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Sample records for cube root law

  1. Bootstrap-Based Inference for Cube Root Consistent Estimators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cattaneo, Matias D.; Jansson, Michael; Nagasawa, Kenichi

    This note proposes a consistent bootstrap-based distributional approximation for cube root consistent estimators such as the maximum score estimator of Manski (1975) and the isotonic density estimator of Grenander (1956). In both cases, the standard nonparametric bootstrap is known to be inconsis......This note proposes a consistent bootstrap-based distributional approximation for cube root consistent estimators such as the maximum score estimator of Manski (1975) and the isotonic density estimator of Grenander (1956). In both cases, the standard nonparametric bootstrap is known...

  2. Subset selection circumvents the square root law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craver, Scott; Yu, Jun

    2010-01-01

    The square root law holds that acceptable embedding rate is sublinear in the cover size, specifically O(square root of n), in order to prevent detection as the warden's data and thus detector power increases. One way to transcend this law, at least in the i.i.d.case, is to restrict the cover to a chosen subset whose distribution is close to that of altered data. Embedding is then performed on this subset; this replaces the problem of finding a small enough subset to evade detection with the problem of finding a large enough subset that possesses a desired type distribution. We show that one can find such a subset of size asymptotically proportional to n rather than the square root of n. This works in the case of both replacement and tampering: Even if the distribution of tampered data depends on the distribution of cover data, one can find a fixed point in the probability simplex such that cover data of that distribution yields stego data of the same distribution. While the transmission of a subset is not allowed, this is no impediment: wet paper codes can be used, else in the worst case a maximal desirable subset can be computed from the cover by both sender and receiver without communication of side information.

  3. Price's Square Root Law: Empirical Validity and Relation to Lotka's Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Paul Travis

    1988-01-01

    Presents Price's law, which states that half of the literature on a subject will be contributed by the square root of total number of authors publishing in that area, and assesses it against empirical evidence and simulated productivity distributions. The discussion covers this law's relation to Lotka's law and its empirical validity. (Author/CLB)

  4. Nuttall's Abelian integral on the Riemann surface of the cube root of a polynomial of degree 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aptekarev, A. I.; Tulyakov, D. N.

    2016-12-01

    We study the field of orthogonal trajectories of a quadratic differential on the three-sheeted Riemann surface of the cube root of a polynomial of degree 3. These trajectories coincide globally with the level lines of the velocity potential of an incompressible fluid flowing to the surface through the infinitely remote point on one sheet and flowing out through the infinitely remote point on another. The statement of the problem is motivated by the task of finding the distribution of the poles of the Hermite- Padé approximants for two analytic functions with three common branch points, which is in its turn related to Nuttall's general conjecture.

  5. Toric Cubes

    CERN Document Server

    Engström, Alexander; Sturmfels, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    A toric cube is a subset of the standard cube defined by binomial inequalities. These basic semialgebraic sets are precisely the images of standard cubes under monomial maps. We study toric cubes from the perspective of topological combinatorics. Explicit decompositions as CW-complexes are constructed. Their open cells are interiors of toric cubes and their boundaries are subcomplexes. The motivating example of a toric cube is the edge-product space in phylogenetics, and our work generalizes results known for that space.

  6. Cubes convexes

    CERN Document Server

    Nedjar, Sebastien; Cicchetti, Rosine; Lakhal, Lotfi; 10.3166/isi.11.6.11-31

    2010-01-01

    In various approaches, data cubes are pre-computed in order to answer efficiently OLAP queries. The notion of data cube has been declined in various ways: iceberg cubes, range cubes or differential cubes. In this paper, we introduce the concept of convex cube which captures all the tuples of a datacube satisfying a constraint combination. It can be represented in a very compact way in order to optimize both computation time and required storage space. The convex cube is not an additional structure appended to the list of cube variants but we propose it as a unifying structure that we use to characterize, in a simple, sound and homogeneous way, the other quoted types of cubes. Finally, we introduce the concept of emerging cube which captures the significant trend inversions. characterizations.

  7. The fate of the square root law for correlated voting

    CERN Document Server

    Kirsch, Werner

    2012-01-01

    We consider two-tier voting system and try to determine optimal weights for a fair representation in such systems. A prominent example of such a voting system is the Council of Ministers of the European Union. Under the assumption of independence of the voters, the square root law gives a fair distribution of power (based on the Penrose-Banzhaf power index) and a fair distribution of weights (based on the concept of the majority deficit), both given in the book by Felsenthal and Machover. In this paper, special emphasis is given to the case of correlated voters. The cooperative behaviour of the voters is modeled by suitable adoptions of spin systems known from statistical physics. Under certain assumptions we are able to compute the optimal weights as well as the average deviation of the council's vote from the public vote which we call the democracy deficit.

  8. Francisco de Vitoria and the root of the criminal law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Brandão

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The penal enlightenment was forged as the culmination of a process of bankruptcy paradigms. This is much due to the forward positions that were built before its claims, especially those of natural law rationalists who were based on legal thought of the modern age. In this context, the criminal ideas of Francisco de Vitoria gain considerable importance for understanding the matrix of the criminal law of these days, because they are linked to the enlightenment. Such ideas break the paradigm of the middle ages and replaced in theocentrism by anthropocentrism in the criminal field.

  9. Migration law of heavy metal cadmium in soil-root interface systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Xiang YANG; Ming-Xu ZHANG; Xiao-Long LI; Liang-Min GAO; Duo-Xi YAO

    2013-01-01

    The distribution characteristics of heavy metals in soil-root systems have great significance for the research into soil pollution risk assessment and the phytoremediation effect.This paper takes ligustrum lucidum as an example,based on the characteristics of adsorption of heavy metals in soil by woody plants,lays out sampling points,and using software Sufer for the Kiging interpolation analysis,and the horizontal migration law of heavy metal cadmium in the soil-root interface system is simulated.Through multi-model statistical regression trend analysis,the horizontal migration mechanism of cadmium in different sections is discussed.The results show that:① under horizontal migration law:the migration ability of Cd is weaker near the Ligustrum lucidum root (0-30 cm); with the root extension,the migration ability of Cd gradually is strengthened,and the main range of the migration ability is 60 90 cm.In addition,its migration law follows the cubic curve mode.② under longitudinal migration law:based on the Kriging method,migration models Z(hi) of heavy metal Cd in any depth of hi are constructed and fit the correlation coefficient R2>0.95.

  10. Square Root Law for Communication with Low Probability of Detection on AWGN Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Bash, Boulat A; Towsley, Don

    2012-01-01

    We present a square root limit on low probability of detection (LPD) communication over additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channels. Specifically, if a warden has an AWGN channel to the transmitter with non-zero noise power, we prove that $o(\\sqrt{n})$ bits can be sent from the transmitter to the receiver in $n$ AWGN channel uses with probability of detection by the warden less than $\\epsilon$ for any $\\epsilon>0$. Moreover, in most practical scenarios, a lower bound on the noise power on the warden's channel to the transmitter is known and $O(\\sqrt{n})$ bits can be covertly sent in $n$ channel uses. Conversely, attempting to transmit more than $O(\\sqrt{n})$ bits either results in detection by the warden with probability one or a non-zero probability of decoding error as $n\\rightarrow\\infty$. Further, we show that LPD communication on the AWGN channel allows one to send a non-zero symbol on \\emph{every} channel use, in contrast to what might be expected from the square root law found recently in image-based...

  11. Out of the Cube: Augmented Rubik's Cube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriel Bergig

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer gaming habits have a tendency to evolve with technology, the best being ones that immerse both our imagination and intellect. Here, we describe a new game platform, an Augmented Reality Rubik's cube. The cube acts simultaneously as both the controller and the game board. Gameplay is controlled by the cube, and game assets are rendered on top of it. Shuffling and tilting operations on the cube are mapped to game interaction. We discuss the game design decisions involved in developing a game for this platform, as well as the technological challenges in implementing it. Ultimately, we describe two games and discuss the conclusions of an informal user study based on those games.

  12. On middle cube graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Dalfo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We study a family of graphs related to the $n$-cube. The middle cube graph of parameter k is the subgraph of $Q_{2k-1}$ induced by the set of vertices whose binary representation has either $k-1$ or $k$ number of ones. The middle cube graphs can be obtained from the well-known odd graphs by doubling their vertex set. Here we study some of the properties of the middle cube graphs in the light of the theory of distance-regular graphs. In particular, we completely determine their spectra (eigenvalues and their multiplicities, and associated eigenvectors.

  13. Government Law Construction at Grass-roots Level%基层法治政府建设之管见

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田刚

    2015-01-01

    基层政府是政府法治建设的关键所在。当前,讲人治、靠权治、被商治成为基层法治政府建设的桎梏。需要着力从科学民主决策、公开透明行政、严格公正执法三个方面推进基层法治政府建设。%Basic level government is the key to the law construction of government. At present, rule by man, right and capital become shackles of the law construction of government. We should push toward gov⁃ernment law construction at grass-roots level in three aspects, scientific and democratic decision-making, open and transparent administration, strict and fair law enforcement.

  14. Results from IceCube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeYoung Tyce

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Data from the IceCube Neutrino Observatory have revealed the existence of a flux of high energy neutrinos of extraterrestrial origin, which is observed in a number of analyses spanning different energy ranges, fields of view, and neutrino flavors. The current data are consistent with an isotropic, equal-flavor flux described by a simple power law spectrum, but deviations from this simple model cannot yet be constrained with high precision. The existing observations in this area are reviewed, along with recent results on dark matter searches and observations of cosmic rays.

  15. Watermarking Data Cubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Jie; QIU Wei-dong

    2009-01-01

    We propose a robust watermarking scheme and several extensions for digital right management of data cubes. The ownership information is hidden into a data cube by modifying a set of selected cell values. Its owner can use his private key to control all the watermarking parameters freely. Neither original data cube nor the watermark is required in watermark detection. Detailed analysis and extensive experiments are conducted for the proposed schemes in terms of watermark detectability, robustness and efficiency. Our results show that the scheme performs well in actual applications.

  16. CubeSub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slettebo, Christian; Jonsson, Lars Jonas

    2016-01-01

    This presentation introduces and discusses the development of the CubeSub submersible concept, an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) designed around the CubeSat satellite form factor. The presented work is part of the author's MSc thesis in Aerospace Engineering at the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden, and was performed during an internship at the Mission Design Division of the NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA. Still in the early stages of its development, the CubeSub is to become a submersible test-bed for technology qualified for underwater and space environments. With the long-term goal of exploring the underwater environments in outer space, such as the alleged subsurface ocean of Jupiter's moon Europa, a number of technology and operational procedures must be developed and matured. To assist in this, the CubeSub platform is introduced as a tool to allow engineers and scientists to easily test qualified technology underwater. A CubeSat is a class of miniaturized satellite built to a standardized size. The base size is 1U (U for unit), corresponding to a 100 x 100 x 113.5 cu mm cube. A 1U CubeSat can in other words easily be held in one hand. Stacking units give larger satellite sizes such as the also commonly used 1.5U, 2U and 3U. The CubeSat standard is in itself already well established and hundreds of CubeSats have to date been launched into space. Compatible technology is readily available and the know-how exists in the space industry, all of which makes it a firm ground to stand on for the CubeSub. The rationale behind using the CubeSat form factor is to make use of this pre-existing foundation, making the CubeSub easy to develop, modular and readily available. It will thereby aid in the process of maturing the concept of a fully space qualified submersible headed for outer space. As a further clarification, the CubeSub is itself not meant for outer space, but to facilitate development of such a vessel. Along with its uses as a

  17. Apparatus for drying sugar cubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derckx, H.A.J.; Torringa, H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Device for drying sugar cubes containing a heating apparatus for heating and dehumidifying the sugar cubes, a conditioning apparatus for cooling off and possibly further dehumidifying the sugar cubes and a conveying apparatus for conveying the sugar cubes through the heating apparatus and the condit

  18. Apparatus for drying sugar cubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derckx, H.A.J.; Torringa, H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Device for drying sugar cubes containing a heating apparatus for heating and dehumidifying the sugar cubes, a conditioning apparatus for cooling off and possibly further dehumidifying the sugar cubes and a conveying apparatus for conveying the sugar cubes through the heating apparatus and the

  19. Apparatus for drying sugar cubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derckx, H.A.J.; Torringa, H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Device for drying sugar cubes containing a heating apparatus for heating and dehumidifying the sugar cubes, a conditioning apparatus for cooling off and possibly further dehumidifying the sugar cubes and a conveying apparatus for conveying the sugar cubes through the heating apparatus and the condit

  20. SpaceCube Mini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Michael; Petrick, David; Geist, Alessandro; Flatley, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This version of the SpaceCube will be a full-fledged, onboard space processing system capable of 2500+ MIPS, and featuring a number of plug-andplay gigabit and standard interfaces, all in a condensed 3x3x3 form factor [less than 10 watts and less than 3 lb (approximately equal to 1.4 kg)]. The main processing engine is the Xilinx SIRF radiation- hardened-by-design Virtex-5 FX-130T field-programmable gate array (FPGA). Even as the SpaceCube 2.0 version (currently under test) is being targeted as the platform of choice for a number of the upcoming Earth Science Decadal Survey missions, GSFC has been contacted by customers who wish to see a system that incorporates key features of the version 2.0 architecture in an even smaller form factor. In order to fulfill that need, the SpaceCube Mini is being designed, and will be a very compact and low-power system. A similar flight system with this combination of small size, low power, low cost, adaptability, and extremely high processing power does not otherwise exist, and the SpaceCube Mini will be of tremendous benefit to GSFC and its partners. The SpaceCube Mini will utilize space-grade components. The primary processing engine of the Mini is the Xilinx Virtex-5 SIRF FX-130T radiation-hardened-by-design FPGA for critical flight applications in high-radiation environments. The Mini can also be equipped with a commercial Xilinx Virtex-5 FPGA with integrated PowerPCs for a low-cost, high-power computing platform for use in the relatively radiation- benign LEOs (low-Earth orbits). In either case, this version of the Space-Cube will weigh less than 3 pounds (.1.4 kg), conform to the CubeSat form-factor (10x10x10 cm), and will be low power (less than 10 watts for typical applications). The SpaceCube Mini will have a radiation-hardened Aeroflex FPGA for configuring and scrubbing the Xilinx FPGA by utilizing the onboard FLASH memory to store the configuration files. The FLASH memory will also be used for storing algorithm and

  1. BitCube: A Bottom-Up Cubing Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Alfredo; Giugno, Rosalba; Puglisi, Piera Laura; Pulvirenti, Alfredo

    Enhancing on line analytical processing through efficient cube computation plays a key role in Data Warehouse management. Hashing, grouping and mining techniques are commonly used to improve cube pre-computation. BitCube, a fast cubing method which uses bitmaps as inverted indexes for grouping, is presented. It horizontally partitions data according to the values of one dimension and for each resulting fragment it performs grouping following bottom-up criteria. BitCube allows also partial materialization based on iceberg conditions to treat large datasets for which a full cube pre-computation is too expensive. Space requirement of bitmaps is optimized by applying an adaption of the WAH compression technique. Experimental analysis, on both synthetic and real datasets, shows that BitCube outperforms previous algorithms for full cube computation and results comparable on iceberg cubing.

  2. Imaginary Cubes and Their Puzzles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Tsuiki

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Imaginary cubes are three dimensional objects which have square silhouette projections in three orthogonal ways just as a cube has. In this paper, we study imaginary cubes and present assembly puzzles based on them. We show that there are 16 equivalence classes of minimal convex imaginary cubes, among whose representatives are a hexagonal bipyramid imaginary cube and a triangular antiprism imaginary cube. Our main puzzle is to put three of the former and six of the latter pieces into a cube-box with an edge length of twice the size of the original cube. Solutions of this puzzle are based on remarkable properties of these two imaginary cubes, in particular, the possibility of tiling 3D Euclidean space.

  3. The Photogrammetry Cube

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    We can determine distances between objects and points of interest in 3-D space to a useful degree of accuracy from a set of camera images by using multiple camera views and reference targets in the camera s field of view (FOV). The core of the software processing is based on the previously developed foreign-object debris vision trajectory software (see KSC Research and Technology 2004 Annual Report, pp. 2 5). The current version of this photogrammetry software includes the ability to calculate distances between any specified point pairs, the ability to process any number of reference targets and any number of camera images, user-friendly editing features, including zoom in/out, translate, and load/unload, routines to help mark reference points with a Find function, while comparing them with the reference point database file, and a comprehensive output report in HTML format. In this system, scene reference targets are replaced by a photogrammetry cube whose exterior surface contains multiple predetermined precision 2-D targets. Precise measurement of the cube s 2-D targets during the fabrication phase eliminates the need for measuring 3-D coordinates of reference target positions in the camera's FOV, using for example a survey theodolite or a Faroarm. Placing the 2-D targets on the cube s surface required the development of precise machining methods. In response, 2-D targets were embedded into the surface of the cube and then painted black for high contrast. A 12-inch collapsible cube was developed for room-size scenes. A 3-inch, solid, stainless-steel photogrammetry cube was also fabricated for photogrammetry analysis of small objects.

  4. Pre- to Post- CubeSats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, J.

    2015-12-01

    CubeSats sprung from a formative picosatellite effort at a university in the heart of Silicon Valley, took root in a university-led university environment, and have grown into complex-shaped explorers in both near and soon-to-be deep space. Private citizens, businesses, government are building and launching a variety of science, technology demonstration, and service missions. A new generation of space explorers is gaining first hand experience in space missions at all educational levels. There is new life and new energy in the space program. However, space is still difficult. The environment is harsh. Funding is sparse. This talk explores this history and the future of CubeSats from the context of a university-centric laboratory that emphasizes teaching, research, and entrepreneurial impact. It will explore the following questions: What sparked the CubeSat innovation? What are longer lasting lessons of this community? Where are places we can go next? What does it take to get there? The talk will draw on lessons learned from building over six on-orbit CubeSat missions and training hundreds of space engineers.

  5. CubeSat Launch Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginbotham, Scott

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) recognizes the tremendous potential that CubeSats (very small satellites) have to inexpensively demonstrate advanced technologies, collect scientific data, and enhance student engagement in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM). The CubeSat Launch Initiative (CSLI) was created to provide launch opportunities for CubeSats developed by academic institutions, non-profit entities, and NASA centers. This presentation will provide an overview of the CSLI, its benefits, and its results.

  6. The Silicon Cube detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matea, I.; Adimi, N. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux Gradignan - Universite Bordeaux 1 - UMR 5797, CNRS/IN2P3, Chemin du Solarium, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Blank, B. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux Gradignan - Universite Bordeaux 1 - UMR 5797, CNRS/IN2P3, Chemin du Solarium, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France)], E-mail: blank@cenbg.in2p3.fr; Canchel, G.; Giovinazzo, J. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux Gradignan - Universite Bordeaux 1 - UMR 5797, CNRS/IN2P3, Chemin du Solarium, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Borge, M.J.G.; Dominguez-Reyes, R.; Tengblad, O. [Insto. Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Serrano 113bis, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Thomas, J.-C. [GANIL, CEA/DSM - CNRS/IN2P3, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France)

    2009-08-21

    A new experimental device, the Silicon Cube detector, consisting of six double-sided silicon strip detectors placed in a compact geometry was developed at CENBG. Having a very good angular coverage and high granularity, it allows simultaneous measurements of energy and angular distributions of charged particles emitted from unbound nuclear states. In addition, large-volume Germanium detectors can be placed close to the collection point of the radioactive species to be studied. The setup is ideally suited for isotope separation on-line (ISOL)-type experiments to study multi-particle emitters and was tested during an experiment at the low-energy beam line of SPIRAL at GANIL.

  7. Does the Christian worldview provide a place for the law of attraction? (Part 1: An apologetic evaluation of the roots of this doctrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dani�l J. Maritz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the roots of the so-called spiritual law of attraction that some Christian preachers today describe as an important biblical law. One of the proponents of this idea, Pastor At Boshoff of the Christian Revival Church (CRC, refers in his sermons to the law of attraction as a powerful principle derived from the Word of God. This idea bears striking similarities to the positive confession doctrine as taught by popular Word of Faith preachers. The basic claim of this spiritual �law� is that human beings create their own future through their thoughts and words. The article shows the idea of a spiritual law of attraction as a New Age doctrine that flows from a New Age worldview. Preaching prosperity through the law of attraction is not in accordance with orthodox, historical Christianity or the Christian worldview.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: The article challenges the secular view that intangible thoughts and words can take on tangible reality. This is important since this secular idea is infiltrating the Christian church. It is already being preached as biblical although the roots thereof are clearly shown to originate from the New Age movement.

  8. spectral-cube: Read and analyze astrophysical spectral data cubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robitaille, Thomas; Ginsburg, Adam; Beaumont, Chris; Leroy, Adam; Rosolowsky, Erik

    2016-09-01

    Spectral-cube provides an easy way to read, manipulate, analyze, and write data cubes with two positional dimensions and one spectral dimension, optionally with Stokes parameters. It is a versatile data container for building custom analysis routines. It provides a uniform interface to spectral cubes, robust to the wide range of conventions of axis order, spatial projections, and spectral units that exist in the wild, and allows easy extraction of cube sub-regions using physical coordinates. It has the ability to create, combine, and apply masks to datasets and is designed to work with datasets too large to load into memory, and provide basic summary statistic methods like moments and array aggregates.

  9. Variation Laws of Anthocyanin Content in Roots and Their Relationships with Major Economic Traits in Purple-Fleshed Sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Variation laws of anthocyanin content in root during the development and among the varieties, and their relationships with major economic traits in purple-fleshed sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam] were studied in the present article. The dynamics of 20 economic traits in 13 purple-fleshed sweetpotato varieties at 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, and 140 d after their transplanting were investigated, and these traits included anthocyanin content in root, length of the longest vine, number of base branches, root number, dry matter contents in stem, foliage and root, fresh/dry weight of root, fresh/dry weight of stem, fresh/dry weight of foliage, fresh/dry weight of stem and foliage, fresh/dry weight of whole plant, and rations of photosynthate to root, stem, and foliage. The correlations between the variations of anthocyanin content and the other 19 economic traits among varieties and during the whole developing stages, and the correlations of daily increase of anthocyanin content with other 10 kinds of yields were analyzed. The results showed that: (1) During the whole development, the anthocyanin content had three variation types, I.e. A slow-increase type, a fluctuating-change type, and a devious- rising type, and had different responses to the growth of length of the longest vine, number of base branches, fresh/dry yield of root, and photosynthate allotments. (2) The anthocyanin contents among 13 varieties began to have significant difference after 20 d, and showed completed differentiation during 40-100 d, which had significantly negative correlationships with the number of base branches, fresh/dry yield of root, photosynthate allotment ratio to root, and had significant positive correlationships with dry matter content of root, length of the longest vine, fresh/dry yield of stem, dry yield of whole plant and photosynthate allotment ratio to foliage. (3) Because of the significantly negative correlation between daily increase of anthocyanin content and dry matter

  10. Workforce Information Cubes for NASA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Workforce Information Cubes for NASA, sourced from NASA's personnel/payroll system, gives data about who is working where and on what. Includes records for every...

  11. gCube Grid services

    CERN Document Server

    Andrade, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    gCube is a service-based framework for eScience applications requiring collaboratory, on-demand, and intensive information processing. It provides to these communities Virtual Research Environments (VREs) to support their activities. gCube is build on top of standard technologies for computational Grids, namely the gLite middleware. The software was produced by the DILIGENT project and will continue to be supported and further developed by the D4Science project. gCube reflects within its name a three-sided interpretation of the Grid vision of resource sharing: sharing of computational resources, sharing of structured data, and sharing of application services. As such, gCube embodies the defining characteristics of computational Grids, data Grids, and virtual data Grids. Precisely, it builds on gLite middleware for managing distributed computations and unstructured data, includes dedicated services for managing data and metadata, provides services for distributed information retrieval, allows the orchestration...

  12. PowerCube: Integrated Power, Propulsion, and Pointing for CubeSats Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Tethers Unlimited, Inc. proposes to develop the PowerCube, an integrated power, propulsion, and pointing solution for CubeSats. The PowerCube combines three...

  13. Theoretical Implications of IceCube Neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlers, Markus

    2014-03-01

    The IceCube Collaboration has recently found evidence for an astrophysical flux of neutrinos. The flux is consistent with an isotropic and equal-flavor E-2 power-law spectrum from 60 TeV to 2 PeV. There are also indications that the neutrino spectrum beyond 2 PeV requires a spectral break or cutoff. The origin of the IceCube excess is not known, but its multi-messenger context can already provide some theoretical orientation. For instance, the production of PeV neutrinos require hadronic interactions of cosmic rays (CRs) with energies of a few 10 PeV, extending into the poorly understood transition region between Galactic and extra-Galactic CRs. A local contribution to the neutrino flux from Galactic accelerators is hence feasible and could show up as arrival direction clustering towards Galactic structures. In this context, a possible association of the PeV neutrino sources with unidentified TeV gamma-ray sources, peculiar supernovae or the Fermi Bubbles has been speculated. In addition, a local hadronic neutrino production would predict an observable PeV gamma-ray flux. Spectral features of the neutrino flux, in particular a break or cutoff, serve as additional hints for candidate CR sources and astrophysical environments for neutrino production. Possible scenearios include starburst galaxies, low-luminosity gamma-ray bursts and the cores of active galactic nuclei. I will outline general theoretical implications of the IceCube excess and summarize various source candidates.

  14. On the IceCube spectral anomaly

    CERN Document Server

    Palladino, Andrea; Vissani, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Recently it was noted that different IceCube datasets are not consistent with the same power law spectrum of the cosmic neutrinos: this is the IceCube spectral anomaly, that suggests that they observe a multicomponent spectrum. In this work, the main possibilities to enhance the description in terms of a single extragalactic neutrino component are examined. The hypothesis of a sizable contribution of Galactic high-energy neutrino events distributed as $E^{-2.7}$ [ApJ 826, 185 (2016)] is critically analyzed and its natural generalization is considered. The stability of the expectations is studied by introducing free parameters, motivated by theoretical considerations and observational facts. The upgraded model here examined has 1)~a Galactic component with different normalization and shape $E^{- 2.4}$; 2)~an extragalactic neutrino spectrum based on new data; 3)~a non-zero prompt component of atmospheric neutrinos. The two key predictions of the model concern the `high-energy starting events' collected from the...

  15. On the IceCube spectral anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palladino, Andrea; Spurio, Maurizio; Vissani, Francesco

    2016-12-01

    Recently it was noted that different IceCube datasets are not consistent with the same power law spectrum of the cosmic neutrinos: this is the IceCube spectral anomaly, that suggests that they observe a multicomponent spectrum. In this work, the main possibilities to enhance the description in terms of a single extragalactic neutrino component are examined. The hypothesis of a sizable contribution of Galactic high-energy neutrino events distributed as E‑2.7 [Astrophys. J. 826 (2016) 185] is critically analyzed and its natural generalization is considered. The stability of the expectations is studied by introducing free parameters, motivated by theoretical considerations and observational facts. The upgraded model here examined has 1) a Galactic component with different normalization and shape E‑2.4 2) an extragalactic neutrino spectrum based on new data; 3) a non-zero prompt component of atmospheric neutrinos. The two key predictions of the model concern the `high-energy starting events' collected from the Southern sky. The Galactic component produces a softer spectrum and a testable angular anisotropy. A second, radically different class of models, where the second component is instead isotropic, plausibly extragalactic and with a relatively soft spectrum, is disfavored instead by existing observations of muon neutrinos from the Northern sky and below few 100 TeV.

  16. Propulsion for CubeSats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmer, Kristina

    2017-05-01

    At present, very few CubeSats have flown in space featuring propulsion systems. Of those that have, the literature is scattered, published in a variety of formats (conference proceedings, contractor websites, technical notes, and journal articles), and often not available for public release. This paper seeks to collect the relevant publically releasable information in one location. To date, only two missions have featured propulsion systems as part of the technology demonstration. The IMPACT mission from the Aerospace Corporation launched several electrospray thrusters from Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and BricSAT-P from the United States Naval Academy had four micro-Cathode Arc Thrusters from George Washington University. Other than these two missions, propulsion on CubeSats has been used only for attitude control and reaction wheel desaturation via cold gas propulsion systems. As the desired capability of CubeSats increases, and more complex missions are planned, propulsion is required to accomplish the science and engineering objectives. This survey includes propulsion systems that have been designed specifically for the CubeSat platform and systems that fit within CubeSat constraints but were developed for other platforms. Throughout the survey, discussion of flight heritage and results of the mission are included where publicly released information and data have been made available. Major categories of propulsion systems that are in this survey are solar sails, cold gas propulsion, electric propulsion, and chemical propulsion systems. Only systems that have been tested in a laboratory or with some flight history are included.

  17. IceCube and GRB neutrinos propagating in quantum spacetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Barcaroli, Leonardo; D'Amico, Giacomo; Loret, Niccoló; Rosati, Giacomo

    2016-10-01

    Two recent publications have reported intriguing analyses, tentatively suggesting that some aspects of IceCube data might be manifestations of quantum-gravity-modified laws of propagation for neutrinos. We here propose a strategy of data analysis which has the advantage of being applicable to several alternative possibilities for the laws of propagation of neutrinos in a quantum spacetime. In all scenarios here of interest one should find a correlation between the energy of an observed neutrino and the difference between the time of observation of that neutrino and the trigger time of a GRB. We select accordingly some GRB-neutrino candidates among IceCube events, and our data analysis finds a rather strong such correlation. This sort of study naturally lends itself to the introduction of a "false alarm probability", which for our analysis we estimate conservatively to be of 1%. We therefore argue that our findings should motivate a vigorous program of investigation following the strategy here advocated.

  18. IceCube and GRB neutrinos propagating in quantum spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; D'Amico, Giacomo; Loret, Niccoló; Rosati, Giacomo

    2016-01-01

    Two recent publications have reported intriguing analyses, tentatively suggesting that some aspects of IceCube data might be manifestations of quantum-gravity-modified laws of propagation for neutrinos. We here propose a strategy of data analysis which has the advantage of being applicable to several alternative possibilities for the laws of propagation of neutrinos in a quantum spacetime. In all scenarios here of interest one should find a correlation between the energy of an observed neutrino and the difference between the time of observation of that neutrino and the trigger time of a GRB. We select accordingly some GRB-neutrino candidates among IceCube events, and our data analysis finds a rather strong such correlation. This sort of studies naturally lends itself to the introduction of a "false alarm probability", which for our analysis we estimate conservatively to be of 1%. We therefore argue that our findings should motivate a vigorous program of investigation following the strategy here advocated.

  19. Three Cubes in One Number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jue, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Separate a three-digit number into its component digits. After raising each digit to the third power and computing the sum of the cubes, determine how often the original number reappears. Modular arithmetic is used to reduce the number of potential solutions to a more manageable quantity. (Contains 4 tables.)

  20. Collection of Recyclables from Cubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wøhlk, Sanne; Bogh, Morten Bie; Mikkelsen, Hardy

    2014-01-01

    Collection of recyclable materials is a major part of reverse logistics and an important issue in sustainable logistics. In this paper we consider a case study where paper and glass are collected from recycling cubes and transported to a treatment facility where it is processed for reuse. We anal...

  1. Partial cubes: structures, characterizations, and constructions

    CERN Document Server

    Ovchinnikov, Sergei

    2007-01-01

    Partial cubes are isometric subgraphs of hypercubes. Structures on a graph defined by means of semicubes, and Djokovi\\'{c}'s and Winkler's relations play an important role in the theory of partial cubes. These structures are employed in the paper to characterize bipartite graphs and partial cubes of arbitrary dimension. New characterizations are established and new proofs of some known results are given. The operations of Cartesian product and pasting, and expansion and contraction processes are utilized in the paper to construct new partial cubes from old ones. In particular, the isometric and lattice dimensions of finite partial cubes obtained by means of these operations are calculated.

  2. Decaying leptophilic dark matter at IceCube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucenna, Sofiane M.; Chianese, Marco; Mangano, Gianpiero; Miele, Gennaro; Morisi, Stefano; Pisanti, Ofelia; Vitagliano, Edoardo

    2015-12-01

    We present a novel interpretation of IceCube high energy neutrino events (with energy larger than 60 TeV) in terms of an extraterrestrial flux due to two different contributions: a flux originated by known astrophysical sources and dominating IceCube observations up to few hundreds TeV, and a new flux component where the most energetic neutrinos come from the leptophilic three-body decays of dark matter particles with a mass of few PeV. Differently from other approaches, we provide two examples of elementary particle models that do not require extremely tiny coupling constants. We find the compatibility of the theoretical predictions with the IceCube results when the astrophysical flux has a cutoff of the order of 100 TeV (broken power law). In this case the most energetic part of the spectrum (PeV neutrinos) is due to an extra component such as the decay of a very massive dark matter component. Due to the low statistics at our disposal we have considered for simplicity the equivalence between deposited and neutrino energy, however such approximation does not affect dramatically the qualitative results. Of course, a purely astrophysical origin of the neutrino flux (no cutoff in energy below the PeV scale—unbroken power law) is still allowed. If future data will confirm the presence of a sharp cutoff above few PeV this would be in favor of a dark matter interpretation.

  3. Decaying leptophilic dark matter at IceCube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boucenna, Sofiane M. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati,C.P. 13, Frascati, I-00044 (Italy); Chianese, Marco [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Napoli “Federico II”,Complesso Univ. Monte S. Angelo, Via Cinthia, Napoli, I-80126 (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Napoli, Complesso Univ. Monte S. Angelo,Via Cinthia, Napoli, I-80126 (Italy); Mangano, Gianpiero [INFN, Sezione di Napoli, Complesso Univ. Monte S. Angelo,Via Cinthia, Napoli, I-80126 (Italy); Miele, Gennaro; Morisi, Stefano; Pisanti, Ofelia [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Napoli “Federico II”,Complesso Univ. Monte S. Angelo, Via Cinthia, Napoli, I-80126 (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Napoli, Complesso Univ. Monte S. Angelo,Via Cinthia, Napoli, I-80126 (Italy); Vitagliano, Edoardo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Napoli “Federico II”,Complesso Univ. Monte S. Angelo, Via Cinthia, Napoli, I-80126 (Italy)

    2015-12-29

    We present a novel interpretation of IceCube high energy neutrino events (with energy larger than 60 TeV) in terms of an extraterrestrial flux due to two different contributions: a flux originated by known astrophysical sources and dominating IceCube observations up to few hundreds TeV, and a new flux component where the most energetic neutrinos come from the leptophilic three-body decays of dark matter particles with a mass of few PeV. Differently from other approaches, we provide two examples of elementary particle models that do not require extremely tiny coupling constants. We find the compatibility of the theoretical predictions with the IceCube results when the astrophysical flux has a cutoff of the order of 100 TeV (broken power law). In this case the most energetic part of the spectrum (PeV neutrinos) is due to an extra component such as the decay of a very massive dark matter component. Due to the low statistics at our disposal we have considered for simplicity the equivalence between deposited and neutrino energy, however such approximation does not affect dramatically the qualitative results. Of course, a purely astrophysical origin of the neutrino flux (no cutoff in energy below the PeV scale — unbroken power law) is still allowed. If future data will confirm the presence of a sharp cutoff above few PeV this would be in favor of a dark matter interpretation.

  4. Dark Matter interpretation of low energy IceCube MESE excess

    CERN Document Server

    Chianese, M; Morisi, S

    2016-01-01

    The 2-years MESE IceCube events show a slightly excess in the energy range 10-100 TeV with a maximum local statistical significance of 2.3$\\sigma$, once a hard astrophysical power-law is assumed. A spectral index smaller than 2.2 is indeed suggested by multi-messenger studies related to $p$-$p$ sources and by the recent IceCube analysis regarding 6-years up-going muon neutrinos. In the present paper, we propose a two-components scenario where the extraterrestrial neutrinos are explained in terms of an astrophysical power-law and a Dark Matter signal. We consider both decaying and annihilating Dark Matter candidates with different final states (quarks and leptons) and different halo density profiles. We perform a likelihood-ratio analysis that provides a statistical significance up to 3.9$\\sigma$ for a Dark Matter interpretation of the IceCube low energy excess.

  5. PowerCube: Integrated Power, Propulsion, and Pointing for CubeSats Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The PowerCube is a 1U CubeSat module that provides integrated propulsion, power, and precision pointing to enable the low-cost CubeSat platform to be used to conduct...

  6. Decaying Leptophilic Dark Matter at IceCube

    CERN Document Server

    Boucenna, Sofiane M; Mangano, Gianpiero; Miele, Gennaro; Morisi, Stefano; Pisanti, Ofelia; Vitagliano, Edoardo

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel interpretation of IceCube high energy neutrino events (with energy larger than 60 TeV) in terms of an extraterrestrial flux due to two different contributions: a flux originated by known astrophysical sources and dominating IceCube observations up to few hundreds TeV, and a new flux component where the most energetic neutrinos come from the leptophilic three-body decays of dark matter particles with a mass of few PeV. Differently from other approaches, we provide two examples of elementary particle models that do not need fine-tuned tiny coupling constants. Interestingly, we find a slightly better agreement of the theoretical predictions with the IceCube results if the astrophysical flux has a cut-off at about 100 TeV (broken power law). In this case the most energetic part of the spectrum (PeV neutrinos) is due to an extra component such as the decay of a very massive dark matter component. Of course, the low statistics at our disposal still allows for a purely astrophysical origin of the ...

  7. Vocational Teaching Cube System of Engineering Graphics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YangDaofu; LiuShenli

    2003-01-01

    Based on long-time research on vocational teaching cube theory in graphics education and analyzing on the intellectual structure in the process of reading engineering drawing, the graphics intellectual three-dimensional model, which is made up of 100 cubes, is founded and tested in higher vocational graphics education. This system serves as a good guidance to the graphics teaching.

  8. Interplanetary CubeSat Navigational Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Mur, Tomas J.; Gustafson, Eric D.; Young, Brian T.

    2015-01-01

    CubeSats are miniaturized spacecraft of small mass that comply with a form specification so they can be launched using standardized deployers. Since the launch of the first CubeSat into Earth orbit in June of 2003, hundreds have been placed into orbit. There are currently a number of proposals to launch and operate CubeSats in deep space, including MarCO, a technology demonstration that will launch two CubeSats towards Mars using the same launch vehicle as NASA's Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport (InSight) Mars lander mission. The MarCO CubeSats are designed to relay the information transmitted by the InSight UHF radio during Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) in real time to the antennas of the Deep Space Network (DSN) on Earth. Other CubeSatts proposals intend to demonstrate the operation of small probes in deep space, investigate the lunar South Pole, and visit a near Earth object, among others. Placing a CubeSat into an interplanetary trajectory makes it even more challenging to pack the necessary power, communications, and navigation capabilities into such a small spacecraft. This paper presents some of the challenges and approaches for successfully navigating CubeSats and other small spacecraft in deep space.

  9. Teaching group theory using Rubik's cubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornock, Claire

    2015-10-01

    Being situated within a course at the applied end of the spectrum of maths degrees, the pure mathematics modules at Sheffield Hallam University have an applied spin. Pure topics are taught through consideration of practical examples such as knots, cryptography and automata. Rubik's cubes are used to teach group theory within a final year pure elective based on physical examples. Abstract concepts, such as subgroups, homomorphisms and equivalence relations are explored with the cubes first. In addition to this, conclusions about the cubes can be made through the consideration of algebraic approaches through a process of discovery. The teaching, learning and assessment methods are explored in this paper, along with the challenges and limitations of the methods. The physical use of Rubik's cubes within the classroom and examination will be presented, along with the use of peer support groups in this process. The students generally respond positively to the teaching methods and the use of the cubes.

  10. IceCube and GRB neutrinos propagating in quantum spacetime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Amelino-Camelia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Two recent publications have reported intriguing analyses, tentatively suggesting that some aspects of IceCube data might be manifestations of quantum-gravity-modified laws of propagation for neutrinos. We here propose a strategy of data analysis which has the advantage of being applicable to several alternative possibilities for the laws of propagation of neutrinos in a quantum spacetime. In all scenarios here of interest one should find a correlation between the energy of an observed neutrino and the difference between the time of observation of that neutrino and the trigger time of a GRB. We select accordingly some GRB-neutrino candidates among IceCube events, and our data analysis finds a rather strong such correlation. This sort of study naturally lends itself to the introduction of a “false alarm probability”, which for our analysis we estimate conservatively to be of 1%. We therefore argue that our findings should motivate a vigorous program of investigation following the strategy here advocated.

  11. Optimization in Data Cube System Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YilongLiang; ShaoweiXia

    2004-01-01

    The design of an OLAP system for supporting real-time queries is one of the major research issues.One approach is to use data cubes,which are pre-computed multidimensional views of data in the data warehouse.An initial set of data cubes can be derived.from which the answer to each frequently asked query can be retrieved directly.However,there are two practical problems concerning the design of a cube based system:1)the maintenance cost of the data cubes,and 2)the query cost to answer a selected set of frequently asked queries.Maintaining a data cube requires disk storage and CPU computation,So the maintenance cost is related to the total size of the data cubes materialized,and thus keeping all data cubes is impractical.The total size of cubes may be reduced by merging some cubes.However,the resulting larger cubes will increase the query cost of answering some queries.If the bounds on maintenance cost and query cost are strict.some of the queries need to be sacrificed.An optimization problem in data cube system design has been defined.With a maintenance-cost bound and a query-cost bound given by the user,it is necessary to opti-mize the initial set of data cubes such that the system can answer a maximum number of queries and satisfy the bounds.This is an NP-complete problem.Approximate algorithms Greedy Removing(GR)and 2-Greedy Merging with Multiple paths(2GGM)are proposed.Experiments have been done on a census database and the results show that our approach in both effbctive and efficient.

  12. Semi-Closed Cube: An Effective Approach to Trading Off Data Cube Size and Query Response Time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng-En Li; Shan Wang

    2005-01-01

    The results of data cube will occupy huge amount of disk space when the base table is of a large number of attributes. A new type of data cube, compact data cube like condensed cube and quotient cube, was proposed to solve the problem. It compresses data cube dramatically. However, its query cost is so high that it cannot be used in most applications. This paper introduces the semi-closed cube to reduce the size of data cube and achieve almost the same query response time as the data cube does. Semi-closed cube is a generalization of condensed cube and quotient cube and is constructed from a quotient cube. When the query cost of quotient cube is higher than a given threshold, semi-closed cube selects some views and picks a fellow for each of them. All the tuples of those views are materialized except those closed by their fellows. To find a tuple of those views, users only need to scan the view and its fellow. Thus, their query performance is improved. Experiments were conducted using a real-world data set. The results show that semi-closed cube is an effective approach of data cube.

  13. IceCube Results and PINGU Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koskinen, David Jason

    2015-01-01

    The last three years of IceCube operation with the completed detector have resulted in a plethora of results, including the first observation of high energy astrophysical neutrinos, tests of a possible neutrino flux from atmospheric charm meson decay, and competitive results of neutrino oscillati...... from atmospheric muon neutrino disappearance. Based on the success of IceCube, a new low energy in-fill, known as the Precision IceCube Next Generation Upgrade, is being proposed with the primary physics goal of resolving the ordering of the neutrino mass hierarchy....

  14. Intrinsic viscosity of a suspension of cubes

    KAUST Repository

    Mallavajula, Rajesh K.

    2013-11-06

    We report on the viscosity of a dilute suspension of cube-shaped particles. Irrespective of the particle size, size distribution, and surface chemistry, we find empirically that cubes manifest an intrinsic viscosity [η]=3.1±0.2, which is substantially higher than the well-known value for spheres, [η]=2.5. The orientation-dependent intrinsic viscosity of cubic particles is determined theoretically using a finite-element solution of the Stokes equations. For isotropically oriented cubes, these calculations show [η]=3.1, in excellent agreement with our experimental observations. © 2013 American Physical Society.

  15. A Shell Multi-dimensional Hierarchical Cubing Approach for High-Dimensional Cube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Shuzhi; Zhao, Li; Hu, Kongfa

    The pre-computation of data cubes is critical for improving the response time of OLAP systems and accelerating data mining tasks in large data warehouses. However, as the sizes of data warehouses grow, the time it takes to perform this pre-computation becomes a significant performance bottleneck. In a high dimensional data warehouse, it might not be practical to build all these cuboids and their indices. In this paper, we propose a shell multi-dimensional hierarchical cubing algorithm, based on an extension of the previous minimal cubing approach. This method partitions the high dimensional data cube into low multi-dimensional hierarchical cube. Experimental results show that the proposed method is significantly more efficient than other existing cubing methods.

  16. Stability of Roundheads Armoured with Cubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Haagensen, Per; Macineira, Enrique

    2003-01-01

      The paper presents the results of a hydraulic model test study of the influence of concrete mass density and placement method on the stability of cube armour in a 1:2 slope cone shaped roundhead exposed to short ? crested seas. Location and development of armour displacements were studied...... for concrete cubes with mass density of 2.4 t/m 3 and 2.8 t/m 3 in random and regular placement. Significant increase in stability for the higher mass density cubes was found showing that the same dimension cubes can be used in roundhead and trunk, if for the top layer of the most exposed part of the roundhead...

  17. A quadrilateralized spherical cube Earth data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, F. K.

    1980-01-01

    A quadrilateralized spherical cube was constructed to form the basis for the rapid storage and retrieval of high resolution data obtained of the Earth's surface. The structure of this data base was derived from a spherical cube, which was obtained by radially projecting a cube onto its circumscribing sphere. An appropriate set of curvilinear coordinates were chosen such that the resolution cells on the spherical cube were of equal area and were also of essentially the same shape. The main properties of the Earth data base were that the indexing scheme was binary and telescopic in nature, the resolution cells were strung together in a two dimensional manner, the cell addresses were easily computed, and the conversion from geographic to data base coordinates was comparatively simple. It was concluded that this data base structure was perhaps the most viable one for handling remotely sensed data obtained by satellites.

  18. Stability of Roundheads Armoured with Cubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Haagensen, Per; Macineira, Enrique

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a hydraulic model test study of the influence of concrete mass density and placement method on the stability of cube armour in a 1:2 slope cone shaped roundhead exposed to short ? crested seas. Location and development of armour displacements were studied...... for concrete cubes with mass density of 2.4 t/m 3 and 2.8 t/m 3 in random and regular placement. Significant increase in stability for the higher mass density cubes was found showing that the same dimension cubes can be used in roundhead and trunk, if for the top layer of the most exposed part of the roundhead...

  19. WIENER INDEX AND HOSOYA POLYNOMIAL OF FIBONACCI AND LUCAS CUBES

    OpenAIRE

    Klavzar, Sandi; Mollard, Michel

    2011-01-01

    In the language of mathematical chemistry, Fibonacci cubes can be defined as the resonance graphs of fibonacenes. Lucas cubes form a symmetrization of Fibonacci cubes and appear as resonance graphs of cyclic polyphenantrenes. In this paper it is proved that the Wiener index of Fibonacci cubes can be written as the sum of products of four Fibonacci numbers which in turn yields a closed formula for the Wiener index of Fibonacci cubes. Asymptotic behavior of the average distance of Fibonacci cub...

  20. IceCube: physics, status, and future

    OpenAIRE

    Hultqvist, Klas; collaboration, for the IceCube

    2010-01-01

    The IceCube observatory is the first cubic kilometre scale instrument in the field of high-energy neutrino astronomy and cosmic rays. In 2009, following five successful deployment seasons, IceCube consisted of 59 strings of optical modules in the South Pole ice, together with 118 air shower detectors in the IceTop surface array. The range of physics topics includes neutrino signals from astrophysical sources, dark matter, exotic particle physics, cosmic rays, and atmospheric neutrinos. The cu...

  1. Radbruch Redux : The need for revisiting the conversation between common and civil law at root level at the example of international criminal justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohlander, Michael

    2011-01-01

    International criminal justice is based to a large extent on extrapolations from criminal-law research on domestic systems. The difficult exercise of arriving at a common denominator is exacerbated by the systemic dichotomy of the so-called common-law and civil-law models, which, in turn, have now b

  2. SpaceCube Version 1.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Alessandro; Lin, Michael; Flatley, Tom; Petrick, David

    2013-01-01

    SpaceCube 1.5 is a high-performance and low-power system in a compact form factor. It is a hybrid processing system consisting of CPU (central processing unit), FPGA (field-programmable gate array), and DSP (digital signal processor) processing elements. The primary processing engine is the Virtex- 5 FX100T FPGA, which has two embedded processors. The SpaceCube 1.5 System was a bridge to the SpaceCube 2.0 and SpaceCube 2.0 Mini processing systems. The SpaceCube 1.5 system was the primary avionics in the successful SMART (Small Rocket/Spacecraft Technology) Sounding Rocket mission that was launched in the summer of 2011. For SMART and similar missions, an avionics processor is required that is reconfigurable, has high processing capability, has multi-gigabit interfaces, is low power, and comes in a rugged/compact form factor. The original SpaceCube 1.0 met a number of the criteria, but did not possess the multi-gigabit interfaces that were required and is a higher-cost system. The SpaceCube 1.5 was designed with those mission requirements in mind. The SpaceCube 1.5 features one Xilinx Virtex-5 FX100T FPGA and has excellent size, weight, and power characteristics [4×4×3 in. (approx. = 10×10×8 cm), 3 lb (approx. = 1.4 kg), and 5 to 15 W depending on the application]. The estimated computing power of the two PowerPC 440s in the Virtex-5 FPGA is 1100 DMIPS each. The SpaceCube 1.5 includes two Gigabit Ethernet (1 Gbps) interfaces as well as two SATA-I/II interfaces (1.5 to 3.0 Gbps) for recording to data drives. The SpaceCube 1.5 also features DDR2 SDRAM (double data rate synchronous dynamic random access memory); 4- Gbit Flash for storing application code for the CPU, FPGA, and DSP processing elements; and a Xilinx Platform Flash XL to store FPGA configuration files or application code. The system also incorporates a 12 bit analog to digital converter with the ability to read 32 discrete analog sensor inputs. The SpaceCube 1.5 design also has a built

  3. Quasi-Monte Carlo for discontinuous integrands with singularities along the boundary of the unit cube

    OpenAIRE

    He, Zhijian

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies randomized quasi-Monte Carlo (QMC) sampling for discontinuous integrands having singularities along the boundary of the unit cube $[0,1]^d$. Both discontinuities and singularities are extremely common in the pricing and hedging of financial derivatives and have a tremendous impact on the accuracy of QMC. It was previously known that the root mean square error of randomized QMC is only $o(n^{-1/2})$ for discontinuous functions with singularities. We find that under some mild...

  4. Utilizing Probabilistic Linear Equations in Cube Attacks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Yao; Bin Zhang; Wen-Ling Wu

    2016-01-01

    Cube attacks, proposed by Dinur and Shamir at EUROCRYPT 2009, have shown huge power against stream ciphers. In the original cube attacks, a linear system of secret key bits is exploited for key recovery attacks. However, we find a number of equations claimed linear in previous literature actually nonlinear and not fit into the theoretical framework of cube attacks. Moreover, cube attacks are hard to apply if linear equations are rare. Therefore, it is of significance to make use of probabilistic linear equations, namely nonlinear superpolys that can be approximated by linear expressions effectively. In this paper, we suggest a way to test out and utilize these probabilistic linear equations, thus extending cube attacks to a wider scope. Concretely, we employ the standard parameter estimation approach and the sequential probability ratio test (SPRT) for linearity test in the preprocessing phase, and use maximum likelihood decoding (MLD) for solving the probabilistic linear equations in the online phase. As an application, we exhibit our new attack against 672 rounds of Trivium and reduce the number of key bits to search by 7.

  5. Enumeration of Hamiltonian Cycles in 6-cube

    CERN Document Server

    Deza, Michel

    2010-01-01

    Finding the number 2H6 of directed Hamiltonian cycles in 6-cube is problem 43 in Section 7.2.1.1 of Knuth's ' The Art of Computer Programming'; various proposed estimates are surveyed below. We computed exact value: H6=14,754,666,508,334,433,250,560=6*2^4*217,199*1,085,989*5,429,923. Also the number Aut6 of those cycles up to automorphisms of 6-cube was computed as 147,365,405,634,413,085

  6. HyperCube: a hyperspectral CubeSat constellation for measurements of 3D winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glumb, Ronald; Lapsley, Michael; Luce, Scott; Déry, Jean-Philippe; Scott, Deron; Nielsen, Tim

    2016-09-01

    Global measurements of vertically resolved atmospheric wind profiles offer the potential for improved weather forecasts and superior predictions of atmospheric wind patterns. Harris' HyperCube constellation of twelve 6U hyperspectral CubeSats can provide measurements of global tropospheric wind profiles from space at very low cost. It is a commercially funded enterprise in which the data from the satellites is provided to users on a subscription basis. This requires that the design of each satellite be optimized for minimum cost, yet with a reasonably long service life. This paper will focus on the design, operations, and projected performance of the HyperCube system.

  7. Incremental Maintenance of Quotient Cube Based on Galois Lattice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui-PingLi; Kum-HoeTung; ShanWang

    2004-01-01

    Data cube computation is a well-known expensive operation and has been studied extensively. It is often not feasible to compute a complete data cube due to the huge storage requirement. Recently proposed quotient cube addressed this fundamental issue through a partitioning method that groups cube cells into equivalent partitions. The effectiveness and efficiency of the quotient cube for cube compression and computation have been proved. However, as changes axe made to the data sources, to maintain such a quotient cube is non-trivial since the equivalent classes in it must be split or merged. In this paper, incremental algorithms are designed to update existing quotient cube efficiently based on Galois lattice. Performance study shows that these algorithms are efficient and scalable for large databases.

  8. Incremental Maintenance of Quotient Cube Based on Galois Lattice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui-Ping Li; Kum-Hoe Tung; Shan Wang

    2004-01-01

    Data cube computation is a well-known expensive operation and has been studied extensively. It is often not feasible to compute a complete data cube due to the huge storage requirement. Recently proposed quotient cube addressed this fundamental issue through a partitioning method that groups cube cells into equivalent partitions. The effectiveness and efficiency of the quotient cube for cube compression and computation have been proved. However, as changes are made to the data sources, to maintain such a quotient cube is non-trivial since the equivalent classes in it must be split or merged. In this paper, incremental algorithms are designed to update existing quotient cube efficiently based on Galois lattice. Performance study shows that these algorithms are efficient and scalable for large databases.

  9. IceCube: A Cubic Kilometer Radiation Detector

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, S.; IceCube Collaboration

    2008-01-01

    IceCube is a 1 km^3 neutrino detector now being built at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station. It consists of 4800 Digital Optical Modules (DOMs) which detect Cherenkov radiation from the charged particles produced in neutrino interactions. IceCube will observe astrophysical neutrinos with energies above about 100 GeV. IceCube will be able to separate \

  10. Formation and liquid permeability of dense colloidal cube packings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castillo, Sonja I R; Thies-Weesie, Dominique M E; Philipse, Albert P.

    2015-01-01

    The liquid permeability of dense random packings of cubic colloids with rounded corners is studied for solid hematite cubes and hollow microporous silica cubes. The permeabilities of these two types of packings are similar, confirming that the micropores in the silica shell of the hollow cubes do

  11. PMC: Select Materialized Cells in Data Cubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Song Li; Hou-Kuan Huang

    2006-01-01

    QC-Tree is one of the most storage-efficient structures for data cubes in an MOLAP system. Although QC-Tree can achieve a high compression ratio, it is still a fully materialized data cube. In this paper, an improved structure PMC is presented allowing us to materialize only a part of the cells in a QC-Tree to save more storage space. There is a notable difference between our partially materialization algorithm and traditional materialized views selection algorithms. In a traditional algorithm, when a view is selected, all the cells in this view are to be materialized. Otherwise, if a view is not selected, all the cells in this view will not be materialized. This strategy results in the unstable query performance. The presented algorithm, however, selects and materializes data in cell level, and, along with further reduced space and update cost, it can ensure a stable query performance. A series of experiments are conducted on both synthetic and real data sets. The results show that PMC can further reduce storage space occupied by the data cube, and can shorten the time to update the cube.

  12. Teaching Group Theory Using Rubik's Cubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornock, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Being situated within a course at the applied end of the spectrum of maths degrees, the pure mathematics modules at Sheffield Hallam University have an applied spin. Pure topics are taught through consideration of practical examples such as knots, cryptography and automata. Rubik's cubes are used to teach group theory within a final year pure…

  13. GreenCube and RocketCube: Low-Resource Sensorcraft for Atmospheric and Ionospheric Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracikowski, P. J.; Lynch, K. A.; Slagle, A. K.; Fagin, M. H.; Currey, S. R.; Siddiqui, M. U.

    2009-12-01

    In situ atmospheric and ionospheric studies benefit greatly from the ability to separate variations in space from variations in time. Arrays of many probes are a method of doing this, but because of the technical character and expense of developing large arrays, so far probe arrays have been the domain of well-funded science missions. CubeSats and low-resource craft (``Picosats") are an avenue for bringing array-based studies of the atmosphere and ionosphere into the mainstream. The Lynch Rocket Lab at Dartmouth College is attempting to develop the instruments, experience, and heritage to implement arrays of many low-resource sensorcraft while doing worthwhile science in the development process. We are working on two CubeSat projects to reach this goal: GreenCube for atmospheric studies and RocketCube for ionospheric studies. GreenCube is an undergraduate student-directed high-altitude balloon-borne 3U CubeSat. GreenCube I was a bus, telemetry, and mechanical system development project. GreenCube I flew in the fall of 2008. The flight was successfully recovered and tracked over the 97km range and through the 29km altitude rise. GreenCube I carried six thermal housekeeping sensors, a GPS, a magnetometer, and a HAM radio telemetry system with a reporting rate of once every 30 seconds. The velocity profile obtained from the GPS data implies the presence of atmospheric gravity waves during the flight. GreenCube II flew in August 2009 with the science goal of detecting atmospheric gravity waves over the White Mountains of New Hampshire. Two balloons with identical payloads were released 90 seconds apart to make 2-point observations. Each payload carried a magnetometer, 5 thermistors for ambient temperature readings, a GPS, and an amateur radio telemetry system with a 7 second reporting cadence. A vertically oriented video camera on one payload and a horizontally oriented video camera on the other recorded the characteristics of gravity waves in the nearby clouds. We

  14. CubeSat evolution: Analyzing CubeSat capabilities for conducting science missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poghosyan, Armen; Golkar, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally, the space industry produced large and sophisticated spacecraft handcrafted by large teams of engineers and budgets within the reach of only a few large government-backed institutions. However, over the last decade, the space industry experienced an increased interest towards smaller missions and recent advances in commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) technology miniaturization spurred the development of small spacecraft missions based on the CubeSat standard. CubeSats were initially envisioned primarily as educational tools or low cost technology demonstration platforms that could be developed and launched within one or two years. Recently, however, more advanced CubeSat missions have been developed and proposed, indicating that CubeSats clearly started to transition from being solely educational and technology demonstration platforms to offer opportunities for low-cost real science missions with potential high value in terms of science return and commercial revenue. Despite the significant progress made in CubeSat research and development over the last decade, some fundamental questions still habitually arise about the CubeSat capabilities, limitations, and ultimately about their scientific and commercial value. The main objective of this review is to evaluate the state of the art CubeSat capabilities with a special focus on advanced scientific missions and a goal of assessing the potential of CubeSat platforms as capable spacecraft. A total of over 1200 launched and proposed missions have been analyzed from various sources including peer-reviewed journal publications, conference proceedings, mission webpages as well as other publicly available satellite databases and about 130 relatively high performance missions were downselected and categorized into six groups based on the primary mission objectives including "Earth Science and Spaceborne Applications", "Deep Space Exploration", "Heliophysics: Space Weather", "Astrophysics", "Spaceborne In Situ

  15. The Local Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter (LETKF) with a Global NWP Model on the Cubed Sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seoleun; Kang, Ji-Sun; Jo, Youngsoon

    2016-07-01

    We develop an ensemble data assimilation system using the four-dimensional local ensemble transform kalman filter (LEKTF) for a global hydrostatic numerical weather prediction (NWP) model formulated on the cubed sphere. Forecast-analysis cycles run stably and thus provide newly updated initial states for the model to produce ensemble forecasts every 6 h. Performance of LETKF implemented to the global NWP model is verified using the ECMWF reanalysis data and conventional observations. Global mean values of bias and root mean square difference are significantly reduced by the data assimilation. Besides, statistics of forecast and analysis converge well as the forecast-analysis cycles are repeated. These results suggest that the combined system of LETKF and the global NWP formulated on the cubed sphere shows a promising performance for operational uses.

  16. Review on Mutation in Lateral Root of Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xia; ZHANG Da; HAO Zaibin

    2011-01-01

    Rice roots include seminal roots, adventitious roots, lateral roots and root hairs, At present, progresses in the research of rice roots have been achieved in many aspects, such as root morphology, root activity, root reaction to various environmental factors as a contribution of root growth and rice yield, the relationship between root growth and stems/leaves/flowers/rice, genetic laws of root characters, etc. However, there are very few researches on lateral root mutant. This paper reviewed progresses of the lateral root mutant of rice from the perspectives of phytomorphology to plant physiology and biochemistry to the gene mapping, consisting of mechanism of developing lateral root of rice, gene cloning and functional analysis of lateral root development, the relationship between auxin and lateral roots, agronomic traits of lateral roots mutant, structure and morphology of root hairs, gravity anomaly of root, redox metabolism and proteomics researches of the mutation in lateral root of rice.

  17. On-Orbit Thermal Design and Validation of 1 U Standardized CubeSat of STEP Cube Lab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Jin Kang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cube Laboratory for Space Technology Experimental Projects (STEP Cube Lab is a cube satellite (CubeSat classified as a pico-class satellite of 1 U (unit size. Its main mission objective is to exploit core space technologies researched by domestic universities and verify the effectiveness of these technologies through on-orbit tests using the CubeSat. To guarantee a successful mission under extreme space thermal environments, proper thermal design is important. This paper describes the development process undertaken in the thermal design of the STEP Cube Lab, based on a passive approach, and its validation test. The system functionality and thermal design were verified through thermal vacuum and thermal balance tests under space simulated thermal vacuum environment condition. Finally, the orbital temperature of each component was predicted using a highly reliable correlated thermal mathematical model of the CubeSat obtained from the thermal balance test.

  18. AstroVis: Visualizing astronomical data cubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finniss, Stephen; Tyler, Robin; Questiaux, Jacques

    2016-08-01

    AstroVis enables rapid visualization of large data files on platforms supporting the OpenGL rendering library. Radio astronomical observations are typically three dimensional and stored as data cubes. AstroVis implements a scalable approach to accessing these files using three components: a File Access Component (FAC) that reduces the impact of reading time, which speeds up access to the data; the Image Processing Component (IPC), which breaks up the data cube into smaller pieces that can be processed locally and gives a representation of the whole file; and Data Visualization, which implements an approach of Overview + Detail to reduces the dimensions of the data being worked with and the amount of memory required to store it. The result is a 3D display paired with a 2D detail display that contains a small subsection of the original file in full resolution without reducing the data in any way.

  19. Low energy IceCube data and a possible Dark Matter related excess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chianese, M.; Miele, G.; Morisi, S.; Vitagliano, E.

    2016-06-01

    In this Letter we focus our attention on the IceCube events in the energy range between 60 and 100 TeV, which show an order 2-sigma excess with respect to a power-law with spectral index 2. We analyze the possible origin of such an excess by comparing the distribution of the arrival directions of IceCube events with the angular distributions of simply distributed astrophysical galactic/extragalactic sources, as well as with the expected flux coming from DM interactions (decay and annihilation) for different DM profiles. The statistical analysis performed seems to disfavor the correlation with the galactic plane, whereas rules out the DM annihilation scenario only in case of small clumpiness effect. The small statistics till now collected does not allow to scrutinize the cases of astrophysical isotropic distribution and DM decay scenarios. For this reason we perform a forecast analysis in order to stress the role of future Neutrino Telescopes.

  20. New Physics with IceCube

    CERN Document Server

    Reynoso, M M; Reynoso, Matias M.; Sampayo, Oscar A.

    2007-01-01

    IceCube, a cubic kilometer neutrino telescope will be capable to probe neutrino-nucleon interactions in the ultrahigh energy regime, far beyond the energies reached by colliders. In this article we study an observable that combines several advantages. It only makes use of the upward neutrino flux so that the Earth filters the atmospheric muons, and it is just weakly dependent on the initial astrophysical flux uncertainties.

  1. EarthCubed: Community Convergence and Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, J. C.; Black, R.; Davis, R.; Dick, C.; Lee, T.; Allison, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    What drives engagement across a diverse community with the common goal of creating a robust cyberinfrastructure for the geosciences? Which applications, social media venues and outreach mechanisms solicit the most valuable feedback? Of the dizzying toolkit available for community-building, which tools should receive time, attention and dedication? Finally, how does it all relate to better geoscience research? Research projects in the geosciences are rapidly becoming more interdisciplinary, requiring use of broader data-sets and a multitude of data-types in an effort to explain questions important to both the scientific community and the general public. Effective use of the data and tools available requires excellent community communication and engagement across disciplines, as well as a manner to easily obtain and access those data and tools. For over two years, the EarthCube project has sought to create the most active and engaged community possible, bringing together experts from all across the NSF GEO directorate and its many-faceted disciplines. Initial efforts focused on collecting insight and opinions at in-person "end-user workshops," and informal organization of interest groups and teams. Today, efforts feature an organizational structure with dedicated internal communication and outreach groups. The EarthCube Office has been largely responsible for coordination of these groups and the social media and Internet presence of the project to date, through the creation and curation of the EarthCube.org website, social media channels, live-streaming of meetings, and newsletters. Measures of the effectiveness of these efforts will be presented, to serve as potential reference and guidance for other projects seeking to grow their own communities. In addition, we will discuss how the Office's role in outreach and engagement has changed over the past year with the creation of the Engagement and Liaison Teams, and what it signifies for the Office's role in EarthCube

  2. Atmospheric neutrino oscillations with IceCube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, Andreas [TU Muenchen (Germany); Collaboration: IceCube-Collaboration

    2012-07-01

    IceCube is a cubic kilometer scale neutrino telescope completed in December 2010 optimized for neutrino energies on the TeV to PeV scale. With its more densely instrumented DeepCore subarray in the center, the performance in the 10 GeV to 1 TeV energy range has been improved significantly. We present the status of an analysis using IceCube and DeepCore in the 79-string configuration which operated from May 2010 until May 2011. In this configuration it is expected to be sensitive to standard neutrino oscillations by atmospheric muon neutrino disappearance with a maximum effect around 30 GeV and for vertically upgoing events. An atmospheric neutrino event sample is extracted from DeepCore data in the energy range 15 GeV-150 GeV. Higher energetic atmospheric neutrinos detected by IceCube serve as a control sample for which no oscillation effects are expected.

  3. Cache-Conscious Data Cube Computation on a Modern Processor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Luan; Xiao-Yong Du; Shan Wang

    2009-01-01

    Data cube computation is an important problem in the field of data warehousing and OLAP (online analytical processing). Although it has been studied extensively in the past, most of its algorithms are designed without considering CPU and cache behavior. In this paper, we first propose a cache-conscious cubing approach called CC-Cubing to efficiently compute data cubes on a modern processor. This method can enhance CPU and cache performances. It adopts an integrated depth-first and breadth-first partitioning order and partitions multiple dimensions simultaneously. The partitioning scheme improves the data spatial locality and increases the utilization of cache lines. Software prefetching techniques are then applied in the sorting phase to hide the expensive cache misses associated with data scans. In addition, a cache-aware method is used in CC-Cubing to switch the sort algorithm dynamically. Our performance study shows that CC-Cubing outperforms BUC, Star-Cubing and MM-Cubing in most cases. Then, in order to fully utilize an SMT (simultaneous multithreading) processor, we present a thread-based CC-Cubing-SMT method. This parallel method provides an improvement up to 27% for the single-threaded CC-Cubing algorithm.

  4. CubeSub - A CubeSat Based Submersible Testbed for Space Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slettebo, Christian

    2016-01-01

    This report is a Master's Thesis in Aerospace Engineering, performed at the NASA Ames Research Center. It describes the development of the CubeSub, a submersible testbed compatible with the CubeSat form factor. The CubeSub will be used to mature technology and operational procedures to be used in space exploration, and possibly also as a tool for exploration of Earthly environments. CubeSats are carried as payloads, either containing technology to be tested or experiments and sensors for scientific use. The CubeSub is designed to be built up by modules, which can be assembled in different configurations to fulfill different needs. Each module is powered individually and intermodular communication is wireless, reducing the need for wiring. The inside of the hull is flooded with ambient water to simplify the interaction between payloads and surrounding environment. The overall shape is similar to that of a conventional AUV, slender and smooth. This is to make for a low drag, reduce the risk of snagging on surrounding objects and make it possible to deploy through an ice sheet via a narrow borehole. Rapid prototyping is utilized to a large extent, with full-scale prototypes being constructed through 3D-printing and with COTS (Commercial Off-The-Shelf) components. Arduino boards are used for control and internal communication. Modules required for basic operation have been designed, manufactured and tested. Each module is described with regards to its function, design and manufacturability. By performing tests in a pool it was found that the basic concept is sound and that future improvements include better controllability, course stability and waterproofing of electrical components. Further development is needed to make the CubeSub usable for its intended purposes. The largest gains are expected to be found by developing the software and improving controllability.

  5. Optimizing RDF Data Cubes for Efficient Processing of Analytical Queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kim Ahlstrøm; Andersen, Alex B.; Hose, Katja

    2015-01-01

    data warehouses and data cubes. Today, external data sources are essential for analytics and, as the Semantic Web gains popularity, more and more external sources are available in native RDF. With the recent SPARQL 1.1 standard, performing analytical queries over RDF data sources has finally become......In today’s data-driven world, analytical querying, typically based on the data cube concept, is the cornerstone of answering important business questions and making data-driven decisions. Traditionally, the underlying analytical data was mostly internal to the organization and stored in relational...... feasible. However, unlike their relational counterparts, RDF data cubes stores lack optimizations that enable fast querying. In this paper, we present an approach to optimizing RDF data cubes that is based on three novel cube patterns that optimize RDF data cubes, as well as associated algorithms...

  6. Neutrino astronomy with IceCube and AMANDA

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Gary C; Collaboration, for the IceCube

    2006-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, the South Pole has been the site of the construction of the world's first under-ice Cherenkov neutrino telescopes - AMANDA and IceCube. The AMANDA detector was completed in 2000, and its successor IceCube, a kilometre scale neutrino detector, began construction in 2005. Completion of IceCube is scheduled for 2011. This paper will give an overview of the history, construction, latest physics results and potential of these detectors.

  7. IceCube: A Cubic Kilometer Radiation Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IceCube Collaboration; Klein, Spencer R; Klein, S.R.

    2008-06-01

    IceCube is a 1 km{sup 3} neutrino detector now being built at the Amudsen-Scott South Pole Station. It consists of 4800 Digital Optical Modules (DOMs) which detect Cherenkov radiation from the charged particles produced in neutrino interactions. IceCube will observe astrophysical neutrinos with energies above about 100 GeV. IceCube will be able to separate {nu}{sub {mu}}, {nu}{sub t}, and {nu}{sub {tau}} interactions because of their different topologies. IceCube construction is currently 50% complete.

  8. Development of Novel Integrated Antennas for CubeSats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, David; Fink, Patrick W.; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The Development of Novel Integrated Antennas for CubeSats project is directed at the development of novel antennas for CubeSats to replace the bulky and obtrusive antennas (e.g., whip antennas) that are typically used. The integrated antennas will not require mechanical deployment and thus will allow future CubeSats to avoid potential mechanical problems and therefore improve mission reliability. Furthermore, the integrated antennas will have improved functionality and performance, such as circular polarization for improved link performance, compared with the conventional antennas currently used on CubeSats.

  9. Getting started with SQL Server 2012 cube development

    CERN Document Server

    Lidberg, Simon

    2013-01-01

    As a practical tutorial for Analysis Services, get started with developing cubes. ""Getting Started with SQL Server 2012 Cube Development"" walks you through the basics, working with SSAS to build cubes and get them up and running.Written for SQL Server developers who have not previously worked with Analysis Services. It is assumed that you have experience with relational databases, but no prior knowledge of cube development is required. You need SQL Server 2012 in order to follow along with the exercises in this book.

  10. Instant Microsoft SQL Server Analysis Services 2012 dimensions and cube

    CERN Document Server

    Acharya, Anurag

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Written in a practical, friendly manner this book will take you through the journey from installing SQL Server to developing your first cubes.""Microsoft SQL Server Analysis Service 2012 Dimensions"" and Cube Starter is targeted at anyone who wants to get started with cube development in Microsoft SQL Server Analysis Services. Regardless of whether you are a SQL Server developer who knows nothing about cube development or SSAS or even OLAP, you

  11. Cube-in-cube hollow Cu9 S5 nanostructures with enhanced photocatalytic activities in solar H2 evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Miao; Wang, Min; Ye, Tiannan; Liang, Na; Jin, Lun; Zai, Jiantao; Qian, Xuefeng

    2014-10-13

    Hydrogen produced from water under solar energy is an ideal clean energy source, and the efficiency of hydrogen production usually depends on the catalytic systems based on new compounds and/or a unique nanostructure. Herein, well-defined cube-in-cube hollow Cu9 S5 nanostructures have been successfully prepared with Cu2 O nanocubes and CS2 as precursors, and single-shell hollow Cu9 S5 nanocubes could be obtained by replacing CS2 with Na2 S. The formation mechanism of cube-in-cube hollow nanostructures has been proposed based on the Kirkendell effect and an outward self-assembly process. Further studies revealed that the cube-in-cube hollow Cu9 S5 nanostructures exhibited better photocatalytic activity toward solar H2 evolution and would be a promising photocatalyst in the solar hydrogen industry.

  12. Rank-3 Projections of a 4-Cube

    CERN Document Server

    Finch, Steven R

    2012-01-01

    The orthogonal projection of a 4-cube onto a uniform random 3-subspace in R^4 is a convex 3-polyhedron P with 14 vertices almost surely. Three numerical characteristics of P -- volume, surface area and mean width -- are studied. These quantities, along with the Euler characteristic, form a basis of the space of all additive continuous measures that are invariant under rigid motions in R^3. While computing statistics of {vl, ar, mw}, we encounter the generalized hypergeometric function, elliptic integrals and Catalan's constant. A new constant 7.1185587167... also arises and deserves further attention.

  13. Probing leptoquark production at IceCube

    CERN Document Server

    Anchordoqui, L A; Dumm, D G; Goldberg, H; Halzen, F; Anchordoqui, Luis A.; Canal, Carlos A. Garcia; Dumm, Daniel Gomez; Goldberg, Haim; Halzen, Francis

    2006-01-01

    We emphasize the inelasticity distribution of events detected at the IceCube neutrino telescope as an important tool for revealing new physics. This is possible because the unique energy resolution at this facility allows to separately assign the energy fractions for emergent muons and taus in neutrino interactions. As a particular example, we explore the possibility of probing second and third generation leptoquark parameter space (coupling and mass). We show that production of leptoquarks with masses \\agt 250 GeV and diagonal generation couplings of O(1) can be directly tested if the cosmic neutrino flux is at the Waxman-Bahcall level.

  14. Business Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Föh, Kennet Fischer; Mandøe, Lene; Tinten, Bjarke

    Business Law is a translation of the 2nd edition of Erhvervsjura - videregående uddannelser. It is an educational textbook for the subject of business law. The textbook covers all important topic?s within business law such as the Legal System, Private International Law, Insolvency Law, Contract law......, Instruments of debt and other claims, Sale of Goods and real estate, Charges, mortgages and pledges, Guarantees, Credit agreements, Tort Law, Product liability and Insurance, Company law, Market law, Labour Law, Family Law and Law of Inheritance....

  15. A consistent model for leptogenesis, dark matter and the IceCube signal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiorentin, M. Re [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton,SO17 1BJ Southampton (United Kingdom); Niro, V. [Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid,Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Física Teórica UAM/CSIC,Calle Nicolás Cabrera 13-15, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Fornengo, N. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Torino,via P. Giuria, 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino,via P. Giuria, 1, 10125 Torino (Italy)

    2016-11-04

    We discuss a left-right symmetric extension of the Standard Model in which the three additional right-handed neutrinos play a central role in explaining the baryon asymmetry of the Universe, the dark matter abundance and the ultra energetic signal detected by the IceCube experiment. The energy spectrum and neutrino flux measured by IceCube are ascribed to the decays of the lightest right-handed neutrino N{sub 1}, thus fixing its mass and lifetime, while the production of N{sub 1} in the primordial thermal bath occurs via a freeze-in mechanism driven by the additional SU(2){sub R} interactions. The constraints imposed by IceCube and the dark matter abundance allow nonetheless the heavier right-handed neutrinos to realize a standard type-I seesaw leptogenesis, with the B−L asymmetry dominantly produced by the next-to-lightest neutrino N{sub 2}. Further consequences and predictions of the model are that: the N{sub 1} production implies a specific power-law relation between the reheating temperature of the Universe and the vacuum expectation value of the SU(2){sub R} triplet; leptogenesis imposes a lower bound on the reheating temperature of the Universe at 7×10{sup 9} GeV. Additionally, the model requires a vanishing absolute neutrino mass scale m{sub 1}≃0.

  16. A consistent model for leptogenesis, dark matter and the IceCube signal

    CERN Document Server

    Fiorentin, M Re; Fornengo, N

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a left-right symmetric extension of the Standard Model in which the three additional right-handed neutrinos play a central role in explaining the baryon asymmetry of the Universe, the dark matter abundance and the ultra energetic signal detected by the IceCube experiment. The energy spectrum and neutrino flux measured by IceCube are ascribed to the decays of the lightest right-handed neutrino $N_1$, thus fixing its mass and lifetime, while the production of $N_1$ in the primordial thermal bath occurs via a freeze-in mechanism driven by the additional $SU(2)_R$ interactions. The constraints imposed by IceCube and the dark matter abundance allow nonetheless the heavier right-handed neutrinos to realize a standard type-I seesaw leptogenesis, with the $B-L$ asymmetry dominantly produced by the next-to-lightest neutrino $N_2$. Further consequences and predictions of the model are that: the $N_1$ production implies a specific power-law relation between the reheating temperature of the Universe and the va...

  17. Atmospheric Neutrino Oscillations in IceCube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groß, A. [Technische Universität München, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2013-04-15

    We present the results of an analysis of data collected by IceCube/DeepCore in 2010-2011 resulting in the first significant detection of neutrino oscillations in a high-energy neutrino telescope. A low-energy muon neutrino sample (20–100GeV) containing the oscillation signal was extracted from data collected by DeepCore. A high-energy muon neutrino sample (100GeV–10TeV) was extracted from IceCube data in order to constrain the systematic uncertainties. The non-oscillation hypothesis was rejected with more than 5σ. We fitted the oscillation parameters Δm{sub 23}{sup 2} and sin{sup 2}2θ{sub 23} to these data samples. In a 2-flavor formalism we find Δm{sub 23}{sup 2}=(2.5±0.6)⋅10{sup −3}eV{sup 2} and sin{sup 2}2θ{sub 23}>0.92 while maximum mixing is favored. These results are in good agreement with the world average values.

  18. Invited Article: miniTimeCube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, V. A.; Dorrill, R.; Duvall, M. J.; Koblanski, J.; Negrashov, S.; Sakai, M.; Wipperfurth, S. A.; Engel, K.; Jocher, G. R.; Learned, J. G.; Macchiarulo, L.; Matsuno, S.; McDonough, W. F.; Mumm, H. P.; Murillo, J.; Nishimura, K.; Rosen, M.; Usman, S. M.; Varner, G. S.

    2016-02-01

    We present the development of the miniTimeCube (mTC), a novel compact neutrino detector. The mTC is a multipurpose detector, aiming to detect not only neutrinos but also fast/thermal neutrons. Potential applications include the counterproliferation of nuclear materials and the investigation of antineutrino short-baseline effects. The mTC is a plastic 0.2% 10B-doped scintillator (13 cm)3 cube surrounded by 24 Micro-Channel Plate (MCP) photon detectors, each with an 8 × 8 anode totaling 1536 individual channels/pixels viewing the scintillator. It uses custom-made electronics modules which mount on top of the MCPs, making our detector compact and able to both distinguish different types of events and reject noise in real time. The detector is currently deployed and being tested at the National Institute of Standards and Technology Center for Neutron Research nuclear reactor (20 MWth) in Gaithersburg MD. A shield for further tests is being constructed, and calibration and upgrades are ongoing. The mTC's improved spatiotemporal resolution will allow for determination of incident particle directions beyond previous capabilities.

  19. Invited Article: miniTimeCube

    CERN Document Server

    Li, V A; Duvall, M J; Koblanski, J; Negrashov, S; Sakai, M; Wipperfurth, S A; Engel, K; Jocher, G R; Learned, J G; Macchiarulo, L; Matsuno, S; McDonough, W F; Mumm, H P; Murillo, J; Nishimura, K; Rosen, M; Usman, S M; Varner, G S

    2016-01-01

    We present the development of the miniTimeCube (mTC), a novel compact neutrino detector. The mTC is a multipurpose detector, aiming to detect not only neutrinos but also fast/thermal neutrons. Potential applications include the counterproliferation of nuclear materials and the investigation of antineutrino short-baseline effects. The mTC is a plastic 0.2% $^{10}$B - doped scintillator (13 cm)$^3$ cube surrounded by 24 Micro-Channel Plate (MCP) photon detectors, each with an $8\\times8$ anode totaling 1536 individual channels/pixels viewing the scintillator. It uses custom-made electronics modules which mount on top of the MCPs, making our detector compact and able to both distinguish different types of events and reject noise in real time. The detector is currently deployed and being tested at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Center for Neutron Research (NCNR) nuclear reactor (20 MW$_\\mathrm{th}$) in Gaithersburg, MD. A shield for further tests is being constructed, and calibration and...

  20. CubeSat quantum communications mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oi, Daniel K.L. [University of Strathclyde, SUPA Department of Physics, Glasgow (United Kingdom); University of Strathclyde, Strathclyde Space Institute, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Ling, Alex [National University of Singapore, Centre for Quantum Technologies, Singapore (Singapore); National University of Singapore, Dept. of Physics, Singapore (Singapore); Vallone, Giuseppe; Villoresi, Paolo [Universita degli Studi di Padova, Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Padova (Italy); Greenland, Steve; Kerr, Emma [University of Strathclyde, Advanced Space Concepts Laboratory, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Macdonald, Malcolm [Technology and Innovation Centre, Scottish Centre of Excellence in Satellite Applications, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Weinfurter, Harald [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Department fuer Physik, Munich (Germany); Kuiper, Hans [Delft University of Technology, Space Systems Engineering, Aerospace Engineering, Delft (Netherlands); Charbon, Edoardo [AQUA, EPFL, Lausanne (Switzerland); Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Ursin, Rupert [Vienna Austrian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Vienna (Austria)

    2017-12-15

    Quantum communication is a prime space technology application and offers near-term possibilities for long-distance quantum key distribution (QKD) and experimental tests of quantum entanglement. However, there exists considerable developmental risks and subsequent costs and time required to raise the technological readiness level of terrestrial quantum technologies and to adapt them for space operations. The small-space revolution is a promising route by which synergistic advances in miniaturization of both satellite systems and quantum technologies can be combined to leap-frog conventional space systems development. Here, we outline a recent proposal to perform orbit-to-ground transmission of entanglement and QKD using a CubeSat platform deployed from the International Space Station (ISS). This ambitious mission exploits advances in nanosatellite attitude determination and control systems (ADCS), miniaturised target acquisition and tracking sensors, compact and robust sources of single and entangled photons, and high-speed classical communications systems, all to be incorporated within a 10 kg 6 litre mass-volume envelope. The CubeSat Quantum Communications Mission (CQuCoM) would be a pathfinder for advanced nanosatellite payloads and operations, and would establish the basis for a constellation of low-Earth orbit trusted-nodes for QKD service provision. (orig.)

  1. Colloidal cubes for the enhanced degradation of organic dyes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castillo, Sonja I R; Pompe, Cornelia E.; Van Mourik, Jim; Verbart, David M A; Thies - Weesie, Dominique; De Jongh, Petra E.; Philipse, Albert P.

    2014-01-01

    The shape of cubic silica colloids is exploited to form close-packed structures, whereas the hollow core of the cubes may host functional substances. A proof-of-principle of this approach is presented for iron oxide particles (hematite, α-Fe2O3) confined inside silica cubes that display the ability

  2. THE PARADOX OF POSITIVISTIC VIEW AND PROGRESSIVE LAW OF CRIMINAL LAW ENFORCEMENT IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krismiyarsi Krismiyarsi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paradox of positivistic view and progressive law in the criminal law enforcement happened because there is a difference among the law enforcement officer’s view and perception.  Our law education from the beginning until now still teaches the students the positivistic view so that after the students becoming law officers in running the law they still use positive law or positivistic view. The positivistic view is often far from the substantive justice and close to the formal justice. In order to functioning the progressive law in law enforcement especially the penal code constraint of positivistic view which rooted inside of the law enforcer’s mind, therefore it is need paradigm change by fixing the law system, law education, ethics and morality of law officers , and increasing religious consciousness.Keywords: paradox, law positivism, progressive law, criminal law enforcement

  3. Business Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Föh, Kennet Fischer; Mandøe, Lene; Tinten, Bjarke

    Business Law is a translation of the 2nd edition of Erhvervsjura - videregående uddannelser. It is an educational textbook for the subject of business law. The textbook covers all important topic?s within business law such as the Legal System, Private International Law, Insolvency Law, Contract law...

  4. Effect of precipitation on the evolution of cube recrystallization texture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benum, S. [Hydro Aluminium, Haavik (Norway). R and D Materials Technology; Nes, E. [Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway). Dept. of Metallurgy

    1997-11-01

    A study of the evolution of recrystallized structure and texture in the surface of a cold rolled twin roll cast AlFeSi alloy is presented. Annealing of such alloys often results in an abnormally coarse grained recrystallized surface structure with a strong cube texture. The evolution of this structure depends on the annealing procedures, that is, the precipitation state. Increased amounts of precipitating particles increase the grain size and the fraction of cube texture. The oriented growth theory does not offer any plausible interpretation of this precipitation effect. A recrystallization model that incorporates the differences in Zener drag between different annealing procedures has shown that the evolution of a strong cube texture and coarse grains is the result of a preferential nucleation of cube oriented grains. Precipitation increases the critical nucleation diameter and the resulting grain size. Cube oriented subgrains have a size advantage compared to other potential nucleation sites and are therefore not so affected by precipitation.

  5. Achieving Science with CubeSats: Thinking Inside the Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Lal, Bhavya

    2017-01-01

    We present the results of a study conducted by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The study focused on the scientific potential and technological promise of CubeSats. We will first review the growth of the CubeSat platform from an education-focused technology toward a platform of importance for technology development, science, and commercial use, both in the United States and internationally. The use has especially exploded in recent years. For example, of the over 400 CubeSats launched since 2000, more than 80% of all science-focused ones have been launched just in the past four years. Similarly, more than 80% of peer-reviewed papers describing new science based on CubeSat data have been published in the past five years.We will then assess the technological and science promise of CubeSats across space science disciplines, and discuss a subset of priority science goals that can be achieved given the current state of CubeSat capabilities. Many of these goals address targeted science, often in coordination with other spacecraft, or by using sacrificial or high-risk orbits that lead to the demise of the satellite after critical data have been collected. Other goals relate to the use of CubeSats as constellations or swarms, deploying tens to hundreds of CubeSats that function as one distributed array of measurements.Finally, we will summarize our conclusions and recommendations from this study; especially those focused on nearterm investment that could improve the capabilities of CubeSats toward increased science and technological return and enable the science communities’ use of CubeSats.

  6. The Larger Bound on the Domination Number of Fibonacci Cubes and Lucas Cubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengzhang Ren

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Let Γn and Λn be the n-dimensional Fibonacci cube and Lucas cube, respectively. Denote by Γ[un,k,z] the subgraph of Γn induced by the end-vertex un,k,z that has no up-neighbor. In this paper, the number of end-vertices and domination number γ of Γn and Λn are studied. The formula of calculating the number of end-vertices is given and it is proved that γ(Γ[un,k,z]≤2k-1+1. Using these results, the larger bound on the domination number γ of Γn and Λn is determined.

  7. CubeSats for Astrophysics: The Current Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, David R.; Shkolnik, Evgenya; Gorjian, Varoujan

    2017-01-01

    Cubesats are small satellites built to multiples of 1U (1000 cm3). The 2016 NRC Report “Achieving Science with CubeSats” indicates that between 2013 and 2018 NASA and NSF sponsored 104 CubeSats. Of those, only one is devoted to astrophysics: HaloSat (PI: P. Kaaret), a 6U CubeSat with an X-ray payload to study the hot galactic halo.Despite this paucity of missions, CubeSats have a lot of potential for astrophysics. To assess the science landscape that a CubeSat astrophysics mission may occupy, we consider the following parameters:1-Wavelength: CubeSats are not competitive in the visible, unless the application (e.g. high precision photometry) is difficult to do from the ground. Thermal IR science is limited by the lack of low-power miniaturized cryocoolers and by the large number of infrared astrophysical missions launched or planned. In the UV, advances in δ-doping processes result in larger sensitivity with smaller apertures. Commercial X-ray detectors also allow for competitive science.2-Survey vs. Pointed observations: All-sky surveys have been done at most wavelengths from X-rays to Far-IR and CubeSats will not be able to compete in sensitivity with them. CubeSat science should then center on specific objects or object classes. Due to poor attitude control, unresolved photometry is scientifically more promising that extended imaging.3-Single-epoch vs. time domain: CubeSat apertures cannot compete in sensitivity with big satellites when doing single-epoch observations. However, time-domain astrophysics is an area in which CubeSats can provide very valuable science return.Technologically, CubeSat astrophysics is limited by:1-Lack of large apertures: The largest aperture CubeSat launched is ~10 cm, although deployable apertures as large as 20 cm could be fitted to 6U buses.2-Poor attitude control: State-of-the-art systems have demonstrated jitter of ~10” on timescales of seconds. Jitter imposes limits on image quality and, coupled with detector errors

  8. Near Earth Network (NEN) CubeSat Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaire, Scott

    2017-01-01

    The NASA Near Earth Network (NEN) consists of globally distributed tracking stations, including NASA, commercial, and partner ground stations, that are strategically located to maximize the coverage provided to a variety of orbital and suborbital missions, including those in LEO (Low Earth Orbit), GEO (Geosynchronous Earth Orbit), HEO (Highly Elliptical Orbit), lunar and L1-L2 orbits. The NEN's future mission set includes and will continue to include CubeSat missions. The first NEN-supported CubeSat mission will be the Cubesat Proximity Operations Demonstration (CPOD) launching into LEO in 2017. The majority of the CubeSat missions destined to fly on EM-1, launching in late 2018, many in a lunar orbit, will communicate with ground-based stations via X-band and will utilize the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL)-developed IRIS (Satellite Communication for Air Traffic Management) radio. The NEN recognizes the important role CubeSats are beginning to play in carrying out NASAs mission and is therefore investigating the modifications needed to provide IRIS radio compatibility. With modification, the NEN could potentially expand support to the EM-1 (Exploration Mission-1) lunar CubeSats. The NEN could begin providing significant coverage to lunar CubeSat missions utilizing three to four of the NEN's mid-latitude sites. This coverage would supplement coverage provided by the JPL Deep Space Network (DSN). The NEN, with smaller apertures than DSN, provides the benefit of a larger beamwidth that could be beneficial in the event of uncertain ephemeris data. In order to realize these benefits the NEN would need to upgrade stations targeted based on coverage ability and current configuration ease of upgrade, to ensure compatibility with the IRIS radio. In addition, the NEN is working with CubeSat radio developers to ensure NEN compatibility with alternative CubeSat radios for Lunar and L1-L2 CubeSats. The NEN has provided NEN compatibility requirements to several radio

  9. IceCube: CubeSat 883-GHz Radiometry for Future Ice Cloud Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dongliang; Esper, Jaime; Ehsan, Negar; Johnson, Thomas; Mast, William; Piepmeier, Jeffery R.; Racette, Paul E.

    2015-01-01

    Ice clouds play a key role in the Earth's radiation budget, mostly through their strong regulation of infrared radiation exchange. Accurate observations of global cloud ice and its distribution have been a challenge from space, and require good instrument sensitivities to both cloud mass and microphysical properties. Despite great advances from recent spaceborne radar and passive sensors, uncertainty of current ice water path (IWP) measurements is still not better than a factor of 2. Submillimeter (submm) wave remote sensing offers great potential for improving cloud ice measurements, with simultaneous retrievals of cloud ice and its microphysical properties. The IceCube project is to enable this cloud ice remote sensing capability in future missions, by raising 874-GHz receiver technology TRL from 5 to 7 in a spaceflight demonstration on 3-U CubeSat in a low Earth orbit (LEO) environment. The NASAs Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is partnering with Virginia Diodes Inc (VDI) on the 874-GHz receiver through its Vector Network Analyzer (VNA) extender module product line, to develop an instrument with precision of 0.2 K over 1-second integration and accuracy of 2.0 K or better. IceCube is scheduled to launch to and subsequent release from the International Space Station (ISS) in mid-2016 for nominal operation of 28 plus days. We will present the updated design of the payload and spacecraft systems, as well as the operation concept. We will also show the simulated 874-GHz radiances from the ISS orbits and cloud scattering signals as expected for the IceCube cloud radiometer.

  10. Modified MIMO Cube for Enhanced Channel Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lajos Nagy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the optimization of MIMO antenna elements' position in modified MIMO cube for getting maximal channel capacity in indoor environment. The dependence of the channel capacity on the antenna orientation was analyzed by simulations. We have also examined the effect of the frequency dependence of the antenna system (in case of conjugate matching and nonconjugate matching for the channel capacity. Based on the simulation results in the created and measured antenna system, the antennas were at a right angle to each other. At the two chosen different structures, we measured the antenna parameters and the channel capacity. In this paper, we present the results of the measurements which clearly confirm our simulations. We will point out the differences between the two antenna structures.

  11. Boosted dark matter and its implications for the features in IceCube HESE data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Atri; Gandhi, Raj; Gupta, Aritra; Mukhopadhyay, Satyanarayan

    2017-05-01

    We study the implications of the premise that any new, relativistic, highly energetic neutral particle that interacts with quarks and gluons would create cascade-like events in the IceCube (IC) detector. Such events would be observationally indistinguishable from neutral current deep-inelastic (DIS) scattering events due to neutrinos. Consequently, one reason for deviations, breaks or excesses in the expected astrophysical power-law neutrino spectrum could be the flux of such a particle. Motivated by features in the recent 1347-day IceCube high energy starting event (HESE) data, we focus on particular boosted dark matter (χ) related realizations of this premise. Here, χ is assumed to be much lighter than, and the result of, the slow decay of a massive scalar (phi ) which constitutes a major fraction of the Universe's dark matter (DM) . We show that this hypothesis, coupled with a standard power-law astrophysical neutrino flux is capable of providing very good fits to the present data, along with a possible explanation of other features in the HESE sample. These features include a) the paucity of events beyond ~ 2 PeV b) a spectral feature resembling a dip or a spectral change in the 400 TeV-1 PeV region and c) an excess in the 50-100 TeV region. We consider two different boosted DM scenarios, and determine the allowed mass ranges and couplings for four different types of mediators (scalar, pseudoscalar, vector and axial-vector) which could connect the standard and dark sectors.We consider constraints from gamma-ray observations and collider searches. We find that the gamma-ray observations provide the most restrictive constraints, disfavouring the 1σ allowed parameter space from IC fits, while still being consistent with the 3σ allowed region. We also test our proposal and its implications against the (statistically independent) sample of six year through-going muon track data recently released by IceCube.

  12. Water, law, science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narasimhan, T.N.

    2007-10-17

    In a world with water resources severely impacted bytechnology, science must actively contribute to water law. To this end,this paper is an earth scientist s attempt to comprehend essentialelements of water law, and to examine their connections to science.Science and law share a common logical framework of starting with apriori prescribed tenets, and drawing consistent inferences. In science,observationally established physical laws constitute the tenets, while inlaw, they stem from social values. The foundations of modern water law inEurope and the New World were formulated nearly two thousand years ago byRoman jurists who were inspired by Greek philosophy of reason.Recognizing that vital natural elements such as water, air, and the seawere governed by immutable natural laws, they reasoned that theseelements belonged to all humans, and therefore cannot be owned as privateproperty. Legally, such public property was to be governed by jusgentium, the law of all people or the law of all nations. In contrast,jus civile or civil law governed private property. Remarkably, jusgentium continues to be relevant in our contemporary society in whichscience plays a pivotal role in exploiting vital resources common to all.This paper examines the historical roots of modern water law, followstheir evolution through the centuries, and examines how the spirit ofscience inherent in jus gentium is profoundly influencing evolving waterand environmental laws in Europe, the United States and elsewhere. In atechnological world, scientific knowledge has to lie at the core of waterlaw. Yet, science cannot formulate law. It is hoped that a philosophicalunderstanding of the relationships between science and law willcontribute to their constructively coming together in the service ofsociety.

  13. Root hairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grierson, C.; Nielsen, E.; Ketelaar, T.; Schiefelbein, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roots hairs are cylindrical extensions of root epidermal cells that are important for acquisition of nutrients, microbe interactions, and plant anchorage. The molecular mechanisms involved in the specification, differentiation, and physiology of root hairs in Arabidopsis are reviewed here. Root hair

  14. EarthCube - Results of Test Governance in Geoscience Cyberinfrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, R.; Allison, M. L.; Keane, C. M.; Robinson, E.

    2016-12-01

    In September 2016, the EarthCube Test Enterprise Governance Project completed its three-year long process to engage the community and test a demonstration governing organization with the goal of facilitating a community-led process on designing and developing a geoscience cyberinfrastructure to transform geoscience research. The EarthCube initiative is making an important transition from creating a coherent community towards adoption and implemention of technologies that can serve scientists working in and across many domains. The emerging concept of a "system of systems" approach to cyberinfrastructure architecture is a critical concept in the EarthCube program, but has not been fully defined. Recommendations from an NSF-appointed Advisory Committee include: a. developing a succinct definition of EarthCube; b. changing the community-elected governance approach towards structured rather than consensus-driven decision-making; c. restructuring the process to articulate program solicitations; and d. producing an effective implementation roadmap. These are seen as prerequisites to adoption of best practices, system concepts, and evolving to a production track. The EarthCube governing body is preparing responses to the Advisory Committee findings and recommendations with a target delivery date of late 2016 but broader involvement may be warranted. We conclude that there is ample justification to continue evolving to a governance framework that facilitates convergence on a system architecture that guides EarthCube activities and plays an influential role in making operational the EarthCube vision of cyberinfrastructure for the geosciences. There is widespread community expectation for support of a multiyear EarthCube governing effort to put into practice the science, technical, and organizational plans that are continuing to emerge. However, the active participants in EarthCube represent a small sub-set of the larger population of geoscientists.

  15. QbX - The CubeSat Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold, Stephen; Armstrong, James; Person, Clark; Tietz, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) launched 2 QbX CubeSats from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station on December 8, 2010 as secondary payloads aboard SpaceX’s Falcon 9 launch vehicle, leveraging the flight opportunity provided by the first COTS Demo Flight of SpaceX’s Dragon Module. This paper will describe the development of the QbX CubeSats, present measured flight data, and evaluate the overall mission performance of the QbX CubeSats.

  16. New Formula for Stability of Cube Armoured Roundheads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maciñeira, Enrique; Burcharth, Hans F.

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents a new formula for the stability of cube armoured roundheads. The formula is based on physical model tests in Aalborg University which both long crested and short crested waves of different wave steepness were used. The slope of the radius of the head were varied in order...... to explore the influence of the geometry on the armour stability. Besides cubes with mass density 2.4 t/m3, cubes with mass density 2.80 t/m3 were used in order to include the effect of mass density in the formula. The damage predictions given by the formula have been compared with prototype hand...

  17. 3D Printing the Complete CubeSat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kief, Craig

    2015-01-01

    The 3D Printing the Complete CubeSat project is designed to advance the state-of-the-art in 3D printing for CubeSat applications. Printing in 3D has the potential to increase reliability, reduce design iteration time and provide greater design flexibility in the areas of radiation mitigation, communications, propulsion, and wiring, among others. This project is investigating the possibility of including propulsion systems into the design of printed CubeSat components. One such concept, an embedded micro pulsed plasma thruster (mPPT), could provide auxiliary reaction control propulsion for a spacecraft as a means to desaturate momentum wheels.

  18. Criminal Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Lars Bo; Garde, Peter; Greve, Vagn

    <> book contains a thorough description of Danish substantive criminal law, criminal procedure and execution of sanctions. The book was originally published as a monograph in the International Encyclopaedia of Laws/Criminal Law....... book contains a thorough description of Danish substantive criminal law, criminal procedure and execution of sanctions. The book was originally published as a monograph in the International Encyclopaedia of Laws/Criminal Law....

  19. Contrast enhancement of intracranial lesions at 1.5 T: comparison among 2D spin echo, black-blood (BB) Cube, and BB Cube-FLAIR sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, SungWoon; Ashikaga, Ryuichiro; Yagyu, Yukinobu; Hyodo, Tomoko; Imaoka, Izumi; Kumano, Seishi; Ishii, Kazunari; Murakami, Takamichi [Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Osaka-Sayama, Osaka (Japan); Wakayama, Tetsuya; Miyoshi, Mitsuharu [GE Healthcare Japan, MR Applications and Workflow, Asia Pacific, Hino, Tokyo (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the usefulness of T1W black-blood Cube (BB Cube) and T1W BB Cube fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (BB Cube-FLAIR) sequences for contrast-enhanced brain imaging, by evaluating flow-related artefacts, detectability, and contrast ratio (CR) of intracranial lesions among these sequences and T1W-SE. Phantom studies were performed to determine the optimal parameters of BB Cube and BB Cube-FLAIR. A clinical study in 23 patients with intracranial lesions was performed to evaluate the usefulness of these two sequences for the diagnosis of intracranial lesions compared with the conventional 2D T1W-SE sequence. The phantom study revealed that the optimal parameters for contrast-enhanced T1W imaging were TR/TE = 500 ms/minimum in BB Cube and TR/TE/TI = 600 ms/minimum/300 ms in BB Cube-FLAIR imaging. In the clinical study, the degree of flow-related artefacts was significantly lower in BB Cube and BB Cube-FLAIR than in T1W-SE. Regarding tumour detection, BB Cube showed the best detectability; however, there were no significant differences in CR among the sequences. At 1.5 T, contrast-enhanced BB Cube was a better imaging sequence for detecting brain lesions than T1W-SE or BB Cube-FLAIR. (orig.)

  20. World law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold J. Berman

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In the third millennium of the Christian era, which is characterised by the emergence of a world economy and eventually a world society, the concept of world law is needed to embrace not only the traditional disciplines of public international law, and comparative law, but also the common underlying legal principles applicable in world trade, world finance, transnational transfer of technology and other fields of world economic law, as well as in such emerging fields as the protection of the world's environment and the protection of universal human rights. World law combines inter-state law with the common law of humanity and the customary law of various world communities.

  1. CubeSat Form Factor Thermal Control Louvers Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thermal control of small spacecraft, including CubeSats, is a challenge for the next era of NASA spaceflight. Science objectives and components will still require...

  2. CubeSat Capabilities for Space Science Missions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The CubeSat Capabilities for Space Science Missions combines science and engineering talent at Goddard Space Flight Center and the Wallops Flight Facility to...

  3. LunarCube for Deep Space Missions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek Co., Inc. and Morehead State University propose to develop a 6U CubeSat capable of reaching a lunar orbit from GEO. The primary objective is to demonstrate...

  4. Development of non-sweet, flavored food cubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, R. W.

    1971-01-01

    Food cubes exhibit flavor and quality stability for periods of four weeks in 100 deg F environment. They are suitable for field rations, emergency rations or snacks and should interest the food processing industry.

  5. "Soft docking": matching of molecular surface cubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, F; Kim, S H

    1991-05-05

    Molecular recognition is achieved through the complementarity of molecular surface structures and energetics with, most commonly, associated minor conformational changes. This complementarity can take many forms: charge-charge interaction, hydrogen bonding, van der Waals' interaction, and the size and shape of surfaces. We describe a method that exploits these features to predict the sites of interactions between two cognate molecules given their three-dimensional structures. We have developed a "cube representation" of molecular surface and volume which enables us not only to design a simple algorithm for a six-dimensional search but also to allow implicitly the effects of the conformational changes caused by complex formation. The present molecular docking procedure may be divided into two stages. The first is the selection of a population of complexes by geometric "soft docking", in which surface structures of two interacting molecules are matched with each other, allowing minor conformational changes implicitly, on the basis of complementarity in size and shape, close packing, and the absence of steric hindrance. The second is a screening process to identify a subpopulation with many favorable energetic interactions between the buried surface areas. Once the size of the subpopulation is small, one may further screen to find the correct complex based on other criteria or constraints obtained from biochemical, genetic, and theoretical studies, including visual inspection. We have tested the present method in two ways. First is a control test in which we docked the components of a molecular complex of known crystal structure available in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). Two molecular complexes were used: (1) a ternary complex of dihydrofolate reductase, NADPH and methotrexate (3DFR in PDB) and (2) a binary complex of trypsin and trypsin inhibitor (2PTC in PDB). The components of each complex were taken apart at an arbitrary relative orientation and then docked

  6. Effective Reflection Area of a Cube Corner Retroreflector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Yanmin; FANG Zujie; CHEN Gang; CHEN Gaoting

    2000-01-01

    The effective reflection area of a cube corner retroreflector is defined. It is testified for a cube corner retroreflector (CCR) that the ray reflected from a CCR is not parallel with the ray incident on the CCR undersurface. The effective reflection area of CCR is calculated when the ray incident on the CCR undersurface vertically, and the effective reflection area of a CCR is two thirds of the CCR undersurface.

  7. SQL Server Analysis Services 2012 cube development cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Dewald, Baya; Hughes, Steve

    2013-01-01

    A practical cookbook packed with recipes to help developers produce data cubes as quickly as possible by following step by step instructions, rather than explaining data mining concepts with SSAS.If you are a BI or ETL developer using SQL Server Analysis services to build OLAP cubes, this book is ideal for you. Prior knowledge of relational databases and experience with Excel as well as SQL development is required.

  8. The Delinquencies of Juvenile Law: A Natural Law Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellis Washington

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is a substantive analysis tracing the legal, philosophical, social, historical, jurisprudence and political backgrounds of juvenile law, which is an outgrowth of the so-calledProgressive movement - a popular social and political movement of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. I also trace how this socio-political cause célèbre became a fixture in Americanculture and society due to existential child labor abuses which progressive intellectuals used as a pretext to codify juvenile law in federal law and in statutory law in all 50 states by 1925. Moreover the dubious social science and Machiavellian political efforts that created the juvenile justice system out of whole cloth has done much more harm to the Constitution and to the children it was mandated to protect than any of the Progressive ideas initially envisioned rooted in Positive Law (separation of law and morals. Finally, I present am impassioned argument for congressional repeal of all juvenile case law and statutes because they are rooted in Positive Law, contrary to Natural Law (integration of law and morals, the original intent of the constitutional Framers and are therefore patently unconstitutional.

  9. Miniature scientific-grade magnetic sensors for CubeSats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronenko, Vira; Belyayev, Serhiy

    2016-07-01

    Micro- and nanosatellites have become more attractive due to their low development and launch cost. A class of nanosatellites defined by the CubeSat standard allows standardizing CubeSat preparation and launch, thus making the projects more affordable. Because of the complexity of sensors miniaturization to install them onboard CubeSat, the majority of CubeSat launches are aimed the technology demonstration or education missions. The scientific success of CubeSat mission depends on the sensors quality. In spite that the sensitivity of the magnetic sensors strongly depends on their size, the recent development in this branch allows us to propose tiny but sensitive both AC and DC magnetometers. The goal of the present report is to introduce the new design of miniature three-component sensors for measurement of vector magnetic fields - for quasi-stationary and slowly fluctuating - flux-gate magnetometer (FGM) - and for alternative ones - search-coil magnetometer (SCM). In order to create magnetometers with the really highest possible level of parameters, a set of scientific and technological problems, mostly aimed at the sensor construction improvement, was solved. The most important parameter characterizing magnetometer quality is its own magnetic noise level (NL). The analysis of the NL influencing factors is made and the ways to decrease it are discussed in the report. Construction details and technical specifications of miniature but sensitive FGM and SCM for the CubeSat mission are presented. This work is supported by EC Framework 7 funded project 607197.

  10. Pick Cubes for Object Picking in VR World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mohamed Sathik

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we proposed an algorithm which performs object picking in Virtualreality world using cubes. As ‘Picking’ is an essential interaction technique in graphics applications,Object Picking is performed in VR world using a 3D mouse or an interactive glove to explore andinteract with any of the objects. In this paper, cube is used to represent the intersection point of the raycoming from the user input and the object to be picked. By intersecting the objects in the scene with theray with a pick cube at the intersection point, it is determined which one is picked. An object is selectedwhen this pick cube intersects the object’s bounding box. In this paper, object picking is typicallyperformed by bounding box checks, taking the position of the pick cube and the objects in account so thatthe algorithm is made simpler and the computation time of the algorithm is also reduced. Pick cube canbe activated to perform more actions during interactions than other shapes. So the efficiency and theperformance of the picking process will be increased which helps the user to play in the virtual worldwith full enthusiasm.

  11. Black Holes at IceCube

    CERN Document Server

    Anchordoqui, L A; Parker, L; Anchordoqui, Luis A.; Glenz, Matthew M.; Parker, Leonard

    2007-01-01

    If the fundamental Planck scale is about a TeV and the cosmic neutrino flux is at the Waxman-Bahcall level, quantum black holes are created daily in the Antarctic ice-cap. We re-examine the prospects for observing such black holes with the IceCube neutrino-detection experiment. To this end, we first revise the black hole production rate by incorporating the effects of inelasticty, i.e., the energy radiated in gravitational waves by the multipole moments of the incoming shock waves. After that we study in detail the process of Hawking evaporation accounting for the black hole's large momentum in the lab system. We derive the energy spectrum of the Planckian cloud which is swept forward with a large, O (10^6), Lorentz factor. (It is noteworthy that the boosted thermal spectrum is also relevant for the study of near-extremal supersymmetric black holes, which could be copiously produced at the LHC.) In the semiclassical regime, we estimate the average energy of the boosted particles to be less than 20% the energy...

  12. Evaluation of the Impact of an Additive Manufacturing Enhanced CubeSat Architecture on the CubeSat Development Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-15

    methods are needed in the CubeSat development process to reduce the weight and volume of subsystems and decrease integration time. Research Objective and...Investigative Questions This research will quantitatively address the impact of proposed benefits of a 3D printed satellite architecture on the...subsystems of a CubeSat. The objective of this research is to bring a quantitative analysis to the discussion of whether a fully 3D printed satellite

  13. Root fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jens Ove; Christensen, Søren Steno Ahrensburg; Tsilingaridis, Georgios

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze tooth loss after root fractures and to assess the influence of the type of healing and the location of the root fracture. Furthermore, the actual cause of tooth loss was analyzed.......The purpose of this study was to analyze tooth loss after root fractures and to assess the influence of the type of healing and the location of the root fracture. Furthermore, the actual cause of tooth loss was analyzed....

  14. EarthCube: A Community Organization for Geoscience Cyberinfrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, K.; Allison, M. L.

    2014-12-01

    The National Science Foundation's (NSF) EarthCube initiative is a community-driven approach to building cyberinfrastructure for managing, sharing, and exploring geoscience data and information to better address today's grand-challenge science questions. The EarthCube Test Enterprise Governance project is a two-year effort seeking to engage diverse geo- and cyber-science communities in applying a responsive approach to the development of a governing system for EarthCube. During Year 1, an Assembly of seven stakeholder groups representing the broad EarthCube community developed a draft Governance Framework. Finalized at the June 2014 EarthCube All Hands Meeting, this framework will be tested during the demonstration phase in Year 2, beginning October 2014. A brief overview of the framework: Community-elected members of the EarthCube Leadership Council will be responsible for managing strategic direction and identifying the scope of EarthCube. Three Standing Committees will also be established to oversee the development of technology and architecture, to coordinate among new and existing data facilities, and to represent the academic geosciences community in driving development of EarthCube cyberinfrastructure. An Engagement Team and a Liaison Team will support communication and partnerships with internal and external stakeholders, and a central Office will serve a logistical support function to the governance as a whole. Finally, ad hoc Working Groups and Special Interest Groups will take on other issues related to EarthCube's goals. The Year 2 demonstration phase will test the effectiveness of the proposed framework and allow for elements to be changed to better meet community needs. It will begin by populating committees and teams, and finalizing leadership and decision-making processes to move forward on community-selected priorities including identifying science drivers, coordinating emerging technical elements, and coming to convergence on system architecture. A

  15. 数据立方梯度挖掘的研究%The Research of the Cube Gradient Mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉葆; 冯玉才; 王元珍; 冯剑琳

    2003-01-01

    With the rapid development of data warehouse and OLAP techniques, the researchers begin to pay atten-tion to the data mining in the data cube. Recently, Dr. T. Imielinski etc. firstly presented the problem of the cubegradient mining that is a generalization of association rule in data cube. In this paper, we firstly introduce the relatedconcepts of data cube and condensed cube with an emphasis. Then we introduce some interesting problems related tothe cube gradient mining including: constrained cube gradient mining and the query language of cube gradient. Final-ly, we introduce several issues on the combination of cube gradient and the condensed cube, that is, the cube gradientmining in the materialized data cube and the integration of cube gradient mining and cube browse.

  16. Scalable desktop visualisation of very large radio astronomy data cubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Simon; Questiaux, Jacques; Finniss, Stephen; Tyler, Robin; Blyth, Sarah; Kuttel, Michelle M.

    2014-07-01

    Observation data from radio telescopes is typically stored in three (or higher) dimensional data cubes, the resolution, coverage and size of which continues to grow as ever larger radio telescopes come online. The Square Kilometre Array, tabled to be the largest radio telescope in the world, will generate multi-terabyte data cubes - several orders of magnitude larger than the current norm. Despite this imminent data deluge, scalable approaches to file access in Astronomical visualisation software are rare: most current software packages cannot read astronomical data cubes that do not fit into computer system memory, or else provide access only at a serious performance cost. In addition, there is little support for interactive exploration of 3D data. We describe a scalable, hierarchical approach to 3D visualisation of very large spectral data cubes to enable rapid visualisation of large data files on standard desktop hardware. Our hierarchical approach, embodied in the AstroVis prototype, aims to provide a means of viewing large datasets that do not fit into system memory. The focus is on rapid initial response: our system initially rapidly presents a reduced, coarse-grained 3D view of the data cube selected, which is gradually refined. The user may select sub-regions of the cube to be explored in more detail, or extracted for use in applications that do not support large files. We thus shift the focus from data analysis informed by narrow slices of detailed information, to analysis informed by overview information, with details on demand. Our hierarchical solution to the rendering of large data cubes reduces the overall time to complete file reading, provides user feedback during file processing and is memory efficient. This solution does not require high performance computing hardware and can be implemented on any platform supporting the OpenGL rendering library.

  17. A multifunctional solar panel antenna for cube satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawole, Olutosin C.

    The basic cube satellite (CubeSat) is a modern small satellite that has a standard size of about one liter (the 1U CubeSat). Three 1U CubeSats could be stacked to form a 3U CubeSat. Their low-cost, short development time, and ease of deployment make CubeSats popular for space research, geographical information gathering, and communication applications. An antenna is a key part of the CubeSat communication subsystem. Traditionally, antennas used on CubeSats are wrapped-up wire dipole antennas, which are deployed after satellite launch. Another antenna type used on CubeSats is the patch antenna. In addition to their low gain and efficiency, deployable dipole antennas may also fail to deploy on satellite launch. On the other hand, a solid patch antenna will compete for space with solar cells when placed on a CubeSat face, interfering with satellite power generation. Slot antennas are promising alternatives to dipole and patch antennas on CubeSats. When excited, a thin slot aperture etched on a conductive sheet (ground plane) is an efficient bidirectional radiator. This open slot antenna can be backed by a reflector or cavity for unidirectional radiation, and solar cells can be placed in spaces on the ground plane not occupied by the slot. The large surface areas of 3U CubeSats can be exploited for a multifunctional antenna by integrating multiple thin slot radiators, which are backed by a thin cavity on the CubeSat surfaces. Solar cells can then be integrated on the antenna surface. Polarization diversity and frequency diversity improve the overall performance of a communication system. Having a single radiating structure that could provide these diversities is desired. It has been demonstrated that when a probe excites a square cavity with two unequal length crossed-slots, the differential radiation from the two slots combines in the far-field to yield circular polarization. In addition, it has been shown that two equal-length proximal slots, when both fed with a

  18. Very-high-energy astrophysical neutrinos with IceCube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taboada Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available IceCube is a ≳TeV neutrino observatory operating at the South Pole. Ice-Cube has observed a flux of neutrinos of astrophysical origin, with energies beyond 2 PeV. However the sources of these neutrinos have not yet been identified. A summary of various IceCube observations is presented. The results discussed were obtained through several different analysis methods, which have varying sensitivity to the different neutrino flavors. A discussion of the spectral fit obtained for the various event selections is included, as well as the constraints on the astrophysical neutrino flavor flux ratio. Several attempts by IceCube to identify the sources of these neutrinos are described. These include studies correlating neutrino events with catalogs of sources as well as selfcorrelations among IceCube’s neutrinos. The observations of astrophysical neutrinos are limited by statistics. So an upgrade of IceCube, including a larger detector and a surface veto is planned. This upgrade is briefly discussed.

  19. Latest results from the IceCube neutrino observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schukraft, Anne [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). III. Physikalisches Inst.; Collaboration: IceCube-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    The IceCube Neutrino Observatory is the world's largest neutrino detector with a broad physics program covering the neutrino spectrum from several tens of GeV up to EeV energies. With its completion in 2010 it has reached its full sensitivity and analyses with unprecedented statistics are performed. One of the major research efforts is the search for extraterrestrial neutrino sources, which have not yet been discovered but would be a smoking gun for hadronic acceleration and could allow to identify the sources of high-energy cosmic rays. Such include steady galactic and extragalactic source candidates, e.g. Supernova Remnants and Active Galactic Nuclei, as well as transient phenomena like flaring objects and Gamma Ray Bursts. With its searches for diffuse neutrino fluxes in different energy ranges, IceCube is sensitive to fluxes of prompt atmospheric neutrinos, extragalactic neutrinos and cosmogenic neutrinos. In the low-energy range below 100 GeV, IceCube supplements classical neutrino oscillation experiments with its sensitivity to the deficit of atmospheric muon neutrinos at 25 GeV and searches for neutrinos from the annihilation of dark matter. The IceCube physics program is complemented by the surface array IceTop, which together with the detector part inside the ice serves for cosmic ray anisotropy, spectrum and composition measurements around the knee. The presentation summarizes ongoing IceCube physics analyses and recent results.

  20. Using the multistage cube network topology in parallel supercomputers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegel, H.J.; Nation, W.G. (Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (USA). School of Electrical Engineering); Kruskal, C.P. (Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (USA). Dept. of Computer Science); Napolitano, L.M. Jr. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (USA))

    1989-12-01

    A variety of approaches to designing the interconnection network to support communications among the processors and memories of supercomputers employing large-scale parallel processing have been proposed and/or implemented. These approaches are often based on the multistage cube topology. This topology is the subject of much ongoing research and study because of the ways in which the multistage cube can be used. The attributes of the topology that make it useful are described. These include O(N log{sub 2} N) cost for an N input/output network, decentralized control, a variety of implementation options, good data permuting capability to support single instruction stream/multiple data stream (SIMD) parallelism, good throughput to support multiple instruction stream/multiple data stream (MIMD) parallelism, and ability to be partitioned into independent subnetworks to support reconfigurable systems. Examples of existing systems that use multistage cube networks are overviewed. The multistage cube topology can be converted into a single-stage network by associating with each switch in the network a processor (and a memory). Properties of systems that use the multistage cube network in this way are also examined.

  1. World law

    OpenAIRE

    Berman, Harold J.; Robert W. Woodruff; James Barr Ames

    1999-01-01

    In the third millennium of the Christian era, which is characterised by the emergence of a world economy and eventually a world society, the concept of world law is needed to embrace not only the traditional disciplines of public international law, and comparative law, but also the common underlying legal principles applicable in world trade, world finance, transnational transfer of technology and other fields of world economic law, as well as in such emerging fields as the protection of the ...

  2. IceCube and high-energy neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niro, V.

    2015-01-01

    The recent IceCube observation of the first high-energy neutrinos has received the Physics World award for the Breakthrough of the Year 2013. In the light of this important discovery, we revisit the possibility of observing, at the IceCube detector, three Milagro sources: MGRO J2019+ 37, MGRO J1908+ 06 and MGRO J2031+ 41. Moreover, we present a discussion on the possible galactic origin of some of the IceCube events and we comment on the possibility that the high-energy neutrinos detected might come from a Dark Matter decay. Finally, we comment on other important consequences of this discovery, like bounds on Lorentz-invariance violation and on secret neutrino interactions.

  3. Performing High-Quality Science on CubeSats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    H. Zurbuchen, Thomas; von Steiger, Rudolf; Bartalev, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    January 2016 the International Space Science Institute in Berne, Switzerland,hosted a two-day Forum to focus on the rapid evolution of CubeSats as an enabling technology platform, with special emphasis on their promise to perform high-quality science.The Forum was initiated in coordination...... in this area of research. Our discussions focused on four themes characteristic of CubeSats and their evolution: 1) identification of appropriate science in avariety of research disciplines, 2) technology development, 3) international vs. national approaches, and 4) educational benefits. These discussions...... with a then ongoing, and recently published study performed by the US National Academies onthe same topic (goo.gl/osCSQ3), and was focused on the international context of CubeSats-enabled science. This report summarizes the conclusions from this Forum to inform the growing international community of the activities...

  4. Cube orientation in hot rolled high purity aluminum plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨平; 毛卫民

    2003-01-01

    X-ray diffraction and orientation mapping in EBSD measurement were applied to obtain information ofdeformation and recrystallization with the emphasis on the cube orientation in hot rolled high purity aluminumplates. It is shown that cube orientations are retained to a large extent during hot rolling. Some deformed cubegrains are found to have experienced large extent of recovery according to their Kikuchi band contrasts. The de-formed cube-oriented grains in hot rolled plates are in an unfavorite growth condition with respect to their neighbor-ing grain orientations for the subsequent annealing. The reasons for the phenomena observed, as well as the influ-ence of hot rolling process on subsequent cold rolling and final annealing were discussed.

  5. Neutrino oscillation studies with IceCube-DeepCore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aartsen, M. G.; Abraham, K.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Ahrens, M.; Altmann, D.; Anderson, T.; Ansseau, I.; Archinger, M.; Arguelles, C.; Arlen, T. C.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker Tjus, J.; Becker, K.-H.; Beiser, E.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bernhard, A.; Besson, D. Z.; Binder, G.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blumenthal, J.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Börner, M.; Bos, F.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Braun, J.; Brayeur, L.; Bretz, H.-P.; Buzinsky, N.; Casey, J.; Casier, M.; Cheung, E.; Chirkin, D.; Christov, A.; Clark, K.; Classen, L.; Coenders, S.; Collin, G. H.; Conrad, J. M.; Cowen, D. F.; Cruz Silva, A. H.; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; Day, M.; de André, J. P. A. M.; De Clercq, C.; del Pino Rosendo, E.; Dembinski, H.; De Ridder, S.; Desiati, P.; de Vries, K. D.; de Wasseige, G.; de With, M.; DeYoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; di Lorenzo, V.; Dumm, J. P.; Dunkman, M.; Eberhardt, B.; Ehrhardt, T.; Eichmann, B.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fahey, S.; Fazely, A. R.; Feintzeig, J.; Felde, J.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Flis, S.; Fösig, C.-C.; Fuchs, T.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gaior, R.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Ghorbani, K.; Gier, D.; Gladstone, L.; Glagla, M.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Golup, G.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Góra, D.; Grant, D.; Griffith, Z.; Groß, A.; Ha, C.; Haack, C.; Haj Ismail, A.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hansen, E.; Hansmann, B.; Hanson, K.; Hebecker, D.; Heereman, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hickford, S.; Hignight, J.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Holzapfel, K.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Huang, F.; Huber, M.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; In, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jeong, M.; Jero, K.; Jones, B. J. P.; Jurkovic, M.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kauer, M.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, J.; Kheirandish, A.; Kiryluk, J.; Klein, S. R.; Kohnen, G.; Koirala, R.; Kolanoski, H.; Konietz, R.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Krings, K.; Kroll, G.; Kroll, M.; Krückl, G.; Kunnen, J.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Lanfranchi, J. L.; Larson, M. J.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Leuermann, M.; Leuner, J.; Lu, L.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Maggi, G.; Mahn, K. B. M.; Mandelartz, M.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; Maunu, R.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Medici, M.; Meli, A.; Menne, T.; Merino, G.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Middell, E.; Mohrmann, L.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Neer, G.; Niederhausen, H.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Obertacke Pollmann, A.; Olivas, A.; Omairat, A.; O'Murchadha, A.; Palczewski, T.; Pandya, H.; Pankova, D. V.; Paul, L.; Pepper, J. A.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Pfendner, C.; Pieloth, D.; Pinat, E.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Quinnan, M.; Raab, C.; Rädel, L.; Rameez, M.; Rawlins, K.; Reimann, R.; Relich, M.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Richman, M.; Richter, S.; Riedel, B.; Robertson, S.; Rongen, M.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ryckbosch, D.; Sabbatini, L.; Sander, H.-G.; Sandrock, A.; Sandroos, J.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Schimp, M.; Schmidt, T.; Schoenen, S.; Schöneberg, S.; Schönwald, A.; Schulte, L.; Schumacher, L.; Seckel, D.; Seunarine, S.; Soldin, D.; Song, M.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stahlberg, M.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stasik, A.; Steuer, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stößl, A.; Ström, R.; Strotjohann, N. L.; Sullivan, G. W.; Sutherland, M.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tatar, J.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Terliuk, A.; Tešić, G.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Tobin, M. N.; Toscano, S.; Tosi, D.; Tselengidou, M.; Turcati, A.; Unger, E.; Usner, M.; Vallecorsa, S.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vanheule, S.; van Santen, J.; Veenkamp, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Vraeghe, M.; Walck, C.; Wallace, A.; Wallraff, M.; Wandkowsky, N.; Weaver, Ch.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Wille, L.; Williams, D. R.; Wills, L.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Xu, Y.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zoll, M.

    2016-07-01

    IceCube, a gigaton-scale neutrino detector located at the South Pole, was primarily designed to search for astrophysical neutrinos with energies of PeV and higher. This goal has been achieved with the detection of the highest energy neutrinos to date. At the other end of the energy spectrum, the DeepCore extension lowers the energy threshold of the detector to approximately 10 GeV and opens the door for oscillation studies using atmospheric neutrinos. An analysis of the disappearance of these neutrinos has been completed, with the results produced being complementary with dedicated oscillation experiments. Following a review of the detector principle and performance, the method used to make these calculations, as well as the results, is detailed. Finally, the future prospects of IceCube-DeepCore and the next generation of neutrino experiments at the South Pole (IceCube-Gen2, specifically the PINGU sub-detector) are briefly discussed.

  6. Fast Computation of Sparse Data Cubes with Constraints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Yu-cai; Chen Chang-qing; Feng Jian-lin; Xiang Long-gang

    2004-01-01

    For a data cube there are always constraints between dimensions or among attributes in a dimension, such as functional dependencies. We introduce the problem that when there are functional dependencies, how to use them to speed up the computation of sparse data cubes. A new algorithm CFD (Computation by Functional Dependencies) is presented to satisfy this demand. CFD determines the order of dimensions by considering cardinalities of dimensions and functional dependencies between dimensions together, thus reduce the number of partitions for such dimensions. CFD also combines partitioning from bottom to up and aggregate computation from top to bottom to speed up the computation further. CFD can efficiently compute a data cube with hierarchies in a dimension from the smallest granularity to the coarsest one.

  7. Recent results from the IceCube Neutrino Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenen, Sebastian [3. Physikalisches Institut B, RWTH Aachen (Germany); Collaboration: IceCube-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The IceCube Neutrino Observatory is a cubic-kilometer Cherenkov telescope buried deep in the glacial ice at the geographic South Pole. It is a multi-purpose detector covering a broad physics program in high-energy neutrino astronomy and particle physics. Already the data from IceCube's first few years of operation have revealed an excess of high-energy neutrino events in multiple detection channels from a few tens of TeV up to a few PeV. The flux observed at these energies is incompatible with a purely atmospheric origin and thus confirmed the existence of a high-energy extraterrestrial neutrino flux. However, the astrophysical sources of this flux still remain unresolved. In this talk we provide an overview about recent IceCube results in the field of neutrino astrophysics.

  8. Primary spectrum and composition with IceCube/IceTop

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2016-01-01

    IceCube, with its surface array IceTop, detects three different components of extensive air showers: the total signal at the surface, GeV muons in the periphery of the showers and TeV muons in the deep array of IceCube. The spectrum is measured with high resolution from the knee to the ankle with IceTop. Composition and spectrum are extracted from events seen in coincidence by the surface array and the deep array of IceCube. The muon lateral distribution at the surface is obtained from the data and used to provide a measurement of the muon density at 600 meters from the shower core up to 30 PeV. Results are compared to measurements from other experiments to obtain an overview of the spectrum and composition over an extended range of energy. Consistency of the surface muon measurements with hadronic interaction models and with measurements at higher energy is discussed.

  9. Neutrino oscillation studies with IceCube-DeepCore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aartsen, M.G. [Department of Physics, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, 5005 (Australia); Abraham, K. [Technische Universität München, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Ackermann, M. [DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen (Germany); Adams, J. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch (New Zealand); Aguilar, J.A. [Université Libre de Bruxelles, Science Faculty CP230, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Ahlers, M. [Dept. of Physics and Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Ahrens, M. [Oskar Klein Centre and Dept. of Physics, Stockholm University, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Altmann, D. [Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Anderson, T. [Dept. of Physics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Ansseau, I. [Université Libre de Bruxelles, Science Faculty CP230, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Archinger, M. [Institute of Physics, University of Mainz, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Arguelles, C. [Dept. of Physics and Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Arlen, T.C. [Dept. of Physics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Auffenberg, J. [III. Physikalisches Institut, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen (Germany); Bai, X. [Physics Department, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD 57701 (United States); Barwick, S.W. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Baum, V. [Institute of Physics, University of Mainz, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); and others

    2016-07-15

    IceCube, a gigaton-scale neutrino detector located at the South Pole, was primarily designed to search for astrophysical neutrinos with energies of PeV and higher. This goal has been achieved with the detection of the highest energy neutrinos to date. At the other end of the energy spectrum, the DeepCore extension lowers the energy threshold of the detector to approximately 10 GeV and opens the door for oscillation studies using atmospheric neutrinos. An analysis of the disappearance of these neutrinos has been completed, with the results produced being complementary with dedicated oscillation experiments. Following a review of the detector principle and performance, the method used to make these calculations, as well as the results, is detailed. Finally, the future prospects of IceCube-DeepCore and the next generation of neutrino experiments at the South Pole (IceCube-Gen2, specifically the PINGU sub-detector) are briefly discussed.

  10. Chemical composition of primary cosmic rays with IceCube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chen

    Ground detector arrays have been used to measure high energy cosmic rays for decades to overcome their very low rate. IceCube is a special case with its 3D deployment and unique location---the South Pole. Although all 86 strings and 81 stations of IceCube were completed in 2011, IceCube began to take data in 2006, after the completion of the first 9 strings. In this thesis, experimental data taken in 2009 with 59 strings are used for composition analysis albeit some techniques are illustrated with the 40-string data. Simulation is essential in the composition work. Simulated data must be compared against the experimental data to find the right mix of cosmic ray components. However, because of limited computing resources and complexities of cosmic rays, the simulation in IceCube is well behind the experiment. The lower and upper bounds of primary energy in simulation for events that go through IceTop and the deep arrays of IceCube are 1014 eV and 1017 eV. However, since IceCube has a threshold energy about several hundred TeV, and an upper limit of 10 18 eV, the full energy range cannot be explored in this thesis. The approach taken to the composition problem in this thesis is a 2D Bayesian unfolding. It takes account of the measured IceTop and InIce energy spectrum and outputs the expected primary energy spectrum of different mass components. Studies of the uncertainties in the results are not complete because of limited simulation and understanding of the new detector and South Pole environment.

  11. Low-energy point source searches with IceCube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euler Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the overwhelming background of atmospheric muons, the traditional IceCube point source search in the Southern Hemisphere is mainly sensitive to neutrinos with energies above 100TeV. A new approach focuses on events starting inside the instrumented volume. By utilizing different veto techniques we are able to significantly reduce the energy threshold and can now for the first time explore the entire Southern Hemisphere at neutrino energies as low as 100GeV. We present the results of two analyses targeting slightly different energy ranges. Both use one year of data taken with the completed IceCube detector in 2011/12.

  12. Instant SQL Server Analysis Services 2012 Cube Security

    CERN Document Server

    Jayanty, Satya SK

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. Instant Microsoft SQL Server Analysis Services 2012 Cube Security is a practical, hands-on guide that provides a number of clear, step-by-step exercises for getting started with cube security.This book is aimed at Database Administrators, Data Architects, and Systems Administrators who are managing the SQL Server data platform. It is also beneficial for analysis services developers who already have some experience with the technology, but who want to go into more detail on advanced

  13. Optimizing RDF Data Cubes for Efficient Processing of Analytical Queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kim Ahlstrøm; Andersen, Alex B.; Hose, Katja

    2015-01-01

    data warehouses and data cubes. Today, external data sources are essential for analytics and, as the Semantic Web gains popularity, more and more external sources are available in native RDF. With the recent SPARQL 1.1 standard, performing analytical queries over RDF data sources has finally become......In today’s data-driven world, analytical querying, typically based on the data cube concept, is the cornerstone of answering important business questions and making data-driven decisions. Traditionally, the underlying analytical data was mostly internal to the organization and stored in relational...

  14. Integrated Solar-Panel Antenna Array for CubeSats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baktur, Reyhan

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the Integrated Solar-Panel Antenna Array for CubeSats (ISAAC) project is to design and demonstrate an effective and efficien toptically transparent, high-gain, lightweight, conformal X-band antenna array that is integrated with the solar panels of a CubeSat. The targeted demonstration is for a Near Earth Network (NEN)radio at X-band, but the design can be easilyscaled to other network radios for higher frequencies. ISAAC is a less expensive and more flexible design for communication systemscompared to a deployed dish antenna or the existing integrated solar panel antenna design.

  15. An improved Marching Cube algorithm for 3D data segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masala, G. L.; Golosio, B.; Oliva, P.

    2013-03-01

    The marching cube algorithm is one of the most popular algorithms for isosurface triangulation. It is based on a division of the data volume into elementary cubes, followed by a standard triangulation inside each cube. In the original formulation, the marching cube algorithm is based on 15 basic triangulations and a total of 256 elementary triangulations are obtained from the basic ones by rotation, reflection, conjugation, and combinations of these operations. The original formulation of the algorithm suffers from well-known problems of connectivity among triangles of adjacent cubes, which has been solved in various ways. We developed a variant of the marching cube algorithm that makes use of 21 basic triangulations. Triangles of adjacent cubes are always well connected in this approach. The output of the code is a triangulated model of the isosurface in raw format or in VRML (Virtual Reality Modelling Language) format. Catalogue identifier: AENS_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AENS_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 147558 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 26084066 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C. Computer: Pentium 4, CPU 3.2 GHz and 3.24 GB of RAM (2.77 GHz). Operating system: Tested on several Linux distribution, but generally works in all Linux-like platforms. RAM: Approximately 2 MB Classification: 6.5. Nature of problem: Given a scalar field μ(x,y,z) sampled on a 3D regular grid, build a discrete model of the isosurface associated to the isovalue μIso, which is defined as the set of points that satisfy the equation μ(x,y,z)=μIso. Solution method: The proposed solution is an improvement of the Marching Cube algorithm, which approximates the isosurface using a set of

  16. Compressed Data Cube for Approximate OLAP Query Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯玉; 王珊

    2002-01-01

    Approximate query processing has emerged as an approach to dealing with thehuge data volume and complex queries in the environment of data warehouse. In this paper,we present a novel method that provides approximate answers to OLAP queries. Our methodis based on building a compressed (approximate) data cube by a clustering technique and usingthis compressed data cube to provide answers to queries directly, so it improves the performanceof the queries. We also provide the algorithm of the OLAP queries and the confidence intervalsof query results. An extensive experimental study with the OLAP council benchmark showsthe effectiveness and scalability of our cluster-based approach compared to sampling.

  17. Temperature Development during Hardening of Large Concrete Cubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.; Burcharth, Hans Falk

    The purpose ofthe project is to verify ifthermal cracking will occur in large unreinforced concrete cubes due to large temperature differences during hardening o f the concrete. The first part o f the project is to numerically simulate the temperature development during hardening, evaluate the risk...... of thermally induced crackingunder varying execution conditions, and verify the temperature calculations by caJTying out measurements in situ. The cubes are cast and cured under marine environmental conditions in the north western part of Spain and are to serve as coastal proteetion in a harbour under...

  18. Temperature Development during Hardening of Large Concrete Cubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.; Burcharth, Hans Falk

    The purpose ofthe project is to verify ifthermal cracking will occur in large unreinforced concrete cubes due to large temperature differences during hardening o f the concrete. The first part o f the project is to numerically simulate the temperature development during hardening, evaluate the risk...... of thermally induced cracking under varying execution conditions, and verify the temperature calculations by carrying out measurements in situ. The cubes are cast and cured under marine environmental conditions in the north western part of Spain and are to serve as coastal proteetion in a harbour under...

  19. Integrated CubeSat ADACS with Reaction Wheels and Star Tracker Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MAI-400SS Space Sextant is a precision attitude determination and control system for CubeSats and Nanosats. The MAI-400SS enables future CubeSat missions with...

  20. CubeSat Power Management Controller and Solar Array Articulation System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The CubeSat platform represents a valuable architecture from which to develop satellite capabilities, payloads and technologies. However, CubeSat spacecraft must be...

  1. The IceCube Neutrino Observatory VI: Neutrino Oscillations, Supernova Searches, Ice Properties

    OpenAIRE

    The IceCube Collaboration

    2011-01-01

    Atmospheric neutrino oscillations with DeepCore; Supernova detection with IceCube and beyond; Study of South Pole ice transparency with IceCube flashers; Submitted papers to the 32nd International Cosmic Ray Conference, Beijing 2011.

  2. Solar Electric Propulsion CubeSat Bus for Deep Space Missions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As electronics continue to shrink in size, the capabilities of CubeSats continues to expand. CubeSats can now perform a wide range of sensing and telecommunications...

  3. Probing decaying heavy dark matter with the 4-year IceCube HESE data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Atri; Esmaili, Arman; Palomares-Ruiz, Sergio; Sarcevic, Ina

    2017-07-01

    After the first four years of data taking, the IceCube neutrino telescope has observed 54 high-energy starting events (HESE) with deposited energies between 20 TeV and 2 PeV . The background from atmospheric muons and neutrinos is expected to be of about 20 events, all below 100 TeV, thus pointing towards the astrophysical origin of about 8 events per year in that data set. However, their precise origin remains unknown. Here, we perform a detailed analysis of this event sample (considering simultaneously the energy, hemisphere and topology of the events) by assuming two contributions for the signal events: an isotropic power-law flux and a flux from decaying heavy dark matter. We fit the mass and lifetime of the dark matter and the normalization and spectral index of an isotropic power-law flux, for various decay channels of dark matter. We find that a significant contribution from dark matter decay is always slightly favored, either to explain the excess below 100 TeV, as in the case of decays to quarks or, as in the case of neutrino channels, to explain the three multi-PeV events. Also, we consider the possibility to interpret all the data by dark matter decays only, considering various combinations of two decay channels. We show that the decaying dark matter scenario provides a better fit to HESE data than the isotropic power-law flux.

  4. 财政法的经济学根基——交易成本公共物品理论的提出%Economic Roots of Fiscal Law Proposal of Transaction-cost Public-goods Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢会强

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, studies of public finance and fiscal law hold that the necessity of public finance is justified by the theory of externality and the derived traditional public goods theory. Meanwhile, the transaction-cost public-goods theory maintains that economic roots of public finance lie not in externality, but in transaction costs of externality. The government is expected to provide public goods at a lower transaction cost and the purpose of provi- ding public goods is to reduce transaction costs of the whole society. Thus, the major function of public finance and fiscal law should be to cut down transaction costs of the entire society, but not the dogmatic "public goods providing". Monopoly has been covered under the excuse that "private individuals are not willing to provide public goods", which led to the increase of transaction costs of public goods. Therefore, when deciding the provider of certain public goods, the government is suggested to take into consideration the questions as follows: Should this type of public goods be provided by private individuals or the government? Which approach can better reduce the transaction costs? How can the government cut down the transaction costs?%传统上,财政学和财政法均认为财政存在的必要性在于外部性理论以及在此基础上提出的传统公共物品理论。而交易成本公共物品理论则主张,财政法的经济学根基不在于外部性,而在于解决外部性的交易成本的高低。政府应以更低的交易费用来提供公共物品,提供公共物品的目的是为了降低整个社会的交易费用。财政和财政法的主要职能是降低整个社会的交易费用,而不是所谓的教务式的“提供公共物品”。借“私人不愿提供公共物品”之名而行垄断之实,其结果往往导致该物品的交易费用增加。因此,在决定一类物品由谁提供时,政府应该这样思考:该物品由私人提供

  5. The IceCube Neutrino Observatory: instrumentation and online systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aartsen, M. G.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Ahrens, M.; Altmann, D.; Andeen, K.; Anderson, T.; Ansseau, I.; Anton, G.; Archinger, M.; Argüelles, C.; Auer, R.; Auffenberg, J.; Axani, S.; Baccus, J.; Bai, X.; Barnet, S.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Beattie, K.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker Tjus, J.; Becker, K.-H.; Bendfelt, T.; BenZvi, S.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bernhard, A.; Besson, D. Z.; Binder, G.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blot, S.; Boersma, D.; Bohm, C.; Börner, M.; Bos, F.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Bouchta, A.; Braun, J.; Brayeur, L.; Bretz, H.-P.; Bron, S.; Burgman, A.; Burreson, C.; Carver, T.; Casier, M.; Cheung, E.; Chirkin, D.; Christov, A.; Clark, K.; Classen, L.; Coenders, S.; Collin, G. H.; Conrad, J. M.; Cowen, D. F.; Cross, R.; Day, C.; Day, M.; de André, J. P. A. M.; De Clercq, C.; del Pino Rosendo, E.; Dembinski, H.; De Ridder, S.; Descamps, F.; Desiati, P.; de Vries, K. D.; de Wasseige, G.; de With, M.; DeYoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; di Lorenzo, V.; Dujmovic, H.; Dumm, J. P.; Dunkman, M.; Eberhardt, B.; Edwards, W. R.; Ehrhardt, T.; Eichmann, B.; Eller, P.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fahey, S.; Fazely, A. R.; Feintzeig, J.; Felde, J.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Flis, S.; Fösig, C.-C.; Franckowiak, A.; Frère, M.; Friedman, E.; Fuchs, T.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Ghorbani, K.; Giang, W.; Gladstone, L.; Glauch, T.; Glowacki, D.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Grant, D.; Griffith, Z.; Gustafsson, L.; Haack, C.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hansen, E.; Hansmann, T.; Hanson, K.; Haugen, J.; Hebecker, D.; Heereman, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Heller, R.; Hickford, S.; Hignight, J.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Hoshina, K.; Huang, F.; Huber, M.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; In, S.; Inaba, M.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Jacobsen, J.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jeong, M.; Jero, K.; Jones, A.; Jones, B. J. P.; Joseph, J.; Kang, W.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Katz, U.; Kauer, M.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, J.; Kheirandish, A.; Kim, J.; Kim, M.; Kintscher, T.; Kiryluk, J.; Kitamura, N.; Kittler, T.; Klein, S. R.; Kleinfelder, S.; Kleist, M.; Kohnen, G.; Koirala, R.; Kolanoski, H.; Konietz, R.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Krasberg, M.; Krings, K.; Kroll, M.; Krückl, G.; Krüger, C.; Kunnen, J.; Kunwar, S.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Laihem, K.; Landsman, H.; Lanfranchi, J. L.; Larson, M. J.; Lauber, F.; Laundrie, A.; Lennarz, D.; Leich, H.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Leuermann, M.; Lu, L.; Ludwig, J.; Lünemann, J.; Mackenzie, C.; Madsen, J.; Maggi, G.; Mahn, K. B. M.; Mancina, S.; Mandelartz, M.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H.; Maunu, R.; McNally, F.; McParland, C. P.; Meade, P.; Meagher, K.; Medici, M.; Meier, M.; Meli, A.; Menne, T.; Merino, G.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Minor, R. H.; Montaruli, T.; Moulai, M.; Murray, T.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Neer, G.; Newcomb, M.; Niederhausen, H.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Obertacke Pollmann, A.; Olivas, A.; O'Murchadha, A.; Palczewski, T.; Pandya, H.; Pankova, D. V.; Patton, S.; Peiffer, P.; Penek, Ö.; Pepper, J. A.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Pettersen, C.; Pieloth, D.; Pinat, E.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Quinnan, M.; Raab, C.; Rädel, L.; Rameez, M.; Rawlins, K.; Reimann, R.; Relethford, B.; Relich, M.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Richman, M.; Riedel, B.; Robertson, S.; Rongen, M.; Roucelle, C.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ryckbosch, D.; Rysewyk, D.; Sabbatini, L.; Sanchez Herrera, S. E.; Sandrock, A.; Sandroos, J.; Sandstrom, P.; Sarkar, S.; Satalecka, K.; Schlunder, P.; Schmidt, T.; Schoenen, S.; Schöneberg, S.; Schukraft, A.; Schumacher, L.; Seckel, D.; Seunarine, S.; Solarz, M.; Soldin, D.; Song, M.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stanev, T.; Stasik, A.; Stettner, J.; Steuer, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stößl, A.; Ström, R.; Strotjohann, N. L.; Sulanke, K.-H.; Sullivan, G. W.; Sutherland, M.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tatar, J.; Tenholt, F.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Terliuk, A.; Tešić, G.; Thollander, L.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Tobin, M. N.; Toscano, S.; Tosi, D.; Tselengidou, M.; Turcati, A.; Unger, E.; Usner, M.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vanheule, S.; van Rossem, M.; van Santen, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Vogel, E.; Vraeghe, M.; Wahl, D.; Walck, C.; Wallace, A.; Wallraff, M.; Wandkowsky, N.; Weaver, Ch.; Weiss, M. J.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Wharton, D.; Whelan, B. J.; Wickmann, S.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Wille, L.; Williams, D. R.; Wills, L.; Wisniewski, P.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woolsey, E.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Xu, Y.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zoll, M.

    2017-03-01

    The IceCube Neutrino Observatory is a cubic-kilometer-scale high-energy neutrino detector built into the ice at the South Pole. Construction of IceCube, the largest neutrino detector built to date, was completed in 2011 and enabled the discovery of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos. We describe here the design, production, and calibration of the IceCube digital optical module (DOM), the cable systems, computing hardware, and our methodology for drilling and deployment. We also describe the online triggering and data filtering systems that select candidate neutrino and cosmic ray events for analysis. Due to a rigorous pre-deployment protocol, 98.4% of the DOMs in the deep ice are operating and collecting data. IceCube routinely achieves a detector uptime of 99% by emphasizing software stability and monitoring. Detector operations have been stable since construction was completed, and the detector is expected to operate at least until the end of the next decade.

  6. Neutrino Physics with the IceCube Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IceCube Collaboration; Kiryluk, Joanna; Kiryluk, Joanna

    2008-06-11

    IceCube is a cubic kilometer neutrino telescope under construction at the South Pole.The primary goal is to discover astrophysical sources of high energy neutrinos.We describe the detector and present results on atmospheric muon neutrinos from2006 data collected with nine detector strings.

  7. Waring’s problem for cubes and biquadrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆鸣皋; 余红兵

    1995-01-01

    Let r(n) denote the number of representations of n as the sums of 5 cubes and 3 biquadra-tes of natural numbers. Then for all sufficiently large n, one has r(n)(?)n17/12, which is the expected order of magnitude of r(n).

  8. Sublimation-Induced Shape Evolution of Silver Cubes

    KAUST Repository

    Ding, Yong

    2009-12-18

    The heat is on: Surface sublimation and shape transformation of silver cubes, enclosed by {100} surfaces and about 100nm in size, are examined by in situ transmission electron microscopy (see picture). High-index surfaces, such as {110}, of face-centered cubic metals are more stable when the temperature is close to the melting point.

  9. Temporal Processing in Bistable Perception of the Necker Cube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernery, Jannis; Atmanspacher, Harald; Kornmeier, Jürgen; Candia, Victor; Folkers, Gerd; Wittmann, Marc

    2015-02-01

    Perception of ambiguous figures is unstable and alternates repeatedly between possible interpretations. Some approaches to explaining this phenomenon have, so far, assumed low-level bottom-up mechanisms like adaptation and mutual inhibition of underlying neural assemblies. In contrast, less precise top-down approaches assume high-level attentional control mechanisms generalised across sensory modalities. In the current work we focused on specific aspects of the top-down approach. In a first study we used dwell times (periods of transiently stable percepts) and the parameters of dwell time distribution functions to compare the dynamics of perceptual alternations between visual (Necker cube) and auditory ambiguity (verbal transformation effect). In a second study we compared the endogenous alternation dynamics of the Necker cube with parameters from two attention tasks with different regimes of temporal dynamics. The first attention task (d2) is characterised by endogenous self-paced dynamics, similar to the dynamics underlying perceptual alternations of ambiguous figures, and we found clear correlations between dwell time parameters (Necker cube) and processing speed (d2 task). The temporal dynamics of the second (go/no-go) attention task, in contrast, are exogenously governed by the stimulus protocol, and we found no statistically significant correlation with the Necker cube data. Our results indicate that both perceptual instability and higher-level attentional tasks are linked to endogenous brain dynamics on a global coordinating level beyond sensory modalities.

  10. Event selection with a Random Forest in IceCube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruhe, Tim [TU, Dortmund (Germany); Collaboration: IceCube-Collaboration

    2011-07-01

    The Random Forest method is a multivariate algorithm that can be used for classification and regression respectively. The Random Forest implemented in the RapidMiner learning environment has been used for training and validation on data and Monte Carlo simulations of the IceCube neutrino telescope. Latest results are presented.

  11. New Formula for Stability of Cube Armoured Roundheads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maciñeira, Enrique; Burcharth, Hans F.

    2007-01-01

    Design of armour for rubble mound breakwater roundheads constitutes in many cases a problem due to the limitation of available data and guidelines. The objective of the paper is to present the results of a comprehensive model test study on the stability of cube armoured roundheads, resulting...... in a new stability formula...

  12. The software invention cube: A classification scheme for software inventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Klint, P.

    2008-01-01

    The patent system protects inventions. The requirement that a software invention should make ‘a technical contribution’ turns out to be untenable in practice and this raises the question, what constitutes an invention in the realm of software. The authors developed the Software Invention Cube (SWIC)

  13. Formation and liquid permeability of dense colloidal cube packings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Sonja I. R.; Thies-Weesie, Dominique M. E.; Philipse, Albert P.

    2015-02-01

    The liquid permeability of dense random packings of cubic colloids with rounded corners is studied for solid hematite cubes and hollow microporous silica cubes. The permeabilities of these two types of packings are similar, confirming that the micropores in the silica shell of the hollow cubes do not contribute to the permeability. From the Brinkman screening length √{k } of ˜16 nm, we infer that the relevant pores are indeed intercube pores. Furthermore, we relate the permeability to the volume fraction and specific solid volume of the cubes using the Kozeny-Carman relation. The Kozeny-Carman relation contains a constant that accounts for the topology and size distribution of the pores in the medium. The constant obtained from our study with aspherical particles is of the same order of magnitude as those from studies with spherical and ellipsoidal particles, which supports the notion that the Kozeny-Carman relation is applicable for any dense particle packing with (statistically) isotropic microstructures, irrespective of the particle shape.

  14. Neutrino Physics with the IceCube Detector

    OpenAIRE

    Kiryluk, Joanna; IceCube Collaboration

    2008-01-01

    IceCube is a cubic kilometer neutrino telescope under construction at the South Pole. The primary goal is to discover astrophysical sources of high energy neutrinos. We describe the detector and present results on atmospheric muon neutrinos from 2006 data collected with nine detector strings.

  15. New Formula for Stability of Cube Armoured Roundheads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maciñeira, Enrique; Burcharth, Hans F.

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents a new formula for the stability of cube armoured roundheads. The formula is based on physical model tests in Aalborg University which both long crested and short crested waves of different wave steepness were used. The slope of the radius of the head were varied in order...

  16. AURA - A radio frequency extension to IceCube

    CERN Document Server

    Ruckman, L

    2008-01-01

    The excellent radio frequency transparency of cold polar ice, combined with the coherent Cherenkov emission produced by neutrino-induced showers when viewed at wavelengths longer than a few centimeters, has spurred considerable interest in a large-scale radio-wave neutrino detector array. The AURA (Askaryan Under-ice Radio Array) experimental effort, within the IceCube collaboration, seeks to take advantage of the opportunity presented by IceCube drilling through 2010 to establish the radio frequency technology needed to achieve 100-1000 km^3 effective volumes. In the 2006-2007 Austral summer 3 deep in-ice radio frequency (RF) clusters were deployed at depths of 1300m and 300m on top of the IceCube strings. Additional 3 clusters will be deployed in the Austral summer of 2008-2009. Verification and calibration results from the current deployed clusters are presented, and the detector design and performances are discussed. Augmentation of IceCube with large-scale 1000km^3sr radio and acoustic arrays would exten...

  17. Property Law

    OpenAIRE

    Dean Lueck; Thomas J. Miceli

    2004-01-01

    This chapter examines the economics of property rights and property law. Property law is a fundamental part of social organization and is also fundamental to the operation of the economy because it defines and protects the bundle of rights that constitute property. Property law thereby creates incentives to protect and invest in assets and establishes a legal framework within which market exchange of assets can take place. The purpose of this chapter is to show how the economics of property r...

  18. A Governance Roadmap and Framework for EarthCube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Governance Steering Committee, EarthCube

    2013-04-01

    EarthCube is a process and an outcome, established to transform the conduct of research through the development of community-guided cyberinfrastructure for the Geosciences as the prototype for potential deployment across all domain sciences. EarthCube aims to create a knowledge management system and infrastructure that integrates all Earth system and human dimensions data in an open transparent, and inclusive manner. EarthCube requires broad community participation in concept, framework, and implementation and must not be hindered by rigid preconceptions. We discovered widely varying interpretations, expectations, and assumptions about governance among EarthCube participants. Our definition of governance refers to the processes, structure and organizational elements that determine, within an organization or system of organizations, how power is exercised, how stakeholders have their say, how decisions are made, and how decision makers are held accountable. We have learned, from historic infrastructure case studies, background research on governance and from community feedback during this roadmap process, that other types of large-scale, complex infrastructures, including the Internet, have no central control, administration, or management. No national infrastructure that we examined is governed by a single entity, let alone a single governance archetype. Thus we feel the roadmap process must accommodate a governance system or system of systems that may have a single governing entity, particularly at the start, but can evolve into a collective of governing bodies as warranted, in order to be successful. A fast-track process during Spring, 2012 culminated in a Governance Roadmap delivered to an NSF-sponsored charrette in June with an aggressive timetable to define and implement a governance structure to enable the elements of EarthCube to become operational expeditiously. Our goal is to help ensure the realization of this infrastructure sooner, more efficiently, and

  19. EarthCube Activities: Community Engagement Advancing Geoscience Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinkade, D.

    2015-12-01

    Our ability to advance scientific research in order to better understand complex Earth systems, address emerging geoscience problems, and meet societal challenges is increasingly dependent upon the concept of Open Science and Data. Although these terms are relatively new to the world of research, Open Science and Data in this context may be described as transparency in the scientific process. This includes the discoverability, public accessibility and reusability of scientific data, as well as accessibility and transparency of scientific communication (www.openscience.org). Scientists and the US government alike are realizing the critical need for easy discovery and access to multidisciplinary data to advance research in the geosciences. The NSF-supported EarthCube project was created to meet this need. EarthCube is developing a community-driven common cyberinfrastructure for the purpose of accessing, integrating, analyzing, sharing and visualizing all forms of data and related resources through advanced technological and computational capabilities. Engaging the geoscience community in EarthCube's development is crucial to its success, and EarthCube is providing several opportunities for geoscience involvement. This presentation will provide an overview of the activities EarthCube is employing to entrain the community in the development process, from governance development and strategic planning, to technical needs gathering. Particular focus will be given to the collection of science-driven use cases as a means of capturing scientific and technical requirements. Such activities inform the development of key technical and computational components that collectively will form a cyberinfrastructure to meet the research needs of the geoscience community.

  20. Evaluation of the Impact of an Additive Manufacturing Enhanced CubeSat Architecture on the CubeSat Development Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-15

    fabrication method ideally suited to low- quantity, highly customized builds, leading to interest in the application of AM techniques to satellite...x List of Acronyms and Definitions ...................................................................................... xi...of Acronyms and Definitions 1U 10 cm x 10 cm x 10cm, unit volume size for CubeSats 3D Three-Dimensional ABS Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene ABS-M20

  1. Root resorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Inger

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This paper summarizes the different conditions, which have a well-known influence on the resorption of tooth roots, exemplified by trauma and orthodontic treatment. The concept of the paper is to summarize and explain symptoms and signs of importance for avoiding resorption during...... orthodontic treatment. The Hypothesis: The hypothesis in this paper is that three different tissue layers covering the root in the so-called periroot sheet can explain signs and symptoms of importance for avoiding root resorption during orthodontic treatment. These different tissue layers are; outermost...... processes provoked by trauma and orthodontic pressure. Inflammatory reactions are followed by resorptive processes in the periroot sheet and along the root surface. Evaluation of the Hypothesis: Different morphologies in the dentition are signs of abnormal epithelium or an abnormal mesodermal layer. It has...

  2. Applications of Three Dimensional Extremal Length, I: Tiling of a Topological Cube

    CERN Document Server

    Hersonsky, Sa'ar

    2010-01-01

    Given a triangulation of a closed topological cube, we show that (under some technical condition) there is an essentially unique tiling of a rectangular parallelepiped by cubes, indexed by the vertices of the triangulation. Moreover, i - the combinatorics is preserved, and ii- the boundary is preserved: vertices corresponding to the cubes at the corners of the rectangular parallelepiped are at the corners of the topological cube. Also, the sizes of the cubes are obtained as a solution of a variational problem which is a discrete version of the notion of extremal length in three dimensional Euclidean space.

  3. Law 302.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This publication outlines a law course intended as part of a business education program in the secondary schools of Manitoba, Canada. The one credit course of study should be taught over a period of 110-120 hours of instruction. It provides students with an introduction to the principles, practices, and consequences of law with regard to torts,…

  4. The Fundamental Concept of Crime in International Criminal Law: A Comparative Law Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchuk, Iryna

    This book examines the rapid development of the fundamental concept of a crime in international criminal law from a comparative law perspective in light of the catalyzing impact of the criminal law theory developed in major world legal systems on the crystallization of the substantive part...... of international criminal law. This study offers a critical overview of international and domestic jurisprudence in regards to the construal of the concept of a crime (actus reus, mens rea, defences, modes of liability) and exposes roots of confusion in international criminal law through a comprehensive...... comparative analysis of substantive criminal laws in selected legal jurisdictions....

  5. Neutrino oscillation parameter sampling with MonteCUBES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blennow, Mattias; Fernandez-Martinez, Enrique

    2010-01-01

    We present MonteCUBES ("Monte Carlo Utility Based Experiment Simulator"), a software package designed to sample the neutrino oscillation parameter space through Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithms. MonteCUBES makes use of the GLoBES software so that the existing experiment definitions for GLoBES, describing long baseline and reactor experiments, can be used with MonteCUBES. MonteCUBES consists of two main parts: The first is a C library, written as a plug-in for GLoBES, implementing the Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm to sample the parameter space. The second part is a user-friendly graphical Matlab interface to easily read, analyze, plot and export the results of the parameter space sampling. Program summaryProgram title: MonteCUBES (Monte Carlo Utility Based Experiment Simulator) Catalogue identifier: AEFJ_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEFJ_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public Licence No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 69 634 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3 980 776 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C Computer: MonteCUBES builds and installs on 32 bit and 64 bit Linux systems where GLoBES is installed Operating system: 32 bit and 64 bit Linux RAM: Typically a few MBs Classification: 11.1 External routines: GLoBES [1,2] and routines/libraries used by GLoBES Subprograms used:Cat Id ADZI_v1_0, Title GLoBES, Reference CPC 177 (2007) 439 Nature of problem: Since neutrino masses do not appear in the standard model of particle physics, many models of neutrino masses also induce other types of new physics, which could affect the outcome of neutrino oscillation experiments. In general, these new physics imply high-dimensional parameter spaces that are difficult to explore using classical methods such as multi-dimensional projections and minimizations, such as those

  6. Effect of contact angle on the orientation, stability, and assembly of dense floating cubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniello, Robert; Khan, Kashan; Donnell, Michael; Rothstein, Jonathan P

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, the effect of contact angle, density, and size on the orientation, stability, and assembly of floating cubes was investigated. All the cubes tested were more dense than water. Floatation occurred as a result of capillary stresses induced by deformation of the air-water interface. The advancing contact angle of the bare acrylic cubes was measured to be 85°. The contact angle of the cubes was increased by painting the cubes with a commercially available superhydrophobic paint to reach an advancing contact angle of 150°. Depending on their size, density, and contact angle, the cubes were observed to float in one of three primary orientations: edge up, vertex up, and face up. An experimental apparatus was built such that the sum of the gravitational force, buoyancy force, and capillary forces could be measured using a force transducer as a function of cube position as it was lowered through the air-water interface. Measurements showed that the maximum capillary forces were always experienced for the face up orientation. However, when floatation was possible in the vertex up orientation, it was found to be the most stable cube orientation because it had the lowest center of gravity. A series of theoretical predictions were performed for the cubes floating in each of the three primary orientations to calculate the net force on the cube. The theoretical predictions were found to match the experimental measurements well. A cube stability diagram of cube orientation as a function of cube contact angle and size was prepared from the predictions of theory and found to match the experimental observations quite well. The assembly of cubes floating face up and vertex up were also studied for assemblies of two, three, and many cubes. Cubes floating face up were found to assemble face-to-face and form regular square lattice patterns with no free interface between cubes. Cubes floating vertex up were found to assemble in a variety of different arrangements

  7. Case - Case-Law - Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadl, Urska

    2013-01-01

    Reasoning of the Court of Justice of the European Union – Constr uction of arguments in the case-law of the Court – Citation technique – The use of formulas to transform case-law into ‘law’ – ‘Formulaic style’ – European citizenship as a fundamental status – Ruiz Zambrano – Reasoning from...

  8. Neutrino searches with the IceCube telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Juan A.

    2013-04-01

    The IceCube Neutrino Observatory is an array of 5,160 photomultipliers (PMTs) deployed on 86 strings at 1.5-2.5 km depth within the ice at the South Pole. The main goal of the IceCube experiment is the detection of an astrophysical neutrino signal. In this contribution we present the results of the point source analysis on the data taken from April 2008 to May 2011, when three detector configurations were operated: the 40-string configuration (IC-40), the 59-string configuration (IC-59) and the 79-string configuration (IC-79). No significant excess indicative of point sources of neutrinos has been found, and we present upper limits for an E-2 muon neutrino flux for a list of candidate sources. For the first time these limits start to reach 10-12 TeV cm s in some parts of the sky.

  9. A new physics interpretation of the IceCube data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illana, José Ignacio; Masip, Manuel; Meloni, Davide

    2015-05-01

    IceCube has recently observed 37 events of TeV-PeV energies. The angular distribution, with a strong preference for downgoing directions, the spectrum, and the small muon to shower ratio in the data cannot be accommodated assuming standard interactions of atmospheric neutrinos. We obtain an excellent fit, however, if a diffuse flux of ultrahigh energy (cosmogenic) neutrinos experiences collisions where only a small fraction of the energy is transferred to the target nucleon. We show that consistent models of TeV gravity or other non-Wilsonian completions of the standard model provide cross sections with these precise features. An increased statistics could clearly distinguish our scenario from the one assumed by IceCube (a diffuse flux of astrophysical neutrinos with a ∝E-2 spectrum) and establish the need for new physics in the interpretation of the data.

  10. IceCube and the Development of Neutrino Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: IceCube's discovery of a diffuse flux of astrophysical neutrinos started a new era of neutrino astronomy.I will review the multiple diffuse analyses in IceCube that observe the astrophysical flux, and what each can tell us. Then I will focus on spatial analyses that aim to identify the sources of such astrophysical neutrinos. This will be followed by an attempt to reconcile all results to draw a coherent picture that is the state of neutrino astronomy. Current plans for a streamlined real-time alert system to promote multi-messenger observations, and future plans of new detectors at the South Pole will be discussed to map out a path for discovering the first high-energy neutrino source in the sky.

  11. Data Cubes Integration in Spatial OLAP for Agricultural Commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, A. I.; Sitanggang, I. S.

    2017-03-01

    Ministry of Agriculture Indonesia collects data of agricultural commodities in Indonesia in the annual period. Agricultural commodities data include food crops, horticulture, plantations, and livestock. The data are available in the spreadsheet format. This study developed data cubes for food crops, plantations, and livestock using the galaxy schema of data warehouse and integrated the data cubes into the SOLAP Horticulture using SpagoBI. SOLAP is useful for data analysis and data visualization. The application displays agricultural commodities data in form of crosstab and chart. This study also developed the location intelligence module that visualizes agricultural commodities data on the map. The system was tested using the black box approach. The result showed that main functions including roll up, drill down, slice, dice, and pivot work properly. This application is expected to enable users to easily obtain data summaries of agricultural commodities.

  12. A spatio-temporal extension to the map cube operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzate, Juan C.; Moreno, Francisco J.; Echeverri, Jaime

    2012-09-01

    OLAP (On Line Analytical Processing) is a set of techniques and operators to facilitate the data analysis usually stored in a data warehouse. In this paper, we extend the functionality of an OLAP operator known as Map Cube with the definition and incorporation of a function that allows the formulation of spatio-temporal queries. For example, consider a data warehouse about crimes that includes data about the places where the crimes were committed. Suppose we want to find and visualize the trajectory (a trajectory is just the path that an object follows through space as a function of time) of the crimes of a suspect beginning with his oldest crime and ending with his most recent one. In order to meet this requirement, we extend the Map Cube operator.

  13. ATLAS Virtual Visit IceCube-02-10-2014

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    Building on last year’s success, high-school students and teachers in five countries will have the unique opportunity to interact live with researchers at the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN and researchers at the IceCube Neutrino Observatory in Antarctica. This virtual visit is the second event in the series, “Bringing Frontier Science to Schools”, that aims to connect the two laboratories, supported by the Open Discovery Space (ODS) project. ODS brings millions of educational resources directly into school classrooms, and empowers teachers to build their schools’ digital libraries, join lively communities of peers to share best practices, and connect their schools virtually with the world’s best research centres, museums and libraries. - See more at: http://atlas-live-virtual-visit.web.cern.ch/atlas-live-virtual-visit/2014/IceCube-2014.html#sthash.l523hihH.dpuf

  14. Blazar origin of some IceCube events

    CERN Document Server

    Miranda, Luis Salvador; Sahu, Sarira

    2015-01-01

    Recently ANTARES collaboration presented a time dependent analysis to a selected number of flaring blazars to look for upward going muon events produced from the charge current interaction of the muon neutrinos. We use the same list of flaring blazars to look for possible positional correlation with the IceCube neutrino events. We observed that six FSRQs and two BL Lac objects from the list are within the error circles of eight IceCube events. We also observed that three FSRQs are within the error circles of more than one event. In the context of photohadronic model we propose that these neutrinos are produced within the nuclear region of the blazar where Fermi accelerated high energy protons interact with the background synchrotron/SSC photons.

  15. Short-baseline neutrino oscillations, Planck, and IceCube

    CERN Document Server

    Cherry, John F; Shoemaker, Ian M

    2016-01-01

    We examine a framework with light new physics, which couples to the Standard Model only via neutrino mixing. Taking the hints from the short-baseline anomalies seriously and combining them with modern cosmological data and recent IceCube measurements, we obtain surprisingly effective constraints on the hidden force: keV $\\lesssim M \\lesssim0.3$ GeV for the mediator mass and $g_{h}>10^{-6}-10^{-3}$ for the coupling constant. Flavor equilibration between the hidden and active neutrinos can be delayed until temperatures of $\\sim 1$ MeV, but not below $\\sim 100$ keV. This scenario can be tested with next-generation Cosmic Microwave Background, IceCube, and oscillation experiments.

  16. Calibration and Characterization of the IceCube Photomultiplier Tube

    CERN Document Server

    Abbasi, R; Abu-Zayyad, T; Adams, J; Aguilar, J A; Ahlers, M; Andeen, K; Auffenberg, J; Bai, X; Baker, M; Barwick, S W; Bay, R; Alba, J L Bazo; Beattie, K; Beatty, J J; Bechet, S; Becker, J K; Becker, K -H; Benabderrahmane, M L; Berdermann, J; Berghaus, P; Berley, D; Bernardini, E; Bertrand, D; Besson, D Z; Bissok, M; Blaufuss, E; Boersma, D J; Bohm, C; Botner, O; Bradley, L; Braun, J; Buitink, S; Carson, M; Chirkin, D; Christy, B; Clem, J; Cohen, S; Colnard, C; Cowen, D F; D'Agostino, M V; Danninger, M; De Clercq, C; Demirörs, L; Depaepe, O; Descamps, F; Desiati, P; de Vries-Uiterweerd, G; DeYoung, T; Díaz-Vélez, J C; Dreyer, J; Dumm, J P; Duvoort, M R; Ehrlich, R; Eisch, J; Ellsworth, R W; Engdegård, O; Euler, S; Evenson, P A; Fadiran, O; Fazely, A R; Feusels, T; Filimonov, K; Finley, C; Foerster, M M; Fox, B D; Franckowiak, A; Franke, R; Gaisser, T K; Gallagher, J; Ganugapati, R; Geisler, M; Gerhardt, L; Gladstone, L; Goldschmidt, A; Goodman, J A; Grant, D; Griesel, T; Groß, A; Grullon, S; Gunasingha, R M; Gurtner, M; Ha, C; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Han, K; Hanson, K; Hasegawa, Y; Haugen, J; Helbing, K; Herquet, P; Hickford, S; Hill, G C; Hoffman, K D; Homeier, A; Hoshina, K; Hubert, D; Huelsnitz, W; Hülß, J -P; Hulth, P O; Hultqvist, K; Hussain, S; Imlay, R L; Inaba, M; Ishihara, A; Jacobsen, J; Japaridze, G S; Johansson, H; Joseph, J M; Kampert, K -H; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Karle, A; Kelley, J L; Kemming, N; Kenny, P; Kiryluk, J; Kislat, F; Kitamura, N; Klein, S R; Knops, S; Kohnen, G; Kolanoski, H; Köpke, L; Koskinen, D J; Kowalski, M; Kowarik, T; Krasberg, M; Krings, T; Kroll, G; Kuehn, K; Kuwabara, T; Labare, M; Lafebre, S; Laihem, K; Landsman, H; Lauer, R; Laundrie, A; Lehmann, R; Lennarz, D; Lünemann, J; Madsen, J; Majumdar, P; Maruyama, R; Mase, K; Matis, H S; Matusik, M; Meagher, K; Merck, M; Mészáros, P; Meures, T; Middell, E; Milke, N; Miyamoto, H; Montaruli, T; Morse, R; Movit, S M; Nahnhauer, R; Nam, J W; Naumann, U; Nießen, P; Nygren, D R; Odrowski, S; Olivas, A; Olivo, M; Ono, M; Panknin, S; Paul, L; Heros, C Pérez de los; Petrovic, J; Piegsa, A; Pieloth, D; Pohl, A C; Porrata, R; Posselt, J; Price, P B; Prikockis, M; Przybylski, G T; Rawlins, K; Redl, P; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Ribordy, M; Rizzo, A; Robl, P; Rodrigues, J P; Roth, P; Rothmaier, F; Rott, C; Roucelle, C; Rutledge, D; Ruzybayev, B; Ryckbosch, D; Sander, H -G; Sandstrom, P; Sarkar, S; Schatto, K; Schlenstedt, S; Schmidt, T; Schneider, D; Schukraft, A; Schultes, A; Schulz, O; Schunck, M; Seckel, D; Semburg, B; Seo, S H; Sestayo, Y; Seunarine, S; Silvestri, A; Slipak, A; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Stamatikos, M; Stanev, T; Stephens, G; Stezelberger, T; Stokstad, R G; Stoyanov, S; Strahler, E A; Straszheim, T; Sullivan, G W; Swillens, Q; Taboada, I; Tamburro, A; Tarasova, O; Tepe, A; Ter-Antonyan, S; Terranova, C; Tilav, S; Toale, P A; Tosi, D; Turcan, D; van Eijndhoven, N; Vandenbroucke, J; Van Overloop, A; van Santen, J; Voigt, B; Wahl, D; Walck, C; Waldenmaier, T; Wallraff, M; Walter, M; Wendt, C; Westerhoff, S; Whitehorn, N; Wiebe, K; Wiebusch, C H; Wikström, G; Williams, D R; Wischnewski, R; Wissing, H; Woschnagg, K; Xu, C; Xu, X W; Yodh, G; Yoshida, S; Zarzhitsky, P

    2010-01-01

    Over 5,000 PMTs are being deployed at the South Pole to compose the IceCube neutrino observatory. Many are placed deep in the ice to detect Cherenkov light emitted by the products of high-energy neutrino interactions, and others are frozen into tanks on the surface to detect particles from atmospheric cosmic ray showers. IceCube is using the 10-inch diameter R7081-02 made by Hamamatsu Photonics. This paper describes the laboratory characterization and calibration of these PMTs before deployment. PMTs were illuminated with pulses ranging from single photons to saturation level. Parameterizations are given for the single photoelectron charge spectrum and the saturation behavior. Time resolution, late pulses and afterpulses are characterized. Because the PMTs are relatively large, the cathode sensitivity uniformity was measured. The absolute photon detection efficiency was calibrated using Rayleigh-scattered photons from a nitrogen laser. Measured characteristics are discussed in the context of their relevance t...

  17. First combined search for neutrino point-sources in the Southern Hemisphere with the ANTARES and IceCube neutrino telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Adrián-Martínez, S; André, M; Anton, G; Ardid, M; Aubert, J -J; Baret, B; Barrios-Martí, J; Basa, S; Bertin, V; Biagi, S; Bormuth, R; Bouwhuis, M C; Bruijn, R; Brunner, J; Busto, J; Capone, A; Caramete, L; Carr, J; Chiarusi, T; Circella, M; Coniglione, R; Costantini, H; Coyle, P; Creusot, A; Dekeyser, I; Deschamps, A; De Bonis, G; Distefano, C; Donzaud, C; Dornic, D; Drouhin, D; Dumas, A; Eberl, T; Elsässer, D; Enzenhöfer, A; Fehn, K; Felis, I; Fermani, P; Folger, F; Fusco, L A; Galatà, S; Gay, P; Geißelsöder, S; Geyer, K; Giordano, V; Gleixner, A; Gracia-Ruiz, R; Graf, K; Hallmann, S; van Haren, H; Heijboer, A J; Hello, Y; Hernández-Rey, J J; Hößl, J; Hofestädt, J; Hugon, C; James, C W; de Jong, M; Kadler, M; Kalekin, O; Katz, U; Kießling, D; Kooijman, P; Kouchner, A; Kreter, M; Kreykenbohm, I; Kulikovskiy, V; Lahmann, R; Lefèvre, D; Leonora, E; Loucatos, S; Marcelin, M; Margiotta, A; Marinelli, A; Martínez-Mora, J A; Mathieu, A; Michael, T; Migliozzi, P; Moussa, A; Mueller, C; Nezri, E; Păvălaş, G E; Pellegrino, C; Perrina, C; Piattelli, P; Popa, V; Pradier, T; Racca, C; Riccobene, G; Richter, R; Roensch, K; Saldaña, M; Samtleben, D F E; Sánchez-Losa, A; Sanguineti, M; Sapienza, P; Schmid, J; Schnabel, J; Schüssler, F; Seitz, T; Sieger, C; Spurio, M; Steijger, J J M; Stolarczyk, Th; Taiuti, M; Tamburini, C; Trovato, A; Tselengidou, M; Tönnis, C; Vallage, B; Vallée, C; Van Elewyck, V; Visser, E; Vivolo, D; Wagner, S; Wilms, J; Zornoza, J D; Zúñiga, J; :,; Aartsen, M G; Abraham, K; Ackermann, M; Adams, J; Aguilar, J A; Ahlers, M; Ahrens, M; Altmann, D; Anderson, T; Ansseau, I; Archinger, M; Arguelles, C; Arlen, T C; Auffenberg, J; Bai, X; Barwick, S W; Baum, V; Bay, R; Beatty, J J; Tjus, J Becker; Becker, K -H; Beiser, E; Berghaus, P; Berley, D; Bernardini, E; Bernhard, A; Besson, D Z; Binder, G; Bindig, D; Bissok, M; Blaufuss, E; Blumenthal, J; Boersma, D J; Bohm, C; Börner, M; Bos, F; Bose, D; Böser, S; Botner, O; Braun, J; Brayeur, L; Bretz, H -P; Buzinsky, N; Casey, J; Casier, M; Cheung, E; Chirkin, D; Christov, A; Clark, K; Classen, L; Coenders, S; Cowen, D F; Silva, A H Cruz; Daughhetee, J; Davis, J C; Day, M; de André, J P A M; De Clercq, C; Rosendo, E del Pino; Dembinski, H; De Ridder, S; Desiati, P; de Vries, K D; de Wasseige, G; de With, M; DeYoung, T; D{\\'ı}az-Vélez, J C; di Lorenzo, V; Dumm, J P; Dunkman, M; Eberhardt, B; Ehrhardt, T; Eichmann, B; Euler, S; Evenson, P A; Fahey, S; Fazely, A R; Feintzeig, J; Felde, J; Filimonov, K; Finley, C; Fischer-Wasels, T; Flis, S; Fösig, C -C; Fuchs, T; Gaisser, T K; Gaior, R; Gallagher, J; Gerhardt, L; Ghorbani, K; Gier, D; Gladstone, L; Glagla, M; Glüsenkamp, T; Goldschmidt, A; Golup, G; Gonzalez, J G; Góra, D; Grant, D; Griffith, Z; Groß, A; Ha, C; Haack, C; Ismail, A Haj; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Hansen, E; Hansmann, B; Hanson, K; Hebecker, D; Heereman, D; Helbing, K; Hellauer, R; Hickford, S; Hignight, J; Hill, G C; Hoffman, K D; Hoffmann, R; Holzapfel, K; Homeier, A; Hoshina, K; Huang, F; Huber, M; Huelsnitz, W; Hulth, P O; Hultqvist, K; In, S; Ishihara, A; Jacobi, E; Japaridze, G S; Jero, K; Jurkovic, M; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Karle, A; Kauer, M; Keivani, A; Kelley, J L; Kemp, J; Kheirandish, A; Kiryluk, J; Kläs, J; Klein, S R; Kohnen, G; Koirala, R; Kolanoski, H; Konietz, R; Köpke, L; Kopper, C; Kopper, S; Koskinen, D J; Kowalski, M; Krings, K; Kroll, G; Kroll, M; Krückl, G; Kunnen, J; Kurahashi, N; Kuwabara, T; Labare, M; Lanfranchi, J L; Larson, M J; Lesiak-Bzdak, M; Leuermann, M; Leuner, J; Lu, L; Lünemann, J; Madsen, J; Maggi, G; Mahn, K B M; Mandelartz, M; Maruyama, R; Mase, K; Matis, H S; Maunu, R; McNally, F; Meagher, K; Medici, M; Meli, A; Menne, T; Merino, G; Meures, T; Miarecki, S; Middell, E; Mohrmann, L; Montaruli, T; Morse, R; Nahnhauer, R; Naumann, U; Neer, G; Niederhausen, H; Nowicki, S C; Nygren, D R; Obertacke, A; Pollmann,; Olivas, A; Omairat, A; O'Murchadha, A; Palczewski, T; Pandya, H; Pankova, D V; Paul, L; Pepper, J A; Heros, C Pérez de los; Pfendner, C; Pieloth, D; Pinat, E; Posselt, J; Price, P B; Przybylski, G T; Pütz, J; Quinnan, M; Raab, C; Rädel, L; Rameez, M; Rawlins, K; Reimann, R; Relich, M; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Richman, M; Richter, S; Riedel, B; Robertson, S; Rongen, M; Rott, C; Ruhe, T; Ryckbosch, D; Sabbatini, L; Sander, H -G; Sandrock, A; Sandroos, J; Sarkar, S; Schatto, K; Scheriau, F; Schimp, M; Schmidt, T; Schmitz, M; Schoenen, S; Schöneberg, S; Schönwald, A; Schulte, L; Schumacher, L; Seckel, D; Seunarine, S; Soldin, D; Song, M; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Stahlberg, M; Stamatikos, M; Stanev, T; Stasik, A; Steuer, A; Stezelberger, T; Stokstad, R G; Stößl, A; Ström, R; Strotjohann, N L; Sullivan, G W; Sutherland, M; Taavola, H; Taboada, I; Tatar, J; Ter-Antonyan, S; Terliuk, A; Te{š}ić, G; Tilav, S; Toale, P A; Tobin, M N; Toscano, S; Tosi, D; Turcati, A; Unger, E; Usner, M; Vallecorsa, S; Vandenbroucke, J; van Eijndhoven, N; Vanheule, S; van Santen, J; Veenkamp, J; Vehring, M; Voge, M; Vraeghe, M; Walck, C; Wallace, A; Wallraff, M; Wandkowsky, N; Weaver, Ch; Wendt, C; Westerhoff, S; Whelan, B J; Wiebe, K; Wiebusch, C H; Wille, L; Williams, D R; Wissing, H; Wolf, M; Wood, T R; Woschnagg, K; Xu, D L; Xu, X W; Xu, Y; Yanez, J P; Yodh, G; Yoshida, S; Zoll, M

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of searches for point-like sources of neutrinos based on the first combined analysis of data from both the ANTARES and IceCube neutrino telescopes. The combination of both detectors which differ in size and location forms a window in the Southern sky where the sensitivity to point sources improves by up to a factor of two compared to individual analyses. Using data recorded by ANTARES from 2007 to 2012, and by IceCube from 2008 to 2011, we search for sources of neutrino emission both across the Southern sky and from a pre-selected list of candidate objects. No significant excess over background has been found in these searches, and flux upper limits for the candidate sources are presented for $E^{-2.5}$ and $E^{-2}$ power-law spectra with different energy cut-offs.

  18. The First Combined Search for Neutrino Point-sources in the Southern Hemisphere with the ANTARES and IceCube Neutrino Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Albert, A.; André, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Aubert, J.-J.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bormuth, R.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Carr, J.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; De Bonis, G.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Dumas, A.; Eberl, T.; Elsässer, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Fehn, K.; Felis, I.; Fermani, P.; Folger, F.; Fusco, L. A.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Geißelsöder, S.; Geyer, K.; Giordano, V.; Gleixner, A.; Gracia-Ruiz, R.; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Hößl, J.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C.; James, C. W.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kießling, D.; Kooijman, P.; Kouchner, A.; Kreter, M.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lefèvre, D.; Leonora, E.; Loucatos, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Mathieu, A.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Moussa, A.; Mueller, C.; Nezri, E.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Racca, C.; Riccobene, G.; Richter, R.; Roensch, K.; Saldaña, M.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schmid, J.; Schnabel, J.; Schüssler, F.; Seitz, T.; Sieger, C.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Trovato, A.; Tselengidou, M.; Tönnis, C.; Vallage, B.; Vallée, C.; Van Elewyck, V.; Visser, E.; Vivolo, D.; Wagner, S.; Wilms, J.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.; ANTARES Collaboration; Aartsen, M. G.; Abraham, K.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Ahrens, M.; Altmann, D.; Anderson, T.; Ansseau, I.; Archinger, M.; Arguelles, C.; Arlen, T. C.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker Tjus, J.; Becker, K.-H.; Beiser, E.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bernhard, A.; Besson, D. Z.; Binder, G.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blumenthal, J.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Börner, M.; Bos, F.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Braun, J.; Brayeur, L.; Bretz, H.-P.; Buzinsky, N.; Casey, J.; Casier, M.; Cheung, E.; Chirkin, D.; Christov, A.; Clark, K.; Classen, L.; Coenders, S.; Cowen, D. F.; Cruz Silva, A. H.; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; Day, M.; de André, J. P. A. M.; De Clercq, C.; del Pino Rosendo, E.; Dembinski, H.; De Ridder, S.; Desiati, P.; de Vries, K. D.; de Wasseige, G.; de With, M.; De Young, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; di Lorenzo, V.; Dumm, J. P.; Dunkman, M.; Eberhardt, B.; Ehrhardt, T.; Eichmann, B.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fahey, S.; Fazely, A. R.; Feintzeig, J.; Felde, J.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Flis, S.; Fösig, C.-C.; Fuchs, T.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gaior, R.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Ghorbani, K.; Gier, D.; Gladstone, L.; Glagla, M.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Golup, G.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Góra, D.; Grant, D.; Griffith, Z.; Groß, A.; Ha, C.; Haack, C.; Haj Ismail, A.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hansen, E.; Hansmann, B.; Hanson, K.; Hebecker, D.; Heereman, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hickford, S.; Hignight, J.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Holzapfel, K.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Huang, F.; Huber, M.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; In, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jeong, M.; Jero, K.; Jurkovic, M.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kauer, M.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, J.; Kheirandish, A.; Kiryluk, J.; Kläs, J.; Klein, S. R.; Kohnen, G.; Koirala, R.; Kolanoski, H.; Konietz, R.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Krings, K.; Kroll, G.; Kroll, M.; Krückl, G.; Kunnen, J.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Lanfranchi, J. L.; Larson, M. J.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Leuermann, M.; Leuner, J.; Lu, L.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Maggi, G.; Mahn, K. B. M.; Mandelartz, M.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; Maunu, R.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Medici, M.; Meli, A.; Menne, T.; Merino, G.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Middell, E.; Mohrmann, L.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Neer, G.; Niederhausen, H.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Obertacke Pollmann, A.; Olivas, A.; Omairat, A.; O'Murchadha, A.; Palczewski, T.; Pandya, H.; Pankova, D. V.; Paul, L.; Pepper, J. A.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Pfendner, C.; Pieloth, D.; Pinat, E.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Pütz, J.; Quinnan, M.; Raab, C.; Rädel, L.; Rameez, M.; Rawlins, K.; Reimann, R.; Relich, M.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Richman, M.; Richter, S.; Riedel, B.; Robertson, S.; Rongen, M.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ryckbosch, D.; Sabbatini, L.; Sander, H.-G.; Sandrock, A.; Sandroos, J.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Scheriau, F.; Schimp, M.; Schmidt, T.; Schmitz, M.; Schoenen, S.; Schöneberg, S.; Schönwald, A.; Schulte, L.; Schumacher, L.; Seckel, D.; Seunarine, S.; Soldin, D.; Song, M.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stahlberg, M.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stasik, A.; Steuer, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stößl, A.; Ström, R.; Strotjohann, N. L.; Sullivan, G. W.; Sutherland, M.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tatar, J.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Terliuk, A.; Tešić, G.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Tobin, M. N.; Toscano, S.; Tosi, D.; Tselengidou, M.; Turcati, A.; Unger, E.; Usner, M.; Vallecorsa, S.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vanheule, S.; van Santen, J.; Veenkamp, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Vraeghe, M.; Walck, C.; Wallace, A.; Wallraff, M.; Wandkowsky, N.; Weaver, Ch.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Wille, L.; Williams, D. R.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Xu, Y.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zoll, M.; IceCube Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    We present the results of searches for point-like sources of neutrinos based on the first combined analysis of data from both the ANTARES and IceCube neutrino telescopes. The combination of both detectors, which differ in size and location, forms a window in the southern sky where the sensitivity to point sources improves by up to a factor of 2 compared with individual analyses. Using data recorded by ANTARES from 2007 to 2012, and by IceCube from 2008 to 2011, we search for sources of neutrino emission both across the southern sky and from a preselected list of candidate objects. No significant excess over background has been found in these searches, and flux upper limits for the candidate sources are presented for E -2.5 and E -2 power-law spectra with different energy cut-offs.

  19. Dellingr- A Path to Compelling Science with CubeSats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M.; Bonalsky, T.; Chornay, D.; Clagett, C.; Cudmore, A.; Ericsson, A.; Hesh, S.; Jones, S.; Kepko, L.; Rodriguez, J.; Sittler, E.; Starin, S.; Santos, L.; Sheikh, S.; Uribe, P.; Zesta, E.

    2015-10-01

    Advancements in the capabilities of miniaturized systems are dramatically increasing interest in achieving science from CubeSats. The Dellingr project targets this interest. It will realize compelling science from a 6U spacecraft while developing human and spacecraft systems required to cost-efficiently deliver small satellites capable of reliably achieving mission objectives in divers environments—from low earth orbit to challenging radiation and thermal environments associated with lunar and planetary missions.

  20. Streamlining CubeSat Solar Panel Fabrication Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Sandberg, Ariel; Smith, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    A critical facet of CubeSat fabrication is solar panel characterization and assembly. Though capable of producing flight quality solar subsystems, traditional methods of solar panel fabrication contain intrinsic inefficiencies and inconsistencies that compromise the subsystem’s overall reliability. Taking Michigan Exploration Laboratory’s (MXL) heritage solar panel procedures as a case study, this investigation sought to streamline the solar panel fabrication process to increase its yield, co...

  1. Lunar and Lagrangian Point L1 L2 CubeSat Communication and Navigation Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaire, Scott; Wong, Yen F.; Altunc, Serhat; Bussey, George; Shelton, Marta; Folta, Dave; Gramling, Cheryl; Celeste, Peter; Anderson, Mile; Perrotto, Trish; hide

    2017-01-01

    CubeSats have grown in sophistication to the point that relatively low-cost mission solutions could be undertaken for planetary exploration. There are unique considerations for lunar and L1/L2 CubeSat communication and navigation compared with low earth orbit CubeSats. This paper explores those considerations as they relate to the Lunar IceCube Mission. The Lunar IceCube is a CubeSat mission led by Morehead State University with participation from NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the Busek Company and Vermont Tech. It will search for surface water ice and other resources from a high inclination lunar orbit. Lunar IceCube is one of a select group of CubeSats designed to explore beyond low-earth orbit that will fly on NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS) as secondary payloads for Exploration Mission (EM) 1. Lunar IceCube and the EM-1 CubeSats will lay the groundwork for future lunar and L1/L2 CubeSat missions. This paper discusses communication and navigation needs for the Lunar IceCube mission and navigation and radiation tolerance requirements related to lunar and L1/L2 orbits. Potential CubeSat radios and antennas for such missions are investigated and compared. Ground station coverage, link analysis, and ground station solutions are also discussed. This paper will describe modifications in process for the Morehead ground station, as well as further enhancements of the Morehead ground station and NASA Near Earth Network (NEN) that are being considered. The potential NEN enhancements include upgrading current NEN Cortex receiver with Forward Error Correction (FEC) Turbo Code, providing X-band uplink capability, and adding ranging options. The benefits of ground station enhancements for CubeSats flown on NASA Exploration Missions (EM) are presented. This paper also describes how the NEN may support lunar and L1/L2 CubeSats without any enhancements. In addition, NEN is studying other initiatives to better support the CubeSat community

  2. IceCube systematic errors investigation: Simulation of the ice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resconi, Elisa; Wolf, Martin [Max-Planck-Institute for Nuclear Physics, Heidelberg (Germany); Schukraft, Anne [RWTH, Aachen University (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    IceCube is a neutrino observatory for astroparticle and astronomy research at the South Pole. It uses one cubic kilometer of Antartica's deepest ice (1500 m-2500 m in depth) to detect Cherenkov light, generated by charged particles traveling through the ice, with an array of phototubes encapsulated in glass pressure spheres. The arrival time as well as the charge deposited of the detected photons represent the base measurements that are used for track and energy reconstruction of those charged particles. The optical properties of the deep antarctic ice vary from layer to layer. Measurements of the ice properties and their correct modeling in Monte Carlo simulation is then of primary importance for the correct understanding of the IceCube telescope behavior. After a short summary about the different methods to investigate the ice properties and to calibrate the detector, we show how the simulation obtained by using this information compares to the measured data and how systematic errors due to uncertain ice properties are determined in IceCube.

  3. Measurement of atmospheric neutrino oscillations with IceCube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aartsen, M G; Abbasi, R; Abdou, Y; Ackermann, M; Adams, J; Aguilar, J A; Ahlers, M; Altmann, D; Auffenberg, J; Bai, X; Baker, M; Barwick, S W; Baum, V; Bay, R; Beatty, J J; Bechet, S; Becker Tjus, J; Becker, K-H; Bell, M; Benabderrahmane, M L; Benzvi, S; Berdermann, J; Berghaus, P; Berley, D; Bernardini, E; Bernhard, A; Bertrand, D; Besson, D Z; Binder, G; Bindig, D; Bissok, M; Blaufuss, E; Blumenthal, J; Boersma, D J; Bohaichuk, S; Bohm, C; Bose, D; Böser, S; Botner, O; Brayeur, L; Bretz, H-P; Brown, A M; Bruijn, R; Brunner, J; Carson, M; Casey, J; Casier, M; Chirkin, D; Christov, A; Christy, B; Clark, K; Clevermann, F; Coenders, S; Cohen, S; Cowen, D F; Cruz Silva, A H; Danninger, M; Daughhetee, J; Davis, J C; De Clercq, C; De Ridder, S; Desiati, P; de With, M; DeYoung, T; Díaz-Vélez, J C; Dunkman, M; Eagan, R; Eberhardt, B; Eisch, J; Ellsworth, R W; Euler, S; Evenson, P A; Fadiran, O; Fazely, A R; Fedynitch, A; Feintzeig, J; Feusels, T; Filimonov, K; Finley, C; Fischer-Wasels, T; Flis, S; Franckowiak, A; Franke, R; Frantzen, K; Fuchs, T; Gaisser, T K; Gallagher, J; Gerhardt, L; Gladstone, L; Glüsenkamp, T; Goldschmidt, A; Golup, G; Gonzalez, J G; Goodman, J A; Góra, D; Grandmont, D T; Grant, D; Groß, A; Ha, C; Haj Ismail, A; Hallen, P; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Hanson, K; Heereman, D; Heinen, D; Helbing, K; Hellauer, R; Hickford, S; Hill, G C; Hoffman, K D; Hoffmann, R; Homeier, A; Hoshina, K; Huelsnitz, W; Hulth, P O; Hultqvist, K; Hussain, S; Ishihara, A; Jacobi, E; Jacobsen, J; Jagielski, K; Japaridze, G S; Jero, K; Jlelati, O; Kaminsky, B; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Karle, A; Kelley, J L; Kiryluk, J; Kislat, F; Kläs, J; Klein, S R; Köhne, J-H; Kohnen, G; Kolanoski, H; Köpke, L; Kopper, C; Kopper, S; Koskinen, D J; Kowalski, M; Krasberg, M; Krings, K; Kroll, G; Kunnen, J; Kurahashi, N; Kuwabara, T; Labare, M; Landsman, H; Larson, M J; Lesiak-Bzdak, M; Leuermann, M; Leute, J; Lünemann, J; Madsen, J; Maruyama, R; Mase, K; Matis, H S; McNally, F; Meagher, K; Merck, M; Mészáros, P; Meures, T; Miarecki, S; Middell, E; Milke, N; Miller, J; Mohrmann, L; Montaruli, T; Morse, R; Nahnhauer, R; Naumann, U; Niederhausen, H; Nowicki, S C; Nygren, D R; Obertacke, A; Odrowski, S; Olivas, A; Olivo, M; O'Murchadha, A; Palazzo, A; Paul, L; Pepper, J A; Pérez de los Heros, C; Pfendner, C; Pieloth, D; Pinat, E; Pirk, N; Posselt, J; Price, P B; Przybylski, G T; Rädel, L; Rameez, M; Rawlins, K; Redl, P; Reimann, R; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Ribordy, M; Richman, M; Riedel, B; Rodrigues, J P; Rott, C; Ruhe, T; Ruzybayev, B; Ryckbosch, D; Saba, S M; Salameh, T; Sander, H-G; Santander, M; Sarkar, S; Schatto, K; Scheel, M; Scheriau, F; Schmidt, T; Schmitz, M; Schoenen, S; Schöneberg, S; Schönwald, A; Schukraft, A; Schulte, L; Schulz, O; Seckel, D; Sestayo, Y; Seunarine, S; Sheremata, C; Smith, M W E; Soldin, D; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Stamatikos, M; Stanev, T; Stasik, A; Stezelberger, T; Stokstad, R G; Stößl, A; Strahler, E A; Ström, R; Sullivan, G W; Taavola, H; Taboada, I; Tamburro, A; Tepe, A; Ter-Antonyan, S; Tešić, G; Tilav, S; Toale, P A; Toscano, S; Usner, M; van der Drift, D; van Eijndhoven, N; Van Overloop, A; van Santen, J; Vehring, M; Voge, M; Vraeghe, M; Walck, C; Waldenmaier, T; Wallraff, M; Wasserman, R; Weaver, Ch; Wellons, M; Wendt, C; Westerhoff, S; Whitehorn, N; Wiebe, K; Wiebusch, C H; Williams, D R; Wissing, H; Wolf, M; Wood, T R; Woschnagg, K; Xu, C; Xu, D L; Xu, X W; Yanez, J P; Yodh, G; Yoshida, S; Zarzhitsky, P; Ziemann, J; Zierke, S; Zoll, M

    2013-08-23

    We present the first statistically significant detection of neutrino oscillations in the high-energy regime (>20 GeV) from an analysis of IceCube Neutrino Observatory data collected in 2010 and 2011. This measurement is made possible by the low-energy threshold of the DeepCore detector (~20 GeV) and benefits from the use of the IceCube detector as a veto against cosmic-ray-induced muon background. The oscillation signal was detected within a low-energy muon neutrino sample (20-100 GeV) extracted from data collected by DeepCore. A high-energy muon neutrino sample (100 GeV-10 TeV) was extracted from IceCube data to constrain systematic uncertainties. The disappearance of low-energy upward-going muon neutrinos was observed, and the nonoscillation hypothesis is rejected with more than 5σ significance. In a two-neutrino flavor formalism, our data are best described by the atmospheric neutrino oscillation parameters |Δm(32)(2)|=(2.3(-0.5)(+0.6))×10(-3) eV(2) and sin(2)(2θ(23))>0.93, and maximum mixing is favored.

  4. Calibration and Characterization of the IceCube Photomultiplier Tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IceCube Collaboration; Abbasi, R.; al., et

    2010-02-11

    Over 5,000 PMTs are being deployed at the South Pole to compose the IceCube neutrino observatory. Many are placed deep in the ice to detect Cherenkov light emitted by the products of high-energy neutrino interactions, and others are frozen into tanks on the surface to detect particles from atmospheric cosmic ray showers. IceCube is using the 10-inch diameter R7081-02 made by Hamamatsu Photonics. This paper describes the laboratory characterization and calibration of these PMTs before deployment. PMTs were illuminated with pulses ranging from single photons to saturation level. Parameterizations are given for the single photoelectron charge spectrum and the saturation behavior. Time resolution, late pulses and afterpulses are characterized. Because the PMTs are relatively large, the cathode sensitivity uniformity was measured. The absolute photon detection efficiency was calibrated using Rayleigh-scattered photons from a nitrogen laser. Measured characteristics are discussed in the context of their relevance to IceCube event reconstruction and simulation efforts.

  5. IceCube: An Instrument for Neutrino Astronomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IceCube Collaboration; Halzen, F.; Klein, S.

    2010-06-04

    Neutrino astronomy beyond the Sun was first imagined in the late 1950s; by the 1970s, it was realized that kilometer-scale neutrino detectors were required. The first such instrument, IceCube, is near completion and taking data. The IceCube project transforms a cubic kilometer of deep and ultra-transparent Antarctic ice into a particle detector. A total of 5,160 optical sensors are embedded into a gigaton of Antarctic ice to detect the Cherenkov light emitted by secondary particles produced when neutrinos interact with nuclei in the ice. Each optical sensor is a complete data acquisition system, including a phototube, digitization electronics, control and trigger systems and LEDs for calibration. The light patterns reveal the type (flavor) of neutrino interaction and the energy and direction of the neutrino, making neutrino astronomy possible. The scientific missions of IceCube include such varied tasks as the search for sources of cosmic rays, the observation of Galactic supernova explosions, the search for dark matter, and the study of the neutrinos themselves. These reach energies well beyond those produced with accelerator beams.

  6. Can tidal disruption events produce the IceCube neutrinos?

    CERN Document Server

    Dai, Lixin

    2016-01-01

    Powerful jets and outflows generated in tidal disruption events (TDEs) around supermassive black holes have been suggested to be possible sites producing high-energy neutrinos, but it is unclear whether such environment can provide the bulk of the neutrinos detected by the IceCube Observatory. In this work, by considering realistic limits on the non-thermal emission power of a TDE jet and the birth rate of the TDEs with jets pointing towards us, we show that it is hard to use the jetted TDE population to explain the flux and the isotropic arrival directions of the observed TeV-PeV neutrinos. Therefore, TDEs cannot be the dominant sources, unless those without aligned jets can produce wide-angle emission of neutrino particles. Supposing that is the case, we list a few recent jetted and non-jetted TDEs that have the best chance to be detected by IceCube, based on their energetics, distances, and directions. A spatial and temporal association of these predicted events with the IceCube data should provide a decis...

  7. Piecewise linear hypersurfaces using the marching cubes algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jonathan C.; Hill, Steve

    1999-03-01

    Surface visualization is very important within scientific visualization. The surfaces depict a value of equal density (an isosurface) or display the surrounds of specified objects within the data. Likewise, in two dimensions contour plots may be used to display the information. Thus similarly, in four dimensions hypersurfaces may be formed around hyperobjects. These surfaces (or contours) are often formed from a set of connected triangles (or lines). These piecewise segments represent the simplest non-degenerate object of that dimension and are named simplices. In four dimensions a simplex is represented by a tetrahedron, which is also known as a 3- simplex. Thus, a continuous n dimensional surface may be represented by a lattice of connected n-1 dimensional simplices. This lattice of connected simplices may be calculated over a set of adjacent n dimensional cubes, via for example the Marching Cubes Algorithm. We propose that the methods of this local-cell tiling method may be usefully- applied to four dimensions and potentially to N-dimensions. Thus, we organize the large number of traversal cases and major cases; introduce the notion of a sub-case (that enables the large number of cases to be further reduced); and describe three methods for implementing the Marching Cubes lookup table in four-dimensions.

  8. Calibration and characterization of the IceCube photomultiplier tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, R.; Abdou, Y.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Andeen, K.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Baker, M.; Barwick, S. W.; Bay, R.; Bazo Alba, J. L.; Beattie, K.; Beatty, J. J.; Bechet, S.; Becker, J. K.; Becker, K.-H.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; Berdermann, J.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bertrand, D.; Besson, D. Z.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Botner, O.; Bradley, L.; Braun, J.; Buitink, S.; Carson, M.; Chirkin, D.; Christy, B.; Clem, J.; Cohen, S.; Colnard, C.; Cowen, D. F.; D'Agostino, M. V.; Danninger, M.; de Clercq, C.; Demirörs, L.; Depaepe, O.; Descamps, F.; Desiati, P.; de Vries-Uiterweerd, G.; Deyoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Dreyer, J.; Dumm, J. P.; Duvoort, M. R.; Ehrlich, R.; Eisch, J.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Engdegård, O.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fazely, A. R.; Feusels, T.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Foerster, M. M.; Fox, B. D.; Franckowiak, A.; Franke, R.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gallagher, J.; Ganugapati, R.; Geisler, M.; Gerhardt, L.; Gladstone, L.; Goldschmidt, A.; Goodman, J. A.; Grant, D.; Griesel, T.; Groß, A.; Grullon, S.; Gunasingha, R. M.; Gurtner, M.; Ha, C.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Han, K.; Hanson, K.; Hasegawa, Y.; Haugen, J.; Helbing, K.; Herquet, P.; Hickford, S.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Hubert, D.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hülß, J.-P.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; Hussain, S.; Imlay, R. L.; Inaba, M.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobsen, J.; Japaridze, G. S.; Johansson, H.; Joseph, J. M.; Kampert, K.-H.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemming, N.; Kenny, P.; Kiryluk, J.; Kislat, F.; Kitamura, N.; Klein, S. R.; Knops, S.; Kohnen, G.; Kolanoski, H.; Köpke, L.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Kowarik, T.; Krasberg, M.; Krings, T.; Kroll, G.; Kuehn, K.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Lafebre, S.; Laihem, K.; Landsman, H.; Lauer, R.; Laundrie, A.; Lehmann, R.; Lennarz, D.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Majumdar, P.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; Matusik, M.; Meagher, K.; Merck, M.; Mészáros, P.; Meures, T.; Middell, E.; Milke, N.; Miyamoto, H.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Movit, S. M.; Nahnhauer, R.; Nam, J. W.; Naumann, U.; Nießen, P.; Nygren, D. R.; Odrowski, S.; Olivas, A.; Olivo, M.; Ono, M.; Panknin, S.; Paul, L.; Pérez de Los Heros, C.; Petrovic, J.; Piegsa, A.; Pieloth, D.; Pohl, A. C.; Porrata, R.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Prikockis, M.; Przybylski, G. T.; Rawlins, K.; Redl, P.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Ribordy, M.; Rizzo, A.; Robl, P.; Rodrigues, J. P.; Roth, P.; Rothmaier, F.; Rott, C.; Roucelle, C.; Rutledge, D.; Ruzybayev, B.; Ryckbosch, D.; Sander, H.-G.; Sandstrom, P.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Schlenstedt, S.; Schmidt, T.; Schneider, D.; Schukraft, A.; Schultes, A.; Schulz, O.; Schunck, M.; Seckel, D.; Semburg, B.; Seo, S. H.; Sestayo, Y.; Seunarine, S.; Silvestri, A.; Slipak, A.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stephens, G.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stoyanov, S.; Strahler, E. A.; Straszheim, T.; Sullivan, G. W.; Swillens, Q.; Taboada, I.; Tamburro, A.; Tarasova, O.; Tepe, A.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Terranova, C.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Tosi, D.; Turčan, D.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van Overloop, A.; van Santen, J.; Voigt, B.; Wahl, D.; Walck, C.; Waldenmaier, T.; Wallraff, M.; Walter, M.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whitehorn, N.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Wikström, G.; Williams, D. R.; Wischnewski, R.; Wissing, H.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, C.; Xu, X. W.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zarzhitsky, P.; IceCube Collaboration

    2010-06-01

    Over 5000 PMTs are being deployed at the South Pole to compose the IceCube neutrino observatory. Many are placed deep in the ice to detect Cherenkov light emitted by the products of high-energy neutrino interactions, and others are frozen into tanks on the surface to detect particles from atmospheric cosmic ray showers. IceCube is using the 10-in. diameter R7081-02 made by Hamamatsu Photonics. This paper describes the laboratory characterization and calibration of these PMTs before deployment. PMTs were illuminated with pulses ranging from single photons to saturation level. Parameterizations are given for the single photoelectron charge spectrum and the saturation behavior. Time resolution, late pulses and afterpulses are characterized. Because the PMTs are relatively large, the cathode sensitivity uniformity was measured. The absolute photon detection efficiency was calibrated using Rayleigh-scattered photons from a nitrogen laser. Measured characteristics are discussed in the context of their relevance to IceCube event reconstruction and simulation efforts.

  9. Particle shape anisotropy in pickering emulsions: cubes and peanuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Folter, Julius W J; Hutter, Eline M; Castillo, Sonja I R; Klop, Kira E; Philipse, Albert P; Kegel, Willem K

    2014-02-04

    We have investigated the effect of particle shape in Pickering emulsions by employing, for the first time, cubic and peanut-shaped particles. The interfacial packing and orientation of anisotropic microparticles are revealed at the single-particle level by direct microscopy observations. The uniform anisotropic hematite microparticles adsorb irreversibly at the oil-water interface in monolayers and form solid-stabilized o/w emulsions via the process of limited coalescence. Emulsions were stable against further coalescence for at least 1 year. We found that cubes assembled at the interface in monolayers with a packing intermediate between hexagonal and cubic and average packing densities of up to 90%. Local domains displayed densities even higher than theoretically achievable for spheres. Cubes exclusively orient parallel with one of their flat sides at the oil-water interface, whereas peanuts preferentially attach parallel with their long side. Those peanut-shaped microparticles assemble in locally ordered, interfacial particle stacks that may interlock. Indications for long-range capillary interactions were not found, and we hypothesize that this is related to the observed stable orientations of cubes and peanuts that marginalize deformations of the interface.

  10. Moon and Sun shadow observation with IceCube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bos, Fabian; Tenholt, Frederik; Becker-Tjus, Julia [Theoretische Physik, Ruhr-Universitaet, Bochum (Germany); Westerhoff, Stefan [University of Wisconsin, Madison (United States); Collaboration: IceCube-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The analysis of the Moon shadow is a standard method in IceCube to determine the angular resolution and absolute pointing capabilities of the IceCube detector at the geographic South Pole. The Sun has not been used as a calibrator thus far, as its shadow is expected to be influenced by the solar magnetic field, which deflects the cosmic rays near the solar surface. This, on the other hand, provides indirect pieces of information on the magnetic field structure of the Sun. This talk shows a first analysis of the Sun shadow with IceCube data. The analysis is based on the data of the detector configurations with 79 (IC79) and 86 strings (IC86) from 2010 through 2012. To examine the shadows, a binned method is used to compare all events from one on-source with two off-source windows. For the IC40 and IC59 configuration a deficit with a statistical significance of more than 6σ was observed.

  11. Search for Sphalerons: IceCube vs. LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John; Spannowsky, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the observability of neutrino-induced sphaleron transitions in the IceCube detector, encouraged by a recent paper by Tye and Wong (TW), which argued on the basis of a Bloch wave function in the periodic sphaleron potential that such transitions should be enhanced compared to most previous calculations. We calculate the dependence on neutrino energy of the sphaleron transition rate, comparing it to that for conventional neutrino interactions, and we discuss the observability of tau and multi-muon production in sphaleron-induced transitions. We use IceCube 4-year data to constrain the sphaleron rate, finding that it is comparable to the upper limit inferred previously from a recast of an ATLAS search for microscopic black holes at the LHC with $\\sim 3$/fb of collisions at 13 TeV. The IceCube constraint is stronger for a sphaleron barrier height $E_{\\rm Sph} \\gtrsim 9$ TeV, and would be comparable with the prospective LHC sensitivity with 300/fb of data at 14 TeV if $E_{\\rm Sph} \\sim 11$ TeV.

  12. Paraffin Phase Change Material for Maintaining Temperature Stability of IceCube Type of CubeSats in LEO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Michael K.

    2015-01-01

    The MLA and IFA of the instrument on the IceCube require a 20 C temperature and a thermal stability of +/-1 C. The thermal environment of the ISS orbit for the IceCube is very unstable due to solar beta angles in the -75deg to +75deg range. Additionally the instrument is powered off in every eclipse to conserve electrical power. These two factors cause thermal instability to the MLA and IFA. This paper presents a thermal design of using mini paraffin PCM packs to meet the thermal requirements of these instrument components. With a 31 g mass plus a 30% margin of n-hexadecane, the MLA and IFA are powered on for 32.3 minutes in sunlight at a 0deg beta angle to melt the paraffin. The powered-on time increases to 38 minutes at a 75deg (+/-) beta angle. When the MLA and IFA are powered off, the paraffin freezes.

  13. A review of planetary and space science projects presented at iCubeSat, the Interplanetary CubeSat Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michael

    2015-04-01

    iCubeSat, the Interplanetary CubeSat Workshop, is an annual technical workshop for researchers working on an exciting new standardised platform and opportunity for planetary and space scientists. The first workshop was held in 2012 at MIT, 2013 at Cornell, 2014 at Caltech with the 2015 workshop scheduled to take place on the 26-27th May 2015 at Imperial College London. Mission concepts and flight projects presented since 2012 have included orbiters and landers targeting asteroids, the moon, Mars, Venus, Saturn and their satellites to perform science traditionally reserved for flagship missions at a fraction of their cost. Some of the first missions proposed are currently being readied for flight in Europe, taking advantage of multiple ride share launch opportunities and technology providers. A review of these and other interplanetary CubeSat projects will be presented, covering details of their science objectives, instrument capabilities, technology, team composition, budget, funding sources, and the other programattic elements required to implement this potentially revolutionary new class of mission.

  14. Quantitative assessment of impairment in constructional ability by cube copying in patients with aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeshima, Shinichiro; Ueyoshi, Akitaka; Matsumoto, Tomoko; Boh-Oka, Shin-Ichi; Yoshida, Munehito; Itakura, Toru

    2002-02-01

    Constructional apraxia was evaluated in patients with aphasia using a cube-copying task. It was assessed whether quantitative assessment of cube copying could be used to estimate the performance intelligence quotient (IQ) according to neuropsychological tests. Abnormality in the cube-copying test was observed in 42 of 46 patients (91.3%). Performance according to Raven's coloured progressive matrices and the revised Wechshler adult intelligence scale (WAIS-R) in patients with poor cube copying was significantly lower than in the other four patients. Numbers of the connections completed and plane-orientation errors made in the cube-copying test were significantly correlated with performance IQ on the WAIS-R, correlating particularly with block design, digit symbol, and object assembly in performance IQ subtests. The quantitatively scored cube-copying test, then, can roughly predict non-verbal IQ in patients with aphasia.

  15. The Bifurcation of International Law: Two Futures for the International Rule of Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nollkaemper, A.

    2011-01-01

    This short paper argues that in the next decades we are likely to see a fundamental separation in the form and contents of the international rule of law. In a sizeable, but relatively small group of states, international law transforms itself from its international roots and interconnects and

  16. The Fundamental Concept of Crime in International Criminal Law: A Comparative Law Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchuk, Iryna

    of international criminal law. This study offers a critical overview of international and domestic jurisprudence in regards to the construal of the concept of a crime (actus reus, mens rea, defences, modes of liability) and exposes roots of confusion in international criminal law through a comprehensive...

  17. Force Limited Vibration Testing and Subsequent Redesign of the Naval Postgraduate School CubeSat Launcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    piezoelectric JPL Jet Propulsion Laboratory LV launch vehicle MPE maximum predicted environment xvi NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration...in San Luis Obispo [1]. Each P-POD can carry anywhere from one to three CubeSats, depending on the CubeSat size, giving NPSCuL the capability of...University, San Luis Obispo, CA, 2007. [2] S. Lee, A. Hutputanasin, A. Toorian, W. Lan and R. Munakata, “CubeSat design specification (revision 12

  18. A discrete spherical X-ray transform of orientation distribution functions using bounding cubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazantsev, Ivan G; Schmidt, Søren; Poulsen, Henning Friis

    2009-01-01

    We investigate a cubed sphere parametrization of orientation space with the aim of constructing a discrete voxelized version of the spherical x-ray transform. For tracing the propagation of a unit great circle through the partition subsets, the frustums of the cubed sphere, a fast procedure is pr...... within rectangular voxel arrays partitioning the bounding cubes. Hence algebraic reconstruction techniques can be used in a comprehensive way for orientation distribution function estimation from diffraction data....

  19. Secrets Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Helena Guamanzara Torres

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a review of the book The Law of Secrets, of the author Juan Carlos Martínez-Villalba Riofrío studying the secrets and how law does protect. To this end, the author has analyzed the general theory of secrecy, secrets and methodology, its overall rating, essential elements and their different legal dimensions, the secret as a subjective right. It also establishes that professional secrecy is protected by constitutional principles such as the right to privacy.

  20. Cueing the interpretation of a Necker Cube: a way to inspect fundamental cognitive processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrighi, Roberto; Arecchi, Fortunato Tito; Farini, Alessandro; Gheri, Carolina

    2009-02-01

    The term perceptual bistability refers to all those conditions in which an observer looks at an ambiguous stimulus that can have two or more distinct but equally reliable interpretations. In this work, we investigate perception of Necker Cube in which bistability consists of the possibility to interpret the cube depth in two different ways. We manipulated the cube ambiguity by darkening one of the cube faces (cue) to provide a clear cube interpretation due to the occlusion depth index. When the position of the cue is stationary the cube perceived perspective is steady and driven by the cue position. However, when we alternated in time the cue position (i.e. we changed the position of the darkened cube face) two different perceptual phenomena occurred: for low frequencies the cube perspective alternated in line with the position of the cue; however for high frequencies the cue was no longer able to bias the perception but it appears as a floating feature traveling across the solid with the cube whole perspective that returns to be bistable as in the conventional, bias-free, case.

  1. Expert cube development with SQL server analysis services 2012 multidimensional models

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrari, Alberto; Russo, Marco

    2014-01-01

    An easy-to-follow guide full of hands on examples of real-world Analysis Services cube development tasks. Each topic is explained and placed in context, and for the more inquisitive reader, there also more in-depth details of the concepts used.If you are an Analysis Services cube designer wishing to learn more advanced topic and best practices for cube design, this book is for you.You are expected to have some prior experience with Analysis Services cube development.

  2. Hydration of magnesia cubes: a helium ion microscopy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Schwaiger

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Physisorbed water originating from exposure to the ambient can have a strong impact on the structure and chemistry of oxide nanomaterials. The effect can be particularly pronounced when these oxides are in physical contact with a solid substrate such as the ones used for immobilization to perform electron or ion microscopy imaging. We used helium ion microscopy (HIM and investigated morphological changes of vapor-phase-grown MgO cubes after vacuum annealing and pressing into foils of soft and high purity indium. The indium foils were either used as obtained or, for reference, subjected to vacuum drying. After four days of storage in the vacuum chamber of the microscope and at a base pressure of p −7 mbar, we observed on these cubic particles the attack of residual physisorbed water molecules from the indium substrate. As a result, thin magnesium hydroxide layers spontaneously grew, giving rise to characteristic volume expansion effects, which depended on the size of the particles. Rounding of the originally sharp cube edges leads to a significant loss of the morphological definition specific to the MgO cubes. Comparison of different regions within one sample before and after exposure to liquid water reveals different transformation processes, such as the formation of Mg(OH2 shells that act as diffusion barriers for MgO dissolution or the evolution of brucite nanosheets organized in characteristic flower-like microstructures. The findings underline the significant metastability of nanomaterials under both ambient and high-vacuum conditions and show the dramatic effect of ubiquitous water films during storage and characterization of oxide nanomaterials.

  3. A Finite Volume Scheme on the Cubed Sphere Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, William M.; Lin, S. J.

    2008-01-01

    The performance of a multidimensional finite-volume scheme for global atmospheric dynamics is evaluated on the cubed-sphere geometry. We will explore the properties of the finite volume scheme through traditional advection and shallow water test cases. Baroclinic evaluations performed via a recently developed deterministic initial value baroclinic test case from Jablonowski and Williamson that assesses the evolution of an idealized baroclinic wave in the Northern Hemisphere for a global 3-dimensional atmospheric dynamical core. Comparisons will be made when available to the traditional latitude longitude discretization of the finite-volume dynamical core, as well as other traditional gridpoint and spectral formulations for atmospheric dynamical cores.

  4. Triangular graphene grain growth on cube-tectured Cu substrates.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, J.; Wu, J.; Edwards, C. M.; Berrie, C. L.; Moore, D.; Chen, Z.; Maroni, V. A.; Paranthaman, M. P.; Goyal, A. (Materials Science Division); (Univ. Kansas); (Oak Ridge Nat. Lab.)

    2011-10-21

    The growth of graphene has been carried out on cube-textured (100) oriented Cu (CTO-Cu) foils using chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Well-aligned triangular grains self-assembled on CTO-Cu during CVD heating in flowing hydrogen. The nucleation of triangular graphene grains has been confirmed. This demonstrates that the shape and possible alignment of the graphene grains can potentially be tuned by changing the properties of the substrate, which should ultimately lead to improved electrical properties of the graphene. This type of graphene nucleation and alignment is novel and has not been observed in previous studies on other copper foil samples.

  5. A Search for UHE Tau Neutrinos with IceCube

    CERN Document Server

    Abbasi, R; Abu-Zayyad, T; Ackermann, M; Adams, J; Aguilar, J A; Ahlers, M; Altmann, D; Andeen, K; Auffenberg, J; Bai, X; Baker, M; Barwick, S W; Baum, V; Bay, R; Beattie, K; Beatty, J J; Bechet, S; Becker, J K; Becker, K -H; Bell, M; Benabderrahmane, M L; BenZvi, S; Berdermann, J; Berghaus, P; Berley, D; Bernardini, E; Bertrand, D; Besson, D Z; Bindig, D; Bissok, M; Blaufuss, E; Blumenthal, J; Boersma, D J; Bohm, C; Bose1, D; Böser, S; Botner, O; Brayeur, L; Brown, A M; Buitink, S; Caballero-Mora, K S; Carson, M; Casier, M; Chirkin, D; Christy, B; Clevermann, F; Cohen, S; Cowen, D F; Silva, A H Cruz; D'Agostino, M V; Danninger, M; Daughhetee, J; Davis, J C; De Clercq, C; Degner, T; Descamps, F; Desiati, P; de Vries-Uiterweerd, G; DeYoung, T; Díaz-Vélez, J C; Dreyer, J; Dumm, J P; Dunkman, M; Eisch, J; Ellsworth, R W; Engdegård, O; Euler, S; Evenson, P A; Fadiran, O; Fazely, A R; Fedynitch, A; Feintzeig, J; Feusels, T; Filimonov, K; Finley, C; Fischer-Wasels, T; Flis, S; Franckowiak, A; Franke, R; Gaisser, T K; Gallagher, J; Gerhardt, L; Gladstone, L; Glüsenkamp, T; Goldschmidt, A; Goodman, J A; Góra, D; Grant, D; Groß, A; Grullon, S; Gurtner, M; Ha, C; Ismail, A Haj; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Hanson, K; Heereman, D; Heimann, P; Heinen, D; Helbing, K; Hellauer, R; Hickford, S; Hill, G C; Hoffman, K D; Hoffmann, B; Homeier, A; Hoshina, K; Huelsnitz, W; Hulth, P O; Hultqvist, K; Hussain, S; Ishihara, A; Jacobi, E; Jacobsen, J; Japaridze, G S; Johansson, H; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Karle, A; Kiryluk, J; Kislat, F; Klein, S R; Köhne, J -H; Kohnen, G; Kolanoski, H; Köpke, L; Kopper, S; Koskinen, D J; Kowalski, M; Krasberg, M; Kroll, G; Kunnen, J; Kurahashi, N; Kuwabara, T; Labare1, M; Laihem, K; Landsman, H; Larson, M J; Lauer, R; Lünemann, J; Madsen, J; Maruyama, R; Mase, K; Matis, H S; Meagher, K; Merck, M; Mészáros, P; Meures, T; Miarecki, S; Middell, E; Milke, N; Miller, J; Montaruli, T; Morse, R; Movit, S M; Nahnhauer, R; Nam, J W; Naumann, U; Nowicki, S C; Nygren, D R; Odrowski, S; Olivas, A; Olivo, M; O'Murchadha, A; Panknin1, S; Paul, L; Heros, C Pérez de los; Pieloth, D; Posselt, J; Price, P B; Przybylski, G T; Rawlins, K; Redl, P; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Ribordy, M; Richman, M; Riedel, B; Rodrigues, J P; Rothmaier, F; Rott, C; Ruhe, T; Rutledge, D; Ruzybayev, B; Ryckbosch, D; Sander, H -G; Santander, M; Sarkar, S; Schatto, K; Scheel, M; Schmidt, T; Schöneberg, S; Schönwald, A; Schukraft, A; Schulte1, L; Schultes, A; Schulz, O; Schunck, M; Seckel, D; Semburg, B; Seo, S H; Sestayo, Y; Seunarine1, S; Silvestri, A; Smith, M W E; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Stamatikos, M; Stanev, T; Stezelberger, T; Stokstad, R G; Stößl, A; Strahler, E A; Ström, R; Stüer, M; Sullivan, G W; Taavola, H; Taboada, I; Tamburro, A; Ter-Antonyan, S; Tilav, S; Toale, P A; Toscano, S; van Eijndhoven, N; Van Overloop, A; van Santen, J; Vehring, M; Voge1, M; Walck, C; Waldenmaier, T; Wallraff, M; Walter, M; Wasserman, R; Weaver, Ch; Wendt, C; Westerhoff, S; Whitehorn, N; Wiebe, K; Wiebusch, C H; Williams, D R; Wischnewski, R; Wissing, H; Wolf, M; Wood, T R; Woschnagg, K; Xu, C; Xu, D L; Xu, X W; Yanez, J P; Yodh, G; Yoshida, S; Zarzhitsky, P; Zoll, M

    2012-01-01

    The first dedicated search for ultra-high energy (UHE) tau neutrinos of astrophysical origin was performed using the IceCube detector in its 22-string configuration. The search also had sensitivity to UHE electron and muon neutrinos. After application of all selection criteria to approximately 200 live-days of data, we expect a background of 0.60 +/- 0.19 (stat.) $^{+0.56}_{-0.58}$ (sys.) events and observe three events, which after inspection emerge as being compatible with background. Therefore, we set an upper limit on neutrinos of all flavors from UHE astrophysical sources at 90% CL of $E^{2} \\Phi(\

  6. Band-monitoring Payload for a CubeSat Satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Vagner

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available During changing sun activity, the ionosphere is responding accordingly and therefore it is interesting to observe the propagation behavior of shortwave bands. For the above mentioned purpose we have designed a band-monitoring payload for an experimental CubeSat satellite. The payload consists of a receiver, which is able to receive SSB modulated narrowband signals in 28 MHz uplink band, and a transmitter with FM modulation in UHF downlink band. The receiver frequency is selected to be at the center of radio amateur activity with low data rate digital modulations.

  7. Development of EarthCube Governance: An Agile Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearthree, G.; Allison, M. L.; Patten, K.

    2013-12-01

    Governance of geosciences cyberinfrastructure is a complex and essential undertaking, critical in enabling distributed knowledge communities to collaborate and communicate across disciplines, distances, and cultures. Advancing science with respect to 'grand challenges," such as global climate change, weather prediction, and core fundamental science, depends not just on technical cyber systems, but also on social systems for strategic planning, decision-making, project management, learning, teaching, and building a community of practice. Simply put, a robust, agile technical system depends on an equally robust and agile social system. Cyberinfrastructure development is wrapped in social, organizational and governance challenges, which may significantly impede progress. An agile development process is underway for governance of transformative investments in geosciences cyberinfrastructure through the NSF EarthCube initiative. Agile development is iterative and incremental, and promotes adaptive planning and rapid and flexible response. Such iterative deployment across a variety of EarthCube stakeholders encourages transparency, consensus, accountability, and inclusiveness. A project Secretariat acts as the coordinating body, carrying out duties for planning, organizing, communicating, and reporting. A broad coalition of stakeholder groups comprises an Assembly (Mainstream Scientists, Cyberinfrastructure Institutions, Information Technology/Computer Sciences, NSF EarthCube Investigators, Science Communities, EarthCube End-User Workshop Organizers, Professional Societies) to serve as a preliminary venue for identifying, evaluating, and testing potential governance models. To offer opportunity for broader end-user input, a crowd-source approach will engage stakeholders not involved otherwise. An Advisory Committee from the Earth, ocean, atmosphere, social, computer and library sciences is guiding the process from a high-level policy point of view. Developmental

  8. A vision for, and progress towards EarthCube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, C.

    2012-04-01

    The National Science Foundation (NSF), a US government agency, seeks to transform the conduct of research in geosciences by supporting innovative approaches to community-created cyberinfrastructure that integrates knowledge management across the Geosciences. Within the NSF organization, the Geosciences Directorate (GEO) and the Office of Cyberinfrastructure (OCI) are partnering to address the multifaceted challenges of modern, data-intensive science and education. NSF encourages the community to envision and create an environment where low adoption thresholds and new capabilities act together to greatly increase the productivity and capability of researchers and educators working at the frontiers of Earth system science. This initiative is EarthCube. NSF believes the geosciences community is well positioned to plan and prototype transformative approaches that use innovative technologies to integrate and make interoperable vast resources of heterogeneous data and knowledge within a knowledge management framework. This believe is founded on tsunami of technology development and application that has and continues to engulf science and investments geosciences has made in cyberinfrastructure (CI) to take advantage the technological developments. However, no master framework for geosciences was employed in the development of technology-enable capabilities required by various geosciences communities. It is time to develop an open, adaptable and sustainable framework (an "EarthCube") to enable transformative research and education of Earth system. This will involve, but limited to fostering common data models and data-focused methodologies; developing next generation search and data tools; and advancing application software to integrate data from various sources to expand the frontiers of knowledge. Also, NSF looks to the community to develop a robust and balanced paradigm to manage a collaborative effort and build community support. Such a paradigm must engage a diverse

  9. Cheapest nuller in the world: Crossed beamsplitter cubes

    CERN Document Server

    Henault, F

    2014-01-01

    In this communication is described a new type of Achromatic phase shifter (APS) suitable for both nulling interferometry and coronagraphy, based on a couple of crossed beamsplitter cubes, well-suited for equipping future spaceborne instruments searching for extra-solar planets located in a habitable zone. We present the general principle of this APS and discuss possible implementations into a nulling coronagraph telescope or into a sparse-aperture interferometer, either of the Fizeau or Michelson type. Expected performance in terms of transmission maps and a preliminary tolerance analysis are also provided. It turns out that the device is cheap, compact, and presents reasonable manufacturing tolerances and costs

  10. A CubeSat deployable solar panel system

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Thomas; Hirsch, Michael; Parsons, Michael; Leake, Skye; Straub, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    The power usage of CubeSat's onboard systems has increased with the complexity of the systems included. This paper presents a deployment system design which creates a plane of solar panels to collect energy. This allows more panels to be in direct normal sunlight at any given point (in conjunction with the onboard attitude determination and control system), facilitating increased power generation. The deployable system is comprised of a printed circuit board (holding the solar cells) which is attached to an aluminum hinge. The efficacy of this approach for power generation and its simplicity, as compared to other prospective approaches, are assessed herein.

  11. An Optimal Multicast Algorithm for Cube-Connected Cycles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋建平; 侯紫峰; 史云涛

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an efficient algorithm that implements oneto-many, or multicast, communication in one-port wormhole-routed cube-connected cycles (CCCs) in the absence of hardware multicast support. By exploiting the properties of the switching technology and the use of virtual channels, a minimumtime multicast algorithm is presented for n-dimensional CCCs that use deterministic routing of unicast messages. The algorithm can deliver a multicast message to m - 1destinations in [log2 m] message-passing steps, while avoiding contention among the constituent unicast messages. Performance results of a simulation study on CCCs with up to 10,240 nodes are also given.

  12. Systems of dyadic cubes in a doubling metric space

    CERN Document Server

    Hytönen, Tuomas

    2010-01-01

    A number of recent results in Euclidean Harmonic Analysis have exploited several adjacent systems of dyadic cubes, instead of just one fixed system. In this paper, we extend such constructions to general spaces of homogeneous type, making these tools available for Analysis on metric spaces. The results include a new (non-random) construction of boundedly many adjacent dyadic systems with useful covering properties, and a streamlined version of the random construction recently devised by H. Martikainen and the first author. We illustrate the usefulness of these constructions with applications to weighted inequalities and the BMO space; further applications will appear in forthcoming work.

  13. Application of marching cubes algorithm in visualization of mineral deposits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dewen Seng; Zhongxue Li; Cuiping Li; Chunmin Li

    2005-01-01

    An implementation scheme of the marching cubes (MC) algorithm was presented for the visualization of mineral deposits.The basic principles, processes and pitfalls of the MC algorithm were discussed. The asymptotic decider algorithm was employed to solve the ambiguity problem associated with the MC algorithm. The implementation scheme was applied to model and reconstruct the surfaces of mineral deposits, using the geological data obtained from an iron mine in China. Experimental results demonstrate the ability of the implementation scheme to solve the ambiguity problem, and illustrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the MC algorithm in the visualization of mineral deposits.

  14. Polarization properties of a metal corner-cube retroreflector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieg, B., E-mail: b.bieg@am.szczecin.pl

    2015-10-15

    The cube-corner retroreflector, an optical element consisting of three orthogonal mirrors, reflects incident beam in the exactly opposite direction. The change in the polarization state of the infrared beam, reflected from CCR constructed of three metal surfaces with complex reflexion coefficient, is discussed theoretically with ray tracing and the Jones matrices formalism. It is found that the final polarization state is modified according to the angle of incidence, the ray path through the retroreflector as well as the beam wavelength and its initial polarization. The main point is that under the specified conditions polarization changes could be minimized, what is essential for the CCR practical application at tokamak polarimetric systems.

  15. Positive Root Bounds and Root Separation Bounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Aaron Paul

    In this thesis, we study two classes of bounds on the roots of a polynomial (or polynomial system). A positive root bound of a polynomial is an upper bound on the largest positive root. A root separation bound of a polynomial is a lower bound on the distance between the roots. Both classes of bounds are fundamental tools in computer algebra and computational real algebraic geometry, with numerous applications. In the first part of the thesis, we study the quality of positive root bounds. Higher quality means that the relative over-estimation (the ratio of the bound and the largest positive root) is smaller. We find that all known positive root bounds can be arbitrarily bad. We then show that a particular positive root bound is tight for certain important classes of polynomials. In the remainder of the thesis, we turn to root separation bounds. We observe that known root separation bounds are usually very pessimistic. To our surprise, we also find that known root separation bounds are not compatible with the geometry of the roots (unlike positive root bounds). This motivates us to derive new root separation bounds. In the second part of this thesis, we derive a new root separation for univariate polynomials by transforming a known bound into a new improved bound. In the third part of this thesis, we use a similar strategy to derive a new improved root separation bound for polynomial systems.

  16. Search for GeV gamma-ray flares associated with IceCube track-like neutrinos with Fermi Large Area Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, Fang-Kun

    2016-01-01

    Dozens of high-energy neutrinos have been detected by the IceCube neutrino telescope, but no clear association with any classes of astrophysical sources has been identified so far. Recently, Kadler et al. (2016) report that a PeV cascade neutrino event occurs in positional and temporal coincidence with a giant gamma-ray flare of the blazar PKS B1424-418. Since IceCube track-like events have much better angular resolution, we here search for possible gamma-ray flares, similar to the case of PKS B1424-418, associated with the IceCube track-like events with \\textsl{Fermi} Large Area Telescope (LAT) observations. Among them, three track-like neutrino events occur within the field of view of \\textsl{Fermi}-LAT at the time of the detection, so search for the {\\em prompt} gamma-ray emission associated with neutrinos are possible. Assuming a point source origin and a single power law spectrum for the possible gamma-ray sources associated with neutrinos, a likelihood analysis of 0.2-100 GeV photons observed by \\textsl...

  17. Observation and Characterization of a Cosmic Muon Neutrino Flux from the Northern Hemisphere using six years of IceCube data

    CERN Document Server

    Aartsen, M G; Ackermann, M; Adams, J; Aguilar, J A; Ahlers, M; Ahrens, M; Altmann, D; Andeen, K; Anderson, T; Ansseau, I; Anton, G; Archinger, M; Argüelles, C; Auffenberg, J; Axani, S; Bai, X; Barwick, S W; Baum, V; Bay, R; Beatty, J J; Tjus, J Becker; Becker, K -H; BenZvi, S; Berghaus, P; Berley, D; Bernardini, E; Bernhard, A; Besson, D Z; Binder, G; Bindig, D; Bissok, M; Blaufuss, E; Blot, S; Bohm, C; Börner, M; Bos, F; Bose, D; Böser, S; Botner, O; Braun, J; Brayeur, L; Bretz, H -P; Burgman, A; Carver, T; Casier, M; Cheung, E; Chirkin, D; Christov, A; Clark, K; Classen, L; Coenders, S; Collin, G H; Conrad, J M; Cowen, D F; Cross, R; Day, M; de André, J P A M; De Clercq, C; Rosendo, E del Pino; Dembinski, H; De Ridder, S; Desiati, P; de Vries, K D; de Wasseige, G; de With, M; DeYoung, T; Díaz-Vélez, J C; di Lorenzo, V; Dujmovic, H; Dumm, J P; Dunkman, M; Eberhardt, B; Ehrhardt, T; Eichmann, B; Eller, P; Euler, S; Evenson, P A; Fahey, S; Fazely, A R; Feintzeig, J; Felde, J; Filimonov, K; Finley, C; Flis, S; Fösig, C -C; Franckowiak, A; Friedman, E; Fuchs, T; Gaisser, T K; Gallagher, J; Gerhardt, L; Ghorbani, K; Giang, W; Gladstone, L; Glagla, M; Glüsenkamp, T; Goldschmidt, A; Golup, G; Gonzalez, J G; Grant, D; Griffith, Z; Haack, C; Ismail, A Haj; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Hansen, E; Hansmann, B; Hansmann, T; Hanson, K; Hebecker, D; Heereman, D; Helbing, K; Hellauer, R; Hickford, S; Hignight, J; Hill, G C; Hoffman, K D; Hoffmann, R; Holzapfel, K; Hoshina, K; Huang, F; Huber, M; Hultqvist, K; In, S; Ishihara, A; Jacobi, E; Japaridze, G S; Jeong, M; Jero, K; Jones, B J P; Jurkovic, M; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Karle, A; Katz, U; Kauer, M; Keivani, A; Kelley, J L; Kemp, J; Kheirandish, A; Kim, M; Kintscher, T; Kiryluk, J; Kittler, T; Klein, S R; Kohnen, G; Koirala, R; Kolanoski, H; Konietz, R; Köpke, L; Kopper, C; Kopper, S; Koskinen, D J; Kowalski, M; Krings, K; Kroll, M; Krückl, G; Krüger, C; Kunnen, J; Kunwar, S; Kurahashi, N; Kuwabara, T; Labare, M; Lanfranchi, J L; Larson, M J; Lauber, F; Lennarz, D; Lesiak-Bzdak, M; Leuermann, M; Leuner, J; Lu, L; Lünemann, J; Madsen, J; Maggi, G; Mahn, K B M; Mancina, S; Mandelartz, M; Maruyama, R; Mase, K; Maunu, R; McNally, F; Meagher, K; Medici, M; Meier, M; Meli, A; Menne, T; Merino, G; Meures, T; Miarecki, S; Mohrmann, L; Montaruli, T; Moulai, M; Nahnhauer, R; Naumann, U; Neer, G; Niederhausen, H; Nowicki, S C; Nygren, D R; Pollmann, A Obertacke; Olivas, A; O'Murchadha, A; Palczewski, T; Pandya, H; Pankova, D V; Peiffer, P; Penek, Ö; Pepper, J A; Heros, C Pérez de los; Pieloth, D; Pinat, E; Price, P B; Przybylski, G T; Quinnan, M; Raab, C; Rädel, L; Rameez, M; Rawlins, K; Reimann, R; Relethford, B; Relich, M; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Richman, M; Riedel, B; Robertson, S; Rongen, M; Rott, C; Ruhe, T; Ryckbosch, D; Rysewyk, D; Sabbatini, L; Herrera, S E Sanchez; Sandrock, A; Sandroos, J; Sarkar, S; Satalecka, K; Schimp, M; Schlunder, P; Schmidt, T; Schoenen, S; Schöneberg, S; Schumacher, L; Seckel, D; Seunarine, S; Soldin, D; Song, M; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Stahlberg, M; Stanev, T; Stasik, A; Steuer, A; Stezelberger, T; Stokstad, R G; Stößl, A; Ström, R; Strotjohann, N L; Sullivan, G W; Sutherland, M; Taavola, H; Taboada, I; Tatar, J; Tenholt, F; Ter-Antonyan, S; Terliuk, A; Tešić, G; Tilav, S; Toale, P A; Tobin, M N; Toscano, S; Tosi, D; Tselengidou, M; Turcati, A; Unger, E; Usner, M; Vandenbroucke, J; van Eijndhoven, N; Vanheule, S; van Rossem, M; van Santen, J; Veenkamp, J; Vehring, M; Voge, M; Vraeghe, M; Walck, C; Wallace, A; Wallraff, M; Wandkowsky, N; Weaver, Ch; Weiss, M J; Wendt, C; Westerhoff, S; Whelan, B J; Wickmann, S; Wiebe, K; Wiebusch, C H; Wille, L; Williams, D R; Wills, L; Wolf, M; Wood, T R; Woolsey, E; Woschnagg, K; Xu, D L; Xu, X W; Xu, Y; Yanez, J P; Yodh, G; Yoshida, S; Zoll, M

    2016-01-01

    The IceCube Collaboration has previously discovered a high-energy astrophysical neutrino flux using neutrino events with interaction vertices contained within the instrumented volume of the IceCube detector. We present a complementary measurement using charged current muon neutrino events where the interaction vertex can be outside this volume. As a consequence of the large muon range the effective area is significantly larger but the field of view is restricted to the Northern Hemisphere. IceCube data from 2009 through 2015 have been analyzed using a likelihood approach based on the reconstructed muon energy and zenith angle. At the highest neutrino energies between 191 TeV and 8.3 PeV a significant astrophysical contribution is observed, excluding a purely atmospheric origin of these events at $5.6\\,\\sigma$ significance. The data are well described by an isotropic, unbroken power law flux with a normalization at 100 TeV neutrino energy of $\\left(0.90^{+0.30}_{-0.27}\\right)\\times10^{-18}\\,\\mathrm{GeV^{-1}\\,c...

  18. Islamic Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doranda Maracineanu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The law system of a State represents the body of rules passed or recognized by that State inorder to regulate the social relationships, rules that must be freely obeyed by their recipients, otherwisethe State intervening with its coercive power. Throughout the development of the society, pedants havebeen particularly interested in the issue of law systems, each supporting various classifications; theclassification that has remained is the one distinguishing between the Anglo-Saxon, the Roman-German,the religious and respectively the communist law systems. The third main international law system is theMuslim one, founded on the Muslim religion – the Islam. The Islam promotes the idea that Allah createdthe law and therefore it must be preserved and observed as such. Etymologically, the Arabian word“Islam” means “to be wanted, to obey” implying the fact that this law system promotes total andunconditioned submission to Allah. The Islamic law is not built on somebody of laws or leading cases,but has as source. The Islam is meant as a universal religion, the Koran promoting the idea of the unityof mankind; thus, one of the precepts in the Koran asserts that “all men are equal (…, there is nodifference between a white man and a black man, between one who is Arabian and one who is not,except for the measure in which they fear God.” The Koran is founded mainly on the Talmud, Hebrewsource of inspiration, and only on very few Christian sources. The Islam does not forward ideas whichcannot be materialized; on the contrary its ideas are purely practical, easy to be observed by the commonman, ideas subordinated to the principle of monotheism. The uncertainties and gaps of the Koran, whichhave been felt along the years, imposed the need for another set of rules, meant to supplement it – that isSunna. Sunna represents a body of laws and, consequently, the second source of the Koran. Sunnanarrates the life of the prophet Mohamed, the model to

  19. CubeSat Cloud: A framework for distributed storage, processing and communication of remote sensing data on cubesat clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challa, Obulapathi Nayudu

    CubeSat Cloud is a novel vision for a space based remote sensing network that includes a collection of small satellites (including CubeSats), ground stations, and a server, where a CubeSat is a miniaturized satellite with a volume of a 10x10x10 cm cube and has a weight of approximately 1 kg. The small form factor of CubeSats limits the processing and communication capabilities. Implemented and deployed CubeSats have demonstrated about 1 GHz processing speed and 9.6 kbps communication speed. A CubeSat in its current state can take hours to process a 100 MB image and more than a day to downlink the same, which prohibits remote sensing, considering the limitations in ground station access time for a CubeSat. This dissertation designs an architecture and supporting networking protocols to create CubeSat Cloud, a distributed processing, storage and communication framework that will enable faster execution of remote sensing missions on CubeSat clusters. The core components of CubeSat Cloud are CubeSat Distributed File System, CubeSat MapMerge, and CubeSat Torrent. The CubeSat Distributed File System has been created for distributing of large amounts of data among the satellites in the cluster. Once the data is distributed, CubeSat MapReduce has been created to process the data in parallel, thereby reducing the processing load for each CubeSat. Finally, CubeSat Torrent has been created to downlink the data at each CubeSat to a distributed set of ground stations, enabling faster asynchronous downloads. Ground stations send the downlinked data to the server to reconstruct the original image and store it for later retrieval. Analysis of the proposed CubeSat Cloud architecture was performed using a custom-designed simulator, called CubeNet and an emulation test bed using Raspberry Pi devices. Results show that for cluster sizes ranging from 5 to 25 small satellites, faster download speeds up to 4 to 22 times faster - can be achieved when using CubeSat Cloud, compared to a

  20. Lateral Distribution of Muons in IceCube Cosmic Ray Events

    CERN Document Server

    Abbasi, R; Ackermann, M; Adams, J; Aguilar, J A; Ahlers, M; Altmann, D; Andeen, K; Auffenberg, J; Bai, X; Baker, M; Barwick, S W; Baum, V; Bay, R; Beattie, K; Beatty, J J; Bechet, S; Tjus, J Becker; Becker, K -H; Bell, M; Benabderrahmane, M L; BenZvi, S; Berdermann, J; Berghaus, P; Berley, D; Bernardini, E; Bertrand, D; Besson, D Z; Bindig, D; Bissok, M; Blaufuss, E; Blumenthal, J; Boersma, D J; Bohm, C; Bose, D; Böser, S; Botner, O; Brayeur, L; Brown, A M; Bruijn, R; Brunner, J; Buitink, S; Carson, M; Casey, J; Casier, M; Chirkin, D; Christy, B; Clevermann, F; Cohen, S; Cowen, D F; Silva, A H Cruz; Danninger, M; Daughhetee, J; Davis, J C; De Clercq, C; Descamps, F; Desiati, P; de Vries-Uiterweerd, G; DeYoung, T; Díaz-Vélez, J C; Dreyer, J; Dumm, J P; Dunkman, M; Eagan, R; Eisch, J; Elliott, C; Ellsworth, R W; Engdegård, O; Euler, S; Evenson, P A; Fadiran, O; Fazely, A R; Fedynitch, A; Feintzeig, J; Feusels, T; Filimonov, K; Finley, C; Fischer-Wasels, T; Flis, S; Franckowiak, A; Franke, R; Frantzen, K; Fuchs, T; Gaisser, T K; Gallagher, J; Gerhardt, L; Gladstone, L; Glüsenkamp, T; Goldschmidt, A; Goodman, J A; Góra, D; Grant, D; Groß, A; Grullon, S; Gurtner, M; Ha, C; Ismail, A Haj; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Hanson, K; Heereman, D; Heimann, P; Heinen, D; Helbing, K; Hellauer, R; Hickford, S; Hill, G C; Hoffman, K D; Hoffmann, R; Homeier, A; Hoshina, K; Huelsnitz, W; Hulth, P O; Hultqvist, K; Hussain, S; Ishihara, A; Jacobi, E; Jacobsen, J; Japaridze, G S; Jlelati, O; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Karle, A; Kiryluk, J; Kislat, F; Kläs, J; Klein, S R; Klepser, S; Köhne, J -H; Kohnen, G; Kolanoski, H; Köpke, L; Kopper, C; Kopper, S; Koskinen, D J; Kowalski, M; Krasberg, M; Kroll, G; Kunnen, J; Kurahashi, N; Kuwabara, T; Labare, M; Laihem, K; Landsman, H; Larson, M J; Lauer, R; Lesiak-Bzdak, M; Lünemann, J; Madsen, J; Maruyama, R; Mase, K; Matis, H S; McDermott, A; McNally, F; Meagher, K; Merck, M; Mészáros, P; Meures, T; Miarecki, S; Middell, E; Milke, N; Miller, J; Mohrmann, L; Montaruli, T; Morse, R; Movit, S M; Nahnhauer, R; Naumann, U; Nießen, P; Nowicki, S C; Nygren, D R; Obertacke, A; Odrowski, S; Olivas, A; Olivo, M; O'Murchadha, A; Panknin, S; Paul, L; Pepper, J A; Heros, C Pérez de los; Pieloth, D; Pirk, N; Posselt, J; Price, P B; Przybylski, G T; Rädel, L; Rawlins, K; Redl, P; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Ribordy, M; Richman, M; Riedel, B; Rodrigues, J P; Roth, J; Rothmaier, F; Rott, C; Roucelle, C; Ruhe, T; Ruzybayev, B; Ryckbosch, D; Saba, S M; Salameh, T; Sander, H -G; Santander, M; Sarkar, S; Schatto, K; Scheel, M; Scheriau, F; Schmidt, T; Schmitz, M; Schoenen, S; Schöneberg, S; Schönherr, L; Schönwald, A; Schukraft, A; Schulte, L; Schulz, O; Seckel, D; Seo, S H; Sestayo, Y; Seunarine, S; Shulman, L; Smith, M W E; Soiron, M; Soldin, D; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Stamatikos, M; Stanev, T; Stasik, A; Stezelberger, T; Stokstad, R G; Stößl, A; Stoyanov, S; Strahler, E A; Ström, R; Sulanke, K-H; Sullivan, G W; Taavola, H; Taboada, I; Tamburro, A; Ter-Antonyan, S; Tilav, S; Toale, P A; Toscano, S; Usner, M; van der Drift, D; van Eijndhoven, N; Van Overloop, A; van Santen, J; Vehring, M; Voge, M; Walck, C; Waldenmaier, T; Wallraff, M; Walter, M; Wasserman, R; Weaver, Ch; Wendt, C; Westerhoff, S; Whitehorn, N; Wiebe, K; Wiebusch, C H; Williams, D R; Wissing, H; Wolf, M; Wood, T R; Woschnagg, K; Xu, C; Xu, D L; Xu, X W; Yanez, J P; Yodh, G; Yoshida, S; Zarzhitsky, P; Ziemann, J; Zilles, A; Zoll, M

    2012-01-01

    In cosmic ray air showers, the muon lateral separation from the center of the shower is a measure of the transverse momentum that the muon parent acquired in the cosmic ray interaction. IceCube has observed cosmic ray interactions that produce muons laterally separated by up to 400 m from the shower core, a factor of 6 larger distance than previous measurements. These muons originate in high pT (2 - 15 GeV/c) interactions from the incident cosmic ray, or high-energy secondary interactions. The best fit to the separation distribution includes a power law component, indicating the presence of a hard pT component that can be described by perturbative quantum chromodynamics. However, the rates and the zenith angle distributions of these events are not well reproduced with the cosmic ray models tested here, even those that include charm interactions. This discrepancy may be explained by a larger fraction of kaons and charmed particles than is currently incorporated in the simulations.

  1. Lateral distribution of muons in IceCube cosmic ray events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, R.; Abdou, Y.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Altmann, D.; Andeen, K.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Baker, M.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Beattie, K.; Beatty, J. J.; Bechet, S.; Becker Tjus, J.; Becker, K.-H.; Bell, M.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; BenZvi, S.; Berdermann, J.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bertrand, D.; Besson, D. Z.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blumenthal, J.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Brayeur, L.; Brown, A. M.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Buitink, S.; Carson, M.; Casey, J.; Casier, M.; Chirkin, D.; Christy, B.; Clevermann, F.; Cohen, S.; Cowen, D. F.; Cruz Silva, A. H.; Danninger, M.; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; De Clercq, C.; Descamps, F.; Desiati, P.; de Vries-Uiterweerd, G.; DeYoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Dreyer, J.; Dumm, J. P.; Dunkman, M.; Eagan, R.; Eisch, J.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Engdegård, O.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fazely, A. R.; Fedynitch, A.; Feintzeig, J.; Feusels, T.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Flis, S.; Franckowiak, A.; Franke, R.; Frantzen, K.; Fuchs, T.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Gladstone, L.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Goodman, J. A.; Góra, D.; Grant, D.; Groß, A.; Grullon, S.; Gurtner, M.; Ha, C.; Haj Ismail, A.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hanson, K.; Heereman, D.; Heimann, P.; Heinen, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hickford, S.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; Hussain, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Jacobsen, J.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jlelati, O.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kiryluk, J.; Kislat, F.; Kläs, J.; Klein, S. R.; Köhne, J.-H.; Kohnen, G.; Kolanoski, H.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Krasberg, M.; Kroll, G.; Kunnen, J.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Laihem, K.; Landsman, H.; Larson, M. J.; Lauer, R.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Merck, M.; Mészáros, P.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Middell, E.; Milke, N.; Miller, J.; Mohrmann, L.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Movit, S. M.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Obertacke, A.; Odrowski, S.; Olivas, A.; Olivo, M.; O'Murchadha, A.; Panknin, S.; Paul, L.; Pepper, J. A.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Pieloth, D.; Pirk, N.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Rädel, L.; Rawlins, K.; Redl, P.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Ribordy, M.; Richman, M.; Riedel, B.; Rodrigues, J. P.; Rothmaier, F.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ruzybayev, B.; Ryckbosch, D.; Saba, S. M.; Salameh, T.; Sander, H.-G.; Santander, M.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Scheel, M.; Scheriau, F.; Schmidt, T.; Schmitz, M.; Schoenen, S.; Schöneberg, S.; Schönherr, L.; Schönwald, A.; Schukraft, A.; Schulte, L.; Schulz, O.; Seckel, D.; Seo, S. H.; Sestayo, Y.; Seunarine, S.; Smith, M. W. E.; Soiron, M.; Soldin, D.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stasik, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stößl, A.; Strahler, E. A.; Ström, R.; Sullivan, G. W.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tamburro, A.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Toscano, S.; Usner, M.; van der Drift, D.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Van Overloop, A.; van Santen, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Walck, C.; Waldenmaier, T.; Wallraff, M.; Walter, M.; Wasserman, R.; Weaver, Ch.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whitehorn, N.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Williams, D. R.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, C.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Ziemann, J.; Zilles, A.; Zoll, M.

    2013-01-01

    In cosmic ray air showers, the muon lateral separation from the center of the shower is a measure of the transverse momentum that the muon parent acquired in the cosmic ray interaction. IceCube has observed cosmic ray interactions that produce muons laterally separated by up to 400 m from the shower core, a factor of 6 larger distance than previous measurements. These muons originate in high pT (>2GeV/c) interactions from the incident cosmic ray, or high-energy secondary interactions. The separation distribution shows a transition to a power law at large values, indicating the presence of a hard pT component that can be described by perturbative quantum chromodynamics. However, the rates and the zenith angle distributions of these events are not well reproduced with the cosmic ray models tested here, even those that include charm interactions. This discrepancy may be explained by a larger fraction of kaons and charmed particles than is currently incorporated in the simulations.

  2. Measurement of the Atmospheric νe Spectrum with IceCube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aartsen, M. G.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Ahrens, M.; Altmann, D.; Anderson, T.; Archinger, M.; Arguelles, C.; Arlen, T. C.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker Tjus, J.; Becker, K.-H.; Beiser, E.; BenZvi, S.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bernhard, A.; Besson, D. Z.; Binder, G.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blumenthal, J.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Börner, M.; Bos, F.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Braun, J.; Brayeur, L.; Bretz, H.-P.; Brown, A. M.; Buzinsky, N.; Casey, J.; Casier, M.; Cheung, E.; Chirkin, D.; Christov, A.; Christy, B.; Clark, K.; Classen, L.; Coenders, S.; Cowen, D. F.; Cruz Silva, A. H.; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; Day, M.; de André, J. P. A. M.; De Clercq, C.; Dembinski, H.; De Ridder, S.; Desiati, P.; de Vries, K. D.; de Wasseige, G.; de With, M.; DeYoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Dumm, J. P.; Dunkman, M.; Eagan, R.; Eberhardt, B.; Ehrhardt, T.; Eichmann, B.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fahey, S.; Fazely, A. R.; Fedynitch, A.; Feintzeig, J.; Felde, J.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Flis, S.; Fuchs, T.; Glagla, M.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gaior, R.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Ghorbani, K.; Gier, D.; Gladstone, L.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Golup, G.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Goodman, J. A.; Góra, D.; Grant, D.; Gretskov, P.; Groh, J. C.; Groß, A.; Ha, C.; Haack, C.; Haj Ismail, A.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hansmann, B.; Hanson, K.; Hebecker, D.; Heereman, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hellwig, D.; Hickford, S.; Hignight, J.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Huang, F.; Huber, M.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; In, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jero, K.; Jurkovic, M.; Kaminsky, B.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kauer, M.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, J.; Kheirandish, A.; Kiryluk, J.; Kläs, J.; Klein, S. R.; Kohnen, G.; Kolanoski, H.; Konietz, R.; Koob, A.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Krings, K.; Kroll, G.; Kroll, M.; Kunnen, J.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Lanfranchi, J. L.; Larson, M. J.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Leuermann, M.; Leuner, J.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Maggi, G.; Mahn, K. B. M.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; Maunu, R.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Medici, M.; Meli, A.; Menne, T.; Merino, G.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Middell, E.; Middlemas, E.; Miller, J.; Mohrmann, L.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Niederhausen, H.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Obertacke, A.; Olivas, A.; Omairat, A.; O'Murchadha, A.; Palczewski, T.; Paul, L.; Pepper, J. A.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Pfendner, C.; Pieloth, D.; Pinat, E.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Pütz, J.; Quinnan, M.; Rädel, L.; Rameez, M.; Rawlins, K.; Redl, P.; Reimann, R.; Relich, M.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Richman, M.; Richter, S.; Riedel, B.; Robertson, S.; Rongen, M.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ruzybayev, B.; Ryckbosch, D.; Saba, S. M.; Sabbatini, L.; Sander, H.-G.; Sandrock, A.; Sandroos, J.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Scheriau, F.; Schimp, M.; Schmidt, T.; Schmitz, M.; Schoenen, S.; Schöneberg, S.; Schönwald, A.; Schukraft, A.; Schulte, L.; Schulz, O.; Seckel, D.; Sestayo, Y.; Seunarine, S.; Shanidze, R.; Smith, M. W. E.; Soldin, D.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stahlberg, M.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stanisha, N. A.; Stasik, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stößl, A.; Strahler, E. A.; Ström, R.; Strotjohann, N. L.; Sullivan, G. W.; Sutherland, M.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Terliuk, A.; Tešić, G.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Tobin, M. N.; Tosi, D.; Tselengidou, M.; Unger, E.; Usner, M.; Vallecorsa, S.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van Santen, J.; Vanheule, S.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Vraeghe, M.; Walck, C.; Wallraff, M.; Wandkowsky, N.; Weaver, Ch.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Whitehorn, N.; Wichary, C.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Wille, L.; Williams, D. R.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Xu, Y.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Zoll, M.; IceCube Collaboration

    2015-06-01

    We present a measurement of the atmospheric νe spectrum at energies between 0.1 and 100 TeV using data from the first year of the complete IceCube detector. Atmospheric νe originate mainly from the decays of kaons produced in cosmic-ray air showers. This analysis selects 1078 fully contained events in 332 days of live time, and then identifies those consistent with particle showers. A likelihood analysis with improved event selection extends our previous measurement of the conventional νe fluxes to higher energies. The data constrain the conventional νe flux to be 1. 3-0.3+0.4 times a baseline prediction from a Honda's calculation, including the knee of the cosmic-ray spectrum. A fit to the kaon contribution (ξ ) to the neutrino flux finds a kaon component that is ξ =1. 3-0.4+0.5 times the baseline value. The fitted/measured prompt neutrino flux from charmed hadron decays strongly depends on the assumed astrophysical flux and shape. If the astrophysical component follows a power law, the result for the prompt flux is 0. 0-0.0+3.0 times a calculated flux based on the work by Enberg, Reno, and Sarcevic.

  3. IceCube: Particle Astrophysics with High Energy Neutrinos

    CERN Multimedia

    Université de Genève

    2012-01-01

    GENEVA UNIVERSITY École de physique Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 Genève 4 Tél.: (022) 379 62 73 Fax: (022) 379 69 92 Monday 7 May 2012 17h. - Ecole de Physique, Auditoire Stueckelberg IceCube: Particle Astrophysics with High Energy Neutrinos Prof. Francis Halzen / University of Wisconsin, Madison Construction and commissioning of the cubic-kilometer IceCube neutrino detector and its low energy extension DeepCore have been completed. The instrument detects neutrinos over a wide energy range: from 10 GeV atmospheric neutrinos to 1010 GeV cosmogenic neutrinos. We will discuss initial results based on a subsample of the ~100,000 neutrino events recorded during construction. We will emphasize the first measurement of the high-energy atmospheric neutrino spectrum, the search for the still enigmatic sources of the Galactic and extragalactic cosmic rays and for the particle nature of dark matter. Une ve...

  4. Řídicí jednotka pro CubeSat

    OpenAIRE

    Horký, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Cílem práce je návrh univerzální řídicí jednotky pro CubeSat založené na obvodu FPGA. Taková jednotka doposud nebyla komerčně dostupná a navržená jednotka má tak dobrý potenciál zaplnit příslušné místo na trhu komponent pro CubeSat. Celá jednotka je navržena z komerčně dostupných komponent. Návrh jednotky je proveden tak, aby umožnil její funkci ve vesmírném prostředí. Stav konfigurace FPGA je pravidelně kontrolován a v případě zjištěné chyby dochází automaticky k rekonfiguraci FPGA a návratu...

  5. Open Standards Role in EarthCube (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez, L. E.; Arctur, D. K.; Percivall, G.

    2013-12-01

    EarthCube is an NSF initiative that will enable sharing of data in an open and transparent manner, improving access and use of data, allowing scientists to better understand the Earth. EarthCube is based on a network of enthusiasts willing to make the sharing of data a reality. But is just having open data enough? Open data will not accelerate the process a scientist team needs to go through to understand, reformat and use the data. However, agreements among colleagues or adoption of agreements can make a big difference. These agreements also need to be published, freely available, and unpolluted from intellectual property rights issues. The system design requirements to develop cyberinfrastructure for Geosciences need to take into account these open agreements, including open interfaces and open encodings. Once open agreements are in place, it is essential to have in place policy and procedures, and a governance body for maintaining those agreements. This presentation will explore these issues and suggest ways the standard development organizations, like the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), and other coordinating organizations, such as the Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) and the Research Data Alliance (RDA), could be involved in this process.

  6. Analysis of Cassini UVIS Image Cube Vectors of Enceladus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemansky, D. E.; Yoshii, J.; Hansen, Candice; Hendrix, Amanda R.; Liu, X.; Yung, Yuk

    2016-10-01

    Cassini UVIS image cubes of Enceladus from a spacecraft range of image cube matrix discussed here is a virtual 20 X 20 RE structure centered on the satellite body with pixel size 0.2 X 0.2 RE. The pixels are composed of FUV spectral vectors accumulated from multiple exposures by the Cassini experiments in the years 2005 - 2015. In spite of the multiple year exposure, the matrix structure is significantly non-uniform in brightness and spectral content. The features that can be presented at this time are: 1) The pixels at the center of the body show a strong solar reflection that over the 1500 – 1900 A region indicates a spectrally structureless albedo. 2) The central pixels show no discrete emissions other than a weak optically thick atomic hydrogen resonance line (HLya) at 1216 A. 3) Above the limb the solar reflection spectrum appears at irregular locations. One of these is recognized as the south polar plume. The plume solar reflection albedo shows a multiply scattered spectrum dominantly composed of hydrocarbon absorbers, primarily C2H4. 4) Above the limb, the HLya line shows spatially irregular structure with emission peaks in the north 50X brighter than the signal from body center. No discrete emissions other than HLya are observed in the < 2RE region above the limb. The neutral torus at the Enceladus orbit shows only the OI 1304 A line emission. Limits on the presence of other species, H2 in particular, will be presented.

  7. Atmospheric neutrino oscillations in IceCube-79

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, Andreas [Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Collaboration: IceCube Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    We present the results of an analysis of data collected by IceCube/DeepCore in 2010-2011 when operating in the 79 string configuration. This analysis results in the first significant detection of neutrino oscillations in a high-energy neutrino telescope. A low-energy muon neutrino sample (20-100 GeV) containing the oscillation signal was extracted from data collected by DeepCore. A high-energy muon neutrino sample (100 GeV-10 TeV) was extracted from IceCube data in order to constrain the systematic uncertainties. The non-oscillation hypothesis was rejected with more than 5σ. We fitted the oscillation parameters Δ m{sup 2}{sub 23} and sin{sup 2}2 θ{sub 23} to these data samples. In a 2-flavor formalism we find Δ m{sup 2}{sub 23} = (2.5±0.6). 10{sup -3} eV{sup 2} and sin{sup 2}2 θ{sub 23} > 0.92 while maximum mixing is favored. These results are in good agreement with the world average values.

  8. Atmospheric Variations as observed by IceCube

    CERN Document Server

    Tilav, Serap; Kuwabara, Takao; Rocco, Dominick; Rothmaier, Florian; Simmons, Matt; Wissing, Henrike

    2010-01-01

    We have measured the correlation of rates in IceCube with long and short term variations in the South Pole atmosphere. The yearly temperature variation in the middle stratosphere (30-60 hPa) is highly correlated with the high energy muon rate observed deep in the ice, and causes a +/-10% seasonal modulation in the event rate. The counting rates of the surface detectors, which are due to secondary particles of relatively low energy (muons, electrons and photons), have a negative correlation with temperatures in the lower layers of the stratosphere (40-80 hPa), and are modulated at a level of +/-5%. The region of the atmosphere between pressure levels 20-120 hPa, where the first cosmic ray interactions occur and the produced pions/kaons interact or decay to muons, is the Antarctic ozone layer. The anticorrelation between surface and deep ice trigger rates reflects the properties of pion/kaon decay and interaction as the density of the stratospheric ozone layer changes. Therefore, IceCube closely probes the ozon...

  9. Elastic Cube Actuator with Six Degrees of Freedom Output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengchuan Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Unlike conventional rigid actuators, soft robotic technologies possess inherent compliance, so they can stretch and twist along every axis without the need for articulated joints. This compliance is exploited here using dielectric elastomer membranes to develop a novel six degrees of freedom (6-DOF polymer actuator that unifies ordinarily separate components into a simple cubic structure. This cube actuator design incorporates elastic dielectric elastomer membranes on four faces which are coupled by a cross-shaped end effector. The inherent elasticity of each membrane greatly reduces kinematic constraint and enables a 6-DOF actuation output to be produced via the end effector. An electro-mechanical model of the cube actuator is presented that captures the non-linear hyperelastic behaviour of the active membranes. It is demonstrated that the model accurately predicts actuator displacement and blocking moment for a range of input voltages. Experimental testing of a prototype 60 mm device demonstrates 6-DOF operation. The prototype produces maximum linear and rotational displacements of ±2.6 mm (±4.3% and ±4.8° respectively and a maximum blocking moment of ±76 mNm. The capacity for full 6-DOF actuation from a compact, readily scalable and easily fabricated polymeric package enables implementation in a range of mechatronics and robotics applications.

  10. 3D visualization of astronomy data cubes using immersive displays

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrand, Gilles; Irani, Pourang

    2016-01-01

    We report on an exploratory project aimed at performing immersive 3D visualization of astronomical data, starting with spectral-line radio data cubes from galaxies. This work is done as a collaboration between the Department of Physics and Astronomy and the Department of Computer Science at the University of Manitoba. We are building our prototype using the 3D engine Unity, because of its ease of use for integration with advanced displays such as a CAVE environment, a zSpace tabletop, or virtual reality headsets. We address general issues regarding 3D visualization, such as: load and convert astronomy data, perform volume rendering on the GPU, and produce physically meaningful visualizations using principles of visual literacy. We discuss some challenges to be met when designing a user interface that allows us to take advantage of this new way of exploring data. We hope to lay the foundations for an innovative framework useful for all astronomers who use spectral line data cubes, and encourage interested part...

  11. Five schools visit CERN and IceCube virtually

    CERN Multimedia

    Abha Eli Phoboo

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS and CMS experiments hosted a virtual visit together with the IceCube Experiment in the South Pole for students from five different European schools on 2 October. The visit allowed the students to interact with researchers from both the LHC experiments and the IceCube experiment. The virtual visit was the second event in the Open Discovery Space project’s “Bringing Frontier Science to Schools” series.   Angelos Alexopoulos and Steve Goldfarb connect with the schools. The 380 students and 14 teachers and education specialists who took part in the virtual visit were from the John Atanasoff Sofia Vocational High School of Electronics in Bulgaria, Ellinogermaniki Agogi school in Greece, Leo Baeck High School in Israel, Grigore Moisil National College in Romania and Svetozar Marković Grammar School in Serbia. “It was breathtaking and a great opportunity to have our questions answered by the researchers, also live via chat,” said Marco I...

  12. The IceProd (IceCube Production) Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Vélez, J. C.

    2014-06-01

    IceProd is a data processing and management framework developed by the IceCube Neutrino Observatory for processing of Monte Carlo simulations and data. IceProd runs as a separate layer on top of middleware or cluster job schedulers and can take advantage of a variety of computing resources including grids such as EGI, OSG, and NorduGrid as well as local clusters running batch systems like HT Condor, PBS, and SGE. This is accomplished by a set of dedicated daemons which process job submission in a coordinated fashion through the use of middleware plug-ins that serve to abstract the details of job submission and job management. IceProd can also manage complex workflow DAGs across distributed computing grids in order to optimize usage of resources. We describe several aspects of IceProd's design and it's applications in collaborative computing environments. We also briefly discuss design aspects of a second generation IceProd, currently being tested in IceCube.

  13. Neutrinos at IceCube from Heavy Decaying Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Feldstein, Brian; Matsumoto, Shigeki; Yanagida, Tsutomu T

    2013-01-01

    A monochromatic line in the cosmic neutrino spectrum would be a smoking gun signature of dark matter. It is intriguing that the IceCube experiment has recently reported two PeV neutrino events with energies that may be equal up to experimental uncertainties, and which have a probability of being a background fluctuation estimated to be less than a percent. Here we explore prospects for these events to be the first indication of a monochromatic line signal from dark matter. While measurable annihilation signatures would seem to be impossible at such energies, we discuss the dark matter quantum numbers, effective operators, and lifetimes which could lead to an appropriate signal from dark matter decays. We will show that the set of possible decay operators is rather constrained, and will focus on several viable candidates which could explain the IceCube events; R-parity violating gravitinos, hidden sector gauge bosons, and singlet fermions in an extra dimension. In essentially all cases we find that a PeV neutr...

  14. 就买你——DIYer的品牌电脑:建基Cube Mini XC Cube MZ 915-M

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    这款Cube Mini XC Cube MZ 915-M搭载了Intel 915G Express芯片组.支持533MHz前端总线的Dothan核心Pentium M处理嚣.并且提供了PCI—Expressx16显卡扩展槽.性能规格都相当前卫。外形上,这款Cube Mini XC Cube MZ 915-M相比以往的准系统高度降低了不少.整个机箱十分扁平,大大减少占地空间。乳白色的外壳,金属包边修饰,

  15. Neutrinos from Gamma Ray Bursts in the IceCube and ARA Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guetta Dafne

    2016-01-01

    I discuss the constraints on the hadronic component of GRBs derived from the search of four years of IceCube data for a prompt neutrino fux from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs and more in general I present the results of the search for high-energy neutrinos interacting within the IceCube detector between 2010 and 2013.

  16. Embedded-LES and experiment of turbulent boundary layer flow around a floor-mounted cube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Nina Gall; Koss, Holger; Bennetsen, Jens Chr.

    An Embedded LES approach is used to numerically simulate fluctuating surface pressures on a floor-mounted cube in a turbulent boundary layer flow and compared to wind tunnel experiments. The computation were performed with the CFD software ANSYS FLUENT at a Reynolds number at cube height of Reh = 1...

  17. Modelling elasticity in solids using active cubes - application to simulated operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro-Nielsen, Morten

    1995-01-01

    The paper describes an approach to elastic modelling of human tissue based on the use of 3D solid active models-active cubes (M. Bro-Nielsen, 1994)-and a shape description based on the metric tensor in a solid. Active cubes are used because they provide a natural parameterization of the surface a...

  18. Search for neutrino-induced particle showers with IceCube-40

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aartsen, M.G.; Abbasi, R.; Ackermann, M.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the search for neutrino-induced particle-showers, so-called cascades, in the IceCube-40 detector. The data for this search was collected between April 2008 and May 2009 when the first 40 IceCube strings were deployed and operational. Three complementary searches were performed, each...

  19. On the existence of cycles of every even length on generalized Fibonacci cubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Zagaglia Salvi

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available A new topology for the interconnection of computing nodes in multiprocessors systems is the generalized Fibonacci cube.It can be embedded as a subgraph in the Boolean cube and it is also a supergraph of other structures. We prove that every edge of such a graph, but few initial cases, belongs to cycles of every even length.

  20. Stability of cube armoured roundheads exposed to long crested and short crested waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maciñeira, Enrique G.; Burcharth, Hans Falk

    2016-01-01

    Highlights •A formula to estimate armour damage in cube armoured roundheads is presented •Damage limits for design limit states are proposed......Highlights •A formula to estimate armour damage in cube armoured roundheads is presented •Damage limits for design limit states are proposed...

  1. The Surface-to-Volume Ratio in Thermal Physics: From Cheese Cube Physics to Animal Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planinsic, Gorazd; Vollmer, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The surface-to-volume ratio is an important quantity in thermal physics. For example it governs the behaviour of heating or cooling of physical objects as a function of size like, e.g. cubes or spheres made of different material. The starting point in our paper is the simple physics problem of how cheese cubes of different sizes behave if heated…

  2. Why Is the Tetrahedral Bond Angle 109 Degrees? The Tetrahedron-in-a-Cube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kieran F.

    2012-01-01

    The common question of why the tetrahedral angle is 109.471 degrees can be answered using a tetrahedron-in-a-cube, along with some Year 10 level mathematics. The tetrahedron-in-a-cube can also be used to demonstrate the non-polarity of tetrahedral molecules, the relationship between different types of lattice structures, and to demonstrate that…

  3. NASAs EDSN Aims to Overcome the Operational Challenges of CubeSat Constellations and Demonstrate an Economical Swarm of 8 CubeSats Useful for Space Science Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Harrison Brodsky; Hu, Steven Hung Kee; Cockrell, James J.

    2013-01-01

    Operators of a constellation of CubeSats have to confront a number of daunting challenges that can be cost prohibitive, or operationally prohibitive, to missions that could otherwise be enabled by a satellite constellation. Challenges including operations complexity, intersatellite communication, intersatellite navigation, and time sharing tasks between satellites are all complicated by operating with the usual CubeSat size, power, and budget constraints. EDSN pioneers innovative solutions to these problems as they are presented on the nano-scale satellite platform.

  4. Influence of Hot Rolling on Cube Texture of Ni Substrate for Coated Conductor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Pure Ni and Ni alloy tapes with sharp cube texture and low-angle grain boundaries prepared by thennomechanical process were extensively used as substrates for coated conductor. The thermomechanical process usually includes hot forging and cold rolling. In this study, a hot-rolling process between hot forging and cold rolling was induced. The influence of hot rolling on the cube texture of pure Ni was discussed. Sharp cube texture on pure Ni was obtained by suitable hot rolling, cold rolling, and recrystallization treatment. This deformation texture of tape was studied using orientation distribution function (ODF). Orientation mapping, content of the cube texture, and grain boundary distribution were performed using an EBSD system mounted on LEO-1450 SEM. The results show that the substrates that are hot rolled have a sharp cube texture and low-angle grain boundaries.

  5. Design of a terminal node controller hardware for CubeSat tracking applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Y. A.; Nazim, N. J.; Yuhaniz, S. S.

    2016-10-01

    CubeSats enable low-cost experiment and missions to be performed by universities and research institution in space. CubeSats for research use UHF and VHF communication for its tracking and telemetry applications. The current practice of a CubeSat communication is to modify radio amateur's Terminal Node Controller (TNC) to enable data to be received in the ground station. The objective of this research is to design a hardware specifically for use as a TNC for CubeSat tracking applications. A TNC is developed as an interface to the terminal and to serve as data packetization platform. The modem is integrated with a microcontroller unit (MCU) and an audio amplifier to enable the audio signals to be smoothened, amplified and interfaced with the radio. The modem, MCU and audio amplifier circuitry are designed and integrated to form a TNC platform suitable for CubeSat communication.

  6. Power generation and solar panels for an MSU CubeSat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassi, Soundouss

    This thesis is a power generation study of a proposed CubeSat at Mississippi State University (MSU). CubeSats are miniaturized satellites of 10 x 10 x 10 cm in dimension. Their power source once in orbit is the sun during daylight and the batteries during eclipse. MSU CubeSat is equipped with solar panels. This effort will discuss two types of cells: Gallium Arsenide and Silicon; and which one will suit MSU CubeSat best. Once the cell type is chosen, another decision regarding the electrical power subsystem will be made. Solar array design can only be done once the choice of the electrical power subsystem and the solar cells is made. Then the power calculation for different mission durations will start along with the sizing of the solar arrays. In the last part the batteries are introduced and discussed in order to choose one type of batteries for MSU CubeSat.

  7. The Trade-offs with Space Time Cube Representation of Spatiotemporal Patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Kristensson, Per Ola; Anundi, Daniel; Bjornstad, Marius; Gillberg, Hanna; Haraldsson, Jonas; Martensson, Ingrid; Nordvall, Matttias; Stahl, Josefin

    2007-01-01

    Space time cube representation is an information visualization technique where spatiotemporal data points are mapped into a cube. Fast and correct analysis of such information is important in for instance geospatial and social visualization applications. Information visualization researchers have previously argued that space time cube representation is beneficial in revealing complex spatiotemporal patterns in a dataset to users. The argument is based on the fact that both time and spatial information are displayed simultaneously to users, an effect difficult to achieve in other representations. However, to our knowledge the actual usefulness of space time cube representation in conveying complex spatiotemporal patterns to users has not been empirically validated. To fill this gap we report on a between-subjects experiment comparing novice users error rates and response times when answering a set of questions using either space time cube or a baseline 2D representation. For some simple questions the error rat...

  8. Application of the third generation of coherent cube in recognizing faults and fractures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张军华; 王月英; 赵勇

    2004-01-01

    @@ Three-dimensional coherent cube is an extremely effective new technique for interpreting seismic data. It has obvious advantages in many aspects compared with the conventional 3D data volume, such as recognizing faults and fractures, interpreting ancient channels, and edge detection of oil-gas reservoir. Coherent cube is to condense and extract information around a certain point in 3D data volume, and then highlight the original characteristics of the geologic body at this point. Therefore, in terms of its essence, coherent cube is a special seismic attribute cube and those points having rather small coherent value are related to the discontinuity of geologic body. In practical production, people often interpret horizontal slices or layer slices of coherent cube, and this provides advantageous foundations for resolving special problems in oil-gas exploration.

  9. A Relationship between Lotka's Law, Bradford's Law, and Zipf's Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ye-Sho; Leimkuhler, Ferdinand F.

    1986-01-01

    A common functional relationship among Lotka's law, Bradford's law, and Zipf's law is derived. The proof takes explicit account of the sequences of observed values of the variables by means of an index. This approach results in a more realistic and precise formulation of each law. (Author/EM)

  10. Ways of constructing optimal magic cube of order n when (n, 2·3·5·7)=1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小松

    2002-01-01

    An optimal magic cube of order n is a magic cube whose row sums, column sums and oblique sums of 9n layers are n(n3+1)/2. The author proved that optimal magic cubes of order n may be constructed as long as n and 2, 3, 5, 7 are relatively prime, and a formula for making optimal magic cubes by using optimal Latin squares and optimal magic squares was given.

  11. Structural Stability Assessment of the High Frequency Antenna for Use on the Buccaneer CubeSat in Low Earth Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED Structural Stability Assessment of the High Frequency Antenna for Use on the Buccaneer CubeSat in Low Earth...DSTO-TN-1295 ABSTRACT The Buccaneer CubeSat will be fitted with a high frequency antenna made from spring steel measuring tape. The geometry...High Frequency Antenna for Use on the Buccaneer CubeSat in Low Earth Orbit Executive Summary The Buccaneer CubeSat will be fitted with a

  12. How CubeSats contribute to Science and Technology in Astronomy and Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahoy, Kerri Lynn; Douglas, Ewan; Carlton, Ashley; Clark, James; Haughwout, Christian

    2017-01-01

    CubeSats are nanosatellites, spacecraft typically the size of a shoebox or backpack. CubeSats are made up of one or more 10 cm x 10 cm x 10 cm units weighing 1.33 kg (each cube is called a “U”). CubeSats benefit from relatively easy and inexpensive access to space because they are designed to slide into fully enclosed spring-loaded deployer pods before being attached as an auxiliary payload to a larger vehicle, without adding risk to the vehicle or its primary payload(s). Even though CubeSats have inherent resource and aperture limitations due to their small size, over the past fifteen years, researchers and engineers have miniaturized components and subsystems, greatly increasing the capabilities of CubeSats. We discuss how state of the art CubeSats can address both science objectives and technology objectives in Astronomy and Astrophysics. CubeSats can contribute toward science objectives such as cosmic dawn, galactic evolution, stellar evolution, extrasolar planets and interstellar exploration.CubeSats can contribute to understanding how key technologies for larger missions, like detectors, microelectromechanical systems, and integrated optical elements, can not only survive launch and operational environments (which can often be simulated on the ground), but also meet performance specifications over long periods of time in environments that are harder to simulate properly, such as ionizing radiation, the plasma environment, spacecraft charging, and microgravity. CubeSats can also contribute to both science and technology advancements as multi-element space-based platforms that coordinate distributed measurements and use formation flying and large separation baselines to counter their restricted individual apertures.

  13. Large eddy simulation and wind tunnel experiment of turbulent boundary-layer flow around a floor-mounted cube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Nina Gall; Koss, Holger; Bennetsen, Jens Chr.

    2014-01-01

    experiments. The computations were performed with the commercial CFD software ANSYS FLUENT at a Reynolds number at the cube height of Reh = 1.3x105. The object was to evaluate the numerically generated flow upstream and around the cube and the accuracy of the timeaveraged surface pressure on the cube...

  14. Propulsion System and Orbit Maneuver Integration in CubeSats: Trajectory Control Strategies Using Micro Ion Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Jennifer; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The Propulsion System and Orbit Maneuver Integration in CubeSats project aims to solve the challenges of integrating a micro electric propulsion system on a CubeSat in order to perform orbital maneuvers and control attitude. This represents a fundamentally new capability for CubeSats, which typically do not contain propulsion systems and cannot maneuver far beyond their initial orbits.

  15. The Dark Cube: dark character profiles and OCEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Garcia

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The Big Five traits (i.e., openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism: OCEAN have been suggested to provide a meaningful taxonomy for studying the Dark Triad: Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy. Nevertheless, current research consists of mixed and inconsistent associations between the Dark Triad and OCEAN. Here we used the Dark Cube (Garcia & Rosenberg, 2016, a model of malevolent character theoretically based on Cloninger’s biopsychosocial model of personality and in the assumption of a ternary structure of malevolent character. We use the dark cube profiles to investigate differences in OCEAN between individuals who differ in one dark character trait while holding the other two constant (i.e., conditional relationships. Method Participants (N = 330 responded to the Short Dark Triad Inventory and the Big Five Inventory and were grouped according to the eight possible combinations using their dark trait scores (M, high Machiavellianism; m, low Machiavellianism; N, high narcissism; n, low narcissism; P, high psychopathy; p, low psychopathy: MNP “maleficent”, MNp “manipulative narcissistic”, MnP “anti-social”, Mnp “Machiavellian”, mNP “psychopathic narcissistic”, mNp “narcissistic”, mnP “psychopathic”, and mnp “benevolent”. Results High narcissism-high extraversion and high psychopathy-low agreeableness were consistently associated across comparisons. The rest of the comparisons showed a complex interaction. For example, high Machiavellianism-high neuroticism only when both narcissism and psychopathy were low (Mnp vs. mnp, high narcissism-high conscientiousness only when both Machiavellianism and psychopathy were also high (MNP vs. MnP, and high psychopathy-high neuroticism only when Machiavellianism was low and narcissism was high (mNP vs. mNp. Conclusions We suggest that the Dark Cube is a useful tool in the investigation of a consistent Dark Triad Theory

  16. Hausdorff dimension of metric spaces and Lipschitz maps onto cubes

    CERN Document Server

    Keleti, Tamás; Zindulka, Ondřej

    2012-01-01

    We prove that a compact metric space (or more generally an analytic subset of a complete separable metric space) of Hausdorff dimension bigger than $k$ can be always mapped onto a $k$-dimensional cube by a Lipschitz map. We also show that this does not hold for arbitrary separable metric spaces. As an application we essentially answer a question of Urba\\'nski by showing that the transfinite Hausdorff dimension (introduced by him) of an analytic subset $A$ of a complete separable metric space is the integer part of $\\dim_H A$ if $\\dim_H A$ is finite but not an integer, $\\dim_H A$ or $\\dim_H A-1$ if $\\dim_H A$ is an integer and at least $\\omega_0$ if $\\dim_H A=\\infty$.

  17. Structures du cube et fibres d'intersection

    CERN Document Server

    Ducrot, F

    1997-01-01

    We define the notion of a hypercube structure on a functor between two strictly commutative Picard categories which generalizes the notion of a cube structure on a $G_m$-torsor over an abelian scheme. We use this notion to define the intersection bundle of $n+1$ line bundles on a relative scheme $X/S$ of relative dimension $n$ and to construct an additive structure on the functor $I_{X/S}:PIC(X/S)^{n+1}\\F PIC(S)$. Finally, we study a section of $I_{X/S}(L_1,...,L_{n+1})$ which generalizes the resultant of $n+1$ polynomials in $n$ variables and we interprete some classical formulas with this formalism.

  18. Axioms for Consensus Functions on the n-Cube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Garcia-Martinez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A p value of a sequence π=(x1,x2,…,xk of elements of a finite metric space (X,d is an element x for which ∑i=1kdp(x,xi is minimum. The lp–function with domain the set of all finite sequences on X and defined by lp(π={x:  x is a p value of π} is called the lp–function on (X,d. The l1 and l2 functions are the well-studied median and mean functions, respectively. In this note, simple characterizations of the lp–functions on the n-cube are given. In addition, the center function (using the minimax criterion is characterized as well as new results proved for the median and antimedian functions.

  19. Embedding meshes in Boolean cubes by graph decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, C.T. (IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, CA (US)); Johnsson, S.L. (Dept. of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering, Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (US))

    1990-04-01

    This paper explores the embeddings of multidimensional meshes into minimal Boolean cubes by graph decomposition. The graph decomposition technique can be used to improve the average dilation and average congestion. The graph decomposition technique combined with some particular two-dimensional embeddings allows for minimal-expansion, dilation-two, congestion-two embeddings of about 87% of all two-dimensional meshes, with a significantly lower average dilation and congestion than by modified line compression. For three-dimensional meshes the authors show that the graph decomposition technique, together with two three-dimensional mesh embeddings presented in this paper and modified line compression, yields dilation-two embeddings of more than 96% of all three dimensional meshes contained in a 512 {times} 512 {times} 512 mesh.

  20. Neutrinos in IceCube from active galactic nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalashev, O., E-mail: kalashev@inr.ac.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Semikoz, D. [Laboratory of AstroParticle and Cosmology (APC) (France); Tkachev, I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-15

    Recently, the IceCube collaboration reported first evidence for the astrophysical neutrinos. Observation corresponds to the total astrophysical neutrino flux of the order of 3 × 10{sup −8} GeV cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} sr{sup −1} in a PeV energy range [1]. Active galactic nuclei (AGN) are natural candidate sources for such neutrinos. To model the neutrino creation in AGNs, we study photopion production processes on the radiation field of the Shakura-Sunyaev accretion discs in the black hole vicinity. We show that this model can explain the detected neutrino flux and at the same time avoids the existing constraints from the gamma-ray and cosmic-ray observations.

  1. Measuring the optical properties of IceCube drill holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongen Martin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The IceCube Neutrino Observatory consists of 5160 digital optical modules (DOMs in a cubic kilometer of deep ice below the South Pole. The DOMs record the Cherenkov light from charged particles interacting in the ice. A good understanding of the optical properties of the ice is crucial to the quality of the event reconstruction. While the optical properties of the undisturbed ice are well understood, the properties of the refrozen drill holes still pose a challenge. A new data-acquisition and analysis approach using light originating from LEDs within one DOM detected by the photomultiplier of the same DOM will be described. This method allows us to explore the scattering length in the immediate vicinity of the considered DOMs.

  2. Sterile Neutrinos and Flavor Ratios in IceCube

    CERN Document Server

    Brdar, Vedran; Wang, Xiao-Ping

    2016-01-01

    The flavor composition of astrophysical neutrinos observed in neutrino telescopes is a powerful discriminator between different astrophysical neutrino production mechanisms and can also teach us about the particle physics properties of neutrinos. In this paper, we investigate how the possible existence of light sterile neutrinos can affect these flavor ratios. We consider two scenarios: (i) neutrino production in conventional astrophysical sources, followed by partial oscillation into sterile states; (ii) neutrinos from dark matter decay with a primary flavor composition enhanced in tau neutrinos or sterile neutrinos. Throughout the paper, we constrain the sterile neutrino mixing parameters from a full global fit to short and long baseline data. We present our results in the form of flavor triangles and, for scenario (ii), as exclusion limits on the dark matter mass and lifetime, derived from a fit to IceCube high energy starting events and through-going muons. We argue that identifying a possible flux of neu...

  3. Searches for Relativistic Magnetic Monopoles in IceCube

    CERN Document Server

    Aartsen, M G; Ackermann, M; Adams, J; Aguilar, J A; Ahlers, M; Ahrens, M; Altmann, D; Anderson, T; Ansseau, I; Archinger, M; Arguelles, C; Arlen, T C; Auffenberg, J; Bai, X; Barwick, S W; Baum, V; Bay, R; Beatty, J J; Tjus, J Becker; Becker, K -H; Beiser, E; Berghaus, P; Berley, D; Bernardini, E; Bernhard, A; Besson, D Z; Binder, G; Bindig, D; Bissok, M; Blaufuss, E; Blumenthal, J; Boersma, D J; Bohm, C; Börner, M; Bos, F; Bose, D; Böser, S; Botner, O; Braun, J; Brayeur, L; Bretz, H -P; Buzinsky, N; Casey, J; Casier, M; Cheung, E; Chirkin, D; Christov, A; Clark, K; Classen, L; Coenders, S; Cowen, D F; Silva, A H Cruz; Daughhetee, J; Davis, J C; Day, M; de André, J P A M; De Clercq, C; Rosendo, E del Pino; Dembinski, H; De Ridder, S; Desiati, P; de Vries, K D; de Wasseige, G; de With, M; DeYoung, T; Díaz-Vélez, J C; di Lorenzo, V; Dumm, J P; Dunkman, M; Eberhardt, B; Ehrhardt, T; Eichmann, B; Euler, S; Evenson, P A; Fahey, S; Fazely, A R; Feintzeig, J; Felde, J; Filimonov, K; Finley, C; Fischer-Wasels, T; Flis, S; Fösig, C -C; Fuchs, T; Gaisser, T K; Gaior, R; Gallagher, J; Gerhardt, L; Ghorbani, K; Gier, D; Gladstone, L; Glagla, M; Glüsenkamp, T; Goldschmidt, A; Golup, G; Gonzalez, J G; Góra, D; Grant, D; Griffith, Z; Groß, A; Ha, C; Haack, C; Ismail, A Haj; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Hansen, E; Hansmann, B; Hanson, K; Hebecker, D; Heereman, D; Helbing, K; Hellauer, R; Hickford, S; Hignight, J; Hill, G C; Hoffman, K D; Hoffmann, R; Holzapfel, K; Homeier, A; Hoshina, K; Huang, F; Huber, M; Huelsnitz, W; Hulth, P O; Hultqvist, K; In, S; Ishihara, A; Jacobi, E; Japaridze, G S; Jeong, M; Jero, K; Jurkovic, M; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Karle, A; Kauer, M; Keivani, A; Kelley, J L; Kemp, J; Kheirandish, A; Kiryluk, J; Kläs, J; Klein, S R; Kohnen, G; Koirala, R; Kolanoski, H; Konietz, R; Köpke, L; Kopper, C; Kopper, S; Koskinen, D J; Kowalski, M; Krings, K; Kroll, G; Kroll, M; Krückl, G; Kunnen, J; Kurahashi, N; Kuwabara, T; Labare, M; Lanfranchi, J L; Larson, M J; Lesiak-Bzdak, M; Leuermann, M; Leuner, J; Lu, L; Lünemann, J; Madsen, J; Maggi, G; Mahn, K B M; Mandelartz, M; Maruyama, R; Mase, K; Matis, H S; Maunu, R; McNally, F; Meagher, K; Medici, M; Meli, A; Menne, T; Merino, G; Meures, T; Miarecki, S; Middell, E; Mohrmann, L; Montaruli, T; Morse, R; Nahnhauer, R; Naumann, U; Neer, G; Niederhausen, H; Nowicki, S C; Nygren, D R; Pollmann, A Obertacke; Olivas, A; Omairat, A; O'Murchadha, A; Palczewski, T; Pandya, H; Pankova, D V; Paul, L; Pepper, J A; Heros, C Pérez de los; Pfendner, C; Pieloth, D; Pinat, E; Posselt, J; Price, P B; Przybylski, G T; Pütz, J; Quinnan, M; Raab, C; Rädel, L; Rameez, M; Rawlins, K; Reimann, R; Relich, M; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Richman, M; Richter, S; Riedel, B; Robertson, S; Rongen, M; Rott, C; Ruhe, T; Ryckbosch, D; Sabbatini, L; Sander, H -G; Sandrock, A; Sandroos, J; Sarkar, S; Schatto, K; Scheriau, F; Schimp, M; Schmidt, T; Schmitz, M; Schoenen, S; Schöneberg, S; Schönwald, A; Schulte, L; Schumacher, L; Seckel, D; Seunarine, S; Soldin, D; Song, M; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Stahlberg, M; Stamatikos, M; Stanev, T; Stasik, A; Steuer, A; Stezelberger, T; Stokstad, R G; Stößl, A; Ström, R; Strotjohann, N L; Sullivan, G W; Sutherland, M; Taavola, H; Taboada, I; Tatar, J; Ter-Antonyan, S; Terliuk, A; Tešić, G; Tilav, S; Toale, P A; Tobin, M N; Toscano, S; Tosi, D; Tselengidou, M; Turcati, A; Unger, E; Usner, M; Vallecorsa, S; Vandenbroucke, J; van Eijndhoven, N; Vanheule, S; van Santen, J; Veenkamp, J; Vehring, M; Voge, M; Vraeghe, M; Walck, C; Wallace, A; Wallraff, M; Wandkowsky, N; Weaver, Ch; Wendt, C; Westerhoff, S; Whelan, B J; Wiebe, K; Wiebusch, C H; Wille, L; Williams, D R; Wissing, H; Wolf, M; Wood, T R; Woschnagg, K; Xu, D L; Xu, X W; Xu, Y; Yanez, J P; Yodh, G; Yoshida, S; Zoll, M

    2015-01-01

    Various extensions of the Standard Model motivate the existence of stable magnetic monopoles that could have been created during an early high-energy epoch of the Universe. These primordial magnetic monopoles would be gradually accelerated by cosmic magnetic fields and could reach high velocities that make them visible in Cherenkov detectors such as IceCube. Equivalently to electrically charged particles, magnetic monopoles produce direct and indirect Cherenkov light while traversing through matter at relativistic velocities. This paper describes searches for relativistic (v>0.76c) and mildly relativistic (v>0.51c) monopoles, each using one year of data taken in 2008/09 and 2011/12 respectively. No monopole candidate was detected. For a velocity above 0.51c the monopole flux is constrained down to a level of 1.55x10^-18 cm-2 s-1 sr-1. This is an improvement of almost two orders of magnitude over previous limits.

  4. Optimization and improvement of FOA corner cube algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClay, Wilbert A., III; Awwal, Abdul A. S.; Burkhart, Scott C.; Candy, James V.

    2004-11-01

    Alignment of laser beams based on video images is a crucial task necessary to automate operation of the 192 beams at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The final optics assembly (FOA) is the optical element that aligns the beam into the target chamber. This work presents an algorithm for determining the position of a corner cube alignment image in the final optics assembly. The improved algorithm was compared to the existing FOA algorithm on 900 noise-simulated images. While the existing FOA algorithm based on correlation with a synthetic template has a radial standard deviation of 1 pixel, the new algorithm based on classical matched filtering (CMF) and polynomial fit to the correlation peak improves the radial standard deviation performance to less than 0.3 pixels. In the new algorithm the templates are designed from real data stored during a year of actual operation.

  5. KMOS Data Flow: Reconstructing Data Cubes in One Step

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, Richard; Wiezorrek, Erich; Ott, Thomas; Schreiber, Natascha Foerster

    2010-01-01

    KMOS is a multi-object near-infrared integral field spectrometer with 24 deployable pick-off arms. Data processing is inevitably complex. We discuss specific issues and requirements that must be addressed in the data reduction pipeline, the calibration, the raw and processed data formats, and the simulated data. We discuss the pipeline architecture. We focus on its modular style and show how these modules can be used to build a classical pipeline, as well as a more advanced pipeline that can account for both spectral and spatial flexure as well as variations in the OH background. A novel aspect of the pipeline is that the raw data can be reconstructed into a cube in a single step. We discuss the advantages of this and outline the way in which we have implemented it. We finish by describing how the QFitsView tool can now be used to visualise KMOS data.

  6. Sugar Cube Purity: Capacitive Sensing and Image Processing Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhumitha, S.; Rajath, R.; Venkatanathan, N.; Raajan, N. R.; Sridharan, M.

    2016-12-01

    Several methods have been implemented to find out if impurity is present in sugar cubes or powders so far. Several high end imaging techniques with X-ray scanners have been used to check the quality of the sugar. In this present study, without disturbing the physical nature of sugar, we have simply used the dielectric property analysis to check the purity of the sugar. This method can detect even infinitesimal amounts of impurity present in sugar with good accuracy. The positional accuracy is derived using artificial neural networks, which is been trained with various capacitance values when the impurity is present and gives the details on the change in capacitance value as the impurity position changes.

  7. Pruning Attribute Values From Data Cubes with Diamond Dicing

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, Hazel; Lemire, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Data stored in a data warehouse are inherently multidimensional, but most data-pruning techniques (such as iceberg and top-k queries) are unidimensional. However, analysts need to issue multidimensional queries. For example, an analyst may need to select not just the most profitable stores or--separately--the most profitable products, but simultaneous sets of stores and products fulfilling some profitability constraints. To fill this need, we propose a new operator, the diamond dice. Because of the interaction between dimensions, the computation of diamonds is challenging. We present the first diamond-dicing experiments on large data sets. Experiments show that we can compute diamond cubes over fact tables containing 100 million facts in less than 35 minutes using a standard PC.

  8. Search for Relativistic Magnetic Monopoles with IceCube

    CERN Document Server

    Abbasi, R; Ackermann, M; Adams, J; Aguilar, J A; Ahlers, M; Altmann, D; Andeen, K; Auffenberg, J; Bai, X; Baker, M; Barwick, S W; Baum, V; Bay, R; Beattie, K; Beatty, J J; Bechet, S; Tjus, J Becker; Becker, K -H; Bell, M; Benabderrahmane, M L; BenZvi, S; Berdermann, J; Berghaus, P; Berley, D; Bernardini, E; Bertrand, D; Besson, D Z; Bindig, D; Bissok, M; Blaufuss, E; Blumenthal, J; Boersma, D J; Bohm, C; Bose, D; Böser, S; Botner, O; Brayeur, L; Brown, A M; Bruijn, R; Brunner, J; Buitink, S; Carson, M; Casey, J; Casier, M; Chirkin, D; Christy, B; Clevermann, F; Cohen, S; Cowen, D F; Silva, A H Cruz; Danninger, M; Daughhetee, J; Davis, J C; De Clercq, C; Descamps, F; Desiati, P; de Vries-Uiterweerd, G; DeYoung, T; Díaz-Vélez, J C; Dreyer, J; Dumm, J P; Dunkman, M; Eagan, R; Eisch, J; Ellsworth, R W; Engdegård, O; Euler, S; Evenson, P A; Fadiran, O; Fazely, A R; Fedynitch, A; Feintzeig, J; Feusels, T; Filimonov, K; Finley, C; Fischer-Wasels, T; Flis, S; Franckowiak, A; Franke, R; Frantzen, K; Fuchs, T; Gaisser, T K; Gallagher, J; Gerhardt, L; Gladstone, L; Glüsenkamp, T; Goldschmidt, A; Goodman, J A; Góra, D; Grant, D; Groß, A; Grullon, S; Gurtner, M; Ha, C; Ismail, A Haj; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Hanson, K; Heereman, D; Heimann, P; Heinen, D; Helbing, K; Hellauer, R; Hickford, S; Hill, G C; Hoffman, K D; Hoffmann, R; Homeier, A; Hoshina, K; Huelsnitz, W; Hulth, P O; Hultqvist, K; Hussain, S; Ishihara, A; Jacobi, E; Jacobsen, J; Japaridze, G S; Jlelati, O; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Karle, A; Kiryluk, J; Kislat, F; Kläs, J; Klein, S R; Köhne, J -H; Kohnen, G; Kolanoski, H; Köpke, L; Kopper, C; Kopper, S; Koskinen, D J; Kowalski, M; Krasberg, M; Kroll, G; Kunnen, J; Kurahashi, N; Kuwabara, T; Labare, M; Laihem, K; Landsman, H; Larson, M J; Lauer, R; Lesiak-Bzdak, M; Lünemann, J; Madsen, J; Maruyama, R; Mase, K; Matis, H S; McNally, F; Meagher, K; Merck, M; Mészáros, P; Meures, T; Miarecki, S; Middell, E; Milke, N; Miller, J; Mohrmann, L; Montaruli, T; Morse, R; Movit, S M; Nahnhauer, R; Naumann, U; Nowicki, S C; Nygren, D R; Obertacke, A; Odrowski, S; Olivas, A; Olivo, M; O'Murchadha, A; Panknin, S; Paul, L; Pepper, J A; Heros, C Pérez de los; Pieloth, D; Pirk, N; Posselt, J; Price, P B; Przybylski, G T; Rädel, L; Rawlins, K; Redl, P; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Ribordy, M; Richman, M; Riedel, B; Rodrigues, J P; Rothmaier, F; Rott, C; Ruhe, T; Ruzybayev, B; Ryckbosch, D; Saba, S M; Salameh, T; Sander, H -G; Santander, M; Sarkar, S; Schatto, K; Scheel, M; Scheriau, F; Schmidt, T; Schmitz, M; Schoenen, S; Schöneberg, S; Schönherr, L; Schönwald, A; Schukraft, A; Schulte, L; Schulz, O; Seckel, D; Seo, S H; Sestayo, Y; Seunarine, S; Smith, M W E; Soiron, M; Soldin, D; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Stamatikos, M; Stanev, T; Stasik, A; Stezelberger, T; Stokstad, R G; Stößl, A; Strahler, E A; Ström, R; Sullivan, G W; Taavola, H; Taboada, I; Tamburro, A; Ter-Antonyan, S; Tilav, S; Toale, P A; Toscano, S; Usner, M; van der Drift, D; van Eijndhoven, N; Van Overloop, A; van Santen, J; Vehring, M; Voge, M; Walck, C; Waldenmaier, T; Wallraff, M; Walter, M; Wasserman, R; Weaver, Ch; Wendt, C; Westerhoff, S; Whitehorn, N; Wiebe, K; Wiebusch, C H; Williams, D R; Wissing, H; Wolf, M; Wood, T R; Woschnagg, K; Xu, C; Xu, D L; Xu, X W; Yanez, J P; Yodh, G; Yoshida, S; Zarzhitsky, P; Ziemann, J; Zilles, A; Zoll, M

    2012-01-01

    We present the first results in the search for relativistic magnetic monopoles with the IceCube detector, a subsurface neutrino telescope located in the South Polar ice cap containing a volume of 1 km$^{3}$. This analysis searches data taken on the partially completed detector during 2007 when roughly 0.2 km$^{3}$ of ice was instrumented. The lack of candidate events leads to an upper limit on the flux of relativistic magnetic monopoles of $\\Phi_{\\mathrm{90%C.L.}}\\sim 3\\e{-18}\\fluxunits$ for $\\beta\\geq0.8$. This is a factor of 4 improvement over the previous best experimental flux limits up to a Lorentz boost $\\gamma$ below $10^{7}$. This result is then interpreted for a wide range of mass and kinetic energy values.

  9. IceTop: The surface component of IceCube

    CERN Document Server

    Abbasi, R; Ackermann, M; Adams, J; Aguilar, J A; Ahlers, M; Altmann, D; Andeen, K; Auffenberg, J; Bai, X; Baker, M; Barwick, S W; Baum, V; Bay, R; Beattie, K; Beatty, J J; Bechet, S; Tjus, J Becker; Becker, K -H; Bell, M; Benabderrahmane, M L; BenZvi, S; Berdermann, J; Berghaus, P; Berley, D; Bernardini, E; Bertrand, D; Besson, D Z; Bindig, D; Bissok, M; Blaufuss, E; Blumenthal, J; Boersma, D J; Bohm, C; Bose, D; Böser, S; Botner, O; Brayeur, L; Brown, A M; Bruijn, R; Brunner, J; Buitink, S; Caballero-Mora, K S; Carson, M; Casey, J; Casier, M; Chirkin, D; Christy, B; Clevermann, F; Cohen, S; Cowen, D F; Silva, A H Cruz; Danninger, M; Daughhetee, J; Davis, J C; De Clercq, C; Descamps, F; Desiati, P; de Vries-Uiterweerd, G; DeYoung, T; Díaz-Vélez, J C; Dreyer, J; Dumm, J P; Dunkman, M; Eagan, R; Eisch, J; Elliott, C; Ellsworth, R W; Engdegård, O; Euler, S; Evenson, P A; Fadiran, O; Fazely, A R; Fedynitch, A; Feintzeig, J; Feusels, T; Filimonov, K; Finley, C; Fischer-Wasels, T; Flis, S; Franckowiak, A; Franke, R; Frantzen, K; Fuchs, T; Gaisser, T K; Gallagher, J; Gerhardt, L; Gladstone, L; Glüsenkamp, T; Goldschmidt, A; Goodman, J A; Góra, D; Grant, D; Groß, A; Grullon, S; Gurtner, M; Ha, C; Ismail, A Haj; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Hanson, K; Heereman, D; Heimann, P; Heinen, D; Helbing, K; Hellauer, R; Hickford, S; Hill, G C; Hoffman, K D; Hoffmann, R; Homeier, A; Hoshina, K; Huelsnitz, W; Hulth, P O; Hultqvist, K; Hussain, S; Ishihara, A; Jacobi, E; Jacobsen, J; Japaridze, G S; Jlelati, O; Johansson, H; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Karle, A; Kiryluk, J; Kislat, F; Kläs, J; Klein, S R; Klepser, S; Köhne, J -H; Kohnen, G; Kolanoski, H; Köpke, L; Kopper, C; Kopper, S; Koskinen, D J; Kowalski, M; Krasberg, M; Kroll, G; Kunnen, J; Kurahashi, N; Kuwabara, T; Labare, M; Laihem, K; Landsman, H; Larson, M J; Lauer, R; Lesiak-Bzdak, M; Lünemann, J; Madsen, J; Maruyama, R; Mase, K; Matis, H S; McDermott, A; McNally, F; Meagher, K; Merck, M; Mészáros, P; Meures, T; Miarecki, S; Middell, E; Milke, N; Miller, J; Mohrmann, L; Montaruli, T; Morse, R; Movit, S M; Nahnhauer, R; Naumann, U; Nießen, P; Nowicki, S C; Nygren, D R; Obertacke, A; Odrowski, S; Olivas, A; Olivo, M; O'Murchadha, A; Panknin, S; Paul, L; Pepper, J A; Heros, C Pérez de los; Pieloth, D; Pirk, N; Posselt, J; Price, P B; Przybylski, G T; Rädel, L; Rawlins, K; Redl, P; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Ribordy, M; Richman, M; Riedel, B; Rodrigues, J P; Roth, J; Rothmaier, F; Rott, C; Roucelle, C; Ruhe, T; Rutledge, D; Ruzybayev, B; Ryckbosch, D; Saba, S M; Salameh, T; Sander, H -G; Santander, M; Sarkar, S; Schatto, K; Scheel, M; Scheriau, F; Schmidt, T; Schmitz, M; Schoenen, S; Schöneberg, S; Schönherr, L; Schönwald, A; Schukraft, A; Schulte, L; Schulz, O; Seckel, D; Seo, S H; Sestayo, Y; Seunarine, S; Shulman, L; Smith, M W E; Soiron, M; Soldin, D; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Stamatikos, M; Stanev, T; Stasik, A; Stezelberger, T; Stokstad, R G; Stößl, A; Stoyanov, S; Strahler, E A; Ström, R; Sulanke, K-H; Sullivan, G W; Taavola, H; Taboada, I; Tamburro, A; Ter-Antonyan, S; Tilav, S; Toale, P A; Toscano, S; Usner, M; van der Drift, D; van Eijndhoven, N; Van Overloop, A; van Santen, J; Vehring, M; Voge, M; Walck, C; Waldenmaier, T; Wallraff, M; Walter, M; Wasserman, R; Weaver, Ch; Wendt, C; Westerhoff, S; Whitehorn, N; Wiebe, K; Wiebusch, C H; Williams, D R; Wissing, H; Wolf, M; Wood, T R; Woschnagg, K; Xu, C; Xu, D L; Xu, X W; Yanez, J P; Yodh, G; Yoshida, S; Zarzhitsky, P; Ziemann, J; Zilles, A; Zoll, M

    2012-01-01

    IceTop, the surface component of the IceCube Neutrino Observatory at the South Pole, is an air shower array with an area of 1 km2. The detector allows a detailed exploration of the mass composition of primary cosmic rays in the energy range from about 100 TeV to 1 EeV by exploiting the correlation between the shower energy measured in IceTop and the energy deposited by muons in the deep ice. In this paper we report on the technical design, construction and installation, the trigger and data acquisition systems as well as the software framework for calibration, reconstruction and simulation. Finally the first experience from commissioning and operating the detector and the performance as an air shower detector will be discussed.

  10. Probing large extra dimensions with IceCube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esmaili, Arman [Institute of Convergence Fundamental Studies and School of Liberal Arts, Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Seoul 139-743 (Korea, Republic of); Peres, O.L.G.; Tabrizi, Zahra, E-mail: arman@ipm.ir, E-mail: orlando@ifi.unicamp.br, E-mail: tabrizi.physics@ipm.ir [Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin - UNICAMP, 13083-859, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2014-12-01

    In models with Large Extra Dimensions the smallness of neutrino masses can be naturally explained by introducing gauge singlet fermions which propagate in the bulk. The Kaluza-Klein modes of these fermions appear as towers of sterile neutrino states on the brane. We study the phenomenological consequences of this picture for the high energy atmospheric neutrinos. For this purpose we construct a detailed equivalence between a model with large extra dimensions and a (3+n) scenario consisting of three active and n extra sterile neutrino states, which provides a clear intuitive understanding of Kaluza-Klein modes. Finally, we analyze the collected data of high energy atmospheric neutrinos by IceCube experiment and obtain bounds on the radius of extra dimensions.

  11. Search for relativistic magnetic monopoles with IceCube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, R.; Abdou, Y.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Altmann, D.; Andeen, K.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Baker, M.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Beattie, K.; Beatty, J. J.; Bechet, S.; Becker Tjus, J.; Becker, K.-H.; Bell, M.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; BenZvi, S.; Berdermann, J.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bertrand, D.; Besson, D. Z.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blumenthal, J.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Brayeur, L.; Brown, A. M.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Buitink, S.; Carson, M.; Casey, J.; Casier, M.; Chirkin, D.; Christy, B.; Clevermann, F.; Cohen, S.; Cowen, D. F.; Cruz Silva, A. H.; Danninger, M.; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; De Clercq, C.; Descamps, F.; Desiati, P.; de Vries-Uiterweerd, G.; DeYoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Dreyer, J.; Dumm, J. P.; Dunkman, M.; Eagan, R.; Eisch, J.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Engdegård, O.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fazely, A. R.; Fedynitch, A.; Feintzeig, J.; Feusels, T.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Flis, S.; Franckowiak, A.; Franke, R.; Frantzen, K.; Fuchs, T.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Gladstone, L.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Goodman, J. A.; Góra, D.; Grant, D.; Groß, A.; Grullon, S.; Gurtner, M.; Ha, C.; Haj Ismail, A.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hanson, K.; Heereman, D.; Heimann, P.; Heinen, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hickford, S.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; Hussain, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Jacobsen, J.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jlelati, O.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kiryluk, J.; Kislat, F.; Kläs, J.; Klein, S. R.; Köhne, J.-H.; Kohnen, G.; Kolanoski, H.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Krasberg, M.; Kroll, G.; Kunnen, J.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Laihem, K.; Landsman, H.; Larson, M. J.; Lauer, R.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Merck, M.; Mészáros, P.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Middell, E.; Milke, N.; Miller, J.; Mohrmann, L.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Movit, S. M.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Obertacke, A.; Odrowski, S.; Olivas, A.; Olivo, M.; O'Murchadha, A.; Panknin, S.; Paul, L.; Pepper, J. A.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Pieloth, D.; Pirk, N.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Rädel, L.; Rawlins, K.; Redl, P.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Ribordy, M.; Richman, M.; Riedel, B.; Rodrigues, J. P.; Rothmaier, F.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ruzybayev, B.; Ryckbosch, D.; Saba, S. M.; Salameh, T.; Sander, H.-G.; Santander, M.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Scheel, M.; Scheriau, F.; Schmidt, T.; Schmitz, M.; Schoenen, S.; Schöneberg, S.; Schönherr, L.; Schönwald, A.; Schukraft, A.; Schulte, L.; Schulz, O.; Seckel, D.; Seo, S. H.; Sestayo, Y.; Seunarine, S.; Smith, M. W. E.; Soiron, M.; Soldin, D.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stasik, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stößl, A.; Strahler, E. A.; Ström, R.; Sullivan, G. W.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tamburro, A.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Toscano, S.; Usner, M.; van der Drift, D.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Van Overloop, A.; van Santen, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Walck, C.; Waldenmaier, T.; Wallraff, M.; Walter, M.; Wasserman, R.; Weaver, Ch.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whitehorn, N.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Williams, D. R.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, C.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Ziemann, J.; Zilles, A.; Zoll, M.

    2013-01-01

    We present the first results in the search for relativistic magnetic monopoles with the IceCube detector, a subsurface neutrino telescope located in the South Polar ice cap containing a volume of 1km3. This analysis searches data taken on the partially completed detector during 2007 when roughly 0.2km3 of ice was instrumented. The lack of candidate events leads to an upper limit on the flux of relativistic magnetic monopoles of Φ90%C.L.˜3×10-18cm-2sr-1s-1 for β≥0.8. This is a factor of 4 improvement over the previous best experimental flux limits up to a Lorentz boost γ below 107. This result is then interpreted for a wide range of mass and kinetic energy values.

  12. Optimization and Improvement of FOA Corner Cube Algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClay, W A; Awwal, A S; Burkhart, S C; Candy, J V

    2004-10-01

    Alignment of laser beams based on video images is a crucial task necessary to automate operation of the 192 beams at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The final optics assembly (FOA) is the optical element that aligns the beam into the target chamber. This work presents an algorithm for determining the position of a corner cube alignment image in the final optics assembly. The improved algorithm was compared to the existing FOA algorithm on 900 noise-simulated images. While the existing FOA algorithm based on correlation with a synthetic template has a radial standard deviation of 1 pixel, the new algorithm based on classical matched filtering (CMF) and polynomial fit to the correlation peak improves the radial standard deviation performance to less than 0.3 pixels. In the new algorithm the templates are designed from real data stored during a year of actual operation.

  13. First Year Performance of The IceCube Neutrino Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Achterberg, A; Adams, J; Ahrens, J; Andeen, K; Atlee, D W; Baccus, J; Bahcall, J N; Bai, X; Baret, B; Bartelt, M; Barwick, S W; Bay, R; Beattie, K; Becka, T; Becker, J K; Becker, K H; Berghaus, P; Berley, D; Bernardinia, E; Bertrand, D; Besson, D Z; Blaufuss, E; Boersma, D J; Bohm, C; Böser, S; Botner, O; Bouchta, A; Braun, J; Burgess, C; Burgess, T; Castermans, T; Cherwinka, J; Chirkin, D; Clem, J; Cowen, D F; D'Agostino, M V; Davour, A; Day, C T; De Clercq, C; Demirörs, L; Desiati, P; De Young, O T; Díaz-Veléz, J C; Dreyer, J; Duvoort, M R; Edwards, W R; Ehrlich, R; Eisch, J; Elcheikh, A; Ellsworth, R W; Evenson, P A; Fadiran, O; Fazely, A R; Feser, T; Filimonov, K; Fox, B D; Gaisser, T K; Gallagher, J; Ganugapati, R; Geenen, H; Gerhardt, L; Goldschmidt, A; Goodman, J A; Gozzini, R; Greene, M G; Grullon, S; Groß, A; Gunasingha, R M; Gurtner, M; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Han, K; Hanson, K; Hardtke, D; Hardtke, R; Harenberg, T; Hart, J E; Haugen, J; Hauschildt, T; Hays, D; Heise, J; Helbing, K; Hellwig, M; Herquet, P; Hill, G C; Hodges, J; Hoffman, K D; Hoshina, K; Hubert, D; Hughey, B; Hulth, P O; Hultqvist, K; Hundertmark, S; Hülß, J P; Ishihara, A; Jacobsen, J; Japaridze, G S; Jones, A; Joseph, J M; Kampert, K H; Karle, A; Kawai, H; Kelley, J L; Kestel, M; Kitamura, N; Klein, S R; Klepser, S; Kohnen, G; Kolanoski, H; Köpke, L; Krasberg, M; Kühn, K; Landsman, H; Laundrie, A; Leich, H; Liubarsky, I; Lundberg, J; Mackenzie, C; Madsen, J; Mase, K; Matis, H S; McCauley, T; McParland, C P; Meli, A; Messarius, T; Mészáros, P; Miyamoto, H; Mokhtarani, A; Montaruli, T; Morey, A; Morse, R; Movit, S M; Münich, K; Muratas, A; Nahnhauer, R; Nam, J W; Nießen, P; Nygren, D R; Ögelman, H; Olbrechts, P; Olivas, A; Patton, S; Peña-Garay, C; Pérez de los Heros, C; Pettersen, C; Piegsa, A; Pieloth, D; Pohl, A C; Porrata, R; Pretz, J; Price, P B; Przybylski, G T; Rawlins, K; Razzaque, S; Reinghaus, F; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Ribordy, M; Rizzo, A; Robbins, S; Rott, C; Rutledge, D; Sander, H G; Sandström, P; Sarkar, S; Schlenstedt, S; Schneider, D; Seckel, D; Seo, S H; Seunarine, S; Silvestri, A; Smith, A J; Solarz, M; Song, C; Sopher, J E; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Stamatikos, M; Stanev, T; Steffen, P; Stezelberger, T; Stokstad, R G; Stoufer, M C; Stoyanov, S; Strahler, E A; Sulanke, K H; Sullivan, G W; Taboada, I; Tarasova, O; Tepe, A; Thollander, L; Tilav, S; Toale, P A; Turcan, D; van Eijndhoven, N; Vandenbroucke, J; Van Overloop, A; Voigt, B; Wagner, W; Walck, C; Waldmann, H; Walter, M; Wang, Y R; Wendt, C; Whitney, M; Wiebusch, C; Wikström, G; Williams, D R; Wischnewski, R; Wisniewski, P; Wissing, H; Woschnagg, K; Xu, X W; Yodh, G; Yoshida, S; De Dios-Zornoza-Gomez, Juan

    2006-01-01

    The first sensors of the IceCube neutrino observatory were deployed at the South Pole during the austral summer of 2004-05 and have been producing data since February 2005. One string of 60 sensors buried in the ice and a surface array of 8 ice Cherenkov tanks took data until December 2005 when deployment of the next set of strings and tanks began. We have analyzed these data, demonstrating that the performance of the system meets or exceeds design requirements. Times are determined across the whole array to a relative precision of better than 3 nanoseconds, allowing reconstruction of muon tracks and light bursts in the ice, of air-showers in the surface array and of events seen in coincidence by surface and deep-ice detectors separated by up to 2.5 km.

  14. Pulsatile blood flow, shear force, energy dissipation and Murray's Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengtsson Hans-Uno

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Murray's Law states that, when a parent blood vessel branches into daughter vessels, the cube of the radius of the parent vessel is equal to the sum of the cubes of the radii of daughter blood vessels. Murray derived this law by defining a cost function that is the sum of the energy cost of the blood in a vessel and the energy cost of pumping blood through the vessel. The cost is minimized when vessel radii are consistent with Murray's Law. This law has also been derived from the hypothesis that the shear force of moving blood on the inner walls of vessels is constant throughout the vascular system. However, this derivation, like Murray's earlier derivation, is based on the assumption of constant blood flow. Methods To determine the implications of the constant shear force hypothesis and to extend Murray's energy cost minimization to the pulsatile arterial system, a model of pulsatile flow in an elastic tube is analyzed. A new and exact solution for flow velocity, blood flow rate and shear force is derived. Results For medium and small arteries with pulsatile flow, Murray's energy minimization leads to Murray's Law. Furthermore, the hypothesis that the maximum shear force during the cycle of pulsatile flow is constant throughout the arterial system implies that Murray's Law is approximately true. The approximation is good for all but the largest vessels (aorta and its major branches of the arterial system. Conclusion A cellular mechanism that senses shear force at the inner wall of a blood vessel and triggers remodeling that increases the circumference of the wall when a shear force threshold is exceeded would result in the observed scaling of vessel radii described by Murray's Law.

  15. Administrative Law: The Hidden Comparative Law Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Peter L.

    1996-01-01

    Argues that the main contribution of the Administrative Law course to law students is that it presents problems which contrast with those of the standard court-centered curriculum and can illuminate other areas of law, repeatedly confronting students with doctrinal differences. Offers several examples from civil procedure, constitutional law, and…

  16. Afrokoko Roots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Give us a little background information about Afrokoko Roots.How long have you been performing together?It's an international Afrobeat outfit that I founded in Beijing three years ago.I founded it in order to show Chinese people that Africa is beyond what they see and hear on TV.For the purpose of cultural exchange,I hope it can help the Chinese learn about African culture,music,fashion,history and much more.Our band features two dancers,two backup singers,two percussionists,four brass players,a keyboard player,a guitar player and a drummer- and me as the lead vocal,drummer and dancer,which makes for live performances that are equally exciting sonically as they are visually.We have been traveling around,and so far,we have toured and performed in many Chinese cities such as Dalian (Liaoning Province),Hohhot (Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region) and Haikou (Hainan Province).

  17. The design and performance of IceCube DeepCore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, R.; Abdou, Y.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Allen, M. M.; Altmann, D.; Andeen, K.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Baker, M.; Barwick, S. W.; Bay, R.; Bazo Alba, J. L.; Beattie, K.; Beatty, J. J.; Bechet, S.; Becker, J. K.; Becker, K.-H.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; BenZvi, S.; Berdermann, J.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bertrand, D.; Besson, D. Z.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blumenthal, J.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Brown, A. M.; Buitink, S.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Carson, M.; Chirkin, D.; Christy, B.; Clevermann, F.; Cohen, S.; Colnard, C.; Cowen, D. F.; Cruz Silva, A. H.; D'Agostino, M. V.; Danninger, M.; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; De Clercq, C.; Degner, T.; Demirörs, L.; Descamps, F.; Desiati, P.; de Vries-Uiterweerd, G.; DeYoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Dierckxsens, M.; Dreyer, J.; Dumm, J. P.; Dunkman, M.; Eisch, J.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Engdegård, O.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fazely, A. R.; Fedynitch, A.; Feintzeig, J.; Feusels, T.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Fox, B. D.; Franckowiak, A.; Franke, R.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Gladstone, L.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Goodman, J. A.; Góra, D.; Grant, D.; Griesel, T.; Groß, A.; Grullon, S.; Gurtner, M.; Ha, C.; Haj Ismail, A.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Han, K.; Hanson, K.; Heinen, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hickford, S.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, B.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hülß, J.-P.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; Hussain, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Jacobsen, J.; Japaridze, G. S.; Johansson, H.; Kampert, K.-H.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kenny, P.; Kiryluk, J.; Kislat, F.; Klein, S. R.; Köhne, J.-H.; Kohnen, G.; Kolanoski, H.; Köpke, L.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Kowarik, T.; Krasberg, M.; Kroll, G.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Laihem, K.; Landsman, H.; Larson, M. J.; Lauer, R.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Marotta, A.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; Meagher, K.; Merck, M.; Mészáros, P.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Middell, E.; Milke, N.; Miller, J.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Movit, S. M.; Nahnhauer, R.; Nam, J. W.; Naumann, U.; Nygren, D. R.; Odrowski, S.; Olivas, A.; Olivo, M.; O'Murchadha, A.; Panknin, S.; Paul, L.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Petrovic, J.; Piegsa, A.; Pieloth, D.; Porrata, R.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Rawlins, K.; Redl, P.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Ribordy, M.; Richman, M.; Rodrigues, J. P.; Rothmaier, F.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Rutledge, D.; Ruzybayev, B.; Ryckbosch, D.; Sander, H.-G.; Santander, M.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Schmidt, T.; Schönwald, A.; Schukraft, A.; Schultes, A.; Schulz, O.; Schunck, M.; Seckel, D.; Semburg, B.; Seo, S. H.; Sestayo, Y.; Seunarine, S.; Silvestri, A.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stößl, A.; Strahler, E. A.; Ström, R.; Stüer, M.; Sullivan, G. W.; Swillens, Q.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tamburro, A.; Tepe, A.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Toscano, S.; Tosi, D.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Van Overloop, A.; van Santen, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Walck, C.; Waldenmaier, T.; Wallraff, M.; Walter, M.; Weaver, Ch.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whitehorn, N.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Williams, D. R.; Wischnewski, R.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, C.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Zoll, M.

    2012-05-01

    The IceCube neutrino observatory in operation at the South Pole, Antarctica, comprises three distinct components: a large buried array for ultrahigh energy neutrino detection, a surface air shower array, and a new buried component called DeepCore. DeepCore was designed to lower the IceCube neutrino energy threshold by over an order of magnitude, to energies as low as about 10 GeV. DeepCore is situated primarily 2100 m below the surface of the icecap at the South Pole, at the bottom center of the existing IceCube array, and began taking physics data in May 2010. Its location takes advantage of the exceptionally clear ice at those depths and allows it to use the surrounding IceCube detector as a highly efficient active veto against the principal background of downward-going muons produced in cosmic-ray air showers. DeepCore has a module density roughly five times higher than that of the standard IceCube array, and uses photomultiplier tubes with a new photocathode featuring a quantum efficiency about 35% higher than standard IceCube PMTs. Taken together, these features of DeepCore will increase IceCube's sensitivity to neutrinos from WIMP dark matter annihilations, atmospheric neutrino oscillations, galactic supernova neutrinos, and point sources of neutrinos in the northern and southern skies. In this paper we describe the design and initial performance of DeepCore.

  18. Survey on the implementation and reliability of CubeSat electrical bus interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwmeester, Jasper; Langer, Martin; Gill, Eberhard

    2017-06-01

    This paper provides results and conclusions on a survey on the implementation and reliability aspects of CubeSat bus interfaces, with an emphasis on the data bus and power distribution. It provides recommendations for a future CubeSat bus standard. The survey is based on a literature study and a questionnaire representing 60 launched CubeSats and 44 to be launched CubeSats. It is found that the bus interfaces are not the main driver for mission failures. However, it is concluded that the Inter Integrated Circuit (I2C) data bus, as implemented in a great majority of the CubeSats, caused some catastrophic satellite failures and a vast amount of bus lockups. The power distribution may lead to catastrophic failures if the power lines are not protected against overcurrent. A connector and wiring standard widely implemented in CubeSats is based on the PC/104 standard. Most participants find the 104 pin connector of this standard too large. For a future CubeSat bus interface standard, it is recommended to implement a reliable data bus, a power distribution with overcurrent protection and a wiring harness with smaller connectors compared with PC/104.

  19. The molecular concept of law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Gommer

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In his famous work The Concept of Law Hart asked himself the question 'what is law?' Hart makes a very strict distinction between rules and morals: morals are rooted in biology, rules source back to society. Hart's sociological truisms have proven to be untrue, because modern evolutionary biology is not about the survival of the individual (or even of a species but about the spreading of genes. This knowledge changes the fundamentals of Hart's theory and therefore his theory as a whole. In addition, my theory captures vital insights of Dworkin, legal realism, Posner and CLS, while at the same time forming a significant improvement upon them.In essence, the biological theory of law presented in this article is based on fractal patterns. Macroscale patterns recur in microscale patterns. The spreading of genes depends on important characteristics of genes: they are stable, they replicate, they need nutrients to replicate and they can cooperate. Superficially, genes, cells, organisms and groups may seem to act purposefully, but it is merely a pattern, with genes as generators, that brings structure to chaos. Human desires are in fact the needs of their genes. Thanks to language, morals can be put in words and become rules. To keep everyone working together, we need an ingenious device - like the law - to maintain that complex situations can continue to be judged on the basis of the simple principle of stability and reciprocity. To a degree, therefore, law itself can be derived from unconscious emotions and morals.

  20. Linking Humans to Data: Designing an Enterprise Architecture for EarthCube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, C.; Yang, C.; Meyer, C. B.

    2013-12-01

    National Science Foundation (NSF)'s EarthCube is a strategic initiative towards a grand enterprise that holistically incorporates different geoscience research domains. The EarthCube as envisioned by NSF is a community-guided cyberinfrastructure (NSF 2011). The design of EarthCube enterprise architecture (EA) offers a vision to harmonize processes between the operations of EarthCube and its information technology foundation, the geospatial cyberinfrastructure. (Yang et al. 2010). We envision these processes as linking humans to data. We report here on fundamental ideas that would ultimately materialize as a conceptual design of EarthCube EA. EarthCube can be viewed as a meta-science that seeks to advance knowledge of the Earth through cross-disciplinary connections made using conventional domain-based earth science research. In order to build capacity that enables crossing disciplinary chasms, a key step would be to identify the cornerstones of the envisioned enterprise architecture. Human and data inputs are the two key factors to the success of EarthCube (NSF 2011), based upon which three hypotheses have been made: 1) cross disciplinary collaboration has to be achieved through data sharing; 2) disciplinary differences need to be articulated and captured in both computer and human understandable formats; 3) human intervention is crucial for crossing the disciplinary chasms. We have selected the Federal Enterprise Architecture Framework (FEAF, CIO Council 2013) as the baseline for the envisioned EarthCube EA, noting that the FEAF's deficiencies can be improved upon with inputs from three other popular EA frameworks. This presentation reports the latest on the conceptual design of an enterprise architecture in support of EarthCube.

  1. EarthCube - A Community-led, Interdisciplinary Collaboration for Geoscience Cyberinfrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Cindy; Allison, Lee

    2016-04-01

    The US NSF EarthCube Test Enterprise Governance Project completed its initial two-year long process to engage the community and test a demonstration governing organization with the goal of facilitating a community-led process on designing and developing a geoscience cyberinfrastructure. Conclusions are that EarthCube is viable, has engaged a broad spectrum of end-users and contributors, and has begun to foster a sense of urgency around the importance of open and shared data. Levels of trust among participants are growing. At the same time, the active participants in EarthCube represent a very small sub-set of the larger population of geoscientists. Results from Stage I of this project have impacted NSF decisions on the direction of the EarthCube program. The overall tone of EarthCube events has had a constructive, problem-solving orientation. The technical and organizational elements of EarthCube are poised to support a functional infrastructure for the geosciences community. The process for establishing shared technological standards has notable progress but there is a continuing need to expand technological and cultural alignment. Increasing emphasis is being given to the interdependencies among EarthCube funded projects. The newly developed EarthCube Technology Plan highlights important progress in this area by five working groups focusing on: 1. Use cases; 2. Funded project gap analysis; 3. Testbed development; 4. Standards; and 5. Architecture. The EarthCube governance implementing processes to facilitate community convergence on a system architecture, which is expected to emerge naturally from a set of data principles, user requirements, science drivers, technology capabilities, and domain needs.

  2. Web Data Cube Construction in Multidimensional On-line Analytical Processing Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yan

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates how to integrate Web data into a multidimensional data warehouse (cube) for comprehensive on-line analytical processing (OLAP) and decision making. An approach for Web data-based cube construction is proposed, which includes Web data modeling based on MIX (Metadata based Integration model for data X-change), generic and specific mapping rules design, and a transformation algorithm for mapping Web data to a multidimensional array. Besides, the structure and implementation of the prototype of a Web data base cube are discussed.

  3. Closing the Window on Strongly Interacting Dark Matter with IceCube

    CERN Document Server

    Albuquerque, Ivone F M

    2010-01-01

    We use the recent results on dark matter searches of the 22-string IceCube detector to probe the remaining allowed window for strongly interacting dark matter in the mass range 10^4Cube detector from the annihilation ofsuch particles captured in the Sun and compare it to the detected background. As a result, the remaining allowed region in the mass versus cross sectionparameter space is ruled out. We also show the expected sensitivity of the complete IceCube detector with 86 strings.

  4. Centroid stabilization for laser alignment to corner cubes: designing a matched filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awwal, Abdul A. S.; Bliss, Erlan; Brunton, Gordon; Kamm, Victoria Miller; Leach, Richard R.; Lowe-Webb, Roger; Roberts, Randy; Wilhelmsen, Karl

    2016-11-08

    Automation of image-based alignment of National Ignition Facility high energy laser beams is providing the capability of executing multiple target shots per day. One important alignment is beam centration through the second and third harmonic generating crystals in the final optics assembly (FOA), which employs two retroreflecting corner cubes as centering references for each beam. Beam-to-beam variations and systematic beam changes over time in the FOA corner cube images can lead to a reduction in accuracy as well as increased convergence durations for the template-based position detector. A systematic approach is described that maintains FOA corner cube templates and guarantees stable position estimation.

  5. NASA Near Earth Network (NEN) Support for Lunar and L1/L2 CubeSats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaire, Scott; Altunc, Serhat; Wong, Yen; Shelton, Marta; Celeste, Peter; Anderson, Michael; Perrotto, Trish

    2017-01-01

    The NASA Near Earth Network (NEN) consists of globally distributed tracking stations, including NASA, commercial, and partner ground stations, that are strategically located to maximize the coverage provided to a variety of orbital and suborbital missions, including those in LEO, GEO, HEO, lunar and L1/L2 orbits. The NENs future mission set includes and will continue to include CubeSat missions. The majority of the CubeSat missions destined to fly on EM-1, launching in late 2018, many in a lunar orbit, will communicate with ground based stations via X-band and will utilize the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) developed IRIS radio. The NEN recognizes the important role CubeSats are beginning to play in carrying out NASAs mission and is therefore investigating the modifications needed to provide IRIS radio compatibility. With modification, the NEN could potentially expand support to the EM-1 lunar CubeSats.The NEN could begin providing significant coverage to lunar CubeSat missions utilizing three to four of the NENs mid-latitude sites. This coverage would supplement coverage provided by the JPL Deep Space Network (DSN). The NEN, with smaller apertures than DSN, provides the benefit of a larger beamwidth that could be beneficial in the event of uncertain ephemeris data. In order to realize these benefits the NEN would need to upgrade stations targeted based on coverage ability and current configuration/ease of upgrade, to ensure compatibility with the IRIS radio. In addition, the NEN is working with CubeSat radio developers to ensure NEN compatibility with alternative CubeSat radios for Lunar and L1/L2 CubeSats. The NEN has provided NEN compatibility requirements to several radio developers who are developing radios that offer lower cost and, in some cases, more capabilities with fewer constraints. The NEN is ready to begin supporting CubeSat missions. The NEN is considering network upgrades to broaden the types of CubeSat missions that can be supported and is

  6. Low-Resource CubeSat-scale Sensorcraft for Auroral and Ionospheric Plasma Studies

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Explicitly separating variations in space from variations in time over a large volume is a current unmet challenge for in situ studies of the ionosphere and aurora. We propose that arrays of many (_ 10) low-resource sensorcraft can address this scientific and technical challenge. We are developing a suborbital CubeSat, RocketCube, to enable low-cost multipoint measurements for orbital and sub-orbital scientific missions. The graduate student-designed RocketCube showcases a new scientific inst...

  7. Neutrino Astrophysics and Galactic Cosmic Ray Anisotropy in IceCube

    CERN Document Server

    Desiati, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    The IceCube Observatory is a kilometer-cube neutrino telescope under construction at the South Pole and planned to be completed in early 2011. When completed it will consist of 5,160 Digital Optical Modules (DOMs) which detect Cherenkov radiation from the charged particles produced in neutrino interactions and by cosmic ray initiated atmospheric showers. IceCube construction is currently 90% complete. A selection of the most recent scientific results are shown here. The measurement of the anisotropy in arrival direction of galactic cosmic rays will also be presented and discussed.

  8. Laws in Cicero’s Ideal State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bragova, Arina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Formulating the juridical component of his ideal state in the dialogue De legibus Cicero combines Greek legal theory and Roman state activity. He sees the law as a supreme ratio inherent in the nature, which allows people to do what ought to be done and to refrain from the opposite. It is justice that can be found at the core of law, but (contrary to the sophistic tradition – justice available to every citizen, not exclusively to the rulers, since only this sort of law guarantees equal treatment to all Roman citizens. Justice and equality are deeply rooted in civil virtues reflected in Roman tradition, an unwritten law of divine origin (that is why religious laws have to be most strictly observed. Examples given in the article show how Cicero uses these theoretical premises in his discussion of some legal acts related to the imperium of magistrates and the function of the tribunate.

  9. A Three-Dimensional Variational Data Assimilation System on a Cubed Sphere Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, In-Hyuk; Song, Hyo-Jong; Kwun, Jihye; Kim, Sangil; Ha, Ji-Hyun

    2015-04-01

    A 3DVAR system has been developed for a cubed-sphere grid (CSG) model and recently implemented to Korea Institute of Atmospheric Prediction systems (KIAPS) Integrated Model based on HOMME dynamical core (KIM-SH). We devised a spectral transformation method which enables spherical harmonic functions to be represented on the CSG points without horizontal interpolation. The 3DVAR system contains a background error covariance model which generates a static or ensemble background error covariance to represent uncertainty of background. In the background error covariance modeling, the spectral transformation and Eigen decomposition play roles as horizontal and vertical filters, respectively. The parameter transformation using linear and nonlinear balances and Helmholtz decomposition is conducted directly on CGS as well. As a result of the parameter transformation, the model variables such as zonal wind, meridional wind, temperature, specific humidity and surface pressure are respectively transformed to control variables such as streamfunction, velocity potential, unbalanced temperature, specific humidity, and unbalanced surface pressure. To evaluate the performance of the 3DVAR system, observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs) were conducted using KIM-SH with ne30np4 (about 1 degree resolution). We assumed that the model run of KIM-SH with a year spin-up is true and designated as a nature. The root mean square differences (RMSD) between model results and the nature show significant reduction in the analysis compared to the background, and the results also show better forecast skill during 72 h forecast period. The assimilation results of real observation with conventional data such as Sonde, surface wind, temperature and pressure, and aircraft also will be represented at conference.

  10. Simulation of an extended surface detector IceVeto for IceCube-Gen2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansmann, Tim; Auffenberg, Jan; Haack, Christian; Hansmann, Bengt; Kemp, Julian; Konietz, Richard; Leuner, Jakob; Raedel, Leif; Stahlberg, Martin; Schoenen, Sebastian; Wiebusch, Christopher [III. Physikalisches Institut B, RWTH Aachen University (Germany); Collaboration: IceCube-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    IceCube is a neutrino observatory located at the geographic South Pole. The main backgrounds for IceCube's primary goal, the measurement of astrophysical neutrinos, are muons and neutrinos from cosmic-ray air showers in the Earth's atmosphere. Strong supression of these backgrounds from the Southern hemisphere has been demonstrated by coincident detection of these air showers with the IceTop surface detector. For an extended instrument, IceCube-Gen2, it is considered to build an enlarged surface array, IceVeto, that will improve the detection capabilities of coincident air showers. We will present simulation studies to estimate the IceVeto capabilities to optimize the IceCube-Gen2 design.

  11. Plug-and-Play Compatibility for CubeSat Attitude Determination and Control Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The development of Plug-and-play Compatibility for CubeSat Attitude Determination and Control Systems (ADACS) is proposed. Existing Maryland Aerospace (MAI) ADACS...

  12. Deep Space CubeSat Prototype Platform Design and Testing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop and test a proof of concept prototype for a standard CubeSat form factor platform, designed for missions to deep space targets, as opposed to...

  13. KEYWORD SEARCH IN TEXT CUBE: FINDING TOP-K RELEVANT CELLS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — KEYWORD SEARCH IN TEXT CUBE: FINDING TOP-K RELEVANT CELLS BOLIN DING, YINTAO YU, BO ZHAO, CINDY XIDE LIN, JIAWEI HAN, AND CHENGXIANG ZHAI Abstract. We study the...

  14. CubeSat Ambipolar Thruster for LEO and Deep Space Missions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aether Industries proposes the development of a novel, primary plasma propulsion system that is well suited for small spacecraft. This technology, called the CubeSat...

  15. Integrated Propulsion and Primary Structure Module for Small Satellite and CubeSat Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Over the last decade, the CubeSat platform has emerged as a viable alternative for both innovative technology development and scientific investigation. However, to...

  16. Inexpensive CubeSat attitude estimation using COTS components and Unscented Kalman Filtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper Abildgaard; Vinther, Kasper

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a quaternion implementation of an Unscented Kalman Filter for attitude estimation on CubeSats using measurements of a sun vector, a magnetic field vector and angular velocity. Using unit quaternions provides a singularity free attitude parameterization. However, the unity...... constraint requires a redesign of the Unscented Kalman Filter. Therefore, a quaternion error state is introduced. Emphasis has been put in making the implementation accessible to other CubeSat by using realistic models of COTS components used for attitude sensing and simulations have shown that the extra...... computational cost of estimating bias in measurements is worthwhile. The simulations where performed in a simulation environment for the CubeSat AAUSAT3, where robustness has been an important factor during tuning of the attitude estimators. The results indicate that it is possible to achieve acceptable Cube...

  17. Convective Heat Transfer over a Wall Mounted Cube Using Large Eddy Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibollah Heidarzadeh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Fluid flow and convective heat transfer over wall mounted cube have been studied numerically using Large Eddy Simulation. Surface of wall mounted cube and plane floor has a constant heat flux. Two subgrid scale models were used in this study; Wall-Adapting Eddy viscosity (WALE and Dynamic Smagorinsky (DS. The numerical results were compared with the experimental data of Nakamura et al [2] that showed DS model has better results toward WALE model. Results contain the plots of time averaged normalized streamwise velocity and Reynolds stress in different positions, Temperature contours, local Nusselt number over the surfaces of cube and some characteristics of flow field and heat transfer. The local convective heat transfer from the surfaces of the cube and plate are directly related to the complexity of flow field.

  18. 1U CubeSat Lasercom Terminal for Deep Space Communication Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this NASA SBIR-select Phase 1 program Fibertek, Inc., proposes the design, optimization, and analysis of a 1U CubeSat Lasercom Optical Terminal, optimized for...

  19. Mechanism of cube grain nucleation during recrystallization of deformed commercial purity aluminium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K T Kashyap; R George

    2006-04-01

    Cube texture is a sharp recrystallization texture component in fcc metals like aluminium, copper, etc. It is described by an ideal orientation i.e. (100) $\\langle 100 \\rangle$. The subject of cube texture nucleation i.e. cube grain nucleation, from the deformed state of aluminium and copper is of scientific curiosity with concurrent technological implications. There are essentially two models currently in dispute over the mechanism of cube grain nucleation i.e. the differential stored energy model founded on the hypothesis proposed by Ridha and Hutchinson and the micro-growth selection model of Duggan et al. In this paper, calculations are made on the proposal of Ridha and Hutchinson model and the results are obtained in favour of the differential stored energy model. It is also shown that there is no need for the micro-growth model.

  20. Normality of Tetravalent Cayley Graphs of Odd Prime-cube Order and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Quan FENG; Ming Yao XU

    2005-01-01

    Let p be an odd prime. In this paper we prove that all tetravalent connected Cayley graphs of order p3 are normal. As an application, a classification of tetravalent symmetric graphs of odd prime-cube order is given.

  1. TEST METHOD FOR SINGLE INTERIOR RIGHT ANGLE IN A CORNER CUBE PRISM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A new test method for single interior right angle in a corner cube prism is presented. Some key points and parameters are analyzed and derived. The advantage of this method is concluded by comparing with some current conventional methods.

  2. A Green, Safe, Dual-pulse Solid Motor for CubeSat Orbit Changing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Small satellites such as CubeSats are in need of responsive propulsion, but are limited due to their size. Though single pulse, AP/HTPB fueled solid rocket motors...

  3. Measurement of South Pole ice transparency with the IceCube LED calibration system

    CERN Document Server

    Aartsen, M G; Abdou, Y; Ackermann, M; Adams, J; Aguilar, J A; Ahlers, M; Altmann, D; Auffenberg, J; Bai, X; Baker, M; Barwick, S W; Baum, V; Bay, R; Beatty, J J; Bechet, S; Tjus, J Becker; Becker, K -H; Bell, M; Benabderrahmane, M L; BenZvi, S; Berdermann, J; Berghaus, P; Berley, D; Bernardini, E; Bernhard, A; Bertrand, D; Besson, D Z; Binder, G; Bindig, D; Bissok, M; Blaufuss, E; Blumenthal, J; Boersma, D J; Bohaichuk, S; Bohm, C; Bose, D; Böser, S; Botner, O; Brayeur, L; Brown, A M; Bruijn, R; Brunner, J; Buitink, S; Carson, M; Casey, J; Casier, M; Chirkin, D; Christy, B; Clark, K; Clevermann, F; Cohen, S; Cowen, D F; Silva, A H Cruz; Danninger, M; Daughhetee, J; Davis, J C; De Clercq, C; De Ridder, S; Desiati, P; de With, M; DeYoung, T; Díaz-Vélez, J C; Dunkman, M; Eagan, R; Eberhardt, B; Eisch, J; Ellsworth, R W; Euler, S; Evenson, P A; Fadiran, O; Fazely, A R; Fedynitch, A; Feintzeig, J; Feusels, T; Filimonov, K; Finley, C; Fischer-Wasels, T; Flis, S; Franckowiak, A; Franke, R; Frantzen, K; Fuchs, T; Gaisser, T K; Gallagher, J; Gerhardt, L; Gladstone, L; Glüsenkamp, T; Goldschmidt, A; Golup, G; Goodman, J A; Góra, D; Grant, D; Groß, A; Gurtner, M; Ha, C; Ismail, A Haj; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Hanson, K; Heereman, D; Heimann, P; Heinen, D; Helbing, K; Hellauer, R; Hickford, S; Hill, G C; Hoffman, K D; Hoffmann, R; Homeier, A; Hoshina, K; Huelsnitz, W; Hulth, P O; Hultqvist, K; Hussain, S; Ishihara, A; Jacobi, E; Jacobsen, J; Japaridze, G S; Jero, K; Jlelati, O; Kaminsky, B; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Karle, A; Kelley, J L; Kiryluk, J; Kislat, F; Kläs, J; Klein, S R; Köhne, J -H; Kohnen, G; Kolanoski, H; Köpke, L; Kopper, C; Kopper, S; Koskinen, D J; Kowalski, M; Krasberg, M; Kroll, G; Kunnen, J; Kurahashi, N; Kuwabara, T; Labare, M; Landsman, H; Larson, M J; Lesiak-Bzdak, M; Leute, J; Lünemann, J; Madsen, J; Maruyama, R; Mase, K; Matis, H S; McNally, F; Meagher, K; Merck, M; Mészáros, P; Meures, T; Miarecki, S; Middell, E; Milke, N; Miller, J; Mohrmann, L; Montaruli, T; Morse, R; Nahnhauer, R; Naumann, U; Niederhausen, H; Nowicki, S C; Nygren, D R; Obertacke, A; Odrowski, S; Olivas, A; Olivo, M; O'Murchadha, A; Paul, L; Pepper, J A; Heros, C Pérez de los; Pfendner, C; Pieloth, D; Pirk, N; Posselt, J; Price, P B; Przybylski, G T; Rädel, L; Rawlins, K; Redl, P; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Ribordy, M; Richman, M; Riedel, B; Rodrigues, J P; Rott, C; Ruhe, T; Ruzybayev, B; Ryckbosch, D; Saba, S M; Salameh, T; Sander, H -G; Santander, M; Sarkar, S; Schatto, K; Scheel, M; Scheriau, F; Schmidt, T; Schmitz, M; Schoenen, S; Schöneberg, S; Schönherr, L; Schönwald, A; Schukraft, A; Schulte, L; Schulz, O; Seckel, D; Seo, S H; Sestayo, Y; Seunarine, S; Sheremata, C; Smith, M W E; Soiron, M; Soldin, D; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Stamatikos, M; Stanev, T; Stasik, A; Stezelberger, T; Stokstad, R G; Stößl, A; Strahler, E A; Ström, R; Sullivan, G W; Taavola, H; Taboada, I; Tamburro, A; Ter-Antonyan, S; Tilav, S; Toale, P A; Toscano, S; Usner, M; van der Drift, D; van Eijndhoven, N; Van Overloop, A; van Santen, J; Vehring, M; Voge, M; Vraeghe, M; Walck, C; Waldenmaier, T; Wallraff, M; Wasserman, R; Weaver, Ch; Wellons, M; Wendt, C; Westerhoff, S; Whitehorn, N; Wiebe, K; Wiebusch, C H; Williams, D R; Wissing, H; Wolf, M; Wood, T R; Xu, C; Xu, D L; Xu, X W; Yanez, J P; Yodh, G; Yoshida, S; Zarzhitsky, P; Ziemann, J; Zierke, S; Zilles, A; Zoll, M

    2013-01-01

    The IceCube Neutrino Observatory, approximately 1 km^3 in size, is now complete with 86 strings deployed in the Antarctic ice. IceCube detects the Cherenkov radiation emitted by charged particles passing through or created in the ice. To realize the full potential of the detector, the properties of light propagation in the ice in and around the detector must be well understood. This report presents a new method of fitting the model of light propagation in the ice to a data set of in-situ light source events collected with IceCube. The resulting set of derived parameters, namely the measured values of scattering and absorption coefficients vs. depth, is presented and a comparison of IceCube data with simulations based on the new model is shown.

  4. Cube texture generation dependence on deformation textures in cold rolled OFE copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Necker, C.T.; Rollett, A.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Doherty, R.D. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1993-10-01

    The evolution of the {alpha} and {beta} fiber deformation textures in OFE copper for von Mises strains of 1.0 to 4.5 is reported as well as how it affects the generation of cube recrystallization textures. Computational volume fraction analysis of the fibers indicates that the deformation texture evolves evenly along the length of the fibers. Fiber weakening during recrystallization does not occur more selectively in any one component or section of the fiber but occurs relatively evenly across the fiber. Cube grains grow without misorientation preference into the deformed structure. Microtextural analysis of the fully recrystallized samples indicates that the cube component (defined as less than 20{degrees} misorientation from {l_brace}100{r_brace}<001>) not only strengthens with increasing prior strain but also becomes much sharper, more closely aligned with the exact cube position. These results are explained by the evolution of the environment (texture and microstructure) surrounding potential nucleation sites.

  5. Integrated CubeSat ADACS with Reaction Wheels and Star Tracker Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A high performance ADACS (Attitude Determination and Control System) for CubeSats incorporating Miniature Star Trackers is proposed. The proposed program will focus...

  6. Self-Assembly of Cubes into 2D Hexagonal and Honeycomb Lattices by Hexapolar Capillary Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soligno, Giuseppe; Dijkstra, Marjolein; van Roij, René

    2016-06-01

    Particles adsorbed at a fluid-fluid interface induce capillary deformations that determine their orientations and generate mutual capillary interactions which drive them to assemble into 2D ordered structures. We numerically calculate, by energy minimization, the capillary deformations induced by adsorbed cubes for various Young's contact angles. First, we show that capillarity is crucial not only for quantitative, but also for qualitative predictions of equilibrium configurations of a single cube. For a Young's contact angle close to 90°, we show that a single-adsorbed cube generates a hexapolar interface deformation with three rises and three depressions. Thanks to the threefold symmetry of this hexapole, strongly directional capillary interactions drive the cubes to self-assemble into hexagonal or graphenelike honeycomb lattices. By a simple free-energy model, we predict a density-temperature phase diagram in which both the honeycomb and hexagonal lattice phases are present as stable states.

  7. IceCube's Neutrinos: The beginning of extra-Galactic neutrino astrophysics?

    CERN Document Server

    Waxman, E

    2013-01-01

    The flux, spectrum and angular distribution of the excess neutrino signal detected by IceCube between 50TeV and 2PeV are inconsistent with those expected for Galactic sources. The coincidence of the excess, $E_\

  8. IceCube-Gen2 sensitivity improvement for steady neutrino point sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coenders, Stefan; Resconi, Elisa [TU Muenchen, Physik-Department, Excellence Cluster Universe, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Collaboration: IceCube-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The observation of an astrophysical neutrino flux by high-energy events starting in IceCube strengthens the search for sources of astrophysical neutrinos. Identification of these sources requires good pointing at high statistics, mainly using muons created by charged-current muon neutrino interactions going through the IceCube detector. We report about preliminary studies of a possible high-energy extension IceCube-Gen2. Using a 6 times bigger detection volume, effective area as well as reconstruction accuracy will improve with respect to IceCube. Moreover, using (in-ice) active veto techniques will significantly improve the performance for Southern hemisphere events, where possible local candidate neutrino sources are located.

  9. Ka Band Parabolic Deployable Antenna (KaPDA) for Interplanetary CubeSat Communications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ka Band Parabolic Deployable Antenna (KaPDA) for Interplanetary CubeSat Communications allowing moving up from UHF, S or X to get higher gain for a given diameter.

  10. A Search For Atmospheric Neutrino-Induced Cascades with IceCube

    CERN Document Server

    D'Agostino, Michelangelo

    2009-01-01

    The IceCube detector is an all-flavor neutrino telescope. For several years IceCube has been detecting muon tracks from charged-current muon neutrino interactions in ice. However, IceCube has yet to observe the electromagnetic or hadronic particle showers or "cascades" initiated by charged or neutral-current neutrino interactions. The first detection of such an event signature will likely come from the known flux of atmospheric electron and muon neutrinos. A search for atmospheric neutrino-induced cascades was performed using a full year of IceCube data. Reconstruction and background rejection techniques were developed to reach, for the first time, an expected signal-to-background ratio ~1 or better.

  11. CUBE (Computer Use By Engineers) symposium abstracts. [LASL, October 4--6, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruminer, J.J. (comp.)

    1978-07-01

    This report presents the abstracts for the CUBE (Computer Use by Engineers) Symposium, October 4, through 6, 1978. Contributors are from Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, and Sandia Laboratories.

  12. Economic Analysis of Law

    OpenAIRE

    Louis Kaplow; Steven Shavell

    2005-01-01

    This entry for the forthcoming The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics (Second Edition) surveys the economic analysis of five primary fields of law: property law; liability for accidents; contract law; litigation; and public enforcement and criminal law. It also briefly considers some criticisms of the economic analysis of law.

  13. Demonstrating the Gas Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holko, David A.

    1982-01-01

    Presents a complete computer program demonstrating the relationship between volume/pressure for Boyle's Law, volume/temperature for Charles' Law, and volume/moles of gas for Avagadro's Law. The programing reinforces students' application of gas laws and equates a simulated moving piston to theoretical values derived using the ideal gas law.…

  14. ROOT Reference Documentation

    CERN Document Server

    Fuakye, Eric Gyabeng

    2017-01-01

    A ROOT Reference Documentation has been implemented to generate all the lists of libraries needed for each ROOT class. Doxygen has no option to generate or add the lists of libraries for each ROOT class. Therefore shell scripting and a basic C++ program was employed to import the lists of libraries needed by each ROOT class.

  15. IceCube - the next generation neutrino telescope at the South Pole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karle, A.; Ahrens, J.; Bahcall, J.N.; Bai, X.; Becka, T.; Becker, K.-H.; Besson, D.Z.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bertrand, D.; Binon, F.; Biron, A.; Boeser, S.; Bohm, C.; Botner, O.; Bouhali, O.; Burgess, Th.; Castermans, T.; Chirkin, D.; Conrad, J.; Cooley, J.; Cowen, D.F.; Davour, A.; De Clercq, C.; DeYoung, T.; Desiati, P.; Dewulf, J.-P.; Dingus, B.; Ellsworth, R.; Evenson, P.A.; Fazely, A.R.; Feser, T.; Gaisser, T.K.; Gallagher, J.; Ganugapati, R.; Goldschmidt, A.; Goodman, J.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hanson, K.; Hardtke, R.; Hauschildt, T.; Hellwig, M.; Herquet, P.; Hill, G.C.; Hulth, P.O.; Hultgvist, K.; Hundertmark, S.; Jacobsen, J.; Japaridze, G.S.; Koepke, L.; Kowalski, M.; Lamoureux, J.I.; Leich, H.; Leuthold, M.; Lindahl, P.; Liubarsky, I.; Madson, J.; Marciniewski, P.; Matis, H.S.; McParland, C.P.; Minaeva, Y.; Miocinovic, P.; Morse, R.; Nahnhauer, R.; Neunhoeffer, T.; Niessen, P.; Nygren, D.R.; Ogelman, H.; Olbrechts, Ph.; Perez de los Heros, C.; Pohl, A.C.; Price, P.B.; Przybylski, G.T.; Rawlins, K.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Ribordy, M.; Richter, S.; Sander, H.-G.; Schmidt, T.; Schneider, D.; Seckel, D.; Solarz, M.; Sparke, L.; Spiczak, G.M.; Spiering, C.; Stanev, T.; Steele, D.; Steffen, P.; Stokstad, R.G.; Sudhoff, P.; Sulanke, K.-H.; Sullivan, G.W.; Sumners, T.; Taboada, I.; Thollander, L.; Tilav, S.; Walck, C.; Weinheimer, C.; Wiebusch, C.H.; Wiedemann, Ch.; Wischnewski, R.; Wissing, H.; Woschnagg, K.; Yoshida, Sh

    2003-04-01

    IceCube is a large neutrino telescope of the next generation to be constructed in the Antarctic Ice Sheet near theSouth Pole. We present the conceptual design and the sensitivity of the IceCube detector to predicted fluxes of neutrinos, both atmospheric and extra-terrestrial. A complete simulation of the detector design has been used to study the detector's capability to search for neutrinos from sources such as active galaxies, and gamma-ray bursts.

  16. Application of parallel algorithmic differentiation to optimal CubeSat trajectory design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Alexander; Coverstone, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    CubeSats, the class of small standardized satellites, are becoming a viable scientific research platform. At present, a variety of high value Earth Science missions require multiple collecting instruments on separate platforms maintained in precise configurations. A new software tool was created to compute propellant-minimizing maneuvers for multiple CubeSats for use with mission preliminary design. This tool incorporates parallelization of the derivative calculations, and demonstrates speed improvements over previous parallel formulations of small satellite cooperative trajectory design problems.

  17. A CubeSat Mission for Mapping Spot Beams of Geostationary Communications Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    spot beam mapping CubeSats. The Dynamic Ionosphere CubeSat Experiment ( DICE ) mission, Launched in 2011 was tasked with “mapping geomagnetic storm...ADCS components, computing hardware, power hardware, wire harnessing, and any structural or thermal mitigation components. Future work with position...drawnow % force draw so that there is something to maximize on the next line... set(jFrame,’Maximized’,true) % maximize it via the javahandle

  18. A Cold Gas Micro-Propulsion System for CubeSats

    OpenAIRE

    Cardin, Joseph; Coste, Keith; Williamson, Dave; Gloyer, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Potential civilian and government users have expressed a strong interest in CubeSat class satellites for military, scientific and commercial purposes. The U.S. Air Force Research Laboratories (AFRL), using DARPA funding, have contracted with The Aerospace Corporation in El Segundo, California to develop a CubeSat class spacecraft called the MEMS PicoSat Inspector (MEPSI). In turn, AFRL and Aerospace Corporation selected VACCO to provide a Micro-Propulsion System (MiPS) for MEPSI. This paper d...

  19. Mission Orbit Design of CubeSat Impactor Measuring Lunar Local

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Ah Lee

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The current study designs the mission orbit of the lunar CubeSat spacecraft to measure the lunar local magnetic anomaly. To perform this mission, the CubeSat will impact the lunar surface over the Reiner Gamma swirl on the Moon. Orbit analyses are conducted comprising ΔV and error propagation analysis for the CubeSat mission orbit. First, three possible orbit scenarios are presented in terms of the CubeSat’s impacting trajectories. For each scenario, it is important to achieve mission objectives with a minimum ΔV since the CubeSat is limited in size and cost. Therefore, the ΔV needed for the CubeSat to maneuver from the initial orbit toward the impacting trajectory is analyzed for each orbit scenario. In addition, error propagation analysis is performed for each scenario to evaluate how initial errors, such as position error, velocity error, and maneuver error, that occur when the CubeSat is separated from the lunar orbiter, eventually affect the final impact position. As a result, the current study adopts a CubeSat release from the circular orbit at 100 km altitude and an impact slope of 15°, among the possible impacting scenarios. For this scenario, the required ΔV is calculated as the result of the ΔV analysis. It can be used to practically make an estimate of this specific mission’s fuel budget. In addition, the current study suggests error constraints for ΔV for the mission.

  20. Mission Orbit Design of CubeSat Impactor Measuring Lunar Local Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Ah; Park, Sang-Young; Kim, Youngkwang; Bae, Jonghee; Lee, Donghun; Ju, Gwanghyeok

    2017-06-01

    The current study designs the mission orbit of the lunar CubeSat spacecraft to measure the lunar local magnetic anomaly. To perform this mission, the CubeSat will impact the lunar surface over the Reiner Gamma swirl on the Moon. Orbit analyses are conducted comprising ΔV and error propagation analysis for the CubeSat mission orbit. First, three possible orbit scenarios are presented in terms of the CubeSat’s impacting trajectories. For each scenario, it is important to achieve mission objectives with a minimum ΔV since the CubeSat is limited in size and cost. Therefore, the ΔV needed for the CubeSat to maneuver from the initial orbit toward the impacting trajectory is analyzed for each orbit scenario. In addition, error propagation analysis is performed for each scenario to evaluate how initial errors, such as position error, velocity error, and maneuver error, that occur when the CubeSat is separated from the lunar orbiter, eventually affect the final impact position. As a result, the current study adopts a CubeSat release from the circular orbit at 100 km altitude and an impact slope of 15°, among the possible impacting scenarios. For this scenario, the required ΔV is calculated as the result of the ΔV analysis. It can be used to practically make an estimate of this specific mission’s fuel budget. In addition, the current study suggests error constraints for ΔV for the mission.

  1. Calculation of three-dimensional supersonic flow of a gas past a cube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barausov, D. I.; Drobyshevskii, E. M.

    1991-09-01

    Flow of a nonviscous gas near the front face of a cube is investigated numerically using a second-order MacCormack scheme. Calculations are performed on a 40 x 32 x 32 grid using Godunov's finite difference scheme. The drag coefficient of a cube moving in air at Mach 20 is estimated at 1.7-1.8. The results of the study are relevant to the development of electrodynamic rail-gun launchers.

  2. Gaussian Cubes: Real-Time Modeling for Visual Exploration of Large Multidimensional Datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhe; Ferreira, Nivan; Wei, Youhao; Bhaskar, Aarthy Sankari; Scheidegger, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Recently proposed techniques have finally made it possible for analysts to interactively explore very large datasets in real time. However powerful, the class of analyses these systems enable is somewhat limited: specifically, one can only quickly obtain plots such as histograms and heatmaps. In this paper, we contribute Gaussian Cubes, which significantly improves on state-of-the-art systems by providing interactive modeling capabilities, which include but are not limited to linear least squares and principal components analysis (PCA). The fundamental insight in Gaussian Cubes is that instead of precomputing counts of many data subsets (as state-of-the-art systems do), Gaussian Cubes precomputes the best multivariate Gaussian for the respective data subsets. As an example, Gaussian Cubes can fit hundreds of models over millions of data points in well under a second, enabling novel types of visual exploration of such large datasets. We present three case studies that highlight the visualization and analysis capabilities in Gaussian Cubes, using earthquake safety simulations, astronomical catalogs, and transportation statistics. The dataset sizes range around one hundred million elements and 5 to 10 dimensions. We present extensive performance results, a discussion of the limitations in Gaussian Cubes, and future research directions.

  3. Efficient and Reliable Solar Panels for Small CubeSat Picosatellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Vertat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available CubeSat picosatellites have a limited area of walls for solar cells assembling and the available area has to be effectively shared with other parts, such as planar antennas, optical sensors, camera lens, and access port. With standard size of solar cell strings, it is not possible to construct a reliable solar panel for CubeSat with redundant strings interconnection. Typical solar panels for CubeSat consist of two solar cell strings serially wired with no redundancy in case of solar string failure. The loss of electric energy from one solar panel can cause a serious problem for most picosatellites due to minimum margin in the blueprints of the picosatellite subsystem power budget. In this paper, we propose a new architecture of solar panels for PilsenCUBE CubeSat with a high level of redundancy in the case of solar string failure or following switched power regulator failure. Our solar panels use a high efficiency triple junction GaInP2/GaAs/Ge in the form of small triangle strings from the Spectrolab Company. A suitable technology for precise solar cell assembling is also discussed, because CubeSat picosatellites are usually developed by small teams with limited access to high-end facilities.

  4. Using Additive Manufacturing to Print a CubeSat Propulsion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, William M.

    2015-01-01

    CubeSats are increasingly being utilized for missions traditionally ascribed to larger satellites CubeSat unit (1U) defined as 10 cm x 10 cm x 11 cm. Have been built up to 6U sizes. CubeSats are typically built up from commercially available off-the-shelf components, but have limited capabilities. By using additive manufacturing, mission specific capabilities (such as propulsion), can be built into a system. This effort is part of STMD Small Satellite program Printing the Complete CubeSat. Interest in propulsion concepts for CubeSats is rapidly gaining interest-Numerous concepts exist for CubeSat scale propulsion concepts. The focus of this effort is how to incorporate into structure using additive manufacturing. End-use of propulsion system dictates which type of system to develop-Pulse-mode RCS would require different system than a delta-V orbital maneuvering system. Team chose an RCS system based on available propulsion systems and feasibility of printing using a materials extrusion process. Initially investigated a cold-gas propulsion system for RCS applications-Materials extrusion process did not permit adequate sealing of part to make this a functional approach.

  5. Some possible sources of IceCube TeV-PeV neutrino events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahu, Sarira; Salvador Miranda, Luis [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Mexico (Mexico)

    2015-06-15

    The IceCube Collaboration has observed 37 neutrino events in the energy range 30 TeV ≤ E{sub ν} ≤ 2 PeV and the sources of these neutrinos are unknown. Here we show that the positions of 12 high energy blazars and the position of the FR-I galaxy Centaurus A coincide within the error circles of ten IceCube events, the latter being in the error circle of the highest energy event so far observed by IceCube. Two of the above blazars are simultaneously within the error circles of the Telescope Array hotspot and one IceCube event. We found that the blazar H2356-309 is within the error circles of three IceCube events. We propose that photohadronic interactions of the Fermi accelerated high energy protons with the synchrotron/SSC background photons in the nuclear region of these high energy blazars and AGN are probably responsible for some of the observed IceCube events. (orig.)

  6. CubeSat-Associated Radiation Belt Research: Recent and Upcoming Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Lauren; Li, Xinlin; Schiller, Quintin

    2016-07-01

    Interest in CubeSats has grown dramatically in the past decade within the space physics community. While CubeSats are generally accepted now to be useful tools for education and technology development/demonstration, their ability to provide scientific value is often still questioned. Radiation belt physics, however, is one area in which the scientific utility of these small platforms has been demonstrated and continues to offer great promise. The Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment (CSSWE) CubeSat, designed, built, tested, and operated by students at University of Colorado with mentoring from LASP professionals, was one of the first of now a long line of CubeSats designed to study radiation belt dynamics. Launched in September 2012, just a few weeks after NASA's Van Allen Probes, CSSWE provided valuable measurements of energetic electrons and protons from low-Earth orbit for two years, well beyond its nominal 3-month mission lifetime. The status of and results from CSSWE will be presented, with an emphasis on how these measurements have been combined with those from balloons and larger satellite missions to better understand radiation belt electron acceleration and loss processes. Some highlights from other radiation belt-related CubeSats will also be presented, along with upcoming missions. Radiation belt studies are a prime example of how small inexpensive CubeSats can be used to provide valuable scientific measurements and complement larger missions.

  7. EarthCube: Advancing Partnerships, Collaborative Platforms and Knowledge Networks in the Ocean Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Diggs; Lee, Allison

    2014-05-01

    The National Science Foundation's EarthCube initiative aims to create a community-driven data and knowledge management system that will allow for unprecedented data sharing across the geosciences. More than 2,500 participants through forums, work groups, EarthCube events, and virtual and in-person meetings have participated. The individuals that have engaged represent the core earth-system sciences of solid Earth, Atmosphere, Oceans, and Polar Sciences. EarthCube is a cornerstone of NSF's Cyberinfrastructure for the 21st Century (CIF21) initiative, whose chief objective is to develop a U.S. nationwide, sustainable, and community-based cyberinfrastructure for researchers and educators. Increasingly effective community-driven cyberinfrastructure allows global data discovery and knowledge management and achieves interoperability and data integration across scientific disciplines. There is growing convergence across scientific and technical communities on creating a networked, knowledge management system and scientific data cyberinfrastructure that integrates Earth system and human dimensions data in an open, transparent, and inclusive manner. EarthCube does not intend to replicate these efforts, but build upon them. An agile development process is underway for the development and governance of EarthCube. The agile approach was deliberately selected due to its iterative and incremental nature while promoting adaptive planning and rapid and flexible response. Such iterative deployment across a variety of EarthCube stakeholders encourages transparency, consensus, accountability, and inclusiveness.

  8. Lunar CubeSat Impact Trajectory Characteristics as a Function of Its Release Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Joo Song

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As a part of early system design activities, trajectory characteristics for a lunar CubeSat impactor mission as a function of its release conditions are analyzed. The goal of this mission is to take measurements of surface magnetic fields to study lunar magnetic anomalies. To deploy the CubeSat impactor, a mother-ship is assumed to have a circular polar orbit with inclination of 90 degrees at a 100 km altitude at the Moon. Both the in- and out-of-plane direction deploy angles as well as delta-V magnitudes are considered for the CubeSat release conditions. All necessary parameters required at the early design phase are analyzed, including CubeSat flight time to reach the lunar surface, impact velocity, cross ranges distance, and associated impact angles, which are all directly affected by the CubeSat release conditions. Also, relative motions between these two satellites are analyzed for communication and navigation purposes. Although the current analysis is only focused on a lunar impactor mission, the methods described in this work can easily be modified and applied to any future planetary impactor missions with CubeSat-based payloads.

  9. Convective heat transfer over a wall mounted cube at different angle of attack using large eddy simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidarzadeh Habibollah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Turbulent fluid flow and convective heat transfer over the wall mounted cube in different flow angle of attack have been studied numerically using Large Eddy Simulation. Cube faces and plate have a constant heat flux. Dynamic Smagorinsky (DS subgrid scale model were used in this study. Angles were in the range 0≤θ≤45 and Reynolds number based on the cube height and free stream velocity was 4200. The numerical simulation results were compared with the experimental data of Nakamura et al [6, 7]. Characteristics of fluid flow field and heat transfer compared for four angles of attack. Flow around the cube was classified to four regimes. Results was represented in the form of time averaged normalized streamwise velocity and Reynolds stress in different positions, temperature contours, local and average Nusselt number over the faces of cube. Local convective heat transfer on cube faces was affected by flow pattern around the cube. The local convective heat transfer from the faces of the cube and plate are directly related to the complex phenomena such as horse shoe vortex, arch vortexes in behind the cube, separation and reattachment. Results show that overall convective heat transfer of cube and mean drag coefficient have maximum and minimum value at θ=0 deg and θ=25 deg respectively.

  10. Improving Estimation Accuracy of Aggregate Queries on Data Cubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pourabbas, Elaheh; Shoshani, Arie

    2008-08-15

    In this paper, we investigate the problem of estimation of a target database from summary databases derived from a base data cube. We show that such estimates can be derived by choosing a primary database which uses a proxy database to estimate the results. This technique is common in statistics, but an important issue we are addressing is the accuracy of these estimates. Specifically, given multiple primary and multiple proxy databases, that share the same summary measure, the problem is how to select the primary and proxy databases that will generate the most accurate target database estimation possible. We propose an algorithmic approach for determining the steps to select or compute the source databases from multiple summary databases, which makes use of the principles of information entropy. We show that the source databases with the largest number of cells in common provide the more accurate estimates. We prove that this is consistent with maximizing the entropy. We provide some experimental results on the accuracy of the target database estimation in order to verify our results.

  11. Size effects in MgO cube dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Stefan O; Schneider, Johannes; Sternig, Andreas; Thomele, Daniel; Stankic, Slavica; Berger, Thomas; Grönbeck, Henrik; Diwald, Oliver

    2015-03-10

    Stability parameters and dissolution behavior of engineered nanomaterials in aqueous systems are critical to assess their functionality and fate under environmental conditions. Using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction, we investigated the stability of cubic MgO particles in water. MgO dissolution proceeding via water dissociation at the oxide surface, disintegration of Mg(2+)-O(2-) surface elements, and their subsequent solvation ultimately leads to precipitation of Mg(OH)2 nanosheets. At a pH ≥ 10, MgO nanocubes with a size distribution below 10 nm quantitatively dissolve within few minutes and convert into Mg(OH)2 nanosheets. This effect is different from MgO cubes originating from magnesium combustion in air. With a size distribution in the range 10 nm ≤ d ≤ 1000 nm they dissolve with a significantly smaller dissolution rate in water. On these particles water induced etching generates (110) faces which, above a certain face area, dissolve at a rate equal to that of (100) planes.1 The delayed solubility of microcrystalline MgO is attributed to surface hydroxide induced self-inhibition effects occurring at the (100) and (110) microplanes. The present work underlines the importance of morphology evolution and surface faceting of engineered nanomaterials particles during their dissolution.

  12. Higher Accuracy Template for Corner Cube Reflected Image

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awwal, A S; Rice, K L; Leach, R R; Taha, T M

    2008-07-11

    Video images of laser beams are analyzed to determine the position of the laser beams for alignment purpose in the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Algorithms process beam images to facilitate automated laser alignment. One such beam image, known as the corner cube reflected pinhole image, exhibits wide beam quality variations that are processed by a matched-filter-based algorithm. The challenge is to design a representative template that captures these variations while at the same time assuring accurate position determination. This paper describes the development of a new analytical template to accurately estimate the center of a beam with good image quality. The templates are constructed to exploit several key recurring features observed in the beam images. When the beam image quality is low, the algorithm chooses a template that contains fewer features. The algorithm was implemented using a Xilinx Virtex II Pro FPGA implementation that provides a speedup of about 6.4 times over a baseline 3GHz Pentium 4 processor.

  13. Characterization of the Atmospheric Muon Flux in IceCube

    CERN Document Server

    Aartsen, M G; Ackermann, M; Adams, J; Aguilar, J A; Ahlers, M; Ahrens, M; Altmann, D; Anderson, T; Archinger, M; Arguelles, C; Arlen, T C; Auffenberg, J; Bai, X; Barwick, S W; Baum, V; Bay, R; Beatty, J J; Tjus, J Becker; Becker, K -H; Beiser, E; BenZvi, S; Berghaus, P; Berley, D; Bernardini, E; Bernhard, A; Besson, D Z; Binder, G; Bindig, D; Bissok, M; Blaufuss, E; Blumenthal, J; Boersma, D J; Bohm, C; Börner, M; Bos, F; Bose, D; Böser, S; Botner, O; Braun, J; Brayeur, L; Bretz, H -P; Buzinsky, N; Casey, J; Casier, M; Cheung, E; Chirkin, D; Christov, A; Christy, B; Clark, K; Classen, L; Coenders, S; Cowen, D F; Silva, A H Cruz; Daughhetee, J; Davis, J C; Day, M; de André, J P A M; De Clercq, C; Rosendo, E del Pino; Dembinski, H; De Ridder, S; Desiati, P; de Vries, K D; de Wasseige, G; de With, M; DeYoung, T; Díaz-Vélez, J C; di Lorenzo, V; Dumm, J P; Dunkman, M; Eagan, R; Eberhardt, B; Ehrhardt, T; Eichmann, B; Euler, S; Evenson, P A; Fadiran, O; Fahey, S; Fazely, A R; Fedynitch, A; Feintzeig, J; Felde, J; Filimonov, K; Finley, C; Fischer-Wasels, T; Flis, S; Fösig, C -C; Fuchs, T; Glagla, M; Gaisser, T K; Gaior, R; Gallagher, J; Gerhardt, L; Ghorbani, K; Gier, D; Gladstone, L; Glüsenkamp, T; Goldschmidt, A; Golup, G; Gonzalez, J G; Góra, D; Grant, D; Gretskov, P; Groh, J C; Groß, A; Ha, C; Haack, C; Ismail, A Haj; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Hansmann, B; Hanson, K; Hebecker, D; Heereman, D; Helbing, K; Hellauer, R; Hellwig, D; Hickford, S; Hignight, J; Hill, G C; Hoffman, K D; Hoffmann, R; Holzapfe, K; Homeier, A; Hoshina, K; Huang, F; Huber, M; Huelsnitz, W; Hulth, P O; Hultqvist, K; In, S; Ishihara, A; Jacobi, E; Japaridze, G S; Jero, K; Jurkovic, M; Kaminsky, B; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Karle, A; Kauer, M; Keivani, A; Kelley, J L; Kemp, J; Kheirandish, A; Kiryluk, J; Kläs, J; Klein, S R; Kohnen, G; Koirala, R; Kolanoski, H; Konietz, R; Koob, A; Köpke, L; Kopper, C; Kopper, S; Koskinen, D J; Kowalski, M; Krings, K; Kroll, G; Kroll, M; Kunnen, J; Kurahashi, N; Kuwabara, T; Labare, M; Lanfranchi, J L; Larson, M J; Lesiak-Bzdak, M; Leuermann, M; Leuner, J; Lünemann, J; Madsen, J; Maggi, G; Mahn, K B M; Maruyama, R; Mase, K; Matis, H S; Maunu, R; McNally, F; Meagher, K; Medici, M; Meli, A; Menne, T; Merino, G; Meures, T; Miarecki, S; Middell, E; Middlemas, E; Miller, J; Mohrmann, L; Montaruli, T; Morse, R; Nahnhauer, R; Naumann, U; Niederhausen, H; Nowicki, S C; Nygren, D R; Obertacke, A; Olivas, A; Omairat, A; O'Murchadha, A; Palczewski, T; Pandya, H; Paul, L; Pepper, J A; Heros, C Pérez de los; Pfendner, C; Pieloth, D; Pinat, E; Posselt, J; Price, P B; Przybylski, G T; Pütz, J; Quinnan, M; Rädel, L; Rameez, M; Rawlins, K; Redl, P; Reimann, R; Relich, M; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Richman, M; Richter, S; Riedel, B; Robertson, S; Rongen, M; Rott, C; Ruhe, T; Ryckbosch, D; Saba, S M; Sabbatini, L; Sander, H -G; Sandrock, A; Sandroos, J; Sarkar, S; Schatto, K; Scheriau, F; Schimp, M; Schmidt, T; Schmitz, M; Schoenen, S; Schöneberg, S; Schönwald, A; Schukraft, A; Schulte, L; Seckel, D; Seunarine, S; Shanidze, R; Smith, M W E; Soldin, D; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Stahlberg, M; Stamatikos, M; Stanev, T; Stanisha, N A; Stasik, A; Stezelberger, T; Stokstad, R G; Stößl, A; Strahler, E A; Ström, R; Strotjohann, N L; Sullivan, G W; Sutherland, M; Taavola, H; Taboada, I; Ter-Antonyan, S; Terliuk, A; Tešić, G; Tilav, S; Toale, P A; Tobin, M N; Tosi, D; Tselengidou, M; Turcati, A; Unger, E; Usner, M; Vallecorsa, S; van Eijndhoven, N; Vandenbroucke, J; van Santen, J; Vanheule, S; Veenkamp, J; Vehring, M; Voge, M; Vraeghe, M; Walck, C; Wallraff, M; Wandkowsky, N; Weaver, Ch; Wendt, C; Westerhoff, S; Whelan, B J; Whitehorn, N; Wichary, C; Wiebe, K; Wiebusch, C H; Wille, L; Williams, D R; Wissing, H; Wolf, M; Wood, T R; Woschnagg, K; Xu, D L; Xu, X W; Xu, Y; Yanez, J P; Yodh, G; Yoshida, S; Zarzhitsky, P; Zoll, M

    2015-01-01

    Muons produced in atmospheric cosmic ray showers account for the by far dominant part of the event yield in large-volume underground particle detectors. The IceCube detector, with an instrumented volume of about a cubic kilometer, has the potential to conduct unique investigations on atmospheric muons by exploiting the large collection area and the possibility to track particles over a long distance. Through detailed reconstruction of energy deposition along the tracks, the characteristics of muon bundles can be quantified, and individual particles of exceptionally high energy identified. The data can then be used to constrain the cosmic ray primary flux and the contribution to atmospheric lepton fluxes from prompt decays of short-lived hadrons. In this paper, techniques for the extraction of physical measurements from atmospheric muon events are described and first results are presented. The multiplicity spectrum of TeV muons in cosmic ray air showers for primaries in the energy range from the knee to the an...

  14. Searches for relativistic magnetic monopoles in IceCube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aartsen, M.G.; Hill, G.C.; Robertson, S.; Wallace, A.; Whelan, B.J. [University of Adelaide, Department of Physics, Adelaide (Australia); Abraham, K.; Bernhard, A.; Coenders, S.; Gross, A.; Holzapfel, K.; Huber, M.; Jurkovic, M.; Krings, K.; Resconi, E.; Turcati, A.; Veenkamp, J. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Ackermann, M.; Berghaus, P.; Bernardini, E.; Bretz, H.P.; Cruz Silva, A.H.; Gluesenkamp, T.; Gora, D.; Jacobi, E.; Karg, T.; Middell, E.; Mohrmann, L.; Nahnhauer, R.; Schoenwald, A.; Spiering, C.; Stasik, A.; Stoessl, A.; Strotjohann, N.L.; Terliuk, A.; Usner, M.; Santen, J. van; Yanez, J.P. [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Adams, J. [University of Canterbury, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Christchurch (New Zealand); Aguilar, J.A.; Ansseau, I.; Heereman, D.; Meagher, K.; Meures, T.; O' Murchadha, A.; Pinat, E.; Raab, C. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels (Belgium); Ahlers, M.; Arguelles, C.; Beiser, E.; Braun, J.; Chirkin, D.; Day, M.; Desiati, P.; Diaz-Velez, J.C.; Fahey, S.; Feintzeig, J.; Ghorbani, K.; Gladstone, L.; Griffith, Z.; Halzen, F.; Hanson, K.; Hoshina, K.; Jero, K.; Karle, A.; Kelley, J.L.; Kheirandish, A.; McNally, F.; Merino, G.; Morse, R.; Richter, S.; Sabbatini, L.; Tobin, M.N.; Tosi, D.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Wandkowsky, N.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Wille, L.; Xu, D.L. [University of Wisconsin, Department of Physics and Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center, Madison, WI (United States); Ahrens, M.; Bohm, C.; Dumm, J.P.; Finley, C.; Flis, S.; Hulth, P.O.; Hultqvist, K.; Walck, C.; Wolf, M.; Zoll, M. [Stockholm University, Department of Physics, Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm (Sweden); Altmann, D.; Classen, L.; Kappes, A.; Tselengidou, M. [Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erlangen (Germany); Anderson, T.; Arlen, T.C.; Dunkman, M.; Huang, F.; Keivani, A.; Lanfranchi, J.L.; Pankova, D.V.; Quinnan, M.; Tesic, G. [Pennsylvania State University, Department of Physics, University Park, PA (United States); Archinger, M.; Baum, V.; Boeser, S.; Del Pino Rosendo, E.; Di Lorenzo, V.; Eberhardt, B.; Ehrhardt, T.; Foesig, C.C.; Koepke, L.; Kroll, G.; Krueckl, G.; Sander, H.G.; Sandroos, J.; Schatto, K.; Steuer, A.; Wiebe, K. [University of Mainz, Institute of Physics, Mainz (Germany); Auffenberg, J.; Bissok, M.; Blumenthal, J.; Gier, D.; Glagla, M.; Haack, C.; Hansmann, B.; Kemp, J.; Konietz, R.; Leuermann, M.; Leuner, J.; Paul, L.; Puetz, J.; Raedel, L.; Reimann, R.; Rongen, M.; Schimp, M.; Schoenen, S.; Schumacher, L.; Stahlberg, M.; Vehring, M.; Wallraff, M.; Wiebusch, C.H. [RWTH Aachen University, III. Physikalisches Institut, Aachen (Germany); Bai, X. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Physics Department, Rapid City, SD (United States); Barwick, S.W.; Yodh, G. [University of California, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Irvine, CA (United States); Bay, R.; Filimonov, K.; Price, P.B.; Woschnagg, K. [University of California, Department of Physics, Berkeley, CA (United States); Beatty, J.J. [Ohio State University, Department of Physics and Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, Columbus, OH (United States); Ohio State University, Department of Astronomy, Columbus, OH (United States); Tjus, J.B.; Bos, F.; Eichmann, B.; Kroll, M.; Mandelartz, M.; Schoeneberg, S. [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Fakultaet fuer Physik and Astronomie, Bochum (Germany); Becker, K.H.; Bindig, D.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Helbing, K.; Hickford, S.; Hoffmann, R.; Klaes, J.; Kopper, S.; Naumann, U.; Obertacke Pollmann, A.; Omairat, A.; Posselt, J.; Soldin, D. [University of Wuppertal, Department of Physics, Wuppertal (Germany); Benabderrahmane, M.L. [New York University Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Berley, D.; Blaufuss, E.; Cheung, E.; Felde, J.; Hellauer, R.; Hoffman, K.D.; Huelsnitz, W.; Maunu, R.; Olivas, A.; Schmidt, T.; Song, M.; Sullivan, G.W.; Wissing, H. [University of Maryland, Department of Physics, College Park, MD (United States); Besson, D.Z. [University of Kansas, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lawrence, KS (United States); Binder, G.; Gerhardt, L.; Ha, C.; Klein, S.R.; Miarecki, S.; Tatar, J. [University of California, Department of Physics, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Boersma, D.J.; Botner, O.; Euler, S.; Hallgren, A.; Perez de los Heros, C.; Stroem, R.; Taavola, H.; Unger, E. [Uppsala University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Box 516, Uppsala (Sweden); and others

    2016-03-15

    Various extensions of the Standard Model motivate the existence of stable magnetic monopoles that could have been created during an early high-energy epoch of the Universe. These primordial magnetic monopoles would be gradually accelerated by cosmic magnetic fields and could reach high velocities that make them visible in Cherenkov detectors such as IceCube. Equivalently to electrically charged particles, magnetic monopoles produce direct and indirect Cherenkov light while traversing through matter at relativistic velocities. This paper describes searches for relativistic (v ≥ 0.76 c) and mildly relativistic (v ≥ 0.51 c) monopoles, each using one year of data taken in 2008/2009 and 2011/2012, respectively. No monopole candidate was detected. For a velocity above 0.51 c the monopole flux is constrained down to a level of 1.55 x 10{sup -18} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} sr{sup -1}. This is an improvement of almost two orders of magnitude over previous limits. (orig.)

  15. The Poisson boundary of CAT(0) cube complex groups

    CERN Document Server

    Nevo, Amos

    2011-01-01

    We consider a finite-dimensional, locally finite CAT(0) cube complex X admitting a co-compact properly discontinuous countable group of automorphisms G. We construct a natural compact metric space B(X) on which G acts by homeomorphisms, the action being minimal and strongly proximal. Furthermore, for any generating probability measure on G, B(X) admits a unique stationary measure, and when the measure has finite logarithmic moment, it constitutes a compact metric model of the Poisson boundary. We identify a dense G-delta subset of B(X) on which the action of G is Borel-amenable, and describe the relation of these two spaces to the Roller boundary. Our construction can be used to give a simple geometric proof of Property A for the complex. Our methods are based on direct geometric arguments regarding the asymptotic behavior of half-spaces and their limiting ultrafilters, which are of considerable independent interest. In particular we analyze the notions of median and interval in the complex, and use the latte...

  16. Optimal Segmentation Strategy for Compact Representation of Hyperspectral Image Cubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paglieroni, D; Roberts, R

    2000-02-08

    By producing compact representations of hyperspectral image cubes (hypercubes), image storage requirements and the amount of time it takes to extract essential elements of information can both be dramatically reduced. However, these compact representations must preserve the important spectral features within hypercube pixels and the spatial structure associated with background and objects or phenomena of interest. This paper describes a novel approach for automatically and efficiently generating a particular type of compact hypercube representation, referred to as a supercube. The hypercube is segmented into regions that contain pixels with similar spectral shapes that are spatially connected, and the pixel connectivity constraint can be relaxed. Thresholds of similarity in spectral shape between pairs of pixels are derived directly from the hypercube data. One superpixel is generated for each region as some linear combination of pixels belonging to that region. The superpixels are optimal in the sense that the linear combination coefficients are computed so as to minimize the level of noise. Each hypercube pixel is represented in the supercube by applying a gain and bias to the superpixel assigned to the region containing that pixel. Examples are provided.

  17. Sterile neutrinos and flavor ratios in IceCube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brdar, Vedran; Kopp, Joachim; Wang, Xiao-Ping

    2017-01-01

    The flavor composition of astrophysical neutrinos observed in neutrino telescopes is a powerful discriminator between different astrophysical neutrino production mechanisms and can also teach us about the particle physics properties of neutrinos. In this paper, we investigate how the possible existence of light sterile neutrinos can affect these flavor ratios. We consider two scenarios: (i) neutrino production in conventional astrophysical sources, followed by partial oscillation into sterile states; (ii) neutrinos from dark matter decay with a primary flavor composition enhanced in tau neutrinos or sterile neutrinos. Throughout the paper, we constrain the sterile neutrino mixing parameters from a full global fit to short and long baseline data. We present our results in the form of flavor triangles and, for scenario (ii), as exclusion limits on the dark matter mass and lifetime, derived from a fit to IceCube high energy starting events and through-going muons. We argue that identifying a possible flux of neutrinos from dark matter decay may require analyzing the flavor composition as a function of neutrino energy.

  18. Landing Gear Aerodynamic Noise Prediction Using Building-Cube Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Sasaki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Landing gear noise prediction method is developed using Building-Cube Method (BCM. The BCM is a multiblock-structured Cartesian mesh flow solver, which aims to enable practical large-scale computation. The computational domain is composed of assemblage of various sizes of building blocks where small blocks are used to capture flow features in detail. Because of Cartesian-based mesh, easy and fast mesh generation for complicated geometries is achieved. The airframe noise is predicted through the coupling of incompressible Navier-Stokes flow solver and the aeroacoustic analogy-based Curle’s equation. In this paper, Curle’s equation in noncompact form is introduced to predict the acoustic sound from an object in flow. This approach is applied to JAXA Landing gear Evaluation Geometry model to investigate the influence of the detail components to flows and aerodynamic noises. The position of torque link and the wheel cap geometry are changed to discuss the influence. The present method showed good agreement with the preceding experimental result and proved that difference of the complicated components to far field noise was estimated. The result also shows that the torque link position highly affects the flow acceleration at the axle region between two wheels, which causes the change in SPL at observation point.

  19. The hyper-cube framework for ant colony optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Christian; Dorigo, Marco

    2004-04-01

    Ant colony optimization is a metaheuristic approach belonging to the class of model-based search algorithms. In this paper, we propose a new framework for implementing ant colony optimization algorithms called the hyper-cube framework for ant colony optimization. In contrast to the usual way of implementing ant colony optimization algorithms, this framework limits the pheromone values to the interval [0,1]. This is obtained by introducing changes in the pheromone value update rule. These changes can in general be applied to any pheromone value update rule used in ant colony optimization. We discuss the benefits coming with this new framework. The benefits are twofold. On the theoretical side, the new framework allows us to prove that in Ant System, the ancestor of all ant colony optimization algorithms, the average quality of the solutions produced increases in expectation over time when applied to unconstrained problems. On the practical side, the new framework automatically handles the scaling of the objective function values. We experimentally show that this leads on average to a more robust behavior of ant colony optimization algorithms.

  20. Calibrating the photon detection efficiency in IceCube

    CERN Document Server

    Tosi, Delia

    2015-01-01

    The IceCube neutrino observatory is composed of more than five thousand light sensors, Digital Optical Modules (DOMs), installed on the surface and at depths between 1450 and 2450 m in clear ice at the South Pole. Each DOM incorporates a 10-inch diameter photomultiplier tube (PMT) intended to detect light emitted when high energy neutrinos interact with atoms in the ice. Depending on the energy of the neutrino and the distance from secondary particle tracks, PMTs can be hit by up to several thousand photons within a few hundred nanoseconds. The number of photons per PMT and their time distribution is used to reject background events and to determine the energy and direction of each neutrino. The detector energy scale was established from previous lab measurements of DOM optical sensitivity, then refined based on observed light yield from stopping muons and calibration of ice properties. A laboratory setup has now been developed to more precisely measure the DOM optical sensitivity as a function of angle and w...

  1. Ferromagnetic manganese "cubes": from PSII to single-molecule magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, Ross; Stoumpos, Constantinos C; Prescimone, Alessandro; Siczek, Milosz; Lis, Tadeusz; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Brechin, Euan K; Milios, Constantinos J

    2010-05-28

    The reaction of Mn(O₂CMe)₂·2H₂O with Me-saoH₂ (Me-saoH₂ = 2-hydroxyphenylethanone oxime) in MeCN forms the complex [Mn(III)₄(Me-sao)₄(Me-saoH)₄] (1) in good yields. Replacing Me-saoH₂ with Naphth-saoH₂ (Naphth-saoH₂ = 2-hydroxy-1-napthaldoxime) in the presence of CH₃ONa forms the complex [Mn(III)₄(Naphth-sao)₄(Naphth-saoH)₄] (2) in low yields, while the reaction between Mn(ClO₄)₂·6H₂O, Et-saoH₂ (Et-saoH₂= 2-hydroxypropiophenone oxime) and NBu₄OH in MeCN gives the complex [Mn(III)₄(Et-sao)₄(Et-saoH)₄] (3) in moderate yields. All three tetrametallic cages exclusively contain Mn(III) centres arranged in a "cube"-like topology, in which the metal centres are connected by -N-O(oximate) groups. The magnetic properties of 1-3 are near identical, revealing the presence of only ferromagnetic interactions between the metal ions leading to high-spin ground states of S = 8. The complexes display frequency dependent out-of-phase signals in ac susceptibility studies and, in the case of 1 single-molecule magnetism has been observed by means of single-crystal hysteresis loop measurements.

  2. Searches for Sterile Neutrinos with the IceCube Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aartsen, M. G.; Abraham, K.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Ahrens, M.; Altmann, D.; Andeen, K.; Anderson, T.; Ansseau, I.; Anton, G.; Archinger, M.; Argüelles, C.; Arlen, T. C.; Auffenberg, J.; Axani, S.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker Tjus, J.; Becker, K.-H.; BenZvi, S.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bernhard, A.; Besson, D. Z.; Binder, G.; Bindig, D.; Blaufuss, E.; Blot, S.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Börner, M.; Bos, F.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Braun, J.; Brayeur, L.; Bretz, H.-P.; Burgman, A.; Casey, J.; Casier, M.; Cheung, E.; Chirkin, D.; Christov, A.; Clark, K.; Classen, L.; Coenders, S.; Collin, G. H.; Conrad, J. M.; Cowen, D. F.; Cruz Silva, A. H.; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; Day, M.; de André, J. P. A. M.; De Clercq, C.; del Pino Rosendo, E.; Dembinski, H.; De Ridder, S.; Desiati, P.; de Vries, K. D.; de Wasseige, G.; de With, M.; DeYoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; di Lorenzo, V.; Dujmovic, H.; Dumm, J. P.; Dunkman, M.; Eberhardt, B.; Ehrhardt, T.; Eichmann, B.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fahey, S.; Fazely, A. R.; Feintzeig, J.; Felde, J.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Flis, S.; Fösig, C.-C.; Fuchs, T.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gaior, R.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Ghorbani, K.; Giang, W.; Gladstone, L.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Golup, G.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Góra, D.; Grant, D.; Griffith, Z.; Haj Ismail, A.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hansen, E.; Hanson, K.; Hebecker, D.; Heereman, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hickford, S.; Hignight, J.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Holzapfel, K.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Huang, F.; Huber, M.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hultqvist, K.; In, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jeong, M.; Jero, K.; Jones, B. J. P.; Jurkovic, M.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Katz, U.; Kauer, M.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kheirandish, A.; Kim, M.; Kintscher, T.; Kiryluk, J.; Kittler, T.; Klein, S. R.; Kohnen, G.; Koirala, R.; Kolanoski, H.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Krings, K.; Kroll, M.; Krückl, G.; Krüger, C.; Kunnen, J.; Kunwar, S.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Lanfranchi, J. L.; Larson, M. J.; Lennarz, D.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Leuermann, M.; Lu, L.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Maggi, G.; Mahn, K. B. M.; Mancina, S.; Mandelartz, M.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Maunu, R.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Medici, M.; Meier, M.; Meli, A.; Menne, T.; Merino, G.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Middell, E.; Mohrmann, L.; Montaruli, T.; Moulai, M.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Neer, G.; Niederhausen, H.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Obertacke Pollmann, A.; Olivas, A.; Omairat, A.; O'Murchadha, A.; Palczewski, T.; Pandya, H.; Pankova, D. V.; Pepper, J. A.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Pfendner, C.; Pieloth, D.; Pinat, E.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Quinnan, M.; Raab, C.; Rameez, M.; Rawlins, K.; Relich, M.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Richman, M.; Riedel, B.; Robertson, S.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ryckbosch, D.; Rysewyk, D.; Sabbatini, L.; Salvado, J.; Sanchez Herrera, S. E.; Sandrock, A.; Sandroos, J.; Sarkar, S.; Satalecka, K.; Schlunder, P.; Schmidt, T.; Schöneberg, S.; Schönwald, A.; Seckel, D.; Seunarine, S.; Soldin, D.; Song, M.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stasik, A.; Steuer, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stößl, A.; Ström, R.; Strotjohann, N. L.; Sullivan, G. W.; Sutherland, M.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tatar, J.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Terliuk, A.; Tešić, G.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Tobin, M. N.; Toscano, S.; Tosi, D.; Tselengidou, M.; Turcati, A.; Unger, E.; Usner, M.; Vallecorsa, S.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vanheule, S.; van Rossem, M.; van Santen, J.; Veenkamp, J.; Voge, M.; Vraeghe, M.; Walck, C.; Wallace, A.; Wandkowsky, N.; Weaver, Ch.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wiebe, K.; Wille, L.; Williams, D. R.; Wills, L.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woolsey, E.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Xu, Y.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zoll, M.; IceCube Collaboration

    2016-08-01

    The IceCube neutrino telescope at the South Pole has measured the atmospheric muon neutrino spectrum as a function of zenith angle and energy in the approximate 320 GeV to 20 TeV range, to search for the oscillation signatures of light sterile neutrinos. No evidence for anomalous νμ or ν¯μ disappearance is observed in either of two independently developed analyses, each using one year of atmospheric neutrino data. New exclusion limits are placed on the parameter space of the 3 +1 model, in which muon antineutrinos experience a strong Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein-resonant oscillation. The exclusion limits extend to sin22 θ24≤0.02 at Δ m2˜0.3 eV2 at the 90% confidence level. The allowed region from global analysis of appearance experiments, including LSND and MiniBooNE, is excluded at approximately the 99% confidence level for the global best-fit value of |Ue 4 |2 .

  3. Searches for relativistic magnetic monopoles in IceCube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aartsen, M. G.; Abraham, K.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Ahrens, M.; Altmann, D.; Anderson, T.; Ansseau, I.; Archinger, M.; Arguelles, C.; Arlen, T. C.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Beatty, J. J.; Tjus, J. Becker; Becker, K.-H.; Beiser, E.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bernhard, A.; Besson, D. Z.; Binder, G.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blumenthal, J.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Börner, M.; Bos, F.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Braun, J.; Brayeur, L.; Bretz, H.-P.; Buzinsky, N.; Casey, J.; Casier, M.; Cheung, E.; Chirkin, D.; Christov, A.; Clark, K.; Classen, L.; Coenders, S.; Cowen, D. F.; Cruz Silva, A. H.; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; Day, M.; de André, J. P. A. M.; De Clercq, C.; del Pino Rosendo, E.; Dembinski, H.; De Ridder, S.; Desiati, P.; de Vries, K. D.; de Wasseige, G.; de With, M.; DeYoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; di Lorenzo, V.; Dumm, J. P.; Dunkman, M.; Eberhardt, B.; Ehrhardt, T.; Eichmann, B.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fahey, S.; Fazely, A. R.; Feintzeig, J.; Felde, J.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Flis, S.; Fösig, C.-C.; Fuchs, T.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gaior, R.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Ghorbani, K.; Gier, D.; Gladstone, L.; Glagla, M.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Golup, G.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Góra, D.; Grant, D.; Griffith, Z.; Groß, A.; Ha, C.; Haack, C.; Haj Ismail, A.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hansen, E.; Hansmann, B.; Hanson, K.; Hebecker, D.; Heereman, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hickford, S.; Hignight, J.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Holzapfel, K.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Huang, F.; Huber, M.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; In, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jeong, M.; Jero, K.; Jurkovic, M.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kauer, M.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, J.; Kheirandish, A.; Kiryluk, J.; Kläs, J.; Klein, S. R.; Kohnen, G.; Koirala, R.; Kolanoski, H.; Konietz, R.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Krings, K.; Kroll, G.; Kroll, M.; Krückl, G.; Kunnen, J.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Lanfranchi, J. L.; Larson, M. J.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Leuermann, M.; Leuner, J.; Lu, L.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Maggi, G.; Mahn, K. B. M.; Mandelartz, M.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; Maunu, R.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Medici, M.; Meli, A.; Menne, T.; Merino, G.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Middell, E.; Mohrmann, L.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Neer, G.; Niederhausen, H.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Obertacke Pollmann, A.; Olivas, A.; Omairat, A.; O'Murchadha, A.; Palczewski, T.; Pandya, H.; Pankova, D. V.; Paul, L.; Pepper, J. A.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Pfendner, C.; Pieloth, D.; Pinat, E.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Pütz, J.; Quinnan, M.; Raab, C.; Rädel, L.; Rameez, M.; Rawlins, K.; Reimann, R.; Relich, M.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Richman, M.; Richter, S.; Riedel, B.; Robertson, S.; Rongen, M.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ryckbosch, D.; Sabbatini, L.; Sander, H.-G.; Sandrock, A.; Sandroos, J.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Scheriau, F.; Schimp, M.; Schmidt, T.; Schmitz, M.; Schoenen, S.; Schöneberg, S.; Schönwald, A.; Schulte, L.; Schumacher, L.; Seckel, D.; Seunarine, S.; Soldin, D.; Song, M.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stahlberg, M.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stasik, A.; Steuer, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stößl, A.; Ström, R.; Strotjohann, N. L.; Sullivan, G. W.; Sutherland, M.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tatar, J.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Terliuk, A.; Tešić, G.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Tobin, M. N.; Toscano, S.; Tosi, D.; Tselengidou, M.; Turcati, A.; Unger, E.; Usner, M.; Vallecorsa, S.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vanheule, S.; van Santen, J.; Veenkamp, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Vraeghe, M.; Walck, C.; Wallace, A.; Wallraff, M.; Wandkowsky, N.; Weaver, Ch.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Wille, L.; Williams, D. R.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Xu, Y.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zoll, M.

    2016-03-01

    Various extensions of the Standard Model motivate the existence of stable magnetic monopoles that could have been created during an early high-energy epoch of the Universe. These primordial magnetic monopoles would be gradually accelerated by cosmic magnetic fields and could reach high velocities that make them visible in Cherenkov detectors such as IceCube. Equivalently to electrically charged particles, magnetic monopoles produce direct and indirect Cherenkov light while traversing through matter at relativistic velocities. This paper describes searches for relativistic (vge 0.76c) and mildly relativistic (vge 0.51c) monopoles, each using one year of data taken in 2008/2009 and 2011/2012, respectively. No monopole candidate was detected. For a velocity above 0.51 c the monopole flux is constrained down to a level of 1.55 × 10^{-18} text {cm}^{-2} text {s}^{-1} text {sr}^{-1}. This is an improvement of almost two orders of magnitude over previous limits.

  4. Soft bilateral filtering volumetric shadows using cube shadow maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Hatam H.; Sunar, Mohd Shahrizal; Kolivand, Hoshang

    2017-01-01

    Volumetric shadows often increase the realism of rendered scenes in computer graphics. Typical volumetric shadows techniques do not provide a smooth transition effect in real-time with conservation on crispness of boundaries. This research presents a new technique for generating high quality volumetric shadows by sampling and interpolation. Contrary to conventional ray marching method, which requires extensive time, this proposed technique adopts downsampling in calculating ray marching. Furthermore, light scattering is computed in High Dynamic Range buffer to generate tone mapping. The bilateral interpolation is used along a view rays to smooth transition of volumetric shadows with respect to preserving-edges. In addition, this technique applied a cube shadow map to create multiple shadows. The contribution of this technique isreducing the number of sample points in evaluating light scattering and then introducing bilateral interpolation to improve volumetric shadows. This contribution is done by removing the inherent deficiencies significantly in shadow maps. This technique allows obtaining soft marvelous volumetric shadows, having a good performance and high quality, which show its potential for interactive applications. PMID:28632740

  5. Law Enforcement Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Law Enforcement Locations in Kansas Any location where sworn officers of a law enforcement agency are regularly based or stationed. Law enforcement agencies "are...

  6. Tenancy Law Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edlund, Hans Henrik

    2003-01-01

    Report on Danish Tenancy Law. Contribution to a research project co-financed by the Grotius Programme for Judicial Co-Operation in Civil Matters. http://www.iue.it/LAW/ResearchTeaching/EuropeanPrivateLaw/Projects.shtml......Report on Danish Tenancy Law. Contribution to a research project co-financed by the Grotius Programme for Judicial Co-Operation in Civil Matters. http://www.iue.it/LAW/ResearchTeaching/EuropeanPrivateLaw/Projects.shtml...

  7. Democratic contract law

    OpenAIRE

    Hesselink, M.W.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the normative relationship between contract law and democracy. In particular, it argues that in order to be legitimate contract law needs to have a democratic basis. Private law is not different in this respect from public law. Thus, the first claim made in this article will be that also for contract law a democratic basis is a necessary condition for legitimacy. A fully democratic basis may also be a sufficient condition for a legitimate and just contract law. However,...

  8. Implementation of Dividing Cubes Algorithm Based on CUDA%基于 CUDA 的 Dividing Cubes 算法实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文波; 曹耀钦; 孙伟; 李海龙

    2013-01-01

    In traditional Dividing Cubes algorithm ,voxels are divided into many small elements in one time which bring a large number of calculations .Therefore ,a progressive subdivision is proposed to reduce calculations .In the meanwhile ,the algorithm is transplanted into GPU , and implemented based on CUDA . The kernel , thread organization and memory allocation is also designed .Experimental results show that almost 10 times speedup is reached by using GPU′s parallel acceleration capacity .%针对传统Dividing Cubes算法中一次性将体元剖分为较小体元而带来大量计算的问题,提出递进式的体元剖分方式,以减少剖分过程中的计算量。同时,将算法移植到图形处理器(GPU )上执行,在统一计算设备架构(CUDA )下对其进行实现,并分别对 kernel函数、线程结构和存储空间进行了设计和分配。实验结果表明,利用GPU的并行加速能力可以达到将近10倍的加速比,有效地提升了等值面的绘制速度。

  9. Morphology of and physiology of an alpha-amylase producing strain of Aspergillus oryzae during batch cultivations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Morten; Spohr, Anders Bendsen; Nielsen, Jens Bredal

    1996-01-01

    , whereas the alpha-amylase production has a sharper maximum at about pH 6. During batch cultivation with pellets the growth is described well by the cube-root law when pellet fragmentation can be neglected. The kinetic parameter k in the cube-root law is derived from the growth kinetics with no mass...

  10. Comparing root architectural models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnepf, Andrea; Javaux, Mathieu; Vanderborght, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Plant roots play an important role in several soil processes (Gregory 2006). Root architecture development determines the sites in soil where roots provide input of carbon and energy and take up water and solutes. However, root architecture is difficult to determine experimentally when grown in opaque soil. Thus, root architectural models have been widely used and been further developed into functional-structural models that are able to simulate the fate of water and solutes in the soil-root system (Dunbabin et al. 2013). Still, a systematic comparison of the different root architectural models is missing. In this work, we focus on discrete root architecture models where roots are described by connected line segments. These models differ (a) in their model concepts, such as the description of distance between branches based on a prescribed distance (inter-nodal distance) or based on a prescribed time interval. Furthermore, these models differ (b) in the implementation of the same concept, such as the time step size, the spatial discretization along the root axes or the way stochasticity of parameters such as root growth direction, growth rate, branch spacing, branching angles are treated. Based on the example of two such different root models, the root growth module of R-SWMS and RootBox, we show the impact of these differences on simulated root architecture and aggregated information computed from this detailed simulation results, taking into account the stochastic nature of those models. References Dunbabin, V.M., Postma, J.A., Schnepf, A., Pagès, L., Javaux, M., Wu, L., Leitner, D., Chen, Y.L., Rengel, Z., Diggle, A.J. Modelling root-soil interactions using three-dimensional models of root growth, architecture and function (2013) Plant and Soil, 372 (1-2), pp. 93 - 124. Gregory (2006) Roots, rhizosphere and soil: the route to a better understanding of soil science? European Journal of Soil Science 57: 2-12.

  11. Nitrogen removal in moving bed sequencing batch reactor using polyurethane foam cubes of various sizes as carrier materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jun-Wei; Seng, Chye-Eng; Lim, Poh-Eng; Ng, Si-Ling; Sujari, Amat-Ngilmi Ahmad

    2011-11-01

    The performance of moving bed sequencing batch reactors (MBSBRs) added with 8 % (v/v) of polyurethane (PU) foam cubes as carrier media in nitrogen removal was investigated in treating low COD/N wastewater. The results indicate that MBSBR with 8-mL cubes achieved the highest total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiency of 37% during the aeration period, followed by 31%, 24% and 19 % for MBSBRs with 27-, 64- and 125-mL cubes, respectively. The increased TN removal in MBSBRs was mainly due to simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) process which was verified by batch studies. The relatively lower TN removal in MBSBR with larger PU foam cubes was attributed to the observation that larger PU foam cubes were not fully attached by biomass. Higher concentrations of 8-mL PU foam cubes in batch reactors yielded higher TN removal.

  12. A Combined Maximum-likelihood Analysis of the High-energy Astrophysical Neutrino Flux Measured with IceCube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aartsen, M. G.; Abraham, K.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Ahrens, M.; Altmann, D.; Anderson, T.; Archinger, M.; Arguelles, C.; Arlen, T. C.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker Tjus, J.; Becker, K.-H.; Beiser, E.; BenZvi, S.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bernhard, A.; Besson, D. Z.; Binder, G.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blumenthal, J.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Börner, M.; Bos, F.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Braun, J.; Brayeur, L.; Bretz, H.-P.; Brown, A. M.; Buzinsky, N.; Casey, J.; Casier, M.; Cheung, E.; Chirkin, D.; Christov, A.; Christy, B.; Clark, K.; Classen, L.; Coenders, S.; Cowen, D. F.; Cruz Silva, A. H.; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; Day, M.; de André, J. P. A. M.; De Clercq, C.; Dembinski, H.; De Ridder, S.; Desiati, P.; de Vries, K. D.; de Wasseige, G.; de With, M.; DeYoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Dumm, J. P.; Dunkman, M.; Eagan, R.; Eberhardt, B.; Ehrhardt, T.; Eichmann, B.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fahey, S.; Fazely, A. R.; Fedynitch, A.; Feintzeig, J.; Felde, J.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Flis, S.; Fuchs, T.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gaior, R.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Ghorbani, K.; Gier, D.; Gladstone, L.; Glagla, M.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Golup, G.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Goodman, J. A.; Góra, D.; Grant, D.; Gretskov, P.; Groh, J. C.; Gross, A.; Ha, C.; Haack, C.; Haj Ismail, A.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hansmann, B.; Hanson, K.; Hebecker, D.; Heereman, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hellwig, D.; Hickford, S.; Hignight, J.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Holzapfel, K.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Huang, F.; Huber, M.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; In, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jero, K.; Jurkovic, M.; Kaminsky, B.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kauer, M.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, J.; Kheirandish, A.; Kiryluk, J.; Kläs, J.; Klein, S. R.; Kohnen, G.; Kolanoski, H.; Konietz, R.; Koob, A.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Krings, K.; Kroll, G.; Kroll, M.; Kunnen, J.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Lanfranchi, J. L.; Larson, M. J.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Leuermann, M.; Leuner, J.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Maggi, G.; Mahn, K. B. M.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; Maunu, R.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Medici, M.; Meli, A.; Menne, T.; Merino, G.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Middell, E.; Middlemas, E.; Miller, J.; Mohrmann, L.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Niederhausen, H.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Obertacke, A.; Olivas, A.; Omairat, A.; O'Murchadha, A.; Palczewski, T.; Paul, L.; Pepper, J. A.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Pfendner, C.; Pieloth, D.; Pinat, E.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Pütz, J.; Quinnan, M.; Rädel, L.; Rameez, M.; Rawlins, K.; Redl, P.; Reimann, R.; Relich, M.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Richman, M.; Richter, S.; Riedel, B.; Robertson, S.; Rongen, M.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ruzybayev, B.; Ryckbosch, D.; Saba, S. M.; Sabbatini, L.; Sander, H.-G.; Sandrock, A.; Sandroos, J.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Scheriau, F.; Schimp, M.; Schmidt, T.; Schmitz, M.; Schoenen, S.; Schöneberg, S.; Schönwald, A.; Schukraft, A.; Schulte, L.; Seckel, D.; Seunarine, S.; Shanidze, R.; Smith, M. W. E.; Soldin, D.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stahlberg, M.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stanisha, N. A.; Stasik, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stössl, A.; Strahler, E. A.; Ström, R.; Strotjohann, N. L.; Sullivan, G. W.; Sutherland, M.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Terliuk, A.; Tešić, G.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Tobin, M. N.; Tosi, D.; Tselengidou, M.; Unger, E.; Usner, M.; Vallecorsa, S.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vanheule, S.; van Santen, J.; Veenkamp, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Vraeghe, M.; Walck, C.; Wallace, A.; Wallraff, M.; Wandkowsky, N.; Weaver, Ch.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Whitehorn, N.; Wichary, C.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Wille, L.; Williams, D. R.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Xu, Y.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Zoll, M.; IceCube Collaboration

    2015-08-01

    Evidence for an extraterrestrial flux of high-energy neutrinos has now been found in multiple searches with the IceCube detector. The first solid evidence was provided by a search for neutrino events with deposited energies ≳ 30 TeV and interaction vertices inside the instrumented volume. Recent analyses suggest that the extraterrestrial flux extends to lower energies and is also visible with throughgoing, νμ-induced tracks from the Northern Hemisphere. Here, we combine the results from six different IceCube searches for astrophysical neutrinos in a maximum-likelihood analysis. The combined event sample features high-statistics samples of shower-like and track-like events. The data are fit in up to three observables: energy, zenith angle, and event topology. Assuming the astrophysical neutrino flux to be isotropic and to consist of equal flavors at Earth, the all-flavor spectrum with neutrino energies between 25 TeV and 2.8 PeV is well described by an unbroken power law with best-fit spectral index -2.50 ± 0.09 and a flux at 100 TeV of ({6.7}-1.2+1.1)× {10}-18 {{GeV}}-1 {{{s}}}-1 {{sr}}-1 {{cm}}-2. Under the same assumptions, an unbroken power law with index -2 is disfavored with a significance of 3.8σ (p = 0.0066%) with respect to the best fit. This significance is reduced to 2.1σ (p = 1.7%) if instead we compare the best fit to a spectrum with index -2 that has an exponential cut-off at high energies. Allowing the electron-neutrino flux to deviate from the other two flavors, we find a νe fraction of 0.18 ± 0.11 at Earth. The sole production of electron neutrinos, which would be characteristic of neutron-decay-dominated sources, is rejected with a significance of 3.6σ (p = 0.014%).

  13. The dark cube: dark and light character profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Garcia

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Research addressing distinctions and similarities between people’s malevolent character traits (i.e., the Dark Triad: Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy has detected inconsistent linear associations to temperament traits. Additionally, these dark traits seem to have a common core expressed as uncooperativeness. Hence, some researchers suggest that the dark traits are best represented as one global construct (i.e., the unification argument rather than as ternary construct (i.e., the uniqueness argument. We put forward the dark cube (cf. Cloninger’s character cube comprising eight dark profiles that can be used to compare individuals who differ in one dark character trait while holding the other two constant. Our aim was to investigate in which circumstances individuals who are high in each one of the dark character traits differ in Cloninger’s “light” character traits: self-directedness, cooperativeness, and self-transcendence. We also investigated if people’s dark character profiles were associated to their light character profiles. Method. A total of 997 participants recruited from Amazon’s Mechanical Turk (MTurk responded to the Short Dark Triad and the Short Character Inventory. Participants were allocated to eight different dark profiles and eight light profiles based on their scores in each of the traits and any possible combination of high and low scores. We used three-way interaction regression analyses and t-tests to investigate differences in light character traits between individuals with different dark profiles. As a second step, we compared the individuals’ dark profile with her/his character profile using an exact cell-wise analysis conducted in the ROPstat software (http://www.ropstat.com. Results. Individuals who expressed high levels of Machiavellianism and those who expressed high levels of psychopathy also expressed low self-directedness and low cooperativeness. Individuals with high

  14. Design for CubeSat-based dust and radiation studies at Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Ashish; Krishnamoorthy, Siddharth; Swenson, Travis; West, Stephen; Li, Alan; Crew, Alexander; Phillips, Derek James; Screve, Antoine; Close, Sigrid

    2017-07-01

    Europa is one of the icy moons of Jupiter and the possibility of an ocean of liquid water beneath its icy crust makes it one of the most fascinating destinations for exploration in the solar system. NASA's Europa Multiple Flyby Mission (EMFM, formerly Europa Clipper) is slated to visit the icy moon in a timeframe near the year 2022 to study the habitability of Europa. CubeSats carried along by the primary mission can supplement the measurements made, at a relatively low cost, and with the added benefits of involving students at universities in this challenging endeavor. Further, such a mission holds the key to extending the applicability of CubeSats to interplanetary missions. In this paper, we present the design of the Europa Radiation and Dust Observation Satellite (ERDOS), a 3U CubeSat designed to be deployed by the Europa Multiple Flyby Mission to carry out measurements of the radiation and dust environment, before impacting Europa's surface. We present a detailed design for a CubeSat-based secondary mission, and discuss the science goals that may be accomplished by such a mission. Further, we discuss results from a comprehensive analysis of various engineering challenges associated with an interplanetary CubeSat mission, such as radiation shielding and thermal environment control. Our results show that a short duration CubeSat-based flyby mission is feasible when the CubeSat is carried on board the primary mission until the Jovian system is reached. Such a flyby mission can provide important supplementary information to the primary mission about Europa's environment at a closer range and lead to a substantial increase in scientific knowledge about surface processes on Europa.

  15. Novae as Tevatrons: prospects for CTA and IceCube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, B. D.; Caprioli, D.; Vurm, I.; Beloborodov, A. M.; Bartos, I.; Vlasov, A.

    2016-04-01

    The discovery of novae as sources of ˜0.1-1 GeV gamma-rays highlights the key role of shocks and relativistic particle acceleration in these transient systems. Although there is evidence for a spectral cut-off above energies ˜1-100 GeV at particular epochs in some novae, the maximum particle energy achieved in these accelerators has remained an open question. The high densities of the nova ejecta (˜10 orders of magnitude larger than in supernova remnants) render the gas far upstream of the shock neutral and shielded from ionizing radiation. The amplification of the magnetic field needed for diffusive shock acceleration requires ionized gas, thus confining the acceleration process to a narrow photoionized layer immediately ahead of the shock. Based on the growth rate of the hybrid non-resonant cosmic ray current-driven instability (considering also ion-neutral damping), we quantify the maximum particle energy, Emax, across the range of shock velocities and upstream densities of interest. We find values of Emax ˜ 10 GeV-10 TeV, which are broadly consistent with the inferred spectral cut-offs, but which could also in principle lead to emission extending to ≳ 100 GeV accessible to atmosphere Cherenkov telescopes, such as the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). Detecting TeV neutrinos with IceCube is more challenging, although the prospects are improved for a nearby event (≲ kpc) or if the shock power during the earliest, densest phases of the outburst is higher than implied by the GeV light curves, due to downscattering of the gamma-rays within the ejecta.

  16. Optical Profiling of the Atmospheric Limb CubeSat Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeppesen, M.; Taylor, M. J.; Swenson, C.; Marchant, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Earth's lower thermosphere is an important interface region between the neutral atmosphere and the "space weather" environment. While the high-latitude region of the thermosphere responds promptly to energy inputs, relatively little is known about the global/regional response to these energy inputs. Global temperatures are predicted to respond within 3-6 hours, but the details of the thermal response of the atmosphere as energy transports away from high-latitude source regions is not well understood. The Optical Profiling of the Atmospheric Limb (OPAL) mission aims to characterize this thermal response through observation of the temperature structure of the lower thermosphere at mid- and low-latitudes. The OPAL instrument is designed to map global thermospheric temperature variability over the critical "thermospheric gap" region (~100-140 km altitude) by spectroscopic analysis of molecular oxygen A-band emission (758 - 768 nm). The OPAL instrument is a grating-based imaging spectrometer with refractive optics and a high-efficiency volume holographic grating (VHG). The scene is sampled by 7 parallel slits that form non-overlapping spectral profiles at the focal plane with resolution of 0.5 nm (spectral), 1.5 km (limb profiling), and 60 km (horizontal sampling). A CCD camera at the instrument focal plane delivers low noise and high sensitivity. The instrument is designed to strongly reject stray light from daylight regions of the earth. The OPAL mission is funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) CubeSat-based Science Missions for Geospace and Atmospheric Research program. The OPAL instrument and mission will be designed, built and executed by a team comprised of students and professors from Utah State University, Dixie State University and the University of Maryland Eastern Shore, with support from professional scientists and engineers from the Space Dynamics Laboratory and Hawk Institute for Space Science.

  17. Characterization of the atmospheric muon flux in IceCube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aartsen, M. G.; Abraham, K.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Ahrens, M.; Altmann, D.; Anderson, T.; Archinger, M.; Argüelles, C.; Arlen, T. C.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker Tjus, J.; Becker, K.-H.; Beiser, E.; BenZvi, S.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bernhard, A.; Besson, D. Z.; Binder, G.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blumenthal, J.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Börner, M.; Bos, F.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Braun, J.; Brayeur, L.; Bretz, H.-P.; Brown, A. M.; Buzinsky, N.; Casey, J.; Casier, M.; Cheung, E.; Chirkin, D.; Christov, A.; Christy, B.; Clark, K.; Classen, L.; Coenders, S.; Cowen, D. F.; Cruz Silva, A. H.; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; Day, M.; de André, J. P. A. M.; De Clercq, C.; Dembinski, H.; De Ridder, S.; Desiati, P.; de Vries, K. D.; de Wasseige, G.; de With, M.; DeYoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Dumm, J. P.; Dunkman, M.; Eagan, R.; Eberhardt, B.; Ehrhardt, T.; Eichmann, B.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fahey, S.; Fazely, A. R.; Fedynitch, A.; Feintzeig, J.; Felde, J.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Flis, S.; Fuchs, T.; Glagla, M.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gaior, R.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Ghorbani, K.; Gier, D.; Gladstone, L.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Golup, G.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Góra, D.; Grant, D.; Gretskov, P.; Groh, J. C.; Groß, A.; Ha, C.; Haack, C.; Haj Ismail, A.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hansmann, B.; Hanson, K.; Hebecker, D.; Heereman, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hellwig, D.; Hickford, S.; Hignight, J.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Holzapfel, K.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Huang, F.; Huber, M.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; In, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jero, K.; Jurkovic, M.; Kaminsky, B.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kauer, M.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, J.; Kheirandish, A.; Kiryluk, J.; Kläs, J.; Klein, S. R.; Kohnen, G.; Koirala, R.; Kolanoski, H.; Konietz, R.; Koob, A.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Krings, K.; Kroll, G.; Kroll, M.; Kunnen, J.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Lanfranchi, J. L.; Larson, M. J.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Leuermann, M.; Leuner, J.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Maggi, G.; Mahn, K. B. M.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; Maunu, R.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Medici, M.; Meli, A.; Menne, T.; Merino, G.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Middell, E.; Middlemas, E.; Miller, J.; Mohrmann, L.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Niederhausen, H.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Obertacke, A.; Olivas, A.; Omairat, A.; O'Murchadha, A.; Palczewski, T.; Pandya, H.; Paul, L.; Pepper, J. A.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Pfendner, C.; Pieloth, D.; Pinat, E.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Pütz, J.; Quinnan, M.; Rädel, L.; Rameez, M.; Rawlins, K.; Redl, P.; Reimann, R.; Relich, M.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Richman, M.; Richter, S.; Riedel, B.; Robertson, S.; Rongen, M.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ryckbosch, D.; Saba, S. M.; Sabbatini, L.; Sander, H.-G.; Sandrock, A.; Sandroos, J.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Scheriau, F.; Schimp, M.; Schmidt, T.; Schmitz, M.; Schoenen, S.; Schöneberg, S.; Schönwald, A.; Schukraft, A.; Schulte, L.; Seckel, D.; Seunarine, S.; Shanidze, R.; Smith, M. W. E.; Soldin, D.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stahlberg, M.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stanisha, N. A.; Stasik, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stößl, A.; Strahler, E. A.; Ström, R.; Strotjohann, N. L.; Sullivan, G. W.; Sutherland, M.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Terliuk, A.; Tešić, G.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Tobin, M. N.; Tosi, D.; Tselengidou, M.; Turcati, A.; Unger, E.; Usner, M.; Vallecorsa, S.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van Santen, J.; Vanheule, S.; Veenkamp, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Vraeghe, M.; Walck, C.; Wallraff, M.; Wandkowsky, N.; Weaver, Ch.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Whitehorn, N.; Wichary, C.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Wille, L.; Williams, D. R.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Xu, Y.; Yáñez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Zoll, M.

    2016-05-01

    Muons produced in atmospheric cosmic ray showers account for the by far dominant part of the event yield in large-volume underground particle detectors. The IceCube detector, with an instrumented volume of about a cubic kilometer, has the potential to conduct unique investigations on atmospheric muons by exploiting the large collection area and the possibility to track particles over a long distance. Through detailed reconstruction of energy deposition along the tracks, the characteristics of muon bundles can be quantified, and individual particles of exceptionally high energy identified. The data can then be used to constrain the cosmic ray primary flux and the contribution to atmospheric lepton fluxes from prompt decays of short-lived hadrons. In this paper, techniques for the extraction of physical measurements from atmospheric muon events are described and first results are presented. The multiplicity spectrum of TeV muons in cosmic ray air showers for primaries in the energy range from the knee to the ankle is derived and found to be consistent with recent results from surface detectors. The single muon energy spectrum is determined up to PeV energies and shows a clear indication for the emergence of a distinct spectral component from prompt decays of short-lived hadrons. The magnitude of the prompt flux, which should include a substantial contribution from light vector meson di-muon decays, is consistent with current theoretical predictions. The variety of measurements and high event statistics can also be exploited for the evaluation of systematic effects. In the course of this study, internal inconsistencies in the zenith angle distribution of events were found which indicate the presence of an unexplained effect outside the currently applied range of detector systematics. The underlying cause could be related to the hadronic interaction models used to describe muon production in air showers.

  18. On Boolean Stable Laws

    CERN Document Server

    Arizmendi, Octavio

    2012-01-01

    We determine which Boolean stable law is freely infinitely divisible and which is not. Some positive Boolean stable laws and a mixture of them have completely monotonic densities and they are both freely and classically infinitely divisible. Freely infinitely divisible Boolean stable laws and the corresponding free stable laws are non trivial examples whose free divisibility indicators are infinity.

  19. Tax Law System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsindeliani, Imeda A.

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with consideration of the actual theoretic problems of the subject and system of tax law in Russia. The theoretical approaches to determination of the nature of separate institutes of tax law are represented. The existence of pandect system intax law building as financial law sub-branch of Russia is substantiated. The goal of the…

  20. Democratic contract law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the normative relationship between contract law and democracy. In particular, it argues that in order to be legitimate contract law needs to have a democratic basis. Private law is not different in this respect from public law. Thus, the first claim made in this article will

  1. Operational Law Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Law* implications. R-5 3. Wills for both spouses. 4. Powers of Attorney. 5. Consumer law issues. B. 1ypically readiness exercises and rapid...Soldiers’ & Sailors’ Civil Relief Act JA 261 Real Property Guide JA 262 Wills Guide JA 263 Family Law Guide JA 265 Consumer Law Guide JA 267 Legal

  2. IceCube astrophysical neutrinos without a spectral cutoff and (10^15-10^17) eV cosmic gamma radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Kalashev, O E

    2014-01-01

    We present a range of unbroken power-law fits to the astrophysical-neutrino spectrum consistent with the most recent published IceCube data at the 68\\% confidence level. Assuming that the neutrinos originate in decays of pi mesons, we estimate accompanying gamma-ray fluxes for various distributions of sources, taking propagation effects into account. We then briefly discuss existing experimental results constraining PeV to EeV diffuse gamma-ray flux and their systematic uncertainties. Several scenarios are marginally consistent both with the KASKADE and CASA-MIA upper limits at (10^15-10^16) eV and with the EAS-MSU tentative detection at ~10^17 eV, given large systematic errors of the measurements. Future searches for the diffuse gamma-ray background at sub-PeV to sub-EeV energies just below present upper limits will give a crucial diagnostic tool for distinguishing between the Galactic and extragalactic models of the origin of the IceCube events.

  3. Principles of private law

    OpenAIRE

    Andraško, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Principles of private law The reason of choosing "Principles of private law" for my thesis is that private law is built on untouchable values. For example, basic values like freedom and equality, which are represented by these principles. Many of them are indispensable in the relation of functionality of the whole system of law. Most of them have Roman law origin. The purpose of my thesis is to describe and summarize the main principles of private law that mostly appear in Czech law, especial...

  4. The Root Pressure Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, A. R.

    1972-01-01

    Describes experiments demonstrating that root pressure in plants is probably controlled by a circadian rhythm (biological clock). Root pressure phenomenon plays significant part in water transport in contradiction with prevalent belief. (PS)

  5. Law across nations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of participants keen to work together to promote research and policy development in such a lively forum." - Professor Steve Saxby PhD, Cert Ed., MBCS Professor of IT Law and Public Policy, Solicitor, Deputy Head of School (Research), Faculty of Business and Law, University of Southampton, Editor...... not only the original themes of Legal, Security and Privacy Issues in IT Law and International Law and Trade but more recently two new conferences on International Public and Private Law. The papers in this volume then represent the contributions to all these fields and reflect the strong desire......-in-Chief, The Computer Law & Security Review - The International Journal of Technology Law and Practice (Elsevier), www.elsevier.com/locate/clsr, Editor, The Encyclopedia of Information Technology Law (Sweet & Maxwell), Director ILAWS - Institute for Law and the Web - School of Law, Southampton University, www...

  6. EU Labour Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ruth

    The focus in this book is upon EU labour law and its interaction with national and international labour law. The book provides an analysis of the framework and sources of European labour law. It covers a number of substantive topics, notably collective labour law, individual employment contracts......, discrimination on grounds of sex and on other grounds, free movement of persons, restructuring of enterprises, working environment and enforcement of rights derived from EU labour law....

  7. The Power of Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China’s draft Energy Law is now under consideration China’s draft Energy Law has been submitted to the State Council’s Legislative Affairs Office and will be considered at this year’s executive meeting, said a key member of the expert panel drafting the law. If the law makes it through the council, the National People’s Congress (NPC), China’s supreme law-making body, will vote on it.

  8. Law System in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Andreea Lorena Ponaru

    2007-01-01

    This article attempts to present and explain the main features of the japanese law system. Japanese Law system was reformed during the domination of Tokugawa shogun family. In 1870, Foreign Governmental Systems Study Office was founded. By judicial sentences many french laws were introduced in Japanese law system. Roma-Tokyo-Berlin Alliance (1936) introduced a strong German influence in the law system. The Japanese judicial system has known five periods. In the first (1869-1888) were introduc...

  9. EarthCube: A Community-Driven Cyberinfrastructure for the Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskela, Rebecca; Ramamurthy, Mohan; Pearlman, Jay; Lehnert, Kerstin; Ahern, Tim; Fredericks, Janet; Goring, Simon; Peckham, Scott; Powers, Lindsay; Kamalabdi, Farzad; Rubin, Ken; Yarmey, Lynn

    2017-04-01

    EarthCube is creating a dynamic, System of Systems (SoS) infrastructure and data tools to collect, access, analyze, share, and visualize all forms of geoscience data and resources, using advanced collaboration, technological, and computational capabilities. EarthCube, as a joint effort between the U.S. National Science Foundation Directorate for Geosciences and the Division of Advanced Cyberinfrastructure, is a quickly growing community of scientists across all geoscience domains, as well as geoinformatics researchers and data scientists. EarthCube has attracted an evolving, dynamic virtual community of more than 2,500 contributors, including earth, ocean, polar, planetary, atmospheric, geospace, computer and social scientists, educators, and data and information professionals. During 2017, EarthCube will transition to the implementation phase. The implementation will balance "innovation" and "production" to advance cross-disciplinary science goals as well as the development of future data scientists. This presentation will describe the current architecture design for the EarthCube cyberinfrastructure and implementation plan.

  10. IceCube Gen2. The next-generation neutrino observatory for the South Pole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santen, Jakob van [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Collaboration: IceCube-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The IceCube Neutrino Observatory is a cubic-kilometer Cherenkov telescope buried in the ice sheet at the South Pole that detects neutrinos of all flavors with energies from tens of GeV to several PeV. The instrument provided the first measurement of the flux of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos, opening a new window to the TeV universe. At the other end of its sensitivity range, IceCube has provided precision measurements of neutrino oscillation parameters that are competitive with dedicated accelerator-based experiments. Here we present design studies for IceCube Gen2, the next-generation neutrino observatory for the South Pole. Instrumenting a volume of more that 5 km{sup 3} with over 100 new strings, IceCube Gen2 will have substantially greater sensitivity to high-energy neutrinos than current-generation instruments. PINGU, a dense infill array, will lower the energy threshold of the inner detector region to 4 GeV, allowing a determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy. On the surface, a large air shower detector will veto high-energy atmospheric muons and neutrinos from the southern hemisphere, enhancing the reach of astrophysical neutrino searches. With its versatile instrumentation, the IceCube Gen2 facility will allow us to explore the neutrino sky with unprecedented sensitivity, providing new constraints on the sources of the highest-energy cosmic rays, and yield precision data on the mixing and mass ordering of neutrinos.

  11. Search for Astrophysical Tau Neutrinos in Three Years of IceCube Data

    CERN Document Server

    Aartsen, M G; Ackermann, M; Adams, J; Aguilar, J A; Ahlers, M; Ahrens, M; Altmann, D; Anderson, T; Ansseau, I; Archinger, M; Arguelles, C; Arlen, T C; Auffenberg, J; Bai, X; Barwick, S W; Baum, V; Bay, R; Beatty, J J; Tjus, J Becker; Becker, K -H; Beiser, E; BenZvi, S; Berghaus, P; Berley, D; Bernardini, E; Bernhard, A; Besson, D Z; Binder, G; Bindig, D; Bissok, M; Blaufuss, E; Blumenthal, J; Boersma, D J; Bohm, C; Börner, M; Bos, F; Bose, D; Böser, S; Botner, O; Braun, J; Brayeur, L; Bretz, H -P; Buzinsky, N; Casey, J; Casier, M; Cheung, E; Chirkin, D; Christov, A; Clark, K; Classen, L; Coenders, S; Cowen, D F; Silva, A H Cruz; Daughhetee, J; Davis, J C; Day, M; de André, J P A M; De Clercq, C; Rosendo, E del Pino; Dembinski, H; De Ridder, S; Desiati, P; de Vries, K D; de Wasseige, G; de With, M; DeYoung, T; D\\'\\iaz-Vélez, J C; di Lorenzo, V; Dumm, J P; Dunkman, M; Eagan, R; Eberhardt, B; Ehrhardt, T; Eichmann, B; Euler, S; Evenson, P A; Fadiran, O; Fahey, S; Fazely, A R; Fedynitch, A; Feintzeig, J; Felde, J; Filimonov, K; Finley, C; Fischer-Wasels, T; Flis, S; Fösig, C -C; Fuchs, T; Gaisser, T K; Gaior, R; Gallagher, J; Gerhardt, L; Ghorbani, K; Gier, D; Gladstone, L; Glagla, M; Glüsenkamp, T; Goldschmidt, A; Golup, G; Gonzalez, J G; Góra, D; Grant, D; Groh, J C; Groß, A; Ha, C; Haack, C; Ismail, A Haj; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Hansen, E; Hansmann, B; Hanson, K; Hebecker, D; Heereman, D; Helbing, K; Hellauer, R; Hickford, S; Hignight, J; Hill, G C; Hoffman, K D; Hoffmann, R; Holzapfel, K; Homeier, A; Hoshina, K; Huang, F; Huber, M; Huelsnitz, W; Hulth, P O; Hultqvist, K; In, S; Ishihara, A; Jacobi, E; Japaridze, G S; Jero, K; Jurkovic, M; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Karle, A; Kauer, M; Keivani, A; Kelley, J L; Kemp, J; Kheirandish, A; Kiryluk, J; Kläs, J; Klein, S R; Kohnen, G; Koirala, R; Kolanoski, H; Konietz, R; Köpke, L; Kopper, C; Kopper, S; Koskinen, D J; Kowalski, M; Krings, K; Kroll, G; Kroll, M; Kunnen, J; Kurahashi, N; Kuwabara, T; Labare, M; Lanfranchi, J L; Larson, M J; Lesiak-Bzdak, M; Leuermann, M; Leuner, J; Lu, L; Lünemann, J; Madsen, J; Maggi, G; Mahn, K B M; Maruyama, R; Mase, K; Matis, H S; Maunu, R; McNally, F; Meagher, K; Medici, M; Meli, A; Menne, T; Merino, G; Meures, T; Miarecki, S; Middell, E; Middlemas, E; Mohrmann, L; Montaruli, T; Morse, R; Nahnhauer, R; Naumann, U; Neer, G; Niederhausen, H; Nowicki, S C; Nygren, D R; Obertacke, A; Olivas, A; Omairat, A; O'Murchadha, A; Palczewski, T; Pandya, H; Pankova, D V; Paul, L; Pepper, J A; Heros, C Pérez de los; Pfendner, C; Pieloth, D; Pinat, E; Posselt, J; Price, P B; Przybylski, G T; Pütz, J; Quinnan, M; Raab, C; Rädel, L; Rameez, M; Rawlins, K; Reimann, R; Relich, M; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Richman, M; Richter, S; Riedel, B; Robertson, S; Rongen, M; Rott, C; Ruhe, T; Ryckbosch, D; Saba, S M; Sabbatini, L; Sander, H -G; Sandrock, A; Sandroos, J; Sarkar, S; Schatto, K; Scheriau, F; Schimp, M; Schmidt, T; Schmitz, M; Schoenen, S; Schöneberg, S; Schönwald, A; Schulte, L; Seckel, D; Seunarine, S; Smith, M W E; Soldin, D; Song, M; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Stahlberg, M; Stamatikos, M; Stanev, T; Stanisha, N A; Stasik, A; Stezelberger, T; Stokstad, R G; Stößl, A; Ström, R; Strotjohann, N L; Sullivan, G W; Sutherland, M; Taavola, H; Taboada, I; Tatar, J; Ter-Antonyan, S; Terliuk, A; Tešić, G; Tilav, S; Toale, P A; Tobin, M N; Toscano, S; Tosi, D; Tselengidou, M; Turcati, A; Unger, E; Usner, M; Vallecorsa, S; Vandenbroucke, J; van Eijndhoven, N; Vanheule, S; van Santen, J; Veenkamp, J; Vehring, M; Voge, M; Vraeghe, M; Walck, C; Wallace, A; Wallraff, M; Wandkowsky, N; Weaver, Ch; Wendt, C; Westerhoff, S; Whelan, B J; Whitehorn, N; Wiebe, K; Wiebusch, C H; Wille, L; Williams, D R; Wissing, H; Wolf, M; Wood, T R; Woschnagg, K; Xu, D L; Xu, X W; Xu, Y; Yanez, J P; Yodh, G; Yoshida, S; Zoll, M

    2016-01-01

    The IceCube Neutrino Observatory has observed a diffuse flux of TeV-PeV astrophysical neutrinos at 5.7{\\sigma} significance from an all-flavor search. The direct detection of tau neutrinos in this flux has yet to occur. Tau neutrinos become distinguishable from other flavors in IceCube at energies above a few hundred TeV, when the cascade from the tau neutrino charged current interaction becomes resolvable from the cascade from the tau lepton decay. This paper presents results from a dedicated search for tau neutrinos with energies between 214 TeV and 72 PeV. The analysis searches for IceCube optical sensors that observe two separate pulses in a single event - one from the tau neutrino interaction, and a second from the tau decay. This is the first IceCube tau neutrino search to be more sensitive to tau neutrinos than to any other neutrino flavor. No candidate events were observed in three years of IceCube data. For the first time, a differential upper limit on astrophysical tau neutrinos is derived around th...

  12. Periodically Launched, Dedicated CubeSats/SmallSats for Space Situational Awareness Through NASA Communications Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromberg, E. M.; Shaw, H.; Estabrook, P.; Neilsen, T. L.; Gunther, J.; Swenson, C.; Fish, C. S.; Schaire, S. H.

    2014-12-01

    Space Situational Awareness (SSA) is an area where spaceflight activities and missions can directly influence the quality of life on earth. The combination of space weather, near earth orbiting objects, atmospheric conditions at the space boundary, and other phenomena can have significant short-term and long-term implications for the inhabitants of this planet. The importance of SSA has led to increased activity in this area from both space and ground based platforms. The emerging capability of CubeSats and SmallSats provides an opportunity for these low-cost, versatile platforms to augment the SSA infrastructure. The CubeSats and SmallSats can be launched opportunistically with shorter lead times than larger missions. They can be organized both as constellations or individual sensor elements. Combining CubeSats and SmallSats with the existing NASA communications networks (TDRS Space Network, Deep Space Network and the Near Earth Network) provide a backbone structure for SSA which can be tied to a SSA portal for data distribution and management. In this poster we will describe the instruments and sensors needed for CubeSat and SmallSat SSA missions. We will describe the architecture and concept of operations for a set of opportunistic, periodically launched, SSA CubeSats and SmallSats. We will also describe the integrated communications infrastructure to support end-to-end data delivery and management to a SSA portal.

  13. A Map-Reduce-enabled SOLAP cube for large-scale remotely sensed data aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiyuan; Meng, Lingkui; Wang, Frank Z.; Zhang, Wen; Cai, Yang

    2014-09-01

    Spatial On-Line Analytical Processing (SOLAP) is a powerful decision support systems tool for exploring the multidimensional perspective of spatial data. In recent years, remotely sensed data have been integrated into SOLAP cubes, and this improvement has advantages in spatio-temporal analysis for environment monitoring. However, the performance of aggregations in SOLAP still faces a considerable challenge from the large-scale dataset generated by Earth observation. From the perspective of data parallelism, a tile-based SOLAP cube model, the so-called Tile Cube, is presented in this paper. The novel model implements Roll-Up/Drill-Across operations in the SOLAP environment based on Map-Reduce, a popular data-intensive computing paradigm, and improves the throughput and scalability of raster aggregation. Therefore, the long time-series, wide-range and multi-view analysis of remotely sensed data can be processed in a short time. The Tile Cube prototype was built on Hadoop/Hbase, and drought monitoring is used as an example to illustrate the aggregations in the model. The performance testing indicated the model can be scaled along with both the data growth and node growth. It is applicable and natural to integrate the SOLAP cube with Map-Reduce. Factors that influence the performance are also discussed, and the balance of them will be considered in future works to make full use of data locality for model optimisation.

  14. From laboratory plasma experiments to space plasma experiments with `CubeSat' nano-satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Christine

    2016-09-01

    `CubeSat' nano-satellites provide low-cost access to space. SP3 laboratory's involvement in the European Union `QB50' `CubeSat' project [www.qb50.eu] which will launch into space 50 `CubeSats' from 27 Countries to study the ionosphere and the lower thermosphere will be presented. The Chi Kung laboratory plasma experiment and the Helicon Double Layer Thruster prototype can be tailored to investigate expanding magnetized plasma physics relevant to space physics (solar corona, Earth's aurora, adiabatic expansion and polytropic studies). Chi Kung is also used as a plasma wind tunnel for ground-based calibration of the University College London QB50 Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer. Space qualification of the three Australian QB50 `CubeSats' (June 2016) is carried out in the WOMBAT XL space simulation chamber. The QB50 satellites have attitude control but altitude control is not a requirement. SP3 is developing end-to-end miniaturised radiofrequency plasma propulsion systems (such as the Pocket Rocket and the MiniHel thrusters with power and propellant sub-systems) for future `CubeSat' missions.

  15. CubeSat mission design based on a systems engineering approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asundi, S. A.; Fitz-Coy, N. G.

    With the exception of the CubeSat specification, CubeSat design and development approaches have been mostly ad hoc, which has questioned their reliability. A systems engineering approach, based on the guidelines of NASA's Systems Engineering Handbook has been developed for CubeSats to facilitate systematic design, development and address their reliability, traceability, and reusability. The CubeSat systems engineering approach, developed as a repeatable process, uses a top-down design methodology to translate mission definitions into basic building blocks, components, interfaces and tasks, that then facilitate a bottom-up development and fabrication process. Some of the design tools (e.g., N2 diagram) described in NASAs Systems Engineering Handbook are utilized early in the design phase to identify potential conflicts in the mechanical and electrical interfaces. A novel subsystem level flowdown, which transcribes the system level requirements into identifiable CubeSat subsystems, (i.e., building blocks) is described. Utilizing this approach yields full traceability from mission concept to subsystem component to flight software. Additionally, the approach facilitates the estimation of the mission overhead in terms of power, telemetry, and computation associated with each component, interface, and task.

  16. Development of a Solar Array Drive Assembly for CubeSat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passaretti, Mike; Hayes, Ron

    2010-01-01

    Small satellites and in particular CubeSats, have increasingly become more viable as platforms for payloads typically requiring much larger bus structures. As advances in technology make payloads and instruments for space missions smaller, lighter and more power efficient, a niche market is emerging from the university community to perform rapidly developed, low-cost missions on very small spacecraft - micro, nano, and picosatellites. In just the last few years, imaging, biological and new technology demonstration missions have been either proposed or have flown using variations of the CubeSat structure as a basis. As these missions have become more complex, and the CubeSat standard has increased in both size (number of cubes) and mass, available power has become an issue. Body-mounted solar cells provide a minimal amount of power; deployable arrays improve on that baseline but are still limited. To truly achieve maximum power, deployed tracked arrays are necessary. To this end, Honeybee Robotics Spacecraft Mechanisms Corporation, along with MMA of Nederland Colorado, has developed a solar array drive assembly (SADA) and deployable solar arrays specifically for CubeSat missions. In this paper, we discuss the development of the SADA.

  17. Search for astrophysical tau neutrinos in three years of IceCube data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aartsen, M. G.; Abraham, K.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Ahrens, M.; Altmann, D.; Anderson, T.; Ansseau, I.; Archinger, M.; Arguelles, C.; Arlen, T. C.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker Tjus, J.; Becker, K.-H.; Beiser, E.; BenZvi, S.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bernhard, A.; Besson, D. Z.; Binder, G.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blumenthal, J.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Börner, M.; Bos, F.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Braun, J.; Brayeur, L.; Bretz, H.-P.; Buzinsky, N.; Casey, J.; Casier, M.; Cheung, E.; Chirkin, D.; Christov, A.; Clark, K.; Classen, L.; Coenders, S.; Cowen, D. F.; Cruz Silva, A. H.; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; Day, M.; de André, J. P. A. M.; De Clercq, C.; del Pino Rosendo, E.; Dembinski, H.; De Ridder, S.; Desiati, P.; de Vries, K. D.; de Wasseige, G.; de With, M.; DeYoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; di Lorenzo, V.; Dumm, J. P.; Dunkman, M.; Eagan, R.; Eberhardt, B.; Ehrhardt, T.; Eichmann, B.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fahey, S.; Fazely, A. R.; Fedynitch, A.; Feintzeig, J.; Felde, J.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Flis, S.; Fösig, C.-C.; Fuchs, T.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gaior, R.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Ghorbani, K.; Gier, D.; Gladstone, L.; Glagla, M.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Golup, G.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Góra, D.; Grant, D.; Groh, J. C.; Groß, A.; Ha, C.; Haack, C.; Haj Ismail, A.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hansen, E.; Hansmann, B.; Hanson, K.; Hebecker, D.; Heereman, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hickford, S.; Hignight, J.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Holzapfel, K.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Huang, F.; Huber, M.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; In, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jero, K.; Jurkovic, M.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kauer, M.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, J.; Kheirandish, A.; Kiryluk, J.; Kläs, J.; Klein, S. R.; Kohnen, G.; Koirala, R.; Kolanoski, H.; Konietz, R.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Krings, K.; Kroll, G.; Kroll, M.; Kunnen, J.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Lanfranchi, J. L.; Larson, M. J.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Leuermann, M.; Leuner, J.; Lu, L.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Maggi, G.; Mahn, K. B. M.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; Maunu, R.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Medici, M.; Meli, A.; Menne, T.; Merino, G.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Middell, E.; Middlemas, E.; Mohrmann, L.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Neer, G.; Niederhausen, H.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Obertacke, A.; Olivas, A.; Omairat, A.; O'Murchadha, A.; Palczewski, T.; Pandya, H.; Pankova, D. V.; Paul, L.; Pepper, J. A.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Pfendner, C.; Pieloth, D.; Pinat, E.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Pütz, J.; Quinnan, M.; Raab, C.; Rädel, L.; Rameez, M.; Rawlins, K.; Reimann, R.; Relich, M.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Richman, M.; Richter, S.; Riedel, B.; Robertson, S.; Rongen, M.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ryckbosch, D.; Saba, S. M.; Sabbatini, L.; Sander, H.-G.; Sandrock, A.; Sandroos, J.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Scheriau, F.; Schimp, M.; Schmidt, T.; Schmitz, M.; Schoenen, S.; Schöneberg, S.; Schönwald, A.; Schulte, L.; Seckel, D.; Seunarine, S.; Smith, M. W. E.; Soldin, D.; Song, M.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stahlberg, M.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stanisha, N. A.; Stasik, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stößl, A.; Ström, R.; Strotjohann, N. L.; Sullivan, G. W.; Sutherland, M.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tatar, J.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Terliuk, A.; Tešić, G.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Tobin, M. N.; Toscano, S.; Tosi, D.; Tselengidou, M.; Turcati, A.; Unger, E.; Usner, M.; Vallecorsa, S.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vanheule, S.; van Santen, J.; Veenkamp, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Vraeghe, M.; Walck, C.; Wallace, A.; Wallraff, M.; Wandkowsky, N.; Weaver, Ch.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Whitehorn, N.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Wille, L.; Williams, D. R.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Xu, Y.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zoll, M.; IceCube Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The IceCube Neutrino Observatory has observed a diffuse flux of TeV-PeV astrophysical neutrinos at 5.7 σ significance from an all-flavor search. The direct detection of tau neutrinos in this flux has yet to occur. Tau neutrinos become distinguishable from other flavors in IceCube at energies above a few hundred TeV, when the cascade from the tau neutrino charged current interaction becomes resolvable from the cascade from the tau lepton decay. This paper presents results from the first dedicated search for tau neutrinos with energies between 214 TeV and 72 PeV in the full IceCube detector. The analysis searches for IceCube optical sensors that observe two separate pulses in a single event—one from the tau neutrino interaction and a second from the tau decay. No candidate events were observed in three years of IceCube data. For the first time, a differential upper limit on astrophysical tau neutrinos is derived around the PeV energy region, which is nearly 3 orders of magnitude lower in energy than previous limits from dedicated tau neutrino searches.

  18. A treatment procedure for VLT/SINFONI data cubes: application to NGC 5643

    CERN Document Server

    Menezes, R B; Ricci, T V; Steiner, J E; May, D; Borges, B W

    2015-01-01

    In this second paper of a series, we present a treatment procedure for data cubes obtained with the Spectrograph for Integral Field Observations in the Near Infrared of the Very Large Telescope. We verified that the treatment procedure improves significantly the quality of the images of the data cubes, allowing a more detailed analysis. The images of the Br$\\gamma$ and H$_2 \\lambda 21218$ emission lines from the treated data cube of the nuclear region of NGC 5643 reveal the existence of ionized and molecular-gas clouds around the nucleus, which cannot be seen clearly in the images from the non-treated data cube of this galaxy. The ionized-gas clouds represent the narrow-line region, in the form of a bicone. We observe a good correspondence between the positions of the ionized-gas clouds in the Br$\\gamma$ image and in an [O III] image, obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope, of the nuclear region of this galaxy convolved with an estimate of the point-spread function of the data cube of NGC 5643. The morpholo...

  19. The Design and Performance of IceCube DeepCore

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2011-01-01

    The IceCube neutrino observatory in operation at the South Pole, Antarctica, comprises three distinct components: a large buried array for ultrahigh energy neutrino detection, a surface air shower array, and a new buried component called DeepCore. DeepCore was designed to lower the IceCube neutrino energy threshold by over an order of magnitude, to energies as low as about 10 GeV. DeepCore is situated primarily 2100 m below the surface of the icecap at the South Pole, at the bottom center of the existing IceCube array, and began taking physics data in May 2010. Its location takes advantage of the exceptionally clear ice at those depths and allows it to use the surrounding IceCube detector as a highly efficient active veto against the principal background of downward-going muons produced in cosmic-ray air showers. DeepCore has a module density roughly five times higher than that of the standard IceCube array, and uses photomultiplier tubes with a new photocathode featuring a quantum efficiency about 35% higher...

  20. Catching cosmic clues in the ice - recent results from IceCube

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    IceCube is a neutrino observatory located deep in the Antarctic glacier close to the geographical South Pole. Close to a gigaton of ice has been instrumented with optical sensors with the primary goal of searching for neutrinos from the still unknown sources of the highest-energy cosmic rays. Last year, IceCube observed for the first time ever a handful of high-energy neutrinos which must have originated outside the solar system. The discovery was named the 2013 Breakthrough of the Year by the British magazine Physics World. It is the first necessary step to actually achieve the dream of charting the places in the universe able to accelerate hadrons to energies over a million times higher than those at the LHC. The science goals of IceCube extend beyond astrophysics: IceCube is also a powerful tool for searches of dark matter and can be used to study phenomena connected to the neutrinos themselves, like neutrino oscillations. The talk will be an update on the most recent results from IceCube.

  1. Power laws, Pareto distributions and Zipf's law

    OpenAIRE

    Newman, M E J

    2004-01-01

    When the probability of measuring a particular value of some quantity varies inversely as a power of that value, the quantity is said to follow a power law, also known variously as Zipf's law or the Pareto distribution. Power laws appear widely in physics, biology, earth and planetary sciences, economics and finance, computer science, demography and the social sciences. For instance, the distributions of the sizes of cities, earthquakes, solar flares, moon craters, wars and people's personal ...

  2. The Root Canal Biofilm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, van der L.W.M.; Boutsioukis, C.; Jiang, L.M.; Macedo, R.; Verhaagen, B.; Versluis, M.; Chávez de Paz, E.; Sedgley, C.M.; Kishen, A.

    2015-01-01

    The aims of root canal irrigation are the chemical dissolution or disruption and the mechanical detachment of pulp tissue, dentin debris and smear layer (instrumentation products), microorganisms (planktonic or biofilm), and their products from the root canal wall, their removal out of the root cana

  3. WHY ROOTING FAILS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CREUTZ,M.

    2007-07-30

    I explore the origins of the unphysical predictions from rooted staggered fermion algorithms. Before rooting, the exact chiral symmetry of staggered fermions is a flavored symmetry among the four 'tastes.' The rooting procedure averages over tastes of different chiralities. This averaging forbids the appearance of the correct 't Hooft vertex for the target theory.

  4. Root canal irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. van der Sluis; C. Boutsioukis; L.M. Jiang; R. Macedo; B. Verhaagen; M. Versluis

    2015-01-01

    The aims of root canal irrigation are the chemical dissolution or disruption and the mechanical detachment of pulp tissue, dentin debris and smear layer (instrumentation products), microorganisms (planktonic or biofilm), and their products from the root canal wall, their removal out of the root cana

  5. Observation and Characterization of a Cosmic Muon Neutrino Flux from the Northern Hemisphere Using Six Years of IceCube Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aartsen, M. G.; Abraham, K.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Ahrens, M.; Altmann, D.; Andeen, K.; Anderson, T.; Ansseau, I.; Anton, G.; Archinger, M.; Argüelles, C.; Auffenberg, J.; Axani, S.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker Tjus, J.; Becker, K.-H.; BenZvi, S.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bernhard, A.; Besson, D. Z.; Binder, G.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blot, S.; Bohm, C.; Börner, M.; Bos, F.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Braun, J.; Brayeur, L.; Bretz, H.-P.; Burgman, A.; Carver, T.; Casier, M.; Cheung, E.; Chirkin, D.; Christov, A.; Clark, K.; Classen, L.; Coenders, S.; Collin, G. H.; Conrad, J. M.; Cowen, D. F.; Cross, R.; Day, M.; de André, J. P. A. M.; De Clercq, C.; del Pino Rosendo, E.; Dembinski, H.; De Ridder, S.; Desiati, P.; de Vries, K. D.; de Wasseige, G.; de With, M.; DeYoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; di Lorenzo, V.; Dujmovic, H.; Dumm, J. P.; Dunkman, M.; Eberhardt, B.; Ehrhardt, T.; Eichmann, B.; Eller, P.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fahey, S.; Fazely, A. R.; Feintzeig, J.; Felde, J.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Flis, S.; Fösig, C.-C.; Franckowiak, A.; Friedman, E.; Fuchs, T.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Ghorbani, K.; Giang, W.; Gladstone, L.; Glagla, M.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Golup, G.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Grant, D.; Griffith, Z.; Haack, C.; Haj Ismail, A.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hansen, E.; Hansmann, B.; Hansmann, T.; Hanson, K.; Hebecker, D.; Heereman, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hickford, S.; Hignight, J.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Holzapfel, K.; Hoshina, K.; Huang, F.; Huber, M.; Hultqvist, K.; In, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jeong, M.; Jero, K.; Jones, B. J. P.; Jurkovic, M.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Katz, U.; Kauer, M.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, J.; Kheirandish, A.; Kim, M.; Kintscher, T.; Kiryluk, J.; Kittler, T.; Klein, S. R.; Kohnen, G.; Koirala, R.; Kolanoski, H.; Konietz, R.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Krings, K.; Kroll, M.; Krückl, G.; Krüger, C.; Kunnen, J.; Kunwar, S.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Lanfranchi, J. L.; Larson, M. J.; Lauber, F.; Lennarz, D.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Leuermann, M.; Leuner, J.; Lu, L.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Maggi, G.; Mahn, K. B. M.; Mancina, S.; Mandelartz, M.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Maunu, R.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Medici, M.; Meier, M.; Meli, A.; Menne, T.; Merino, G.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Mohrmann, L.; Montaruli, T.; Moulai, M.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Neer, G.; Niederhausen, H.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Obertacke Pollmann, A.; Olivas, A.; O'Murchadha, A.; Palczewski, T.; Pandya, H.; Pankova, D. V.; Peiffer, P.; Penek, Ö.; Pepper, J. A.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Pieloth, D.; Pinat, E.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Quinnan, M.; Raab, C.; Rädel, L.; Rameez, M.; Rawlins, K.; Reimann, R.; Relethford, B.; Relich, M.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Richman, M.; Riedel, B.; Robertson, S.; Rongen, M.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ryckbosch, D.; Rysewyk, D.; Sabbatini, L.; Sanchez Herrera, S. E.; Sandrock, A.; Sandroos, J.; Sarkar, S.; Satalecka, K.; Schimp, M.; Schlunder, P.; Schmidt, T.; Schoenen, S.; Schöneberg, S.; Schumacher, L.; Seckel, D.; Seunarine, S.; Soldin, D.; Song, M.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stahlberg, M.; Stanev, T.; Stasik, A.; Steuer, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stößl, A.; Ström, R.; Strotjohann, N. L.; Sullivan, G. W.; Sutherland, M.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tatar, J.; Tenholt, F.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Terliuk, A.; Tešić, G.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Tobin, M. N.; Toscano, S.; Tosi, D.; Tselengidou, M.; Turcati, A.; Unger, E.; Usner, M.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vanheule, S.; van Rossem, M.; van Santen, J.; Veenkamp, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Vraeghe, M.; Walck, C.; Wallace, A.; Wallraff, M.; Wandkowsky, N.; Weaver, Ch.; Weiss, M. J.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wickmann, S.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Wille, L.; Williams, D. R.; Wills, L.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woolsey, E.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Xu, Y.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zoll, M.; Icecube Collaboration

    2016-12-01

    The IceCube Collaboration has previously discovered a high-energy astrophysical neutrino flux using neutrino events with interaction vertices contained within the instrumented volume of the IceCube detector. We present a complementary measurement using charged current muon neutrino events where the interaction vertex can be outside this volume. As a consequence of the large muon range the effective area is significantly larger but the field of view is restricted to the Northern Hemisphere. IceCube data from 2009 through 2015 have been analyzed using a likelihood approach based on the reconstructed muon energy and zenith angle. At the highest neutrino energies between 194 {TeV} and 7.8 {PeV} a significant astrophysical contribution is observed, excluding a purely atmospheric origin of these events at 5.6σ significance. The data are well described by an isotropic, unbroken power-law flux with a normalization at 100 {TeV} neutrino energy of ({0.90}-0.27+0.30)× {10}-18 {{GeV}}-1 {{cm}}-2 {{{s}}}-1 {{sr}}-1 and a hard spectral index of γ =2.13+/- 0.13. The observed spectrum is harder in comparison to previous IceCube analyses with lower energy thresholds which may indicate a break in the astrophysical neutrino spectrum of unknown origin. The highest-energy event observed has a reconstructed muon energy of (4.5+/- 1.2) {PeV} which implies a probability of less than 0.005 % for this event to be of atmospheric origin. Analyzing the arrival directions of all events with reconstructed muon energies above 200 {TeV} no correlation with known γ-ray sources was found. Using the high statistics of atmospheric neutrinos we report the current best constraints on a prompt atmospheric muon neutrino flux originating from charmed meson decays which is below 1.06 in units of the flux normalization of the model in Enberg et al.

  6. International Private Law and Communitarian Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abelardo Posso Serrano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Private international law is justified at a time when the legal systems of nation states seeking a way to extend their areas and competencies. This desire led to the conflict between national laws, which grew smaller as did the novel concept of "international community", but did not suppress national relativism. A new law began to settle, then, with the progress of the integration process. Community laws have mechanisms to be applied, even when states would try to ignore them or to fulfill a relative way.

  7. Rooting gene trees without outgroups: EP rooting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinsheimer, Janet S; Little, Roderick J A; Lake, James A

    2012-01-01

    Gene sequences are routinely used to determine the topologies of unrooted phylogenetic trees, but many of the most important questions in evolution require knowing both the topologies and the roots of trees. However, general algorithms for calculating rooted trees from gene and genomic sequences in the absence of gene paralogs are few. Using the principles of evolutionary parsimony (EP) (Lake JA. 1987a. A rate-independent technique for analysis of nucleic acid sequences: evolutionary parsimony. Mol Biol Evol. 4:167-181) and its extensions (Cavender, J. 1989. Mechanized derivation of linear invariants. Mol Biol Evol. 6:301-316; Nguyen T, Speed TP. 1992. A derivation of all linear invariants for a nonbalanced transversion model. J Mol Evol. 35:60-76), we explicitly enumerate all linear invariants that solely contain rooting information and derive algorithms for rooting gene trees directly from gene and genomic sequences. These new EP linear rooting invariants allow one to determine rooted trees, even in the complete absence of outgroups and gene paralogs. EP rooting invariants are explicitly derived for three taxon trees, and rules for their extension to four or more taxa are provided. The method is demonstrated using 18S ribosomal DNA to illustrate how the new animal phylogeny (Aguinaldo AMA et al. 1997. Evidence for a clade of nematodes, arthropods, and other moulting animals. Nature 387:489-493; Lake JA. 1990. Origin of the metazoa. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87:763-766) may be rooted directly from sequences, even when they are short and paralogs are unavailable. These results are consistent with the current root (Philippe H et al. 2011. Acoelomorph flatworms are deuterostomes related to Xenoturbella. Nature 470:255-260).

  8. Search for neutrino point sources with an all-sky autocorrelation analysis in IceCube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turcati, Andrea; Bernhard, Anna; Coenders, Stefan [TU, Munich (Germany); Collaboration: IceCube-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The IceCube Neutrino Observatory is a cubic kilometre scale neutrino telescope located in the Antarctic ice. Its full-sky field of view gives unique opportunities to study the neutrino emission from the Galactic and extragalactic sky. Recently, IceCube found the first signal of astrophysical neutrinos with energies up to the PeV scale, but the origin of these particles still remains unresolved. Given the observed flux, the absence of observations of bright point-sources is explainable with the presence of numerous weak sources. This scenario can be tested using autocorrelation methods. We present here the sensitivities and discovery potentials of a two-point angular correlation analysis performed on seven years of IceCube data, taken between 2008 and 2015. The test is applied on the northern and southern skies separately, using the neutrino energy information to improve the effectiveness of the method.

  9. Searches for diffuse astrophysical muon-neutrino fluxes with IceCube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Gary C; Hoshina, Kotoyo; Boersma, David, E-mail: ghill@icecube.wisc.edu, E-mail: hoshina@icecube.wisc.edu, E-mail: boersma@icecube.wisc.edu

    2008-11-01

    The IceCube detector, located at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole station, is the largest neutrino detector ever constructed. It currently consists of 40 of the planned 80 strings -each instrumented with 60 optical modules between 1500 and 2500 metres depth in the clear Antarctic ice. One of the key searches is for a diffuse flux of high energy extraterrestrial neutrinos, in excess of that observed from cosmic-ray induced atmospheric neutrinos. To date, the best constraints on a diffuse flux come from IceCube's predecessor, AMANDA (Antarctic Muon And Neutrino Detector Array). The current focus is on analysis of the 2007 IceCube 22 string data, which will exceed the sensitivity of the integrated AMANDA exposure. Here we review the methodology and discuss the progress and status of the 22 string analysis.

  10. Sterile neutrinos and indirect dark matter searches in IceCube

    CERN Document Server

    Arguelles, Carlos A

    2012-01-01

    If light sterile neutrinos exist and mix with the active neutrino flavors, this mixing will affect the propagation of high-energy neutrinos from dark matter annihilation in the Sun. In particular, new Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein resonances can occur, leading to almost complete conversion of some active neutrino flavors into sterile states. We demonstrate how this can weaken IceCube limits on neutrino capture and annihilation in the Sun and how potential future conflicts between IceCube constraints and direct detection or collider data might be resolved by invoking sterile neutrinos. We also point out that, if the dark matter--nucleon scattering cross section and the allowed annihilation channels are precisely measured in direct detection and collider experiments in the future, IceCube can be used to constrain sterile neutrino models using neutrinos from the dark matter annihilation.

  11. Systematic Verification of the Modal Logic Cube in Isabelle/HOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Benzmüller

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We present an automated verification of the well-known modal logic cube in Isabelle/HOL, in which we prove the inclusion relations between the cube's logics using automated reasoning tools. Prior work addresses this problem but without restriction to the modal logic cube, and using encodings in first-order logic in combination with first-order automated theorem provers. In contrast, our solution is more elegant, transparent and effective. It employs an embedding of quantified modal logic in classical higher-order logic. Automated reasoning tools, such as Sledgehammer with LEO-II, Satallax and CVC4, Metis and Nitpick, are employed to achieve full automation. Though successful, the experiments also motivate some technical improvements in the Isabelle/HOL tool.

  12. Core-collapse supernovae as possible counterparts of IceCube neutrino multiplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strotjohann, Nora Linn; Kowalski, Marek; Franckowiak, Anna [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Voge, Markus [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Institut; Collaboration: IceCube-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    While an astrophysical neutrino flux has been detected by the IceCube Neutrino Observatory its sources remain so far unidentified. IceCube's Optical Follow-up Program is designed to search for the counterparts of neutrino multiplets using the full energy range of the IceCube detector down to 100 GeV. Two or more muon neutrinos arriving from the same direction within few seconds can trigger follow-up observations with optical and X-ray telescopes. Since 2010 the Palomar Transient Factory has followed up about 40 such neutrino alerts and detected several supernovae. Many of the detections are however likely random coincidences. In this talk I describe our search for supernovae and the prospects of identifying a supernova as a source of high-energy neutrinos.

  13. Deploying quantum light sources on nanosatellites II: lessons and perspectives on CubeSat spacecraft

    CERN Document Server

    Bedington, Robert; Chuan, Tan Yue; Cheng, Cliff; Durak, Kadir; Grieve, James Anthony; Larsen, Jesper; Oi, Daniel; Ling, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    To enable space-based quantum key distribution proposals the Centre for Quantum Technologies is developing a source of entangled photons ruggedized to survive deployment in space and greatly miniaturised so that it conforms to the strict form factor and power requirements of a 1U CubeSat. The Small Photon Entangling Quantum System is an integrated instrument where the pump, photon pair source and detectors are combined within a single optical tray and electronics package that is no larger than 10 cm x 10 cm x 3 cm. This footprint enables the instrument to be placed onboard nanosatellites or the CubeLab structure aboard the International Space Station. We will discuss the challenges and future prospects of CubeSat-based missions.

  14. Identifying the Sources of the Galactic Cosmic Rays with IceCube

    CERN Document Server

    Halzen, Francis; O'Murchadha, Aongus

    2008-01-01

    We quantitatively address whether IceCube, a kilometer-scale neutrino detector under construction at the South Pole, can observe neutrinos pointing back at the accelerators of the Galactic cosmic rays. The photon flux from candidate sources identified by the Milagro detector in a survey of the TeV sky is consistent with the flux expected from a typical cosmic-ray generating supernova remnant interacting with the interstellar medium. We show here that IceCube can provide incontrovertible evidence of cosmic-ray acceleration in these sources by detecting neutrinos. We find that the signal is optimally identified by specializing to events with energy above 40 TeV where the atmospheric neutrino background is low. We conclude that evidence for a correlation between the Milagro and IceCube sky maps should be conclusive after several years.

  15. Deploying quantum light sources on nanosatellites II: lessons and perspectives on CubeSat spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedington, R.; Truong-Cao, E.; Tan, Y. C.; Cheng, C.; Durak, K.; Grieve, J.; Larsen, J.; Oi, D.; Ling, A.

    2015-10-01

    To enable space-based quantum key distribution proposals the Centre for Quantum Technologies is developing a source of entangled photons ruggedized to survive deployment in space and greatly miniaturised so that it conforms to the strict form factor and power requirements of a 1U CubeSat. The Small Photon Entangling Quantum System is an integrated instrument where the pump, photon pair source and detectors are combined within a single optical tray and electronics package that is no larger than 10 cm x 10 cm x 3 cm. This footprint enables the instrument to be placed onboard nanosatellites or the CubeLab structure aboard the International Space Station. We will discuss the challenges and future prospects of CubeSat-based missions.

  16. IceCube-Gen2: A Vision for the Future of Neutrino Astronomy in Antarctica

    CERN Document Server

    Aartsen, M G; Adams, J; Aguilar, J A; Ahlers, M; Ahrens, M; Altmann, D; Anderson, T; Anton, G; Arguelles, C; Arlen, T C; Auffenberg, J; Axani, S; Bai, X; Bartos, I; Barwick, S W; Baum, V; Bay, R; Beatty, J J; Tjus, J Becker; Becker, K -H; BenZvi, S; Berghaus, P; Berley, D; Bernardini, E; Bernhard, A; Besson, D Z; Binder, G; Bindig, D; Bissok, M; Blaufuss, E; Blumenthal, J; Boersma, D J; Bohm, C; Bos, F; Bose, D; Böser, S; Botner, O; Brayeur, L; Bretz, H -P; Brown, A M; Buzinsky, N; Casey, J; Casier, M; Cheung, E; Chirkin, D; Christov, A; Christy, B; Clark, K; Classen, L; Clevermann, F; Coenders, S; Collin, G H; Conrad, J M; Cowen, D F; Silva, A H Cruz; Daughhetee, J; Davis, J C; Day, M; de André, J P A M; De Clercq, C; De Ridder, S; Desiati, P; de Vries, K D; de With, M; DeYoung, T; andaz-Vélez, J C Dí; Dunkman, M; Eagan, R; Eberhardt, B; Ehrhardt, T; Eichmann, B; Eisch, J; Euler, S; Evans, J J; Evenson, P A; Fadiran, O; Fazely, A R; Fedynitch, A; Feintzeig, J; Felde, J; Filimonov, K; Finley, C; Fischer-Wasels, T; Flis, S; Frantzen, K; Fuchs, T; Gaisser, T K; Gaior, R; Gallagher, J; Gerhardt, L; Gier, D; Gladstone, L; Glüsenkamp, T; Goldschmidt, A; Golup, G; Gonzalez, J G; Goodman, J A; Góra, D; Grant, D; Gretskov, P; Groh, J C; Groß, A; Ha, C; Haack, C; Ismail, A Haj; Hallen, P; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Hanson, K; Haugen, J; Hebecker, D; Heereman, D; Heinen, D; Helbing, K; Hellauer, R; Hellwig, D; Hickford, S; Hignight, J; Hill, G C; Hoffman, K D; Hoffmann, R; Homeier, A; Hoshina, K; Huang, F; Huelsnitz, W; Hulth, P O; Hultqvist, K; Ishihara, A; Jacobi, E; Jacobsen, J; Japaridze, G S; Jero, K; Jlelati, O; Jones, B J P; Jurkovic, M; Kalekin, O; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Karle, A; Katori, T; Katz, U F; Kauer, M; Keivani, A; Kelley, J L; Kheirandish, A; Kiryluk, J; Kläs, J; Klein, S R; Köhne, J -H; Kohnen, G; Kolanoski, H; Koob, A; Köpke, L; Kopper, C; Kopper, S; Koskinen, D J; Kowalski, M; Krauss, C B; Kriesten, A; Krings, K; Kroll, G; Kroll, M; Kunnen, J; Kurahashi, N; Kuwabara, T; Labare, M; Lanfranchi, J L; Larsen, D T; Larson, M J; Lesiak-Bzdak, M; Leuermann, M; LoSecco, J; Lünemann, J; Madsen, J; Maggi, G; Mahn, K B M; Marka, S; Marka, Z; Maruyama, R; Mase, K; Matis, H S; Maunu, R; McNally, F; Meagher, K; Medici, M; Meli, A; Meures, T; Miarecki, S; Middell, E; Middlemas, E; Milke, N; Miller, J; Mohrmann, L; Montaruli, T; Moore, R W; Morse, R; Nahnhauer, R; Naumann, U; Niederhausen, H; Nowicki, S C; Nygren, D R; Obertacke, A; Odrowski, S; Olivas, A; Omairat, A; O'Murchadha, A; Palczewski, T; Paul, L; Penek, Ö; Pepper, J A; Heros, C Pérez de los; Pfendner, C; Pieloth, D; Pinat, E; Pinfold, J L; Posselt, J; Price, P B; Przybylski, G T; Pütz, J; Quinnan, M; Rädel, L; Rameez, M; Rawlins, K; Redl, P; Rees, I; Reimann, R; Relich, M; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Richman, M; Riedel, B; Robertson, S; Rodrigues, J P; Rongen, M; Rott, C; Ruhe, T; Ruzybayev, B; Ryckbosch, D; Saba, S M; Sander, H -G; Sandroos, J; Sandstrom, P; Santander, M; Sarkar, S; Schatto, K; Scheriau, F; Schmidt, T; Schmitz, M; Schoenen, S; Schöneberg, S; Schönwald, A; Schukraft, A; Schulte, L; Schulz, O; Seckel, D; Sestayo, Y; Seunarine, S; Shaevitz, M H; Shanidze, R; Smith, M W E; Soldin, D; Söldner-Rembold, S; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Stamatikos, M; Stanev, T; Stanisha, N A; Stasik, A; Stezelberger, T; Stokstad, R G; andl, A Stöß; Strahler, E A; Ström, R; Strotjohann, N L; Sullivan, G W; Taavola, H; Taboada, I; Taketa, A; Tamburro, A; Tepe, A; Ter-Antonyan, S; Terliuk, A; Teš, G; andić,; Tilav, S; Toale, P A; Tobin, M N; Tosi, D; Tselengidou, M; Unger, E; Usner, M; Vallecorsa, S; van Eijndhoven, N; Vandenbroucke, J; van Santen, J; Vanheule, S; Vehring, M; Voge, M; Vraeghe, M; Walck, C; Wallraff, M; Weaver, Ch; Wellons, M; Wendt, C; Westerhoff, S; Whelan, B J; Whitehorn, N; Wichary, C; Wiebe, K; Wiebusch, C H; Williams, D R; Wissing, H; Wolf, M; Wood, T R; Woschnagg, K; Wren, S; Xu, D L; Xu, X W; Xu, Y; Yanez, J P; Yodh, G; Yoshida, S; Zarzhitsky, P; Ziemann, J; Zoll, M

    2014-01-01

    The recent observation by the IceCube neutrino observatory of an astrophysical flux of neutrinos represents the "first light" in the nascent field of neutrino astronomy. The observed diffuse neutrino flux seems to suggest a much larger level of hadronic activity in the non-thermal universe than previously thought and suggests a rich discovery potential for a larger neutrino observatory. This document presents a vision for an substantial expansion of the current IceCube detector, IceCube-Gen2, including the aim of instrumenting a $10\\,\\mathrm{km}^3$ volume of clear glacial ice at the South Pole to deliver substantial increases in the astrophysical neutrino sample for all flavors. A detector of this size would have a rich physics program with the goal to resolve the sources of these astrophysical neutrinos, discover GZK neutrinos, and be a leading observatory in future multi-messenger astronomy programs.

  17. Observation of the cosmic-ray shadow of the Moon with IceCube

    CERN Document Server

    Aartsen, M G; Abdou, Y; Ackermann, M; Adams, J; Aguilar, J A; Ahlers, M; Altmann, D; Auffenberg, J; Bai, X; Baker, M; Barwick, S W; Baum, V; Bay, R; Beatty, J J; Bechet, S; Tjus, J Becker; Becker, K -H; Bell, M; Benabderrahmane, M L; BenZvi, S; Berdermann, J; Berghaus, P; Berley, D; Bernardini, E; Bernhard, A; Bertrand, D; Besson, D Z; Binder, G; Bindig, D; Bissok, M; Blaufuss, E; Blumenthal, J; Boersma, D J; Bohaichuk, S; Bohm, C; Bose, D; Böser, S; Botner, O; Brayeur, L; Bretz, H -P; Brown, A M; Bruijn, R; Brunner, J; Carson, M; Casey, J; Casier, M; Chirkin, D; Christov, A; Christy, B; Clark, K; Clevermann, F; Coenders, S; Cohen, S; Cowen, D F; Silva, A H Cruz; Danninger, M; Daughhetee, J; Davis, J C; De Clercq, C; De Ridder, S; Desiati, P; de With, M; DeYoung, T; Díaz-Vélez, J C; Dunkman, M; Eagan, R; Eberhardt, B; Eisch, J; Ellsworth, R W; Euler, S; Evenson, P A; Fadiran, O; Fazely, A R; Fedynitch, A; Feintzeig, J; Feusels, T; Filimonov, K; Finley, C; Fischer-Wasels, T; Flis, S; Franckowiak, A; Franke, R; Frantzen, K; Fuchs, T; Gaisser, T K; Gallagher, J; Gerhardt, L; Gladstone, L; Glüsenkamp, T; Goldschmidt, A; Golup, G; Gonzalez, J G; Goodman, J A; Góra, D; Grandmont, D T; Grant, D; Groß, A; Ha, C; Ismail, A Haj; Hallen, P; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Hanson, K; Heereman, D; Heinen, D; Helbing, K; Hellauer, R; Hickford, S; Hill, G C; Hoffman, K D; Hoffmann, R; Homeier, A; Hoshina, K; Huelsnitz, W; Hulth, P O; Hultqvist, K; Hussain, S; Ishihara, A; Jacobi, E; Jacobsen, J; Jagielski, K; Japaridze, G S; Jero, K; Jlelati, O; Kaminsky, B; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Karle, A; Kelley, J L; Kiryluk, J; Kislat, F; Kläs, J; Klein, S R; Köhne, J -H; Kohnen, G; Kolanoski, H; Köpke, L; Kopper, C; Kopper, S; Koskinen, D J; Kowalski, M; Krasberg, M; Krings, K; Kroll, G; Kunnen, J; Kurahashi, N; Kuwabara, T; Labare, M; Landsman, H; Larson, M J; Lesiak-Bzdak, M; Leuermann, M; Leute, J; Lünemann, J; Madsen, J; Maruyama, R; Mase, K; Matis, H S; McNally, F; Meagher, K; Merck, M; Mészáros, P; Meures, T; Miarecki, S; Middell, E; Milke, N; Miller, J; Mohrmann, L; Montaruli, T; Morse, R; Nahnhauer, R; Naumann, U; Niederhausen, H; Nowicki, S C; Nygren, D R; Obertacke, A; Odrowski, S; Olivas, A; Olivo, M; O'Murchadha, A; Paul, L; Pepper, J A; Heros, C Pérez de los; Pfendner, C; Pieloth, D; Pinat, E; Pirk, N; Posselt, J; Price, P B; Przybylski, G T; Rädel, L; Rameez, M; Rawlins, K; Redl, P; Reimann, R; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Ribordy, M; Richman, M; Riedel, B; Rodrigues, J P; Rott, C; Ruhe, T; Ruzybayev, B; Ryckbosch, D; Saba, S M; Salameh, T; Sander, H -G; Santander, M; Sarkar, S; Schatto, K; Scheel, M; Scheriau, F; Schmidt, T; Schmitz, M; Schoenen, S; Schöneberg, S; Schönwald, A; Schukraft, A; Schulte, L; Schulz, O; Seckel, D; Sestayo, Y; Seunarine, S; Sheremata, C; Smith, M W E; Soldin, D; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Stamatikos, M; Stanev, T; Stasik, A; Stezelberger, T; Stokstad, R G; Stößl, A; Strahler, E A; Ström, R; Sullivan, G W; Taavola, H; Taboada, I; Tamburro, A; Tepe, A; Ter-Antonyan, S; Tešić, G; Tilav, S; Toale, P A; Toscano, S; Usner, M; van der Drift, D; van Eijndhoven, N; Van Overloop, A; van Santen, J; Vehring, M; Voge, M; Vraeghe, M; Walck, C; Waldenmaier, T; Wallraff, M; Wasserman, R; Weaver, Ch; Wellons, M; Wendt, C; Westerhoff, S; Whitehorn, N; Wiebe, K; Wiebusch, C H; Williams, D R; Wissing, H; Wolf, M; Wood, T R; Woschnagg, K; Xu, C; Xu, D L; Xu, X W; Yanez, J P; Yodh, G; Yoshida, S; Zarzhitsky, P; Ziemann, J; Zierke, S; Zoll, M

    2013-01-01

    We report on the observation of a significant deficit of cosmic rays from the direction of the Moon with the IceCube detector. The study of this "Moon shadow" is used to characterize the angular resolution and absolute pointing capabilities of the detector. The detection is based on data taken in two periods before the completion of the detector: between April 2008 and May 2009, when IceCube operated in a partial configuration with 40 detector strings deployed in the South Pole ice, and between May 2009 and May 2010 when the detector operated with 59 strings. Using two independent analysis methods, the Moon shadow has been observed to high significance (> 6 sigma) in both detector configurations. The observed location of the shadow center is within 0.2 degrees of its expected position when geomagnetic deflection effects are taken into account. This measurement validates the directional reconstruction capabilities of IceCube.

  18. Early Decay of Peccei-Quinn Fermion and the IceCube Neutrino Events

    CERN Document Server

    Ema, Yohei

    2016-01-01

    IceCube observed high-energy neutrino flux in the energy region from TeV to PeV. The decay of a massive long-lived particle in the early universe can be the origin of the IceCube neutrino events, which we call an "early decay scenario." In this paper, we construct a particle physics model that contains such a massive long-lived particle based on the Peccei-Quinn model. We calculate the present neutrino flux, taking account of realistic initial energy distributions of particles produced by the decay of the massive long-lived particle. We show that the early decay scenario naturally fits into the Peccei-Quinn model, and that the neutrino flux observed by IceCube can be explained in such a framework. We also see that, based on that model, a consistent cosmological history that explains the abundance of the massive long-lived particle is realized.

  19. Interplay of particle shape and suspension properties: a study of cube-like particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audus, Debra J; Hassan, Ahmed M; Garboczi, Edward J; Douglas, Jack F

    2015-05-01

    With advances in anisotropic particle synthesis, particle shape is now a feasible parameter for tuning suspension properties. However, there is a need to determine how these newly synthesized particles affect suspension properties and a need to solve the inverse problem of inferring the particle shape from property measurements. Either way, accurate suspension property predictions are required. Towards this end, we calculated a set of dilute suspension properties for a family of cube-like particles that smoothly interpolate between spheres and cubes. Using three conceptually different methods, we numerically computed the electrical properties of particle suspensions, including the intrinsic conductivity of perfect conductors and insulators. We also considered hydrodynamic properties relevant to particle solutions including the hydrodynamic radius, the intrinsic viscosity and the intrinsic solvent diffusivity. Additionally, we determined the second osmotic virial coefficient using analytic expressions along with numerical integration. As the particles became more cube-like, we found that all of the properties investigated become more sensitive to particle shape.

  20. Neutrino Mass Ordering Studies with PINGU and IceCube/DeepCore

    CERN Document Server

    Wren, Steven

    2016-01-01

    The Precision IceCube Next Generation Upgrade (PINGU) is a proposed extension to the IceCube detector. The design of PINGU would augment the existing 86 strings with an additional 40 with the main goal of determining the neutrino mass ordering (NMO). Preliminary studies of the NMO can start with IceCube/DeepCore, a sub-array of more densely- packed strings in operation since 2011. This detector has a neutrino energy threshold of roughly 10 GeV and allows for high-statistics datasets of atmospheric neutrinos to be collected. This data provides a unique opportunity to better understand the systematic effects involved in making the NMO measurement by comparing the simulation studies to real data. These proceedings will present the current status of these studies in Monte Carlo simulations with projected DeepCore sensitivity for the NMO.

  1. Atmospheric neutrino results from IceCube-DeepCore and plans for PINGU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinen, D. Jason; IceCube-Gen2 collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The IceCube neutrino observatory at the South Pole is the largest operating neutrino detector in the world and spans a wide range of science topics, from astronomy at the PeV-scale to particle physics at the GeV-scale. We present results from the search for a light, O(1) eV2, sterile neutrino using the large IceCube array and, separately, using the lower energy extension DeepCore sub-array. Additionally, we review the atmospheric neutrino results and expected sensitivities related to oscillation physics (νµ disappearance and ντ appearance) as well as new limits on non-standard interactions. Continuing the success of the IceCube-DeepCore physics program, a proposed next generation in-fill detector with increased sensitivity to neutrinos of O(1) GeV will be covered.

  2. Detection of Atmospheric Muon Neutrinos with the IceCube 9-String Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Achterberg, A; Adams, J; Ahrens, J; Andeen, K; Auffenberg, J; Bahcall, J N; Bai, X; Baret, B; Barwick, S W; Bay, R; Beattie, K; Becka, T; Becker, J K; Becker, K H; Berghaus, P; Berley, D; Bernardini, E; Bertrand, D; Besson, D Z; Beimforde, M; Blaufuss, E; Boersma, D J; Bohm, C; Bolmont, J; Boser, S; Botner, O; Bouchta, A; Braun, J; Burgess, C; Burgess, T; Castermans, T; Chirkin, D; Christy, B; Clem, J; Cowen, D F; D'Agostino, M V; Davour, A; Day, C T; De Clercq, C; Demirors, L; Descamps, F; Desiati, P; De Young, T; Díaz-Veléz, J C; Dreyer, J; Dumm, J P; Duvoort, M R; Edwards, W R; Ehrlich, R; Eisch, J; Ellsworth, R W; Evenson, P A; Fadiran, O; Fazely, A R; Filimonov, K; Finley, C; Foerster, M M; Fox, B D; Franckowiak, A; Franke, R; Gaisser, T K; Gallagher, J; Ganugapati, R; Geenen, H; Gerhardt, L; Goldschmidt, A; Goodman, J A; Gozzini, R; Griesel, T; Grullon, S; Gross, A; Gunasingha, R M; Gurtner, M; Ha, C; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Han, K; Hanson, K; Hardtke, D; Hardtke, R; Hart, J E; Hasegawa, Y; Hauschildt, T; Hays, D; Heise, J; Helbing, K; Hellwig, M; Herquet, P; Hill, G C; Hodges, J; Hoffman, K D; Hommez, B; Hoshina, K; Hubert, D; Hughey, B; Hulth, P O; Hultqvist, K; Hulss, J P; Hundertmark, S; Inaba, M; Ishihara, A; Jacobsen, J; Japaridze, G S; Johansson, H; Jones, A; Joseph, J M; Kampert, K H; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Karle, A; Kawai, H; Kelley, J L; Kislat, F; Kitamura, N; Klein, S R; Klepser, S; Kohnen, G; Kolanoski, H; Köpke, L; Kowalski, M; Kowarik, T; Krasberg, M; Kühn, K; Labare, M; Landsman, H; Lauer, R; Leich, H; Leier, D; Liubarsky, I; Lundberg, J; Lunemann, J; Madsen, J; Maruyama, R; Mase, K; Matis, H S; McCauley, T; McParland, C P; Meagher, K; Meli, A; Messarius, T; Mészáros, P; Miyamoto, H; Mokhtarani, A; Montaruli, T; Morey, A; Morse, R; Movit, S M; Munich, K; Nahnhauer, R; Nam, J W; Niessen, P; Nygren, D R; Ogelman, H; Olivas, A; Patton, S; Peña-Garay, C; Perez de los Heros, C; Piegsa, A; Pieloth, D; Pohl, A C; Porrata, R; Pretz, J; Price, P B; Przybylski, G T; Rawlins, K; Razzaque, S; Redl, P; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Ribordy, M; Rizzo, A; Robbins, S; Roth, P; Rothmaier, F; Rott, C; Rutledge, D; Ryckbosch, D; Sander, H G; Sarkar, S; Satalecka, K; Schlenstedt, S; Schmidt, T; Schneider, D; Seckel, D; Semburg, B; Seo, S H; Sestayo, Y; Seunarine, S; Silvestri, A; Smith, A J; Song, C; Sopher, J E; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Stamatikos, M; Stanev, T; Stezelberger, T; Stokstad, R G; Stoufer, M C; Stoyanov, S; Strahler, E A; Straszheim, T; Sulanke, K H; Sullivan, G W; Sumner, T J; Taboada, I; Tarasova, O; Tepe, A; Thollander, L; Tilav, S; Tluczykont, M; Toale, P A; Tosi, D; Turcan, D; van Eijndhoven, N; Vandenbroucke, J; Van Overloop, A; De Vries-Uiterweerd, G; Viscomi, V; Voigt, B; Wagner, W; Walck, C; Waldmann, H; Walter, M; Wang, Y R; Wendt, C; Wiebusch, C; Wikström, G; Williams, D R; Wischnewski, R; Wissing, H; Woschnagg, K; Xu, X W; Yodh, G; Yoshida, S; De Dios-Zornoza-Gomez, Juan

    2007-01-01

    The IceCube neutrino detector is a cubic kilometer TeV to PeV neutrino detector under construction at the geographic South Pole. The dominant population of neutrinos detected in IceCube is due to meson decay in cosmic-ray air showers. These atmospheric neutrinos are relatively well-understood and serve as a calibration and verification tool for the new detector. In 2006, the detector was approximately 10% completed, and we report on data acquired from the detector in this configuration. We observe an atmospheric neutrino signal consistent with expectations, demonstrating that the IceCube detector is capable of identifying neutrino events. In the first 137.4 days of livetime, 234 neutrino candidates were selected with an expectation of 211 +/- 76.1(syst.) +/- 14.5(stat.) events from atmospheric neutrinos.

  3. Theoretical prediction of the source-detector separation distance suited to the application of the spatially resolved spectroscopy from the near-infrared attenuation data cube of tissues

    CERN Document Server

    Ri, Yong-Wu; Im, Song-Jin

    2014-01-01

    The modified Beer-Lambert law (MBL) and the spatially resolved spectroscopy are used to measure the tissue oxidation in muscles and brains by the continuous wave near-infrared spectroscopy. The spatially resolved spectroscopy predicts the change in the concentration of the absorber by measuring the slope of attenuation data according to the separation and calculating the absorption coefficients of tissue on the basis of the slop in attenuation at the separation distance satisfying the linearity of this slop. This study analyzed the appropriate source-detector separation distance by using the diffuse approximation resolution for photon migration when predicting the absorption coefficient by the spatially resolved spectroscopy on the basis of the reflective image of the tissue. We imagine the 3 dimensional attenuation image with the absorption coefficient, reduced scattering coefficient and separation distance as its axes and obtained the attenuation data cube by calculating the attenuation on a certain interva...

  4. Compression of fractionated sun-cured and dehydrated alfalfa chops into cubes--specific energy models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adapa, Phani; Schoenau, Greg; Tabil, Lope; Sokhansanj, Shahab; Singh, Asheesh

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the specific energy requirements for the compression of fractionated sun-cured and dehydrated alfalfa chops, when subjected to different pressures and holding times. The compression behavior of fractionated sun-cured and dehydrated alfalfa chops was studied using a single cubing unit capable of making one cube in a single stroke of the plunger. The cube die dimensions were 30 mm x 30 mm in cross-section and an effective depth of compression of 0.38 m. The initial moisture content of dehydrated and sun-cured chops were 6% and 7% (wb), respectively. A stack of two sieves (instead of five) was used along with a pan to achieve leaf and stem separation. The nominal opening sizes of two sieves with square holes were 3.96 and 1.17 mm, respectively. Leaf and stem fractions were combined later to obtain five different samples each for sun-cured and dehydrated alfalfa with leaf content ranging from 0% to 100% by mass in increments of 25%. The chop moisture content and preheat temperature before compaction was 10% (wb) and 75 degrees C, respectively. The cube die temperature was maintained at 90+/-5 degrees C. The mass of chops used for making each cube was 23+/-02 g. A hydraulic press was used to apply 9.0, 12.0 and 14.0 MPa of pressures through a plunger. After compression, the plunger was held in place for 10 and 30s, before the compacted forage was extracted. Empirical equations were fitted to the data relating specific energy for cube making to pressure, residence time, and leaf content.

  5. Launching an EarthCube Interoperability Workbench for Constructing Workflows and Employing Service Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulker, D. W.; Pearlman, F.; Pearlman, J.; Arctur, D. K.; Signell, R. P.

    2016-12-01

    A major challenge for geoscientists—and a key motivation for the National Science Foundation's EarchCube initiative—is to integrate data across disciplines, as is necessary for complex Earth-system studies such as climate change. The attendant technical and social complexities have led EarthCube participants to devise a system-of-systems architectural concept. Its centerpiece is a (virtual) interoperability workbench, around which a learning community can coalesce, supported in their evolving quests to join data from diverse sources, to synthesize new forms of data depicting Earth phenomena, and to overcome immense obstacles that arise, for example, from mismatched nomenclatures, projections, mesh geometries and spatial-temporal scales. The full architectural concept will require significant time and resources to implement, but this presentation describes a (minimal) starter kit. With a keep-it-simple mantra this workbench starter kit can fulfill the following four objectives: 1) demonstrate the feasibility of an interoperability workbench by mid-2017; 2) showcase scientifically useful examples of cross-domain interoperability, drawn, e.g., from funded EarthCube projects; 3) highlight selected aspects of EarthCube's architectural concept, such as a system of systems (SoS) linked via service interfaces; 4) demonstrate how workflows can be designed and used in a manner that enables sharing, promotes collaboration and fosters learning. The outcome, despite its simplicity, will embody service interfaces sufficient to construct—from extant components—data-integration and data-synthesis workflows involving multiple geoscience domains. Tentatively, the starter kit will build on the Jupyter Notebook web application, augmented with libraries for interfacing current services (at data centers involved in EarthCube's Council of Data Facilities, e.g.) and services developed specifically for EarthCube and spanning most geoscience domains.

  6. IceCube sensitivity for low-energy neutrinos from nearby supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, R.; Abdou, Y.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Allen, M. M.; Altmann, D.; Andeen, K.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Baker, M.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Bazo Alba, J. L.; Beattie, K.; Beatty, J. J.; Bechet, S.; Becker, J. K.; Becker, K. H.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; Benzvi, S.; Berdermann, J.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bertrand, D.; Besson, D. Z.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blumenthal, J.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Brown, A. M.; Buitink, S.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Carson, M.; Chirkin, D.; Christy, B.; Clevermann, F.; Cohen, S.; Colnard, C.; Cowen, D. F.; Cruz Silva, A. H.; D'Agostino, M. V.; Danninger, M.; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; de Clercq, C.; Degner, T.; Demirörs, L.; Descamps, F.; Desiati, P.; de Vries-Uiterweerd, G.; Deyoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Dierckxsens, M.; Dreyer, J.; Dumm, J. P.; Dunkman, M.; Eisch, J.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Engdegård, O.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fazely, A. R.; Fedynitch, A.; Feintzeig, J.; Feusels, T.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Fox, B. D.; Franckowiak, A.; Franke, R.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Gladstone, L.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Goodman, J. A.; Góra, D.; Grant, D.; Griesel, T.; Groß, A.; Grullon, S.; Gurtner, M.; Ha, C.; Haj Ismail, A.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Han, K.; Hanson, K.; Heinen, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hickford, S.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, B.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hülß, J.-P.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; Hussain, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jakobi, E.; Jacobsen, J.; Japaridze, G. S.; Johansson, H.; Kampert, K.-H.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kenny, P.; Kiryluk, J.; Kislat, F.; Klein, S. R.; Köhne, H.; Kohnen, G.; Kolanoski, H.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Kowarik, T.; Krasberg, M.; Kroll, G.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Laihem, K.; Landsman, H.; Larson, M. J.; Lauer, R.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Marotta, A.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; Meagher, K.; Merck, M.; Mészáros, P.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Middell, E.; Milke, N.; Miller, J.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Movit, S. M.; Nahnhauer, R.; Nam, J. W.; Naumann, U.; Nygren, D. R.; Odrowski, S.; Olivas, A.; Olivo, M.; O'Murchadha, A.; Panknin, S.; Paul, L.; Pérez de Los Heros, C.; Petrovic, J.; Piegsa, A.; Pieloth, D.; Porrata, R.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Rawlins, K.; Redl, P.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Ribordy, M.; Richard, A. S.; Richman, M.; Rodrigues, J. P.; Rothmaier, F.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Rutledge, D.; Ruzybayev, B.; Ryckbosch, D.; Sander, H.-G.; Santander, M.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Schmidt, T.; Schönwald, A.; Schukraft, A.; Schulte, L.; Schultes, A.; Schulz, O.; Schunck, M.; Seckel, D.; Semburg, B.; Seo, S. H.; Sestayo, Y.; Seunarine, S.; Silvestri, A.; Singh, K.; Slipak, A.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stößl, A.; Strahler, E. A.; Ström, R.; Stüer, M.; Sullivan, G. W.; Swillens, Q.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tamburro, A.; Tepe, A.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Toscano, S.; Tosi, D.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van Overloop, A.; van Santen, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Walck, C.; Waldenmaier, T.; Wallraff, M.; Walter, M.; Weaver, Ch.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whitehorn, N.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Williams, D. R.; Wischnewski, R.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, C.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Zoll, M.; IceCube Collaboration

    2011-11-01

    This paper describes the response of the IceCube neutrino telescope located at the geographic south pole to outbursts of MeV neutrinos from the core collapse of nearby massive stars. IceCube was completed in December 2010 forming a lattice of 5160 photomultiplier tubes that monitor a volume of ~1 km3 in the deep Antarctic ice for particle induced photons. The telescope was designed to detect neutrinos with energies greater than 100 GeV. Owing to subfreezing ice temperatures, the photomultiplier dark noise rates are particularly low. Hence IceCube can also detect large numbers of MeV neutrinos by observing a collective rise in all photomultiplier rates on top of the dark noise. With 2 ms timing resolution, IceCube can detect subtle features in the temporal development of the supernova neutrino burst. For a supernova at the galactic center, its sensitivity matches that of a background-free megaton-scale supernova search experiment. The sensitivity decreases to 20 standard deviations at the galactic edge (30 kpc) and 6 standard deviations at the Large Magellanic Cloud (50 kpc). IceCube is sending triggers from potential supernovae to the Supernova Early Warning System. The sensitivity to neutrino properties such as the neutrino hierarchy is discussed, as well as the possibility to detect the neutronization burst, a short outbreak of \\barνe's released by electron capture on protons soon after collapse. Tantalizing signatures, such as the formation of a quark star or a black hole as well as the characteristics of shock waves, are investigated to illustrate IceCube's capability for supernova detection.

  7. The Cubesat Radiometer Radio Frequency Interference Technology Validation (CubeRRT) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, S.; Johnson, J. T.; Ball, C.; Chen, C. C.; Smith, G.; McKelvey, C.; Andrews, M.; O'Brien, A.; Kocz, J.; Jarnot, R.; Brown, S. T.; Piepmeier, J. R.; Lucey, J.; Miles, L. R.; Bradley, D.; Mohammed, P.

    2016-12-01

    Passive microwave measurements made below 40GHz have experienced increased amounts of man-made radio frequency interference (RFI) over the past couple of decades. Such RFI has had a degenerative impact on various important geophysical retrievals such as soil-moisture, sea-surface salinity, atmospheric water vapor, precipitation etc. The commercial demand for spectrum allocation has increased over the past couple of years - infringing on frequencies traditionally reserved for scientific uses such as Earth observation at passive microwave frequencies. With the current trend in shared spectrum allocations, future microwave radiometers will have to co-exist with terrestrial RFI sources. The CubeSat Radiometer Radio Frequency Interference Technology Validation (CubeRRT) mission is developing a 6U Cubesat system to demonstrate RFI detection and filtering technologies for future microwave radiometer remote sensing missions. CubeRRT will operate between 6-40GHz, and demonstrate on-board real-time RFI detection on Earth brightness temperatures tuned over 1GHz steps. The expected launch date for CubeRRT is early 2018. Digital subsystems for higher frequency microwave radiometry require a larger bandwidth, as well as more processing power and on-board operation capabilities for RFI filtering. Real-time and on-board RFI filtering technology development is critical for future missions to allow manageable downlink data volumes. The enabling CubeRRT technology is a digital FPGA-based spectrometer with a bandwidth of 1 GHz that is capable of implementing advanced RFI filtering algorithms that use the kurtosis and cross-frequency RFI detection methods in real-time on board the spacecraft. The CubeRRT payload consists of 3 subsystems: a wideband helical antenna, a tunable analog radiometer subsystem, and a digital backend. The following presentation will present an overview of the system and results from the latest integration and test.

  8. RUSSIAN LAW SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Bakhrakh

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The question about the subjects of law branches is concerning the number of most important and difficult in law science. Its right decision influences on the subject of law regulation, precise definition of addressees of law norms, the volume of their rights and duties, the limits of action of norms of Main part of the branch, its principles. Scientific investigations, dedicated to law subjects system, promote the development of recommendations for the legislative and law applying activity; they are needed for scientific work organization and student training, for preparing qualified lawyers.

  9. Choice of copper-based alloys for ribbon substrates with a sharp cube texture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlebnikova, Yu. V.; Rodionov, D. P.; Gervas'eva, I. V.; Suaridze, T. R.; Akshentsev, Yu. N.; Kazantsev, V. A.

    2014-12-01

    It has been shown that, in some copper-based alloys subjected to cold deformation by rolling to 98.6-99% followed by recrystallization annealing, a sharp cube texture can be produced. Optimum conditions of annealing have been determined, which make it possible to produce a sharp biaxial texture in Cu-Ni, Cu-Fe, and Cu-Cr alloys with the fraction of cube grains of more than 95%; this opens a possibility of using thin ribbons made of these alloys as substrates for multilayer film compositions, in particular when developing second-generation high-temperature superconductors.

  10. Narrative of the annotated Space–Time Cube – revisiting a historical event

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraak, Menno-Jan; Kveladze, Irma

    2017-01-01

    The Space–Time Cube (STC) is a suitable representation to display multiple characteristics of movement data and will especially reveal temporal patterns in the data. By adding annotations to the cube’s paths and stations, the narrative of the display is enhanced. To illustrate the STC’s storytell......The Space–Time Cube (STC) is a suitable representation to display multiple characteristics of movement data and will especially reveal temporal patterns in the data. By adding annotations to the cube’s paths and stations, the narrative of the display is enhanced. To illustrate the STC...

  11. Neutrino oscillations with IceCube DeepCore and PINGU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeYoung, T. [Dept. of Physics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Collaboration: IceCube-PINGU Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    The IceCube neutrino telescope was augmented with the DeepCore infill array, completed in the 2010/11 austral summer, to enhance its response to neutrinos below 100 GeV. At these energies, neutrino oscillation effects are visible in the flux of atmospheric neutrinos traversing path lengths comparable to the Earth's diameter. Initial measurements of muon neutrino disappearance parameters using data from DeepCore are presented, as well as an estimate of potential future precision. In addition, plans for a Precision IceCube Next Generation Upgrade (PINGU), which could permit determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy within the coming decade, are discussed.

  12. IceCube expectations for two high-energy neutrino production models at active galactic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Argüelles, C A; Gago, A M

    2010-01-01

    We have determined the current and near-future allowed regions of the parameter spaces of two representative models of diffuse neutrino flux from AGN: one by Koers & Tinyakov (KT) and another by Becker & Biermann (BB). Our observable has been the predicted number of down- and upgoing muon-neutrinos at IceCube, after 5 years of exposure, in the range 10^510 is not allowed. Finally, we have analysed the capacity of IceCube to discriminate between the models within the parameter regions where they are simultaneously allowed. We have found that their predictions are indistinguishable only inside a small region where \\Gamma_\

  13. The QBito CubeSat: Applications in Space Engineering Education at Technical University of Madrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez Fraile, Jose Javier; Laverón-Simavilla, Ana; Calvo, Daniel; Moreno Benavides, Efren

    The QBito CubeSat is one of the 50 CubeSats that is being developed for the QB50 project. The project is funded by the 7 (th) Frame Program to launch 50 CubeSats in a ‘string-of-pearls’ configuration for multi-point, in-situ measurements in the lower thermosphere and re-entry research. The 50 CubeSats, developed by an international network of universities and research institutions, will comprise 40 double CubeSats with atmospheric sensors and 10 double or triple CubeSats for science and technology demonstration. It will be the first large-scale CubeSat constellation in orbit; a concept that has been under discussion for several years but not implemented up to now. This project has a high educational interest for universities; beyond the scientific and technological results, being part of an international group of over 90 universities all over the world working and sharing knowledge to achieve a successful mission represents an exciting opportunity. The QBito project main educational motivation is to educate students in space technologies and in space systems engineering. The Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM) is designing, developing, building and testing one of the double CubeSats carrying as payload a kit of atmospheric sensors from the consortium, and other payloads developed by the team such as an IR non-refrigerated sensor, a Phase Change Material (PCM) for thermal control applications, a Fuzzy Logic Attitude Control System and other technological developments such as an optimized antenna deployment mechanism, a lightweight multi-mission configurable structure, and an efficient Electric Power System (EPS) with a Maximum Peak Power Tracker (MPPT). This project has been integrated in the training of the Aerospatiale Engineering, Master and PhD degree students by involving them in the complete engineering process, from its conceptual design to the post-flight conclusions. Three subsystems have been selected for being developed from the conceptual design

  14. L'educació i l'agressivitat en l'obra de Felix Von Cube

    OpenAIRE

    Mèlich i Sangrà, Joan Carles

    1987-01-01

    En los últimos años, la obra del pedagogo aleman Felix von Cube -uno de los pioneros en pedagogía cibernética- ha derivado hacia un estudio de la agresividad humana. Cube parte de la Verhaltensbiologie (biologia del comportamiento), y entiende que el ser humano es innatamente agresivo. La cultura occidental contemporánea, lejos de controlar la agresividad, la aumenta. El deporte, la velocidad, el stress, las drogas ... son modos de violencia. La educación ha privilegiado el mimo en lugar de l...

  15. On non-multiaffine consistent-around-the-cube lattice equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassotakis, Pavlos, E-mail: P.Kassotakis@maths.usyd.edu.au [School of Mathematics and Statistics, Carslaw Building (F07), The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Nieszporski, Maciej, E-mail: maciejun@fuw.edu.pl [Katedra Metod Matematycznych Fizyki, Uniwersytet Warszawski, ul. Hoża 74, 00-682 Warszawa (Poland)

    2012-10-01

    We show that integrable involutive maps, due to the fact they admit three integrals in separated form, can give rise to equations, which are consistent around the cube and which are not in the multiaffine form assumed in Adler et al. (2003) [1]. Lattice models, which are discussed here, are related to the lattice potential KdV equation by nonlocal transformations (discrete quadratures). -- Highlights: ► We provide examples of non-multiaffine consistent around the cube difference equations. ► We suggest a procedure to obtain integrable lattice equations from involutive mappings. ► We present vector-valued difference equations admitting more than one scalar potential.

  16. Lowering IceCube's Energy Threshold for Point Source Searches in the Southern Sky

    CERN Document Server

    Aartsen, M G; Ackermann, M; Adams, J; Aguilar, J A; Ahlers, M; Ahrens, M; Altmann, D; Andeen, K; Anderson, T; Ansseau, I; Anton, G; Archinger, M; Arguelles, C; Arlen, T C; Auffenberg, J; Axani, S; Bai, X; Barwick, S W; Baum, V; Bay, R; Beatty, J J; Tjus, J Becker; Becker, K -H; BenZvi, S; Berghaus, P; Berley, D; Bernardini, E; Bernhard, A; Besson, D Z; Binder, G; Bindig, D; Bissok, M; Blaufuss, E; Blot, S; Boersma, D J; Bohm, C; Börner, M; Bos, F; Bose, D; Böser, S; Botner, O; Braun, J; Brayeur, L; Bretz, H -P; Burgman, A; Buzinsky, N; Casey, J; Casier, M; Cheung, E; Chirkin, D; Christov, A; Clark, K; Classen, L; Coenders, S; Collin, G H; Conrad, J M; Cowen, D F; Silva, A H Cruz; Daughhetee, J; Davis, J C; Day, M; de André, J P A M; De Clercq, C; Rosendo, E del Pino; Dembinski, H; De Ridder, S; Desiati, P; de Vries, K D; de Wasseige, G; de With, M; DeYoung, T; Díaz-Vélez, J C; di Lorenzo, V; Dujmovic, H; Dumm, J P; Dunkman, M; Eberhardt, B; Ehrhardt, T; Eichmann, B; Euler, S; Evenson, P A; Fahey, S; Fazely, A R; Feintzeig, J; Felde, J; Filimonov, K; Finley, C; Flis, S; Fösig, C -C; Fuchs, T; Gaisser, T K; Gaior, R; Gallagher, J; Gerhardt, L; Ghorbani, K; Gladstone, L; Glagla, M; Glüsenkamp, T; Goldschmidt, A; Golup, G; Gonzalez, J G; Góra, D; Grant, D; Griffith, Z; Ha, C; Haack, C; Ismail, A Haj; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Hansen, E; Hansmann, B; Hansmann, T; Hanson, K; Hebecker, D; Heereman, D; Helbing, K; Hellauer, R; Hickford, S; Hignight, J; Hill, G C; Hoffman, K D; Hoffmann, R; Holzapfel, K; Homeier, A; Hoshina, K; Huang, F; Huber, M; Huelsnitz, W; Hultqvist, K; In, S; Ishihara, A; Jacobi, E; Japaridze, G S; Jeong, M; Jero, K; Jones, B J P; Jurkovic, M; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Karle, A; Katz, U; Kauer, M; Keivani, A; Kelley, J L; Kemp, J; Kheirandish, A; Kim, M; Kintscher, T; Kiryluk, J; Klein, S R; Kohnen, G; Koirala, R; Kolanoski, H; Konietz, R; Köpke, L; Kopper, C; Kopper, S; Koskinen, D J; Kowalski, M; Krings, K; Kroll, M; Krückl, G; Krüger, C; Kunnen, J; Kunwar, S; Kurahashi, N; Kuwabara, T; Labare, M; Lanfranchi, J L; Larson, M J; Lennarz, D; Lesiak-Bzdak, M; Leuermann, M; Leuner, J; Lu, L; Lünemann, J; Madsen, J; Maggi, G; Mahn, K B M; Mancina, S; Mandelartz, M; Maruyama, R; Mase, K; Matis, H S; Maunu, R; McNally, F; Meagher, K; Medici, M; Meier, M; Meli, A; Menne, T; Merino, G; Meures, T; Miarecki, S; Middell, E; Mohrmann, L; Montaruli, T; Moulai, M; Nahnhauer, R; Naumann, U; Neer, G; Niederhausen, H; Nowicki, S C; Nygren, D R; Pollmann, A Obertacke; Olivas, A; Omairat, A; O'Murchadha, A; Palczewski, T; Pandya, H; Pankova, D V; Penek, Ö; Pepper, J A; Heros, C Pérez de los; Pfendner, C; Pieloth, D; Pinat, E; Posselt, J; Price, P B; Przybylski, G T; Quinnan, M; Raab, C; Rädel, L; Rameez, M; Rawlins, K; Reimann, R; Relich, M; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Richman, M; Riedel, B; Robertson, S; Rongen, M; Rott, C; Ruhe, T; Ryckbosch, D; Rysewyk, D; Sabbatini, L; Sandrock, A; Sandroos, J; Sarkar, S; Satalecka, K; Schimp, M; Schlunder, P; Schmidt, T; Schoenen, S; Schöneberg, S; Schönwald, A; Schumacher, L; Seckel, D; Seunarine, S; Soldin, D; Song, M; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Stahlberg, M; Stamatikos, M; Stanev, T; Stasik, A; Steuer, A; Stezelberger, T; Stokstad, R G; Stößl, A; Ström, R; Strotjohann, N L; Sullivan, G W; Sutherland, M; Taavola, H; Taboada, I; Tatar, J; Ter-Antonyan, S; Terliuk, A; Tešić, G; Tilav, S; Toale, P A; Tobin, M N; Toscano, S; Tosi, D; Tselengidou, M; Turcati, A; Unger, E; Usner, M; Vallecorsa, S; Vandenbroucke, J; van Eijndhoven, N; Vanheule, S; van Rossem, M; van Santen, J; Veenkamp, J; Vehring, M; Voge, M; Vraeghe, M; Walck, C; Wallace, A; Wallraff, M; Wandkowsky, N; Weaver, Ch; Wendt, C; Westerhoff, S; Whelan, B J; Wickmann, S; Wiebe, K; Wiebusch, C H; Wille, L; Williams, D R; Wills, L; Wissing, H; Wolf, M; Wood, T R; Woschnagg, K; Xu, D L; Xu, X W; Xu, Y; Yanez, J P; Yodh, G; Yoshida, S; Zoll, M

    2016-01-01

    Observation of a point source of astrophysical neutrinos would be a "smoking gun" signature of a cosmic-ray accelerator. While IceCube has recently discovered a diffuse flux of astrophysical neutrinos, no localized point source has been observed. Previous IceCube searches for point sources in the southern sky were restricted by either an energy threshold above a few hundred TeV or poor neutrino angular resolution. Here we present a search for southern sky point sources with greatly improved sensitivities to neutrinos with energies below 100 TeV. By selecting charged-current $\

  17. First steps towards cube textured nickel profile wires for YBCO-coated conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eickemeyer, J.; Güth, A.; Freudenberger, J.; Holzapfel, B.; Schultz, L.

    2011-10-01

    Cube textured nickel alloy tapes prepared by cold rolling and annealing (RABiTS method) represent a standard metallic substrate for superconductor coatings of the YBa 2Cu 3O 7-δ (YBCO) type. These tapes have a width to thickness ratio of about 30-100. However, a value of close to one is optimal concerning low energetic losses under alternating current applications. First experiments on micro-alloyed nickel prove that the cube texture as a typical sheet texture can also be formed in profile wires with a rectangular cross-section after cold drawing and recrystallization treatment.

  18. Achievements and Future Plan of Interplanetary CubeSats and Micro-Sats in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funase, Ryu

    2016-07-01

    This paper introduces Japanese achievements and future plans of CubeSats and Micro-Sats for deep space exploration. As the first step toward deep space mission by such tiny spacecraft, University of Tokyo and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) developed the world's first deep space micro-spacecraft PROCYON (Proximate Object Close flYby with Optical Navigation). Its mission objective is to demonstrate a micro-spacecraft bus technology for deep space exploration and proximity flyby to asteroids performing optical measurements. PROCYON was launched into the Earth departure trajectory on December 3, 2014 together with Japanese asteroid sample return mission Hayabusa-2. PROCYON successfully completed the bus system demonstration mission in its interplanetary flight. Currently, Japan is not only pursuing the improvement and utilization of the demonstrated micro-sat deep space bus system with a weight of tens of kg or more for more practical scientific deep space missions, but also trying to develop smaller spacecraft with a weight of less than tens of kg, namely CubeSats, for deep space exploration. We are proposing a self-contained 6U CubeSat mission for the rideshare opportunity on the USA's SLS EM-1 mission, which will fly to a libration orbit around Earth-Moon L2 point and perform scientific observations of the Earth and the Moon. We are also seeking the possibility of CubeSats which is carried by a larger spacecraft to the destination and supports the mission by taking advantage of its low-cost and risk-tolerable feature. As an example of such style of CubeSat missions, we are studying a CubeSat for close observations of an asteroid, which will be carried to the target asteroid by a larger mother spacecraft. This CubeSat is released from the mother spacecraft to make a close flyby for scientific observations, which is difficult to be performed by the mother spacecraft if we consider the risk of the collision to the target asteroid or dust particles ejected

  19. Programming N-Cubes with a Graphical Parallel Programming Environment Versus an Extended Sequential Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-11-01

    parallel programming environment and language Poker. Our example programs, an implementation of a Cholesky algorithm for a banded matrix, were written in both languages and compiled into object codes that ran on the Cosmic Cube. However the program written in Poker is shorter, faster and easier to write, easier to debug, and portable without changes to other parallel computer architectures. The Poker program was slower than the program written directly in Cosmic Cube C, however the experiments provided insights into changes that make Poker programs nearly as fast.

  20. Cube-textured metal substrates for reel-to-reel processing of coated conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, Anders Christian

    angle at groove walls and the boundary type. The microstructure was slightly coarser in condition A2 and it was accompanied by a cube texture strengthening and an increase in the fraction of low angle grain boundaries. The average depth of grain boundary grooves increased considerably at boundaries...... of this Ni- 5Cu-5W substrate was only slightly less than the hardness of the reference Ni-5at.%W substrate. Further increasing the Cu-content was observed to result in a great decrease in the Curie temperature and saturation mass magnetisation values, but also a signicant decrease in the fraction of cube...

  1. ITKIN’S LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Bolotov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper clarifies  a set of conditions for Itkin’s law (ѣ [ě] and я [ѧ, ę] to ё [ë, jo] transition,  i.e.,   [ě¨, joˇ] and я [ѧ¨ , ę¨, jö˛] formation and provides some foundations for the phonetic  nature of such conditions. Those include (1 a stem being of the accent paradigm (a.p. b [so called right-accentuality of this a.p. correlates with the rightward accomodational  orientation,  i.e., a stem is characterized by an increased propensity to anticipatory  change of vowel timbre across the dividing  consonantal barrier and under the influence of the next vowel]; (2 positioning of such ѣ or я in front of the consonant cluster [this position results in — after the rule of “rising (ascending sonority” (or “sonority wave”, “open syllable” stops acting, the reduced vowels begin to fall and a syllable is restructured anew — in a syllabic border rightward drift, up to formation of a syllable closed by the first consonant in the cluster; (3 limitation on the structure of the abovementioned  consonant cluster which is manifested in a ban on two voiceless (± sonorant consonants conjunction;  this conjunction,  due to thereby precipitated relatively  longer voice interrupt, prevents a full-scaled accomodation of ѣ or я to a back vowel of the following syllable. Some closer phenomena in cognate languages (Ukrainian,  Slovene  are adduced. All available  relevant material is listed, a single example being analyzed in some greater detail to demonstrate the impossibility of contesting the presence of ѣ as a root vowel within its stem.

  2. A Healthy Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The National People’s Congress(NPC)published China’s new draft Food Safety Law on April 20 for public discussion.The draft law covers food safety evaluation,monitoring, and recall and information release.

  3. Administrative Law Judges

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Administrative Law Judges conduct hearings and render decisions in proceedings between the EPA and persons, businesses, government entities, and other organizations which are or are alleged to be regulated under environmental laws.

  4. Recent Case Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petz, Thomas; Sagaert, Vincent; Østergaard, Kim

    2004-01-01

    In this section authors from various European countries report the recent case law in their country on the field of private patrimonial law, that is decisions on the law of property, juridical acts, the law of obligations, contract law and prescription. The European Review of Private Law (ERPL......) started this section in 2003. The section aims to give our readers an overview of what is happening in the most recent European case law. We have asked the national reporters to report the juridical essence of the decisions given by the highest courts in their country. These national reports...... not relate the facts of the decision, nor the personal opinion of the reporter. One can find discussions on the most important decisions of European courts in ERPL’s case note section. The recent case law section gives overviews of decisions published in periods of four months. The period of January...

  5. Recent Case Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petz, Thomas; Sagaert, Vincent; Østergaard, Kim

    2004-01-01

    In this section authors from various European countries report the recent case law in their country on the field of private patrimonial law, that is decisions on the law of property, juridical acts, the law of obligations, contract law and prescription. The European Review of Private Law (ERPL......) started this section in 2003. The section aims to give our readers an overview of what is happening in the most recent European case law. We have asked the national reporters to report the juridical essence of the decisions given by the highest courts in their country. These national reports...... not relate the facts of the decision, nor the personal opinion of the reporter. One can find discussions on the most important decisions of European courts in ERPL’s case note section. The recent case law section gives overviews of decisions published in periods of four months. The period of January...

  6. By Law Established

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Lisbet

    2017-01-01

    An analysis of the degree and content of statutory law regulation of Nordic Lutheran majority churches in 2017......An analysis of the degree and content of statutory law regulation of Nordic Lutheran majority churches in 2017...

  7. Health care law versus constitutional law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Mark A

    2013-04-01

    National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius, the Supreme Court's ruling on the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, is a landmark decision - both for constitutional law and for health care law and policy. Others will study its implications for constitutional limits on a range of federal powers beyond health care. This article considers to what extent the decision is also about health care law, properly conceived. Under one view, health care law is the subdiscipline that inquires how courts and government actors take account of the special features of medicine that make legal or policy issues especially problematic - rather than regarding health care delivery and finance more generically, like most any other economic or social enterprise. Viewed this way, the opinions from the Court's conservative justices are mainly about general constitutional law principles. In contrast, Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg's dissenting opinion for the four more liberal justices is just as much about health care law as it is about constitutional law. Her opinion gives detailed attention to the unique features of health care finance and delivery in order to inform her analysis of constitutional precedents and principles. Thus, the Court's multiple opinions give a vivid depiction of the compelling contrasts between communal versus individualistic conceptions of caring for those in need, and between health care and health insurance as ordinary commodities versus ones that merit special economic, social, and legal status.

  8. The MicroMAS CubeSat Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahoy, K.; Blackwell, W. J.; Allen, G.; Bury, M.; Efromson, R.; Galbraith, C.; Hancock, T.; Leslie, V.; Osaretin, I.; Retherford, L.; Scarito, M.; Shields, M.; Toher, D.; Wight, K.; Miller, D.; Marinan, A.; Paek, S.; Peters, E.; Schmidt, F. H.; Alvisio, B.; Wise, E.; Masterson, R.; Franzim Miranda, D.; Crail, C.; Kingsbury, R.; Souffrant, A.; Orrego, L.; Eslinger, G.; Nicholas, A.; Pong, C.

    2012-12-01

    The recently published Midterm Assessment of NASA's Implementation of the Decadal Survey finds that, "The nation's Earth observing system is beginning a rapid decline in capability as long-running missions end and key new missions are delayed, lost, or canceled. The projected loss of observing capability could have significant adverse consequences for science and society." In this presentation, we explore low-cost, mission-flexible, and rapidly deployable spaceborne sensors that can meet stringent performance requirements pervading the NASA Earth Science measurement programs, including especially the recommended NRC Decadal Survey missions. New technologies have enabled a novel approach toward this science observational goal, and in this paper we describe recent technology develop efforts to address the challenges above through the use of CubeSat radiometers. The Micro-sized Microwave Atmospheric Satellite (MicroMAS) is a 3U cubesat (30x10x10 cm, ~4kg) hosting a passive microwave spectrometer operating near the 118.75-GHz oxygen absorption line. The focus of the first MicroMAS mission (hereafter, MicroMAS-1) is to observe convective thunderstorms, tropical cyclones, and hurricanes from a near-equatorial orbit at approximately 500-km altitude. A MicroMAS flight unit is currently being developed in anticipation of a 2014 launch to be provided by NASA. A parabolic reflector is mechanically rotated as the spacecraft orbits the earth, thus directing a cross-track scanned beam with FWHM beamwidth of 2.4-degrees, yielding an approximately 25-km diameter footprint from a nominal altitude of 500 km. Radiometric calibration is carried out using observations of cold space, the earth's limb, and an internal noise diode that is weakly coupled through the RF front-end electronics. A key technology feature is the development of an ultra-compact intermediate frequency processor module for channelization, detection, and A-to-D conversion. The antenna system and RF front

  9. On Teaching Natural Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, David F.

    1978-01-01

    A brief look at Columbia, Harvard, and Notre Dame law schools shows that the American tradition in teaching natural law has not been strong. The value of teaching natural law is discussed, a separate course or seminar is seen as the most effective option, and a selection of available sources for such a course is appended. (JMD)

  10. Contract law as fairness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Klijnsma

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the implications for contract law of Rawls' theory of justice as fairness. It argues that contract law as an institution is part of the basic structure of society and as such subject to the principles of justice. Discussing the basic structure in relation to contract law is par

  11. European tax law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terra, B.J.M.; Wattel, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    This book is intended as a reference book for tax law and EC law pratitioners, tax administrators, academics, the judiciary and tax or Community law policy makers. For students, an abridged student edition textbook is available. The book offers a systematic survey of the tax implications of the EC T

  12. The Laws Are Yours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawyers' Wives of Wisconsin, Racine.

    The pamphlet briefly describes various facets of the law and legal system in Wisconsin, and defines many legal terms. The objective is to further public understanding of the law and of the legal profession, particularly in Wisconsin. No attempt is made to answer specific legal questions. Sections cover civil and criminal law; the federal court…

  13. Operational Law Handbook 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-03-26

    designations (Note: Soldiers may no longer use the “By Law” designation.) 3. Wills for both spouses. 4. Powers of Attorney. 5. Consumer law issues. 6...Guide JA 263 Family Law Guide JA 265 Consumer Law Guide JA 267 Legal Assistance Office Directory JA 271 Legal Assistance Office Administration

  14. Environmental law in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, Ellen Margrethe

    Modern Danish environmental law has a strong international dimension due to membership of EU and participation in global and regional agreements. The concept of transnational law that includes EU environmental law that has vertical as well as horizontal effects across jurisdictions binding national...

  15. Root canal irrigants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandaswamy, Deivanayagam; Venkateshbabu, Nagendrababu

    2010-10-01

    Successful root canal therapy relies on the combination of proper instrumentation, irrigation, and obturation of the root canal. Of these three essential steps of root canal therapy, irrigation of the root canal is the most important determinant in the healing of the periapical tissues. The primary endodontic treatment goal must thus be to optimize root canal disinfection and to prevent reinfection. In this review of the literature, various irrigants and the interactions between irrigants are discussed. We performed a Medline search for English-language papers published untill July 2010. The keywords used were 'root canal irrigants' and 'endodontic irrigants.' The reference lists of each article were manually checked for additional articles of relevance.

  16. Conjoined lumbosacral nerve roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atila Yılmaz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Lumbosacral nerve root anomalies are a rare group ofcongenital anatomical anomalies. Various types of anomaliesof the lumbosacral nerve roots have been documentedin the available international literature. Ttheseanomalies may consist of a bifid, conjoined structure, ofa transverse course or of a characteristic anastomizedappearance. Firstly described as an incidental findingduring autopsies or surgical procedures performed forlumbar disk herniations and often asymptomatic, lumbosacralnerve root anomalies have been more frequentlydescribed in the last years due to the advances made inradiological diagnosis.

  17. Discovering the laws of urbanisation

    CERN Document Server

    Simini, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    In 2012 the world's population exceeded 7 billion, and since 2008 the number of individuals living in urban areas has surpassed that of rural areas. This is the result of an overall increase of life expectancy in many countries that has caused an unprecedented growth of the world's total population during recent decades, combined with a net migration flow from rural villages to urban agglomerations. While it is clear that the rate of natural increase and migration flows are the driving forces shaping the spatial distribution of population, a general consensus on the mechanisms that characterise the urbanisation process is still lacking. Here we present two fundamental laws of urbanisation that are quantitatively supported by empirical evidence: 1) the number of cities in a country is proportional to the country's total population, irrespective of the country's area, and 2) the average distance between cities scales as the inverse of the square root of the country's population density. We study the spatio-temp...

  18. Synthesis of highly monodispersed Ga-soc-MOF hollow cubes, colloidosomes and nanocomposites

    KAUST Repository

    Cai, Xuechao

    2016-07-06

    Ga-soc-MOF hollow cubes with an average size of about 300 nm were prepared by a polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) assisted acid etching process. Colloidosomes with sizes of around 5-10 mu m composed of single-layer tetrakaidecahedron building blocks (BBs) were synthesized for the first time. Au@Ga-soc-MOF nanocomposites with excellent catalytic properties were obtained.

  19. NASA's CubeQuest Challenge - From Ground Tournaments to Lunar and Deep Space Derby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Elizabeth Lee; Cockrell, James J.

    2017-01-01

    The First Flight of NASA's Space Launch System will feature 13 CubeSats that will launch into cis-lunar space. Three of these CubeSats are winners of the CubeQuest Challenge, part of NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) Centennial Challenge Program. In order to qualify for launch on EM-1, the winning teams needed to win a series of Ground Tournaments, periodically held since 2015. The final Ground Tournament, GT-4, was held in May 2017, and resulted in the Top 3 selection for the EM-1 launch opportunity. The Challenge now proceeds to the in-space Derbies, where teams must build and test their spacecraft before launch on EM-1. Once in space, they will compete for a variety of Communications and Propulsion-based challenges. This is the first Centennial Challenge to compete in space and is a springboard for future in-space Challenges. In addition, the technologies gained from this challenge will also propel development of deep space CubeSats.

  20. Search for non-relativistic Magnetic Monopoles with IceCube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aartsen, M.G.; Abbasi, R.; Ackermann, M.;

    2014-01-01

    Theory (GUT) era shortly after the Big Bang. Depending on the underlying gauge group these monopoles may catalyze the decay of nucleons via the Rubakov–Callan effect with a cross section suggested to be in the range of 10^−27 to 10^−21cm2 . In IceCube, the Cherenkov light from nucleon decays along...

  1. Nano-cube MgO formed on silicon substrate using pulsed laser deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Satoru; Ito, Takeshi; Akiyama, Kensuke; Yasui, Manabu; Hirabayashi, Yasuo; Soga, Masayasu; Miyake, Yumiko; Yoshimoto, Mamoru

    2012-03-01

    Nano-cube MgO particles were formed on Si substrates by deposition of an MgO target using pulsed laser deposition method. An epitaxial film grows on Si(001) substrate with its contraction of lattice constants. In this study, expecting high quality MgO film, the MgO film prepared in the oxygen pressure ranging from 75-400 mTorr at the high temperature of -750 degrees C. The deposited MgO showed the growth of (001) preferred orientation on the Si(001) substrate. However, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) indicated the MgO film did not form a continuous film on the Si surface. Interestingly, the surface morphology observed by an Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) showed nano-cube MgO particles scattered on the smooth surface of Si substrate. After annealing the nano-cube MgO, the shape of MgO particles were changed from nano-cube to round shaped particles. The AFM image of the surface showed round shaped MgO nanoparticles scattered on rough surface. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) revealed the epitaxial growth of MgO(001) with cubic on cubic arrangement on the Si(001) substrate (MgO[100] parallel to Si[100]).

  2. Measurement of atmospheric neutrino oscillations with IceCube/DeepCore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Euler, Sebastian; Bissok, Martin; Wallraff, Marius; Wiebusch, Christopher [III. Physikalisches Institut, RWTH Aachen, D-52056 Aachen (Germany); Collaboration: IceCube-Collaboration

    2011-07-01

    IceCube's low-energy optimization DeepCore became operational in May 2010 and is taking data since then. It lowers the energy threshold of IceCube by roughly an order of magnitude. The huge statistics of about 150000 triggered atmospheric muon neutrinos per year and the low energy threshold of about 10 GeV permit to study oscillations. The disappearance probability depends on the neutrino energy and the traveled distance and thus on the zenith angle observed by IceCube. Maximum disappearance is expected at energies of about 25 GeV for vertically upward going neutrinos. For shorter oscillation lengths this flux minimum shifts towards 1 GeV close to the horizon. This study aims for a likelihood analysis of the two experimental observables (zenith and neutrino energy) for a high statistics measurement of the mixing angle {theta}{sub 23} and the mass difference {Delta}m{sup 2}{sub 23}. This talk presents the analysis method and first results from the data taken by IceCube in its 79-string configuration.

  3. Search for Galactic PeV gamma rays with the IceCube Neutrino Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbasi, R.; Abdou, Y.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Altmann, D.; Andeen, K.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Baker, M.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Beattie, K.; Beatty, J. J.; Bechet, S.; Tjus, J. Becker; Becker, K.-H.; Bell, M.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; BenZvi, S.; Berdermann, J.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bertrand, D.; Besson, D. Z.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blumenthal, J.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohaichuk, S.; Bohm, C.; Bose, D.; Boeser, S.; Botner, O.; Brayeur, L.; Brown, A. M.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Buitink, S.; Carson, M.; Casey, J.; Casier, M.; Chirkin, D.; Christy, B.; Clark, K.; Clevermann, F.; Cohen, S.; Cowen, D. F.; Silva, A. H. Cruz; Danninger, M.; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; De Clercq, C.; De Ridder, S.; Descamps, F.; Desiati, P.; de Vries-Uiterweerd, G.; DeYoung, T.; Diaz-Velez, J. C.; Dreyer, J.; Dumm, J. P.; Dunkman, M.; Eagan, R.; Eisch, J.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Engdegard, O.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fazely, A. R.; Fedynitch, A.; Feintzeig, J.; Feusels, T.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Flis, S.; Franckowiak, A.; Franke, R.; Frantzen, K.; Fuchs, T.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Gladstone, L.; Gluesenkamp, T.; Golup, G.; Goodman, J. A.; Gora, D.; Grant, D.; Gross, A.; Grullon, S.; Gurtner, M.; Ha, C.; Ismail, A. Haj; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hanson, K.; Heereman, D.; Heimann, P.; Heinen, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hickford, S.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; Hussain, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Jacobsen, J.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jlelati, O.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kiryluk, J.; Kislat, F.; Klaes, J.; Klein, S. R.; Koehne, J-H.; Kohnen, G.; Kolanoski, H.; Koepke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Krasberg, M.; Kroll, G.; Kunnen, J.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Landsman, H.; Larson, M. J.; Lauer, R.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Luenemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Merck, M.; Meszaros, P.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Middell, E.; Milke, N.; Miller, J.; Mohrmann, L.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Obertacke, A.; Odrowski, S.; Olivas, A.; Olivo, M.; O'Murchadha, A.; Panknin, S.; Paul, L.; Pepper, J. A.; de los Heros, C. Perez; Pieloth, D.; Pirk, N.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Raedel, L.; Rawlins, K.; Redl, P.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Ribordy, M.; Richman, M.; Riedel, B.; Rodrigues, J. P.; Rothmaier, F.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ruzybayev, B.; Ryckbosch, D.; Saba, S. M.; Salameh, T.; Sander, H. -G.; Santander, M.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Scheel, M.; Scheriau, F.; Schmidt, T.; Schmitz, M.; Schoenen, S.; Schoeneberg, S.; Schoenherr, L.; Schoenwald, A.; Schukraft, A.; Schulte, L.; Schulz, O.; Seckel, D.; Seo, S. H.; Sestayo, Y.; Seunarine, S.; Sheremata, C.; Smith, M. W. E.; Soiron, M.; Soldin, D.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stasik, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stoessl, A.; Strahler, E. A.; Strom, R.; Sullivan, G. W.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tamburro, A.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Toscano, S.; Usner, M.; van der Drift, D.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Van Overloop, A.; van Santen, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Vraeghe, M.; Walck, C.; Waldenmaier, T.; Wallraff, M.; Walter, M.; Wasserman, R.; Weaver, Ch.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whitehorn, N.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Williams, D. R.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, C.; Xu, D.L.; Xu, X. W.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Ziemann, J.; Zierke, S.; Zilles, A.; Zoll, M.; Aartsen, M.

    2013-01-01

    Gamma-ray induced air showers are notable for their lack of muons, compared to hadronic showers. Hence, air shower arrays with large underground muon detectors can select a sample greatly enriched in photon showers by rejecting showers containing muons. IceCube is sensitive to muons with energies

  4. Innovative power management, attitude determination and control tile for CubeSat standard NanoSatellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Anwar; Mughal, M. Rizwan; Ali, Haider; Reyneri, Leonardo

    2014-03-01

    Electric power supply (EPS) and attitude determination and control subsystem (ADCS) are the most essential elements of any aerospace mission. Efficient EPS and precise ADCS are the core of any spacecraft mission. So keeping in mind their importance, they have been integrated and developed on a single tile called CubePMT module. Modular power management tiles (PMTs) are already available in the market but they are less efficient, heavier in weight, consume more power and contain less number of subsystems. Commercial of the shelf (COTS) components have been used for CubePMT implementation which are low cost and easily available from the market. CubePMT is developed on the design approach of AraMiS architecture: a project developed at Politecnico di Torino that provides low cost and higher performance space missions with dimensions larger than CubeSats. The feature of AraMiS design approach is its modularity. These modules can be reused for multiple missions which helps in significant reduction of the overall budget, development and testing time. One has just to reassemble the required subsystems to achieve the targeted specific mission.

  5. Constraining the Violation of Equivalence Principle with IceCube Atmospheric Neutrino Data

    CERN Document Server

    Esmaili, A; Guzzo, M M; de Holanda, P C; Peres, O L G; Valdiviesso, G A

    2014-01-01

    The recent high-statistics high-energy atmospheric neutrino data collected by IceCube open a new window to probe new physics scenarios that are suppressed in lower energy neutrino experiments. In this paper we analyze the IceCube atmospheric neutrino data to constrain the Violation of Equivalence Principle (VEP) in the framework of three neutrinos with non-universal gravitational couplings. In this scenario the effect of VEP on neutrino oscillation probabilities can be parametrized by two parameters $\\Delta \\gamma_{21}\\equiv \\gamma_2-\\gamma_1$ and $\\Delta\\gamma_{31}\\equiv \\gamma_3-\\gamma_1$, where $\\gamma_i$'s denote the coupling of neutrino mass eigenstates to gravitational field. By analyzing the latest muon-tracks data sets of IceCube-40 and IceCube-79, besides providing the 2D allowed regions in $(\\phi\\Delta\\gamma_{21},\\phi\\Delta\\gamma_{31})$ plane, we obtain the upper limits $|\\phi\\Delta\\gamma_{21}| < 9.1\\times 10^{-27}$ (at 90% C.L.) which improves the previous limit by $\\sim4$ orders of magnitude an...

  6. NASA Near Earth Network (NEN) and Space Network (SN) Support of CubeSat Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaire, Scott H.; Shaw, Harry C.; Altunc, Serhat; Bussey, George; Celeste, Peter; Kegege, Obadiah; Wong, Yen; Zhang, Yuwen; Patel, Chitra; Raphael, David; Burke, Jacob; Cooper, La Vida; Schier, James; Horne, William; Pierce, David

    2016-01-01

    There has been a historical trend to increase capability and drive down the Size, Weight and Power (SWAP) of satellites and that trend continues today. NASA scientists and engineers across many of NASAs Mission Directorates and Centers are developing exciting CubeSat concepts and welcome potential partnerships for CubeSat endeavors. From a Telemetry, Tracking and Command (TTC) Systems and Flight Operations for Small Satellites point of view, small satellites including CubeSats are a challenge to coordinate because of existing small spacecraft constraints, such as limited SWAP and attitude control, and the potential for high numbers of operational spacecraft. The NASA Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) Programs Near Earth Network (NEN) and Space Network (SN) are customer driven organizations that provide comprehensive communications services for space assets including data transport between a missions orbiting satellite and its Mission Operations Center (MOC). This paper presents how well the SCaN networks, SN and NEN, are currently positioned to support the emerging small small satellite and CubeSat market as well as planned enhancements for future support.

  7. Time-Resolved CubeSat Photometry with a Low Cost Electro-Optics System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasdia, F.; Barjatya, A.; Bilardi, S.

    2016-09-01

    Once the orbits of small debris or CubeSats are determined, optical rate-track follow-up observations can provide information for characterization or identification of these objects. Using the Celestron 11" RASA telescope and an inexpensive CMOS machine vision camera, we have obtained time-series photometry from dozens of passes of small satellites and CubeSats over sites in Florida and Massachusetts. The fast readout time of the CMOS detector allows temporally resolved sampling of glints from small wire antennae and structural facets of rapidly tumbling objects. Because the shape of most CubeSats is known, these light curves can be used in a mission support function for small satellite operators to diagnose or verify the proper functioning of an attitude control system or deployed antenna or instrument. We call this telescope system and the accompanying analysis tools OSCOM for Optical tracking and Spectral characterization of CubeSats for Operational Missions. We introduce the capability of OSCOM for space object characterization, and present photometric observations demonstrating the potential of high frame rate small satellite photometry.

  8. Search for Galactic PeV gamma rays with the IceCube Neutrino Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbasi, R.; Abdou, Y.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Altmann, D.; Andeen, K.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Baker, M.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Beattie, K.; Beatty, J. J.; Bechet, S.; Tjus, J. Becker; Becker, K.-H.; Bell, M.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; BenZvi, S.; Berdermann, J.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bertrand, D.; Besson, D. Z.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blumenthal, J.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohaichuk, S.; Bohm, C.; Bose, D.; Boeser, S.; Botner, O.; Brayeur, L.; Brown, A. M.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Buitink, S.; Carson, M.; Casey, J.; Casier, M.; Chirkin, D.; Christy, B.; Clark, K.; Clevermann, F.; Cohen, S.; Cowen, D. F.; Silva, A. H. Cruz; Danninger, M.; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; De Clercq, C.; De Ridder, S.; Descamps, F.; Desiati, P.; de Vries-Uiterweerd, G.; DeYoung, T.; Diaz-Velez, J. C.; Dreyer, J.; Dumm, J. P.; Dunkman, M.; Eagan, R.; Eisch, J.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Engdegard, O.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fazely, A. R.; Fedynitch, A.; Feintzeig, J.; Feusels, T.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Flis, S.; Franckowiak, A.; Franke, R.; Frantzen, K.; Fuchs, T.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Gladstone, L.; Gluesenkamp, T.; Golup, G.; Goodman, J. A.; Gora, D.; Grant, D.; Gross, A.; Grullon, S.; Gurtner, M.; Ha, C.; Ismail, A. Haj; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hanson, K.; Heereman, D.; Heimann, P.; Heinen, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hickford, S.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; Hussain, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Jacobsen, J.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jlelati, O.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kiryluk, J.; Kislat, F.; Klaes, J.; Klein, S. R.; Koehne, J-H.; Kohnen, G.; Kolanoski, H.; Koepke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Krasberg, M.; Kroll, G.; Kunnen, J.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Landsman, H.; Larson, M. J.; Lauer, R.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Luenemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Merck, M.; Meszaros, P.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Middell, E.; Milke, N.; Miller, J.; Mohrmann, L.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Obertacke, A.; Odrowski, S.; Olivas, A.; Olivo, M.; O'Murchadha, A.; Panknin, S.; Paul, L.; Pepper, J. A.; de los Heros, C. Perez; Pieloth, D.; Pirk, N.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Raedel, L.; Rawlins, K.; Redl, P.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Ribordy, M.; Richman, M.; Riedel, B.; Rodrigues, J. P.; Rothmaier, F.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ruzybayev, B.; Ryckbosch, D.; Saba, S. M.; Salameh, T.; Sander, H. -G.; Santander, M.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Scheel, M.; Scheriau, F.; Schmidt, T.; Schmitz, M.; Schoenen, S.; Schoeneberg, S.; Schoenherr, L.; Schoenwald, A.; Schukraft, A.; Schulte, L.; Schulz, O.; Seckel, D.; Seo, S. H.; Sestayo, Y.; Seunarine, S.; Sheremata, C.; Smith, M. W. E.; Soiron, M.; Soldin, D.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stasik, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stoessl, A.; Strahler, E. A.; Strom, R.; Sullivan, G. W.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tamburro, A.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Toscano, S.; Usner, M.; van der Drift, D.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Van Overloop, A.; van Santen, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Vraeghe, M.; Walck, C.; Waldenmaier, T.; Wallraff, M.; Walter, M.; Wasserman, R.; Weaver, Ch.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whitehorn, N.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Williams, D. R.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, C.; Xu, D.L.; Xu, X. W.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Ziemann, J.; Zierke, S.; Zilles, A.; Zoll, M.; Aartsen, M.

    2013-01-01

    Gamma-ray induced air showers are notable for their lack of muons, compared to hadronic showers. Hence, air shower arrays with large underground muon detectors can select a sample greatly enriched in photon showers by rejecting showers containing muons. IceCube is sensitive to muons with energies ab

  9. An Effective Privacy-Preserving Algorithm Based on Logistic Map and Rubik’s Cube Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbin Yao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Security and privacy issues present a strong barrier for users to adapt to cloud storage systems. In this paper, a new algorithm for data splitting called EPPA is presented to strengthen the confidentiality of data by two-phase process. In EPPA, data object is organized to be several Rubik’s cubes executed for several rounds transformation at the first phase. In every round, chaotic logistic maps generate pseudorandom sequences to cover the plaintext by executing Exclusive-OR operation to form the cipher. Then logistic map is used to create rotation policies to scramble data information based on Rubik’s cube transformation. At the second phase, all cubes are unfolded and combined together as a cross-shaped cube, which will be partitioned into a few data fragments to guarantee that every fragment does not contain continuous bytes. These fragments are stored on randomly chosen servers within cloud environment. Analyses and experiments show that this approach is efficient and useable for the confidentiality of user data in cloud storage system.

  10. Search for dark matter from the Galactic halo with the IceCube Neutrino Telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbasi, R.; Abdou, Y.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J.A.; Ahlers, M.; Andeen, K.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Baker, M.; Barwick, S.W.; Bay, R.; Alba, J.L.B.; Beattie, K.; Beatty, J.J.; Bechet, S.; Becker, J.K.; Becker, K.H.; Benabderrahmane, M.L.; BenZvi, S.; Berdermann, J.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bertrand, D.; Besson, D.Z.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blumenthal, J.; Boersma, D.J.; Bohm, C.; Bose, D.; Boser, S.; Botner, O.; Braun, J.; Brown, A.M.; Buitink, S.; Carson, M.; Chirkin, D.; Christy, B.; Clem, J.; Clevermann, F.; Cohen, S.; Colnard, C.; Cowen, D.F.; D'Agostino, M.V.; Danninger, M.; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J.C.; Clercq, C. De; Demirors, L.; Denger, T.; Depaepe, O.; Descamps, F.; Desiati, P.; Vries-Uiterweerd, G. de; DeYoung, T.; Diaz-Velez, J.C.; Dierckxsens, M.; Dreyer, J.; Dumm, J.P.; Ehrlich, R.; Eisch, J.; Ellsworth, R.W.; Engdegard, O.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P.A.; Fadiran, O.; Fazely, A.R.; Fedynitch, A.; Feusels, T.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Foerster, M.M.; Fox, B.D.; Franckowiak, A.; Franke, R.; Gaisser, T.K.; Gallagher, J.; Geisler, M.; Gerhardt, L.; Gladstone, L.; Glusenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Goodman, J.A.; Grant, D.; Griesel, T.; Gross, A.; Grullon, S.; Gurtner, M.; Ha, C.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Han, K.; Hanson, K.; Heinen, D.; Helbing, K.; Herquet, P.; Lafebre, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    Self-annihilating or decaying dark matter in the Galactic halo might produce high energy neutrinos detectable with neutrino telescopes. We have conducted a search for such a signal using 276 days of data from the IceCube 22-string configuration detector acquired during 2007 and 2008. The effect of h

  11. NASA Near Earth Network (NEN) and Space Network (SN) CubeSat Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaire, Scott H.; Shaw, Harry; Altunc, Serhat; Bussey, George; Celeste, Peter; Kegege, Obadiah; Wong, Yen; Zhang, Yuwen; Patel, Chitra; Raphael, David; Burke, Jacob; Cooper, La Vida; Schier, James; Horne, William; Pierce, David

    2016-01-01

    There has been a recent trend to increase capability and drive down the Size, Weight and Power (SWAP) of satellites. NASA scientists and engineers across many of NASA's Mission Directorates and Centers are developing exciting CubeSat concepts and welcome potential partnerships for CubeSat endeavors. From a "Telemetry, Tracking and Command (TT&C) Systems and Flight Operations for Small Satellites" point of view, small satellites including CubeSats are a challenge to coordinate because of existing small spacecraft constraints, such as limited SWAP and attitude control, and the potential for high numbers of operational spacecraft. The NASA Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) Program's Near Earth Network (NEN) and Space Network (SN) are customer driven organizations that provide comprehensive communications services for space assets including data transport between a mission's orbiting satellite and its Mission Operations Center (MOC). This paper presents how well the SCaN networks, SN and NEN, are currently positioned to support the emerging small small satellite and CubeSat market as well as planned enhancements for future support.

  12. Testing the Dark Matter Scenario for PeV Neutrinos Observed in IceCube

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murase, K.; Laha, R.; Ando, S.; Ahlers, M.

    2015-01-01

    Late time decay of very heavy dark matter is considered as one of the possible explanations for diffuse PeV neutrinos observed in IceCube. We consider implications of multimessenger constraints, and show that proposed models are marginally consistent with the diffuse gamma-ray background data. Criti

  13. Strip2CubeFace user%3CU%2B2019%3Es manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forden, Geoffrey Ethan

    2013-03-01

    Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) software for producing linked virtual tours based on 360 degree panoramas are becoming more and more available. However, the best current products for taking the images, stitching them into 360 degree panoramas, and then linking them together into complex virtual tours require different and incompatible input and output formats. This program is designed to bridge the gap between the iPix Interactive Studio export format, which consists of a single JPEG with the six faces of a cube connected horizontally, with the six individual JPEGs needed to be imported into Panotour Pro software. This report describes how to use the software program Strip2CubeFace, which takes the cube-strip JPEG exported from iPix Studio and coverts it into six JPEGs representing the six cube faces that Panotour Pro imports. As such, it represents a necessary link between the two COTS software programs key to making virtual tours quickly and easily. It becomes one member of the suite of software programs known as %E2%80%9CRaPP-TOURS%E2%80%9D or Rapid Processing of PanoTours Software necessary to simulate managed access and other permission requesting arms control-type training exercises.

  14. Photohadronic origin of $\\gamma$-ray BL Lac emission: implications for IceCube neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Petropoulou, Maria; Padovani, Paolo; Mastichiadis, Apostolos; Resconi, Elisa

    2015-01-01

    The recent IceCube discovery of 0.1-1 PeV neutrinos of astrophysical origin opens up a new era for high-energy astrophysics. Although there are various astrophysical candidate sources, a firm association of the detected neutrinos with one (or more) of them is still lacking. A recent analysis of plausible astrophysical counterparts within the error circles of IceCube events showed that likely counterparts for nine of the IceCube neutrinos include mostly BL Lacs, among which Mrk 421. Motivated by this result and a previous independent analysis on the neutrino emission from Mrk 421, we test the BL Lac-neutrino connection in the context of a specific theoretical model for BL Lac emission. We model the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the BL Lacs selected as counterparts of the IceCube neutrinos using a one-zone leptohadronic model and mostly nearly simultaneous data. The neutrino flux for each BL Lac is self-consistently calculated, using photon and proton distributions specifically derived for every individ...

  15. Evidence for High-Energy Extraterrestrial Neutrinos at the IceCube Detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aartsen, M.G.; Abbasi, R.; Ackermann, M.;

    2013-01-01

    We report on results of an all-sky search for high-energy neutrino events interacting within the IceCube neutrino detector conducted between May 2010 and May 2012. The search follows up on the previous detection of two PeV neutrino events, with improved sensitivity and extended energy coverage do...

  16. Big Software for SmallSats: Adapting CFS to CubeSat Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cudmore, Alan P.; Crum, Gary; Sheikh, Salman; Marshall, James

    2015-01-01

    Expanding capabilities and mission objectives for SmallSats and CubeSats is driving the need for reliable, reusable, and robust flight software. While missions are becoming more complicated and the scientific goals more ambitious, the level of acceptable risk has decreased. Design challenges are further compounded by budget and schedule constraints that have not kept pace. NASA's Core Flight Software System (cFS) is an open source solution which enables teams to build flagship satellite level flight software within a CubeSat schedule and budget. NASA originally developed cFS to reduce mission and schedule risk for flagship satellite missions by increasing code reuse and reliability. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, which launched in 2009, was the first of a growing list of Class B rated missions to use cFS. Large parts of cFS are now open source, which has spurred adoption outside of NASA. This paper reports on the experiences of two teams using cFS for current CubeSat missions. The performance overheads of cFS are quantified, and the reusability of code between missions is discussed. The analysis shows that cFS is well suited to use on CubeSats and demonstrates the portability and modularity of cFS code.

  17. First observation of PeV-energy neutrinos with IceCube

    CERN Document Server

    Aartsen, M G; Abdou, Y; Ackermann, M; Adams, J; Aguilar, J A; Ahlers, M; Altmann, D; Auffenberg, J; Bai, X; Baker, M; Barwick, S W; Baum, V; Bay, R; Beatty, J J; Bechet, S; Tjus, J Becker; Becker, K -H; Bell, M; Benabderrahmane, M L; BenZvi, S; Berdermann, J; Berghaus, P; Berley, D; Bernardini, E; Bernhard, A; Bertrand, D; Besson, D Z; Binder, G; Bindig, D; Bissok, M; Blaufuss, E; Blumenthal, J; Boersma, D J; Bohaichuk, S; Bohm, C; Bose, D; Böser, S; Botner, O; Brayeur, L; Bretz, H -P; Brown, A M; Bruijn, R; Brunner, J; Carson, M; Casey, J; Casier, M; Chirkin, D; Christov, A; Christy, B; Clark, K; Clevermann, F; Coenders, S; Cohen, S; Cowen, D F; Silva, A H Cruz; Danninger, M; Daughhetee, J; Davis, J C; De Clercq, C; De Ridder, S; Desiati, P; de With, M; DeYoung, T; Díaz-Vélez, J C; Dunkman, M; Eagan, R; Eberhardt, B; Eisch, J; Ellsworth, R W; Euler, S; Evenson, P A; Fadiran, O; Fazely, A R; Fedynitch, A; Feintzeig, J; Feusels, T; Filimonov, K; Finley, C; Fischer-Wasels, T; Flis, S; Franckowiak, A; Franke, R; Frantzen, K; Fuchs, T; Gaisser, T K; Gallagher, J; Gerhardt, L; Gladstone, L; Glüsenkamp, T; Goldschmidt, A; Golup, G; Gonzalez, J G; Goodman, J A; Góra, D; Grant, D; Groß, A; Gurtner, M; Ha, C; Ismail, A Haj; Hallen, P; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Hanson, K; Heereman, D; Heinen, D; Helbing, K; Hellauer, R; Hickford, S; Hill, G C; Hoffman, K D; Hoffmann, R; Homeier, A; Hoshina, K; Huelsnitz, W; Hulth, P O; Hultqvist, K; Hussain, S; Ishihara, A; Jacobi, E; Jacobsen, J; Jagielski, K; Japaridze, G S; Jero, K; Jlelati, O; Kaminsky, B; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Karle, A; Kelley, J L; Kiryluk, J; Kislat, F; Kläs, J; Klein, S R; Köhne, J -H; Kohnen, G; Kolanoski, H; Köpke, L; Kopper, C; Kopper, S; Koskinen, D J; Kowalski, M; Krasberg, M; Krings, K; Kroll, G; Kunnen, J; Kurahashi, N; Kuwabara, T; Labare, M; Landsman, H; Larson, M J; Lesiak-Bzdak, M; Leuermann, M; Leute, J; Lünemann, J; Madsen, J; Maruyama, R; Mase, K; Matis, H S; McNally, F; Meagher, K; Merck, M; Mészáros, P; Meures, T; Miarecki, S; Middell, E; Milke, N; Miller, J; Mohrmann, L; Montaruli, T; Morse, R; Nahnhauer, R; Naumann, U; Niederhausen, H; Nowicki, S C; Nygren, D R; Obertacke, A; Odrowski, S; Olivas, A; Olivo, M; O'Murchadha, A; Paul, L; Pepper, J A; Heros, C Pérez de los; Pfendner, C; Pieloth, D; Pinat, E; Pirk, N; Posselt, J; Price, P B; Przybylski, G T; Rädel, L; Rameez, M; Rawlins, K; Redl, P; Reimann, R; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Ribordy, M; Richman, M; Riedel, B; Rodrigues, J P; Rott, C; Ruhe, T; Ruzybayev, B; Ryckbosch, D; Saba, S M; Salameh, T; Sander, H -G; Santander, M; Sarkar, S; Schatto, K; Scheel, M; Scheriau, F; Schmidt, T; Schmitz, M; Schoenen, S; Schöneberg, S; Schönwald, A; Schukraft, A; Schulte, L; Schulz, O; Seckel, D; Sestayo, Y; Seunarine, S; Sheremata, C; Smith, M W E; Soiron, M; Soldin, D; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Stamatikos, M; Stanev, T; Stasik, A; Stezelberger, T; Stokstad, R G; Stößl, A; Strahler, E A; Ström, R; Sullivan, G W; Taavola, H; Taboada, I; Tamburro, A; Ter-Antonyan, S; Tešić, G; Tilav, S; Toale, P A; Toscano, S; Usner, M; van der Drift, D; van Eijndhoven, N; Van Overloop, A; van Santen, J; Vehring, M; Voge, M; Vraeghe, M; Walck, C; Waldenmaier, T; Wallraff, M; Wasserman, R; Weaver, Ch; Wellons, M; Wendt, C; Westerhoff, S; Whitehorn, N; Wiebe, K; Wiebusch, C H; Williams, D R; Wissing, H; Wolf, M; Wood, T R; Woschnagg, K; Xu, C; Xu, D L; Xu, X W; Yanez, J P; Yodh, G; Yoshida, S; Zarzhitsky, P; Ziemann, J; Zierke, S; Zilles, A; Zoll, M

    2013-01-01

    We report on the observation of two neutrino-induced events which have an estimated deposited energy in the IceCube detector of $1.04 \\pm 0.16$ and $1.14 \\pm 0.17$\\,PeV, respectively, the highest neutrino energies observed so far. These events are consistent with fully contained particle showers induced by neutral-current $\

  18. IceCube Sensitivity for Low-Energy Neutrinos from Nearby Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Abbasi, R; Abu-Zayyad, T; Ackermann, M; Adams, J; Aguilar, J A; Ahlers, M; Allen, M M; Altmann, D; Andeen, K; Auffenberg, J; Bai, X; Baker, M; Barwick, S W; Baum, V; Bay, R; Alba, J L Bazo; Beattie, K; Beatty, J J; Bechet, S; Becker, J K; Becker, K -H; Benabderrahmane, M L; BenZvi, S; Berdermann, J; Berghaus, P; Berley, D; Bernardini, E; Bertrand, D; Besson, D Z; Bindig, D; Bissok, M; Blaufuss, E; Blumenthal, J; Boersma, D J; Bohm, C; Bose, D; Böser, S; Botner, O; Brown, A M; Buitink, S; Caballero-Mora, K S; Carson, M; Chirkin, D; Christy, B; Clevermann, F; Cohen, S; Colnard, C; Cowen, D F; Silva, A H Cruz; D'Agostino, M V; Danninger, M; Daughhetee, J; Davis, J C; De Clercq, C; Degner, T; Demirörs, L; Descamps, F; Desiati, P; de Vries-Uiterweerd, G; DeYoung, T; Diaz-Vélez, J C; Dierckxsens, M; Dreyer, J; Dumm, J P; Dunkman, M; Eisch, J; Ellsworth, R W; Engdegård, O; Euler, S; Evenson, P A; Fadiran, O; Fazely, A R; Fedynitch, A; Feintzeig, J; Feusels, T; Filimonov, K; Finley, C; Fischer-Wasels, T; Fox, B D; Franckowiak, A; Franke, R; Gaisser, T K; Gallagher, J; Gerhardt, L; Gladstone, L; Glüsenkamp, T; Goldschmidt, A; Goodman, J A; Góra, D; Grant, D; Griesel, T; Groß, A; Grullon, S; Gurtner, M; Ha, C; Ismail, A Haj; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Han, K; Hanson, K; Heinen, D; Helbing, K; Hellauer, R; Hickford, S; Hill, G C; Hoffman, K D; Hoffmann, B; Homeier, A; Hoshina, K; Huelsnitz, W; Hülß, J -P; Hulth, P O; Hultqvist, K; Hussain, S; Ishihara, A; Jakobi, E; Jacobsen, J; Japaridze, G S; Johansson, H; Kampert, K -H; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Karle, A; Kenny, P; Kiryluk, J; Kislat, F; Klein, S R; Köhne, H; Kohnen, G; Kolanoski, H; Köpke, L; Kopper, S; Koskinen, D J; Kowalski, M; Kowarik, T; Krasberg, M; Kroll, G; Kurahashi, N; Kuwabara, T; Labare, M; Laihem, K; Landsman, H; Larson, M J; Lauer, R; Lünemann, J; Madsen, J; Marotta, A; Maruyama, R; Mase, K; Matis, H S; Meagher, K; Merck, M; Mészáros, P; Meures, T; Miarecki, S; Middell, E; Milke, N; Miller, J; Montaruli, T; Morse, R; Movit, S M; Nahnhauer, R; Nam, J W; Naumann, U; Nygren, D R; Odrowski, S; Olivas, A; Olivo, M; O'Murchadha, A; Panknin, S; Paul, L; Heros, C Pérez de los; Petrovic, J; Piegsa, A; Pieloth, D; Porrata, R; Posselt, J; Price, P B; Przybylski, G T; Rawlins, K; Redl, P; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Ribordy, M; Richard, A S; Richman, M; Rodrigues, J P; Rothmaier, F; Rott, C; Ruhe, T; Rutledge, D; Ruzybayev, B; Ryckbosch, D; Sander, H -G; Santander, M; Sarkar, S; Schatto, K; Schmidt, T; Schönwald, A; Schukraft, A; Schulte, L; Schultes, A; Schulz, O; Schunck, M; Seckel, D; Semburg, B; Seo, S H; Sestayo, Y; Seunarine, S; Silvestri, A; Singh, K; Slipak, A; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Stamatikos, M; Stanev, T; Stezelberger, T; Stokstad, R G; Stößl, A; Strahler, E A; Ström, R; Stüer, M; Sullivan, G W; Swillens, Q; Taavola, H; Taboada, I; Tamburro, A; Tepe, A; Ter-Antonyan, S; Tilav, S; Toale, P A; Toscano, S; Tosi, D; van Eijndhoven, N; Vandenbroucke, J; Van Overloop, A; van Santen, J; Vehring, M; Voge, M; Walck, C; Waldenmaier, T; Wallraff, M; Walter, M; Weaver, Ch; Wendt, C; Westerhoff, S; Whitehorn, N; Wiebe, K; Wiebusch, C H; Williams, D R; Wischnewski, R; Wissing, H; Wolf, M; Wood, T R; Woschnagg, K; Xu, C; Xu, D L; Xu, X W; Yanez, J P; Yodh, G; Yoshida, S; Zarzhitsky, P; Zoll, M

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the response of the IceCube neutrino telescope located at the geographic South Pole to outbursts of MeV neutrinos from the core collapse of nearby massive stars. IceCube was completed in December 2010 forming a lattice of 5160 photomultiplier tubes that monitor a volume of ~ 1 cubic kilometer in the deep Antarctic ice for particle induced photons. The telescope was designed to detect neutrinos with energies greater than 100 GeV. Owing to subfreezing ice temperatures, the photomultiplier dark noise rates are particularly low. Hence IceCube can also detect large numbers of MeV neutrinos by observing a collective rise in all photomultiplier rates on top of the dark noise. With 2 ms timing resolution, IceCube can detect subtle features in the temporal development of the supernova neutrino burst. For a supernova at the galactic center, its sensitivity matches that of a background-free megaton-scale supernova search experiment. The sensitivity decreases to 20 standard deviations at the galactic...

  19. Invited review article: IceCube: an instrument for neutrino astronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halzen, Francis; Klein, Spencer R

    2010-08-01

    Neutrino astronomy beyond the Sun was first imagined in the late 1950s; by the 1970s, it was realized that kilometer-scale neutrino detectors were required. The first such instrument, IceCube, is near completion and taking data. The IceCube project transforms 1 km(3) of deep and ultratransparent Antarctic ice into a particle detector. A total of 5160 optical sensors is embedded into a gigaton of Antarctic ice to detect the Cherenkov light emitted by secondary particles produced when neutrinos interact with nuclei in the ice. Each optical sensor is a complete data acquisition system including a phototube, digitization electronics, control and trigger systems, and light-emitting diodes for calibration. The light patterns reveal the type (flavor) of neutrino interaction and the energy and direction of the neutrino, making neutrino astronomy possible. The scientific missions of IceCube include such varied tasks as the search for sources of cosmic rays, the observation of galactic supernova explosions, the search for dark matter, and the study of the neutrinos themselves. These reach energies well beyond those produced with accelerator beams. The outline of this review is as follows: neutrino astronomy and kilometer-scale detectors, high-energy neutrino telescopes: methodologies of neutrino detection, IceCube hardware, high-energy neutrino telescopes: beyond astronomy, and future projects.

  20. First search for dark matter annihilations in the Earth with the IceCube detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aartsen, M.G.; Hill, G.C.; Robertson, S.; Wallace, A.; Whelan, B.J. [University of Adelaide, Department of Physics, Adelaide (Australia); Abraham, K.; Bernhard, A.; Coenders, S.; Holzapfel, K.; Huber, M.; Jurkovic, M.; Krings, K.; Resconi, E.; Turcati, A.; Veenkamp, J. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik-Department, Garching (Germany); Ackermann, M.; Bernardini, E.; Blot, S.; Bretz, H.P.; Franckowiak, A.; Gluesenkamp, T.; Jacobi, E.; Karg, T.; Kintscher, T.; Kunwar, S.; Mohrmann, L.; Nahnhauer, R.; Satalecka, K.; Spiering, C.; Stasik, A.; Stoessl, A.; Strotjohann, N.L.; Terliuk, A.; Usner, M.; Santen, J. van; Yanez, J.P. [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Adams, J. [University of Canterbury, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch (New Zealand); Aguilar, J.A.; Ansseau, I.; Heereman, D.; Meagher, K.; Meures, T.; O' Murchadha, A.; Pinat, E.; Raab, C. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Science Faculty CP230, Brussels (Belgium); Ahlers, M.; Braun, J.; Chirkin, D.; Day, M.; Desiati, P.; Diaz-Velez, J.C.; Fahey, S.; Feintzeig, J.; Ghorbani, K.; Gladstone, L.; Griffith, Z.; Halzen, F.; Hanson, K.; Jero, K.; Karle, A.; Kauer, M.; Kelley, J.L.; Kheirandish, A.; Krueger, C.; Mancina, S.; McNally, F.; Merino, G.; Sabbatini, L.; Tobin, M.N.; Tosi, D.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Rossem, M. van; Wandkowsky, N.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Wille, L.; Xu, D.L. [University of Wisconsin, Department of Physics and Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center, Madison, WI (United States); Ahrens, M.; Bohm, C.; Dumm, J.P.; Finley, C.; Flis, S.; Hultqvist, K.; Walck, C.; Wolf, M.; Zoll, M. [Stockholm University, Department of Physics, Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm (Sweden); Altmann, D.; Anton, G.; Katz, U.; Kittler, T.; Tselengidou, M. [Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erlangen (Germany); Andeen, K. [Marquette University, Department of Physics, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Anderson, T.; Dunkman, M.; Eller, P.; Huang, F.; Keivani, A.; Lanfranchi, J.L.; Pankova, D.V.; Quinnan, M.; Tesic, G.; Weiss, M.J. [Pennsylvania State University, Department of Physics, University Park, PA (United States); Archinger, M.; Baum, V.; Boeser, S.; Pino Rosendo, E. del; Di Lorenzo, V.; Eberhardt, B.; Ehrhardt, T.; Foesig, C.C.; Koepke, L.; Krueckl, G.; Peiffer, P.; Sandroos, J.; Steuer, A.; Wiebe, K. [University of Mainz, Institute of Physics, Mainz (Germany); Argueelles, C.; Axani, S.; Collin, G.H.; Conrad, J.M.; Jones, B.J.P.; Moulai, M. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Auffenberg, J.; Bissok, M.; Glagla, M.; Glauch, T.; Haack, C.; Hansmann, B.; Hansmann, T.; Kemp, J.; Konietz, R.; Leuermann, M.; Leuner, J.; Penek, Oe.; Raedel, L.; Reimann, R.; Rongen, M.; Schimp, M.; Schoenen, S.; Schumacher, L.; Stahlberg, M.; Stettner, J.; Vehring, M.; Vogel, E.; Wallraff, M.; Wickmann, S.; Wiebusch, C.H. [RWTH Aachen University, III. Physikalisches Institut, Aachen (Germany); Bai, X. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Physics Department, Rapid City, SD (United States); Barwick, S.W.; Yodh, G. [University of California, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Irvine, CA (United States); Bay, R.; Filimonov, K.; Price, P.B.; Woschnagg, K. [University of California, Department of Physics, Berkeley, CA (United States); Beatty, J.J. [Ohio State University, Department of Physics and Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, Columbus, OH (United States); Ohio State University, Department of Astronomy, Columbus, OH (United States); Becker Tjus, J.; Bos, F.; Eichmann, B.; Kroll, M.; Mandelartz, M.; Schoeneberg, S.; Tenholt, F. [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Fakultaet fuer Physik and Astronomie, Bochum (Germany); Becker, K.H.; Bindig, D.; Helbing, K.; Hickford, S.; Hoffmann, R.; Kopper, S.; Lauber, F.; Naumann, U.; Obertacke Pollmann, A.; Soldin, D. [University of Wuppertal, Department of Physics, Wuppertal (Germany); BenZvi, S.; Cross, R. [University of Rochester, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rochester, NY (United States); Berley, D.; Blaufuss, E.; Cheung, E.; Felde, J.; Friedman, E.; Hellauer, R.; Hoffman, K.D.; Maunu, R.; Olivas, A.; Schmidt, T.; Song, M.; Sullivan, G.W. [University of Maryland, Department of Physics, College Park, MD (United States); Besson, D.Z. [University of Kansas, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lawrence, KS (United States); Binder, G.; Gerhardt, L.; Klein, S.R.; Miarecki, S.; Tatar, J. [University of California, Department of Physics, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Collaboration: IceCube Collaboration; and others

    2017-02-15

    We present the results of the first IceCube search for dark matter annihilation in the center of the Earth. Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), candidates for dark matter, can scatter off nuclei inside the Earth and fall below its escape velocity. Over time the captured WIMPs will be accumulated and may eventually self-annihilate. Among the annihilation products only neutrinos can escape from the center of the Earth. Large-scale neutrino telescopes, such as the cubic kilometer IceCube Neutrino Observatory located at the South Pole, can be used to search for such neutrino fluxes. Data from 327 days of detector livetime during 2011/2012 were analyzed. No excess beyond the expected background from atmospheric neutrinos was detected. The derived upper limits on the annihilation rate of WIMPs in the Earth and the resulting muon flux are an order of magnitude stronger than the limits of the last analysis performed with data from IceCube's predecessor AMANDA. The limits can be translated in terms of a spin-independent WIMP-nucleon cross section. For a WIMP mass of 50 GeV this analysis results in the most restrictive limits achieved with IceCube data. (orig.)

  1. Cube slip and non-Schmid effects in single crystal Ni-base superalloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinga, T.; Brekelmans, W.A.M.; Geers, M.G.D.

    2010-01-01

    An advanced constitutive model incorporating two specific aspects of Ni-base superalloy deformation behaviour is proposed. Several deformation mechanisms are active in these two-phase materials. In the matrix phase, cube slip plays an important role in the orientation dependence of the material. Mor

  2. Inexpensive CubeSat attitude estimation using COTS components and Unscented Kalman Filtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper Abildgaard; Vinther, Kasper

    2011-01-01

    constraint requires a redesign of the Unscented Kalman Filter. Therefore, a quaternion error state is introduced. Emphasis has been put in making the implementation accessible to other CubeSat by using realistic models of COTS components used for attitude sensing and simulations have shown that the extra...

  3. The IceCube Astrophysics Masterclass: Bringing Authentic Research to Teachers and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, J.; Bravo Gallart, S.; Demerit, J.; Madsen, M.

    2014-12-01

    The IceCube Astrophysics MasterClass (icecube.wisc.edu/masterclass) is based on the highly successful International masterclasses developed for high school students and teachers by the International Particle Physics Outreach Group (www.physicsmasterclasses.org/). The idea is to work with local teachers to identify highly motivated and engaged students who want to learn more about science research and the people who do it. An intensive one day program was put together at multiple sites with an opportunity for the students and teachers who attended to connect virtually to discuss their research results, and get a report from the winterovers at the South Pole. In the spring of 2014, the IceCube Collaboration held its first masterclass with approximately 100 students in total at 5 sites---Universität Mainz (Germany), University of Delaware in Newark (US), Université Libre de Bruxelles and Vrije Universiteit Brussels (Belgium), and the Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center at the University of Wisconsin-Madison (US). The students looked through IceCube data and performed analyses that led to the first evidence for high-energy astrophysical neutrinos. A description of the resources developed for the class, tactics used to recruit students and teachers, and the evaluation of the first course will be presented. The structure of the day can be readily generalized for other topics and disciplines.

  4. Free minimization of the fundamental measure theory functional: Freezing of parallel hard squares and cubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belli, S; Dijkstra, M.; van Roij, R.H.H.G.

    2012-01-01

    Due to remarkable advances in colloid synthesis techniques, systems of squares and cubes, once an academic abstraction for theorists and simulators, are nowadays an experimental reality. By means of a free minimization of the free-energy functional, we apply fundamental measure theory to analyze the

  5. Propulsion Technology Demonstrator. [Demonstrating Novel CubeSat Technologies in Low Earth Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmie, John; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Pathfinder Technology Demonstrator (PTD) project will test the operation of a variety of novel CubeSat technologies in low- Earth orbit, providing significant enhancements to the performance of these small and effective spacecraft. Each Pathfinder Technology Demonstrator mission consists of a 6-unit (6U) CubeSat weighing approximately 26 pounds (12 kilograms) and measuring 12 inches x 10 inches x 4 inches (30 centimeters x 25 centimeters x 10 centimeters), comparable in size to a common shoebox. CubeSats are a class of nanosatellites that use a standard size and form factor. The standard Cube- Sat size uses a "one unit" or "1U" measuring 4 inches x 4 inches x 4 inches (10x10x10 centimeters) and is extendable to larger sizes by "stacking" a number of the 1U blocks to form a larger spacecraft. Each PTD spacecraft will also be equipped with deployable solar arrays that provide an average of 44 watts of power while in orbit.

  6. Statistical Properties of Microbursts Derived from the FIREBIRD-II CubeSats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumko, M.; Sample, J.; Klumpar, D. M.; Spence, H. E.; Crew, A. B.

    2016-12-01

    The FIREBIRD-II CubeSats have been successfully operating in a high-inclination, low-earth-orbit since January 31st, 2015. The FIREBIRD CubeSats were designed to observe relativistic electron microbursts. A microburst is a sharp increase (often greater than an order of magnitude) in precipitating electron flux lasting 100 ms. Each CubeSat contains two solid state detectors with complementary geometric factors which measure electrons from 200 keV to 1 MeV. Observations are gathered in campaigns, and the two data products are Context and HiRes. Context is an electron count rate from two energy channels at a 6 s cadence, and HiRes is at a cadence as fast as 12.5 ms. Context data is downlinked for the entirety of the campaign, but due to a tight telemetry budget, only a specified subset of HiRes data is downlinked. Microbursts have been simultaneously observed when the CubeSats were separated by as little as 10 km. A technique to automatically identify microbursts in the data using wavelet analysis is evaluated. Various fitting techniques are applied to the bursts and used to determine distributions of microburst parameters such as duration, repetition and dispersion as a function of energy.

  7. The SIGMA CubeSat Mission for Space Research and Technology Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Lee, J. K.; Lee, H.; Shin, J.; Jeong, S.; Jin, H.; Nam, U. W.; Kim, H.; Lessard, M.; Lee, R.

    2016-12-01

    The Scientific cubesat with Instrument for Global Magnetic field and rAdiation (SIGMA) is the 3U standard CubeSat measuring the space radiation and magnetic field on a 450 × 720 km sun-synchronous orbit. Its mass is 2.95 kg and the communication system consists of Very High Frequency (VHF) uplink and Ultra High Frequency (UHF) downlink. The SIGMA mission has two academic purposes which are space research and technology demonstration. For the space research, SIGMA has two instruments such as Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC) and a miniaturized fluxgate MAGnetometer (MAG). The TEPC primary instrument measures the Linear Energy Transfer (LET) spectrum and calculates the equivalent dose in the range from 0.3 to 1,000 keV/μm with a single Multi-Channel Analyzer. The secondary is a miniaturized fluxgate magnetometer which have 1 nT resolution with the dynamic range of ±42000 nT. The MAG is deployed by 0.7 m folding boom to avoid CubeSat body's Electromagnetic Interference (EMI). This boom is one of our mechanical technology demonstrations. After launch, we expect that the SIGMA give us new scientific data and technologic verification. This CubeSat is supported by Korean CubeSat contest program.

  8. Application of Data Cubes for Improving Detection of Water Cycle Extreme Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albayrak, Arif; Teng, William

    2015-01-01

    As part of an ongoing NASA-funded project to remove a longstanding barrier to accessing NASA data (i.e., accessing archived time-step array data as point-time series), for the hydrology and other point-time series-oriented communities, "data cubes" are created from which time series files (aka "data rods") are generated on-the-fly and made available as Web services from the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC). Data cubes are data as archived rearranged into spatio-temporal matrices, which allow for easy access to the data, both spatially and temporally. A data cube is a specific case of the general optimal strategy of reorganizing data to match the desired means of access. The gain from such reorganization is greater the larger the data set. As a use case of our project, we are leveraging existing software to explore the application of the data cubes concept to machine learning, for the purpose of detecting water cycle extreme events, a specific case of anomaly detection, requiring time series data. We investigate the use of support vector machines (SVM) for anomaly classification. We show an example of detection of water cycle extreme events, using data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM).

  9. Using Additive Manufacturing to Print a CubeSat Propulsion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, William M.; Zemba, Michael; Shemelya, Corey; Wicker, Ryan; Espalin, David; MacDonald, Eric; Keif, Craig; Kwas, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Small satellites, such as CubeSats, are increasingly being called upon to perform missions traditionally ascribed to larger satellite systems. However, the market of components and hardware for small satellites, particularly CubeSats, still falls short of providing the necessary capabilities required by ever increasing mission demands. One way to overcome this shortfall is to develop the ability to customize every build. By utilizing fabrication methods such as additive manufacturing, mission specific capabilities can be built into a system, or into the structure, that commercial off-the-shelf components may not be able to provide. A partnership between the University of Texas at El Paso, COSMIAC at the University of New Mexico, Northrop Grumman, and the NASA Glenn Research Center is looking into using additive manufacturing techniques to build a complete CubeSat, under the Small Spacecraft Technology Program. The W. M. Keck Center at the University of Texas at El Paso has previously demonstrated the ability to embed electronics and wires into the addtively manufactured structures. Using this technique, features such as antennas and propulsion systems can be included into the CubeSat structural body. Of interest to this paper, the team is investigating the ability to take a commercial micro pulsed plasma thruster and embed it into the printing process. Tests demonstrating the dielectric strength of the printed material and proof-of-concept demonstration of the printed thruster will be shown.

  10. Constraining the violation of the equivalence principle with IceCube atmospheric neutrino data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaili, A.; Gratieri, D. R.; Guzzo, M. M.; de Holanda, P. C.; Peres, O. L. G.; Valdiviesso, G. A.

    2014-06-01

    The recent high-statistics high-energy atmospheric neutrino data collected by IceCube open a new window to probe new physics scenarios that are suppressed in lower-energy neutrino experiments. In this paper we analyze the IceCube atmospheric neutrino data to constrain the violation of equivalence principle (VEP) in the framework of three neutrinos with nonuniversal gravitational couplings. In this scenario the effect of the VEP on neutrino oscillation probabilities can be parametrized by two parameters, Δγ21≡γ2-γ1 and Δγ31≡γ3-γ1, where γi's denote the coupling of neutrino mass eigenstates to the gravitational field. By analyzing the latest muon-tracks data sets of IceCube-40 and IceCube-79, besides providing the two-dimensional allowed regions in the (ϕΔγ21,ϕΔγ31) plane, we obtain the upper limits |ϕΔγ21|VEP on neutrino oscillation probabilities.

  11. Experimental provocation of 'ice-cream headache' by ice cubes and ice water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mages, Stephan; Hensel, Ole; Zierz, Antonia Maria; Kraya, Torsten; Zierz, Stephan

    2017-04-01

    Background There are various studies on experimentally provoked 'ice-cream headache' or 'headache attributed to ingestion or inhalation of a cold stimulus' (HICS) using different provocation protocols. The aim of this study was to compare two provocation protocols. Methods Ice cubes pressed to the palate and fast ingestion of ice water were used to provoke HICS and clinical features were compared. Results The ice-water stimulus provoked HICS significantly more often than the ice-cube stimulus (9/77 vs. 39/77). Ice-water-provoked HICS had a significantly shorter latency (median 15 s, range 4-97 s vs. median 68 s, range 27-96 s). There was no difference in pain localisation. Character after ice-cube stimulation was predominantly described as pressing and after ice-water stimulation as stabbing. A second HICS followed in 10/39 (26%) of the headaches provoked by ice water. Lacrimation occurred significantly more often in volunteers with than in those without HICS. Discussion HICS provoked by ice water was more frequent, had a shorter latency, different pain character and higher pain intensity than HICS provoked by ice cubes. The finding of two subsequent HICS attacks in the same volunteers supports the notion that two types of HICS exist. Lacrimation during HICS indicates involvement of the trigeminal-autonomic reflex.

  12. Applying the cube model to pediatric psychology: development of research competency skills at the doctoral level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan-Swain, Avi; Hankins, Shirley L; Gilliam, Margaux Barnes; Ross, Kelly; Reynolds, Nina; Milby, Jesse; Schwebel, David C

    2012-03-01

    This article considers the development of research competencies in professional psychology and how that movement might be applied to training in pediatric psychology. The field of pediatric psychology has a short but rich history, and experts have identified critical competencies. However, pediatric psychology has not yet detailed a set of research-based competencies. This article initially reviews the competency initiative in professional psychology, including the cube model as it relates to research training. Next, we review and adapt the knowledge-based/foundational and applied/functional research competencies proposed by health psychology into a cube model for pediatric psychology. We focus especially on graduate-level training but allude to its application throughout professional development. We present the cube model as it is currently being applied to the development of a systematic research competency evaluation for graduate training at our medical/clinical psychology doctoral program at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. Based on the review and synthesis of the literature on research competency in professional psychology we propose future initiatives to develop these competencies for the field of pediatric psychology. The cube model can be successfully applied to the development of research training competencies in pediatric psychology. Future research should address the development, implementation, and assessment of the research competencies for training and career development of future pediatric psychologists.

  13. The split cube in a cage: bulk negative-index material for infrared applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Menzel, C.; Rockstuhl, C.

    2009-01-01

    We propose the split cube in a cage (SCiC) design for application in producing a bulk metamaterial. Applying realistic material data for thin silver films, we observe an immediate convergence of the effective parameters obtained with a number of layers towards the bulk properties. Results are obt...

  14. Synthesis of highly monodispersed Ga-soc-MOF hollow cubes, colloidosomes and nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xuechao; Deng, Xiaoran; Xie, Zhongxi; Bao, Shouxin; Shi, Yanshu; Lin, Jun; Pang, Maolin; Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2016-08-02

    Ga-soc-MOF hollow cubes with an average size of about 300 nm were prepared by a polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) assisted acid etching process. Colloidosomes with sizes of around 5-10 μm composed of single-layer tetrakaidecahedron building blocks (BBs) were synthesized for the first time. Au@Ga-soc-MOF nanocomposites with excellent catalytic properties were obtained.

  15. Hybrid Cloud Computing Environment for EarthCube and Geoscience Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C. P.; Qin, H.

    2016-12-01

    The NSF EarthCube Integration and Test Environment (ECITE) has built a hybrid cloud computing environment to provides cloud resources from private cloud environments by using cloud system software - OpenStack and Eucalyptus, and also manages public cloud - Amazon Web Service that allow resource synchronizing and bursting between private and public cloud. On ECITE hybrid cloud platform, EarthCube and geoscience community can deploy and manage the applications by using base virtual machine images or customized virtual machines, analyze big datasets by using virtual clusters, and real-time monitor the virtual resource usage on the cloud. Currently, a number of EarthCube projects have deployed or started migrating their projects to this platform, such as CHORDS, BCube, CINERGI, OntoSoft, and some other EarthCube building blocks. To accomplish the deployment or migration, administrator of ECITE hybrid cloud platform prepares the specific needs (e.g. images, port numbers, usable cloud capacity, etc.) of each project in advance base on the communications between ECITE and participant projects, and then the scientists or IT technicians in those projects launch one or multiple virtual machines, access the virtual machine(s) to set up computing environment if need be, and migrate their codes, documents or data without caring about the heterogeneity in structure and operations among different cloud platforms.

  16. First search for dark matter annihilations in the Earth with the IceCube detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aartsen, M. G.; Abraham, K.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Ahrens, M.; Altmann, D.; Andeen, K.; Anderson, T.; Ansseau, I.; Anton, G.; Archinger, M.; Argüelles, C.; Auffenberg, J.; Axani, S.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker Tjus, J.; Becker, K.-H.; BenZvi, S.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bernhard, A.; Besson, D. Z.; Binder, G.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blot, S.; Bohm, C.; Börner, M.; Bos, F.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Braun, J.; Brayeur, L.; Bretz, H.-P.; Bron, S.; Burgman, A.; Carver, T.; Casier, M.; Cheung, E.; Chirkin, D.; Christov, A.; Clark, K.; Classen, L.; Coenders, S.; Collin, G. H.; Conrad, J. M.; Cowen, D. F.; Cross, R.; Day, M.; de André, J. P. A. M.; De Clercq, C.; del Pino Rosendo, E.; Dembinski, H.; De Ridder, S.; Desiati, P.; de Vries, K. D.; de Wasseige, G.; de With, M.; DeYoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; di Lorenzo, V.; Dujmovic, H.; Dumm, J. P.; Dunkman, M.; Eberhardt, B.; Ehrhardt, T.; Eichmann, B.; Eller, P.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fahey, S.; Fazely, A. R.; Feintzeig, J.; Felde, J.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Flis, S.; Fösig, C.-C.; Franckowiak, A.; Friedman, E.; Fuchs, T.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Ghorbani, K.; Giang, W.; Gladstone, L.; Glagla, M.; Glauch, T.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Golup, G.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Grant, D.; Griffith, Z.; Haack, C.; Haj Ismail, A.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hansen, E.; Hansmann, B.; Hansmann, T.; Hanson, K.; Hebecker, D.; Heereman, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hickford, S.; Hignight, J.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Holzapfel, K.; Hoshina, K.; Huang, F.; Huber, M.; Hultqvist, K.; In, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jeong, M.; Jero, K.; Jones, B. J. P.; Jurkovic, M.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Katz, U.; Kauer, M.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, J.; Kheirandish, A.; Kim, M.; Kintscher, T.; Kiryluk, J.; Kittler, T.; Klein, S. R.; Kohnen, G.; Koirala, R.; Kolanoski, H.; Konietz, R.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Krings, K.; Kroll, M.; Krückl, G.; Krüger, C.; Kunnen, J.; Kunwar, S.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Lanfranchi, J. L.; Larson, M. J.; Lauber, F.; Lennarz, D.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Leuermann, M.; Leuner, J.; Lu, L.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Maggi, G.; Mahn, K. B. M.; Mancina, S.; Mandelartz, M.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Maunu, R.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Medici, M.; Meier, M.; Meli, A.; Menne, T.; Merino, G.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Mohrmann, L.; Montaruli, T.; Moulai, M.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Neer, G.; Niederhausen, H.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Obertacke Pollmann, A.; Olivas, A.; O'Murchadha, A.; Palczewski, T.; Pandya, H.; Pankova, D. V.; Peiffer, P.; Penek, Ö.; Pepper, J. A.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Pieloth, D.; Pinat, E.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Quinnan, M.; Raab, C.; Rädel, L.; Rameez, M.; Rawlins, K.; Reimann, R.; Relethford, B.; Relich, M.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Richman, M.; Riedel, B.; Robertson, S.; Rongen, M.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ryckbosch, D.; Rysewyk, D.; Sabbatini, L.; Sanchez Herrera, S. E.; Sandrock, A.; Sandroos, J.; Sarkar, S.; Satalecka, K.; Schimp, M.; Schlunder, P.; Schmidt, T.; Schoenen, S.; Schöneberg, S.; Schumacher, L.; Seckel, D.; Seunarine, S.; Soldin, D.; Song, M.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stahlberg, M.; Stanev, T.; Stasik, A.; Stettner, J.; Steuer, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stößl, A.; Ström, R.; Strotjohann, N. L.; Sullivan, G. W.; Sutherland, M.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tatar, J.; Tenholt, F.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Terliuk, A.; Tešić, G.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Tobin, M. N.; Toscano, S.; Tosi, D.; Tselengidou, M.; Turcati, A.; Unger, E.; Usner, M.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vanheule, S.; van Rossem, M.; van Santen, J.; Veenkamp, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Vogel, E.; Vraeghe, M.; Walck, C.; Wallace, A.; Wallraff, M.; Wandkowsky, N.; Weaver, Ch.; Weiss, M. J.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wickmann, S.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Wille, L.; Williams, D. R.; Wills, L.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woolsey, E.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Xu, Y.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zoll, M.

    2017-02-01

    We present the results of the first IceCube search for dark matter annihilation in the center of the Earth. Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), candidates for dark matter, can scatter off nuclei inside the Earth and fall below its escape velocity. Over time the captured WIMPs will be accumulated and may eventually self-annihilate. Among the annihilation products only neutrinos can escape from the center of the Earth. Large-scale neutrino telescopes, such as the cubic kilometer IceCube Neutrino Observatory located at the South Pole, can be used to search for such neutrino fluxes. Data from 327 days of detector livetime during 2011/2012 were analyzed. No excess beyond the expected background from atmospheric neutrinos was detected. The derived upper limits on the annihilation rate of WIMPs in the Earth and the resulting muon flux are an order of magnitude stronger than the limits of the last analysis performed with data from IceCube's predecessor AMANDA. The limits can be translated in terms of a spin-independent WIMP-nucleon cross section. For a WIMP mass of 50 GeV this analysis results in the most restrictive limits achieved with IceCube data.

  17. A consistent theory of decaying Dark Matter connecting IceCube to the Sesame Street

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chianese, Marco; Merle, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    The high energy events observed at the IceCube Neutrino Observatory have triggered many investigations interpreting the highly energetic neutrinos detected as decay products of heavy unstable Dark Matter particles. However, while very detailed treatments of the IceCube phenomenology exist, only a few references focus on the (non-trivial) Dark Matter production part—and all of those rely on relatively complicated new models which are not always testable directly. We instead investigate two of the most minimal scenarios possible, where the operator responsible for the IceCube events is directly involved in Dark Matter production. We show that the simplest (four-dimensional) operator is not powerful enough to accommodate all constraints. A more non-minimal setting (at mass dimension six), however, can do both fitting all the data and also allowing for a comparatively small parameter space only, parts of which can be in reach of future observations. We conclude that minimalistic approaches can be enough to explain all data required, while complicated new physics seems not to be required by IceCube.

  18. First Evidence For Atmospheric Neutrino-Induced Cascades with the IceCube Detector

    CERN Document Server

    D'Agostino, Michelangelo

    2009-01-01

    IceCube is an all-flavor, cubic kilometer neutrino telescope currently under construction in the deep glacial ice at the South Pole. Its embedded optical sensors detect Cherenkov light from charged particles produced in neutrino interactions in the ice. For several years IceCube has been detecting muon tracks from charged-current muon neutrino interactions. However, IceCube has yet to observe the electromagnetic or hadronic particle showers or "cascades" initiated by charged-current or neutral-current neutrino interactions. The first detection of such an event signature is expected to come from the known flux of atmospheric electron and muon neutrinos. A search for atmospheric neutrino-induced cascades was performed using 275.46 days of data from IceCube's 22-string configuration. Reconstruction and background rejection techniques were developed to reach, for the first time, a signal-to-background ratio ~1. Above a reconstructed energy of 5 TeV, 12 candidate events were observed in the full dataset. The signa...

  19. Mind the Gap on IceCube: Cosmic neutrino spectrum and muon anomalous magnetic moment

    CERN Document Server

    Araki, T; Konishi, Y; Ota, T; Sato, J; Shimomura, T

    2015-01-01

    Introducing a leptonic U(1) gauge symmetry, we try to reproduce the gap in the cosmic neutrino spectrum reported by the IceCube collaboration, and at the same time, make an additional contribution to the muon anomalous magnetic moment, which fills the gap between the standard model prediction and the experimental observation.

  20. Optimal two-class-based storage in a live-cube compact storage system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Zaerpour (Nima); Y. Yu (Yugang); M.B.M. de Koster (René)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractLive-cube compact storage systems realize high storage space utilization and high throughput, due to full automation and independent movements of unit loads in three-dimensional space. Applying an optimal two-class-based storage policy where high-turnover products are stored at locations