,exogenous polyamines could alleviate salt damage to some extent and enhance the accumulation of biomass.Among the three kinds of polyamines,spermidine was most effective.Exogenous polyamines could improve tolerance of cucumber seedlings under salt stress by regulating the absorption and distribution of ions in different organs.

  19. Exogenous glutathione improves high root-zone temperature tolerance by modulating photosynthesis, antioxidant and osmolytes systems in cucumber seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiaotao; Jiang, Yuping; He, Lizhong; Zhou, Qiang; Yu, Jizhu; Hui, Dafeng; Huang, Danfeng

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the physiological responses of plants to high root-zone temperature (HT, 35 °C) stress mitigated by exogenous glutathione (GSH), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings were exposed to HT with or without GSH treatment for 4 days and following with 4 days of recovery. Plant physiological variables, growth, and gene expression related to antioxidant enzymes and Calvin cycle were quantified. The results showed that HT significantly decreased GSH content, the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG), chlorophyll content, photosynthesis and related gene expression, shoot height, stem diameter, as well as dry weight. The exogenous GSH treatment clearly lessened the HT stress by increasing the above variables. Meanwhile, HT significantly increased soluble protein content, proline and malondialdehyde (MDA) content as well as O2•− production rate, the gene expression and activities of antioxidant enzymes. The GSH treatment remarkably improved soluble protein content, proline content, antioxidant enzymes activities, and antioxidant enzymes related gene expression, and reduced the MDA content and O2•− production rate compared to no GSH treatment in the HT condition. Our results suggest that exogenous GSH enhances cucumber seedling tolerance of HT stress by modulating the photosynthesis, antioxidant and osmolytes systems to improve physiological adaptation. PMID:27752105

  20. Effects of exogenous spermidine on photosynthetic capacity and expression of Calvin cycle genes in salt-stressed cucumber seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Sheng; Chen, Lifang; Lu, Wei; Sun, Jin; Guo, Shirong; Yuan, Yinhui; Li, Jun

    2014-11-01

    We investigated the effects of exogenous spermidine (Spd) on growth, photosynthesis and expression of the Calvin cycle-related genes in cucumber seedlings (Cucumis sativus L.) exposed to NaCl stress. Salt stress reduced net photosynthetic rates (PN), actual photochemical efficiency of PSII (ΦPSII) and inhibited plant growth. Application of exogenous Spd to salinized nutrient solution alleviated salinity-induced the inhibition of plant growth, together with an increase in PN and ΦPSII. Salinity markedly reduced the maximum carboxylase activity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Vcmax), the maximal velocity of RuBP regeneration (Jmax), triose-phosphate utilization capacity (TPU) and carboxylation efficiency (CE). Spd alleviated the negative effects on CO2 assimilation induced by salt stress. Moreover, Spd significantly increased the activities and contents of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) and fructose-1,6-biphosphate aldolase (ALD; aldolase) in the salt-stressed cucumber leaves. On the other hand, salinity up-regulated the transcriptional levels of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RCA), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and phosphoribrokinase (PRK) and down-regulated the transcriptional levels of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit (RbcL), ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase small subunit (RbcS), ALD, triose-3-phosphate isomerase (TPI), fructose-1,6-bisphosphate phosphatase (FBPase) and 3-phosphoglyceric acid kinase (PGK). However, Spd application to salt-stressed plant roots counteracted salinity-induced mRNA expression changes in most of the above-mentioned genes. These results suggest that Spd could improve photosynthetic capacity through regulating gene expression and activity of key enzymes for CO2 fixation, thus confers tolerance to salinity on cucumber plants.

  1. Enhancement of Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase, Polyphenoloxidase, and Peroxidase in Cucumber Seedlings by Bemisia tabaci(Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Infestation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), polyphenoloxidase (PPO), and peroxidase (POD) were assayed in cucumber seedlings (Cucumis sativus L.) at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after they were infested by Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) using spectrophotometric analysis. The results indicated that herbivore infestation increased the activities of PAL, PPO, and POD. The enzymes showed different activity levels at different times after the infestation. The PAL activity reached the first high peak by 23.1% at 6 h and the highest peak by 29.1% at 48 h compared to the control. The PPO activity reached the first high peak by 22.7% at 6 h and the highest peak by 52.6% at 24 h, and the POD activity reached the highest peak by 213.2% at 6 h and another higher peak value by 135.2% at 96 h. The results suggest that the enhanced activities of the enzymes may contribute to bioprotection of cucumber plants against B. Tabaci infestation.

  2. Partial purification of elicitors from Lentinula edodes basidiocarps protecting cucumber seedlings against Colletotrichum lagenarium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Piero Robson M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes has been used in research involving the prevention and the control of human and plant diseases. In cucumber plants, treated with aqueous extracts from mushroom basidiocarps, there was a reduction in anthracnose severity caused by Colletotrichum lagenarium, and an increase in peroxidase activity in the leaves. With the aim of obtaining molecules of agronomic interest, the crude aqueous extract from L. edodes basidiocarp was fractioned with ammonium sulfate. The fraction corresponding to 40-80% of saturation (p40-80, the most effective in reducing anthracnose on cucumber cotyledons, was submitted to anion exchange chromatography (AEC. After AEC, six protein peaks were obtained and the peak V, containing 34% of the proteins present in p40-80, induced peroxidase increase in the cucumber cotyledons besides reducing anthracnose severity. Separation of peak V proteins by SDS-gel electrophoresis revealed the presence of more than one band in the gel. Thus, a partial purification of elicitors present in the L. edodes basidiocarp was achieved.

  3. Improvement of the chilling tolerance of ‘Monika’ cucumber seedlings by short-term temperature and seed conditioning with plant growth regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Górnik Krzysztof

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to improve the chilling tolerance of cucumber seedlings. The conditioned seeds in solutions of salicylic or jasmonic acid in concentrations of 10-2, 10-3 or 10-4 M or brassinolide in concentrations of 10-6, 10-8 or 10-10 M were subjected to temperature shock of 0, 2.5, 5, 35, 40 or 45°C for 1, 2 or 4 hours. Seedlings with 3 mm roots were chilled at 0°C for three days. The chilling susceptibility was evaluated by measurements of roots lengths, electrolyte leakage and total dehydrogenase activity.

  4. Gene Expression and Activities of SOD in Cucumber Seedlings Were Related with Concentrations of Mn2+,Cu2+,or Zn2+ Under Low Temperature Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Jun-jie; LI Tao; YU Xian-chang

    2009-01-01

    Effects of increasing Mn2+,Cu2+,or Zn2+ on SOD expressions were studied in cucumber seedlings under low temperature stress.Both gene expressions and activities of Cu/Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD in cucumber seedling leaves were induced by increasing Mn2+,Cu2+,or Zn2+ under low temperature stress,especially 48 h afterwards.The activities of Cu/Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD at 0 and 48 h after treatment were in accordance with their gene expression levels,which implied that the transcriptional regulation plays key roles in regulating their activities at the early stage of low temperature stress.Gene expressions of Cu/Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD declined at 96 h,but Cu/Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD activities still remain high,which suggested that Cu/Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD activities might be regulated by other factors after transcription at the later stage of low temperature stress.Therefore,we concluded that the increasing Mn2+,Cu2+,or Zn2+ could increase the capacity of scavenging ROS in cucumber seedlings under low temperature stress by inducing gene expressions of Cu/Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD,elevating activities of Cu/Zn-SOD,Mn-SOD,or regulating other factors after transcription.

  5. UV-B response of cucumber seedlings grown under metal halide and high pressure sodium/deluxe lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krizek, D.T.; Kramer, G.F.; Mirecki, R.M. (Climate Stress Laboratory, ARS, USDA, Beltsville, MD (United States)); Upadhyaya, A. (Center for Agricultural Biotechnology, Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States))

    1993-01-01

    UV-B-sensitive (Poinsett) and -insensitive (Ashley) cultivars of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) were grown in growth chambers at 600 [mu]mol m[sup -2] s[sup -1] of photosynthetically active radiation provided by metal halide (MH) or high pressure sodium/deluxe (HPS/DX) lamps. Plants were irradiated 15 days from seeding for 6 h per day under 18.2 kJ m[sup -2] day[sup -1] of biologically effective UV-B (UV-B[sub BE]) radiation. One of the most pronounced effects of UV-B was a 27 to 78% increase in phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL) activity. UV-B also increased total polyamines. Catalase and superoxide dismutase varied greatly in their response to UV-B. There were no interactive effects on PAL or catalase activity, or total polyamines. There was a UV x PAR source interaction for superoxide dismutase activity. UV-B increased chlorosis and decreased height, dry weight and leaf area. Stem elongation, biomass production leaf enlargement and chlorosis were greater under HPS/DX lamps than under MH lamps. Chlorosis was greater in Poinsett than in Ashley and in lower leaves than in upper ones. Aside from chlorosis, there were no interactive effects of UV-B, PAR source of cultivar on any of the growth parameters measured, suggesting that the grown response of cucumber seedlings to UV-B is unaffected by PAR source or cultivar. Similarly, except for SOD activity, the biochemical response to UV-B was also not influenced by Par source or cultivar. (au) (42 refs.)

  6. Influence of electrolytes on growth, phototropism, nutation and surface potential in etiolated cucumber seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalding, E. P.; Cosgrove, D. J.

    1993-01-01

    A variety of electrolytes (10-30 mol m-3) increased the relative growth rate of etiolated cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Burpee's Pickler) hypocotyls by 20-50% relative to water-only controls. The nonelectrolyte mannitol inhibited growth by 10%. All salts tested were effective, regardless of chemical composition or valence. Measurements of cell-sap osmolality ruled out an osmotic mechanism for the growth stimulation by electrolytes. This, and the nonspecificity of the response, indicate that an electrical property of the solutions was responsible for their growth-stimulating activity. Measurements of surface electrical potential supported this reasoning. Treatment with electrolytes also enhanced nutation and altered the pattern of phototropic curvature development. A novel analytical method for quantitating these effects on growth was developed. The evidence indicates that electrolytes influence an electrophysiological parameter that is involved in the control of cell expansion and the coordination of growth underlying tropisms and nutations.

  7. Characterization of stress induced by copper and zinc on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings by means of molecular and population parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soydam Aydin, Semra; Gökçe, Esra; Büyük, Ilker; Aras, Sümer

    2012-07-04

    Contamination of plants with heavy metals could result in damage in DNA, such as mutations and cross-links with proteins. These altered DNA profiles may become visible in changes such as the appearance of a new band, or loss of an existing band, in the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assay. In this study, various concentrations of copper and zinc salts were applied to cucumber seedlings during germination. Results displayed abnormalities in germination and also changes in root elongation, dry weight and total soluble protein level. All treatment concentrations (40, 80, 160, 240, 320, and 640mg/L) used in the study caused a decrease/delay in germination of the cucumbers to different extents. Inhibition or activation of root elongation was considered to be the first effect of metal toxicity in the tested plants. Application of the metal salts and the combined solutions on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings revealed similar consequences for total soluble protein level, dry weight and ultimately in inhibitory rates as well. The data obtained from RAPD band-profiles and genomic template stability (GTS) showed results that were consistent with the population parameters. In this regard, we conclude that molecular marker assays can be applied in combination with population parameters to measure genotoxic effects of heavy metals on plants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Cucumber seedling dependence on cotyledonary leaves for early growth Dependência das folhas cotiledonares para o crescimento inicial de pepino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilson Antônio Bisognin

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the dependence of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. seedlings on cotyledonary leaves for early growth and establishment. Sets of two uniform emerging seedlings were used to quantify the initial growth and dry matter accumulation, as well as the intensity and stage of cotyledon damage in seedling establishment and to determine cotyledon protein, amino acid and carbohydrate contributions to the growing seedling. Cucumber seedling establishment was found to be highly dependent on cotyledonary leaves. Root system establishment was highly dependent on the health of the aerial part. One cotyledon was enough to maintain aerial growth of seedlings after unfolding the first true leaf. Cucumber seedlings depended on both cotyledons to keep root system growth at least until leaf area was equivalent to cotyledon area. Covering one or both cotyledons of seedlings with one unfolded leaf increased carbohydrate content of uncovered cotyledon and leaves compared with control seedlings. Cucumber seedlings are highly dependent on cotyledonary leaves and aerial parts are less dependent than root system. Cotyledon damage at early stages of plant establishment would adversely impact crop yield by reducing plant density, an important yield component, or slowing down seedling growth and establishment.O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o desempenho das folhas cotiledonares no crescimento inicial e estabelecimento de plântulas de pepino (Cucumis sativus L.. Grupos de duas plântulas uniformemente emergidas foram utilizados para quantificar o crescimento inicial e acúmulo de matéria seca, o efeito da intensidade e época de remoção dos cotilédones sobre o estabelecimento da plântula, e a contribuição de proteínas, aminoácidos e carboidratos dos cotilédones para o crescimento inicial. O estabelecimento das plântulas de pepino foi altamente dependente das folhas cotiledonares. As folhas cotiledonares foram fundamentais

  9. Light inhibits gravity-regulated peg formation and asymmetric mRNA accumulation of auxin-inducible CsIAA1 in the cortex of the transition zone in cucumber seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Nobuharu; Saito, Yuko; Miyazawa, Yutaka; Takahashi, Hideyuki

    When cucumber seedlings are grown horizontally, a specialized protuberance, termed the peg, develops on the lower side of the transition zone between the hypocotyl and the root. Gravimorphogenesis regulates the lateral positioning of the peg in the transition zone and it has been suggested that auxin plays an important role in peg formation in cucumber seedlings. Here, we found that light inhibited auxin-regulated peg formation. In the transition zone of horizontally positioned cucumber seedlings grown in the dark, we detected an asymmetric accumulation of mRNA from the auxin-inducible gene CsIAA1 in the epidermis and cortex. However, in seedlings grown under illumination, this asymmetry was greatly reduced. In dark- and light-grown seedlings, application of 10 -3 M indole-3-acetic acid induced peg formation on both the lower and upper sides of the transition zone. These results suggest that light inhibits peg formation via modification of auxin distribution and/or levels in the transition zone of cucumber seedlings.

  10. Inheritance and quantitative trail loci mapping of adventitious root numbers in cucumber seedlings under waterlogging conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xuewen; Ji, Jing; Xu, Qiang; Qi, Xiaohua; Chen, Xuehao

    2017-04-01

    The hypocotyl-derived adventitious root (AR) is an important morphological acclimation to waterlogging stress; however, its genetic basis has not been adequately understood. In the present study, a mixed major gene plus polygene inheritance model was used to analyze AR numbers (ARN) 7 days after waterlogging treatment in six generations (P1, P2, F1, B1, B2, and F2), using cucumber waterlogging tolerant line Zaoer-N and sensitive Pepino as parents. The results showed that the genetic model D-4, mixed one negative dominance major gene and additive-dominance polygenes, is the best-fitting genetic model for waterlogging-triggered ARN phenotype. A genetic linkage map spanning 550.8 cM and consisting of 149 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers segregating into seven linkage groups was constructed. Three QTLs (ARN3.1, ARN5.1, and ARN6.1) distributed on chromosomes 3, 5, and 6 were identified by composite interval mapping. The major-effect QTL, ARN6.1, located between SSR12898 and SSR04751, was the only locus detected in three seasons, with least likelihood (LOD) scores of 8.8, 10.4, and 9.5 and account for 17.6, 24, and 19.8% of the phenotypic variance, respectively. Using five additional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) makers, the ARN6.1 was narrowed down to a 0.79 Mb interval franked by SSR12898 and SNP25558853. Illumina RNA-sequencing data generated on hypocotyls of two parents 48 h after waterlogging treatment revealed 15 genes in the 0.79 Mb interval were differentially expressed, including Csa6G503880 encoding a salicylic acid methyl transferase-like protein, Csa6G504590 encoding a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, and Csa6G505230 encoding a heavy metal-associated protein. Our findings shed light on the genetic architecture underlying adventitious rooting during waterlogging stress in cucumber, and provide a list of potential gene targets for further elucidating waterlogging tolerance in plants.

  11. Comparison of electric and growth responses to excision in cucumber and pea seedlings. II. Long-distance effects are caused by the release of xylem pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahlberg, R.; Cosgrove, D. J.

    1995-01-01

    Excision of a growing stem causes local wound responses, such as membrane depolarization and growth inhibition, as well as effects at larger distances from the cut. In this study, cucumber hypocotyls were excised 100 mm below the hook, so that the growing region was beyond the reach of the wound-induced depolarization (up to 40 mm). Even at such a distance, the cut still caused a considerable and rapid drop in the hypocotyl growth rate. This growth response is not a direct wound response because it does not result from the cut-induced depolarization and because it can be simulated by root pressure manipulation (using a pressure chamber). The results indicate that the growth response resulted from the rapid release of the xylem pressure upon excision. To test this conclusion we measured the xylem pressure by connecting a pressure probe to the cut surface of the stem. Xylem pressure (Px) was found to be +10 to +40 kPa in cucumber hypocotyls and -5 to -10 kPa or lower in pea epicotyls. Excision of the cucumber hypocotyl base led to a rapid drop in Px to negative values, whereas excision in pea led to a rapid rise in Px to ambient (zero) pressure. These fast and opposite Px changes parallel the excision-induced changes in growth rate (GR): a decrease in cucumber and a rise in pea. The sign of the endogenous xylem pressure also determined whether excision induced a propagating depolarization in the form of a slow wave potential (SWP). Under normal circumstances pea seedlings generated an SWP upon excision whereas cucumber seedlings failed to do so. When the Px in cucumber hypocotyls was experimentally inverted to negative values by incubating the cumber roots in solutions of NaCN or n-ethylmaleimide, excision caused a propagating depolarization (SWP). The experiment shows that only hydraulic signals in the form of positive Px steps are converted into propagating electric SWP signals. These propagating depolarizations might be causally linked to systemic 'wound

  12. Grafting-responsive miRNAs in cucumber and pumpkin seedlings identified by high-throughput sequencing at whole genome level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chaohan; Li, Yansu; Bai, Longqiang; Zhang, Tieyao; He, Chaoxing; Yan, Yan; Yu, Xianchang

    2014-08-01

    Grafting is an important agricultural technique widely used for improving growth, yields and tolerance of crops to abiotic and biotic stresses. As one type of endogenous, non-coding small RNAs, microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate development and responsiveness to biotic and abiotic stresses by negatively mediating expression of target genes at the post-transcriptional level. However, there have been few detailed studies to evaluate the role of miRNAs in mediation of grafting-induced physiological processes in plants. Cucumis sativus and Cucurbita moschata are important vegetables worldwide. We constructed eight small RNA libraries from leaves and roots of seedlings that were grafted in the following four ways: (1) hetero-grafting, using cucumber as scion and pumpkin as rootstock; (2) hetero-grafting, with pumpkin as scion and cucumber as rootstock; (3) auto-grafting of cucumbers and (4) auto-grafting of pumpkins. High-throughput sequencing was employed, and more than 120 million raw reads were obtained. We annotated 112 known miRNAs belonging to 40 miRNA families and identified 48 new miRNAs in the eight libraries, and the targets of these known and novel miRNAs were predicted by bioinformatics. Grafting led to changes in expression of most miRNAs and their predicted target genes, suggesting that miRNAs may play significant roles in mediating physiological processes of grafted seedlings by regulating the expression of target genes. The potential role of the grafting-responsive miRNAs in seedling growth and long-distance transport of miRNA was discussed. These results are useful for functional characterization of miRNAs in mediation of grafting-dependent physiological processes.

  13. Isolation, characterization, and formulation of antagonistic bacteria for the management of seedlings damping-off and root rot disease of cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabbaz, Salah Eddin; Abbasi, Pervaiz A

    2014-01-01

    Antagonistic bacteria are common soil inhabitants with potential to be developed into biofungicides for the management of seedling damping-off, root rot, and other soil-borne diseases of various crops. In this study, antagonistic bacteria were isolated from a commercial potato field and screened for their growth inhibition of fungal and oomycete pathogens in laboratory tests. The biocontrol potential of the 3 most effective antagonistic bacteria from the in vitro tests was evaluated against seedling damping-off and root rot of cucumber caused by Pythium ultimum. Based on phenotypic characteristics, biochemical tests, and sequence analysis of 16S-23S rDNA gene, the 3 antagonistic bacteria were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens (isolate 9A-14), Pseudomonas sp. (isolate 8D-45), and Bacillus subtilis (isolate 8B-1). All 3 bacteria promoted plant growth and suppressed Pythium damping-off and root rot of cucumber seedlings in growth-room assays. Both pre- and post-planting application of these bacteria to an infested peat mix significantly increased plant fresh masses by 113%-184% and percentage of healthy seedlings by 100%-290%, and decreased damping-off and root rot severity by 27%-50%. The peat and talc formulations of these antagonistic bacteria applied as seed or amendment treatments to the infested peat mix effectively controlled Pythium damping-off and root rot of cucumber seedlings and enhanced plant growth. The survival of all 3 antagonistic bacteria in peat and talc formulations decreased over time at room temperature, but the populations remained above 10(8) CFU/g during the 180-day storage period. The peat formulation of a mixture of 3 bacteria was the best seed treatment, significantly increasing the plant fresh masses by 245% as compared with the Pythium control, and by 61.4% as compared with the noninfested control. This study suggests that the indigenous bacteria from agricultural soils can be developed and formulated as biofungicides for minimizing

  14. 黄瓜菇渣基质育苗营养液配方的初步研究%Nutrient Solution for Producing Cucumber Seedling by Using Mushroom Production Residue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊丽; 张海涛; 王倩; 孙治强

    2011-01-01

    Mushroom residue is a new substrate replacing peat moss and vermiculite mix for cucumber seedling production in China. Nutrient solution for this special seedling soilless mix is need for using this new resource for cucumber seedling production. Different nutrient solution recipes were tested on cucumber seedling production using mushroom production residue and vermiculite mix with completely randomized experiment design. The results showed that the nutrient solution Ca(NO3)2 ·4H2O: KH2PO4: KNO3 = 329: 97.33: 219.33 best promoted cucumber seedling growth. This is the first nutrient solution recipe for cucumber seedling production using mushroom production residue and vermiculite mix.%菇渣基质是一种新开发替代草炭的基质,研究其在园艺作物栽培和育苗中的配套应用技术有重要意义.以菇渣为试验材料,采用完全随机设计,研究了菇渣与蛭石混配用于黄瓜穴盘育苗的配套营养液配方.结果表明,综合考虑各项指标,在本试验条件下,处理1[Ca(NO3)2·4H2O:KH2PO4:KNO3=329:97.33:219.33]的营养液配方对黄瓜菇渣基质育苗的促进效果最优,这一结果为菇渣在黄瓜育苗上的应用提供了科学依据和技术指标.

  15. Effects of exogenous nitric oxide on growth, active oxygen species metabolism, and photosynthetic characteristics in cucumber seedlings under NaCl stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Huaifu; GUO Shirong; JIAO Yansheng; ZHANG Runhua; LI Juan

    2007-01-01

    The study was conducted by means of nutrient solution culture to investigate the effects of exogenous nitric oxide (NO) on growth of cucumbe rseedlings,active oxygen species metabolism and photosynthetic characteristics in cucumber leaves under 50 mmol/L NaCl stress.The results showed that 10-400 μmol/L exogenous sodium nitroprusside (SNP),especially 100 μmol/L SNP,significantly alleviated the injury to seedlings and increased seedling growth.The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD),peroxidase (POD),catalase (CAT),and ascorbate peroxidase (APX),and the contents of photosynthetic pigments and proline also increased under 50 mmol/L NaCI stress.Similarly,net photosynthetic rate (Pn),stomatal conductance (Gs),and transpiration rate (Tr) also increased significantly.However,exogenous nitric oxide application markedly decreased membrane permeahyde (MDA) and H2O2,and intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) under 50 mmol/L NaCl stress.

  16. Mitigative effects of spermidine on photosynthesis and carbon-nitrogen balance of cucumber seedlings under Ca(NO3)2 stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jing; Shu, Sheng; Shao, Qiaosai; An, Yahong; Zhou, Heng; Guo, Shirong; Sun, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Ca(NO3)2 stress is one of the most serious constraints to plants production and limits the plants growth and development. Application of polyamines is a convenient and effective approach for enhancing plant salinity tolerance. The present investigation aimed to discover the photosynthetic carbon-nitrogen (C-N) mechanism underlying Ca(NO3)2 stress tolerance by spermidine (Spd) of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Jinyou No. 4). Seedling growth and photosynthetic capacity [including net photosynthetic rate (P N), stomatal conductance (Gs), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), and transpiration rate (Tr)] were significantly inhibited by Ca(NO3)2 stress (80 mM). However, a leaf-applied Spd (1 mM) treatment alleviated the reduction in growth and photosynthesis in cucumber caused by Ca(NO3)2 stress. Furthermore, the application of exogenous Spd significantly decreased the accumulation of NO3 (-) and NH4 (+) caused by Ca(NO3)2 stress and remarkably increased the activities of N metabolism enzymes simultaneously. In addition, photosynthesis N-use efficiency (PNUE) and free amino acids were significantly enhanced by exogenous Spd in response to Ca(NO3)2 stress, thus promoting the biosynthesis of N containing compounds and soluble protein. Also, the amounts of several carbohydrates (including sucrose, fructose and glucose), total C content and the C/N radio increased significantly in the presence of Spd. Based on our results, we suggest that exogenous Spd could effectively accelerate nitrate transformation into amino acids and improve cucumber plant photosynthesis and C assimilation, thereby enhancing the ability of the plants to maintain their C/N balance, and eventually promote the growth of cucumber plants under Ca(NO3)2 stress.

  17. 暗期补光对黄瓜幼苗形态调节效果及综合评价%Effect of dark period lighting regulation on cucumber seedling morphology and comprehensive evaluation analysis and comprehensive evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申宝营; 李毅念; 赵三琴; 丁为民; 惠娜; 李洁

    2014-01-01

    To ascertain light quality and light duration at dark duration and its influence on the growth and morphological of cucumber seedling, light-emitting diodes lights were taken as supplemental light at dark period for cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Cumlaude) seedlings to study in this paper. According to the influence confirmed by using comprehensive evaluate method, suitable light quality and light duration were selected. Cucumber“Jin ChunⅣ”seedlings were planted in greenhouse with or without supplemental light during dark period for two groups of experiments. In the first group of experiments, the treatments were 4 types LED light, L1 (70%R, 30%B), L2 (80%R, 20%B), L3 (90%R, 10%B), L4 (100%R) , which supplementing light times were 2 h (19:00-21:00), 4 h (19:00-23:00) and 6 h (19:00-01:00) respectively during dark period, and no supplemental light in dark period were taken as control (CK). And in the second group of experiment, the treatments were two types LED light, L2 and L4, which supplementing light times during dark period for 4h, and no light in dark period was taken as control (CK). Both in the two groups of experiment, these indexes including hypocotyls length, cotyledon area, stem diameter, leaf area, seedling height, dry weight, chlorophyll content, seedling index and root shoot ratio of cucumber seedlings were investigated and were used to comprehensive evaluate and analyze the effect of light quality and light duration on the growth of cucumber seedlings. The results showed that, light quality affected hypocotyls length and stem diameter significantly at 0.05 level, and affects seedling height, leaf area, chlorophyll, dry weight and seedling index significantly at 0.01 level. Light duration had significant effect on seedling index at 0.05 level and significant effect on hypocotyls length, seedling height and dry weight at 0.01 level. Light quality and light duration had significantly interaction effects on hypocotyls length, seedling height and

  18. 低氧胁迫下黄瓜植株热耗散途径%Thermal dissipation pathway in cucumber seedling leaves under hypoxia stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾永霞; 孙锦; 王丽萍; 束胜; 郭世荣

    2011-01-01

    采用营养液栽培,研究了低氧(营养液溶氧浓度为0.9~1.1 mg·L-1)胁迫下黄瓜幼苗光合作用热耗散与叶黄素循环的关系.结果表明:低氧胁迫下,黄瓜叶片PSⅡ的实际光化学效率(φPSⅡ)、饱和光强下的净光合速率(Pn)、表观量子效率(AQY)和PSⅡ的最大光化学效率(Fv/Fm)均显著降低,表明黄瓜植株的光合作用受到了光抑制;同时,光化学猝灭系数(qp)降低,而热耗散(NPQ)和天线耗散能量(D)的比值显著升高,说明黄瓜叶片热耗散增强;NPQ与叶黄素脱环氧化状态(DEPS)呈显著正相关,且两者均被抗坏血酸(AsA)所促进,被二硫苏糖醇(DTT)所抑制,说明低氧胁迫下,叶黄素循环是黄瓜植株光合作用热耗散的主要途径.%A water culture experiment was conducted to study the relationship between photosynthetic thermal dissipation and xanthophyll cycle in cucumber seedling leaves under hypoxia stress (the dissolved oxygen concentration in nutrient solution was 0. 9-1. 1 mg • L-1). Under the hypoxia stress, there was a significant decrease in the quantum yield of PS Ⅱ photochemistry rate (ΦPS Ⅱ ) , net photosynthetic rate (Pn) under saturation light intensity, quanta yield (AQY) , and maximal photochemical efficiency ( FV/Fm ) , suggesting that the photoinhibition of the seedling leaves was induced. Meanwhile, the thermal dissipation ( NPQ) and the allocation of dissipation energy (D) by antenna increased, but the photochemical quenching apparent (qP) decreased, suggesting the enhancement of thermal dissipation in cucumber leaves under hypoxia stress. A positive correlation was observed between NPQ and xanthophyll de-epoxidation state ( DEPS) , and both of them were promoted by ascorbic acid (AsA) and inhibited by 1,4-dithiothreitol (DTT) , suggesting that xanthophyll cycle was the major pathway of photosynthetic thermal dissipation in cucumber seedling leaves under hypoxia stress.

  19. C02浓度倍增对干旱胁迫下黄瓜幼苗光合特性的影响%Effects of Doubled C02 Concentration on Photosynthetic Characteristics of Cucumber Seedlings Under Drought Stresses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李清明; 刘彬彬; 邹志荣

    2011-01-01

    的水分状况和增强抗旱能力,提高水分利用效率,从而部分缓解干旱胁迫引起的负面效应.%[Objective] The purpose of this study is to explore the photosynthetic response and mechanism of cucumber seedlings to double CO2 concentration combined with drought stresses.[Method] Using split plot design, the effects of doubled CO2 concentration on photosynthesis of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. ‘Jinyou No. 1 ’) seedlings under drought stresses were investigated.The main plot was two CO2 concentrations (ambient CO2 concentration, ≈380 μmol·mol-1, and doubled CO2 concentration, 760±20 μmol·mol-1), and the split-plot was three water treatments (control, moderate drought stress and severe drought stress) simulated by PEG 6000. [Result] Drought stresses remarkably reduced net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and stomatal conductance of leaves of cucumber seedlings. Under the condition of doubled CO2 concentration, net photosynthetic rate dramatically increased while transpiration rate and stomatal conductance decreased, thereby water use efficiency dramatically increased. The interact effects of doubled CO2 concentration and drought stress on net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, water use efficiency as well as stomatal conductance were all significant (P<0.01). Drought stresses significantly reduced apparent quantum efficiency, maximum assimilation rate, maximum rate of carboxylation by Rubisco, PAR-saturated rate of electron transport, rate of triose phosphate utilization and light saturated points of leaves of cucumber seedlings, but enhanced light compensatory points. Under control and mild drought stress conditions, doubled CO2 concentration dramatically improved apparent quantum efficiency and maximum assimilation rate, but there were no significant differences under severe drought stress. Under control condition, doubled CO2 concentration dramatically enhanced maximum rate of carboxylation by Rubisco, PAR-saturated rate

  20. The uptake and accumulation of phosphorous and nitrates and the activity of nitrate reductase in cucumber seedlings treated with PbCl2 or CdCl2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Burzyński

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of 4-day-old cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. seedlings with PbCl2 or CdCl2 caused a significant increase in the accumulation of heavy metals by the plants, especially in the roots. The accumulated Pb initially enhanced the uptake of phosphorous after the plants had been transferred to a nutrient medium (6, 24 hrs, but after only 48 Ins the uptake had dropped to below control level. The plants treated with Cd exhibited a constant decreased phosphorous uptake level. The accumulated lead and cadmium also inhibited nitrate uptake and the activity of nitrate reductase. It is suggested that the reason for the decreased nitrate reductase activity lay rather in the lower nitrate uptake than in a direct effect of the heavy metals on the enzyme.

  1. 光合细菌对水培黄瓜苗期生长的影响%Influence of PSB ( Photosynthetic Bacteria) on the Growth of Hydroponic Cucumber Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武丽娜

    2012-01-01

    [ Objective ] To study the effect of PSB on the growth of hydroponic cucumber seedlings, so as to provide theoretical references for the seedling stage management of hydroponic cucumbers. [ Method] Different concentrations of PSB were added into the nutrient solution to observe its effect on the growth of hydroponic cucumber seedlings. [ Result] The PSB could significantly promote the growth of the root, stem and leaves of cucumber seedlings, and increase the chlorophyll content in leaves and the fresh weight of seedlings. The appropriate addition amount of PSB was 100 ml canister bacterium fluid(109 cfu/ ml) +900 ml cucumber plant nutrients. [Conclusion] The PSB could promote the growth of root, stem and leaves in hydroponic cucumber during its seedling stage, increase its biomass and promote the generation of chlorophyll.%[目的]研究光合细菌对水培黄瓜苗期生长的影响,为水培黄瓜苗期管理提供理论参考.[方法]在营养液中加入不同数量(浓度)的光合细菌,研究光合细菌对水培黄瓜苗期生长的影响.[结果]光合细菌对黄瓜幼苗根、茎和叶等部位的生长均具有显著的促进作用,并使得幼苗鲜重和叶片的叶绿素含量明显增加.光合细菌在培养液中的的最适添加量为:100ml菌液(109cfu/ml)+ 900 ml黄瓜水培营养凌.[结论]光合细菌能促进水培黄瓜苗期根、茎、叶的生长,增加黄瓜幼苗的生物量,且对叶绿素的生成有促进作用.

  2. Effects of cucumber mosaic virus infection on electron transport and antioxidant system in chloroplasts and mitochondria of cucumber and tomato leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xing-Shun; Wang, Yan-Jie; Mao, Wei-Hua; Shi, Kai; Zhou, Yan-Hong; Nogués, Salvador; Yu, Jing-Quan

    2009-03-01

    We examined the responses of the photosynthetic and respiratory electron transport and antioxidant systems in cell organelles of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) leaves to infection of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) by comparing the gas exchange, Chl fluorescence, respiratory electron transport, superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) and ascorbate-glutathione (AsA-GSH) cycle enzymes and the production of H(2)O(2) in chloroplasts, mitochondria and soluble fraction in virus-infected and non-infected leaves. Long-term CMV infection resulted in decreased photosynthesis and respiration rates. Photosynthetic electron flux to carbon reduction, respiratory electron transport via both complex I and complex II and also the Cyt respiration rate all significantly decreased, while photosynthetic alternative electron flux and alternative respiration significantly increased. These changes in electron transport were accompanied by a general increase in the activities of SOD/AsA-GSH cycle enzymes followed by an increased H(2)O(2) accumulation in chloroplasts and mitochondria. These results demonstrated that disturbance of photosynthetic and respiratory electron transport by CMV also affected the antioxidative systems, thereby leading to oxidative stress in various organelles.

  3. The Effect of Cu2+ on Seed Sprouts and Seedlings Growth of Cucumber and Radish%铜对黄瓜和萝卜种子萌发和生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜成; 申晓慧; 李春丰; 丛慧颖; 赵永勋; 穆丹; 刘方明; 吴恒梅

    2012-01-01

    利用Cu2+对黄瓜、萝卜种子进行处理,观察种子的萌发率以及萌发后根芽的生长情况.结果表明:不同浓度的Cu2+对黄瓜、萝卜种子的发芽率、根长、幼苗生长具有不同的作用.低浓度Cu2+促进种子萌发,高浓度Cu2+抑制种子萌发.Cu2+对黄瓜、萝卜根长的影响表现为先促进后抑制,对幼苗芽长的影响不大.Cu2+对黄瓜、萝卜根的影响要显著高于对芽的影响.黄瓜和萝卜种子对Cu2+毒害具有较强的耐性,并且萝卜的耐性要强于黄瓜.%To observed the germination rate and growth of root and sprout, cucumber and radish were treated with Cu2+ . The results showed; different concentrations of Cu2+ have different impact on cucumber and radish seed germination, root length and seedling growth. Low concentrations of Cu2+ promoted seed germination, but high concentrations of Cu2+ inhibited seed germination. The effect on root length of cucumber and radish represented that first promote and late inhibit,and the effect on seedlings sprout length was little. The effect of Cu2+ on root of cucumber and radish were higher than on sprout. The seed of cucumber and radish have strong endurance to Cu2+ , and the endurance of radish was stronger than cucumber.

  4. Effects of Different Light Qualities on Physiological and Biochemical Characteristics of Cucumber Seedling%不同光质对黄瓜幼苗生理生化特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘福霞; 刘乃森

    2016-01-01

    The effects of light spectral energy distribution of light emitting diode (LED) on growth of cucumber seedlings were studied. Red light, blue light and combination of red and blue light (RB,R:B=1:1) were set as experiment treatments and white light generated by fluorescent lamps was served as control, with seedling of cucumber Jinyan NO. 4 as test mate-rial. The results showed that combination of red and blue light (RB) improved cucumber seedling soluble protein content, the treatments of red light (R) and blue light (B) have no significant difference with CK. Red light (R) improved cucumber seedling soluble sugar content, and there was no significant difference between CK and red light(R) and combination of red and blue light(RB). Blue light improved cucumber seedling vitamin C content significantly, while red light (R) and combi-nation of red and blue light (RB) reduced vitamin C content. Combination of red and blue light (RB) improved activity of SOD and POD of cucumber seedling. Red light(R), blue light(B) and combination of red and blue light(RB) reduced CAT activity of cucumber seedling.%为提高黄瓜(Cucumis sativus L.)育苗质量,研究了光质对黄瓜幼苗生理生化特性的影响.以津研4号黄瓜为试验材料,以日光灯(白光)为对照,研究了LED红光(R)、蓝光(B)和红蓝复合光(RB,R:B=1:1)对黄瓜幼苗生理生化特性的影响.结果表明,红蓝复合光提高了黄瓜幼苗可溶性蛋白质的含量,红光和蓝光处理与对照差异不显著;红光提高了黄瓜幼苗可溶性糖含量,蓝光和红蓝复合光处理的可溶性糖含量与对照差异不显著;蓝光显著提高了黄瓜幼苗维生素C含量,而红光和红蓝复合光降低了维生素C含量;红蓝复合光显著提高了黄瓜幼苗超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)和过氧化物酶(POD)活性;红光、蓝光和红蓝复合光显著降低了黄瓜幼苗过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性.

  5. Bacterização de sementes e desenvolvimento de mudas de pepino Bacterization of seeds and development of cucumber seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elineide B. Silveira

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Bactérias epifíticas e endofíticas foram isoladas de plantas de pepino sadias, coletadas em diversos municípios do estado de Pernambuco e avaliadas na promoção de crescimento de plântulas em casa de vegetação. Foram realizados três bioensaios. No primeiro, foram testados 93 isolados; no segundo, 32 isolados e; no terceiro, oito isolados de pepino e mais 10 isolados provenientes de outras culturas. As sementes de pepino foram bacterizadas por imersão na suspensão bacteriana ajustada à concentração de A580 = 0,7, semeadas em substrato orgânico contido em bandejas de isopor; mantidas em casa de vegetação e, analisadas dez dias após a semeadura quanto às matérias secas da parte aérea (MSPA, raiz (MSR e total (MST. No último bioensaio, os isolados epifíticos PEP52, PEP8, PEP82, PEP91 e C22 foram selecionados por aumentarem significativamente a MSR e MST das plântulas em relação à testemunha, com valores superiores a 70 e 40%, respectivamente. Após o teste de compatibilidade in vitro, esses cinco isolados, testados separadamente e em misturas, aumentaram o índice de MSPA, MSR e MST das plântulas de pepino, sem diferirem significativamente entre si. Os isolados PEP81 (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens e PEP91 (Enterobacter cloacae destacaram-se com índices de aumentos de 55,5 e 39,5% (MSPA, 42,9 e 37,2% (MSR e 41,6 e 34,0% (MST, respectivamente. A produção do ácido indol acético, ácido cianídrico, solubilização de fosfatos e alteração nos teores foliares de N, P, K, Ca e Mg, foram avaliados como possíveis mecanismos de ação desses dois isolados, porém com resultados negativos. A bacterização das sementes com B. amyloliquefaciens PEP81 e E. cloacae PEP91 pode melhorar a qualidade das mudas de pepino.Epiphytic and endophytic bacteria were isolated from healthy cucumber plants, collected in several counties of Pernambuco State, Brazil, and evaluated for seedling growth promotion under greenhouse conditions. Three

  6. The Effect of Spermidine on Cold Tolerance Induction in Cucumber Seedlings ‘Cv. Super-Dominus’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golnar GhazianTafrishi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Plants native to tropical and subtropical climates which grown in the temperate climate zone, suffer chilling injury when exposed to non-freezing temperatures for a certain period of time. The optimum growth temperature for cucumber (a tropical plant is 20 to 25°C. Cucumber is sensitive to temperatures lower than 10 °C. Cucumber area of production exposes to late spring and early autumn cold weather in Khorasan-e-Razavai, Iran. Studies showed that chilling leads to an alteration in fatty acid composition of membrane lipids and its permeability, changes in photosynthetic pigments content and decrease in photosynthesis. Many researchers pointed to a possible role of polyamine compounds in plant defense against environmental stresses. Exog enous application Spd could prevent the electrolyte and amino acid leakage or recovering the plasma membrane damage in rice and cucumber in response to salinity, chilling and water stressed conditions. Materials and methods: A factorial experiment, based on completely randomized design was conducted to investigate the effect of short-term chilling on cucumber plantlets which was earlier treated with spermidine. Factors were included two levels of temperature (6 and 12°C and four levels of spermidine (0, 0.25, 0.5 and .0.75 mg/L. The studied cultivar was ‘Super-Dominus’. In order to determine the extent of chilling injury, plants of each treatment were rated based on visual symptoms. By assigning values of 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 while 1: no visible symptoms 2:5% of leaf area necrotic, 3: 5-25% of leaf area necrotic, 4: 26-50% of leaf area necrotic but plant still alive, 5: lost, entire plant necrotic and collapsed. Measured traits were root and shoot length, root and shoot dry weight, root and leaf electrical leakage, and leaf chlorophyll content. Results and discussion: Plants which exposed to low temperature showed chilling injury symptoms (5-25% leaf area necrotic. The symptoms reduced (less

  7. Effects of nitrogen form on growth, CO₂ assimilation, chlorophyll fluorescence, and photosynthetic electron allocation in cucumber and rice plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan-hong; Zhang, Yi-li; Wang, Xue-min; Cui, Jin-xia; Xia, Xiao-jian; Shi, Kai; Yu, Jing-quan

    2011-02-01

    Cucumber and rice plants with varying ammonium (NH(4)(+)) sensitivities were used to examine the effects of different nitrogen (N) sources on gas exchange, chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence quenching, and photosynthetic electron allocation. Compared to nitrate (NO(3)(-))-grown plants, cucumber plants grown under NH(4)(+)-nutrition showed decreased plant growth, net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, intercellular carbon dioxide (CO(2)) level, transpiration rate, maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem II, and O(2)-independent alternative electron flux, and increased O(2)-dependent alternative electron flux. However, the N source had little effect on gas exchange, Chl a fluorescence parameters, and photosynthetic electron allocation in rice plants, except that NH(4)(+)-grown plants had a higher O(2)-independent alternative electron flux than NO(3)(-)-grown plants. NO(3)(-) reduction activity was rarely detected in leaves of NH(4)(+)-grown cucumber plants, but was high in NH(4)(+)-grown rice plants. These results demonstrate that significant amounts of photosynthetic electron transport were coupled to NO(3)(-) assimilation, an effect more significant in NO(3)(-)-grown plants than in NH(4)(+)-grown plants. Meanwhile, NH(4)(+)-tolerant plants exhibited a higher demand for the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) for NO(3)(-) reduction, regardless of the N form supplied, while NH(4)(+)-sensitive plants had a high water-water cycle activity when NH(4)(+) was supplied as the sole N source.

  8. Effects of Uniconazole on Root Growth and Development of Cucumber Plug Seedling%烯效唑对黄瓜穴盘苗根系发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋玉香

    2014-01-01

    Using cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.﹚ Ludi NO.2 as the experimental material, effects of different concentration u-niconazole on root growth and development of cucumber plug seedling were studied. Results showed that under the treatments of different concentration uniconazole, the length of taproot of cucumber plug seedlings was reduced. The accumulation of dry matter, root-shoot ratio, root activity, nitrate reductase and proline content were increased. 1μL/L uniconazole comprehensive treatment had the best effect.%以黄瓜(Cucumis sativus L.)露地2号为试验材料,研究不同浓度烯效唑对黄瓜穴盘苗根系生长发育的影响。结果表明,不同浓度烯效唑处理黄瓜穴盘苗,降低了主根长度,促进干物质积累,提高根冠比,增加根系活力,提高硝酸还原酶活性和脯氨酸含量,其中以1μL/L烯效唑处理综合效果最佳。

  9. Study of Tolerance Effects on Blight of Cucumber Seedlings Induced by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi%丛枝菌根真菌提高黄瓜幼苗抗立枯病作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦海滨; 张志斌; 贺超兴

    2014-01-01

    为研究丛枝菌根真菌对黄瓜苗期立枯病的防治效果和相关生理生化变化。以黄瓜品种中农16为材料,播种时接种丛枝菌根真菌,对20 d幼苗人工接种立枯丝核菌。结果表明,接种菌根真菌后能够显著提高黄瓜苗期对立枯病的抗性,降低发病率。黄瓜苗期人工接种立枯丝核菌后菌根苗和非菌根苗发病率分别为16.5%和52.0%,非菌根苗发病严重,病情指数为46.7,接菌病情指数为10,较非接菌苗下降了78.5%,接种菌根真菌提高黄瓜抗病性与改变相关酶活性有关,在病害发生前菌根真菌已经与寄主植物互利共生,提前启动了抵抗病害得相关机制,如提高了保护酶活性,促进植株生长,接种菌根真菌后菌根苗地上鲜质量和地上干质量分别比未接菌处理提高33.10%和25.93%。在病害发生过程中菌根真菌与病原菌互相竞争,抑制病菌对寄主的侵害,减轻细胞膜受损害程度。%The cucumber strain Zhongnong 16 were used to screen the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on seedling blight of cucumber in solar greenhouse , and related physiological and biochemistry changes were studied . The result indicated that when cucumber seedlings inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi it can significantly enhance the ability of cucumber resistance .After inoculated rhizoctonia solani incidence rates of AM cucumber seedlings and non A-M cucumber seedlings were 16 .5% and 52 .0%.The mean disease index of cucumber seedling inoculated with AMF was 78.5%lower than that of the control respectively ,moreover,there were most obvious the differences between the treatments and the control .Before disease occurrence the sysbiosis of AMF and host plant had formed and the relevant mechanisms of disease resistance had been started .The inoculation of AMF enhanced plant grewth and improved the activity of protect enzyme .During disease occurred AMF and pathogens

  10. Influence of Different Sowing Time on Growth and Development of Cucumber Seedling and Seed Yield%不同播种期对黄瓜幼苗生长发育及 制种产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李光; 马德华; 杨森

    2001-01-01

    Influence of sowing date on cucumber seed production in spring was studied.Seedling growth and seed yield were closely related to sowing date in open field cucumber seed production.Seedling emergence was faster,emergence rate was higher,the length of cotyled on and lower hypocotyls was longer.Different sowing date has much influence on cucumber seed yield composite factors.So wing too early or too late,fruit number per-pant is less than that of normal sowing plant.Seed number per fruit is evide ntly less than that of normal sowing plant,the thousand grain weight of seeds was getting lower when the sowing date pos tponed.It can be concluded that the date in middle and southern part of Shandong for open field cucumber seed production in spring is between the end of March and April 5th.%研究了播种期对黄瓜幼苗生长发育和制种产量的影响。结果表明,早春随着播种期的推迟,种子出土的速度加快,幼苗下胚轴的长度明显增长,子叶纵向长度也有一定变化。播种期不同,单株瓜条数、单瓜内种子粒数均明显少于正常播期;种子千粒重随着播种时间的推迟,逐渐降低。

  11. Different Ratio of Red and Blue LED Regulation Growth and Development of Cucumber Seedlings%不同红蓝配比的LED光调控黄瓜幼苗的生长

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐文栋; 刘晓英; 焦学磊; 徐志刚

    2015-01-01

    Red and blue light are the most important spectrum absorbed by plants. The demands quantitative of different crops for red or blue light are different. In this study, we adopted red and blue LED, the effects of different ratio of red and blue LED on growth of cucumber seedling were investigated to provide a theoretical basis and data support for cucumber seedlings to light regulation. The results showed that the ratio of red and blue LED regulated growth and development of cucumber seedlings. Except the treatment of 25%red light of R25, with decreasing of red light, the plant height increased. Stem diameter of 75%red light of R75 treatment was the thickest and chlorophyll content was the most. Leaf area of 100%blue light of R0 treatment was the largest. With the decrease of red light, fresh and dry weight of plant ifrst increased then decreased, plant fresh weight, dry weight and healthy index of R75 treatment were signiifcantly greater than those of other treatments. With blue light increased, soluble sugar content decreased. The results suggested that red and blue composited LED light regulation cucumber seedlings growth was promoted and prohibited effects of red and blue light. Under 75%red light of R75, cucumber seedlings is healthier and stronger, and accumulated more biomass. The ratio 3:1 of red and blue composited light can be used reference standard of spectrum modulation for culturing cucumber seedlings in facilities.%红光和蓝光是植物吸收的最主要光谱,不同作物对红光和蓝光光谱的需求有差异。本研究采用LED调制红蓝光的不同配比,研究了不同红蓝配比的LED光对黄瓜幼苗生长的影响,以期为设施黄瓜育苗光调控提供理论依据和数据支撑。结果显示:除红光比例为25%的R25处理外,其他处理的株高随着红光比例的减小而增大;在红光比例为75%的R75处理中,植株茎粗最大、叶绿素含量最高;100%蓝光处理的叶面积最大;随着红

  12. Effect of Inoculants Mixture on Nutrient Uptake and Growth in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Seedlings%混合菌液对黄瓜幼苗营养吸收和生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵双; 郭晓雷

    2010-01-01

    [目的]考查三种促生菌的不同比例混合菌液对黄瓜幼苗生长的影响,以确定最佳混菌配比比例.[方法]菌株为同氮菌沼泽红假单胞菌SH2、解磷菌巨大芽胞杆菌SHⅡ3和解钾菌胶质芽胞杆菌SHI,设置7个浓度配比处理,盆栽黄瓜,以不同比例的混合菌液等量浇灌处理28天.[结果]三种菌液的浓度配比为2∶1∶2的处理对NPK吸收及其在土壤中含量、根茎Fe和Zn含量及株高、茎粗、干重、叶绿素含量有最强提高效果,1∶1∶2和1∶1∶1处理次之,1∶2∶2、2∶2∶1和1∶2∶1效果最差.[结论]2∶1∶2是三种菌液促进黄瓜生长的最佳混合比例.%[Objective] we checked the role of various proportion of three growth promoting bacteria to determine the optimum proportion with greater symbiosis in cucumber seedlings.[Method]Three strains of Rhodopseudomonas palustrisSH2,Bacillus megateriumSHII3,Bacillus mucilaginosusSH1 were applied in this study.Cucumber were cultured in plastic pot,inoculating mixture with seven different proportion for 28 days.tion uptake and growth of cucumber seedlings.

  13. 黄瓜穴盘育苗基质特性及育苗效果的研究%THE FEATURES OF SEVERAL MEDIA FOR PLUG-SEEDLINGS OF CUCUMBER AND NURSURY EFFECT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔秀敏; 王秀峰

    2001-01-01

    利用蛭石、炉渣灰、细砂、草炭和有机肥等按照不同组合与配比组成复合基质,用于黄瓜穴盘育苗。研究结果表明,不同基质对黄瓜幼苗生长的影响有显著差异。复合基质T2(蛭石∶有机肥∶炉渣灰=7∶2∶1)育苗效果最佳,明显好于CK(草炭∶蛭石=2∶1),表现为幼苗生长迅速,干物质积累快,壮苗指数大。因此,T2可代替CK用于工厂化穴盘育苗,T3、T7的育苗效果次于T2,而优于CK,亦具有利用的价值。%Cucumber seedlings were raised in cornpound media,which were composed of vermiculite,coal ash,peat moss,and organic fertilizer,according to different combination and proportion.The results show that different compound media has significant effects on the growth of seedling.The seedlings in T2(70% Vermiculite+20% organic fertilizer+10% coal ash)were the best and much better than CK (Peat moss:Vermiculite=2∶1).They not only grew quickly,accumulated more organic substance,but also had highest vigorous seedlings indicator.In comparison with peat moss,organic fertilizer showed more advantages for cucumber seedlings.Therefore,"T2" is recommended to replace CK in use of factory potting seedlings.The nursury effect of T3 and T7 is just less better than T2,while better than CK,therefore T3 and T7 also are worth using.

  14. 复合有机基质对黄瓜幼苗生长的影响%Effect of Composite Organic Nursery Substrate on the Growth of Cucumber Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔秀敏; 王秀峰; 潘刚

    2001-01-01

    采用蛭石、草炭、珍珠岩、有机肥、腐熟鸡粪、炉渣灰等原料组成复合基质,进行黄瓜穴盘育苗。通过对基质的理化特性分析,以M2(70%蛭石+20%有机肥+10%炉渣灰)和M3(70%蛭石+20%鸡粪+10%炉渣灰)的容重、比重、总孔隙度以及PH值、有机质含量、EC、TDS等指标符合育苗基质的要求,不同基质处理对黄瓜幼苗的影响存在显著差异。其中处理M2和处理M3的黄瓜幼苗生长势、矿质元素吸收以及秧苗质量等均明显优于其它处理。%Cucumber seedlings were raised in composite substrates containing vermiculite, peat moss, local rockwell, coal ash, and organic fertilizer. The volume weight, specific weight, total porosity, organic material, pH, EC, TDS were analyzed.The M2 (70% vermiculite + 20% complicated organic fertilizer + 10% coal ash) and M3 (70% vermiculite +20% decomposed cock manure +10% coal ash) were suitable for seedlings growth. The seedlings quality appeared significant difference in different treatments. The seedlings raised in M2 and M3 were the best in growth potential, mineral absorption and seedling quality.

  15. 缺硼对黄瓜幼苗生长和光合特性的影响%EEffects of Boron Deficiency on Growth and Photosynthetic Characteristics of Cucumber Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨兵; 张红

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the effects of boron deficiency on the photosynthesis physiology and photosynthesis biochemical of cucumber seedlings. [Method] Chuanlv No.1 was sand cultured to study the effects of boron deficiency on leaf area, photosynthetic rate, Rubisco enzymatic activity and carbohydrate content of cucumber seedlings. [Result] Boron deficiency inhibited the biomass increase of root, stem and leaf, increased the shoot to root ratio and reduced leaf area. Under the boron deficiency condition, the contents of starch, soluble sugars, reducing sugars and total carbohydrates increased and the content of sucrose decreased. The net photosynthetic rate, Rubisco enzymatic activity and the contents of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b decreased significantly, while there was no significant change on chlorophyll a/b. [Conclusion] Boron deficiency inhibit the growth of cucumber seedlings by means of increasing the carbohydrates content of leaves, reducing Rubisco enzymatic activity, decreasing photosynthetic pigment and inhibiting photosynthesis.%[目的】研究缺硼对黄瓜幼苗光合生理生化的影响。【方法]采用沙培法,以川绿1号为供试品种,研究缺硼对黄瓜幼苗的叶面积、光合速率、Rubisco酶活性、碳水化合物含量的影响。【结果]缺硼处理抑制了黄瓜幼苗的根、茎叶生物量的增加,增加了冠根比,减小了叶面积;在缺硼条件下,黄瓜幼苗叶片中的淀粉、可溶性糖、还原糖和总碳水化合物的含量增加,蔗糖含量降低;净光合速率明显降低,Rubiso酶活性和叶绿素a、b含量明显减少,而叶绿素a/b变化不明显。【结论】缺硼通过增加叶片中的碳水化合物,降低Rubisco酶活性,减少光合色素,进而降低光合速率来抑制黄瓜幼苗生长。

  16. [Effects of wheat root exudates on cucumber growth and soil fungal community structure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Feng-Zhi; Li, Min; Cao, Peng; Ma, Ya-Fei; Wang, Li-Li

    2014-10-01

    With wheat as the donor plant and cucumber as the receptor plant, this study investigated the effects of root exudates from wheat cultivars with different allelopathic potentials (positive or negative) and companion cropping with wheat on soil fungal community structure by PCR-DGGE method and cucumber growth. Results showed that the wheat root exudates with positive allelopathic potential increased height and stem diameter of cucumber seedlings significantly, compared to the control seedlings (W) after 6 days and 12 days treatment, respectively. Also, wheat root exudates with both positive and negative allelopathic potential increased the seedling height of cucumber significantly after 18 days treatment. The wheat root exudates with different allelopathic potentials decreased the band number, Shannon and evenness indices of soil fungal community significantly in cucumber seedling rhizosphere, and those in the soil with the control seedlings (W) were also significantly higher than that in the control soil without seedlings (Wn) after 6 days treatment. The band number, Shannon and evenness indices in all the treatments were significantly higher than those in the control soil without seedlings (Wn) after 18 days treatment. Companion cropping with negative allelopathic potential wheat decreased the Shannon and evenness indices of soil fungi community significantly in the cucumber seedling rhizosphere, suggesting the wheat root exudates and companion cropping with wheat changed soil fungal community structure in the cucumber seedling rhizosphere. The results of DGGE map and the principal component analysis showed that companion cropping with wheat cultivars with different allelopathic potentials changed soil fungal community structure in cucumber seedling rhizosphere.

  17. Cucumber cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Garg, Shankar

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for business and development personnel who want to use Cucumber for behavior-driven development and test automation. Readers with some familiarity with Cucumber will find this book of most benefit. Since the main objective of this book is to create test automation frameworks, previous experience in automation will be helpful.

  18. Allelopathic Potential of Cucumber Tissues Aqueous Extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Lin-lin; HAO Zhi-peng; ZUO Yuan-mei; LI Xiao-lin; WANG Qian

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective] The aim of this study was to explore allelopathic effects of the water-extracted crude of cucumber plant parts on seed germination and seedling growth of lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L. ), cabbage ( Brassica pekinensis L. ), radish ( Raphanus sativus L. ) and scallion ( Allium fistulosum L. ). [ Method] The allelopathic effects of different cucumber tissues aqueous extracts were investigated on lettuce, cabbage,radish and scallion using the water-soluble allelopathic principle by seedling bioassay tests. [ Result] The trends of inhibitory effects of different cucumber parts increased with increasing extract concentrations. The inhibition effects and the inhibition rate of three aqueous extracts were more significant on root growth than shoot length. Leaf aqueous extracts represented the most exhibited and root aqueous extracts representing the least inhibitory on seed germination, shoot length and root length of lettuce, cabbage, radish and scallion. [Conclusion] This study had provided basis for allelopathic character of different cucumber plant parts.

  19. 脱落酸、水杨酸和钙对黄瓜幼苗抗冷性的诱导效应%Inductive Effect of Abscisic Acid, Salicylic Acid, and Calcium on Cold Resistance of Cucumber Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨楠; 刘培培; 白小梅; 徐坤范; 艾希珍

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect and its mechanism of abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid (SA) and calcium chloride (CaCl2) on cold resistance of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. ) seedlings. Cucumber ( cv. Jinyou 35) seedlings pretreated with a foliar spray of 0.1 mmol · L-1 ABA, 1 mmol · L-1 SA, 10 mmol · L-1 CaCl2, or distilled water (control) were displaced into growth chambers and treated under low temperature (day/night temperature is 8 °C/ 5 °C). The results revealed that low temperature stress significantly increased the chilling injury index, electrolyte leakage (EL), contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The peroxidase(POD) activity increased gradually with stress time, whereas, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) , catalase (CAT) , and glutathione reducase(GR) increased at first and reduced later. The contents of proline and soluble sugar enhanced remarkably with stress time. Pretreated with ABA, SA or CaCl2 before exposure to stress condition, the cold injury indexes of cucumber seedlings decreased by 50. 0%, 40. 0% and 47. 1%, respectively. ABA, SA and CaCl2 treatment seedlings showed significant lower increase degree in EL and MDA content compared with control seedlings. At the initial stress stage, the increase degree of H2O2 content in ABA, SA and CaCl2 treatment seedlings were higher than that of control, but the H2O2 content in ABA, SA and CaCl2 treatment seedlings trend to reduction after 24 h, and were lower by 27. 9%, 27. 5% and 34. 4% respectively at 72 h, compared with that of control. The ABA, SA and CaCl2 treatment seedlings showed significant higher antioxidase activity and contents of proline and soluble sugar than those of control. These data suggest that ABA, SA and CaCl2 can induce cold resistance in cucumber seedlings, and the inductive effect may be related to the observed increase in antioxidase activity and osmoregulation capability.%为了探明脱落酸(ABA)、

  20. Synthesis, Characterization and Growth-promoting Activity on Cucumber Seedlings of Chitooligosaccharides-RE(Ⅲ) Complexes%壳寡糖稀土配合物合成、表征及对黄瓜幼苗的生长促进作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    才秀华; 张炜; 武侠

    2012-01-01

    [Aims] The effect on growth-promoting on cucumber seedlings of hitooligosaccharides and chitooligosaccharides-RE(Ⅲ) were studied. [Methods] Chitooligosaccharides and chitooligosaccharidcs-La(Ⅲ), Ce(Ⅲ) were synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, UV-Vis spectra. The growih-promoting effect on cucumber seedlings of chitooligosaccharides and chitooligosaccharides-RE(III) were investigated. [Results] The growth-promoting activity of chitooligosaccharides-RE(Ⅲ) is much higher than that of chitooligosaccharides. [Conclusions] The growth-promoting activity on cucumber seedlings of the complexes is Ce(Ⅲ)>La(Ⅲ) > chitooligosaccharides.%[目的]研究壳寡糖及其稀土离子金属配合物对黄瓜幼苗的生长促进作用.[方法]合成了壳寡糖和稀土离子La(Ⅲ)、Ce(Ⅲ)的配合物,利用FT-IR、UV-Vis对配合物进行表征,研究壳寡糖及其配合物对黄瓜幼苗的生长促进作用.[结果]壳寡糖稀土配合物对黄瓜幼苗的生长促进作用较壳寡糖显著提高.[结论]其对黄瓜幼苗的生长促进作用为Ce(Ⅲ)配合物>La[Ⅲ)配合物>壳寡糖.

  1. 硅对NO3-胁迫下黄瓜幼苗生长及抗氧化酶活性的影响%EFFECTS OF SILICON ON PLANT GROWTH AND ANTIOXIDANT ENZYME ACTIVITIES OF CUCUMBER SEEDLINGS UNDER NO3-STRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋云鹏; 李小刚; 原程; 杨凤娟; 王秀峰; 魏珉; 史庆华

    2012-01-01

    In this study, cucumber seedlings were cultivated in nutrient solution added with different concentra-tion (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2 mmol ? L-1) Na2SiO3 as Si donor to study the effects of exogenous Si on the growth of cucumber seedlings and the activities of antioxidant enzymes in cucumber leaves under NO3- stress. Under the stress of 140mmol ? L-1, treating with lmrnol ? L-1 of Na2SiO3 for 7d increased the leaf superoxidase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) , catalase (CAT) and ascorbic acid peroxidase (APX) activities, and decreased the leaf ma-londialdehyde ( MDA) content significantly, suggesting that exogenous Si could enhance the capacity of cucum-ber seedlings in scavenging active oxygen species, protect the seedlings from the peroxidation of membrane lip-ids , and promote the seedlings growth and increase resistance to high concentration NO3- stress. After the cucumber seedlings grew in 2 mmol ? L-1 of Na2SiO3 for 7d, the activities of SOD, POD, CAT and APX in leaves were decreased, and the MDA content was increased, resulting in the injury of cucumber seedlings. It indicates that certain concentration (0.5 ~ 1 mmol ? L-1) exogenous Si could alleviate the NO3- stress to cucumber seedlings.%采用营养液培养试验,通过添加不同浓度(0、0.5、1、1.5、2 mmol·L-1)的Na2SiO3作为硅供体,研究外源硅对NO3-胁迫下黄瓜幼苗生长及叶片抗氧化酶活性的影响.结果表明,140 mmol·L-1 NO3-胁迫下,外加1mmol·L-1 Na2SiO3处理7d后,黄瓜幼苗叶片中超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、愈创木酚过氧化物酶(POD)过氧化氢酶(CAT)和抗坏血酸过氧化物酶(APX)活性显著升高;丙二醛(MDA)含量显著降低,说明外加1mmol· L-1Na2 SiO3增强了黄瓜幼苗对活性氧的清除能力,降低了膜脂过氧化程度,幼苗生长势增加,对高浓度NO3-胁迫的抗性增强;当Na2 SiO3浓度高达2 mmol·L-1时,其叶片SOD、POD、CAT和APX活性均开始降低,MDA含量增加,黄瓜幼苗受害加重.

  2. 铁营养状况对黄瓜幼苗吸收转运镉和锌的影响%Effects of Iron Supply on Cadmium and Zinc Uptake and Translocation by Cucumber Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万亚男; 张燕; 余垚; 陈京生; 袁思莉; 李花粉

    2015-01-01

    用营养液培养的方法,研究不同铁营养状况对黄瓜幼苗吸收和转运镉、锌的影响。结果表明:不供铁处理的黄瓜不同部位(根、茎、叶)镉含量与供铁处理差异显著,以茎中最为明显,茎中镉含量分别是供铁50、100、200μmol·L-1处理的2.9、2.8、2.4倍,不供铁处理显著增加了黄瓜各部位镉的含量;不供铁处理也显著提高了黄瓜根和叶片中锌的含量,但对茎中锌的含量没有产生显著影响。黄瓜根系吸收镉和锌的总量与吸收铁的总量表现出显著的负相关关系。随着铁供应浓度的升高,镉在根中的分配增加,与缺铁相比,供铁200μmol·L-1处理根中分配系数上升43%,而茎、叶中分别下降59%和44%,其对锌的分配则无显著影响。与供铁相比,不供铁明显促进黄瓜根、茎、叶对镉的吸收,提高镉在黄瓜地上部的分配及由根向茎转运镉的能力。%Plant nutrition may influence the uptake of heavy metals by plants. In this study, the effects of different iron(Fe)supply on the uptake and translocation of cadmium(Cd)and zinc(Zn)by cucumber seedlings were studied in nutrient solution. Cadmium concentrations in different parts(root, stem and leaf)of cucumber seedlings were significantly higher under iron deficiency than iron sufficiency, especially in stems. The concentrations of Cd in stems under Fe deficiency were 2.9, 2.8 and 2.4 times those of 50, 100 and 200μmol·L-1 iron supply, respectively. Meanwhile, Fe-deficient treatment also increased the Zn concentrations in roots and leaves, but did not influence the Zn con-centrations in stems. The uptake of Cd and Zn by roots showed significantly negative correlation with Fe uptake. The percentages of Cd allo-cated in roots increased with increasing Fe levels in nutrition solution. Compared with the Fe-deficient treatment, 200μmol·L-1 Fe treat-ment increased the distribution of Cd in root by 43%, but

  3. Common arbuscular mycorrhizal networks amplify competition for phosphorus between seedlings and established plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merrild, Marie Porret; Ambus, Per; Rosendahl, Søren;

    2013-01-01

    ) seedlings grew into established networks of Rhizophagus irregularis and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) in two experiments. One experiment studied seedling uptake of 32P in the network in response to cutting of cucumber shoots; the other analysed seedling uptake of P and nitrogen (N) in the presence of intact...

  4. 硼对黄瓜幼苗的生长及部分生理指标影响的研究%Effects of Boron on Seedlings Growing and Physiological Characteristics of Cucumber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张卫华; 曹齐卫; 张帆洋; 陈伟; 孙小镭

    2011-01-01

    The effects of boron on growth and physiological characteristics of cucumber seedlings were investigated in greenhouse with sand irrigated with modified Hoagland nutrient solution. The results showed that boron deficiency resulted in an overall inhibition of plant growth, including reduction in root, intemodes length and biomass fresh weight and dry weight, and their upper leaves curls outwards, the leaf margins turned tan. The toricity symptom in cucumber seedlings appeared in the eighth day after treated with excessive boron. Margin of the lower true leaf became tan, then turned yellow gradually and curled inwards, while the upper leaves were not significantly affected. Physiological index detections suggested that boron deficiency resulted in higher soluble sugar content and amylase activity and much lower nitrate re-ductase activity in leaves than that of CK; while excessive boron led to significantly lower soluble sugar content, amylase activity and nitrate reductase activity than that of CK.%以沙培方武利用改良Hoagland营养液研究不同浓度的硼元素对黄瓜幼苗的生长和部分生理指标的影响,结果表明:缺硼处理的黄瓜幼苗上部叶向外侧卷曲,叶缘变褐色;茎节间距明显缩短;各项外观指标明显小于正常营养液处理的植株;过量硼处理的黄瓜植株从下位叶首先出现中毒症状,在处理后的第8天第一片真叶叶缘变褐色,向内卷曲,逐渐全叶黄化,上部叶片叶色受影响较少;其各项检测指标均明显低于正常处理的植株,甚至低于缺硼处理的植株.通过生理指标的测定,发现缺硼处理叶片中可溶性糖和淀粉含量高,淀粉酶活性升高,硝酸还原酶活性降低;过量硼元素则使叶片可溶性糖含量降低,淀粉酶和硝酸还原酶活性降低.

  5. Effect of the Simulated Acid Rain on Seed Germination and Seedling Physiological Characteristics of Cucumber%模拟酸雨对黄瓜种子萌发及幼苗生理特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王辉; 齐泽民; 肖小君; 黄作喜

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The reference for the corrective assessment of the loss of large-scale cucumber production caused by acid rain was provided through the measurement of its tolerance to acid rain. [ Method ] The effect of six different simulated acid rains with the pH values of 6.5,5.0, 4.0,3.5,3.0 and 2.5 on the seed germination and the seedling physiological characteristics of the cucumber variety-Jinyou 1 as experimental material was studied. [Result] The stress of the acid rain with pH ≤ 3.5 obviously inhibited the seed germination rate, germination energy, germination index and vigor index. While the pH value was 2.5 ,the seeds did not sprout. The inhibition index of the acid rain to root( stem) was intensified with the reduction of the pH value and under the condition of same pH value,its inhibition to main root was stronger than that to stem. The acid rain with the pH =5.0 was with the promotion to the formation of lateral root. As the pH value-decreasing,the activity root system and POD was firstly increased and then decreased,while the relative conductivity and the content of MDA had been increased. [ Conclusion] The threshold of the acid rain affecting the seed germination and seedling physiological activity of the cucumber was in the pH value of about 3.5.%[目的]衡量黄瓜对酸雨的耐受能力,同时也为正确评估酸雨给黄瓜规模化生产造成的损失提供参考.[方法]以津优1号黄瓜为试验材料,研究6个不同pH(6.5、5.0、4.0、3.5、3.0、2.5)的模拟酸雨对黄瓜种子萌发和幼苗生理特性的影响.[结果]pH≤3.5的酸雨胁迫对黄瓜种子的发芽率、发芽势、发芽指数和活力指教均表现明显抑制作用,pH 2.5时,种子不萌芽;根(茎)抑制指数随pH降低而升高,同一pH下对主根的抑制强于茎,pH 5.0的弱酸对侧根的形成有促进作用;随着pH逐渐下降,根系活力和POD活性呈先升高后降低的趋势,而相对电导率和MDA含量一直上升.[结论]酸雨对

  6. Effects of nitrogen form on growth,CO2 assimilation,chlorophyll fluorescence,and photosynthetic electron allocation in cucumber and rice plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-hong ZHOU; Yi-li ZHANG; Xue-min WANG; Jin-xia CUI; Xiao-jian XIA; Kai SHI; Jing-quan YU

    2011-01-01

    Cucumber and rice plants with varying ammonium(NH4+)sensitivities were used to examine the effects of different nitrogen(N)sources on gas exchange,chlorophyll(ChI)fluorescence quenching,and photosynthetic electron allocation.Compared to nitrate(NO3-)-grown plants,cucumber plants grown under NH4+-nutdtion showed decreased plant growth,net photosynthetic rate,stomatal conductance,intercellular carbon dioxide(CO2)level,transpiration rate,maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem Ⅱ,and O2-independent alternative electron flux,and increased O2-dependent alternative electron flux.However,the N source had little effect on gas exchange,ChI a fluorescence parameters,and photosynthetic electron allocation in rice plants,except that NH4+-grown plants had a higher O2-independent alternative electron flux than NO3--grown plants.NO3-reduction activity was rarely detected in leaves of NH4+-grown cucumber plants,but was high in NH4+-grown rice plants.These results demonstrate that significant amounts of photosynthetic electron transport were coupled to NO3-assimilation,an effect more significant in NO3--grown plants than in NH4+-grown plants.Meanwhile,NH4+-tolerant plants exhibited a higher demand for the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate(NADPH)for NO3-reduction,regardless of the N form supplied,while NH4+-sensitive plants had a high water-water cycle activity when NH4+was supplied as the sole N source.

  7. 高浓度营养液对黄瓜和番茄下胚轴徒长的抑制作用%Inhibition effect of high strength nutrient solution on hypocotyl stretch of cucumber and tomato seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高晓旭; 张志刚; 段颖; 董春娟; 尚庆茂

    2014-01-01

    Objectives]Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) are main cultivated vegetable species in China. The seedling growth in breeding processes is vulnerable to disadvantageous environments, such as high temperature, high humidity and weak light, which lead to excessive hypocotyl stretch and reduce yield at later stage.Several methods such as plant growth regulators, mechanical stimulations, supplement of light, temperature modulation and water limitation are used to prevent excessive hypocotyl stretch, but the effects are always not satisfied due to complicated influence factors.To develop an effective method for controlling hypocotyl stretch in cucumber and tomato seedlings, this paper focused on the inhibition effect of high strength nutrient solution on hypocotyl stretch in cucumber and tomato seedlings.[Methods] A concentration of complete macroelement of 1.0 strength Hoagland nutrient solution was defined as fundamental formula ( 1.0 C ) . Other nutrient solution concentration gradients involved in this experiment were 0.5, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 and 12.5C by adding macroelement compositions proportionally without changing the microelements compositions.The 0.5C nutrient solution was set as the control group, and others were the treatment groups.After watering cucumber and tomato seedlings by different nutrient solutions in greenhouse conditions, the growth parameters were measured, and the nutrient solution effects on hypocotyl cortical cell length, growth rate and phytohrmone levels were determined at the cytoledon extending stage.Then seedlings were rewatered by the 0.5C nutrient solution to restore the inhibition growth of hypocotyl stretch.The growth parameters were measured at the first true leaves extending stage.The effects and mechanism of high nutrient solution on inhibiting hypocotyl stretch were determined, and the optimal strength was acquired by appropriate effect on cucumber and tomato seedlings.[Results]The effects of six

  8. Bioprospecção de isolados de Trichoderma spp. para o controle de Rhizoctonia solani na produção de mudas de pepino Bioprospection of Trichoderma spp. isolates to control Rhizoctonia solani on cucumber seedling production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleusa Maria Mantovanello Lucon

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar e identificar isolados de Trichoderma spp. para o controle do tombamento causado por Rhizoctonia solani (AG-4 em plântulas de pepino (Cucumis sativus L., além de avaliar o efeito de concentrações crescentes e de combinações dos isolados mais eficientes no controle da doença. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em casa de vegetação, com 490 isolados. O tombamento das mudas foi avaliado uma semana após a aplicação à base das plântulas de substrato infestado com antagonista (1% e patógeno (1%. Os doze isolados que proporcionaram mais de 85% de redução da doença foram testados em concentrações crescentes para o controle do patógeno (1%: 0,5, 1, 2, 3 e 4%. Também foi avaliado o efeito das combinações dos cinco isolados mais promissores. Os isolados mais efetivos foram identificados pelo sequenciamento da região espaçadores internos transcritos (ITS do DNA ribossômico. Dos 490 isolados testados 44 (9% reduziram o tombamento. As concentrações de antagonistas superiores a 2% foram as mais efetivas no controle da doença. Apenas duas combinações resultaram no aumento do controle da doença. Os isolados mais efetivos foram identificados como T. hamatum (IB08, IB30, IB60, T. harzianum (IB34, IB35, T. atroviride (IB13, T. spirale (IB16, IB24 e T. asperellum (IB44. Não foi possível a identificação da espécie de três isolados.The objective of this work was to select and identify Trichoderma spp. isolates for the control of Rhizoctonia solani (AG-4 damping-off on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. seedlings, as well as to evaluate the effects of increasing concentrations and different combinations of the most efficient isolates in the disease control. The experiments were carried out in a greenhouse with 490 isolates. The disease on cucumber seedlings was evaluated one week after the application of a commercial substrate infested with both antagonist (1% and pathogen (1% to the seedlings

  9. Substrate with Organosuper® for cucumber seedlings formation in protected environments and polystyrene trays Substrato com Organosuper® para formação de mudas de pepineiro em ambientes protegidos e bandejas de poliestireno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilson Costa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Culture environments, trays and doses of organic compost were evaluated in the formation of cucumber seedlings (Cucumis sativus L.. Five environmental conditions were tested: (A1 a greenhouse with height of 2.5 m, covered with polyethylene film, (A2 nursery with height of 2.5 m, monofilament fabric, 50% shading, (A3 nursery with height of 2.5 m, heat-reflective screen, 50% shading, (A4 nursery with a height of 1.8 m, covered with coconut tree straw and (A5 greenhouse with height of 4.0 m, covered with polyethylene film, with zenith opening and thermo-reflective cloth under the plastic. Trays of 72 (R1 and 128 (R2 cells were filled with 93% soil and 7% organic compound (S1, 86% soil and 14% organic compound (S2 and 79% soil and 21% organic compound (S3. It was used a randomized design in split-split-plot scheme, with five replicates (environments x trays x substrates. The greenhouses provide the best environments for the formation of cucumber seedlings. A tray of 72 cells is the best container, promoting more vigorous seedlings in substrate with soil and 7 or 14% organic compound.Ambientes de cultivo, bandejas e doses de composto orgânico foram avaliados na formação de mudas de pepino (Cucumis sativus L.. Cinco ambientes de cultivo foram testados: (A1 estufa agrícola com altura de 2,5 m coberta com filme de polietileno; (A2 viveiro com altura de 2,5 m, tela de monofilamento com 50% de sombreamento; (A3 viveiro com altura de 2,5 m, tela termorrefletora, com 50% de sombreamento; (A4 viveiro com altura de 1,8 m, coberto com palha de coqueiro, e (A5 estufa agrícola com altura de 4,0 m, coberta com filme de polietileno, com abertura zenital e tela termorrefletora sob o filme. Bandejas de 72 (R1 e 128 (R2 células foram preenchidas com 93% de solo e 7% de composto orgânico (S1; 86% de solo e 14% de composto orgânico (S2, e 79% de solo e 21% de composto orgânico (S3. Utilizou-se um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema de parcelas

  10. 日间补照UV-B辐射对温室黄瓜穴盘幼苗生长发育的影响%Effects of Day-time Supplements of UV-B Radation on Greenhouse Cucumber Plug Seedling Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晶晶

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This paper studied the effects of (lay-time supplements of UV-B radiation on seedling growth of cucumber,seek the best radiation time,In order to achieve the aim of culturing robust seedling [Method] By using cucumber wlrietv "Land 2 cucumber" as the testing material and based on different the UV-B radiation time test. [Result] The results showed that there was no effect of radiation 2 h, on the eontrao,, radiation of 3h could effectively inhibit the leggy seedlings of cucumber and ehl(~rophyll eonten| was the highest. Ahhough radiation 4 h couht inhibit the action of leggy seedlings, fresh weight and dry. weight of seedling, plant colonization after 30 d height, stem (tiameter and the results period yield of radiation 4 h were lower than that of radiation 3 h. [Conclusion] Day-time supplements of UV-B radiation 3 h is the best.%[目的]研究日间UV—B辐射对黄瓜穴盘苟生长发育的影响,寻求最佳的照射时长,以达到培育壮苗的目的、[方法]以黄瓜品种“露地二号”为试验材料,通过不同时长UV—B照射试验、【结果】结果表明,照射2h没有作用;照射3h即可有效抑制黄瓜苗徒长,叶绿素含量提高;照射4h虽然有抑制幼苗徒长的作用,但苗期全株干鲜重、定植30d后的株高、茎粗和果实产量均低于3h。[结论]日间补充照射UV—B辐射的最佳时长为3h。

  11. Auxin and Cytokinin Metabolism and Root Morphological Modifications in Arabidopsis thaliana Seedlings Infected with Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV or Exposed to Cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Sofo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Arabidopsis thaliana L. is a model plant but little information is available about morphological root changes as part of a phytohormonal common response against both biotic and abiotic stressors. For this purpose, two-week-old Arabidopsis seedlings were treated with 10 µM CdSO4 or infected with CMV. After 12 days the entire aerial parts and the root system were analyzed, and the presence of CMV or the accumulation of Cd were detected. Microscopic analysis revealed that both CMV and Cd influenced root morphology by a marked development in the length of root hairs and an intense root branching if compared to controls. Among the three treatments, Cd-treated seedlings showed a shorter root axis length and doubled their lateral root diameter, while the lateral roots of CMV-infected seedlings were the longest. The root growth patterns were accompanied by significant changes in the levels of indole-3-acetic acid, trans-zeatin riboside, dihydrozeatin riboside, as a probable consequence of the regulation of some genes involved in their biosynthesis/degradation. The opposite role on root development played by the phythormones studied is discussed in detail. The results obtained could provide insights into novel strategies for plant defense against pathogens and plant protection against pollutants.

  12. Photosensitivity of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. Seedlings Exposed to Ultraviolet-B Radiation Fotosensibilidad de Plantines de Pepino de Ensalada (Cucumis sativus L. Expuestos a Radiación Ultravioleta del tipo B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Tapia F

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The intensity of ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B has increased on the Earth´s surface due to the stratospheric ozone depletion, causing an adverse effect on a wide range of species, such as morphological, physiological, and biochemical alterations. This research studied the intraspecific photosensitivity of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. seedlings exposed to UV-B. Six commercial cultivars were evaluated: Laura, Sprint 440, Dasher II, Exocet, Poinsett 76, and Marketmore 76 under greenhouse-controlled environmental conditions with a hydroponic sandwich-type system with a Hoagland II nutrient solution. Seedlings were irradiated from expanded cotyledons to the third true leaf with three intensities of UV-B radiation (30, 40, and 50 μW cm-2 for 18 d between 11:40-15:40 h. Seedling growth, morphology, accumulation of photosynthetic pigments, and absorbing UV-B pigments were evaluated. ‘Laura’ was the least affected by chlorosis and had a total absence of leaf curl, whereas ‘Poinsett 76’ was the most affected in the 40 and 50 μW cm-2 intensities. Both leaf area and seedling height of ‘Marketmore 76’ and ‘Poinsett 76’ had the lowest values. ‘Laura’ obtained the highest value in both fresh weight and dry weight. ‘Poinsett 76’ had the least amount of pigments absorbing UV-B and was 53% lower than that obtained by ‘Laura’. ‘Poinsett 76’ had lower chlorophyll and carotenoids. Parameters used were indicators of the seedling response to UV-B radiation, but could not be used for cucumber seedling sensitivity to UV-B radiation.La radiación ultravioleta tipo B (UV-B ha ido aumentando su intensidad a nivel de la superficie terrestre producto de la disminución del ozono estratosférico, provocando efectos negativos en una amplia gama de especies, observándose alteraciones morfológicas, fisiológicas y bioquímicas. En este trabajo se estudió la fotosensibilidad intraespecífica de plantines de pepino de ensalada (Cucumis sativus

  13. 农业废弃物不同配方营养块的理化性质及其对黄瓜育苗的影响%Effects of Nutrition Blocks with Different Formulae of Agricultural Wastes on Seedling Effect of Cucumber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘朝晖; 崔新卫; 彭福元; 鲁耀雄; 龙世平; 范海珊

    2012-01-01

    为探索农业废弃物高值资源化利用途径,以纸厂废弃物芦苇渣、畜禽粪便等为主要原料,经发酵腐熟与基质化处理后,压制成育苗营养块,比较分析其理化性质及对黄瓜育苗的影响.结果表明,原料配方对育苗营养块理化性质影响明显,以T1处理(芦苇渣:牛粪:泥炭=7:3:0)总养分含量最高,且培育的黄瓜苗农艺性状优势明显,叶绿素含量也显著高于其他处理.平均隶属函数值法研究结果显示,T1处理幼苗综合素质最好.%In order to explore the ways of high-value resource utilization of agricultural wastes, reed residue from paper mill wastes, agricultural wastes, livestock and poultry manure were chosen as the main raw material to made seedling nutrition blocks after fermentation maturity and matrix processing, and the physical and chemical properties and the effects on seedling effect of cucumber were compared. The results showed that there were obvious effects of raw materials formula on physical and chemical properties of seedling nutrition blocks; Tl treatment (reed residue-cattle manure:peat=7: 3:0) had the highest total nutrient contents and obvious advantages of agronomic traits of cucumber seedling, and the chlorophyll content in Tl treatment was also higher than that in others significantly. The results of average subordinate function values indicated that the comprehensive quality of seedlings in Tl treatment was the greatest.

  14. 外源亚精胺对盐胁迫下黄瓜幼苗光合作用和根叶碳水化合物积累的影响%Effects of exogenous spermidine on photosynthesis and carbohydrate accumulation in roots and leaves of cucumber( Cucumis sativus L.)seedlings under salt stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽芳; 陆巍; 孙锦; 郭世荣; 张振兴; 阳燕娟

    2011-01-01

    采用营养液水培,以盐敏感黄瓜品种'津春2号'为试材,研究外源亚精胺(Spd)对盐胁迫下黄瓜幼苗光合作用及根叶碳水化合物积累的影响.结果表明:与对照相比,50 mmol·L-1NaCl抑制了幼苗生长和光合作用;盐胁迫提高了叶片可溶性总糖、蔗糖、淀粉含量及根系可溶性总糖和蔗糖含量,降低根系淀粉含量;盐胁迫提高了根系磷酸蔗糖合酶(SPS)、蔗糖合酶(SS)和淀粉水解酶活性及叶片SPS、SS活性,降低叶片淀粉水解酶活性.与单纯盐胁迫相比,外施Spd显著提高了幼苗生长及光合作用,降低了叶片碳水化合物含量及根系可溶性总糖、蔗糖含量,提高了根系淀粉含量,降低了叶片中SPS、SS活性和根系SPS、SS和淀粉水解酶活性,提高叶片淀粉水解酶活性.推测外源Spd可能参与了盐胁迫下气孔调控,并调节相关酶活性以减少碳水化合物积累对光合作用的负反馈抑制,从而缓解了盐胁迫对光合作用的伤害,提高了植株盐胁迫耐性.%We investigated the effects of salt stress and spermidine(Spd) application to salinized nutrient solution on photosynthesis and carbohydrate accumulation in roots and leaves with a salt-sensitive cucumber( Cucumis sativus L.) cultivar Jinchun 2.The results showed that compared with control,seedlings grown in nutrient solution salinized with 50 mmol· L-1 NaC1 displayed restrained growth and photosynthesis.Salt stress induced an increase on total soluble sugar,sucrose and starch levels in cucumber leaves,also the levels of sugar and sucrose in cucumber roots, but a decrease on starch level on roots.Salt stress enhanced the activities of phosphate sucrose synthase(SPS) and sucrose synthase(SS) in leaves as well as SPS,SS and amylase activities in roots, while reduced amylase activity in leaves.The growth and photosynthesis of salt-stressed cucumber seedlings were significantly improved by exogenous Spd application to salinized nutrient

  15. Effect of Polyamines,Putrescine,Spermidine and Spermine on Chloro-phyll Fluorescence Parameters of Cucumber Seedlings under Low Tem-perature Stress%外源多胺对低温胁迫下黄瓜幼苗叶绿素荧光参数的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹玉杰; 钱春桃; 薄凯亮; 程春燕; 陈劲枫

    2014-01-01

    应用外源多胺(Polyamines,PAs)腐胺(Putrescine,Put)、亚精胺(Spermidine,Spd)、精胺(Spermine,Spm)处理2叶1心黄瓜幼苗,然后进行8℃/8℃低温及恢复处理,研究Put、Spd、Spm对黄瓜幼苗叶绿素荧光参数的影响。结果表明,在低温胁迫下黄瓜幼苗叶片叶绿素荧光参数最大荧光Fm、最大光化学效率Fv/Fm、PSII(光系统II)潜在活性Fv/F0均下降,初始荧光F0上升,表明PSII受到了伤害,使得PSII原初光能转换效率、PS潜在活性降低;与单纯低温胁迫相比,外源Put、Spd、Spm预处理均可以提高Fm、Fv/Fm、Fv/F0,而使F0降低。这一结果从叶绿素荧光动力学方面说明Put、Spd、Spm对改善黄瓜的耐冷性有一定的作用。%Cucumber seedlings of two true leaves were sprayed by exogenous PAs (Put,Spd,Spm ) and then they were stressed under low temperature of 8℃/8℃for three days and recovered for one day. Effect of exogenous PAs on the changes of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of cucumber seedlings under low temperature stress was studied. The results indicat-ed that the fluorescent parameters of chlorophyll, Fm,Fv/Fm and Fv/F0 appeared to decline and F0 appeared to increase, suggesting that PSII could be damaged,causing some decrease of primary light energy conversion and potential activities of PSII. Compared with the control treatment,exogenous PAs pre-treatment could significantly promote the increment of Fm, Fv/Fm,and Fv/F0,whereas decreased F0.The effect of exogenous PAs on cold-tolerance of cucumber is proved again by im-proving the changes of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of cucumber seedlings.

  16. Presence of multiple acid phosphatases activity in seedlings of cucumber, radish and rocket salad Presença de atividade de múltiplas fosfatases ácidas em plântulas de pepino, rabanete e rúcula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Almeri Tabaldi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Acid phosphatases (3.1.3.2 are a group of enzymes widely distributed in nature, which catalyze the hydrolysis of a variety of phosphate esters in the pH range of 4-6. We confirmed the presence of acid phosphatases in seedlings of cucumber (Cucumis sativus, radish (Raphanus sativus and rocket salad (Eruca vesicaria under different assay conditions using a rapid and simple preparation. The results showed that the optimum pH and temperature used for all species were close to 5.5 and 35°C, respectively. The enzyme was inhibited by molybdate, fluoride, azide, levamisole, orthovanadate, Zn2+ and Cu2+. Suramin had no effect on enzyme activity. The acid phosphatase from cucumber, radish and rocket salad hydrolyzed a wide variety of phosphate esters and the highest activity was observed with PPi, ATP and GTP. These results demonstrate that the enzyme investigated in this study is different from well known ester phosphate cleaving plant enzymes (apyrase and inorganic pyrophosphatases and this preparation could be a useful tool to future toxicological studies and to study initially all isoforms of acid phosphatase.As fosfatases ácidas (3.1.3.2 são um grupo de enzimas amplamente distribuídas na natureza, as quais catalisam a hidrólise de uma variedade de ésteres de fosfato com uma variação de pH entre quatro e seis. Foi confirmada a presença de fosfatases ácidas em plântulas de pepino (Cucumis sativus, rabanete (Raphanus sativus e rúcula (Eruca vesicaria sob diferentes condições de ensaio usando uma preparação rápida e simples. Os resultados mostraram que o pH e a temperatura ótimos para todas as espécies foram 5,5 e 35°C, respectivamente. A enzima foi inibida por molibdato, fluoreto, azida, levamisole, ortovanadato, Zn2+ e Cu2+. O inibidor suramim não afetou a atividade enzimática. As fosfatases ácidas de pepino, rabanete e rúcula hidrolisaram uma ampla variedade de ésteres de fosfato e a maior atividade foi observada com PPi, ATP

  17. 外源硝酸钙对盐胁迫黄瓜幼苗生长和光合作用的影响%Effects of Exogenous Ca( NO3 )2 on Growth and Photosynthesis of Cucumber Seedlings under Salt Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程玉静; 郭世荣; 束胜; 胡加如; 薛林; 陈国清; 石明亮; 黄小兰; 陆虎华

    2012-01-01

    以较耐盐黄瓜品种新泰密刺为试材,采用营养液栽培,研究了叶面喷施Ca( NO3)2对盐胁迫(65 mmol/L NaCl)下黄瓜幼苗生长、叶片叶绿素含量、光合及叶绿素荧光参数的影响.结果表明,外源Ca( NO3)2显著提高了盐胁迫下黄瓜幼苗的干鲜重和叶片叶绿素含量;Ca(NO3)2也提高了盐胁迫下黄瓜叶片净光合速率(Pn)、气孔导度(Gs)、蒸腾速率(Tr)、PSⅡ实际光化学效率(ΦPSⅡ)、光条件下最大光化学效率(F′v/F′m)和光化学淬灭系数(qP),而对胞间CO2浓度(Ci)、暗条件下最大化学效率(Fv/Fm)和非光化学淬灭系数(qN)没有显著影响.这些结果说明外源Ca( N(O)3)2可能通过提高叶绿素含量和调节气孔限制,以缓解盐胁迫对黄瓜幼苗光化学效率的抑制,进而提高植株耐盐胁迫能力,促进其生长.%Taking salt - tolerant cucumber (Cucumh satiuus L. ) variety Xintaimici as the tested material, a water culture experiment was conducted to study the effects of foliar spraying exogenous Ca( NO3) 2 on the growth, leaf chlorophyll content, photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of cucumber seedlings under salt stress (65 mmol/L NaCl). The results showed that spraying Ca( NO3 )2 upon the leaf surface could significantly increase the dry weight and fresh weight of salt - stressed cucumber seedlings, as well as the chlorophyll content in the leaves. The application of Ca(NO3)2 also enhanced the net photosynthetic rate (Pn) , stomatal conductance (Gs) , transpiration rate (Tr) , the actual photochemical efficiency of PSⅡ (ΦpsⅡ) , the rnaximum photochemical efficiency under light condition {F'v/F'm} and photochemical quenching coefficient (qP) of cucumber seedling leaves under salt stress, but it had no significant influence on intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) , maximal photochemical efficiency under dark condition (Fv/Frn) and non -photochemical quenching coefficient (qN). It was suggested that exogenous Ca

  18. Effect of mycorrhizas application on plant growth and nutrient uptake in cucumber production under field conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortas, I.

    2010-07-01

    Mycorrhizas application in horticultural production in the Eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey has been studied under field conditions for several years. The effects of different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have been evaluated under field conditions for cucumber production. The parameters measured were seedling survival, plant growth and yield, and root colonization. In 1998 and 1999, Glomus mosseae and Glomus etunicatum inoculated cucumber seedlings were treated with and without P (100 kg P2O5 ha-1) application. A second experiment was set up to evaluate the response of cucumber to the inoculation with a consortia of indigenous mycorrhizae, G. mosseae, G. etunicatum, Glomus clarum, Glomus caledonium and a mixture of these four species. Inoculated and control non inoculated cucumber seedlings were established under field conditions in 1998, 2001, 2002 and 2004. Seedling quality, seedling survival under field conditions and yield response to mycorrhiza were tested. Fruits were harvested periodically; at blossom, plant leaves and root samples were taken for nutrient content and mycorrhizal colonization analysis respectively. The field experiment results showed that mycorrhiza inoculation significantly increased cucumber seedling survival, fruit yield, P and Zn shoot concentrations. Indigenous mycorrhiza inoculum was successful in colonizing plant roots and resulted in better plant growth and yield. The relative effectiveness of each of the inocula tested was not consistent in the different experiments, although inoculated plants always grew better than control no inoculated. The most relevant result for growers was the increased survival of seedlings. (Author) 20 refs.

  19. 叶绿酸铁对硝酸盐胁迫下黄瓜幼苗渗透调节物质及抗氧化酶活性的影响%Effect of Chlorophyllin-iron on Osmoregulation Substance and Activities of Antioxidant Enzymes of Cucumber Seedling under Nitrate Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蒙; 王秀峰; 魏珉; 杨凤娟; 史庆华; 李岩

    2014-01-01

    采用营养液栽培,研究硝酸盐胁迫下喷施10mg·L-1叶绿酸铁溶液对黄瓜幼苗生长、脯氨酸、可溶性糖、丙二醛含量及抗氧化酶活性的影响。结果表明:硝酸盐胁迫下叶面喷施叶绿酸铁可以缓解硝酸盐对黄瓜幼苗生长的抑制,减少叶片中脯氨酸、可溶性糖、丙二醛含量,提高超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化物酶(POD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)及抗坏血酸过氧化物酶(APX)活性。喷施叶绿酸铁可以在一定程度上减少硝酸盐胁迫下叶片中活性氧的积累,抑制膜脂过氧化,从而缓解硝酸盐胁迫对黄瓜幼苗的伤害。%A solution culture experiment was conducted to study the effect of exogenous spraying 10 mg·L-1 chlorophyllin-iron solution at cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)seedling leaves on the plant growth,contents of proline,soluble sugar,MDA and activity of peroxidase under nitrate stress. The results showed that exogenous spraying chlorophyllin-iron solution at leaves could relieve the inhibition of nitrate on cucumber seedling growth, decrease the contents of proline,soluble sugar,MDA,and increase the activities of SOD,POD,CAT and APX. Eexogenous spraying chlorophyllin-iron could to certain extent reduce the accumulation of active oxygen in leaves under nitrate stress, restrain lipid peroxidation,and therefore relieve the damage of nitrate stress on cucumber seedlings.

  20. Trichoderma harzianum strain SQR-T37 and its bio-organic fertilizer could control Rhizoctonia solani damping-off disease in cucumber seedlings mainly by the mycoparasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xinqi; Chen, Lihua; Ran, Wei; Shen, Qirong; Yang, Xingming

    2011-08-01

    Damping-off disease is caused by Rhizoctonia solani and leads to serious loss in many crops. Biological control is an efficient and environmentally friendly way to prevent damping-off disease. Optical micrographs, scanning electron micrographs, and the determination of hydrolytic enzymes were used to investigate the antagonism of Trichoderma harzianum SQR-T37 (SQR-T37) against R. solani. Experiments were performed in pots to assess the in vivo disease-control efficiency of SQR-T37 and bio-organic fertilizer. The results indicate that the mycoparasitism was the main mechanism accounting for the antagonistic activity of SQR-T37. In one experiment, the population of R. solani was decreased from 10(6) internal transcribed spacer (ITS) copies per gram soil to 10(4) ITS copies per gram soil by the presence of the antagonist. In this experiment, 45% of the control efficiency was obtained when 8 g of SQR-T37 hyphae per gram soil was applied. In a second experiment, as much as 81.82% of the control efficiency was obtained when bio-organic fertilizer (SQR-T37 fermented organic fertilizer, BIO) was applied compared to only 27.27% of the control efficiency when only 4 g of SQR-T37 hyphae per gram soil was applied. Twenty days after incubation, the population of T. harzianum was 4.12 × 10(7) ITS copies per gram soil in the BIO treatment, which was much higher than that in the previous treatment (8.77 × 10(5) ITS copies per gram soil), where only SQR-T37 was applied. The results indicated that SQR-T37 was a potent antagonist against R. solani in a mycoparasitic way that decreased the population of the pathogen. Applying BIO was more efficient than SQR-T37 application alone because it stabilized the population of the antagonist.

  1. 蘑菇渣和园林废物堆肥复配基质在黄瓜育苗上的应用效果%Effect of Reproducing Compound Substrate for Cucumber Seedling by Mushroom Residue and Garden Waste Compost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田锁霞; 陈清; 龚建英; 李国学; 贾小红; 李彦明

    2011-01-01

    以腐熟的蘑菇渣堆肥、园林修剪废物堆肥、草炭、蛭石为原料,通过将蘑菇渣堆肥与园林废物堆肥以不同比例替代草炭后对复配基质的理化特性及普通白菜生长的影响筛选出适宜的配方,并以草炭:蛭石=7V:3V为对照,探讨该配方对黄瓜幼苗生长指标的影响.结果表明,蘑菇渣堆肥:园林废物堆肥:草炭:蛭石=3 V:4 V:7 V:6V为最佳基质配方;受EC值过高的影响,蘑菇渣堆肥和园林废物堆肥替代草炭最大比例不宜超过40%;所获配方基质培育出的黄瓜幼苗株高、茎粗、干物质积累和壮苗指数等指标均显著优于对照.%The spent mushroom compost ( MC ) and the garden wastes compost ( YC ) were evaluated as components of substrates in partial substitution of peat for seedlings production. Compost-based substrates , containing different percentage of these 2 composts , were analyzed to find their physicochemical parameter and effect on the growth of Brassica campestris L. Ssp. Chinensis ( L.) Makino var. Communis Tsen et Lee, so as to screen out an optimal formula. Then its effects on cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L. ) seedling quality were investigated comparing with the control ( a commercial substrates ). The results showed that the substrate's composition of MC : YC : peat : vermiculite=3 V : 4 V : 7 V : 6 V was the optimal formula. The percentage of the MC and YC in compost-based substrates should not exceed 40%, due to the high EC value. The plant height, stem diameter, dry matter accumulation and seedling index and other indicators of cucumber seedling cultivated on this formula substrate were significantly excelled that of the control treatment.

  2. The Effect of Salt Priming on the Performance of Differentially Matured Cucumber (Cucumis sativus Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem GHASSEMI-GOLEZANI

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The influence of salt priming (3% KNO3 for 3 days and 1% NaCl for 2 days at 20 degree on germination, seedling emergence and seedling dry weight of two Iranian cucumber cultivars of Basmenj and Varamin harvested at 25, 35 and 45 days after anthesis (DAA was investigated in an unheated glasshouse. Seed germination and seedling emergence and growth were significantly affected by seed maturity and priming. Maximum advantage of priming seedling vigour was observed in seeds harvested at 25 DAA. Smaller effects of priming were also seen in the decreased mean germination and emergence times and increased seedling dry weight of seeds harvested at 35 and 45 DAA. Priming reduced percentage of seeds that germinated, but failed to emerge. In all cases, KNO3 priming was more effective than NaCl priming. Therefore, KNO3 priming can be used to improve cucumber seedling emergence and establishment, particularly in early spring sowings at low temperatures.

  3. Produção de mudas de alface, pepino e pimentão em substratos combinando areia, solo e Plantmax® Production of lettuce, cucumber and sweet pepper seedlings in substrate with different combinations of sand, soil and Plantmax®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar José Smiderle

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available O efeito do substrato comercial Plantmax®; e sua combinação com solo e areia, foi avaliado de acordo com a resposta biológica de três culturas olerícolas (alface, pepino e pimentão, sendo o experimento conduzido em casa de vegetação na ESALQ/USP em Piracicaba de abril a junho de 1996. Os tratamentos consistiram do substrato comercial Plantmax®; e da mistura deste com areia, com solo, na proporção 1:1 em volume, e mistura dos três, proporção 1:1:1. O substrato Plantmax®; propiciou menor velocidade de emergência para alface e pepino e maior para pimentão. Resultou, também, em maior altura de plântulas nas três diferentes culturas. O menor comprimento de raízes das três olerícolas foi obtido com o substrato Plantmax®; + solo + areia. A maior produção de matéria seca de plântulas e raízes de alface e de pimentão foram obtidas com o substrato Plantmax®;. Por outro lado, a menor produção de matéria seca foi obtida com a mistura dos três componentes para a cultura do pepino. O desempenho obtido nas misturas de Plantmax®; com solo ou com areia, indicam ser uma alternativa técnica viável ao uso de substratos comerciaisThe effect of commercial substrate Plantmax®; and it's combination with soil and sand, was evaluated according to the biological response of three vegetable crops (lettuce, cucumber and sweet pepper. The experiment was carried out in plastic tunnels, at ESALQ/USP, Piracicaba-SP, from April to June, 1996. The treatments consisted of the commercial substrate Plantmax®;, the mixture of Plantmax®; with sand, Plantmax®;with soil and the mixture of Plantmax®;with both soil and sand. Lower lettuce and cucumber seedlings emergence and faster sweet pepper seedlings emergence were observed with Plantmax®; substrate. It also resulted in bigger size of seedlings of these three different plant species. Smaller roots of these three species were observed with the mixture of Plantmax®; plus soil plus sand

  4. Effects of exogenous spermidine on lipid peroxidation and membrane proton pump activity of cucumber seedling leaves under high temperature stress%外源Spd对高温胁迫下黄瓜幼苗叶片膜脂过氧化及质子泵活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田婧; 郭世荣; 孙锦; 王丽萍; 阳燕娟; 李斌

    2011-01-01

    以较为耐热的黄瓜品种‘津春4号’为试材,在人工气候箱中,采用石英砂培养加营养液浇灌的栽培方式,研究了叶面喷施外源亚精胺(Spd)对高温胁迫下黄瓜幼苗叶片膜脂过氧化程度、质子泵活性及其基因表达的影响.结果表明:高温胁迫下,外源Spd促进黄瓜幼苗株高、茎粗、干、鲜质量和叶面积显著增加,有效抑制叶片相对电导率、丙二醛(MDA)含量和脂氧合酶(LOX)活性的升高,有助于提高叶片细胞质膜和液泡膜H+ -ATPase活性,但在基因表达水平上无显著差异.外源Spd可显著降低黄瓜幼苗叶片膜脂过氧化程度,提高质子泵活性,从而稳定膜的结构和功能,缓解高温胁迫对黄瓜幼苗造成的伤害,提高幼苗对高温胁迫的耐性.%Taking a relatively heat-resistant cucumber (Cucumis sativus) cultivar ' Jinchun No. 4' as test material, a sand culture experiment was conducted in growth chamber to investigate the effects of foliar spraying spermidine (Spd) on the lipid peroxidation, membrane proton pump activity , and corresponding gene expression of cucumber seedling leaves under high temperature stress. Compared with the control, foliar spraying Spd increased the plant height, stem diameter, dry and fresh mass, and leaf area significantly, and inhibited the increase of leaf relative conductivity, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and lipoxygenase ( LOX) activity effectively. Foliar spraying Spd also helped to the increase of leaf plasma membrane- and tonoplast H+-ATPase activity, but no significant difference was observed in the gene expression levels. These results suggested that exogenous Spd could significantly decrease the leaf lipid peroxidation and increase the proton pump activity , and thus, stabilize the leaf membrane structure and function, alleviate the damage induced by high temperature stress, and enhance the heat tolerance of cucumber seedlings.

  5. Effects of Grafting on Root Exudates of Cucumber and Rhizosphere Environment under Copper Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua LI; Hongjun HE; Tengfei LI; Xin LI; Zikun ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] This study to aimed to investigate the effects of Cu stress on root exudates and microbial activities in rhizosphere of grafted and ungrafted cucum-ber seedlings, and therefore to elucidate the microbial mechanism of grafting for in-creasing cucumber plants tolerance to Cu stress [Method] Four treatments: (1) un-grafted seedlings + test soil (U0); (2) ungrafted seedlings + test soil + CuSO4·5H2O (U1); (3) grafted seedlings + test soil (G0); (4) grafted seedlings + test soil + Cu-SO4·5H2O (G1) were set in the pot culture experiment. The contents of free amino acids, organic acids, phenolic acid and sugars, microbial population and enzyme ac-tivity in the four treatment were measured, respectively. [Result] The secretion of amino acids and organic acids were increased under Cu stress. The amino acids secretions of grafted seedlings roots were obviously higher than ungrafted seedlings except for Phe and Val. At the same time, the secretion of oxalic acid, malic acid, acetic acid, citric acid, cinnamic acid, ρ-hydroxybenzoic acid and benzoic acid of grafted seedlings were significantly higher than ungrafted seedlings as wel . There-fore, more Cu2+ were restricted in soil by chelating, complexing and precipitation with root exudates, and its toxicity was decreased. The soil microbial biomass C and N in grafted cucumber rhizosphere were significantly higher than those in ungrafted cu-cumber rhizosphere, whereas basal respiration and metabolic quotient were signifi-cantly lower. Under Cu stress, the numbers of actinomyces and nitrogen fixing bac-teria decreased and the number of fungi increased significantly, whereas there was no significant difference in amounts of bacteria. The numbers of bacteria, actino-myces, and nitrogen fixing bacteria in grafted cucumber rhizosphere were significant-ly higher than those in ungrafted cucumber rhizosphere, but the number of fungi was opposite. The activities of soil urease, phosphatase, sucrase and catalase in grafted

  6. 根系边缘细胞对肉桂酸胁迫下黄瓜和黑籽南瓜活性氧代谢与根系活力的影响%Effect of Root Border Cells on Reactive Oxygen Metabolism and Root Activity of Cucumber and Figleaf Gourd Seedlings Under Cinnamic Acid Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔永旭; 张永平; 高丽红

    2015-01-01

    [Objective]The aim of this paper was to clarify the defensive mechanism of root border cells (RBC) against cinnamic acid (CA) stress by analyzing the reactive oxygen metabolism and root activity of seedling RBC in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and figleaf gourd (Cururbita ficifolia) under CA stress. [Method] The 5 mm length of aeroponicly cultured roots of cucumber cultivar Zhongnong No. 16 and figleaf gourd cultivar bouche were divided into two groups: one group was used to investigate reactive oxygen metabolism by spraying with 0 and 0.25 mmol·L-1 CA at 1 h interval, another group rinsing root tips of distilled water once every 4 h firstly and RBC were removed, then spraying 0 and 0.25 mmol·L-1 CA every 1 h. The metabolic index of active oxygen was measured after treatment for 0, 12, 24 and 36 hours of CA stress, root fresh weight, root respiration rate and root activity of the seedlings were measured after 24 hours. [Result]The root fresh weight and physiological metabolism were not affected significantly by RBC without CA stress. If the RBC were not removed, the root fresh weight and root activity decreased and the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malonaldehyde (MDA), total respiration rate, CN-resistant respiration rate, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and guaiacol-dependent peroxidase (POD) increased significantly in cucumber under CA stress. However, the root fresh weight, root activity, the level of ROS and MDA, total respiration rate, CN-resistant respiration rate, the activities of SOD, CAT and POD were not affected significantly in figleaf gourd seedlings. If RBC were removed, the effect of CA stress on figleaf gourd was similar with cucumber, but significantly than RBC not removing. [Conclusion] RBC possibly attenuated the CA toxicity to the roots of cucumber and figleaf gourd through decreasing ROS and MDA content. The defensive ability of RBCs against CA on figleaf gourd was stronger than that of cucumber

  7. Two biologically distinct isolates of Zucchini yellow mosaic virus lack seed transmissibility in cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasa, M; Kollerova, E

    2007-01-01

    The seed transmission of the Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) was studied in cucumber using two isolates unrelated in their biological characteristics. Although the virus could be readily detected in mature seeds harvested from infected cucumbers, the seedlings obtained from infected germinated seeds tested negative for ZYMV using both ELISA and RT-PCR assays. No evidence was obtained for transmission of two ZYMV isolates through seeds.

  8. 不同规格和投苗密度对仿刺参池塘网箱保苗效果的影响%Effects of Different Size and Density on Intermediate Seedling Culture of Sea Cucumber,Apostichopus j aponicus in Net Cages Disposed in Earthen Ponds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴艳庆; 张玉祥; 杜荣斌; 王志宝; 王仁龙; 刘立明; 李晓杰

    2016-01-01

    Seedling culture of sea cucumber (A postichopus j aponicus) ,using net cages in earthen ponds , is a semi‐ecological seedling protection pattern arising in recent years .Field experiment was conducted in net cages set in earthen pond to investigate the effects of size [large size (0 .093 ± 0 .004) g/ind and small size (0 .024 ± 0 .001) g/ind] and density (low density 125 g/m3 ,middle density 250 g/m3 and high density 375 g/m3 ) on grow th ,yield and survival rate of sea cucumber during intermediate seedling culture period from July to October in 2014 .The results showed that the body weight and the specific growth rate of seedling were in low density higher than that in middle density and high density in the same size ,that the large size had significantly higher survival rate than the small size in the same density groups (P0 .05) ,higher net production of seedling in low density than that in middle density and high density .The two‐way ANOVA revealed that the main effect of size and the interaction of two factors had significant influence on the survival rate (P0 .05) .The main effect of size and the interaction of the two factors did not show significant influence on net production (P>0 .05) ,while main effect of density had a significant influence on net production (P<0 .05) .Therefore ,releasing of large size seedling with low density could not only ensure high survival rate and net production ,but also save seedling resources and feed quantity ,reduce the production and management cost per unit area ,eleva‐ting input‐output ratio and economic benefit during intermediate seedling culture period of sea cucumber .%仿刺参室外池塘网箱保苗是近年来兴起的一种半生态式的保苗方式。于2014年7—11月在仿刺参室外池塘网箱保苗期间,通过现场试验比较研究了不同投苗规格[大规格(0.093±0.004) g/头,小规格(0.024±0.001) g/头]和密度(低密度125 g/m3、中密度250 g/m3

  9. 镉胁迫对黄瓜幼苗光合和叶绿素荧光特性的影响%Effects of Cd~(2+) Stress on Photosynthesis and Chlorophyll Fluorescence Characteristics of Cucumber Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘劲松; 石辉; 李秧秧

    2011-01-01

    通过室内水培试验,研究了不同浓度镉处理(0,25,50,100,200μmol/L)对黄瓜幼苗叶片光合及叶绿素荧光特性的影响。结果表明:镉胁迫第4天,净光合速率、气孔导度和蒸腾速率已显著下降,但细胞间隙CO2浓度变化不大;叶绿素相对含量仅在200μmol/L镉胁迫时下降;叶绿素荧光参数Fv/Fm、Yield和ETR变化不大,表明200μmol/L以下镉处理光合下降的主要原因是气孔因素。在胁迫第8天,所有镉处理净光合速率、气孔导度、蒸腾速率进一步下降,细胞间隙CO2浓度上升,叶绿素相对含量和除NPQ外的所有荧光参数也显著下降,表明此时光合下降与非气孔因素如叶绿素相对含量下降和原初光化学反应受到伤害等有关。50μmol/L镉胁迫导致除NPQ外的所有荧光参数出现一低谷值,原因可能与镉胁迫引起的严重Fe缺乏有关。%The effects of different concentrations of cadmium(0,25,50,100,200 μmol/L) on the photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics of cucumber seedlings were studied with a solution culture.The results showed that net photosynthetic rate(Pn),stomatal conductance(Gs) and transpiration rate(Tr) greatly decreased but intercellular CO2 concentration(Ci) showed no change at the 4th day of cadmium stress,relative chlorophyll content only decreased at 200 μmol/L cadmium treatment,while major PSII florescence parameters(the maximal photochemical efficiency of PSII Fv/Fm,the actual photochemical efficiency of PSII in the light Yield and electron transport rate ETR) did not change,indicating a stronger stomatal limitation in the decline of photosynthesis for those treatments with cadmium lower than 200 μmol/L.On the 8th day of cadmium,net photosynthetic rate,stomatal conductance and transpiration decreased more sharply with the increase of intercellular CO2 concentration(Ci),relative chlorophyll content and major fluorescence parameters except NPQ

  10. Dynamics of Microbial Communities in Bulk and Developing Cucumber Rhizosphere Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Yuan-sen; WU Kun; LIU Na; CHEN Hong-ge; JIA Xin-cheng

    2004-01-01

    The microbial population dynamics in bulk and developing cucumber rhizospheres were studied by cultivation and cultivation-independent approach based on directly extracted DNA to provide baseline data. Soil and rhizosphere samples were taken from tested field 2, 4, 7 and 10 weeks after the seeds were planted, which was positively related to the corresponding date of cucumber growth stages. The plate culture amount showed that total number of bacteria,fungi and actinomyces began to rise when cucumber planted and quickly reached peak at seedling or blossom period, but decreased slightly later. Bacterial population in rhizosphere was higher by comparison with that of counterpart except for seedling and flowering stages, but the shift trend of them were quite similar all the time. Nitrogen fixating, nitrobacter and ammonifying bacteria showed the same change tendency in population as bacteria and actinomyces did, however, cellulose-decomposing bacteria had the contrary rhizosphere effect as cucumber developed. Data revealed that positive relevance existed between the dominant rhizosphere microbe population and cucumber development. PCR was employed to amolify the V3 region of 16S rDNA, then the products were subjected to denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis(DGGE). DGGE profile indicated that a few microbe species lived stable in farmland soil, but some were influenced by population due to cucumber roots growth. Significant difference was observed in bulk and rhizosphere soils especially for the seedling and flowering samples. Few prominent bands in DGGE patterns, which displayed stronger or less illumination, means the representative bacteria had great population variation in that period. These phenomena indicated that flowering cucumber heavily affected rhizosphere bacteria, or the bacteria, most probably the uncultured bacteria, functioned specially to cucumber blossom. Most detected bands with no illumination change in DGGE quite possibly represent the indigenous

  11. Study on the Resistance of Cucumber to Temperature Stresses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Four cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. ) inbred lines with different resistances to temperature stress were used in this experiment. The seedlings of line Q10 and Q21 that have high resistance to chilling stress also have high resistance to heat stress. The seedlings of line T94 and T55 that have lower resistance to chilling stress also have lower resistance to heat stress. It seems that the resistance of cucumber seedlings to different temperature stresses was similar. The influences of chilling and heat stress on the germination ability of cucumber seeds were different. Under the chilling stress, the germination percentage decreased less, and the germination velocity decreased more,so the germination index decreased significantly. Under the heat stress, the germination percentage and velocity of the seeds with high resistance decreased less and those of the seeds with lower resistance decreased more. The differences among the lines became more evident under the extreme heat condition. The content of chlorophyll decreased under the different temperature stresses, the content of chlorophyll a decreased more than that of chlorophyll b, so the value of chlorophyll a/b decreased.The temperature stress inhibited the photosynthesis of cucumber seedlings significantly. After chilling or heat treatment, the net photosynthetic rate (Pn) decreased remarkably. With the stomatal conductance (Gs) decreased, the stomatal limited value (Is) decreased, the intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) increased, and both the apparent quantum efficiencies (AQE) and the carboxylation efficiencies (CE) decreased. Results showed that the non-stomatal factors were the main causes of Pn decrease, and the photosynthetic mechanism was destroyed remarkably.

  12. Effect of cationic plastoquinone SkQ1 on electron transfer reactions in chloroplasts and mitochondria from pea seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuilov, V D; Kiselevsky, D B

    2015-04-01

    Plastoquinone bound with decyltriphenylphosphonium cation (SkQ1) penetrating through the membrane in nanomolar concentrations inhibited H2O2 generation in cells of epidermis of pea seedling leaves that was detected by the fluorescence of 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein. Photosynthetic electron transfer in chloroplasts isolated from pea leaves is suppressed by SkQ1 at micromolar concentrations: the electron transfer in chloroplasts under the action of photosystem II or I (with silicomolybdate or methyl viologen as electron acceptors, respectively) is more sensitive to SkQ1 than under the action of photosystem II + I (with ferricyanide or p-benzoquinone as electron acceptors). SkQ1 reduced by borohydride is oxidized by ferricyanide, p-benzoquinone, and, to a lesser extent, by silicomolybdate, but not by methyl viologen. SkQ1 is not effective as an electron acceptor supporting O2 evolution from water in illuminated chloroplasts. The data on suppression of photosynthetic O2 evolution or consumption show that SkQ1, similarly to phenazine methosulfate, causes conversion of the chloroplast redox-chain from non-cyclic electron transfer mode to the cyclic mode without O2 evolution. Oxidation of NADH or succinate in mitochondria isolated from pea roots is stimulated by SkQ1.

  13. Effects of graft with pumpkin rootstock on nitrogen metabolism and protein expression in the cucumber seedlings under iso-osmotic Ca ( NO3 ) 2 or NaCI stress%白籽南瓜嫁接对不同盐胁迫下黄瓜幼苗氮代谢和蛋白表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽萍; 孙锦; 郭世荣; 田婧; 阳燕士蜀

    2012-01-01

    采用营养液栽培,以白籽南瓜(Cucurbita maxima×Cucurbita moschata)为砧木,"津优3号"黄瓜为接穗,研究了白籽南瓜嫁接对等渗Ca(NO3)2和NaCl胁迫下黄瓜幼苗生长、氮代谢、渗透调节物质和蛋白表达的影响。结果表明,白籽南瓜嫁接黄瓜可明显促进Ca(NO3)2和NaCl胁迫下黄瓜嫁接苗生长,提高叶片和根系中硝酸还原酶(NR)活性及NO3--N、可溶性糖、脯氨酸和可溶性蛋白含量,抑制NH4+-N升高;叶片中可溶性蛋白表达量增强,其相对分子质量(×103)分别约为188.4、156.1、120.4、54.0、37.3、32.1、30.6、18.9、17.8和17.1,并出现相对分子质量为64.3×103的一种新蛋白,而81.0×103的蛋白表达量减弱,这12种蛋白可能与白籽南瓜嫁接提高黄瓜耐盐性密切相关。研究还发现,NaCl胁迫下黄瓜自根嫁接和砧木嫁接植株叶片中相对分子质量(×103)约为86.1、23.4、18.9和17.8的蛋白表达量大于等渗的Ca(NO3)2,相对分子质量(×103)约为188.4、156.1、54.0和17.1的蛋白表达量小于等渗的Ca(NO3)2;NaCl胁迫9 d后39.1×103、35.4×103和21.2×103三种蛋白在自根嫁接株中消失,这11种蛋白可能与白籽南瓜嫁接株耐Ca(NO3)2胁迫能力强有关。综上,Ca(NO3)2胁迫对黄瓜幼苗造成的伤害程度显著低于等渗的NaCl胁迫,白籽南瓜砧木嫁接可调节黄瓜植株体内氮素代谢,提高渗调能力,有效地缓解Ca(NO3)2和NaCl胁迫对黄瓜植株的伤害,尤其对Ca(NO3)2胁迫伤害的缓解效果明显,可以作为黄瓜耐盐砧木在生产上应用。%expression cucumber Effects of grafting on the growth, nitrogen metabolism, osmoregulatory substances and soluble protein was conducted with pumpkin ( Cucurbita maxima × Cucurbita moschata) as the rootstock and a cultivar 'Jinyou No. 3' as the scion under iso-osmotic Ca (NO3 )2 or NaC1 stress. Results showed that the rootstock-grafted seedlings

  14. The Physiologic Reaction of Cucumber to Low Temperature and Low Light Intensity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Qing-jun; ZHANG Fu-man; WANG Yong-jian; Kurata Kenji

    2003-01-01

    The dynamics of chlorophyll content, leaf area and photosynthesis of cucumber seedlings were studied under sole stress of two low temperatures and low light intensity as well as combined stresses of low light intensity and the two low temperatures. The results showed that low light intensity reduced sensitivity of cucumber to low temperature and improved chlorophyll content, leaf area and chlorophyll fluorescence quantum yield. The photosynthesis rate was reduced under low light intensity. The intensity of light played the leading role in growth of cucumber under the low temperature condition, while the low temperature played the leading role under the critical low temperature condition. There were differences in reaction to light and temperature among different varieties. The tolerance to low temperature and low light intensity was not always synergetic for the same cucumber variety.

  15. [Effects of bio-fertilizer on organically cultured cucumber growth and soil biological characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dan; Zong, Liang-gang; Xiao, Jun; Zhang, Qian; Zhao, Yan

    2010-10-01

    Field trials of organic farming were conducted to examine the effects of different bio-fertilizers on the organically cultured cucumber growth, soil enzyme activities, and soil microbial biomass. Four treatments were installed, i. e., organic fertilizer only (CK), bio-fertilizer "Zhonghe" combined with organic fertilizer (ZHH), bio-fertilizer "NST" combined with organic fertilizer (NST), and bio-fertilizer "Bio" combined with organic fertilizer (BIO). Bio-fertilizers combined with organic fertilizer increased the cucumber yield significantly, and improved the root growth and leaf chlorophyll content. Comparing with that in CK, the cucumber yield in treatments ZHH, NST, and BIO was increased by 10.4%, 12.4%, and 29.2%, respectively. At the seedling stage, early flowering stage, and picking time of cucumber, the soil microbial biomass C and N in treatments ZHH, NST, and BIO were significantly higher than that in CK, and the activities of soil urease, acid phosphatase, and catalase were also higher.

  16. Study on the Activity of Herbal Extract to Kill Root-knot Nematode of Cucumber Seedlings Stage%中草药提取液对黄瓜苗期杀根结线虫的活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏; 苏康宇; 刘晟; 马永清; 董书琦; 宋吉青

    2010-01-01

    [目的]研究中草药提取液对黄瓜苗期杀根结线虫的活性.[方法]利用植物水培技术,结合生长条件易控制、根系生长过程易连续观察的特点,应用5种具有较强室内触杀根结线虫活性的植物提取液及其与阿维菌素的复配液,对黄瓜苗期水培根系杀线活性进行系统研究.[结果]胡黄连和石榴皮提取液可以在不影响水培黄瓜苗期植株生长的前提下表现出对根结线虫良好的活体植株根系寄生防治和杀灭活性,且达到了与阿维菌素相近的作用水平;而狗脊、木香和蛇床子提取液对黄瓜的生长表现出不同程度的抑制作用,其对根结线虫的防治效用和杀灭活性也较弱.[结论]触杀效果和杀线活性成分能否被植物吸收利用共同制约着具有杀线活性中草药提取液的开发应用.%Present mature plants hydroponic technology was used,combined with some excellent characteristics,such as growth conditions was easy to control and process of root growth was easy to continuously observe,the nematicidal activity of 5 kinds of Chinese herbs extracts and the compound solution of Avermectin,with strong contact toxicity effect indoor,was systematically studied and investigated the affection on the rootknot nematode parasitized on the cucumber seeding stage.It is found that under the premise of no influence on root growth of cucumber,extracts from Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora and Punica granatum showed strong prevention and nematicidal activity,and had the similar efficacy of Avermectin;while the extracts from Cibotium barornetz,Aucklandia lappa Decne and Fructus cnidii showed low nematicidal activity and various degrees inhibition effect on plant growth.

  17. Effect of (+)-pulegone and other oil components of Mentha x piperita on cucumber respiration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mucciarelli, M.; Camusso, W.; Bertea, C.M.; Bossi, S.; Maffei, M.

    2001-01-01

    Peppermint (Menthaxpiperita L.) essential oil and main components were assessed for their ability to interfere with plant respiratory functions. Tests were conducted on both root segments and mitochondria isolated by etiolated seedlings of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Total essential oil inhibited

  18. Assessment of chilling injury and molecular marker analysis in cucumber cultivars (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The responses to chilling temperature of 12 Korean cucumber varieties were compared to those of two U.S.A. (previously determined cold tolerant NC76 and 'Chipper'), and Chinese and Japanese germplasms. Seedlings of each entry were exposed to 4 degrees C (Experiment 1) and 1 degree C (Experiments 2 ...

  19. Effect of (+)-pulegone and other oil components of Mentha x piperita on cucumber respiration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mucciarelli, M.; Camusso, W.; Bertea, C.M.; Bossi, S.; Maffei, M.

    2001-01-01

    Peppermint (Menthaxpiperita L.) essential oil and main components were assessed for their ability to interfere with plant respiratory functions. Tests were conducted on both root segments and mitochondria isolated by etiolated seedlings of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Total essential oil inhibited

  20. Cucumber vein yellowing virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucurbits are an important crop of temperate, subtropical and tropical regions of the world. Cucumber vein yellowing virus (CVYV) is a major viral pathogen of cucurbits. This chapter provides an overview of the biology of CVYV and the disease it causes....

  1. Effect of vinegar residue compost amendments on cucumber growth and Fusarium wilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Nanshan; Shi, Lu; Du, Lantian; Yuan, Yinghui; Li, Bin; Sang, Ting; Sun, Jin; Shu, Sheng; Guo, Shirong

    2015-12-01

    Fusarium wilt of cucumber caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum J. H. Owen is one of the major destructive soilborne diseases and results in considerable yield losses. Methyl bromide was once the most effective disease control method but has been confirmed as harmful to the environment. Using suppressive media as biological controls to assist crop growth is becoming popular. In this study, Fusarium wilt of cucumber was successfully controlled by a newly identified suppressive media: vinegar residue compost-amended media (vinegar residue compost mixed with peat and vermiculite in a 6:3:1 ratio (v/v) vinegar residue substrate (VRS). Greenhouse experiments were carried out to evaluate the effect of VRS on the growth of cucumber seedlings and disease suppression. The control was peat/vermiculite (2:1, v/v). To identify the mixed media most suitable for the growth of plants and their suppressiveness indicators, we evaluated the biological characteristics of cucumber, the physicochemical and biochemical properties of the growth media, and the enzyme activities. Total organic C (C(org)), microbial biomass C (C(mic)), basal respiration (R(mic)), and enzyme (catalase, invertase, urease, proteinase, phosphatase, β-glucosidase, and hydrolysis of fluorescein diacetate) activities increased significantly after vinegar waste compost amendment. The compost media also showed a significantly positive effect on the growth of cucumber seedlings and the suppression of the disease severity index (DSI, 38% reduction). The cucumber rhizosphere population of F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC) was significantly lower in VRS than in the control. These results demonstrate convincingly that vinegar residue compost-amended media has a beneficial effect on cucumber growth and could be applied as a method for biological control of cucumber Fusarium wilt.

  2. Identification of a siderophore-producing bacterium Pseudomonas putida A3 and its growth-promoting effects on cucumber seedlings%高产嗜铁素恶臭假单胞菌A3菌株的鉴定及其对黄瓜的促生作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳萍; 滕松山; 赵蕾

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial strain A3 with high ability of producing siderophore was isolated from rhizosphere of greenhouse vegetables.The relative siderophore content was measured by chrome azurol S(CAS) assay and was identified using the Shenker's test.The results show that the relative siderophore content is 93.40% and the type is a kind of carboxylate type siderophore.In addition,the strain A3 also has a high ability of solubilizing phosphate and is able to produce indol-3-acetic(IAA) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate(ACC) deaminase under different substrates.According to the morphological,physiological-biochemical properties,API system and the 16S rRNA sequence analysis,the strain A3 is identified as Pseudomonas putida.The results from solution culture experiments reveals that compared to other treatments,the growth of cucumber seedlings is increased under the treatment of siderophore filtrate of strain A3 with 50 μmol/L FeCl3 in iron deficiency Hoagland solution,especially for shoot height,root length,leaf length,fresh mass and total leaf chlorophyll content.These may provide strong evidence that the siderophore produced by P.putida A3 is helpful to the growth promotion of cucumber seedlings under low iron conditions.%从大棚蔬菜根际土中分离到一株嗜铁素高产菌株A3,铬天青(CAS)法定量检测其嗜铁素相对含量达93.40%,Shenker's实验确定为羧酸型嗜铁素。在不同底物诱导下,该菌株可不同程度地产生吲哚乙酸(IAA)及1-氨基环丙烷-1-羧酸(ACC)脱氨酶,并具有一定的溶磷能力。根据形态特征、生理生化、API系统及16S rRNA基因序列分析,将菌株A3鉴定为恶臭假单胞菌(Pseudomonas putida)。在缺铁Hoagland营养液中添加难溶性铁及菌株A3嗜铁素发酵滤液的处理组,能够显著提高黄瓜幼苗的株高、根长、叶长、鲜重及叶绿素含量,表明菌株A3产生的嗜铁素在低铁条件下对黄瓜幼苗具有促生作用。

  3. Selection Of Suitable Particle Size And Particle Ratio For Japanese Cucumber Cucumis Sativus L. Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galahitigama GAH

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to select the best particle size of coco peat for cucumber nurseries as well as best particle ratio for optimum plant growth and development of cucumber. The experiment was carried out in International Foodstuff Company and Faculty of Agriculture University of Ruhuna Sri Lanka during 2015 to 2016. Under experiment one three types of different particle sizes were used namely fine amp88040.5mm T2 medium 3mm-0.5mm T3 and coarse 4mm T4 with normal coco peat T1 as treatments. Complete Randomized Design CRD used as experimental design with five replicates. Germination percentage number of leaves per seedling seedling height in frequent day intervals was taken as growth parameters. Analysis of variance procedure was applied to analyze the data at 5 probability level. The results revealed that medium size particle media sieve size 0.5mm -3mm of coco peat was the best particle size for cucumber nursery practice when considered the physical and chemical properties of medium particles of coco peat. In the experiment of selecting of suitable particle ratio for cucumber plants the compressed mixture of coco peat particles that contain 70 ww unsieved coco peat 20 ww coarse particles and 10 ww coconut husk chips 5 12mm has given best results for growth performances compared to other treatments and cucumber grown in this mixture has shown maximum growth and yield performances.

  4. 黄瓜种子及其萌发期的化感作用研究%Allelopathy of Cucumber Seed during Germination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王广印; 韩世栋; 陈碧华; 杨和连

    2012-01-01

    In order to ascertain the allelopathy activity of cucumber seeds during germination,we studied the allelopathy effects of cucumber seeds aqueous extract,cucumber seed germination,cucumber radicle exu-dates,cucumber bud exudates,decomposed cucumber seedlings and seedling aqueous extract by adopting laboratory petri dish seed germination bioassay,using 4 categories of vegetables as receptors. The results indicated that:(l)The cucumber seed aqueous extract had an inhibitory effect on germination of Chinese cabbage, radish, tomato and cucumber seeds which showed the cucumber seed contained a few allelochemicals. (2)After extracted seed interior allelochemicals,the cucumber seed germination had allelopathy inhibitory effect on interplanted Chinese cabbage,radish and tomato seeds germination,and the cucumber radicle and bud exudates had different extent allelopathy inhibitory effect on after cultured Chinese cabbage,radish,tomato and cucumber seeds germination. The germination and growth of all vegetable receptors were inhibited to different extent with the different weight decomposed cucumber seedlings and different concentration seedling aqueous extract. It showed the concentration effect which was germination indexes,response index (RI) and synthesis effect (SE) value of vegetable receptors could decrease along with increasing of the weight of decomposed cucumber seedlings and the concentration of seedling aqueous extract. (3)The experiment of cucumber as receptor showed the allelochemicals of cucumber seeds aqueous extract and cucumber seedling organs had the autotoxicity on cucumber seed germination and growth,in which the autotoxicity of decomposed cucumber seedlings,seedling aqueous extract,cucumber radicle exudates and cucumber bud ex-udates were maximum. The studies suggested that allelochemicals of cucumber seeds aqueous extract,germination periods and seedling organs main inhibited the radicle growth, i. e. the radicle of vegetable receptors was most sensitive

  5. Genetic Analysis of Chilling Tolerance of Cucumber Seedling and Related Physiological Characters in Low Temperature and Weak Light%黄瓜苗期耐低温性及相关生理指标遗传分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫世江; 司龙亭; 张建军; 张继宁; 刘洁

    2011-01-01

    of cucumber, those characters were all in accordance with additive-dominant model. Broad heritability were 82. 133%, 93. 351%, 97. 368%, 59. 230%, 93. 460%, Narrow heritability were 73. 170% ,53. 191%, 26. 316%, 58. 587%, 45. 963%. Chilling tolerance, POD activity, SOD activity, Pro content is suitable for the early generation selection. With bigger environmental effect of soluble protein content, it was suitable for late generation selection.

  6. 刺参苗期附着基更换频率对刺参生长及其养殖系统菌群结构的影响%Effects of substrate change frequency on growth and variation of the microflora structure in a seedling cultivation system of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王印庚; 张文泽; 廖梅杰; 李彬; 荣小军; 张正; 李华; 范瑞用; 宁鲁光

    2016-01-01

    优化及刺参健康养殖提供了理论依据和参考。%To determine the best change frequency of substrates in the sea cucumber seedling cultivation system in summer, the relationship between the substrate change frequency and growth of sea cucumbers, and the microflora structure on the substrate, was investigated using an experimental ecology method, a traditional bacterial culture method and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Five different substrate change frequency groups (10 d, 20 d, 30 d, 40 d, 50 d) were set and termed CF10, CF20, CF30, CF40 and CF50. Judged by the weight gain of the whole cultivation tank and the main body weight, the group achieved the best growth rate, followed by the CF30 group. The CF50 group achieved the highest death rate, which caused a decrease in the weight of the whole tank. The specific growth rate and the survival rate of the CF20group were (5.986±0.135)%/d and (95.231±0.265)%, respectively, which were significantly higher than the other groups (P<0.05). The concentration of ammonia nitrogen (4NH+-N), nitrite (2NO--N) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the pond water increased along with the decrease in the change frequency of substrates, reaching 0.53 mg/L, 0.28 mg/L and 0.18 mg/L on the 50th day, respectively. In terms of the concentrations of heterotrophic bacteria and vi-brios in the pond water and on the substrate, the concentrations of heterotrophic bacteria and vibrios in the pond water did not change significantly with the change frequency of substrates; however, the concentrations of heterotrophic bac-teria and vibrios on the substrate increased with decreasing change frequency of substrates, reaching 1.38×105 cfu/cm2 and 1.5×104 cfu/cm2on the 50th day in the CF50 group, respectively. Bacterial identification showed that the dominant bacteria on the substrates wereVibrio alginolyticus,Vibrio natriegens,Staphylococcus equorum,Bacilllus subtilis,Ba-cilllus thuringiensis andVibrio parahaemolyticus, of which

  7. Effect of vermicompost and cucumber cultivar on population growth attributes of the melon aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razmjou, J; Mohammadi, M; Hassanpour, M

    2011-08-01

    Worldwide, the developing industry of cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.) grown in greenhouses is threatened by damage from sucking pests, especially aphids. Among these, the melon aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is the most serious. We tested the effect of two cucumber cultivars ('Royal' and'Storm') and three vermicompost concentrations (0 [control], 20, and 30%) in field soil on the development and fecundity rates of A. gossypii, by using a randomized complete block design with four replicates as a factorial experiment. The developmental times of nymphs reared on plants grown into the three vermicompost concentrations ranged from 5.5 (0%) to 8.7 (30%) d (on Storm) and from 4.3 (0%) to 7 (30%) d (on Royal). The developmental time of melon aphid's nymphs was greatest on plants grown in the culture medium with 30% vermicompost rate and least on plants reared in the soil without vermicompost. The intrinsic rate of natural increase (r,,) of A. gossypii ranged from 0.204 d(-1) on plants grown in the soil amended with 30% vermicompost rate (on Storm seedlings) to 0.458 d(-1) on plants grown in the soil without vermicompost (on Royal seedlings). Accordingly, our findings confirm that a combination of a low level of vermicompost and a partially resistant cucumber cultivar might play an important role in managing this aphid on cucumbers in greenhouses.

  8. Identification and transcriptional profiling of differentially expressed genes associated with resistance to Pseudoperonospora cubensis in cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Wu; Liu, Jun; Zhang, He; Xie, Cong-Hua

    2011-03-01

    To identify genes induced during Pseudoperonospora cubensis (Berk. and Curk.) Rostov. infection in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was performed using mixed cDNAs prepared from cucumber seedlings inoculated with the pathogen as a tester and cDNA from uninfected cucumber seedlings as a driver. A forward subtractive cDNA library (FSL) and a reverse subtractive cDNA library (RSL) were constructed, from which 1,416 and 1,128 recombinant clones were isolated, respectively. Differential screening of the preferentially expressed recombinant clones identified 58 unique expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from FSL and 29 from RSL. The ESTs with significant protein homology were sorted into 13 functional categories involved in nearly the whole process of plant defense such as signal transduction and cell defense, transcription, cell cycle and DNA processing, protein synthesis, protein fate, proteins with binding functions, transport, metabolism and energy. The expressions of twenty-five ESTs by real-time quantitative RT-PCR confirmed that differential gene regulation occurred during P. cubensis infection and inferred that higher and earlier expression of transcription factors and signal transduction associated genes together with ubiquitin/proteasome and polyamine biosynthesis pathways may contribute to the defense response of cucumber to P. cubensis infection. The transcription profiling of selected down-regulated genes revealed that suppression of the genes in reactive oxygen species scavenging system and photosynthesis pathway may inhibit disease development in the host tissue.

  9. [Salt stress tolerance of cucumber-grafted rootstocks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Ping; Sun, Jin; Guo, Shi-Rong; Liu, Shu-Ren; Liu, Chao-Jie; Tian, Jing

    2012-05-01

    Taking 4 different Cucurbita maxima x C. moschata rootstocks for cucumber (Cucumis sativus) as test materials, a solution culture experiment was conducted to study their growth and antioxidative enzyme activities under the stresses of Ca(NO3)2 and NaCl, with the salt stress tolerance of the rootstocks evaluated by subordinate function. At 30 mmol x L(-1) of Ca (NO3)2 or 45 mmol x L(-1) of NaCl, the growth of the rootstock seedlings was improved; but at 60 and 120 mmol x L(-1) of Ca(NO3)2 or 90 and 180 mmol x L(-1) of NaCl, the growth and the antioxidative systems of the seedlings were inhibited, and the salt injury index of 'Qingzhen No. 1' was the smallest, with the decrement of biomass and SOD, POD and CAT activities and the increment of relative conductance being significantly lower than those of the others. Under the stress of high concentration Ca(NO3)2, the SOD, POD and CAT activities of test rootstocks were higher, and the salt injury index and relative conductance were lower, as compared with those under high concentration NaCl, suggesting that the damage of Ca(NO3)2 stress to cucumber-grafted rootstock were smaller than that of NaCl stress. Among the 4 rootstocks, 'Qingzhen No. 1' had the strongest salt stress tolerance, followed by 'Zuomu Nangua', 'Fengyuan Tiejia', and 'Chaoba Nangua'.

  10. The effects of endogenous mycorrhiza (Glomus spp. on plant growth and yield of grafted cucumber (Cucumis sativum l under common commercial greenhouse conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISMET BABAJ

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of the Arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM fungi on plant growth and yield of grafted cucumber seedlings. The experiment was conducted in a plastic greenhouse located in Shipol, Mitrovica municipality of Kosovo.Graded seeds of cucumber (cv. Ekron F1, and graded seeds of a rootstock (cv. Nimbus F1; C. maxima Duchesne x C. moschata Duchesne, were sown in polysterol trays. Three types of grafted seedlings; self-grafted (SEG, splice grafted (SG and root pruned splice grafted (RPSG were simultaneously produced in equal number as inoculated and non- inoculated with endogenous mycorrhiza. The combined effects of grafting methods and endogenous mycorrhiza (Glomus spp. application on the growth parameters during the nursery period as well as growth rate and yield after transplanting were tested under common commercial conditions. The different grafting methods of cucumber seedlings on C. maxima x C. moschata (SG versus RPSG have significant effects on seedlings growth parameters. Despite of commonly higher relative growth rate of RPSG seedlings till the transplanting time, SG seedlings have a significantly higher total plant dry weight (W. No difference was found regarding leaf dry weight (LW, while a significantly larger leaf area was found for RPSG seedlings. No effect of AM fungi presence was found regarding the growth parameters of grafted cucumber seedlings during the nursery stage, but the presence of AM fungi has significantly improved the growth rate of each grafting method after transplanting, as also increased the total harvested yield. The highest yield was recorded by AM inoculated RPSG seedlings.

  11. Pathogenic Fungi Transmitted Through Cucumber Seeds and Safely Elimination by Application of Peppermint Extract and Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman S.H. FARRAG

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Diseases induced by Fusarium, like damping-off and wilt on cucumber, are serious problems around the world. Samples of cucumber seeds were collected from commercial markets in Egypt and tested for seed-borne fungi. In order to detect the maximum number of internal and external seed-borne fungi, agar plate examination of disinfected and non-disinfected seeds were used. Two species of Fusarium were the most frequent and predominant fungi. Facultative parasites of the genera Alternaria, Rhizoctonia, Helminthosporium and Penicillium were also found. A total 33 isolates of Fusarium spp. were obtained using Komadas selective medium. Fusarium oxysporum and F. solani were highly frequent. Pathogenicity test indicated that, F. oxysporum isolate (Fem8 was the main causal organism of pre- and post-emergence damping off. Furthermore, it occurred in all seed parts tested. Some infected seeds germinate, but they were either rapidly overgrown by F. oxysporum or they developed into a diseased seedling. The water extract of garlic, peppermint and rheum completely inhibited the conidiospore germination and mycelial growth of F. oxysporum at tested conc. 3, 2 and 3%, respectively. Soaked seeds in 2% peppermint extract and evaporated seeds by vapor of peppermint oil caused a highly reduction in the infection and reduced transmission of the referred fungi from seeds to the growing seedlings. The vigor of cucumber seedlings raised from the treated seeds was better than that developed from untreated ones.

  12. Pathogenic Fungi Transmitted Through Cucumber Seeds and Safely Elimination by Application of Peppermint Extract and Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman S.H. FARRAG

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Diseases induced by Fusarium, like damping-off and wilt on cucumber, are serious problems around the world. Samples of cucumber seeds were collected from commercial markets in Egypt and tested for seed-borne fungi. In order to detect the maximum number of internal and external seed-borne fungi, agar plate examination of disinfected and non-disinfected seeds were used. Two species of Fusarium were the most frequent and predominant fungi. Facultative parasites of the genera Alternaria, Rhizoctonia, Helminthosporium and Penicillium were also found. A total 33 isolates of Fusarium spp. were obtained using Komada�s selective medium. Fusarium oxysporum and F. solani were highly frequent. Pathogenicity test indicated that, F. oxysporum isolate (Fem8 was the main causal organism of pre- and post-emergence damping off. Furthermore, it occurred in all seed parts tested. Some infected seeds germinate, but they were either rapidly overgrown by F. oxysporum or they developed into a diseased seedling. The water extract of garlic, peppermint and rheum completely inhibited the conidiospore germination and mycelial growth of F. oxysporum at tested conc. 3, 2 and 3%, respectively. Soaked seeds in 2% peppermint extract and evaporated seeds by vapor of peppermint oil caused a highly reduction in the infection and reduced transmission of the referred fungi from seeds to the growing seedlings. The vigor of cucumber seedlings raised from the treated seeds was better than that developed from untreated ones.

  13. Ultraviolet-C Light Sanitization of English Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Packaged in Polyethylene Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarek, Abdussamad R; Rasco, Barbara A; Sablani, Shyam S

    2016-06-01

    Food safety is becoming an increasing concern in the United States. This study investigated the effects of ultraviolet-C (UV-C) light as a postpackaging bactericidal treatment on the quality of English cucumber packaged in polyethylene (PE) film. Escherichia coli k-12 was used as a surrogate microbe. The microbial growth and physical properties of packaged cucumbers were analyzed during a 28-d storage period at 5 °C. Inoculating packaged cucumbers treated at 23 °C for 6 min with UV-C (560 mJ/cm(2) ) resulted in a 1.60 log CFU/g reduction. However, this treatment had no significant effect (P > 0.05) on the water vapor transmission rate or oxygen transmission rate of the PE film. Results show that UV-C light treatment delayed the loss of firmness and yellowing of English cucumber up to 28 d at 5 °C. In addition, UV-C light treatment extended the shelf life of treated cucumber 1 wk longer compared to untreated cucumbers. Electron microscopy images indicate that UV-C light treatment influences the morphology of the E. coli k-12 cells. Findings demonstrate that treating cucumbers with UV-C light following packaging in PE film can reduce bacterial populations significantly and delay quality loss. This technology may also be effective for other similarly packaged fresh fruits and vegetables.

  14. The effect of ammonium ions on the activity of glutamate dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase in Cucumis sativus L. seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genowefa Kubiak-Dobosz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the activity of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH, alanine aminotransferase (GPT and aspartate aminotransferase (GOT were studied in various organs of Cucumis sativus L. seedlings in relation to the uptake of mineral nitrogen (in form of N03- or NH4+ from the medium. Activity of GDH, GPT, and GOT was higher in young leaves and roots of cucumber seedlings if the plants developed- in an ammonium medium. No similar changes of aminotransferases activity were noted in the cotyledons. Factors affecting varying effect of ammonium ions upon GPT and GOT activity are discussed for particular organs of cucumber seedlings.

  15. Necrotrophic fungi associated with epidermal microcracking caused by chilling injury in pickling cucumber fruit

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this work was to visualize the association between microcracking and other epidermal chilling injury symptoms, and to identify rots in cucumber fruit (Cucumis sativus L.) by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Depressed epidermal areas and surface cracking due to damages of subepidermal cells characterized the onset of pitting in cucumber fruit. The germination of conidia of Alternaria alternata, with some of them evident on the fractures in the cultivar Trópico, occurred aft...

  16. Grafting Raises the Cu Tolerance of Cucumber Through Protecting Roots Against Oxidative Stress Induced by Cu Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zi-kun; LI Hua; HE Hong-jun; LIU Shi-qi

    2013-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was carried out to determine plant growth, reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism in roots and functions of plasma membrane (PM) and tonoplast in cucumber seedlings (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Xintaimici) treated with 40μmol L-1 CuSO4·5H2O, which were either ungrafted or grafted onto the rootstock (Cucurbita ficifolia). Cu treatment inhibited growth, induced significant accumulation of H2O2 and led to serious lipid peroxidation in cucumber roots, and the ROS-scavenging enzymes activities in grafted seedlings roots were significantly higher than that of ungrafted plants, thus less accumulation in grafted cucumber roots induced by Cu. As a result, lipid peroxidation in roots decreased. Furthermore, the activities of H+-ATPase, H+-PPase and Ca2+-ATPase in PM and/or tonoplast in grafted cucumber seedlings under Cu stress were obviously higher than that in ungrafted plants, resulting into higher ability in grafted plants to expulse the excess H+, promote the cytoplasm alkalinization, regulate the intracellular Ca2+concentration and brought the cytoplasma concentration of free Ca2+to extremely low level under Cu stress.

  17. High-Throughput Sequencing Identifies Novel and Conserved Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) microRNAs in Response to Cucumber Green Mottle Mosaic Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H W; Luo, L X; Liang, C Q; Jiang, N; Liu, P F; Li, J Q

    2015-01-01

    Seedlings of Cucumis sativus L. (cv. 'Zhongnong 16') were artificially inoculated with Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) at the three-true-leaf stage. Leaf and flower samples were collected at different time points post-inoculation (10, 30 and 50 d), and processed by high throughput sequencing analysis to identify candidate miRNA sequences. Bioinformatic analysis using screening criteria, and secondary structure prediction, indicated that 8 novel and 23 known miRNAs (including 15 miRNAs described for the first time in vivo) were produced by cucumber plants in response to CGMMV infection. Moreover, gene expression profiles (p-value cucumbers. Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed that the predicted target genes of these 88 miRNAs, which were screened using the psRNATarget and miRanda algorithms, were involved in three functional categories: 2265 in molecular function, 1362 as cellular components and 276 in biological process. The subsequent Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis revealed that the predicted target genes were frequently involved in metabolic processes (166 pathways) and genetic information processes (40 pathways) and to a lesser degree the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites (12 pathways). These results could provide useful clues to help elucidate host-pathogen interactions in CGMMV and cucumber, as well as for the screening of resistance genes.

  18. Seedling mycorrhiza

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Hanne Nina; Rasmussen, Finn N.

    2014-01-01

    mycobionts suggest a derivation from a pathogenic relationship, and sister group comparison offers little support for derivation from other mycorrhizal relationships. A combination of in situ sowings and molecular identification of seedling mycobionts has established that a broad range of fungi besides...

  19. U.S. Fresh and Pickling Cucumber Markets

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    As part of an effort to estimate the potential impact of downy mildew to U.S. growers of cucumbers, this report reviews historical trends in production and markets for cucumbers including slicing and pickling cucumbers.

  20. Vinegar residue compost as a growth substrate enhances cucumber resistance against the Fusarium wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum by regulating physiological and biochemical responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lu; Du, Nanshan; Yuan, Yinghui; Shu, Sheng; Sun, Jin; Guo, Shirong

    2016-09-01

    Fusarium wilt caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC) is the most severe soil-borne disease attacking cucumber. To assess the positive effects of vinegar residue substrate (VRS) on the growth and incidence of Fusarium wilt on cucumber, we determined the cucumber growth parameters, disease severity, defense-related enzyme and pathogenesis-related (PR) protein activities, and stress-related gene expression levels. In in vitro and pot experiments, we demonstrated the following results: (i) the VRS extract exhibited a higher biocontrol activity than that of peat against FOC, and significantly improved the growth inhibition of FOC, with values of 48.3 %; (ii) in response to a FOC challenge, antioxidant enzymes and the key enzymes of phenylpropanoid metabolic activities, as well as the PR protein activities in the roots of cucumber, were significantly increased. Moreover, the activities of these proteins were higher in VRS than in peat; (iii) the expression levels of stress-related genes (including glu, pal, and ethylene receptor) elicited responses to the pathogens inoculated in cucumber leaves; and (iv) the FOC treatment significantly inhibited the growth of cucumber seedlings. Moreover, all of the growth indices of plants grown in VRS were significantly higher than those grown in peat. These results offer a new strategy to control cucumber Fusarium wilt, by upregulating the activity levels of defense-related enzymes and PR proteins and adjusting gene expression levels. They also provide a theoretical basis for VRS applications.

  1. Didymella bryoniae on glasshouse cucumbers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steekelenburg, van N.A.M.

    1986-01-01

    The increasing incidence of fruit rot, caused by Didymella bryoniae , in glasshouse cucumbers in the Netherlands gave rise to a study of the biology of the pathogen, the epidemiology of the disease, and control methods. Stems, leaves and growing tips may be attacked, and fruits ma

  2. Cucumber mosaic virus in Rubus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) has been reported on red raspberry in Chile, Scotland and the Soviet Union and in Chile on blackberry. Its occurrence in Rubus is rare and seems to cause little damage. Except for one early, unconfirmed report, CMV has not been reported on Rubus in North America. This vir...

  3. Chicken Porridge with Sea Cucumber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Main ingredients: 50 grams of chicken breast, 200 grams of gray sea cucumbers Supplementary ingredients: 100 grams of water chestnut, the whites of four eggs, MSG, salt, wine, meat soup, starch, sugar, scallions, ginger, soy sauce Directions: Chop up the chicken breast and water chestnut into small

  4. Didymella bryoniae on glasshouse cucumbers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steekelenburg, van N.A.M.

    1986-01-01

    The increasing incidence of fruit rot, caused by Didymella bryoniae , in glasshouse cucumbers in the Netherlands gave rise to a study of the biology of the pathogen, the epidemiology of the disease, and control methods. Stems, leaves and growing tips may be attacked, and fruits

  5. The Syndrome of Sea Cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) Infected by Virus and Bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huan DENG; Zun-chun ZHOU; Nian-bin WANG; Chang LIU

    2008-01-01

    A outbreak of disease with symptoms of evisceration and skin ulteration led to mass mortality in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus cultivated in indoor ponds near the Dalian coast from December 2004 to April 2005. Spherical virus particles with a diameter of 75-200 nm were found in the cytoplasm of cells in the water-system, the alimentary canal and in the respiratory trees of the diseased and dying sea cucumber individuals by electron microscopic observation of ultrathin sections. Examination by negative stained samples revealed that all the diseased sea cucumbers were infected by the virus, while the healthly ones cultivated outside the contagious area were not. Two bacterial strains were also isolated from the diseased animals. When exposed to a medium containing the virus particles, regardless of whether the bacterial suspension was added,healthy sea cucumbers exhibited identical disease symptoms as the ones in the indoor ponds, and had a mortality of 90%-100%. However, when exposed to a medium in which there was only one of the two bacterial strains, 30%-80% of the sea cucumbers were infected and nearly 20% died. Negative staining showed that the viral particles were detected only in the bodies of the tested animals that were exposed to the viral medium. Histopathologically, the diseased sea cucumbers are characterized by karyopycnosis, and disintegration of the endoplasmic reticula and mitochondria in the epithelial cells in the water-system, the respiratory tree and the alimentary canal.

  6. Characterization of a protein kinase gene responsive to auxin and gibberellin in cucumber hypocotyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chono, M; Nemoto, K; Yamane, H; Yamaguchi, I; Murofushi, N

    1998-09-01

    By means of the PCR, cDNA clones encoding putative protein kinases have been obtained from cucumber hypocotyls. The abundance of the transcript of one of these genes, which was named CsPK3, increased on treatment with gibberellin (GA4) and/or auxin (IAA). We screened a cucumber cDNA library to clone CsPK3 cDNA. The cDNA clone (cCsPK3) encodes an open reading frame of 1,413 bp (471 amino acids), and its predicted amino acid sequence showed homology with those of serine/threonine protein kinases. Northern blot analysis indicated that IAA was more active than GA4 in increasing the level of CsPK3 mRNA in cucumber hypocotyls and that the increase in the level of CsPK3 mRNA on treatment with IAA was not inhibited by pretreatment with a protein synthesis inhibitor. The level of CsPK3 mRNA was high in hypocotyls of dark-grown cucumber seedlings and decreased to less than 50% of the original level within 15 min of the start of irradiation with white light.

  7. Analysis of 50 Cucumber Accessions by RAPD Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Genetic diversity of 50 cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) accessions from American, Holland, Japan and China was detected and evaluated using RAPD markers. 25 selected primers produced 215 scorable polymorphic RAPD bands and the ratio of polymorphism is 86.98%. Four main groups of cucumber accessions could be distinguished from UPGMA analysis: Occidental cucumber, South-China cucumber, North-China cucumber and Xishuangbanna cucumber. Our result confirmed that cucumber is a narrow-based germplasm, nevertheless RAPD analysis was still useful in cucumber genotypic differentiation. More significantly, Xishuangbanna cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. Var Xishuangbannanesis Qi et Yuan), a mutation of cucumber, was clustered together to a special group in the study, which implied its special status in cucumber germplasm.

  8. Insights into salicylic acid responses in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) cotyledons based on a comparative proteomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, J H; Dong, C J; Zhang, Z G; Wang, X L; Shang, Q M

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the response of cucumber seedlings to exogenous salicylic acid (SA) and gain a better understanding of SA action mechanism, we generated a proteomic profile of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) cotyledons treated with exogenous SA. Analysis of 1500 protein spots from each gel revealed 63 differentially expressed proteins, 59 of which were identified successfully. Of the identified proteins, 97% matched cucumber proteins using a whole cucumber protein database based on the newly completed genome established by our laboratory. The identified proteins were involved in various cellular responses and metabolic processes, including antioxidative reactions, cell defense, photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, respiration and energy homeostasis, protein folding and biosynthesis. The two largest functional categories included proteins involved in antioxidative reactions (23.7%) and photosynthesis (18.6%). Furthermore, the SA-responsive protein interaction network revealed 13 key proteins, suggesting that the expression changes of these proteins could be critical for SA-induced resistance. An analysis of these changes suggested that SA-induced resistance and seedling growth might be regulated in part through pathways involving antioxidative reactions and photosynthesis.

  9. Effects of phosphate solubilization and phytohormone production of Trichoderma asperellum Q1 on promoting cucumber growth under salt stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Lei; ZHANG Ya-qing

    2015-01-01

    Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses limiting crop growth and yield. This study investigated the underlying mecha-nisms of Trichoderma asperel um Q1 in promoting cucumber growth under salt stress, including the abilities of the strain to solubilize phosphate and to produce phytohormone. The results showed that T. asperel um Q1 could solubilize inorganic or organic phosphate and the activities of phosphatases and phytase could be detected in the culture supernatant. In hydroponic experiments, the growth of cucumber seedlings was increased in the hydroponic system treated by culture ifltrate of strain Q1 with tricalcium phosphate or calcium phytate under salt stress. This strain also exhibited the ability to produce indole acetic acid (IAA), gibberel ic acid (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) in liquid medium without any inducers. The levels of those three phytohormones in cucumber seedling leaves also increased after inoculated with this strain, along with increased root growth and root activities of the plant. These results demonstrated the mechanisms of T. asperel um Q1 in al eviating the suppression effect of salt stress involving the change of phytohormone levels in cucumber plant and its ability of phosphate solubilization.

  10. Transgenic cucumbers harboring the 54-kDa putative gene of Cucumber fruit mottle mosaic tobamovirus are highly resistant to viral infection and protect non-transgenic scions from soil infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal-On, Amit; Wolf, Dalia; Antignus, Yehezkel; Patlis, Larisa; Ryu, Ki Hyun; Min, Byoung Eun; Pearlsman, Malenia; Lachman, Oded; Gaba, Victor; Wang, Yongzeng; Shiboleth, Yoel Moshe; Yang, Jee; Zelcer, Aaron

    2005-02-01

    Cucumber fruit mottle mosaic tobamovirus (CFMMV) causes severe mosaic symptoms and yellow mottling on leaves and fruits and, occasionally, severe wilting of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants. No genetic source of resistance against this virus has been identified in cucumber. The gene coding for the putative 54-kDa replicase gene of CFMMV was cloned into an Agrobacterium tumefaciens binary vector, and transformation was performed on cotyledon explants of a parthenocarpic cucumber cultivar. R1 seedlings were screened for resistance to CFMMV by symptom expression, back inoculation on an alternative host and ELISA. From a total of 14 replicase-containing R1 lines, eight resistant lines were identified. Line 144--homozygous for the putative 54-kDa replicase gene--was immune to CFMMV infection by mechanical and graft inoculation, and to root infection following planting in CFMMV-infested soil. A substantial delay of symptom appearance was observed following infection by three additional cucurbit-infecting tobamoviruses. When used as a rootstock, line I44 protected susceptible cucumber scions from soil infection by CFMMV. This paper is the first report on protection of a susceptible cultivar against a soil-borne viral pathogen, by grafting onto a transgenic rootstock.

  11. Beneficial roles of melatonin on redox regulation of photosynthetic electron transport and synthesis of D1 protein in tomato seedlings under salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoting Zhou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin is important in the protection of plants suffering various forms of abiotic stress. The molecular mechanisms underlying the melatonin-mediated protection of their photosynthetic machinery are not completely resolved. This study investigates the effects of exogenous melatonin applications on salt-induced damage to the light reaction components of the photosynthetic machinery of tomato seedlings. The results show that melatonin pretreatments can help maintain growth and net photosynthetic rate (PN under salt stress conditions. Pretreatment with melatonin increased the effective quantum yield of photosystem II (ΦPSII, the photochemical quenching coefficient (qP and the proportion of PSII centers that are ‘open’ (qL under saline conditions. In this way, damage to the photosynthetic electron transport chain (PET in photosystem II (PSII is mitigated. In addition, melatonin pretreatment facilitated the repair of PSII by maintaining the availability of D1 protein that was otherwise reduced by salinity. The ROS levels and the gene expressions of the chloroplast TRXs and PRXs were also investigated. Salt stress resulted in increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS, which were mitigated by melatonin. In tomato leaves under salt stress, the expressions of PRXs and TRXf declined but the expressions of TRXm1/4 and TRXm2 increased. Melatonin pretreatment promoted the expression of TRXf and the abundances of TRXf and TRXm gene products but had no effects on the expressions of PRXs. In summary, melatonin improves the photosynthetic activities of tomato seedlings under salt stress. The mechanism could be that: (1 Melatonin controls ROS levels and prevents damaging elevations of ROS caused by salt stress. (2 Melatonin facilitates the recovery of PET and D1 protein synthesis, thus enhancing the tolerance of photosynthetic activities to salinity. (3 Melatonin induces the expression of TRXf and regulates the abundance of TRXf and TRXm gene

  12. Beneficial Roles of Melatonin on Redox Regulation of Photosynthetic Electron Transport and Synthesis of D1 Protein in Tomato Seedlings under Salt Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoting; Zhao, Hailiang; Cao, Kai; Hu, Lipan; Du, Tianhao; Baluška, František; Zou, Zhirong

    2016-01-01

    Melatonin is important in the protection of plants suffering various forms of abiotic stress. The molecular mechanisms underlying the melatonin-mediated protection of their photosynthetic machinery are not completely resolved. This study investigates the effects of exogenous melatonin applications on salt-induced damage to the light reaction components of the photosynthetic machinery of tomato seedlings. The results showed that melatonin pretreatments can help maintain growth and net photosynthetic rate (PN) under salt stress conditions. Pretreatment with melatonin increased the effective quantum yield of photosystem II (ΦPSII), the photochemical quenching coefficient (qP) and the proportion of PSII centers that are “open” (qL) under saline conditions. In this way, damage to the photosynthetic electron transport chain (PET) in photosystem II (PSII) was mitigated. In addition, melatonin pretreatment facilitated the repair of PSII by maintaining the availability of D1 protein that was otherwise reduced by salinity. The ROS levels and the gene expressions of the chloroplast TRXs and PRXs were also investigated. Salt stress resulted in increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which were mitigated by melatonin. In tomato leaves under salt stress, the expressions of PRXs and TRXf declined but the expressions of TRXm1/4 and TRXm2 increased. Melatonin pretreatment promoted the expression of TRXf and the abundances of TRXf and TRXm gene products but had no effects on the expressions of PRXs. In summary, melatonin improves the photosynthetic activities of tomato seedlings under salt stress. The mechanism could be that: (1) Melatonin controls ROS levels and prevents damaging elevations of ROS caused by salt stress. (2) Melatonin facilitates the recovery of PET and D1 protein synthesis, thus enhancing the tolerance of photosynthetic activities to salinity. (3) Melatonin induces the expression of TRXf and regulates the abundance of TRXf and TRXm gene products

  13. Responses of soil microbial communities in the rhizosphere of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) to exogenously applied p-hydroxybenzoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xingang; Yu, Gaobo; Wu, Fengzhi

    2012-08-01

    Changes in soil biological properties have been implicated as one of the causes of soil sickness, a phenomenon that occurs in continuous monocropping systems. However, the causes for these changes are not yet clear. The aim of this work was to elucidate the role of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHBA), an autotoxin of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), in changing soil microbial communities. p-Hydroxybenzoic acid was applied to soil every other day for 10 days in cucumber pot assays. Then, the structures and sizes of bacterial and fungal communities, dehydrogenase activity, and microbial carbon biomass (MCB) were assessed in the rhizosphere soil. Structures and sizes of rhizosphere bacterial and fungal communities were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and real-time PCR, respectively. p-Hydroxybenzoic acid inhibited cucumber seedling growth and stimulated rhizosphere dehydrogenase activity, MBC content, and bacterial and fungal community sizes. Rhizosphere bacterial and fungal communities responded differently to exogenously applied PHBA. The PHBA decreased the Shannon-Wiener index for the rhizosphere bacterial community but increased that for the rhizosphere fungal community. In addition, the response of the rhizosphere fungal community structure to PHBA acid was concentration dependent, but was not for the rhizosphere bacterial community structure. Our results indicate that PHBA plays a significant role in the chemical interactions between cucumber and soil microorganisms and could account for the changes in soil microbial communities in the continuously monocropped cucumber system.

  14. Chicken Porridge with Sea Cucumber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Chicken Porridge with Sea Cucumber is a dish created according to a well-known story about Jia Chang, who raised cocks during the Tang Dynasty. Cockfighting was popular among commonfolk during the Tang Dynasty. Emperor Xuanzong selected 5,000 cocks in Chang’an, and 500 children to feed them and train them to fight. Jia Chang was one of the children. Sent to the

  15. Differential effects of organic compounds on cucumber damping-off and biocontrol activity of antagonistic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bin; Ravnskov, Sabine; Guanlin, X.;

    2011-01-01

    The influence of the organic compounds tryptic soy broth, cellulose, glucose and chitosan on cucumber damping-off caused by Pythium aphanidermatum and biocontrol efficacy of the biocontrol agents (BCAs) Paenibacillus macerans and P. polymyxa were examined in a seedling emergence bioassay. Results...... showed that the organic compounds differentially affected both pathogen and BCAs. Tryptic soy broth, glucose and chitosan increased Pythium damping-off of cucumber, compared to the control treatment without organic compounds, whereas cellulose had no effect. Both Paenibacillus species had biocontrol...... effects against Pythium damping-off compared with the corresponding treatments with P. aphanidermatum alone, but the biocontrol efficacy depended on the type of organic compounds added. Both BCAs counteracted damping-off in treatments with TSB and chitosan. However, P. polymyxa counteracted damping...

  16. Photosynthetic acclimation to drought stress in Agave salmiana Otto ex Salm-Dyck seedlings is largely dependent on thermal dissipation and enhanced electron flux to photosystem I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Huitziméngari; Trejo, Carlos; Peña-Valdivia, Cecilia B; García-Nava, Rodolfo; Conde-Martínez, F Víctor; Cruz-Ortega, Ma Del Rocío

    2014-10-01

    Agave salmiana Otto ex Salm-Dyck, a crassulacean acid metabolism plant that is adapted to water-limited environments, has great potential for bioenergy production. However, drought stress decreases the requirement for light energy, and if the amount of incident light exceeds energy consumption, the photosynthetic apparatus can be injured, thereby limiting plant growth. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of drought and re-watering on the photosynthetic efficiency of A. salmiana seedlings. The leaf relative water content and leaf water potential decreased to 39.6 % and -1.1 MPa, respectively, over 115 days of water withholding and recovered after re-watering. Drought caused a direct effect on photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry in light-acclimated leaves, as indicated by a decrease in the photosynthetic electron transport rate. Additionally, down-regulation of photochemical activity occurred mainly through the inactivation of PSII reaction centres and an increased thermal dissipation capacity of the leaves. Prompt fluorescence kinetics also showed a larger pool of terminal electron acceptors in photosystem I (PSI) as well as an increase in some JIP-test parameters compared to controls, reflecting an enhanced efficiency and specific fluxes for electron transport from the plastoquinone pool to the PSI terminal acceptors. All the above parameters showed similar levels after re-watering. These results suggest that the thermal dissipation of excess energy and the increased energy conservation from photons absorbed by PSII to the reduction of PSI end acceptors may be an important acclimation mechanism to protect the photosynthetic apparatus from over-excitation in Agave plants.

  17. Effects of washing, peeling, storage, and fermentation on residue contents of carbaryl and mancozeb in cucumbers grown in greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeedi Saravi, S S; Shokrzadeh, M

    2016-06-01

    Cucumbers grown in two different greenhouses were exposed to mancozeb and carbaryl at different times. The effects of 10-day preharvest period, water and detergent washing, peeling, predetermined storage period at 4°C (refrigeration), and fermentation on the reduction of residue levels in the plant tissues were investigated. Mancozeb and carbaryl residues in cucumbers were determined by gas chromatography-electron capture detection. Results showed that residue levels in samples, which were collected after 10 days following the pesticide application, were significantly lower than the samples collected after 2 h subsequent to the pesticide application. The culinary applications were effective in reducing the residue levels of the pesticides in cucumbers. As a result, non-fermentative pickling in sodium chloride and acetic acid was the most effective way to reduce the mancozeb and carbaryl residues of the cucumbers.

  18. High-Throughput Sequencing Identifies Novel and Conserved Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. microRNAs in Response to Cucumber Green Mottle Mosaic Virus Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H W Liu

    Full Text Available Seedlings of Cucumis sativus L. (cv. 'Zhongnong 16' were artificially inoculated with Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV at the three-true-leaf stage. Leaf and flower samples were collected at different time points post-inoculation (10, 30 and 50 d, and processed by high throughput sequencing analysis to identify candidate miRNA sequences. Bioinformatic analysis using screening criteria, and secondary structure prediction, indicated that 8 novel and 23 known miRNAs (including 15 miRNAs described for the first time in vivo were produced by cucumber plants in response to CGMMV infection. Moreover, gene expression profiles (p-value <0.01 validated the expression of 3 of the novel miRNAs and 3 of the putative candidate miRNAs and identified a further 82 conserved miRNAs in CGMMV-infected cucumbers. Gene ontology (GO analysis revealed that the predicted target genes of these 88 miRNAs, which were screened using the psRNATarget and miRanda algorithms, were involved in three functional categories: 2265 in molecular function, 1362 as cellular components and 276 in biological process. The subsequent Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathway analysis revealed that the predicted target genes were frequently involved in metabolic processes (166 pathways and genetic information processes (40 pathways and to a lesser degree the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites (12 pathways. These results could provide useful clues to help elucidate host-pathogen interactions in CGMMV and cucumber, as well as for the screening of resistance genes.

  19. The Effect of Different Cucurbit Rootstocks on Some Morphological and Physiological Traits of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus cv. Super Dominus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    reihane Mesgari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cucumber is one of the most important vegetable crops for the local consumption and exportation. The use of grafted vegetable seedlings has been popular in many countries during recent years. Growing fruit-bearing vegetables, chiefly tomato, cucumber and watermelon through grafted seedlings become a widespread practice worldwide. Grafting is a valuable technique to avoid soil-borne diseases, provide biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, enhance nutrient uptake, optimize water use, and increase fruit yield and quality. Vegetable grafting is a new topic in Iran and there are a limited number of studies on grafted vegetable production. However, attention to grafting by researchers has recently increased. Suitable rootstocks should be identified and characterized for the effective utilization of grafting. The rootstock's vigorous root system increases the efficiency of water and nutrient absorption, and may also serve as a source of endogenous plant hormones, thus leading to increased growth and yield in addition to disease control. In the present study, we investigated the response of two Cucurbita sp. and an Iranian melon as rootstocks for cucumber. Materials and methods: In order to study the effect of cucurbit rootstocks and grafting method on growth, yield and fruit quality of cucumber (Cucumis sativus cv. Super Dominus, an experiment was conducted as a factorial design in the base of RCBD with three replications in the greenhouse and research farm, University of Zanjan. Treatments were included three rootstocks (Cucurbita moschata L., Lagenaria siceraria and Cucumis melo L. and ungrafted plants (control and two grafting method (hole insertion and splice grafting. Seeds were sown simultaneously in plastic pots. For obtaining the same stem diameter of scion and rootstocks, cucumber seeds were planted four days earlier than rootstocks seeds. The seedlings were grown in an environment-controlled greenhouse with 25/20 day

  20. Fine Mapping of Virescent Leaf Gene v-1 in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Miao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Leaf color mutants are common in higher plants that can be used as markers in crop breeding or as an important tool in understanding regulatory mechanisms in chlorophyll biosynthesis and chloroplast development. In virescent leaf mutants, young leaves are yellow in color, which gradually return to normal green when the seedlings grow large. In the present study, we conducted phenotypic characterization and genetic mapping of the cucumber virescent leaf mutant 9110Gt conferred by the v-1 locus. Total chlorophyll and carotenoid content in 9110Gt was reduced by 44% and 21%, respectively, as compared with its wild type parental line 9110G. Electron microscopic investigation revealed fewer chloroplasts per cell and thylakoids per chloroplast in 9110Gt than in 9110G. Fine genetic mapping allowed for the assignment of the v-1 locus to a 50.4 kb genomic DNA region in chromosome 6 with two flanking markers that were 0.14 and 0.16 cM away from v-1, respectively. Multiple lines of evidence supported CsaCNGCs as the only candidate gene for the v-1 locus, which encoded a cyclic-nucleotide-gated ion channel protein. A single nucleotide change in the promoter region of v-1 seemed to be associated with the virescent color change in 9110Gt. Real-time PCR revealed significantly lower expression of CsaCNGCs in the true leaves of 9110Gt than in 9110G. This was the first report that connected the CsaCNGCs gene to virescent leaf color change, which provided a useful tool to establish linkages among virescent leaf color change, chloroplast development, chlorophyll biosynthesis, and the functions of the CsaCNGCs gene.

  1. A New Cucumber Rootstock Ft Hybrid —'Weisheng No.1'%黄瓜专用砧木新品种威盛1号的选育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永成; 刘爱群; 赵丽丽; 王国政; 赵越

    2013-01-01

    'Weisheng No.l' is a new cucumber rootstock F1 hybrid bred by crossing S0703 as female parent with S0704 as male parent. It has stronger graft compatibility and symbiotic affinity. When grafted with cucumber scion, its seedling has high survival rate. Grafted seedlings are highly resistant to seedling damping-off, resistant to downy mildew and Fusarium wilt. Especially after grafting with cucumber, its fruit has shiny green skin, and the fruit is straight up. All these have obviously improved its external appearance quality. At the same time, the contents of soluble sugar in cucumber fruit is increased. Grafted seedlings can yield 11.49% higher than self-rooted cucumber, and 8.32% higher than grafted with ' Heizinangua'. It is suitable to be cultivated in open field in northern China, and protected facility grafted with cucumber.%威盛1号是以自交系S0703为母本,自交系S0704为父本配制而成的中国南瓜(Cucurbita moschata Duch.)黄瓜专用砧木一代杂种.该砧木与黄瓜的嫁接亲和性和共生亲和力都很强,嫁接苗成活率高,高抗黄瓜猝倒病,抗霜霉病和枯萎病.特别是嫁接后可使黄瓜瓜皮表面光亮无蜡粉、瓜条顺直,明显地提高外观品质;同时瓜条中可溶性糖含量有所增加,黄瓜产量比自根苗提高11.49%,比用黑籽南瓜嫁接提高8.32%.适宜我国北方露地和保护地黄瓜嫁接栽培.

  2. 3种发酵菌堆制木薯皮基质对黄瓜幼苗生长和光合能力的影响%Effects of Cassava Bark Substrate with Three Microbial Fermentation Agents on Growth and Photosynthetic Capacity of Cucumber Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王旭; 李勤奋; 陈艳丽; 李光义

    2011-01-01

    利用EM菌、CM菌和酵素菌3种发酵菌堆制木薯皮基质,研究不同发酵菌堆制的木薯皮作为单一基质和混合基质[V(木薯皮):V(沙)=5∶1]对黄瓜幼苗生长及光合的影响.结果表明:与没有添加发酵菌堆制相比,木薯皮添加发酵菌堆制后,总孔隙度变化不大,持水孔隙度增加;根据形态指标判断,单一基质栽培黄瓜,EM发酵菌表现最优,混合基质栽培黄瓜,酵素菌表现最好;根据光合潜力来判断,单一基质栽培时,酵素菌表现最优,复合基质栽培时,CM菌表现最优;无论是从生长还是光合潜力来讲,添加发酵菌堆制基质,栽培黄瓜的效果都要优于不添加发酵菌.%Three microbial fermentation agents were inoculated into cassava bark to explore their effect on cucumber growth and photosynthetic capacity after mixed with or without sand with an aim to better use cassava bark, a tropical agricultural waste. Little change was seen in the total porosity, while an increase in waterholding porosity when three microbial fermentation agents were added. EM was the best in the single substrate while BYM was the best in the mixed substrate according to cucumber growth state. A rise in Pn and Ls, and a decrease in Ci and Tr were the observed in the mixed substrate compared with the single substrate. The photosynthetic capacity of cucumber was the highest when BYM was inlculatd into cassava bark in the single substrate cultivation and CM was addied to the mixed substrate.

  3. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER FOR CUCUMBER (Cucumis sativus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dell

    2011-11-07

    Nov 7, 2011 ... This technology transfer trials have shown the advantages and ... Key words: Cucumber production, protected agriculture tunnels, cost benefit ratio, technology transfer, ... Use of PA can increase production by more than five.

  4. Genome-wide characterization of simple sequence repeats in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Philipp W

    2010-10-01

    comparable to the density of poplar, grapevine and rice, and was richest in AT dinucleotides. Using an electronic PCR strategy, we investigated the polymorphism between 9930 and Gy14 at 1,006 SSR loci, and found unexpectedly high degree of polymorphism (48.3% between the two genotypes. The level of polymorphism seems to be positively associated with the number of repeat units in the microsatellite. The in silico PCR results were validated empirically in 660 of the 1,006 SSR loci. In addition, primer sequences for more than 83,000 newly-discovered cucumber microsatellites, and their exact positions in the Gy14 genome assembly were made publicly available. Conclusions The cucumber genome is rich in microsatellites; AT and AAG are the most abundant repeat motifs in genomic and EST sequences of cucumber, respectively. Considering all the species investigated, some commonalities were noted, especially within the monocot and dicot groups, although the distribution of motifs and the frequency of certain repeats were characteristic of the species examined. The large number of SSR markers developed from this study should be a significant contribution to the cucurbit research community.

  5. Effect of salt and water stresses on growth, nitrogen and phosphorus metabolism in Cucumis sativus L. seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Sacała

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants exposed to osmotic stress exhibit changes in their physiology and metabolism. In general, osmotic stress reduces water availability and causes nutritional imbalance in plants. In the present study, we compared the response of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. var. Władko F-1 to ionic (100 mmol•dm-3 NaCl and osmotic stress (10% PEG 6000. Both stress factors reduced significantly fresh and dry weight of 7-day-old cucumber seedlings. Under PEG treatment reduction of cucumber dry mass was lesser than in fresh mass, whereas under salt stress decrease in dry weight of cucumber shoots was more pronounced than in fresh mass. Salt stress caused severe decrease in nitrate concentration and activity of nitrate reductase (NR. In cotyledons nitrate content declined to 17% of the control and similar reduction in NR activity was observed. In the roots, observed changes were not so drastic but there was also strong interaction between reduction in nitrate content and NR activity. Under 10% PEG both nitrate concentration and NR activity in cucumber roots were significantly higher in comparison to control plants. In cotyledons NR activity was significantly lower than in control plants, while decrease in nitrate content was not statistically significant. Phosphate concentration did not change significantly in cucumber cotyledons but increased in roots treated both NaCl (32% increase and PEG (53% increase. Similar tendencies were observed in acid phosphatase activity. Obtained results indicated that osmotic and salt stresses evoke differential responses, particularly in growth reduction and nitrogen metabolism in cucumber seedlings.

  6. Abscisic Acid-Induced H2O2 Accumulation Enhances Antioxidant Capacity in Pumpkin-Grafted Cucumber Leaves under Ca(NO3)2 Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Sheng; Gao, Pan; Li, Lin; Yuan, Yinghui; Sun, Jin; Guo, Shirong

    2016-01-01

    With the aim to clarifying the role of the ABA/H2O2 signaling cascade in the regulating the antioxidant capacity of grafted cucumber plants in response to Ca(NO3)2 stress, we investigated the relationship between ABA-mediated H2O2 production and the activities of antioxidant enzymes in the leaves of pumpkin-grafted cucumber seedlings. The results showed that both ABA and H2O2 were detected in pumpkin-grafted cucumber seedlings in response to Ca(NO3)2 treatment within 0.5 h in the leaves and peaked at 3 and 6 h after Ca(NO3)2 treatment, respectively, compared to the levels under control conditions. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and peroxidase (POD) in pumpkin-grafted cucumber leaves gradually increased over time and peaked at 12 h of Ca(NO3)2 stress. Furthermore, in the leaves of pumpkin-grafted cucumber seedlings, the H2O2 generation, the antioxidant enzyme activities and the expression of SOD, POD and cAPX were strongly blocked by an inhibitor of ABA under Ca(NO3)2 stress, but this effect was eliminated by the addition of exogenous ABA. Moreover, the activities and gene expressions of these antioxidant enzymes in pumpkin-grafted leaves were almost inhibited under Ca(NO3)2 stress by pretreatment with ROS scavengers. These results suggest that the pumpkin grafting-induced ABA accumulation mediated H2O2 generation, resulting in the induction of antioxidant defense systems in leaves exposed to Ca(NO3)2 stress in the ABA/H2O2 signaling pathway. PMID:27746808

  7. Effects of Heat Shock on Photosynthetic Properties, Antioxidant Enzyme Activity, and Downy Mildew of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiaotao; Jiang, Yuping; Hao, Ting; Jin, Haijun; Zhang, Hongmei; He, Lizhong; Zhou, Qiang; Huang, Danfeng; Hui, Dafeng; Yu, Jizhu

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock is considered an abiotic stress for plant growth, but the effects of heat shock on physiological responses of cucumber plant leaves with and without downy mildew disease are still not clear. In this study, cucumber seedlings were exposed to heat shock in greenhouses, and the responses of photosynthetic properties, carbohydrate metabolism, antioxidant enzyme activity, osmolytes, and disease severity index of leaves with or without the downy mildew disease were measured. Results showed that heat shock significantly decreased the net photosynthetic rate, actual photochemical efficiency, photochemical quenching coefficient, and starch content. Heat shock caused an increase in the stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, antioxidant enzyme activities, total soluble sugar content, sucrose content, soluble protein content and proline content for both healthy leaves and downy mildew infected leaves. These results demonstrate that heat shock activated the transpiration pathway to protect the photosystem from damage due to excess energy in cucumber leaves. Potential resistance mechanisms of plants exposed to heat stress may involve higher osmotic regulation capacity related to an increase of total accumulations of soluble sugar, proline and soluble protein, as well as higher antioxidant enzymes activity in stressed leaves. Heat shock reduced downy mildew disease severity index by more than 50%, and clearly alleviated downy mildew development in the greenhouses. These findings indicate that cucumber may have a complex physiological change to resist short-term heat shock, and suppress the development of the downy mildew disease.

  8. Effects of Heat Shock on Photosynthetic Properties, Antioxidant Enzyme Activity, and Downy Mildew of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaotao Ding

    Full Text Available Heat shock is considered an abiotic stress for plant growth, but the effects of heat shock on physiological responses of cucumber plant leaves with and without downy mildew disease are still not clear. In this study, cucumber seedlings were exposed to heat shock in greenhouses, and the responses of photosynthetic properties, carbohydrate metabolism, antioxidant enzyme activity, osmolytes, and disease severity index of leaves with or without the downy mildew disease were measured. Results showed that heat shock significantly decreased the net photosynthetic rate, actual photochemical efficiency, photochemical quenching coefficient, and starch content. Heat shock caused an increase in the stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, antioxidant enzyme activities, total soluble sugar content, sucrose content, soluble protein content and proline content for both healthy leaves and downy mildew infected leaves. These results demonstrate that heat shock activated the transpiration pathway to protect the photosystem from damage due to excess energy in cucumber leaves. Potential resistance mechanisms of plants exposed to heat stress may involve higher osmotic regulation capacity related to an increase of total accumulations of soluble sugar, proline and soluble protein, as well as higher antioxidant enzymes activity in stressed leaves. Heat shock reduced downy mildew disease severity index by more than 50%, and clearly alleviated downy mildew development in the greenhouses. These findings indicate that cucumber may have a complex physiological change to resist short-term heat shock, and suppress the development of the downy mildew disease.

  9. Potential involvement of a cucumber homolog of phloem protein 1 in the long-distance movement of Cucumber mosaic virus particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requena, A; Simón-Buela, L; Salcedo, G; García-Arenal, F

    2006-07-01

    The systemic movement of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) in cucumber plants was analyzed. The structure that is translocated and its putative interactions with phloem components were analyzed in phloem exudate (PE) samples, which reflect sieve tubes stream composition. Rate zonal centrifugation and electron-microscopy analyses of PE from CMV-infected plants showed that CMV moves through sieve tubes as virus particles. Gel overlay assays revealed that CMV particles interact with a PE protein, p48. The amino-acid sequence of several tryptic peptides of p48 was determined. Partial amino-acid sequence of p48 showed it was a cucumber homolog of phloem protein 1 (PP1) from pumpkin, with which p48 also shares several chemical properties. PP1 from pumpkin has plasmodesmata-gating ability and translocates in sieve tubes. Encapsidated CMV RNA in PE samples from infected plants was less accessible to digestion by RNase A than RNA in purified CMV particles, a property that was reconstituted by the in vitro interaction of purified CMV particles and protein p48. These results indicate that the interaction with p48 modifies CMV particle structure and suggest that CMV particles interact with the cucumber homolog of PP1 during translocation in the sieve tubes.

  10. Wilted cucumber plants infected by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum do not suffer from water shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuming; Wang, Min; Li, Yingrui; Gu, Zechen; Ling, Ning; Shen, Qirong; Guo, Shiwei

    2017-09-01

    Fusarium wilt is primarily a soil-borne disease and results in yield loss and quality decline in cucumber (Cucumis sativus). The main symptom of fusarium wilt is the wilting of entire plant, which could be caused by a fungal toxin(s) or blockage of water transport. To investigate whether this wilt arises from water shortage, the physiological responses of hydroponically grown cucumber plants subjected to water stress using polyethylene glycol (PEG, 6000) were compared with those of plants infected with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC). Parameters reflecting plant water status were measured 8d after the start of treatment. Leaf gas exchange parameters and temperature were measured with a LI-COR portable open photosynthesis system and by thermal imaging. Chlorophyll fluorescence and chloroplast structures were assessed by imaging pulse amplitude-modulated fluorometry and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. Cucumber water balance was altered after FOC infection, with decreased water absorption and hydraulic conductivity. However, the responses of cucumber leaves to FOC and PEG differed in leaf regions. Under water stress, measures of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde) and chlorophyll fluorescence indicated that the leaf edge was more seriously injured, with a higher leaf temperature and disrupted leaf water status compared with the centre. Here, abscisic acid (ABA) and proline were negatively correlated with water potential. In contrast, under FOC infection, membrane damage and a higher temperature were observed in the leaf centre while ABA and proline did not vary with water potential. Cytologically, FOC-infected cucumber leaves exhibited circular chloroplasts and swelled starch grains in the leaf centre, in which they again differed from PEG-stressed cucumber leaves. This study illustrates the non-causal relationship between fusarium wilt and water transport blockage. Although leaf wilt occurred in both water stress and FOC infection, the

  11. Effects of Lactic Acid Bacteria Inoculated Fermentation on Pickled Cucumbers

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) fermentation on the texture and organic acid of pickled cucumbers. Texture and sensory evaluation as well as a microscopic observation were performed to study the textural differences among fresh cucumber, Spontaneous fermentation (SF) cucumber and LAB Inoculating Fermentation (LABIF) cucumber. Accumulation of seven organic acids i.e., oxalic, tartaric, malic, lactic, acetic, citric and succinic acid during cucum...

  12. THE EVOLUTION OF SOME CHEMICAL PARAMETERS DURING CUCUMBERS PICKLING

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of some chemical indices (salt content, pH and ascorbic acid content) during cucumbers pickling was the purpose of this paper. The experience materials used in this work were: cucumbers cornichon, iodized and non-iodized salt and tap water. The samples containing cucumbers in iodized and in non-iodized brine were left to ferment, and at 3-4 days were made determinations of above mentioned indices. During pickling process, non-iodized salt has accumulated in cucumber ...

  13. CsAGP1, a gibberellin-responsive gene from cucumber hypocotyls, encodes a classical arabinogalactan protein and is involved in stem elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Me Hea; Suzuki, Yoshihito; Chono, Makiko; Knox, J Paul; Yamaguchi, Isomaro

    2003-03-01

    Fluorescence differential display was used to isolate the gibberellin (GA)-responsive gene, CsAGP1, from cucumber (Cucumis sativus) hypocotyls. A sequence analysis of CsAGP1 indicated that the gene putatively encodes a "classical" arabinogalactan protein (AGP) in cucumber. Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants overexpressing CsAGP1 under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter produced a Y(betaGlc)(3)-reactive proteoglycan in addition to AGPs present in wild-type tobacco plants. Immuno-dot blotting of the product, using anti-AGP antibodies, showed that the CsAGP1 protein had the AGP epitopes common to AGP families. The transcription level of CsAGP1 in cucumber hypocotyls increased in response not only to GA but also to indole-3-acetic acid. Although CsAGP1 is expressed in most vegetative tissues of cucumber, including the shoot apices and roots, the GA treatment resulted in an increase in the mRNA level of CsAGP1 only in the upper part of the hypocotyls. Y(betaGlc)(3), which selectively binds AGPs, inhibited the hormone-promoted elongation of cucumber seedling hypocotyls. Transgenic plants ectopically expressing CsAGP1 showed a taller stature and earlier flowering than the wild-type plants. These observations suggest that CsAGP1 is involved in stem elongation.

  14. Cucumber hypocotyls respond to cutin monomers via both an inducible and a constitutive H(2)O(2)-generating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauss; Fauth; Merten; Jeblick

    1999-08-01

    Hypocotyls from etiolated cucumber (Cucumis sativa L.) seedlings were gently abraded at their surface to allow permeation of elicitors. Segments from freshly abraded hypocotyls were only barely competent for H(2)O(2) elicitation with fungal elicitor or hydroxy fatty acids (classical cutin monomers). However, elicitation competence developed subsequent to abrasion, reaching an optimum after about 4 h. This process was potentiated in seedlings displaying acquired resistance to Colletotrichum lagenarium due to root pretreatment with 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid or a benzothiadiazole. Induction of competence depended on protein synthesis and could be effected not only by surface abrasion, but also by fungal spore germination on the epidermal surface or by rotating the seedlings in buffer. Inhibitor studies indicated that the inducible mechanism for H(2)O(2) production involves protein phosphorylation, Ca(2+) influx, and NAD(P)H oxidase. In contrast, a novel cucumber cutin monomer, dodecan-1-ol, also elicited H(2)O(2) in freshly abraded hypocotyls without previous competence induction. This finding suggests the presence of an additional H(2)O(2)-generating system that is constitutive. It is insensitive to inhibitors and has, in addition, a different specificity for alkanols. Thus, dodecan-1-ol might initiate defense before the inducible H(2)O(2)-generating system becomes effective.

  15. Silencing of the gibberellin receptor homolog, CsGID1a, affects locule formation in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Liu, Xingwang; Yang, Sen; Chen, Chunhua; Xue, Shudan; Cai, Yanling; Wang, Dandan; Yin, Shuai; Gai, Xinshuang; Ren, Huazhong

    2016-04-01

    Gibberellins are phytohormones with many roles, including the regulation of fruit development. However, little is known about the relationship between GA perception and fleshy fruit ontogeny, and particularly locule formation. We characterized the expression of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) GA receptor gene (CsGID1a) using quantitative real-time PCR, in situ hybridization and a promoter::β-glucuronidase (GUS) assay. CsGID1a-RNAi cucumber fruits were observed by dissecting microscope, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Finally, genome-wide gene expression in young fruits from a control and the RNAi line was compared using a digital gene expression (DGE) analysis approach. The expression pattern of CsGID1a was found to be closely correlated with fruit locule formation, and silencing CsGID1a in cucumber resulted in fruits with abnormal carpels and locules. Overexpression of CsGID1a in the Arabidopsis thaliana double mutant (gid1a gid1c) resulted in 'cucumber locule-like' fruits. The DGE analysis suggested that expression of genes related to auxin synthesis and transport, as well as the cell cycle, was altered in CsGID1a-RNAi fruits, a result that was supported by comparing the auxin content and cellular structures of the control and transgenic fruits. This study demonstrates a previously uncharacterized GA signaling pathway that is essential for cucumber fruit locule formation.

  16. SENSORY ANALYSIS OF CUCUMBER VARIETIES AT DIFFERENT HARVEST TIMES II. PICKLING CUCUMBERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina PEVICHAROVA

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available During the period 2001-2002 sensory analysis of Bulgarian pickling cucumber varieties Toni, Iren and Pobeda was carried out. The varieties had identical parent female breeding line G-3. Fresh and canned fruits were evaluated at three harvest times. It was established that sensory properties of canned fruits cannot be entirely prognosticated from panel test data of the fresh ones. For breeding purposes sensory analysis of pickling cucumbers for processing should be performed using sterilized pickling cucumbers but not only fresh ones. More precise information about visual and gustatory properties of new created lines and hybrids will be obtained by performing of sensory analysis at different harvest times.

  17. Identification and expression analysis of primary auxin-responsive Aux/IAA gene family in cucumber (Cucumis sativus)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Defang Gan; Dan Zhuang; Fei Ding; Zhenzhou Yu; Yang Zhao

    2013-12-01

    Aux/IAA is an important gene family involved in many aspects of growth and development. Aux/IAA proteins are short-lived nuclear proteins that are induced primarily by various phytohormones. In this study, 29 Aux/IAA family genes (CsIAA01–CsIAA29) were identified and characterized in cucumber, including gene structures, phylogenetic relationships, conserved protein motifs and chromosomal locations. These genes show distinct organizational patterns of their putative motifs. The distributions of the genes vary: except for five CsIAA genes in cucumber that were not located, seven CsIAA genes were found on scaffold, while the other 17 CsIAA genes were distributed on seven other chromosomes. Based on a phylogenetic analysis of the Aux/IAA protein sequences from cucumber, Arabidopsis and other plants, the Aux/IAA genes in cucumber were categorized into seven subfamilies. To investigate whether the expression of CsIAA genes is associated with auxin induction, their transcript levels were monitored in seedlings treated with IAA (indole-3-acetic acid), and their expression patterns were analysed by semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results showed that 11/29 CsIAA genes were expressed in leaves whether treated with IAA or not and the time course of processing and compared with the control, five CsIAA genes showed low expression only after 60 min treatment with IAA, while 11 genes showed no expression. These results provide useful information for further functional analysis of Aux/IAA gene family in cucumber.

  18. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Nitric Oxide Synthase Associated Gene1 (CsNOA1) Plays a Role in Chilling Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingwang; Liu, Bin; Xue, Shudan; Cai, Yanlinq; Qi, Wenzhu; Jian, Chen; Xu, Shuo; Wang, Ting; Ren, Huazhong

    2016-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a gaseous signaling molecule in plants, transducing information as a result of exposure to low temperatures. However, the underlying molecular mechanism linking NO with chilling stress is not well understood. Here, we functionally characterized the cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) nitric oxide synthase-associated gene, NITRIC OXIDE ASSOCIATED 1 (CsNOA1). Expression analysis of CsNOA1, using quantitative real-time PCR, in situ hybridization, and a promoter::β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter assay, revealed that it is expressed mainly in the root and shoot apical meristem (SAM), and that expression is up-regulated by low temperatures. A CsNOA1-GFP fusion protein was found to be localized in the mitochondria, and ectopic expression of CsNOA1 in the A. thaliana noa1 mutant partially rescued the normal phenotype. When overexpressing CsNOA1 in the Atnoa1 mutant under normal condition, no obvious phenotypic differences was observed between its wild type and transgenic plants. However, the leaves from mutant plant grown under chilling conditions showed hydrophanous spots and wilting. Physiology tolerance markers, chlorophyll fluorescence parameter (Fv/Fm), and electrolyte leakage, were observed to dramatically change, compared mutant to overexpressing lines. Transgenic cucumber plants revealed that the gene is required by seedlings to tolerate chilling stress: constitutive over-expression of CsNOA1 led to a greater accumulation of soluble sugars, starch, and an up-regulation of Cold-regulatory C-repeat binding factor3 (CBF3) expression as well as a lower chilling damage index (CI). Conversely, suppression of CsNOA1 expression resulted in the opposite phenotype and a reduced NO content compared to wild type plants. Those results suggest that CsNOA1 regulates cucumber seedlings chilling tolerance. Additionally, under normal condition, we took several classic inhibitors to perform, and detect endogenous NO levels in wild type cucumber seedling. The results

  19. Mathematical modelling of cucumber (cucumis sativus) drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahari, N.; Hussein, S. M.; Nursabrina, M.; Hibberd, S.

    2014-07-01

    This paper investigates the applicability of using an experiment based mathematical model (empirical model) and a single phase mathematical model with shrinkage to describe the drying curve of cucumis sativus (cucumber). Drying experiments were conducted using conventional air drying and data obtained from these experiments were fitted to seven empirical models using non-linear least square regression based on the Levenberg Marquardt algorithm. The empirical models were compared according to their root mean square error (RMSE), sum of square error (SSE) and coefficient of determination (R2). A logarithmic model was found to be the best empirical model to describe the drying curve of cucumber. The numerical result of a single phase mathematical model with shrinkage was also compared with experiment data for cucumber drying. A good agreement was obtained between the model predictions and the experimental data.

  20. 外源腐胺对盐胁迫黄瓜幼苗生长、光合及膜脂过氧化的影响%Effects of exogenous putrescine concentrations on growth, photosynthesis and lipid peroxidation of cucumber seedlings under salt stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张润花; 郭世荣; 段增强

    2011-01-01

    The effects of putrescine spraying on plant height, plant fresh weight, photosynthesis rate (Pn) , chlorophyll content, root vigor, MDA content and electrolyte leakage of growing cucumber plants (Cucumis satimts L. Salt-tolerant cv. Changchunmici & salt-sensitive cv. Jinchun No. 2) were investigated using hydroponics with 65 mmol/L NaCl as salt stress. The results were as follows. Salt stress caused the reductions of plant height, plant fresh weight and Pn, but MDA content and electrolyte leakage displayed a tendency to be enhanced. Spraying lower concentrations (0. 1-15.0 mmol/L) of putrescine could alleviate the inhibition caused by salt stress, while higher concentrations (20.0-30.0 mmol/L) exhibited the reverse effects. The alleviation effect on Changchunmici was more obvious than on Jinchun No. 2. The results on both cultivars showed the best alleviation effect being 10 mmol/L putrescine treatment.These results indicated that therewas a concentration effect of putrescine in alleviating damage by salt stress on cucumbers.%为探明外源腐胺对盐胁迫黄瓜幼苗生长的影响,采用营养液水培法,以耐盐性不同的黄瓜品种长春密刺和津春2号为试材,分析叶面喷施不同浓度腐胺(Putrescine,Put)对NaCI胁迫下黄瓜幼苗株高、鲜重、净光合速率、叶绿素含量、根系活力、MDA含量和电解质渗漏率的影响.结果显示:低浓度(0.1- 15.0 mmol/L)Put可缓解NaCl胁迫对两品种黄瓜幼苗生长的抑制,株高、生物积累量、叶片净光合速率显著升高,叶片和根系MDA含量以及电解质渗漏率显著下降,且Put对耐盐品种长春密刺的缓解效果大于盐敏感品种津春2号,两品种幼苗均以10.0mmol/L Put处理的缓解效果最好;高浓度(20.0~30.0 mmol/L) Put处理则加剧了NaCI对两品种黄瓜幼苗的生长胁迫.表明外源Put缓解盐胁迫对黄瓜幼苗的伤害存在浓度效应.

  1. SENSORY ANALYSIS OF CUCUMBER VARIETIES AT DIFFERENT HARVEST TIMES II. PICKLING CUCUMBERS

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    During the period 2001-2002 sensory analysis of Bulgarian pickling cucumber varieties Toni, Iren and Pobeda was carried out. The varieties had identical parent female breeding line G-3. Fresh and canned fruits were evaluated at three harvest times. It was established that sensory properties of canned fruits cannot be entirely prognosticated from panel test data of the fresh ones. For breeding purposes sensory analysis of pickling cucumbers for processing should be performed using sterilized p...

  2. rDNA-ITS sequence analysis of pathogens of cucumber downy mildew and cucumber powdery mildew

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na WANG; Yajun MA; Cuiyun YANG; Guanghui DAI; Zhezhi WANG

    2008-01-01

    To determine the pathogens of cucumber downy mildew and cucumber powdery mildew by molecular marker,we amplified and sequenced the rDNA-ITS region of the pathogens of cucumber downy mildew and cucumber powdery mildew collected from the Shanghai region.The intra-/interspecific sequence difference was analyzed by rDNA-ITS sequence.The results show that the length of rDNA-ITS1 and rDNA-ITS2 of cucumber downy mildew's pathogen was 141 bp and 406 bp,respectively,with GC contents of 41.13% in ITS1 and 46.8% (Minhang and Jinshan District,sml and sm2) or 46.55% (Pudong District,sm3) in ITS2.The rDNA-ITS sequence was intraspecific conservation.The interspecific difference was related with their kin relationship.The pathogen of cucumber downy mildew was identified as Pseudoperonospora cubensis by molecular marker.The length of rDNA-ITS1 and rDNA-ITS2 of cucumber powdery mildew's pathogen was 136 bp and 89 bp,respectively,with GC contents being 59.56% and 66.29%,and rDNA-ITS sequence being highly conservative in this study that was the same as Sphaerotheca cucurbitae.But the sequence difference between the strains in the Shanghai region in this study with S.fuliginea was 4.5%,which was identified by morphology.It is suggested that the pathogen of cucumber powdery mildew should be further clarified and determined.

  3. The Study of Seedlings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, M.

    1966-01-01

    ”The seedling represents the most critical stage in the life of a tree. Conditions of seeding and germination may be entirely favourable, and natural seedlings may appear in countless quantities at the beginning of the rainy season, only to disappear largely or entirely within a comparatively short

  4. Effects of Lactic Acid Bacteria Inoculated Fermentation on Pickled Cucumbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyi Ji

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effects of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB fermentation on the texture and organic acid of pickled cucumbers. Texture and sensory evaluation as well as a microscopic observation were performed to study the textural differences among fresh cucumber, Spontaneous fermentation (SF cucumber and LAB Inoculating Fermentation (LABIF cucumber. Accumulation of seven organic acids i.e., oxalic, tartaric, malic, lactic, acetic, citric and succinic acid during cucumber pickling were also studied. The disruption extent of the middle lamella in SF cucumber displayed more obviously than that in LABIF cucumber, implying that LABIF contributed to keep the cucumber original structure intact. Based on the organic acid accumulation pattern, in SF LAB and Acetic Acid Bacteria (AAB fermented simultaneously, while in LABIF LAB fermented beforehand thus being in dominant position, then AAB fermented vigorously in a acidic condition created by LAB. The acetic acid accumulaton pattern could be regarded as the distinctive feature between SF and LABIF. The orgnic acids produced in LABIF were higher than that in SF. The final score of sensory evaluation combining texture analysis demonstrated that LABIF overmatched SF. It was concluded that LABIF could obviously enhance the quality of pickled cucumber and overwhelming SF, due to LABIF more beneficial to keep the cucumber original structure intact and organic acids accumulation.

  5. Genetic basis of mitochondrial sorting in cucumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regeneration of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) from cell cultures produces plants with distinct mosaic (MSC) phenotypes, misshapen cotyledons and leaves, reduced fertility, and low seed germination. The MSC phenotypes are paternally transmitted and associated with deletions or under-representations of s...

  6. Cucurbits [Cucumber, melon, pumpkin and squash

    Science.gov (United States)

    The focus of this chapter is on the edible members of the Cucurbitaceae family. The three important food-grade cucurbit genera Citrullus, Cucumis, and Cucurbita include the species Citrullus lanatus watermelons), Cucumis melo (cantaloupes and other sweet melons), Cucumis sativa (cucumbers and pick...

  7. Modified Primers for the Identification of Nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum Isolates That Have Biological Control Potential against Fusarium Wilt of Cucumber in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chaojen; Lin, Yisheng; Lin, Yinghong; Chung, Wenhsin

    2013-01-01

    Previous investigations demonstrated that Fusarium oxysporum (Fo), which is not pathogenic to cucumbers, could serve as a biological control agent for managing Fusarium wilt of cucumber caused by Fo f. sp. cucumerinum (Foc) in Taiwan. However, thus far it has not been possible to separate the populations of pathogenic Fo from the nonpathogenic isolates that have biological control potential through their morphological characteristics. Although these two populations can be distinguished from one another using a bioassay, the work is laborious and time-consuming. In this study, a fragment of the intergenic spacer (IGS) region of ribosomal DNA from an Fo biological control agent, Fo366, was PCR-amplified with published general primers, FIGS11/FIGS12 and sequenced. A new primer, NPIGS-R, which was designed based on the IGS sequence, was paired with the FIGS11 primer. These primers were then evaluated for their specificity to amplify DNA from nonpathogenic Fo isolates that have biological control potential. The results showed that the modified primer pair, FIGS11/NPIGS-R, amplified a 500-bp DNA fragment from five of seven nonpathogenic Fo isolates. These five Fo isolates delayed symptom development of cucumber Fusarium wilt in greenhouse bioassay tests. Seventy-seven Fo isolates were obtained from the soil and plant tissues and then subjected to amplification using the modified primer pair; six samples showed positive amplification. These six isolates did not cause symptoms on cucumber seedlings when grown in peat moss infested with the isolates and delayed disease development when the same plants were subsequently inoculated with a virulent isolate of Foc. Therefore, the modified primer pair may prove useful for the identification of Fo isolates that are nonpathogenic to cucumber which can potentially act as biocontrol agents for Fusarium wilt of cucumber. PMID:23762289

  8. Maximizing growth of vegetable seedlings in controlled environments at elevated temperature, light and CO/sub 2/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krizek, D.T.; Bailey, W.A.; Klueter, H.; Liu, R.C.

    1974-01-01

    Seedlings of cucumber Burpee Hybrid, tomato Michigan-Ohio and lettuce Grand Rapids were germinated in the greenhouse for 5, 8, and 11 days respectively, and then grown for 15 days at elevated temperature (30/24/sup 0/C), light (43.1 klx), and CO/sub 2/ (2000 ppm) a 16-hr photoperiod, 65% relative humidity, and fertilized 4 times daily. At the end of this time, they weighed 2 to 4.6 times those grown at standard environmental conditions in the growth chamber (24/18/sup 0/C, 21.5 klx, and 400 ppm CO/sub 2/) and 10 to 25 times those of greenhouse controls kept on natural days (24/18/sup 0/C, 350 ppm CO/sub 2/, and ca 12-hr photoperiod). Leaf expansion of seedlings grown under elevated growth chamber conditions was double that of seedlings in standard growth chamber conditions, and 6 to 7 times greater than under natural days in the greenhouse. Temperature was the most limiting factor for seedling growth. At the levels of light and CO/sub 2/ used in the experiment, CO/sub 2/ was more limiting than light intensity. In general, optimum seedling growth was obtained when temperature, light, and CO/sub 2/ were increased simultaneously. The most striking effects of CO/sub 2/ enrichment were precocious flower bud formation in tomato and cucumber and extensive growth of the lateral buds in all three species.

  9. Physiological and proteomic analysis of selenium-mediated tolerance to Cd stress in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongyan; Dai, Huaxin; Wang, Xiaoyun; Wang, Guohui

    2016-11-01

    Selenium can mitigate cadmium toxicity in plants. However, the mechanism of this alleviation has not been fully understood. In the present study, the role of Se in inducing tolerance to Cd stress in cucumber was elucidated. Results showed that Se significantly alleviated Cd-induced growth inhibition, reduced Cd concentration, increased SPAD value and improved photosynthetic performance. Through proteomic analysis by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) coupled with mass spectrometry, 26 protein spots were identified, which were significantly influenced by Cd stress and/or Se application. Among these proteins, the abundance of 21 spots (10 in leaves and 11 in roots) were repressed in Cd-treated and up-accumulated or no-changed in Cd+Se-treated cucumber. These altered proteins were involved in the response to stress, metabolism, photosynthesis and storage, they were including glutathione S-transferase F8, heat shock protein STI-like, peroxidase, ascorbate oxidase, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase 2, NiR, Rieske type ion sulfur subunit and PsbP domain-containing protein 6. Furthermore, we identified five proteins with an increase in relative abundance after Cd treatment, they were involved in the functional groups active in response to stress and transport. The present study provided novel insights into Se-mediated tolerance of cucumber seedlings against Cd toxicity at the proteome level.

  10. Allelopathic effects of redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L. on germination & growth of cucumber, alfalfa, common bean and bread wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamideh BAKHSHAYESHAN-AGDAM

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Allelopathy is one of the important interactions among plants. Weeds can reduce crops productions in farms by their allelopathic effects. Redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L. is the most common weed in Iran with well-known allelopathic potential. In the presented experiment, the allelopathic effects of redroot pigweed on germination and growth of four important crop species including cucumber (Cucumis sativus L., alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., common bean (Phaseulus vulgaris L. and bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. was studied. The effect of different concentrations of redroot pigweed leachate on seed germination and seedlings growth parameters of tested plants was significant, but not same in all studied species. Bread wheat and cucumber were more resistance in seed germination stage in comparison to common bean and alfalfa. Except alfalfa, all plant species showed certain rate of resistance in the most measured parameters. According to the obtained results, bread wheat and common bean were the most resistant species, cucumber was resistant at low concentration but sensitive at high concentration, and alfalfa was the most sensitive species to the redroot pigweed leachate treatments. Therefore, the cultivation of resistant plant species (such as bread wheat and common bean plants in the regions with redroot pigweed’s invasion is appropriate way in management of the farms.

  11. Sea Cucumbers Metabolites as Potent Anti-Cancer Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Janakiram, Naveena B; Altaf Mohammed; RAO, CHINTHALAPALLY V.

    2015-01-01

    Sea cucumbers and their extracts have gained immense popularity and interest among researchers and nutritionists due to their nutritive value, potential health benefits, and use in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases. Many areas of the world use sea cucumbers in traditional foods and folk medicine. Though the actual components and their specific functions still remain to be investigated, most sea cucumber extracts are being studied for their anti-inflammatory functions, immunostimu...

  12. Applying imidacloprid via a precision banding system to control striped cucumber beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in cucurbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinski, J; Darr, M; Ozkan, E; Precheur, R

    2009-12-01

    The striped cucumber beetle, Acalymma vittatum (F.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a key pest of cucurbit crops throughout its range. A novel precision band applicator was designed to inject a solid stream of imidacloprid solution in-furrow directly over the seed during planting to reduce beetle leaf feeding on pumpkin, zucchini, and cucumber crops. In 2004 and 2005, bioassays at the cotyledon through fifth leaf were conducted on striped cucumber beetles using seedling leaf tissue grown from seeds treated using both continuous and precision banded in-furrow imidacloprid solution applications. In 2004, 80% of bioassay trials had treatments with beetle mortality significantly higher than the check, whereas 70% of the bioassay trials showed no significant difference in mortality between continuous in-furrow and precision banded treatments. In 2005, 79% of bioassay trials had treatments with beetle mortality significantly higher than the check, whereas 100% of the bioassays showed no significant difference in beetle mortality between continuous in-furrow and precision banded treatments at the same insecticide rate. The environmental savings of precision banded treatments compared with continuous in-furrow treatment reduced imidacloprid up to 84.5% on a per hectare basis for all cucurbits tested in 2004 and 2005, translating into an economic savings up to $215/ha. In separate bioassay trials conducted in 2005 on pumpkin, where insecticide band length and injection volume were manipulated independently, several treatments had significantly higher beetle mortality than the check. There was a trend of increased beetle mortality in treatments using shorter band lengths combined with higher insecticide solution volumes.

  13. Cutin monomers and surface wax constituents elicit H2O2 in conditioned cucumber hypocotyl segments and enhance the activity of other H2O2 elicitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauth; Schweizer; Buchala; Markstadter; Riederer; Kato; Kauss

    1998-08-01

    Hypocotyls from etiolated cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings were gently abraded at their epidermal surface and cut segments were conditioned to develop competence for H2O2 elicitation. Alkaline hydrolysates of cutin from cucumber, tomato, and apple elicited H2O2 in such conditioned segments. The most active constituent of cucumber cutin was identified as dodecan-1-ol, a novel cutin monomer capable of forming hydrophobic terminal chains. Additionally, the cutin hydrolysates enhanced the activity of a fungal H2O2 elicitor, similar to cucumber surface wax, which contained newly identified alkan-1,3-diols. The specificity of elicitor and enhancement activity was further elaborated using some pure model compounds. Certain saturated hydroxy fatty acids were potent H2O2 elicitors as well as enhancers. Some unsaturated epoxy and hydroxy fatty acids were also excellent H2O2 elicitors but inhibited the fungal elicitor activity. Short-chain alkanols exhibited good elicitor and enhancer activity, whereas longer-chain alkan-1-ols were barely active. The enhancement effect was also observed for H2O2 elicitation by ergosterol and chitosan. The physiological significance of these observations might be that once the cuticle is degraded by fungal cutinase, the cutin monomers may act as H2O2 elicitors. Corrosion of cutin may also bring surface wax constituents in contact with protoplasts and enhance elicitation.

  14. QTL molecular marker location of powdery mildew resistance in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The cucumber lines, S94 (Northern China open-field type, powdery mildew (PM) susceptible) and S06 (European greenhouse type, PM resistant), and their F6:7 populations were used to investigate PM re-sistance under seedling spray inoculation in 2005/Autumn and 2006/Spring. QTL analysis was under-taken based on a constructed molecular linkage map of the corresponding F6 population using com-posite interval mapping. A total of four QTLs (pm1.1, pm2.1, pm4.1 and pm6.1) for PM resistance were identified and located on LG 1, 2, 4 and 6, respectively, explaining 5.2%-21.0% of the phenotypic variation. Three consistent QTLs (pm1.1, pm2.1 and pm4.1) were detected under the two test conditions. The QTL pm6.1 was only identified in 2005/Autumn. The total phenotypic variation explained by the QTLs was 52.0% and 42.0% in 2005/Autumn and 2006/Spring, respectively. Anchor markers tightly linked to those loci (<5 cM) could lay a basis for both molecular marker-assisted breeding and map-based gene cloning of the PM-resistance gene in cucumber.

  15. Biochemical and biophysical changes associated with magnetopriming in germinating cucumber seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Jyotsna; Anand, Anjali; Nagarajan, Shantha

    2012-08-01

    Seeds of cucumber were exposed to static magnetic field strength from 100 to 250 mT for 1, 2 or 3 h. Germination-percentage, rate of germination, length of seedling and dry weight increased by 18.5, 49, 34 and 33% respectively in magnetoprimed seeds compared to unexposed seeds. Among different magnetic field doses, 200 mT for 1 h showed significant effect on germination parameters and hence selected for studying changes in water uptake, (1)H transverse relaxation time (T(2)), hydrolytic enzymes, reactive oxygen species and antioxidant enzyme system in germinating seeds. Water uptake and T(2) values were significantly higher in treated seeds during imbibition. The activities of hydrolytic enzymes, amylase and protease were greater than the untreated controls by 51% and 13% respectively. Superoxide radicals also enhanced by 40% and hydrogen peroxide by 8% in magnetically exposed seeds. In magetoprimed seeds, increased activities of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (8%), catalase (83%) and glutathione reductase (77%) over control was recorded. We report that magnetopriming of dry seeds can be effectively used as a pre-sowing treatment for seed invigoration in cucumber. Unlike other priming treatments seed is not required to be dehydrated after priming, allowing easy storage.

  16. Effect of Low Concentration of Yttrium on Physiological Characteristics of Cucumber (Cucumis Sativus L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Shuo; Chen Dan; Qin Zhaojiang; Dong Zhenyu; Ju Mingchao; Xie Bingning

    2007-01-01

    There is no doubt that rare earth elements stand an important position among the essential elements of plant growth and it is long time since they are first used as plant growth promoters. Given their effects on microstructure, most reports are focused on the toxicology rather than promotion. Using cucumis sativus L. (Jin Chun No.5) as experiment material, we try to find out the nutritional effects of low Y3+ concentrations on cucumber seedlings' leaves. The present paper suggests that the rare earth elements act as micronutrients at low concentrations while they give rise to toxicity at high concentration. Benefits defeat toxicity with concentration ranging from 5 to 25μmol·L-1. Through careful study, at the Y (N03)3 concentration of 10μmol·L1 the content of chlorophyll as well as the activities of SOD, Cu-Zn SOD and the POD are the highest. It indicates 10μmol·L-1 is the optimum concentration of yttrium for promoting the cucumber growth.

  17. Effects of LaCl3 on the growth and photosynthetic characteristics ofFny-infected tobacco seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Yongsheng; HUANG Weifeng; ZHU Liyun; CHEN Jishuang

    2012-01-01

    Plant growth,gas exchange characteristics,chlorophyll fluorescence,disease index,and disease prevention efficiency of LaCl3 in tobacco (Nicotiana glutinosa) plants infected by Fny-CMV (fny stain of cucumber mosaic virus) strain were determined.Leaf area,chlorophyll and carotenoid contents,maximum photosynthesis rate,apparent quantum yield,and carboxylation efficiency dramatically decreased after 5 weeks post inoculation.The plants infected by Fny-CMV only presented much severer symptom than those infected in the presence of appropriate concentration of LaCl3.ETR (apparent rate of photosynthetic electron transport),NPQ (nonphotochemical quenching),qP (coefficient of photochemical quenching),and yield (Ⅱ) in infected tobacco plants obviously reduced in higher light intensity after 5 weeks post inoculation.And these fluorescence parameters in Fny-infected plants obviously reduced compared with those in the plants infected by Fny in the presence of LaCl3.Together with the growth status and disease index,it revealed that exogenously appropriate concentration of LaCl3 could significantly alleviate the damage of tobacco seedlings caused by Fny-CMV.

  18. Laser ablation ICP-MS reveals patterns of copper differing from zinc in growth zones of cucumber roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiyan; Gras, Michelle A; Silk, Wendy K

    2009-03-01

    Laser ablation coupled with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry was used to find Cu and Zn concentration in surface tissue along a longitudinal developmental gradient with meristem, rapidly elongating tissue, and nongrowing tissue in a model system of seedling roots of Cucumis sativus L. (cucumber). Tissue metal accumulation was determined for roots of seedlings growing on cellulosic germination paper treated with nutrient solution (controls), and also treated with concentrations of Zn (40 ppm) and Cu (10 ppm) that reduced growth. Cu content of all roots is highest at the apex and falls sharply to lower values by 2 mm from the root tip. In contrast, at moderate Zn availability (0.07 ppm), Zn content rises from the apex to 2 mm then falls throughout the remainder of the growth zone. At high external Zn the spatial pattern resembles that of Cu. Cucumber root growth zones accumulate more of each metal with higher external availability. Metal deposition rates were calculated using a continuity equation with data on local metal content and growth velocity. Deposition rates of both metals are generally highest in the rapidly elongating region, 1.5-3.5 mm, even where metal concentration is decreasing with position and root age and even when the accumulation is inhibitory to growth.

  19. Determination of set potential voltages for cucumber mosaic virus detection using screen printed carbon electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uda, M. N. A.; Hasfalina, C. M.; Samsuzana, A. A.; Faridah, S.; Rafidah A., R.; Hashim, U.; Ariffin, Shahrul A. B.; Gopinath, Subash C. B.

    2017-03-01

    Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV) is a most dangerous pathogen among the cucurbit plant which it striking cucumbers, zucchinis, squashes, watermelons but it also striking to non-cucurbit such as peppers, tobaccos, celeries, beans and tomatoes. Symptoms shown by this virus when they starting to strike are very significant and at the end can kill the hosts they infected. In order to detect these viruses, biosensor such as screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) is developed and fixes a set potential voltage is defined using Chronoamperometry (CM) immunosensor technique. For short introduction, CM is a process which is a constant applied potential voltage between the working and reference electrode is maintained in order to create an electrons transfer for the oxidation or reduction species taking place at the surface of working electrode is measured and in this manuscript, complete details about measurement were used to finding the stable set potential voltages will be pointed out.

  20. Characterization of siRNAs derived from cucumber green mottle mosaic virus in infected cucumber plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongqiang; Deng, Congliang; Shang, Qiaoxia; Zhao, Xiaoli; Liu, Xingliang; Zhou, Qi

    2016-02-01

    Virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs) of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV), a member of the genus Tobamovirus, were characterised in cucumber plants by deep sequencing. CGMMV vsiRNAs of 21-22 nt in length predominated, suggesting that there might be a conserved mechanism of DCL2 and DCL4 involvement in the biogenesis of vsiRNAs, as well as a common RNA silencing pathway in CGMMV-infected cucumber plants. The 5'-terminal base of vsiRNAs was biased towards C/A/U, suggesting that CGMMV vsiRNAs might be loaded into diverse AGO-containing RISCs to disturb the gene expression of host plants. Possible targets for some of the vsiRNAs were also predicted.

  1. Dissipation kinetics of metalaxyl in cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattan, G S; Sharma, Neeraj

    2012-05-01

    Residues of metalaxyl were estimated in cucumber fruits using Gas Liquid Chromatography (GLC) with Nitrogen phosphorus detector (NPD). Following three applications of Ridomil-MZ @ 0.3% and 0.6%, the average initial deposits of metalaxyl were observed to be 0.19 and 0.24 mg kg(-1), respectively. The residues dissipated below the limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.02 mg kg(-1) after 10 days at both the dosages. The half-life values (T(1/2)) of metalaxyl was worked out to be 3.5 and 3.0 days, respectively at 0.3% and 0.6% concentration. Thus, a waiting period of 1 day was suggested for the safe consumption of metalaxyl treated cucumber.

  2. Bacterial contamination of cucumber fruit through adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reina, Laura D; Fleming, Henry P; Breidt, Frederick

    2002-12-01

    In this study, the adhesion of bacteria to fresh cucumber surfaces in aqueous suspension was shown to be dependent on time of incubation, inoculum species and concentration, and temperature. The adhesion of bacteria to the fruit in wash water was less extensive at lower temperatures and shorter exposure times. Various species of bacteria were adsorbed to cucumber surfaces in the following relative order: Salmonella Typhimurium > Staphylococcus aureus > Lactobacillus plantarum > Listeria monocytogenes. Cells were adsorbed at all temperatures tested (5, 15, 25, and 35 degrees C) at levels that depended on incubation time, but the numbers of cells adsorbed were larger at higher incubation temperatures. Levels of adhesion of bacteria to dewaxed fruit were higher for L. monocytogenes and lower for Salmonella Typhimurium, L. plantarum, and S. aureus than were levels of adhesion to waxed fruit.

  3. Imaging technique for detection of internal defects of pickling cucumbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickling cucumbers are susceptible to damage during harvest and postharvest handling and processing. While it is easier to detect external defects, it is difficult to detect internal defects such as bruises and hollow or split cucumbers. Hyperspectral imaging technique under transmittance mode was i...

  4. Detection of defect in pickling cucumbers using hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickling cucumbers are susceptible to damage due to adverse growth condition, improper harvest timing, and inappropriate harvesting and postharvest handling operations. There are typically five to 10 percentages of harvested pickling cucumbers that are not suitable for pickling and hence should be r...

  5. Hyperspectral Imaging for Defect Detection of Pickling Cucumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book chapter reviews the recent progress on hyperspectral imaging technology for defect inspection of pickling cucumbers. The chapter first describes near-infrared hyperspectral reflectance imaging technique for the detection of bruises on pickling cucumbers. The technique showed good detection...

  6. USDA, ARS beit alpha cucumber inbred backcross line population

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of Beit Alpha cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) market type inbred backcross were released in January 2010 by the Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture. The IBL were made available to U.S. cucumber breeders to supply a source from which they may develop Beit Al...

  7. Genetic diversity and population structure of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding genetic variation in germplasm collection is essential for the conservation and their efficient use in plant breeding. Cucumber is an important vegetable crop worldwide. Previous studies revealed a low genetic diversity in cucumber, but detailed insights into the crop’s genetic structu...

  8. Biosynthesis, regulation, and domestication of bitterness in cucumber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shang, Y.; Ma, Y.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Cucurbitacins are triterpenoids that confer a bitter taste in cucurbits such as cucumber, melon, watermelon, squash, and pumpkin. These compounds discourage most pests on the plant and have also been shown to have antitumor properties. With genomics and biochemistry, we identified nine cucumber gene

  9. Effect of Heavy Metal Pollution on Cucumber POD Isoenzyme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The Experiment was carried out to study heavy metal pollution effect on cucumber POD isozyme in our experiment.The results showed that:the activities of POD in cucumber seeds increased in low concentration treatment,and decreased in high concentration treatment after being treated with heavy metal.The critical band patterns of POD isoenzyme was changed by heavy metal pollution.

  10. Bioactive compounds of sea cucumbers and their therapeutic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shujuan; Feng, Wenjing; Hu, Song; Liang, Shixiu; An, Nina; Mao, Yongjun

    2016-05-01

    Sea cucumbers belong to the Class Holothuroidea of marine invertebrates. They are commercially valuable and prized as a food and folk medicine in Asia. Nutritionally, sea cucumbers have an impressive profile of valuable nutrients such as vitamins, minerals and amino acids. A number of unique biological and pharmacological activities/properties, including anticancer, anticoagulant/antithrombotic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antihyperlipidemic, antihyperglycemic, anti-inflammatory, antihypertension and radioprotective, have been ascribed to various compounds isolated from sea cucumbers. The therapeutic properties and medicinal benefits of sea cucumbers can be linked to the presence of a wide array of bioactives, especially triterpene glycosides, acid mucopolysaccharide, sphingoid bases, glycolipids, fucosylated chondroitin sulfate, polysaccharides, phospholipids, cerebrosides, phosphatidylcholines, and other extracts and hydrolysates. This review highlights the valuable bioactive components as well as the multiple therapeutic properties of sea cucumbers with a view to exploring their potential uses as functional foods and a natural source of new multifunctional drugs.

  11. Isolation and identification of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria from cucumber rhizosphere and their effect on plant growth promotion and disease suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikhul eIslam

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR are the rhizosphere bacteria that may be utilized to augment plant growth and suppress plant diseases. The objectives of this study were to identify and characterize PGPR indigenous to cucumber rhizosphere in Bangladesh, and to evaluate their ability to suppress Phytophthora crown rot in cucumber. A total of sixty six isolates were isolated, out of which ten (PPB1, PPB2, PPB3, PPB4, PPB5, PPB8, PPB9, PPB10, PPB11 and PPB12 were selected based on their in vitro plant growth promoting attributes and antagonism of phytopathogens. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA sequences identified these isolates as new strains of Pseudomonas stutzeri, Bacillus subtilis, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and B. amyloliquefaciens. The selected isolates produced high levels (26.78 to 51.28 μg mL−1 of indole-3-acetic acid, while significant acetylene reduction activities (1.79 to 4.9 µmole C2H4 mg-1 protein h-1 were observed in eight isolates. Cucumber plants grown from seeds that were treated with these PGPR strains displayed significantly higher levels of germination, seedling vigor, growth, and N content in root and shoot tissue compared to non-treated control plants. All selected isolates were able to successfully colonize the cucumber roots. Moreover, treating cucumber seeds with these isolates significantly suppressed Phytophthora crown rot caused by Phytophthora capsici, and characteristic morphological alterations in Ph. capsici hyphae that grew towards PGPR colonies were observed. Since these PGPR inoculants exhibited multiple traits beneficial to the host plants, they may be applied in the development of new, safe, and effective seed treatments as an alternative to chemical fungicides.

  12. Garlic, from Remedy to Stimulant:Evaluation of Antifungal Potential Reveals Diversity in Phytoalexin Allicin Content among Garlic Cultivars; Allicin Containing Aqueous Garlic Extracts Trigger Antioxidants in Cucumber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikandar Hayat

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Garlic has the charisma of a potent remedy and holds its repute of a therapeutic panacea since the dawn of civilization. An integrated approach was adopted to evaluate the genetic diversity among Chinese garlic cultivars for their antifungal potency as well as allicin content distribution and, furthermore; a bioassay was performed to study the bio-stimulation mechanism of aqueous garlic extracts (AGE in the growth and physiology of cucumber (Cucumis sativus. Initially, 28 garlic cultivars were evaluated against four kinds of phytopathogenic fungi; Fusarium oxysporum, Botrytis cinerea, Verticillium dahliae and Phytopthora capsici, respectively. A capricious antifungal potential among the selected garlic cultivars was observed. HPLC fingerprinting and quantification confirmed diversity in allicin abundance among the selected cultivars. Cultivar G025, G064 and G074 had the highest allicin content of 3.98, 3.7 and 3.66 mg g-1 respectively, whereas G110 was found to have lowest allicin content of 0.66 mg g-1. Cluster analysis revealed three groups on the basis of antifungal activity and allicin content among the garlic cultivars. Cultivar G025, G2011-4 and G110 were further evaluated to authenticate the findings through different solvents and shelf life duration and G025 had the strongest antifungal activity in all conditions. Leaf disc bioassay against Phytophthora capsici and Verticillium dahliae to comparatively study direct action of AGE and Allicin aqueous standard (AAS during infection process employing eggplant and pepper leaves showed a significant reduction in infection percentage. To study the bioactivity of AGE, a bioassay was performed using cucumber seedlings and results revealed that AGE is biologically active inside cucumber seedlings and alters the defense mechanism of the plant probably activating ROS at mild concentrations. However, at higher concentrations, it might cause lipid peroxidation and membrane damage which temper the

  13. Role of cucurbitacin C in resistance to spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) in cucumber (Cucumber sativus L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balkema-Boomstra, A.G.; Zijlstra, S.; Verstappen, F.W.A.; Inggamer, H.; Mercke, P.

    2003-01-01

    Cucurbitacins are bitter triterpenoid compounds that are toxic to most organisms and occur widely in wild and cultivated Cucurbitaceae. The only cucurbitacin identified in Cucumis sativus is cucurbitacin C. The bitter taste of cucumber has been correlated with resistance to the spider mite

  14. Infectivity and complete nucleotide sequence of cucumber fruit mottle mosaic virus isolate Cm cDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Sun-Ju; Hong, Jin-Sung; Lee, Gung Pyo

    2014-07-01

    Three isolates of cucumber fruit mottle mosaic virus (CFMMV) were collected from melon, cucumber, and pumpkin plants in Korea. A full-length cDNA clone of CFMMV-Cm (melon isolate) was produced and evaluated for infectivity after T7 transcription in vitro (pT7CF-Cmflc). The complete CFMMV genome sequence of the infectious clone pT7CF-Cmflc was determined. The genome of CFMMV-Cm consisted of 6,571 nucleotides and shared high nucleotide sequence identity (98.8 %) with the Israel isolate of CFMMV. Based on the infectious clone pT7CF-Cmflc, a CaMV 35S-promoter driven cDNA clone (p35SCF-Cmflc) was subsequently constructed and sequenced. Mechanical inoculation with RNA transcripts of pT7CF-Cmflc and agro-inoculation with p35SCF-Cmflc resulted in systemic infection of cucumber and melon, producing symptoms similar to those produced by CFMMV-Cm. Progeny virus in infected plants was detected by RT-PCR, western blot assay, and transmission electron microscopy.

  15. Photosynthetic Characteristics and Ultrastructure of Chloroplast of Cucumber Under Low Light Density in Solar-Greenhouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AI Xi-zhen; GUO Yan-kui; CHEN Li-ping; XING Yu-xian

    2004-01-01

    The photosynthetic characteristics and ultrastructure of chloroplast of cucumber in solargreenhouse were studied. The result showed that the photosynthetic rate (Pn), photosynthetic ability (A350), carboxylation efficiency, light saturation point and light compensation point all declined remarkably under lowlight density, indicating that the photosynthetic characteristics of cucumber were closely related to light environment. Under iow light density, the minimal fluorescence (Fo), alterable fluorescence (Fv), photochemical efficiency of PS Ⅱ (Fv/Fm), steady fluorescence in light (Fs), maximal fluorescence (Fm′) and actual efficiency of PS Ⅱ (φPSⅡ)etc increased, indicating that the photochemical activity and efficiency for solar energy transformation enhanced, thus the light proportion used to electron transport also increased. The chlorophyll a, b, a/b and carotenoid of shading leaves decreased. However, the depressed extent of Chl a and Chl a/b were obviously larger than that of Chl b. The number of chloroplast and starch grain in cucumber leaves descended, but that of grana and lamella increased as a shaded result. The size of chloroplast and starch grain of shading leaves minished.

  16. Improving cucumber yield and water use efficiency by different-root grafting under water-deficient condition%亏缺灌溉下异根嫁接提高黄瓜产量和水分利用效率

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓英; 梁新书; 张振贤; 高丽红

    2013-01-01

    Different-root-grafting has been reported to be an effective agricultural practice to improve water use efficiency in China, however, little is known about the effect of different-root-grafting on water use efficiency under moderate deficient irrigation. To study the response of different-root-grafting (G1) to moderate deficient irrigation (12 m3/667m2, W1) and provide data support for agronomic water-saving practices in protected cultivation, this research used cucumber (Cucumis sativas L. No. c.v. zhongnong No.26) and pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch.) as scion and rootstock, respectively. And self-root grafted cucumber (G0, this research used self-root grafted-cucumber as grafted-cucumber control since there is a wound healing process for different-root grafted-cucumber during grafting) under appropriate irrigation (20 m3/667m2, W2) was used as control, and then four different treatments (i.e. W1G0, W1G1, W2G0, W2G1) were conducted to study the responses of different-root grafted-cucumber root growth and distribution, cucumber fruit yield, plant dry matter accumulation, fruit quality and water use efficiency to moderate deficient irrigation. A typical commercial greenhouse in Fangshan county, Beijing was randomly selected for field experiment from April 2011 to January 2012. The greenhouse was covered with polyethylene film without supplementary lighting or heating. Cucumber seedlings with two leaves were transplanted by hand, with double rows of 80-cm row pacing and 33-cm plant spacing. Different irrigation treatments were conducted after the resuming growth of cucumber seedlings after transplantation. The irrigation treatments W1 and W2 were started at the same time and the irrigation time was designed according to the appearance of wilting of self-root grafted cucumber seedlings under the irrigation treatment W2 and also the reviving time needed by cucumber plant. In order to prevent the test error caused by side permeability, we buried 50-cm plastic film at

  17. Pure Culture Fermentation of Brined Cucumbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchells, J L; Costilow, R N; Anderson, T E; Bell, T A

    1964-11-01

    The relative abilities of Pediococcus cerevisiae, Lactobacillus plantarum, L. brevis, and several other species of lactic acid bacteria to grow and produce acid in brined cucumbers were evaluated in pure culture fermentations. Such fermentations were made possibly by the use of two techniques, gamma radiation (0.83 to 1.00 Mrad) and hot-water blanching (66 to 80 C for 5 min), designed first to rid the cucumbers of naturally occurring, interfering, and competitive microbial groups prior to brining, followed by inoculation with the desired lactic acid bacteria. Of the nine species tested, strains of the three common to cucumber fermentations, P. cerevisiae, L. plantarum, and L. brevis, grew to the highest populations, and produced the highest levels of brine acidity and the lowest pH values in fermentations at 5.4 to 5.6% NaCl by weight; also, their sequence of active development in fermentations, with the use of a three-species mixture for inoculation, was in the species order just named. This sequence of occurrence was similar to that estimated by others for natural fermentations. The rates of growth and acid production in fermentations with a mixture of P. cerevisiae, L. plantarum, and L. brevis increased as the incubation temperature was increased from 21 to 27 to 32 C; however, the maximal populations and acidities attained were essentially the same for fermentations at each temperature. Further, these same three species were found to be the most salt tolerant of those tested; their upper limit for appreciable growth and measurable acid production was about 8% salt, whereas thermophilic species such as L. thermophilus, L. lactis, L. helveticus, L. fermenti, and L. delbrueckii exhibited a much lower salt tolerance, ranging from about 2.5 to 4.0%. However, certain strains of L. delbrueckii grew very rapidly in cucumbers brined at 2.5 to 3.0% salt, and produced sufficient acid in about 30 hr at 48 C to reduce the brine pH from above 7.0 to below 4.0. An inexpensive

  18. Rhizobacterial exopolysaccharides elicit induced resistance on cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyungseok; Kloepper, Joseph W; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2008-06-01

    The role of exopolysaccharides (EPSs) from a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium, Burkholderia gladioli IN26, on elicitation of induced systemic resistance was investigated. A purified EPS induced expression of PR- 1a::GUS on tobacco and elicited induced resistance against Colletotrichum orbiculare on cucumber. The maximum level of disease protection was noted when seeds were soaked in 200 ppm of the EPS. Our results indicate that EPS from specific rhizobacteria can elicit induced resistance and suggest that bacterial EPS might be a useful elicitor of resistance under field conditions.

  19. The genome of the cucumber, Cucumis sativus L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Sanwen; Li, Ruiqiang; Zhang, Zhonghua

    2009-01-01

    ancestral chromosomes after divergence from Cucumis melo. The sequenced cucumber genome affords insight into traits such as its sex expression, disease resistance, biosynthesis of cucurbitacin and 'fresh green' odor. We also identify 686 gene clusters related to phloem function. The cucumber genome provides......Cucumber is an economically important crop as well as a model system for sex determination studies and plant vascular biology. Here we report the draft genome sequence of Cucumis sativus var. sativus L., assembled using a novel combination of traditional Sanger and next-generation Illumina GA...

  20. The entry of cucumber mosaic virus into cucumber xylem is facilitated by co-infection with zucchini yellow mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Tomofumi; Nobuhara, Shinya; Nishimura, Miho; Ryang, Bo-Song; Naoe, Masaki; Matsumoto, Tadashi; Kosaka, Yoshitaka; Ohki, Satoshi T

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the synergistic effects of co-infection by zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) and cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) on viral distribution in the vascular tissues of cucumber. Immunohistochemical observations indicated that ZYMV was present in both the phloem and xylem tissues. ZYMV-RNA was detected in both the xylem wash and guttation fluid of ZYMV-inoculated cucumber. Steam treatment at a stem internode indicated that ZYMV enters the xylem vessels and moves through them but does not cause systemic infection in the plant. CMV distribution in singly infected cucumbers was restricted to phloem tissue. By contrast, CMV was detected in the xylem tissue of cotyledons in plants co-infected with CMV and ZYMV. Although both ZYMV-RNA and CMV-RNA were detected in the xylem wash and upper internodes of steam-treated, co-infected cucumbers grown at 24 °C, neither virus was detected in the upper leaves using an ELISA assay. Genetically modified CMV harboring the ZYMV HC-Pro gene was distributed in the xylem and phloem tissues of singly inoculated cucumber cotyledons. These results indicate that the ZYMV HC-Pro gene facilitates CMV entry into the xylem vessels of co-infected cucumbers.

  1. Anticancer Activity of Sea Cucumber Triterpene Glycosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry L. Aminin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Triterpene glycosides are characteristic secondary metabolites of sea cucumbers (Holothurioidea, Echinodermata. They have hemolytic, cytotoxic, antifungal, and other biological activities caused by membranotropic action. These natural products suppress the proliferation of various human tumor cell lines in vitro and, more importantly, intraperitoneal administration in rodents of solutions of some sea cucumber triterpene glycosides significantly reduces both tumor burden and metastasis. The anticancer molecular mechanisms include the induction of tumor cell apoptosis through the activation of intracellular caspase cell death pathways, arrest of the cell cycle at S or G2/M phases, influence on nuclear factors, NF-κB, and up-down regulation of certain cellular receptors and enzymes participating in cancerogenesis, such as EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor, Akt (protein kinase B, ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinases, FAK (focal adhesion kinase, MMP-9 (matrix metalloproteinase-9 and others. Administration of some glycosides leads to a reduction of cancer cell adhesion, suppression of cell migration and tube formation in those cells, suppression of angiogenesis, inhibition of cell proliferation, colony formation and tumor invasion. As a result, marked growth inhibition of tumors occurs in vitro and in vivo. Some holothurian triterpene glycosides have the potential to be used as P-gp mediated MDR reversal agents in combined therapy with standard cytostatics.

  2. Cucumber disease diagnosis using multispectral images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jie; Li, Hongning; Shi, Junsheng; Yang, Weiping; Liao, Ningfang

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, multispectral imaging technique for plant diseases diagnosis is presented. Firstly, multispectral imaging system is designed. This system utilizes 15 narrow-band filters, a panchromatic band, a monochrome CCD camera, and standard illumination observing environment. The spectral reflectance and color of 8 Macbeth color patches are reproduced between 400nm and 700nm in the process. In addition, spectral reflectance angle and color difference is obtained through measurements and analysis of color patches using spectrometer and multispectral imaging system. The result shows that 16 narrow-bands multispectral imaging system realizes good accuracy in spectral reflectance and color reproduction. Secondly, a horticultural plant, cucumber' familiar disease are the researching objects. 210 multispectral samples are obtained by multispectral and are classified by BP artificial neural network. The classification accuracies of Sphaerotheca fuliginea, Corynespora cassiicola, Pseudoperonospora cubensis are 100%. Trichothecium roseum and Cladosporium cucumerinum are 96.67% and 90.00%. It is confirmed that the multispectral imaging system realizes good accuracy in the cucumber diseases diagnosis.

  3. 不同双砧木嫁接对黄瓜长势、产量及蜡粉性状的影响初报%Preliminary Report about Effects of Cucumber Grafted with Different Double Rootstocks on Growth, Yield and Wax Powders Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王铁臣; 王海荣; 赵士春; 李红岭; 池美娜; 王世凯

    2011-01-01

    This experiment chose 3 kinds of pumpkin ( black seed pumpkin, brown seeds pumpkin,white seed pumpkin ) as cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L.) root stocks.Each 2 of them were combined as cucumber rootstocks.Cucumber plant growth, yield and wax powder characteristics were studied.The results indicated that, compared with serf-rooted cucumber seedlings, the growth and yield of the cucumber grafted with double root stocks was obviously strengthened.But the yield diversity showed different compared with cucumber grafted with single root stock.The yield of the cucumber grafted with white and black seed pumpkin was much higher than the others, significantly higher than the cucumber grafted with black seed pumpkin or white seed pumpkin single root stock.The yield of cucumber grafted with black seed pumpkin and brown seeds pumpkin was significantly higher than the cucumber grafted with single brown seeds pumpkin root stock, but there was no significantly difference compared with the cucumber grafted with single black seed pumpkin root stock.There was no significantly difference between the yield of cucumber grafted with double root stocks which were brown seeds pumpkin and white seeds pumpkin and the cucumber grafted with single brown seeds pumpkin or white seeds pumpkin root stock.The influence on the cucumber surface wax powder was obvious different between the 3 kinds of pumpkin root stocks, black seed pumpkin had no de-waxing powder ability, brown seeds pumpkin had stronger de-waxing powder ability, while color of the cucumber grafted with brown seeds vas bright green, without wax powder and it was a good merchandise.The wax powder influence on cucumber grafted with double rootstocks lies between the cucumbers grafted with 2 single rootstocks, and tends to the heavier wax powder root stock.%采用生产上常用的3种南瓜砧木(黑籽南瓜、褐籽南瓜、白籽南瓜)互相组合进行双砧木嫁接,研究不同双砧木嫁接对黄瓜植株长势、产量及瓜条

  4. Genetic Analysis and QTL Mapping of Fruit Peduncle Length in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Song; Wang, Ye; Zhang, Sheng-Ping; Gu, Xing-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Mechanized harvesting of cucumbers offers significant advantages compared to manual labor as both shortages and costs of labor increase. However the efficient use of machines depends on breeding plants with longer peduncles, but the genetic and molecular basis of fruit peduncle development in cucumber is not well understood. In this study, F2 populations were developed from a cross between two inbred lines, 1101 with a long peduncle and 1694 with a short peduncle. These were grown at two field sites, Hainan, with a tropical marine climate, in December 2014, and Beijing, with a warm temperate climate, in May 2015. Electron microscope examination of the pith cells in the peduncles of the two parental lines showed that line 1101 had significantly greater numbers of smaller cells compared to line 1694. The inheritance of cucumber fruit peduncle length (FPL) was investigated by the mixed major gene and polygene inheritance model. Genetic analysis indicated that FPL in cucumber is quantitatively inherited and controlled by one additive major gene and additive-dominant polygenes (D-2 model). A total of 1460 pairs of SSR (simple sequence repeat) primers were analyzed to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Two similar genetic maps with 78 SSR markers which covered 720.6 cM in seven linkage groups were constructed based on two F2 populations. QTL analysis from the data collected at the two field sites showed that there are two minor QTLs on chromosome 1, named qfpl1.1 and qfpl1.2, and one major QTL on chromosome 6, named qfpl6.1. The marker UW021226, which was the closest one to qfpl6.1, had an accuracy rate of 79.0% when tested against plants selected from populations of the two parents. The results from this study provide insights into the inheritance and molecular mechanism of the variation of FPL in cucumber, and further research will be carried out to fine map qfpl6.1 to develop more accurate markers for MAS breeding. PMID:27936210

  5. Reducing whiteflies on cucumber using intercropping with less preferred vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effectiveness of four less preferred vegetables – celery, asparagus lettuce, Malabar spinach, and edible amaranth – were investigated for suppression of two biotypes of sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on cucumber, Cucumis sativus L. (Cucurbitaceae). Int...

  6. Phase Characterization of Cucumber Growth: A Chemical Gel Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cucumber grows with complex phenomena by changing its volume and shape, which is not fully investigated and challenges agriculture and food safety industry. In order to understand the mechanism and to characterize the growth process, the cucumber is modeled as a hydrogel in swelling and its development is studied in both preharvest and postharvest stages. Based on thermodynamics, constitutive equations, incorporating biological quantities, are established. The growth behavior of cucumber follows the classic theory of continuous or discontinuous phase transition. The mechanism of bulged tail in cucumber is interpreted by phase coexistence and characterized by critical conditions. Conclusions are given for advances in food engineering and novel fabrication techniques in mechanical biology.

  7. Genetic Analysis on Bent Characters of Cucumber Fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Peng; QIN Zhiwei; WANG Lili; ZHOU Xiuyan

    2011-01-01

    Bent varieties and straight varieties were made as parents for the genetic analysis to investigate cucumber bending genetic mechanism. The results showed that the bent characters of the cucumber fruit (BCCF) were quantitative inheritance controlled by multiple genes and major genes. The additive effect played the main role and the dominance effect played the lesser role. Compared with the additive environmental variance, the dominant-environmental variance was more important and the cucumber fruit was more easily affected by the additive effect. The broad heritability and the narrow heritability of BCCF were both higher. The varieties of D0455 and D07299 could be used as parents which were benefit for improving the straight characters of the cucumber fruit

  8. THE EFFECT OF CUCUMBER ( ) EXTRACT ON ACID INDUCED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LIVINGSTON

    ... of corneal acid burn. Cucumber extract, corneal acid burn, guinea pigs, alpha hydroxyl acids, beta hydroxyl ..... cholesterol arteriosclerosis in rabbits. Circulation.12:696 ... production in human skin fibroblast cultures in vitro. Dermatol. Surg.

  9. Analysis of the systemic colonization of cucumber plants by Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, I M; Thompson, J R; García-Arenal, F

    2004-03-01

    Systemic movement of Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) in cucumber plants was shown to be from photoassimilate source to sink, thus indicating phloem transport. Nevertheless, CGMMV was not detected by immunocytochemical procedures in the intermediary cell-sieve element complex in inoculated cotyledons, where photoassimilate loading occurs. In stem internodes, CGMMV was first localized in the companion cells of the external phloem and subsequently in all tissues except the medulla, therefore suggesting leakage of the virus from, and reloading into, the transport phloem during systemic movement. In systemically infected sink leaves, CGMMV was simultaneously detected in the xylem and phloem. Interestingly, CGMMV accumulated to high levels in the differentiating tracheids of young leaves implying that the xylem could be involved in the systemic movement of CGMMV. This possibility was tested using plants in which cell death was induced in a portion of the stem by steam treatment. At 24 degrees C, steam treatment effectively prevented the systemic movement of CGMMV, even though viral RNA was detected in washes of the xylem above the steamed internode suggesting that xylem circulation occurred. At 29 degrees C, CGMMV systemically infected steam-treated cucumber plants, indicating that CGMMV can move systemically via the xylem. Xylem transport of CGMMV was, however, less efficient than phloem transport in terms of the time required for systemic infection and the percentage of plants infected.

  10. Effects of exogenous spermidine on the photosynthesis of Cucumis sativus L. seedlings under rhizosphere hypoxia stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian WANG; Suping WANG; Shirong GUO; Yanjun SUN

    2008-01-01

    With water culture, this paper studied the effects of exogenous spermidine (Spd) on the net photosynthetic rate (Pn),intercellular CO2 concentra-tions (Ci),stomatal conductance(Gs),transpiration rate efficiency (CE) of cucumber seedlings under hypoxia stress. The results showed that Pn decreased gradually under the hypoxia stress, and reached the minimum 10 days later, which was 63.33% of the control. Compared with that of the hypoxia-stressed plants, the Pn 10 days after the application of exogenous Spd increased by 1.25 times. A negative correlation (R2=0.473-0.7118) was found between Pn and Ci, and Gs and Tr changed in wider ranges, which decreased under the hypoxia-stress, but increased under the hypoxia-stress plus exogenous Spd application. There was a significant positive correlation between Gs and Tr (R2=0.7821-0.9458), but these two parameters had no significant correlation with Pn. The 63.01% and 72.33%, respectively, while the hypoxia stress by 23% and 14%, respectively. The photo-inhibition of cucumber seedlings under hypoxia stress was mainly caused by non-stomatal inhibition, while the exogenous Spd alleviating the hypoxia stress by repairing photosyn-thesis systems.

  11. [Effects of exogenous spermidine on Cucumis sativus L. seedlings photosynthesis under root zone hypoxia stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tian; Wang, Suping; Guo, Shirong; Sun, Yanjun

    2006-09-01

    With water culture, this paper studied the effects of exogenous spermidine (Spd) on the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), intercellular CO2 concentrations (Ci), stomatal conductance (Gs), transpiration rate (Tr), apparent quantum yield (phi c), and carboxylation efficiency (CE) of cucumber seedlings tinder hypoxia stress. The results showed that the Pn decreased gradually under hypoxia stress, and reached the minimum 10 days after by 63. 33% of the control. Compared with that of hypoxia-stressed plants, the Pn after 10 days application of exogenous Spd increased 1.25 times. A negative correlation (R2 = 0.4730 - 0.7118) was found between Pn and Ci. Gs and Tr changed in wider ranges, which decreased under hypoxia-stress, but increased under hypoxia-stress plus exogenous Spd application. There was a significant positive correlation between Gs and Tr (R2 = 0.7821 - 0.9458), but these two parameters had no significant correlation with Pn; Hypoxia stress induced a decrease of phi c and CE by 63.01% and 72.33%, respectively, while hypoxia stress plus exogenous Spd application made phi c and CE increase by 23% and 14%, respectively. The photo-inhibition of cucumber seedlings under hypoxia stress was mainly caused by non-stomatal limitation, while exogenous Spd alleviated the hypoxia stress by repairing photosynthesis system.

  12. Functional characterization of gibberellin oxidases from cucumber, Cucumis sativus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta Lange, Maria João; Liebrandt, Anja; Arnold, Linda; Chmielewska, Sara-Miriam; Felsberger, André; Freier, Eduard; Heuer, Monika; Zur, Doreen; Lange, Theo

    2013-06-01

    Cucurbits have been used widely to elucidate gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis. With the recent availability of the genome sequence for the economically important cucurbit Cucumis sativus, sequence data became available for all genes potentially involved in GA biosynthesis for this species. Sixteen cDNAs were cloned from root and shoot of 3-d to 7-d old seedlings and from mature seeds of C. sativus. Two cDNAs code for GA 7-oxidases (CsGA7ox1, and -2), five for GA 20-oxidases (CsGA20ox1, -2, -3, -4, and -5), four for GA 3-oxidases (CsGA3ox1, -2, -3, and -4), and another five for GA 2-oxidases (CsGA2ox1, -2, -3, -4, and -5). Their enzymatic activities were investigated by heterologous expression of the cDNAs in Escherichia coli and incubation of the cell lysates with (14)C-labelled, D2-labelled, or unlabelled GA-substrates. The two GA 7-oxidases converted GA12-aldehyde to GA12 efficiently. CsGA7ox1 converted GA12 to GA14, to 15α-hydroxyGA12, and further to 15α-hydroxyGA14. CsGA7ox2 converted GA12 to its 12α-hydroxylated analogue GA111. All five GA 20-oxidases converted GA12 to GA9 as a major product, and to GA25 as a minor product. The four GA 3-oxidases oxidized the C19-GA GA9 to GA4 as the only product. In addition, three of them (CsGA3ox2, -3, and -4) converted the C20-GA GA12 to GA14. The GA 2-oxidases CsGA2ox1, -2, -3, and -4 oxidized the C19-GAs GA9 and GA4 to GA34 and GA51, respectively. CsGA2ox2, -3, and -4 converted GA51 and GA34 further to respective GA-catabolites. In addition to C19-GAs, CsGA2ox4 also converted the C20-GA GA12 to GA110. In contrast, CsGA2ox5 oxidized only the C20 GA12 to GA110 as the sole product. As shown for CsGA20ox1 and CsGA3ox1, similar reactions were catalysed with 13-hydroxlyated GAs as substrates. It is likely that these enzymes are also responsible for the biosynthesis of 13-hydroxylated GAs in vivo that occur at low levels in cucumber.

  13. Sea Cucumber: New source of Protein for Human Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Vaz Pratas

    2014-01-01

    Aquaculture, probably the fastest growing food-producing sector, now accounts for nearly 50 percent of the world's food fish consumed by humans, and this share is expected to increase further to meet future demand. Sea cucumbers are considered highly marketable product and this has resulted in an increasing overfishing of natural sea cucumber stocks. Nevertheless, these resources are almost unexploited in the Mediterranean region. Many species of holothurians have been recognized as an altern...

  14. 生物有机肥在日光温室黄瓜上的应用效果研究%Application Efficiency Study on Bio-organic Fertilizer on Greenhouse Cucumber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾大路; 梁晓辉; 吴洪生; 王伟中

    2012-01-01

    研究生物有机肥对黄瓜生长及产量的影响,为日光温室黄瓜生产科学应用生物有机肥提供技术依据。在丁集镇娘庄村的日光温室内进行田间试验,品种为滓春3号,以不施用肥料的土壤为对照,研究施用化肥、生物有机肥与化学肥料配合施用、施用生物有机肥对黄瓜生长、产量、品质等的影响。通过对黄瓜植株性状、产量性状等方面的考察发现,在日光温室内应用肥料均可以促进黄瓜根系的生长、培育壮苗,提高黄瓜的产量性状,增强黄瓜的光合效率,增加黄瓜的产量,改善黄瓜的商品性和品质,增加黄瓜的经济效益,但是以生物有机肥与化学肥料配合施用的效果最好。在日光温室内施用生物有机肥可以促进黄瓜的生长,增加黄瓜产量,提高日光温室种植黄瓜的经济效益。%To provide technical basis for greenhouse cucumber production and scientific applications of bio-organic fertilizer,bi-oorganic fertilizer on the growth and yield of cucumber was studied.Field trials in the solar greenhouse Dingji Zhen Niang village, the 3rd Jinchun varieties,soil application of fertilizers for the control,application of chemical fertilizers,bio-organic manure and chemical fertilizers combined application,the effect of application of bio-organic fertilizer on the growth of cucumber,yield and quality was studied.Found by inspection of the cucumber plant traits, yield, etc., in greenhouse application of fertilizer could promote the growth of cucumber roots,nurturing seedlings, cucumber yield traits,and enhance the photosynthetic efficiency of cucumber to increase the yield of cucumber and improve the marketability and quality of cucumber,increase the economic benefits of cucumber. But with the application of the best bio-organic manure and chemical fertilizers,application of bio-organic fertilizer could promote the growth of cucumber increased cucumber yield

  15. The genome sequence of the North-European cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) unravels evolutionary adaptation mechanisms in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wóycicki, Rafał; Witkowicz, Justyna; Gawroński, Piotr; Dąbrowska, Joanna; Lomsadze, Alexandre; Pawełkowicz, Magdalena; Siedlecka, Ewa; Yagi, Kohei; Pląder, Wojciech; Seroczyńska, Anna; Śmiech, Mieczysław; Gutman, Wojciech; Niemirowicz-Szczytt, Katarzyna; Bartoszewski, Grzegorz; Tagashira, Norikazu; Hoshi, Yoshikazu; Borodovsky, Mark; Karpiński, Stanisław; Malepszy, Stefan; Przybecki, Zbigniew

    2011-01-01

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), a widely cultivated crop, has originated from Eastern Himalayas and secondary domestication regions includes highly divergent climate conditions e.g. temperate and subtropical. We wanted to uncover adaptive genome differences between the cucumber cultivars and what sort of evolutionary molecular mechanisms regulate genetic adaptation of plants to different ecosystems and organism biodiversity. Here we present the draft genome sequence of the Cucumis sativus genome of the North-European Borszczagowski cultivar (line B10) and comparative genomics studies with the known genomes of: C. sativus (Chinese cultivar--Chinese Long (line 9930)), Arabidopsis thaliana, Populus trichocarpa and Oryza sativa. Cucumber genomes show extensive chromosomal rearrangements, distinct differences in quantity of the particular genes (e.g. involved in photosynthesis, respiration, sugar metabolism, chlorophyll degradation, regulation of gene expression, photooxidative stress tolerance, higher non-optimal temperatures tolerance and ammonium ion assimilation) as well as in distributions of abscisic acid-, dehydration- and ethylene-responsive cis-regulatory elements (CREs) in promoters of orthologous group of genes, which lead to the specific adaptation features. Abscisic acid treatment of non-acclimated Arabidopsis and C. sativus seedlings induced moderate freezing tolerance in Arabidopsis but not in C. sativus. This experiment together with analysis of abscisic acid-specific CRE distributions give a clue why C. sativus is much more susceptible to moderate freezing stresses than A. thaliana. Comparative analysis of all the five genomes showed that, each species and/or cultivars has a specific profile of CRE content in promoters of orthologous genes. Our results constitute the substantial and original resource for the basic and applied research on environmental adaptations of plants, which could facilitate creation of new crops with improved growth and yield in

  16. The genome sequence of the North-European cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. unravels evolutionary adaptation mechanisms in plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Wóycicki

    Full Text Available Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L., a widely cultivated crop, has originated from Eastern Himalayas and secondary domestication regions includes highly divergent climate conditions e.g. temperate and subtropical. We wanted to uncover adaptive genome differences between the cucumber cultivars and what sort of evolutionary molecular mechanisms regulate genetic adaptation of plants to different ecosystems and organism biodiversity. Here we present the draft genome sequence of the Cucumis sativus genome of the North-European Borszczagowski cultivar (line B10 and comparative genomics studies with the known genomes of: C. sativus (Chinese cultivar--Chinese Long (line 9930, Arabidopsis thaliana, Populus trichocarpa and Oryza sativa. Cucumber genomes show extensive chromosomal rearrangements, distinct differences in quantity of the particular genes (e.g. involved in photosynthesis, respiration, sugar metabolism, chlorophyll degradation, regulation of gene expression, photooxidative stress tolerance, higher non-optimal temperatures tolerance and ammonium ion assimilation as well as in distributions of abscisic acid-, dehydration- and ethylene-responsive cis-regulatory elements (CREs in promoters of orthologous group of genes, which lead to the specific adaptation features. Abscisic acid treatment of non-acclimated Arabidopsis and C. sativus seedlings induced moderate freezing tolerance in Arabidopsis but not in C. sativus. This experiment together with analysis of abscisic acid-specific CRE distributions give a clue why C. sativus is much more susceptible to moderate freezing stresses than A. thaliana. Comparative analysis of all the five genomes showed that, each species and/or cultivars has a specific profile of CRE content in promoters of orthologous genes. Our results constitute the substantial and original resource for the basic and applied research on environmental adaptations of plants, which could facilitate creation of new crops with improved growth

  17. Genetic diversity and population structure of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Lv

    Full Text Available Knowing the extent and structure of genetic variation in germplasm collections is essential for the conservation and utilization of biodiversity in cultivated plants. Cucumber is the fourth most important vegetable crop worldwide and is a model system for other Cucurbitaceae, a family that also includes melon, watermelon, pumpkin and squash. Previous isozyme studies revealed a low genetic diversity in cucumber, but detailed insights into the crop's genetic structure and diversity are largely missing. We have fingerprinted 3,342 accessions from the Chinese, Dutch and U.S. cucumber collections with 23 highly polymorphic Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR markers evenly distributed in the genome. The data reveal three distinct populations, largely corresponding to three geographic regions. Population 1 corresponds to germplasm from China, except for the unique semi-wild landraces found in Xishuangbanna in Southwest China and East Asia; population 2 to Europe, America, and Central and West Asia; and population 3 to India and Xishuangbanna. Admixtures were also detected, reflecting hybridization and migration events between the populations. The genetic background of the Indian germplasm is heterogeneous, indicating that the Indian cucumbers maintain a large proportion of the genetic diversity and that only a small fraction was introduced to other parts of the world. Subsequently, we defined a core collection consisting of 115 accessions and capturing over 77% of the SSR alleles. Insight into the genetic structure of cucumber will help developing appropriate conservation strategies and provides a basis for population-level genome sequencing in cucumber.

  18. Sea Cucumbers Metabolites as Potent Anti-Cancer Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveena B. Janakiram

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Sea cucumbers and their extracts have gained immense popularity and interest among researchers and nutritionists due to their nutritive value, potential health benefits, and use in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases. Many areas of the world use sea cucumbers in traditional foods and folk medicine. Though the actual components and their specific functions still remain to be investigated, most sea cucumber extracts are being studied for their anti-inflammatory functions, immunostimulatory properties, and for cancer prevention and treatment. There is large scope for the discovery of additional bioactive, valuable compounds from this natural source. Sea cucumber extracts contain unique components, such as modified triterpene glycosides, sulfated polysaccharides, glycosphingolipids, and esterified phospholipids. Frondanol A5, an isopropyl alcohol/water extract of the enzymatically hydrolyzed epithelia of the edible North Atlantic sea cucumber, Cucumaria frondosa, contains monosulfated triterpenoid glycoside Frondoside A, the disulfated glycoside Frondoside B, the trisulfated glycoside Frondoside C, 12-methyltetradecanoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and fucosylated chondroitin sulfate. We have extensively studied the efficacy of this extract in preventing colon cancer in rodent models. In this review, we discuss the anti-inflammatory, immunostimulatory, and anti-tumor properties of sea cucumber extracts.

  19. Proteomic Analysis of Cucumber Defense Rresponses Induced by Propamocarb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Peng; QIN Zhi-wei; WU Tao; ZHOU Xiu-yan; XIN Ming; GUO Qian-qian

    2013-01-01

    Propamocarb is an agricultural chemical that has been widely used to protect cucumber plants from downy mildew. To understand the mechanisms of cucumber defense responses to propamocarb, we investigated the physiological and proteomic responses of the cucumber line D0351 with propamocarb application. We found that after treatment with propamocarb, the activities of detoxifying enzymes (glutathione reductase, GR; glutathione S-tramsferase, GST) and soluble sugar content of cucumber fruit were signiifcantly increased, but malonaldehyde (MDA) content was signiifcantly reduced. To identify components of propamocarb responsive signaling, we compared the high resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) protein proifles of control and propamocarb-treated fruits, and identiifed 18 differentially expressed (13 up-regulated and 5 down-regulated) proteins induced by propamocarb which were determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-lfight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). The majority of the proteins had functions related to detoxication, energy and transport, protein biosynthesis, regulating reactions and defending against stresses. A real-time quantitative reverse transcriptional-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to compare transcript and protein accumulation patterns for 18 candidate proteins, and the expression of 14 was consistent at both transcript and protein levels. The responses of cucumber proteome to propamocarb seemed complex; the identified proteins may play an important role in regulating adaptation activities following exposure to propamocarb. Data presented herein may shed light on understanding cucumber fruit defense responses under propamocarb treatment.

  20. Sea Cucumbers Metabolites as Potent Anti-Cancer Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janakiram, Naveena B; Mohammed, Altaf; Rao, Chinthalapally V

    2015-05-12

    Sea cucumbers and their extracts have gained immense popularity and interest among researchers and nutritionists due to their nutritive value, potential health benefits, and use in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases. Many areas of the world use sea cucumbers in traditional foods and folk medicine. Though the actual components and their specific functions still remain to be investigated, most sea cucumber extracts are being studied for their anti-inflammatory functions, immunostimulatory properties, and for cancer prevention and treatment. There is large scope for the discovery of additional bioactive, valuable compounds from this natural source. Sea cucumber extracts contain unique components, such as modified triterpene glycosides, sulfated polysaccharides, glycosphingolipids, and esterified phospholipids. Frondanol A5, an isopropyl alcohol/water extract of the enzymatically hydrolyzed epithelia of the edible North Atlantic sea cucumber, Cucumaria frondosa, contains monosulfated triterpenoid glycoside Frondoside A, the disulfated glycoside Frondoside B, the trisulfated glycoside Frondoside C, 12-methyltetradecanoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and fucosylated chondroitin sulfate. We have extensively studied the efficacy of this extract in preventing colon cancer in rodent models. In this review, we discuss the anti-inflammatory, immunostimulatory, and anti-tumor properties of sea cucumber extracts.

  1. In situ localization and tissue distribution of the replication-associated proteins of Cucumber mosaic virus in tobacco and cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cillo, Fabrizio; Roberts, Ian M; Palukaitis, Peter

    2002-11-01

    The replication-associated proteins encoded by Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), the 1a and 2a proteins, were detected by immunogold labeling in two host species of this virus, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus). In both hosts, the 1a and 2a proteins colocalized predominantly to the vacuolar membranes, the tonoplast. While plus-strand CMV RNAs were found distributed throughout the cytoplasm by in situ hybridization, minus-strand CMV RNAs were barely detectable but were found associated with the tonoplast. In both cucumber and tobacco, 2a protein was detected at higher densities than 1a protein. The 1a and 2a proteins also showed quantitative differences with regard to tissue distributions in tobacco and cucumber. About three times as much 2a protein was detected in CMV-infected cucumber tissues as in CMV-infected tobacco tissues. In tobacco, high densities of these proteins were observed only in vascular bundle cells of minor veins. In contrast, in cucumber, high densities of 1a and 2a proteins were observed in mesophyll cells, followed by epidermis cells, with only low levels being observed in vascular bundle cells. Differences were also observed in the distributions of 2a protein and capsid protein in vascular bundle cells of the two host species. These observations may represent differences in the relative rates of tissue infection in different hosts or differences in the extent of virus replication in vascular tissues of different hosts.

  2. The influence of soil from the side space of the street on germination capacity and some morphological characters of seedling s of selected plants species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Pałys

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Germination capacity, length of roots and seedlings and air-dry matter of plants of soybean, cucumber, buskwheat, winter wheat and white mustard were estimated in four soil material: bare soil and grass-covered soil from a side-space ofroads with heavy traffic. soil from a farming field and washed, calcinated sand (pure sand. Highest germination capacity of investigated plants was found on pure sand. Seedlings germinated on soil from the grassy side space of the street had longer aboveground parts in comparison with those germinating on other soil material. Significantly smaller length of abovegro und parts of seedlings were found on the object with washed and calcinated sand. On the pure sand, plant seedlings formed higher air-dry matter in comparison with the soil from a farming field. Independently of soil material, soybean and winter wheat seedlings formed the longest roots, aboveground parts and highest content of air-dry matter. On the soil from the grassy side space of the street roots of seedlings were significantly longer than roots of seedlings germinated on soil from a farming field. Greater content of some heavy metals in soil from side space ofthe street had no influence on germination capacity and investigated morphological characters of tested pIants.

  3. 不同配方基质对黄瓜幼苗生长的影响%Effects of Different Substrate Formula on Seedling Growth of Cucumis sativus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘全军; 杨慧玲; 李胜利; 孙治强

    2011-01-01

    Effects of different medium mix substrates (sawdust, residue of mushroom culture and peat moss) on seedling growth of Cucumis sativus L. were studied. The results showed that decomposition had a great influence on physical and chemical properties of sawdust. When decomposed sawdust and residue of mushroom culture were used as soil-mix for cucumber seedling production, there were no irregular emergence and yellowing of seedlings. In our experiments, M3 (60% sawdust + 30% residue of mushroom culture +10% peat moss) and M4(60% sawdust + 40% residue from mushroom culture) were better performing soil-mix for cucumber seedling production.%研究了以锯末、菇渣为基本原料的不同基质配方对黄瓜幼苗生长发育的影响.结果表明,腐熟对锯末的理化性质有很大的影响;以腐熟锯末和菇渣育苗时,未发现出苗不齐和幼苗黄化现象;试验所用基质配方中,M3(60%锯末+30%菇渣+10%草炭)和M4(60%锯末+40%菇渣)是较好的黄瓜育苗无土基质配方.

  4. Predicting keeping quality of batches of numbers of cucumber fruit based on a physiological mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, R.E.; Tijskens, L.M.M.; Kooten, van O.

    2002-01-01

    The keeping quality for a cucumber, defined as the time the colour remains acceptable to the consumer, depends on the state of the chlorophyll metabolism. By building a physiological model of the chlorophyll metabolism for cucumbers and using colour data from cucumbers stored at 12, 20 and 28 °C,

  5. Detection of fruit fly infestation in pickling cucumbers using a hyperspectral reflectance/transmittance imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit fly infestation can be a serious problem in pickling cucumber production. In the United States and many other countries, there is zero tolerance for fruit flies in pickled cucumber products. Currently, processors rely on manual inspection to detect and remove fruit fly-infested cucumbers, whic...

  6. Development of automated inspection technology for quality grading of pickling cucumbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickling cucumbers are susceptible to external and internal damage during growth, harvest, transport, and postharvest handling. It is estimated that approximately 5-10% of harvested pickling cucumbers fall into the defect category. Pickling cucumber quality defect can occur in the form of soft or wa...

  7. QTL mapping of parthenocarpic fruit set in North American processing cucumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthenocarpy is a desirable trait with potential for increasing yield and quality in US processing cucumber production. Many successful parthenocarpic fresh market cucumber varieties have been developed, but the genetic and molecular mechanisms for parthenocarpic expression in cucumber is largely u...

  8. Lactobacilli and tartrazine as causative agents of a red colored spoilage in cucumber pickle products

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cucumber pickling industry has sporadically experienced spoilage outbreaks in fermented cucumber products characterized by development of red color on the surface of the cucumbers. Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus paracasei were isolated from two outbreaks of this spoilage which occurred a...

  9. Predicting keeping quality of batches of numbers of cucumber fruit based on a physiological mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, R.E.; Tijskens, L.M.M.; Kooten, van O.

    2002-01-01

    The keeping quality for a cucumber, defined as the time the colour remains acceptable to the consumer, depends on the state of the chlorophyll metabolism. By building a physiological model of the chlorophyll metabolism for cucumbers and using colour data from cucumbers stored at 12, 20 and 28 °C, th

  10. Effect of electron beam irradiation on seed germination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Seunghee; Bae, Youngmin [Changwon Univ., Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    Effect of electron beam irradiation on seed germination was investigated in this research. Electron beam of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 kGy was irradiated to the seeds of lettuce, green onion and cucumber, and the irradiated seeds were incubated at 25 .deg. Cn Nitsch medium solidified with 0.2% Phytagel. Germination percentage and the length of the sprouts were determined after 72 hours. Germination percentage of lettuce seeds was greatly reduced by the irradiation, and that of the green onion and cucumber were moderately reduced or unchanged by the irradiation. Although average length of the lettuce sprouts was reduced severely, that of the green onion and cucumber was unchanged or moderately reduced. Conclusively, electron beam irradiation might be a useful way of disinfecting some plant seeds including green onion and cucumber.

  11. Influence of Fertilization System on the Quality of Cucumbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe CÎMPEANU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Different types of cucumbers culture, respectively organic system and the system of chemical and organic fertilization can influence vegetable quality. The present study was carried out in a solarium on a farm, in six experimental variants, three replications. Three variants for fertilization systems with two cucumbers cultivars were used. The biological material used in the experiments consisted of the cultivars ‘Triumf’ F1 and ‘Mirabelle’ F1. Fertilization systems used were organic with manure, classic with chemical fertilizers and soluble complex fertilizers with fertigation. In the present research agrochemical and biochemical characteristics were analysed and also weight of fruits and yield on plants and kg/m2 were measured. Agrochemical characteristics were: contents of nitrates, phosphorus and potassium from cucumbers and the biochemical characteristics measured were: acidity, soluble carbohydrates, vitamin C and dry matter. The results showed that the fertilization with soluble complex fertilizers in addition with fertigation assured the entire necessary for the growth and fructification of cucumbers. The presence of chemical fertilizers do not influence in a negative way the nitrates, phosphorus and potassium content and the quality of consumption of cucumbers was assured. Regarding the cultivars the best yield and quality results were obtained to ‘Mirabelle’ F1.

  12. Sea Cucumber: New source of Protein for Human Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Vaz Pratas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture, probably the fastest growing food-producing sector, now accounts for nearly 50 percent of the world's food fish consumed by humans, and this share is expected to increase further to meet future demand. Sea cucumbers are considered highly marketable product and this has resulted in an increasing overfishing of natural sea cucumber stocks. Nevertheless, these resources are almost unexploited in the Mediterranean region. Many species of holothurians have been recognized as an alternative source of first quality protein and considered a putative functional food, like hypocholesterolemic proprieties and contain many other bioactive compounds. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine and compare the protein content of two sea cucumber species, Holothuria forskali and Stichopus regalis. The Kjeldahl method was used to determine the crude protein through the measurement of nitrogen amount in each sample. The obtained results demonstrated that both species contain high protein levels, with higher results for S. regalis, which revealed values between 19,1% and 20,4%. H. forskali showed a protein level among 12,1% and 15,4%. Holothurian protein levels reveal great potential for human consumption. Those resources can be used as a partial substitute of fish meal (eg. sea bream nutrition, either to intern market as well as for exportation to Asian countries. Sea cucumber farming could have lucrative potential in the Mediterranean, converting sea cucumbers into aquaculture value-added products bringing to this region profitable economic benefits.

  13. Ultrastructures of Colletotrichum orbiculare in the Leaves of Cucumber Plants Expressing Induced Systemic Resistance Mediated by Glomus intraradices BEG110.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeun, Yong Chull; Lee, Yun Jung; Kim, Ki Woo; Kim, Su Jung; Lee, Sang Woo

    2008-12-01

    The colonization of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices BEG110 in the soil caused a decrease in disease severity in cucumber plants after fungal inoculation with Colletotrichum orbiculare. In order to illustrate the resistance mechanism mediated by G. intraradices BEG110, infection patterns caused by C. orbiculare in the leaves of cucumber plants and the host cellular responses were characterized. These properties were characterized using transmission electron microscopy on the leaves of cucumber plants grown in soil colonized with G. intraradices BEG110. In the untreated plants, inter- and intra-cellular fungal hyphae were observed throughout the leaf tissues during both the biotrophic and necrotrophic phases of infection. The cytoplasm of fungal hyphae appeared intact during the biotrophic phase, suggesting no defense response against the fungus. However, several typical resistance responses were observed in the plants when treated with G. intraradices BEG110 including the formation of sheaths around the intracellular hyphae or a thickening of host cell walls. These observations suggest that the resistance mediated by G. intraradices BEG110 most often occurs in the symplast of the host cells rather than in the apoplast. In addition, this resistance is similar to those mediated by biotic inducers such as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria.

  14. Phloem unloading follows an extensive apoplasmic pathway in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) fruit from anthesis to marketable maturing stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liping; Sun, Huihui; Li, Ruifu; Zhang, Lingyun; Wang, Shaohui; Sui, Xiaolei; Zhang, Zhenxian

    2011-11-01

    The phloem unloading pathway remains unclear in fruits of Cucurbitaceae, a classical stachyose-transporting species with bicollateral phloem. Using a combination of electron microscopy, transport of phloem-mobile symplasmic tracer carboxyfluorescein, assays of acid invertase and sucrose transporter, and [(14)C]sugar uptake, the phloem unloading pathway was studied in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) fruit from anthesis to the marketable maturing stage. Structural investigations showed that the sieve element-companion cell (SE-CC) complex of the vascular bundles feeding fruit flesh is apparently symplasmically restricted. Imaging of carboxyfluorescein unloading showed that the dye remained confined to the phloem strands of the vascular bundles in the whole fruit throughout the stages examined. A 37 kDa acid invertase was located predominantly in the cell walls of SE-CC complexes and parenchyma cells. Studies of [(14)C]sugar uptake suggested that energy-driven transporters may be functional in sugar trans-membrane transport within symplasmically restricted SE-CC complex, which was further confirmed by the existence of a functional plasma membrane sucrose transporter (CsSUT4) in cucumber fruit. These data provide a clear evidence for an apoplasmic phloem unloading pathway in cucumber fruit. A presumption that putative raffinose or stachyose transporters may be involved in soluble sugars unloading was discussed.

  15. Biological and Molecular Characterization of Cucumber mosaic virus Subgroup II Isolate Causing Severe Mosaic in Cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Reenu; Bhardwaj, Pooja; Singh, Lakhmir; Zaidi, Aijaz A; Hallan, Vipin

    2013-06-01

    Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) has a wide host range causing severe damage in many important agricultural and ornamental crops. Earlier reports showed the prevalence of CMV subgroup I isolates in India. However, some recent reports point towards increasing incidence of subgroup II isolates in the country. The complete genome of a CMV isolate causing severe mosaic in cucumber was characterized and its phylogenetic analysis with other 21 CMV isolates reported worldwide clustered it with subgroup II strains. The genome comprised of RNA 1 (3,379 nucleotides), RNA 2 (3,038 nucleotides) and RNA 3 (2,206 nucleotides). The isolate showed highest homology with subgroup II isolates: 95.1-98.7, 87.7-98.0, and 85.4-97.1 % within RNA1, RNA2, and RNA3, respectively. RNA1 and RNA2 were closely related to the Japanese isolate while RNA3 clustered with an American isolate. Host range studies revealed that isolate showed severe mosaic symptoms on Nicotiana spp. and Cucumis spp. The isolate induced leaf deformation and mild filiform type symptoms in tomato. To best of our knowledge this is the first report of complete genome of CMV subgroup II isolate from India.

  16. THE IMPACT OF SILICON ON TRANSCRIPTS RELATED TO CUCUMBER MOSAIC VIRUS INFECTION IN CUCUMBER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holz, S; Kube, M; Bartoszewski, G; Büttner, C

    2015-01-01

    The role of soluble silicon (Si) in alleviating viral plant infections is largely unknown. In order to analyse this gap in knowledge, this study provides insights into the relative gene expression data obtained from 1) control, 2) Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV)-infected and 3) sodium silica-treated, CMV-infected Cucumis sativus line B10 tissue cultures regenerated plants. The absence or presence of CMV was determined through RT-PCR, six days' post-inoculation. qRT-PCR was performed on five selected host genes related to CMV-defence (argonaute protein, WRKY transcription factor) and replication (chaperone, heat shock cognate protein, aquaporin). Relative gene expressions from Si-treated, CMV-infected clones were not significantly different from CMV-infected clones, but they were significantly different from the control plants. The upregulation of the chaperone, and heat shock cognate genes in Si-treated clones, is associated with enhanced virus replication, while the gene expression of the transcription factor increases and is related to defence, in contrast to decreased expression in CMV-infected clones. Aquaporin gene expression was downregulated and the argonaute expression was unaffected in both Si-treated, CMV-infected as well as CMV-infected clones. Since both alleviating and supportive gene shifts are observed in Si-treated plantlets for key genes related to the virus infection examined herein, sodium silica is suggested to have a neutral and limited impact on CMV infection in cucumber cultures.

  17. An Improved Bioassay for Cytokinins Using Cucumber Cotyledons 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, R. A.; Kallidumbil, V.; Steele, P.

    1982-01-01

    The cucumber cotyledon greening bioassay is frequently used for detecting cytokinins. Beneficial modifications of the original technique included using 5-day-old cucumber (Cucumus sativus L., cv. National Pickling) cotyledons treated with combinations of 40 millimolar KCl and various concentrations of cytokinins. A dark incubation period of 20 hours was followed by an exposure to light for 3.5 hours. Under these conditions, extremely low (0.0001 milligram per liter) concentrations of N6-benzyladenine, zeatin, kinetin, or zeatin riboside can be detected. Of the four cytokinins tested, kinetin appeared to be the least active. With these improvements, the assay is 10 times more sensitive than is the previously described cucumber cotyledon greening bioassay for cytokinins. PMID:16662273

  18. An improved bioassay for cytokinins using cucumber cotyledons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, R A; Kallidumbil, V; Steele, P

    1982-03-01

    The cucumber cotyledon greening bioassay is frequently used for detecting cytokinins. Beneficial modifications of the original technique included using 5-day-old cucumber (Cucumus sativus L., cv. National Pickling) cotyledons treated with combinations of 40 millimolar KCl and various concentrations of cytokinins. A dark incubation period of 20 hours was followed by an exposure to light for 3.5 hours. Under these conditions, extremely low (0.0001 milligram per liter) concentrations of N(6)-benzyladenine, zeatin, kinetin, or zeatin riboside can be detected. Of the four cytokinins tested, kinetin appeared to be the least active. With these improvements, the assay is 10 times more sensitive than is the previously described cucumber cotyledon greening bioassay for cytokinins.

  19. Molds in Brined Cucumbers: Cause of Softening During Air-Purging of Fermentations †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costilow, Ralph N.; Gates, Karen; Lacy, Melvyn L.

    1980-01-01

    Softening of cucumbers in fermentations purged at high air-flow rates was caused by molds growing in the brined cucumbers, not in the brine. This conclusion is based on the following results: (i) no microorganisms were isolated in significant numbers from brines that caused softening of pasteurized brined cucumbers, (ii) no pectinolytic enzyme activities were produced in cucumber brines in the absence of cucumbers, (iii) the pickles in some air-purged fermentations became very soft without the appearance of any pectinolytic enzyme activity in the brine, (iv) mold hyphae were consistently observed in tissues of soft pickles, (v) molds consistently developed in cultures of slices of surface sterilized cucumbers taken from fermentations in which soft pickles were subsequently found, and (vi) molds belonging to the genera Alternaria, Fusarium, and Mucor isolated from slices all softened pasteurized brined cucumbers. Images PMID:16345619

  20. Effect of Mentha x piperita essential oil and monoterpenes on cucumber root membrane potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffei, M; Camusso, W; Sacco, S

    2001-11-01

    Peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) essential oil and its main components were assessed for their ability to interfere with plant plasma membrane potentials. Tests were conducted on root segments isolated from etiolated seedlings of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Increasing the concentration of peppermint essential oil from 5 to 50 ppm caused a decrease in membrane potential (Vm) hyperpolarization of 10-3 mV, whereas concentrations from 100 up to 900 ppm caused an increasing depolarization of Vm (from 5 to 110 mV). When tested at 300 ppm, (+)-menthyl acetate, (-)-limonene and 1,8-cineole did not exert any significant effect on V(m), whereas (+)-menthofuran (73 mV), (+)-pulegone (85 mV), (+)-neomenthol (96 mV), (-)-menthol (105 mV) and (-)-menthone (111 mV) showed increased ability to depolarize V(m). A plot of log of octanol-water partition coefficient (K(ow)) against their depolarizing effect showed a significant negative correlation, suggesting that among all monoterpenoids increased membrane depolarization depends on lower K(ow). However, among monoterpene ketones, alcohols and furans, increased membrane depolarization is associated with a decline in water solubility. The possible effect of monoterpenoids on membrane ion fluxes is also discussed, since changes in the bioelectric potential of cells imply changes in the flux of ions across the plasma membrane

  1. Effect of (+)-pulegone and other oil components of Mentha x Piperita on cucumber respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucciarelli, M; Camusso, W; Bertea, C M; Maffei, M

    2001-05-01

    Peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.) essential oil and main components were assessed for their ability to interfere with plant respiratory functions. Tests were conducted on both root segments and mitochondria isolated by etiolated seedlings of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Total essential oil inhibited 50% of root and mitochondrial respiration (IC50) when used at 324 and 593 ppm, respectively. (+)-Pulegone was the most toxic compound, with a 0.08 and 0.12 mM IC50 for root and mitochondrial respiration, respectively. (-)-Menthone. followed (+)-pulegone in its inhibitory action (IC50 values of 1.11 and 2.30 mM for root and mitochondrial respiration respectively), whereas (-)-menthol was the less inhibitory compound (IC50 values of 1.85 and 3.80 mM respectively). A positive correlation was found for (+)-pulegone, (-)-menthone and (-)-menthol between water solubility and respiratory inhibition. The uncoupling agent. carbonyl-cyanide-m-chlorophenyl-hydrazone (CCCP), lowered (-)-menthol and (-)menthone inhibition and annulled (+)-pulegone inhibition of mitochondrial respiration, whereas salicyl-hydroxamic acid (SHAM) 2-hydroxybenzohydroxamic acid, the alternative oxidase (AO) inhibitor, increased (-)-menthone inhibition and annulled both (+)-pulegone and (-)-menthol inhibitory activity. The possible interaction of (-)-pulegone and (-)-menthol with AO and the mechanism of action of(+)-pulegone, (-)-menthone and (-)-menthol on mitochondrial respiration are discussed.

  2. Satellite RNA-mediated Reduction of Cucumber Mosaic Virus Genomic RNAs Accumulation in Nicotiana tabacum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiansheng LIAO; Liping ZHU; Zhiyou DU; Rong ZENG; Junli FENG; Jishuang CHEN

    2007-01-01

    Satellite RNAs (satRNAs) are molecular parasites that interfere with the pathogenesis of the helper viruses.In this study,the relative accumulation of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV)-Fny genomic RNAs with or without satRNAs were quantitatively analyzed by real-time RT-PCR.The results showed that satRs apparently attenuated the symptoms of CMV-Fny on Nicotiana tabacum by depressing the accumulation of CMV-Fny genomic RNAs,tested as open reading frames.The accumulation of CMV-Fny la,2a,2b,3a,and CP genes was much higher than that of CMV-Fny with satRs added(CMV-Fsat),at different inoculation times.CMV-Fny△2b,in which the complete 2b gene and 41 amino acids at the C-terminal of the 2a gene were deleted,caused only a slight mosaic effect on N.tabacum seedlings,similar to that of CMVFsat,but the addition of satRs to CMV-Fny△2b showed further decrease in the accumulation of CMVFny△2b genomic RNAs.Our results indicated that the attenuation of CMV,by adding satRs or deleting the 2b gene,was due to the low accumulation of CMV genomic RNAs,and that satRNA-mediated reduction of CMV genomic RNAs accumulation in N.tabacum was possibly related to the 2b gene.

  3. Inheritance and quantitative trait locus analysis of low-light tolerance in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D D; Qin, Z W; Lian, H; Yu, G B; Sheng, Y Y; Liu, F

    2015-09-09

    The low-light tolerance index was investigated in a set of 123 F2:3 lines during the seedling stage across 2 seasons, and the heredity of low-light tolerance was assessed via different ge-netic analysis methods. The results of the classical analysis showed that low-light tolerance is controlled by an additive-dominant poly-gene, and the polygenic inheritance rate of separate generations was >30%. In addition, 5 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) exhibited a low-light tolerance index across both seasons, including 2 QTLs (Llti1.1 and Llti1.2) on the 1st linkage group (variances of 6.0 and 9.5%) and 3 QTLs (Llti2.1, Llti2.1, and Llti2.1) on the 2nd linkage group (variances of 10.1-14.0%). The classical analysis method and QTL information on the heredity of low-light tolerance showed that it is controlled by several major genes and a mini-polygene. The results will facilitate the breeding of resistance to low-light stress in cucumber.

  4. Mechanism of rapid suppression of cell expansion in cucumber hypocotyls after blue-light irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, D. J.

    1988-01-01

    Rapid suppression of hypocotyl elongation by blue light in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) was studied to examine possible hydraulic and wall changes responsible for diminished growth. Cell-sap osmotic pressure, measured by vapor-pressure osmometry, was not decreased by blue light; turgor pressure, measured by the pressure-probe technique, remained constant during the growth inhibition; and stem hydraulic conductance, measured by dynamic and static methods, was likewise unaffected by blue light. Wall yielding properties were assessed by the pressure-block technique for in-vivo stress relaxation. Blue light reduced the initial rate of relaxation by 77%, but had little effect on the final amount of relaxation. The results demonstrate that blue irradiation acts to decrease the wall yielding coefficient, but not the yield threshold. Stress-strain (Instron) analysis showed that irradiation of the seedlings had little effect on the mechanical extensibilities of the isolated wall. The results indicate that blue light can reduce cell-wall loosening without affecting bulk viscoelastic properties, and indicate a chemorheological mechanism of cell-wall expansion.

  5. Plant science. Biosynthesis, regulation, and domestication of bitterness in cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yi; Ma, Yongshuo; Zhou, Yuan; Zhang, Huimin; Duan, Lixin; Chen, Huiming; Zeng, Jianguo; Zhou, Qian; Wang, Shenhao; Gu, Wenjia; Liu, Min; Ren, Jinwei; Gu, Xingfang; Zhang, Shengping; Wang, Ye; Yasukawa, Ken; Bouwmeester, Harro J; Qi, Xiaoquan; Zhang, Zhonghua; Lucas, William J; Huang, Sanwen

    2014-11-28

    Cucurbitacins are triterpenoids that confer a bitter taste in cucurbits such as cucumber, melon, watermelon, squash, and pumpkin. These compounds discourage most pests on the plant and have also been shown to have antitumor properties. With genomics and biochemistry, we identified nine cucumber genes in the pathway for biosynthesis of cucurbitacin C and elucidated four catalytic steps. We discovered transcription factors Bl (Bitter leaf) and Bt (Bitter fruit) that regulate this pathway in leaves and fruits, respectively. Traces in genomic signatures indicated that selection imposed on Bt during domestication led to derivation of nonbitter cucurbits from their bitter ancestors.

  6. Mechanistic study of programmed cell death of root border cells of cucumber (Cucumber sativus L.) induced by copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lijuan; Song, Jie; Peng, Cheng; Xu, Chen; Yuan, Xiaofeng; Shi, Jiyan

    2015-12-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) in root border cells (RBCs) induced by Copper (Cu) has been little studied. This study explored whether Cu induced PCD in RBCs of cucumber or not and investigated the possible mechanisms. The results showed that the percentage of apoptotic and necrotic RBCs increased with increasing concentration of Cu treatment. A quick burst of ROS in RBCs was detected, while mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) decreased sharply with Cu treatment. Caspase-3 like protease activity showed a tendency of increase with Cu treatment. The potential of Cu to induce PCD in RBCs of cucumber was first proved. Our results showed that ROS generation and mitochondrial membrane potential loss played important roles in Cu-induced caspase-3-like activation and PCD in RBCs of cucumber, which provided new insight into the signaling cascades that modulate Cu phytotoxicity mechanism.

  7. Sea cucumber (Stichopus hermanii) based hydrogel to treat burn wounds in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohdi, Rozaini Mohd; Zakaria, Zuki Abu Bakar; Yusof, Norimah; Mustapha, Noordin Mohamed; Abdullah, Muhammad Nazrul Hakim

    2011-07-01

    Malaysian sea cucumber was incorporated into hydrogel formulation by using electron beam irradiation technique and was introduced as novel cross-linked Gamat Hydrogel dressing. This study investigated whether Gamat Hydrogel enhanced repair of deep partial skin thickness burn wound in rats and its possible mechanism. Wounds were treated with either Gamat Hydrogel, control hydrogel, OpSite® film dressing or left untreated. Skin samples were taken at 7, 14, 21, and 28 days post burn for histological and molecular evaluations. Gamat Hydrogel markedly enhanced wound contraction and improved histological reorganization of the regenerating tissue. Furthermore, the dressing modulated the inflammatory responses, stimulated the activation and proliferation of fibroblasts, and enhanced rapid production of collagen fiber network with a consequently shorter healing time. The level of proinflammatory cytokines; IL-1α, IL-1β, and IL-6, were significantly reduced in Gamat Hydrogel treated wounds compared with other groups as assessed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In summary, our results showed that Gamat Hydrogel promoted burn wound repair via a complex mechanism involving stimulation of tissue regeneration and regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The resultant wound healing effects were attributed to the synergistic effect of the hydrogel matrix and incorporated sea cucumber. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Interaction between hydrotropism and gravitropism in seedling roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, A.; Takahashi, A.; Yamazaki, Y.; Kakimoto, Y.; Higashitani, A.; Fujii, N.; Takahashi, H.

    Roots display positive hydrotropism in response to a moisture gradient, which could play a role in avoiding drought stress. Because roots also respond to other stimuli such as gravity, touch and light and exhibit gravitropism, thigmotropism and phototropism, respectively, their growth orientation is determined by interaction among those tropisms. We have demonstrated the interaction between hydrotropism and gravitropism. For example, 1) agravitropic roots of pea mutant strongly respond to a moisture gradient and show positive hydrotropism by overcoming gravitropism, 2) in wild type pea roots hydrotropism is weak but pronounced when rotated on clinostat, 3) cucumber roots are positively gravitropic on the ground but become hydrotropic in microgravity, and 4) maize roots change their growth direction depending on the intensities of both gravistimulation and hydrostimulation. Here we found that Arabidopsis roots could display strong hydrotropism by overcoming gravitropism. It was discovered that amyloplasts in the columella cells are rapidly degraded upon exposure to a moisture gradient. Thus, degradation of amyloplasts could reduce the responsiveness to gravity, which could pronounce the hydrotropic response. In hydrotropically stimulated roots of pea seedlings, however, we could not observe a rapid degradation of amyloplasts in the columella cells. These results suggest that mechanism underlying the interaction between hydrotropism and gravitropism differs among plant species. To further study the molecular mechanism of hydrotropism and its interaction with gravitropism, we isolated unique mutants of Arabidopsis of which roots showed either ahydrotropism, reduced hydrotropism or negative hydrotropic response and examined their gravitropism, phototropism, waving response, amyloplast degradation and elongation growth. Based on the characterization of hydrotropic mutants, we will attempt to compare the mechanisms of the two tropisms and to clarify their cross talk for

  9. Survival of Salmonella Newport on Whole and Fresh-Cut Cucumbers Treated with Lytic Bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manan; Dashiell, Gwendolyn; Handy, Eric T; East, Cheryl; Reynnells, Russell; White, Chanelle; Nyarko, Esmond; Micallef, Shirley; Hashem, Fawzy; Millner, Patricia D

    2017-04-01

    Salmonella enterica associated with consumption of cucumbers ( Cucumis sativus ) has led to foodborne outbreaks in the United States. Whole and fresh-cut cucumbers are susceptible to S. enterica contamination during growing, harvesting, and postharvest handling. The application of lytic bacteriophages specific for S. enterica was evaluated to reduce Salmonella populations on cucumbers. Unwaxed cucumbers ('Lisboa' variety, or mini-cucumbers purchased at retail) were inoculated with Salmonella Newport (5 log CFU per cucumber) and were sprayed with 3.2 mL of phosphate-buffered saline (control) or 10 log PFU/ml of SalmoFresh, a Salmonella-specific bacteriophage preparation (phage), to deliver 4.76 × 10(7) PFU/cm(2). Cucumbers were stored at 10 or 22°C for 7 days. Inoculated mini-cucumbers were sliced with a sterile knife to investigate Salmonella transfer to mesocarp, and cut pieces were stored at 4°C for 2 days. Populations (log CFU per cucumber) of Salmonella Newport on phage-treated whole cucumbers were significantly (P cucumbers (4.27 ± 0.37) on day 0. Populations on phage-treated cucumbers stored at 10°C were 1.72 ± 0.77 and 1.56 ± 0.46, which were significantly lower than those on control-treated cucumbers (3.20 ± 0.48 and 2.33 ± 0.25) on days 1 and 4, respectively. Between days 0 and 1, populations on control-treated cucumbers stored at 10 and 22°C declined by 1.07 and 2.47 log CFU per cucumber, respectively. At 22°C, Salmonella Newport populations declined by 2.37 log CFU per cucumber between days 0 and 1. Phage application to whole cucumbers before slicing did not reduce the transfer of Salmonella Newport to fresh-cut slices. Lytic phage application may be a potential intervention to reduce Salmonella populations on whole cucumbers.

  10. Functional compatibility in cucumber mycorrhizas in terms of plant growth performance and foliar nutrient composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravnskov, S; Larsen, J

    2016-09-01

    Functional compatibility in cucumber mycorrhizas in terms of plant and fungal growth, and foliar nutrient composition from all possible combinations of six cucumber varieties and three species of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi was evaluated. Measurements of foliar nutrient composition included N, P, K, Mg, Ca, Na, Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu. Growth of AM fungi was measured in terms of root colonisation, as examined with microscopy and the AM fungus biomarker fatty acid 16:1ω5 from both phospholipids and neutral lipids. Different responses of plant growth and foliar nutrient profiles were observed for the different AM symbioses examined. The AM fungus Claroideoglomus claroideum caused growth depression in association with four out of six cucumber varieties; Rhizophagus irregularis caused growth promotion in one of six cucumber varieties; whereas Funneliformis mosseae had no effect on the growth performance of any of the cucumber varieties examined. All three AM fungi markedly altered host plant shoot nutrient composition, with the strongest contrast observed between cucumber-R. irregularis symbioses and non-mycorrhizal cucumber plants, independent of cucumber variety. On the other hand, AM fungal growth in roots differed between the three AM fungi, but was unaffected by host genotype. Strong build-up of storage lipids was observed for R. irregularis, which was more moderate in the two other AM fungi. In conclusion, strong differential responses of cucumber varieties to inoculation with different AM fungi in terms of growth and shoot nutrient composition revealed high functional diversity in AM symbioses in cucumber plants.

  11. SENSORY ANALYSIS OF CUCUMBER VARIETIES AT DIFFERENT HARVEST TIMES I. SALAD CUCUMBERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina PEVICHAROVA

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available During the period 2001-2002 sensory analysis of six salad cucumber varieties was carried out. The aim of this experiment was to assess the influence of the harvest time on the fruit sensory properties. Flesh colour was the most stable character while appearance, skin colour, aroma, texture, taste and total sensory evaluation varied during the three investigated harvest periods. Two-way analysis of variance proved significant effect of the varieties, harvest time and its interaction on all sensory characters. Depending on the harvest time some of the varieties changed their places one toward other by total sensory evaluation. Therefore, it could not be made reliable conclusions of data obtained from one harvest time. The number of harvest times as well as the number of vegetations should be more then one in order to receive more accurate information for sensory characteristics.

  12. The genome of the cucumber, Cucumis sativus L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, S.W.; Li, R.Q.; Vossen, van der E.A.G.

    2009-01-01

    Cucumber is an economically important crop as well as a model system for sex determination studies and plant vascular biology. Here we report the draft genome sequence of Cucumis sativus var. sativus L., assembled using a novel combination of traditional Sanger and next-generation Illumina GA sequen

  13. In vitro flowering and pollen viability of cucumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers were produced on sterile cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants grown in vitro from seed or from micropropagated shoots from stem fragments. Highest numbers of flowers on plants from both sources were produced on hormone-free MS medium as well as with 6 µM of kinetin (MSK). Plants cultured on ...

  14. A sequencing-based linkage map of cucumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic maps are important tools for molecular breeding, gene cloning, and study of meiotic recombination. In cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), the marker density, resolution and genome coverage of previously developed genetic maps using PCR-based molecular markers are relatively low. In this study we ...

  15. High sequence conservation among cucumber mosaic virus isolates from Lily

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.K.; Derks, A.F.L.M.; Langeveld, S.; Goldbach, R.; Prins, M.

    2001-01-01

    For classification of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) isolates from ornamental crops of different geographical areas, these were characterized by comparing the nucleotide sequences of RNAs 4 and the encoded coat proteins. Within the ornamental-infecting CMV viruses both subgroups were represented. CMV i

  16. An integrated genetic and cytogenetic map of the cucumber genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Ren

    Full Text Available The Cucurbitaceae includes important crops such as cucumber, melon, watermelon, squash and pumpkin. However, few genetic and genomic resources are available for plant improvement. Some cucurbit species such as cucumber have a narrow genetic base, which impedes construction of saturated molecular linkage maps. We report herein the development of highly polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR markers originated from whole genome shotgun sequencing and the subsequent construction of a high-density genetic linkage map. This map includes 995 SSRs in seven linkage groups which spans in total 573 cM, and defines approximately 680 recombination breakpoints with an average of 0.58 cM between two markers. These linkage groups were then assigned to seven corresponding chromosomes using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH. FISH assays also revealed a chromosomal inversion between Cucumis subspecies [C. sativus var. sativus L. and var. hardwickii (R. Alef], which resulted in marker clustering on the genetic map. A quarter of the mapped markers showed relatively high polymorphism levels among 11 inbred lines of cucumber. Among the 995 markers, 49%, 26% and 22% were conserved in melon, watermelon and pumpkin, respectively. This map will facilitate whole genome sequencing, positional cloning, and molecular breeding in cucumber, and enable the integration of knowledge of gene and trait in cucurbits.

  17. An autonomous robot for harvesting cucumbers in greenhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henten, van E.J.; Hemming, J.; Tuijl, van B.A.J.; Kornet, J.G.; Meuleman, J.; Bontsema, J.; Os, van E.A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the concept of an autonomous robot for harvesting cucumbers in greenhouses. A description is given of the working environment of the robot and the logistics of harvesting. It is stated that for a 2 ha Dutch nursery, 4 harvesting robots and one docking station are needed during t

  18. Rationalization of a genebank cucumber collection with SSR markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dooijeweert, van W.; Treuren, van R.

    2012-01-01

    The CGN cucumber (Cucumis sativus) collection consists of 937 accessions. The majority of accessions originated from the working collection of the former Institute for Horticultural Plant Breeding (IVT), where they were used for breeding. The collection mainly includes old cultivars received from Du

  19. Fine mapping of paternal sorting of mitochondria (psm) in cucumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucumber is unique among plants because its mitochondrial DNA shows paternal transmission, is one of the largest known among all plants, due largely to short repetitive DNA motifs, and undergoes recombination among repeats to produce rearranged mitochondrial DNAs associated with strongly mosaic (MSC...

  20. An autonomous robot for harvesting cucumbers in greenhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henten, van E.J.; Hemming, J.; Tuijl, van B.A.J.; Kornet, J.G.; Meuleman, J.; Bontsema, J.; Os, van E.A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the concept of an autonomous robot for harvesting cucumbers in greenhouses. A description is given of the working environment of the robot and the logistics of harvesting. It is stated that for a 2 ha Dutch nursery, 4 harvesting robots and one docking station are needed during t

  1. In vitro auxin binding to cellular membranes of cucumber fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, K R; Mudge, K W; Poovaiah, B W

    1981-04-01

    Specific binding of 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) to crude membrane preparations from cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) was demonstrated. This in vitro binding had a pH optimum of 3.75 and an equilibrium dissociation constant of 10 to 20 micromolar with 1250 picomoles binding sites per gram fresh weight. The NAA-binding sites were pronase sensitive. The supernatant from the fruit partially inhibited the in vitro NAA binding to fruit membranes. NAA, 2-naphthoxyacetic acid, 3-indoleacetic acid, 2-4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid, which are reported to be very good inducers of parthenocarpy in cucumber, showed a high degree of specific binding to cucumber fruit membranes. In comparison, 2-naphthaleneacetic acid and indolepropionic acid, which are reported to be very weak auxins in corn coleoptile, pea stem, and strawberry fruit growth bioassays, did not bind efficiently to cucumber fruit membranes. In vitro binding studies with fruit membranes suggest that auxin stimulated fruit growth may be mediated by membrane-associated, auxin-binding protein(s).

  2. Genetic diversity and population structure of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lv, J.; Qi, J.; Shi, Q.; Shen, D.; Zhang, S.; Shao, G.; Li, H.; Sun, Z.; Weng, Y.; Shang, Y.; Gu, X.; Li, X.; Zhu, X.; Zhang, J.; Treuren, van R.; Dooijeweert, van W.; Zhang, Z.; Huang, S.

    2012-01-01

    Knowing the extent and structure of genetic variation in germplasm collections is essential for the conservation and utilization of biodiversity in cultivated plants. Cucumber is the fourth most important vegetable crop worldwide and is a model system for other Cucurbitaceae, a family that also incl

  3. Phytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles and the released Zn(II) ion to corn (Zea mays L.) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) during germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruichang; Zhang, Haibo; Tu, Chen; Hu, Xuefeng; Li, Lianzhen; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Toxicity of engineered nanoparticles on organisms is of concern worldwide due to their extensive use and unique properties. The impacts of ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) on seed germination and root elongation of corn (Zea mays L.) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) were investigated in this study. The role of seed coats of corn in the mitigation toxicity of nanoparticles was also evaluated. ZnO NPs (1,000 mg L(-1)) reduced root length of corn and cucumber by 17 % (p < 0.05) and 51 % (p < 0.05), respectively, but exhibited no effects on germination. In comparison with Zn(2+), toxicity of ZnO NPs on the root elongation of corn could be attributed to the nanoparticulate ZnO, while released Zn ion from ZnO could solely contribute to the inhibition of root elongation of cucumber. Zn uptake in corn exposed to ZnO NPs during germination was much higher than that in corn exposed to Zn(2+), whereas Zn uptake in cucumber was significantly correlated with soluble Zn in suspension. It could be inferred that Zn was taken up by corn and cucumber mainly in the form of ZnO NPs and soluble Zn, respectively. Transmission electron microscope confirmed the uptake of ZnO NPs into root of corn. Although isolation of the seed coats might not be the principal factor that achieved avoidance from toxicity on germination, seed coats of corn were found to mitigate the toxicity of ZnO NPs on root elongation and prevent approximately half of the Zn from entering into root and endosperm.

  4. Proteomic Analysis of Fruit Bending in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-li; ZHANG Peng; QIN Zhi-wei; ZHOU Xiu-yan

    2014-01-01

    In cucumber, fruit shape is an important quality criterion, and fruit bending is known to limit growth, yield, and taste. To investigate the post-transcriptional changes that regulate fruit bending and to better understand the underlying molecular mechanisms, we generated a proteomic proifle of the abdomen and back of cucumber bending fruit. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) allowed the detection of approximately 900 distinct protein spots in each gel, 32 of which were differentially expressed in the abdomen and back of bending cucumber fruit. Ten of the differentially expressed proteins were analyzed using matrix-assisted laser ionization time of lfight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS). A search of primary databases showed that the identiifed proteins are involved in various metabolic processes and cellular responses, including photosynthesis metabolism, energy metabolism, defense and stress response, and regulation. The identiifed proteins included large subunits of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, which are involved in photosynthesis and photorespiratory metabolism, and isocitrate dehydrogenase, which is involved in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. It is possible that imbalances in catabolic and anabolic processes directly affect the bending of cucumber fruit. The predicted function of the cobalamin-independent methionine synthase isozyme is closely related to ethylene biosynthesis; fruit bending may be regulated by ethylene, or by ethylene signaling crosstalk during fruit development. The 14-3-3 protein is usually considered to be a regulation-related protein, which plays a role in regulating cell hyperplasia, cell differentiation during growth, and apoptosis during senescence. Involvement of guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding proteins in signal transmission is known to regulate the development of cells in cucumber fruits and to play a role in fruit shape variation. Patterns of protein expression showed high repeatability. We hypothesize

  5. Potential production of Aspidosperma cylindrocarpon seedlings viarescue seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathália Ferreira e Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Translocation of rare populations is regarded as the last resort for the conservation of species whose habitat destruction is imminent. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of two height classes and three leaf reduction intensities on growth and increases in height, stem diameter, survival, and new leaf production in seedlings of Aspidosperma cylindrocarpon (peroba obtained via rescue seedlings in a remnant of tropical semi deciduous forest. We recovered 240 individuals that were divided into two height classes (Class I-5 to 15cm and Class II-20 to 35cm and subjected to three leaf reduction intensities (0%, 50%, and 100%, which were then transported to a shade house with 50% light reduction. Measurements of height, stem diameter, and new leaf production were collected 8 times at 0, 15, 60, 75, 90, 105, 120, and 135 days, and survival rate was measured at day 135. The average survival rate was 82.9%; 77.5% for one Class I (5-15cm and 88.3% for Class II (20-35cm. Higher seedling growth was observed for the 0% leaf reduction treatment in both height classes. The leaves insertion were greater in the 100% cuts, with a decrease observed over time. It is advisable to restore A. cylindrocarpon seedlings in two height classes owing to the high survival rate, leaf appearance, and growth reported in the present study. The no-leaf reduction treatment (0% is the most viable alternative for the production of A. cylindrocarpon seedlings, via rescue seedlings.

  6. Sea cucumber species identification of family Caudinidae from Surabaya based on morphological and mitochondrial DNA evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Muhammad Hilman Fu'adil; Pidada, Ida Bagus Rai; Sugiharto, Widyatmoko, Johan Nuari; Irawan, Bambang

    2016-03-01

    Species identification and taxonomy of sea cucumber remains a challenge problem in some taxa. Caudinidae family of sea cucumber was comerciallized in Surabaya, and it was used as sea cucumber chips. Members of Caudinid sea cucumber have similiar morphology, so it is hard to identify this sea cucumber only from morphological appearance. DNA barcoding is useful method to overcome this problem. The aim of this study was to determine Caudinid specimen of sea cucumber in East Java by morphological and molecular approach. Sample was collected from east coast of Surabaya, then preserved in absolute ethanol. After DNA isolation, Cytochrome Oxydase I (COI) gene amplification was performed using Echinoderm universal primer and PCR product was sequenced. Sequencing result was analyzed and identified in NCBI database using BLAST. Results showed that Caudinid specimen in have closely related to Acaudina molpadioides sequence in GenBank with 86% identity. Morphological data, especially based on ossicle, also showed that the specimen is Acaudina molpadioides.

  7. [Effects of rotation and intercropping on bacterial communities in rhizosphere soil of cucumber].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Feng-zhi; Wang, Shu; Yang, Yang

    2008-12-01

    By the method of PCR-DGGE, this paper studied the effects of rotation with wheat, soybean, villose vetch, clover, and alfalfa and intercropping with onion and garlic on the bacterial communities in rhizosphere soil of cucumber. The results showed that rotation and intercropping with test plants increased the diversity and evenness indices of bacterial communities in cucumber rhizosphere soil, and also, cucumber yield. The sequencing of DGGE bands indicated that most of the bands had high homology with uncultured bacterial species, and were of Sphingobacterium and Proteobacteria. High bacterium G+C was only detected when cucumber was intercropped with onion. The diversity of soil bacterial communities varied with the growth stages of cucumber, being the highest at vigorous fruiting stage. It was suggested that intercropping with onion and rotation with wheat were the best cultivation modes of cucumber.

  8. Relationship between dieldrin uptake in cucumber and solvent-extractable residue in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Mizuki; Seike, Nobuyasu; Murano, Hirotatsu; Otani, Takashi

    2009-12-09

    To prevent the distribution of cucumbers with dieldrin contamination exceeding the limit set by the Japanese Food Sanitation Law, the extraction solvent for dieldrin-contaminated soil was selected prior to cultivation so that the dieldrin residue level in cucumber could be predicted. The exhaustive extraction from soil could not explain the dieldrin uptake by cucumber plants. However, significant correlation (R(2) = 0.966, P dieldrin concentrations in cucumber and dieldrin concentrations extracted with 50% (v/v) methanol-water solution from soils. This was a result of the phytoavailability of dieldrin to the cucumber plants. The extractability of soil dieldrin with the methanol-water solution decreased as the organic carbon content in the soils increased. This suggested that a 50% (v/v) methanol-water solution is the optimal solution for predicting dieldrin concentrations in cucumbers by soil analysis.

  9. Progresses in the Mechanism of Resistance to Fusarium Wilt in Cucumber(Cucumis sativus L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xingang; WU Fengzhi; WANG Xuezheng; YUAN Ye

    2008-01-01

    Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp.cucumerinum (Owen) is one of the most devastating diseases in cucumber production worldwide.Recent progresses in the mechanism of resistance to Fusarium wilt in cucumber were reviewed in this paper,including pathogenic mechanism of Fusarium oxysporum,the resistance mechanism of cucumber,the heredity of resistance,and the location of resistance genes.Following works should be the location and cloning of resistance genes with molecular biologic methods.

  10. Biological control mechanisms of D-pinitol against powdery mildew in cucumber

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, J; Fernandez, Diana; Wang, D. D.; Chen, Y. J.; Dai, G. H.

    2014-01-01

    D-pinitol is an effective agent for controlling powdery mildew (Podosphaera xanthii) in cucumber. In this study, we determined the mechanisms of D-pinitol in controlling powdery mildew in cucumber plants. We compared P. xanthii development on cucumber leaf surface treated with D-pinitol or water (2 mg ml(-1)) at different time points after inoculation. The germinating conidia, hyphae, and conidiophores of the pathogen were severely damaged by D-pinitol at any time of application tested. The h...

  11. The effect of Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and Adalia bipunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) on the spread of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) by Aphis gossypii (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzón, A; Budia, F; Medina, P; Morales, I; Fereres, A; Viñuela, E

    2015-02-01

    The effects of two aphidophagous predators, the larvae of Chrysoperla carnea and adults of Adalia bipunctata, on the spread of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) transmitted in a non-persistent manner by the cotton aphid Aphis gossypii were studied under semi-field conditions. Natural enemies and aphids were released inside insect-proof cages (1 m × 1 m × 1 m) with a central CMV-infected cucumber plant surrounded by 48 healthy cucumber seedlings, and the spatiotemporal dynamics of the virus and vector were evaluated in the short and long term (1 and 5 days) in the presence and absence of the natural enemy. The spatial analysis by distance indices methodology together with other indices measuring the dispersal around a single focus was used to assess the spatial pattern and the degree of association between the virus and its vector. Both natural enemies significantly reduced the number of aphids in the CMV-source plant after 5 days but not after 1 day. The CMV transmission rate was generally low, especially after 1 day, due to the limited movement of aphids from the central CMV-source plant, which increased slightly after 5 days. Infected plants were mainly located around the central virus-infected source plant, and the percentage of aphid occupation and CMV-infected plants did not differ significantly in absence and presence of natural enemies. The distribution patterns of A. gossypii and CMV were only coincident close to the central plant. The complexity of multitrophic interactions and the role of aphid predators in the spread of CMV are discussed.

  12. 生物土壤添加剂对连作黄瓜防御酶系及酚类物质含量的影响%Effects of biological soil amendment on defense enzyme activity and phenolic compound of cucumber continuous cropping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝永娟; 魏军; 刘春艳; 王勇; 王万立

    2009-01-01

    The changes of several defense enzyme activities and phenolic compound in cucumber roots were examined after biological soil amendment(BSA) was applied to the cucumber continuous cropping through pot trials. It could promote seedling growth and reduce disease incidence. The results showed that the activities of defense enzymes such as peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and TTC in treated cucumber roots were measured significantly higher than that of control. The activities of POD and PPO in BSA-treated roots were significantly higher than that of control after inoculation with Fusarium oxysporum(Schl.)f. sp. Cucumerinum. Phenolic compound content of roots decreased in the initial period of inoculation, increased after disease incidence, but it was higher in BSA-treated than that of control. These indicated that BSA could induce the defense enzyme activities and increased phenolic compound in cucumber roots.%@@ 连作障碍是设施蔬菜发展的瓶颈问题,表现为根系生长受到抑制,土传病害严重发生.目前解决方法以嫁接栽培和药剂处理土壤为主,国内外也有利用有机物、生物肥和生防菌剂防治土传病害,缓解连作障碍的报道~([1]).

  13. A new distributional record for the sea cucumber Holothuria (Semperothuria) cinerascens (Brandt) from Goa coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shirwaikar, P.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Occurrence of sea cucumber, Holothuria (Semperothuria) cinerascens from intertidal region of Anjuna (Goa) along central west coast of India is reported. Notes on morphological characteristics are given...

  14. Whole-body Microbiota of Sea Cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) from South Korea for Improved Seafood Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Yoon; Lee, Jin-Jae; Kim, Bong-Soo; Choi, Sang Ho

    2017-08-31

    Sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) is a popular seafood source in Asia, including South Korea, and its consumption has recently increased with recognition of its medicinal properties. However, because raw sea cucumber contains various microbes, its ingestion can cause foodborne illness. Therefore, analysis of the microbiota in the whole body of sea cucumber can extend our understanding of foodborne illness caused by microorganisms and help to better manage products. We collected 40 sea cucumbers from four different sites in August and November, which are known as the maximum production areas in Korea. The microbiota was analyzed by an Illumina Miseq system, and bacterial amounts were quantified by real-time PCR. The diversity and bacterial amounts in sea cucumber were higher in August than in November. Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammaproteobacteria were common dominant classes in all samples. However, the microbiota composition differed according to sampling time and site. Staphylococcus warneri and Propionibacterium acnes were commonly detected potential pathogens in August and November samples, respectively. The effect of experimental Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection on the indigenous microbiota of sea cucumber was analyzed at different temperatures, revealing clear alterations of Psychrobacter and Moraxella; thus, these shifts can be used as indicators for monitoring infection of sea cucumber. Although further studies are needed to clarify and understand the virulence and mechanisms of the identified pathogens of sea cucumber, our study provides a valuable reference for determining the potential of foodborne illness caused by sea cucumber ingestion and to develop monitoring strategies of products using microbiota information.

  15. Induction of 33-kD and 60-kD peroxidases during ethylene-induced senescence of cucumber cotyledons. [Cucumis sativus L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abeles, F.B.; Dunn, L.J.; Morgens, P.; Callahan, A.; Dinterman, R.E.; Schmidt, J. (Appalachian Fruit Research Station, Kearneysville, WV (USA) Army Medical Research Institute for Infectious Diseases, Frederick, MD (USA))

    1988-07-01

    Ethylene enhanced the senescence of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv Poinsett 76) cotyledons. The effect of 10 microliters per liter ethylene was inhibited by 1 millimolar silver thiosulfate, an inhibitor of ethylene action. An increase in proteins with molecular weights of 33 to 30 kilodaltons and lower molecular weights (25, 23, 20, 16, 12 and 10 kilodaltons) were observed in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gels after ethylene enhanced senescence. The measurement of DNase and RNase activity in gels indicated that these new proteins were not nucleases. Two proteins from ethylene-treated cotyledons were purified on the basis of their association with a red chromaphore and subsequently were identified as peroxidases. The molecular weights and isoelectric points (pI) of two of these peroxidases were 33 kilodaltons (cationic, pI = 8.9) and 60 kilodaltons (anionic, pI = 4.0). The observation that ({sup 35}S)Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} was incorporated into these proteins during ethylene-enhanced senescence suggests that these peroxidases represent newly synthesized proteins. Antibodies to the 33-kilodalton peroxidase precipitated two in vitro translation products from RNA isolated from ethylene-treated but not from control cucumber seedlings. This indicates that the increase in 33-kilodalton peroxidase activity represents de novo protein synthesis. Both forms of peroxidase degraded chlorophyll in vitro, which is consistent with the hypothesis that peroxidases have catabolic or scavenging functions in senescent tissues.

  16. Synchrotron micro-XRF and micro-XANES confirmation of the uptake and translocation of TiO₂ nanoparticles in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servin, Alia D; Castillo-Michel, Hiram; Hernandez-Viezcas, Jose A; Diaz, Baltazar Corral; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2012-07-17

    Advances in nanotechnology have raised concerns about possible effects of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in the environment, especially in terrestrial plants. In this research, the impacts of TiO(2) nanoparticles (NPs) were evaluated in hydroponically grown cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants. Seven day old seedlings were treated with TiO(2) NPs at concentrations varying from 0 to 4000 mg L(-1). At harvest, the size of roots and shoots were measured. In addition, micro X- ray fluorescence (micro-XRF) and micro X-ray absorption spectroscopy (micro-XAS), respectively, were used to track the presence and chemical speciation of Ti within plant tissues. Results showed that at all concentrations, TiO(2) significantly increased root length (average >300%). By using micro-XRF it was found that Ti was transported from the roots to the leaf trichomes, suggesting that trichomes are possible sink or excretory system for the Ti. The micro-XANES spectra showed that the absorbed Ti was present as TiO(2) within the cucumber tissues, demonstrating that the TiO(2) NPs were not biotransformed.

  17. Effect of Trichoderma on horticultural seedlings' growth promotion depending on inoculum and substrate type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Guirao, J I; Rodríguez-Romera, P; Lupión-Rodríguez, B; Camacho-Ferre, F; Tello-Marquina, J C

    2016-10-01

    The biostimulant effect of Trichoderma spp. on horticultural crops are highly variable. Thus, practical use of Trichoderma sp. requires feasible formulated products and suitable substrates. This study evaluates the survival and the growth-promotion effect of a Trichoderma saturnisporum rice formulation compared with a nonformulated conidia suspension (seven treatments in total), on tomato, pepper and cucumber seedlings grown in two substrates: (i) rich in organic matter (OM) and (ii) mineral substrate without OM. The results showed beneficial effects on seedling growth in the OM-rich substrate when T. saturnisporum rice formulation (mainly at maximum concentration) was applied, but the effects were opposite when the mineral substrate without OM was used. The effects were closely linked to the level of inoculum in the substrate, which was greater upon application of the formulated inoculum as opposed to the nonformulated one. The use of rice to prepare the inoculum of T. saturnisporum seems to be promising for seedling growth in the nursery when it is applied in a substrate that is rich in organic matter, but it must be considered that under certain conditions of food shortage, Trichoderma sp. could show pathogenicity to seedlings. This study provides evidence of the complexity inherent in the use of micro-organisms in agriculture, while also confirming that the activity of the biofertilizers based on Trichoderma depends on the type of inoculum and its concentration, as well as the properties of the medium in which the fungi develop. Further studies assessing the effectiveness or possible pathogenicity of Trichoderma in different soils under greenhouse conditions must be addressed. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. The status of Cucumber vein yellowing virus in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveh BANANEJ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Yellowing symptoms of greenhouse- and open field-grown cucurbit crops are becoming increasingly important in many cucurbit growing regions of the world, and particularly in Iran. A survey was conducted from 2011 to 2012 in eight major cucurbit growing regions in Iran. Yellowing and specifically vein clearing symptoms were observed in many cucumber plants grown in greenhouses and open fields, suggesting the presence of Cucumber vein yellowing virus (CVYV, genus Ipomovirus, family Potyviridae. The identification of CVYV was carried out with a specific triple-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (TAS-ELISA and reverse transcription (RT-PCR. CVYV was detected in 42% of the collected samples, in all surveyed provinces, except Bushehr. CVYV was also detected in melon and cucumber crops grown in open fields. These results indicate that CVYV is widely distributed on these two cucurbit species in the major cucumber growing areas of Iran. CVYV positive samples were also tested, using DAS-ELISA, for the presence of Cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus (CCYV and Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV, two criniviruses reported previously to occur in Iran. Double or triple infections of CCYV and CYSDV occurred in 49 of 166 of the CVYV-infected plants. The CVYV and CCYV combined infections were more prevalent than CVYV and CYSDV combined infections. TAS-ELISA positive samples were used to mechanically inoculate healthy cucumber plants, and mild vein yellowing was observed on the inoculated leaves. Identical symptoms were also observed on whitefly inoculated healthy cucumber plants. The presence of CVYV in mechanically and whitefly inoculated plants was confirmed by TAS-ELISA and RT-PCR. Sequence analysis revealed that the Iranian isolate of CVYV was more closely related to Spanish isolates than to isolates from Jordan. Phylogenetic analysis showed that CVYV isolates can be divided into two phylogenetic groups (I and II. Despite the close

  19. SCREENING FOR CUCUMBER MOSAIC RESISTANT LINES FROM THE OVULE CULTURE DERIVED DOUBLE HAPLOID CUCUMBERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parichat Plapung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available CMV is one of the major destructive viruses worldwide and commercial CMV resistant cucumber is very rare. Therefore we aimed to establish the ovule derived resistant lines used for the breeding program. Haploid plants of sixty-eight cucumber lines were successfully obtained by culturing the un pollinated ovaries harvested one day before an thesis on a modified MS medium supplemented with BAP and IAA at the ratio of 2:1 which was optimal to induce embryogenesis in most of the tested lines. For whole plant regeneration, another modified MS medium was used supplemented with a combination of 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP and Indole-3-Acetic Acid (IAA (2:1 or BAP and IAA/6-(gamma, gamma-dimethylallylamino purine (2ip and IAA (5:1 and 5 ppm AgNO3. Ploidy levels of the regenerants were determined by cytological analysis. Thirteen out of 42 clones derived from 14 accessions showed a chromosome number of n = 7 and chloroplast number of 6/pair of guard cell, 24 lines were auto-dihaploid with n = 14 and a chloroplast number of 11-12/pair of guard cell. Twenty-eight Double Haploid (DH lines were mechanically inoculated with CMV and the level of resistance was evaluated by using DAS-ELISA. Ten highly Resistant lines (R included 70S2, 91e, 91.1, 93S4-1, 93S42-, 95S1-2, 95S2 DHS1, 117S2-1-3, 136.1 and 194S1 did not show any virus symptom and gave negative ELISA results. Twelve moderately resistant clones were identified including two clones from line 11, three clones from line 93, four clones from line 91 and one clone each from line 117S2 and 123, whereas clone 11.4 was moderately susceptible. Five DH clones; 117S2-1-1, 117S2-2, 117S2-4, 117S2-7 and 117S2-8were classified as highly susceptible.

  20. Effects of UV-B irradiation on growth and physiological activities of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) first leaves. Influence of nutrition; Kyuri daiichi honba no seicho to seiri kassei ni oyobosu UV-B shosha no eikyo. Hiryo no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murase, K.; Izuta, T.; Totsuka, T. [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture; Kondo, N. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Shimizu, H.; Nakajima, N. [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-01-10

    The purpose of this study is to clarify the mechanism of growth retardation in UV-B irradiated plants. Effects of UV-B irradiation on the growth of first leaves of fertilized and unfertilized cucumber seedlings were compared. The growth of cucumber seedling first leaves was promoted by fertilization, compared with the unfertilized case. However, it was remarkably suppressed by UV-B irradiation. While, the growth of first leaves of unfertilized plants did not decline significantly by UV-B irradiation. Furthermore, the effects of UV-B irradiation on the growth of first leaves were examined by adding nitrogen, phosphorus, or potassium which are components of fertilizers. All of components promoted the growth, and the degrees of growth suppression were enhanced. Especially, the effects were remarkable in the case of nitrogen addition. It was suggested that the growth suppression of fertilized first leaves by UV-B irradiation would be caused by the decrease in the sensitivity to plant hormones such as cytokinin and the their activities. 23 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Effects of FBT on Induction of Systemic Resistance in Cucumber Against Cucumber Fusarium Wilt Caused byFusarium oxysporum f. sp.cucumerinum Owen%氟唑活化酯对黄瓜抗枯萎病的诱导作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石延霞; 徐玉芳; 谢学文; 柴阿丽; 王微微; 李宝聚

    2015-01-01

    Objective]The systemic long-lasting and broad-spectrum resistance of cucumber seedlings was induced with natural or synthetic compounds. The objective of this study is to shed light on the resistance induced by fluoro-substituted benzothiadiazole derivatives (FBT) to cucumber Fusarium wiltand provide data for elucidating its mechanism.[Method]Before transplanting, 50 mg·L-1 of FBT was used to spray so as to induce the cucumber seedlings at 3-4 true leaf stage. Three days later, the cucumber seedlings were transplanted into the soil withFusarium oxysporum f. sp.cucumerinum Owen, and sprayed with FBT so as to induce resistance for the second time. Sequently, the cucumber seedlings were sprayed every 7 days and for 3 times continuously. Meanwhile, contrast agent BTH also was used with the same induction method and 70% thiophanate-methyl at 1 500 times was applied through root-irrigation. The efficiency on the blight disease resistance was assessed through investigating disease index. For studying the influence of FBT on F. oxysporum f. sp.cucumerinum invasion of cucumber, the cucumber’s radicle length was sprouted to 0.5 cm and then the radicle immersed in 50 mg·L-1 of FBT. The resistance of cucumber seedlings was induced another time at the stage of 2 pieces of leaves. Since then, the cucumber seedlings were sprayed in order to induce the resistance every 7 days and total for 3 times. Twenty-four hours after the last induction, cucumber was inoculated withF. oxysporum f. sp.cucumerinum by the root-drenching method. Treated roots and the controls were harvested at 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 14, 16, 20, 24 and 29 days after inoculation and then cleaned in ice water. After induction, acid fuchsin dyeing technology was used to evaluate the FBT impacts on fusarium infection. In addition, the Maule reaction and toluidine blue staining technique were used to evaluate the change of lignin and phenolic substances in cucumber root tissue deposition. Moreover, metabolic alterations

  2. SSR Inheritance Analysis and Screening for Linked Marker of Powdery Mildew Resistance in Cucumber(Cucumis sativus L.)%黄瓜白粉病抗性遗传分析与连锁标记筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂京涛; 潘俊松; 何欢乐; 司龙亭; 蔡润

    2011-01-01

    In order to accelerate molecular marker assisted breeding process of powdery mildew resistance in cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L.) , in this paper, high susceptible cucumber inbred line M 12,abd high resistant inbred line M3 to powdery mildew were taken as parent and their hybrid, F2 populations and BC1 populations were used as experimental materials.We identified the seedlings inoculated with powdery mildew fungus and probed into the genetic regulation of powdery mildew resistance in cucumber.Combing with BSA method and SSR technology, SSR markers linked to the major resistant gene of powdery mildew in cucumber was obtained.The results showed that the resistance to powdery mildew was mainly controlled by a single recessive gene.By analyzing F2 single plant with SSR technique, a marker SSR15592 linked to the resistant gene was identified.The genetic distance between this marker and resistant gene was 7.62 cM.%以黄瓜高感、高抗白粉病自交系M12、M3为亲本组合得到的F2群体和BC1群体为试材,采用苗期接种鉴定,探讨了黄瓜白粉病抗性的遗传规律;结合BSA法和SSR技术,获得了与黄瓜白粉病抗性主效基因连锁的SSR标记.结果表明,供试亲本间白粉病抗性主要受一隐性单基因控制.对F2单株进行SSR分析,鉴定出1个与黄瓜白粉病抗性基因连锁的标记SSR15592,该标记与抗性基因间的遗传距离为7.62 cM.

  3. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and kabocha squash (Cucurbita moschata Duch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanasato, Yoshihiko; Tabei, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    We established improved methods for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and kabocha squash (Cucurbita moschata Duch). Vacuum infiltration of cotyledonary explants with Agrobacterium suspension enhanced the Agrobacterium infection efficiency in the proximal regions of explants. Wounding treatment was also essential for kabocha squash. Cocultivation on filter paper wicks suppressed necrosis of explants, keeping regeneration efficacy. Putative transgenic plants were screened by kanamycin resistance and green fluorescent protein (GFP) fluorescence. These putative transgenic plants grew normally and T1 seeds were obtained, and stable integration and transmission of the transgene in T1 generations were confirmed by Southern hybridization and PCR. The average transgenic efficiency for cucumber and kabocha squash was 11.9 ± 3.5 and 9.2 ± 2.9 %, respectively.

  4. Variation of Plant Electrophysiology in Cucumber under Different Water Status

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guo-chen; YU Hai-ye; MA Cheng-lin; WANG Rui

    2005-01-01

    AP and VP were measured in cucumbers under water sufficiency and water stress. The results indicated that, the AP would be evoked by electrical impulse, for water-stressed cucumber, its amplitude could reached more than 40 mV which was obviously greater than that (about 10-20 mV) of plant under well-watered,and no VP came out. Along with the intensity of light increased, the VP appeared going-up trend, and accompanied by evidently spiking electrical signal, for plant under water stress, the VP increased more clearly, but the change of spiking amplitude of AP (about 3 mY) was rather smaller than that (8-10 mY) of plant under well-watered.

  5. Silicon-mediated accumulation of flavonoid phytoalexins in cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawe, A; Abou-Zaid, M; Menzies, J G; Bélanger, R R

    1998-05-01

    ABSTRACT The controversial role of silicon in plant disease resistance, described mostly as a passive mechanical protection, has been addressed. Conclusive evidence is presented that silicon is involved in the increased resistance of cucumber to powdery mildew by enhancing the antifungal activity of infected leaves. This antifungal activity was attributable to the presence of low-molecular-weight metabolites. One of these metabolites, described here as a phytoalexin, was identified as a flavonol aglycone rhamnetin (3,5,3',4'-tetrahydroxy-7-O-methoxyflavone). This is the first report of a phytoalexin for this chemical group in the plant kingdom and of a flavonol phytoalexin in cucumber, a chemical defense long believed to be nonexistent in the family Cucurbitaceae. The antifungal activity of leaf extracts was better expressed after acid hydrolysis, extending to another plant species the concept that some phytoalexins are synthesized as glycosylated phytoalexins or their precursors.

  6. A sulfated alpha-L-fucan from sea cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, A C; Vieira, R P; Mourão, P A; Mulloy, B

    1994-03-04

    A purified sulfated alpha-L-fucan from the sea cucumber body wall was studied, before and after almost complete desulfation, using methylation analysis and NMR spectroscopy. NMR analysis indicates that 2,4-di-O-sulfo-L-fucopyranose and unsubstituted fucopyranose are present in equal proportions, and that 2-O-sulfo-L-fucopyranose is present in twice that proportion. There is some NMR evidence that a regular repeating sequence of four residues comprises most or all of the polysaccharide chain.

  7. Fruit removal increases root-zone respiration in cucumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kläring, H.-P.; Hauschild, I.; Heißner, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Many attempts have been made to avoid the commonly observed fluctuations in fruit initiation and fruit growth in crop plants, particularly in cucumber (Cucumis sativus). Weak sinks of the fruit have been assumed to result in low sink/source ratios for carbohydrates, which may inhibit photosynthesis. This study focuses on the effects of low sink–source ratios on photosynthesis and respiration, and in particular root-zone respiration. Methods Mature fruit-bearing cucumber plants were grown in an aerated nutrient solution. The root containers were designed as open chambers to allow measurement of CO2 gas exchange in the root zone. A similar arrangement in a gas-exchange cuvette enabled simultaneous measurements of CO2 exchange in the shoot and root zones. Key Results Reducing the sinks for carbohydrates by removing all fruit from the plants always resulted in a doubling of CO2 exchange in the root zone within a few hours. However, respiration of the shoot remained unaffected and photosynthesis was only marginally reduced, if at all. Conclusions The results suggest that the increased level of CO2 gas exchange in the root zone after removing the carbon sinks in the shoot is due primarily to the exudation of organic compounds by the roots and their decomposition by micro-organisms. This hypothesis must be tested in further experiments, but if proved correct it would make sense to include carbon leakage by root exudation in cucumber production models. In contrast, inhibition of photosynthesis was measurable only at zero fruit load, a situation that does not occur in cucumber production systems, and models that estimate production can therefore ignore (end-product) inhibition of photosynthesis. PMID:25301817

  8. Fine genetic mapping of Cp, a recessive gene for compact (dwarf) plant architecture in cucumber, cucumis sativus L

    Science.gov (United States)

    The compact or dwarf plant architecture is an important trait in cucumber breeding. Compact cucumber has the potential to be used in once-over mechanical harvest of pickling cucumber production. Compact growth habit is controlled by a simply inherited recessive gene. To facilitate markers assisted s...

  9. 40 CFR 174.516 - Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus...-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.516 Coat protein of cucumber mosaic virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Cucumber Mosaic Virus are...

  10. Subtropical Modern Greenhouse Cucumber Canopy Transpiration Under Summer Climate Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Wei-hong; WANG Xiao-han; DING Wei-min; CHEN Yu-qing; DAI Jian-feng

    2002-01-01

    Greenhouse canopy transpiration not only has effects on greenhouse air temperature and humidity, but also is important for determining the set-point of fertigation. In this study, Penman-Monteith equation was used to calculate the greenhouse cucumber canopy transpiration under summer climate condition.The effects of greenhouse environmental factors on canopy transpiration were analyzed based on the measurements of greenhouse microclimate factors and canopy transpiration. The results showed that Penman-Monteith equation was reliable and robust in estimating greenhouse cucumber canopy transpiration under summer climate condition. Greenhouse cucumber canopy transpiration rate increased linearly with the increase of net radiation and water vapor pressure deficit (VPD) above the canopy. But the maximum value of the canopy transpiration rate occurred at the same time as that of VPD whereas about two hours later than that of net radiation. Based on the results, it was concluded that in addition to radiation, air humidity should also be considered when determine the set-point of fertigation.

  11. Comparisons of dioxin levels of cucumber varieties and cultivation periods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eun, H.; Watanabe, E.; Ishii, Y.; Ueji, M. [National Inst. for Agro-Environmental Sciences, Tsukuba (Japan); Narita, I.; Nakamura, K. [Saitama Prefecture Agriculture and Forestry Research Center, Saitama (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    According to a 2001 survey on Daily Intake in Japan, the total dioxins intake of a person in Japan amounts to 1.68 pg-TEQ per kg of body weight/day on average. The sharing a percentage of agricultural crops was about 3%in Japanese TDI amounts. However, all cases collect samples from supermarkets to estimate TDI of dioxins, which make it difficult to understand under what environment, food samples were pretreated and cultivated. Especially, TDI values in agricultural crops are probably dependent on the collection situation. In the agricultural environment, some reports indicate that dioxins have accumulated in paddy and upland in Japan due to the past use of some types of agricultural chemicals, which contained dioxins as impurities. Furthermore, taking the atmospheric pathway, for example, dioxins in the ambient air are associated with particulate matter and fall to the ground, contaminating agricultural land. Thus, it has been emphasized that dioxin compounds have a possibility to have adverse effect on vegetables. However, there is little understanding related to this fact in the country and worldwide. Empirical studies conducted in Japan and abroad have reported low residual concentrations of dioxins in cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.), a member of the gourd family. However, there have been extremely few instances of research involving overall comparisons of cultivation environments. Thus, we studied the persistence of dioxins in cucumbers of different varieties cultivated outdoors over varying cultivation periods, conducting thorough experiments to elucidate the actual conditions and mechanisms of dioxin contamination of cucumbers.

  12. Enantioselective degradation of metalaxyl in cucumber, cabbage, spinach and pakchoi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meiyun; Zhang, Qing; Cong, Lujing; Yin, Wei; Wang, Minghua

    2014-01-01

    The enantioselective degradation behaviors of the acylamino acid fungicide metalaxyl in vegetables (cucumber, cabbage, spinach and pakchoi) under field and greenhouse conditions were elucidated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A cellulose tris (3-chloro-4-methyl phenyl carbamate) chiral column (Lux Cellulose-2) was used for the chiral separation of the enantiomers using acetonitrile-0.1% formic acid solution (40:60, v/v) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1). The two enantiomers could be completely separated with a resolution (Rs) of 5.2. The linearity range, matrix effect, precision and recovery were evaluated. The method was successfully applied for the enantioselective analysis of metalaxyl in cucumber, cabbage, spinach and pakchoi under different conditions. The results showed that R-enantiomer dissipated faster than S-enantiomer in cucumber of greenhouse. Inversely, a preferential degradation of S-form was found in spinach and pakchoi under field and greenhouse conditions. No stereoselective degradation in cabbage was observed. These results can be applied for evaluating the environmental risk and food safety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Transcriptome profile analysis of floral sex determination in cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tao; Qin, Zhiwei; Zhou, Xiuyan; Feng, Zhuo; Du, Yalin

    2010-07-15

    Cucumber has been widely studied as a model for floral sex determination. In this investigation, we performed genome-wide transcriptional profiling of apical tissue of a gynoecious mutant (Csg-G) and the monoecious wild-type (Csg-M) of cucumber in an attempt to isolate genes involved in sex determination, using the Solexa technology. The profiling analysis revealed numerous changes in gene expression attributable to the mutation, which resulted in the down-regulation of 600 genes and the up-regulation of 143 genes. The Solexa data were confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed that the differentially expressed genes were mainly involved in biogenesis, transport and organization of cellular component, macromolecular and cellular biosynthesis, localization, establishment of localization, translation and other processes. Furthermore, the expression of some of these genes depended upon the tissue and the developmental stage of the flowers of gynoecious mutant. The results of this study suggest two important concepts, which govern sex determination in cucumber. First, the differential expression of genes involved in plant hormone signaling pathways, such as ACS, Asr1, CsIAA2, CS-AUX1 and TLP, indicate that phytohormones and their crosstalk might play a critical role in the sex determination. Second, the regulation of some transcription factors, including EREBP-9, may also be involved in this developmental process.

  14. Identification a coat protein region of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) essential for long-distance movement in cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salánki, Katalin; Kiss, László; Gellért, Akos; Balázs, Ervin

    2011-12-01

    To characterise the long-distance movement determinant of cucumoviral coat proteins (CPs), five mutants were engineered into the CMV CP bearing the corresponding tomato aspermy virus (TAV) loops exposed on the surface of the virion. Both viruses can move long-distance in Nicotiana clevelandii, but only CMV can move long-distance in cucumber. Investigation of the CMV chimeras identified three amino acids of the βB-βC loop that were essential for the CMV long-distance movement in cucumber. Introducing these mutations into the TAV CP was not sufficient for long-distance movement, indicating that this is not the sole region causing long-distance movement deficiency.

  15. Hpyerglycemic Effect of a Mixture of Sea Cucumber and Cordyceps Sinensis in Streptozotocin- Induced Diabetic Rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Shiwei; WANG Jingfeng; LI Zhaojie; FU Jia; WANG Yuming; XUE Changhu

    2014-01-01

    Sea cucumber and cordyceps sinensis are used as both food and traditional medicines in Asia. This study was carried out in order to investigate the hpyerglycemic effect of a mixture of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicas) and cordyceps sinensis (Cor-dyceps militaris) (SCC) in diabetic rat and explore the mechanism underlining such an effect. The diabetic model rat was induced with intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ). The diabetic model rats were randomly divided into control group (0.9%NaCl), low dose group (300 mg SCC·(kg body weight)-1) and high dose group (1200 mg SCC (kg body weight)-1). Sodium chloride and SCC were intragastrically administered once a day for 35 d. Changes in fasting serum glucose and serum insulin content, oral glucose tolerance and liver and muscle glycogen content were routinely evaluated. Pancreas tissue andβ-cells of islets were observed under both optical and transmission electronic microscope, respectively. The abundance of glucose metabolism-relating genes in gastrocnemius and epididymal adipose tissue was determined with either reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) or western blotting. Results showed that SCC significantly decreased fasting serum glucose content, improved glucose tolerance and increased serum insulin and glycogen content; repaired STZ-injured β-cells of diabetic rat, and increased the expression of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI(3)K), protein kinase B (PKB) and glucose transporter 4 (Glut4) encoding protein in both gastrocnemius and adipose tissue, and Glut4 encoding gene in peripheral tissue. Our findings demonstrated that SCC exerted an anti-hyperglycemic effect by repairingβ-cells and promoting insulin-mediated signal transduction pathway in insulin-sensitive gastrocnemius and adipose tissue.

  16. Effect of pesticide mixture on value of fresh, fermented and pickles cucumbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna WElkner

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In years 1998-1999 effects of fungicides (azoxystrobin and copper hydroxide, insecticides (etafenproks and pirimicarb and their mixtures on chemical composition and organoleptic quality of fresh, fermented and pickled cucumbers were studied_ To analyses fruits were taken after 7 and 12 days from treatment. Fresh cucumber fruits after 7 days from treatment with investigated pesticides contained less carbohydrates and ascorbic acids and higher level of nitrates in compare to untreated fruits (control. After 12 days from treatment the differences between treated and untreated fruits dissapeared. Cucumber fruits harvested 7 and 12 days after treatment were processed separately. Quality evaluation of fermented and pickled cucumbers was carried out 4 months after processing. In most of cucumber fruits (7 days after treatment with pesticides treated with pesticides empty cavities were found, and not in control (untreated. Number of cavities was highest in fresh and pickled cucumbers treated with mixture of fungicide and insecticide. In case of fermented cucumbers highest number of empty cavities occurred in fruits treated with fungicide azoxystrobin. Cucumber fruits taken to fermentation process 7 days after day of treatment had darker green colour, lowered haIdness, and larger empty cavities than untreated fruits. In fruits harvested 12 days after pesticides application such differencess were not observed.

  17. Inheritance of Beta-Carotene-Associated Flesh Color in Cucumber (Cucumis Sativus L.) Fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nutritional value of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) can be improved by the introgression of ß-carotene (i.e., provitamin A and/or orange flesh) genes from “Xishuangbanna gourd” (XIS; Cucumis sativus var. xishuangbannanesis Qi et Yuan) into U.S. pickling cucumber. However, the genetics of ß-carote...

  18. On-Line Hyperspectral Transmittance Imaging for Internal Defect Detection of Pickling Cucumbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperspectral imaging technique under transmittance mode was investigated for detection of internal defect in pickling cucumbers such as carpel suture separation or hollow cucumbers caused by mechanical stress. A prototype of on-line hyperspectral transmittance imaging system was developed for real...

  19. Engineering Research on Quality Detection of Pickling Cucumbers: 2009 Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report briefly summarizes the three studies performed in 2009 on cucumber defect detection. Hyperspectral imaging transmittance mode has demonstrated great potential for online sorting and grading of cucumbers and pickles. However, the technique is still limited by its speed in acquiring and pr...

  20. QTL mapping of powdery mildew resistance in WI 2757 cucumber (Cucumis sativus L)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powdery mildew is a serious fungal disease of cucumber and other cucurbot crops in the US and many other parts of the world. Resistant cultivars have been deployed in production for a long time, but the genetic mechanisms of powdery mildew resistance in cucumber are not well understood. In a three-y...

  1. Reduction of Salmonella populations on cucumber fruit by application of lytic bacteriophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Foodborne illness outbreaks of Salmonella enterica associated with consumption of cucumbers (Cucumis sativus) in the U.S. in 2014 and 2015 sickened over 1000 people and caused 5 deaths. Whole and fresh-cut cucumbers are susceptible to Salmonella contamination during growing and harvestin...

  2. Determination of germination quality of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seed by LED-induced hyperspectral reflectance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose: We developed a viability evaluation method for cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seed using hyperspectral reflectance imaging. Methods: Reflectance spectra of cucumber seeds in the 400 to 1000 nm range were collected from hyperspectral reflectance images obtained using blue, green, and red LED ill...

  3. Transcriptomic and QTL analysis suggest candidate fruit shape factors in cucumber (Cucumis sativus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit size and shape are important determinants of market class and value in cucumber; however, underlying mechanisms regulating size and shape have not been identified. To gain insight into possible factors regulating cucumber fruit growth, we used a combined QTL and transcriptome approach to exami...

  4. Pentatricopeptide repeat 336 as the candidate gene for paternal sorting of mitochondria (Psm) in cucumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is a useful plant to study organellar-nuclear interactions because its three genomes show differential transmission: bi-parental nuclear, maternal chloroplast and paternal mitochondrial (mt). The mt DNA of cucumber is relatively large due in part to accumulation of rep...

  5. Comparative mapping of ZYMV resistances in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and melon (Cucumis melo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Y; Katzir, N; Brotman, Y; King, J; Bertrand, F; Havey, M

    2004-08-01

    Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) routinely causes significant losses in cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L.) and melon ( Cucumis melo L.). ZYMV resistances from the cucumber population 'TMG1' and the melon plant introduction (PI) 414723 show different modes of inheritance and their genetic relationships are unknown. We used molecular markers tightly linked to ZYMV resistances from cucumber and melon for comparative mapping. A 5-kb genomic region (YCZ-5) cosegregating with the zym locus of cucumber was cloned and sequenced to reveal single nucleotide polymorphisms and indels distinguishing alleles from ZYMV-resistant (TMG1) and susceptible (Straight 8) cucumbers. A low-copy region of the YCZ-5 clone was hybridized to bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones of melon and a 180-kb contig assembled. One end of this melon contig was mapped in cucumber and cosegregated with ZYMV resistance, demonstrating that physically linked regions in melon show genetic linkage in cucumber. However the YCZ-5 region segregated independently of ZYMV resistance loci in two melon families. These results establish that these sources of ZYMV resistances from cucumber TMG1 and melon PI414723 are likely non-syntenic.

  6. Thick root of cucumber: other susceptible plants and the effect of pH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaag, van der D.J.; Paternotte, P.; Hamelink, R.

    2002-01-01

    Thick root is a relatively new disorder of cucumber grown in artificial substrates. Plants of cucumber, tomato, sweet pepper, lupin, anthurium, Cucurbita ficifolia, C. maxima and two lines from crosses between C. maxima and C. moschata were grown in thick root disease (TRD)-infested nutrient solutio

  7. Identification of five sea cucumber species through PCR-RFLP analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yingchun; Zheng, Rong; Zuo, Tao; Wang, Yuming; Li, Zhaojie; Xue, Yong; Xue, Changhu; Tang, Qingjuan

    2014-10-01

    Sea cucumbers are traditional marine food and Chinese medicine in Asia. The rapid expansion of sea cucumber market has resulted in various problems, such as commercial fraud and mislabeling. Conventionally, sea cucumber species could be distinguished by their morphological and anatomical characteristics; however, their identification becomes difficult when they are processed. The aim of this study was to develop a new convenient method of identifying and distinguishing sea cucumber species. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene ( COI) was used to identifing five sea cucumber species ( Apostichopus japonicus, Cucumaria frondosa, Thelenota ananas, Parastichopus californicus and Actinopyga lecanora). A 692 bp fragment of COI was searched for BamHI, KpnI, PstI, XbaI and Eco31I restriction sites with DNAMAN 6.0, which were then used to PCR-RFLP analysis. These five sea cucumber species can be discriminated from mixed sea cucumbers. The developed PCR-RFLP assay will facilitate the identification of sea cucumbers, making their source tracing and quality controlling feasible.

  8. Multispectral fluorescence imaging technique for discrimination of cucumber (Cucumis Sativus) seed viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we developed a nondestructive method for discriminating viable cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seeds based on hyperspectral fluorescence imaging. The fluorescence spectra of cucumber seeds in the 420–700 nm range were extracted from hyperspectral fluorescence images obtained using 365 nm u...

  9. A truncated F-box protein confers the dwarfism in cucumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwarfism is an important plant architecture trait for cucumber breeding. In the present study, we identified a dwarf mutant 406M in cucumber which showed a shorter internode length as compared with its wild type. In a BC1F2 population from the cross of 406M with its wild type parental line 406, the ...

  10. First complete genome sequence of an emerging cucumber green mottle mosaic virus isolate in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    The complete genome sequence (6,423 nt) of an emerging Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) isolate on cucumber in North America was determined through deep sequencing of sRNA and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. It shares 99% nucleotide sequence identity to the Asian genotype, but only 90% t...

  11. Metabolic footprinting of Lactobacillus buchneri strain LA1147 during anaerobic spoilage of fermented cucumbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lactobacillus buchneri has recently been associated with anaerobic spoilage of fermented cucumbers due to its ability to metabolize lactic acid into acetic acid and 1,2-propanediol. However, we have limited knowledge of other chemical components in fermented cucumber that may be related to spoilage ...

  12. Fine genetic mapping of target leaf spot resistance gene cca-3 in cucumber, Cucumis sativus L

    Science.gov (United States)

    The target leaf spot (TLS) is a very important fungal disease in cucumber. In this study, we conducted fine genetic mapping of a recessively inherited resistance gene, cca-2 against TLS with 1,083 F2 plants derived from the resistant cucumber inbred line D31 and the susceptible line D5. Initial mapp...

  13. Preparation of a Lactobacillus plantarum starter culture for cucumber fermentations that can meet kosher guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    A method is described for growth of a Lactobacillus plantarum starter culture in jars of commercially available pasteurized fresh-pack kosher dill cucumbers so that jars can be used to inoculate commercial scale cucumber fermentation tanks. A procedure is also described to transfer lactic acid bacte...

  14. Influences of excessive Cu on photosynthesis and growth in ectomycorrhizal Pinus sylvestris seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yi; TAO Shu

    2004-01-01

    Growth and photosynthesis responses were measured for Scots pine(Pinus sylvestris L. cv.) inoculated with ectomycorrhizal fungi(Suillus bovinus) under 6.5 and 25 mg/L Cu treatments to evaluate ectomycorrhizal seedlings' tolerance to heavy metal stress. Results showed that excessive Cu can significantly impair the growth and photosynthesis of pine seedlings, but such impairment is much smaller to the ectomycorrhizal seedlings. Under 25 mg/L Cu treatment, the dry weight of ectomycorrhizal seedlings is 25% lower than the control in contrary to 53% of the non-mycorrhizal seedlings, and the fresh weight of ectomycorrhizal roots was significantly higher than those of non-mycorrhizal roots, about 25% and 42% higher at 6.5 and 25 mg/L Cu treatments respectively. Furthermore, ectomycorrhizal fungi induced remarkable difference in the growth rate and pigment content of seedlings under excessive Cu stress. At 25 mg/L Cu, the contents of total chlorophyll, chlorophyll-a and chlorophyll-b were 30% higher in ectomycorrhizal plants than those in non-mycorrhizal plants. O2 evolution and electron transport of PSI and PSII were restrained by elevated Cu stress. However, no significant improvement was observed in reducing the physiological restraining in ectomycorrhizal seedlings over the non-mycorrhizal ones.

  15. Expression patterns of genes encoding plasma membrane aquaporins during fruit development in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jin; Wang, Jinfang; Li, Ren; Li, Dianbo; Xu, Fengfeng; Sun, Qianqian; Zhao, Bin; Mao, Ai-Jun; Guo, Yang-Dong

    2015-11-01

    Aquaporins are membrane channels precisely regulating water movement through cell membranes in most living organisms. Despite the advances in the physiology of fruit development, their participation during fruit development in cucumber still barely understood. In this paper, the expressions of 12 genes encoding plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs) were analyzed during cucumber fruit development in our work. Based on the homology search with known PIPs from rice, Arabidopsis and strawberry, 12 cucumber PIP genes subfamily members were identified. Cellular localization assays indicated that CsPIPs were localized in the plasma membrane. The qRT-PCR analysis of CsPIPs showed that 12 CsPIPs were differentially expressed during fruit development. These results suggest that 12 genes encoding plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (CsPIPs) play very important roles in cucumber life cycle and the data generated will be helpful in understanding their precise roles during fruit development in cucumber.

  16. Induction and mechanism of cucumber resistance to anthracnose induced by Pieris rapae extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Pieris rapae extract was sprayed on the surface of cucumber leaf to determine the induction of resistance to anthracnose.The enzyme activities of peroxidase (POD) and polyphenoloxidase (PPO) were detected on cucumber leaves after P.rapae extract induction and pathogen challenge.The results showed that the disease index of cucumber anthracnose was significantly decreased after the cucumber was induced with the P.rapae extract at a concentration of 5.0 mg·mL-1.The POD and PPO activities in foliar-applied P.rapae extract without pathogen inoculation (PETO) or with pathogen inoculation (PETI) were relatively higher than those with no-P.rapae extract treatment and without pathogen inoculation (CONO) or with pathogen inoculation (CONI),respectively.The results suggested that the increased levels of POD and PPO activities in PETO and PETI play an important role in the induction of resistance to cucumber anthracnose.

  17. Economics of Peppers and Salad Cucumbers Production on an Open Land and in a Protected Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Pozderec

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The research is based on the economic analysis of growing peppers (Capsicum annum L. and salad cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L. in an open land and in a protected space. For this purpose the simulation models were developed for the growing of the peppers and salad cucumbers that were based on the technological-economic input data for two growing systems, in the open and in the protected space. The results of the economic analysis show that the growing of peppers and salad cucumbers in the protected space is more profi table than growing them in the open land. The growing of salad cucumbers in the protected space has proven to be more reasonable than growing peppers, as the coefficient of economics (Ce of growing salad cucumbers reached the value Ce = 1.4, while the value in growing peppers was Ce = 1.1. This was also confirmed with two scenarios that were analysed using the sensitivity analysis.

  18. Economics of Peppers and Salad Cucumbers Production on an Open Land and in a Protected Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Pozderec

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The research is based on the economic analysis of growing peppers (Capsicum annum L. and salad cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L. in an open land and in a protected space. For this purpose the simulation models were developed for the growing of the peppers and salad cucumbers that were based on the technological-economic input data for two growing systems, in the open and in the protected space. The results of the economic analysis show that the growing of peppers and salad cucumbers in the protected space is more profi table than growing them in the open land. The growing of salad cucumbers in the protected space has proven to be more reasonable than growing peppers, as the coefficient of economics (Ce of growing salad cucumbers reached the value Ce = 1.4, while the value in growing peppers was Ce = 1.1. This was also confirmed with two scenarios that were analysed using the sensitivity analysis.

  19. Lactobacilli and tartrazine as causative agents of red-color spoilage in cucumber pickle products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Díaz, I M; Kelling, R E; Hale, S; Breidt, F; McFeeters, R F

    2007-09-01

    The cucumber pickling industry has sporadically experienced spoilage outbreaks in pickled cucumber products characterized by development of red color on the surface of the fruits. Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus paracasei were isolated from 2 outbreaks of this spoilage that occurred about 15 y apart during the last 3 decades. Both organisms were shown to produce this spoilage when inoculated into pickled cucumbers while concomitantly degrading the azo dye tartrazine (FD&C yellow nr 5). This food dye is used as a yellow coloring in the brine cover solutions of commercial pickled cucumber products. The red color does not occur in the absence of tartrazine, nor when turmeric is used as a yellow coloring in the pickles. Addition of sodium benzoate to the brine cover solutions of a pickled cucumber product, more specifically hamburger dill pickles, prevented growth of these lactic acid bacteria and the development of the red spoilage.

  20. Detection of mechanical injury on pickling cucumbers using near-infrared hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariana, D.; Lu, R.; Guyer, D.

    2005-11-01

    Automated detection of defects on freshly harvested pickling cucumbers will help the pickle industry provide higher quality pickle products and reduce potential economic losses. Research was conducted on using a hyperspectral imaging system for detecting defects on pickling cucumbers caused by mechanical stress. A near-infrared hyperspectral imaging system was used to capture both spatial and spectral information from cucumbers in the spectral region of 900 - 1700 nm. The system consisted of an imaging spectrograph attached to an InGaAs camera with line-light fiber bundles as an illumination source. Cucumber samples were subjected to two forms of mechanical loading, dropping and rolling, to simulate stress caused by mechanical harvesting. Hyperspectral images were acquired from the cucumbers over time periods of 0, 1, 2, 3, and 6 days after mechanical stress. Hyperspectral image processing methods, including principal component analysis and wavelength selection, were developed to separate normal and mechanically injured cucumbers. Results showed that reflectance from normal or non-bruised cucumbers was consistently higher than that from bruised cucumbers. The spectral region between 950 and 1350 nm was found to be most effective for bruise detection. The hyperspectral imaging system detected all mechanically injured cucumbers immediately after they were bruised. The overall detection accuracy was 97% within two hours of bruising and it was lower as time progressed. Lower detection accuracies for the prolonged times after bruising were attributed to the self- healing of the bruised tissue after mechanical injury. This research demonstrated that hyperspectral imaging is useful for detecting mechanical injury on pickling cucumbers.

  1. Partial biological and molecular characterization of a Cucumber mosaic virus isolate naturally infecting Cucumis melo in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasoulpour, Rasoul; Afsharifar, Alireza; Izadpanah, Keramat

    2016-06-01

    Melon seedlings showing systemic chlorotic spots and mosaic symptoms were collected in central part of Iran, and a virus was isolated from diseased plants by mechanical inoculation. The virus systemically infected the most inoculated test plants by inducing mosaic symptoms, while, in the members of Fabaceae family and Chenopodium quinoa induced local lesions. Agar gel diffusion test using a polyclonal antiserum against a squash Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) isolate showed the presence of CMV in the mechanically inoculated plants (designated CMV-Me). The virus was purified by polyethylene glycol precipitation and differential centrifugation. A polyclonal antiserum was produced against the virus that reacted specifically with virus antigen in ELISA and agar gel diffusion tests. The virus was molecularly characterized by PCR amplification of the full length of the coat protein gene using cucumovirus genus specific primer pair CPTALL-3/CPTALL-5 and sequence analysis of the resulting product. No RNA satellite was detected using the primer pair CMVsat3H/sat5T7P. Phylogenetic analysis based on the coat protein amino acid sequences showed that CMV-Me belongs to Subgroup IB. These results may be helpful in melon breeding programs, focusing on plant resistance to plant viruses including CMV.

  2. Rapid, bilateral changes in growth rate and curvature during gravitropism of cucumber hypocotyls: implications for mechanism of growth control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, D. J.

    1990-01-01

    The growth response of etiolated cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) hypocotyls to gravitropic stimulation was examined by means of time-lapse photography and high-resolution analysis of surface expansion and curvature. In comparison with video analysis, the technique described here has five- to 20-fold better resolution; moreover, the mathematical fitting method (cubic splines) allows direct estimation of local and integrated curvature. After switching seedlings from a vertical to horizontal position, both upper and lower surfaces of the stem reacted after a lag of about 11 min with a two- to three-fold increase in surface expansion rate on the lower side and a cessation of expansion, or slight compression, on the upper surface. This growth asymmetry was initiated simultaneously along the length of the hypocotyl, on both upper and lower surfaces, and did not migrate basipetally from the apex. Later stages in the gravitropic response involved a complex reversal of the growth asymmetry, with the net result being a basipetal migration of the curved region. This secondary growth reversal may reflect oscillatory and/or self-regulatory behaviour of growing cells. With some qualifications, the kinetics and pattern of growth response are consistent with a mechanism involving hormone redistribution, although they do not prove such a mechanism. The growth kinetics require a growth mechanism which can be stimulated by two- to three-fold or completely inhibited within a few minutes.

  3. Spatio-temporal expression of miRNAs in tomato tissues upon Cucumber mosaic virus and Tomato aspermy virus infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junli Feng; Xin Liu; Leiyu Lai; Jishuang Chen

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play vital roles in regulating plant growth and development. Recent work has shown that miRNA-mediated regulation of cellular mRNA expression is involved in pathogen-host interactions. However, knowledge about the timing and spatial regulation of plant miRNA expression is still limited. Here, we use stem-loop real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to quantify the expression changes of seven miRNAs and their target mRNAs in different tomato tissues during the pathogenic processes. Compared with mock-inoculated plants, the expression levels of investigated miRNAs and mRNAs were enhanced by different degrees upon Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV)-Fny and Tomato aspermy virus-Bj infections, but were almost unchanged in CMV-FnyA2b (a CMV-Fny 2b-deletion mutant)-infected tomato seedlings. In addition, the obvious up-regulation of several miRNAs and target mRNAs in some tomato tissues suggested their special roles in these tissues' organogenesis and development. Temporal analyses also revealed that the expressions of these miRNAs and mRNAs were highly regulated by different viral infections. Taken together, the observed spatially and temporally changes in miRNAs and target mRNAs expression levels indicate the abilities of different viruses to interfere with miRNA pathway, and are correlated with their respective functions in phenotype determination in different tomato tissues.

  4. 氯化胆碱诱导黄瓜抗白粉病机理研究%Studies on Cucumber Resistance Mechanism to Powdery Mildew Induced by Choline Chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈夕军; 沈世炜; 陈银凤; 张青; 张家豪; 张孝然; 黄奔立

    2013-01-01

    Choline chloride is a new growth regulator. When the cucumber seedlings were treated with 10 mmol·L-1 choline chloride,their plant height,root length,dry weight,fresh weight,and chlorophyll content were remarkably improved.Studies on induce resistance mechanism showed that the content or activity of β-1,3-glucanase,chitinase,hydroxyproline rich glycoproteins(HRGP)and malondialdehyde(MAD)of cucumber seedlings were significantly increased after being treated with choline chloride.The conidiospores of Sphaerotheca fuliginea were inoculated on the cucumber leaves treated with choline chloride.The results showed that the germination rate of conidiospores was decline. The length of germ tubes was shorter and the number of new conidia strings was less than the contrast. Choline chloride treatment on cucumber plants can delay and alleviate the occurrence of powdery mildew.%氯化胆碱是一种新型广效的生长调节剂,以10 mmol·L-1氯化胆碱处理黄瓜幼苗可明显提高植株的株高、根长、鲜质量、干质量和叶绿素含量。诱导抗性机理研究表明:氯化胆碱处理后,黄瓜幼苗体内β-1,3-葡聚糖酶、几丁质酶活性及富含羟脯氨酸糖蛋白、丙二醛含量均明显上升。以白粉病菌分生孢子接种经氯化胆碱处理过的黄瓜叶片,结果显示分生孢子萌发率较低,芽管较短,且新产生的分生孢子串数量较少。用氯化胆碱处理黄瓜植株,可延迟和减轻黄瓜白粉病的发生。

  5. Heterogeneity Analysis of Cucumber Canopy in the Solar Greenhouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Ting-ting; LU Sheng-lian; ZHAO Chun-jiang; GUO Xin-yu; WEN Wei-liang; DU jian-jun

    2014-01-01

    Detailed analysis of canopy structural heterogeneity is an essential step in conducting parameters for a canopy structural model. This paper aims to analyze the structural heterogeneity of a cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) canopy by means of analyzing leaf distribution in a greenhouse environment with natural sunlight and also to assess the effect of structural canopy heterogeneity on light interception and photosynthesis. Two experiments and four measurements were carried out in autumn 2011 and spring 2012. A static virtual three-dimensional (3D) canopy structure was reconstructed using a 3D digitizing method. The diurnal variation of photosynthesis rate was measured using CIRAS-2 photosynthesis system. The results showed that, leaf azimuth as tested with the Rayleigh-test was homogeneous at vine tip over stage but turned heterogeneous at fruit harvest stage. After eliminating the inlfuence of the environment on the azimuth using the von Mises-Fisher method, the angle between two successive leaves was 144°;at the same time, a rule for the azimuth distribution in the canopy was established, stating that the azimuth distribution in cucumber followed a law which was positive spin and anti-spin. Leaf elevation angle of south-oriented leaves was on average 13.8° higher than that of north-oriented leaves. The horizontal distribution of light interception and photosynthesis differed signiifcantly between differently oriented leaves. East-and west-oriented leaves exhibited the highest photosynthetic rate. In conclusion, detailed analysis of canopy structural heterogeneity in this study indicated that leaf azimuth and elevation angle were heterogeneous in cucumber canopy and they should be explicitly described as they have a great impact both on light distribution and photosynthesis.

  6. Nutritional components of the sea cucumber Holothuria scabra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morakot Sroyraya

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Holothuria scabrais one of the most commercially important species found in the Pacific region. The sea cucumber extracts have been widely reported to have beneficial health effects.The aim of this study was to determine the nutritional compositions of H. scabra, and compare its important nutritional contents with that of other species.Methods:The sea cucumbers were dissected, sliced into small pieces,and then freeze-dried. The nutritional compositions, including proximate composition, amino acids, fatty acids,collagen, GABA, Vitamin A, C, and E of the whole body and body wall of H. scabra,were analyzed.Results:H. scabra contained a high quantity of protein (22.50% in whole body and 55.18% in body wall and very low lipids (1.55% in whole body and 1.02% in body wall. The three most abundant amino acids found in both the whole body and body wall were glycine, glutamic acid, and proline. The main fatty acids found in the whole body were stearic acid and nervonic acid, and in the body wall were arachidonic acid and stearic acid. The whole body and body wall also contained high levels of essential amino acids, essential fatty acids, and collagen, in addition to moderate amounts of vitamin E and low amounts of GABA and vitamin C.Conclusions:The sea cucumber, H. scabra, contained high quantity of protein and very low lipid. It containedhigh essential amino acids, essential fatty acids, nervonic and arachidonic acids, and collagen, which also contained GABA, vitamin C, and vitamin E.

  7. Residues of penconazole in cucumber and soil%戊菌唑在黄瓜和土壤中的残留

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志勇; 单炜力; 龚勇; 宋稳成; 刘贤进

    2012-01-01

    为探明戊菌唑在黄瓜中的安全性,采用气相色谱-电子捕获器法对戊菌唑在江苏南京、北京和吉林长春3个试验点黄瓜和土壤中的残留消解动态和最终残留进行了研究.结果表明,在0.01mg/kg、0.10mg/kg和1.oomg/kg3个添加水平下,戊菌唑在黄瓜中的添加回收率为82.5%~94.2%,相对标准偏差为4.8%~7.5%;在土壤中平均回收率为81.2%~93.2%,相对标准偏差为6.2%~9.1%;戊菌唑在黄瓜和土壤中的最低检测浓度均为0.01mg/kg.戊菌唑在3个试验点黄瓜中的半衰期为1.6~1.9d,在土壤中的半衰期为1.82.3d.戊菌唑按低剂量(57.0g/hm2,a.i.)或高剂量(85.5g/hm2,a.i.)施药2次或3次,在最后一次施药1d、3d和5d后采收,黄瓜中戊菌唑的残留量均低于0.080mg/kg.按试验推荐施药剂量和次数施用戊菌唑,参照CAC、欧盟或日本制订的黄瓜中戊菌唑的最大残留限量标准(0.1mg/kg),所采收的黄瓜是安全的.%To investigate the safety of penconazole in cucumber, degradation and final residues of penconazole in cucumber and soil on three experimental sites ( Nanjing, Beijing and Changchun) were determined by means of meteorological chromatographic-electronic capture device. Al the penconazole addtion levels of 0. 01 mg/kg, 0.10 mg/kg and 1.00 mg/kg, the recoveries in cucumbers were 82. 5% -94. 2% , with RSD 4. 2% -7.5% , and the recoveries in soil were 81.2% -93. 2% , with RSD of 6. 2% -9. 1%. The limits of detection of penconazole in cucumber and soil were both 0.01 mg/kg. The half-lives of penconazole in cucumbers on three sites were 1.6-1. 9 d,and in soil were 1. 8-3.2 d. When cucumbers were treated 2-3 times with low (57.0 g/hm2, a. i. ) or high (85. 5 g/hm2, a. i. ) dosage of penconazole, the residues in cucumbers after the last application for 1 d, 3 d and 5 d, were under 0.080 mg/kg, which was safe according to the MRL (minimum required performance level) standard (0. 1 mg/kg) in cucumber from CAC (Codex Alimentarius

  8. Phosphorus, Potassium and Nitrate Contents in Fruit of Pickling Cucumbers Grown in a High Tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela NEAȚĂ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pickling cucumbers are highly important both for fresh consumption and for canning industry. This study aimed to compare differences in yield and quality of eight pickling cucumber cultivars, including ‘Cor 12004’, ‘IGG 2010’, ‘IGG 2020’, ‘SM 5322’, ‘SM 5323’, ‘Zayin 201’, ‘Zayin 175201’ and ‘Trilogy’. The cucumber cultivars were laid out in a high tunnel crop and evaluated for vegetative traits (i.e. vine length, nodes per vine and branches per vine, yield attributes (i.e. fruits per main stem, average weight of fruit and fruits weight per plant and fruits quality components (nitrate, phosphate and potassium mg kg-1. The results showed significant differences (P12 cm, revealed a declining value with increase in the cucumber length. The study findings suggest that irrespective of the cultivar, the amount of nitrate was higher in shorter cucumbers (6-9 cm length although all recorded values (between 192.7 and 364.3 mg kg-1 fresh matter being under maximum accepted limit concentrations. The amount of phosphate was higher in medium to long cucumbers, while the amount of potassium was higher in shorter cucumbers.

  9. Study on Relationship Between Cucumber Germplasm and Propa-mocarb Residue Using Subjective Rating Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Peng; Qin Zhi-wei; Zhou Xiu-yan; Wu Tao; Xin Ming; Guo Qian-qian

    2014-01-01

    Propamocarb (PM) residue in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) receives little attention. As is well known to all, high PM residue of cucumber could lead to increase in the violation rates of maximum residue limits and ultimately cause harm to human health. Knowledge of PM residue could help cucumber breeders in developing cultivars with low PM residue and improving cucumber quality. In this study, 32 representative cucumber accessions (26 breeding lines and six cultivars) from different regions of China were evaluated for their PM residue in fruit and leaf to provide meaning to the subjective rating, which was highly correlated with PM residual content of fruit (r=0.97) and leaf (r=0.94). In addition, PM residual content of North China ecotype was the highest and Pickling ecotype was the lowest in fruit and leaf of cucumber. The leaf had significantly higher (P<0.01) PM residual content than the fruit, and poor correlation between leaf and fruit was represented. This study verified PM residual relationship between fruit and leaf, and laid the foundation for further identification of germplasm resources and breeding of new varieties for low PM residue of cucumber.

  10. Large-Scale Transcriptome Analysis of Cucumber and Botrytis cinerea during Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwen Kong

    Full Text Available Cucumber gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is considered one of the most serious cucumber diseases. With the advent of Hi-seq technology, it is possible to study the plant-pathogen interaction at the transcriptome level. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first application of RNA-seq to identify cucumber and B. cinerea differentially expressed genes (DEGs before and after the plant-pathogen interaction. In total, 248,908,688 raw reads were generated; after removing low-quality reads and those containing adapter and poly-N, 238,341,648 clean reads remained to map the reference genome. There were 3,512 cucumber DEGs and 1,735 B. cinerea DEGs. GO enrichment and KEGG enrichment analysis were performed on these DEGs to study the interaction between cucumber and B. cinerea. To verify the reliability and accuracy of our transcriptome data, 5 cucumber DEGs and 5 B. cinerea DEGs were chosen for RT-PCR verification. This is the first systematic transcriptome analysis of components related to the B. cinerea-cucumber interaction. Functional genes and putative pathways identified herein will increase our understanding of the mechanism of the pathogen-host interaction.

  11. Transcriptome and Small RNAome Dynamics during a Resistant and Susceptible Interaction between Cucumber and Downy Mildew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa Burkhardt

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cucumber ( L. downy mildew, caused by the obligate oomycete pathogen (Berk. and Curt. Rostov., is the primary factor limiting cucumber production. Although sources of resistance have been identified, such as plant introduction line PI 197088, the genes and processes involved in mediating resistance are still unknown. In the current study, we conducted a comprehensive transcriptome and small RNAome analysis of a resistant (PI 197088 and susceptible (‘Vlaspik’ cucumber during a time course of infection using Illumina sequencing. We identified significantly differentially expressed (DE genes within and between resistant and susceptible cucumber leaves over a time course of infection. Weighted gene correlation network analyses (WGCNA created coexpression modules containing genes with unique expression patterns between Vlaspik and PI 197088. Recurring data trends indicated that resistance to cucumber downy mildew is associated with earlier response to the pathogen, hormone signaling, and regulation of nutrient supply. Candidate resistance genes were identified from multiple transcriptome analyses and literature support. Additionally, parallel sequencing of small RNAs (sRNAs from cucumber and during the infection time course was used to identify and quantify novel and existing microRNA (miRNA in both species. Predicted miRNA targets of cucumber transcripts suggest a complex interconnectedness of gene expression regulation in this plant–pathogen system. This work bioinformatically uncovered gene expression patterns involved in the mediation of or response to resistance. Herein, we provide the foundation for future work to validate candidate resistance genes and miRNA-based regulation proposed in this study.

  12. Estimating Time of Weed Emergence in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihat Tursun

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Modelling is carried out for eleven major weeds in cucumber to develop estimated models for weed emergence time. Weed species were grouped according to their emergence patterns. Amaranthus retroflexus, Chenopodium album, Heliotropium europaeum, Polygonum aviculare and Solanum nigrum were early emerging, Convolvulus arvensis, Cyperus rotundus, Cynodon dactylon, Portulaca oleracea and Sorghum halepense were season long emerging Tribulus terrestris was the late emerging weed species. Different non-linear growth curves (Chapman-Richard, Weibull, logistic, Gompertz and cubic spline fitted to the data of cumulative percent emergence for the different species and years. Cubic spline seemed the best model for many species.

  13. Two triterpene glycosides from the sea cucumber Bohadschia marmorata Jaeger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Hua Yuan; Yang Hua Yi; Ling Li; Bao Shu Liu; Hong Wei Zhang; Peng Sun

    2008-01-01

    Further studies on the sea cucumber Bohadschia marmorata Jaeger led to the isolation of a new holostan-type triterpene glycoside,Marmoroside C (1) together with a known triterpene glycoside (2).On the basis of spectroscopic analyses,including twodimensional NMR techniques,and chemical reactions,the structure of the new triterpene glycoside was elucidated as 3-0-[3-O-methyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→3)-13-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-quinovopyranosyl-(1→2)-4-O-sodium-sulfato-β-D-xylo-pyranosyl]-25-acetoxy-22-oxo-9(11)-holostene-3β,12α,17α-triol.

  14. Susceptibility level of cucumber downy mildew (Pseudoperonospora cubensis to metalaxyl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagi Ferenc F.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Level of susceptibility of Pseudoperonospora cubensis isolate from Ratkovo to metalaxyl in concentrations 50, 100, 200, 400 and 800 μg/ml was investigated. The trials were conducted on cotyledon and fully developed young leaves using cucumber cultivar Haroš. Reduced level of susceptibility was detected in metalaxyl concentrations of 50, 100 and 200 μg/ml because the intensity of sporulation in these treatments was on the same level as in control. Sporulation was also observed on developed leaves treated with metalaxyl in concentrations of 400 and 800 μg/ml.

  15. High sequence conservation among cucumber mosaic virus isolates from lily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y K; Derks, A F; Langeveld, S; Goldbach, R; Prins, M

    2001-08-01

    For classification of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) isolates from ornamental crops of different geographical areas, these were characterized by comparing the nucleotide sequences of RNAs 4 and the encoded coat proteins. Within the ornamental-infecting CMV viruses both subgroups were represented. CMV isolates of Alstroemeria and crocus were classified as subgroup II isolates, whereas 8 other isolates, from lily, gladiolus, amaranthus, larkspur, and lisianthus, were identified as subgroup I members. In general, nucleotide sequence comparisons correlated well with geographic distribution, with one notable exception: the analyzed nucleotide sequences of 5 lily isolates showed remarkably high homology despite different origins.

  16. Silicon facilitates manganese phytoextraction by cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Dragišić-Maksimović, Jelena; Mojović, Miloš; Maksimović, Vuk

    2016-01-01

    The effect of excess nutrient levels of manganese (Mn, 50 and 100 mM) on the growth inhibition and the appearance of Mn-toxicity symptoms in the leaves was studied in cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Chinese long). Silicon (Si), when supplied as 1.5 mM silicic acid, clearly decreased symptoms of Mn-toxicity despite approximately the same total Mn content in the leaves. In treated plants, Si improves growth and biomass production compared with that of non-Si treated plants. Inert deposi...

  17. 大蒜对日光温室黄瓜生长及土壤生物学特性的影响%Effects of garlic on cucumber growth and soil biology in solar greenhouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴会芹; 董林林; 王倩

    2011-01-01

    This study was focused on the impacts of garlic amendment on cucumber growth and soil biological properties by potted tests in a greenhouse. The results indicated that adding garlic residue significantly improved cucumber growth. The fresh weight of cucumber was positivly correlated with the added quantity of garlic residues. The numbers of bacteria and actinomycetes were enhanced due to the addition in the whole growth period of cucumber.However,adding 3% garlic residue decreased the number of fungi and fusarium, increased B/F ratio and optimized soil microbial community structure. Moreover,garlic residue increased the activity of polyhenol oxidase,saccharase, urease and catalase of rhizosphere soil at seedling stage. At harvesting stage,the four enzyme activities were significantly high at the adding rate of more than 2.0%, showing improving the environment favorable for the growth of cucumber stage.%利用盆栽试验研究大蒜干样还田后,对日光温室黄瓜生长及土壤生化特性的影响.结果表明:添加大蒜干样后,显著增加黄瓜植株的鲜重,且与添加量成正比;在黄瓜的整个生长期,增加了细茵和放线茵的数量.当结果期大蒜的添加量为3.0%时,减少了真茵和镰刀茵的数量,并提高了土壤B/F(细菌+放线茵/真菌)值,优化了土壤微生物区系;而随着黄瓜的生长,促进黄瓜幼苗期根际土壤多酚氧化酶、蔗糖酶、尿酶和过氧化氢酶的活性.当结果期大蒜添加量大于2.0%时,对4种土壤酶具有显著的促进作用,使土壤环境有利于黄瓜生长.

  18. Phosphorus, Potassium and Nitrate Contents in Fruit of Pickling Cucumbers Grown in a High Tunnel

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Pickling cucumbers are highly important both for fresh consumption and for canning industry. This study aimed to compare differences in yield and quality of eight pickling cucumber cultivars, including ‘Cor 12004’, ‘IGG 2010’, ‘IGG 2020’, ‘SM 5322’, ‘SM 5323’, ‘Zayin 201’, ‘Zayin 175201’ and ‘Trilogy’. The cucumber cultivars were laid out in a high tunnel crop and evaluated for vegetative traits (i.e. vine length, nodes per vine and branches per vine), yield attributes (i.e. fruits per main s...

  19. Effects of Different Rootstocks on the Growth and Fruit Quality of Greenhouse Cucumber in Early Spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bing; ZHANG Tianwei; ZHAO Jiayu; JIANG Xinmei

    2009-01-01

    Different pumpkin rootstocks were used to study the effects of different rootstocks on the growth and fruit quality of greenhouse cucumber in early spring. The results showed that the grafted cucumber could significantly improve the production, and different rootstock had a certain effect on the survival rate and fruit quality. Jinhuanghou and Fengyijiajiewang as rootstock had the highest survival rate, which were 79.0% and 70.7%, respectively. As rootstocks of greenhouse cucumber, Jinhuanghou, Lvzhoujuxing,Fengyi, Huofenghuang, and Dawei No.17 were better than others according to taste, and Heizinangua, Jinhuanghou, Fengyi,Huofenghuang, and Dawei No. 17 were better according to output.

  20. Diversity of seedling responses to drought

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, M.; Poorter, L.

    2007-01-01

    Drought is an important seedling mortality agent in dry and moist tropical forests, and more severe and frequent droughts are predicted in the future. The effect of drought on leaf gas exchange and seedling survival was tested in a dry-down experiment with four tree species from dry and moist forest

  1. Occurrence of Sclerotium Rot of Cucumber Caused by Sclerotium rolfsii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Hyeuk Kwon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sclerotium rot of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. occurred at the experimental field of Gyeongsangnam-do Agricultural Research and Extension Services in July 2012. The typical symptoms included wilt, rot, and water-soaking on stems and fruits and severely infected plants eventually died. White mycelial mats spread over lesions, and then sclerotia were formed on fruit and near soil line. The sclerotia were globoid in shape, white to brown in color and 1−3 mm in size and the hyphal width was 4−8 μm. The optimum temperature for mycelial growth and sclerotia formation on PDA was 30oC. The typical clamp connections were observed in the hyphae of the fungus grown on PDA. For further identification, the complete internal transcribed spacer (ITS rDNA region was amplified and sequenced. On the basis of mycological characteristics, ITS rDNA region comparison, and pathogenicity to host plants, this fungus was identified as Sclerotium rolfsii Saccardo. This is the first report of sclerotium rot on cucumber caused by S. rolfsii in Korea.

  2. Anticancer Activity from Active Fraction of Sea Cucumber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Mutia Putram

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sea Cucumber Holothuria atra is one of marine organisms has been used as a new source of novel bioactive compounds. Many of them have been used as the lead compounds in discovery of new anticancer drugs. The objective of this study was to determine the active fractions of sea cucumber (H. atra which have anticancer activity. H. atra was macerated using ethanol and the extract was freezedried using a freeze dryer. The crude extract was partitioned using n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol-water (3:1:1:1. Cytotoxicity test was performed using HeLa (cervic cancer cell line and MCF-7 (breast cancer cell line based on the MTT assay. The crude extract of H. atra showed the best cytotoxic activity against HeLa cells (IC50 = 12.48 µg/mL and MCF-7 cells (IC50 = 17.90 µg/mL. The toxicity tests showed the IC50 value of the n-hexane fraction, ethyl acetate fraction, and methanol-water fraction against HeLa cells HeLa (IC50 = 76.45 µg/mL; 77.95 µg/mL;  14.27 µg/mL and MCF-7 cells (IC50 = 58.50 µg/mL; 59.59 µg/mL; 14.33 µg/mL.

  3. Arsenic speciation in xylem sap of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihucz, Victor G. [Joint Research Group of Environmental Chemistry of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and L. Eoetvoes University, Budapest (Hungary); Hungarian Satellite Centre of Trace Elements Institute to UNESCO, Budapest (Hungary); Tatar, Eniko [Hungarian Satellite Centre of Trace Elements Institute to UNESCO, Budapest (Hungary); L. Eoetvoes University, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Budapest (Hungary); Virag, Istvan [L. Eoetvoes University, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Budapest (Hungary); Cseh, Edit; Fodor, Ferenc [L. Eoetvoes University, Department of Plant Physiology, Budapest (Hungary); Zaray, Gyula [Joint Research Group of Environmental Chemistry of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and L. Eoetvoes University, Budapest (Hungary); Hungarian Satellite Centre of Trace Elements Institute to UNESCO, Budapest (Hungary); L. Eoetvoes University, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Budapest (Hungary)

    2005-10-01

    Flow injection analysis (FIA) and high-performance liquid chromatography double-focusing sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-DF-ICP-MS) were used for total arsenic determination and arsenic speciation of xylem sap of cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L.) grown in hydroponics containing 2 {mu}mol dm{sup -3} arsenate or arsenite, respectively. Arsenite [As(III)], arsenate [As(V)] and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) were identified in the sap of the plants. Arsenite was the predominant arsenic species in the xylem saps regardless of the type of arsenic treatment, and the following concentration order was determined: As(III) > As(V) > DMA. The amount of total As, calculated taking into consideration the mass of xylem sap collected, was almost equal for both treatments. Arsenite was taken up more easily by cucumber than arsenate. Partial oxidation of arsenite to arsenate (<10% in 48 h) was observed in the case of arsenite-containing nutrient solutions, which may explain the detection of arsenate in the saps of plants treated with arsenite. (orig.)

  4. Autolysis and extension of isolated walls from growing cucumber hypocotyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, D J; Durachko, D M

    1994-11-01

    Walls isolated from cucumber hypocotyls retain autolytic activities and the ability to extend when placed under the appropriate conditions. To test whether autolysis and extension are related, we treated the walls in various ways to enhance or inhibit long-term wall extension ('creep') and measured autolysis as release of various saccharides from the wall. Except for some non-specific inhibitors of enzymatic activity, we found no correlation between wall extension and wall autolysis. Most notably, autolysis and extension differed strongly in their pH dependence. We also found that exogenous cellulases and pectinases enhanced extension in native walls, but when applied to walls previously inactivated with heat or protease these enzymes caused breakage without sustained extension. In contrast, pretreatment of walls with pectinase or cellulase, followed by boiling in methanol to inactivate the enzymes, resulted in walls with much stronger expansin-mediated extension responses. Crude protein preparations from the digestive tracts of snails enhanced extension of both native and inactivated walls, and these preparations contained expansin-like proteins (assessed by Western blotting). Our results indicate that the extension of isolated cucumber walls does not depend directly on the activity of endogenous wall-bound autolytic enzymes. The results with exogenous enzymes suggest that the hydrolysis of matrix polysaccharides may not induce wall creep by itself, but may act synergistically with expansins to enhance wall extension.

  5. Extraction and Characterization of Collagen from Sea Cucumber Flesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sea cucumber (Stichopus variegatus is one of the Echinodermata phylum that grows along Indonesian coastal. Sea cucumber is potential source of collagen. The purposes of this research were to determine the optimal concentration of NaOH and CH3COOH solution in collagen production and analyze the physicochemical characteristics of collagen from S. variegatus. Yield of the collagen was 1.5% (based on wet weight basis, produced by pretreatment with NaOH 0,30%, hydrolysis with CH3COOH 0.10% and extracted using distilled water. Protein, moisture, and ash content of the collagen was 67.68%, 13.64%, and 4.15%, respectively. Collagen was extracted using distilled water at 45°C during 2h and still had triple helix structure ; pH 7.37 ; melting temperature 163.67°C and whiteness 69.25%. The major amino acid content of collagen were glycine, alanine, proline and glutamic acid.

  6. Mycorrhizas on nursery and field seedlings of Quercus garryana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southworth, Darlene; Carrington, Elizabeth M; Frank, Jonathan L; Gould, Peter; Harrington, Connie A; Devine, Warren D

    2009-03-01

    Oak woodland regeneration and restoration requires that seedlings develop mycorrhizas, yet the need for this mutualistic association is often overlooked. In this study, we asked whether Quercus garryana seedlings in nursery beds acquire mycorrhizas without artificial inoculation or access to a mycorrhizal network of other ectomycorrhizal hosts. We also assessed the relationship between mycorrhizal infection and seedling growth in a nursery. Further, we compared the mycorrhizal assemblage of oak nursery seedlings to that of conifer seedlings in the nursery and to that of oak seedlings in nearby oak woodlands. Seedlings were excavated and the roots washed and examined microscopically. Mycorrhizas were identified by DNA sequences of the internal transcribed spacer region and by morphotype. On oak nursery seedlings, predominant mycorrhizas were species of Laccaria and Tuber with single occurrences of Entoloma and Peziza. In adjacent beds, seedlings of Pseudotsuga menziesii were mycorrhizal with Hysterangium and a different species of Laccaria; seedlings of Pinus monticola were mycorrhizal with Geneabea, Tarzetta, and Thelephora. Height of Q. garryana seedlings correlated with root biomass and mycorrhizal abundance. Total mycorrhizal abundance and abundance of Laccaria mycorrhizas significantly predicted seedling height in the nursery. Native oak seedlings from nearby Q. garryana woodlands were mycorrhizal with 13 fungal symbionts, none of which occurred on the nursery seedlings. These results demonstrate the value of mycorrhizas to the growth of oak seedlings. Although seedlings in nursery beds developed mycorrhizas without intentional inoculation, their mycorrhizas differed from and were less species rich than those on native seedlings.

  7. Echinoside-B from the Lakshadweep sea cucumber Actinopyga mauritiana (Quoy and Gaimard)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parameswaran, P.S.; Naik, C.G.; Das, B.; Kamat, S.Y.

    Brine-shrimp assay guided purification of the methanolic extract of the sea cucumber Actinopyga mauritiana yields echinoside-B as a major toxic constituent. The compound has been characterized based on its spectral data....

  8. Microbiological preservation of cucumbers for bulk storage using acetic acid and food preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Díaz, I M; McFeeters, R F

    2008-08-01

    Microbial growth did not occur when cucumbers were preserved without a thermal process by storage in solutions containing acetic acid, sodium benzoate, and calcium chloride to maintain tissue firmness. The concentrations of acetic acid and sodium benzoate required to ensure preservation were low enough so that stored cucumbers could be converted to the finished product without the need to wash out and discard excess acid or preservative. Since no thermal process was required, this method of preservation would be applicable for storing cucumbers in bulk containers. Acid tolerant pathogens died off in less than 24 h with the pH, acetic acid, and sodium benzoate concentrations required to assure the microbial stability of cucumbers stored at 30 degrees C. Potassium sorbate as a preservative in this application was not effective. Yeast growth was observed when sulfite was used as a preservative.

  9. A hyperspectral imaging prototype for online quality evaluation of pickling cucumbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    A hyperspectral imaging prototype was developed for online evaluation of external and internal quality of pickling cucumbers. The prototype had several new, unique features including simultaneous reflectance and transmittance imaging and inline, real time calibration of hyperspectral images of each ...

  10. Technological aspects of keeping and pickling qualities of cucumbers as influenced by fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakr, A A; Gawish, R A

    1993-07-01

    The effect of the interactions between K (potassium) and Ca (calcium) applications (preharvest treatment), packaging method and storage conditions on the keeping and pickling qualities of cucumber were investigated. Spraying with 100 ppm K and 5000 ppm Ca prolonged the shelf-life of cucumber, especially when packaged in perforated polyethylene and stored at refrigeration conditions. Packaging and refrigeration both reduced weight loss and decay percentages. Decay was greater in packaged fruits stored at high temperature. Packaging had only a slight effect on chemical composition. Packaged fruits from plants sprayed with 100 ppm K maintained their fresh appearance and firmness > or = 3 times longer than a control sample at ambient conditions and over 20 days under refrigeration. Sensory evaluation of pickled cucumbers revealed that both K and Ca applications on plants during growth improved substantially the pickling quality of cucumber.

  11. Putative paternal factors controlling chilling tolerance in Korean market-type cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilling temperatures (Cucumis sativus L.) plants during winter and early spring growing seasons. Inheritance to chilling in U.S. processing cucumber is controlled by cytoplasmic (maternally) and nuclear factors. To understand inherit...

  12. Current status of genetic transformation technology developed in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shun-li; Seong Sub Ku; YE Xing-guo; HE Cong-fen; Suk Yoon Kwon; Pil Son Choi

    2015-01-01

    Genetic transformation is an important technique for functional genomics study and genetic improvement of plants. Until now, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation methods using cotyledon as explants has been the major approach for cu-cumber, and its frequency has been up to 23%. For example, signiifcantly enhancement of the transformation efifciency of this plant species was achieved from the cotyledon explants of the cultivar Poinsett 76 infected by Agrobacterium strains EHA105 with efifcient positive selection system in lots of experiments. This review is to summarize some key factors in-lfuencing cucumber regeneration and genetic transformation, including target genes, selection systems and the ways of transgene introduction, and then to put forward some strategies for the increasing of cucumber transformation efifciency. In the future, it is high possible for cucumber to be potential bioreactor to produce vaccine and biomaterials for human beings.

  13. Odontonema cuspidatum and Psychotria punctata, two new cucumber mosaic virus hosts identified in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    The wide host range of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) has been expanded by the identification of Odontonema cuspidatum (firespike) and Psychotria punctata (dotted wild coffee) as CMV hosts in Florida....

  14. Analysis of fatty acid composition of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus using multivariate statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qinzeng; Gao, Fei; Xu, Qiang; Yang, Hongsheng

    2014-11-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) provide energy and also can be used to trace trophic relationships among organisms. Sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus goes into a state of aestivation during warm summer months. We examined fatty acid profiles in aestivated and non-aestivated A. japonicus using multivariate analyses (PERMANOVA, MDS, ANOSIM, and SIMPER). The results indicate that the fatty acid profiles of aestivated and non-aestivated sea cucumbers differed significantly. The FAs that were produced by bacteria and brown kelp contributed the most to the differences in the fatty acid composition of aestivated and nonaestivated sea cucumbers. Aestivated sea cucumbers may synthesize FAs from heterotrophic bacteria during early aestivation, and long chain FAs such as eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) that produced from intestinal degradation, are digested during deep aestivation. Specific changes in the fatty acid composition of A. japonicus during aestivation needs more detailed study in the future.

  15. Construction of a BAC library from cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and identification of linkage group specific clones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Guan; Qi Chen; Junsong Pan; Zheng Li; Huanle He; Aizhong Wu; Rentao Song; Run Cai

    2008-01-01

    A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library consisting of 19,200 clones with an average insert size of 105 kb has been constructed from a cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) inbred line S94, derived from a cultivar in North China. The entire library was equivalent to approximately 5 haploid cucumber genomes. To facilitate chromosome engineering and anchor the cucumber genetic linkage map to its chromosomes, 15 sequence-characterized amplified regions (SCAR) and seven simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers from each link-age group of cucumber were used to screen an ordered array of pooled BAC DNA with polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Fifteen mark-ers gave at least two positive clones. As a result, 22 BAC clones representing 7 linkage groups of cucumber were identified, which further validated the genome coverage and utility of the library. This BAC library and linkage group specific clones provide essential resources for future research of the cucumber genome.

  16. Detection of fruit fly infestation in pickling cucumbers using hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Renfu; Ariana, Diwan P.

    2011-06-01

    Fruit fly infestation can be a serious problem in pickling cucumber production. In the United States and many other countries, there is zero tolerance for fruit flies in pickled products. Currently, processors rely on manual inspection to detect and remove fruit fly-infested cucumbers, which is labor intensive and also prone to error due to human fatigue and the difficulty of visually detecting infestation that is hidden inside the fruit. In this research, a laboratory hyperspectral imaging system was used to detect fruit fly-infested pickling cucumbers. Hyperspectral reflectance (450-740 nm) and transmittance (740-1,000 nm) images were acquired simultaneously for 329 normal (infestation free) and fruit flyinfested pickling cucumbers of three size classes with the mean diameters of 16.8, 22.1, and 27.6 mm, respectively. Mean spectra were extracted from the hyperspectral image of each cucumber, and they were then corrected for the fruit size effect using a diameter correction equation. Partial least squares discriminant analyses for the reflectance, transmittance and their combined data were performed for differentiating normal and infested pickling cucumbers. With reflectance mode, the overall classification accuracies for the three size classes and mixed class were between 82% and 88%, whereas transmittance achieved better classification results with the overall accuracies of 88%-93%. Integration of reflectance and transmittance did not result in noticeable improvements, compared to transmittance mode. Overall, the hyperspectral imaging system performed better than manual inspection, which had an overall accuracy of 75% and decreased significantly for smaller size cucumbers. This research demonstrated that hyperspectral imaging is potentially useful for detecting fruit fly-infested pickling cucumbers.

  17. Climatic Risk of Field Cultivation of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the present work was to separate zones of pickling cucumber field cultivation in Poland according to the various degrees of climatic risk. The study used 40-years of (1966-2005) data from 28 experimental stations of the Research Centre for Cultivar Testing. The data characterised the course of the growth, development, cucumber crop productivity and also the agrotechnical dates. Additionally, the work considered agrometeorological data of 7 development stages of the analysed plant:...

  18. Immunological comparison of the NADH:nitrate reductase from different cucumber tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Marciniak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Soluble nitrate reductase from cucumber roots (Cucumis sativus L. was isolated and purified with blue-Sepharose 4B. Specific antibodies against the NR protein were raised by immunization of a goat. Using polyclonal antibodies anti-NR properties of the nitrate reductase from various cucumber tissues were examined. Experiments showed difference in immuno-logical properties of nitrate reductase (NR from cotyledon roots and leaves.

  19. Reprodução de Meloidogyne spp. em porta-enxertos e híbridos de pepino Reproduction of Meloidogyne spp. in rootstocks and cucumber hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Renata S Wilcken

    2010-03-01

    Tetsukabuto' and 'Excite Ikki' and four cucumber (Cucumis sativus Japanese type hybrids of ('Yoshinari', 'Kouki', 'Taisho' and 'Tsuyataro'. Two experiments were carried out in greenhouse, each one with a nematode specie. Each plot consisted of one plant per pot containing 2 liters of autoclaved soil. Nine days after the seedlings transplantation, each plant was inoculated with 5,000 eggs and second-stage juveniles (initial population - Pi of M. javanica or M. incognita race 2. 'Rutgers' tomatoes were used as a standard for inoculum viability in both experiments. The experimental design was completely randomized with five replicates per treatment. Sixty days after inoculated, each plant was evaluated, when root fresh weight, total number of nematodes in the soil and in the roots (final population - Pf, nematodes number per gram of root and the reproduction factor of both Meloidogyne species (FR=Pf/Pi were determined. All rootstocks and cucumber hybrids allowed the M. javanica and M. incognita race 2 multiplication, but, generally, reproduction factor values were greater in cucumbers than in rootstocks.

  20. Identification of differentially expressed genes related to aphid resistance in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Danna; Liu, Min; Hu, Qijing; He, Min; Qi, Xiaohua; Xu, Qiang; Zhou, Fucai; Chen, Xuehao

    2015-05-11

    Cucumber, a very important vegetable crop worldwide, is easily damaged by pests. Aphids (Aphis gossypii Glover) are among the most serious pests in cucumber production and often cause severe loss of yield and make fruit quality get worse. Identifying genes that render cucumbers resistant to aphid-induced damage and breeding aphid-resistant cucumber varieties have become the most promising control strategies. In this study, a Illumina Genome Analyzer platform was applied to monitor changes in gene expression in the whole genome of the cucumber cultivar 'EP6392' which is resistant to aphids. Nine DGE libraries were constructed from infected and uninfected leaves. In total, 49 differentially expressed genes related to cucumber aphid resistance were screened during the treatment period. These genes are mainly associated with signal transduction, plant-pathogen interactions, flavonoid biosynthesis, amino acid metabolism and sugar metabolism pathways. Eight of the 49 genes may be associated with aphid resistance. Finally, expression of 9 randomly selected genes was evaluated by qRT-PCR to verify the results for the tag-mapped genes. With the exception of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase homolog 6, the expression of the chosen genes was in agreement with the results of the tag-sequencing analysis patterns.

  1. High-Value Components and Bioactives from Sea Cucumbers for Functional Foods—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazamid Saari

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Sea cucumbers, belonging to the class Holothuroidea, are marine invertebrates, habitually found in the benthic areas and deep seas across the world. They have high commercial value coupled with increasing global production and trade. Sea cucumbers, informally named as bêche-de-mer, or gamat, have long been used for food and folk medicine in the communities of Asia and Middle East. Nutritionally, sea cucumbers have an impressive profile of valuable nutrients such as Vitamin A, Vitamin B1 (thiamine, Vitamin B2 (riboflavin, Vitamin B3 (niacin, and minerals, especially calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc. A number of unique biological and pharmacological activities including anti-angiogenic, anticancer, anticoagulant, anti-hypertension, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antithrombotic, antitumor and wound healing have been ascribed to various species of sea cucumbers. Therapeutic properties and medicinal benefits of sea cucumbers can be linked to the presence of a wide array of bioactives especially triterpene glycosides (saponins, chondroitin sulfates, glycosaminoglycan (GAGs, sulfated polysaccharides, sterols (glycosides and sulfates, phenolics, cerberosides, lectins, peptides, glycoprotein, glycosphingolipids and essential fatty acids. This review is mainly designed to cover the high-value components and bioactives as well as the multiple biological and therapeutic properties of sea cucumbers with regard to exploring their potential uses for functional foods and nutraceuticals.

  2. Residues and Analysis of Degradation of Novel Fungicide Picoxystrobin in Cucumber and Soil Under Field Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUN Yang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The analytical method for the residues of picoxystrobin in cucumber vegetable and soil matrices was developed and the dissipation of picoxystrobin under field conditions was studied. The limit of detection(LODof picoxystrobin was 3.5×10 -11 g and the limit of quantifica-tion(LOQwas found to be 0.005 mg·kg -1 in cucumber and soil. At three different spiking levels(0.005, 0.05, 0.25 mg·kg -1, mean recoveries and relative standard deviation(RSDfrom fortified samples in five replicated experiments for each matrix were in the range of 68.61%-122.4% and 1.06%-17.2%, respectively. The results showed that the half-lives of picoxystrobin in cucumber and soil from Tianjin City were 5.71 d and 12.9 d, respectively, the half-lives of picoxystrobin in cucumber and soil from Shandong Province were 2.70 d and 10.3 d, respec-tively, and the half-lives of picoxystrobin in cucumber and soil from Jiangsu Province were 9.76 d and 14.9 d, respectively. The maximum residual concentration of picoxystrobin on the 5th day after the last application was 0.014 mg· kg -1, much lower than the Maximum Residue Limits(MRLsfor picoxystrobin in cucumber according to the standards of EU(0.05 mg·kg-1.

  3. Habitat characteristic of two selected locations for sea cucumber ranching purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartati, Retno; Trianto, Agus; Widianingsih

    2017-02-01

    Sea cucumbers face heavily overfished because of their high prices and very strong market demand. One effort suggested to overcome this problem is sea ranching. The objectives of present works were to determine biological, physical, and chemical characteristics of prospective location for sea ranching of sea cucumber Holothuria atra. Two location at Jepara Waters (Teluk Awur and Bandengan WateRs of Jepara Regency) were selected. The determination of chemical (salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen of water, phosphate, nitrate, nitrite and ammonium of water and sediment, organic matters of sediment), physical (transparancy, sedimen grains size, water current direction and its velocity), biologycal characteristic (coverage of seagrass and its macroalgae associated, phytoplankton as well as chlorophyl-a and phaeopytin of water and sediment) ware determined. The result of present work showed that some characteristic were matched with requirement as sea ranching location of sea cucumber because the density of sea cucumber in the sea is a function of habitat features. For sediment feeding holothurians of the family Aspidochirotida, the biologycal characteristic act as very important considerations by providing sea cucumber food. High cholophyl-a and phaeopytin in sediment also represent a prosperous habitat for sea cucumber ranching.

  4. Silicon Application Effects on Yield and Growth of Two Cucumber Genotypes in Hydroponics System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mohaghegh

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Silicon (Si has beneficial effects on the growth, yield, and tolerance of some crops against biotic and abiotic stresses. Considering the absence of Si in the nutrient solutions used in hydroponically-grown cucumber, the present study was conducted to investigate the influence of Si on the growth and yield of two cucumber genotypes (Cucumis sativus L. cvs. Dominus GRC and Super Dominus. In a hydroponic experiment, two cucumber cultivars were exposed to three Si levels (0, 100, and 200 mg L-1 Si in the form of sodium silicate. The results showed that supplement of Si in the nutrient solution increased Si concentration in cucumber root and shoot. The root and shoot dry weight, crop height, and root length of cucumber plants were significantly (P< 0.05 greater in the presence of Si in comparison with the free- Si treatments. Most of the growth parameters, did not have significant difference at the 100 and 200 mg L-1 silicate levels. According to the results of the present study, it seems that the application of 100 mg/L Si in the nutrient solution could improve the growth and yield of cucumber.

  5. High-value components and bioactives from sea cucumbers for functional foods--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordbar, Sara; Anwar, Farooq; Saari, Nazamid

    2011-01-01

    Sea cucumbers, belonging to the class Holothuroidea, are marine invertebrates, habitually found in the benthic areas and deep seas across the world. They have high commercial value coupled with increasing global production and trade. Sea cucumbers, informally named as bêche-de-mer, or gamat, have long been used for food and folk medicine in the communities of Asia and Middle East. Nutritionally, sea cucumbers have an impressive profile of valuable nutrients such as Vitamin A, Vitamin B1 (thiamine), Vitamin B2 (riboflavin), Vitamin B3 (niacin), and minerals, especially calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc. A number of unique biological and pharmacological activities including anti-angiogenic, anticancer, anticoagulant, anti-hypertension, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antithrombotic, antitumor and wound healing have been ascribed to various species of sea cucumbers. Therapeutic properties and medicinal benefits of sea cucumbers can be linked to the presence of a wide array of bioactives especially triterpene glycosides (saponins), chondroitin sulfates, glycosaminoglycan (GAGs), sulfated polysaccharides, sterols (glycosides and sulfates), phenolics, cerberosides, lectins, peptides, glycoprotein, glycosphingolipids and essential fatty acids. This review is mainly designed to cover the high-value components and bioactives as well as the multiple biological and therapeutic properties of sea cucumbers with regard to exploring their potential uses for functional foods and nutraceuticals.

  6. Controlled release fertilizer improves quality of container longleaf pine seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Kasten Dumroese; Jeff Parkhurst; James P. Barnett

    2005-01-01

    In an operational trial, increasing the amount of nitrogen (N) applied to container longleaf pine seedlings by incorporating controlled release fertilizer (CRF) into the media improved seedling growth and quality. Compared with control seedlings that received 40 mg N, seedlings receiving 66 mg N through CRF supplemented with liquid fertilizer had needles that were 4 in...

  7. 7 CFR 319.56-36 - Watermelon, squash, cucumber, and oriental melon from the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the Republic of Korea. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), squash (Cucurbita maxima), cucumber (Cucumis sativus), and oriental melon (Cucumis melo) may be imported into the United States from the Republic...

  8. Selective extraction of dimethoate from cucumber samples by use of molecularly imprinted microspheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao-Jiao Du

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Molecularly imprinted polymers for dimethoate recognition were synthesized by the precipitation polymerization technique using methyl methacrylate (MMA as the functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA as the cross-linker. The morphology, adsorption and recognition properties were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, static adsorption test, and competitive adsorption test. To obtain the best selectivity and binding performance, the synthesis and adsorption conditions of MIPs were optimized through single factor experiments. Under the optimized conditions, the resultant polymers exhibited uniform size, satisfactory binding capacity and significant selectivity. Furthermore, the imprinted polymers were successfully applied as a specific solid-phase extractants combined with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC for determination of dimethoate residues in the cucumber samples. The average recoveries of three spiked samples ranged from 78.5% to 87.9% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs less than 4.4% and the limit of detection (LOD obtained for dimethoate as low as 2.3 μg/mL.

  9. Selective extraction of dimethoate from cucumber samples by use of molecularly imprinted microspheres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiao-Jiao Du; Rui-Xia Gao; Hu Yu; Xiao-Jing Li; Hui Mu

    2015-01-01

    Molecularly imprinted polymers for dimethoate recognition were synthesized by the precipitation polymerization technique using methyl methacrylate (MMA) as the functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as the cross-linker. The morphology, adsorption and recognition properties were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), static adsorption test, and competitive adsorption test. To obtain the best selectivity and binding performance, the synthesis and adsorption conditions of MIPs were optimized through single factor experiments. Under the optimized conditions, the resultant polymers exhibited uniform size, satisfactory binding capacity and significant selectivity. Furthermore, the imprinted polymers were successfully applied as a specific solid-phase extractants combined with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for determination of dimethoate residues in the cucumber samples. The average recoveries of three spiked samples ranged from 78.5% to 87.9% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 4.4% and the limit of detection (LOD) obtained for dimethoate as low as 2.3μg/mL.

  10. Seedling quality of common sage (Salvia officinalis L. as affected by seedling production methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Çalişkan

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine the effects of four different seedling production methods (i.e., open seedbed, greenhouse seedbed, float system and modified float system on the seedling growth and quality of common sage. Sowing rates were 1 g per m2 in an open seedbed and a greenhouse seedbed system, whereas the sowing rate was one seed per cell in the float and modified float systems. Emergence period, seedling growth period, the fresh and dry weights of aerial parts of seedlings, the fresh and dry weights of roots, seedling height, root height and stem diameter were determined as agronomical observations and measurements. The greenhouse seedling method was found to be superior over the other methods

  11. Diploidization of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. haploids by colchicine treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesselina Nikolova

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Haploid cucumber plants are totally infertile and do not undergo spontaneous diploidization. The use of haploids depends on the possibility of doubling the chromosome number and the obtaining of stable doubled haploids (DH. Four haploids of different genotypes propagated vegetatively were treated with colchicine in order to obtain DH. The following procedures were used: 1 apical shoot meristem treatment, 2 soaking of shoot explants, 3 placing of shoot explants on medium with colchicine. Plants of the C1 generation were evaluated in respect to morphological and cytological characters and fertility. The best result of 20.9% DH was obtained after repeated treatment of the meristem with colchicine. A large group of chimeras (28.5% was also distinguished as were haploids and tetraploids. DH plants were fertile and gave uniform progeny. Chimeras had a decreased fertility and showed disturbances in meiotic divisions.

  12. Heterogeneity in pepper isolates of cucumber mosaic virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Alvarado, G.; Kurath, G.; Dodds, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    Twenty-four cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (CMV) field isolates from pepper crops in Cali-fornia were characterized and compared by nucleic acid hybridization subgrouping, virion electrophoresis, and biological effects in several hosts. Isolates, belonging to subgroup I or subgroup II, were found that induced severe symptoms in mechanically inoculated bell pep-pers. Only two isolates, both from subgroup II, were mild. A group of 19 isolates collected from a single field were all in subgroup II and appeared identical by virion electrophoresis, but they exhibited varying degrees of symptom severity in peppers. As a more detailed indicator of heterogeneity, these 19 isolates were examined by RNase protection assays to delect sequence variation in the coat protein gene region of their genomes. The patterns of bands observed were complex and a high degree of genomic heterogeneity was detected between isolates, with no apparent correlation to symptomatology in bell pepper.

  13. Triterpene Glycosides from Sea Cucumber Holothuria scabra with Cytotoxic Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Hua; LI Ling; YI Yang-hua; WANG Xiao-hua; PAN Min-xiang

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the new triterpene glycosides from sea cucumber Holothuria scabra with cytotoxic activity.Methods Triterpene glycosides from H.scabra were separated and purified by chromatography on DA-101,silica gel,and reversed-phase silica gel column,as well as RP-HPLC.Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral data and chemical evidence.Results Three triterpene glycosides were identified as scabraside D (1),fuscocineroside C (2),and 24-dehydroechinoside A (3).Their inhibition on P-388,A549,MKN-28,HCT116,and MCF-7 cells were significant.Conclusion Scabraside D (1) is a new triterpene glycoside,and compounds 2 and 3 are isolated from H.scabra for the first time.The glycosides 1-3 show the in vitro cytotoxicity against five human tumor cell lines in comparison to 10-hydroxycamptothecin.

  14. Differential permeation of artemia cysts and cucumber seeds by alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C. W.; Siegel, S. M.

    1975-01-01

    The rate of penetration of the simpler alcohols into brine shrimp cysts and cucumber seeds was studied. In solutions below 70% the rate of penetration is related to lipid solvent capacity of the alcohol. In concentrations above 70%, particularly in absolute alcohols, methanol penetrates brine shrimp rapidly and ethanol penetrates slowly. All the other alcohols tested did not penetrate the dormant structures. Ethionine and deuteroxy-methanol did not affect the rate of penetration of methanol. It is suggested that in dehydrated membranes the lipid moiety is protected by a continuous sheet of protein. Methanol, which is fairly similar to water, is probably able to penetrate the membrane by initiating a conformation change in the protein, exposing the lipid which subsequently dissolves in the methanol thus destroying the membrane.

  15. Cytoprotective Effects of Lysophospholipids from Sea Cucumber Holothuria atra.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshifumi Nishikawa

    Full Text Available Lysophospholipids are important signaling molecules in animals and metazoan cells. They are widely distributed among marine invertebrates, where their physiological roles are unknown. Sea cucumbers produce unique lysophospholipids. In this study, two lysophospholipids were detected in Holothuria atra for the first time, lyso-platelet activating factor and lysophosphatidylcholine, with nuclear magnetic resonance and liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometric analyses. The lipid fraction of H. atra contained lyso-platelet activating factor and lysophosphatidylcholine, and inhibited H2O2-induced apoptosis in the macrophage cell line J774A.1. The antioxidant activity of the lysophospholipid-containing lipid fraction of H. atra was confirmed with the oxygen radical absorbance capacity method. Our results suggest that the lysophospholipids from H. atra are potential therapeutic agents for the inflammation induced by oxidative stress.

  16. Backcross introgression of plastomic factors controlling chilling tolerance into elite cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) germplasm: Early generation recovery of recurrent parent phenotytpe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental stresses such as chilling temperatures can decrease germination, emergence, flower and fruit development, marketable yield, and postharvest fruit storage longevity in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). While response to chilling injury in cucumber is controlled by simple plastidic (matern...

  17. Seed Mucilage Improves Seedling Emergence of a Sand Desert Shrub

    OpenAIRE

    Xuejun Yang; Baskin, Carol C.; Baskin, Jerry M.; Guangzheng Liu; Zhenying Huang

    2012-01-01

    The success of seedling establishment of desert plants is determined by seedling emergence response to an unpredictable precipitation regime. Sand burial is a crucial and frequent environmental stress that impacts seedling establishment on sand dunes. However, little is known about the ecological role of seed mucilage in seedling emergence in arid sandy environments. We hypothesized that seed mucilage enhances seedling emergence in a low precipitation regime and under conditions of sand buria...

  18. Gravitropism of cucumber hypocotyls: biophysical mechanism of altered growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, D. J.

    1990-01-01

    The biophysical basis for the changes in cell elongation rate during gravitropism was examined in aetiolated cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) hypocotyls. Bulk osmotic pressures on the two sides of the stem and in the epidermal cells were not altered during the early time course of gravitropism. By the pressure-probe technique, a small increase in turgor (0.3 bar, 30 kPa) was detected on the upper (inhibited) side, whereas there was a negligible decrease in turgor on the lower (stimulated) side. These small changes in turgor and water potential appeared to be indirect, passive consequences of the altered growth and the small resistance for water movement from the xylem, and indicated that the change in growth was principally due to changes in wall properties. The results indicate that the hydraulic conductance of the water-transport pathway was large (.25 h-1 bar-1) and the water potential difference supporting cell expansion was no greater than 0.3 bar (30 kPa). From pressure-block experiments, it appeared that upon gravitropic stimulation (1) the yield threshold of the lower half of the stem did not decrease and (2) the wall on the upper side of the stem was not made more rigid by a cross-linking process. Mechanical measurements of the stress/strain properties of the walls showed that the initial development of gravitropism did not involve an alteration of the mechanical behaviour of the isolated walls. Thus, gravitropism in cucumber hypocotyls occurs principally by an alteration of the wall relaxation process, without a necessary change in wall mechanical properties.

  19. Effect of biofertilizers on yield and yield components of cucumber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faranak Moshabaki Isfahani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofertilizer is defined as a substance which contains living organisms which, when applied to seed, plant surface, or soil, colonize the rhizosphere or interior of the plant and promote growth by increasing the supply or availability of primary nutrients to the host plant. Biofertilizers are well recognized as an important component of integrated plant nutrient management for sustainable agriculture and hold a great promise improve crop yield. The present study for the sake of evaluating the use of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria produced by Pseudomonas sp. and phosphate bio fertilizers produced by Pseudomonas putida strain P13 and Pantoea agglomerans strain P5 and chemical fertilizers in the separate treatments on yield and yield components of cucumber by using a factorial experiment in completely randomized block design with three repetition were performed in the field. The symbol of P represents chemical fertilizer by amount of respectively (0, 25%, 50%, 75%, 100%, B1 shows plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR and B2 indicates bio fertilizer-2. The results showed that P1B0 has the most yield, and control treatments has the least yield. P100B1 has the most length of plant and P100B0 has the least length of plant, P25B1 has the most amount of chlorophyll and P75B2 has the least chlorophyll. P75B2 has the most shoots dry weight and P100B0 has the least shoots dry weight. B1P50 has the most shoots fresh weight and P25B2 has the least shoots fresh weight. B1P50 has the most roots dry weight and P100B0 has the least roots dry weight. B1P50 has the most roots fresh weight and P25B2 has the least roots fresh weight. So the results indicate that use of biological fertilizers have caused increase yield and components yield of cucumber.

  20. Sex Determination in Sea Cucumbers: Holothuria forskali and Stichopus regalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipa Pinheiro Santos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sea cucumber aquaculture is underexploited in temperate regions, and it is inexistent in Portugal. However, there are some species with a large potential for this sector, namely Stichopus regalis and Holothuria forskali, as it their nutritional value. S. regalis is a common sea cucumber that is found in a wide depth range and is currently consumed all over the world, majority in Asia, with a high commercial value. On the other hand, H. forskali is the most plentiful specie of the Portuguese coast. The purpose of this study is to evaluate sex ratio on both species through biopsy method, using biopsy needle to collect a piece of gonad. Holothurian specimens were sampled coastwise in Peniche, Portugal (39° 21′ 32″ N, 9° 22′ 40″ W. A total of 45 H. forskali were collected in the low tide and 48 S. regalis were caught by trawl method. Both species were kept in captivity during 8 months, the rearing conditions are maintained close as possible to the natural habitat, and they were placed in a sand bottom. Mortality was evaluated during conditioning period, and it was verified approximately 19% of mortality in S. regalis, although in H. forskali it was not observed. Sex identification was performed with success only in H. forskali, and sexual ratio found was 1:1. All S. regalis specimens arrived eviscerated to the Aquaculture Laboratory and it was caused by the trawl capture method. For that reason, it was not possible to assess the sexual ratio. The possibility to distinguish holothurian genre is essential to realize sexual behavior, and to ease the understanding of reproductive cycle in attempt to introduce these new species for aquaculture rearing.

  1. Shelf life extension of minimally processed cabbage and cucumber through gamma irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattak, Amal Badshah; Bibi, Nizakat; Chaudry, Muhammad Ashraf; Khan, Misal; Khan, Maazullah; Qureshi, Muhammad Jamil

    2005-01-01

    The influence of irradiation of minimally processed cabbage and cucumber on microbial safety, texture, and sensory quality was investigated. Minimally processed, polyethylene-packed, and irradiated cabbage and cucumber were stored at refrigeration temperature (5 degrees C) for 2 weeks. The firmness values ranged from 3.23 kg (control) to 2.82 kg (3.0-kGy irradiated samples) for cucumbers, with a gradual decrease in firmness with increasing radiation dose (0 to 3 kGy). Cucumbers softened just after irradiation with a dose of 3.0 kGy and after 14 days storage, whereas the texture remained within acceptable limits up to a radiation dose of 2.5 kGy. The radiation treatment had no effect on the appearance scores of cabbage; however, scores decreased from 7.0 to 6.7 during storage. The appearance and flavor scores of cucumbers decreased with increasing radiation dose, and overall acceptability was better after radiation doses of 2.5 and 3.0 kGy. The aerobic plate counts per gram for cabbage increased from 3 to 5 log CFU (control), from 1.85 to 2.93 log CFU (2.5 kGy), and from a few colonies to 2.6 log CFU (3.0 kGy) after 14 days of storage at 5 degrees C. A similar trend was noted for cucumber samples. No coliform bacteria were detected at radiation doses greater than 2.0 kGy in either cabbage or cucumber samples. Total fungal counts per gram of sample were within acceptable limits for cucumbers irradiated at 3.0 kGy, and for cabbage no fungi were detected after 2.0-kGy irradiation. The D-values for Escherichia coli in cucumber and cabbage were 0.19 and 0.17 kGy, and those for Salmonella Paratyphi A were 0.25 and 0.29 kGy for cucumber and cabbage, respectively.

  2. Ostryopsis davidiana seedlings inoculated with ectomycorrhizal fungi facilitate formation of mycorrhizae on Pinus tabulaeformis seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Shu-Lan; Li, Guo-Lei; Liu, Yong; Kasten Dumroese, R; Lv, Rui-Heng

    2009-08-01

    Reforestation in China is important for reversing anthropogenic activities that degrade the environment. Pinus tabulaeformis is desired for these activities, but survival and growth of seedlings can be hampered by lack of ectomycorrhizae. When outplanted in association with Ostryopsis davidiana plants on reforestation sites, P. tabulaeformis seedlings become mycorrhizal and survival and growth are enhanced; without O. davidiana, pines often remain without mycorrhizae and performance is poorer. To better understand this relationship, we initiated an experiment using rhizoboxes that restricted root and tested the hypothesis that O. davidiana seedlings facilitated ectomycorrhizae formation on P. tabulaeformis seedlings through hyphal contact. We found that without O. davidiana seedlings, inocula of five indigenous ectomycorrhizal fungi were unable to grow and associate with P. tabulaeformis seedlings. Inocula placed alongside O. davidiana seedlings, however, resulted in enhanced growth and nutritional status of O. davidiana and P. tabulaeformis seedlings, and also altered rhizosphere pH and phosphatase activity. We speculate that these species form a common mycorrhizal network and this association enhances outplanting performance of P. tabulaeformis seedlings used for forest restoration.

  3. Effect of petroleum products on mangrove seedlings

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jagtap, T.G.; Untawale, A.G.

    seen. General damage in both the species were burning, yellowing and wilting of the leaves associated with root damage causing retardation of growth. Extensive leaf fall in Avicennia seedlings resulted in its mortality...

  4. Virulence of Fusarium species to alfalfa seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krnjaja Vesna

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In in vitro conditions, virulence of 91 isolates of species Fusarium genus (F. oxysporum, F. solani, F. acuminatum, F. equiseti, F. arthrosporioides, F. prolifera- tum, F. avenaceum, F. semitectum, F. tricinctum, F. sporotrichioides and F. graminearum towards alfalfa seedlings was investigated. Isolates of investigated species originated from diseased alfalfa plants collected at four locations in Serbia based on symptoms of wilting caused by Fusarium and root rotting. Pathogenicity and virulence of investigated isolates of Fusarium spp. were determined by visual evaluation of inoculated seedlings of cultivar K28 in laboratory conditions. All isolated of investigated species had pathogenic effect on alfalfa seedlings which expressed symptoms such as necrosis of root, moist rotting and "melting of seedlings". Colour of necrotic root tissue varied from light brown, brown lipstick red to explicit black, depending on the Fusarium species. Strong virulence was established in 48 isolates, medium virulence in 31 and weak virulence in 12 isolates.

  5. Virulence of Fusarium species to alfalfa seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krnjaja Vesna

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In in vitro conditions, virulence of 91 isolates of species Fusarium genus (F. oxysporum, F. solani, F. acuminatum, F. equiseti, F. arthrosporioides, F. proliferatum, F. avenaceum, F. semitectum, F. tricinctum, F. sporotrichioides and F. graminearum towards alfalfa seedlings was investigated. Isolates of investigated species originated from diseased alfalfa plants collected on four locations in Serbia based on symptoms of wilting caused by fusarium and root rotting. Pathogenicity and virulence of investigated isolates of Fusarium spp. were determined by visual evaluation of inoculated seedlings of cultivars K28 in laboratory conditions. All isolated of investigated species had pathogenic effect on alfalfa seedlings, which expressed symptoms such as necrosis of root, moist rotting and "melting of seedlings". Colour of necrotic root tissue varied from light brown, brown, lipstick red to explicit black, depending on the Fusarium species. Strong virulence was established in 48 isolates, medium virulence in 31 and weak virulence in 12 isolates.

  6. Morphoanatomy of Serjania communis Cambess. seedling (Sapindaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willian Adriano Lira Lopes

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Serjania communis Cambess. (Sapindaceae is a plant with climbing habit and occurs relatively often in Paraná State, Brazil. The fruits were collected at the 'Parque dos Pioneiros' a remnant of subtropical forest in Maringá, Paraná State, Brazil. The seedlings obtained in the greenhouse were described according to traditional techniques in plant morphology. Seedlings were embedded in historesin and sectioned in rotation microtome. The fruit is the samaroid type, the seeds have about 3 mm in length and brown color. Seedlings are epigeal phanerocotylar. The seedlings have a hairy hypocotyl, foliaceous cotyledons, reduced epicotyl, and two opposite eophylls. The root is diarch, the hypocotyl shows root-stem transition structure, stem epicotyl, and dorsiventral and hypostomatous cotyledons and eophylls. 'Tirodendros' with 45 days of age do not develop cambial variant.

  7. Hydrogen sulphide improves adaptation of Zea mays seedlings to iron deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan; Wu, Fei-Hua; Shang, Yu-Ting; Wang, Wen-Hua; Hu, Wen-Jun; Simon, Martin; Liu, Xiang; Shangguan, Zhou-Ping; Zheng, Hai-Lei

    2015-11-01

    Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is emerging as a potential molecule involved in physiological regulation in plants. However, whether H2S regulates iron-shortage responses in plants is largely unknown. Here, the role of H2S in modulating iron availability in maize (Zea mays L. cv Canner) seedlings grown in iron-deficient culture solution is reported. The main results are as follows: Firstly, NaHS, a donor of H2S, completely prevented leaf interveinal chlorosis in maize seedlings grown in iron-deficient culture solution. Secondly, electron micrographs of mesophyll cells from iron-deficient maize seedlings revealed plastids with few photosynthetic lamellae and rudimentary grana. On the contrary, mesophyll chloroplasts appeared completely developed in H2S-treated maize seedlings. Thirdly, H2S treatment increased iron accumulation in maize seedlings by changing the expression levels of iron homeostasis- and sulphur metabolism-related genes. Fourthly, phytosiderophore (PS) accumulation and secretion were enhanced by H2S treatment in seedlings grown in iron-deficient solution. Indeed, the gene expression of ferric-phytosiderophore transporter (ZmYS1) was specifically induced by iron deficiency in maize leaves and roots, whereas their abundance was decreased by NaHS treatment. Lastly, H2S significantly enhanced photosynthesis through promoting the protein expression of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase large subunit (RuBISCO LSU) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) and the expression of genes encoding RuBISCO large subunit (RBCL), small subunit (RBCS), D1 protein (psbA), and PEPC in maize seedlings grown in iron-deficient solution. These results indicate that H2S is closely related to iron uptake, transport, and accumulation, and consequently increases chlorophyll biosynthesis, chloroplast development, and photosynthesis in plants.

  8. Morphoanatomy of Serjania communis Cambess. seedling (Sapindaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Serjania communis Cambess. (Sapindaceae) is a plant with climbing habit and occurs relatively often in Paraná State, Brazil. The fruits were collected at the 'Parque dos Pioneiros' a remnant of subtropical forest in Maringá, Paraná State, Brazil. The seedlings obtained in the greenhouse were described according to traditional techniques in plant morphology. Seedlings were embedded in historesin and sectioned in rotation microtome. The fruit is the samaroid type, the seeds have about 3 mm in l...

  9. Suitability of Zucchini and Cucumber Genotypes to Populations of Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gómez, Manuel; Flor-Peregrín, Elena; Talavera, Miguel; Verdejo-Lucas, Soledad

    2015-03-01

    The host suitability of five zucchini and three cucumber genotypes to Meloidogyne incognita (MiPM26) and M. javanica (Mj05) was determined in pot experiments in a greenhouse. The number of egg masses (EM) did not differ among the genotypes of zucchini or cucumber, but the eggs/plant and reproduction factor (Rf) did slightly. M. incognita MiPM26 showed lower EM, eggs/plant, and Rf than M. javanica Mj05. Examination of the zucchini galls for nematode postinfection development revealed unsuitable conditions for M. incognita MiPM26 as only 22% of the females produced EM compared to 95% of the M. javanica females. As far as cucumber was concerned, 86% of the M. incognita and 99% of the M. javanica females produced EM, respectively. In a second type of experiments, several populations of M. arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica were tested on zucchini cv. Amalthee and cucumber cv. Dasher II to assess the parasitic variation among species and populations of Meloidogyne. A greater parasitic variation was observed in zucchini than cucumber. Zucchini responded as a poor host for M. incognita MiPM26, MiAL09, and MiAL48, but as a good host for MiAL10 and MiAL15. Intraspecific variation was not observed among the M. javanica or M. arenaria populations. Cucumber was a good host for all the tested populations. Overall, both cucurbits were suitable hosts for Meloidogyne but zucchini was a poorer host than the cucumber.

  10. Occurrence, characterization and management of fruit rot of immature cucumber fruits under arid greenhouse conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABDULLAH M AL-SADI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken to characterize and manage pathogens associated with fruit rot of immature cucumber fruits in greenhouses in Oman. A survey over 5 growing seasons from 2008 to 2010 in 99 different greenhouses in Oman showed that the disease is prevalent in 91 (92% greenhouses and results in losses of 10 to 60% (avg. 33% of immature fruits per plant. Incidence of the disease was not found to be affected by growing seasons, which could be attributed to the limited fluctuations in ambient temperatures in greenhouses. Isolations from diseased cucumber fruits yielded Alternaria alternata (isolation frequency = 52%, Fusarium equiseti (40%, Cladosporium tenuissium (27%, Botrytis cinerea (6%, Fusarium solani (6%, Corynespora cassiicola (3%, Aspergillus spp. (2%, Curvularia sp. (1% and Bipolaris sp. (1%. With the exception of Curvularia and Bipolaris species, all other fungi were pathogenic on cucumber fruits, with Fusarium equiseti being the most aggressive, followed by Corynespora cassiicola, Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria alternata. Cladosporium and Aspergillus spp. were found to be weakly pathogenic. Comparing the efficacy of foliar and soil applications of carbendazim fungicide on fruit rot of cucumber showed that foliar applications significantly reduced fruit rot and increased cucumber yield when compared to soil application or to control (P < 0.01. This appears to be the first report of the association of Corynespora cassiicola and Fusarium equiseti with fruit rot of immature greenhouse cucumbers. This is also the first report in Oman for the association of Cladosporium tenuissimum with fruit rot of immature cucumbers. Findings are discussed in terms of factors affecting disease control in greenhouses using carbendazim.

  11. Resistance to Cucumber mosaic virus in Gladiolus plants transformed with either a defective replicase of coat protein subgroup II gene from Cucumber mosaic virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic Gladiolus plants that contain either Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) subgroup I coat protein, CMV subgroup II coat protein, CMV replicase, a combination of the CMV subgroups I and II coat proteins, or a combination of the CMV subgroup II coat protein and replicase genes were developed. These...

  12. Hpyerglycemic effect of a mixture of sea cucumber and cordyceps sinensis in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shiwei; Wang, Jingfeng; Li, Zhaojie; Fu, Jia; Wang, Yuming; Xue, Changhu

    2013-11-01

    Sea cucumber and cordyceps sinensis are used as both food and traditional medicines in Asia. This study was carried out in order to investigate the hpyerglycemic effect of a mixture of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicas) and cordyceps sinensis (Cordyceps militaris) (SCC) in diabetic rat and explore the mechanism underlining such an effect. The diabetic model rat was induced with intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ). The diabetic model rats were randomly divided into control group (0.9% NaCl), low dose group (300 mg SCC·(kg body weight)-1) and high dose group (1200 mg SCC (kg body weight)-1). Sodium chloride and SCC were intragastrically administered once a day for 35 d. Changes in fasting serum glucose and serum insulin content, oral glucose tolerance and liver and muscle glycogen content were routinely evaluated. Pancreas tissue and β-cells of islets were observed under both optical and transmission electronic microscope, respectively. The abundance of glucose metabolism-relating genes in gastrocnemius and epididymal adipose tissue was determined with either reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) or western blotting. Results showed that SCC significantly decreased fasting serum glucose content, improved glucose tolerance and increased serum insulin and glycogen content; repaired STZ-injured β-cells of diabetic rat, and increased the expression of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI(3)K), protein kinase B (PKB) and glucose transporter 4 (Glut4) encoding protein in both gastrocnemius and adipose tissue, and Glut4 encoding gene in peripheral tissue. Our findings demonstrated that SCC exerted an anti-hyperglycemic effect by repairing β-cells and promoting insulin-mediated signal transduction pathway in insulin-sensitive gastrocnemius and adipose tissue.

  13. Syntenic relationships between cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) and melon (C. melo L.) chromosomes as revealed by comparative genetic mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucumber and melon are two economically important vegetable species. Both species have an Asian origin that diverged approximately nine million years ago. Cucumber is believed to have evolved from melon, where twelve melon chromosomes are thought to have undergone chromosome fusion to result in the ...

  14. Persistence and protection of mitochondrial DNA in the generative cell of cucumber is consistent with its paternal transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucumber, unlike most plants, shows paternal inheritance of its mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA); however, the mechanisms regulating this unique transmission mode are unclear. Here we monitored the amounts of mtDNA through the development of cucumber microspores to pollen and observed that mtDNA decreases ...

  15. Combined transcript and metabolite analysis reveals genes involved in spider mite induced volatile formation in cucumber plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mercke, P.; Kappers, I.F.; Verstappen, F.W.A.; Vorst, O.F.J.; Dicke, M.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    2004-01-01

    Many plants have an indirect defense against herbivores by emitting volatiles that attract carnivorous enemies of the herbivores. In cucumber (Cucumis sativus) the production of carnivore attractants can be induced by herbivory or jasmonic acid spraying. From the leaves of cucumber plants with and

  16. Studies on biological control of powdery mildew in cucumber (Sphaerotheca fuliginea) and rose (Sphaerotheca pannosa) by means of mycoparasites.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaar, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Powdery mildew on rose ( Sphaerotheca pannosa ) and cucumber ( Sphaerotheca fuliginea ) are two serious diseases in glasshouses. Intensive control by fungicides is needed. The research presented here deals with biocontrol of powdery mildew on cucumber and rose by means of mycoparasites.The mycoparas

  17. Metabolism of lactic acid in fermented cucumbers by Lactobacillus buchneri and related species, potential spoilage organisms in reduced salt fermentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent evidence suggests that Lactobacillus buchneri may play an important role in spoilage-associated secondary fermentation of cucumbers. Lactic acid degradation during fermented cucumber spoilage is influenced by sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration, pH, and presence of oxygen. Objectives were to...

  18. A method of genotyping by pedigree-based training-set for identification of QTLs associated with cucumber fruit size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large sets of genomic data are becoming available for cucumber (Cucumis sativus), yet there is no tool for whole genome genotyping. Creation of saturated genetic maps depends on development of good markers. The present cucumber genetic maps are based on several hundreds of markers. However they are ...

  19. Effect of shrink wrap packaging for maintaining quality of cucumber during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhall, Rajinder Kumar; Sharma, Sanjeev R; Mahajan, B V C

    2012-08-01

    Immature green cucumber cv. 'Padmini' fruits were individually shrink wrapped with Cryovac D955 (60 guage) film and stored at 12 ± 1 °C, 90-95% RH as well as ambient conditions (29-33 °C, 65-70% RH). At 12 ± 1 °C and 90-95% RH, individual shrink wrapped cucumber recorded minimum Physiological loss in weight (0.66%) as compared with unwrapped fruits (11.11%) at the end of refrigerated storage (15 days). The softening (loss of firmness) was maximum (1304.6-876.6 g force) in unwrapped cucumbers whereas in shrink wrapping, minimum loss in firmness (1304.6-1065.3 g force) was observed after 12 days storage at 12 ± 1 °C and 90-95% RH but greater loss of weight and firmness makes the control cucumbers unmarketable after 9 days of storage. There were no rotting at all both in shrink wrapped and unwrapped cucumbers upto 15 days of storage at 12 ± 1 °C and 90-95% RH. After 15 days storage of shrink wrapped cucumbers at 12 ± 1 °C and 90-95% RH, there was loss of green colour and development of yellowness and decay. The sensory attributes score was highest in shrink wrapped cucumbers as compared to unwrapped cucumbers at end of both storage conditions. Thus it can be concluded that individual shrink wrapped cucumber can be stored well upto 15 days at 12 ± 1 °C and 90-95% RH and for 5 days at ambient conditions (29-33 °C, 65-70% RH) with maximum retention of green colour, no spoilage, minimum weight and firmness loss and very good sensory quality attributes whereas, unwrapped fruits can be stored well upto 9 days at 12 ± 1 °C and 90-95% RH and for 2 days at ambient conditions with maximum retention of physico-chemical quality attributes.

  20. Modification of the cellular heat sensitivity of cucumber by growth under supplemental ultraviolet-B radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, C.R. [Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD (United States)

    1994-02-01

    The effect of ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation on the thermal sensitivity of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) was studied using UV-B-sensitive cv Poinsett 76 and UV-B-resistant cv Ashley grown under control and elevated (300 mW m{sup -2}) UV-B radiation levels. Using both cotyledon and leaf discs, the ability of the tissue to reduce triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) was determined after treatment at 50{degrees}C for various times. Semilogarithmic plots of TTC reduction as a function of time at 50{degrees}were curvilinear. They were monophasic for the control cucumber and biphasic for cucumber grown in the presence of elevated UV-B. Treatment of cucumber plants at 37{degrees}C for 24 h or of tissue discs at acute UV-B levels for 1 h further modified their response to elevated temperature. These results suggest that growth of cucumber under enhanced UV-B radiation levels increased its ability to withstand elevated temperatures. 19 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Genome-wide identification and phylogenetic analysis of the ERF gene family in cucumbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifang Hu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Members of the ERF transcription-factor family participate in a number of biological processes, viz., responses to hormones, adaptation to biotic and abiotic stress, metabolism regulation, beneficial symbiotic interactions, cell differentiation and developmental processes. So far, no tissue-expression profile of any cucumber ERF protein has been reported in detail. Recent completion of the cucumber full-genome sequence has come to facilitate, not only genome-wide analysis of ERF family members in cucumbers themselves, but also a comparative analysis with those in Arabidopsis and rice. In this study, 103 hypothetical ERF family genes in the cucumber genome were identified, phylogenetic analysis indicating their classification into 10 groups, designated I to X. Motif analysis further indicated that most of the conserved motifs outside the AP2/ERF domain, are selectively distributed among the specific clades in the phylogenetic tree. From chromosomal localization and genome distribution analysis, it appears that tandem-duplication may have contributed to CsERF gene expansion. Intron/exon structure analysis indicated that a few CsERFs still conserved the former intron-position patterns existent in the common ancestor of monocots and eudicots. Expression analysis revealed the widespread distribution of the cucumber ERF gene family within plant tissues, thereby implying the probability of their performing various roles therein. Furthermore, members of some groups presented mutually similar expression patterns that might be related to their phylogenetic groups.

  2. Effects of Different Preceding Crops on Soil Micro-ecological Environment and Yield of Cucumber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shouwei; LIU Shuqin; PAN Kai; WANG Lili; WU Fengzhi

    2011-01-01

    Pepper, celery, eggplant and tomato were used as preceding crops to study their effects on the yield, soil microorganism quantity and soil enzyme activities of cucumber. Results showed that four preceding crops all increased soil microorganism quantity in cucumber, but decreased population of Fusarium oxysporum. The effect of pepper was more significant than that of the others Populations of soil bacteria, fungi and actinomyces of pepper treatment were significantly higher than those of the other treatments, except that the populations of fungi had no significant difference with celery and eggplant treatments on 50 days after transplanting, while that of Fusarium oxysporum was fewer than that of the other treatments. The soil microorganism quantity in celery and eggplant treatment was more significant than tomato, but lower population of Fusarium oxysporum. Four preceding crops all increased sol enzyme activities, lnvertase and urease activities of pepper treatment were significantly higher than those of the other treatments, catalase activities of pepper, celery and eggplant treatments were significantly higher than those of tomato and the control treatments All preceding crops remarkably increased cucumber yield, with pepper as the highest. Comparing with the control, cucumber yields of pepper, celery and eggplant treatments increased by 24.9%, 13.6% and 11.9%, respectively. Results suggested that four preceding crops all improved soil microbial ecology and increased cucumber yield. The pepper was the most suitable preceding crop, then followed by celery and eggplant. Tomato had the similar effect as the control.

  3. Identification and characterisation of Dof transcription factors in the cucumber genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Chang-Long; Cheng, Qing; Zhao, Liqun; Mao, Aijun; Yang, Jingjing; Yu, Shuancang; Weng, Yiqun; Xu, Yong

    2016-03-16

    Cucumber is vulnerable to many foliage diseases. Recent studies reported cloning of candidate genes for several diseases in cucumber; however, the exact defence mechanisms remain unclear. Dof genes have been shown to play significant roles in plant growth, development, and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Dof genes coding for plant-specific transcription factors can promote large-scale expression of defence-related genes at whole genome level. The genes in the family have been identified and characterized in several plant species, but not in cucumber. In the present study, we identified 36 CsDof members from the cucumber draft genomes which could be classified into eight groups. The proportions of the CsDof family genes, duplication events, chromosomal locations, cis-elements and miRNA target sites were comprehensively investigated. Consequently, we analysed the expression patterns of CsDof genes in specific tissues and their response to two biotic stresses (watermelon mosaic virus and downy mildew). These results indicated that CsDof may be involved in resistance to biotic stresses in cucumber.

  4. Nitrate Protects Cucumber Plants Against Fusarium oxysporum by Regulating Citrate Exudation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Sun, Yuming; Gu, Zechen; Wang, Ruirui; Sun, Guomei; Zhu, Chen; Guo, Shiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2016-09-01

    Fusarium wilt causes severe yield losses in cash crops. Nitrogen plays a critical role in the management of plant disease; however, the regulating mechanism is poorly understood. Using biochemical, physiological, bioinformatic and transcriptome approaches, we analyzed how nitrogen forms regulate the interactions between cucumber plants and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC). Nitrate significantly suppressed Fusarium wilt compared with ammonium in both pot and hydroponic experiments. Fewer FOC colonized the roots and stems under nitrate compared with ammonium supply. Cucumber grown with nitrate accumulated less fusaric acid (FA) after FOC infection and exhibited increased tolerance to chemical FA by decreasing FA absorption and transportation in shoots. A lower citrate concentration was observed in nitrate-grown cucumbers, which was associated with lower MATE (multidrug and toxin compound extrusion) family gene and citrate synthase (CS) gene expression, as well as lower CS activity. Citrate enhanced FOC spore germination and infection, and increased disease incidence and the FOC population in ammonium-treated plants. Our study provides evidence that nitrate protects cucumber plants against F. oxysporum by decreasing root citrate exudation and FOC infection. Citrate exudation is essential for regulating disease development of Fusarium wilt in cucumber plants. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. High-throughput sequencing, characterization and detection of new and conserved cucumber miRNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Martínez

    Full Text Available Micro RNAS (miRNAs are a class of endogenous small non coding RNAs involved in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. In plants, a great number of conserved and specific miRNAs, mainly arising from model species, have been identified to date. However less is known about the diversity of these regulatory RNAs in vegetal species with agricultural and/or horticultural importance. Here we report a combined approach of bioinformatics prediction, high-throughput sequencing data and molecular methods to analyze miRNAs populations in cucumber (Cucumis sativus plants. A set of 19 conserved and 6 known but non-conserved miRNA families were found in our cucumber small RNA dataset. We also identified 7 (3 with their miRNA* strand not previously described miRNAs, candidates to be cucumber-specific. To validate their description these new C. sativus miRNAs were detected by northern blot hybridization. Additionally, potential targets for most conserved and new miRNAs were identified in cucumber genome.In summary, in this study we have identified, by first time, conserved, known non-conserved and new miRNAs arising from an agronomically important species such as C. sativus. The detection of this complex population of regulatory small RNAs suggests that similarly to that observe in other plant species, cucumber miRNAs may possibly play an important role in diverse biological and metabolic processes.

  6. Identification and bioinformatics comparison of two novel phosphatases in monoecious and gynoecious cucumber lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawełkowicz, Magdalena E.; Wojcieszek, Michał; Osipowski, Paweł; Krzywkowski, Tomasz; PlÄ der, Wojciech; Przybecki, Zbigniew

    2016-09-01

    Two Arabidopsis thaliana genes from the PP2C family of protein phosphatases (AtABI1 and AtABI2) were used to find orthologous genes in the Cucumis sativus L. cv. Borszczagowski (cucumber) genome. Cucumber has been used as a model plant for sex expression studies because although it has been defined as a monoecious species, numerous genotypes are known to produce only female, only male, or hermaphroditic flowers. We identified two new orthologous genes of AtABI1 and AtABI2 in the cucumber genome and named them CsABI1 and CsABI2. To determine the relationships between the regulation of CsABI1 and CsABI2 and flower morphogenesis in cucumber, we performed various computational analyses to define the structure of the genes, and to predict regulatory elements and protein motifs in their sequences. We also performed an expression analysis to identify differences in the expression levels of CsABI1 and CsABI2 in vegetative and generative tissues (leaf, shoot apex, and flower buds) of monoecious (B10) and gynoecious (2gg) cucumber lines. We found that the expressions of CsABI1 and CsABI2 differed in male and female floral buds, and correlated these findings with the abscisic acid signaling pathways in male and female flowers.

  7. Growth, Metabolism and Physiological Response of the Sea Cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus Selenka During Periods of Inactivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Rongbin; ZANG Yuanqi; TIAN Xiangli; DONG Shuanglin

    2013-01-01

    The growth,metabolism and physiological response of the sea cucumber,Apostichopus japonicus,were investigated during periods of inactivity.The body weight,oxygen consumption rate (OCR),activities of acidic phosphatase (ACP),alkaline phosphatase (AKP),catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD),and content of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) in the body wall and coelomic fluid of A.japonicus were measured during starvation,experimental aestivation and aestivation.The results showed that the body weight of sea cucumber in the three treatments decreased significantly during the experimental period (P<0.05).The OCR of sea cucumber reduced in starvation and experimental aestivation treatments,but increased gradually in natural aestivation treatment.The activities of ACP and AKP of sea cucumber decreased gradually in all treatments,whereas those of SOD and CAT as well as Hsp70 content decreased in the starvation and experimental aestivation treatments and increased in natural aestivation treatment.The sea cucumber entered a state of aestivation at 24℃.To some extent,the animals in experimental aestivation were different from those in natural aestivation in metabolism and physiological response.These findings suggested that the aestivation mechanism ofA.japonicus is complex and may not be attributed to the elevated temperature only.

  8. [Effects of nutrition medium on cucumber growth and soil microenvironment in greenhouse under continuous cropping].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chun-Cheng; Li, Tian-Lai; Cao, Xia; Meng, Si-Da; Zhang, Yong-Yong; Yang, Li-Juan

    2014-05-01

    An experiment of continuous cropping of cucumber in nutrition medium (composted with straw, rural soil and puffed chicken manure) or soil was conducted in greenhouse in order to study the effects of medium type on the cucumber growth and soil microenvironment, respectively. The results showed that the two treatments both displayed different levels of obstacles resulted from continuous cropping. In the same cropping season, the nutrient content, soil invertase and urease activities and B/F (bacteria/fungi) ratio in the nutrition medium were obviously higher but fungi quantity was lower than in the soil medium, suggesting the use of nutrition medium changed the bacterial population structure as to improve the cucumber growth and yield. Under continuous cropping, correlation analysis showed that the bacterial quantity was significantly positively related with plant height and root dry mass, and markedly significantly positive correlation exited between the aboveground dry mass and yield of cucumber. The urease activity was also significantly positively related with the cucumber yield. Compared with the soil medium, the nutrition medium could greatly improve soil microenvironment and alleviate the continuous cropping obstacle.

  9. Influence of plant-parasitic nematodes on longleaf pine seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruehle, J L

    1973-01-01

    Seedlings of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) were grown in 20-cm pots for 5 to 7 months in the greenhouse following inoculation with a high or low level of one of seven species of plant-parasitic nematodes. Belonolaimus longicaudatus and Helicotylenchus dihystera had no effect on seedling growth. High inoculum densities of Hoplolaimus galeatus and Tylenchorhynchus claytoni caused a significant reduction of fresh weight of seedling roots. Root and top weights of seedlings grown in soil infested with Meloidodera floridensis or Pratylenchus brachyurus were significantly less than those of seedlings in noninfested soil. Root growth of seedlings was stimulated by the higher inoculum density of Scutellonema brachyurum.

  10. Effect of NAFTA, EUMFTA and China addition to WTO on the cucumber world market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Guajardo-Quiroga

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study empirically analyzed the potential effects of the complete operation of North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA, European Union and Mexico Free Trade Agreement (EUMFTA, and the integration of China to the World Trade Organization (WTO, on the cucumber world market. Special emphasis on the impact on Mexico was presented, from a worldwide perspective. A spatial equilibrium model with endogenous prices was constructed for this purpose. Among the findings are: (1 Mexican producers benefited from the complete implementation of NAFTA and EUMFTA. (2 The incorporation of China as a member of the WTO showed a negligible effect on the commercial flows and prices in the cucumber world market. (3 Mexican cucumber production is highly competitive, in the world market, because it has the lowest supply costs.

  11. Chilling Tolerance of Cucumber During Germination is Related to Expression of Lysine Decarboxylase Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Ming-hui; LI Xiao-ming; CHEN Jin-feng; CHEN Long-zheng; QIAN Chun-tao

    2005-01-01

    Using cDNA-AFLP technique, a specific fragment was isolated from cucumber cultivar Changchun mici possessing chilling tolerance induced at low temperature (15℃). This fragment, named cctr 132, could not be induced in the chilling sensitive cucumber cultivar Beijing jietou. After recovering the fragment, sequencing and translating, the results of blastx and blastp in GenBank of NCBI indicated that CCTR132 had 88.37% identities and 100% positives with Oryza sativa putative lysine decarboxylase-like protein respectively, and PGGXGTXXE, the putative conserved domain of lysine decarboxylase family, was detected from CCTR132, suggesting the cucumber chilling tolerance during germination is related to the expression of the lysine decarboxylase gene.

  12. Heavy metals in sea cucumber juveniles from coastal areas of Bohai and Yellow seas, north China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Haifeng; Tang, Shizhan; Qin, Dongli; Chen, Zhongxiang; Wang, Jinlong; Bai, Shuyan; Mou, Zhenbo

    2015-05-01

    The study was undertaken to assess the contents of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Cd, As and Hg) in sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) juveniles from coastal areas of Bohai and Yellow seas in northern China. Sea cucumber juveniles were collected from twenty commercial hatcheries distributed in five coastal cities. The mean concentrations obtained for heavy metals in mg/kg were as follows: Cu (0.179), Zn (2.634), Cr (0.108), Pb (0.065), Cd (0.161), As (0.372), Hg (0.034). All the mean concentrations were below the maximum residual limits set by Chinese legislation, but As in 10 % samples exceeded the safety threshold. Significant differences in contents of Cr, Pb and Hg were found among the five investigated areas. Overall, the heavy metal levels in sea cucumber juveniles were relatively low and more attention should be paid to toxic metals Pb, Cd, As and Hg in future routine monitoring program.

  13. Influence of activated charcoal amendment to contaminated soil on dieldrin and nutrient uptake by cucumbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilber, Isabel; Wyss, Gabriela S; Mäder, Paul; Bucheli, Thomas D; Meier, Isabel; Vogt, Lea; Schulin, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    Activated charcoal (AC) amendments have been suggested as a promising, cost-effective method to immobilize organic contaminants in soil. We performed pot experiments over two years with cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) grown in agricultural soil with 0.07 mg kg(-1) of weathered dieldrin and 0, 200, 400, and 800 mg AC per kg soil. Dieldrin fresh weight concentrations in cucumber fruits were significantly reduced from 0.012 to an average of 0.004 mg kg(-1), and total uptake from 2 to 1 microg in the 800 mg kg(-1) AC treatment compared to the untreated soil. The treatment effects differed considerably between the two years, due to different meteorological conditions. AC soil treatments did neither affect the availability of nutrients to the cucumber plants nor their yield (total fruit wet weight per pot). Thus, some important prerequisites for the successful application of AC amendments to immobilize organic pollutants in agricultural soils can be considered fulfilled.

  14. Regulation of 2,4-epibrassinolide on mineral nutrient uptake and ion distribution in Ca(NO3)2 stressed cucumber plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Lingyun; Zhu, Shidong; Shu, Sheng; Sun, Jin; Guo, Shirong

    2015-09-01

    2,4-Epibrassinolide (EBL) is a plant hormone that plays a pivotal role in regulation of plants growth and development processes under abiotic stress. The investigation was carried out to study the effect of EBL on mineral nutrients uptake and distribution with ion element analysis and X-ray microanalysis in cucumber seedlings (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Jinyou No.4) under 80 mM Ca(NO3)2 stress. Our study found EBL significantly alleviated the inhibitory of P, K, Na, Mg, Fe, Mn, or Cl uptake in shoot or root by Ca(NO3)2 stress. Under Ca(NO3)2 stress, X-ray microanalysis showed that high levels of Ca by EBL treatment accumulated in the epidermal cells of root and gradually decreased from epidermal cells to stellar parenchyma. K(+) levels were restored in different cross section of roots and high K(+) level mostly accumulated in stellar parenchyma. The results of Ca(2+) ultra-structural localization showed Ca(2+) particles of antimonite precipitate by EBL were partly decreased in mesophyll and root cells, and Ca(2+) precipitate distributed in intercellular spaces again. Increased Ca(2+)-ATPase activity and ATP content by EBL were also contributed to extrude excess Ca(2+) from the cytoplasm. These results suggested that EBL could alleviate the ion damage from excess Ca(2+) through regulating mineral nutrients uptake and distribution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Polymer mobility in cell walls of cucumber hypocotyls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenwick, K. M.; Apperley, D. C.; Cosgrove, D. J.; Jarvis, M. C.

    1999-01-01

    Cell walls were prepared from the growing region of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) hypocotyls and examined by solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy, in both enzymically active and inactivated states. The rigidity of individual polymer segments within the hydrated cell walls was assessed from the proton magnetic relaxation parameter, T2, and from the kinetics of cross-polarisation from 1H to 13C. The microfibrils, including most of the xyloglucan in the cell wall, as well as cellulose, behaved as very rigid solids. A minor xyloglucan fraction, which may correspond to cross-links between microfibrils, shared a lower level of rigidity with some of the pectic galacturonan. Other pectins, including most of the galactan side-chain residues of rhamnogalacturonan I, were much more mobile and behaved in a manner intermediate between the solid and liquid states. The only difference observed between the enzymically active and inactive cell walls, was the loss of a highly mobile, methyl-esterified galacturonan fraction, as the result of pectinesterase activity.

  16. Mössbauer study of iron uptake in cucumber root

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, K.; Kuzmann, E.; Fodor, F.; Vértes, A.; Kamnev, A. A.

    2005-09-01

    57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy was used to study the uptake and distribution of iron in the root of cucumber plants grown in iron-deficient modified Hoagland nutrient solution and put into iron-containing solution with 10 μM Fe citrate enriched with 57Fe (90%) only before harvesting. The Mössbauer spectra of the frozen roots exhibited two Fe3+ components with typical average Mössbauer parameters of δ = 0.5 mm s-1, Δ = 0.46 mm s-1 and δ = 0.5 mm s-1, Δ = 1.2 mm s-1 at 78 K and the presence of an Fe2+ doublet, assigned to the ferrous hexaaqua complex. This finding gives a direct evidence for the existence of Fe2+ ions produced via root-associated reduction according to the mechanism proposed for iron uptake for dicotyledonous plants. Monotonous changes in the relative content of the components were found with the time period of iron supply. The Mössbauer results are interpreted in terms of iron uptake and transport through the cell wall and membranes.

  17. Understanding mechanism of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus aestivation: Insights from TMT-based proteomic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Muyan; Li, Xingke; Zhu, Aijun; Storey, Kenneth B; Sun, Lina; Gao, Tianxiang; Wang, Tianming

    2016-09-01

    Marine invertebrate aestivation is a unique strategy for summer survival in response to hot marine conditions. The sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, is an excellent model marine invertebrate for studies of environmentally-induced aestivation. In the present study, we used a tandem mass tag (TMT)-coupled LC-MS/MS approach to identify and quantify the global proteome expression profile over the aestivation-arousal cycle of A. japonicus. A total of 3920 proteins were identified from the intestine of sea cucumber. Among them, 630 proteins showed significant differential expression when comparing three conditions of sea cucumbers: non-aestivating (active), deep-aestivation (at least 15days of continuous aestivation), and arousal after aestivation (renewed moving and feeding). Sea cucumbers in deep aestivation showed substantial differentially expressed proteins (143 up-regulated and 267 down-regulated proteins compared with non-aestivating controls). These differentially expressed proteins suggested that protein and phospholipid probably are major fuel sources during hypometabolism and a general attenuation of carbohydrate metabolism was observed during deep aestivation. Differentially expressed proteins also provided the first global picture of a shift in protein synthesis, protein folding, DNA binding, apoptosis, cellular transport and signaling, and cytoskeletal proteins during deep aestivation in sea cucumbers. A comparison of arousal from aestivation with deep aestivation, revealed a general reversal of the changes that occurred in aestivation for most proteins. Western blot detection further validated the significant up-regulation of HSP70 and down-regulation of methyltransferase-like protein 7A-like in deep-aestivation. Our results suggest that there is substantial post-transcriptional regulation of proteins during the aestivation-arousal cycle in sea cucumbers.

  18. Effect of cypermethrin insecticide on the microbial community in cucumber phyllosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Baoguo; ZHANG Hongxun; JIN Bo; TANG Ling; YANG Jianzhou; LI Baoju; ZHUANG Guoqiang; BAI Zhihui

    2008-01-01

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) is one of the most widely used vegetable in the world, and different pesticides have been extensively used for controlling the insects and disease pathogens of this plant. However, little is known about how the pesticides affect the microbial community in cucumber phyllosphere. This study was the first attempt to assess the impact of pyrethroid insecticide cyperemethrin on the microbial communities of cucumber phyllosphere using biochemical and genetic approaches. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) assay indicated that cyperemethrin insecticide treatment led to a significant increase in both total and bacterial biomass and a decrease in fungal biomass and the ratio of Gram-positive (GP) bacteria to Gram-negative (GN) bacteria within the cucumber phyllosphere. Principal-component analyses (PCA) suggested that the number of unsaturated and cyclopropane PLFAs (16:1ω9t,18:1ω7, cy17:0, cy19:0) increased with the insecticide treatment, whereas the saturated PLFA i16:0, i17:0 decreased. The increase of GN bacteria implied that the cypermethrin insecticide might be a nutrient for the growth of these phyllosphere microbes. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) reinforced the PLFA results. A significant change of bacterial community structure was observed in the separate dendrogram cluster between control and treated samples with the cucumber phyllosphere following cypermethrin insecticide treatment. Moreover, the increased terminal restriction fragments (T-RFs) (58, 62, 89, 99, 119, 195, 239,311,340, and 473 bp) indicated that some bacteria might play a significant role in the insecticide degradation within the cucumber phylosphere, whereas the disappeared T-RFs (44, 51, 96, 223, 306, and 338 bp) implied that some other bacteria might potentially serve as microbial indicator of cyperemethrin insecticide exposure.

  19. Simulated drought influences oxidative stress in Zea mays seedlings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Simulated drought influences oxidative stress in Zea mays seedlings. ... Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT ... Seedlings were grown for 8 weeks in nursery bags filled with sandy-loam soil in two categories.

  20. Effects of carbon dioxide concentration and nutrition on photosynthetic functions of white birch seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, S. [Lakehead Univ., Thunder Bay, ON (Canada). Faculty of Forestry and the Forest Environment; Dang, Q.L. [Lakehead Univ., Thunder Bay, ON (Canada). Faculty of Forest and the Forest Environment; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Inst. of Botany, Laboratory of Quantitative Vegetation Ecology

    2006-11-15

    Increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) can impact photosynthesis and dry mass production of plants. This study investigated the physiological responses of white birch seedlings to elevated carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) at low and high supplies of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). A 2-way factorial experiment was carried out with birch seedlings grown for 4 months in environment-controlled greenhouses. Elevated CO{sub 2} enhanced maximal carboxylation rate and photosynthetically active radiation-saturated electron transport rates were measured after 2.5 and 3.5 months of treatment, as well as actual photochemical efficiency and photosynthetic linear electron transport to carboxylation. Net photosynthetic rate increases were observed as well as increases in photosynthetic water use efficiency (WUE); photosynthetic N efficiency and P efficiency. Stomatal conductance, transpiration rate and the fraction of total photosynthetic linear electron transport partitioned to oxygenation were reduced. Low nutrient availability decreased net photosynthetic rates, WUE, and triose phosphate utilization. However, photosynthetic linear electron transport and N use efficiency increased. There were significant interactive effects of CO{sub 2} and nutrition over time, with evidence of photosynthetic up-regulation in response to elevated CO{sub 2} in seedlings receiving high nutrition. Photosynthetic depression in response to low nutrient availability was attributed to biochemical limitation rather than stomatal limitation. Elevated CO{sub 2} reduced leaf N concentration in seedlings receiving low nutrition, but had no significant effect on leaf P or K concentrations. High nutrient availability generally increased area-based leaf N, P and K concentrations but had negligible effects on K after 2.5 months of treatment. Results suggested that increases in electron partitioning to photorespiration in response to low nutrient availability may be related to

  1. Screening and identifying antagonistic bacteria against Rhizoctonia solani and their biological control effects on soil-born damping-off disease of cucumber%土传黄瓜立枯病高效拮抗菌的筛选鉴定及其生物效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄新琦; 雍晓雨; 沈其荣; 杨兴明

    2012-01-01

    In this study,more than 400 bacterial strains were isolated from rhizosphere soil of cucumber,and the dual culture method was used to screen bacterial antagonists against Rhizoctonia solani.Sixteen strains of bacterial antagonists were isolated and their inhabiting zone against R.solani ranged from 0.81 cm to 1.93 cm.Based on the results of morphologic characteristics,physiological and biochemical properties and phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA,three strains(N33,N34 and N43) with inhabiting zone more than 1.6 cm were identified as Pseudomonas sp,Bacillus sp.and Bacillus sp.,respectively.Through application of the three antagonists in cropping substrate of cucumber seedlings,their promotion effect on cucumber seedlings and control efficiency on damping-off disease were tested.All of the three isolates could promote the growth of cucumber seedlings and suppress cucumber seedlings from damping-off disease.Among of them,N43 showed the best effect on increasing the fresh weight of shoot by 62.16% and preventing the disease with a control efficiency of 62%,compared with control.%采用平板对峙法从黄瓜根际土壤中分离出的400余株细菌菌株中筛选出16株对立枯丝核菌Rhizoctonia solani具有拮抗效果的菌株,抑菌带直径在0.81~1.93 cm之间。并从中选出3株抑菌带直径在1.6cm以上的菌株N33、N35和N43,结合形态、生理生化特性及16S rDNA序列比对分析,鉴定N33菌株为假单胞菌属Pseudomonas sp.,N35和N43菌株为芽胞杆菌属Bacillus sp.。通过在黄瓜育苗基质中添加选育的高效拮抗菌株,观测其对黄瓜苗生长的促进作用以及对立枯病的防治作用,3株菌株均具有促进黄瓜苗期生长和防治苗期立枯病的作用,其中N43菌株促生及防病效果均最显著,地上部鲜重比对照处理增加62.16%,防治效果达62%。

  2. Evolutionary relationship of alfalfa mosaic virus with cucumber mosaic virus and brome mosaic virus

    OpenAIRE

    Savithri, HS; Murthy, MRN

    1983-01-01

    The amino acid sequences of the non-structural protein (molecular weight 35,000; 3a protein) from three plant viruses - cucumber mosaic, brome mosaic and alfalfa mosaic have been systematically compared using the partial genomic sequences for these three viruses already available. The 3a protein of cucumber mosaic virus has an amino acid sequence homology of 33.7% with the corresponding protein of brome mosaic virus. A similar protein from alfalfa mosaic virus has a homology of 18.2% and 14.2...

  3. The Measurement of Technical Efficiency and Effective Factors in Cucumber Greenhouse (Case Study: Eastern Azarbayjan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Abdollahi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to estimate technical efficiency of cucumber greenhouses in Eastern Azarbayjan. In economic literature, it means the ratio of maximum output to the inputs. The objective of this research was to determinate the effective factors influencing it's inefficiency. The method of determination of deterministic and stochastic technical efficiency is corrected ordinary least squares (COLS and maximum likelihood (ML respectively. The average of technical efficiency in province’s cucumber greenhouse is approximately about 57 and 93 percent for deterministic and stochastic frontier method respectively. Production types had positive influence on technical inefficiency whereas experience of manager have negative influence on technical inefficiency.

  4. The fungi causin damping-off of carrot seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Nowicki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available When 136 samples of dying carrot seedlings from several fields were analyzed Alternaria rudicina proved to be the most common seedling pathogen (41%, followed by some Fusarium species (27%, mostly F. avenaceum.The less common seedling pathogens were Pythium spp. (13%, Phoma spp.(2,5% and Botrytis cinerea (1,4%. Some other fungi (Bipolaris sorokiniana, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Stemphylium botryosym and Ulocladium consortiale were found in less than 1% of seedlings examined.

  5. Construction of a fosmid library of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and comparative analyses of the eIF4E and eIF(iso)4E regions from cucumber and melon (Cucumis melo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, J D F; Deleu, W; Garcia-Mas, J; Havey, M J

    2008-05-01

    A fosmid library of cucumber was synthesized as an unrestricted resource for researchers and used for comparative sequence analyses to assess synteny between the cucumber and melon genomes, both members of the genus Cucumis and the two most economically important plants in the family Cucurbitaceae. End sequencing of random fosmids produced over 680 kilobases of cucumber genomic sequence, of which 25% was similar to ribosomal DNAs, 25% to satellite sequences, 20% to coding regions in other plants, 4% to transposable elements, 13% to mitochondrial and chloroplast sequences, and 13% showed no hits to the databases. The relatively high frequencies of ribosomal and satellite DNAs are consistent with previous analyses of cucumber DNA. Cucumber fosmids were selected and sequenced that carried eukaryotic initiation factors (eIF) 4E and iso(4E), genes associated with recessively inherited resistances to potyviruses in a number of plants. Indels near eIF4E and eIF(iso)4E mapped independently of the zym, a recessive locus conditioning resistance to Zucchini yellow mosaic virus, establishing that these candidate genes are not zym. Cucumber sequences were compared with melon BACs carrying eIF4E and eIF(iso)4E and revealed extensive sequence conservation and synteny between cucumber and melon across these two independent genomic regions. This high degree of microsynteny will aid in the cloning of orthologous genes from both species, as well as allow for genomic resources developed for one Cucumis species to be used for analyses in other species.

  6. Unraveling main limiting sites of photosynthesis under below and above ground heat stress in cucumber and the alleviatory role of luffa rootstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao eLi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthesis is one of the most thermo-sensitive processes in plants. Although the severity of heat stress could be attenuated by grafting approach, the primary damaged site of photosynthesis system under heat stress and the regulatory mechanism of rootstock-mediated heat tolerance are poorly understood. In the current study, cucumber plants grafted onto their own roots and heat-tolerant luffa roots were exposed to root-zone heat (25/40 °C and aerial heat (40/25 °C individually and in combination (40/40 °C to understand the response of photosynthetic process by investigating energy absorption and distribution, electron transport in photosystem (PS II and I, and CO2 assimilation. According to the results, root-zone heat stress inhibited photosynthesis mainly through decreasing Rubisco activity, while aerial heat stress mainly through inhibiting PSII acceptor side. The imbalance in light absorption and utilization resulted in accumulation of reactive oxygen species that caused damage to photosynthetic apparatus, forming a vicious cycle. On the contrary, grafting cucumber onto heat-tolerant luffa rootstock alleviated heat-induced photosynthetic inhibition and oxidative stress by maintaining higher root vitality, HSP70 accumulation, and antioxidant potential.

  7. Mexican propolis flavonoids affect photosynthesis and seedling growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King-Díaz, Beatriz; Granados-Pineda, Jessica; Bah, Mustapha; Rivero-Cruz, J Fausto; Lotina-Hennsen, Blas

    2015-10-01

    As a continuous effort to find new natural products with potential herbicide activity, flavonoids acacetin (1), chrysin (2) and 4',7-dimethylnarangenin (3) were isolated from a propolis sample collected in the rural area of Mexico City and their effects on the photosynthesis light reactions and on the growth of Lolium perenne, Echinochloa crus-galli and Physalis ixocarpa seedlings were investigated. Acacetin (1) acted as an uncoupler by enhancing the electron transport under basal and phosphorylating conditions and the Mg(2+)-ATPase. Chrysin (2) at low concentrations behaved as an uncoupler and at concentrations up to 100 μM its behavior was as a Hill reaction inhibitor. Finally, 4',7-dimethylnarangenin (3) in a concentration-dependent manner behaved as a Hill reaction inhibitor. Flavonoids 2 and 3 inhibited the uncoupled photosystem II reaction measured from water to 2,5-dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone (DCBQ), and they did not inhibit the uncoupled partial reactions measured from water to sodium silicomolybdate (SiMo) and from diphenylcarbazide (DPC) to diclorophenol indophenol (DCPIP). These results indicated that chrysin and 4',7-dimethylnarangenin inhibited the acceptor side of PS II. The results were corroborated with fluorescence of chlorophyll a measurements. Flavonoids also showed activity on the growth of seedlings of Lolium perenne and Echinochloa crus-galli. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Containers of Attalea funifera fibers to produce eucalyptus seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Vita Reis Mendonça

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the technical feasibility of using biodegradable containers made of fiber waste of Attalea funifera Martius to produce seedling of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. The work was carried out in three stages: manufacture of piassava fiber containers, seedling production and field simulation. The experiment of seedling production was in completely randomized design, with two treatments (polyethylene tube and biodegradable container and 10 repetitions, with 64 seedlings per repetition. After 93 days, seedlings were evaluated based on quality variables. The simuation of initial growth of seedlings in the field consisted in planting seedlings in containers of 11L, in completely randomized design, with three treatments: seedlings produced in polyethylene tubes; seedlings produced in biodegradable containers, without removal of the container during planting; and seedlings produced in biodegradable containers, with removal of the container at planting, with ten repetitions, with one seedling by repetition. The biodegradable container withstood the production cycle and resulted in seedlings within acceptable standards quality. The use of biodegradable container, made of palm fibers, waived the removal of this vessel in the final planting.

  9. Containers of Attalea funifera fibers to produce eucalyptus seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Vita Reis Mendonça

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the technical feasibility of using biodegradable containers made of fiber waste of Attalea funifera Martius to produce seedling of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. The work was carried out in three stages: manufacture of piassava fiber containers, seedling production and field simulation. The experiment of seedling production was in completely randomized design, with two treatments (polyethylene tube and biodegradable container and 10 repetitions, with 64 seedlings per repetition. After 93 days, seedlings were evaluated based on quality variables. The simuation of initial growth of seedlings in the field consisted in planting seedlings in containers of 11L, in completely randomized design, with three treatments: seedlings produced in polyethylene tubes; seedlings produced in biodegradable containers, without removal of the container during planting; and seedlings produced in biodegradable containers, with removal of the container at planting, with ten repetitions, with one seedling by repetition. The biodegradable container withstood the production cycle and resulted in seedlings within acceptable standards quality. The use of biodegradable container, made of palm fibers, waived the removal of this vessel in the final planting.

  10. [Influence of seedling assortment on Panax notoginseng growth and yield].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, X; Wang, C; Chen, Z

    1998-02-01

    Making Panax notoginseng seedling assortment according to seedling size before transplanting, the result shows that the influence is better, the yield of root tuber and fruit is higher. Culturing good seedling is the fundamental measure to increase yield of P. notoginseng.

  11. Seed mucilage improves seedling emergence of a sand desert shrub.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuejun Yang

    Full Text Available The success of seedling establishment of desert plants is determined by seedling emergence response to an unpredictable precipitation regime. Sand burial is a crucial and frequent environmental stress that impacts seedling establishment on sand dunes. However, little is known about the ecological role of seed mucilage in seedling emergence in arid sandy environments. We hypothesized that seed mucilage enhances seedling emergence in a low precipitation regime and under conditions of sand burial. In a greenhouse experiment, two types of Artemisia sphaerocephala achenes (intact and demucilaged were exposed to different combinations of burial depth (0, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 60 mm and irrigation regimes (low, medium and high, which simulated the precipitation amount and frequency in May, June and July in the natural habitat, respectively. Seedling emergence increased with increasing irrigation. It was highest at 5 mm sand burial depth and ceased at burial depths greater than 20 mm in all irrigation regimes. Mucilage significantly enhanced seedling emergence at 0, 5 and 10 mm burial depths in low irrigation, at 0 and 5 mm burial depths in medium irrigation and at 0 and 10 mm burial depths in high irrigation. Seed mucilage also reduced seedling mortality at the shallow sand burial depths. Moreover, mucilage significantly affected seedling emergence time and quiescence and dormancy percentages. Our findings suggest that seed mucilage plays an ecologically important role in successful seedling establishment of A. sphaerocephala by improving seedling emergence and reducing seedling mortality in stressful habitats of the sandy desert environment.

  12. Application of Wet Waste from Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) with or Without Sea Mud to Feeding Sea Cucumber (Stichopus monotuberculatus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yanfeng; HU Chaoqun; RENChunhua

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the applicability of the wet waste collected from shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) to the culture of sea cucumber (Stichopus monotuberculatus) was determined. The effects of dietary wet shrimp waste on the survival, specific growth rate (SGR), fecal production rate (FPR), ammonia- and nitrite-nitrogen productions of sea cucumber were studied. The total organic matter (TOM) level in the feces of sea cucumber was compared with that in corresponding feeds. Diet C (50% wet shrimp waste and 50% sea mud mash) made sea cucumber grow faster than other diets. Sea cucumber fed with either diet D (25% wet shrimp waste and 75% sea mud mash) or sole sea mud exhibited negative growth. The average lowest total FPR of sea cucumber occurred in diet A (wet shrimp waste), and there was no significant difference in total FPR between diet C and diet E (sea mud mash) (P>0.05). The average ammonia-nitrogen production of sea cucumber in different diet treatments decreased gradually with the decrease of crude protein content in different diets. The average highest nitrite-nitrogen production occurred in diet E treatment, and there was no sig-nificant difference in nitrite-nitrogen production among diet A, diet B (75% wet shrimp waste and 25% sea mud mash) and diet C treatments (P>0.05). In each diet treatment, the total organic matter (TOM) level in feces decreased to different extent compared with that in corresponding feeds.

  13. Application of wet waste from shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) with or without sea mud to feeding sea cucumber ( Stichopus monotuberculatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanfeng; Hu, Chaoqun; Ren, Chunhua

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, the applicability of the wet waste collected from shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) to the culture of sea cucumber ( Stichopus monotuberculatus) was determined. The effects of dietary wet shrimp waste on the survival, specific growth rate (SGR), fecal production rate (FPR), ammonia- and nitrite-nitrogen productions of sea cucumber were studied. The total organic matter (TOM) level in the feces of sea cucumber was compared with that in corresponding feeds. Diet C (50% wet shrimp waste and 50% sea mud mash) made sea cucumber grow faster than other diets. Sea cucumber fed with either diet D (25% wet shrimp waste and 75% sea mud mash) or sole sea mud exhibited negative growth. The average lowest total FPR of sea cucumber occurred in diet A (wet shrimp waste), and there was no significant difference in total FPR between diet C and diet E (sea mud mash) ( P > 0.05). The average ammonia-nitrogen production of sea cucumber in different diet treatments decreased gradually with the decrease of crude protein content in different diets. The average highest nitrite-nitrogen production occurred in diet E treatment, and there was no significant difference in nitrite-nitrogen production among diet A, diet B (75% wet shrimp waste and 25% sea mud mash) and diet C treatments ( P > 0.05). In each diet treatment, the total organic matter (TOM) level in feces decreased to different extent compared with that in corresponding feeds.

  14. Medieval herbal iconography and lexicography of Cucumis (cucumber and melon, Cucurbitaceae) in the Occident, 1300–1458

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Harry S.; Janick, Jules; Daunay, Marie-Christine

    2011-01-01

    Background The genus Cucumis contains two species of important vegetable crops, C. sativus, cucumber, and C. melo, melon. Melon has iconographical and textual records from lands of the Mediterranean Basin dating back to antiquity, but cucumber does not. The goal of this study was to obtain an improved understanding of the history of these crops in the Occident. Medieval images purportedly of Cucumis were examined, their specific identity was determined and they were compared for originality, accuracy and the lexicography of their captions. Findings The manuscripts having accurate, informative images are derived from Italy and France and were produced between 1300 and 1458. All have an illustration of cucumber but not all contain an image of melon. The cucumber fruits are green, unevenly cylindrical with an approx. 2:1 length-to-width ratio. Most of the images show the cucumbers marked by sparsely distributed, large dark dots, but images from northern France show them as having densely distributed, small black dots. The different size, colour and distribution reflect the different surface wartiness and spininess of modern American and French pickling cucumbers. The melon fruits are green, oval to serpentine, closely resembling the chate and snake vegetable melons, but not sweet melons. In nearly all manuscripts of Italian provenance, the cucumber image is labelled with the Latin caption citruli, or similar, plural diminuitive of citrus (citron, Citrus medica). However, in manuscripts of French provenance, the cucumber image is labelled cucumeres, which is derived from the classical Latin epithet cucumis for snake melon. The absence of melon in some manuscripts and the expropriation of the Latin cucumis/cucumer indicate replacement of vegetable melons by cucumbers during the medieval period in Europe. One image, from British Library ms. Sloane 4016, has a caption that allows tracing of the word ‘gherkin’ back to languages of the geographical nativity of C

  15. Characterization of PSI recovery after chilling-induced photoinhibition in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zishan; Jia, Yujiao; Gao, Huiyuan; Zhang, Litao; Li, Haidong; Meng, Qingwei

    2011-11-01

    By simultaneously analyzing the chlorophyll a fluorescence transient and light absorbance at 820 nm as well as chlorophyll fluorescence quenching, we investigated the effects of different photon flux densities (0, 15, 200 μmol m(-2) s(-1)) with or without 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU) on the repair process of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) leaves after treatment with low temperature (6°C) combined with moderate photon flux density (200 μmol m(-2 )s(-1)) for 6 h. Both the maximal photochemical efficiency of Photosystem II (PSII) (F (v)/F (m)) and the content of active P700 (ΔI/I (o)) significantly decreased after chilling treatment under 200 μmol m(-2 )s(-1) light. After the leaves were transferred to 25°C, F (v)/F (m) recovered quickly under both 200 and 15 μmol m(-2 )s(-1) light. ΔI/I (o) recovered quickly under 15 μmol m(-2) s(-1) light, but the recovery rate of ΔI/I (o) was slower than that of F (v)/F (m). The cyclic electron transport was inhibited by chilling-light treatment obviously. The recovery of ΔI/I (o) was severely suppressed by 200 μmol m(-2) s(-1) light, whereas a pretreatment with DCMU effectively relieved this suppression. The cyclic electron transport around PSI recovered in a similar way as the active P700 content did, and the recovery of them was both accelerated by pretreatment with DCMU. The results indicate that limiting electron transport from PSII to PSI protected PSI from further photoinhibition, accelerating the recovery of PSI. Under a given photon flux density, faster recovery of PSII compared to PSI was detrimental to the recovery of PSI or even to the whole photosystem.

  16. A High-Density Genetic Map for Cucumber (Cucumis Sativus L. Based on Specific Length Amplified Fragment (SLAF Sequencing and QTL Analysis of Fruit Traits in Cucumber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenying eZhu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available High-density genetic linkage map plays an important role in genome assembly and QTL fine mapping. Since the coming of next-generation sequencing (NGS, makes the structure of high-density linkage maps much more convenient and practical, which simplifies SNP discovery and high-throughput genotyping. In this research, a high-density linkage map of cucumber was structured using specific length amplified fragment sequencing, using 153 F2 populations of S1000×S1002. The high-density genetic map composed 3,057 SLAFs, including 4,475 SNP markers on 7 chromosomes, and spanned 1061.19cM. The average genetic distance is 0.35cM. Based on this high-density genome map, QTL analysis was performed on two cucumber fruit traits, fruit length and fruit diameter. There are 15 QTLs for the two fruit traits were detected.

  17. AGROBOTANICAL ILLUSTRATION OF TURBAN FORMS OF CUCUMBER, AS A SOURCE OF INFORMATION OF DISTRIBUTION, EVOLUTION AND USE OF THIS CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsatsenko L. V.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers turban cucumber forms, we have also described the origin of this characteristic, briefly overviewed turban forms in species of the family of Cucurbitaceae. We have given the agro-botanical iconography of this trait in pumpkin cultures for cucumis. In Europe, China and America turbanoformis cucumber forms are used as a vegetable, there are some varieties. It is shown that turbanoformis forms are found in the fruit of the cucumber with hermaphrodite flower, polunina ovaries, short or shareplace the melon, and also in forms with the ongoing evolutionary process

  18. 野生黄瓜代换系的构建%Construction of Wild Cucumber Substitution Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李学峰; 胡晓文; 张圣平; 顾兴芳; 张忠华; 黄三文

    2011-01-01

    Cucumis sativus var. hardwickii Royle is the only extant wild subspecies of domesticated cucumber ( Cucumis sativus var. sativus L. ). The wild cucumber contains several favorable traits including root-knot nematodes and CMV resistance, etc. It has a strong branching capability. The fruit shape of wild cucumber is oval and it tastes very bitter. In this study, we created a set of substitution lines using wild cucumber accession lines PI183967 as the donor and domesticated cucumber inbred Xintaimici as the receptor. During the process of backcrossing and self crossing, the wild cucumber genomic fragments were tracked using 62 SSR markers distributed in the cucumber genome. Subsequently, 21 single-segment substitution lines and 10 double-segment substitution lines were obtained, which in total cover 96.81% of the wild cucumber genome. These substitution lines provided a new resource for the utilization of genes from wild cucumber and also the materials basis for the precise genetic analysis of quantitative traits in cucumber, as well as for the investigation of molecular mechanism of evolution from wild cucumber to domesticated cucumber.%野牛黄瓜(Cucumis sativus var.hardwickii Royle)是目前唯一被发现的黄瓜野生变种,具有抗根结线虫和CMV等优异性状,分枝性强,果实为卵圆形,味极苦.利用野生黄瓜品系PI183967为供体材料,栽培黄瓜(Cucumis sativus var.sativus L.)‘新泰密刺'纯系为受体材料,经过3次回交和1次自交,创造了一套代换系材料.在回交和自交过程中,利用均匀分布在全基凶组上的62个SSR标记,跟踪野生黄瓜的基因组片段,共选择出21份单片段和10份双片段代换系材料,共得到代换片段41个.这些野生代换片段重叠累加覆盖野生黄瓜染色体组96.81%.这套代换系材料为利用野生黄瓜的优异基因提供了新的种质资源,也为精确分析黄瓜数量性状奠定了材料基础.

  19. Characterization of rhizobacteria associated with weed seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, R J; Begonia, M F; Stanley, L; Lanham, E T

    1990-06-01

    Rhizobacteria were isolated from seedlings of seven economically important weeds and characterized for potential phytopathogenicity, effects on seedling growth, and antibiosis to assess the possibility of developing deleterious rhizobacteria as biological control agents. The abundance and composition of rhizobacteria varied among the different weed species. For example, fluorescent pseudomonads represented from 11 to 42% of the total rhizobacterial populations from jimsonweed and lambsquarters, respectively. Other bacteria frequently isolated were nonfluorescent pseudomonads, Erwinia herbicola, Alcaligenes spp., and Flavobacterium spp. Only 18% of all isolates were potentially phytopathogenic, based on an Escherichia coli indicator bioassay. However, the proportion of isolates that inhibited growth in seedling assays ranged from 35 to 65% depending on the weed host. Antibiosis was most prevalent among isolates of fluorescent Pseudomonas spp., the activity of which was due to siderophore production in over 75% of these isolates. Overall, rhizobacterial isolates exhibited a complex array of properties that were inconsistent with accepted definitions for plant growth-promoting and deleterious rhizobacteria. It is suggested that for development of effective biological control agents for weed control, deleterious rhizobacteria must be screened directly on host seedlings and must possess several properties including high colonizing ability, specific phytotoxin production, and resistance or tolerance to antibiotics produced by other rhizosphere microorganisms, and they must either synthesize or utilize other bacterial siderophores.

  20. Hyperspectral Imaging for Determining Pigment Contents in Cucumber Leaves in Response to Angular Leaf Spot Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan-Ru; Li, Xiaoli; Yu, Ke-Qiang; Cheng, Fan; He, Yong

    2016-06-10

    Hyperspectral imaging technique was employed to determine spatial distributions of chlorophyll (Chl), and carotenoid (Car) contents in cucumber leaves in response to angular leaf spot (ALS). Altogether, 196 hyperspectral images of cucumber leaves with five infection severities of ALS were captured by a hyperspectral imaging system in the range of 380-1,030 nm covering 512 wavebands. Mean spectrum were extracted from regions of interest (ROIs) in the hyperspectral images. Partial least square regression (PLSR) models were used to develop quantitative analysis between the spectra and the pigment contents measured by biochemical analyses. In addition, regression coefficients (RCs) in PLSR models were employed to select important wavelengths (IWs) for modelling. It was found that the PLSR models developed by the IWs provided the optimal measurement results with correlation coefficient (R) of prediction of 0.871 and 0.876 for Chl and Car contents, respectively. Finally, Chl and Car distributions in cucumber leaves with the ALS infection were mapped by applying the optimal models pixel-wise to the hyperspectral images. The results proved the feasibility of hyperspectral imaging for visualizing the pigment distributions in cucumber leaves in response to ALS.

  1. Systems pharmacology-based drug discovery for marine resources: an example using sea cucumber (Holothurians).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yingying; Ding, Yan; Xu, Feifei; Liu, Baoyue; Kou, Zinong; Xiao, Wei; Zhu, Jingbo

    2015-05-13

    Sea cucumber, a kind of marine animal, have long been utilized as tonic and traditional remedies in the Middle East and Asia because of its effectiveness against hypertension, asthma, rheumatism, cuts and burns, impotence, and constipation. In this study, an overall study performed on sea cucumber was used as an example to show drug discovery from marine resource by using systems pharmacology model. The value of marine natural resources has been extensively considered because these resources can be potentially used to treat and prevent human diseases. However, the discovery of drugs from oceans is difficult, because of complex environments in terms of composition and active mechanisms. Thus, a comprehensive systems approach which could discover active constituents and their targets from marine resource, understand the biological basis for their pharmacological properties is necessary. In this study, a feasible pharmacological model based on systems pharmacology was established to investigate marine medicine by incorporating active compound screening, target identification, and network and pathway analysis. As a result, 106 candidate components of sea cucumber and 26 potential targets were identified. Furthermore, the functions of sea cucumber in health improvement and disease treatment were elucidated in a holistic way based on the established compound-target and target-disease networks, and incorporated pathways. This study established a novel strategy that could be used to explore specific active mechanisms and discover new drugs from marine sources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Microbiological preservation of cucumbers for bulk storage by the use of acetic acid and food preservatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbial growth did not occur when cucumbers were preserved without a thermal process by storage in solutions containing acetic acid, sodium benzoate, and calcium chloride to maintain tissue firmness. The concentrations of acetic acid and sodium benzoate required to assure preservation were low en...

  3. Development of a Hyperspectral Imaging System for Online Quality Inspection of Pickling Cucumbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper reports on the development of a hyperspectral imaging prototype for evaluation of external and internal quality of pickling cucumbers. The prototype consisted of a two-lane round belt conveyor, two illumination sources (one for reflectance and one for transmittance), and a hyperspectral i...

  4. Hyperspectral imaging-based classification and wavebands selection for internal defect detection of pickling cucumbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperspectral imaging is useful for detecting internal defect of pickling cucumbers. The technique, however, is not yet suitable for high-speed online implementation due to the challenges for analyzing large-scale hyperspectral images. This research was aimed to select the optimal wavebands from the...

  5. Optical Absorption and Scattering Properties of Normal and Defective Pickling Cucumbers for 700-1000 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Internal defect in pickling cucumbers can cause bloater damage during brining, which lowers the quality of final pickled products and results in economic loss for the pickle industry. Hence it is important to have an effective optical inspection system for detection and segregation of defective pick...

  6. Climatic Risk of Field Cultivation of Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert KALBARCZYK

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present work was to separate zones of pickling cucumber field cultivation in Poland according to the various degrees of climatic risk. The study used 40-years of (1966-2005 data from 28 experimental stations of the Research Centre for Cultivar Testing. The data characterised the course of the growth, development, cucumber crop productivity and also the agrotechnical dates. Additionally, the work considered agrometeorological data of 7 development stages of the analysed plant: sunshine duration, soil temperature at a height of 5 cm, air temperature at a height of 2 m and 5 cm above ground level and atmospheric precipitation. The agrometeorological data was collected from 53 meteorological stations, in the Polish network of the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management. Weather-yield regression equations were used to determine unfavourable agrometeorological elements which is the best way to determined the quantity of the cucumber total and marketable yield. The highest climatic risk of pickling cucumber field cultivation occurred in about 7% of Poland’s area. This is the area covering the southwestern, southeastern, the northern and northeastern parts of the country. In these areas, very high occurrence frequency of agrometeorological elements was noted. These elements were: air and soil temperatures that were too low during the whole growing season and, too short of a duration of the period without frost, lasting ≤120 days.

  7. Characterization of the Optical Properties of Normal and Defective Pickling Cucumbers and Whole Pickles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Internal defect in pickling cucumbers can cause bloater damage during brining, which lowers the quality of final pickled products and results in economic loss for the pickle industry. Hence it is important to have an effective optical inspection system for detection and segregation of defective pick...

  8. Cucumber as a model plant to study mitochondrial-nuclear interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The three genomes of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) show different modes of transmission: maternal for plastid, paternal for mitochondrial (mt), and biparental for nuclear DNA. When the highly inbred line ‘B’ is passed through cell cultures, paternally transmitted mosaic (MSC) phenotypes appear after re...

  9. USDA, ARS EOM 402-10 high B-carotene cucumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    A high B-carotene cucumber (Cucumis sativus var. sativus L.) line EOM 402-10 is being released. This line was derived from a cross between the "Xishuangbanna gourd" (XIS; Cucumis sativus var. xishuangbannanesis Qi et Yuan; 2n = 2x = 14) that bears orange fruit and the non-orange-fruited cultivated c...

  10. Genetic and environmental effects on production of spontaneous tetraploids in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The appearance of spontaneous tetraploid (4x) plants is a serious problem for cucumber growers and the seed industry. These plants produce unacceptable fruits with poor quality that do not meet market standards, and result in substantial losses. A higher frequency of spontaneous 4x plants has been a...

  11. Gladiolus plants transformed with single-chain variable fragment antibodies to Cucumber mosaic virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic plants of Gladiolus ‘Peter Pears’ or ‘Jenny Lee’ were developed that contain single-chain variable fragments (scFv) to Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) subgroup I or II. The CMV subgroup I heavy and light chain scFv fragments were placed under control of either the duplicated CaMV 35S or suga...

  12. Inter- and Intramolecular recombinations in the Cucumber Mosaic Virus genome related to adaptation to Alstroemeria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.K.; Goldbach, R.W.; Prins, M.W.

    2002-01-01

    In four distinct alstroemeria-infecting cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) isolates, additional sequences of various lengths were present in the 3' nontranslated regions of their RNAs 2 and 3, apparently the result of intra- and intermolecular recombination events. Competition experiments revealed that the

  13. Occurence of Cucumber Mosaic Virus in Ornamental Plants and Perspectives of Transgenic Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.K.

    2003-01-01

    This thesis described the characterization of a range of ornamental-infecting Cucumber mosaic virus strains and the development of novel transgene constructs to improve the efficiency of obtaining resistant transformants which is essential for most ornamental plants that are diffi

  14. Alstroemeria-infecting cucumber mosaic virus isolates contain additional sequences in the RNA 3 segment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.K.; Prins, M.W.; Derks, A.F.L.M.; Langeveld, S.A.; Goldbach, R.W.

    2002-01-01

    The coat protein (CP) genes and flanking regions of three alstroemeria-infecting cucumber mosaic virus isolates (CMV-ALS), denoted ALS-LBO, ALS-IPO, and ALS-NAK, were cloned and their nucleotide sequence determined and compared at both nucleic acid and deduced protein level with the published sequen

  15. Preventive Intra Oral Treatment of Sea Cucumber Ameliorate OVA-Induced Allergic Airway Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Da-In; Park, Mi-Kyung; Kang, Shin Ae; Choi, Jun-Ho; Kang, Seok-Jung; Lee, Jeong-Yeol; Yu, Hak Sun

    2016-01-01

    Sea cucumber extracts have potent biological effects, including anti-viral, anti-cancer, antibacterial, anti-oxidant, and anti-inflammation effects. To understand their anti-asthma effects, we induced allergic airway inflammation in mice after 7 oral administrations of the extract. The hyper-responsiveness value in mice with ovalbumin (OVA)-alum-induced asthma after oral injection of sea cucumber extracts was significantly lower than that in the OVA-alum-induced asthma group. In addition, the number of eosinophils in the lungs of asthma-induced mice pre-treated with sea cucumber extract was significantly decreased compared to that of PBS pre-treated mice. Additionally, CD4[Formula: see text]CD25[Formula: see text]Foxp3[Formula: see text]T (regulatory T; Treg) cells significantly increased in mesenteric lymph nodes after 7 administrations of the extract. These results suggest that sea cucumber extract can ameliorate allergic airway inflammation via Treg cell activation and recruitment to the lung.

  16. Fermentation cover brine reformulation for cucumber processing with low salt to reduce the incidence of bloaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reformulation of cucumber fermentation cover brines containing calcium chloride instead of sodium chloride (NaCl) was explored as a mean to minimize the incidence of bloater defect. This study particularly focused on cover brine supplementation with calcium hydroxide, NaCl, and acids to enhance buff...

  17. The Effect of Washing and Peeling on Reduction of Dithiocarbamates Residues in Cucumber and Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Mehrasebi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dithiocarbamates, the main group of fungicides, are used to control about 400 pathogens in more than 70 crops. These pesticides are widely applied to crops including potato, cereal, apple, pear and leafy vegetables throughout the world since 1960. From the late 1980s, using these fungicides has caused much debate among regulators about their long-term effects on consumers and occupational users. Method: In this study the residues of Dithiocarbamates in cucumber and tomato using the colorimetric method (Keppel method was measured. Respectively 80 and 45 samples of greenhouse cucumber and tomato were collected from Zanjan vegetables center in autumns and winter 2013. The samples were analyzed in 4 treatments of: unwashed, washing with water, washing whit detergent and peeling. Result: The results showed that the average concentration of Dithiocarbamates residues in unwashed greenhouse cucumber and tomatoes were 384.5 µg/kg and 65 µg/kg respectively. 35% and 5% of unwashed and water washed cucumber and tomato samples (respectively had higher Dithiocarbamates residue than MRL recommended by Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran (0.5mg/kg. Conclusion: The treatments of washing and peeling had significant effect on the reduction of Dithiocarbamates residues in the all samples.

  18. Bacterial Diversity of Gut Content in Sea Cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) and Its Habitat Surface Sediment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Fei; TAN Jie; SUN Huiling; YAN Jingping

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the bacterial diversity of gut content of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) and its habitat surface sediment in a bottom enhancement area using PCR-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) technique. Bacte-rial diversity evaluation showed that the value of the Shannon-Wiener index of gut content in different intestinal segments of A. ja-ponicus varied between 2.88 and 3.00, lower than that of the surrounding sediment (3.23). Phylogenetic analysis showed that bacte-rial phylotypes in gut content and the surrounding sediment of A. japonicus were closely related to Proteobacteria includingγ-,α-,δ-andε-proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicute, and Actinobacteria, of whichγ-proteobacteria were predominant. These results sug-gested that the sea cucumber A. japonicus was capable of feeding selectively, and PCR-DGGE was applicable for characterizing the bacterial community composition in gut content and the surrounding sediment of sea cucumber. Further investigation targeting longer 16S rDNA gene fragments and/or functional genes was recommended for obtaining more information of the diversity and function of bacterial community in the gut content of sea cucumber.

  19. Asynchronous meiosis in Cucumis hystrix-cucumber synthetic tetraploids resulting in low male fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wide hybridization is an important tool for crop improvement. Recently, we successfully developed a synthetic allotetraploid from interspecific cross between cucumber and its relative Cucumis hystrix-(2n = 2x =24) followed by chemical induction of chromosome doubling. The resulting allotetraploid wa...

  20. Silicon enhances leaf remobilization of iron in cucumber under limited iron conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlovic, Jelena; Samardzic, Jelena; Kostic, Ljiljana

    2016-01-01

    leaves and the subsequent retranslocation of Fe to young leaves of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants growing under Fe-limiting conditions was investigated. METHODS: Iron ((57)Fe or naturally occurring isotopes) was measured in leaves at different positions on plants hydroponically growing with or without...

  1. Effects of two different formulations of metalaxyl on their residues in cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebi, Khalil

    2002-01-01

    Investigations were carried out on the presence of metalaxyl residues in field grown cucumbers. In one experiment, cucumber plants underwent once and twice sprayings by Ridomil-MZ 72 WP at 2.5 g/litre. In another, single and double applications of metalaxyl granule (5G) were carried out at 5 g/m2. Fungicide application performed every 14 days. Samples were taken at different time intervals and metalaxyl level was determined by HPLC. The results showed variable dissipation rates of metalaxyl residues in cucumber. In samples from single and double sprayed plots, the residues were 0.19 and 0.08 mg/kg 14 days after treatment respectively. In single granulated plots, the residues increased during the first 7 days and then decreased to 0.85 mg/kg, 14 days after granule application. However, in double granulated plots, the residues decreased to 0.02 mg/kg after the same period of time. In all treatments except single granulated plots, the residues declined below the MRL (0.5 mg/kg), 7 days after application. These experiments showed that two times spraying and granule applications did not cause the fungicide accumulation in cucumber.

  2. Inter- and intramolecular recombinations in the cucumber mosaic virus genome related to adaptation to alstroemeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuh-Kun; Goldbach, Rob; Prins, Marcel

    2002-04-01

    In four distinct alstroemeria-infecting cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) isolates, additional sequences of various lengths were present in the 3' nontranslated regions of their RNAs 2 and 3, apparently the result of intra- and intermolecular recombination events. Competition experiments revealed that these recombined RNA 2 and 3 segments increased the biological fitness of CMV in alstroemeria.

  3. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seed performance as influenced by ovary and ovule position

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jing, H.C.; Jalink, H.; Bergervoet, J.W.; Klooster, M.; Du, S.L.; Bino, R.J.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.; Groot, S.P.C.

    2000-01-01

    The performance of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seeds in relation to ovary and ovule position was monitored during seed production. Seeds from three (first, seventh and tenth nodes) fruit positions and three (stylar, intermediate and peduncular) ovule positions were harvested serially during

  4. A model for prediction of yield and quality of cucumber fruits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcelis, L.F.M.; Gijzen, H.

    1998-01-01

    The mechanistic model KOSI was developed to predict the weekly fresh weight harvest of cucumber fruits and their quality. The model consists of modules for greenhouse climate, greenhouse light transmission, light interception by the crop, leaf and canopy photosynthesis, assimilate partitioning, dry

  5. Characterisation of inorganic elements and volatile organic compounds in the dried sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hae-Won; Lim, Na-Lae; Cho, Kichul; Yang, Hye Young; Yim, Kyung June; Kim, Mi-Ju; Lee, Myunglip; Kim, Dong Hyeun; Koh, Hyoung Bum; Jung, Won-Kyo; Roh, Seong Woon; Kim, Daekyung

    2014-03-15

    The sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus lives in a variety of marine habitats and is an important cultivated edible aquatic species in East Asia. In this study, S. japonicus, collected from the sea near Jeju Island of Korea, was lyophilised or vacuum-dried and then analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The GC-MS profiles of vacuum-dried and lyophilised samples differed. Based on direct injection and static headspace analysis, 37 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were identified in vacuum-dried samples and 33 VOCs were identified in lyophilised samples. Therefore, the odour of vacuum-dried sea cucumber is thought to be due to the presence of various VOCs that are absent in lyophilised sea cucumber. According to ICP-MS analysis, the levels of 15 inorganic elements were slightly higher in lyophilised samples than in vacuum-dried samples. The results of the inorganic and organic chemical analyses provide information about the composition of dried sea cucumber. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Non-destructive detection of pesticide residues in cucumber using visible/near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidi, Bahareh; Mohajerani, Ezeddin; Jamshidi, Jamshid; Minaei, Saeid; Sharifi, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of using visible/near-infrared (Vis/NIR) spectroscopy was assessed for non-destructive detection of diazinon residues in intact cucumbers. Vis/NIR spectra of diazinon solution and cucumber samples without and with different concentrations of diazinon residue were analysed at the range of 450-1000 nm. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) models were developed based on different spectral pre-processing techniques to classify cucumbers with contents of diazinon below and above the MRL as safe and unsafe samples, respectively. The best model was obtained using a first-derivative method with the lowest standard error of cross-validation (SECV = 0.366). Moreover, total percentages of correctly classified samples in calibration and prediction sets were 97.5% and 92.31%, respectively. It was concluded that Vis/NIR spectroscopy could be an appropriate, fast and non-destructive technology for safety control of intact cucumbers by the absence/presence of diazinon residues.

  7. Alstroemeria-infecting cucumber mosaic virus isolates contain additional sequences in the RNA 3 segment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.K.; Prins, M.W.; Derks, A.F.L.M.; Langeveld, S.A.; Goldbach, R.W.

    2002-01-01

    The coat protein (CP) genes and flanking regions of three alstroemeria-infecting cucumber mosaic virus isolates (CMV-ALS), denoted ALS-LBO, ALS-IPO, and ALS-NAK, were cloned and their nucleotide sequence determined and compared at both nucleic acid and deduced protein level with the published

  8. The Psm locus controls paternal sorting of the cucumber mitochondrial genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havey, M J; Park, Y H; Bartoszewski, G

    2004-01-01

    The mitochondrial genome of cucumber shows paternal transmission and there are no reports of variation for mitochondrial transmission in cucumber. We used a mitochondrially encoded mosaic (MSC) phenotype to reveal phenotypic variation for mitochondrial-genome transmission in cucumber. At least 10 random plants from each of 71 cucumber plant introductions (PIs) were crossed as the female with an inbred line (MSC16) possessing the MSC phenotype. Nonmosaic F1 progenies were observed at high frequencies (greater than 50%) in F1 families from 10 PIs, with the greatest proportions being from PI 401734. Polymorphisms near the mitochondrial cox1 gene and JLV5 region revealed that nonmosaic hybrid progenies from crosses of PI 401734 with MSC16 as the male possessed the nonmosaic-inducing mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from the paternal parent. F2) F3, and backcross progenies from nonmosaic F1 plants from PI 401734 x MSC16 were testcrossed with MSC16 as the male parent to reveal segregation of a nuclear locus (Psm for Paternal sorting of mitochondria) controlling sorting of mtDNA from the paternal parent. Psm is a unique locus at which the maternal genotype affects sorting of paternally transmitted mtDNA.

  9. Functional imaging of plants: A nuclear magnetic resonance study of a cucumber plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheenen, T.; Heemskerk, A.; Jager, de A.; Vergeldt, F.J.; As, van H.

    2002-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to study transients of biophysical parameters in a cucumber plant in response to environmental changes. Detailed flow imaging experiments showed the location of xylem and phloem in the stem and the response of the following flow characteristics to the

  10. Importance of prumycin produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SD-32 in biocontrol against cucumber powdery mildew disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Keijitsu; Fukuda, Mutsumi; Amaki, Yusuke; Sakaguchi, Takatoshi; Inai, Koji; Ishihara, Atsushi; Nakajima, Hiromitsu

    2017-05-30

    Powdery mildew disease of cucurbits is caused mainly by Podosphaera fusca, which is one of the most important limiting factors in cucurbit production worldwide. Previously we reported that Bacillus amyloliquefaciens biocontrol strain SD-32 produces C17 bacillomycin D and [Ile]surfactin, and that these metabolites play important roles in SD-32's biocontrol over cucumber gray mold disease. Our further investigation demonstrated that the culture broth and its supernatant suppressed cucumber powdery mildew disease in greenhouse experiments. However, the active principle(s) remained unknown. The active compound was isolated from the culture supernatant after anti-powdery mildew disease activity-guided purification and identified as prumycin. Prumycin significantly suppressed the disease, whereas bacillomycin D and [Ile]surfactin did not. Prumycin did not induce the expression of plant defense genes (PR1a and VSP1), suggesting that it does not act via plant defense response. Light microscopic observations of prumycin-treated cucumber cotyledon suggested that prumycin inhibits the conidial germination of P. fusca. This study demonstrates that prumycin is a major factor in SD-32's suppression of cucumber powdery mildew disease. Our findings shed light for the first time on prumycin's role in biocontrol by Bacillus against this disease. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. An ecological cost of plant defence : attractiveness of bitter cucumber plants to natural enemies of herbivores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agrawal, A.A.; Janssen, A.; Bruin, J.; Posthumus, M.A.; Sabelis, M.W.

    2002-01-01

    Plants produce defences that act directly on herbivores and indirectly via the attraction of natural enemies of herbivores. We examined the pleiotropic effects of direct chemical defence production on indirect defence employing near-isogenic varieties of cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus) that differ

  12. In Vitro Auxin Binding to Cellular Membranes of Cucumber Fruits 123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Komaratchi R.; Mudge, Kenneth W.; Poovaiah, B. W.

    1981-01-01

    Specific binding of 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) to crude membrane preparations from cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) was demonstrated. This in vitro binding had a pH optimum of 3.75 and an equilibrium dissociation constant of 10 to 20 micromolar with 1250 picomoles binding sites per gram fresh weight. The NAA-binding sites were pronase sensitive. The supernatant from the fruit partially inhibited the in vitro NAA binding to fruit membranes. NAA, 2-naphthoxyacetic acid, 3-indoleacetic acid, 2-4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid, which are reported to be very good inducers of parthenocarpy in cucumber, showed a high degree of specific binding to cucumber fruit membranes. In comparison, 2-naphthaleneacetic acid and indolepropionic acid, which are reported to be very weak auxins in corn coleoptile, pea stem, and strawberry fruit growth bioassays, did not bind efficiently to cucumber fruit membranes. In vitro binding studies with fruit membranes suggest that auxin stimulated fruit growth may be mediated by membrane-associated, auxin-binding protein(s). PMID:16661764

  13. What is the most prominent factor limiting photosynthesis in different layers of a greenhouse cucumber canopy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, T.W.; Henke, M.; Visser, de P.H.B.; Buck-Sorlin, G.H.; Wiechers, D.; Kahlen, K.; Stützel, H.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Maximizing photosynthesis at the canopy level is important for enhancing crop yield, and this requires insights into the limiting factors of photosynthesis. Using greenhouse cucumber (Cucumis sativus) as an example, this study provides a novel approach to quantify different compo

  14. Occurence of Cucumber Mosaic Virus in Ornamental Plants and Perspectives of Transgenic Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.K.

    2003-01-01

    This thesis described the characterization of a range of ornamental-infecting Cucumber mosaic virus strains and the development of novel transgene constructs to improve the efficiency of obtaining resistant transformants which is essential for most ornamental plants that are

  15. An autonomous robot for de-leafing cucumber plants in a high-wire cultivation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henten, van E.J.; Tuijl, van B.A.J.; Hoogakker, G.J.; Weerd, van der M.J.; Hemming, J.; Kornet, J.G.; Bontsema, J.

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents an autonomous robot for removing the leaves from cucumber plants grown in a high-wire cultivation system. Leaves at the lower end of the plants are removed because of their reduced vitality, their negligible contribution to canopy photosynthesis and their increased sensitivity for

  16. Comparison of Physicochemical Characteristics and Anticoagulant Activities of Polysaccharides from Three Sea Cucumbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengmin Wang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to search for sulfated polysaccharides in different invertebrate connective tissues and to examine their biological activities, we have isolated three types of polysaccharides from the body wall of the three sea cucumbers Holothuria edulis, Apostichopus japonicas and Holothuria nobilis. The physicochemical properties and anticoagulant activities of these polysaccharides were examined and compared. The chemical composition analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR analysis indicate that two types of polysaccharides, sulfated fucan and fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FuCS, were found in all of the three species and in addition a neutral glycan was observed in H. edulis. The neutral α-glucan was firstly obtained from sea cucumber. The same type of polysaccharides from different species of sea cucumbers have similar physicochemical properties and anticoagulant activities, but those of different types of glycans are significantly different, possibly due to their different monosaccharide compositions, electric charges and average molecular weights. The FuCSs have stronger anticoagulant activities than the sulfated fucans, although the molecular sizes of the FuCSs are lower than those of the sulfated fucans, whereas the neutral glucan has no activity, as expected from the absence of sulfate. Thus, anticoagulant activities of the different type of polysaccharides are likely to relate to monosaccharide composition and sulfate content. Preliminary analysis suggests that the sulfation patterns of the FuCSs may result in the difference in anticoagulant activities. Our data could help elucidate the structure-activity relationship of the sea cucumber polysaccharides.

  17. Comparison of physicochemical characteristics and anticoagulant activities of polysaccharides from three sea cucumbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lan; Wu, Mingyi; Xu, Li; Lian, Wu; Xiang, Jingying; Lu, Feng; Gao, Na; Xiao, Chuang; Wang, Shengmin; Zhao, Jinhua

    2013-02-05

    In order to search for sulfated polysaccharides in different invertebrate connective tissues and to examine their biological activities, we have isolated three types of polysaccharides from the body wall of the three sea cucumbers Holothuria edulis, Apostichopus japonicas and Holothuria nobilis. The physicochemical properties and anticoagulant activities of these polysaccharides were examined and compared. The chemical composition analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis indicate that two types of polysaccharides, sulfated fucan and fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FuCS), were found in all of the three species and in addition a neutral glycan was observed in H. edulis. The neutral α-glucan was firstly obtained from sea cucumber. The same type of polysaccharides from different species of sea cucumbers have similar physicochemical properties and anticoagulant activities, but those of different types of glycans are significantly different, possibly due to their different monosaccharide compositions, electric charges and average molecular weights. The FuCSs have stronger anticoagulant activities than the sulfated fucans, although the molecular sizes of the FuCSs are lower than those of the sulfated fucans, whereas the neutral glucan has no activity, as expected from the absence of sulfate. Thus, anticoagulant activities of the different type of polysaccharides are likely to relate to monosaccharide composition and sulfate content. Preliminary analysis suggests that the sulfation patterns of the FuCSs may result in the difference in anticoagulant activities. Our data could help elucidate the structure-activity relationship of the sea cucumber polysaccharides.

  18. Efficacy of Fluensulfone in a Tomato–Cucumber Double Cropping System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Kelly A.; Langston, David B.; Dickson, Donald W.; Davis, Richard F.; Timper, Patricia; Noe, James P.

    2015-01-01

    Vegetable crops in the southeastern United States are commonly grown on plastic mulch with two crop cycles produced on a single mulch application. Field trials were conducted in 2013 and 2014 in two locations to evaluate the efficacy of fluensulfone for controlling Meloidogyne spp. when applied through drip irrigation to cucumber in a tomato–cucumber double-cropping system. In the spring tomato crop, 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), fluensulfone, and a resistant cultivar significantly decreased root galling by 91%, 73%, and 97%, respectively, compared to the untreated control. Tomato plots from the spring were divided into split plots for the fall where the main plots were the spring treatment and the subplots were cucumber either treated with fluensulfone (3.0 kg a.i./ha. via drip irrigation) or left untreated. The fall application of fluensulfone improved cucumber vigor and reduced gall ratings compared to untreated subplots. Fluensulfone reduced damage from root-knot nematodes when applied to the first crop as well as provided additional protection to the second crop when it was applied through a drip system. PMID:26941459

  19. Metagenomic Analysis of Cucumber RNA from East Timor Reveals an Aphid lethal paralysis virus Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, Solomon; Edwards, Owain R.; de Almeida, Luis; Ximenes, Abel

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We present here the first complete genomic Aphid lethal paralysis virus (ALPV) sequence isolated from cucumber plant RNA from East Timor. We compare it with two complete ALPV genome sequences from China, and one each from Israel, South Africa, and the United States. It most closely resembled the Chinese isolate LGH genome. PMID:28082492

  20. Soil respiration in cucumber field under crop rotation in solar greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinli Liang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Crop residues are the primary source of carbon input in the soil carbon pool. Crop rotation can impact the plant biomass returned to the soil, and influence soil respiration. To study the effect of previous crops on soil respiration in cucumber (Cucumis statirus L. fields in solar greenhouses, soil respiration, plant height, leaf area and yield were measured during the growing season (from the end of Sept to the beginning of Jun the following year from 2007 to 2010. The cucumber was grown following fallow (CK, kidney bean (KB, cowpea (CP, maize for green manure (MGM, black bean for green manure (BGM, tomato (TM, bok choy (BC. As compared with CK, KB, CP, MGM and BGM may increase soil respiration, while TM and BC may decrease soil respiration at full fruit stage in cucumber fields. Thus attention to the previous crop arrangement is a possible way of mitigating soil respiration in vegetable fields. Plant height, leaf area and yield had similar variation trends under seven previous crop treatments. The ratio of yield to soil respiration revealed that MGM is the crop of choice previous to cucumber when compared with CK, KB, CP, BGM, TM and BC.