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Sample records for cubic spline model

  1. Adaptive Predistortion Using Cubic Spline Nonlinearity Based Hammerstein Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaofang; Shi, Jianghong

    In this paper, a new Hammerstein predistorter modeling for power amplifier (PA) linearization is proposed. The key feature of the model is that the cubic splines, instead of conventional high-order polynomials, are utilized as the static nonlinearities due to the fact that the splines are able to represent hard nonlinearities accurately and circumvent the numerical instability problem simultaneously. Furthermore, according to the amplifier's AM/AM and AM/PM characteristics, real-valued cubic spline functions are utilized to compensate the nonlinear distortion of the amplifier and the following finite impulse response (FIR) filters are utilized to eliminate the memory effects of the amplifier. In addition, the identification algorithm of the Hammerstein predistorter is discussed. The predistorter is implemented on the indirect learning architecture, and the separable nonlinear least squares (SNLS) Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm is adopted for the sake that the separation method reduces the dimension of the nonlinear search space and thus greatly simplifies the identification procedure. However, the convergence performance of the iterative SNLS algorithm is sensitive to the initial estimation. Therefore an effective normalization strategy is presented to solve this problem. Simulation experiments were carried out on a single-carrier WCDMA signal. Results show that compared to the conventional polynomial predistorters, the proposed Hammerstein predistorter has a higher linearization performance when the PA is near saturation and has a comparable linearization performance when the PA is mildly nonlinear. Furthermore, the proposed predistorter is numerically more stable in all input back-off cases. The results also demonstrate the validity of the convergence scheme.

  2. Modelling subject-specific childhood growth using linear mixed-effect models with cubic regression splines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grajeda, Laura M; Ivanescu, Andrada; Saito, Mayuko; Crainiceanu, Ciprian; Jaganath, Devan; Gilman, Robert H; Crabtree, Jean E; Kelleher, Dermott; Cabrera, Lilia; Cama, Vitaliano; Checkley, William

    2016-01-01

    Childhood growth is a cornerstone of pediatric research. Statistical models need to consider individual trajectories to adequately describe growth outcomes. Specifically, well-defined longitudinal models are essential to characterize both population and subject-specific growth. Linear mixed-effect models with cubic regression splines can account for the nonlinearity of growth curves and provide reasonable estimators of population and subject-specific growth, velocity and acceleration. We provide a stepwise approach that builds from simple to complex models, and account for the intrinsic complexity of the data. We start with standard cubic splines regression models and build up to a model that includes subject-specific random intercepts and slopes and residual autocorrelation. We then compared cubic regression splines vis-à-vis linear piecewise splines, and with varying number of knots and positions. Statistical code is provided to ensure reproducibility and improve dissemination of methods. Models are applied to longitudinal height measurements in a cohort of 215 Peruvian children followed from birth until their fourth year of life. Unexplained variability, as measured by the variance of the regression model, was reduced from 7.34 when using ordinary least squares to 0.81 (p linear mixed-effect models with random slopes and a first order continuous autoregressive error term. There was substantial heterogeneity in both the intercept (p linear regression equation for both estimation and prediction of population- and individual-level growth in height. We show that cubic regression splines are superior to linear regression splines for the case of a small number of knots in both estimation and prediction with the full linear mixed effect model (AIC 19,352 vs. 19,598, respectively). While the regression parameters are more complex to interpret in the former, we argue that inference for any problem depends more on the estimated curve or differences in curves rather

  3. Interpolating cubic splines

    CERN Document Server

    Knott, Gary D

    2000-01-01

    A spline is a thin flexible strip composed of a material such as bamboo or steel that can be bent to pass through or near given points in the plane, or in 3-space in a smooth manner. Mechanical engineers and drafting specialists find such (physical) splines useful in designing and in drawing plans for a wide variety of objects, such as for hulls of boats or for the bodies of automobiles where smooth curves need to be specified. These days, physi­ cal splines are largely replaced by computer software that can compute the desired curves (with appropriate encouragment). The same mathematical ideas used for computing "spline" curves can be extended to allow us to compute "spline" surfaces. The application ofthese mathematical ideas is rather widespread. Spline functions are central to computer graphics disciplines. Spline curves and surfaces are used in computer graphics renderings for both real and imagi­ nary objects. Computer-aided-design (CAD) systems depend on algorithms for computing spline func...

  4. Modeling of type-2 fuzzy cubic B-spline surface for flood data problem in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidin, Mohd Syafiq; Wahab, Abd. Fatah

    2017-08-01

    Malaysia possesses a low and sloping land areas which may cause flood. The flood phenomenon can be analyzed if the surface data of the study area can be modeled by geometric modeling. Type-2 fuzzy data for the flood data is defined using type-2 fuzzy set theory in order to solve the uncertainty of complex data. Then, cubic B-spline surface function is used to produce a smooth surface. Three main processes are carried out to find a solution to crisp type-2 fuzzy data which is fuzzification (α-cut operation), type-reduction and defuzzification. Upon conducting these processes, Type-2 Fuzzy Cubic B-Spline Surface Model is applied to visualize the surface data of the flood areas that are complex uncertainty.

  5. Generalized Additive Models, Cubic Splines and Penalized Likelihood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-22

    in case control studies ). All models in the table include dummy variable to account for the matching. The first 3 lines of the table indicate that OA...Ausoc. Breslow, N. and Day, N. (1980). Statistical methods in cancer research, volume 1- the analysis of case - control studies . International agency

  6. Weighted cubic and biharmonic splines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvasov, Boris; Kim, Tae-Wan

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the design of algorithms for interpolating discrete data by using weighted cubic and biharmonic splines in such a way that the monotonicity and convexity of the data are preserved. We formulate the problem as a differential multipoint boundary value problem and consider its finite-difference approximation. Two algorithms for automatic selection of shape control parameters (weights) are presented. For weighted biharmonic splines the resulting system of linear equations can be efficiently solved by combining Gaussian elimination with successive over-relaxation method or finite-difference schemes in fractional steps. We consider basic computational aspects and illustrate main features of this original approach.

  7. A Finite Element Cable Model and Its Applications Based on the Cubic Spline Curve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方子帆; 贺青松; 向兵飞; 肖化攀; 何孔德; 杜义贤

    2013-01-01

    For accurate prediction of the deformation of cable in the towed system, a new finite element model is presented that provides a representation of both the bending and torsional effects. In this paper, the cubic spline interpolation function is applied as the trial solution. By using a weighted residual approach, the discretized motion equations for the new finite element model are developed. The model is calculated with the computation program complier by Matlab. Several numerical examples are presented to illustrate the numerical schemes. The results of numerical simulation are stable and valid, and consistent with the mechanical properties of the cable. The model can be applied to kinematics analysis and the design of ocean cable, such as mooring lines, towing, and ROV umbilical cables.

  8. 2-rational Cubic Spline Involving Tension Parameters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Shrivastava; J Joseph

    2000-08-01

    In the present paper, 1-piecewise rational cubic spline function involving tension parameters is considered which produces a monotonic interpolant to a given monotonic data set. It is observed that under certain conditions the interpolant preserves the convexity property of the data set. The existence and uniqueness of a 2-rational cubic spline interpolant are established. The error analysis of the spline interpolant is also given.

  9. DEFICIENT CUBIC SPLINES WITH AVERAGE SLOPE MATCHING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V. B. Das; A. Kumar

    2005-01-01

    We obtain a deficient cubic spline function which matches the functions with certain area matching over a greater mesh intervals, and also provides a greater flexibility in replacing area matching as interpolation. We also study their convergence properties to the interpolating functions.

  10. Generalized fairing algorithm of parametric cubic splines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yuan-jun; CAO Yuan

    2006-01-01

    Kjellander has reported an algorithm for fairing uniform parametric cubic splines. Poliakoff extended Kjellander's algorithm to non-uniform case. However, they merely changed the bad point's position, and neglected the smoothing of tangent at bad point. In this paper, we present a fairing algorithm that both changed point's position and its corresponding tangent vector. The new algorithm possesses the minimum property of energy. We also proved Poliakoff's fairing algorithm is a deduction of our fairing algorithm. Several fairing examples are given in this paper.

  11. Cubic B-spline curve approximation by curve unclamping

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xiao-Diao; Ma, Weiyin; Paul, Jean-Claude

    2010-01-01

    International audience; A new approach for cubic B-spline curve approximation is presented. The method produces an approximation cubic B-spline curve tangent to a given curve at a set of selected positions, called tangent points, in a piecewise manner starting from a seed segment. A heuristic method is provided to select the tangent points. The first segment of the approximation cubic B-spline curve can be obtained using an inner point interpolation method, least-squares method or geometric H...

  12. Shape preserving rational cubic spline for positive and convex data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Zawwar Hussain

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the problem of shape preserving C2 rational cubic spline has been proposed. The shapes of the positive and convex data are under discussion of the proposed spline solutions. A C2 rational cubic function with two families of free parameters has been introduced to attain the C2 positive curves from positive data and C2 convex curves from convex data. Simple data dependent constraints are derived on free parameters in the description of rational cubic function to obtain the desired shape of the data. The rational cubic schemes have unique representations.

  13. Comparison Study on Linear Interpolation and Cubic B-Spline Interpolation Proper Orthogonal Decomposition Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaolong Wang; Yi Wang; Zhizhu Cao; Weizhong Zou; Liping Wang; Guojun Yu; Bo Yu; Jinjun Zhang

    2013-01-01

    In general, proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) method is used to deal with single-parameter problems in engineering practice, and the linear interpolation is employed to establish the reduced model. Recently, this method is extended to solve the double-parameter problems with the amplitudes being achieved by cubic B-spline interpolation. In this paper, the accuracy of reduced models, which are established with linear interpolation and cubic B-spline interpolation, respectively, is verified...

  14. GA Based Rational cubic B-Spline Representation for Still Image Interpolation

    OpenAIRE

    Samreen Abbas; Malik Zawwar Hussain; Misbah Irshad

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an image interpolation scheme is designed for 2D natural images. A local support rational cubic spline with control parameters, as interpolatory function, is being optimized using Genetic Algorithm (GA). GA is applied to determine the appropriate values of control parameter used in the description of rational cubic spline. Three state-of-the-art Image Quality Assessment (IQA) models with traditional one are hired for comparison with existing image interpolation schemes and perc...

  15. A family of quasi-cubic blended splines and applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Ben-yue; TAN Jie-qing

    2006-01-01

    A class of quasi-cubic B-spline base functions by trigonometric polynomials are established which inherit properties similar to those of cubic B-spline bases. The corresponding curves with a shape parameter α, defined by the introduced base functions, include the B-spline curves and can approximate the B-spline curves from both sides. The curves can be adjusted easily by using the shape parameter α, where dpi(α,t) is linear with respect to dα for the fixed t. With the shape parameter chosen properly,the defined curves can be used to precisely represent straight line segments, parabola segments, circular arcs and some transcendental curves, and the corresponding tensor product surfaces can also represent spherical surfaces, cylindrical surfaces and some transcendental surfaces exactly. By abandoning positive property, this paper proposes a new C2 continuous blended interpolation spline based on piecewise trigonometric polynomials associated with a sequence of local parameters. Illustration showed that the curves and surfaces constructed by the blended spline can be adjusted easily and freely. The blended interpolation spline curves can be shape-preserving with proper local parameters since these local parameters can be considered to be the magnification ratio to the length of tangent vectors at the interpolating points. The idea is extended to produce blended spline surfaces.

  16. Drag—An EXCEL visual basic program for modeling fault drag using cubic splines and calculation of minimum dip and strike separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkaya, S. I.; Mattner, J.

    1996-06-01

    An EXCEL visual basic program is presented for modeling fault drag using cubic splines. The objective of the program is to estimate minimum dip and strike separation using dip measurements in the vicinity of a fault. The program is useful especially for estimating stratigraphic separation in the subsurface environment where only limited structural information is available from dipmeter logs. A modified cubic spline curve fitting procedure is used to model bedding trace within the fault drag zone. The solution procedure is based on the assumption that the dip angle is the same at equal distances away from the fault trace on a cross-section or map projection within the fault drag zone on the same side of the fault. On a cross-section perpendicular to the strike of a fault, the distance between the points of intersection of the fault trace with dragged bed and projection of the undisturbed bed gives half of the minimum dip separation. On a map projection, this distance is equal to half of the strike separation.

  17. CLOSED SMOOTH SURFACE DEFINED FROM CUBIC TRIANGULAR SPLINES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren-zhong Feng; Ren-hong Wang

    2005-01-01

    In order to construct closed surfaces with continuous unit normal, we introduce a new spline space on an arbitrary closed mesh of three-sided faces. Our approach generalizes an idea of Goodman and is based on the concept of 'Geometric continuity' for piecewise polynomial parametrizations. The functions in the spline space restricted to the faces are cubic triangular polynomials. A basis of the spline space is constructed of positive functions which sum to 1. It is also shown that the space is suitable for interpolating data at the midpoints of the faces.

  18. Connecting the Dots Parametrically: An Alternative to Cubic Splines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Wilbur J.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses a method of cubic splines to determine a curve through a series of points and a second method for obtaining parametric equations for a smooth curve that passes through a sequence of points. Procedures for determining the curves and results of each of the methods are compared. (YP)

  19. Cubic spline approximation techniques for parameter estimation in distributed systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, H. T.; Crowley, J. M.; Kunisch, K.

    1983-01-01

    Approximation schemes employing cubic splines in the context of a linear semigroup framework are developed for both parabolic and hyperbolic second-order partial differential equation parameter estimation problems. Convergence results are established for problems with linear and nonlinear systems, and a summary of numerical experiments with the techniques proposed is given.

  20. CONSTRAINED RATIONAL CUBIC SPLINE AND ITS APPLICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Duan; Huan-ling Zhang; Xiang Lai; Nan Xie; Fu-hua (Frank) Cheng

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, a kind of rational cubic interpolation functionwith linear denominator is constructed. The constrained interpolation with constraint on shape of the interpolating curves and on the second-order derivative of the interpolating function is studied by using this interpolation, and as the consequent result, the convex interpolation conditions have been derived.

  1. Comparison Study on Linear Interpolation and Cubic B-Spline Interpolation Proper Orthogonal Decomposition Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolong Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In general, proper orthogonal decomposition (POD method is used to deal with single-parameter problems in engineering practice, and the linear interpolation is employed to establish the reduced model. Recently, this method is extended to solve the double-parameter problems with the amplitudes being achieved by cubic B-spline interpolation. In this paper, the accuracy of reduced models, which are established with linear interpolation and cubic B-spline interpolation, respectively, is verified via two typical examples. Both results of the two methods are satisfying, and the results of cubic B-spline interpolation are more accurate than those of linear interpolation. The results are meaningful for guiding the application of the POD interpolation to complex multiparameter problems.

  2. GA Based Rational cubic B-Spline Representation for Still Image Interpolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samreen Abbas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an image interpolation scheme is designed for 2D natural images. A local support rational cubic spline with control parameters, as interpolatory function, is being optimized using Genetic Algorithm (GA. GA is applied to determine the appropriate values of control parameter used in the description of rational cubic spline. Three state-of-the-art Image Quality Assessment (IQA models with traditional one are hired for comparison with existing image interpolation schemes and perceptual quality check of resulting images. The results show that the proposed scheme is better than the existing ones in comparison.

  3. Mathematical modelling for the drying method and smoothing drying rate using cubic spline for seaweed Kappaphycus Striatum variety Durian in a solar dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M Ali, M. K., E-mail: majidkhankhan@ymail.com, E-mail: eutoco@gmail.com; Ruslan, M. H., E-mail: majidkhankhan@ymail.com, E-mail: eutoco@gmail.com [Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Muthuvalu, M. S., E-mail: sudaram-@yahoo.com, E-mail: jumat@ums.edu.my; Wong, J., E-mail: sudaram-@yahoo.com, E-mail: jumat@ums.edu.my [Unit Penyelidikan Rumpai Laut (UPRL), Sekolah Sains dan Teknologi, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah (Malaysia); Sulaiman, J., E-mail: ysuhaimi@ums.edu.my, E-mail: hafidzruslan@eng.ukm.my; Yasir, S. Md., E-mail: ysuhaimi@ums.edu.my, E-mail: hafidzruslan@eng.ukm.my [Program Matematik dengan Ekonomi, Sekolah Sains dan Teknologi, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah (Malaysia)

    2014-06-19

    The solar drying experiment of seaweed using Green V-Roof Hybrid Solar Drier (GVRHSD) was conducted in Semporna, Sabah under the metrological condition in Malaysia. Drying of sample seaweed in GVRHSD reduced the moisture content from about 93.4% to 8.2% in 4 days at average solar radiation of about 600W/m{sup 2} and mass flow rate about 0.5 kg/s. Generally the plots of drying rate need more smoothing compared moisture content data. Special cares is needed at low drying rates and moisture contents. It is shown the cubic spline (CS) have been found to be effective for moisture-time curves. The idea of this method consists of an approximation of data by a CS regression having first and second derivatives. The analytical differentiation of the spline regression permits the determination of instantaneous rate. The method of minimization of the functional of average risk was used successfully to solve the problem. This method permits to obtain the instantaneous rate to be obtained directly from the experimental data. The drying kinetics was fitted with six published exponential thin layer drying models. The models were fitted using the coefficient of determination (R{sup 2}), and root mean square error (RMSE). The modeling of models using raw data tested with the possible of exponential drying method. The result showed that the model from Two Term was found to be the best models describe the drying behavior. Besides that, the drying rate smoothed using CS shows to be effective method for moisture-time curves good estimators as well as for the missing moisture content data of seaweed Kappaphycus Striatum Variety Durian in Solar Dryer under the condition tested.

  4. Mathematical modelling for the drying method and smoothing drying rate using cubic spline for seaweed Kappaphycus Striatum variety Durian in a solar dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    M Ali, M. K.; Ruslan, M. H.; Muthuvalu, M. S.; Wong, J.; Sulaiman, J.; Yasir, S. Md.

    2014-06-01

    The solar drying experiment of seaweed using Green V-Roof Hybrid Solar Drier (GVRHSD) was conducted in Semporna, Sabah under the metrological condition in Malaysia. Drying of sample seaweed in GVRHSD reduced the moisture content from about 93.4% to 8.2% in 4 days at average solar radiation of about 600W/m2 and mass flow rate about 0.5 kg/s. Generally the plots of drying rate need more smoothing compared moisture content data. Special cares is needed at low drying rates and moisture contents. It is shown the cubic spline (CS) have been found to be effective for moisture-time curves. The idea of this method consists of an approximation of data by a CS regression having first and second derivatives. The analytical differentiation of the spline regression permits the determination of instantaneous rate. The method of minimization of the functional of average risk was used successfully to solve the problem. This method permits to obtain the instantaneous rate to be obtained directly from the experimental data. The drying kinetics was fitted with six published exponential thin layer drying models. The models were fitted using the coefficient of determination (R2), and root mean square error (RMSE). The modeling of models using raw data tested with the possible of exponential drying method. The result showed that the model from Two Term was found to be the best models describe the drying behavior. Besides that, the drying rate smoothed using CS shows to be effective method for moisture-time curves good estimators as well as for the missing moisture content data of seaweed Kappaphycus Striatum Variety Durian in Solar Dryer under the condition tested.

  5. Recovery of Graded Index Profile of Planar Waveguide by Cubic Spline Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yong; CHEN Xian-Feng; LIAO Wei-Jun; XIA Yu-Xing

    2007-01-01

    A method is proposed to recover the refractive index profile of graded waveguide from the effective indices by a cubic spline interpolation function. Numerical analysis of several typical index distributions show that the refractive index profile can be reconstructed closely to its exact profile by the presented interpolation model.

  6. Tungsten anode spectral model using interpolating cubic splines: Unfiltered x-ray spectra from 20 kV to 640 kV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, Andrew M. [Biomedical Engineering Graduate Group, University of California Davis, Sacramento, California 95817 (United States); Boone, John M., E-mail: john.boone@ucdmc.ucdavis.edu [Departments of Radiology and Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Engineering Graduate Group, University of California Davis, Sacramento, California 95817 (United States)

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: Monte Carlo methods were used to generate lightly filtered high resolution x-ray spectra spanning from 20 kV to 640 kV. Methods: X-ray spectra were simulated for a conventional tungsten anode. The Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended radiation transport code (MCNPX 2.6.0) was used to produce 35 spectra over the tube potential range from 20 kV to 640 kV, and cubic spline interpolation procedures were used to create piecewise polynomials characterizing the photon fluence per energy bin as a function of x-ray tube potential. Using these basis spectra and the cubic spline interpolation, 621 spectra were generated at 1 kV intervals from 20 to 640 kV. The tungsten anode spectral model using interpolating cubic splines (TASMICS) produces minimally filtered (0.8 mm Be) x-ray spectra with 1 keV energy resolution. The TASMICS spectra were compared mathematically with other, previously reported spectra. Results: Using pairedt-test analyses, no statistically significant difference (i.e., p > 0.05) was observed between compared spectra over energy bins above 1% of peak bremsstrahlung fluence. For all energy bins, the correlation of determination (R{sup 2}) demonstrated good correlation for all spectral comparisons. The mean overall difference (MOD) and mean absolute difference (MAD) were computed over energy bins (above 1% of peak bremsstrahlung fluence) and over all the kV permutations compared. MOD and MAD comparisons with previously reported spectra were 2.7% and 9.7%, respectively (TASMIP), 0.1% and 12.0%, respectively [R. Birch and M. Marshall, “Computation of bremsstrahlung x-ray spectra and comparison with spectra measured with a Ge(Li) detector,” Phys. Med. Biol. 24, 505–517 (1979)], 0.4% and 8.1%, respectively (Poludniowski), and 0.4% and 8.1%, respectively (AAPM TG 195). The effective energy of TASMICS spectra with 2.5 mm of added Al filtration ranged from 17 keV (at 20 kV) to 138 keV (at 640 kV); with 0.2 mm of added Cu filtration the effective energy was 9

  7. Gaussian quadrature for splines via homotopy continuation: Rules for C2 cubic splines

    KAUST Repository

    Barton, Michael

    2015-10-24

    We introduce a new concept for generating optimal quadrature rules for splines. To generate an optimal quadrature rule in a given (target) spline space, we build an associated source space with known optimal quadrature and transfer the rule from the source space to the target one, while preserving the number of quadrature points and therefore optimality. The quadrature nodes and weights are, considered as a higher-dimensional point, a zero of a particular system of polynomial equations. As the space is continuously deformed by changing the source knot vector, the quadrature rule gets updated using polynomial homotopy continuation. For example, starting with C1C1 cubic splines with uniform knot sequences, we demonstrate the methodology by deriving the optimal rules for uniform C2C2 cubic spline spaces where the rule was only conjectured to date. We validate our algorithm by showing that the resulting quadrature rule is independent of the path chosen between the target and the source knot vectors as well as the source rule chosen.

  8. Application of Cubic Spline in the Implementation of Braces for the Case of a Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmin Sham Rambely

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Orthodontic teeth movement is influenced by the characteristics of the applied force, including its magnitude and direction which normally based on the shape of ellipsoid, parabolic and U-shape that are symmetry. However, this will affect the movement of the whole set of tooth. Approach: This study intends to compare the form of general teeth with another method called cubic spline to get a minimum error in presenting the general form of teeth. Cubic spline method is applied in a mathematical model of a child’s teeth, which is produced through resignation of orthodontic wires. It is also meant to create a clear view towards the true nature of orthodontic wires. Results: Based on mathematical characteristics in the spline and the real data of a teeth’s model, cubic spline shows to be very useful in reflecting the shape of a curve because the dots chosen are not totally symmetry. Conclusion/Recommendation: Therefore, symmetrical curve can be produced in teeth’s shape which is basically asymmetry.

  9. Application and Realization of the Computer Animation Design Based on Improved Cubic B-spline Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Na

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the application of the cubic B-spline curves in the computer animation design, taking into account the security and confidentiality of the information, this paper improves the animation design techniques by the use of the improved cubic B-spline curves. Finally, this paper provides the relevant C language programs of the animation design.

  10. Perbaikan Metode Penghitungan Debit Sungai Menggunakan Cubic Spline Interpolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi I. Setiawan

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Makalah ini menyajikan perbaikan metode pengukuran debit sungai menggunakan fungsi cubic spline interpolation. Fungi ini digunakan untuk menggambarkan profil sungai secara kontinyu yang terbentuk atas hasil pengukuran jarak dan kedalaman sungai. Dengan metoda baru ini, luas dan perimeter sungai lebih mudah, cepat dan tepat dihitung. Demikian pula, fungsi kebalikannnya (inverse function tersedia menggunakan metode. Newton-Raphson sehingga memudahkan dalam perhitungan luas dan perimeter bila tinggi air sungai diketahui. Metode baru ini dapat langsung menghitung debit sungaimenggunakan formula Manning, dan menghasilkan kurva debit (rating curve. Dalam makalah ini dikemukaan satu canton pengukuran debit sungai Rudeng Aceh. Sungai ini mempunyai lebar sekitar 120 m dan kedalaman 7 m, dan pada saat pengukuran mempunyai debit 41 .3 m3/s, serta kurva debitnya mengikuti formula: Q= 0.1649 x H 2.884 , dimana Q debit (m3/s dan H tinggi air dari dasar sungai (m.

  11. Cubic Spline Interpolation Reveals Different Evolutionary Trends of Various Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Instead of being uniform in each branch of the biological evolutionary tree, the speed of evolution, measured in the number of mutations over a fixed number of years, seems to be much faster or much slower than average in some branches of the evolutionary tree. This paper describes an evolutionary trend discovery algorithm that uses cubic spline interpolation for various branches of the evolutionary tree. As shown in an example, within the vertebrate evolutionary tree, human evolution seems to be currently speeding up while the evolution of chickens is slowing down. The new algorithm can automatically identify those branches and times when something unusual has taken place, aiding data analytics of evolutionary data.

  12. Cubic generalized B-splines for interpolation and nonlinear filtering of images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tshughuryan, Heghine

    1997-04-01

    This paper presents the introduction and using of the generalized or parametric B-splines, namely the cubic generalized B-splines, in various signal processing applications. The theory of generalized B-splines is briefly reviewed and also some important properties of generalized B-splines are investigated. In this paper it is shown the use of generalized B-splines as a tool to solve the quasioptimal algorithm problem for nonlinear filtering. Finally, the experimental results are presented for oscillatory and other signals and images.

  13. Cubic B-Spline Collocation Method for One-Dimensional Heat and Advection-Diffusion Equations

    OpenAIRE

    Joan Goh; Ahmad Abd. Majid; Ahmad Izani Md. Ismail

    2012-01-01

    Numerical solutions of one-dimensional heat and advection-diffusion equations are obtained by collocation method based on cubic B-spline. Usual finite difference scheme is used for time and space integrations. Cubic B-spline is applied as interpolation function. The stability analysis of the scheme is examined by the Von Neumann approach. The efficiency of the method is illustrated by some test problems. The numerical results are found to be in good agreement with the exact solution.

  14. 三次均匀B样条与α-B样条的扩展%Extended Cubic Uniform B-spline and α-B-spline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐岗; 汪国昭

    2008-01-01

    Spline curve and surface play an important role in CAD and computer graphics. In this paper, we propose several extensions of cubic uniform B-spline. Then, we present the ex- tensions of interpolating α-B-spline based on the new B-splines and the singular blending technique. The advantage of the ex- tensions is that they have global and local shape parameters. Furthermore, we also investigate their applications in data in- terpolation and polygonal shape deformation.

  15. Cubic B-Spline Collocation Method for One-Dimensional Heat and Advection-Diffusion Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Goh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical solutions of one-dimensional heat and advection-diffusion equations are obtained by collocation method based on cubic B-spline. Usual finite difference scheme is used for time and space integrations. Cubic B-spline is applied as interpolation function. The stability analysis of the scheme is examined by the Von Neumann approach. The efficiency of the method is illustrated by some test problems. The numerical results are found to be in good agreement with the exact solution.

  16. Preconditioning cubic spline collocation method by FEM and FDM for elliptic equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Dong [KyungPook National Univ., Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    In this talk we discuss the finite element and finite difference technique for the cubic spline collocation method. For this purpose, we consider the uniformly elliptic operator A defined by Au := -{Delta}u + a{sub 1}u{sub x} + a{sub 2}u{sub y} + a{sub 0}u in {Omega} (the unit square) with Dirichlet or Neumann boundary conditions and its discretization based on Hermite cubic spline spaces and collocation at the Gauss points. Using an interpolatory basis with support on the Gauss points one obtains the matrix A{sub N} (h = 1/N).

  17. Age-period-cohort models using smoothing splines: a generalized additive model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bei; Carriere, Keumhee C

    2014-02-20

    Age-period-cohort (APC) models are used to analyze temporal trends in disease or mortality rates, dealing with linear dependency among associated effects of age, period, and cohort. However, the nature of sparseness in such data has severely limited the use of APC models. To deal with these practical limitations and issues, we advocate cubic smoothing splines. We show that the methods of estimable functions proposed in the framework of generalized linear models can still be considered to solve the non-identifiability problem when the model fitting is within the framework of generalized additive models with cubic smoothing splines. Through simulation studies, we evaluate the performance of the cubic smoothing splines in terms of the mean squared errors of estimable functions. Our results support the use of cubic smoothing splines for APC modeling with sparse but unaggregated data from a Lexis diagram.

  18. Cubic Trigonometric B-spline Galerkin Methods for the Regularized Long Wave Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irk, Dursun; Keskin, Pinar

    2016-10-01

    A numerical solution of the Regularized Long Wave (RLW) equation is obtained using Galerkin finite element method, based on Crank Nicolson method for the time integration and cubic trigonometric B-spline functions for the space integration. After two different linearization techniques are applied, the proposed algorithms are tested on the problems of propagation of a solitary wave and interaction of two solitary waves.

  19. Least square fitting of low resolution gamma ray spectra with cubic B-spline basis functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Meng-Hua; LIU Liang-Gang; QI Dong-Xu; YOU Zhong; XU Ao-Ao

    2009-01-01

    In this paper,the least square fitting method with the cubic B-spline basis hmctioas is derived to reduce the influence of statistical fluctuations in the gamma ray spectra.The derived procedure is simple and automatic.The results show that this method is better than the convolution method with a sufficient reduction of statistical fluctuation.

  20. Comparisons of Wilson-Fowler and Parametric Cubic Splines with the Curve-Fitting Algorithms of Several Computer-Aided Design Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birchler, W.D.; Schilling, S.A.

    2001-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to demonstrate that modern computer-aided design (CAD), computer-aided manufacturing (CAM), and computer-aided engineering (CAE) systems can be used in the Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC) to design new and remodel old products, fabricate old and new parts, and reproduce legacy data within the inspection uncertainty limits. In this study, two two-dimensional splines are compared with several modern CAD curve-fitting modeling algorithms. The first curve-fitting algorithm is called the Wilson-Fowler Spline (WFS), and the second is called a parametric cubic spline (PCS). Modern CAD systems usually utilize either parametric cubic and/or B-splines.

  1. Design of a mechanical test to characterize sheet metals - Optimization using B-splines or cubic splines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, Nelson; Thuillier, Sandrine; Andrade-Campos, A.

    2016-10-01

    Nowadays, full-field measurement methods are largely used to acquire the strain field developed by heterogeneous mechanical tests. Recent material parameters identification strategies based on a single heterogeneous test have been proposed considering that an inhomogeneous strain field can lead to a more complete mechanical characterization of the sheet metals. The purpose of this work is the design of a heterogeneous test promoting an enhanced mechanical behavior characterization of thin metallic sheets, under several strain paths and strain amplitudes. To achieve this goal, a design optimization strategy finding the appropriate specimen shape of the heterogeneous test by using either B-Splines or cubic splines was developed. The influence of using approximation or interpolation curves, respectively, was investigated in order to determine the most effective approach for achieving a better shape design. The optimization process is guided by an indicator criterion which evaluates, quantitatively, the strain field information provided by the mechanical test. Moreover, the design of the heterogeneous test is based on the resemblance with the experimental reality, since a rigid tool leading to uniaxial loading path is used for applying the displacement in a similar way as universal standard testing machines. The results obtained reveal that the optimization strategy using B-Splines curve approximation led to a heterogeneous test providing larger strain field information for characterizing the mechanical behavior of sheet metals.

  2. Rational trigonometric cubic spline to conserve convexity of 2D data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farheen Ibraheem

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Researchers in different fields of study are always in dire need of spline interpolating function that conserve intrinsic trend of the data. In this paper, a rational trigonometric cubic spline with four free parameters has been used to retain convexity of 2D data. For this purpose, constraints on two of free parameters βi and γi in the description of the rational trigonometric function are derived while the remaining two αi and δi are set free. Numerical examples demonstrate that resulting curves using the technique of the underlying paper are C1.

  3. A new extension algorithm for cubic B-splines based on minimal strain energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MO Guo-liang; ZHAO Ya-nan

    2006-01-01

    Extension ora B-spline curve or surface is a useful function in a CAD system. This paper presents an algorithm for extending cubic B-spline curves or surfaces to one or more target points. To keep the extension curve segment GC2-continuous with the original one, a family of cubic polynomial interpolation curves can be constructed. One curve is chosen as the solution from a sub-class of such a family by setting one GC2 parameter to be zero and determining the second GC2 parameter by minimizing the strain energy. To simplify the final curve representation, the extension segment is reparameterized to achieve C2-continuity with the given B-spline curve, and then knot removal from the curve is done. As a result, a sub-optimized solution subject to the given constraints and criteria is obtained. Additionally, new control points of the extension B-spline segment can be determined by solving lower triangular linear equations. Some computing examples for comparing our method and other methods are given.

  4. Numerical method using cubic B-spline for a strongly coupled reaction-diffusion system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Abbas

    Full Text Available In this paper, a numerical method for the solution of a strongly coupled reaction-diffusion system, with suitable initial and Neumann boundary conditions, by using cubic B-spline collocation scheme on a uniform grid is presented. The scheme is based on the usual finite difference scheme to discretize the time derivative while cubic B-spline is used as an interpolation function in the space dimension. The scheme is shown to be unconditionally stable using the von Neumann method. The accuracy of the proposed scheme is demonstrated by applying it on a test problem. The performance of this scheme is shown by computing L∞ and L2 error norms for different time levels. The numerical results are found to be in good agreement with known exact solutions.

  5. Numerical method using cubic B-spline for a strongly coupled reaction-diffusion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Muhammad; Majid, Ahmad Abd; Md Ismail, Ahmad Izani; Rashid, Abdur

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a numerical method for the solution of a strongly coupled reaction-diffusion system, with suitable initial and Neumann boundary conditions, by using cubic B-spline collocation scheme on a uniform grid is presented. The scheme is based on the usual finite difference scheme to discretize the time derivative while cubic B-spline is used as an interpolation function in the space dimension. The scheme is shown to be unconditionally stable using the von Neumann method. The accuracy of the proposed scheme is demonstrated by applying it on a test problem. The performance of this scheme is shown by computing L∞ and L2 error norms for different time levels. The numerical results are found to be in good agreement with known exact solutions.

  6. Convex preserving scattered data interpolation using bivariate C1 cubic splines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ming-Jun

    2000-07-01

    We use bivariate C1 cubic splines to deal with convexity preserving scattered data interpolation problem. Using a necessary and sufficient condition on Bernstein-Bézier polynomials, we set the convexity-preserving interpolation problem into a quadratically constraint quadratic programming problem. We show the existence of convexity preserving interpolatory surfaces under certain conditions on the data. That is, under certain conditions on the data, there always exists a convexity preservation C1 cubic spline interpolation if the triangulation is refined sufficiently many times. We then replace the quadratical constrains by three linear constrains and formulate the problem into linearly constraint quadratic programming problems in order to be able to solve it easily. Certainly, the existence of convexity preserving interpolatory surfaces is equivalent to the feasibility of the linear constrains. We present a numerical experiment to test which of these three linear constraints performs the best.

  7. Numerical Solution of One-dimensional Telegraph Equation using Cubic B-spline Collocation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rashidinia

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a collocation approach is employed for the solution of the one-dimensional telegraph equation based on cubic B-spline. The derived method leads to a tri-diagonal linear system. Computational efficiency of the method is confirmed through numerical examples whose results are in good agreement with theory. The obtained numerical results have been compared with the results obtained by some existing methods to verify the accurate nature of our method.

  8. A Galerkin Solution for Burgers' Equation Using Cubic B-Spline Finite Elements

    OpenAIRE

    A.A. Soliman

    2012-01-01

    Numerical solutions for Burgers’ equation based on the Galerkins’ method using cubic B-splines as both weight and interpolation functions are set up. It is shown that this method is capable of solving Burgers’ equation accurately for values of viscosity ranging from very small to large. Three standard problems are used to validate the proposed algorithm. A linear stability analysis shows that a numerical scheme based on a Cranck-Nicolson approximation in time is unconditionally stable.

  9. A Galerkin Solution for Burgers' Equation Using Cubic B-Spline Finite Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Soliman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical solutions for Burgers’ equation based on the Galerkins’ method using cubic B-splines as both weight and interpolation functions are set up. It is shown that this method is capable of solving Burgers’ equation accurately for values of viscosity ranging from very small to large. Three standard problems are used to validate the proposed algorithm. A linear stability analysis shows that a numerical scheme based on a Cranck-Nicolson approximation in time is unconditionally stable.

  10. Explicit Gaussian quadrature rules for C^1 cubic splines with symmetrically stretched knot sequence

    KAUST Repository

    Ait-Haddou, Rachid

    2015-06-19

    We provide explicit expressions for quadrature rules on the space of C^1 cubic splines with non-uniform, symmetrically stretched knot sequences. The quadrature nodes and weights are derived via an explicit recursion that avoids an intervention of any numerical solver and the rule is optimal, that is, it requires minimal number of nodes. Numerical experiments validating the theoretical results and the error estimates of the quadrature rules are also presented.

  11. Semi-cardinal interpolation and difference equations: From cubic B-splines to a three-direction box-spline construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejancu, Aurelian

    2006-12-01

    This paper considers the problem of interpolation on a semi-plane grid from a space of box-splines on the three-direction mesh. Building on a new treatment of univariate semi-cardinal interpolation for natural cubic splines, the solution is obtained as a Lagrange series with suitable localization and polynomial reproduction properties. It is proved that the extension of the natural boundary conditions to box-spline semi-cardinal interpolation attains half of the approximation order of the cardinal case.

  12. An evaluation of prefiltered B-spline reconstruction for quasi-interpolation on the Body-Centered Cubic lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csébfalvi, Balázs

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate that quasi-interpolation of orders two and four can be efficiently implemented on the Body-Centered Cubic (BCC) lattice by using tensor-product B-splines combined with appropriate discrete prefilters. Unlike the nonseparable box-spline reconstruction previously proposed for the BCC lattice, the prefiltered B-spline reconstruction can utilize the fast trilinear texture-fetching capability of the recent graphics cards. Therefore, it can be applied for rendering BCC-sampled volumetric data interactively. Furthermore, we show that a separable B-spline filter can suppress the postaliasing effect much more isotropically than a nonseparable box-spline filter of the same approximation power. Although prefilters that make the B-splines interpolating on the BCC lattice do not exist, we demonstrate that quasi-interpolating prefiltered linear and cubic B-spline reconstructions can still provide similar or higher image quality than the interpolating linear box-spline and prefiltered quintic box-spline reconstructions, respectively.

  13. Certified Approximation of Parametric Space Curves with Cubic B-spline Curves

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Liyong; Gao, Xiao-Shan

    2012-01-01

    Approximating complex curves with simple parametric curves is widely used in CAGD, CG, and CNC. This paper presents an algorithm to compute a certified approximation to a given parametric space curve with cubic B-spline curves. By certified, we mean that the approximation can approximate the given curve to any given precision and preserve the geometric features of the given curve such as the topology, singular points, etc. The approximated curve is divided into segments called quasi-cubic B\\'{e}zier curve segments which have properties similar to a cubic rational B\\'{e}zier curve. And the approximate curve is naturally constructed as the associated cubic rational B\\'{e}zier curve of the control tetrahedron of a quasi-cubic curve. A novel optimization method is proposed to select proper weights in the cubic rational B\\'{e}zier curve to approximate the given curve. The error of the approximation is controlled by the size of its tetrahedron, which converges to zero by subdividing the curve segments. As an applic...

  14. Surface evaluation with Ronchi test by using Malacara formula, genetic algorithms, and cubic splines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero-Dávila, Alberto; González-García, Jorge

    2010-08-01

    In the manufacturing process of an optical surface with rotational symmetry the ideal ronchigram is simulated and compared with the experimental ronchigram. From this comparison the technician, based on your experience, estimated the error on the surface. Quantitatively, the error on the surface can be described by a polynomial e(ρ2) and the coefficients can be estimated from data of the ronchigrams (real and ideal) to solve a system of nonlinear differential equations which are related to the Malacara formula of the transversal aberration. To avoid the problems inherent in the use of polynomials it proposed to describe the errors on the surface by means of cubic splines. The coefficients of each spline are estimated from a discrete set of errors (ρi,ei) and these are evaluated by means of genetic algorithms to reproduce the experimental ronchigrama starting from the ideal.

  15. A cubic B-spline Galerkin approach for the numerical simulation of the GEW equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Battal Gazi Karakoç

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The generalized equal width (GEW wave equation is solved numerically by using lumped Galerkin approach with cubic B-spline functions. The proposed numerical scheme is tested by applying two test problems including single solitary wave and interaction of two solitary waves. In order to determine the performance of the algorithm, the error norms L2 and L∞ and the invariants I1, I2 and I3 are calculated. For the linear stability analysis of the numerical algorithm, von Neumann approach is used. As a result, the obtained findings show that the presented numerical scheme is preferable to some recent numerical methods.  

  16. A Cubic B-Spline Approach for Inter-Transformation Between Potential Field and Gradient Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B.; Gao, S. S.

    2008-12-01

    Traditionally, algorithms involving Fast Fourier Transforms (FFT) are used to calculate gradients from field data and vise versa. Because the popular FFT differentiation algorithms are prone to noise, expensive field campaigns are increasingly utilized to obtain gradient data. In areas with both field and gradient data, transformation facilitates comparison. In areas with only one kind of data, transformation facilitates interpretation by transforming the measured data into another form of data. We advance unified formulae for interpolation, differentiation and integration using cubic B-splines, and propose new space-domain approaches for 2D and 3D transformations from potential field data to potential-field gradient data and vice versa. We also advance spline-based continuation techniques. In the spline-based algorithms, the spacing can be either regular or irregular. Analyses using synthetic and real gravity and magnetic data show that the new algorithms have higher accuracy, are more noise-tolerant and thus provide better insights into understanding the nature of the sources than the traditional FFT techniques.

  17. Extended cubic B-spline method for solving a linear system of second-order boundary value problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilat, Ahmed Salem; Hamid, Nur Nadiah Abd; Ismail, Ahmad Izani Md

    2016-01-01

    A method based on extended cubic B-spline is proposed to solve a linear system of second-order boundary value problems. In this method, two free parameters, [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], play an important role in producing accurate results. Optimization of these parameters are carried out and the truncation error is calculated. This method is tested on three examples. The examples suggest that this method produces comparable or more accurate results than cubic B-spline and some other methods.

  18. One Fairing Method of Cubic B-spline Curves Based on Weighted Progressive Iterative Approximation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li; YANG Yan; LI Yuan-yuan; TAN Jie-qing

    2014-01-01

    A new method to the problem of fairing planar cubic B-spline curves is introduced in this paper. The method is based on weighted progressive iterative approximation (WPIA for short) and consists of following steps:finding the bad point which needs to fair, deleting the bad point, re-inserting a new data point to keep the structure of the curve and applying WPIA method with the new set of the data points to obtain the faired curve. The new set of the data points is formed by the rest of the original data points and the new inserted point. The method can be used for shape design and data processing. Numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method.

  19. Numerical solution of the Black-Scholes equation using cubic spline wavelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Černá, Dana

    2016-12-01

    The Black-Scholes equation is used in financial mathematics for computation of market values of options at a given time. We use the θ-scheme for time discretization and an adaptive scheme based on wavelets for discretization on the given time level. Advantages of the proposed method are small number of degrees of freedom, high-order accuracy with respect to variables representing prices and relatively small number of iterations needed to resolve the problem with a desired accuracy. We use several cubic spline wavelet and multi-wavelet bases and discuss their advantages and disadvantages. We also compare an isotropic and anisotropic approach. Numerical experiments are presented for the two-dimensional Black-Scholes equation.

  20. Cubic Spline Solutions of Nonlinear Bending and Buckling of Circular Plates with Arbitrarily Variable Thickness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯朝胜; 李婧; 龙泉

    2003-01-01

    The cubic B-splines taken as trial function, the large deflection of a circular plate with arbitrarily variable thickness,as well as the buckling load, have been calculated by the method of point collocation. The support can be elastic. Loads imposed can be polynomial distributed loads, uniformly distributed radial forces or moments along the edge respectively or their combinations. Convergent solutions can still be obtained by this method under the load whose value is in great excess of normal one. Under the action of the uniformly distributed loads, linear solutions of circular plates with linearly or quadratically variable thickness are compared with those obtained by the parameter method. Buckling of a circular plate with identical thickness beyond critical thrust is compared with those obtained by the power series method.

  1. Cubic Spline Collocation Method for the Simulation of Turbulent Thermal Convection in Compressible Fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, Victor Manuel [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1999-01-01

    A collocation method using cubic splines is developed and applied to simulate steady and time-dependent, including turbulent, thermally convecting flows for two-dimensional compressible fluids. The state variables and the fluxes of the conserved quantities are approximated by cubic splines in both space direction. This method is shown to be numerically conservative and to have a local truncation error proportional to the fourth power of the grid spacing. A ''dual-staggered'' Cartesian grid, where energy and momentum are updated on one grid and mass density on the other, is used to discretize the flux form of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. Each grid-line is staggered so that the fluxes, in each direction, are calculated at the grid midpoints. This numerical method is validated by simulating thermally convecting flows, from steady to turbulent, reproducing known results. Once validated, the method is used to investigate many aspects of thermal convection with high numerical accuracy. Simulations demonstrate that multiple steady solutions can coexist at the same Rayleigh number for compressible convection. As a system is driven further from equilibrium, a drop in the time-averaged dimensionless heat flux (and the dimensionless internal entropy production rate) occurs at the transition from laminar-periodic to chaotic flow. This observation is consistent with experiments of real convecting fluids. Near this transition, both harmonic and chaotic solutions may exist for the same Rayleigh number. The chaotic flow loses phase-space information at a greater rate, while the periodic flow transports heat (produces entropy) more effectively. A linear sum of the dimensionless forms of these rates connects the two flow morphologies over the entire range for which they coexist. For simulations of systems with higher Rayleigh numbers, a scaling relation exists relating the dimensionless heat flux to the two-seventh's power of the Rayleigh number

  2. Cubic Spline Collocation Method for the Simulation of Turbulent Thermal Convection in Compressible Fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, V M

    2005-01-12

    A collocation method using cubic splines is developed and applied to simulate steady and time-dependent, including turbulent, thermally convecting flows for two-dimensional compressible fluids. The state variables and the fluxes of the conserved quantities are approximated by cubic splines in both space direction. This method is shown to be numerically conservative and to have a local truncation error proportional to the fourth power of the grid spacing. A ''dual-staggered'' Cartesian grid, where energy and momentum are updated on one grid and mass density on the other, is used to discretize the flux form of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. Each grid-line is staggered so that the fluxes, in each direction, are calculated at the grid midpoints. This numerical method is validated by simulating thermally convecting flows, from steady to turbulent, reproducing known results. Once validated, the method is used to investigate many aspects of thermal convection with high numerical accuracy. Simulations demonstrate that multiple steady solutions can coexist at the same Rayleigh number for compressible convection. As a system is driven further from equilibrium, a drop in the time-averaged dimensionless heat flux (and the dimensionless internal entropy production rate) occurs at the transition from laminar-periodic to chaotic flow. This observation is consistent with experiments of real convecting fluids. Near this transition, both harmonic and chaotic solutions may exist for the same Rayleigh number. The chaotic flow loses phase-space information at a greater rate, while the periodic flow transports heat (produces entropy) more effectively. A linear sum of the dimensionless forms of these rates connects the two flow morphologies over the entire range for which they coexist. For simulations of systems with higher Rayleigh numbers, a scaling relation exists relating the dimensionless heat flux to the two-seventh's power of the Rayleigh number

  3. A Taylor-Galerkin finite element method for the KdV equation using cubic B-splines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canivar, Aynur [Cemal Mumtaz Teachers Training Anatolian High School, 26210 Eskisehir (Turkey); Sari, Murat, E-mail: msari@pau.edu.t [Department of Mathematics, Pamukkale University, Denizli 20070 (Turkey); Dag, Idris [Department of Computer Engineering, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir 26480 (Turkey)

    2010-08-15

    In this paper, to obtain accurate solutions of the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation, a Taylor-Galerkin method is proposed based on cubic B-splines over finite elements. To tackle this a forward time-stepping technique is accepted in time. To see the accuracy of the proposed method, L{sub 2} and L{sub {infinity} }error norms are calculated in three test problems. The numerical results are found to be in good agreement with exact solutions and with the literature. The applied numerical method has also been shown to be unconditionally stable. In order to find out the physical behaviour of more intricate models, this procedure has been seen to have a great potentiality.

  4. Improvement of the Cubic Spline Function Sets for a Synthesis of the Axial Power Distribution of a Core Protection System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Bon-Seung; Lee, Chung-Chan; Zee, Sung-Quun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    Online digital core protection system(SCOPS) for a system-integrated modular reactor is being developed as a part of a plant protection system at KAERI. SCOPS calculates the minimum CHFR and maximum LPD based on several online measured system parameters including 3-level ex-core detector signals. In conventional ABB-CE digital power plants, cubic spline synthesis technique has been used in online calculations of the core axial power distributions using ex-core detector signals once every 1 second in CPC. In CPC, pre-determined cubic spline function sets are used depending on the characteristics of the ex-core detector responses. But this method shows an unnegligible power distribution error for the extremely skewed axial shapes by using restrictive function sets. Therefore, this paper describes the cubic spline method for the synthesis of an axial power distribution and it generates several new cubic spline function sets for the application of the core protection system, especially for the severely distorted power shapes needed reactor type.

  5. Penalized Spline: a General Robust Trajectory Model for ZIYUAN-3 Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, H.; Zou, Z.

    2016-06-01

    Owing to the dynamic imaging system, the trajectory model plays a very important role in the geometric processing of high resolution satellite imagery. However, establishing a trajectory model is difficult when only discrete and noisy data are available. In this manuscript, we proposed a general robust trajectory model, the penalized spline model, which could fit trajectory data well and smooth noise. The penalized parameter λ controlling the smooth and fitting accuracy could be estimated by generalized cross-validation. Five other trajectory models, including third-order polynomials, Chebyshev polynomials, linear interpolation, Lagrange interpolation and cubic spline, are compared with the penalized spline model. Both the sophisticated ephemeris and on-board ephemeris are used to compare the orbit models. The penalized spline model could smooth part of noise, and accuracy would decrease as the orbit length increases. The band-to-band misregistration of ZiYuan-3 Dengfeng and Faizabad multispectral images is used to evaluate the proposed method. With the Dengfeng dataset, the third-order polynomials and Chebyshev approximation could not model the oscillation, and introduce misregistration of 0.57 pixels misregistration in across-track direction and 0.33 pixels in along-track direction. With the Faizabad dataset, the linear interpolation, Lagrange interpolation and cubic spline model suffer from noise, introducing larger misregistration than the approximation models. Experimental results suggest the penalized spline model could model the oscillation and smooth noise.

  6. A Spline Regression Model for Latent Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harring, Jeffrey R.

    2014-01-01

    Spline (or piecewise) regression models have been used in the past to account for patterns in observed data that exhibit distinct phases. The changepoint or knot marking the shift from one phase to the other, in many applications, is an unknown parameter to be estimated. As an extension of this framework, this research considers modeling the…

  7. Parametrization histological grade white adipose tissue of the breast by the cubic spline interpolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Leslie A.; Narea, Freddy J.; Cedeño, Fernando; Muñoz, Aaron A.; Reigosa, Aldo; Bravo, Kelly

    2013-11-01

    The noninvasive optical techniques have attracted considerable interest in recent years, because these techniques provide lot of information on the structure and composition of biological tissues more quickly and painlessly, in this study classifies the degrees of histological differentiation of neoplastic tissue of the breast in white adipose tissue samples through numerical pametrización of the diffuse reflection spectra using the Fourier series approximation. The white adipose tissue is irradiated with the spectrophotometer MiniScan XEplus and it from a mastectomy of patients with aged 38 and 50 who have a cancer lesion in the breast. The samples were provided by the pathologist with theirs medical report, it which we indicate the histological grade of tumor. We performed a parameterization algorithm where the classification criterion is the modulus of the minimum difference between the numerical approximation coefficients ai and average numerical approximation coefficients obtained for each histological grade ¯ al. Is confirmed that the cubic spline interpolation this low-power computing lets classified into histological grades with 91% certainty the tissues under study from |ai - ¯ al|

  8. Cubic Spline Collocation Method for the Shallow Water Equations on the Sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Anita T.

    2002-07-01

    Spatial discretization schemes commonly used in global meteorological applications are currently limited to spectral methods or low-order finite-difference/finite-element methods. The spectral transform method, which yields high-order approximations, requires Legendre transforms, which have a computational complexity of O(N3), where N is the number of subintervals in one dimension. Thus, high-order finite-element methods may be a viable alternative to spectral methods. In this study, we present a new numerical method for solving the shallow water equations (SWE) in spherical coordinates. In this implementation, the SWE are discretized in time with the semi-implicit leapfrog method, and in space with the cubic spline collocation method on a skipped latitude-longitude grid. Numerical results for the Williamson et al. SWE test cases [D. L. Williamson, J. B. Blake, J. J. Hack, R. Jakob, and P. N. Swarztrauber, J. Comput. Phys.102, 211 (1992)] are presented to demonstrate the stability and accuracy of the method. Results are also shown for an efficiency comparison between this method and a similar method in which spatial discretization is done on a uniform latitude-longitude grid.

  9. Numerical simulation of two dimensional sine-Gordon solitons using modified cubic B-spline differential quadrature method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Shukla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a modified cubic B-spline differential quadrature method (MCB-DQM is employed for the numerical simulation of two-space dimensional nonlinear sine-Gordon equation with appropriate initial and boundary conditions. The modified cubic B-spline works as a basis function in the differential quadrature method to compute the weighting coefficients. Accordingly, two dimensional sine-Gordon equation is transformed into a system of second order ordinary differential equations (ODEs. The resultant system of ODEs is solved by employing an optimal five stage and fourth-order strong stability preserving Runge–Kutta scheme (SSP-RK54. Numerical simulation is discussed for both damped and undamped cases. Computational results are found to be in good agreement with the exact solution and other numerical results available in the literature.

  10. Numerical solution of two dimensional coupled viscous Burger equation using modified cubic B-spline differential quadrature method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Shukla

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a numerical solution of two dimensional nonlinear coupled viscous Burger equation is discussed with appropriate initial and boundary conditions using the modified cubic B-spline differential quadrature method. In this method, the weighting coefficients are computed using the modified cubic B-spline as a basis function in the differential quadrature method. Thus, the coupled Burger equation is reduced into a system of ordinary differential equations. An optimal five stage and fourth-order strong stability preserving Runge–Kutta scheme is applied for solving the resulting system of ordinary differential equations. The accuracy of the scheme is illustrated by taking two numerical examples. Computed results are compared with the exact solutions and other results available in literature. Obtained numerical result shows that the described method is efficient and reliable scheme for solving two dimensional coupled viscous Burger equation.

  11. A Cubic Tree Taper Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goodwin, Adrian N

    2009-01-01

    A flexible tree taper model based on a cubic polynomial is described. It is algebraically invertible and integrable, and can be constrained by one or two diameters, neither of which need be diameter at breast height (DBH...

  12. Adaptation of a cubic smoothing spline algorithm for multi-channel data stitching at the National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Charles G., Jr.; Adcock, Aaron B.; Azevedo, Stephen G.; Liebman, Judith A.; Bond, Essex J.

    2011-03-01

    Some diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility (NIF), including the Gamma Reaction History (GRH) diagnostic, require multiple channels of data to achieve the required dynamic range. These channels need to be stitched together into a single time series, and they may have non-uniform and redundant time samples. We chose to apply the popular cubic smoothing spline technique to our stitching problem because we needed a general non-parametric method. We adapted one of the algorithms in the literature, by Hutchinson and deHoog, to our needs. The modified algorithm and the resulting code perform a cubic smoothing spline fit to multiple data channels with redundant time samples and missing data points. The data channels can have different, timevarying, zero-mean white noise characteristics. The method we employ automatically determines an optimal smoothing level by minimizing the Generalized Cross Validation (GCV) score. In order to automatically validate the smoothing level selection, the Weighted Sum-Squared Residual (WSSR) and zero-mean tests are performed on the residuals. Further, confidence intervals, both analytical and Monte Carlo, are also calculated. In this paper, we describe the derivation of our cubic smoothing spline algorithm. We outline the algorithm and test it with simulated and experimental data.

  13. Adaptation of a cubic smoothing spline algortihm for multi-channel data stitching at the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, C; Adcock, A; Azevedo, S; Liebman, J; Bond, E

    2010-12-28

    Some diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility (NIF), including the Gamma Reaction History (GRH) diagnostic, require multiple channels of data to achieve the required dynamic range. These channels need to be stitched together into a single time series, and they may have non-uniform and redundant time samples. We chose to apply the popular cubic smoothing spline technique to our stitching problem because we needed a general non-parametric method. We adapted one of the algorithms in the literature, by Hutchinson and deHoog, to our needs. The modified algorithm and the resulting code perform a cubic smoothing spline fit to multiple data channels with redundant time samples and missing data points. The data channels can have different, time-varying, zero-mean white noise characteristics. The method we employ automatically determines an optimal smoothing level by minimizing the Generalized Cross Validation (GCV) score. In order to automatically validate the smoothing level selection, the Weighted Sum-Squared Residual (WSSR) and zero-mean tests are performed on the residuals. Further, confidence intervals, both analytical and Monte Carlo, are also calculated. In this paper, we describe the derivation of our cubic smoothing spline algorithm. We outline the algorithm and test it with simulated and experimental data.

  14. Cubic B-splines collocation method for solving nonlinear parabolic partial differential equations with Neumann boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, R. C.; Jain, R. K.

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, a numerical method is proposed to approximate the solution of the nonlinear parabolic partial differential equation with Neumann's boundary conditions. The method is based on collocation of cubic B-splines over finite elements so that we have continuity of the dependent variable and its first two derivatives throughout the solution range. We apply cubic B-splines for spatial variable and its derivatives, which produce a system of first order ordinary differential equations. We solve this system by using SSP-RK3 scheme. The numerical approximate solutions to the nonlinear parabolic partial differential equations have been computed without transforming the equation and without using the linearization. Four illustrative examples are included to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the technique. In numerical test problems, the performance of this method is shown by computing L∞andL2error norms for different time levels. Results shown by this method are found to be in good agreement with the known exact solutions.

  15. Radiation dose response estimation with emphasis on low dose range using restricted cubic splines: application to all solid cancer mortality data, 1950-2003, in atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Eiji

    2015-07-01

    Using the all solid cancer mortality data set of the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort from 1950 to 2003 (LSS Report 14) data among atomic bomb survivors, excess relative risk (ERR) statistical analyses were performed using the second degree polynomial and the threshold and restricted cubic spline (RCS) dose response models. For the RCS models with 3 to 7 knots of equally spaced percentiles with margins in the dose range greater than 50 mGy, the dose response was assumed to be linear at less than 70 to 90 mGy. Due to the skewed dose distribution of atomic bomb survivors, the current knot system for the RCS analysis results in a detailed depiction of the dose response as less than approximately 0.5 Gy. The 6 knot RCS models for the all-solid cancer mortality dose response of the whole dose or less than 2 Gy were selected with the AIC model selection criterion and fit significantly better (p < 0.05) than the linear (L) model. The usual RCS includes the L-global model but not the quadratic (Q) nor linear-quadratic (LQ) global models. The authors extended the RCS to include L or LQ global models by putting L or LQ constraints on the cubic spline in the lower and upper tails, and the best RCS model selected with AIC criterion was the usual RCS with L-constraints in both the lower and upper tails. The selected RCS had a linear dose-response model in the lower dose range (i.e., < 0.2-0.3 Gy) and was compatible with the linear no-threshold (LNT) model in this dose range. The proposed method is also useful in describing the dose response of a specific cancer or non-cancer disease incidence/mortality.

  16. Quadratic vs cubic spline-wavelets for image representations and compression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marais, P.C.; Blake, E.H.; Kuijk, A.A.M.

    1997-01-01

    The Wavelet Transform generates a sparse multi-scale signal representation which may be readily compressed. To implement such a scheme in hardware, one must have a computationally cheap method of computing the necessary transform data. The use of semi-orthogonal quadratic spline wavelets allows one

  17. Quadratic vs cubic spline-wavelets for image representation and compression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marais, P.C.; Blake, E.H.; Kuijk, A.A.M.

    1994-01-01

    The Wavelet Transform generates a sparse multi-scale signal representation which may be readily compressed. To implement such a scheme in hardware, one must have a computationally cheap method of computing the necessary ransform data. The use of semi-orthogonal quadratic spline wavelets allows one t

  18. B-spline image model for energy minimization-based optical flow estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Besnerais, Guy; Champagnat, Frédéric

    2006-10-01

    Robust estimation of the optical flow is addressed through a multiresolution energy minimization. It involves repeated evaluation of spatial and temporal gradients of image intensity which rely usually on bilinear interpolation and image filtering. We propose to base both computations on a single pyramidal cubic B-spline model of image intensity. We show empirically improvements in convergence speed and estimation error and validate the resulting algorithm on real test sequences.

  19. Cubic Spline Interpolation on a Class of Triangulations%一类三角域上的三次样条插值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽娟; 罗钟铉

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we consider spaces of cubic C1-spline on a class of trian-gulations. By using the inductive algorithm, the posed Lagrange interpolation sets are constructed for cubic spline space. It is shown that the class of triangulations considered in this paper are nonsingular for S13 spaces. Moreover, the dimensions of those spaces exactly equal to L. L. Schumaker's low bounds of the dimensions. At the end of this paper, we present an approach to construct triangulations from any scattered planar points, which ensures that the obtained triangulations for S13 space are nonsingular.

  20. Cubic spline interpolation with overlapped window and data reuse for on-line Hilbert Huang transform biomedical microprocessor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Nai-Fu; Chiang, Cheng-Yi; Chen, Tung-Chien; Chen, Liang-Gee

    2011-01-01

    On-chip implementation of Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) has great impact to analyze the non-linear and non-stationary biomedical signals on wearable or implantable sensors for the real-time applications. Cubic spline interpolation (CSI) consumes the most computation in HHT, and is the key component for the HHT processor. In tradition, CSI in HHT is usually performed after the collection of a large window of signals, and the long latency violates the realtime requirement of the applications. In this work, we propose to keep processing the incoming signals on-line with small and overlapped data windows without sacrificing the interpolation accuracy. 58% multiplication and 73% division of CSI are saved after the data reuse between the data windows.

  1. Efficient temperature-dependent Green's function methods for realistic systems: using cubic spline interpolation to approximate Matsubara Green's functions

    CERN Document Server

    Kananenka, Alexei A; Lan, Tran Nguyen; Gull, Emanuel; Zgid, Dominika

    2016-01-01

    The popular, stable, robust and computationally inexpensive cubic spline interpolation algorithm is adopted and used for finite temperature Green's function calculations of realistic systems. We demonstrate that with appropriate modifications the temperature dependence can be preserved while the Green's function grid size can be reduced by about two orders of magnitude by replacing the standard Matsubara frequency grid with a sparser grid and a set of interpolation coefficients. We benchmarked the accuracy of our algorithm as a function of a single parameter sensitive to the shape of the Green's function. Through numerous examples, we confirmed that our algorithm can be utilized in a systematically improvable, controlled, and black-box manner and highly accurate one- and two-body energies and one-particle density matrices can be obtained using only around 5% of the original grid points. Additionally, we established that to improve accuracy by an order of magnitude, the number of grid points needs to be double...

  2. Two EXCEL macros for tracing deviated boreholes using cubic splines and calculation of formation depth and thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkaya, Sait Ismail

    1995-08-01

    Two short EXCEL function macros are presented for calculation of borehole deviation, true vertical thickness, and true stratigraphic thickness. The function macros can be used as regular EXCEL functions. The calling formula, arguments, and their type are described and application is demonstrated on an example data set. The borehole bearing and drift between any two observation points are estimated by fitting a cubic spline curve to three adjacent observation points at a time. The macro can cope with horizontal wells. The macro expects dip; dip direction at formation tops; and x, y, and z components of the distance from point P 1 to point P 2 where P 1 and P 2 are the intersections of the borehole with the top and bottom of a formation, respectively. The macro returns true stratigraphic thickness of formations. Coordinates of points P 1 and P 2 are obtained from the results returned by the macro.

  3. Comparing polynomial and cubic spline interpolation of segment angles for estimating L5/S1 net moment during symmetric lifting tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xu; Chang, Chien-Chi; Faber, Gert S; Kingma, Idsart; Dennerlein, Jack T

    2010-02-10

    Simple video-based methods previously proposed for field research to estimate L5/S1 net moments during real-world manual materials handling rely on polynomial interpolation on the joint angles from key frames extracted from video recordings; however, polynomial interpolations may not converge as the number of interpolation points increases. Therefore, we compared L5/S1 net moments calculated from continuous kinematic measurements to those calculated from both polynomial and cubic spline interpolation on body segments angles during lifting tasks. For small number of interpolation points (polynomial fits decreased with the increase in the number of interpolation points; however, above 6 interpolation points error for the polynomial fits started to increase while the error from the spline fit continued to decrease. These results suggest that cubic spline interpolation on body segments angles provides a more robust basis for calculating L5/S1 net moment from a few key video frames.

  4. Spline model of the high latitude scintillation based on in situ satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadarshi, S.; Wernik, A. W.

    2013-12-01

    We present a spline model for the high latitude ionospheric scintillation using satellite in situ measurements made by the Dynamic Explorer 2 (DE 2) satellite. DE 2 satellite measurements give observations only along satellite orbit but our interpolation model fills the gaps between the satellite orbits. This analytical model is based on products of cubic B-splines and coefficients determined by least squares fit to the binned data and constrained to make the fit periodic in 24 hours of geomagnetic local time, periodic in 360 degrees of invariant longitude, in geomagnetic indices and solar radio flux. Discussion of our results clearly shows the seasonal and diurnal behavior of ionospheric parameters important in scintillation modeling for different geophysical and solar activity conditions. We also show that results obtained from our analytical model match observations obtained from in situ measurements. Shishir Priyadarshi Space Research Centre, Poland

  5. Cosine-Weighted B-spline interpolation: a fast and high-quality reconstruction scheme for the Body-Centered Cubic lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csébfalvi, Balázs

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, Cosine-Weighted B-spline (CWB) filters are proposed for interpolation on the optimal Body-Centered Cubic (BCC) lattice. We demonstrate that our CWB filters can well exploit the fast trilinear texture-fetching capability of modern GPUs, and outperform the state-of-the-art box-spline filters not just in terms of efficiency, but in terms of visual quality and numerical accuracy as well. Furthermore, we rigorously show that the CWB filters are better tailored to the BCC lattice than the previously proposed quasi-interpolating BCC B-spline filters, because they form a Riesz basis; exactly reproduce the original signal at the lattice points; but still provide the same approximation order.

  6. Quantification of cardiac autonomic nervous activities in ambulatory dogs by eliminating cardiac electric activities using cubic smoothing spline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Min; Choi, Eue Keun; Chung, Gih Sung; Oh, Seil; Park, Kwang Suk

    2012-02-01

    With the development of an implantable radio transmitter system, direct measurement of cardiac autonomic nervous activities (CANAs) became possible for ambulatory animals for a couple of months. However, measured CANAs include not only CANA but also cardiac electric activity (CEA) that can affect the quantification of CANAs. In this study, we propose a novel CEA removal method using moving standard deviation and cubic smoothing spline. This method consisted of two steps of detecting CEA segments and eliminating CEAs in detected segments. Using implanted devices, we recorded stellate ganglion nerve activity (SGNA), vagal nerve activity (VNA) and superior left ganglionated plexi nerve activity (SLGPNA) directly from four ambulatory dogs. The CEA-removal performance of the proposed method was evaluated and compared with commonly used high-pass filtration (HPF) for various heart rates and CANA amplitudes. Results tested with simulated CEA and simulated true CANA revealed stable and excellent performance of the suggested method compared to the HPF method. The averaged relative error percentages of the proposed method were less than 0.67%, 0.65% and 1.76% for SGNA, VNA and SLGPNA, respectively.

  7. Performance of global look-up table strategy in digital image correlation with cubic B-spline interpolation and bicubic interpolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei Pan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Global look-up table strategy proposed recently has been proven to be an efficient method to accelerate the interpolation, which is the most time-consuming part in the iterative sub-pixel digital image correlation (DIC algorithms. In this paper, a global look-up table strategy with cubic B-spline interpolation is developed for the DIC method based on the inverse compositional Gauss–Newton (IC-GN algorithm. The performance of this strategy, including accuracy, precision, and computation efficiency, is evaluated through a theoretical and experimental study, using the one with widely employed bicubic interpolation as a benchmark. The global look-up table strategy with cubic B-spline interpolation improves significantly the accuracy of the IC-GN algorithm-based DIC method compared with the one using the bicubic interpolation, at a trivial price of computation efficiency.

  8. Cubic Spline - wavelet Finite Element Method for Solving the Water Hammer Equation%基于MATLAB的一类输运问题的数值分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙丽男; 张馥菊

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve the accuracy of water hammer equations, it is in this paper the cubic spline wavelet finite element method to solve the water hammer equation. This method meets the requirements of complex pipeline, but also with the characteristics of the cubic spline wavelet function to improve the accuracy, opened a new way and theoretical basis for the solution of the water hammer equations.%利用差分方法对一类输运问题在一维和二维空间中进行数值分析,得到相应数值解,并将数值解与解析解进行比较,且进一步分析了数值方法的有效性.

  9. Cubic Shape Preserving Rational Spline and Its Offset Curve%保形三次有理样条及其等距曲线

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文艳; 王强; 张养聪

    2012-01-01

    为了使有理插值样条及其等距曲线在工业设计、制造及计算机图形和CAGD领域有着更灵活更广泛的应用,构造含参数三次有理插值样条模型,生成插值有限个离散点的光滑曲线及其等距线,该模型可通过选取其中的形状参数使得曲线具有保形性并达到一阶连续.并可通过适当调整插值函数中的参数进行交互式的修改,以得到满意的曲线及等距线,并可结合细分算法达到要求的逼近精度.%In order to make rational interpolating spline and its equidistant curve to be more flexibly and more widely used in industrial design, manufacturing, computer graphics and CAGD fields, cubic rational interpolation spline model with parameters was constructed to generate a smooth interpolation curve and its equidistant line by finite number of discrete point data. In the model curve can be with shape retention and first - order continuity by select the shape parameters. The interactive modification can be carried out by appropriate adjustment of the parameters in the interpolation function, to obtain satisfied curve and its equidistant line, and with segmentation algorithm to meet the requirements of the approximation precision.

  10. Diffeomorphism Spline

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Zeng; Muhammad Razib; Abdur Bin Shahid

    2015-01-01

    Conventional splines offer powerful means for modeling surfaces and volumes in three-dimensional Euclidean space. A one-dimensional quaternion spline has been applied for animation purpose, where the splines are defined to model a one-dimensional submanifold in the three-dimensional Lie group. Given two surfaces, all of the diffeomorphisms between them form an infinite dimensional manifold, the so-called diffeomorphism space. In this work, we propose a novel scheme to model finite dimensional...

  11. Bending Angle Prediction Model Based on BPNN-Spline in Air Bending Springback Process

    OpenAIRE

    Zhefeng Guo; Wencheng Tang

    2017-01-01

    In order to rapidly and accurately predict the springback bending angle in V-die air bending process, a springback bending angle prediction model on the combination of error back propagation neural network and spline function (BPNN-Spline) is presented in this study. An orthogonal experimental sample set for training BPNN-Spline is obtained by finite element simulation. Through the analysis of network structure, the BPNN-Spline black box function of bending angle prediction is established, an...

  12. Local asymptotic behavior of regression splines for marginal semiparametric models with longitudinal data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we study the local asymptotic behavior of the regression spline estimator in the framework of marginal semiparametric model. Similarly to Zhu, Fung and He (2008), we give explicit expression for the asymptotic bias of regression spline estimator for nonparametric function f. Our results also show that the asymptotic bias of the regression spline estimator does not depend on the working covariance matrix, which distinguishes the regression splines from the smoothing splines and the seemingly unrelated kernel. To understand the local bias result of the regression spline estimator, we show that the regression spline estimator can be obtained iteratively by applying the standard weighted least squares regression spline estimator to pseudo-observations. At each iteration, the bias of the estimator is unchanged and only the variance is updated.

  13. Modelling term structure of interest rate in T-bill market based on negative exponential cubic smooth L1-spline%国债市场利率期限结构建模——负指数立方L1平滑样条

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴泽福

    2012-01-01

    Based on the comparision of basic static estimate methods of term structure of interest rate (TSIR), we improved B-spline function estimate method, which involved optimization on estimation programmes, node numbers choice, and node placement design. To overcome the subjective effect of B-spline node distribution and C2 smoothness condition of discount function, we introduced negative exponential smoothness cubic Li-spline optimization technology with minimum constraint function of estimation error from quadratic sum to absolute value and minimum volatility of discount function, to increase the estimation reliability and prediction ability of short-term interest rate's volatility structure mutation, improve the advantage on depicting the long-term interest rate volatility trend, and reduce the excessive volatility of discount function.%通过对比国内外利率期限结构静态估计模型的优劣,分析节点数目变化和定位改进B样条函数对利率期限结构静态估计的误差,构建最小化定价误差的节点组合布局搜索程序,并引入负指数平滑立方L1样条优化模型,将误差函数最小化结构从平方和最小化转化为误差距离最小化,权衡拟合误差绝对距离最小化与贴现函数波动性约束,克服B样条函数对节点数目与定位的人工干预和放宽对贴现函数的二阶平滑要求,保留B样条函数刻画中长期利率波动趋势的优势,增强对短期利率波动结构突变的估计和预测能力,提高定价精确度和缓解利率期限结构曲线的过度波动问题.

  14. Performance of global look-up table strategy in digital image correlation with cubic B-spline interpolation and bicubic interpolation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhiwei Pan; Wei Chen; Zhenyu Jiang; Liqun Tang; Yiping Liu; Zejia Liu

    2016-01-01

    Global look-up table strategy proposed recently has been proven to be an efficient method to accelerate the interpolation, which is the most time-consuming part in the iterative sub-pixel digital image correlation (DIC) algorithms. In this paper, a global look-up table strategy with cubic B-spline interpolation is developed for the DIC method based on the inverse compositional Gauss–Newton (IC-GN) algorithm. The performance of this strategy, including accuracy, precision, and computation effi...

  15. Signal-to-noise ratio enhancement on SEM images using a cubic spline interpolation with Savitzky-Golay filters and weighted least squares error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiani, M A; Sim, K S; Nia, M E; Tso, C P

    2015-05-01

    A new technique based on cubic spline interpolation with Savitzky-Golay smoothing using weighted least squares error filter is enhanced for scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. A diversity of sample images is captured and the performance is found to be better when compared with the moving average and the standard median filters, with respect to eliminating noise. This technique can be implemented efficiently on real-time SEM images, with all mandatory data for processing obtained from a single image. Noise in images, and particularly in SEM images, are undesirable. A new noise reduction technique, based on cubic spline interpolation with Savitzky-Golay and weighted least squares error method, is developed. We apply the combined technique to single image signal-to-noise ratio estimation and noise reduction for SEM imaging system. This autocorrelation-based technique requires image details to be correlated over a few pixels, whereas the noise is assumed to be uncorrelated from pixel to pixel. The noise component is derived from the difference between the image autocorrelation at zero offset, and the estimation of the corresponding original autocorrelation. In the few test cases involving different images, the efficiency of the developed noise reduction filter is proved to be significantly better than those obtained from the other methods. Noise can be reduced efficiently with appropriate choice of scan rate from real-time SEM images, without generating corruption or increasing scanning time.

  16. Theory, computation, and application of exponential splines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccartin, B. J.

    1981-01-01

    A generalization of the semiclassical cubic spline known in the literature as the exponential spline is discussed. In actuality, the exponential spline represents a continuum of interpolants ranging from the cubic spline to the linear spline. A particular member of this family is uniquely specified by the choice of certain tension parameters. The theoretical underpinnings of the exponential spline are outlined. This development roughly parallels the existing theory for cubic splines. The primary extension lies in the ability of the exponential spline to preserve convexity and monotonicity present in the data. Next, the numerical computation of the exponential spline is discussed. A variety of numerical devices are employed to produce a stable and robust algorithm. An algorithm for the selection of tension parameters that will produce a shape preserving approximant is developed. A sequence of selected curve-fitting examples are presented which clearly demonstrate the advantages of exponential splines over cubic splines.

  17. The Adaptive LASSO Spline Estimation of Single-Index Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Yiqiang; ZHANG Riquan; HU Bin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper,based on spline approximation,the authors propose a unified variable selection approach for single-index model via adaptive L1 penalty.The calculation methods of the proposed estimators are given on the basis of the known lars algorithm.Under some regular conditions,the authors demonstrate the asymptotic properties of the proposed estimators and the oracle properties of adaptive LASSO (aLASSO) variable selection.Simulations are used to investigate the performances of the proposed estimator and illustrate that it is effective for simultaneous variable selection as well as estimation of the single-index models.

  18. Design Evaluation of Wind Turbine Spline Couplings Using an Analytical Model: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Y.; Keller, J.; Wallen, R.; Errichello, R.; Halse, C.; Lambert, S.

    2015-02-01

    Articulated splines are commonly used in the planetary stage of wind turbine gearboxes for transmitting the driving torque and improving load sharing. Direct measurement of spline loads and performance is extremely challenging because of limited accessibility. This paper presents an analytical model for the analysis of articulated spline coupling designs. For a given torque and shaft misalignment, this analytical model quickly yields insights into relationships between the spline design parameters and resulting loads; bending, contact, and shear stresses; and safety factors considering various heat treatment methods. Comparisons of this analytical model against previously published computational approaches are also presented.

  19. Bending Angle Prediction Model Based on BPNN-Spline in Air Bending Springback Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhefeng Guo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to rapidly and accurately predict the springback bending angle in V-die air bending process, a springback bending angle prediction model on the combination of error back propagation neural network and spline function (BPNN-Spline is presented in this study. An orthogonal experimental sample set for training BPNN-Spline is obtained by finite element simulation. Through the analysis of network structure, the BPNN-Spline black box function of bending angle prediction is established, and the advantage of BPNN-Spline is discussed in comparison with traditional BPNN. The results show a close agreement with simulated and experimental results by application examples, which means that the BPNN-Spline model in this study has higher prediction accuracy and better applicable ability. Therefore, it could be adopted in a numerical control bending machine system.

  20. Diffeomorphism Spline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zeng

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Conventional splines offer powerful means for modeling surfaces and volumes in three-dimensional Euclidean space. A one-dimensional quaternion spline has been applied for animation purpose, where the splines are defined to model a one-dimensional submanifold in the three-dimensional Lie group. Given two surfaces, all of the diffeomorphisms between them form an infinite dimensional manifold, the so-called diffeomorphism space. In this work, we propose a novel scheme to model finite dimensional submanifolds in the diffeomorphism space by generalizing conventional splines. According to quasiconformal geometry theorem, each diffeomorphism determines a Beltrami differential on the source surface. Inversely, the diffeomorphism is determined by its Beltrami differential with normalization conditions. Therefore, the diffeomorphism space has one-to-one correspondence to the space of a special differential form. The convex combination of Beltrami differentials is still a Beltrami differential. Therefore, the conventional spline scheme can be generalized to the Beltrami differential space and, consequently, to the diffeomorphism space. Our experiments demonstrate the efficiency and efficacy of diffeomorphism splines. The diffeomorphism spline has many potential applications, such as surface registration, tracking and animation.

  1. Lagrange interpolation and modified cubic B-spline differential quadrature methods for solving hyperbolic partial differential equations with Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiwari, Ram

    2015-08-01

    In this article, the author proposed two differential quadrature methods to find the approximate solution of one and two dimensional hyperbolic partial differential equations with Dirichlet and Neumann's boundary conditions. The methods are based on Lagrange interpolation and modified cubic B-splines respectively. The proposed methods reduced the hyperbolic problem into a system of second order ordinary differential equations in time variable. Then, the obtained system is changed into a system of first order ordinary differential equations and finally, SSP-RK3 scheme is used to solve the obtained system. The well known hyperbolic equations such as telegraph, Klein-Gordon, sine-Gordon, Dissipative non-linear wave, and Vander Pol type non-linear wave equations are solved to check the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed methods. The numerical results are shown in L∞ , RMS andL2 errors form.

  2. Relativistic calculations of charge transfer probabilities in U92+ - U91+(1s) collisions using the basis set of cubic Hermite splines

    CERN Document Server

    Maltsev, I A; Tupitsyn, I I; Shabaev, V M; Kozhedub, Y S; Plunien, G; Stoehlker, Th

    2013-01-01

    A new approach for solving the time-dependent two-center Dirac equation is presented. The method is based on using the finite basis set of cubic Hermite splines on a two-dimensional lattice. The Dirac equation is treated in rotating reference frame. The collision of U92+ (as a projectile) and U91+ (as a target) is considered at energy E_lab=6 MeV/u. The charge transfer probabilities are calculated for different values of the impact parameter. The obtained results are compared with the previous calculations [I. I. Tupitsyn et al., Phys. Rev. A 82, 042701 (2010)], where a method based on atomic-like Dirac-Sturm orbitals was employed. This work can provide a new tool for investigation of quantum electrodynamics effects in heavy-ion collisions near the supercritical regime.

  3. Application of Piecewise Cubic B-Spline%过两端点分段三次 B 样条方法应用研究*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王争争

    2015-01-01

    通过引入约束点 P0和常量 r,构建过两端点分段三次B样条曲线并推出衔接点光滑衔接条件。应用过两端点分段三次B样条方法可以构建直线、三角形、四边形及蛋形画法,并通过消齿光顺得到理想效果。实现图形的平移、缩放和旋转,通过逆时针、顺时针旋转计算消除偏差,保形效果理想。按顺时针方向生成闭曲线并记录轨迹点位置数据,方便平面上闭曲线对象间关系的计算,并得到布尔运算结果。应用该方法可以构建空间图形,实现颜色渐变效果理想。%By introducing the constraint point P0 and constant r ,two endpoints piecewise cubic B spline curve is built and some smooth cohesion terms are introduced .Application of two endpoints piecewise cubic B spline method can build straight lines ,triangles ,quadrilateral and egg painting .Through the elimination of tooth smoothing ,ideal effect is got . Translation ,scaling and rotation of graphics are achieved and eliminated by counterclockwise ,clockwise calculation devia‐tion ,conformal effect is ideal .Clockwise to generate closed curve trajectory point location and record data ,convenient plane closed curve calculation of relations between objects ,Boolean calculation results are obtained .The method can build space graphics ,make color gradient effect ideal .

  4. Gauss-Galerkin quadrature rules for quadratic and cubic spline spaces and their application to isogeometric analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Barton, Michael

    2016-07-21

    We introduce Gaussian quadrature rules for spline spaces that are frequently used in Galerkin discretizations to build mass and stiffness matrices. By definition, these spaces are of even degrees. The optimal quadrature rules we recently derived (Bartoň and Calo, 2016) act on spaces of the smallest odd degrees and, therefore, are still slightly sub-optimal. In this work, we derive optimal rules directly for even-degree spaces and therefore further improve our recent result. We use optimal quadrature rules for spaces over two elements as elementary building blocks and use recursively the homotopy continuation concept described in Bartoň and Calo (2016) to derive optimal rules for arbitrary admissible numbers of elements.We demonstrate the proposed methodology on relevant examples, where we derive optimal rules for various even-degree spline spaces. We also discuss convergence of our rules to their asymptotic counterparts, these are the analogues of the midpoint rule of Hughes et al. (2010), that are exact and optimal for infinite domains.

  5. Adaptive-weighted cubic B-spline using lookup tables for fast and efficient axial resampling of 3D confocal microscopy images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indhumathi, C; Cai, Y Y; Guan, Y Q; Opas, M; Zheng, J

    2012-01-01

    Confocal laser scanning microscopy has become a most powerful tool to visualize and analyze the dynamic behavior of cellular molecules. Photobleaching of fluorochromes is a major problem with confocal image acquisition that will lead to intensity attenuation. Photobleaching effect can be reduced by optimizing the collection efficiency of the confocal image by fast z-scanning. However, such images suffer from distortions, particularly in the z dimension, which causes disparities in the x, y, and z directions of the voxels with the original image stacks. As a result, reliable segmentation and feature extraction of these images may be difficult or even impossible. Image interpolation is especially needed for the correction of undersampling artifact in the axial plane of three-dimensional images generated by a confocal microscope to obtain cubic voxels. In this work, we present an adaptive cubic B-spline-based interpolation with the aid of lookup tables by deriving adaptive weights based on local gradients for the sampling nodes in the interpolation formulae. Thus, the proposed method enhances the axial resolution of confocal images by improving the accuracy of the interpolated value simultaneously with great reduction in computational cost. Numerical experimental results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed interpolation approach and demonstrate its superiority both in terms of accuracy and speed compared to other interpolation algorithms.

  6. Geometric modelling of channel present in reservoir petroleum using Bezier splines; Modelagem da geometria de paleocanais presentes em reservatorios petroliferos usando splines de Bezier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Carlos Eduardo S. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Programa de Recursos Humanos 25 da ANP]. E-mail: carlos@dme.ufcg.edu.br; Silva, Rosana M. da [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Matematica e Estatistica]. E-mail: rosana@dme.ufcg.edu.br

    2004-07-01

    This work presents an implementation of a synthetic model of a channel found in oil reservoir. The generation these models is one of the steps to the characterization and simulation of the equal probable three-dimensional geological scenery. O implemented model was obtained from fitting techniques of geometric modeling of curves and surfaces to the geological parameters (width, thickness, sinuosity and preferential direction) that defines the form to be modeled. The parameter sinuosity is related with the parameter wave length and the local amplitude of the channel, the parameter preferential direction indicates the way of the flow and the declivity of the channel. The modeling technique used to represent the surface of the channel is the sweeping technique, the consist in effectuate a translation operation from a curve along a guide curve. The guide curve, in our implementation, was generated by the interpolation of points obtained form sampled values or simulated of the parameter sinuosity, using the cubic splines of Bezier technique. A semi-ellipse, determinate by the parameter width and thickness, representing a transversal section of the channel, is the transferred curve through the guide curve, generating the channel surface. (author)

  7. Algorithms for spline and other approximations to functions and data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, G. M.; Taylor, P. J.

    1992-12-01

    A succinct introduction to splines, explaining how and why B-splines are used as a basis and how cubic and quadratic splines may be constructed, is followed by brief account of Hermite interpolation and Padé approximations.

  8. Smoothing spline ANOVA frailty model for recurrent event data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Pang; Jiang, Yihua; Wang, Yuedong

    2011-12-01

    Gap time hazard estimation is of particular interest in recurrent event data. This article proposes a fully nonparametric approach for estimating the gap time hazard. Smoothing spline analysis of variance (ANOVA) decompositions are used to model the log gap time hazard as a joint function of gap time and covariates, and general frailty is introduced to account for between-subject heterogeneity and within-subject correlation. We estimate the nonparametric gap time hazard function and parameters in the frailty distribution using a combination of the Newton-Raphson procedure, the stochastic approximation algorithm (SAA), and the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method. The convergence of the algorithm is guaranteed by decreasing the step size of parameter update and/or increasing the MCMC sample size along iterations. Model selection procedure is also developed to identify negligible components in a functional ANOVA decomposition of the log gap time hazard. We evaluate the proposed methods with simulation studies and illustrate its use through the analysis of bladder tumor data.

  9. Stock price forecasting for companies listed on Tehran stock exchange using multivariate adaptive regression splines model and semi-parametric splines technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounaghi, Mohammad Mahdi; Abbaszadeh, Mohammad Reza; Arashi, Mohammad

    2015-11-01

    One of the most important topics of interest to investors is stock price changes. Investors whose goals are long term are sensitive to stock price and its changes and react to them. In this regard, we used multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) model and semi-parametric splines technique for predicting stock price in this study. The MARS model as a nonparametric method is an adaptive method for regression and it fits for problems with high dimensions and several variables. semi-parametric splines technique was used in this study. Smoothing splines is a nonparametric regression method. In this study, we used 40 variables (30 accounting variables and 10 economic variables) for predicting stock price using the MARS model and using semi-parametric splines technique. After investigating the models, we select 4 accounting variables (book value per share, predicted earnings per share, P/E ratio and risk) as influencing variables on predicting stock price using the MARS model. After fitting the semi-parametric splines technique, only 4 accounting variables (dividends, net EPS, EPS Forecast and P/E Ratio) were selected as variables effective in forecasting stock prices.

  10. High Dynamic Range Imaging Based on Cubic Spline Interpolation%基于三次样条插值的高动态范围成像方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵蓝飞; 席志红

    2015-01-01

    针对由传统的相机响应函数标定法合成的高动态范围图像质量较差的问题,提出一种有效的高动态范围成像算法。首先根据多曝光图像灰度变化的特点,通过三次样条插值将相机响应函数标定问题转化为求解一个线性三对角线性方程组;然后根据拍摄场景动态范围的变化情况,通过手动调整曝光的方式使多曝光图像大部分像素的正序或倒序的灰度变化趋于恒定,再通过逐点递推的方式求出三次样条函数各离散端点的二阶导数,拟合出相机响应曲线;最后根据已选定的基准点并结合已标定的相机响应曲线恢复出单位曝光度下像素对应的曝光时间,即真实的亮度辐射值。实验结果表明,三次样条插值能够有效地提高图像的局部细节以及图像整体的清晰度,递推法简化了求解线性方程组烦琐的计算步骤,降低了算法的整体运算时间。%Due to the limited quality of high dynamic range image which is restored by traditional calibration methods, this paper proposes a novel high dynamic imaging method to improve the quality of image. By cu-bic spline interpolation method, our algorithm converts the calibration of camera response function into solving a system of linear equations primarily. According to the variation of dynamic range, our algorithm makes an adjustment to the ratio of exposure manually in order to guarantee that the variation of the gray value is tending towards stability mostly. Afterwards, a recursive method is proposed to calculate the sec-ond-order derivative of each end point of spline function which is the essential condition of calibration. At last, the radiance of each pixel is recovered according to the reference point which is chosen previously and the result of calibration. Experiment results show that cubic spline interpolation is able to improve the local detail and global clarity. The proposed recursive method reduces

  11. 一种参数三次样条曲线光顺优化算法%An Optimal Fairing Algorithm for Parametric Cubic Spline Curves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章虎冬

    2011-01-01

    An optimal fairing algorithm for planar parametric cubic spline curves is proposed based on revising gene and revising angle. Faired point can be obtained by resolving a objective function of containing modifying gene λ and revising angle 9 and faired curves is obtained by interpolating the faired point. The purpose of this algorithm is to make the change of curvature of faired curves more gradual and its deviation from the initial curves smaller. It is shown that the algorithm is simply facile and needs a smaller calculation.%论文给出了一种基于修改因子和修改角度的平面参数三次样条曲线的优化光顺算法,该算法通过求解一个带有修改因子λ和修改角度θ的目标函数得到光顺后的型值点,插值光顺后的型值点得到光顺曲线.目的是使曲线的曲率变化均匀的同时,使光顺后的曲线与原曲线的偏差尽量小,此算法简单易行,计算量较小.

  12. Cubic Spline - wavelet Finite Element Method for Solving the Water Hammer Equation%三次样条小波有限元法求解水锤方程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈辉

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve the accuracy of water hammer equations, it is in this paper the cubic spline wavelet finite element method to solve the water hammer equation. This method meets the requirements of complex pipeline, but also with the characteristics of the cubic spline wavelet function to improve the accuracy, opened a new way and theoretical basis for the solution of the water hammer equations.%为了提高水锤方程的求解精确度,采用三次样条小波有限元法求解水锤方程,此法既能满足复杂管道的要求,又能借助三次样条小波函数的特点提高计算精度.为水锤方程的解法开辟了一条新的途径和理论依据.

  13. The Body Center Cubic Quark Lattice Model

    CERN Document Server

    Lin Xu, Jiao

    2004-01-01

    The Standard Model while successful in many ways is incomplete; many questions remain. The origin of quark masses and hadronization of quarks are awaiting an answer. From the Dirac sea concept, we infer that two kinds of elementary quarks (u(0) and d(0)) constitute a body center cubic (BCC) quark lattice with a lattice constant a < $10^{-18}$m in the vacuum. Using energy band theory and the BCC quark lattice, we can deduce the rest masses and the intrinsic quantum numbers (I, S, C, b and Q) of quarks. With the quark spectrum, we deduce a baryon spectrum. The theoretical spectrum is in agreement well with the experimental results. Not only will this paper provide a physical basis for the Quark Model, but also it will open a door to study the more fundamental nature at distance scales <$10^{-18}$m. This paper predicts some new quarks $u_{c}$(6490) and d$_{b}$(9950), and new baryons $\\Lambda_{c}^{+}$(6500), $\\Lambda_{b}^{0}$(9960).

  14. Optimization and Realization of Cubic B-spline Interpolation Algorithm Based on FPGA%基于FPGA的三次B样条曲线插补算法优化和实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯健; 叶伯生; 周向东

    2012-01-01

    针对FPGA的特点对三次B样条曲线插补算法进行优化,使用VHDL语言实现了三次B样条插补算法,并在FPGA中进行实际验证.%The paper optimizes the cubic B -spline interpolation algorithm based on the characteristics of the FPGA,and verify the algorithm implemented by VHDL language on FPGA.

  15. 基于粒子群三次样条优化的移动机器人路径规划算法%Mobile Robot Path Planning Algorithm Based on Particle Swarm Optimization of Cubic Splines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴宪祥; 郭宝龙; 王娟

    2009-01-01

    针对移动机器人路径规划问题,提出了一种基于粒了群三次样条优化的路径规划方法.借助三次样条连接描述路径,这样将路径规划问题转化为三次样条曲线的参数优化问题.借助粒了群优化算法快速收敛和全局寻优特性实现最优路径规划.实验结果表明:所提算法町以快速有效地实现障碍环境下机器人的无碰撞路径规划,规划路径平滑,利于机器人的运动控制.%A novel algorithm based on particle swarm optimization (PSO) of cubic splines is proposed for mobile robot path planning. The path is described by string of cubic splines, thus the path planning is equivalent to parameter optimization of particular cubic splines. PSO is introduced to get the optimal path for its fast convergence and global search character. Ex-perimental results show that a collision-avoidance path can be found fleetly and effectively among obstacles by the proposed algorithm. The planned path is smooth which is useful for robot motion control.

  16. Modeling spatial trajectories in dynamics testing using basis splines: application to tracking human volunteers in low-speed frontal impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Marina A; Reed, Matthew P; Arbogast, Kristy B; Seacrist, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Designing motor vehicle safety systems requires knowledge of whole body kinematics during dynamic loading for occupants of varying size and age, often obtained from sled tests with postmortem human subjects and human volunteers. Recently, we reported pediatric and adult responses in low-speed (<4 g) automotive-like impacts, noting reductions in maximum excursion with increasing age. Since the time-based trajectory shape is also relevant for restraint design, this study quantified the time-series trajectories using basis splines and developed a statistical model for predicting trajectories as a function of body dimension or age. Previously collected trajectories of the head, spine, and pelvis were modeled using cubic basis splines with eight control points. A principal component analysis was conducted on the control points and related to erect seated height using a linear regression model. The resulting statistical model quantified how trajectories became shorter and flatter with increasing body size, corresponding to the validation data-set. Trajectories were then predicted for erect seated heights corresponding to pediatric and adult anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs), thus generating performance criteria for the ATDs based on human response. This statistical model can be used to predict trajectories for a subject of specified anthropometry and utilized in subject-specific computational models of occupant response.

  17. Shape reconstruction and subsequent deformation of soleus muscle models using B-spline solid primitives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng-Thow-Hing, Victor; Agur, Anne; Ball, Kevin A.; Fiume, Eugene; McKee, Nancy

    1998-05-01

    We introduce a mathematical primitive called the B-spline solid that can be used to create deformable models of muscle shape. B-spline solids can be used to model skeletal muscle for the purpose of building a data library of reusable, deformable muscles that are reconstructed from actual muscle data. Algorithms are provided for minimizing shape distortions that may be caused when fitting discrete sampled data to a continuous B-spline solid model. Visible Human image data provides a good indication of the perimeter of a muscle, but is not suitable for providing internal muscle fiber bundle arrangements which are important for physical simulation of muscle function. To obtain these fiber bundle orientations, we obtain 3-D muscle fiber bundle coordinates by triangulating optical images taken from three different camera views of serially dissected human soleus specimens. B-spline solids are represented as mathematical three-dimensional vector functions which can parameterize an enclosed volume as well as its boundary surface. They are based on B-spline basis functions, allowing local deformations via adjustable control points and smooth continuity of shape. After the B-spline solid muscle model is fitted with its external surface and internal volume arrangements, we can subsequently deform its shape to allow simulation of animated muscle tissue.

  18. Exact sampling of the unobserved covariates in Bayesian spline models for measurement error problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadra, Anindya; Carroll, Raymond J

    2016-07-01

    In truncated polynomial spline or B-spline models where the covariates are measured with error, a fully Bayesian approach to model fitting requires the covariates and model parameters to be sampled at every Markov chain Monte Carlo iteration. Sampling the unobserved covariates poses a major computational problem and usually Gibbs sampling is not possible. This forces the practitioner to use a Metropolis-Hastings step which might suffer from unacceptable performance due to poor mixing and might require careful tuning. In this article we show for the cases of truncated polynomial spline or B-spline models of degree equal to one, the complete conditional distribution of the covariates measured with error is available explicitly as a mixture of double-truncated normals, thereby enabling a Gibbs sampling scheme. We demonstrate via a simulation study that our technique performs favorably in terms of computational efficiency and statistical performance. Our results indicate up to 62 and 54 % increase in mean integrated squared error efficiency when compared to existing alternatives while using truncated polynomial splines and B-splines respectively. Furthermore, there is evidence that the gain in efficiency increases with the measurement error variance, indicating the proposed method is a particularly valuable tool for challenging applications that present high measurement error. We conclude with a demonstration on a nutritional epidemiology data set from the NIH-AARP study and by pointing out some possible extensions of the current work.

  19. Cubic spline symplectic algorithm for dynamic analysis of space truss structure%网架结构动力分析的三次样条辛算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李纬华; 王堉; 罗恩

    2013-01-01

    According to the basic idea of dual-complementarity,the unconventional Hamilton-type variational principle in phase space for dynamic analysis of space truss structure was introduced,which can fully characterize this kind of dynamic initial-boundary-value problems.In addition,its Euler equation is of symplectic structure character.Based on this vairiational principle,a symplectic algorithm was presented,combining the finite element method in space domain with the time subdomain method,in which the cubic spline interpolation was applied as approximation.The results of numerical examples show that the method is a highly efficient method with better computational performance and superior ability of stability compared with Wilson-θ and Newmark-β methods.%根据对偶互补的思想,建立了网架结构动力学的相空间非传统Hamilton型变分原理.这种变分原理不仅能反映这种动力学初值-边值问题的全部特征,而且它的欧拉方程具有辛结构.基于该变分原理,空间域采用有限元法与时间子域采用三次样条函数插值的时间子域法相结合,构造了求解网架结构动力响应的一种辛算法,给出了逐步递推计算格式.数值算例结果表明,这种新方法的稳定性、计算精度和效率都明显高于Wilson-θ法和Newmark-β法.

  20. Variational B-spline level-set: a linear filtering approach for fast deformable model evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Olivier; Friboulet, Denis; Thévenaz, Philippe; Unser, Michael

    2009-06-01

    In the field of image segmentation, most level-set-based active-contour approaches take advantage of a discrete representation of the associated implicit function. We present in this paper a different formulation where the implicit function is modeled as a continuous parametric function expressed on a B-spline basis. Starting from the active-contour energy functional, we show that this formulation allows us to compute the solution as a restriction of the variational problem on the space spanned by the B-splines. As a consequence, the minimization of the functional is directly obtained in terms of the B-spline coefficients. We also show that each step of this minimization may be expressed through a convolution operation. Because the B-spline functions are separable, this convolution may in turn be performed as a sequence of simple 1-D convolutions, which yields an efficient algorithm. As a further consequence, each step of the level-set evolution may be interpreted as a filtering operation with a B-spline kernel. Such filtering induces an intrinsic smoothing in the algorithm, which can be controlled explicitly via the degree and the scale of the chosen B-spline kernel. We illustrate the behavior of this approach on simulated as well as experimental images from various fields.

  1. Mathematical research on spline functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    One approach in spline functions is to grossly estimate the integrand in J and exactly solve the resulting problem. If the integrand in J is approximated by Y" squared, the resulting problem lends itself to exact solution, the familiar cubic spline. Another approach is to investigate various approximations to the integrand in J and attempt to solve the resulting problems. The results are described.

  2. 基于三次B样条的曲线逼近算法及其收敛性%Approximate algorithm of curves and its convergence based on cubic B-spline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋勇; 李玉梅

    2013-01-01

    为了改进传统的插值样条曲线算法不易于后期处理和实时局部修改、B样条算法不能满足精度要求的缺点,提出了一种基于三次B样条的曲线逼近算法[1].该算法以三次B样条为基础对曲线的逼近领域进行了研究,通过大量的数值实验证明了该算法的可行性及高效性.该算法通过结合插值样条与B样条的各种优点,有效避免了传统算法的不足.同时,对该算法的收敛性进行了理论证明.数值实验表明了该算法具有收敛速度快、精度高且编程易实现等优点,为曲线研究提供了可供参考的有效算法.%In order to improve the shortcomings of the traditional interpolation spline that is not easy to solve the problems at the post-processing and to do the local modification in time,and to improve the disadvantage of the approximate spline which can not meet the accuracy requirements,the approximate algorithm based on the cubic B-Spline is put forward[1].The algorithm is based on the cubic B-Spline and makes some research on the area of the curve approximate.A large number of numerical experiments are made to illustrate the feasibility and the efficiency of the algorithm.The algrithm combines the advantages of the interpolation spline and the B-Spline.The shortcomings of the traditional algrithrn are prevented effectively.At the same time,the theoretical proof is put forward to demonstrate the convergence of the algorithm.And the numerical experiments show that this algorithm has fast convergence speed and high precision.And its programming is easy to implement.A effective algorithm is put forward for the curve research which can be use as a reference.

  3. Iterative weighted partial spline least squares estimation in semiparametric modeling of longitudinal data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙孝前; 尤进红

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we consider the estimating problem of a semiparametric regression modelling whenthe data are longitudinal. An iterative weighted partial spline least squares estimator (IWPSLSE) for the para-metric component is proposed which is more efficient than the weighted partial spline least squares estimator(WPSLSE) with weights constructed by using the within-group partial spline least squares residuals in the senseof asymptotic variance. The asymptotic normality of this IWPSLSE is established. An adaptive procedure ispresented which ensures that the iterative process stops after a finite number of iterations and produces anestimator asymptotically equivalent to the best estimator that can be obtained by using the iterative proce-dure. These results are generalizations of those in heteroscedastic linear model to the case of semiparametric regression.

  4. 三次B样条曲线拟合的虹膜定位%Iris Localization Algorithm Based on Cubic B-spline Curve Fitting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶永强; 沈建新; 周啸; 张敏

    2011-01-01

    采用圆检测定位虹膜内外边界的方法是当前虹膜定位的主流算法.当虹膜图像分辨率很高时,圆曲线不能准确地拟合虹膜真实边界,特别是受瞳孔收缩影响很大的内边界.而采用三次B样条曲线能够很好地拟合内边界.为了提高定位效率,首先运用质心探测方法分割出瞳孔区域,然后在瞳孔区域中搜索内边界点,采用三次B样条曲线精确拟合内边界;最后利用Canny算子检测外边界,并采用圆曲线的最小二乘拟合外边界.运用Bath大学虹膜库中的1000幅虹膜图像对该定位算法进行测试,内边界定位时间0.0203s、准确率99.2%;外边界定位时间2.0277s,准确率98.9%,满足准确、高效的定位要求.%The current important methods of iris localization are based on circle detection. But they could not fit the real boundary well when iris images are high-resolution, especially the inner boundary under the influence of pupil constriction. Proposed method based on cubic B-spline curve can figure out this problem. It locates the inner boundary area first, and then the outer boundary. To improve the efficiency and robustness for inner boundary localization, this paper has proposed a method to segment the pupil area first based centroid detection, then search inner edge in the segmented area. The outer boundary area is then determined by using Ihe parameter relations between inner and outer boundary. Finally, using canny operator delects the outer edge, and the outer boundary is fitted in the Least-square circle sense. The Experiment results based on the iris database of Bath University, with 99.2% accuracy and 0.022s positioning time of inner boundary, 98.9% and 2.027s of outer show that the proposed approach is efficient and robust.

  5. Fingerprint matching by thin-plate spline modelling of elastic deformations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bazen, Asker M.; Gerez, Sabih H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a novel minutiae matching method that describes elastic distortions in fingerprints by means of a thin-plate spline model, which is estimated using a local and a global matching stage. After registration of the fingerprints according to the estimated model, the number of matching

  6. 基于Matlab三次样条插值的连杆机构轨迹再现优化设计%The Optimal Design of Link Mechanism Reappearing Trajectory based on Matlab of Cubic Spline Interpolation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王东; 陶跃珍

    2011-01-01

    For increasing the optimal design accuracy of reappearing trajectory of link mechanism, the positions and the numbers on the locus of link mechanism must be suitable. Based on this, a new design method is proposed under the condition of discrete points and number is constant. Cubic spline interpolation in Matlab spline function is used on those points to get the mathematical interpolation curve model of the trajectory, then adds discrete points on the interpolation curve based the change rate, so the reappearing trajectory of optimum design of link mechanism is come to pass by fmincon function in optimistic toolbox of matlab. In comparing with the traditional optimization design method,this method can greatly improve the efficiency and accuracy because of adding interpolation points on the trajectory.The method is suitable to any optimal design of reappearing trajectory mechanism, so it has certain practical value.%为了提高连杆机构轨迹再现优化设计精度,连杆轨迹上已知点的位置和数目必须适当.基于此,在连杆预定轨迹上已知离散点位置和数目不变的情况下提出一种新的设计方法,利用MatlabSpline函数对离散点进行三次样条插值,得到预定运动轨迹插值曲线数学模型,在插值曲线上根据函数变化率增加离散点,调用Matlab优化工具箱中的fmincon函数,实现连杆机构轨迹再现优化设计.与传统优化设计方法相比,由于在预定运动轨迹上增加了插值节点,节点分布更为合理,所以能够明显提高连杆机构轨迹再现优化设计的效率和精度,该方法适用于任何机构轨迹再现优化设计,具有一定实用价值.

  7. Gear Spline Coupling Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-08-29

    An analytical model is developed to evaluate the design of a spline coupling. For a given torque and shaft misalignment, the model calculates the number of teeth in contact, tooth loads, stiffnesses, stresses, and safety factors. The analytic model provides essential spline coupling design and modeling information and could be easily integrated into gearbox design and simulation tools.

  8. 非均匀三次B样条曲线插值的GS-PIA算法%Non-uniform Cubic B-spline Curve Interpolation Algorithm of GS-PIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓艳; 邓重阳

    2015-01-01

    提出了非均匀三次B样条曲线插值的GS-PIA算法。该算法与解线性方程组的高斯-赛德尔迭代法有同样的优点,即把已经更新的点参与到迭代过程来优化迭代过程;同时也具有渐进迭代逼近方法的优点,即有明确的几何意义,并能得到一系列逐次逼近插值点的非均匀三次 B样条曲线。%This paper presents a non-uniform cubic B-spline curve interpolation algorithm of GS-PIA.The algorithm and the Gauss-Seidel iterative method of solving linear equations have the same advantages , namely the points involved in the iterative process which has been updated to optimize the iterative process .At the same time, the algorithm also has the advantage of progressive iterative approximation method , namely, there is a clear geometric significance , and can make a series of non-uniform cubic B-spline curve approximation interpolation points .

  9. 带有切线多边形的三次B样条的α扩展曲线%α extension of the cubic B-spline curve with given tangent polygon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王成伟

    2011-01-01

    为了使三次均匀B样条的α扩展曲线与给定多边形相切,构造了一种与给定多边形相切的三次均匀B样条曲线的α扩展的算法.在算法中,所有的三次均匀B样条的α扩展曲线的控制点可以通过对多边形的顶点简单计算产生.所构造的曲线对多边形具有保形性,曲线可以局部修改.最后给出了2个算例.%In order to a expansion of the cubic uniform B-spline curve tangent to the given polygon,in this paper, an algorithm for constructing α extension of the cubic uniform B-spine curve which is tangent to the given polygon is described. The control points of α extension of the cubic uniform B-spine curve to be constructed are computed simply by the vertices of the given polygon. The constructed curve is shape-preserving to the polygon. The local modification to a extension of the cubic uniform B-spine curve can be completed by simply adjusting the corresponding control parameters. Two examples are included.

  10. PENALIZED SPLINE: A GENERAL ROBUST TRAJECTORY MODEL FOR ZIYUAN-3 SATELLITE

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, H; Zou, Z

    2016-01-01

    Owing to the dynamic imaging system, the trajectory model plays a very important role in the geometric processing of high resolution satellite imagery. However, establishing a trajectory model is difficult when only discrete and noisy data are available. In this manuscript, we proposed a general robust trajectory model, the penalized spline model, which could fit trajectory data well and smooth noise. The penalized parameter λ controlling the smooth and fitting accuracy could be estimated by ...

  11. Left ventricular motion reconstruction with a prolate spheroidal B-spline model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Jin; Denney, Thomas S Jr [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, 200 Broun Hall, Auburn University, AL 36849-5201 (United States)

    2006-02-07

    Tagged cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can non-invasively image deformation of the left ventricular (LV) wall. Three-dimensional (3D) analysis of tag data requires fitting a deformation model to tag lines in the image data. In this paper, we present a 3D myocardial displacement and strain reconstruction method based on a B-spline deformation model defined in prolate spheroidal coordinates, which more closely matches the shape of the LV wall than existing Cartesian or cylindrical coordinate models. The prolate spheroidal B-spline (PSB) deformation model also enforces smoothness across and can compute strain at the apex. The PSB reconstruction algorithm was evaluated on a previously published data set to allow head-to-head comparison of the PSB model with existing LV deformation reconstruction methods. We conclude that the PSB method can accurately reconstruct deformation and strain in the LV wall from tagged MR images and has several advantages relative to existing techniques.

  12. Left ventricular motion reconstruction with a prolate spheroidal B-spline model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin; Denney, Thomas S., Jr.

    2006-02-01

    Tagged cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can non-invasively image deformation of the left ventricular (LV) wall. Three-dimensional (3D) analysis of tag data requires fitting a deformation model to tag lines in the image data. In this paper, we present a 3D myocardial displacement and strain reconstruction method based on a B-spline deformation model defined in prolate spheroidal coordinates, which more closely matches the shape of the LV wall than existing Cartesian or cylindrical coordinate models. The prolate spheroidal B-spline (PSB) deformation model also enforces smoothness across and can compute strain at the apex. The PSB reconstruction algorithm was evaluated on a previously published data set to allow head-to-head comparison of the PSB model with existing LV deformation reconstruction methods. We conclude that the PSB method can accurately reconstruct deformation and strain in the LV wall from tagged MR images and has several advantages relative to existing techniques.

  13. Specific heat of the simple-cubic Ising model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, X.; Blöte, H.W.J.

    2010-01-01

    We provide an expression quantitatively describing the specific heat of the Ising model on the simple-cubic lattice in the critical region. This expression is based on finite-size scaling of numerical results obtained by means of a Monte Carlo method. It agrees satisfactorily with series expansions

  14. An efficient active B-spline/nurbs model for virtual sculpting

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    This thesis presents an Efficient Active B-Spline/Nurbs Model for Virtual Sculpting. In spite of the on-going rapid development of computer graphics and computer-aided design tools, 3D graphics designers still rely on non-intuitive modelling procedures for the creation and manipulation of freeform virtual content. The ’Virtual Sculpting' paradigm is a well-established mechanism for shielding designers from the complex mathematics that underpin freeform shape design. The premise is to emulate ...

  15. Clustered mixed nonhomogeneous Poisson process spline models for the analysis of recurrent event panel data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, J D; Dean, C B

    2008-09-01

    A flexible semiparametric model for analyzing longitudinal panel count data arising from mixtures is presented. Panel count data refers here to count data on recurrent events collected as the number of events that have occurred within specific follow-up periods. The model assumes that the counts for each subject are generated by mixtures of nonhomogeneous Poisson processes with smooth intensity functions modeled with penalized splines. Time-dependent covariate effects are also incorporated into the process intensity using splines. Discrete mixtures of these nonhomogeneous Poisson process spline models extract functional information from underlying clusters representing hidden subpopulations. The motivating application is an experiment to test the effectiveness of pheromones in disrupting the mating pattern of the cherry bark tortrix moth. Mature moths arise from hidden, but distinct, subpopulations and monitoring the subpopulation responses was of interest. Within-cluster random effects are used to account for correlation structures and heterogeneity common to this type of data. An estimating equation approach to inference requiring only low moment assumptions is developed and the finite sample properties of the proposed estimating functions are investigated empirically by simulation.

  16. Extension of the cubic uniform B-spline curve based on the linear combination of curves%基于曲线线性组合的3次均匀B样条曲线的拓展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁锡坤

    2011-01-01

    为了丰富和发展B样条曲线理论,利用曲线线性组合的思想,将3次均匀B样条曲线进行了拓展,并讨论了拓展曲线的性质.研究表明,拓展曲线的基具有较简单的表达式;拓展曲线包含了原曲线的基本形式,比原曲线具有更强的描述能力,且保持曲线次数不变.利用曲线的形状因子可以调整曲线的局部形状;同时得到了一种闭曲线表示的新途径.%In order to develop the theory of B-spline curve, the representation of cubic uniform B-spline curve is extended to a general form based on linear combination of curves.Moreover, some properties of the extended curve are discussed in details.The research shows that the basis of the generalized curve is relative simple, and the extended curve includes the original B-spline curve and shows much better shape-control capability than the original curve.Meanwhile, the extended curve keeps the same degree of original one.It is easy to find that the curve can be reshape by adjusting the shape factor.Also, a new method of the representation of closed curve is given.

  17. Geometry Modeling of Ship Hull Based on Non-uniform B-spline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hu; ZOU Zao-jian

    2008-01-01

    In order to generate the three-dimensional (3-D) hull surface accurately and smoothly, a mixed method which is made up of non-uniform B-spline together with an iterative procedure was developed. By using the iterative method the data points on each section curve are calculated and the generalized waterlines and transverse section curves are determined. Then using the non-uniform B-spline expression, the control vertex net of the hull is calculated based on the generalized waterlines and section curves. A ship with tunnel stern was taken as test case. The numerical results prove that the proposed approach for geometry modeling of 3-D ship hull surface is accurate and effective.

  18. 带多个形状参数的三次均匀B样条曲线的扩展%Extension of Uniform Cubic B-Spline Curves withMultiple Shape Parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏成林; 邬弘毅; 郑兴国; 彭凯军

    2011-01-01

    通过构造两类带多个形状参数的调配函数,生成三次均匀B样条基函数的扩展.基于给出的调配函数定义了两类带多个形状参数的分段多项式曲线.这些曲线具有三次均匀B样条曲线的绝大多数重要性质,能达到GC1或GC2连续.改变形状参数的值可以独立地调控各子段的端点的位置及其切矢的长度,对曲线进行整体或局部调整,甚至直接插值任何所需的控制点.%Two classes of blending functions with multiple shape parameters are presented in this paper. They are the extension of uniform cubic B-spline basic functions. Based on the given blending functions, the piecewise polynomial curves with shape parameters are defined. These curves inherit the most properties of uniform cubic B-spline curves with GCl or GC2 continuity.The position and the length of tangent vector at the end points of curve segments can be independently controlled by changing the values of the shape parameters. These curves can be adjusted totally or locally and interpolated by any given control points.

  19. 基于误差控制的自适应3次B样条曲线插值%Adaptive curve interpolation of cubic B-spline based on error control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶铁丽; 李学艺; 曾庆良

    2013-01-01

    Aiming at the problem of the existing curve interpolation algorithm on data compression, an adaptive curve interpolation algorithm of cubic B-spline is presented. An initial cubic B-spline curve is interpolated by selected minimum data points. Based on the presented algorithm for calculating the minimum distance from point to a curve, all the interpolation errors corresponding to remaining data points are calculated, and the maximum interpolation error is obtained. If the maximum error is greater than the threshold value, the point with the maximum error is added to the data points to interpolate a new curve. The process continues until the maximum interpolation error is less than the threshold value. Comparing to the current curve interpolation methods, the proposed algorithm can compress data points greatly with the same precision.%针对现有曲线插值算法不能有效压缩型值点的缺陷,研究了一种自适应三次B样条曲线插值算法.从型值点序列中选用最少的点插值一条初始曲线,基于提出的点到曲线的最小距离计算方法,分别计算各非插值点对应的插值误差,并从中提取最大插值误差.若最大误差大于给定的误差阈值,则将其对应的型值点加入插值型值点序列,重新插值曲线,直到最大插值误差满足误差要求.与现有曲线插值算法相比,该算法可以在保证插值精度的前提下有效压缩数据量.

  20. A Research on Manipulator Trajectory Interpolation Algorithm Based on Cubic Uniform B-spline Curve%三次均匀B样条的机器人插补算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏世栋; 刘鹏飞

    2012-01-01

    为了增强关节式工业机器人加工不规则工件的能力,将三次均匀B样条曲线应用于关节式机器人轨迹插补算法中,使机器人末端以三次B样条的曲线轨迹通过各加工点.在分析了三次均匀B样条曲线特性的基础上,给出了三次均匀B样条曲线的一般表达式.在增加曲线自由端点条件后,使用追赶算法快速反算出控制点.使用预估校正的方法推导出插补算法,该算法能使机器人末端遵循抛物线过渡型的加速-匀速-减速变化规律,给出了预测减速点的方法.对一个类花瓣型的加工对象进行仿真,证明文中方法的可行性.%To enhance capability of industry joint robot to machine irregular shape workpiece, the cubic uniform B - spline curve is introduced to manipulator trajectory interpolation. After reviewing characteristics of cubic uniform B-spline curve, the general expressions of such curve are proposed. A chasing method is used to calculate the control points,while conditions of two free endpoints are added to the solutions. A predict-correct method is used to derive the interpolation algorithm, which directs the velocity of end-effecter to follow a parabolic curve-accelerating, uniform and decelerating, and the prediction of deceleration point is presented. A simulation is tested in a flower-shaped workpiece and feasibility of manipulator trajectory interpolation algorithm is verified.

  1. Analysis of myocardial motion using generalized spline models and tagged magnetic resonance images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fang; Rose, Stephen E.; Wilson, Stephen J.; Veidt, Martin; Bennett, Cameron J.; Doddrell, David M.

    2000-06-01

    Heart wall motion abnormalities are the very sensitive indicators of common heart diseases, such as myocardial infarction and ischemia. Regional strain analysis is especially important in diagnosing local abnormalities and mechanical changes in the myocardium. In this work, we present a complete method for the analysis of cardiac motion and the evaluation of regional strain in the left ventricular wall. The method is based on the generalized spline models and tagged magnetic resonance images (MRI) of the left ventricle. The whole method combines dynamical tracking of tag deformation, simulating cardiac movement and accurately computing the regional strain distribution. More specifically, the analysis of cardiac motion is performed in three stages. Firstly, material points within the myocardium are tracked over time using a semi-automated snake-based tag tracking algorithm developed for this purpose. This procedure is repeated in three orthogonal axes so as to generate a set of one-dimensional sample measurements of the displacement field. The 3D-displacement field is then reconstructed from this sample set by using a generalized vector spline model. The spline reconstruction of the displacement field is explicitly expressed as a linear combination of a spline kernel function associated with each sample point and a polynomial term. Finally, the strain tensor (linear or nonlinear) with three direct components and three shear components is calculated by applying a differential operator directly to the displacement function. The proposed method is computationally effective and easy to perform on tagged MR images. The preliminary study has shown potential advantages of using this method for the analysis of myocardial motion and the quantification of regional strain.

  2. Multiscale Modeling of Point and Line Defects in Cubic Lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    and discli- nations with finite micropolar elastoplasticity . Int. J. Plasticity. 22:210–256, 2006. 56. Menzel, A., and Steinmann, P., On the contin...Voyiadjis, G. Z., A finite strain plastic- damage model for high velocity impact using combined viscosity and gradient localization limiters: Part I...Theoretical for- mulation. Int. J. Damage Mech. 15:293–334, 2006. 58. Milstein, F., and Chantasiriwan, S,. Theoretical study of the response of 12 cubic

  3. Preference learning with evolutionary Multivariate Adaptive Regression Spline model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abou-Zleikha, Mohamed; Shaker, Noor; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2015-01-01

    for human decision making. Learning models from pairwise preference data is however an NP-hard problem. Therefore, constructing models that can effectively learn such data is a challenging task. Models are usually constructed with accuracy being the most important factor. Another vitally important aspect...... that is usually given less attention is expressiveness, i.e. how easy it is to explain the relationship between the model input and output. Most machine learning techniques are focused either on performance or on expressiveness. This paper employ MARS models which have the advantage of being a powerful method...

  4. ANALISIS REGRESI NONPARAMETRIK SPLINE MULTIVARIAT UNTUK PEMODELAN INDIKATOR KEMISKINAN DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DESAK AYU WIRI ASTITI

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to obtain statistics models which explain the relationship between variables that influence the poverty indicators in Indonesia using multivariate spline nonparametric regression method. Spline is a nonparametric regression estimation method that is automatically search for its estimation wherever the data pattern move and thus resulting in model which fitted the data. This study, uses data from survey of Social Economy National (Susenas and survey of Employment National (Sakernas of 2013 from the publication of the Central Bureau of Statistics (BPS. This study yields two models which are the best model from two used response variables. The criterion uses to select the best model is the minimum Generalized Cross Validation (GCV. The best spline model obtained is cubic spline model with five optimal knots.

  5. Nonlinear structure formation in the Cubic Galileon gravity model

    CERN Document Server

    Barreira, Alexandre; Hellwing, Wojciech A; Baugh, Carlton M; Pascoli, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    We model the linear and nonlinear growth of large scale structure in the Cubic Galileon gravity model, by running a suite of N-body cosmological simulations using the {\\tt ECOSMOG} code. Our simulations include the Vainshtein screening effect, which reconciles the Cubic Galileon model with local tests of gravity. In the linear regime, the amplitude of the matter power spectrum increases by $\\sim 25%$ with respect to the standard $\\Lambda$CDM model today. The modified expansion rate accounts for $\\sim 20%$ of this enhancement, while the fifth force is responsible for only $\\sim 5%$. This is because the effective unscreened gravitational strength deviates from standard gravity only at late times, even though it can be twice as large today. In the nonlinear regime ($k \\gtrsim 0.1 h\\rm{Mpc}^{-1}$), the fifth force leads to only a modest increase ($\\lesssim 8%$) in the clustering power on all scales due to the very efficient operation of the Vainshtein mechanism. Such a strong effect is typically not seen in other...

  6. Modeling of Accurate Variable Slope Angles in Open-Pit Mine Design Using Spline Interpolation / Modelowanie Zmiennego Kąta Nachylenia Stoku W Projektowaniu Kopalni Odkrywkowych Za Pomocą Interpolacji Funkcjami Sklejającymi (Metodą Spline'Ów)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishvan, Masoud Soleymani; Sattarvand, Javad

    2012-12-01

    In this paper a new method of modeling variable slope angles has been presented based on the spline interpolation method. Slope angle modeling and defining precedency of the blocks are the vital parts of almost any open pit optimization algorithm. Traditionally heuristic patterns such as 1:5 or 1:9 have been used to generate slope angles. Cone template based models were later employed in developing variable slope angles. They normally use a linear interpolation process for determination of slope angles between the given directions which leads to sharp and non-realistic pits. The other elliptical alternatives suffer from having limitations in defining slope angles in non-geographical directions. The method is capable to consider any number of slope angles in any desired direction as well as creating quite accurate and realistic pit shapes. Three major types of the spline interpolation including cubic, quadratic and cardinal are tested, however, the cubic form is preferred due to more realistic outcomes. Main steps of the method are described through a numerical case study.

  7. Computation of Fifth Degree of Spline Function Model by Using C++ Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faraidun K. HamaSalh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new quintic spline method developed for computing approximate solution of differential equations. It is shown that the present method is of the order three and four derivatives and gives approximations which are better. The numerical result obtained by the present method has been compared with the exact solution using C++ programming and also illustrate graphically the applicability of the new method. By getting the advantages of the mathematical building functions like pow (for power, exp (for exponential, etc. are provided in C++ programming library, all processing steps are done efficiently and illustrated as Pseudocode model.

  8. 样条磨光的盈亏修正技术与图象反扩散恢复%Comments on Revision Technique in Cubic B-Spline Smoothing An Inverse Diffusion Restoration Understanding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡利栋

    2001-01-01

    The profit-and-loss revision technique may improve the accuracy of approximation to raw image data undergone a cubic B-spline smoothing. Comments are made on this technique from the viewpoint of image smoothing and restoration, giving highlights on the equivalence between spline smoothing and diffusion smoothing, and between profit-and-loss revision and inverse diffusion restoration; formulating the revision operators into a series of renewal recursions together with an estimation to the order of their deviations from the raw data; and exposing the numerical instability of both simple and renewal recursion of the profit and loss revision. Finally, a discussion is further made on the feasibility of applying the profit-and-loss revision to edge detection for images in the presence of noise.%以三阶B-样条作数据磨光时,引入盈亏修正可以在磨光的同时提高逼近原始数据的精度.通过从图象的平滑与恢复处理的角度出发来对盈亏修正技术进行评注,并进一步阐明了样条磨光与扩散平滑、盈亏修正与反扩散恢复在离散条件下的等价关系,给出了用于修正的更新迭代算子序列以及相应的偏差阶数估计,并且指出了盈亏修正的简单迭代和更新迭代都是数值上绝对不稳定的计算;最后讨论了盈亏修正技术在图象边缘探测中的适用性.

  9. Bi-cubic non-uniform B-spline surface reconstruction for slice contours%断层轮廓的双三次非均匀B样条曲面重构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑜; 郑津津; 周洪军; 沈连婠

    2011-01-01

    A surface reconstruction method from the slice contours was proposed. First, feature points were extracted based on curvature feature, and they were resampled in order to get a unification of sampling points in each line (column). Then, the sampling points were interpolated to get a bi-cubic non-uniform B-spline surface. Finally, nodes were inserted on the surface based on distance feature at a certain control accuracy, and the new control points through the least-squares approximation method were calculated to get approximate surface within the permissible range error. Based on the characteristics of slice contours, B-spline cycle and non-cycle B-spline combined, and the calculation of closed and non-closed surface was discussed. It was found that the combination of interpolation and approximation makes the algorithm more rapid and practical.%针对断层图像数据,提出了一种曲面重构的方法.依据曲率特征首先提取各层特征点,对其重采样使每行(列)获得统一的采样点数;再对采样点插值得到非均匀双三次B样条曲面;最后,在一定控制精度下对曲面依据距离特征进行节点插入,通过最小二乘逼近法算出新的控制顶点,从而得到误差在容许范围内的逼近曲面.根据断层轮廓的特点,本算法综合运用了周期B样条和非周期B样条,讨论了封闭曲面和非封闭曲面的计算方法.另外插值和逼近的结合应用使该算法更快速、实用.

  10. B-splines as a Tool to Solve Constraints in Non-Hydrostatic Forecast Model

    CERN Document Server

    Subias, Alvaro

    2016-01-01

    Finite elements has been proven to be an useful tool to discretize the vertical coordinate in the hydrostatic forecast models allowing to define model variables in full levels so that no staggering is needed. In the non-hydrostatic case a constraint in the vertical operators appears (called C1) that does not allow to reduce the set of semi-implicit linear equations to a single equation in one variable as in the analytic case. Recently vertical finite elements based in B-splines have been used with an iterative method to relax the C1 constraint. In this paper we want to develop properly some representations of vertical operators in terms of B-splines in order to keep the C1-constraint. An invertibility relation between integral and derivative operators between vertical velocity and vertical divergence is also presented. The final scope of this paper is to provide a theoretical framework of development of finite element vertical operators to be implemented in the nh-Harmonie model

  11. Application of Semiparametric Spline Regression Model in Analyzing Factors that In uence Population Density in Central Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumantari, Y. D.; Slamet, I.; Sugiyanto

    2017-06-01

    Semiparametric regression is a statistical analysis method that consists of parametric and nonparametric regression. There are various approach techniques in nonparametric regression. One of the approach techniques is spline. Central Java is one of the most densely populated province in Indonesia. Population density in this province can be modeled by semiparametric regression because it consists of parametric and nonparametric component. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to determine the factors that in uence population density in Central Java using the semiparametric spline regression model. The result shows that the factors which in uence population density in Central Java is Family Planning (FP) active participants and district minimum wage.

  12. Lectures on constructive approximation Fourier, spline, and wavelet methods on the real line, the sphere, and the ball

    CERN Document Server

    Michel, Volker

    2013-01-01

    Lectures on Constructive Approximation: Fourier, Spline, and Wavelet Methods on the Real Line, the Sphere, and the Ball focuses on spherical problems as they occur in the geosciences and medical imaging. It comprises the author’s lectures on classical approximation methods based on orthogonal polynomials and selected modern tools such as splines and wavelets. Methods for approximating functions on the real line are treated first, as they provide the foundations for the methods on the sphere and the ball and are useful for the analysis of time-dependent (spherical) problems. The author then examines the transfer of these spherical methods to problems on the ball, such as the modeling of the Earth’s or the brain’s interior. Specific topics covered include: * the advantages and disadvantages of Fourier, spline, and wavelet methods * theory and numerics of orthogonal polynomials on intervals, spheres, and balls * cubic splines and splines based on reproducing kernels * multiresolution analysis using wavelet...

  13. SEASONALITY IN THE DYNAMICS OF THE PRODUCTION OF NATURAL AND ASSOCIATED PETROLEUM GAS IN RUSSIA: THE SPLINE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilyasov R. H.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The energy market shows strong exposure to seasonal fluctuations. A striking example of the impact of seasonality is the dynamics of the production of natural and associated gas in Russia. We use two approaches to the identification and analysis of seasonality: classical econometric based on different smoothing procedure; spline method uses an approximation of the economic dynamics of cubic splines and phase analysis. In the comparison of the two methods are used to identify the benefits of using spline functions when modeling economic dynamics and phase analysis of seasonality

  14. Regional Densification of a Global VTEC Model Based on B-Spline Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Eren; Schmidt, Michael; Dettmering, Denise; Goss, Andreas; Seitz, Florian; Börger, Klaus; Brandert, Sylvia; Görres, Barbara; Kersten, Wilhelm F.; Bothmer, Volker; Hinrichs, Johannes; Mrotzek, Niclas

    2017-04-01

    The project OPTIMAP is a joint initiative of the Bundeswehr GeoInformation Centre (BGIC), the German Space Situational Awareness Centre (GSSAC), the German Geodetic Research Institute of the Technical University Munich (DGFI-TUM) and the Institute for Astrophysics at the University of Göttingen (IAG). The main goal of the project is the development of an operational tool for ionospheric mapping and prediction (OPTIMAP). Two key features of the project are the combination of different satellite observation techniques (GNSS, satellite altimetry, radio occultations and DORIS) and the regional densification as a remedy against problems encountered with the inhomogeneous data distribution. Since the data from space-geoscientific mission which can be used for modeling ionospheric parameters, such as the Vertical Total Electron Content (VTEC) or the electron density, are distributed rather unevenly over the globe at different altitudes, appropriate modeling approaches have to be developed to handle this inhomogeneity. Our approach is based on a two-level strategy. To be more specific, in the first level we compute a global VTEC model with a moderate regional and spectral resolution which will be complemented in the second level by a regional model in a densification area. The latter is a region characterized by a dense data distribution to obtain a high spatial and spectral resolution VTEC product. Additionally, the global representation means a background model for the regional one to avoid edge effects at the boundaries of the densification area. The presented approach based on a global and a regional model part, i.e. the consideration of a regional densification is called the Two-Level VTEC Model (TLVM). The global VTEC model part is based on a series expansion in terms of polynomial B-Splines in latitude direction and trigonometric B-Splines in longitude direction. The additional regional model part is set up by a series expansion in terms of polynomial B-splines for

  15. 基于样条插值的非线性滤波器的分析与设计%Analysis and Design of Non-linear filters Based on Cubic Spline Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍小芹; 张宏科; 邓家先

    2011-01-01

    在理论分析和实际应用中,信号分析具有重要的理论意义和实际应用价值.非平稳信号的分析及处理一直是学术和工程界关注的热点问题之一.由于传统数据分析方法受线性或者平稳性假设的限制,无法有效地应用于图像处理、语音处理及雷达信号处理等实际应用中.本文通过对非线性、非平稳数据的建模,研究了适合非平稳数据分析的经验数据分解算法.建立了可行的经验数据分解滤波器的设计准则,并利用三次样条插值预测滤波器的参数.使用超光谱图像数据进行测试分析,在一次经验数据分解后,分析了高频子带数值在规定范围内的概率分布及相应的熵值.实验结果表明:经验数据分解算法产生的高频系数在0附近更集中,这对图像压缩有利,从而证明经验数据分解是一种对非平稳数据有效的分析方法.%Signal analysis has important theoretical and practical application. Non-stationary signal analysis and processing is one of the hot topics in the scientific and engineering research area. Because of the limit of linearity and stationarity assumption, the traditional methods can not be effectively used in image processing, speech processing and radar signal processing. A model suiting for nonlinear and non-stationary is established. The empirical data decomposition algorithm is discussed. A suitable design criteria is established. The use of cubic spline functions to predict the parameters of the predictive filter is discussed. Making a test on spectrum image data with empirical data decomposition. The system is simulated in Matlab. The probability distribution of the samples in high-frequency subbands whose values are within the specified range and the corresponding entropy are analyzed through simulation. The results show that the high-frequency coefficients produed by empirical data decomposition algorithm is more concentrated than those of 5/3 wavelet and 9

  16. 基于三次B样条的镜框曲线修调及成型控制%Modifying Glass-shape Curve and Controlling Molding Based on Cubic B-spline Curve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝恒佳; 严思杰; 刘学伟

    2011-01-01

    A method of modifying glass - shape curve based on cubic B - spline curve is studied. An algorithm of screening the effective data points in processing the sampling points is putted forward. As a result, the glass - shape curve can be generated by calculating the control points and interpolation. The curve can be modified directly by dragging the control point. And then calculate the space curve of the glass,and control the three axis linkage for molding movement. The algorithm effectively simplify the calculating process of modifying the glass - shape curve, and make the modifying convenience.%研究了一种基于三次B样条来进行镜框曲线修调策略.提出对镜框采样数据的有效型值点筛选算法,通过反求控制点、插值生成镜框平面曲线.直接通过拖动控制点来对平面曲线进行修调.进而计算镜框空间曲线,控制三轴联动来完成镜框成型运动.该算法能够有效简化曲线修调的计算过程,并使修调操作方便.

  17. PM10 modeling in the Oviedo urban area (Northern Spain) by using multivariate adaptive regression splines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Paulino José García; Antón, Juan Carlos Álvarez; Vilán, José Antonio Vilán; García-Gonzalo, Esperanza

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this research work is to build a regression model of the particulate matter up to 10 micrometers in size (PM10) by using the multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) technique in the Oviedo urban area (Northern Spain) at local scale. This research work explores the use of a nonparametric regression algorithm known as multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) which has the ability to approximate the relationship between the inputs and outputs, and express the relationship mathematically. In this sense, hazardous air pollutants or toxic air contaminants refer to any substance that may cause or contribute to an increase in mortality or serious illness, or that may pose a present or potential hazard to human health. To accomplish the objective of this study, the experimental dataset of nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3) and dust (PM10) were collected over 3 years (2006-2008) and they are used to create a highly nonlinear model of the PM10 in the Oviedo urban nucleus (Northern Spain) based on the MARS technique. One main objective of this model is to obtain a preliminary estimate of the dependence between PM10 pollutant in the Oviedo urban area at local scale. A second aim is to determine the factors with the greatest bearing on air quality with a view to proposing health and lifestyle improvements. The United States National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) establishes the limit values of the main pollutants in the atmosphere in order to ensure the health of healthy people. Firstly, this MARS regression model captures the main perception of statistical learning theory in order to obtain a good prediction of the dependence among the main pollutants in the Oviedo urban area. Secondly, the main advantages of MARS are its capacity to produce simple, easy-to-interpret models, its ability to estimate the contributions of the input variables, and its computational efficiency. Finally, on the basis of

  18. Regional Modelling of the Southern African Geomagnetic Field using Harmonic Splines

    CERN Document Server

    Geese, Anne; Lesur, Vincent; Mandea, Mioara

    2010-01-01

    Over the southern African region the geomagnetic field is weak and changes rapidly. For this area series of geomagnetic field measurements exist since the 1950s. We take advantage of the existing repeat station surveys and observatory annual means, and clean these data sets by eliminating jumps and minimising external field contributions in the original time series. This unique data set allows us to obtain a detailed view of the geomagnetic field behaviour in space and time by computing a regional model. For this, we use a system of representation similar to harmonic splines. Initially, the technique is systematically tested on synthetic data. After systematically testing the method on synthetic data, we derive a model for 1961 to 2001 that gives a detailed view of the fast changes of the geomagnetic field in this region.

  19. Evaluation of solid–liquid interface profile during continuous casting by a spline based formalism

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S K Das

    2001-08-01

    A numerical framework has been applied which comprises of a cubic spline based collocation method to determine the solid–liquid interface profile (solidification front) during continuous casting process. The basis function chosen for the collocation algorithm to be employed in this formalism, is a cubic spline interpolation function. An iterative solution methodology has been developed to track the interface profile for copper strand of rectangular transverse section for different casting speeds. It is based on enthalpy conservation criteria at the solidification interface and the trend is found to be in good agreement with the available information in the literature although a point to point mapping of the profile is not practically realizable. The spline based collocation algorithm is found to be a reasonably efficient tool for solidification front tracking process, as a good spatial derivative approximation can be achieved incorporating simple modelling philosophy which is numerically robust and computationally cost effective.

  20. Splines and control theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhimin; Tomlinson, John; Martin, Clyde

    1994-01-01

    In this work, the relationship between splines and the control theory has been analyzed. We show that spline functions can be constructed naturally from the control theory. By establishing a framework based on control theory, we provide a simple and systematic way to construct splines. We have constructed the traditional spline functions including the polynomial splines and the classical exponential spline. We have also discovered some new spline functions such as trigonometric splines and the combination of polynomial, exponential and trigonometric splines. The method proposed in this paper is easy to implement. Some numerical experiments are performed to investigate properties of different spline approximations.

  1. A Bézier-Spline-based Model for the Simulation of Hysteresis in Variably Saturated Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Clemens; Peche, Aaron; Thiele, Luisa-Bianca; Graf, Thomas; Neuweiler, Insa

    2017-04-01

    Most transient variably saturated flow models neglect hysteresis in the p_c-S-relationship (Beven, 2012). Such models tend to inadequately represent matrix potential and saturation distribution. Thereby, when simulating flow and transport processes, fluid and solute fluxes might be overestimated (Russo et al., 1989). In this study, we present a simple, computationally efficient and easily applicable model that enables to adequately describe hysteresis in the p_c-S-relationship for variably saturated flow. This model can be seen as an extension to the existing play-type model (Beliaev and Hassanizadeh, 2001), where scanning curves are simplified as vertical lines between main imbibition and main drainage curve. In our model, we use continuous linear and Bézier-Spline-based functions. We show the successful validation of the model by numerically reproducing a physical experiment by Gillham, Klute and Heermann (1976) describing primary drainage and imbibition in a vertical soil column. With a deviation of 3%, the simple Bézier-Spline-based model performs significantly better that the play-type approach, which deviates by 30% from the experimental results. Finally, we discuss the realization of physical experiments in order to extend the model to secondary scanning curves and in order to determine scanning curve steepness. {Literature} Beven, K.J. (2012). Rainfall-Runoff-Modelling: The Primer. John Wiley and Sons. Russo, D., Jury, W. A., & Butters, G. L. (1989). Numerical analysis of solute transport during transient irrigation: 1. The effect of hysteresis and profile heterogeneity. Water Resources Research, 25(10), 2109-2118. https://doi.org/10.1029/WR025i010p02109. Beliaev, A.Y. & Hassanizadeh, S.M. (2001). A Theoretical Model of Hysteresis and Dynamic Effects in the Capillary Relation for Two-phase Flow in Porous Media. Transport in Porous Media 43: 487. doi:10.1023/A:1010736108256. Gillham, R., Klute, A., & Heermann, D. (1976). Hydraulic properties of a porous

  2. Activation force splines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engell-Nørregård, Morten Pol; Erleben, Kenny

    dimensional 2D/3D deformable model. Our activation splines are easy to set up and can be used for physics based animation of deformable models such as snake motion and locomotion of characters. Our approach generalises easily to both 2D and 3D simulations and is applicable in physics based games or animations...

  3. Rational Cubics and Conics Representation: A Practical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sarfraz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A rational cubic spline, with one family of shape parameters, has been discussed with the view to its application in Computer Graphics. It incorporates both conic sections and parametric cubic curves as special cases. The parameters (weights, in the description of the spline curve can be used to modify the shape of the curve, locally and globally, at the knot intervals. The rational cubic spline attains parametric   smoothness whereas the stitching of the conic segments preserves visually reasonable smoothness at the neighboring knots. The curve scheme is interpolatory and can plot parabolic, hyperbolic, elliptic, and circular splines independently as well as bits and pieces of a rational cubic spline.Key Words: Computer Graphics, Interpolation, Spline, Conic, Rational Cubic

  4. A southern Africa harmonic spline core field model derived from CHAMP satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahayo, E.; Kotzé, P. B.; McCreadie, H.

    2015-02-01

    The monitoring of the Earth's magnetic field time variation requires a continuous recording of geomagnetic data with a good spatial coverage over the area of study. In southern Africa, ground recording stations are limited and the use of satellite data is needed for the studies where high spatial resolution data is required. We show the fast time variation of the geomagnetic field in the southern Africa region by deriving an harmonic spline model from CHAMP satellite measurements recorded between 2001 and 2010. The derived core field model, the Southern Africa Regional Model (SARM), is compared with the global model GRIMM-2 and the ground based data recorded at Hermanus magnetic observatory (HER) in South Africa and Tsumeb magnetic observatory (TSU) in Namibia where the focus is mainly on the long term variation of the geomagnetic field. The results of this study suggest that the regional model derived from the satellite data alone can be used to study the small scale features of the time variation of the geomagnetic field where ground data is not available. In addition, these results also support the earlier findings of the occurrence of a 2007 magnetic jerk and rapid secular variation fluctuations of 2003 and 2004 in the region.

  5. C2 quartic spline surface interpolation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彩明; 汪嘉业

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the problem of constructing C2 quartic spline surface interpolation. Decreasing the continuity of the quartic spline to C2 offers additional freedom degrees that can be used to adjust the precision and the shape of the interpolation surface. An approach to determining the freedom degrees is given, the continuity equations for constructing C2 quartic spline curve are discussed, and a new method for constructing C2 quartic spline surface is presented. The advantages of the new method are that the equations that the surface has to satisfy are strictly row diagonally dominant, and the discontinuous points of the surface are at the given data points. The constructed surface has the precision of quartic polynomial. The comparison of the interpolation precision of the new method with cubic and quartic spline methods is included.

  6. B-SPLINE-BASED SVM MODEL AND ITS APPLICATIONS TO OIL WATER-FLOODED STATUS IDENTIFICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shang Fuhua; Zhao Tiejun; Yi Xiongying

    2007-01-01

    A method of B-spline transform for signal feature extraction is developed. With the B-spline,the log-signal space is mapped into the vector space. An efficient algorithm based on Support Vector Machine (SVM) to automatically identify the water-flooded status of oil-saturated stratum is described.The experiments show that this algorithm can improve the performances for the identification and the generalization in the case of a limited set of samples.

  7. Online estimation of B-spline mixture models from TOF-PET list-mode data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schretter, Colas; Kobbelt, Leif [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Computer Graphics Group; Sun, Jianyong [Nottingham Univ. (United Kingdom). Intelligent Modelling and Analysis Research Group

    2011-07-01

    In emission tomography, images are usually represented by regular grids of voxels or overlapping smooth image elements (blobs). Few other image models have been proposed like tetrahedral meshes or point clouds that are adapted to an anatomical image. This work proposes a practical sparse and continuous image model inspired from the field of parametric density estimation for Gaussian mixture models. The position, size, aspect ratio and orientation of each image element is optimized as well as its weight with a very fast online estimation method. Furthermore, the number of mixture components, hence the image resolution, is locally adapted according to the available data. The system model is represented in the same basis as image elements and captures time of flight and positron range effects in an exact way. Computations use apodized B-spline approximations of Gaussians and simple closed-form analytical expressions without any sampling or interpolation. In consequence, the reconstructed image never suffers from spurious aliasing artifacts. Noiseless images of the XCAT brain phantom were reconstructed from simulated data. (orig.)

  8. The Definition and Ray-Tracing of B-Spline Objects in a Combinatorial Solid Geometric Modeling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    surfaces consisting of Bezier curves and Nonuniform Rational B-spline Surfaces ( NURBS ). There are many times however, when both modeling approaches...have allowed the integration of free-form objects in CSG systems. This presentation will discuss the development and integration of NURBS into the...Ballistics Research Laboratory CSG modeling system. 15. SUBJECT TERMS NURBS , BSpline, raytracing, CSG, BRL-CAD 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17

  9. Stable vortex solitons in a vectorial cubic-quintic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihalache, D [Department of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Atomic Physics, PO Box MG-6, Bucharest (Romania); Mazilu, D [Department of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Atomic Physics, PO Box MG-6, Bucharest (Romania); Malomed, B A [Department of Interdisciplinary Studies, Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Lederer, F [Institute of Solid State Theory and Theoretical Optics, Friedrich-Schiller Universitaet Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, D-07743, Jena (Germany)

    2004-05-01

    We investigate the stability of vectorial (two-component) vortex solitons of two types. Their stationary shapes are identical, but their stability (which is the most important issue for spinning solitons) is drastically different. These are solitons with vorticities (S,S) and (S,-S) in the two components. The analysis is performed in a vectorial cubic-quintic model, with the two components nonlinearly coupled by the incoherent cross-phase-modulation interaction, but we expect that the results are quite generic. The stability was investigated by means of computing eigenvalues of perturbations around the stationary solitons, as well as in direct simulations. We also report new analytical results for the well-known problem of the description of the stationary form of scalar solitons in media of this type. The analytical results explain the shape of the spinning solitons, and the strong dependence of their norm (power) on the vorticity, in both the 2D and 3D cases. In this paper we also give the first estimate of the physical characteristics (power and radius) of the stable solitons with different values of S, making use of recently measured values of the necessary nonlinear parameters. All the two-component solitons of type (S,-S) are unstable. In contrast, those of type (S,S) have their stability regions, the size of which strongly depends on S. An unstable soliton always splits into a set of separating zero-spin ones, in precise compliance with the azimuthal index of the most unstable perturbation eigenmode. Direct simulations demonstrate that stable solitons readily self-trap from arbitrary initial pulses which belong to their topological class.

  10. Study of unsteady cavitation on NACA66 hydrofoil using dynamic cubic nonlinear subgrid-scale model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianbei Huang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we describe the use of a new dynamic cubic nonlinear model, a new nonlinear subgrid-scale model, for simulating the cavitating flow around an NACA66 series hydrofoil. For comparison, the dynamic Smagorinsky model is also used. It is found that the dynamic cubic nonlinear model can capture the turbulence spectrum, while the dynamic Smagorinsky model fails. Both models reproduce the cavity growth/destabilization cycle, but the results of the dynamic cubic nonlinear model are much smoother. The re-entrant jet is clearly captured by the models, and it is shown that the re-entrant jet cuts the cavity into two parts. In general, the dynamic cubic nonlinear model provides improvement over the dynamic Smagorinsky model for the calculation of cavitating flow.

  11. Positivity Preserving Interpolation Using Rational Bicubic Spline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samsul Ariffin Abdul Karim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the positivity preserving interpolation for positive surfaces data by extending the C1 rational cubic spline interpolant of Karim and Kong to the bivariate cases. The partially blended rational bicubic spline has 12 parameters in the descriptions where 8 of them are free parameters. The sufficient conditions for the positivity are derived on every four boundary curves network on the rectangular patch. Numerical comparison with existing schemes also has been done in detail. Based on Root Mean Square Error (RMSE, our partially blended rational bicubic spline is on a par with the established methods.

  12. Air quality modeling in the Oviedo urban area (NW Spain) by using multivariate adaptive regression splines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, P J García; Antón, J C Álvarez; Vilán, J A Vilán; García-Gonzalo, E

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this research work is to build a regression model of air quality by using the multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) technique in the Oviedo urban area (northern Spain) at a local scale. To accomplish the objective of this study, the experimental data set made up of nitrogen oxides (NO x ), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3), and dust (PM10) was collected over 3 years (2006-2008). The US National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) establishes the limit values of the main pollutants in the atmosphere in order to ensure the health of healthy people. Firstly, this MARS regression model captures the main perception of statistical learning theory in order to obtain a good prediction of the dependence among the main pollutants in the Oviedo urban area. Secondly, the main advantages of MARS are its capacity to produce simple, easy-to-interpret models, its ability to estimate the contributions of the input variables, and its computational efficiency. Finally, on the basis of these numerical calculations, using the MARS technique, conclusions of this research work are exposed.

  13. Conformal Solid T-spline Construction from Boundary T-spline Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    idea of isogeo- metric analysis [6, 2], one challenge is to automatically cre- ate a conformal solid NURBS /T-spline model with the given spline...solid NURBS construction method for patient-specific vas- cular geometric models was presented. In [1], a swept vol- ume parameterization was built for...representations. A general methodology for constructing a conformal solid T-spline from boundary T-spline/ NURBS representations is 2 Yongjie Zhang et al. (a

  14. Modeling the human development index and the percentage of poor people using quantile smoothing splines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyani, Sri; Andriyana, Yudhie; Sudartianto

    2017-03-01

    Mean regression is a statistical method to explain the relationship between the response variable and the predictor variable based on the central tendency of the data (mean) of the response variable. The parameter estimation in mean regression (with Ordinary Least Square or OLS) generates a problem if we apply it to the data with a symmetric, fat-tailed, or containing outlier. Hence, an alternative method is necessary to be used to that kind of data, for example quantile regression method. The quantile regression is a robust technique to the outlier. This model can explain the relationship between the response variable and the predictor variable, not only on the central tendency of the data (median) but also on various quantile, in order to obtain complete information about that relationship. In this study, a quantile regression is developed with a nonparametric approach such as smoothing spline. Nonparametric approach is used if the prespecification model is difficult to determine, the relation between two variables follow the unknown function. We will apply that proposed method to poverty data. Here, we want to estimate the Percentage of Poor People as the response variable involving the Human Development Index (HDI) as the predictor variable.

  15. Application of thin plate splines for accurate regional ionosphere modeling with multi-GNSS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krypiak-Gregorczyk, Anna; Wielgosz, Pawel; Borkowski, Andrzej

    2016-04-01

    GNSS-derived regional ionosphere models are widely used in both precise positioning, ionosphere and space weather studies. However, their accuracy is often not sufficient to support precise positioning, RTK in particular. In this paper, we presented new approach that uses solely carrier phase multi-GNSS observables and thin plate splines (TPS) for accurate ionospheric TEC modeling. TPS is a closed solution of a variational problem minimizing both the sum of squared second derivatives of a smoothing function and the deviation between data points and this function. This approach is used in UWM-rt1 regional ionosphere model developed at UWM in Olsztyn. The model allows for providing ionospheric TEC maps with high spatial and temporal resolutions - 0.2x0.2 degrees and 2.5 minutes, respectively. For TEC estimation, EPN and EUPOS reference station data is used. The maps are available with delay of 15-60 minutes. In this paper we compare the performance of UWM-rt1 model with IGS global and CODE regional ionosphere maps during ionospheric storm that took place on March 17th, 2015. During this storm, the TEC level over Europe doubled comparing to earlier quiet days. The performance of the UWM-rt1 model was validated by (a) comparison to reference double-differenced ionospheric corrections over selected baselines, and (b) analysis of post-fit residuals to calibrated carrier phase geometry-free observational arcs at selected test stations. The results show a very good performance of UWM-rt1 model. The obtained post-fit residuals in case of UWM maps are lower by one order of magnitude comparing to IGS maps. The accuracy of UWM-rt1 -derived TEC maps is estimated at 0.5 TECU. This may be directly translated to the user positioning domain.

  16. Higher-Order Approximation of Cubic-Quintic Duffing Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganji, S. S.; Barari, Amin; Babazadeh, H.

    2011-01-01

    We apply an Artificial Parameter Lindstedt-Poincaré Method (APL-PM) to find improved approximate solutions for strongly nonlinear Duffing oscillations with cubic-quintic nonlinear restoring force. This approach yields simple linear algebraic equations instead of nonlinear algebraic equations...... without analytical solution which makes it a unique solution. It is demonstrated that this method works very well for the whole range of parameters in the case of the cubic-quintic oscillator, and excellent agreement of the approximate frequencies with the exact one has been observed and discussed....... Moreover, it is not limited to the small parameter such as in the classical perturbation method. Interestingly, this study revealed that the relative error percentage in the second-order approximate analytical period is less than 0.042% for the whole parameter values. In addition, we compared...

  17. Interchangeable spline reference guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolin, R.M.

    1994-05-01

    The WX-Division Integrated Software Tools (WIST) Team evolved from two previous committees, First was the W78 Solid Modeling Pilot Project`s Spline Subcommittee, which later evolved into the Vv`X-Division Spline Committee. The mission of the WIST team is to investigate current CAE engineering processes relating to complex geometry and to develop methods for improving those processes. Specifically, the WIST team is developing technology that allows the Division to use multiple spline representations. We are also updating the contour system (CONSYS) data base to take full advantage of the Division`s expanding electronic engineering process. Both of these efforts involve developing interfaces to commercial CAE systems and writing new software. The WIST team is comprised of members from V;X-11, -12 and 13. This {open_quotes}cross-functional{close_quotes} approach to software development is somewhat new in the Division so an effort is being made to formalize our processes and assure quality at each phase of development. Chapter one represents a theory manual and is one phase of the formal process. The theory manual is followed by a software requirements document, specification document, software verification and validation documents. The purpose of this guide is to present the theory underlying the interchangeable spline technology and application. Verification and validation test results are also presented for proof of principal.

  18. Regional magnetic anomaly fields: 3D Taylor polynomial and surface spline models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yan; Jiang, Yong; Jiang, Yi; Li, Zheng; Jiang, Jin; Liu, Zhong-Wei; Ye, Mei-Chen; Wang, Hong-Sheng; Li, Xiu-Ming

    2016-03-01

    We used data from 1960.0, 1970.0, 1980.0, 1990.0, and 2000.0 to study the geomagnetic anomaly field over the Chinese mainland by using the three-dimensional Taylor polynomial (3DTP) and the surface spline (SS) models. To obtain the pure anomaly field, the main field and the induced field of the ionospheric and magnetospheric fields were removed from measured data. We also compared the SS model anomalies and the data obtained with Kriging interpolation (KI). The geomagnetic anomaly distribution over the mainland was analyzed based on the SS and 3DTP models by transferring all points from 1960.0-1990.0 to 2000.0. The results suggest that the total intensity F anomalies estimated based on the SS and KI for each year are basically consistent in distribution and intensity. The anomalous distributions in the X-, Y-, and Z-direction and F are mainly negative. The 3DTP model anomalies suggest that the intensity in the X-direction increases from -100 nT to 0 nT with longitude, whereas the intensity in the Y-direction decreases from 400 nT to 20 nT with longitude and over the eastern mainland is almost negative. The intensity in the Z-direction and F are very similar and in most areas it is about -50nT and higher in western Tibet. The SS model anomalies overall reflect the actual distribution of the magnetic field anomalies; however, because of the uneven distribution of measurements, it yields several big anomalies. Owing to the added altitude term, the 3DTP model offers higher precision and is consistent with KI.

  19. Regional magnetic anomalyfi elds:3D Taylor polynomial and surface spline models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Yan; Jiang Yong; Jiang Yi; Li Zheng; Jiang Jin; Liu Zhong-Wei; Ye Mei-Chen; Wang Hong-Sheng; Li Xiu-Ming

    2016-01-01

    We used data from 1960.0, 1970.0, 1980.0, 1990.0, and 2000.0 to study the geomagnetic anomalyfi eld over the Chinese mainland by using the three-dimensional Taylor polynomial (3DTP) and the surface spline (SS) models. To obtain the pure anomalyfi eld, the mainfi eld and the inducedfi eld of the ionospheric and magnetosphericfi elds were removed from measured data. We also compared the SS model anomalies and the data obtained with Kriging interpolation (KI). The geomagnetic anomaly distribution over the mainland was analyzed based on the SS and 3DTP models by transferring all points from 1960.0−1990.0 to 2000.0. The results suggest that the total intensity F anomalies estimated based on the SS and KI for each year are basically consistent in distribution and intensity. The anomalous distributions in the X-, Y-, and Z-direction and F are mainly negative. The 3DTP model anomalies suggest that the intensity in the X-direction increases from−100 nT to 0 nT with longitude, whereas the intensity in the Y-direction decreases from 400 nT to 20 nT with longitude and over the eastern mainland is almost negative. The intensity in the Z-direction and F are very similar and in most areas it is about−50nT and higher in western Tibet. The SS model anomalies overall refl ect the actual distribution of the magneticfi eld anomalies; however, because of the uneven distribution of measurements, it yields several big anomalies. Owing to the added altitude term, the 3DTP model offers higher precision and is consistent with KI.

  20. CT segmentation of dental shapes by anatomy-driven reformation imaging and B-spline modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, S; Paoli, A; Razionale, A V

    2016-06-01

    Dedicated imaging methods are among the most important tools of modern computer-aided medical applications. In the last few years, cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) has gained popularity in digital dentistry for 3D imaging of jawbones and teeth. However, the anatomy of a maxillofacial region complicates the assessment of tooth geometry and anatomical location when using standard orthogonal views of the CT data set. In particular, a tooth is defined by a sub-region, which cannot be easily separated from surrounding tissues by only considering pixel grey-intensity values. For this reason, an image enhancement is usually necessary in order to properly segment tooth geometries. In this paper, an anatomy-driven methodology to reconstruct individual 3D tooth anatomies by processing CBCT data is presented. The main concept is to generate a small set of multi-planar reformation images along significant views for each target tooth, driven by the individual anatomical geometry of a specific patient. The reformation images greatly enhance the clearness of the target tooth contours. A set of meaningful 2D tooth contours is extracted and used to automatically model the overall 3D tooth shape through a B-spline representation. The effectiveness of the methodology has been verified by comparing some anatomy-driven reconstructions of anterior and premolar teeth with those obtained by using standard tooth segmentation tools. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Monte Carlo sampling and multivariate adaptive regression splines as tools for QSAR modelling of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamdari, R F; Mani-Varnosfaderani, A; Asadollahi-Baboli, M; Khalafi-Nezhad, A

    2012-10-01

    The present work focuses on the development of an interpretable quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model for predicting the anti-HIV activities of 67 thiazolylthiourea derivatives. This set of molecules has been proposed as potent HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RT-INs). The molecules were encoded to a diverse set of molecular descriptors, spanning different physical and chemical properties. Monte Carlo (MC) sampling and multivariate adaptive regression spline (MARS) techniques were used to select the most important descriptors and to predict the activity of the molecules. The most important descriptor was found to be the aspherisity index. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) and interpretable spline equations showed that the geometrical shape of the molecules has considerable effect on their activities. It seems that the linear molecules are more active than symmetric top compounds. The final MARS model derived displayed a good predictive ability judging from the determination coefficient corresponding to the leave multiple out (LMO) cross-validation technique, i.e. r (2 )= 0.828 (M = 12) and r (2 )= 0.813 (M = 20). The results of this work showed that the developed spline model is robust, has a good predictive power, and can then be used as a reliable tool for designing novel HIV-1 RT-INs.

  2. Efectivity of Additive Spline for Partial Least Square Method in Regression Model Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Bilfarsah

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Additive Spline of Partial Least Square method (ASPL as one generalization of Partial Least Square (PLS method. ASPLS method can be acommodation to non linear and multicollinearity case of predictor variables. As a principle, The ASPLS method approach is cahracterized by two idea. The first is to used parametric transformations of predictors by spline function; the second is to make ASPLS components mutually uncorrelated, to preserve properties of the linear PLS components. The performance of ASPLS compared with other PLS method is illustrated with the fisher economic application especially the tuna fish production.

  3. Segmented Regression Based on B-Splines with Solved Examples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Kaňka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the paper is segmented linear, quadratic, and cubic regression based on B-spline basis functions. In this article we expose the formulas for the computation of B-splines of order one, two, and three that is needed to construct linear, quadratic, and cubic regression. We list some interesting properties of these functions. For a clearer understanding we give the solutions of a couple of elementary exercises regarding these functions.

  4. Multivariate adaptive regression splines and neural network models for prediction of pile drivability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wengang Zhang; Anthony T.C. Goh

    2016-01-01

    Piles are long, slender structural elements used to transfer the loads from the superstructure through weak strata onto stiffer soils or rocks. For driven piles, the impact of the piling hammer induces compression and tension stresses in the piles. Hence, an important design consideration is to check that the strength of the pile is sufficient to resist the stresses caused by the impact of the pile hammer. Due to its complexity, pile drivability lacks a precise analytical solution with regard to the phenomena involved. In situations where measured data or numerical hypothetical results are available, neural networks stand out in mapping the nonlinear interactions and relationships between the system’s predictors and dependent responses. In addition, unlike most computational tools, no mathematical relationship assumption between the dependent and independent variables has to be made. Nevertheless, neural networks have been criticized for their long trial-and-error training process since the optimal configu-ration is not known a priori. This paper investigates the use of a fairly simple nonparametric regression algorithm known as multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS), as an alternative to neural net-works, to approximate the relationship between the inputs and dependent response, and to mathe-matically interpret the relationship between the various parameters. In this paper, the Back propagation neural network (BPNN) and MARS models are developed for assessing pile drivability in relation to the prediction of the Maximum compressive stresses (MCS), Maximum tensile stresses (MTS), and Blow per foot (BPF). A database of more than four thousand piles is utilized for model development and comparative performance between BPNN and MARS predictions.

  5. Comprehensive modeling of monthly mean soil temperature using multivariate adaptive regression splines and support vector machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdizadeh, Saeid; Behmanesh, Javad; Khalili, Keivan

    2017-07-01

    Soil temperature (T s) and its thermal regime are the most important factors in plant growth, biological activities, and water movement in soil. Due to scarcity of the T s data, estimation of soil temperature is an important issue in different fields of sciences. The main objective of the present study is to investigate the accuracy of multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) and support vector machine (SVM) methods for estimating the T s. For this aim, the monthly mean data of the T s (at depths of 5, 10, 50, and 100 cm) and meteorological parameters of 30 synoptic stations in Iran were utilized. To develop the MARS and SVM models, various combinations of minimum, maximum, and mean air temperatures (T min, T max, T); actual and maximum possible sunshine duration; sunshine duration ratio (n, N, n/N); actual, net, and extraterrestrial solar radiation data (R s, R n, R a); precipitation (P); relative humidity (RH); wind speed at 2 m height (u 2); and water vapor pressure (Vp) were used as input variables. Three error statistics including root-mean-square-error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), and determination coefficient (R 2) were used to check the performance of MARS and SVM models. The results indicated that the MARS was superior to the SVM at different depths. In the test and validation phases, the most accurate estimations for the MARS were obtained at the depth of 10 cm for T max, T min, T inputs (RMSE = 0.71 °C, MAE = 0.54 °C, and R 2 = 0.995) and for RH, V p, P, and u 2 inputs (RMSE = 0.80 °C, MAE = 0.61 °C, and R 2 = 0.996), respectively.

  6. Transport modeling and multivariate adaptive regression splines for evaluating performance of ASR systems in freshwater aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forghani, Ali; Peralta, Richard C.

    2017-10-01

    The study presents a procedure using solute transport and statistical models to evaluate the performance of aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) systems designed to earn additional water rights in freshwater aquifers. The recovery effectiveness (REN) index quantifies the performance of these ASR systems. REN is the proportion of the injected water that the same ASR well can recapture during subsequent extraction periods. To estimate REN for individual ASR wells, the presented procedure uses finely discretized groundwater flow and contaminant transport modeling. Then, the procedure uses multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) analysis to identify the significant variables affecting REN, and to identify the most recovery-effective wells. Achieving REN values close to 100% is the desire of the studied 14-well ASR system operator. This recovery is feasible for most of the ASR wells by extracting three times the injectate volume during the same year as injection. Most of the wells would achieve RENs below 75% if extracting merely the same volume as they injected. In other words, recovering almost all the same water molecules that are injected requires having a pre-existing water right to extract groundwater annually. MARS shows that REN most significantly correlates with groundwater flow velocity, or hydraulic conductivity and hydraulic gradient. MARS results also demonstrate that maximizing REN requires utilizing the wells located in areas with background Darcian groundwater velocities less than 0.03 m/d. The study also highlights the superiority of MARS over regular multiple linear regressions to identify the wells that can provide the maximum REN. This is the first reported application of MARS for evaluating performance of an ASR system in fresh water aquifers.

  7. Distributed lag and spline modeling for predicting energy expenditure from accelerometry in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Leena; Chen, Kong Y; Acra, Sari A; Buchowski, Maciej S

    2010-02-01

    Movement sensing using accelerometers is commonly used for the measurement of physical activity (PA) and estimating energy expenditure (EE) under free-living conditions. The major limitation of this approach is lack of accuracy and precision in estimating EE, especially in low-intensity activities. Thus the objective of this study was to investigate benefits of a distributed lag spline (DLS) modeling approach for the prediction of total daily EE (TEE) and EE in sedentary (1.0-1.5 metabolic equivalents; MET), light (1.5-3.0 MET), and moderate/vigorous (> or = 3.0 MET) intensity activities in 10- to 17-year-old youth (n = 76). We also explored feasibility of the DLS modeling approach to predict physical activity EE (PAEE) and METs. Movement was measured by Actigraph accelerometers placed on the hip, wrist, and ankle. With whole-room indirect calorimeter as the reference standard, prediction models (Hip, Wrist, Ankle, Hip+Wrist, Hip+Wrist+Ankle) for TEE, PAEE, and MET were developed and validated using the fivefold cross-validation method. The TEE predictions by these DLS models were not significantly different from the room calorimeter measurements (all P > 0.05). The Hip+Wrist+Ankle predicted TEE better than other models and reduced prediction errors in moderate/vigorous PA for TEE, MET, and PAEE (all P MET at sedentary PA (P = 0.020 and 0.021) compared with the Hip. Models that included Wrist correctly classified time spent at light PA better than other models. The means and standard deviations of the prediction errors for the Hip+Wrist+Ankle and Hip were 0.4 +/- 144.0 and 1.5 +/- 164.7 kcal for the TEE, 0.0 +/- 84.2 and 1.3 +/- 104.7 kcal for the PAEE, and -1.1 +/- 97.6 and -0.1 +/- 108.6 MET min for the MET models. We conclude that the DLS approach for accelerometer data improves detailed EE prediction in youth.

  8. PT-Symmetric Cubic Anharmonic Oscillator as a Physical Model

    CERN Document Server

    Mostafazadeh, A

    2004-01-01

    We perform a perturbative calculation of the physical observables, in particular pseudo-Hermitian position and momentum operators, the equivalent Hermitian Hamiltonian operator, and the classical Hamiltonian for the PT-symmetric cubic anharmonic oscillator, $ H=p^1/(2m)+\\mu^2x^2/2+i\\epsilon x^3 $. Ignoring terms of order $ \\epsilon^4 $ and higher, we show that this system describes an ordinary quartic anharmonic oscillator with a position-dependent mass and real and positive coupling constants. This observation elucidates the classical origin of the reality and positivity of the energy spectrum. We also discuss the quantum-classical correspondence for this PT-symmetric system, compute the associated conserved probability density, and comment on the issue of factor-ordering in the pseudo-Hermitian canonical quantization of the underlying classical system.

  9. Efficient spatial and temporal representations of global ionosphere maps over Japan using B-spline wavelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mautz, R.; Ping, J.; Heki, K.; Schaffrin, B.; Shum, C.; Potts, L.

    2005-05-01

    Wavelet expansion has been demonstrated to be suitable for the representation of spatial functions. Here we propose the so-called B-spline wavelets to represent spatial time-series of GPS-derived global ionosphere maps (GIMs) of the vertical total electron content (TEC) from the Earth’s surface to the mean altitudes of GPS satellites, over Japan. The scalar-valued B-spline wavelets can be defined in a two-dimensional, but not necessarily planar, domain. Generated by a sequence of knots, different degrees of B-splines can be implemented: degree 1 represents the Haar wavelet; degree 2, the linear B-spline wavelet, or degree 4, the cubic B-spline wavelet. A non-uniform version of these wavelets allows us to handle data on a bounded domain without any edge effects. B-splines are easily extended with great computational efficiency to domains of arbitrary dimensions, while preserving their properties. This generalization employs tensor products of B-splines, defined as linear superposition of products of univariate B-splines in different directions. The data and model may be identical at the locations of the data points if the number of wavelet coefficients is equal to the number of grid points. In addition, data compression is made efficient by eliminating the wavelet coefficients with negligible magnitudes, thereby reducing the observational noise. We applied the developed methodology to the representation of the spatial and temporal variations of GIM from an extremely dense GPS network, the GPS Earth Observation Network (GEONET) in Japan. Since the sampling of the TEC is registered regularly in time, we use a two-dimensional B-spline wavelet representation in space and a one-dimensional spline interpolation in time. Over the Japan region, the B-spline wavelet method can overcome the problem of bias for the spherical harmonic model at the boundary, caused by the non-compact support. The hierarchical decomposition not only allows an inexpensive calculation, but also

  10. A cubic interpolation pipeline for fast computation of 3D deformation fields modeled using B-splines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Pareja, Carlos R.; Shekhar, Raj

    2006-02-01

    Fast computation of 3D deformation fields is critical to bringing the application of automated elastic image registration algorithms to routine clinical practice. However, it lies beyond the computational power of current microprocessors; therefore requiring implementations using either massively parallel computers or application-specific hardware accelerators. The use of massively parallel computers in a clinical setting is not practical or cost-effective, therefore making the use of hardware accelerators necessary. We present a hardware pipeline that allows accelerating the computation of 3D deformation fields to speeds up to two orders of magnitude faster than software implementations on current workstations and about 64 times faster than other previously reported architectures. The pipeline implements a version of the free-form deformation calculation algorithm, which is optimized to minimize the number of arithmetic operations required to calculate the transformation of a given set of neighboring voxels, thereby achieving an efficient and compact implementation in hardware which allows its use as part of a larger system.

  11. Modelling spatial trends in sorghum breeding field trials using a two-dimensional P-spline mixed model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazco, Julio G; Rodríguez-Álvarez, María Xosé; Boer, Martin P; Jordan, David R; Eilers, Paul H C; Malosetti, Marcos; van Eeuwijk, Fred A

    2017-07-01

    A flexible and user-friendly spatial method called SpATS performed comparably to more elaborate and trial-specific spatial models in a series of sorghum breeding trials. Adjustment for spatial trends in plant breeding field trials is essential for efficient evaluation and selection of genotypes. Current mixed model methods of spatial analysis are based on a multi-step modelling process where global and local trends are fitted after trying several candidate spatial models. This paper reports the application of a novel spatial method that accounts for all types of continuous field variation in a single modelling step by fitting a smooth surface. The method uses two-dimensional P-splines with anisotropic smoothing formulated in the mixed model framework, referred to as SpATS model. We applied this methodology to a series of large and partially replicated sorghum breeding trials. The new model was assessed in comparison with the more elaborate standard spatial models that use autoregressive correlation of residuals. The improvements in precision and the predictions of genotypic values produced by the SpATS model were equivalent to those obtained using the best fitting standard spatial models for each trial. One advantage of the approach with SpATS is that all patterns of spatial trend and genetic effects were modelled simultaneously by fitting a single model. Furthermore, we used a flexible model to adequately adjust for field trends. This strategy reduces potential parameter identification problems and simplifies the model selection process. Therefore, the new method should be considered as an efficient and easy-to-use alternative for routine analyses of plant breeding trials.

  12. The structure model of a cubic aperiodic phase ('quasicrystal without forbidden symmetry axes').

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraposhin, V S; Talis, A L; Thanh Lam, Ha

    2008-03-19

    A model structure of the aperiodic cubic phase (a cubic quasicrystal) has been constructed as a periodical packing of hierarchical octahedral clusters which were composed of truncated tetrahedra (Friauf-Laves polyhedra) and chains of Frank-Kasper polyhedra with 14 vertices. The construction of the hierarchical model for the cubic aperiodic phase became possible due to the discovery of a new space subdivision with equal edges and with vertices belonging to two orbits of the space group Fm3m. The subdivision is characterized by unique values and unique relations between the coordinates of the starting points of two orbits. Calculated x-ray diffraction patterns for the proposed hierarchical model are in qualitative agreement with published experimental x-ray patterns for aperiodical phases observed in melt-quenched Mg-Al and Fe-Nb-B-Si alloys.

  13. Data assimilation using Bayesian filters and B-spline geological models

    KAUST Repository

    Duan, Lian

    2011-04-01

    This paper proposes a new approach to problems of data assimilation, also known as history matching, of oilfield production data by adjustment of the location and sharpness of patterns of geological facies. Traditionally, this problem has been addressed using gradient based approaches with a level set parameterization of the geology. Gradient-based methods are robust, but computationally demanding with real-world reservoir problems and insufficient for reservoir management uncertainty assessment. Recently, the ensemble filter approach has been used to tackle this problem because of its high efficiency from the standpoint of implementation, computational cost, and performance. Incorporation of level set parameterization in this approach could further deal with the lack of differentiability with respect to facies type, but its practical implementation is based on some assumptions that are not easily satisfied in real problems. In this work, we propose to describe the geometry of the permeability field using B-spline curves. This transforms history matching of the discrete facies type to the estimation of continuous B-spline control points. As filtering scheme, we use the ensemble square-root filter (EnSRF). The efficacy of the EnSRF with the B-spline parameterization is investigated through three numerical experiments, in which the reservoir contains a curved channel, a disconnected channel or a 2-dimensional closed feature. It is found that the application of the proposed method to the problem of adjusting facies edges to match production data is relatively straightforward and provides statistical estimates of the distribution of geological facies and of the state of the reservoir.

  14. Modelling of the Deformation Diffusion Areas on a Para-Aramid Fabric with B-Spline Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Kuşak Samancı

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The geometrical modelling of the planar energy diffusion behaviors of the deformations on a para-aramid fabric has been performed. In the application process of the study, in the experimental period, drop test with bullets of different weights has been applied. The B-spline curve-generating technique has been used in the study. This is an efficient method for geometrical modelling of the deformation diffusion areas formed after the drop test. Proper control points have been chosen to be able to draw the borders of the diffusion areas on the fabric which is deformed, and then the De Casteljau and De Boor algorithms have been used. The Holditch area calculation according to the beams taken at certain fixed lengths has been performed for the B-spline border curve obtained as a closed form. After the calculations, it has been determined that the diffusion area where the bullet with pointed end was dropped on a para-aramid fabric is bigger and the diffusion area where the bullet with rounded end was dropped is smaller when compared with the areas where other bullets with different ends were dropped.

  15. Improvement of energy model based on cubic interpolation curve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Peipei; Li Xuemei; and Wei Yu

    2012-01-01

    In CAGD and CG, energy model is often used to control the curves and surfaces shape. In curve/surface modeling, we can get fair curve/surface by minimizing the energy of curve/surface. However, our research indicates that in some cases we can't get fair curves/surface using the current energy model. So an improved energy model is presented in this paper. Examples are also included to show that fair curves can be obtained using the improved energy model.

  16. Data Visualization using Spline Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Hussain

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A two parameter family of C1  rational cubic spline functions is presented for the graphical representation of shape preserving curve interpolation for shaped data. These parameters have a direct impact on the shape of the curve. Constraints are developed on one family of the parameters to visualize positive, monotone and convex data while other family of parameters can assume any positive values. The problem of visualization of constrained data is also addressed when the data is lying above a straight line and curve is required to lie on the same side of the line. The approximation order of the proposed rational cubic function is also investigated and is found to be O(h3  .

  17. Automatic human body modeling for vision-based motion capture system using B-spline parameterization of the silhouette

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaume-i-Capó, Antoni; Varona, Javier; González-Hidalgo, Manuel; Mas, Ramon; Perales, Francisco J.

    2012-02-01

    Human motion capture has a wide variety of applications, and in vision-based motion capture systems a major issue is the human body model and its initialization. We present a computer vision algorithm for building a human body model skeleton in an automatic way. The algorithm is based on the analysis of the human shape. We decompose the body into its main parts by computing the curvature of a B-spline parameterization of the human contour. This algorithm has been applied in a context where the user is standing in front of a camera stereo pair. The process is completed after the user assumes a predefined initial posture so as to identify the main joints and construct the human model. Using this model, the initialization problem of a vision-based markerless motion capture system of the human body is solved.

  18. The modeling of quadratic B-splines surfaces for the tomographic reconstruction in the FCC- type-riser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcelos, Geovane Vitor; Dantas, Carlos Costa, E-mail: geovitor@bol.com.b, E-mail: ccd@ufpe.b [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Radioquimica; Melo, Silvio de Barros; Pires, Renan Ferraz, E-mail: sbm@cin.ufpe.b, E-mail: rfp@cin.ufpe.b [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro de Informatica

    2009-07-01

    The 3D tomography reconstruction has been a profitable alternative in the analysis of the FCC-type- riser (Fluid Catalytic Cracking), for appropriately keeping track of the sectional catalyst concentration distribution in the process of oil refining. The method of tomography reconstruction proposed by M. Azzi and colleagues (1991) uses a relatively small amount of trajectories (from 3 to 5) and projections (from 5 to 7) of gamma rays, a desirable feature in the industrial process tomography. Compared to more popular methods, such as the FBP (Filtered Back Projection), which demands a much higher amount of gamma rays projections, the method by Azzi et al. is more appropriate for the industrial process, where the physical limitations and the cost of the process require more economical arrangements. The use of few projections and trajectories facilitates the diagnosis in the flow dynamical process. This article proposes an improvement in the basis functions introduced by Azzi et al., through the use of quadratic B-splines functions. The use of B-splines functions makes possible a smoother surface reconstruction of the density distribution, since the functions are continuous and smooth. This work describes how the modeling can be done. (author)

  19. Investigation of Cubic EOS Models for HFO-1234yf Refrigerant Used In Automotive application

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, Anant; Cornelio, Avi Anthony; Limperich, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    The need for a consistent and reliable calculation of thermodynamic property of refrigerants has been a topic of research since the past decade. This paper reports a study of various cubic equations of state (EOS) for a refrigerant to be used in automotive applications. Thermodynamic properties of refrigerant 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (HFO- 1234yf) using three different cubic equations of state, i.e. Peng-Robinson (PR), Yu-Lu (YL) and Guo-Du (GD), are modeled, compared and analyzed. A generi...

  20. Excited-state polarizabilities of solvated molecules using cubic response theory and the polarizable continuum model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrighi, Lara; Frediani, Luca; Ruud, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    The theory and an implementation of the solvent contribution to the cubic response function for the polarizable continuum model for multiconfigurational self-consistent field wave functions is presented. The excited-state polarizability of benzene, para-nitroaniline, and nitrobenzene has been obtained from the double residue of the cubic response function calculated in the presence of an acetonitrile and dioxane solvent. The calculated excited-state polarizabilities are compared to results obtained from the linear response function of the explicitly optimized excited states.

  1. ANALYTICAL CALCULATIONS AND MONTE-CARLO SIMULATIONS OF LASER DOPPLER FLOWMETRY USING A CUBIC LATTICE MODEL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KOELINK, MH; DEMUL, FFM; GREVE, J; GRAAFF, R; DASSEL, ACM; AARNOUDSE, JG

    1992-01-01

    In addition to the static cubic lattice model for photon migration in turbid biological media by Bonner et al. [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 423-432 (1987)], a dynamic method is presented to calculate the average absolute Doppler shift as a function of the distance between the point of injection of photons

  2. B-splines on 3-D tetrahedron partition in four-directional mesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN; Jiachang

    2001-01-01

    [1] de Boor, C., Hllig, K., Riemannschneider, S. D., Box Splines, New York: Springer-Verlag, 1993.[2] Dahmen, W., Micchelli, C. A., Recent Process in Multivariate Splines, Interpolating Cardinal Splines as Their Degree Tends to Infinity (ed. Ward, J.), New York: Academic Press, 1983, 27.[3] de Boor, C., Topics in multivariate approximation theory, in Topics in Numerical Analysis, Lecture Notes in Mathematics (ed. Turner, P. R.), Vol. 965, New York: Springer-Verlag, 1982, 39.[4] de Boor, C., B-form basics, in Geometric Modelling (ed. Farin, G.), Philadephia: SIAM, 1987, 131.[5] Chui, C. K., Wang, R. H., Spaces of bivariate cubic and quartic splines on type-1 triangulations, J. Math. Anal. Appl., 1984, 101: 540.[6] Jia, R. Q., Approximation order from certain spaces of smooth bivariate splines on a three-direction mesh, Trans. AMS, 1986, 295: 199.[7] Dahmen, W., On multivariate B-splines, SIAM J. Numer. Anal., 1980, 17: 179.[8] Sun Jiachang, The B-net structure and recurrence algorithms for B-splines on a three direction mesh, Mathematica Numerica Sinica, 1990, 12: 365.[9] Sun Jiachang, Some results on the field of spline theory and its applications, Contemporary Mathematics, 1994, 163: 127.[10] Sun Jiachang, Dual bases and quasi-interpolation of B-splines on S13 with three direction meshes, Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica, 1991, 14: 170.[11] Wang, R. H., He, T. X., Liu, X. Y. Et al., An integral method for constructing bivariate spline functions, J. Comp. Math., 1989, 7: 244.[12] Wang, R. H., Shi, X. Q., A kind of C interpolation in the n-dimensional finite element method, J. Math. Res. And Exp., 1989, 9: 173.[13] Shi, X. Q., Wang, R. H., The existence conditions of space S12(Δn), Chinese Science Bulletin, 1989, 34: 2015.

  3. Gamma Splines and Wavelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannu Olkkonen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we introduce a new family of splines termed as gamma splines for continuous signal approximation and multiresolution analysis. The gamma splines are born by -times convolution of the exponential by itself. We study the properties of the discrete gamma splines in signal interpolation and approximation. We prove that the gamma splines obey the two-scale equation based on the polyphase decomposition. to introduce the shift invariant gamma spline wavelet transform for tree structured subscale analysis of asymmetric signal waveforms and for systems with asymmetric impulse response. Especially we consider the applications in biomedical signal analysis (EEG, ECG, and EMG. Finally, we discuss the suitability of the gamma spline signal processing in embedded VLSI environment.

  4. 凸四边形上一类具有C~2-连续的插值问题的样条解及其应用%On Interpolation and Approximation by Bivariate Cubic Splines with C~2-continuous on Convex Quadrilaterals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周天祥

    2009-01-01

    本文讨论了一类凸四边形上的插值问题.指出这类插值问题是可解的,其解是分片二元三次多项式,且在凸四边形上是C~2-连续的.我们证明了这类插值问题的解的存在性和唯一性,给出了解样条的分片表达式及其逼近度的估计.最后还给出了一个应用实例和图形显示来说明本方法是可行的.%In this paper we consider interpolation problems by bivariate cubic splines on quadrilaterals with C~2-continuons. An interpolation scheme is presented. The existence and uniqueness of the interpolation are given, and we also give the piecewise polynomial expres-sion of the interpolating splines. The approximation order is discussed, and a numerical solution of PDE and graphical display are also provided.

  5. On the Nesting Behavior of T-splines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    splines were originally introduced as a superior alternative to NURBS [1] and have emerged as an important technology across several disciplines...watertight geometry and can be locally re- fined [2, 3]. These basic properties make it possible to merge multiple NURBS patches into a single T...spline [4, 1] and any trimmed NURBS model can be represented as a watertight T-spline [5]. T-splines are an ideal discretization technology for

  6. A Blossoming Development of Splines

    CERN Document Server

    Mann, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    In this lecture, we study Bezier and B-spline curves and surfaces, mathematical representations for free-form curves and surfaces that are common in CAD systems and are used to design aircraft and automobiles, as well as in modeling packages used by the computer animation industry. Bezier/B-splines represent polynomials and piecewise polynomials in a geometric manner using sets of control points that define the shape of the surface. The primary analysis tool used in this lecture is blossoming, which gives an elegant labeling of the control points that allows us to analyze their properties geom

  7. Accuracy and stability of a set of free-surface time-domain boundary element models based on B-splines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büchmann, Bjarne

    2000-05-01

    An analysis is given for the accuracy and stability of some perturbation-based time-domain boundary element models (BEMs) with B-spline basis functions, solving hydrodynamic free-surface problems, including forward speed effects. The spatial convergence rate is found as a function of the order of the B-spline basis. It is shown that for all the models examined the mixed implicit-explicit Euler time integration scheme is correct to second order. Stability diagrams are found for models based on B-splines of orders third through to sixth for two different time integration schemes. The stability analysis can be regarded as an extension of the analysis by Vada and Nakos [Vada T, Nakos DE. Time marching schemes for ship motion simulations. In Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Water Waves and Floating Bodies, St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada, 1993; 155-158] to include B-splines of orders higher than three (piecewise quadratic polynomials) and to include finite water depth and a current at an oblique angle to the model grid. Copyright

  8. Validation of cross-sectional time series and multivariate adaptive regression splines models for the prediction of energy expenditure in children and adolescents using doubly labeled water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurate, nonintrusive, and inexpensive techniques are needed to measure energy expenditure (EE) in free-living populations. Our primary aim in this study was to validate cross-sectional time series (CSTS) and multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) models based on observable participant cha...

  9. Modeling the Dynamic Gravity Variations of Northeastern Margin of Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) Plateau by Using Bicubic Spline Interpolation Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Yiqing; Hu Bin; Li Hui; Jiang Fengyun

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the spatial-temporal gravity variation patterns of the northeastern margin of Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) Plateau in 1992~ 2001 are modeled using bicubic spline interpolation functions and the relations of gravity change with seismicity and tectonic movement are discussed preliminarily. The results show as follows: ① Regionalgravitational field changes regularly and the gravity abnormity zone or gravity concentration zone appears in the earthquake preparation process; ② In the significant time period, the gravity variation shows different features in the northwest, southeast and northeast parts of the surveyed region respectively, with Lanzhou as its boundary; ③ The gravity variation distribution is basically identical to the strike of tectonic fault zone of the region, and the contour of gravity variation is closely related to the fault distribution.

  10. Uniform trigonometric polynomial B-spline curves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕勇刚; 汪国昭; 杨勋年

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a new kind of uniform spline curve, named trigonometric polynomialB-splines, over space Ω = span{sint, cost, tk-3,tk-4,…,t,1} of which k is an arbitrary integerlarger than or equal to 3. We show that trigonometric polynomial B-spline curves have many similarV properties to traditional B-splines. Based on the explicit representation of the curve we have also presented the subdivision formulae for this new kind of curve. Since the new spline can include both polynomial curves and trigonometric curves as special cases without rational form, it can be used as an efficient new model for geometric design in the fields of CAD/CAM.

  11. 利用Box样条构造完全重构模型的研究%Research of Constructing a Perfect Reconstruction Model Using Box Spline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁晓君; 李华

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a method to combine so\\|called multiband DFT filter bank with bivariate Box splines to construct a perfect reconstruction model for image processing. Based on the theory of B\\|splines, which are useful tool in many fields, Box Spline is said to be an extension, with the aim at describing multi\\|variate functions. In this paper, firstly, it introduces the DFT filter bank, and presents the condition to form a perfect reconstruct model. Then it describes bivariate Box splines and its some properties in little more details. It especially presents a particular class of bivariate Box splines, and use it to construct a decomposition/reconstruction model, which may be candidates for some kinds of task in image processing. This model is proved to be satisfied by the perfect reconstruction condition, and thus can be quite useful theoretically. At last, some experimental results are given to demonstrate the use fulness of this model.%针对图象处理中的图象重构问题,结合多频带DFT滤波器库和双变量Box样条构造了一个完全重构模型.在介绍了DFT滤波器库后,给出了形成完全重构模型的条件.通过双变量Box样条及其在图象处理中极为有用的几条性质的分析.提出了一类双变量Box样条,使用该样条即可构造分解/重构模型.实验证明,该模型能满足完全重构条件,并可有效分解合成图象.最后,给出了应用此模型的实验结果.

  12. 3D Orthogonal Spline Moments and 3D Model Retrieval%正交样条矩与三维模型检索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉杰; 张晓冬; 李华

    2009-01-01

    提出三维正交样条矩的定义,并将其应用于三维模型检索.作为一种正交多项式函数系,正交样条函数结合球面调和函数所定义的矩具有正交性等优良性质.样条函数的局部性对于突出模型的局部特征有较好的效果.实验结果表明,三维正交样条矩优于三维小波矩,具有更高的检索效率.%3D orthogonal spline moments are defined, and used for 3D model retrieval. As a kind of orthogonal polynomials system, orthogonal spline function has many good properties such as orthogonality and locality. So orthogonal spline moments can adequately express the local property of model. Extensive experiments show that the 3D orthogonal spline moments are of higher discriminating power.

  13. Quartic Box-Spline Reconstruction on the BCC Lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minho

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents an alternative box-spline filter for the body-centered cubic (BCC) lattice, the seven-direction quartic box-spline M7 that has the same approximation order as the eight-direction quintic box-spline M8 but a lower polynomial degree, smaller support, and is computationally more efficient. When applied to reconstruction with quasi-interpolation prefilters, M7 shows less aliasing, which is verified quantitatively by integral filter metrics and frequency error kernels. To visualize and analyze distributional aliasing characteristics, each spectrum is evaluated on the planes and lines with various orientations.

  14. The Body Center Cubic Quark Lattice Model (A Modification and Further Development of the Quark Model)

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, J L

    2002-01-01

    We assume that the u quarks and the d quarks constitute a body center cubic quark lattice in the vacuum. Using energy band theory, we deduce an excited quark spectrum (from the quark lattice). Using the accompanying excitation concept, we deduce a baryon spectrum (including S, C, b, I, Q, and mass) from the quark spectrum. With a phenomenological binding energy formula, we deduce a meson spectrum (including S, C, b, I, Q, and mass) from the quark spectrum. The baryon and meson spectra agree well with experimental results. The BCC Quark Model predicts many new quarks (u'(3), d'(6)), baryons ($\\Lambda^0(4280)$, $\\Lambda_{C}^{+}(6600)$, $\\Lambda_{b}^{0}(9960))$, and mesons (K(3597), D(5996), B(9504), $\\eta(5926)$, $\\Upsilon(17805)$, T(1603) with I=2). The quarks u'(3) and d'(6) and the meson T(1603) have already been discovered.

  15. Numerical modelling of odour dispersion around a cubical obstacle using large eddy simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dourado, Harerton Oliveira; Santos, Jane Meri; Reis, Neyval C; Mavroidis, Ilias

    2012-01-01

    In the present work two different large eddy simulation (LES) approaches, namely the Dynamic Smagorinsky model and the Wale model, are used to simulate the air flow and pollutant dispersion around a cubical obstacle. Results are compared with wind tunnel data (WT) and with results from the Smagorinsky LES model. Overall agreement was good between the different LES approaches and the WT results, both for the mean and fluctuating flow and concentration patterns. LES models can provide good estimates of concentration fluctuation intensity and enable the calculation of the intermittency factor. The model results indicate that LES is a viable tool for odour impact assessment.

  16. Analytical Solution of Linear, Quadratic and Cubic Model of PTT Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeem Faraz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An attempt is made for the first time to solve the quadratic and cubic model of magneto hydrodynamic Poiseuille flow of Phan-Thein-Tanner (PTT. Series solution of magneto hydrodynamic (MHD flow is developed by using homotopy perturbation method (HPM. Results are presented graphically and the effects of non-dimensional parameters on the flow field are analyzed. The results obtained reveals many interesting behaviors that warrant further study on the equations related to non-Newtonian fluid phenomena.

  17. Development of the new Conformal-Cubic Atmospheric Model (CCAM) in capturing the past season’s major rain events

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Park, R

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available being made for rainfall, maximum and minimum temperatures, and wind fields using the new Conformal- Cubic Atmospheric Model (CCAM). This model has been adapted and developed since its initialisation, increasing its weather prediction capability in order...

  18. Cubic constraints for the resolvents of the ABJM matrix model and its cousins

    CERN Document Server

    Itoyama, Hiroshi; Suyama, Takao; Yoshioka, Reiji

    2016-01-01

    A set of Schwinger-Dyson equations forming constraints for at most three resolvent functions are considered for a class of Chern-Simons matter matrix models with two nodes labelled by a non-vanishing number $n$. The two cases $n=2$ and $n= -2$ label respectively the ABJM matrix model, which is the hyperbolic lift of the affine $A_1^{(1)}$ quiver matrix model, and the lens space matrix model. In the planar limit, we derive two cubic loop equations for the two planar resolvents. One of these reduces to the quadratic one when $n = \\pm 2$.

  19. A New Predictive Model of Centerline Segregation in Continuous Cast Steel Slabs by Using Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulino José García Nieto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to obtain a predictive model able to perform an early detection of central segregation severity in continuous cast steel slabs. Segregation in steel cast products is an internal defect that can be very harmful when slabs are rolled in heavy plate mills. In this research work, the central segregation was studied with success using the data mining methodology based on multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS technique. For this purpose, the most important physical-chemical parameters are considered. The results of the present study are two-fold. In the first place, the significance of each physical-chemical variable on the segregation is presented through the model. Second, a model for forecasting segregation is obtained. Regression with optimal hyperparameters was performed and coefficients of determination equal to 0.93 for continuity factor estimation and 0.95 for average width were obtained when the MARS technique was applied to the experimental dataset, respectively. The agreement between experimental data and the model confirmed the good performance of the latter.

  20. A New Predictive Model of Centerline Segregation in Continuous Cast Steel Slabs by Using Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Nieto, Paulino José; González Suárez, Victor Manuel; Álvarez Antón, Juan Carlos; Mayo Bayón, Ricardo; Sirgo Blanco, José Ángel; Díaz Fernández, Ana María

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain a predictive model able to perform an early detection of central segregation severity in continuous cast steel slabs. Segregation in steel cast products is an internal defect that can be very harmful when slabs are rolled in heavy plate mills. In this research work, the central segregation was studied with success using the data mining methodology based on multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) technique. For this purpose, the most important physical-chemical parameters are considered. The results of the present study are two-fold. In the first place, the significance of each physical-chemical variable on the segregation is presented through the model. Second, a model for forecasting segregation is obtained. Regression with optimal hyperparameters was performed and coefficients of determination equal to 0.93 for continuity factor estimation and 0.95 for average width were obtained when the MARS technique was applied to the experimental dataset, respectively. The agreement between experimental data and the model confirmed the good performance of the latter.

  1. Numerical Modeling for Generating the Bound State Energy via a Semi Inverse Variational Method Combined with a B-Spline Type Basis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. Zerarka; O. Haif-Khaif; K. Libarir; A. Attaf

    2011-01-01

    This research concerns with the development of a linear three-dimensional numerical model in a quantum environment. We use the semi inverse variational method together with B-spline bases to extract the structures of bound states of the Schr(o)dinger equation. The model performances are demonstrated for the Coulomb type problem. From realistic examples, some state configurations are presented to illustrate the effectiveness and the exactitude of the proposed method.

  2. Optimization and dynamics of protein-protein complexes using B-splines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillilan, Richard E; Lilien, Ryan H

    2004-10-01

    A moving-grid approach for optimization and dynamics of protein-protein complexes is introduced, which utilizes cubic B-spline interpolation for rapid energy and force evaluation. The method allows for the efficient use of full electrostatic potentials joined smoothly to multipoles at long distance so that multiprotein simulation is possible. Using a recently published benchmark of 58 protein complexes, we examine the performance and quality of the grid approximation, refining cocrystallized complexes to within 0.68 A RMSD of interface atoms, close to the optimum 0.63 A produced by the underlying MMFF94 force field. We quantify the theoretical statistical advantage of using minimization in a stochastic search in the case of two rigid bodies, and contrast it with the underlying cost of conjugate gradient minimization using B-splines. The volumes of conjugate gradient minimization basins of attraction in cocrystallized systems are generally orders of magnitude larger than well volumes based on energy thresholds needed to discriminate native from nonnative states; nonetheless, computational cost is significant. Molecular dynamics using B-splines is doubly efficient due to the combined advantages of rapid force evaluation and large simulation step sizes. Large basins localized around the native state and other possible binding sites are identifiable during simulations of protein-protein motion. In addition to providing increased modeling detail, B-splines offer new algorithmic possibilities that should be valuable in refining docking candidates and studying global complex behavior.

  3. A Unified Representation Scheme for Solid Geometric Objects Using B-splines (extended Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahler, D.

    1985-01-01

    A geometric representation scheme called the B-spline cylinder, which consists of interpolation between pairs of uniform periodic cubic B-spline curves is discussed. This approach carries a number of interesting implications. For one, a single relatively simple database schema can be used to represent a reasonably large class of objects, since the spline representation is flexible enough to allow a large domain of representable objects at very little cost in data complexity. The model is thus very storage-efficient. A second feature of such a system is that it reduces to one the number of routines which the system must support to perform a given operation on objects. Third, the scheme enables easy conversion to and from other representations. The formal definition of the cylinder entity is given. In the geometric properties of the entity are explored and several operations on such objects are defined. Some general purpose criteria for evaluating any geometric representation scheme are introduced and the B-spline cylinder scheme according to these criteria is evaluated.

  4. Clues on chemical mechanisms from renormalizability: The example of a noisy cubic autocatalytic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Jean-Sébastien; Pérez-Mercader, Juan

    2017-08-01

    We study the effect of external power-law noise on the renormalizability of a specific reaction-diffusion system of equations describing a cubic autocatalytic chemical reaction. We show that changing the noise exponent modifies the divergence structure of loop integrals and thus the renormalizability of the model. The effects of noise-generated higher order interactions are discussed. We show how noise induces new interaction terms that can be interpreted as a manifestation of some (internal) ;chemical mechanism;. We also show how ideas of effective field theory can be applied to construct a more fundamental chemical model for this system.

  5. On intrinsic time measure in the modeling of cyclic behavior of a Nitinol cubic block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiroiu, Veturia; Florinel Ionescu, Marius; Sireteanu, Tudor; Ioan, Rodica; Munteanu, Ligia

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, the cyclic behavior of a superelastic-plastic nitinol cubic block is described by using the Bouc-Wen model coupled to an intrinsic time measure other than clock time, which governs the behavior of the materials. As a consequence, the thermodynamic admissibility of the Bouc-Wen model is provided by the endochronic theory of plasticity. The role of the intrinsic time measure is described by capturing the stiffness and strength degradation and the opposite phenomena. Such behavior is due to the permanent-strain addition of residual martensite and alterations in the properties of the texture during phase transformation.

  6. CUBLIC SPLINE SOLUTIONS OF AXISYMMETRICAL NONLINEAR BENDING AND BRCKLING OF CIRCULAR SANDWICH PLATES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯朝胜; 张守恺; 林锋

    2005-01-01

    Cubic B-spline taken as trial function, the nonlinear bending of a circular sandwich plate was calculated by the method of point collocation. The support could be elastic. A sandwich plate was assumed to be Reissner model. The formulae were developed for the calculation of a circular sandwich plate subjected to polynomial distributed loads,uniformly distributed moments, radial pressure or radial prestress along the edge and their combination. Buckling load was calculated for the first time by nonlinear theory. Under action of uniformly distributed loads, results were compared with that obtained by the power series method. Excellences of the program written by the spline collocation method are wide convergent range, high precision and universal.

  7. Research on cubic polynomial acceleration and deceleration control model for high speed NC machining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-bin LENG; Yi-jie WU; Xiao-hong PAN

    2008-01-01

    To satisfy the need of high speed NC (numerical control) machining, an acceleration and deceleration (aec/dec) control model is proposed, and the speed curve is also constructed by the cubic polynomial. The proposed control model provides continuity of acceleration, which avoids the intense vibration in high speed NC machining. Based on the discrete characteristic of the data sampling interpolation, the acc/dec control discrete mathematical model is also set up and the discrete expression of the theoretical deceleration length is obtained furthermore. Aiming at the question of hardly predetermining the deceleration point in acc/dec control before interpolation, the adaptive acc/dec control algorithm is deduced from the expressions of the theoretical deceleration length. The experimental result proves that the acc/dec control model has the characteristic of easy implementation, stable movement and low impact. The model has been applied in multi-axes high speed micro fabrication machining successfully.

  8. A probabilistic model of the electron transport in films of nanocrystals arranged in a cubic lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriegel, Ilka [Department of Nanochemistry, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT), via Morego, 30, 16163 Genova (Italy); Scotognella, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.scotognella@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Center for Nano Science and Technology@PoliMi, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Giovanni Pascoli, 70/3, 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2016-08-01

    The fabrication of nanocrystal (NC) films, starting from colloidal dispersion, is a very attractive topic in condensed matter physics community. NC films can be employed for transistors, light emitting diodes, lasers, and solar cells. For this reason the understanding of the film conductivity is of major importance. In this paper we describe a probabilistic model that allows the prediction of the conductivity of NC films, in this case of a cubic lattice of Lead Selenide or Cadmium Selenide NCs. The model is based on the hopping probability between NCs. The results are compared to experimental data reported in literature. - Highlights: • Colloidal nanocrystal (NC) film conductivity is a topic of major importance. • We present a probabilistic model to predict the electron conductivity in NC films. • The model is based on the hopping probability between NCs. • We found a good agreement between the model and data reported in literature.

  9. Numerical discretization-based estimation methods for ordinary differential equation models via penalized spline smoothing with applications in biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hulin; Xue, Hongqi; Kumar, Arun

    2012-06-01

    Differential equations are extensively used for modeling dynamics of physical processes in many scientific fields such as engineering, physics, and biomedical sciences. Parameter estimation of differential equation models is a challenging problem because of high computational cost and high-dimensional parameter space. In this article, we propose a novel class of methods for estimating parameters in ordinary differential equation (ODE) models, which is motivated by HIV dynamics modeling. The new methods exploit the form of numerical discretization algorithms for an ODE solver to formulate estimating equations. First, a penalized-spline approach is employed to estimate the state variables and the estimated state variables are then plugged in a discretization formula of an ODE solver to obtain the ODE parameter estimates via a regression approach. We consider three different order of discretization methods, Euler's method, trapezoidal rule, and Runge-Kutta method. A higher-order numerical algorithm reduces numerical error in the approximation of the derivative, which produces a more accurate estimate, but its computational cost is higher. To balance the computational cost and estimation accuracy, we demonstrate, via simulation studies, that the trapezoidal discretization-based estimate is the best and is recommended for practical use. The asymptotic properties for the proposed numerical discretization-based estimators are established. Comparisons between the proposed methods and existing methods show a clear benefit of the proposed methods in regards to the trade-off between computational cost and estimation accuracy. We apply the proposed methods t an HIV study to further illustrate the usefulness of the proposed approaches.

  10. C1 Hermite shape preserving polynomial splines in R3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielides, Nikolaos C.

    2012-06-01

    The C 2 variable degree splines1-3 have been proven to be an efficient tool for solving the curve shape-preserving interpolation problem in two and three dimensions. Based on this representation, the current paper proposes a Hermite interpolation scheme, to construct C 1 shape-preserving splines of variable degree. After this, a slight modification of the method leads to a C 1 shape-preserving Hermite cubic spline. Both methods can easily be developed within a CAD system, since they compute directly (without iterations) the B-spline control polygon. They have been implemented and tested within the DNV Software CAD/CAE system GeniE. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  11. A cubic matrix-fracture geometry model for radial tracer flow in naturally fractured reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jetzabeth Ramirez-Sabag; Fernando Samaniego V.

    1992-01-01

    This study presents a general solution for the radial flow of tracers in naturally fractured reservoirs, with cubic blocks matrix-fracture geometry. Continuous and finite step injection of chemical and radioactive tracers are considered. The reservoir is treated as being composed of two regions: a mobile where dispersion and convection take place and a stagnant where only diffusion and adsorption are allowed. Radioactive decay is considered in both regions. The model of this study is thoroughly compared under proper simplified conditions to those previously presented in the literature. The coupled matrix to fracture solution in the Laplace space is numerically inverted by means of the Crump algorithm. A detailed validation of the model with respect to solutions previously presented and/or simplified physical conditions solutions (i.e., homogeneous case) or limit solutions (i.e., naturally fractured nearly homogeneous) was carried out. The influence of the three of the main dimensionless parameters that enter into the solution was carefully investigated. A comparison of results for three different naturally fractured systems, vertical fractures (linear flow), horizontal fractures (radial flow) and the cubic geometry model of this study, is presented.

  12. Shape Designing of Engineering Images Using Rational Spline Interpolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sarfraz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern days, engineers encounter a remarkable range of different engineering problems like study of structure, structure properties, and designing of different engineering images, for example, automotive images, aerospace industrial images, architectural designs, shipbuilding, and so forth. This paper purposes an interactive curve scheme for designing engineering images. The purposed scheme furnishes object designing not just in the area of engineering, but it is equally useful for other areas including image processing (IP, Computer Graphics (CG, Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE, Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM, and Computer-Aided Design (CAD. As a method, a piecewise rational cubic spline interpolant, with four shape parameters, has been purposed. The method provides effective results together with the effects of derivatives and shape parameters on the shape of the curves in a local and global manner. The spline method, due to its most generalized description, recovers various existing rational spline methods and serves as an alternative to various other methods including v-splines, gamma splines, weighted splines, and beta splines.

  13. Transfinite thin plate spline interpolation

    CERN Document Server

    Bejancu, Aurelian

    2009-01-01

    Duchon's method of thin plate splines defines a polyharmonic interpolant to scattered data values as the minimizer of a certain integral functional. For transfinite interpolation, i.e. interpolation of continuous data prescribed on curves or hypersurfaces, Kounchev has developed the method of polysplines, which are piecewise polyharmonic functions of fixed smoothness across the given hypersurfaces and satisfy some boundary conditions. Recently, Bejancu has introduced boundary conditions of Beppo Levi type to construct a semi-cardinal model for polyspline interpolation to data on an infinite set of parallel hyperplanes. The present paper proves that, for periodic data on a finite set of parallel hyperplanes, the polyspline interpolant satisfying Beppo Levi boundary conditions is in fact a thin plate spline, i.e. it minimizes a Duchon type functional.

  14. Free Transverse Vibration Analysis of Axially Functionally Graded Tapered Euler-Bernoulli Beams through Spline Finite Point Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A new model for the free transverse vibration of axially functionally graded (FG tapered Euler-Bernoulli beams is developed through the spline finite point method (SFPM by investigating the effects of the variation of cross-sectional and material properties along the longitudinal directions. In the proposed method, the beam is discretized with a set of uniformly scattered spline nodes along the beam axis instead of meshes, and the displacement field is approximated by the particularly constructed cubic B-spline interpolation functions with good adaptability for various boundary conditions. Unlike traditional discretization and modeling methods, the global structural stiffness and mass matrices for beams of the proposed model are directly generated after spline discretization without needing element meshes, generation, and assembling. The proposed method shows the distinguished features of high modeling efficiency, low computational cost, and convenience for boundary condition treatment. The performance of the proposed method is verified through numerical examples available in the published literature. All results demonstrate that the proposed method can analyze the free vibration of axially FG tapered Euler-Bernoulli beams with various boundary conditions. Moreover, high accuracy and efficiency can be achieved.

  15. Quantum disordered insulating phase in the frustrated cubic-lattice Hubbard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubach, Manuel; Joshi, Darshan G.; Reuther, Johannes; Thomale, Ronny; Vojta, Matthias; Rachel, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    In the quest for quantum spin liquids in three spatial dimensions (3D), we study the half-filled Hubbard model on the simple cubic lattice with hopping processes up to third neighbors. Employing the variational cluster approach (VCA), we determine the zero-temperature phase diagram: In addition to a paramagnetic metal at small interaction strength U and various antiferromagnetic insulators at large U , we find an intermediate-U antiferromagnetic metal. Most interestingly, we also identify a nonmagnetic insulating region, extending from intermediate to strong U . Using VCA results in the large-U limit, we establish the phase diagram of the corresponding J1-J2-J3 Heisenberg model. This is qualitatively confirmed—including the nonmagnetic region—using spin-wave theory. Further analysis reveals a striking similarity to the behavior of the J1-J2 square-lattice Heisenberg model, suggesting that the nonmagnetic region may host a 3D spin-liquid phase.

  16. Topological Expansion in the Complex Cubic Log-Gas Model: One-Cut Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleher, Pavel; Deaño, Alfredo; Yattselev, Maxim

    2017-02-01

    We prove the topological expansion for the cubic log-gas partition function Z_N(t)= int _Γ \\cdots int _Γ prod _{1≤jcomplex parameter and Γ is an unbounded contour on the complex plane extending from e^{π i}∞ to e^{π i/3}∞. The complex cubic log-gas model exhibits two phase regions on the complex t-plane, with one cut and two cuts, separated by analytic critical arcs of the two types of phase transition: split of a cut and birth of a cut. The common point of the critical arcs is a tricritical point of the Painlevé I type. In the present paper we prove the topological expansion for log Z_N(t) in the one-cut phase region. The proof is based on the Riemann-Hilbert approach to semiclassical asymptotic expansions for the associated orthogonal polynomials and the theory of S-curves and quadratic differentials.

  17. Forecasting Multivariate Road Traffic Flows Using Bayesian Dynamic Graphical Models, Splines and Other Traffic Variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anacleto, Osvaldo; Queen, Catriona; Albers, Casper J.

    2013-01-01

    Traffic flow data are routinely collected for many networks worldwide. These invariably large data sets can be used as part of a traffic management system, for which good traffic flow forecasting models are crucial. The linear multiregression dynamic model (LMDM) has been shown to be promising for f

  18. Critical behavior in the cubic dimer model at nonzero monomer density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreejith, G. J.; Powell, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    We study critical behavior in the classical cubic dimer model (CDM) in the presence of a finite density of monomers. With attractive interactions between parallel dimers, the monomer-free CDM exhibits an unconventional transition from a Coulomb phase to a dimer crystal. Monomers act as charges (or monopoles) in the Coulomb phase and, at nonzero density, lead to a standard Landau-type transition. We use large-scale Monte Carlo simulations to study the system in the neighborhood of the critical point, and find results in agreement with detailed predictions of scaling theory. Going beyond previous studies of the transition in the absence of monomers, we explicitly confirm the distinction between conventional and unconventional criticality, and quantitatively demonstrate the crossover between the two. Our results also provide additional evidence for the theoretical claim that the transition in the CDM belongs in the same universality class as the deconfined quantum critical point in the SU (2) JQ model.

  19. Drought forecasting in eastern Australia using multivariate adaptive regression spline, least square support vector machine and M5Tree model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deo, Ravinesh C.; Kisi, Ozgur; Singh, Vijay P.

    2017-02-01

    Drought forecasting using standardized metrics of rainfall is a core task in hydrology and water resources management. Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) is a rainfall-based metric that caters for different time-scales at which the drought occurs, and due to its standardization, is well-suited for forecasting drought at different periods in climatically diverse regions. This study advances drought modelling using multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS), least square support vector machine (LSSVM), and M5Tree models by forecasting SPI in eastern Australia. MARS model incorporated rainfall as mandatory predictor with month (periodicity), Southern Oscillation Index, Pacific Decadal Oscillation Index and Indian Ocean Dipole, ENSO Modoki and Nino 3.0, 3.4 and 4.0 data added gradually. The performance was evaluated with root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), and coefficient of determination (r2). Best MARS model required different input combinations, where rainfall, sea surface temperature and periodicity were used for all stations, but ENSO Modoki and Pacific Decadal Oscillation indices were not required for Bathurst, Collarenebri and Yamba, and the Southern Oscillation Index was not required for Collarenebri. Inclusion of periodicity increased the r2 value by 0.5-8.1% and reduced RMSE by 3.0-178.5%. Comparisons showed that MARS superseded the performance of the other counterparts for three out of five stations with lower MAE by 15.0-73.9% and 7.3-42.2%, respectively. For the other stations, M5Tree was better than MARS/LSSVM with lower MAE by 13.8-13.4% and 25.7-52.2%, respectively, and for Bathurst, LSSVM yielded more accurate result. For droughts identified by SPI ≤ - 0.5, accurate forecasts were attained by MARS/M5Tree for Bathurst, Yamba and Peak Hill, whereas for Collarenebri and Barraba, M5Tree was better than LSSVM/MARS. Seasonal analysis revealed disparate results where MARS/M5Tree was better than LSSVM. The results highlight the

  20. On the solution, the critical exponents and the transition equation of the simple cubic three-dimensional Ising model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoede, C.; Zandvliet, H.J.W.

    2008-01-01

    In a recent paper Hoede and Zandvliet introduced the concept of gauging on an equation. This enables the simulation of more complex Ising models by the simple quadratic model. The possibility of simulating the simple cubic model was defended by calculating a sequence of approximations to the transit

  1. A kernel representation for exponential splines with global tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barendt, Sven; Fischer, Bernd; Modersitzki, Jan

    2009-02-01

    Interpolation is a key ingredient in many imaging routines. In this note, we present a thorough evaluation of an interpolation method based on exponential splines in tension. They are based on so-called tension parameters, which allow for a tuning of their properties. As it turns out, these interpolants have very many nice features, which are, however, not born out in the literature. We intend to close this gap. We present for the first time an analytic representation of their kernel which enables one to come up with a space and frequency domain analysis. It is shown that the exponential splines in tension, as a function of the tension parameter, bridging the gap between linear and cubic B-Spline interpolation. For example, with a certain tension parameter, one is able to suppress ringing artefacts in the interpolant. On the other hand, the analysis in the frequency domain shows that one derives a superior signal reconstruction quality as known from the cubic B-Spline interpolation, which, however, suffers from ringing artifacts. With the ability to offer a trade-off between opposing features of interpolation methods we advocate the use of the exponential spline in tension from a practical point of view and use the new kernel representation to qualify the trade-off.

  2. Spline Based Shape Prediction and Analysis of Uniformly Rotating Sessile and Pendant Droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakhar, Karan; Chattopadhyay, Ashesh; Thakur, Atul; Raj, Rishi

    2017-06-06

    Prediction and analysis of the shapes of liquid-vapor interface of droplets under the influence of external forces is critical for various applications. In this regard, a geometric model that can capture the macroscopic shape of the liquid-vapor interface in tandem with the subtleties near the contact line, particularly in the regime where the droplet shape deviates significantly from the idealized spherical cap geometry, is desirable. Such deviations may occur when external forces such as gravity or centrifugal dominate over the surface tension force. Here we use vector parametrized cubic spline representation for axisymmetric fluid-fluid interfaces along with a novel thermodynamic free energy minimization based heuristic to determine the shape of liquid-vapor interface of droplets. We show that the current scheme can easily predict the shapes of sessile and pendant droplets under the action of centrifugal force over a broad range of surface contact angle values and droplet sizes encountered in practical applications. Finally, we show that the cubic spline based modeling approach makes it convenient to perform the inverse analysis as well, i.e., predict interfacial properties from the shape of a droplet under the action of various types of external forces including gravity and centrifugal. We believe that this versatile modeling approach can be extended to model droplet shapes under various other external forces including electric and acoustic. In addition, the simple shape analysis approach is also promising for the development of inexpensive interfacial analysis tools such as surface tensiometers.

  3. Estimates of critical quantities from an expansion in mass: Ising model on the simple cubic lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Yamada, Hirofumi

    2015-01-01

    In Ising model on the simple cubic lattice, we describe the inverse temperature $\\beta$ and other quantities relevant for the computation of critical quantities in terms of a dimensionless squared mass $M$. The critical behaviors of those quantities are represented by the linear differential equations with constant coefficients which are related to critical exponents. We estimate the critical temperature and exponents via an expansion in the inverse powers of the mass under the use of $\\delta$-expansion. The critical inverse temperature $\\beta_{c}$ is estimated first in unbiased manner and then critical exponents are also estimated in biased and unbiased self-contained way including $\\omega$, the correction-to-scaling exponent, $\

  4. Ground-state ordering of the J1-J2 model on the simple cubic and body-centered cubic lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnell, D. J. J.; Götze, O.; Richter, J.

    2016-06-01

    The J1-J2 Heisenberg model is a "canonical" model in the field of quantum magnetism in order to study the interplay between frustration and quantum fluctuations as well as quantum phase transitions driven by frustration. Here we apply the coupled cluster method (CCM) to study the spin-half J1-J2 model with antiferromagnetic nearest-neighbor bonds J1>0 and next-nearest-neighbor bonds J2>0 for the simple cubic (sc) and body-centered cubic (bcc) lattices. In particular, we wish to study the ground-state ordering of these systems as a function of the frustration parameter p =z2J2/z1J1 , where z1 (z2) is the number of nearest (next-nearest) neighbors. We wish to determine the positions of the phase transitions using the CCM and we aim to resolve the nature of the phase transition points. We consider the ground-state energy, order parameters, spin-spin correlation functions, as well as the spin stiffness in order to determine the ground-state phase diagrams of these models. We find a direct first-order phase transition at a value of p =0.528 from a state of nearest-neighbor Néel order to next-nearest-neighbor Néel order for the bcc lattice. For the sc lattice the situation is more subtle. CCM results for the energy, the order parameter, the spin-spin correlation functions, and the spin stiffness indicate that there is no direct first-order transition between ground-state phases with magnetic long-range order, rather it is more likely that two phases with antiferromagnetic long range are separated by a narrow region of a spin-liquid-like quantum phase around p =0.55 . Thus the strong frustration present in the J1-J2 Heisenberg model on the sc lattice may open a window for an unconventional quantum ground state in this three-dimensional spin model.

  5. Color management with a hammer: the B-spline fitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Ian E.; Liu, Bonny H. P.

    2003-01-01

    To paraphrase Abraham Maslow: If the only tool you have is a hammer, every problem looks like a nail. We have a B-spline fitter customized for 3D color data, and many problems in color management can be solved with this tool. Whereas color devices were once modeled with extensive measurement, look-up tables and trilinear interpolation, recent improvements in hardware have made B-spline models an affordable alternative. Such device characterizations require fewer color measurements than piecewise linear models, and have uses beyond simple interpolation. A B-spline fitter, for example, can act as a filter to remove noise from measurements, leaving a model with guaranteed smoothness. Inversion of the device model can then be carried out consistently and efficiently, as the spline model is well behaved and its derivatives easily computed. Spline-based algorithms also exist for gamut mapping, the composition of maps, and the extrapolation of a gamut. Trilinear interpolation---a degree-one spline---can still be used after nonlinear spline smoothing for high-speed evaluation with robust convergence. Using data from several color devices, this paper examines the use of B-splines as a generic tool for modeling devices and mapping one gamut to another, and concludes with applications to high-dimensional and spectral data.

  6. An algorithm for automatic crystal identification in pixelated scintillation detectors using thin plate splines and Gaussian mixture models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, Graham; Stortz, Greg; Goertzen, Andrew L.

    2016-02-01

    A typical positron emission tomography detector is comprised of a scintillator crystal array coupled to a photodetector array or other position sensitive detector. Such detectors using light sharing to read out crystal elements require the creation of a crystal lookup table (CLUT) that maps the detector response to the crystal of interaction based on the x-y position of the event calculated through Anger-type logic. It is vital for system performance that these CLUTs be accurate so that the location of events can be accurately identified and so that crystal-specific corrections, such as energy windowing or time alignment, can be applied. While using manual segmentation of the flood image to create the CLUT is a simple and reliable approach, it is both tedious and time consuming for systems with large numbers of crystal elements. In this work we describe the development of an automated algorithm for CLUT generation that uses a Gaussian mixture model paired with thin plate splines (TPS) to iteratively fit a crystal layout template that includes the crystal numbering pattern. Starting from a region of stability, Gaussians are individually fit to data corresponding to crystal locations while simultaneously updating a TPS for predicting future Gaussian locations at the edge of a region of interest that grows as individual Gaussians converge to crystal locations. The algorithm was tested with flood image data collected from 16 detector modules, each consisting of a 409 crystal dual-layer offset LYSO crystal array readout by a 32 pixel SiPM array. For these detector flood images, depending on user defined input parameters, the algorithm runtime ranged between 17.5-82.5 s per detector on a single core of an Intel i7 processor. The method maintained an accuracy above 99.8% across all tests, with the majority of errors being localized to error prone corner regions. This method can be easily extended for use with other detector types through adjustment of the initial

  7. Vibration Analysis of Beams by Spline Finite Element

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Hao; SUN Li

    2011-01-01

    In this paper,the spline finite element method is developed to investigate free vibration problems of beams.The cubic B-spline functions are used to construct the displacement field.The assembly of elements and the introduction of boundary conditions follow the standard finite element procedure.The results under various boundary conditions are compared with those obtained by the exact method and the finite difference method.It shows that the results are in excellent agreement with the analytical results and much more accurate than the results obtained by the finite difference method,especially for higher order modes.

  8. A multiresolution analysis for tensor-product splines using weighted spline wavelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapl, Mario; Jüttler, Bert

    2009-09-01

    We construct biorthogonal spline wavelets for periodic splines which extend the notion of "lazy" wavelets for linear functions (where the wavelets are simply a subset of the scaling functions) to splines of higher degree. We then use the lifting scheme in order to improve the approximation properties with respect to a norm induced by a weighted inner product with a piecewise constant weight function. Using the lifted wavelets we define a multiresolution analysis of tensor-product spline functions and apply it to image compression of black-and-white images. By performing-as a model problem-image compression with black-and-white images, we demonstrate that the use of a weight function allows to adapt the norm to the specific problem.

  9. Complex Planar Splines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    try todefine a complex planar spline by holomorphic elements like polynomials, then by the well known identity theorem (e.g. Diederich- Remmert [9, p...R. Remmert : Funktionentheorie I, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, 1972, 246 p. 10 0. Lehto - K.I. Virtanen: Quasikonforme AbbildunQen, Springer

  10. Local spline approximants

    OpenAIRE

    Norton, Andrew H.

    1991-01-01

    Local spline approximants offer a means for constructing finite difference formulae for numerical solution of PDEs. These formulae seem particularly well suited to situations in which the use of conventional formulae leads to non-linear computational instability of the time integration. This is explained in terms of frequency responses of the FDF.

  11. Nonlinear and fault-tolerant flight control using multivariate splines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, H.J.; De Visser, C.C.; Van Kampen, E.J.; Chu, Q.P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a study on fault tolerant flight control of a high performance aircraft using multivariate splines. The controller is implemented by making use of spline model based adaptive nonlinear dynamic inversion (NDI). This method, indicated as SANDI, combines NDI control with nonlinear

  12. Nonlinear and fault-tolerant flight control using multivariate splines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, H.J.; De Visser, C.C.; Van Kampen, E.J.; Chu, Q.P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a study on fault tolerant flight control of a high performance aircraft using multivariate splines. The controller is implemented by making use of spline model based adaptive nonlinear dynamic inversion (NDI). This method, indicated as SANDI, combines NDI control with nonlinear c

  13. Orthogonal polynomials in the normal matrix model with a cubic potential

    CERN Document Server

    Bleher, Pavel M

    2011-01-01

    We consider the normal matrix model with a cubic potential. The model is ill-defined, and in order to reguralize it, Elbau and Felder introduced a model with a cut-off and corresponding system of orthogonal polynomials with respect to a varying exponential weight on the cut-off region on the complex plane. In the present paper we show how to define orthogonal polynomials on a specially chosen system of infinite contours on the complex plane, without any cut-off, which satisfy the same recurrence algebraic identity that is asymptotically valid for the orthogonal polynomials of Elbau and Felder. The main goal of this paper is to develop the Riemann-Hilbert (RH) approach to the orthogonal polynomials under consideration and to obtain their asymptotic behavior on the complex plane as the degree $n$ of the polynomial goes to infinity. As the first step in the RH approach, we introduce an auxiliary vector equilibrium problem for a pair of measures $(\\mu_1,\\mu_2)$ on the complex plane. We then formulate a $3\\times 3...

  14. USING SPLINE FUNCTIONS FOR THE SUBSTANTIATION OF TAX POLICIES BY LOCAL AUTHORITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otgon Cristian

    2011-07-01

    -order, Hermite spline and cubic splines of class C2 .

  15. On Characterization of Quadratic Splines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, B. T.; Madsen, Kaj; Zhang, Shuzhong

    2005-01-01

    A quadratic spline is a differentiable piecewise quadratic function. Many problems in numerical analysis and optimization literature can be reformulated as unconstrained minimizations of quadratic splines. However, only special cases of quadratic splines are studied in the existing literature...... between the convexity of a quadratic spline function and the monotonicity of the corresponding LCP problem. It is shown that, although both conditions lead to easy solvability of the problem, they are different in general......., and algorithms are developed on a case by case basis. There lacks an analytical representation of a general or even a convex quadratic spline. The current paper fills this gap by providing an analytical representation of a general quadratic spline. Furthermore, for convex quadratic spline, it is shown...

  16. Tricritical point for the three-dimensional disordered Potts model ( q = 3) on a simple cubic lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaev, A. B.; Murtazaev, A. K.

    2017-03-01

    Slightly diluted magnetic systems described by the disordered three-dimensional Potts model with the number of spin states q = 3 are studied in the case of a simple cubic lattice. The position of the tricritical point in the phase diagram is determined using the histogram Monte Carlo technique.

  17. Deformation twinning in small-sized face-centred cubic single crystals: Experiments and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Z. Y.; Huang, M. X.

    2015-12-01

    Small-sized crystals generally show deformation behaviour distinct from their bulk counterparts. In addition to dislocation slip, deformation twinning in small-sized face-centred cubic (FCC) single crystals has been reported to follow a different mechanism which involves coherent emission of partial dislocations on successive { 111 } planes from free surface. The present work employed a twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) steel with a low stacking fault energy to systematically investigate the twin evolution in small-sized FCC single crystals. Micrometre-sized single crystal pillars of TWIP steel were fabricated by focus ion beam and then strained to different levels by compression experiments. Detailed transmission electron microscopy characterization was carried out to obtain a quantitative evaluation of the deformation twins, which contribute to most of the plastic strain. Emissions of partial dislocations from free surface (surface sources) and pre-existing perfect dislocations inside the pillar (inner sources) are found as the essential processes for the formation of deformation twins. Accordingly, a physically-based model, which integrates source introduction methods and source activation criterions for partial dislocation emission, is developed to quantitatively predict the twin evolution. The model is able to reproduce the experimental twin evolution, in terms of the total twin formation, the twin morphology and the occurrence of twinning burst.

  18. Multipseudopotential interaction: A consistent study of cubic equations of state in lattice Boltzmann models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajepor, Sorush; Chen, Baixin

    2016-01-01

    A method is developed to analytically and consistently implement cubic equations of state into the recently proposed multipseudopotential interaction (MPI) scheme in the class of two-phase lattice Boltzmann (LB) models [S. Khajepor, J. Wen, and B. Chen, Phys. Rev. E 91, 023301 (2015)]10.1103/PhysRevE.91.023301. An MPI forcing term is applied to reduce the constraints on the mathematical shape of the thermodynamically consistent pseudopotentials; this allows the parameters of the MPI forces to be determined analytically without the need of curve fitting or trial and error methods. Attraction and repulsion parts of equations of state (EOSs), representing underlying molecular interactions, are modeled by individual pseudopotentials. Four EOSs, van der Waals, Carnahan-Starling, Peng-Robinson, and Soave-Redlich-Kwong, are investigated and the results show that the developed MPI-LB system can satisfactorily recover the thermodynamic states of interest. The phase interface is predicted analytically and controlled via EOS parameters independently and its effect on the vapor-liquid equilibrium system is studied. The scheme is highly stable to very high density ratios and the accuracy of the results can be enhanced by increasing the interface resolution. The MPI drop is evaluated with regard to surface tension, spurious velocities, isotropy, dynamic behavior, and the stability dependence on the relaxation time.

  19. Wang-Landau sampling in face-centered-cubic hydrophobic-hydrophilic lattice model proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingfa; Song, Beibei; Yao, Yonglei; Xue, Yu; Liu, Wenjie; Liu, Zhaoxia

    2014-10-01

    Finding the global minimum-energy structure is one of the main problems of protein structure prediction. The face-centered-cubic (fcc) hydrophobic-hydrophilic (HP) lattice model can reach high approximation ratios of real protein structures, so the fcc lattice model is a good choice to predict the protein structures. The lacking of an effective global optimization method is the key obstacle in solving this problem. The Wang-Landau sampling method is especially useful for complex systems with a rough energy landscape and has been successfully applied to solving many optimization problems. We apply the improved Wang-Landau (IWL) sampling method, which incorporates the generation of an initial conformation based on the greedy strategy and the neighborhood strategy based on pull moves into the Wang-Landau sampling method to predict the protein structures on the fcc HP lattice model. Unlike conventional Monte Carlo simulations that generate a probability distribution at a given temperature, the Wang-Landau sampling method can estimate the density of states accurately via a random walk, which produces a flat histogram in energy space. We test 12 general benchmark instances on both two-dimensional and three-dimensional (3D) fcc HP lattice models. The lowest energies by the IWL sampling method are as good as or better than those of other methods in the literature for all instances. We then test five sets of larger-scale instances, denoted by the S, R, F90, F180, and CASP target instances on the 3D fcc HP lattice model. The numerical results show that our algorithm performs better than the other five methods in the literature on both the lowest energies and the average lowest energies in all runs. The IWL sampling method turns out to be a powerful tool to study the structure prediction of the fcc HP lattice model proteins.

  20. 样条型矩阵有理插值%SPLINE-TYPE MATRIX VALUED RATIONAL INTERPOLATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨松林

    2005-01-01

    The matrix valued rational interpolation is very useful in the partial realization problem and model reduction for all the linear system theory. Lagrange basic functions have been used in matrix valued rational interpolation. In this paper, according to the property of cardinal spline interpolation, we constructed a kind of spline type matrix valued rational interpolation, which based on cardinal spline. This spline type interpolation can avoid instability of high order polynomial interpolation and we obtained a useful formula.

  1. An assessment of CSIRO Conformal Cubic Atmospheric Model simulations over Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevakaran, A.; McGregor, J. L.; Katzfey, J.; Hoffmann, P.; Suppiah, R.; Sonnadara, D. U. J.

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we present an assessment of the Conformal Cubic Atmospheric Model (CCAM) 50 km simulations forced by the sea surface temperature and sea ice concentration of six global climate models (GCMs) (ACCESS1-0, CCSM4, GFDL-CM3, NorESM, MPI-ESM and CNRM-CM5) from the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) over South Asia, centred on Sri Lanka. The model simulations were compared with the data provided by the Asian Precipitation Highly Resolved Observational Data Integration towards Evaluation of Water Resource (APHRODITE) project and ERA-Interim from the European Centre for Medium range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) over a broad region centred on Sri Lanka. This broad region includes South Asia and northern Indian Ocean. Statistical measures such as pattern correlations, mean biases and root mean square errors were calculated separately for the four seasons. Results based on statistical tests indicate that the current CCAM simulations capture the spatial patterns of 10 m wind speed, mean sea level pressure, temperature and rainfall over a broad region over South Asia fairly well. The annual cycles of temperature and rainfall were also compared against observations over the northern and southern regions of Sri Lanka by taking the field average of each model and the observed data. The characteristics of the observed annual variations of rainfall and temperature over the smaller domains are not very well captured by the CCAM simulations. There are differences in the magnitudes of the temperature and rainfall in the six member CCAM simulations. Comparatively, the two CCAM simulations CNRM-CM5 and GFDL-CM3 show slightly better agreement over the Sri Lankan region.

  2. LOCALLY REFINED SPLINES REPRESENTATION FOR GEOSPATIAL BIG DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Dokken

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available When viewed from distance, large parts of the topography of landmasses and the bathymetry of the sea and ocean floor can be regarded as a smooth background with local features. Consequently a digital elevation model combining a compact smooth representation of the background with locally added features has the potential of providing a compact and accurate representation for topography and bathymetry. The recent introduction of Locally Refined B-Splines (LR B-splines allows the granularity of spline representations to be locally adapted to the complexity of the smooth shape approximated. This allows few degrees of freedom to be used in areas with little variation, while adding extra degrees of freedom in areas in need of more modelling flexibility. In the EU fp7 Integrating Project IQmulus we exploit LR B-splines for approximating large point clouds representing bathymetry of the smooth sea and ocean floor. A drastic reduction is demonstrated in the bulk of the data representation compared to the size of input point clouds. The representation is very well suited for exploiting the power of GPUs for visualization as the spline format is transferred to the GPU and the triangulation needed for the visualization is generated on the GPU according to the viewing parameters. The LR B-splines are interoperable with other elevation model representations such as LIDAR data, raster representations and triangulated irregular networks as these can be used as input to the LR B-spline approximation algorithms. Output to these formats can be generated from the LR B-spline applications according to the resolution criteria required. The spline models are well suited for change detection as new sensor data can efficiently be compared to the compact LR B-spline representation.

  3. Numerical Modeling of the Stability of Face-Centered Cubic Metals with High Vacancy Concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian P. Somerday; M. I. Baskes

    1998-12-01

    The objective of this research is to assess the possibility of forming an atomically porous structure in a low-density metal, e.g., Al with vacancies up to 0.20/lattice site; and to examine the effects of hydrogen and vacancy concentration on the stability of an atomically porous structure that has been experimentally produced in nickel. The approach involves numerical modeling using the Embedded-Atom Method (EAM). High vacancy concentrations cause the Al lattice to disorder at 300K. In contrast, Ni retains the face-centered-cubic structure at 300K for vacancy concentrations up to 0.15 Vac/lattice site. Unexpectedly, the lattice with 0.15 Vac/lattice site is more stable than the lattice with 0.10 or 0.20 Vac/lattice site. The Ni systems with 0.10 and 0.15 Vac/lattice site exhibit domains consisting of uniform lattice rotations. The Ni lattice with 0.15 Vac/lattice site is more stable with an initial distribution of random vacancies compared to ordered vacancies. The equilibrium lattice structures of Ni a d Al containing vacancies and H are less ordered to structures with vacancies only at 300K.

  4. Splines in Compressed Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Abhishek

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available It is well understood that in any data acquisition system reduction in the amount of data reduces the time and energy, but the major trade-off here is the quality of outcome normally, lesser the amount of data sensed, lower the quality. Compressed Sensing (CS allows a solution, for sampling below the Nyquist rate. The challenging problem of increasing the reconstruction quality with less number of samples from an unprocessed data set is addressed here by the use of representative coordinate selected from different orders of splines. We have made a detailed comparison with 10 orthogonal and 6 biorthogonal wavelets with two sets of data from MIT Arrhythmia database and our results prove that the Spline coordinates work better than the wavelets. The generation of two new types of splines such as exponential and double exponential are also briefed here .We believe that this is one of the very first attempts made in Compressed Sensing based ECG reconstruction problems using raw data.  

  5. Regional vertical total electron content (VTEC) modeling together with satellite and receiver differential code biases (DCBs) using semi-parametric multivariate adaptive regression B-splines (SP-BMARS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmaz, Murat; Karslioglu, Mahmut Onur

    2015-04-01

    There are various global and regional methods that have been proposed for the modeling of ionospheric vertical total electron content (VTEC). Global distribution of VTEC is usually modeled by spherical harmonic expansions, while tensor products of compactly supported univariate B-splines can be used for regional modeling. In these empirical parametric models, the coefficients of the basis functions as well as differential code biases (DCBs) of satellites and receivers can be treated as unknown parameters which can be estimated from geometry-free linear combinations of global positioning system observables. In this work we propose a new semi-parametric multivariate adaptive regression B-splines (SP-BMARS) method for the regional modeling of VTEC together with satellite and receiver DCBs, where the parametric part of the model is related to the DCBs as fixed parameters and the non-parametric part adaptively models the spatio-temporal distribution of VTEC. The latter is based on multivariate adaptive regression B-splines which is a non-parametric modeling technique making use of compactly supported B-spline basis functions that are generated from the observations automatically. This algorithm takes advantage of an adaptive scale-by-scale model building strategy that searches for best-fitting B-splines to the data at each scale. The VTEC maps generated from the proposed method are compared numerically and visually with the global ionosphere maps (GIMs) which are provided by the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE). The VTEC values from SP-BMARS and CODE GIMs are also compared with VTEC values obtained through calibration using local ionospheric model. The estimated satellite and receiver DCBs from the SP-BMARS model are compared with the CODE distributed DCBs. The results show that the SP-BMARS algorithm can be used to estimate satellite and receiver DCBs while adaptively and flexibly modeling the daily regional VTEC.

  6. The Modelling Of Basing Holes Machining Of Automatically Replaceable Cubical Units For Reconfigurable Manufacturing Systems With Low-Waste Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobrovskij, N. M.; Levashkin, D. G.; Bobrovskij, I. N.; Melnikov, P. A.; Lukyanov, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    Article is devoted the decision of basing holes machining accuracy problems of automatically replaceable cubical units (carriers) for reconfigurable manufacturing systems with low-waste production (RMS). Results of automatically replaceable units basing holes machining modeling on the basis of the dimensional chains analysis are presented. Influence of machining parameters processing on accuracy spacings on centers between basing apertures is shown. The mathematical model of carriers basing holes machining accuracy is offered.

  7. APPLICATION OF CUBIC SPLINE FOR DESIGNING HEADWEAR FROM MATRIX ELEMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Андросова, Галина; Браилов, Иван; Черепанова, Светлана; Бахтурина, Елена

    2009-01-01

    Рассмотрено проектирование объемных поверхностей из матричных элементов на примере головного убора. Осуществлено построение развертки поверхности, описание ее контура кубическим сплайном, вписывание в ее контур матричных элементов. Разработан алгоритм проектирования головного убора из матричных элементов.Es wird die Projektierung der Volumenoberfläche aus der Matrixelementen am Beispiel von der Kopfbedeckung betrachtet. Es wird die Struktur der Abtastung der Oberfläche, die Beschreibung ihrer...

  8. Control theory and splines, applied to signature storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enqvist, Per

    1994-01-01

    In this report the problem we are going to study is the interpolation of a set of points in the plane with the use of control theory. We will discover how different systems generate different kinds of splines, cubic and exponential, and investigate the effect that the different systems have on the tracking problems. Actually we will see that the important parameters will be the two eigenvalues of the control matrix.

  9. A free-knot spline modeling framework for piecewise linear logistic regression in complex samples with body mass index and mortality as an example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott W. Keith

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper details the design, evaluation, and implementation of a framework for detecting and modeling nonlinearity between a binary outcome and a continuous predictor variable adjusted for covariates in complex samples. The framework provides familiar-looking parameterizations of output in terms of linear slope coefficients and odds ratios. Estimation methods focus on maximum likelihood optimization of piecewise linear free-knot splines formulated as B-splines. Correctly specifying the optimal number and positions of the knots improves the model, but is marked by computational intensity and numerical instability. Our inference methods utilize both parametric and nonparametric bootstrapping. Unlike other nonlinear modeling packages, this framework is designed to incorporate multistage survey sample designs common to nationally representative datasets. We illustrate the approach and evaluate its performance in specifying the correct number of knots under various conditions with an example using body mass index (BMI; kg/m2 and the complex multi-stage sampling design from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to simulate binary mortality outcomes data having realistic nonlinear sample-weighted risk associations with BMI. BMI and mortality data provide a particularly apt example and area of application since BMI is commonly recorded in large health surveys with complex designs, often categorized for modeling, and nonlinearly related to mortality. When complex sample design considerations were ignored, our method was generally similar to or more accurate than two common model selection procedures, Schwarz’s Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC and Akaike’s Information Criterion (AIC, in terms of correctly selecting the correct number of knots. Our approach provided accurate knot selections when complex sampling weights were incorporated, while AIC and BIC were not effective under these conditions.

  10. Spline Histogram Method for Reconstruction of Probability Density Functions of Clusters of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docenko, Dmitrijs; Berzins, Karlis

    We describe the spline histogram algorithm which is useful for visualization of the probability density function setting up a statistical hypothesis for a test. The spline histogram is constructed from discrete data measurements using tensioned cubic spline interpolation of the cumulative distribution function which is then differentiated and smoothed using the Savitzky-Golay filter. The optimal width of the filter is determined by minimization of the Integrated Square Error function. The current distribution of the TCSplin algorithm written in f77 with IDL and Gnuplot visualization scripts is available from www.virac.lv/en/soft.html.

  11. Spline histogram method for reconstruction of probability density function of clusters of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Docenko, D; Docenko, Dmitrijs; Berzins, Karlis

    2003-01-01

    We describe the spline histogram algorithm which is useful for visualization of the probability density function setting up a statistical hypothesis for a test. The spline histogram is constructed from discrete data measurements using tensioned cubic spline interpolation of the cumulative distribution function which is then differentiated and smoothed using the Savitzky-Golay filter. The optimal width of the filter is determined by minimization of the Integrated Square Error function. The current distribution of the TCSplin algorithm written in f77 with IDL and Gnuplot visualization scripts is available from http://www.virac.lv/en/soft.html

  12. Hilbertian kernels and spline functions

    CERN Document Server

    Atteia, M

    1992-01-01

    In this monograph, which is an extensive study of Hilbertian approximation, the emphasis is placed on spline functions theory. The origin of the book was an effort to show that spline theory parallels Hilbertian Kernel theory, not only for splines derived from minimization of a quadratic functional but more generally for splines considered as piecewise functions type. Being as far as possible self-contained, the book may be used as a reference, with information about developments in linear approximation, convex optimization, mechanics and partial differential equations.

  13. Universal Reconfiguration of (Hyper-)cubic Robots

    OpenAIRE

    Abel, Zachary; Kominers, Scott D.

    2008-01-01

    We study a simple reconfigurable robot model which has not been previously examined: cubic robots comprised of three-dimensional cubic modules which can slide across each other and rotate about each others' edges. We demonstrate that the cubic robot model is universal, i.e., that an n-module cubic robot can reconfigure itself into any specified n-module configuration. Additionally, we provide an algorithm that efficiently plans and executes cubic robot motion. Our results directly extend to a...

  14. Finite-band solitons in the Kronig-Penney model with the cubic-quintic nonlinearity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merhasin, Ilya M; Gisin, Boris V; Driben, Rodislav; Malomed, Boris A

    2005-01-01

    We present a model combining a periodic array of rectangular potential wells [the Kronig-Penney (KP) potential] and the cubic-quintic (CQ) nonlinearity. A plethora of soliton states is found in the system: fundamental single-humped solitons, symmetric and antisymmetric double-humped ones, three-peak solitons with and without the phase shift pi between the peaks, etc. If the potential profile is shallow, the solitons belong to the semi-infinite gap beneath the band structure of the linear KP model, while finite gaps between the Bloch bands remain empty. However, in contrast with the situation known in the model combining a periodic potential and the self-focusing Kerr nonlinearity, the solitons fill only a finite zone near the top of the semi-infinite gap, which is a consequence of the saturable character of the CQ nonlinearity. If the potential structure is much deeper, then fundamental and double (both symmetric and antisymmetric) solitons with a flat-top shape are found in the finite gaps. Computation of stability eigenvalues for small perturbations and direct simulations show that all the solitons are stable. In the shallow KP potential, the soliton characteristics, in the form of the integral power Q (or width w) versus the propagation constant k, reveal strong bistability, with two and, sometimes, four different solutions found for a given k (the bistability disappears with the increase of the depth of the potential). Disobeying the Vakhitov-Kolokolov criterion, the solution branches with both dQ/dk > 0 and dQ/dk < 0 are stable. The curve Q(k) corresponding to each particular type of the solution (with a given number of local peaks and definite symmetry) ends at a finite maximum value of Q (breathers are found past the end points). The increase of the integral power gives rise to additional peaks in the soliton's shape, each corresponding to a subpulse trapped in a local channel of the KP structure (a beam-splitting property). It is plausible that these

  15. Single authentication: exposing weighted splining artifacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciptasari, Rimba W.

    2016-05-01

    A common form of manipulation is to combine parts of the image fragment into another different image either to remove or blend the objects. Inspired by this situation, we propose a single authentication technique for detecting traces of weighted average splining technique. In this paper, we assume that image composite could be created by joining two images so that the edge between them is imperceptible. The weighted average technique is constructed from overlapped images so that it is possible to compute the gray level value of points within a transition zone. This approach works on the assumption that although splining process leaves the transition zone smoothly. They may, nevertheless, alter the underlying statistics of an image. In other words, it introduces specific correlation into the image. The proposed idea dealing with identifying these correlations is to generate an original model of both weighting function, left and right functions, as references to their synthetic models. The overall process of the authentication is divided into two main stages, which are pixel predictive coding and weighting function estimation. In the former stage, the set of intensity pairs {Il,Ir} is computed by exploiting pixel extrapolation technique. The least-squares estimation method is then employed to yield the weighted coefficients. We show the efficacy of the proposed scheme on revealing the splining artifacts. We believe that this is the first work that exposes the image splining artifact as evidence of digital tampering.

  16. Emergent gravity in the cubic tight-binding model of Weyl semimetal in the presence of elastic deformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortijo, Alberto [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Zubkov, M.A., E-mail: zubkov@itep.ru [ITEP, B. Cheremushkinskaya 25, Moscow, 117259 (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, 9, Institutskii per., Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region, 141700 (Russian Federation); Far Eastern Federal University, School of Biomedicine, 690950 Vladivostok (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Kashirskoe highway 31, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-15

    We consider the tight-binding model with cubic symmetry that may be relevant for the description of a certain class of Weyl semimetals. We take into account elastic deformations of the semimetal through the modification of hopping parameters. This modification results in the appearance of emergent gauge field and the coordinate dependent anisotropic Fermi velocity. The latter may be interpreted as emergent gravitational field.

  17. Convolution Surface Modeling for Cubic B-Spline Skeletons%三次B样条曲线骨架卷积曲面造型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海林; 金小刚; 冯结青

    2006-01-01

    提出一种基于B样条曲线降阶的三次B样条曲线骨架卷积曲面造型方法.首先通过顶点扰动降阶方法把三次B样条曲线骨架(C1连续)降阶为C1连续的二次B样条,然后应用二次B样条曲线骨架的卷积曲面势函数计算方法得到三次B样条曲线骨架的势函数.

  18. 基于三次B样条函数的话务量预测模型%Traffic Prediction Model Based on Cubic B Spline Interpolation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊春波; 郭军峰

    2009-01-01

    针对某移动通信服务公司话务量预测的实际问题,利用三次B样条函数插值方法,建立了工作日和假日话务量预测模型,求解得出了移动电话的话务量随时间变化的规律性,并在某通信服务公司的话务量预测中得到了具体应用,结果是有效的.

  19. Splines and variational methods

    CERN Document Server

    Prenter, P M

    2008-01-01

    One of the clearest available introductions to variational methods, this text requires only a minimal background in calculus and linear algebra. Its self-contained treatment explains the application of theoretic notions to the kinds of physical problems that engineers regularly encounter. The text's first half concerns approximation theoretic notions, exploring the theory and computation of one- and two-dimensional polynomial and other spline functions. Later chapters examine variational methods in the solution of operator equations, focusing on boundary value problems in one and two dimension

  20. Splines and the Galerkin method for solving the integral equations of scattering theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannigan, M.; Eyre, D.

    1983-06-01

    This paper investigates the Galerkin method with cubic B-spline approximants to solve singular integral equations that arise in scattering theory. We stress the relationship between the Galerkin and collocation methods.The error bound for cubic spline approximates has a convergence rate of O(h4), where h is the mesh spacing. We test the utility of the Galerkin method by solving both two- and three-body problems. We demonstrate, by solving the Amado-Lovelace equation for a system of three identical bosons, that our numerical treatment of the scattering problem is both efficient and accurate for small linear systems.

  1. Straight-sided Spline Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    2011-01-01

    and the subject of improving the design. The present paper concentrates on the optimization of splines and the predictions of stress concentrations, which are determined by finite element analysis (FEA). Using design modifications, that do not change the spline load carrying capacity, it is shown that large...

  2. On Characterization of Quadratic Splines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, B. T.; Madsen, Kaj; Zhang, Shuzhong

    2005-01-01

    that the representation can be refined in a neighborhood of a non-degenerate point and a set of non-degenerate minimizers. Based on these characterizations, many existing algorithms for specific convex quadratic splines are also finite convergent for a general convex quadratic spline. Finally, we study the relationship...

  3. Tensor splines for interpolation and approximation of DT-MRI with applications to segmentation of isolated rat hippocampi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmpoutis, Angelos; Vemuri, Baba C; Shepherd, Timothy M; Forder, John R

    2007-11-01

    In this paper, we present novel algorithms for statistically robust interpolation and approximation of diffusion tensors-which are symmetric positive definite (SPD) matrices-and use them in developing a significant extension to an existing probabilistic algorithm for scalar field segmentation, in order to segment diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) datasets. Using the Riemannian metric on the space of SPD matrices, we present a novel and robust higher order (cubic) continuous tensor product of B-splines algorithm to approximate the SPD diffusion tensor fields. The resulting approximations are appropriately dubbed tensor splines. Next, we segment the diffusion tensor field by jointly estimating the label (assigned to each voxel) field, which is modeled by a Gauss Markov measure field (GMMF) and the parameters of each smooth tensor spline model representing the labeled regions. Results of interpolation, approximation, and segmentation are presented for synthetic data and real diffusion tensor fields from an isolated rat hippocampus, along with validation. We also present comparisons of our algorithms with existing methods and show significantly improved results in the presence of noise as well as outliers.

  4. Topological Expansion in the Complex Cubic Log-Gas Model: One-Cut Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleher, Pavel; Deaño, Alfredo; Yattselev, Maxim

    2016-09-01

    We prove the topological expansion for the cubic log-gas partition function Z_N(t)= int _Γ \\cdots int _Γ prod _{1≤ jtopological expansion for log Z_N(t) in the one-cut phase region. The proof is based on the Riemann-Hilbert approach to semiclassical asymptotic expansions for the associated orthogonal polynomials and the theory of S-curves and quadratic differentials.

  5. Guarded Cubical Type Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Lars; Bizjak, Aleš; Clouston, Ranald;

    2016-01-01

    This paper improves the treatment of equality in guarded dependent type theory (GDTT), by combining it with cubical type theory (CTT). GDTT is an extensional type theory with guarded recursive types, which are useful for building models of program logics, and for programming and reasoning with co...

  6. Automatic spline-smoothing approach applied to denoise Moroccan resistivity data phosphate deposit “disturbances” map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Bakkali

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on presenting a method which is able to filter out noise and suppress outliers of sampled real functions under fairly general conditions. The automatic optimal spline-smoothing approach automatically determi-nes how a cubic spline should be adjusted in a least-squares optimal sense from an a priori selection of the number of points defining an adjusting spline, but not their location on that curve. The method is fast and easily allowed for selecting several knots, thereby adding desirable flexibility to the procedure. As an illustration, we apply the AOSSA method to Moroccan resistivity data phosphate deposit “disturbances” map. The AOSSA smoothing method is an e-fficient tool in interpreting geophysical potential field data which is particularly suitable in denoising, filtering and a-nalysing resistivity data singularities. The AOSSA smoothing and filtering approach was found to be consistently use-ful when applied to modeling surface phosphate “disturbances.”.

  7. A New Predictive Model Based on the ABC Optimized Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines Approach for Predicting the Remaining Useful Life in Aircraft Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulino José García Nieto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Remaining useful life (RUL estimation is considered as one of the most central points in the prognostics and health management (PHM. The present paper describes a nonlinear hybrid ABC–MARS-based model for the prediction of the remaining useful life of aircraft engines. Indeed, it is well-known that an accurate RUL estimation allows failure prevention in a more controllable way so that the effective maintenance can be carried out in appropriate time to correct impending faults. The proposed hybrid model combines multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS, which have been successfully adopted for regression problems, with the artificial bee colony (ABC technique. This optimization technique involves parameter setting in the MARS training procedure, which significantly influences the regression accuracy. However, its use in reliability applications has not yet been widely explored. Bearing this in mind, remaining useful life values have been predicted here by using the hybrid ABC–MARS-based model from the remaining measured parameters (input variables for aircraft engines with success. A correlation coefficient equal to 0.92 was obtained when this hybrid ABC–MARS-based model was applied to experimental data. The agreement of this model with experimental data confirmed its good performance. The main advantage of this predictive model is that it does not require information about the previous operation states of the aircraft engine.

  8. B(asic)-Spline Basics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-08-01

    basic B-spline theory by studying the spline space 5k.t, i.e.. the collection of all functions s of the form s = , Bika , (3.1) for a suitable...B-spline coefficients to be zero. More than that. I will assume that t, lim t, :( ( 2) This assumption is convenient since it ensures that every IR...procedure. we arrive at the formula s Bilo which shows that k- 1, Algorithm 9. From given constant polynomials a’" aj, i k- I, (which determine s Bika

  9. A three-dimensional finite element model of human atrial anatomy: new methods for cubic Hermite meshes with extraordinary vertices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Matthew J; Sturgeon, Gregory; Krishnamurthy, Adarsh; Hake, Johan; Jonas, René; Stark, Paul; Rappel, Wouter-Jan; Narayan, Sanjiv M; Zhang, Yongjie; Segars, W Paul; McCulloch, Andrew D

    2013-07-01

    High-order cubic Hermite finite elements have been valuable in modeling cardiac geometry, fiber orientations, biomechanics, and electrophysiology, but their use in solving three-dimensional problems has been limited to ventricular models with simple topologies. Here, we utilized a subdivision surface scheme and derived a generalization of the "local-to-global" derivative mapping scheme of cubic Hermite finite elements to construct bicubic and tricubic Hermite models of the human atria with extraordinary vertices from computed tomography images of a patient with atrial fibrillation. To an accuracy of 0.6 mm, we were able to capture the left atrial geometry with only 142 bicubic Hermite finite elements, and the right atrial geometry with only 90. The left and right atrial bicubic Hermite meshes were G1 continuous everywhere except in the one-neighborhood of extraordinary vertices, where the mean dot products of normals at adjacent elements were 0.928 and 0.925. We also constructed two biatrial tricubic Hermite models and defined fiber orientation fields in agreement with diagrammatic data from the literature using only 42 angle parameters. The meshes all have good quality metrics, uniform element sizes, and elements with aspect ratios near unity, and are shared with the public. These new methods will allow for more compact and efficient patient-specific models of human atrial and whole heart physiology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Marginal longitudinal semiparametric regression via penalized splines

    KAUST Repository

    Al Kadiri, M.

    2010-08-01

    We study the marginal longitudinal nonparametric regression problem and some of its semiparametric extensions. We point out that, while several elaborate proposals for efficient estimation have been proposed, a relative simple and straightforward one, based on penalized splines, has not. After describing our approach, we then explain how Gibbs sampling and the BUGS software can be used to achieve quick and effective implementation. Illustrations are provided for nonparametric regression and additive models.

  11. Marginal longitudinal semiparametric regression via penalized splines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadiri, M Al; Carroll, R J; Wand, M P

    2010-08-01

    We study the marginal longitudinal nonparametric regression problem and some of its semiparametric extensions. We point out that, while several elaborate proposals for efficient estimation have been proposed, a relative simple and straightforward one, based on penalized splines, has not. After describing our approach, we then explain how Gibbs sampling and the BUGS software can be used to achieve quick and effective implementation. Illustrations are provided for nonparametric regression and additive models.

  12. Conformal interpolating algorithm based on B-spline for aspheric ultra-precision machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenggui; Sun, Dan; Wang, Min

    2006-02-01

    Numeric control machining and on-line compensation for aspheric surface are key techniques for ultra-precision machining. In this paper, conformal cubic B-spline interpolating curve is first applied to fit the character curve of aspheric surface. Its algorithm and process are also proposed and imitated by Matlab7.0 software. To evaluate the performance of the conformal B-spline interpolation, comparison was made between linear and circular interpolations. The result verifies this method can ensure smoothness of interpolating spline curve and preserve original shape characters. The surface quality interpolated by B-spline is higher than by line and by circle arc. The algorithm is benefit to increasing the surface form precision of workpiece during ultra-precision machining.

  13. Spline energy method and its application in the structural analysis of antenna reflector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Deman; Wu, Qinbao

    A method is proposed for analyzing combined structures consisting of shell and beam (rib) members. The cubic B spline function is used to interpolate the displacements and the total potential energy of the shell and the ribs. The equilibrium simultaneous equations can be obtained according to the principle of minimum potential energy.

  14. Absence of re-entrant phase transition of the antiferromagnetic Ising model on the simple cubic lattice: Monte Carlo study of the hard-sphere lattice gas

    OpenAIRE

    Yamagata, Atsushi

    1994-01-01

    We perform the Monte Carlo simulations of the hard-sphere lattice gas on the simple cubic lattice with nearest neighbour exclusion. The critical activity is estimated, $z_{\\rm c} = 1.0588 \\pm 0.0003$. Using a relation between the hard-sphere lattice gas and the antiferromagnetic Ising model in an external magnetic field, we conclude that there is no re-entrant phase transition of the latter on the simple cubic lattice.

  15. Cubical sets and the topological topos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spitters, Bas

    2016-01-01

    Coquand's cubical set model for homotopy type theory provides the basis for a computational interpretation of the univalence axiom and some higher inductive types, as implemented in the cubical proof assistant. This paper contributes to the understanding of this model. We make three contributions...... show that it can also be a target for cubical realization by showing that Coquand's cubical sets classify the geometric theory of flat distributive lattices. As a side result, we obtain a simplicial realization of a cubical set. 2. Using the internal `interval' in the topos of cubical sets, we...... construct a Moore path model of identity types. 3. We construct a premodel structure internally in the cubical type theory and hence on the fibrant objects in cubical sets....

  16. Regional Ionosphere Mapping with Kriging and B-spline Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grynyshyna-Poliuga, O.; Stanislawska, I. M.

    2013-12-01

    This work demonstrates the concept and practical examples of mapping of regional ionosphere, based on GPS observations from the EGNOS Ranging and Integrity Monitoring Stations (RIMS) network and permanent stations near to them. Interpolation/prediction techniques, such as kriging (KR) and the cubic B-spline, which are suitable for handling multi-scale phenomena and unevenly distributed data, were used to create total electron content (TEC) maps. Their computational efficiency (especially the B-spline) and the ability to handle undersampled data (especially kriging) are particularly attractive. The data sets have been collect into seasonal bins representing June, December solstices and equinox (March, September). TEC maps have a spatial resolution of 2.50 and 2.50 in latitude and longitude, respectively, and a 15-minutes temporal resolution. The time series of the TEC maps can be used to derive average monthly maps describing major ionospheric trends as a function of time, season, and spatial location.

  17. Cubic Icosahedra? A Problem in Assigning Symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, D. R.

    2010-01-01

    There is a standard convention that the icosahedral groups are classified separately from the cubic groups, but these two symmetry types have been conflated as "cubic" in some chemistry textbooks. In this note, the connection between cubic and icosahedral symmetries is examined, using a simple pictorial model. It is shown that octahedral and…

  18. Self-Assembled Lipid Cubic Phase and Cubosomes for the Delivery of Aspirin as a Model Drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Chandrashekhar V; Vishwapathi, Vinod Kumar; Quarshie, Abraham; Moinuddin, Zeinab; Page, James; Kendrekar, Pravin; Mashele, Samson S

    2017-09-05

    Three-dimensionally organized lipid cubic self-assemblies and derived oil-in-water emulsions called "cubosomes" are attractive for various biotechnological applications due to their ability to be loaded with functional molecules and their associated sustained release properties. Here, we employed both of these lipid-based systems for the delivery of a model drug, aspirin, under comparable conditions. Studies were performed by varying drug-to-lipid ratio and the type of release medium, water and phosphate buffer saline (PBS). Release rates were determined using UV-vis spectroscopy, and small-angle X-ray scattering was used to confirm the type of self-assembled nanostructures formed in these lipid systems. The release from the bulk lipid cubic phase was sustained as compared to that of dispersed cubosomes, and the release in PBS was more efficient than in water. The tortuosity of the architecture, length of the diffusion pathway, type of nanostructure, and physicochemical interaction with the release media evidently contribute to these observations. This work is particularly important as it is the first report where both of these nanostructured lipid systems have been studied together under similar conditions. This work provides important insights into understanding and therefore controlling the release behavior of lipid-based drug nanocarriers.

  19. Examination of the Circle Spline Routine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolin, R. M.; Jaeger, D. L.

    1985-01-01

    The Circle Spline routine is currently being used for generating both two and three dimensional spline curves. It was developed for use in ESCHER, a mesh generating routine written to provide a computationally simple and efficient method for building meshes along curved surfaces. Circle Spline is a parametric linear blending spline. Because many computerized machining operations involve circular shapes, the Circle Spline is well suited for both the design and manufacturing processes and shows promise as an alternative to the spline methods currently supported by the Initial Graphics Specification (IGES).

  20. Evaluation of simulation-based training for aircraft carrier marshalling with learning cubic and Kirkpatrick’s models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Yongliang; Liu Hu; Yin Jiao; Luo Mingqiang; Wu Guanghui

    2015-01-01

    Simulation-based training is a promising way to train a carrier flight deck crew because of the complex and dangerous working environment. Quantitative evaluation of simulation-based training quality is vital to make simulation-based training practical for aircraft carrier marshalling. This paper develops a personal computer-based aircraft carrier marshalling simulation system and a cave automatic virtual environment (CAVE)-based immersive environment. In order to compare the training effectiveness of simulation-based training and paper-based training, a learning cubic model is proposed and a contrast experiment is carried out as well. The experimental data is ana-lyzed based on a simplified Kirkpatrick’s model. The results show that simulation-based training is better than paper-based training by 26.80%after three rounds of testing, which prove the effective-ness of simulation-based aircraft carrier marshalling training.

  1. Guarded Cubical Type Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Lars; Bizjak, Aleš; Clouston, Ranald;

    2016-01-01

    This paper improves the treatment of equality in guarded dependent type theory (GDTT), by combining it with cubical type theory (CTT). GDTT is an extensional type theory with guarded recursive types, which are useful for building models of program logics, and for programming and reasoning...... with coinductive types. We wish to implement GDTT with decidable type-checking, while still supporting non-trivial equality proofs that reason about the extensions of guarded recursive constructions. CTT is a variation of Martin-L\\"of type theory in which the identity type is replaced by abstract paths between...... terms. CTT provides a computational interpretation of functional extensionality, is conjectured to have decidable type checking, and has an implemented type-checker. Our new type theory, called guarded cubical type theory, provides a computational interpretation of extensionality for guarded recursive...

  2. Guarded Cubical Type Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Lars; Bizjak, Aleš; Clouston, Ranald;

    2016-01-01

    This paper improves the treatment of equality in guarded dependent type theory (GDTT), by combining it with cubical type theory (CTT). GDTT is an extensional type theory with guarded recursive types, which are useful for building models of program logics, and for programming and reasoning...... with coinductive types. We wish to implement GDTT with decidable type checking, while still supporting non-trivial equality proofs that reason about the extensions of guarded recursive constructions. CTT is a variation of Martin-L\\"of type theory in which the identity type is replaced by abstract paths between...... terms. CTT provides a computational interpretation of functional extensionality, enjoys canonicity for the natural numbers type, and is conjectured to support decidable type-checking. Our new type theory, guarded cubical type theory (GCTT), provides a computational interpretation of extensionality...

  3. Automatic Shape Control of Triangular B-Splines of Arbitrary Topology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying He; Xian-Feng Gu; Hong Qin

    2006-01-01

    Triangular B-splines are powerful and flexible in modeling a broader class of geometric objects defined over arbitrary, non-rectangular domains. Despite their great potential and advantages in theory, practical techniques and computational tools with triangular B-splines are less-developed. This is mainly because users have to handle a large number of irregularly distributed control points over arbitrary triangulation. In this paper, an automatic and efficient method is proposed to generate visually pleasing, high-quality triangular B-splines of arbitrary topology. The experimental results on several real datasets show that triangular B-splines are powerful and effective in both theory and practice.

  4. Numerical Methods Using B-Splines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, Karim; Merriam, Marshal (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The seminar will discuss (1) The current range of applications for which B-spline schemes may be appropriate (2) The property of high-resolution and the relationship between B-spline and compact schemes (3) Comparison between finite-element, Hermite finite element and B-spline schemes (4) Mesh embedding using B-splines (5) A method for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in curvilinear coordinates using divergence-free expansions.

  5. Isogeometric analysis using T-splines

    KAUST Repository

    Bazilevs, Yuri

    2010-01-01

    We explore T-splines, a generalization of NURBS enabling local refinement, as a basis for isogeometric analysis. We review T-splines as a surface design methodology and then develop it for engineering analysis applications. We test T-splines on some elementary two-dimensional and three-dimensional fluid and structural analysis problems and attain good results in all cases. We summarize the current status of T-splines, their limitations, and future possibilities. © 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  6. Spline-based high-accuracy piecewise-polynomial phase-to-sinusoid amplitude converters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrinović, Davor; Brezović, Marko

    2011-04-01

    We propose a method for direct digital frequency synthesis (DDS) using a cubic spline piecewise-polynomial model for a phase-to-sinusoid amplitude converter (PSAC). This method offers maximum smoothness of the output signal. Closed-form expressions for the cubic polynomial coefficients are derived in the spectral domain and the performance analysis of the model is given in the time and frequency domains. We derive the closed-form performance bounds of such DDS using conventional metrics: rms and maximum absolute errors (MAE) and maximum spurious free dynamic range (SFDR) measured in the discrete time domain. The main advantages of the proposed PSAC are its simplicity, analytical tractability, and inherent numerical stability for high table resolutions. Detailed guidelines for a fixed-point implementation are given, based on the algebraic analysis of all quantization effects. The results are verified on 81 PSAC configurations with the output resolutions from 5 to 41 bits by using a bit-exact simulation. The VHDL implementation of a high-accuracy DDS based on the proposed PSAC with 28-bit input phase word and 32-bit output value achieves SFDR of its digital output signal between 180 and 207 dB, with a signal-to-noise ratio of 192 dB. Its implementation requires only one 18 kB block RAM and three 18-bit embedded multipliers in a typical field-programmable gate array (FPGA) device.

  7. Cubical local partial orders on cubically subdivided spaces - Existence and construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fajstrup, Lisbeth

    2006-01-01

    The geometric models of higher dimensional automata (HDA) and Dijkstra's PV-model are cubically subdivided topological spaces with a local partial order. If a cubicalization of a topological space is free of immersed cubic Möbius bands, then there are consistent choices of direction in all cubes...

  8. Cubical local partial orders on cubically subdivided spaces - existence and construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fajstrup, Lisbeth

    The geometric models of Higher Dimensional Automata and Dijkstra's PV-model are cubically subdivided topological spaces with a local partial order. If a cubicalization of a topological space is free of immersed cubic Möbius bands, then there are consistent choices of direction in all cubes...

  9. About a family of C2 splines with one free generating function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Verlan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of interpolation of discrete set of data on the interval [a, b] representing the function f is investigated. A family of C*C splines with one free generating function is introduced in order to solve this problem. Cubic C*C splines belong to this family. The required conditions which must satisfy the generating function in order to obtain explicit interpolants are presented and examples of generating functions are given. Mathematics Subject Classification: 2000: 65D05, 65D07, 41A05, 41A15.

  10. HILBERTIAN APPROACH FOR UNIVARIATE SPLINE WITH TENSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.Bouhamidi

    2001-01-01

    In this work,a new approach is proposed for constructing splines with tension.The basic idea is in the use of distributions theory,which allows us to define suitable Hilbert spaces in which the tension spline minimizes some energy functional.Classical orthogonal conditions and characterizations of the spline in terms of a fundamental solution of a differential operator are provided.An explicit representation of the tension spline is given.The tension spline can be computed by solving a linear system.Some numerical examples are given to illustrate this approach.

  11. Optimization of straight-sided spline design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    2011-01-01

    and the subject of improving the design. The present paper concentrates on the optimization of splines and the predictions of stress concentrations, which are determined by finite element analysis (FEA). Using different design modifications, that do not change the spline load carrying capacity, it is shown......Spline connection of shaft and hub is commonly applied when large torque capacity is needed together with the possibility of disassembly. The designs of these splines are generally controlled by different standards. In view of the common use of splines, it seems that few papers deal with splines...... that large reductions in the maximum stress are possible. Fatigue life of a spline can be greatly improved with up to a 25% reduction in the maximum stress level. Design modifications are given as simple analytical functions (modified super elliptical shape) with only two active design parameters...

  12. Modeling p VT Properties and Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium of Ionic Liquids Using Cubic-plus-association Equation of State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马俊; 李进龙; 范冬福; 彭昌军; 刘洪来; 胡英

    2011-01-01

    Combining Peng-Robinson (PR) equation of state (EoS) with an association model derived from shield-sticky method (SSM) by Liu et al., a new cubic-plus-association (CPA) EoS is proposed to describe the ther-modynamic properties of pure ionic liquids (ILs) and their mixtures. The new molecular parameters for 25 ILs are obtained by fitting the experimental density data over a wide temperature and pressure range, and the overall aver-age deviation is 0.22%. The model parameter b for homologous ILs shows a good linear relationship with their mo-lecular mass, so the number of model parameters is reduced effectively. Using one temperature-independent binary adjustable parameter kij, satisfactory correlations of vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE) for binary mixtures of ILs + non-associating solvents and + associating solvents are obtained with the overall average deviation of vapor pressure 2.91% and 7.01%, respectively. In addition, VLE results for ILs + non-associating mixtures from CPA, lattice-fluid (LF) and square-well chain fluids with variable range (SWCF-VR) EoSs are compared.

  13. An exact solution on the ferromagnetic Face-Cubic spin model on a Bethe lattice

    OpenAIRE

    Ohanyan, V. R.; Ananikyan, L. N.; Ananikian, N. S.

    2006-01-01

    The lattice spin model with $Q$--component discrete spin variables restricted to have orientations orthogonal to the faces of $Q$-dimensional hypercube is considered on the Bethe lattice, the recursive graph which contains no cycles. The partition function of the model with dipole--dipole and quadrupole--quadrupole interaction for arbitrary planar graph is presented in terms of double graph expansions. The latter is calculated exactly in case of trees. The system of two recurrent relations wh...

  14. Spline and spline wavelet methods with applications to signal and image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Averbuch, Amir Z; Zheludev, Valery A

    This volume provides universal methodologies accompanied by Matlab software to manipulate numerous signal and image processing applications. It is done with discrete and polynomial periodic splines. Various contributions of splines to signal and image processing from a unified perspective are presented. This presentation is based on Zak transform and on Spline Harmonic Analysis (SHA) methodology. SHA combines approximation capabilities of splines with the computational efficiency of the Fast Fourier transform. SHA reduces the design of different spline types such as splines, spline wavelets (SW), wavelet frames (SWF) and wavelet packets (SWP) and their manipulations by simple operations. Digital filters, produced by wavelets design process, give birth to subdivision schemes. Subdivision schemes enable to perform fast explicit computation of splines' values at dyadic and triadic rational points. This is used for signals and images upsampling. In addition to the design of a diverse library of splines, SW, SWP a...

  15. An exact solution on the ferromagnetic face-cubic spin model on a Bethe lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohanyan, V. R.; Ananikyan, L. N.; Ananikian, N. S.

    2007-04-01

    The lattice spin model with Q-component discrete spin variables restricted to have orientations orthogonal to the faces of Q-dimensional hypercube is considered on the Bethe lattice, the recursive graph which contains no cycles. The partition function of the model with dipole-dipole and quadrupole-quadrupole interaction for arbitrary planar graph is presented in terms of double graph expansions. The latter is calculated exactly in case of trees. The system of two recurrent relations (RR) which allows to calculate all thermodynamic characteristics of the model is obtained. The correspondence between thermodynamic phases and different types of fixed points of the RR is established. Using the technique of simple iterations the plots of the zero field magnetization and quadrupolar moment are obtained. Analyzing the regions of stability of different types of fixed points of the system of recurrent relations the phase diagrams of the model are plotted. For Q⩽2 the phase diagram of the model is found to have three tricritical points, whereas for Q>2 there are one triple and one tricritical points.

  16. Differential constraints for bounded recursive identification with multivariate splines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Visser, C.C.; Chu, Q.P.; Mulder, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to perform online model identification for nonlinear systems with unknown dynamics is essential to any adaptive model-based control system. In this paper, a new differential equality constrained recursive least squares estimator for multivariate simplex splines is presented that is able

  17. Modeling of Asphaltene Precipitation from Crude Oil with the Cubic Plus Association Equation of State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arya, Alay; Liang, Xiaodong; von Solms, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    to calculate the asphaltene onset condition during the addition of different n-paraffin precipitants (n-pentane to n-hexadecane). Three parameters per precipitant are fitted to calculate the asphaltene yield during the addition of the precipitant. The results obtained from the model are compared...

  18. Inference in Varying-Coefficient Mixed Models by Using Smoothing Spline%变系数混合模型的光滑样条推断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢一强; 许王莉

    2009-01-01

    Varying-coefficients mixed model (VCMM) is proposed for longitudinal data and the other correlated data. This model allows flexible functional dependence of the response variable on the covariates by using varying-coefficients linear part to present the covariates effects, while accounting the within-subject correlation by using random effect. In this article, the coefficient functions are estimated by using smoothing spline and restricted maximum likelihood is used to estimate the smoothing parameters and the variance components simultaneously. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated though some simulation studies, which show that both the coefficient functions and variance components could be estimated well for the VCMMs with all kinds of covariance structures.%为了拟合纵向数据和其他相关数据,本文提出了变系数混合效应模型(VCMM).该模型运用变系数线性部分来表示协变量对响应变量的影响,而用随机效应来描述纵向数据组内的相关性,因此,该模型允许协变量和响应变量之间存在十分灵活的泛函关系.文中运用光滑样条来估计均值部分的系数函数,而用限制最大似然的方法同时估计出光滑参数和方差成分,我们还得到了所提估计的计算方法.大量的模拟研究表明对于具有各种协方差结构的变系数混合效应模型,运用本文所提出的方法都能够十分有效地估计出模型中的系数函数和方差成分.

  19. Free-Form Deformation with Rational DMS-Spline Volumes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Xu; Guo-Zhao Wang; Xiao-Diao Chen

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel free-form deformation (FFD) technique, RDMS-FFD (Rational DMS-FFD),based on rational DMS-spline volumes. RDMS-FFD inherits some good properties of rational DMS-spline volumes and combines more deformation techniques than previous FFD methods in a consistent framework, such as local deformation,control lattice of arbitrary topology, smooth deformation, multiresolution deformation and direct manipulation of deforma-tion. We first introduce the rational DMS-spline volume by directly generalizing the previous results related to DMS-splies.How to generate a tetrahedral domain that approximates the shape of the object to be deformed is also introduced in this paper. Unlike the traditional FFD techniques, we manipulate the vertices of the tetrahedral domain to achieve deformation results. Our system demonstrates that RDMS-FFD is powerful and intuitive in geometric modeling.

  20. Point based interactive image segmentation using multiquadrics splines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, Sachin; Duraisamy, Prakash; Palniappan, Kannappan; Seetharaman, Guna

    2017-05-01

    Multiquadrics (MQ) are radial basis spline function that can provide an efficient interpolation of data points located in a high dimensional space. MQ were developed by Hardy to approximate geographical surfaces and terrain modelling. In this paper we frame the task of interactive image segmentation as a semi-supervised interpolation where an interpolating function learned from the user provided seed points is used to predict the labels of unlabeled pixel and the spline function used in the semi-supervised interpolation is MQ. This semi-supervised interpolation framework has a nice closed form solution which along with the fact that MQ is a radial basis spline function lead to a very fast interactive image segmentation process. Quantitative and qualitative results on the standard datasets show that MQ outperforms other regression based methods, GEBS, Ridge Regression and Logistic Regression, and popular methods like Graph Cut,4 Random Walk and Random Forest.6

  1. Accurate Modeling of the Cubic and Antiferrodistortive Phases of SrTiO3 with Screened Hybrid Density Functional Theory

    CERN Document Server

    El-Mellouhi, Fadwa; Lucero, Melissa J; Scuseria, Gustavo E

    2011-01-01

    We have calculated the properties of SrTiO3 (STO) using a wide array of density functionals ranging from standard semi-local functionals to modern range-separated hybrids, combined with several basis sets of varying size/quality. We show how these combination's predictive ability varies signi?cantly, both for STO's cubic and antiferrodistortive (AFD) phases, with the greatest variation in functional/basis set e?cacy seen in modeling the AFD phase. The screened hybrid functionals we utilized predict the structural properties of both phases in very good agreement with experiment, especially if used with large (but still computationally tractable) basis sets. The most accurate results presented in this study, namely those from HSE06/modi?ed-def2-TZVP, stand as the most accurate modeling of STO to date when compared to the literature; these results agree well with experimental structural and electronic properties as well as providing insight into the band structure alteration during the phase transition.

  2. Fast Harmonic Splines and Parameter Choice Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutting, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Solutions to boundary value problems in geoscience where the boundary is the Earth's surface are constructed in terms of harmonic splines. These are localizing trial functions that allow regional modeling or the improvement of a global model in a part of the Earth's surface. Some cases of the occurring kernels can be equipped with a fast matrix-vector multiplication using the fast multipole method (FMM). The main idea of the fast multipole algorithm consists of a hierarchical decomposition of the computational domain into cubes and a kernel approximation for the more distant points. The numerical effort of the matrix-vector multiplication becomes linear in reference to the number of points for a prescribed accuracy of the kernel approximation. This fast spline approximation which also allows the treatment of noisy data requires the choice of a smoothing parameter. We investigate several methods to (ideally automatically) choose this parameter with and without prior knowledge of the noise level. However, in order to keep a fast solution algorithm we do no longer have access to the whole matrix or e.g. its singular values whose computation requires a much larger numerical effort. This must be reflected by the parameter choice methods. Therefore, in some cases a further approximation is necessary. The performance of these methods is considered for different types of noise in a large simulation study with applications to gravitational field modeling as well as to boundary value problems.

  3. Error Estimates Derived from the Data for Least-Squares Spline Fitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerome Blair

    2007-06-25

    The use of least-squares fitting by cubic splines for the purpose of noise reduction in measured data is studied. Splines with variable mesh size are considered. The error, the difference between the input signal and its estimate, is divided into two sources: the R-error, which depends only on the noise and increases with decreasing mesh size, and the Ferror, which depends only on the signal and decreases with decreasing mesh size. The estimation of both errors as a function of time is demonstrated. The R-error estimation requires knowledge of the statistics of the noise and uses well-known methods. The primary contribution of the paper is a method for estimating the F-error that requires no prior knowledge of the signal except that it has four derivatives. It is calculated from the difference between two different spline fits to the data and is illustrated with Monte Carlo simulations and with an example.

  4. Construction of generalized magnetic coordinates by B-spline expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurata, Michinari [Dept. of Energy Engineering and Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Univ., Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Todoroki, Jiro [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)

    2000-06-01

    Generalized Magnetic Coordinates (GMC) are curvilinear coordinates ({xi},{eta},{zeta}) in which the magnetic field is expressed in the form B={nabla}{psi}({xi},{eta},{zeta}) x {nabla}{zeta} + H{sup {zeta}}({xi},{eta}){nabla}{xi} x {nabla}{eta}. The coordinates are expanded in Fourier series in the toroidal direction and the B-spline function in other two dimensions to treat the aperiodic model magnetic field. The coordinates are well constructed, but are influenced by the boundary condition in the B-spline expansion. (author)

  5. Vibration Analysis of Rectangular Plates with One or More Guided Edges via Bicubic B-Spline Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.J. Si

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and accurate method is proposed for the vibration analysis of rectangular plates with one or more guided edges, in which bicubic B-spline interpolation in combination with a new type of basis cubic B-spline functions is used to approximate the plate deflection. This type of basis cubic B-spline functions can satisfy simply supported, clamped, free, and guided edge conditions with easy numerical manipulation. The frequency characteristic equation is formulated based on classical thin plate theory by performing Hamilton's principle. The present solutions are verified with the analytical ones. Fast convergence, high accuracy and computational efficiency have been demonstrated from the comparisons. Frequency parameters for 13 cases of rectangular plates with at least one guided edge, which are possible by approximate or numerical methods only, are presented. These results are new in literature.

  6. An Optimized Spline-Based Registration of a 3D CT to a Set of C-Arm Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonić, S; Thévenaz, P; Zheng, G; Nolte, L-P; Unser, M

    2006-01-01

    We have developed an algorithm for the rigid-body registration of a CT volume to a set of C-arm images. The algorithm uses a gradient-based iterative minimization of a least-squares measure of dissimilarity between the C-arm images and projections of the CT volume. To compute projections, we use a novel method for fast integration of the volume along rays. To improve robustness and speed, we take advantage of a coarse-to-fine processing of the volume/image pyramids. To compute the projections of the volume, the gradient of the dissimilarity measure, and the multiresolution data pyramids, we use a continuous image/volume model based on cubic B-splines, which ensures a high interpolation accuracy and a gradient of the dissimilarity measure that is well defined everywhere. We show the performance of our algorithm on a human spine phantom, where the true alignment is determined using a set of fiducial markers.

  7. Theoretical Strength of Face-Centred-Cubic Single Crystal Copper Based on a Continuum Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiao-Ming; LIU Zhan-Li; YOU Xiao-Chuan; NIE Jun-Feng; ZHUANG Zhuo

    2009-01-01

    The constitutive relation of single crystal copper based on atomistic potential is implemented to capture the nonlinear inter-atomic interactions. Uniaxial loading tests of single crystal copper with inter-atomic potential finite-element model are carried out to determine the corresponding ideal strength using the modified Born stability criteria. Dependence of the ideal strength on the crystallographic orientation is studied, and tension-compression asymmetry in ideal strength is also investigated. The results suggest that asymmetry for yielding strength of nano-materials may result from anisotropic character of crystal instability. Moreover, the results also reveal that the critical resolved shear stress in the direction of slip is not an accurate criterion for the ideal strength since it could not capture the dependence on the loading conditions and hydrostatic stress components for the ideal strength.

  8. Longitudinal Rater Modeling with Splines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobria, Lidia

    2011-01-01

    Performance assessments rely on the expert judgment of raters for the measurement of the quality of responses, and raters unavoidably introduce error in the scoring process. Defined as the tendency of a rater to assign higher or lower ratings, on average, than those assigned by other raters, even after accounting for differences in examinee…

  9. Global VTEC-modelling in near real-time based on space geodetic techniques, adapted B-spline expansions and Kalman-filtering including observations of the Sun's radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börger, Klaus; Schmidt, Michael; Dettmering, Denise; Limberger, Marco; Erdogan, Eren; Seitz, Florian; Brandert, Sylvia; Görres, Barbara; Kersten, Wilhelm; Bothmer, Volker; Hinrichs, Johannes; Venzmer, Malte; Mrotzek, Niclas

    2016-04-01

    Today, the observations of space geodetic techniques are usually available with a rather low latency which applies to space missions observing the solar terrestrial environment, too. Therefore, we can use all these measurements in near real-time to compute and to provide ionosphere information, e.g. the vertical total electron content (VTEC). GSSAC and BGIC support a project aiming at a service for providing ionosphere information. This project is called OPTIMAP, meaning "Operational Tool for Ionosphere Mapping and Prediction"; the scientific work is mainly done by the German Geodetic Research Institute of the Technical University Munich (DGFI-TUM) and the Institute for Astrophysics of the University of Goettingen (IAG). The OPTIMAP strategy for providing ionosphere target quantities of high quality, such as VTEC or the electron density, includes mathematical approaches and tools allowing for the model adaptation to the real observational scenario as a significant improvement w.r.t. the traditional well-established methods. For example, OPTIMAP combines different observation types such as GNSS (GPS, GLONASS), Satellite Altimetry (Jason-2), DORIS as well as radio-occultation measurements (FORMOSAT#3/COSMIC). All these observations run into a Kalman-filter to compute global ionosphere maps, i.e. VTEC, for the current instant of time and as a forecast for a couple of subsequent days. Mathematically, the global VTEC is set up as a series expansion in terms of two-dimensional basis functions defined as tensor products of trigonometric B-splines for longitude and polynomial B-splines for latitude. Compared to the classical spherical harmonics, B-splines have a localizing character and, therefore, can handle an inhomogeneous data distribution properly. Finally, B-splines enable a so-called multi-resolution-representation (MRR) enabling the combination of global and regional modelling approaches. In addition to the geodetic measurements, Sun observations are pre

  10. Quadrotor system identification using the multivariate multiplex b-spline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, T.; De Visser, C.C.; Van Kampen, E.J.

    2015-01-01

    A novel method for aircraft system identification is presented that is based on a new multivariate spline type; the multivariate multiplex B-spline. The multivariate multiplex B-spline is a generalization of the recently introduced tensor-simplex B-spline. Multivariate multiplex splines obtain simil

  11. Optimal Knot Selection for Least-squares Fitting of Noisy Data with Spline Functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerome Blair

    2008-05-15

    An automatic data-smoothing algorithm for data from digital oscilloscopes is described. The algorithm adjusts the bandwidth of the filtering as a function of time to provide minimum mean squared error at each time. It produces an estimate of the root-mean-square error as a function of time and does so without any statistical assumptions about the unknown signal. The algorithm is based on least-squares fitting to the data of cubic spline functions.

  12. quadratic spline finite element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Bahadir

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of heat transfer in a Positive Temperature Coefficient (PTC thermistor, which may form one element of an electric circuit, is solved numerically by a finite element method. The approach used is based on Galerkin finite element using quadratic splines as shape functions. The resulting system of ordinary differential equations is solved by the finite difference method. Comparison is made with numerical and analytical solutions and the accuracy of the computed solutions indicates that the method is well suited for the solution of the PTC thermistor problem.

  13. Predicting protein concentrations with ELISA microarray assays, monotonic splines and Monte Carlo simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daly, Don S.; Anderson, Kevin K.; White, Amanda M.; Gonzalez, Rachel M.; Varnum, Susan M.; Zangar, Richard C.

    2008-07-14

    Background: A microarray of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, or ELISA microarray, predicts simultaneously the concentrations of numerous proteins in a small sample. These predictions, however, are uncertain due to processing error and biological variability. Making sound biological inferences as well as improving the ELISA microarray process require require both concentration predictions and creditable estimates of their errors. Methods: We present a statistical method based on monotonic spline statistical models, penalized constrained least squares fitting (PCLS) and Monte Carlo simulation (MC) to predict concentrations and estimate prediction errors in ELISA microarray. PCLS restrains the flexible spline to a fit of assay intensity that is a monotone function of protein concentration. With MC, both modeling and measurement errors are combined to estimate prediction error. The spline/PCLS/MC method is compared to a common method using simulated and real ELISA microarray data sets. Results: In contrast to the rigid logistic model, the flexible spline model gave credible fits in almost all test cases including troublesome cases with left and/or right censoring, or other asymmetries. For the real data sets, 61% of the spline predictions were more accurate than their comparable logistic predictions; especially the spline predictions at the extremes of the prediction curve. The relative errors of 50% of comparable spline and logistic predictions differed by less than 20%. Monte Carlo simulation rendered acceptable asymmetric prediction intervals for both spline and logistic models while propagation of error produced symmetric intervals that diverged unrealistically as the standard curves approached horizontal asymptotes. Conclusions: The spline/PCLS/MC method is a flexible, robust alternative to a logistic/NLS/propagation-of-error method to reliably predict protein concentrations and estimate their errors. The spline method simplifies model selection and fitting

  14. Comparative Analysis for Robust Penalized Spline Smoothing Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Smoothing noisy data is commonly encountered in engineering domain, and currently robust penalized regression spline models are perceived to be the most promising methods for coping with this issue, due to their flexibilities in capturing the nonlinear trends in the data and effectively alleviating the disturbance from the outliers. Against such a background, this paper conducts a thoroughly comparative analysis of two popular robust smoothing techniques, the M-type estimator and S-estimation for penalized regression splines, both of which are reelaborated starting from their origins, with their derivation process reformulated and the corresponding algorithms reorganized under a unified framework. Performances of these two estimators are thoroughly evaluated from the aspects of fitting accuracy, robustness, and execution time upon the MATLAB platform. Elaborately comparative experiments demonstrate that robust penalized spline smoothing methods possess the capability of resistance to the noise effect compared with the nonrobust penalized LS spline regression method. Furthermore, the M-estimator exerts stable performance only for the observations with moderate perturbation error, whereas the S-estimator behaves fairly well even for heavily contaminated observations, but consuming more execution time. These findings can be served as guidance to the selection of appropriate approach for smoothing the noisy data.

  15. Nonlinear Spline Kernel-based Partial Least Squares Regression Method and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Jin-ming; WEN Xiang-jun

    2008-01-01

    Inspired by the traditional Wold's nonlinear PLS algorithm comprises of NIPALS approach and a spline inner function model,a novel nonlinear partial least squares algorithm based on spline kernel(named SK-PLS)is proposed for nonlinear modeling in the presence of multicollinearity.Based on the iuner-product kernel spanned by the spline basis functions with infinite numher of nodes,this method firstly maps the input data into a high dimensional feature space,and then calculates a linear PLS model with reformed NIPALS procedure in the feature space and gives a unified framework of traditional PLS"kernel"algorithms in consequence.The linear PLS in the feature space corresponds to a nonlinear PLS in the original input (primal)space.The good approximating property of spline kernel function enhances the generalization ability of the novel model,and two numerical experiments are given to illustrate the feasibility of the proposed method.

  16. Testing for additivity with B-splines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heng-jian CUI; Xu-ming HE; Li LIU

    2007-01-01

    Regression splines are often used for fitting nonparametric functions, and they work especially well for additivity models. In this paper, we consider two simple tests of additivity: an adaptation of Tukey's one degree of freedom test and a nonparametric version of Rao's score test. While the Tukey-type test can detect most forms of the local non-additivity at the parametric rate of O(n-1/2), the score test is consistent for all alternative at a nonparametric rate. The asymptotic distribution of these test statistics is derived under both the null and local alternative hypotheses. A simulation study is conducted to compare their finite-sample performances with some existing kernelbased tests. The score test is found to have a good overall performance.

  17. Testing for additivity with B-splines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Regression splines are often used for fitting nonparametric functions, and they work especially well for additivity models. In this paper, we consider two simple tests of additivity: an adaptation of Tukey’s one degree of freedom test and a nonparametric version of Rao’s score test. While the Tukey-type test can detect most forms of the local non-additivity at the parametric rate of O(n-1/2), the score test is consistent for all alternative at a nonparametric rate. The asymptotic distribution of these test statistics is derived under both the null and local alternative hypotheses. A simulation study is conducted to compare their finite-sample performances with some existing kernel-based tests. The score test is found to have a good overall performance.

  18. C2 Continuous Quintic Cardinal Spline and Catmull-Rom Spline with Shape Factors%带形状因子的C 2连续五次Cardinal样条与Catmull-Rom样条

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军成; 刘成志; 易叶青

    2016-01-01

    针对三次 Cardinal 样条与 Catmull-Rom 样条的不足,提出带形状因子的 C2连续五次 Cardinal 样条与Catmull-Rom样条。首先构造一组带2个形状因子的五次Cardinal样条基函数;然后基于该组基函数定义带形状因子的五次 Cardinal 样条曲线与曲面,并讨论五次 Cardinal 样条函数的保单调插值;最后研究对应的一元与二元五次Catmull-Rom样条插值函数,并给出最优一元与二元五次Catmull-Rom样条插值函数的确定方法。实例结果表明,五次Cardinal样条与Catmull-Rom样条无需任何条件即可达到C2连续,且其形状还可通过自带的形状因子进行灵活地调整,利用最优五次Catmull-Rom样条插值函数可获得满意的插值效果。%In view of the deficiency of the cubic Cardinal spline and Catmull-Rom spline, theC2 continuous quintic Cardinal spline and Catmull-Rom spline with shape factors are presented in this paper. First, a class of quitic Cardinal spline basis functions with two shape factors is constructed. Then, the quintic Cardinal spline curves and surfaces with shape factors are defined on base of the proposed basis functions, and the monotonicity-preserving interpolation with the quintic Cardinal spline function is discussed. Finally, the corresponding one dimensional and two dimensional quintic Catmull-Rom spline interpolation functions are studied, and the method of determining the optimal one dimensional and two dimensional quintic Cat-mull-Rom spline interpolation functions are given. Example results show that, the quintic Cardinal spline and Catmull-Rom spline can not only beC2 continuous without any conditions, but also can be flexibly ad-justed by the shape factors. Satisfactory interpolation results can be obtained by using the optimal quintic Catmull-Rom spline interpolation functions.

  19. Usando splines cúbicas na modelagem matemática da evolução populacional de Pirapora/MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Sérgio Domingues

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho é obter um modelo matemático para a evolução populacional da cidade de Pirapora/MG, baseando-se apenas nos dados de censos e contagens populacionais do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE. Para isso, é utilizada a interpolação por splines cúbicas, pois as técnicas de interpolação linear e polinomial, e também o modelo logístico, não se ajustam bem a essa população. Os dados analisados não são equidistantes, então, utiliza-se como amostra anos separados com passo h de 10 anos. Os valores descartados inicialmente e as estimativas populacionais para esse município, descritos pela Fundação João Pinheiro, serviram para validação do modelo construído, e para a estimativa das diferenças percentuais de previsão, que não ultrapassaram os 2,21%. Ao se considerar que o padrão de evolução populacional de 2000 a 2010 se manterá até 2020, estima-se as populações da cidade de 2011 a 2020, cuja diferença percentual média foi de apenas 0,49%. Conclui-se que o modelo se ajusta muito bem aos dados, e que estimativas populacionais em qualquer ano de 1970 e 2020 são confiáveis. Além disso, o modelo permite a visualização prática de uma aplicação dessa técnica na modelagem populacional, e, portanto, também pode ser utilizada para fins didáticos.Palavras-chave: Splines cúbicas. Interpolação. Modelagem matemática. Evolução populacional. Pirapora.Using cubic splines on mathematical modeling of the population evolution of Pirapora/MGThe main objective of this paper is to obtain a mathematical model for the evolution of the population in Pirapora/MG, based only on data from censuses and population counts from Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE. For this, the cubic spline interpolation is used because the technique of linear and polynomial interpolation, and also the logistic model do not fit well with this population. The analyzed data are not equidistant

  20. Modeling of long-range memory processes with inverse cubic distributions by the nonlinear stochastic differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaulakys, B.; Alaburda, M.; Ruseckas, J.

    2016-05-01

    A well-known fact in the financial markets is the so-called ‘inverse cubic law’ of the cumulative distributions of the long-range memory fluctuations of market indicators such as a number of events of trades, trading volume and the logarithmic price change. We propose the nonlinear stochastic differential equation (SDE) giving both the power-law behavior of the power spectral density and the long-range dependent inverse cubic law of the cumulative distribution. This is achieved using the suggestion that when the market evolves from calm to violent behavior there is a decrease of the delay time of multiplicative feedback of the system in comparison to the driving noise correlation time. This results in a transition from the Itô to the Stratonovich sense of the SDE and yields a long-range memory process.

  1. Cubic Subalgebras and Cubic Closed Ideals of B-algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapan Senapati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the concept of cubic set to subalgebras, ideals and closed ideals of B-algebras are introduced. Relations among cubic subalgebras with cubic ideals and cubic closed ideals of B-algebras investigated. The homomorphic image and inverse image of cubic subalgebras, ideals are studied and some related properties are investigated. Also, the product of cubic B-algebras are investigated.

  2. Large Eddy Simulation of Turbulence Modeling for wind Flow past Wall Mounted Cubical Building Using Smagorinsky Scheme and validation using Artificial Neural Network for Time Series Data

    OpenAIRE

    Bibhab Kumar Lodh; Ajoy K Das

    2015-01-01

    This paper will present the large eddy simulation of turbulence modeling for wind flow over a wall mounted 3D cubical model. The LES Smagorinsky scheme is employed for the numerical simulation. The domain for this study is of the size of 60 cm x 30 cm x 30 cm. The 3D cube model is taken of the size of 6 cm x 6 cm x 4 cm. The Reynolds number for the flow in respect of the height of the cube i.e, 4 cm is 5.3x104 . The hexahedral grids are used for the meshing of the flow domain. ...

  3. Quintic spline smooth semi-supervised support vector classification machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaodan Zhang; Jinggai Ma; Aihua Li; Ang Li

    2015-01-01

    A semi-supervised vector machine is a relatively new learning method using both labeled and unlabeled data in classifi-cation. Since the objective function of the model for an unstrained semi-supervised vector machine is not smooth, many fast opti-mization algorithms cannot be applied to solve the model. In order to overcome the difficulty of dealing with non-smooth objective functions, new methods that can solve the semi-supervised vector machine with desired classification accuracy are in great demand. A quintic spline function with three-times differentiability at the ori-gin is constructed by a general three-moment method, which can be used to approximate the symmetric hinge loss function. The approximate accuracy of the quintic spline function is estimated. Moreover, a quintic spline smooth semi-support vector machine is obtained and the convergence accuracy of the smooth model to the non-smooth one is analyzed. Three experiments are performed to test the efficiency of the model. The experimental results show that the new model outperforms other smooth models, in terms of classification performance. Furthermore, the new model is not sensitive to the increasing number of the labeled samples, which means that the new model is more efficient.

  4. INTRODUCTION TO AN INTEGRATION SCHEME OF FITTING CUBIC INTERPOLATION FUNCTIONS AND 2-ORDER TIME AND SPACE DIFFERENTIAL REMAINDER NUMERICAL MODEL —An Ideal Global Simulation Case With Primitive Atmospheric Equations%基于三次插值函数算法的时间积分方案与二阶时空余差数值模式——以原始大气运动方程与理想全球模拟个例为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辜旭赞; 张兵; 王明欢

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, from the Navier-Stokes primitive equations and Eulerian operator, forecasting equations are deduced with 2-order time and space differential remainder by Taylor series expansion, and incorporated to the Bicubic Numerical Model (BiNM for short), which is with a quasi-Lagrangian integration scheme of fitting cubic spline/bicubic surface to all physical variables in atmospheric equation sets on spherical discrete meshes. Their first-order and second-order derivatives as well as their upstream points were determined, and discrete time integration was performed in cubic space for the governing equations, I.e.With a new algorithm of "fitting bicubic surface - time step integration - fitting bicubic surface -......". Then,BiNM's mathematical foundation of numerical analysis was discussed for the cubic spline and its mathematical polar characters. It was pointed out that, as a spectrum model, BiNM shows mathematical "convergence" of the cubic spline and the bicubic surface contracting to the original function as well as its first-order and second-order derivatives, with the "optimality" of the second-order derivative of the cubic spline being optimal approximation to that of the original function. It was indicated that Hermite bicubic patches are equivalent in performing operation to the secondary derivative "mesh" variables. It was identified that the slope and curvature of the centred difference are respectively three-point smooth of that of the cubic spline. Using a global BiNM with latitude-longitude grids, and keeping the non-static and total field compressible, adiabatic and non-frictional, and running the so called "shallow atmosphere" equations in the spherical coordinate, and along with a quasi -Lagrangian time integration scheme, an ideal global simulation case was shown by adopting the re-analysis data of NCEP for getting an initial model atmosphere. Lastly, we had to say that, because atmospheric motion can be essentially non-linear, future Bi

  5. Combined effect of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking in the risk of head and neck cancers: a re-analysis of case-control studies using bi-dimensional spline models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Maso, Luigino; Torelli, Nicola; Biancotto, Elisa; Di Maso, Matteo; Gini, Andrea; Franchin, Gianni; Levi, Fabio; La Vecchia, Carlo; Serraino, Diego; Polesel, Jerry

    2016-04-01

    The synergistic effect of tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption on the risk of head and neck cancers has been mainly investigated as a cross-product of categorical exposure, thus leading to loss of information. We propose a bi-dimensional logistic spline model to investigate the interacting dose-response relationship of two continuous exposures (i.e., ethanol intake and tobacco smoking) on the risk of head and neck cancers, representing results through three-dimensional graphs. This model was applied to a pool of hospital-based case-control studies on head and neck cancers conducted in Italy and in the Vaud Swiss Canton between 1982 and 2000, including 1569 cases and 3147 controls. Among never drinkers and for all levels of ethanol intake, the risk of head and neck cancers steeply increased with increasing smoking intensity, starting from 1 cigarette/day. The risk associated to ethanol intake increased with incrementing exposure among smokers, and a threshold effect at approximately 50 g/day emerged among never smokers. Compared to abstainers from both tobacco and alcohol consumption, the combined exposure to ethanol and/or cigarettes led to a steep increase of cancer risk up to a 35-fold higher risk (95 % confidence interval 27.30-43.61) among people consuming 84 g/day of ethanol and 10 cigarettes/day. The highest risk was observed at the highest levels of alcohol and tobacco consumption. Our findings confirmed a combined effect of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking on head and neck cancers risk, providing evidence that bi-dimensional spline models could be a feasible and flexible method to explore the pattern of risks associated to two interacting continuous-exposure variables.

  6. On the role of exponential splines in image interpolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirshner, Hagai; Porat, Moshe

    2009-10-01

    A Sobolev reproducing-kernel Hilbert space approach to image interpolation is introduced. The underlying kernels are exponential functions and are related to stochastic autoregressive image modeling. The corresponding image interpolants can be implemented effectively using compactly-supported exponential B-splines. A tight l(2) upper-bound on the interpolation error is then derived, suggesting that the proposed exponential functions are optimal in this regard. Experimental results indicate that the proposed interpolation approach with properly-tuned, signal-dependent weights outperforms currently available polynomial B-spline models of comparable order. Furthermore, a unified approach to image interpolation by ideal and nonideal sampling procedures is derived, suggesting that the proposed exponential kernels may have a significant role in image modeling as well. Our conclusion is that the proposed Sobolev-based approach could be instrumental and a preferred alternative in many interpolation tasks.

  7. Semiparametric Additive Transformation Model under Current Status Data

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Guang

    2011-01-01

    We consider the efficient estimation of the semiparametric additive transformation model with current status data. A wide range of survival models and econometric models can be incorporated into this general transformation framework. We apply the B-spline approach to simultaneously estimate the linear regression vector, the nondecreasing transformation function, and a set of nonparametric regression functions. We show that the parametric estimate is semiparametric efficient in the presence of multiple nonparametric nuisance functions. An explicit consistent B-spline estimate of the asymptotic variance is also provided. All nonparametric estimates are smooth, and shown to be uniformly consistent and have faster than cubic rate of convergence. Interestingly, we observe the convergence rate interfere phenomenon, i.e., the convergence rates of B-spline estimators are all slowed down to equal the slowest one. The constrained optimization is not required in our implementation. Numerical results are used to illustra...

  8. Converting Boundary Representation Solid Models to Half-Space Representation Models for Monte Carlo Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis JE, Eddy MJ, Sutton TM, Altomari TJ

    2007-03-01

    Solid modeling computer software systems provide for the design of three-dimensional solid models used in the design and analysis of physical components. The current state-of-the-art in solid modeling representation uses a boundary representation format in which geometry and topology are used to form three-dimensional boundaries of the solid. The geometry representation used in these systems is cubic B-spline curves and surfaces--a network of cubic B-spline functions in three-dimensional Cartesian coordinate space. Many Monte Carlo codes, however, use a geometry representation in which geometry units are specified by intersections and unions of half-spaces. This paper describes an algorithm for converting from a boundary representation to a half-space representation.

  9. A 3D pyramid spline element

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Chen; Chong-Jun Li; Wan-Ji Chen

    2011-01-01

    In this paper,a 13-node pyramid spline element is derived by using the tetrahedron volume coordinates and the B-net method,which achieves the second order completeness in Cartesian coordinates.Some appropriate examples were employed to evaluate the performance of the proposed element.The numerical results show that the spline element has much better performance compared with the isoparametric serendipity element Q20 and its degenerate pyramid element P13 especially when mesh is distorted,and it is comparable to the Lagrange element Q27.It has been demonstrated that the spline finite element method is an efficient tool for developing high accuracy elements.

  10. Hierarchical Genetic Algorithm for B-Spline Surface Approximation of Smooth Explicit Data

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Capulin, C. H.; F. J. Cuevas; Trejo-Caballero, G.; Rostro-Gonzalez, H.

    2014-01-01

    B-spline surface approximation has been widely used in many applications such as CAD, medical imaging, reverse engineering, and geometric modeling. Given a data set of measures, the surface approximation aims to find a surface that optimally fits the data set. One of the main problems associated with surface approximation by B-splines is the adequate selection of the number and location of the knots, as well as the solution of the system of equations generated by tensor pro...

  11. Cubical sets as a classifying topos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spitters, Bas

    Coquand’s cubical set model for homotopy type theory provides the basis for a computational interpretation of the univalence axiom and some higher inductive types, as implemented in the cubical proof assistant. We show that the underlying cube category is the opposite of the Lawvere theory of De...... Morgan algebras. The topos of cubical sets itself classifies the theory of ‘free De Morgan algebras’. This provides us with a topos with an internal ‘interval’. Using this interval we construct a model of type theory following van den Berg and Garner. We are currently investigating the precise relation...

  12. Cubic Hermite Collocation Method for Solving Boundary Value Problems with Dirichlet, Neumann, and Robin Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishfaq Ahmad Ganaie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cubic Hermite collocation method is proposed to solve two point linear and nonlinear boundary value problems subject to Dirichlet, Neumann, and Robin conditions. Using several examples, it is shown that the scheme achieves the order of convergence as four, which is superior to various well known methods like finite difference method, finite volume method, orthogonal collocation method, and polynomial and nonpolynomial splines and B-spline method. Numerical results for both linear and nonlinear cases are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the scheme.

  13. Removal of Baseline Wander Noise from Electrocardiogram (ECG using Fifth-order Spline Interpolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. OJO

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Baseline wandering can mask some important features of the Electrocardiogram (ECG signal hence it is desirable to remove this noise for proper analysis and display of the ECG signal. This paper presents the implementation and evaluation of spline interpolation and linear phase FIR filtering methods to remove this noise. Spline interpolation method requires the QRS waves to be first detected and fifth-order (quintic interpolation technique applied to determine the smoothest curve joining several QRS points. Filtering of the ECG baseline wander was performed by using the difference between the estimated baseline wander and the noisy ECG signal. ECG signals from the MIT-BIT arrhythmia database was used to test the system, while the technique was implemented in MATLAB. The performance of the system was evaluated using Average Power (AP after filtering, Mean Square Error (MSE and the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR. The quintic spline interpolation gave the best performance in terms of AP, MSE and SNR when compared with linear phase filtering and cubic (3rd-order spline interpolation methods.

  14. Introduction of b-splines to trajectory planning for robot manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per E. Koch

    1988-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes how B-splines can be used to construct joint trajectories for robot manipulators. The motion is specified by a sequence of Cartesian knots, i.e., positions and orientations of the end effector of a robot manipulator. For a six joint robot manipulator, these Cartesian knots are transformed into six sets of joint variables, with each set corresponding to a joint. Splines, represented as linear combinations of B-splines, are used to fit the sequence of joint variables for each of the six joints. A computationally very simple, recurrence formula is used to generate the 8-splines. This approach is used for the first time to establish the mathematical model of trajectory generation for robot manipulators, and offers flexibility, computational efficiency, and a compact representation.

  15. Equation of state modelling of systems with ionic liquids: Literature review and application with the Cubic Plus Association (CPA) model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maia, Filipa Meireles; Tsivintzelis, Ioannis; Rodriguez, Oscar

    2012-01-01

    -ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([C2mim][NTf2]) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide([C4mim][NTf2]). The first step was to study an adequate approach for the determination of pure component parameters for the ionic liquids. The parameters were...... obtained by fitting the predictions of the model to experimental vapour pressure and liquid density data. The parameters provide a good description of both experimental vapour pressures and liquid density, with maximum percentage deviations of respectively 8.9 and 1.3% for [C2mim][NTf2] and 5.7 and 0.......5% for [C4mim][NTf2]. Different sets of pure component parameters for each ionic liquid were considered and their suitability to describe the behaviour of ionic liquids was evaluated by modelling the vapour–liquid equilibria (VLE) of mixtures with CO2 and the liquid–liquid equilibria (LLE) with water...

  16. 3D Coal Seam Modeling Based on Pseudo Point Elimination and Four Fields Spline Interpolation%基于伪点剔除与四域样条插值的三维煤层建模

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖静

    2014-01-01

    In accurate modeling of three-dimensional, the result was affected by the underground coal faults, rock, undulat⁃ing terrain and other factors, so the modeling accuracy was not high. To improve the accuracy of three-dimensional model⁃ing of coal, an algorithm of three-dimensional coal seam modeling with pseudo point elimination and four fields spline inter⁃polation was proposed, the pseudo point was pretreated, and the isolated point was removed, the remaining non-isolated point was used for establishing the basic model and rebuilding the model, the spline interpolation method was used for the four domains of non-isolated point modeling, modeling, the modeling domain was divided into the starting field, extending the domain, stable domain and the convergence domain, in different domains, different modeling point of matching weight⁃ed interpolation was processed, filtering through four domains were combined to achieve the four domains spline interpola⁃tion, it played a role of smoothing filter in modeling, thus the accuracy of three-dimensional modeling was greatly im⁃proved. Simulation results show that the new algorithm has good robustness for external faults, rock, undulating terrain, the 3D modeling accuracy was improved and the computation is less.%三维煤层精确建模受地下断层、岩层、地势起伏等因素的影响,建模精度不高。为提高三维煤层建模的精度,提出一种基于伪点剔除与四域样条插值的三维煤层精确建模算法,通过伪点剔除方法对建模点进行预处理,筛选出其中的孤立点,进行剔除,其余非孤立点用于基本模型建立和基于映射的模型重构,采用四域样条插值方法对非孤立点进行建模,在建模中,将建模域分为起始域、延伸域、稳定域、收敛域共四个域,在不同域中,对不同的建模点进行匹配加权插值处理,经过四域联合滤波,实现四域样条插值,对建模效果起到平滑

  17. Edge-to-site reduction of Bethe-Peierls approximation for nearest neighbor exclusion cubic lattice particle systems and thermodynamic modeling of liquid silicates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimirov, Igor; Jak, Eugene

    2007-04-28

    We study an interacting particle system on the simple cubic lattice satisfying the nearest neighbor exclusion (NNE) which forbids any two nearest sites to be simultaneously occupied. Under the constraint, we develop an edge-to-site reduction of the Bethe-Peierls entropy approximation of the cluster variation method. The resulting NNE-corrected Bragg-Williams approximation is applied to statistical mechanical modeling of a liquid silicate formed by silica and a univalent network modifier, for which we derive the molar Gibbs energy of mixing and enthalpy of mixing and compare the predictions with available thermodynamic data.

  18. Twelfth degree spline with application to quadrature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, P O; Hamasalh, F K

    2016-01-01

    In this paper existence and uniqueness of twelfth degree spline is proved with application to quadrature. This formula is in the class of splines of degree 12 and continuity order [Formula: see text] that matches the derivatives up to order 6 at the knots of a uniform partition. Some mistakes in the literature are pointed out and corrected. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the applicability and efficiency of the new method.

  19. White matter fiber tracking directed by interpolating splines and a methodological framework for evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Are eLosnegård

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Image-based tractography of white matter (WM fiber bundles in the brain using diffusion weighted MRI (DW-MRI has become a useful tool in basic and clinical neuroscience. However, proper tracking is challenging due to the anatomical complexity of fiber pathways, the coarse resolution of clinically applicable whole-brain in vivo imaging techniques, and the difficulties associated with verification. In this study we introduce a new tractography algorithm using splines (denoted Spline. Spline reconstructs smooth fiber trajectories iteratively, in contrast to most other tractography algorithms that create piecewise linear fiber tract segments, followed by spline fitting. Using DW-MRI recordings from eight healthy elderly people participating in a longitudinal study of cognitive aging, we compare our Spline algorithm to two state-of-the-art tracking methods from the TrackVis software suite. The comparison is done quantitatively using diffusion metrics (fractional anisotropy, FA, with both (i tract averaging, (ii longitudinal linear mixed-effects model fitting, and (iii detailed along-tract analysis. Further validation is done on recordings from a diffusion hardware phantom, mimicking a coronal brain slice, with a known ground truth. Results from the longitudinal aging study showed high sensitivity of Spline tracking to individual aging patterns of mean FA when combined with linear mixed-effects modelling, moderately strong differences in the along-tract analysis of specific tracts, whereas the tract-averaged comparison using simple linear OLS regression revealed less differences between Spline and the two other tractography algorithms. In the brain phantom experiments with a ground truth, we demonstrated improved tracking ability of Spline compared to the two reference tractography algorithms being tested.

  20. P-Splines Using Derivative Information

    KAUST Repository

    Calderon, Christopher P.

    2010-01-01

    Time series associated with single-molecule experiments and/or simulations contain a wealth of multiscale information about complex biomolecular systems. We demonstrate how a collection of Penalized-splines (P-splines) can be useful in quantitatively summarizing such data. In this work, functions estimated using P-splines are associated with stochastic differential equations (SDEs). It is shown how quantities estimated in a single SDE summarize fast-scale phenomena, whereas variation between curves associated with different SDEs partially reflects noise induced by motion evolving on a slower time scale. P-splines assist in "semiparametrically" estimating nonlinear SDEs in situations where a time-dependent external force is applied to a single-molecule system. The P-splines introduced simultaneously use function and derivative scatterplot information to refine curve estimates. We refer to the approach as the PuDI (P-splines using Derivative Information) method. It is shown how generalized least squares ideas fit seamlessly into the PuDI method. Applications demonstrating how utilizing uncertainty information/approximations along with generalized least squares techniques improve PuDI fits are presented. Although the primary application here is in estimating nonlinear SDEs, the PuDI method is applicable to situations where both unbiased function and derivative estimates are available.

  1. Einsteinian cubic gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Pablo; Cano, Pablo A.

    2016-11-01

    We drastically simplify the problem of linearizing a general higher-order theory of gravity. We reduce it to the evaluation of its Lagrangian on a particular Riemann tensor depending on two parameters, and the computation of two derivatives with respect to one of those parameters. We use our method to construct a D -dimensional cubic theory of gravity which satisfies the following properties: (1) it shares the spectrum of Einstein gravity, i.e., it only propagates a transverse and massless graviton on a maximally symmetric background; (2) it is defined in the same way in general dimensions; (3) it is neither trivial nor topological in four dimensions. Up to cubic order in curvature, the only previously known theories satisfying the first two requirements are the Lovelock ones. We show that, up to cubic order, there exists only one additional theory satisfying requirements (1) and (2). Interestingly, this theory is, along with Einstein gravity, the only one which also satisfies (3).

  2. Single envelope equation modelling of multi-octave comb arrays in microresonators with quadratic and cubic nonlinearity

    CERN Document Server

    Hansson, T; Erkintalo, M; Anthony, J; Coen, S; Ricciardi, I; De Rosa, M; Wabnitz, S

    2016-01-01

    We numerically study, by means of the single envelope equation, the generation of optical frequency combs ranging from the visible to the mid-infrared spectral regions in resonators with quadratic and cubic nonlinearities. Phase-matched quadratic wave-mixing processes among the comb lines can be activated by low-power continuous wave pumping in the near infrared of a radially poled lithium niobate whispering gallery resonator (WGR). We examine both separate and co-existing intra-cavity doubly resonant second-harmonic generation and parametric oscillation processes, and find that modulation instabilities may lead to the formation of coupled comb arrays extending over multiple octaves. In the temporal domain, the frequency combs may correspond to pulse trains, or isolated pulses.

  3. B-spline parameterization of spatial response in a monolithic scintillation camera

    CERN Document Server

    Solovov, V; Chepel, V; Domingos, V; Martins, R

    2016-01-01

    A framework for parameterization of the light response functions (LRFs) in a scintillation camera was developed. It is based on approximation of the measured or simulated photosensor response with weighted sums of uniform cubic B-splines or their tensor products. The LRFs represented in this way are smooth, computationally inexpensive to evaluate and require much less memory than non-parametric alternatives. The parameters are found in a straightforward way by the linear least squares method. The use of linear fit makes the fitting process stable and predictable enough to be used in non-supervised mode. Several techniques that allow to reduce the storage and processing power requirements were developed. A software library for fitting simulated and measured light response with spline functions was developed and integrated into an open source software package ANTS2 designed for simulation and data processing for Anger camera-type detectors.

  4. Adaptive Surface Reconstruction Based on Tensor Product Algebraic Splines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinghua Song; Falai Chen

    2009-01-01

    Surface reconstruction from unorganized data points is a challenging problem in Computer Aided Design and Geometric Modeling. In this paper, we extend the mathematical model proposed by Juttler and Felis (Adv. Comput. Math., 17 (2002), pp. 135-152) based on tensor product algebraic spline surfaces from fixed meshes to adaptive meshes. We start with a tensor product algebraic B-spline surface defined on an initial mesh to fit the given data based on an optimization approach. By measuring the fitting errors over each cell of the mesh, we recursively insert new knots in cells over which the errors are larger than some given threshold, and construct a new algebraic spline surface to better fit the given data locally. The algorithm terminates when the error over each cell is less than the threshold. We provide some examples to demonstrate our algorithm and compare it with Jiittler's method. Examples suggest that our method is effective and is able to produce reconstruction surfaces of high quality.AMS subject classifications: 65D17

  5. Skin-Friction Measurements on a Model Submarine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    where there is no static pressure port, the Cp data were interpolated using a cubic spline . An example of a cubic spline fit to the Cp data is given...and details of this program are given in Appendix B . x (mm) Cp −0.2 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 U = 70m/s data Spline fit to...data Domain of Preston tube measurements Figure 10: Example of a cubic spline fit to Cp data, showing domain of Preston-tube data. Data is shown for

  6. The structure of uniform B-spline curves with parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Cao; Guozhao Wang

    2008-01-01

    The shape-adjustable curve constructed by uniform B-spline basis function with parameter is an extension of uniform B-spline curve. In this paper, we study the relation between the uniform B-spline basis functions with parameter and the B-spline basis functions. Based on the degree elevation of B-spline, we extend the uniform B-spline basis functions with parameter to ones with multiple parameters. Examples show that the proposed basis functions provide more flexibility for curve design.

  7. Application of the cubic-plus-association (CPA) equation of state to model the fluid phase behaviour of binary mixtures of water and tetrahydrofuran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herslund, Peter Jørgensen; Thomsen, Kaj; Abildskov, Jens

    2013-01-01

    The complex fluid phase behaviour, of the binary system comprised of water and tetrahydrofuran (THF) is modelled by use of the cubic-plus-association (CPA) equation of state. A total of seven modelling approaches are analysed, differing only in their way of describing THF and its interactions...... are named Case 2 to Case 7. Case 2 treats THF as non self-associating, but applies a single association site on the THF oxygen atom, that allows for cross-linking with a single water molecule. Case 3 is identical to Case 2 but applies two association sites on THF, allowing for simultaneous cross...... accepting- and two electron donating sites.Cases 6 and 7 are similar to Cases 4 and 5, respectively, however the binary cross-association volume between electron accepting sites on water and electron donating sites on THF is adjusted to match the CPA descriptions with available experimental VLE data...

  8. Rolling Force and Rolling Moment in Spline Cold Rolling Using Slip-line Field Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Dawei; LI Yongtang; FU Jianhua; ZHENG Quangang

    2009-01-01

    Rolling force and rolling moment are prime process parameter of external spline cold rolling. However, the precise theoretical formulae of rolling force and rolling moment are still very fewer, and the determination of them depends on experience. In the present study, the mathematical models of rolling force and rolling moment are established based on stress field theory of slip-line. And the isotropic hardening is used to improve the yield criterion. Based on MATLAB program language environment, calculation program is developed according to mathematical models established. The rolling force and rolling moment could be predicted quickly via the calculation program, and then the reliability of the models is validated by FEM. Within the range of module of spline m=0.5-1.5 mm, pressure angle of reference circle α=30.0°-45.0°, and number of spline teeth Z=19-54, the rolling force and rolling moment in rolling process (finishing rolling is excluded) are researched by means of virtualizing orthogonal experiment design. The results of the present study indicate that:the influences of module and number of spline teeth on the maximum rolling force and rolling moment in the process are remarkable;in the case of pressure angle of reference circle is little, module of spline is great, and number of spline teeth is little, the peak value of rolling force in rolling process may appear in the midst of the process;the peak value of rolling moment in rolling process appears in the midst of the process, and then oscillator weaken to a stable value. The results of the present study may provide guidelines for the determination of power of the motor and the design of hydraulic system of special machine, and provide basis for the farther researches on the precise forming process of external spline cold rolling.

  9. Uniform B-Spline Curve Interpolation with Prescribed Tangent and Curvature Vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okaniwa, Shoichi; Nasri, Ahmad; Lin, Hongwei; Abbas, Abdulwahed; Kineri, Yuki; Maekawa, Takashi

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents a geometric algorithm for the generation of uniform cubic B-spline curves interpolating a sequence of data points under tangent and curvature vectors constraints. To satisfy these constraints, knot insertion is used to generate additional control points which are progressively repositioned using corresponding geometric rules. Compared to existing schemes, our approach is capable of handling plane as well as space curves, has local control, and avoids the solution of the typical linear system. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is illustrated through several comparative examples. Applications of the method in NC machining and shape design are also outlined.

  10. Choosing the optimal number of B-spline control points (Part 2: Approximation of surfaces and applications)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmening, Corinna; Neuner, Hans

    2017-03-01

    Freeform surfaces like B-splines have proven to be a suitable tool to model laser scanner point clouds and to form the basis for an areal data analysis, for example an areal deformation analysis. A variety of parameters determine the B-spline's appearance, the B-spline's complexity being mostly determined by the number of control points. Usually, this parameter type is chosen by intuitive trial-and-error-procedures. In [10] the problem of finding an alternative to these trial-and-error-procedures was addressed for the case of B-spline curves: The task of choosing the optimal number of control points was interpreted as a model selection problem. Two model selection criteria, the Akaike and the Bayesian Information Criterion, were used to identify the B-spline curve with the optimal number of control points from a set of candidate B-spline models. In order to overcome the drawbacks of the information criteria, an alternative approach based on statistical learning theory was developed. The criteria were evaluated by means of simulated data sets. The present paper continues these investigations. If necessary, the methods proposed in [10] are extended to areal approaches so that they can be used to determine the optimal number of B-spline surface control points. Furthermore, the methods are evaluated by means of real laser scanner data sets rather than by simulated ones. The application of those methods to B-spline surfaces reveals the datum problem of those surfaces, meaning that location and number of control points of two B-splines surfaces are only comparable if they are based on the same parameterization. First investigations to solve this problem are presented.

  11. 基于三次样条插值的时滞GDM(1,2)模型构建及应用%Grey Delay Model GDM(1,2) and Its Application Based on Cubic Spline Interpolation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党耀国; 张娟; 陈兴怡

    2015-01-01

    针对具有时滞特征的输入输出系统,建立了灰色时滞GDM(1,2)模型.并结合三次样条插值和粒子群优化算法,求解出模型的3个参数[a,b,τ].相对于先利用灰关联分析确定出时滞参数τ再求解灰预测模型的方法,把时滞参数r融入模型中求解,避免了参数求解过程中的误差传递;并且还消除了时滞参数τ必须为整数的限制,使模型更加贴合现实中滞后期数不一定为整数的实际情况.最后将模型应用于公路旅客周转量的预测问题,实例表明该模型在具有时滞特征的输入输出系统预测中具有较高的精度.

  12. Phase diagrams of the corner cubic Heisenberg model and its site-diluted version on a triangular lattice: Renormalization-group treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Kiyoshi

    1985-02-01

    The global phase diagrams of the corner cubic anisotropic discrete-spin Heisenberg (CH) model and its site-diluted version (dCH) on a triangular lattice are investigated through the position-space renormalization-group method of the simple Migdal-Kadanoff type. The two models include many simpler models as their subspaces, and the interrelations among these models are elucidated. The five-dimensional (5D) phase diagram of the dCH model is generated from the 3D one of the CH model by introducing 2D site-dilution operation. The structure of the 5D phase diagram and the effect of site dilution on the CH model are conveniently visualized by introducing the concept of paths in the 3D subspace. The path describes the temperature variation provided that the ratios between the interaction parameters in the original CH model are fixed. The resulting phase diagrams of the dCH model exhibit the typical three-phase coexistence of solid, liquid, and gas, and their qualitative interpretations are summarized.

  13. Fast adaptive elliptical filtering using box splines

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhury, Kunal Narayan; Unser, Michael

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate that it is possible to filter an image with an elliptic window of varying size, elongation and orientation with a fixed computational cost per pixel. Our method involves the application of a suitable global pre-integrator followed by a pointwise-adaptive localization mesh. We present the basic theory for the 1D case using a B-spline formalism and then appropriately extend it to 2D using radially-uniform box splines. The size and ellipticity of these radially-uniform box splines is adaptively controlled. Moreover, they converge to Gaussians as the order increases. Finally, we present a fast and practical directional filtering algorithm that has the capability of adapting to the local image features.

  14. Schwarz and multilevel methods for quadratic spline collocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christara, C.C. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Smith, B. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Smooth spline collocation methods offer an alternative to Galerkin finite element methods, as well as to Hermite spline collocation methods, for the solution of linear elliptic Partial Differential Equations (PDEs). Recently, optimal order of convergence spline collocation methods have been developed for certain degree splines. Convergence proofs for smooth spline collocation methods are generally more difficult than for Galerkin finite elements or Hermite spline collocation, and they require stronger assumptions and more restrictions. However, numerical tests indicate that spline collocation methods are applicable to a wider class of problems, than the analysis requires, and are very competitive to finite element methods, with respect to efficiency. The authors will discuss Schwarz and multilevel methods for the solution of elliptic PDEs using quadratic spline collocation, and compare these with domain decomposition methods using substructuring. Numerical tests on a variety of parallel machines will also be presented. In addition, preliminary convergence analysis using Schwarz and/or maximum principle techniques will be presented.

  15. Scripted Bodies and Spline Driven Animation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erleben, Kenny; Henriksen, Knud

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we will take a close look at the details and technicalities in applying spline driven animation to scripted bodies in the context of dynamic simulation. The main contributions presented in this paper are methods for computing velocities and accelerations in the time domain of the sp......In this paper we will take a close look at the details and technicalities in applying spline driven animation to scripted bodies in the context of dynamic simulation. The main contributions presented in this paper are methods for computing velocities and accelerations in the time domain...

  16. Scripted Bodies and Spline Driven Animation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erleben, Kenny; Henriksen, Knud

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we will take a close look at the details and technicalities in applying spline driven animation to scripted bodies in the context of dynamic simulation. The main contributions presented in this paper are methods for computing velocities and accelerations in the time domain of the sp......In this paper we will take a close look at the details and technicalities in applying spline driven animation to scripted bodies in the context of dynamic simulation. The main contributions presented in this paper are methods for computing velocities and accelerations in the time domain...

  17. Multiple products of B-splines used in CAD system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The function upgrade of computer aided design (CAD) system requested that the multiple product of B-spline functions should be represented as a linear combination of some suitable (usually higher-degree) B-splines. In this paper, we apply the theory of spline space and discrete B-splines to deduce the representation of the coefficients of all terms of the linear combination, which can be directly applied to software coding in system development.

  18. Gravity Aided Navigation Precise Algorithm with Gauss Spline Interpolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WEN Chaobin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The gravity compensation of error equation thoroughly should be solved before the study on gravity aided navigation with high precision. A gravity aided navigation model construction algorithm based on research the algorithm to approximate local grid gravity anomaly filed with the 2D Gauss spline interpolation is proposed. Gravity disturbance vector, standard gravity value error and Eotvos effect are all compensated in this precision model. The experiment result shows that positioning accuracy is raised by 1 times, the attitude and velocity accuracy is raised by 1~2 times and the positional error is maintained from 100~200 m.

  19. Smoothing spline ANOVA decomposition of arbitrary splines: an application to eye movements in reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuschek, Hannes; Kliegl, Reinhold; Holschneider, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    The Smoothing Spline ANOVA (SS-ANOVA) requires a specialized construction of basis and penalty terms in order to incorporate prior knowledge about the data to be fitted. Typically, one resorts to the most general approach using tensor product splines. This implies severe constraints on the correlation structure, i.e. the assumption of isotropy of smoothness can not be incorporated in general. This may increase the variance of the spline fit, especially if only a relatively small set of observations are given. In this article, we propose an alternative method that allows to incorporate prior knowledge without the need to construct specialized bases and penalties, allowing the researcher to choose the spline basis and penalty according to the prior knowledge of the observations rather than choosing them according to the analysis to be done. The two approaches are compared with an artificial example and with analyses of fixation durations during reading.

  20. G/SPLINES: A hybrid of Friedman's Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS) algorithm with Holland's genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, David

    1991-01-01

    G/SPLINES are a hybrid of Friedman's Multivariable Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS) algorithm with Holland's Genetic Algorithm. In this hybrid, the incremental search is replaced by a genetic search. The G/SPLINE algorithm exhibits performance comparable to that of the MARS algorithm, requires fewer least squares computations, and allows significantly larger problems to be considered.

  1. FORMATION OF SHAFT SPLINES USING ROLLING METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sidorenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes design of rolling heads used for cold rolling of straight-sided splines on shafts and presents theoretical principles of this process. These principles make it possible to calculate an effort which is required for pushing billet through rolling-on rolls with due account of metal hardening during deformation.

  2. REAL ROOT ISOLATION OF SPLINE FUNCTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Renhong Wang; Jinming Wu

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,we propose an algorithm for isolating real roots of a given univariate spline function,which is based on the use of Descartes' rule of signs and de Casteljau algorithm.Numerical examples illustrate the flexibility and effectiveness of the algorithm.

  3. Spline smoothing of histograms by linear programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J. O.

    1972-01-01

    An algorithm for an approximating function to the frequency distribution is obtained from a sample of size n. To obtain the approximating function a histogram is made from the data. Next, Euclidean space approximations to the graph of the histogram using central B-splines as basis elements are obtained by linear programming. The approximating function has area one and is nonnegative.

  4. Large Eddy Simulation of Turbulence Modeling for wind Flow past Wall Mounted Cubical Building Using Smagorinsky Scheme and validation using Artificial Neural Network for Time Series Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibhab Kumar Lodh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper will present the large eddy simulation of turbulence modeling for wind flow over a wall mounted 3D cubical model. The LES Smagorinsky scheme is employed for the numerical simulation. The domain for this study is of the size of 60 cm x 30 cm x 30 cm. The 3D cube model is taken of the size of 6 cm x 6 cm x 4 cm. The Reynolds number for the flow in respect of the height of the cube i.e, 4 cm is 5.3x104 . The hexahedral grids are used for the meshing of the flow domain. The results are discussed in terms of various parameters such as velocity profile around the cube and the computational domain, the pressure distribution over the cube, near wall velocity profile and the shear stress distribution and also the result of drag coefficient is verified by neural network time series analysis using MATLAB. In this present study we have used the OpenFoam platform for the computational and numerical analysis. The numerical scheme employed is the combination of the steady state incompressible Newtonian flow model using SIMPLE algorithm followed by the transient model of incompressible Newtonian flow using PISO algorithm. We have observed that there is a constant positive drag coefficient in case of steady state simulation where as there is a negative lift coefficient in the initial run and a very low lift coefficient at the end of the steady state simulation.

  5. Dynamic modeling and controller design for 3D output PDF based on 2D B-spline function%三维输出PDF动态线性建模与控制器设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金芳; 许曼

    2013-01-01

    文章对动态系统的三维输出概率密度函数(PDF)进行了线性建模和控制器设计研究。首先选择合适的二维 B 样条函数,利用系统的输入输出数据通过递归最小二乘算法建立了基于二维 B 样条函数的三维输出 PDF 的线性动态模型;然后根据所建立的数学模型,选择跟踪性能指标,进行了控制器的设计;最后,选择动态输出分布系统,进行了动态系统三维输出PDF控制的仿真研究,仿真结果证实了控制算法的有效性。%Dynamic modeling and controller design for the three dimensional (3D) output probability density function (PDF) are studied in this paper. Through recursive least square algorithm, the dynamic model of 3D PDF is set up based on two dimensional (2D) B-spline basis function with output and input data of the system firstly, then a tracking performance index is chosen to design a controller based 3D PDF dynamic model, at last a dynamic output distribution system is constructed for simulation study, and the results verify the effectiveness of the presented controller.

  6. Interpolation by two-dimensional cubic convolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiazheng; Reichenbach, Stephen E.

    2003-08-01

    This paper presents results of image interpolation with an improved method for two-dimensional cubic convolution. Convolution with a piecewise cubic is one of the most popular methods for image reconstruction, but the traditional approach uses a separable two-dimensional convolution kernel that is based on a one-dimensional derivation. The traditional, separable method is sub-optimal for the usual case of non-separable images. The improved method in this paper implements the most general non-separable, two-dimensional, piecewise-cubic interpolator with constraints for symmetry, continuity, and smoothness. The improved method of two-dimensional cubic convolution has three parameters that can be tuned to yield maximal fidelity for specific scene ensembles characterized by autocorrelation or power-spectrum. This paper illustrates examples for several scene models (a circular disk of parametric size, a square pulse with parametric rotation, and a Markov random field with parametric spatial detail) and actual images -- presenting the optimal parameters and the resulting fidelity for each model. In these examples, improved two-dimensional cubic convolution is superior to several other popular small-kernel interpolation methods.

  7. All unitary cubic curvature gravities in D dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sisman, Tahsin Cagri; Guellue, Ibrahim; Tekin, Bayram, E-mail: sisman@metu.edu.tr, E-mail: e075555@metu.edu.tr, E-mail: btekin@metu.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)

    2011-10-07

    We construct all the unitary cubic curvature gravity theories built on the contractions of the Riemann tensor in D-dimensional (anti)-de Sitter spacetimes. Our construction is based on finding the equivalent quadratic action for the general cubic curvature theory and imposing ghost and tachyon freedom, which greatly simplifies the highly complicated problem of finding the propagator of cubic curvature theories in constant curvature backgrounds. To carry out the procedure we have also classified all the unitary quadratic models. We use our general results to study the recently found cubic curvature theories using different techniques and the string generated cubic curvature gravity model. We also study the scattering in critical gravity and give its cubic curvature extensions.

  8. An analysis of the phonon dispersion curves of lead hafnate in the cubic phase using lattice-dynamical models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman G. Burkovsky

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We have analyzed the phonon dispersion curves in the paraelectric phase of a lead hafnate crystal (PbHfO3 by means of two different lattice-dynamical models. Both the rigid-ion model and the shell one provided an acceptable description of the available experimental data. The atomic displacement patterns were qualitatively different for the two models. In the rigid-ion model the motion in the characteristic low-energy flattened transverse acoustic branch contained both lead and hafnium displacements, while for the shell model it corresponded mainly to lead displacements with the small contribution of oxygen displacements. The shell model allows simultaneous description of the phonon dispersion curves and the correct value of the dielectric constant.

  9. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative Analytic Formulation for the Evaluation of Spline Couplings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Y.; Keller, J.; Errichello, R.; Halse, C.

    2013-12-01

    Gearboxes in wind turbines have not been achieving their expected design life; however, they commonly meet and exceed the design criteria specified in current standards in the gear, bearing, and wind turbine industry as well as third-party certification criteria. The cost of gearbox replacements and rebuilds, as well as the down time associated with these failures, has elevated the cost of wind energy. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) was established by the U.S. Department of Energy in 2006; its key goal is to understand the root causes of premature gearbox failures and improve their reliability using a combined approach of dynamometer testing, field testing, and modeling. As part of the GRC program, this paper investigates the design of the spline coupling often used in modern wind turbine gearboxes to connect the planetary and helical gear stages. Aside from transmitting the driving torque, another common function of the spline coupling is to allow the sun to float between the planets. The amount the sun can float is determined by the spline design and the sun shaft flexibility subject to the operational loads. Current standards address spline coupling design requirements in varying detail. This report provides additional insight beyond these current standards to quickly evaluate spline coupling designs.

  10. Stabilized Discretization in Spline Element Method for Solution of Two-Dimensional Navier-Stokes Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neng Wan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In terms of the poor geometric adaptability of spline element method, a geometric precision spline method, which uses the rational Bezier patches to indicate the solution domain, is proposed for two-dimensional viscous uncompressed Navier-Stokes equation. Besides fewer pending unknowns, higher accuracy, and computation efficiency, it possesses such advantages as accurate representation of isogeometric analysis for object boundary and the unity of geometry and analysis modeling. Meanwhile, the selection of B-spline basis functions and the grid definition is studied and a stable discretization format satisfying inf-sup conditions is proposed. The degree of spline functions approaching the velocity field is one order higher than that approaching pressure field, and these functions are defined on one-time refined grid. The Dirichlet boundary conditions are imposed through the Nitsche variational principle in weak form due to the lack of interpolation properties of the B-splines functions. Finally, the validity of the proposed method is verified with some examples.

  11. A Geometric Approach for Multi-Degree Spline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Li; Zhang-Jin Huang; Zhao Liu

    2012-01-01

    Multi-degree spline (MD-spline for short) is a generalization of B-spline which comprises of polynomial segments of various degrees.The present paper provides a new definition for MD-spline curves in a geometric intuitive way based on an efficient and simple evaluation algorithm.MD-spline curves maintain various desirable properties of B-spline curves,such as convex hull,local support and variation diminishing properties.They can also be refined exactly with knot insertion.The continuity between two adjacent segments with different degrees is at least C1 and that between two adjacent segments of same degrees d is Cd-1.Benefited by the exact refinement algorithm,we also provide several operators for MD-spline curves,such as converting each curve segment into Bézier form,an efficient merging algorithm and a new curve subdivision scheme which allows different degrees for each segment.

  12. Adaptive Parametrization of Multivariate B-splines for Image Registration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Sass; Glocker, Benjamin; Navab, Nassir;

    2008-01-01

    cost function. In the current work we introduce multivariate B-splines as a novel alternative to the widely used tensor B-splines enabling us to make efficient use of the derived measure.The multivariate B-splines of order n are Cn- 1 smooth and are based on Delaunay configurations of arbitrary 2D or 3......D control point sets. Efficient algorithms for finding the configurations are presented, and B-splines are through their flexibility shown to feature several advantages over the tensor B-splines. In spite of efforts to make the tensor product B-splines more flexible, the knots are still bound...... to reside on a regular grid. In contrast, by efficient non- constrained placement of the knots, the multivariate B- splines are shown to give a good representation of inho- mogeneous objects in natural settings. The wide applicability of the method is illustrated through its application on medical data...

  13. The Nonlinear Analysis of Thick Composite Plates Using a Cubic Spline Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    nature. These traits when exploited by the designer provide the means for constructing weight efficient, strong structures which respond to loads in...Me,chanics Divisi on \\SCE, 98, EHM , (1972). 3 . Bathe, K-J, Finite Element Procedures in Eng.n ering \

  14. Improved estimation of trawling tracks using cubic Hermite spline interpolation of position registration data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hintzen, N.T.; Piet, G.J.; Brunel, T.P.A.

    2010-01-01

    For control and enforcement purposes, all fishing vessels operating in European waters are equipped with satellite-based Vessel Monitoring by Satellite systems (VMS) recording their position at regular time intervals. VMS data are increasingly used by scientists to study spatial and temporal pattern

  15. Describing the soil physical characteristics of soil samples with cubical splines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesseling, J.G.; Ritsema, C.J.; Stolte, J.; Oostindie, K.; Dekker, K.

    2008-01-01

    The Mualem-Van Genuchten equations have become very popular in recent decades. Problems were encountered fitting the equations¿ parameters through sets of data measured in the laboratory: parameters were found which yielded results that were not monotonic increasing or decreasing. Due to the interac

  16. An Optimized Spline-Based Registration of a 3D CT to a Set of C-Arm Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed an algorithm for the rigid-body registration of a CT volume to a set of C-arm images. The algorithm uses a gradient-based iterative minimization of a least-squares measure of dissimilarity between the C-arm images and projections of the CT volume. To compute projections, we use a novel method for fast integration of the volume along rays. To improve robustness and speed, we take advantage of a coarse-to-fine processing of the volume/image pyramids. To compute the projections of the volume, the gradient of the dissimilarity measure, and the multiresolution data pyramids, we use a continuous image/volume model based on cubic B-splines, which ensures a high interpolation accuracy and a gradient of the dissimilarity measure that is well defined everywhere. We show the performance of our algorithm on a human spine phantom, where the true alignment is determined using a set of fiducial markers.

  17. Anisotropic cubic curvature couplings

    CERN Document Server

    Bailey, Quentin G

    2016-01-01

    To complement recent work on tests of spacetime symmetry in gravity, cubic curvature couplings are studied using an effective field theory description of spacetime-symmetry breaking. The associated mass dimension 8 coefficients for Lorentz violation studied do not result in any linearized gravity modifications and instead are revealed in the first nonlinear terms in an expansion of spacetime around a flat background. We consider effects on gravitational radiation through the energy loss of a binary system and we study two-body orbital perturbations using the post-Newtonian metric. Some effects depend on the internal structure of the source and test bodies, thereby breaking the Weak Equivalence Principle for self-gravitating bodies. These coefficients can be measured in solar-system tests, while binary-pulsar systems and short-range gravity tests are particularly sensitive.

  18. Transfer-Matrix Monte Carlo Estimates of Critical Points in the Simple Cubic Ising, Planar and Heisenberg Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nightingale, M.P.; Blöte , H.W.J.

    1996-01-01

    The principle and the efficiency of the Monte Carlo transfer-matrix algorithm are discussed. Enhancements of this algorithm are illustrated by applications to several phase transitions in lattice spin models. We demonstrate how the statistical noise can be reduced considerably by a similarity transf

  19. Transfer-Matrix Monte Carlo Estimates of Critical Points in the Simple Cubic Ising, Planar and Heisenberg Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nightingale, M.P.; Blöte , H.W.J.

    1996-01-01

    The principle and the efficiency of the Monte Carlo transfer-matrix algorithm are discussed. Enhancements of this algorithm are illustrated by applications to several phase transitions in lattice spin models. We demonstrate how the statistical noise can be reduced considerably by a similarity

  20. A study of the critical properties of the Ising model on body-centered cubic lattice taking into account the interaction of next behind nearest neighbors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtazaev, A. K.; Ramazanov, M. K.; Kurbanova, D. R.; Badiev, M. K.; Abuev, Ya. K.

    2017-06-01

    The replica Monte Carlo method has been used to investigate the critical behavior of a threedimensional antiferromagnetic Ising model on a body-centered cubic lattice, taking into account interactions of the adjacent behind neighbors. Investigations are carried out for the ratios of the values of exchange interactions behind the nearest and next nearest neighbors k = J 2/ J 1 in the range of k ∈ [0.0, 1.0] with the step Δ k = 0.1. In the framework of the theory of finite-dimensional scaling the static critical indices of heat capacity α, susceptibility γ, of the order parameter β, correlation radius ν, and also the Fisher index η are calculated. It is shown that the universality class of the critical behavior of this model is kept in the interval of k ∈ [0.0, 0.6]. It is established that a nonuniversal critical behavior is observed in the range k ∈ [0.8, 1.0].

  1. Prediction of longitudinal dispersion coefficient using multivariate adaptive regression splines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amir Hamzeh Haghiabi

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) was developed as a novel soft-computingtechnique for predicting longitudinal dispersion coefficient (DL) in rivers. As mentioned in the literature,experimental dataset related to DL was collected and used for preparing MARS model. Results of MARSmodel were compared with multi-layer neural network model and empirical formulas. To define the mosteffective parameters on DL, the Gamma test was used. Performance of MARS model was assessed bycalculation of standard error indices. Error indices showed that MARS model has suitable performanceand is more accurate compared to multi-layer neural network model and empirical formulas. Results ofthe Gamma test and MARS model showed that flow depth (H) and ratio of the mean velocity to shearvelocity (u/u^∗) were the most effective parameters on the DL.

  2. MODELING VAPOR LIQUID EQUILIBRIUM OF IONIC LIQUIDS plus GAS BINARY SYSTEMS AT HIGH PRESSURE WITH CUBIC EQUATIONS OF STATE

    OpenAIRE

    Freitas, ACD; Cunico, LP; M. Aznar; Guirardello,R.

    2013-01-01

    Ionic liquids (IL) have been described as novel environmentally benign solvents because of their remarkable characteristics. Numerous applications of these solvents continue to grow at an exponential rate. In this work, high pressure vapor liquid equilibria for 17 different IL + gas binary systems were modeled at different temperatures with Peng-Robinson (PR) and Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK) equations of state, combined with the van der Waals mixing rule with two binary interaction parameters (v...

  3. Surface Tension, Surface Stiffness, and Surface Width of the 3-dimensional Ising Model on a Cubic Lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Hasenbusch, M.; Hasenbusch, Martin; Pinn, Klaus

    1992-01-01

    We compute properties of the interface of the 3-dimensional Ising model for a wide range of temperatures and for interface extensions up to 64 by 64. The interface tension sigma is obtained by integrating the surface energy density over the inverse temperature beta. The surface stiffness coefficient kappa is determined. We also study universal quantities like xi^2 sigma and xi^2 kappa. The behavior of the interfacial width on lattices up to 512 times 512 times 27 is also investigated.

  4. Dynamic and fluid-structure interaction simulations of bioprosthetic heart valves using parametric design with T-splines and Fung-type material models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ming-Chen; Kamensky, David; Xu, Fei; Kiendl, Josef; Wang, Chenglong; Wu, Michael C. H.; Mineroff, Joshua; Reali, Alessandro; Bazilevs, Yuri; Sacks, Michael S.

    2015-06-01

    This paper builds on a recently developed immersogeometric fluid-structure interaction (FSI) methodology for bioprosthetic heart valve (BHV) modeling and simulation. It enhances the proposed framework in the areas of geometry design and constitutive modeling. With these enhancements, BHV FSI simulations may be performed with greater levels of automation, robustness and physical realism. In addition, the paper presents a comparison between FSI analysis and standalone structural dynamics simulation driven by prescribed transvalvular pressure, the latter being a more common modeling choice for this class of problems. The FSI computation achieved better physiological realism in predicting the valve leaflet deformation than its standalone structural dynamics counterpart.

  5. Two-dimensional cubic convolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenbach, Stephen E; Geng, Frank

    2003-01-01

    The paper develops two-dimensional (2D), nonseparable, piecewise cubic convolution (PCC) for image interpolation. Traditionally, PCC has been implemented based on a one-dimensional (1D) derivation with a separable generalization to two dimensions. However, typical scenes and imaging systems are not separable, so the traditional approach is suboptimal. We develop a closed-form derivation for a two-parameter, 2D PCC kernel with support [-2,2] x [-2,2] that is constrained for continuity, smoothness, symmetry, and flat-field response. Our analyses, using several image models, including Markov random fields, demonstrate that the 2D PCC yields small improvements in interpolation fidelity over the traditional, separable approach. The constraints on the derivation can be relaxed to provide greater flexibility and performance.

  6. COMPACT SUPPORT THIN PLATE SPLINE ALGORITHM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jing; Yang Xuan; Yu Jianping

    2007-01-01

    Common tools based on landmarks in medical image elastic registration are Thin Plate Spline (TPS) and Compact Support Radial Basis Function (CSRBF). TPS forces the corresponding landmarks to exactly match each other and minimizes the bending energy of the whole image. However,in real application, such scheme would deform the image globally when deformation is only local.CSRBF needs manually determine the support size, although its deformation is limited local. Therefore,to limit the effect of the deformation, new Compact Support Thin Plate Spline algorithm (CSTPS) is approached, analyzed and applied. Such new approach gains optimal mutual information, which shows its registration result satisfactory. The experiments also show it can apply in both local and global elastic registration.

  7. Riemann-Hilbert approach for the FQXL model: A generalized Camassa-Holm equation with cubic and quadratic nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Qiao, Zhijun

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, the inverse scattering transform associated with a Riemann-Hilbert problem is formulated for the FQXL model: a generalized Camassa-Holm equation m t = /1 2 k 1 [ m ( u 2 - ux 2 ) ] x + /1 2 k 2 ( 2 m u x + m x u ) , m = u - u x x , which was originally included in the work of Fokas [Physica D 87, 145 (1995)] and was recently shown to be integrable in the sense of Lax pair, bi-Hamilton structure, and conservation laws by Qiao, Xia, and Li [e-print arXiv:1205.2028v2 (2012)]. We have discussed the following properties: direct scattering problems and Jost solutions, asymptotical and analytical behavior of Jost solutions, the scattering equations in a Riemann-Hilbert problem, and the multi-soliton solutions of the FQXL model. Then, one-soliton and two-soliton solutions are presented in a parametric form as a special case of multi-soliton solutions.

  8. Modeling of the Thermodynamics of the Acetic Acid−Water Mixture Using the Cubic-Plus-Association Equation of State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breil, Martin Peter; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Behrens, Paul K.

    2011-01-01

    density, enthalpy of vaporization, and vapor-phase compressibility factor data. The CPA-HV parameters have been fitted to, among others, experimental vapor compressibility factor data and experimental relative volatility data at different temperature ranges. The purpose of the work was to investigate...... whether the CPA-HV model can describe the vapor−liquid equilibrium for acetic acid−water over a temperature range of 200 K and at the same time represent the behavior of pure acetic acid and acetic acid−water mixtures with respect to enthalpies of vaporization and compressibility factors. It is shown...... that satisfactory results are overall obtained, but if an excellent match is needed over the whole temperature range, then different interaction parameters need to be used at the various temperature ranges....

  9. Modeling vapor liquid equilibrium of ionic liquids + gas binary systems at high pressure with cubic equations of state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. D. Freitas

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ionic liquids (IL have been described as novel environmentally benign solvents because of their remarkable characteristics. Numerous applications of these solvents continue to grow at an exponential rate. In this work, high pressure vapor liquid equilibria for 17 different IL + gas binary systems were modeled at different temperatures with Peng-Robinson (PR and Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK equations of state, combined with the van der Waals mixing rule with two binary interaction parameters (vdW-2. The experimental data were taken from the literature. The optimum binary interaction parameters were estimated by minimization of an objective function based on the average absolute relative deviation of liquid and vapor phases, using the modified Simplex algorithm. The solubilities of all gases studied in this work decrease as the temperature increases and increase with increasing pressure. The correlated results were highly satisfactory, with average absolute relative deviations of 2.10% and 2.25% for PR-vdW-2 and SRK-vdW-2, respectively.

  10. Valorization of Crataegus azarolus stones for the removal of textile anionic dye by central composite rotatable design using cubic model: optimization, isotherm, and kinetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudechiche, Noreddine; Yazid, Hynda; Trari, Mohamed; Sadaoui, Zahra

    2017-07-05

    In this study, the central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was used in the optimization of the operating parameters for the removal of the direct blue 86 (DB86), an anionic dye, because of its hazardous impact on human health and aquatic environment. In addition, DB86 is a recalcitrant and non-biodegradable dye whose presence considerably inhibits photosynthesis. Its removal in aqueous medium was achieved by biosorption onto the novel biosorbent Crataegus azarolus stones (CAS). The parameters like the solution pH, biosorbent dose, initial DB86 concentration, and temperature were studied in the ranges 2-6, 0.8-4 g L(-1), 20-100 mg L(-1), and 10-50 °C, respectively. The significance of the experimental parameters and their interactions was investigated by the Student's t test and p values with 5% error limits using JMP 11.0.0 software. The regression analysis of the experimental data obtained from 31 batch runs provides a cubic model. The optimum conditions obtained for the maximum DB86 elimination from the synthetic solution were found to be pH 2, biosorbent dose of 4 g L(-1), initial DB86 concentration of 20 mg L(-1), and temperature of 10 °C, leading to a theoretical maximum removal of 123%. The experimental data were analyzed by the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin equilibrium models. The Langmuir isotherm gave the best fit with a maximum biosorption capacity of 24.02 mg g(-1). The results of the kinetic study revealed that the biosorption kinetic of DB86 follows a pseudo-second-order model. All results confirmed that CAS are an efficient, economic, and ecological alternative for the treatment of industrial wastewaters loaded with anionic dyes.

  11. Variational Splines and Paley--Wiener Spaces on Combinatorial Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Pesenson, Isaac

    2011-01-01

    Notions of interpolating variational splines and Paley-Wiener spaces are introduced on a combinatorial graph G. Both of these definitions explore existence of a combinatorial Laplace operator onG. The existence and uniqueness of interpolating variational splines on a graph is shown. As an application of variational splines, the paper presents a reconstruction algorithm of Paley-Wiener functions on graphs from their uniqueness sets.

  12. Variational Splines and Paley--Wiener Spaces on Combinatorial Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Pesenson, Isaac

    2011-01-01

    Notions of interpolating variational splines and Paley-Wiener spaces are introduced on a combinatorial graph G. Both of these definitions explore existence of a combinatorial Laplace operator onG. The existence and uniqueness of interpolating variational splines on a graph is shown. As an application of variational splines, the paper presents a reconstruction algorithm of Paley-Wiener functions on graphs from their uniqueness sets.

  13. Average of Distribution and Remarks on Box-Splines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yue-sheng

    2001-01-01

    A class of generalized moving average operators is introduced, and the integral representations of an average function are provided. It has been shown that the average of Dirac δ-distribution is just the well known box-spline. Some remarks on box-splines, such as their smoothness and the corresponding partition of unity, are made. The factorization of average operators is derived. Then, the subdivision algorithm for efficient computing of box-splines and their linear combinations follows.

  14. Modeling Broadband Microwave Structures by Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Otevrel

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the exploitation of feed-forward neural networksand recurrent neural networks for replacing full-wave numerical modelsof microwave structures in complex microwave design tools. Building aneural model, attention is turned to the modeling accuracy and to theefficiency of building a model. Dealing with the accuracy, we describea method of increasing it by successive completing a training set.Neural models are mutually compared in order to highlight theiradvantages and disadvantages. As a reference model for comparisons,approximations based on standard cubic splines are used. Neural modelsare used to replace both the time-domain numeric models and thefrequency-domain ones.

  15. On spline and polynomial interpolation of low earth orbiter data: GRACE example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uz, Metehan; Ustun, Aydin

    2016-04-01

    GRACE satellites, which are equipped with specific science instruments such as K/Ka band ranging system, have still orbited around the earth since 17 March 2002. In this study the kinematic and reduced-dynamic orbits of GRACE-A/B were determined to 10 seconds interval by using Bernese 5.2 GNSS software during May, 2010 and also daily orbit solutions were validated with GRACE science orbit, GNV1B. The RMS values of kinematic and reduced-dynamic orbit validations were about 2.5 and 1.5 cm, respectively. 
Throughout the time period of interest, more or less data gaps were encountered in the kinematic orbits due to lack of GPS measurements and satellite manoeuvres. Thus, the least square polynomial and the cubic spline approaches (natural, not-a-knot and clamped) were tested to interpolate both small data gaps and 5 second interval on precise orbits. The latter is necessary for example in case of data densification in order to use the K / Ka band observations. The interpolated coordinates to 5 second intervals were also validated with GNV1B orbits. The validation results show that spline approaches have delivered approximately 1 cm RMS values and are better than those of least square polynomial interpolation. When data gaps occur on daily orbit, the spline validation results became worse depending on the size of the data gaps. Hence, the daily orbits were fragmented into small arcs including 30, 40 or 50 knots to evaluate effect of the least square polynomial interpolation on data gaps. From randomly selected daily arc sets, which are belonging to different times, 5, 10, 15 and 20 knots were removed, independently. While 30-knot arcs were evaluated with fifth-degree polynomial, sixth-degree polynomial was employed to interpolate artificial gaps over 40- and 50-knot arcs. The differences of interpolated and removed coordinates were tested with each other by considering GNV1B validation RMS result, 2.5 cm. With 95% confidence level, data gaps up to 5 and 10 knots can

  16. Application of spline wavelet transform in differential of electroanalytical signal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Investigating characteristics of spline wavelet, we found that if the two-order spline function, the derivative function of the three-order B spline function, is used as the wavelet base function, the spline wavelet transform has both the property of denoising and that of differential. As a result, the relation between the spline wavelet transform and the differential was studied in theory. Experimental results show that the spline wavelet transform can well be applied to the differential of the electroanalytical signal. Compared with other kinds of wavelet transform, the spline wavelet trans-form has a characteristic of differential. Compared with the digital differential and simulative differential with electronic circuit, the spline wavelet transform not only can carry out denoising and differential for a signal, but also has the ad-vantages of simple operation and small quantity of calcula-tion, because step length, RC constant and other kinds of parameters need not be selected. Compared with Alexander Kai-man Leung's differential method, the differential method with spline wavelet transform has the characteristic that the differential order is not dependent on the number of data points in the original signal.

  17. Log-cubic method for generation of soil particle size distribution curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Songhao

    2013-01-01

    Particle size distribution (PSD) is a fundamental physical property of soils. Traditionally, the PSD curve was generated by hand from limited data of particle size analysis, which is subjective and may lead to significant uncertainty in the freehand PSD curve and graphically estimated cumulative particle percentages. To overcome these problems, a log-cubic method was proposed for the generation of PSD curve based on a monotone piecewise cubic interpolation method. The log-cubic method and commonly used log-linear and log-spline methods were evaluated by the leave-one-out cross-validation method for 394 soil samples extracted from UNSODA database. Mean error and root mean square error of the cross-validation show that the log-cubic method outperforms two other methods. What is more important, PSD curve generated by the log-cubic method meets essential requirements of a PSD curve, that is, passing through all measured data and being both smooth and monotone. The proposed log-cubic method provides an objective and reliable way to generate a PSD curve from limited soil particle analysis data. This method and the generated PSD curve can be used in the conversion of different soil texture schemes, assessment of grading pattern, and estimation of soil hydraulic parameters and erodibility factor.

  18. Local Adaptive Calibration of the GLASS Surface Incident Shortwave Radiation Product Using Smoothing Spline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Liang, S.; Wang, G.

    2015-12-01

    Incident solar radiation (ISR) over the Earth's surface plays an important role in determining the Earth's climate and environment. Generally, can be obtained from direct measurements, remotely sensed data, or reanalysis and general circulation models (GCMs) data. Each type of product has advantages and limitations: the surface direct measurements provide accurate but sparse spatial coverage, whereas other global products may have large uncertainties. Ground measurements have been normally used for validation and occasionally calibration, but transforming their "true values" spatially to improve the satellite products is still a new and challenging topic. In this study, an improved thin-plate smoothing spline approach is presented to locally "calibrate" the Global LAnd Surface Satellite (GLASS) ISR product using the reconstructed ISR data from surface meteorological measurements. The influences of surface elevation on ISR estimation was also considered in the proposed method. The point-based surface reconstructed ISR was used as the response variable, and the GLASS ISR product and the surface elevation data at the corresponding locations as explanatory variables to train the thin plate spline model. We evaluated the performance of the approach using the cross-validation method at both daily and monthly time scales over China. We also evaluated estimated ISR based on the thin-plate spline method using independent ground measurements at 10 sites from the Coordinated Enhanced Observation Network (CEON). These validation results indicated that the thin plate smoothing spline method can be effectively used for calibrating satellite derived ISR products using ground measurements to achieve better accuracy.

  19. Spline-based automatic path generation of welding robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Niu Xuejuan; Li Liangyu

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a flexible method for the representation of welded seam based on spline interpolation. In this method, the tool path of welding robot can be generated automatically from a 3D CAD model. This technique has been implemented and demonstrated in the FANUC Arc Welding Robot Workstation. According to the method, a software system is developed using VBA of SolidWorks 2006. It offers an interface between SolidWorks and ROBOGUIDE, the off-line programming software of FANUC robot. It combines the strong modeling function of the former and the simulating function of the latter. It also has the capability of communication with on-line robot. The result data have shown its high accuracy and strong reliability in experiments. This method will improve the intelligence and the flexibility of the welding robot workstation.

  20. Fast Selection of Spectral Variables with B-Spline Compression

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, Fabrice; Wertz, Vincent; Meurens, Marc; Verleysen, Michel

    2007-01-01

    The large number of spectral variables in most data sets encountered in spectral chemometrics often renders the prediction of a dependent variable uneasy. The number of variables hopefully can be reduced, by using either projection techniques or selection methods; the latter allow for the interpretation of the selected variables. Since the optimal approach of testing all possible subsets of variables with the prediction model is intractable, an incremental selection approach using a nonparametric statistics is a good option, as it avoids the computationally intensive use of the model itself. It has two drawbacks however: the number of groups of variables to test is still huge, and colinearities can make the results unstable. To overcome these limitations, this paper presents a method to select groups of spectral variables. It consists in a forward-backward procedure applied to the coefficients of a B-Spline representation of the spectra. The criterion used in the forward-backward procedure is the mutual infor...

  1. Finite element method of spline for R-B equation%R-B方程样条有限元法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乃明; 胡兵; 闵心畅

    2012-01-01

    A finite element method is given based on cubic spline interpolation for R-B equation, and the numerical scheme is derived. Further more, the corresponding existence and uniqueness of the solution of this scheme are proved. Meanwhile, the convergence analysis is presented.%作者对R-B方程提出了基于三次样条插值的有限元法,给出了具体的计算格式,证明了该离散格式解的存在唯一性和稳定性,并给出了收敛性分析.

  2. A modified Lee-Carter model for analysing short-base-period data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bojuan Barbara

    2012-03-01

    This paper introduces a new modified Lee-Carter model for analysing short-base-period mortality data, for which the original Lee-Carter model produces severely fluctuating predicted age-specific mortality. Approximating the unknown parameters in the modified model by linearized cubic splines and other additive functions, the model can be simplified into a logistic regression when fitted to binomial data. The expected death rate estimated from the modified model is smooth, not only over ages but also over years. The analysis of mortality data in China (2000-08) demonstrates the advantages of the new model over existing models.

  3. Trigonometric polynomial B-spline with shape parameter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wentao; WANG Guozhao

    2004-01-01

    The basis function of n order trigonometric polynomial B-spline with shape parameter is constructed by an integral approach. The shape of the constructed curve can be adjusted by changing the shape parameter and it has most of the properties of B-spline. The ellipse and circle can be accurately represented by this basis function.

  4. Understanding recurrence relations for Chebyshevian B-splines via blossoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazure, Marie-Laurence

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to show how naturally recurrence relations for most general Chebyshevian B-splines emerge from blossoms. In particular, this work gives a new insight into previous results by Lyche [A recurrence relation for Chebyshevian B-splines, Constr. Approx. 1 (1985) 155-178], the importance of which it underlines.

  5. Exponential B-splines and the partition of unity property

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Massopust, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We provide an explicit formula for a large class of exponential B-splines. Also, we characterize the cases where the integer-translates of an exponential B-spline form a partition of unity up to a multiplicative constant. As an application of this result we construct explicitly given pairs of dual...

  6. Positivity and Monotonicity Preserving Biquartic Rational Interpolation Spline Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinru Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A biquartic rational interpolation spline surface over rectangular domain is constructed in this paper, which includes the classical bicubic Coons surface as a special case. Sufficient conditions for generating shape preserving interpolation splines for positive or monotonic surface data are deduced. The given numeric experiments show our method can deal with surface construction from positive or monotonic data effectively.

  7. Cylindrical Helix Spline Approximation of Spatial Curves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new method for approximating spatial curves with a G1 cylindrical helix spline within a prescribed tolerance. We deduce the general formulation of a cylindrical helix,which has 11 freedoms. This means that it needs 11 restrictions to determine a cylindrical helix. Given a spatial parametric curve segment, including the start point and the end point of this segment, the tangent and the principal normal of the start point, we can always find a cylindrical segment to interpolate the given direction and position vectors. In order to approximate the known parametric curve within the prescribed tolerance, we adopt the trial method step by step. First, we must ensure the helix segment to interpolate the given two end points and match the principal normal and tangent of the start point, and then, we can keep the deviation between the cylindrical helix segment and the known curve segment within the prescribed tolerance everywhere. After the first segment had been formed, we can construct the next segment. Circularly, we can construct the G1 cylindrical helix spline to approximate the whole spatial parametric curve within the prescribed tolerance. Several examples are also given to show the efficiency of this method.

  8. History matching by spline approximation and regularization in single-phase areal reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T. Y.; Kravaris, C.; Seinfeld, J.

    1986-01-01

    An automatic history matching algorithm is developed based on bi-cubic spline approximations of permeability and porosity distributions and on the theory of regularization to estimate permeability or porosity in a single-phase, two-dimensional real reservoir from well pressure data. The regularization feature of the algorithm is used to convert the ill-posed history matching problem into a well-posed problem. The algorithm employs the conjugate gradient method as its core minimization method. A number of numerical experiments are carried out to evaluate the performance of the algorithm. Comparisons with conventional (non-regularized) automatic history matching algorithms indicate the superiority of the new algorithm with respect to the parameter estimates obtained. A quasioptimal regularization parameter is determined without requiring a priori information on the statistical properties of the observations.

  9. The Coulombic Lattice Potential of Ionic Compounds: The Cubic Perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, E.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Presents coulombic models representing the particles of a system by point charges interacting through Coulomb's law to explain coulombic lattice potential. Uses rubidium manganese trifluoride as an example of cubic perovskite structure. Discusses the effects on cluster properties. (CW)

  10. B-spline parameterization of the dielectric function and information criteria: the craft of non-overfitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likhachev, Dmitriy V.

    2017-06-01

    Johs and Hale developed the Kramers-Kronig consistent B-spline formulation for the dielectric function modeling in spectroscopic ellipsometry data analysis. In this article we use popular Akaike, corrected Akaike and Bayesian Information Criteria (AIC, AICc and BIC, respectively) to determine an optimal number of knots for B-spline model. These criteria allow finding a compromise between under- and overfitting of experimental data since they penalize for increasing number of knots and select representation which achieves the best fit with minimal number of knots. Proposed approach provides objective and practical guidance, as opposite to empirically driven or "gut feeling" decisions, for selecting the right number of knots for B-spline models in spectroscopic ellipsometry. AIC, AICc and BIC selection criteria work remarkably well as we demonstrated in several real-data applications. This approach formalizes selection of the optimal knot number and may be useful in practical perspective of spectroscopic ellipsometry data analysis.

  11. Choosing the Optimal Number of B-spline Control Points (Part 1: Methodology and Approximation of Curves)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmening, Corinna; Neuner, Hans

    2016-09-01

    Due to the establishment of terrestrial laser scanner, the analysis strategies in engineering geodesy change from pointwise approaches to areal ones. These areal analysis strategies are commonly built on the modelling of the acquired point clouds. Freeform curves and surfaces like B-spline curves/surfaces are one possible approach to obtain space continuous information. A variety of parameters determines the B-spline's appearance; the B-spline's complexity is mostly determined by the number of control points. Usually, this number of control points is chosen quite arbitrarily by intuitive trial-and-error-procedures. In this paper, the Akaike Information Criterion and the Bayesian Information Criterion are investigated with regard to a justified and reproducible choice of the optimal number of control points of B-spline curves. Additionally, we develop a method which is based on the structural risk minimization of the statistical learning theory. Unlike the Akaike and the Bayesian Information Criteria this method doesn't use the number of parameters as complexity measure of the approximating functions but their Vapnik-Chervonenkis-dimension. Furthermore, it is also valid for non-linear models. Thus, the three methods differ in their target function to be minimized and consequently in their definition of optimality. The present paper will be continued by a second paper dealing with the choice of the optimal number of control points of B-spline surfaces.

  12. Extension to order $\\beta^{23}$ of the high-temperature expansions for the spin-1/2 Ising model on the simple-cubic and the body-centered-cubic lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Butera, P

    2000-01-01

    Using a renormalized linked-cluster-expansion method, we extend to order $\\beta^{23}$ the high-temperature series for the susceptibility $\\chi$ and the second-moment correlation length $\\xi$ of the spin-1/2 Ising models on the sc and the bcc lattices. A study of these expansions yields updated direct estimates of universal parameters, such as exponents and amplitude ratios, which characterize the critical behavior of $\\chi$ and $\\xi$. Our best estimates for the inverse critical temperatures are $\\beta^{sc}_c=0.221654(1)$ and $\\beta^{bcc}_c=0.1573725(6)$. For the susceptibility exponent we get $\\gamma=1.2375(6)$ and for the correlation length exponent $\

  13. A Hybrid Spline Metamodel for Photovoltaic/Wind/Battery Energy Systems

    OpenAIRE

    ZAIBI, Malek; LAYADI, Toufik Madani; Champenois, Gérard; ROBOAM, xavier; Sareni, Bruno; Belhadj, Jamel

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a metamodel design for a Photovoltaic/Wind/Battery Energy System. The modeling of a hybrid PV/wind generator coupled with two kinds of storage i.e. electric (battery) and hydraulic (tanks) devices is investigated. A metamodel is carried out by hybrid spline interpolation to solve the relationships between several design variables i.e. the design parameters of different subsystems and their associate response variables i.e. system indicators performance. The developed model...

  14. Mathematical models for growth in alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) embryos developing at different incubation temperatures.

    OpenAIRE

    Bardsley, W G; Ackerman, R A; Bukhari, N A; Deeming, D.C.; Ferguson, M. W.

    1995-01-01

    A variety of model-based (growth models) and model-free (cubic splines, exponentials) equations were fitted using weighted-nonlinear least squares regression to embryonic growth data from Alligator mississippiensis eggs incubated at 30 and 33 degrees C. Goodness of fit was estimated using a chi 2 on the sum of squared, weighted residuals, and run and sign tests on the residuals. One of the growth models used (Preece & Baines, 1978) was found to be superior to the classical growth models (expo...

  15. Analysis of a Gyroscope's Rotor Nonlinear Supported Magnetic Field Based on the B-Spline Wavelet-FEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian-feng; YUAN Gan-nan; HUANG Xu; YU Li

    2005-01-01

    A supported framework of a gyroscope′s rotor is designed and the B-Spline wavelet finite element model of nonlinear supported magnetic field is worked out. A new finite element space is studied in which the scaling function of the B-spline wavelet is considered as the shape function of a tetrahedron. The magnetic field is spited by an artificial absorbing body which used the condition of field radiating, so the solution is unique. The resolution is improved via the varying gradient of the B-spline function under the condition of unchanging gridding. So there are some advantages in dealing with the focus flux and a high varying gradient result from a nonlinear magnetic field. The result is more practical. Plots of flux and in the space is studied via simulating the supported system model. The results of the study are useful in the research of the supported magnetic system for the gyroscope rotor.

  16. Efficient computation of smoothing splines via adaptive basis sampling

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Ping

    2015-06-24

    © 2015 Biometrika Trust. Smoothing splines provide flexible nonparametric regression estimators. However, the high computational cost of smoothing splines for large datasets has hindered their wide application. In this article, we develop a new method, named adaptive basis sampling, for efficient computation of smoothing splines in super-large samples. Except for the univariate case where the Reinsch algorithm is applicable, a smoothing spline for a regression problem with sample size n can be expressed as a linear combination of n basis functions and its computational complexity is generally O(n3). We achieve a more scalable computation in the multivariate case by evaluating the smoothing spline using a smaller set of basis functions, obtained by an adaptive sampling scheme that uses values of the response variable. Our asymptotic analysis shows that smoothing splines computed via adaptive basis sampling converge to the true function at the same rate as full basis smoothing splines. Using simulation studies and a large-scale deep earth core-mantle boundary imaging study, we show that the proposed method outperforms a sampling method that does not use the values of response variables.

  17. Use of B-Spline in the Finite Element Analysis: Comparison with ANCF Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    formulations developed in this paper. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Geometric discontinuities; Finite element; Multibody systems; B-spline; NURBS 16. SECURITY...Keywords: Geometric discontinuities; Finite element; Multibody systems; B-spline; NURBS . UNCLAS: Dist A. Approved for public release 3 1...developed by computational geometry methods such as B- spline and NURBS (Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines) representations. This fact has motivated

  18. Numerical simulation of involutes spline shaft in cold rolling forming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志奎; 张庆

    2008-01-01

    Design of forming dies and whole process of simulation of cold rolling involutes spline can be realized by using of CAD software of PRO-E and CAE software of DEFORM-3D. Software DEFORM-3D provides an automatic and optimized remeshing function, especially for the large deformation. In order to use this function sufficiently, simulation of cold rolling involutes spline can be implemented indirectly. The relationship between die and workpiece, forming force and characteristic of deformation in the forming process of cold rolling involutes spline are analyzed and researched. Meanwhile, reliable proofs for the design of dies and deforming equipment are provided.

  19. A Simple and Fast Spline Filtering Algorithm for Surface Metrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Ott, Daniel; Song, John; Tong, Mingsi; Chu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Spline filters and their corresponding robust filters are commonly used filters recommended in ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) standards for surface evaluation. Generally, these linear and non-linear spline filters, composed of symmetric, positive-definite matrices, are solved in an iterative fashion based on a Cholesky decomposition. They have been demonstrated to be relatively efficient, but complicated and inconvenient to implement. A new spline-filter algorithm is proposed by means of the discrete cosine transform or the discrete Fourier transform. The algorithm is conceptually simple and very convenient to implement.

  20. River Flow Lane Detection and Kalman Filtering-Based B-Spline Lane Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King Hann Lim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel lane detection technique using adaptive line segment and river flow method is proposed in this paper to estimate driving lane edges. A Kalman filtering-based B-spline tracking model is also presented to quickly predict lane boundaries in consecutive frames. Firstly, sky region and road shadows are removed by applying a regional dividing method and road region analysis, respectively. Next, the change of lane orientation is monitored in order to define an adaptive line segment separating the region into near and far fields. In the near field, a 1D Hough transform is used to approximate a pair of lane boundaries. Subsequently, river flow method is applied to obtain lane curvature in the far field. Once the lane boundaries are detected, a B-spline mathematical model is updated using a Kalman filter to continuously track the road edges. Simulation results show that the proposed lane detection and tracking method has good performance with low complexity.

  1. Cubication of Conservative Nonlinear Oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belendez, Augusto; Alvarez, Mariela L.; Fernandez, Elena; Pascual, Immaculada

    2009-01-01

    A cubication procedure of the nonlinear differential equation for conservative nonlinear oscillators is analysed and discussed. This scheme is based on the Chebyshev series expansion of the restoring force, and this allows us to approximate the original nonlinear differential equation by a Duffing equation in which the coefficients for the linear…

  2. Cryptographic Analysis in Cubic Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Seidl, H.

    2004-01-01

    The spi-calculus is a variant of the polyadic pi-calculus that admits symmetric cryptography and that admits expressing communication protocols in a precise though still abstract way. This paper shows that context-independent control flow analysis can be calculated in cubic time despite the fact ...

  3. The diagonalization of cubic matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocolicchio, D.; Viggiano, M.

    2000-08-01

    This paper is devoted to analysing the problem of the diagonalization of cubic matrices. We extend the familiar algebraic approach which is based on the Cardano formulae. We rewrite the complex roots of the associated resolvent secular equation in terms of transcendental functions and we derive the diagonalizing matrix.

  4. THE STRUCTURAL CHARACTERIZATION AND LOCALLY SUPPORTED BASES FOR BIVARIATE SUPER SPLINES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-qiang Xu; Ren-hong Wang

    2004-01-01

    Super splines are bivariate splines defined on triangulations, where the smoothness enforced at the vertices is larger than the smoothness enforced across the edges. In this paper, the smoothness conditions and conformality conditions for super splines are presented.Three locally supported super splines on type-1 triangulation are presented. Moreover, the criteria to select local bases is also given. By using local supported super spline function, avariation-diminishing operator is built. The approximation properties of the operator are also presented.

  5. Spatially variant convolution with scaled B-splines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Barrutia, Arrate; Artaechevarria, Xabier; Ortiz-de-Solorzano, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    We present an efficient algorithm to compute multidimensional spatially variant convolutions--or inner products--between N-dimensional signals and B-splines--or their derivatives--of any order and arbitrary sizes. The multidimensional B-splines are computed as tensor products of 1-D B-splines, and the input signal is expressed in a B-spline basis. The convolution is then computed by using an adequate combination of integration and scaled finite differences as to have, for moderate and large scale values, a computational complexity that does not depend on the scaling factor. To show in practice the benefit of using our spatially variant convolution approach, we present an adaptive noise filter that adjusts the kernel size to the local image characteristics and a high sensitivity local ridge detector.

  6. G1 Continuity Conditions of B-spline Surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车翔玖; 梁学章

    2002-01-01

    According to the B-spline theory and Boehm algorithm,this paper presents several necessary and sufficient G1 continuity conditions betwwen two adjacent B-spline surfaces,In Order to meet the need of application,a kind of sufficient conditions of G1 continuity are developed,and a kind of sufficient conditions of G1 continuity among N(N>2) patch B-shline surfaces meeting at a common corner are given at the end.

  7. Many-knot spline technique for approximation of data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐东旭; 李华山

    1999-01-01

    A class of new fundamental functions with compact support called many-knot spline is introduced. The two-scale relation for the fundamental functions is investigated, and the higher order accuracy spline approximation scheme is constructed by using the available degrees of freedom which come from additional knots. The technique has been efficiently applied to the problems such as time-frequency analysis, computer aided geometric design, and digital signal processing.

  8. Spline Nonparametric Regression Analysis of Stress-Strain Curve of Confined Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavio Tavio

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to enormous uncertainties in confinement models associated with the maximum compressive strength and ductility of concrete confined by rectilinear ties, the implementation of spline nonparametric regression analysis is proposed herein as an alternative approach. The statistical evaluation is carried out based on 128 large-scale column specimens of either normal-or high-strength concrete tested under uniaxial compression. The main advantage of this kind of analysis is that it can be applied when the trend of relation between predictor and response variables are not obvious. The error in the analysis can, therefore, be minimized so that it does not depend on the assumption of a particular shape of the curve. This provides higher flexibility in the application. The results of the statistical analysis indicates that the stress-strain curves of confined concrete obtained from the spline nonparametric regression analysis proves to be in good agreement with the experimental curves available in literatures

  9. Oblique and Herringbone Buckling Analysis of Steel Strip by Spline FEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Jian; ZHANG Qing-dong; HUANG Ke-fu

    2011-01-01

    The tilted waves in steel strip during rolling and leveling of sheet metal can be classified into two different types of buckling, oblique and herringbone buckling, respectively. Numerical considerations of oblique and herringbone buckling phenomena are dealt with by the spline finite element method (FEM). It is pointed out that the shear stress due to residual strains caused by the rolling process or applied non-uniform loading is the main reason of oblique and herringbone buckle. According to the analysis of stress distribution in plane, the appropriate initial strain patterns are adopted and the corresponding buckling modes are calculated by the spline FEM. The developed numerical model provides an estimation of buckling critical load and wave configuration.

  10. Inverting travel times with a triplication. [spline fitting technique applied to lunar seismic data reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosch, H. S.

    1982-01-01

    A method based on the use of constrained spline fits is used to overcome the difficulties arising when body-wave data in the form of T-delta are reduced to the tau-p form in the presence of cusps. In comparison with unconstrained spline fits, the method proposed here tends to produce much smoother models which lie approximately in the middle of the bounds produced by the extremal method. The method is noniterative and, therefore, computationally efficient. The method is applied to the lunar seismic data, where at least one triplication is presumed to occur in the P-wave travel-time curve. It is shown, however, that because of an insufficient number of data points for events close to the antipode of the center of the lunar network, the present analysis is not accurate enough to resolve the problem of a possible lunar core.

  11. Motion characteristic between die and workpiece in spline rolling process with round dies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Wei Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the spline rolling process with round dies, additional kinematic compensation is an essential mechanism for improving the division of teeth and pitch accuracy as well as surface quality. The motion characteristic between the die and workpiece under varied center distance in the spline rolling process was investigated. Mathematical models of the instantaneous center of rotation, transmission ratio, and centrodes in the rolling process were established. The models were used to analyze the rolling process of the involute spline with circular dedendum, and the results indicated that (1 with the reduction in the center distance, the instantaneous center moves toward workpiece, and the transmission ratio increases at first and then decreases; (2 the variations in the instantaneous center and transmission ratio are discontinuous, presenting an interruption when the involute flank begins to be formed; (3 the change in transmission ratio at the forming stage of the workpiece with the involute flank can be negligible; and (4 the centrode of the workpiece is an Archimedes line whose polar radius reduces, and the centrode of the rolling die is similar to Archimedes line when the workpiece is with the involute flank.

  12. Cubication of conservative nonlinear oscillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belendez, Augusto; Alvarez, Mariela L [Departamento de Fisica, Ingenieria de Sistemas y Teoria de la Senal, Universidad de Alicante, Apartado 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain); Fernandez, Elena; Pascual, Inmaculada [Departamento de Optica, FarmacologIa y Anatomia, Universidad de Alicante, Apartado 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain)], E-mail: a.belendez@ua.es

    2009-09-15

    A cubication procedure of the nonlinear differential equation for conservative nonlinear oscillators is analysed and discussed. This scheme is based on the Chebyshev series expansion of the restoring force, and this allows us to approximate the original nonlinear differential equation by a Duffing equation in which the coefficients for the linear and cubic terms depend on the initial amplitude, A, while in a Taylor expansion of the restoring force these coefficients are independent of A. The replacement of the original nonlinear equation by an approximate Duffing equation allows us to obtain an approximate frequency-amplitude relation as a function of the complete elliptic integral of the first kind. Some conservative nonlinear oscillators are analysed to illustrate the usefulness and effectiveness of this scheme.

  13. Cubic Matrix, Nambu Mechanics and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Kawamura, Y

    2002-01-01

    We propose a generalization of cubic matrix mechanics by introducing a canonical triplet and study its relation to Nambu mechanics. The generalized cubic matrix mechanics we consider can be interpreted as a “quantum” generalization of Nambu mechanics.

  14. [Calculation of radioimmunochemical determinations by "spline approximation" (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, H; Mühlen, A; Hesch, R D; Pape, J; Warnecke, U; Jüppner, H

    1976-06-01

    A simplified method, based on the "spline approximation", is reported for the calculation of the standard curves of radioimmunochemical determinations. It is possible to manipulate the mathematical function with a pocket calculator, thus making it available for a large number of users. It was shown that, in contrast to the usual procedures, it is possible to achieve optimal quality control in the preparation of the standard curves and in the interpolation of unknown plasma samples. The recaluculation of interpolated values from their own standard curve revealed an error of 4.9% which would normally be an error of interpolation. The new method was compared with two established methods for 8 different radioimmunochemical determinations. The measured values of the standard curve showed a weighting, and there was a resulting quality control of these values, which, according to their statistical evalution, were more accurate than those of the others models (Ekins et al., Yalow et al., (1968), in: Radioisotopes in Medicine: in vitro studies (Hayes, R. L., Goswitz, F.A. & Murphy, B. E. P., eds) USA EC, Oak Ridge) and Rodbard et al. (1971), in: Competitive protein Binding Assys(Odell, W. D. & Danghedy, W. H., eds.) Lipincott, Philadelphia and Toronto). In contrast with these other models, the described method makes no mathematical or kinetic preconditions with respect to the dose-response relationship. To achieve optimal reaction conditions, experimentally determined reaction data are preferable to model theories.

  15. Numbers for reducible cubic scrolls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Vainsencher

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available We show how to compute the number of reducible cubic scrolls of codimension 2 in (math blackboard symbol Pn incident to the appropriate number of linear spaces.Mostramos como calcular o número de rolos cúbicos redutíveis de codimensão 2 em (math blackboard symbol Pn incidentes a espaços lineares apropriados.

  16. Spline trigonometric bases and their properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strelkov, N. A.

    2001-08-01

    A family of pairs of biorthonormal systems is constructed such that for each p\\in(1,\\infty) one of these systems is a basis in the space L_p(a,b), while the other is the dual basis in L_q(a,b) (here 1/p+1/q=1). The functions in the first system are products of trigonometric and algebraic polynomials; the functions in the second are products of trigonometric polynomials and the derivatives of B-splines. The asymptotic behaviour of the Lebesgue functions of the constructed systems is investigated. In particular, it is shown that the dominant terms of pointwise asymptotic expansions for the Lebesgue functions have everywhere (except at certain singular points) the form 4/\\pi^2\\ln n (that is, the same as in the case of an orthonormal trigonometric system). Interpolation representations with multiple nodes for entire functions of exponential type \\sigma are obtained. These formulae involve a uniform grid; however, by contrast with Kotel'nikov's theorem, where the mesh of the grid is \\pi/\\sigma and decreases as the type of the entire function increases, in the representations obtained the nodes of interpolation can be kept independent of \\sigma, and their multiplicity increases as the type of the interpolated function increases. One possible application of such representations (particularly, their multidimensional analogues) is an effective construction of asymptotically optimal approximation methods by means of scaling and argument shifts of a fixed function (wavelets, grid projection methods, and so on).

  17. Fractal Symmetries: Ungauging the Cubic Code

    CERN Document Server

    Williamson, Dominic J

    2016-01-01

    Gauging is a ubiquitous tool in many-body physics. It allows one to construct highly entangled topological phases of matter from relatively simple phases and to relate certain characteristics of the two. Here we develop a gauging procedure for general submanifold symmetries of Pauli Hamiltonians, including symmetries of fractal type. We show a relation between the pre- and post- gauging models and use this to construct short range entangled phases with fractal like symmetries, one of which is mapped to the cubic code by the gauging.

  18. A Novel Digital Predistortion Algorithm Based on Quadratic Spline%基于二次样条函数的功放数字预失真算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘学

    2015-01-01

    功放的非线性特性极易产生频谱扩展,这种扩展会对临近信道产生干扰.现在基于样条的预失真算法几乎都使用的三次样条,也就是样条的多项式函数阶数最多只有三次.文章提出了一种新的基于二次样条的功放数字预失真算法.二次样条函数的平滑特性可以很好地逼近功放的非线性模型,有效克服功放非线性效应对频谱产生的影响.仿真和实现的结果表明,这种新的算法性能既优于传统的基于最小均方的数字预失真算法,也优于现在一般的三次样条预失真算法.%The nonlinear effect of power amplifier creates spectral growth (broadening) beyond the signal bandwidth, which interferes with adjacent channels. Most of current spline based predistortion algorithms use cubic spline. A predistortion al-gorithm based on quadratic spline is presented, which can well approximate the nonlinear character of power amplifier and effectively remove the nonlinear effect. The simulation result verifies that the performance of the method introduced in this paper is not only better than that of the traditional algorithm based on Least Mean Square but also better than that based on the cubic spline.

  19. Correcting bias in the rational polynomial coefficients of satellite imagery using thin-plate smoothing splines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiang; Liu, Bin; Li, Qing-Quan

    2017-03-01

    The Rational Function Model (RFM) has proven to be a viable alternative to the rigorous sensor models used for geo-processing of high-resolution satellite imagery. Because of various errors in the satellite ephemeris and instrument calibration, the Rational Polynomial Coefficients (RPCs) supplied by image vendors are often not sufficiently accurate, and there is therefore a clear need to correct the systematic biases in order to meet the requirements of high-precision topographic mapping. In this paper, we propose a new RPC bias-correction method using the thin-plate spline modeling technique. Benefiting from its excellent performance and high flexibility in data fitting, the thin-plate spline model has the potential to remove complex distortions in vendor-provided RPCs, such as the errors caused by short-period orbital perturbations. The performance of the new method was evaluated by using Ziyuan-3 satellite images and was compared against the recently developed least-squares collocation approach, as well as the classical affine-transformation and quadratic-polynomial based methods. The results show that the accuracies of the thin-plate spline and the least-squares collocation approaches were better than the other two methods, which indicates that strong non-rigid deformations exist in the test data because they cannot be adequately modeled by simple polynomial-based methods. The performance of the thin-plate spline method was close to that of the least-squares collocation approach when only a few Ground Control Points (GCPs) were used, and it improved more rapidly with an increase in the number of redundant observations. In the test scenario using 21 GCPs (some of them located at the four corners of the scene), the correction residuals of the thin-plate spline method were about 36%, 37%, and 19% smaller than those of the affine transformation method, the quadratic polynomial method, and the least-squares collocation algorithm, respectively, which demonstrates

  20. Cubic colloids : Synthesis, functionalization and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castillo, S.I.R.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is a study on cubic colloids: micron-sized cubic particles with rounded corners (cubic superballs). Owing to their shape, particle packing for cubes is more efficient than for spheres and results in fascinating phase and packing behavior. For our cubes, the particle volume fraction when

  1. Cubic colloids : Synthesis, functionalization and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castillo, S.I.R.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is a study on cubic colloids: micron-sized cubic particles with rounded corners (cubic superballs). Owing to their shape, particle packing for cubes is more efficient than for spheres and results in fascinating phase and packing behavior. For our cubes, the particle volume fraction when

  2. Solving Cubic Equations by Polynomial Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Raghavendra G.

    2011-01-01

    Several mathematicians struggled to solve cubic equations, and in 1515 Scipione del Ferro reportedly solved the cubic while participating in a local mathematical contest, but did not bother to publish his method. Then it was Cardano (1539) who first published the solution to the general cubic equation in his book "The Great Art, or, The Rules of…

  3. Micropolar Fluids Using B-spline Divergence Conforming Spaces

    KAUST Repository

    Sarmiento, Adel

    2014-06-06

    We discretized the two-dimensional linear momentum, microrotation, energy and mass conservation equations from micropolar fluids theory, with the finite element method, creating divergence conforming spaces based on B-spline basis functions to obtain pointwise divergence free solutions [8]. Weak boundary conditions were imposed using Nitsche\\'s method for tangential conditions, while normal conditions were imposed strongly. Once the exact mass conservation was provided by the divergence free formulation, we focused on evaluating the differences between micropolar fluids and conventional fluids, to show the advantages of using the micropolar fluid model to capture the features of complex fluids. A square and an arc heat driven cavities were solved as test cases. A variation of the parameters of the model, along with the variation of Rayleigh number were performed for a better understanding of the system. The divergence free formulation was used to guarantee an accurate solution of the flow. This formulation was implemented using the framework PetIGA as a basis, using its parallel stuctures to achieve high scalability. The results of the square heat driven cavity test case are in good agreement with those reported earlier.

  4. Volume-translated cubic EoS and PC-SAFT density models and a free volume-based viscosity model for hydrocarbons at extreme temperature and pressure conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, Ward A.; Tapriyal, Deepak; Morreale, Bryan D.; Soong, Yee; Baled, Hseen O.; Enick, Robert M.; Wu, Yue; Bamgbade, Babatunde A.; McHugh, Mark A.

    2013-12-01

    This research focuses on providing the petroleum reservoir engineering community with robust models of hydrocarbon density and viscosity at the extreme temperature and pressure conditions (up to 533 K and 276 MPa, respectively) characteristic of ultra-deep reservoirs, such as those associated with the deepwater wells in the Gulf of Mexico. Our strategy is to base the volume-translated (VT) Peng–Robinson (PR) and Soave–Redlich–Kwong (SRK) cubic equations of state (EoSs) and perturbed-chain, statistical associating fluid theory (PC-SAFT) on an extensive data base of high temperature (278–533 K), high pressure (6.9–276 MPa) density rather than fitting the models to low pressure saturated liquid density data. This high-temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) data base consists of literature data for hydrocarbons ranging from methane to C{sub 40}. The three new models developed in this work, HTHP VT-PR EoS, HTHP VT-SRK EoS, and hybrid PC-SAFT, yield mean absolute percent deviation values (MAPD) for HTHP hydrocarbon density of ~2.0%, ~1.5%, and <1.0%, respectively. An effort was also made to provide accurate hydrocarbon viscosity models based on literature data. Viscosity values are estimated with the frictional theory (f-theory) and free volume (FV) theory of viscosity. The best results were obtained when the PC-SAFT equation was used to obtain both the attractive and repulsive pressure inputs to f-theory, and the density input to FV theory. Both viscosity models provide accurate results at pressures to 100 MPa but experimental and model results can deviate by more than 25% at pressures above 200 MPa.

  5. Distributed Cerebral Blood Flow estimation using a spatiotemporal hemodynamic response model and a Kalman-like Filter approach

    KAUST Repository

    Belkhatir, Zehor

    2015-11-23

    This paper discusses the estimation of distributed Cerebral Blood Flow (CBF) using spatiotemporal traveling wave model. We consider a damped wave partial differential equation that describes a physiological relationship between the blood mass density and the CBF. The spatiotemporal model is reduced to a finite dimensional system using a cubic b-spline continuous Galerkin method. A Kalman Filter with Unknown Inputs without Direct Feedthrough (KF-UI-WDF) is applied on the obtained reduced differential model to estimate the source term which is the CBF scaled by a factor. Numerical results showing the performances of the adopted estimator are provided.

  6. Cubic metaplectic forms and theta functions

    CERN Document Server

    Proskurin, Nikolai

    1998-01-01

    The book is an introduction to the theory of cubic metaplectic forms on the 3-dimensional hyperbolic space and the author's research on cubic metaplectic forms on special linear and symplectic groups of rank 2. The topics include: Kubota and Bass-Milnor-Serre homomorphisms, cubic metaplectic Eisenstein series, cubic theta functions, Whittaker functions. A special method is developed and applied to find Fourier coefficients of the Eisenstein series and cubic theta functions. The book is intended for readers, with beginning graduate-level background, interested in further research in the theory of metaplectic forms and in possible applications.

  7. Defining window-boundaries for genomic analyses using smoothing spline techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beissinger, Timothy M; Rosa, Guilherme J M; Kaeppler, Shawn M; Gianola, Daniel; de Leon, Natalia

    2015-04-17

    High-density genomic data is often analyzed by combining information over windows of adjacent markers. Interpretation of data grouped in windows versus at individual locations may increase statistical power, simplify computation, reduce sampling noise, and reduce the total number of tests performed. However, use of adjacent marker information can result in over- or under-smoothing, undesirable window boundary specifications, or highly correlated test statistics. We introduce a method for defining windows based on statistically guided breakpoints in the data, as a foundation for the analysis of multiple adjacent data points. This method involves first fitting a cubic smoothing spline to the data and then identifying the inflection points of the fitted spline, which serve as the boundaries of adjacent windows. This technique does not require prior knowledge of linkage disequilibrium, and therefore can be applied to data collected from individual or pooled sequencing experiments. Moreover, in contrast to existing methods, an arbitrary choice of window size is not necessary, since these are determined empirically and allowed to vary along the genome. Simulations applying this method were performed to identify selection signatures from pooled sequencing FST data, for which allele frequencies were estimated from a pool of individuals. The relative ratio of true to false positives was twice that generated by existing techniques. A comparison of the approach to a previous study that involved pooled sequencing FST data from maize suggested that outlying windows were more clearly separated from their neighbors than when using a standard sliding window approach. We have developed a novel technique to identify window boundaries for subsequent analysis protocols. When applied to selection studies based on F ST data, this method provides a high discovery rate and minimizes false positives. The method is implemented in the R package GenWin, which is publicly available from CRAN.

  8. An Areal Isotropic Spline Filter for Surface Metrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Tong, Mingsi; Chu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with the application of the spline filter as an areal filter for surface metrology. A profile (2D) filter is often applied in orthogonal directions to yield an areal filter for a three-dimensional (3D) measurement. Unlike the Gaussian filter, the spline filter presents an anisotropic characteristic when used as an areal filter. This disadvantage hampers the wide application of spline filters for evaluation and analysis of areal surface topography. An approximation method is proposed in this paper to overcome the problem. In this method, a profile high-order spline filter serial is constructed to approximate the filtering characteristic of the Gaussian filter. Then an areal filter with isotropic characteristic is composed by implementing the profile spline filter in the orthogonal directions. It is demonstrated that the constructed areal filter has two important features for surface metrology: an isotropic amplitude characteristic and no end effects. Some examples of applying this method on simulated and practical surfaces are analyzed.

  9. Growth curve analysis for plasma profiles using smoothing splines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imre, K.

    1993-05-01

    We are developing a profile analysis code for the statistical estimation of the parametric dependencies of the temperature and density profiles in tokamaks. Our code uses advanced statistical techniques to determine the optimal fit, i.e. the fit which minimized the predictive error. For a forty TFTR Ohmic profile dataset, our preliminary results indicate that the profile shape depends almost exclusively on q[sub a][prime] but that the shape dependencies are not Gaussian. We are now comparing various shape models on the TFTR data. In the first six months, we have completed the core modules of the code, including a B-spline package for variable knot locations, a data-based method to determine the optimal smoothing parameters, self-consistent estimation of the bias errors, and adaptive fitting near the plasma edge. Visualization graphics already include three dimensional surface plots, and discharge by discharge plots of the predicted curves with error bars together with the actual measurements values, and plots of the basis functions with errors.

  10. Time-dependent modeling of oscillatory instability of three-dimensional natural convection of air in a laterally heated cubic box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfgat, Alexander Yu.

    2017-08-01

    Transition from steady to oscillatory buoyancy convection of air in a laterally heated cubic box is studied numerically by straight-forward time integration of Boussinesq equations using a series of gradually refined finite volume grids. Horizontal and spanwise cube boundaries are assumed to be either perfectly thermally conducting or perfectly thermally insulated, which results in four different sets of thermal boundary conditions. Critical Grashof numbers are obtained by interpolation of numerically extracted growth/decay rates of oscillation amplitude to zero. Slightly supercritical flow regimes are described by time-averaged flows, snapshots, and spatial distribution of the oscillation amplitude. Possible similarities and dissimilarities with two-dimensional instabilities in laterally heated square cavities are discussed. Break of symmetries and sub- or supercritical character of bifurcations are examined. Three consequent transitions from steady to the oscillatory regime, from the oscillatory to the steady regime, and finally to the oscillatory flow, are found in the case of perfectly insulated horizontal and spanwise boundaries. Arguments for grid and time-step independence of the results are given.

  11. RECONSTRUCTION OF SYMMETRIC B-SPLINE CURVES AND SURFACES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Weidong; KE Yinglin

    2007-01-01

    A method to reconstruct Symmetric B-spline curves and surfaces is presented. The symmetry property is realized by using Symmetric knot vector and Symmetric control points. Firstly, data points are divided into two parts based on the symmetry axis or symmetry plane extracted from data points. Then the divided data points are parameterized and a Symmetric knot vector is selected in order to get Symmetric B-spline basis functions. Constraint equations regarding the control points are deduced to keep the control points of the B-spline curve or surface to be Symmetric with respect to the extracted symmetry axis or symmetry plane. Lastly, the constrained least squares fitting problem is solved with the Lagrange multiplier method. Two examples from industry are given to show that the proposed method is efficient, robust and able to meet the general engineering requirements.

  12. Fast space-variant elliptical filtering using box splines

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhury, Kunal Narayan; Unser, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The efficient realization of linear space-variant (non-convolution) filters is a challenging computational problem in image processing. In this paper, we demonstrate that it is possible to filter an image with a Gaussian-like elliptic window of varying size, elongation and orientation using a fixed number of computations per pixel. The associated algorithm, which is based on a family of smooth compactly supported piecewise polynomials, the radially-uniform box splines, is realized using pre-integration and local finite-differences. The radially-uniform box splines are constructed through the repeated convolution of a fixed number of box distributions, which have been suitably scaled and distributed radially in an uniform fashion. The attractive features of these box splines are their asymptotic behavior, their simple covariance structure, and their quasi-separability. They converge to Gaussians with the increase of their order, and are used to approximate anisotropic Gaussians of varying covariance simply by ...

  13. Fingerprint Representation Methods Based on B-Spline Functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruan Ke; Xia De-lin; Yan Pu-liu

    2004-01-01

    The global characteristics of a fingerprint image such as the ridge shape and ridge topology are often ignored in most automatic fingerprint verification system. In this paper, a new representative method based on B-Spline curve is proposed to address this problem. The resultant B-Spline curves can represent the global characteristics completely and the curves are analyzable and precise. An algorithm is also proposed to extract the curves from the fingerprint image. In addition to preserve the most information of the fingerprint image, the knot-points number of the B-Spline curve is reduced to minimum in this algorithm. At the same time, the influence of the fingerprint image noise is discussed. In the end, an example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the representation method.

  14. Transparent polycrystalline cubic silicon nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Norimasa; Ishikawa, Ryo; Ohfuji, Hiroaki; Marquardt, Hauke; Kurnosov, Alexander; Taniguchi, Takashi; Kim, Byung-Nam; Yoshida, Hidehiro; Masuno, Atsunobu; Bednarcik, Jozef; Kulik, Eleonora; Ikuhara, Yuichi; Wakai, Fumihiro; Irifune, Tetsuo

    2017-01-01

    Glasses and single crystals have traditionally been used as optical windows. Recently, there has been a high demand for harder and tougher optical windows that are able to endure severe conditions. Transparent polycrystalline ceramics can fulfill this demand because of their superior mechanical properties. It is known that polycrystalline ceramics with a spinel structure in compositions of MgAl2O4 and aluminum oxynitride (γ-AlON) show high optical transparency. Here we report the synthesis of the hardest transparent spinel ceramic, i.e. polycrystalline cubic silicon nitride (c-Si3N4). This material shows an intrinsic optical transparency over a wide range of wavelengths below its band-gap energy (258 nm) and is categorized as one of the third hardest materials next to diamond and cubic boron nitride (cBN). Since the high temperature metastability of c-Si3N4 in air is superior to those of diamond and cBN, the transparent c-Si3N4 ceramic can potentially be used as a window under extremely severe conditions. PMID:28303948

  15. Rheological properties of Cubic colloidal suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boromand, Arman; Maia, Joao

    2016-11-01

    Colloidal and non-colloidal suspensions are ubiquitous in many industrial application. There are numerous studies on these systems to understand and relate their complex rheological properties to their microstructural evolution under deformation. Although most of the experimental and simulation studies are centered on spherical particles, in most of the industrial applications the geometry of the colloidal particles deviate from the simple hard sphere and more complex geometries exist. Recent advances in microfabrication paved the way to fabricate colloidal particles with complex geometries for applications in different areas such as drug delivery where the fundamental understanding of their dynamics has remained unexplored. In this study, using dissipative particle dynamics, we investigate the rheological properties of cubic (superball) particles which are modeled as the cluster of core-modified DPD particles. Explicit representation of solvent particles in the DPD scheme will conserve the full hydrodynamic interactions between colloidal particles. Rheological properties of these cubic suspensions are investigated in the dilute and semi-dilute regimes. The Einstein and Huggins coefficients for these particles with different superball exponent will be calculate which represent the effect of single particle's geometry and multibody interactions on viscosity, respectively. The response of these suspensions is investigated under simple shear and oscillatory shear where it is shown that under oscillation these particles tend to form crystalline structure giving rise to stronger shear-thinning behavior recently measured experimentally.

  16. AnL1 smoothing spline algorithm with cross validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosworth, Ken W.; Lall, Upmanu

    1993-08-01

    We propose an algorithm for the computation ofL1 (LAD) smoothing splines in the spacesWM(D), with . We assume one is given data of the formyiD(f(ti) +ɛi, iD1,...,N with {itti}iD1N ⊂D, theɛi are errors withE(ɛi)D0, andf is assumed to be inWM. The LAD smoothing spline, for fixed smoothing parameterλ?;0, is defined as the solution,sλ, of the optimization problem (1/N)∑iD1N yi-g(ti +λJM(g), whereJM(g) is the seminorm consisting of the sum of the squaredL2 norms of theMth partial derivatives ofg. Such an LAD smoothing spline,sλ, would be expected to give robust smoothed estimates off in situations where theɛi are from a distribution with heavy tails. The solution to such a problem is a "thin plate spline" of known form. An algorithm for computingsλ is given which is based on considering a sequence of quadratic programming problems whose structure is guided by the optimality conditions for the above convex minimization problem, and which are solved readily, if a good initial point is available. The "data driven" selection of the smoothing parameter is achieved by minimizing aCV(λ) score of the form .The combined LAD-CV smoothing spline algorithm is a continuation scheme in λ↘0 taken on the above SQPs parametrized inλ, with the optimal smoothing parameter taken to be that value ofλ at which theCV(λ) score first begins to increase. The feasibility of constructing the LAD-CV smoothing spline is illustrated by an application to a problem in environment data interpretation.

  17. The Hill Chart Calculation for Pelton Runner Models using the HydroHillChart - Pelton Module Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelina Bostan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Pelton turbines industrial design is based on the hill chart characteristics obtained by measuring the models. Primary data measurements used to obtain the hill chart can be processed graphically, by hand or by using graphic programs respectively CAD programs; the HydroHillChart - Pelton module software is a specialized tool in achieving the hill chart, using interpolation cubic spline functions. Thereby, based on measurements of several models of Pelton turbines, a computerized library, used to design industrial Pelton turbines can be created. The paper presents the universal characteristics calculated by using the HydroHillChart - Pelton module software for a series of Pelton runners.

  18. Well-posedness and stability for abstract spline problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglierina, E.; Molho, E.

    2007-09-01

    In this work well-posedness and stability properties of the abstract spline problem are studied in the framework of reflexive spaces. Tykhonov well-posedness is proved without restrictive assumptions. In the context of Hilbert spaces, also the stronger notion of Levitin-Polyak well-posedness is established. A sequence of parametric problems converging to the given abstract spline problem is considered in order to study stability. Under natural assumptions, convergence results for sequences of solutions of the perturbed problems are obtained.

  19. System identification of Wiener systems with B-spline functions using De Boor recursion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, X.; Mitchell, R. J.; Chen, S.

    2013-09-01

    In this article a simple and effective algorithm is introduced for the system identification of the Wiener system using observational input/output data. The nonlinear static function in the Wiener system is modelled using a B-spline neural network. The Gauss-Newton algorithm is combined with De Boor algorithm (both curve and the first order derivatives) for the parameter estimation of the Wiener model, together with the use of a parameter initialisation scheme. Numerical examples are utilised to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed approach.

  20. Tame Kernels of Pure Cubic Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Yun CHENG

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,we study the p-rank of the tame kernels of pure cubic fields.In particular,we prove that for a fixed positive integer m,there exist infinitely many pure cubic fields whose 3-rank of the tame kernel equal to m.As an application,we determine the 3-rank of their tame kernels for some special pure cubic fields.

  1. Higher-spin Interactions from CFT: The Complete Cubic Couplings

    CERN Document Server

    Sleight, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    In this letter we provide a complete holographic reconstruction of the cubic couplings in the minimal bosonic higher-spin theory in AdS$_{d+1}$. For this purpose we also determine the OPE coefficients of all single-trace conserved currents in the $d$-dimensional free scalar $O\\left(N\\right)$ vector model, and compute the tree-level three-point Witten diagram amplitudes for a generic cubic interaction of higher-spin gauge fields in the metric-like formulation.

  2. Counting perfect matchings of cubic graphs in the geometric dual

    CERN Document Server

    Jiménez, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Lov\\'asz and Plummer conjectured, in the mid 1970's, that every cubic graph G with no cutedge has an exponential in |V(G)| number of perfect matchings. In this work we show that every cubic planar graph G whose geometric dual graph is a stack triangulation has at least 3 times the golden ratio to |V(G)|/72 distinct perfect matchings. Our work builds on a novel approach relating Lov\\'asz and Plummer's conjecture and the number of so called groundstates of the widely studied Ising model from statistical physics.

  3. Inferring the time-invariant topology of a nonlinear sparse gene regulatory network using fully Bayesian spline autoregression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Edward R; Juárez, Miguel A; Denby, Katherine J; Burroughs, Nigel J

    2011-10-01

    We propose a semiparametric Bayesian model, based on penalized splines, for the recovery of the time-invariant topology of a causal interaction network from longitudinal data. Our motivation is inference of gene regulatory networks from low-resolution microarray time series, where existence of nonlinear interactions is well known. Parenthood relations are mapped by augmenting the model with kinship indicators and providing these with either an overall or gene-wise hierarchical structure. Appropriate specification of the prior is crucial to control the flexibility of the splines, especially under circumstances of scarce data; thus, we provide an informative, proper prior. Substantive improvement in network inference over a linear model is demonstrated using synthetic data drawn from ordinary differential equation models and gene expression from an experimental data set of the Arabidopsis thaliana circadian rhythm.

  4. Inverse-Problem-Based Accuracy Control for Arbitrary-Resolution Fairing of Quasiuniform Cubic B-Spline Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaogang Ji

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the process of curves and surfaces fairing with multiresolution analysis, fairing accuracy will be determined by final fairing scale. On the basis of Dyadic wavelet fairing algorithm (DWFA, arbitrary resolution wavelet fairing algorithm (ARWFA, and corresponding software, accuracy control of multiresolution fairing was studied for the uncertainty of fairing scale. Firstly, using the idea of inverse problem for reference, linear hypothesis was adopted to predict the corresponding wavelet scale for any given fairing error. Although linear hypothesis has error, it can be eliminated by multiple iterations. So faired curves can be determined by a minimum number of control vertexes and have the best faring effect under the requirement of accuracy. Secondly, in consideration of efficiency loss caused by iterative algorithm, inverse calculation of fairing scale was presented based on the least squares fitting. With the increase of order of curves, inverse calculation accuracy becomes higher and higher. Verification results show that inverse calculation scale can meet the accuracy requirement when fitting curve is sextic. In the whole fairing process, because there is no approximation algorithm such as interpolation and approximation, faired curves can be reconstructed again exactly. This algorithm meets the idea and essence of wavelet analysis well.

  5. An Algorithm for Constructing Shape Preserving Cubic Spline Interpolation%保形三次B样条插值算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方逵

    2003-01-01

    给定空间有序点列{Vi}ni=0,构造了一条三次B样条插值曲线,该曲线上的所有3n+1 个deBoor点由点列{Vi}ni=0直接计算产生.对于平面有序点列{Vi}ni=0,导出了该三次B样条插值曲线保形的一种算法,该算法中所有的deBoor点由点列{Vi}ni=0直接计算产生,避免了求解矢量方程.

  6. The Convergence of Cubic Spline Interpolation%三次样条插值的收敛性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱立勋; 魏萍

    2006-01-01

    本文在一些特殊条件下对三次样条插值的收敛性进行了讨论.给出了一个结论:设f(x)∈C[a,b],且f(x0)=f(xn),SΔn(x)是关于Δn的三次周期样条插值函数,对任何满足Δn0的分划序列Δn,limn∞‖SΔn(x)-f(x)‖=0成立的充分必要条件是f(x)∈LiP1,且当f(x)∈Lipk1时,有‖SΔn(x)-f(x)‖≤(5)/(4)kn.

  7. Kriging and thin plate splines for mapping climate variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, E.P.J.; Beurs, de K.M.; Hartkamp, A.D.

    2001-01-01

    Four forms of kriging and three forms of thin plate splines are discussed in this paper to predict monthly maximum temperature and monthly mean precipitation in Jalisco State of Mexico. Results show that techniques using elevation as additional information improve the prediction results considerably

  8. Multivariate Epi-splines and Evolving Function Identification Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-15

    and their limits: The Polya distribution functions. Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society, 53:1114, 1947. [9] H.B. Curry and I.J. Schoenberg...On Polya frequency functions IV: The fundamental spline func- tions and their limits. Journal d’Analyse Mathématique, 17:71–107, 1966. [10] W. Dahmen

  9. The Shape Parameter in the Shifted Surface Spline

    CERN Document Server

    Luh, Lin-Tian

    2010-01-01

    There is a constant c contained in the famous radial basis function shifted surface spline. It's called shape parameter. RBF people only know that this constant is very influential, while its optimal choice is unknown. This paper presents criteria of its optimal choice.

  10. Cubic meter volume optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    WANG, ZHAO; POTSAID, BENJAMIN; CHEN, LONG; DOERR, CHRIS; LEE, HSIANG-CHIEH; NIELSON, TORBEN; JAYARAMAN, VIJAYSEKHAR; CABLE, ALEX E.; SWANSON, ERIC; FUJIMOTO, JAMES G.

    2017-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a powerful three-dimensional (3D) imaging modality with micrometer-scale axial resolution and up to multi-GigaVoxel/s imaging speed. However, the imaging range of high-speed OCT has been limited. Here, we report 3D OCT over cubic meter volumes using a long coherence length, 1310 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser and silicon photonic integrated circuit dual-quadrature receiver technology combined with enhanced signal processing. We achieved 15 µm depth resolution for tomographic imaging at a 100 kHz axial scan rate over a 1.5 m range. We show 3D macroscopic imaging examples of a human mannequin, bicycle, machine shop gauge blocks, and a human skull/brain model. High-bandwidth, meter-range OCT demonstrates new capabilities that promise to enable a wide range of biomedical, scientific, industrial, and research applications. PMID:28239628

  11. Triangulation of cubic panorama for view synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunxiao; Zhao, Yan; Wu, Falin

    2011-08-01

    An unstructured triangulation approach, new to our knowledge, is proposed to apply triangular meshes for representing and rendering a scene on a cubic panorama (CP). It sophisticatedly converts a complicated three-dimensional triangulation into a simple three-step triangulation. First, a two-dimensional Delaunay triangulation is individually carried out on each face. Second, an improved polygonal triangulation is implemented in the intermediate regions of each of two faces. Third, a cobweblike triangulation is designed for the remaining intermediate regions after unfolding four faces to the top/bottom face. Since the last two steps well solve the boundary problem arising from cube edges, the triangulation with irregular-distribution feature points is implemented in a CP as a whole. The triangular meshes can be warped from multiple reference CPs onto an arbitrary viewpoint by face-to-face homography transformations. The experiments indicate that the proposed triangulation approach provides a good modeling for the scene with photorealistic rendered CPs.

  12. Fast simulation of x-ray projections of spline-based surfaces using an append buffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Andreas; Hofmann, Hannes G; Schwemmer, Chris; Hornegger, Joachim; Keil, Andreas; Fahrig, Rebecca

    2012-10-07

    Many scientists in the field of x-ray imaging rely on the simulation of x-ray images. As the phantom models become more and more realistic, their projection requires high computational effort. Since x-ray images are based on transmission, many standard graphics acceleration algorithms cannot be applied to this task. However, if adapted properly, the simulation speed can be increased dramatically using state-of-the-art graphics hardware. A custom graphics pipeline that simulates transmission projections for tomographic reconstruction was implemented based on moving spline surface models. All steps from tessellation of the splines, projection onto the detector and drawing are implemented in OpenCL. We introduced a special append buffer for increased performance in order to store the intersections with the scene for every ray. Intersections are then sorted and resolved to materials. Lastly, an absorption model is evaluated to yield an absorption value for each projection pixel. Projection of a moving spline structure is fast and accurate. Projections of size 640 × 480 can be generated within 254 ms. Reconstructions using the projections show errors below 1 HU with a sharp reconstruction kernel. Traditional GPU-based acceleration schemes are not suitable for our reconstruction task. Even in the absence of noise, they result in errors up to 9 HU on average, although projection images appear to be correct under visual examination. Projections generated with our new method are suitable for the validation of novel CT reconstruction algorithms. For complex simulations, such as the evaluation of motion-compensated reconstruction algorithms, this kind of x-ray simulation will reduce the computation time dramatically.

  13. Polynomial estimation of the smoothing splines for the new Finnish reference values for spirometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kainu, Annette; Timonen, Kirsi

    2016-07-01

    Background Discontinuity of spirometry reference values from childhood into adulthood has been a problem with traditional reference values, thus modern modelling approaches using smoothing spline functions to better depict the transition during growth and ageing have been recently introduced. Following the publication of the new international Global Lung Initiative (GLI2012) reference values also new national Finnish reference values have been calculated using similar GAMLSS-modelling, with spline estimates for mean (Mspline) and standard deviation (Sspline) provided in tables. The aim of this study was to produce polynomial estimates for these spline functions to use in lieu of lookup tables and to assess their validity in the reference population of healthy non-smokers. Methods Linear regression modelling was used to approximate the estimated values for Mspline and Sspline using similar polynomial functions as in the international GLI2012 reference values. Estimated values were compared to original calculations in absolute values, the derived predicted mean and individually calculated z-scores using both values. Results Polynomial functions were estimated for all 10 spirometry variables. The agreement between original lookup table-produced values and polynomial estimates was very good, with no significant differences found. The variation slightly increased in larger predicted volumes, but a range of -0.018 to +0.022 litres of FEV1 representing ± 0.4% of maximum difference in predicted mean. Conclusions Polynomial approximations were very close to the original lookup tables and are recommended for use in clinical practice to facilitate the use of new reference values.

  14. An effective packing density of binary cubic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eremin, I. E.; Eremina, V. V.; Sychev, M. S.; Moiseenko, V. G.

    2015-04-01

    The methodology of effective macroscopic calculation of numerical values of internuclear distances in binary crystals of a cubic crystal system is based on the use of coefficients of the structural packing density of the crystal lattice. The possibility of combining the reference data on the main physicochemical parameters of the substance is implemented by synthesis of the corresponding mathematical models.

  15. Trace spaces in a pre-cubical complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raussen, Martin

    In directed algebraic topology, (spaces of) directed irreversible (d)-paths are studied from a topological and from a categorical point of view. Motivated by models for concurrent computation, we study in this paper spaces of d-paths in a pre-cubical complex. Such paths are equipped with a natural...

  16. Accurate recovery of 4D left ventricular deformations using volumetric B-splines incorporating phase based displacement estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Tustison, Nicholas J.; Amini, Amir A.

    2006-03-01

    In this paper, an improved framework for estimation of 3-D left-ventricular deformations from tagged MRI is presented. Contiguous short- and long-axis tagged MR images are collected and are used within a 4-D B-Spline based deformable model to determine 4-D displacements and strains. An initial 4-D B-spline model fitted to sparse tag line data is first constructed by minimizing a 4-D Chamfer distance potential-based energy function for aligning isoparametric planes of the model with tag line locations; subsequently, dense virtual tag lines based on 2-D phase-based displacement estimates and the initial model are created. A final 4-D B-spline model with increased knots is fitted to the virtual tag lines. From the final model, we can extract accurate 3-D myocardial deformation fields and corresponding strain maps which are local measures of non-rigid deformation. Lagrangian strains in simulated data are derived which show improvement over our previous work. The method is also applied to 3-D tagged MRI data collected in a canine.

  17. CLASSIFICATION OF CUBIC PARAMETERIZED HOMOGENEOUS VECTOR FIELDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Karnal H.Yasir; TANG Yun

    2002-01-01

    In this paper the cubic homogeneous parameterized vector fields are studied.The classification of the phase portrait near the critical point is presented. This classification is an extension of the result given by Takens to the cubic homogeneous parameterized vector fields with six parameters.

  18. CLASSIFICATION OF CUBIC PARAMETERIZED HOMOGENEOUS VECTOR FIELDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KamalH.Yasir; TNAGYun

    2002-01-01

    In this paper the cubic homogeneous parameterized vector fields are studied.The classification of the phase portrait near the critical point is presented.This classification is an extension of the result given by takens to the cubic homogeneous parameterized vector fields with six parameters.

  19. A matrix method for degree-raising of B-spline curves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦开怀

    1997-01-01

    A new identity is proved that represents the kth order B-splines as linear combinations of the (k + 1) th order B-splines A new method for degree-raising of B-spline curves is presented based on the identity. The new method can be used for all kinds of B-spline curves, that is, both uniform and arbitrarily nonuniform B-spline curves. When used for degree-raising of a segment of a uniform B-spline curve of degree k - 1, it can help obtain a segment of curve of degree k that is still a uniform B-spline curve without raising the multiplicity of any knot. The method for degree-raising of Bezier curves can be regarded as the special case of the new method presented. Moreover, the conventional theory for degree-raising, whose shortcoming has been found, is discussed.

  20. C-B样条曲线的分割和拼接%Arbitrary Subdivision Algorithm and Joining of C-B-Spline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋丽平

    2011-01-01

    曲线曲面造型中设计复杂的自由曲线时,单段曲线已不能满足外形设计的要求,因而在实际造型中,经常采用曲线的分割和拼接.C-B样条理论是曲线曲面造型的一项重要内容.在对C-B样条基函数及曲线端点特性分析的基础上,提出了C-B样条曲线的任意分割算法,并对C-B样条曲线间进行了G1拼接.给出了 B样条曲线和C-B样条曲线G1和G2光滑拼接的几何条件.采用分割和拼接技术会增加C-B样条曲线的灵活性,所得结论具有明确的几何意义,并可以进一步推广到C-B样条曲面造型中.%The single curve already can' t satisfy the requirements of shape design when designing complex free curve in curve/surface modeling. Thus in the actual modeling, C-B-spline theory is an important content of curve/surface modeling. Propose the algorithm of arbitrarily divided when analysing C-B-spline basis functions,then splicing between two C-B-spline. In addition,give geometry conditions about B-spline curves and C-B-spline curves. The results are benefit for the shape modification, and they can also be extended to surface modeling with C-B-spline.