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Sample records for cubans iranians poles

  1. 75 FR 10997 - Cuban Assets Control Regulations; Sudanese Sanctions Regulations; Iranian Transactions Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... the sanctions on Sudan and Iran do not have an unintended chilling effect on the ability of companies... as instant messaging, chat and e-mail, social networking, sharing of photos and movies, web browsing... other things, increasing the flow of information to the Cuban people. Consistent with that...

  2. Cuban Landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scarpaci, Joseph L.; Portela, Armando

    (cubanidad), and vice versa. They provide a unique perspective on Cuba’s distinct historical periods and political economies, from the colonial period through republicanism and today’s socialist era. Compelling topics include the legacies of slavery and the sugar industry, the past and future of urban......This accessible book offers a vivid geographic portrait of Cuba, exploring the island’s streetscapes, sugar cane fields, beaches, and rural settlements; its billboards, government buildings, and national landmarks. The authors illuminate how natural and built landscapes have shaped Cuban identity...

  3. Cuban Landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scarpaci, Joseph L.; Portela, Armando

    This accessible book offers a vivid geographic portrait of Cuba, exploring the island’s streetscapes, sugar cane fields, beaches, and rural settlements; its billboards, government buildings, and national landmarks. The authors illuminate how natural and built landscapes have shaped Cuban identity...... (cubanidad), and vice versa. They provide a unique perspective on Cuba’s distinct historical periods and political economies, from the colonial period through republicanism and today’s socialist era. Compelling topics include the legacies of slavery and the sugar industry, the past and future of urban...

  4. Osteopilus septentrionalis (Cuban treefrog)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glorioso, Brad M.; Steece, Aaron; Lemann, Zachary K.; Lazare, Remy; Beck, James W.

    2016-01-01

    USA: LOUISIANA: St. Tammany Parish: on private property on Allen Road in Slidell (ca. 30.262°N, 89.741°W; WGS 84). 2 April 2013. Aaron Steece. Verified by Hardin Waddle. Florida Museum of Natural History (UF 177727, photo voucher). New parish record. This adult was found ca. 2 m high on a branch at the edge of a wooded area behind a house. It was photographed and released, as the species identity and significance was unknown. The origin of this individual is unknown. The homeowner stated that he bought nursery plants often, but checked them thoroughly as he put them indoors. Since this initial finding, the homeowner learned more about Cuban Treefrogs and searched for them on many occasions at this location for two years, but detected no additional Cuban Treefrogs.

  5. Erotic(izing Cubans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia R. Domínguez

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Sugar's Secrets: Race and the Erotics of Cuban Nationalism. VERA M. KUTZINSKI. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1993. xvii + 287 pp. (Cloth US$ 40.00, Paper US$ 17.95 Life on the Hyphen: The Cuban-American Way. GUSTAVO PÉREZ FlRMAT. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1994. xii + 217 pp. (Cloth US$ 30.00, Paper US$ 12.95 When a country is subjected to as much external political and ideological scrutiny as Cuba in the post-Batista years, scholarly explorations of something other than its foreign policy, its political economy, and its human rights abuses provide a breath of fresh air. But I am struck by the other things Sugar's Secrets and Life on the Hyphen have in common and how suspicious I am of their commonalities.

  6. Cuban school dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Sven; Ruiz Miyares, Leonel

    2013-01-01

    One of the reasons why many publishing houses hesitate when allocating resources to the development of more advanced concepts of school dictionaries is the relatively poor sales and corresponding profits coming from this category of dictionaries. A major challenge is therefore how to change...... the situation, stimulate the use and sales of school dictionaries, and guarantee the necessary investment in product development. The contribution will take up this challenge. It will give no final answer, but it will discuss an experience with a Cuban school dictionary which has reached its target users...... which is affecting both school children and lexicographers in many countries and language communities....

  7. Prehospital cardiac care Cuban style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Báez, Amado Alejandro; Sadosty, Annie T

    2004-09-01

    The Cuban national Integrated Medical Emergeny System or "Sistema Integrado de Urgencias Medicas" (SIUM) was formed in 1997. In 1998, the SIUM began an active out-of-hospital thrombolysis program using Heberkinasa, the only streptokinase obtained through recombinant DNA techniques, produced by the Cuban Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology. An active community training program has also been implemented, standardizing training for the almost 20,000 members of the national emergency medical services.

  8. Cuban internationalism - an alternative form of globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Maria; Melluish, Steve; Lorenzo, Alexis

    2014-10-01

    This paper looks at how the principles of internationalism have been integral to the Cuban healthcare system and to Cuba's cooperation and medical support in other countries around the world. The paper details the range and scope of Cuban health internationalism and the principles that underpin the Cuban approach of long-term collaboration, humane care, contextualization, trans-disciplinarity, respect for collective/historical memory and an ethical stance. The paper details the role of Cuban psychologists who have contributed to disaster relief work and gives an example of the Cuban approach in relation to Haiti following the earthquake in 2010.

  9. Bibliography of Cuban terrestrial Mollusca, including related and biohistorical papers on Cuban malacology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breure, A.S.H.; González Guillén, A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive overview of literature on Cuban terrestrial molluscs since the 18th century. It currently cites approximately 1000 references, dealing with a) primary and secondary sources directly treating Cuban taxa or relevant for the study of the Cuban malacofauna; b) abstrac

  10. Isoflavonoids isolated from Cuban propolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinelli, Anna Lisa; Campo Fernandez, Mercedes; Cuesta-Rubio, Osmany; Márquez Hernández, Ingrid; De Simone, Francesco; Rastrelli, Luca

    2005-11-16

    Chemical investigation of a red-type Cuban propolis sample has led to the isolation of 11 isoflavonoids (2 isoflavones, 3 isoflavans, and 6 pterocarpans), together with gallic acid, isoliquiritigenin, and (-)-liquiritigenin. Structural determination, including the absolute stereochemistry, was accomplished by spectroscopic analysis, particularly CD and 2D NMR techniques. The fragmentation behavior of pterocarpans was studied by electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) using an ion-trap analyzer, and a generalized fragmentation pathway, useful in the identification and structural characterization of pterocarpans, is proposed. Isoflavonoids are reported for the first time from propolis samples.

  11. Lifestyle Risk Factors and Cardiovascular Disease in Cubans and Cuban Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa S. Burroughs Peña

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in Cuba. Lifestyle risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD in Cubans have not been compared to risk factors in Cuban Americans. Articles spanning the last 20 years were reviewed. The data on Cuban Americans are largely based on the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HHANES, 1982–1984, while more recent data on epidemiological trends in Cuba are available. The prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus remains greater in Cuban Americans than in Cubans. However, dietary preferences, low physical activity, and tobacco use are contributing to the rising rates of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and CHD in Cuba, putting Cubans at increased cardiovascular risk. Comprehensive national strategies for cardiovascular prevention that address these modifiable lifestyle risk factors are necessary to address the increasing threat to public health in Cuba.

  12. Ser Cubano (To Be Cuban): The Evolution of Cuban-American Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueredo, Danilo H.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the generations of Cuban and Cuban American writers who have borne witness, in Spanish and now in English, to the oppression of Castro's regime, the pain of leaving Cuba, and the family conflicts occurring in the new land. Highlights the tragic figure of Reinaldo Arenas, a homosexual writer, anti-Castro activist, and immigrant. (GR)

  13. Demographic and Related Determinants of Recent Cuban Emigration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briquets, Sergio Diaz

    1983-01-01

    Examines principal demographic determinants of recent Cuban emigration and discusses how these demographic variables interact with other social, economic, and political determinants. Suggests that Cuban labor migration is more responsive to demographic factors than some theorists assume. (Author/MJL)

  14. Study of the Cuban fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, M. O. C.; Córdoba, D.

    2010-03-01

    With the help of aerial photographs, satellite photographs and imageries, contour maps, geological and geomorphological information (personal correspondence and unpublished works), geophysical regional data, and field work, it has been possible to map a network of fractures, alignments, and faults in 26 areas (distinguishing them quantitatively and hierarchically). Links with known regional structures were also studied. Interpretation of the linear relief elements confirms the very different density, dimensions, strikes, and function of the fracturation and also, from a microtectonic perspective, explains the activity of some active faults better. It has confirmed some previous results and improved on others; for example, the Oriente fault which is the most active in Cuba with two segments (Western: Cabo Cruz—Santiago de Cuba; Eastern: Santiago de Cuba—Punta de Maisí, the Western fault being the most active); the Nortecubana fault, forming the northern limit of the Cuban megablock, and divided into three segments; and the Cauto—Nipe fault, forming the limit of the neotectonic units, presenting two segments with three seismoactive knots.

  15. THE CUBAN WOMEN IN AGRICULTURE: RECOVERY OF EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Beatriz Arce-Rodríguez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The author brings an analysis about Cuban rural women in development projects due to different historical moments of Cuban Revolution of Fidel Castro after 1959. An experience in the western part of the country, Holguin, is showed as an example of improvement of Cuban rural women participation in development local projects with gender perspective.

  16. 31 CFR 515.574 - Support for the Cuban People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Support for the Cuban People. 515.574..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.574 Support for the Cuban People. (a) Specific licenses....560(c) and other transactions that are intended to provide support for the Cuban people including,...

  17. Cuban Science and the Open Access Alternative

    CERN Document Server

    Arencibia Jorge, Ricardo; Torricella-Morales, Raúl G

    2004-01-01

    Science in Cuba has experienced extraordinary development since the triumph of the Cuban Revolution, in spite of the blockade to which Cuba has been subjected by the United States Government, and thanks to the support and cooperation of the countries that were part of the former Socialist Block. However, after the destruction of the Socialist Block, the Cuban economy suffered through a restructuring process that included the reorganization of the traditional systems for spreading scientific information. At that moment, it was necessary to use alternative means to effectively publicise, to the international scientific community, the information generated by Cuban scientists and scholars. This paper briefly reviews this new era, the institutions that led the process of change, and the future projections based on knowledge of the digital environment and the creation of electronic and open access information sources.

  18. Much Ado about Something: Cuban Biotech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Cuban advances in biotech have made headlines, particularly since the US-Cuba rapprochement and signing of the historic memorandum of understanding between the US Department of Health and Human Services and Cuba's Ministry of Public Health in June. Some 34 Cuban institutions with 22,000 employees are the backbone of a biotech industry that dates to the early 1980s, obtaining novel products that have sparked interest among potential global partners. While a number of these Cuban products are registered in various countries, their testing in the USA remains ensnared in the red tape of embargo laws that tend to make investors skittish and thus delay, if not curtail, joint research and clinical trial applications to the FDA.

  19. Ethnobotany of pru, a traditional Cuban refreshment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volpato, G.; Godínez, D.

    2004-01-01

    Gouania polygama (Jacq.) Urban, Smilax domingensis Willd., and Pimenta dioica Merr., are three species widely used within Cuban ethnobotanical traditions and practices. Pru is a traditional refreshment and medicinal drink produced by their decoction and fermentation with sugar. It is claimed to have

  20. Synthesis of Tetra-Functional Cubane Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-03

    cubane-1,4-diacid (Figure 15) shows a similar sharp decomposition exotherm at 246’C and a smaller unexplained exotherm at 220°C. TGA analysis revealed...in CH 2 C] 2 on a Perkin- Elmer 700 spectrometer. DSC and TGA analysis were performed on a Dupont 9900 Thermoanalyzer. 18 0 19) (0- - ~ t-4 ,10 In do

  1. Cuban economically active population: a new battle?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Lourdes Vila Pérez

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the challenges that Cuban society faces today is not only its population´s aging as an objective and natural phenomenon; but the impact of this demographic problem on the economically active population. This category includes persons with appropriate working capacity between 17 years and the retirement age, which is stated in the act No. 24 of Cuban Social Security. Since we support the idea of increasing production and productivity of goods worldwide, and we hold up any initiative to enhance human satisfaction or happiness, it is unprofitable for us not to be able to have millions of persons on condition that they spend their physical and mental capacity in the creation of our wealth. Thus, it is important to be aware of the new approaches regarding social policy, in which health workers have a central role to guarantee an increase in life expectancy, among other benefits.

  2. 'Cubanalismo': The Cuban Alternative to Neoliberalism

    OpenAIRE

    Carlo Fanelli

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT—This paper compares and contrasts neoliberal discourses with the Cuban method of development, referred to as cubanalismo, in the areas of healthcare and education, economic and environmental policies, and explores free trade as opposed to needs-based trade. Furthermore, the author explores whether or not Latin America is witnessing the “dawning of a new era” in terms of regional solidarity and anti-neoliberalism, as well as discusses Cuba’s foreign internationalism and humanitarian r...

  3. Lower pole stones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanguedolce, Francesco; Breda, Alberto; Millan, Felix

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess efficacy and safety of prone- and supine percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) for the treatment of lower pole kidney stones. METHODS: Data from patients affected by lower pole kidney stones and treated with PCNL between December 2005 and August 2010 were collected retrospectivel...

  4. Race, Wages, and Assimilation among Cuban Immigrants. Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavodny, Madeline

    This study uses data from the 1980 and 1990 Census and the 1994-2000 Current Population Survey to examine the determinants of earnings among male Cuban immigrants in the United States by race. Nonwhite Cuban immigrants earn about 15 percent less than Whites, on average. Much of the racial wage gap is due to differences in educational attainment,…

  5. Effects of Humanitarian Aid: A Cuban Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-09-01

    from Cuban and South African health officials alike. South African Health Minister Manto Tshablala-Msimang made statements that “Cuban doctors...in rural clinics. The program began in 1997 with 61 students. Health Minister Manto Tshablala-Msimang addressed the students, “You are going with

  6. Acculturation, Media Exposure, and Eating Disorders in Cuban American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jane, Dulce M.; Hunter, George C.; Lozzi, Bettina

    This study examined the dual roles of continued close ties with the Cuban community and culture of origin, as well as influences of print and broadcast media, in the development of attitudes toward both type and propensity toward eating disorders among young Cuban-American women. Continued exclusive or primary use of Spanish language in the home,…

  7. Pedagogical professional training in Cuban educative context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayre Acosta Calderón

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The conception of the pedagogical professional training has evolved alongside with the educative changes that have taken place in the history of Cuban education. This research was intended to examine the evolution of professional training from the foundation of colleges of Education to the present. The study takes into account the relation of the instructive, educative and developing aspects; the development of the professional needs and their influence on cognitive and formative activity of learners and their professional performance; the components of contents included in the evaluation of the professional competence; and the comprehensive disciplinary approach of the formation process. Thus, this investigation is aimed at providing a historical analysis of the development of the pedagogical professional training, illustrating the continuity of the formative process in Cuban context. This study revealed the main trends of the pedagogical professional training for the General Senior High Education, It shows the movement from a former segmentation of instructive and educative components and emotional and intellectual educations to a and interconnected approach of both processes.

  8. Bibliographic reviews in Cuban medical journals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucitere Rodríguez González

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bibliographic reviews acquire great importance in the specific context of medical publications; however, some editorial facts can affect their scientific value. Objective: To characterize the bibliographic reviews published by some Cuban medical journals. Methods: The most recent reviews (10 were analyzed by means of an exploratory, retrospective and descriptive study. Selected from 5 electronic medical journals, summing up 50 articles. The following variables were studied: article's length, statement of objective and characteristics of bibliographic references. Results: In 20 reviews the objective was not stated, only in 23 (46% the objective was correctly declared. More than 50% of the article had between 4 and 9 screens; 16 structural variables were found with a predominance of blocks and block plus discussion. Only 20 (40% gathered between 25 and 50 references and 24 had more than 50% of their references not updated. Conclusion: There is a misapprehension regarding the review article among Cuban medical journals, which could somehow affect its pertinence and scientific rigor to the eyes of the international scientific community.

  9. Dietary reference intakes for the cuban population, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Triana, Manuel; Porrata, Carmen; Jiménez, Santa; Rodríguez, Armando; Carrillo, Olimpia; García, Alvaro; Valdés, Lourdes; Esquivel, Mercedes

    2009-10-01

    Recommended dietary reference intakes (DRI) for energy and nutrients for the Cuban population were first established by the Nutrition and Food Hygiene Institute (INHA, its Spanish acronym) in 1996.[1] International organizations and Cuban public health research subsequently generated a considerable volume of new information on food-based energy and nutrient requirements,[2-4] resulting in the need for a revision. Updated DRIs were therefore compiled by a multidisciplinary group of specialists and published in 2008 by INHA and the Cuban Ministry of Public Health.[5,6].

  10. 31 CFR 515.558 - Bunkering of Cuban vessels and fueling of Cuban aircraft by American-owned or controlled foreign...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bunkering of Cuban vessels and... Licensing Policy § 515.558 Bunkering of Cuban vessels and fueling of Cuban aircraft by American-owned or... in transactions ordinarily incident to the bunkering of vessels and to the fueling of aircraft...

  11. The enthalpy of sublimation of cubane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bashir-Hashemi, A.; Chickos, James S.; Hanshaw, William; Zhao Hui; Farivar, Behzad S.; Liebman, Joel F

    2004-12-15

    The sublimation enthalpy of cubane, a key reference material for force field and quantum mechanical computations, was measured by combining the vaporization enthalpy at T = 298.15 K to the sum of the fusion enthalpy measured at T = 405 K and a solid-solid phase transition that occurs at T 394 K. The fusion and solid-solid phase transitions were measured previously. A sublimation enthalpy value of (55.2 {+-} 2.0) kJ mol{sup -1} at T = 298.15 K was obtained. This value compares quite favorably the value obtained by comparing the sublimation enthalpy of similar substances as a function of their molar masses but is at odds with earlier measurements.

  12. Obtaining superfine ethanol in a Cuban distillery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yailet Albernas Carvajal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes obtaining superfine ethanol in a Cuban distillery from molasses as base raw material. The operational characteristics of the main stages for obtaining superfine alcohol have been described, emphasising alcohol fermentation due to its complexity in achieving process continuity; a Gantt chart led to determining a 31-hour process time and 5-hour cycle time. The influence of fermentation yield on process profitability was determined through mass and energy balances, demonstrating that a 4ºGL degree of alcohol was feasible. The main water-consuming elements were also determined (98% in molasses dilution as well as steam consumption (91% during distillation. A preliminary analysis was made of the opportunities provided by material and energy integration, mainly for distillation, contributing towards a positive environmental impact.

  13. Researching in education findings visibility: How Cubans are doing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres, Paúl A.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of Cuban educational research visibility by considering international ranking positioning of intellectual production in the field of education. A case study is conducted with outstanding Cuban educational researchers comparing their results with other prestigious professionals in the continent. Finally, new basic resources are proposed and explained for improving Bibliometric indicators by taking advantage of Google Scholar potentials in favoring international ranking positioning.

  14. Rad Pole Cam Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckendorn, F. M.; Odell, D. M. C; Harpring, L. J.; Peterson, K. D.

    2005-10-05

    The RadPoleCam was developed to provide Department Of Energy (DOE) first responders the capability to assess the radiological and visual condition of remote or inaccessible locations. Real time gamma isotopic identification is provided to the first responder in the form of audio feedback (i.e. spoken through head phones) from a gamma detector mounted on a collapsible pole that can extend from 1 to 9 meters (6 to 29 feet). Simultaneously, selectable direct and side looking visual images are provided from the 5cm (2in) diameter, waterproof probe tip. The lightweight, self contained, ruggedized, system will provide a rapidly deployable field system for visual and radiological search and assessment of confined spaces and extended reach locations.

  15. Constraining gluon poles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Anikin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this letter, we revise the QED gauge invariance for the hadron tensor of Drell–Yan type processes with the transversely polarized hadron. We perform our analysis within the Feynman gauge for gluons and make a comparison with the results obtained within the light-cone gauge. We demonstrate that QED gauge invariance leads, first, to the need of a non-standard diagram and, second, to the absence of gluon poles in the correlators 〈ψ¯γ⊥A+ψ〉 related traditionally to dT(x,x/dx. As a result, these terms disappear from the final QED gauge invariant hadron tensor. We also verify the absence of such poles by analyzing the corresponding light-cone Dirac algebra.

  16. Sex and sentiment in Cuban tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babb, Florence E

    2010-01-01

    Helen Safa has been a leading program builder and pioneer in research that examines the complex intersections of gender, race, class, and nation in Latin America and the Caribbean. Her comparative research culminated in her influential book, The Myth of the Male Breadwinner: Women and Industrialization in the Caribbean (1995), which examined gender, family, and employment across three Caribbean societies. Over several decades Safa has inspired scholarship throughout the Caribbean and the Americas and her work is exemplary of engaged anthropology in the region. Here I present work I conducted in Cuba that was guided, like my work in Peru, Nicaragua, and southern Mexico by the writings of Safa and others who saw the critical need to bring gender into meaningful discussion in the field of Latin American and Caribbean studies. In what follows, drawn from my broader research on tourism in four nations, I explore and reflect on the contemporary dynamics of sex and romance tourism in Cuba. I suggest that the allure of this domain of tourism may be enhanced by Cuba's global political identity, and that Cuban women participating in commodified and intimate exchanges reveal an ability to get along in a market economy that generally excludes them.

  17. Wood pole overhead lines

    CERN Document Server

    Wareing, Brian

    2005-01-01

    This new book concentrates on the mechanical aspects of distribution wood pole lines, including live line working, environmental influences, climate change and international standards. Other topics include statutory requirements, safety, profiling, traditional and probabilistic design, weather loads, bare and covered conductors, different types of overhead systems, conductor choice, construction and maintenance. A section has also been devoted to the topic of lightning, which is one of the major sources of faults on overhead lines. The book focuses on the effects of this problem and the strate

  18. Nostalgia, Shame and the Transplanted Cuban: "la cubana arrepentida"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Lorenzo

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Literature can illuminate and extend our understanding of the affect of shame. In this paper, I will use extracts from my fictional works, published and in progress, and other fictional work and poetry by Cuban and Cuban-American exile writers to illustrate some aspects of shaming in relation to the experience of being a Cuban-American migrant in the United States, particularly relative to the sense of exilic nostalgia for the lost homeland. I will also look at how shame is used by the minority culture to control, erode or slow the process of assimilation and to try to maintain the illusion of the superiority of the minority culture.

  19. Periodically poled silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hon, Nick K.; Tsia, Kevin K.; Solli, Daniel R.; Khurgin, Jacob B.; Jalali, Bahram

    2010-02-01

    Bulk centrosymmetric silicon lacks second-order optical nonlinearity χ(2) - a foundational component of nonlinear optics. Here, we propose a new class of photonic device which enables χ(2) as well as quasi-phase matching based on periodic stress fields in silicon - periodically-poled silicon (PePSi). This concept adds the periodic poling capability to silicon photonics, and allows the excellent crystal quality and advanced manufacturing capabilities of silicon to be harnessed for devices based on χ(2)) effects. The concept can also be simply achieved by having periodic arrangement of stressed thin films along a silicon waveguide. As an example of the utility, we present simulations showing that mid-wave infrared radiation can be efficiently generated through difference frequency generation from near-infrared with a conversion efficiency of 50% based on χ(2) values measurements for strained silicon reported in the literature [Jacobson et al. Nature 441, 199 (2006)]. The use of PePSi for frequency conversion can also be extended to terahertz generation. With integrated piezoelectric material, dynamically control of χ(2)nonlinearity in PePSi waveguide may also be achieved. The successful realization of PePSi based devices depends on the strength of the stress induced χ(2) in silicon. Presently, there exists a significant discrepancy in the literature between the theoretical and experimentally measured values. We present a simple theoretical model that produces result consistent with prior theoretical works and use this model to identify possible reasons for this discrepancy.

  20. Iranian Women in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi, Dina; Seiedfadaei, Azita

    2009-04-01

    Women in the world have made great contributions to science. In Iran more than 60% of undergraduate university students are women, most in physics. Women's representation in postgraduate studies is lower; however, these numbers do not account for those who go to other countries to continue their studies, of which there are many. Alinoush Tarian, the oldest woman professor in Iran, the first Iranian woman professor of physics, and the founder of the first solar telescopic observatory in Iran, is one of them. There are some women physicists in Iran that are working as professors at the universities and famous institutes such as the Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics. Iranians have always showed their talents and intelligence everywhere in the world, and nowadays, some of the women physics teachers in Iran are trying to teach physics with new methods to attract more students.

  1. Iranian Orientalism : notions of the other in modern Iranian thought

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alsulami, Mohammed S.H.

    2014-01-01

    The study addresses and explains the issue of negative descriptions of the Arab Other in modern Iranian thought. It attempts to understand and illustrate what the notion of the Arab means for Iranians and how Arabs are portrayed and by examining how they depicted, It describes why they depicted in m

  2. Chemical Society Reinstates Iranian Chemists; Iranian-American Scholar Arrested

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollag, Burton

    2007-01-01

    The frosty relationship between the United States and Iran has created a chill in many areas of scholarly endeavor. One resulting battle, over whether Iranian scholars can belong to the American Chemical Society, has been largely resolved. But a new imbroglio looms with the arrest of a prominent U.S.-Iranian scholar who was visiting Tehran. The…

  3. Recent Changes in U.S.-Cuba Relations: Implications for the Cuban-American Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Duany

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cuban Americans will likely be one of the key social actors in the reconstruction of the Cuban economy after the restoration of diplomatic relations between Cuba and the United States. They are already sending large sums of money, purchasing goods, transferring technology, and consuming services in the private sector of the Cuban economy. The role of Cuban-American remittances could be even more significant in the near future as sources of funding for independent business growth on the Island. However, in order to maximize the potential contribution of Cuban Americans to the Cuban economy, substantial changes in the laws and regulations established by both the Cuban and U.S. governments are necessary.

  4. Iranian Dialectology and Dialectometry

    OpenAIRE

    Cathcart, Chundra Aroor

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the forces at work in the formation of a tightly knit but ultimately non-genetic dialect group. The Iranian languages, a genetic sub-branch of the larger Indo-European language family, are a group whose development has been profoundly affected by millennia of internal contact. This work is concerned with aspects of the diversification and disparification (i.e., the development of different versus near-identical features across languages) of this group of languag...

  5. Two-dimensional networks of lanthanide cubane-shaped dumbbells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savard, Didier; Lin, Po-Heng; Burchell, Tara J; Korobkov, Ilia; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Clérac, Rodolphe; Murugesu, Muralee

    2009-12-21

    The syntheses, structures, and magnetic properties are reported for three new lanthanide complexes, [Ln(III)(4)(mu(3)-OH)(2)(mu(3)-O)(2)(cpt)(6)(MeOH)(6)(H(2)O)](2) (Ln = Dy (1.15MeOH), Ho (2.14MeOH), and Tb (3.18MeOH)), based on 4-(4-carboxyphenyl)-1,2,4-triazole ligand (Hcpt). The three complexes were confirmed to be isomorphous by infrared spectroscopy and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The crystal structure of 1 reveals that the eight-coordinate metal centers are organized in two cubane-shaped moieties composed of four Dy(III) ions each. All metal centers in the cubane core are bridged by two mu(3)-oxide and two mu(3)-hydroxide asymmetrical units. Moreover, each cubane is linked to its neighbor by two externally coordinating ligands, forming the dumbbell {Dy(III)(4)}(2) moiety. Electrostatic interactions between the ligands of the triazole-bridged dimers form an extended supramolecular two-dimensional arrangement analogous to a metal-organic framework with quadrilateral spaces occupied by ligands from axial sheets and by four solvent molecules. The magnetic properties of the three compounds have been investigated using dc and ac susceptibility measurements. For 1, the static and dynamic data corroborate the fact that the {Dy(III)(4)} cubane-shaped core exhibits slow relaxation of its magnetization below 5 K associated with a single-molecule magnet behavior.

  6. Cuban Voices: A Case Study of English Language Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Steven John

    2016-01-01

    This case study uses qualitative research methods and a postcolonial paradigm to listen to the voices of Cuban teacher educators describing how they educate and prepare English language teachers in Cuba. English language teacher education in Cuba includes features that are considered innovative, contemporary and good practice in the Western world.…

  7. Insurgency, Theoretical Decolonization and Social Decolonization: Lessons From Cuban Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Lacerda

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes how Cuban Psychology is related to the longstanding process of social insurgency against colonialism in Cuba. The paper suggests that the emergence of critical ideas in Psychology does not depend only upon intellectual developments; rather, social struggles can be a driving force that catalyze the development of critical ideas in Psychology. The paper is divided in three parts. First, the text briefly touches the issue of the intrinsic ties between insurgent activity, decolonization, and critical social sciences. Second, the paper presents a general historical description of Latin America and the challenges faced during and after the Cuban Revolution. Finally, the last part the paper offers a general overview of the historical development of Cuban Psychology history in order to analyze the dialectical relations between social and theoretical decolonization. Four developments of Cuban Psychology are presented: (a how patriotism changed studies of national identity and History of Psychology; (b professional practices that developed to better address social issues; (c theoretical debates about the "new human" and the active nature of subjectivity; and (d the influence of Soviet Psychology and the turn to Latin American Critical Psychology. Concluding notes consider the dialectical relation between, on one side, struggles for socialization of power and, on the other side, theoretical production of Critical Psychologies.

  8. Cuban Migration Trends and Their Impact on Central America Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charleene Cortez Sosa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the migration of Cuban population has taken new directions; this is mainly due to the migration policy flexibility adopted by the Cuban government and other Latin America governments, such as Ecuador, Grenada, Trinidad and Tobago, Dominican Republic, and Haiti, among others, by issuing visas in favorable conditions for the population. Although there are varied reasons to migrate, this population has traditionally migrated motivated by the United States Cuban Adjustment Act which grants administrative advantages for regularization; no other country of the continent offers this privilege. Due to their political exile condition, whoever arrives to the United States will easily have access to legal mechanisms for migrant regularization. Although there has been great work on migration in general terms, little has been addressed on the Cuban migration in the Central American region; possibly this is due to the difficulty to find quantitative information in this regard. The article aims to facilitate the understanding of migration in a context of flexibility and establishment of new relations between the Caribbean and Central America.

  9. Theological Higher Education in Cuba: Part 3--The Cuban Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esqueda, Octavio J.

    2007-01-01

    This article provides a summary of the Cuban Revolution and its implications and consequences for Christian higher education in Cuba. Christian institutions experienced the same oppression from the communist revolution as the rest of the evangelical denominations during the sixties and seventies. The worst period for Protestantism began in 1965…

  10. The South Pole Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruhl, J.E.; Ade, P.A.R.; Carlstrom, J.E.; Cho, H.M.; Crawford,T.; Dobbs, M.; Greer, C.H.; Halverson, N.W.; Holzapfel, W.L.; Lanting,T.M.; Lee, A.T.; Leitch, E.M.; Leong, J.; Lu, W.; Lueker, M.; Mehl, J.; Meyer, S.S.; Mohr, J.J.; Padin, S.; Plagge, T.; Pryke, C.; Runyan, M.C.; Schwan, D.; Sharp, M.K.; Spieler, H.; Staniszewski, Z.; Stark, A.A.

    2004-11-04

    A new 10 meter diameter telescope is being constructed for deployment at the NSF South Pole research station. The telescope is designed for conducting large-area millimeter and sub-millimeter wave surveys of faint, low contrast emission, as required to map primary and secondary anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background. To achieve the required sensitivity and resolution, the telescope design employs an off-axis primary with a 10 m diameter clear aperture. The full aperture and the associated optics will have a combined surface accuracy of better than 20 microns rms to allow precision operation in the submillimeter atmospheric windows. The telescope will be surrounded with a large reflecting ground screen to reduce sensitivity to thermal emission from the ground and local interference. The optics of the telescope will support a square degree field of view at 2mm wavelength and will feed a new 1000-element micro-lithographed planar bolometric array with superconducting transition-edge sensors and frequency-multiplexed readouts. The first key project will be to conduct a survey over 4000 degrees for galaxy clusters using the Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect. This survey should find many thousands of clusters with a mass selection criteria that is remarkably uniform with redshift. Armed with redshifts obtained from optical and infrared follow-up observations, it is expected that the survey will enable significant constraints to be placed on the equation of state of the dark energy.

  11. The South Pole Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Ruhl, J E; Carlstrom, J E; Cho, H M; Crawford, T; Dobbs, M; Greer, C H; Halverson, W; Holzapfel, W L; Lanting, T M; Lee, A T; Leong, J; Leitch, E M; Lu, W; Lueker, M; Mehl, J; Meyer, S S; Mohr, J J; Padin, S; Plagge, T; Pryke, C L; Schwan, D; Sharp, M K; Runyan, M C; Spieler, H; Staniszewski, Z; Stark, A A

    2004-01-01

    A new 10 meter diameter telescope is being constructed for deployment at the NSF South Pole research station. The telescope is designed for conducting large-area millimeter and sub-millimeter wave surveys of faint, low contrast emission, as required to map primary and secondary anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background. To achieve the required sensitivity and resolution, the telescope design employs an off-axis primary with a 10m diameter clear aperture. The full aperture and the associated optics will have a combined surface accuracy of better than 20 microns rms to allow precision operation in the submillimeter atmospheric windows. The telescope will be surrounded with a large reflecting ground screen to reduce sensitivity to thermal emission from the ground and local interference. The optics of the telescope will support a square degree field of view at 2mm wavelength and will feed a new 1000-element micro-lithographed planar bolometric array with superconducting transition-edge sensors and frequency...

  12. Trichotillomania in Iranian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Tarighati

    1986-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports trichotillomania in eight Iranian children (7 girls and 1 boy .It is rarely seen in children and adolescents. Although some subjects are psychiatrically normal, but some suffer from depressive disorder, neurosis, or personality problems. Separation from key figure, denial of femininity/and inadequate mother-child relationship play important roles either in the etiology of trichotillomania or psychiatric disorders. Finally therapeutic interventi.ons according to the cultural factors were mentioned. Associate Professor, Dept. of Psychiatry, Tehran Univer sity. Formerly, chief, Child Psychiatric Dept. Roozbeh Hospital Teheran University, Medical School.

  13. Surmanuhtlusele pole kohta / Marianne Mikko

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mikko, Marianne, 1961-

    2008-01-01

    Surmanuhtlusest kui inimõiguste rängimast rikkumisest. Lisatud: surmanuhtlus arvudes. Ilmunud ka Hiiu Leht 14. okt. 2008, lk. 2 ; Põhjarannik 16. okt. 2008, lk. 4 ; Pärnu Postimees 11. okt. 2008, lk. 19 ; Hiiu Leht : Nädalalõpp 14. nov. 2008, lk. 6, pealkiri kujul: surmanuhtlusele pole Euroopas kohta ; Meie Maa : Nädalalõpp 14. nov. 2008, lk. 6, pealkiri kujul: surmanuhtlusele pole Euroopas kohta

  14. Genetic diversity of Cuban pineapple germplasm assessed by AFLP Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermis Yanes Paz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cuban pineapple germplasm collection represents the genetic diversity of pineapple cultivated in that country and includes other important genotypes obtained from the germplasm collections in Brazil and Martinique. The collection has previously been characterized with morphological descriptors but a molecular characterization has been lacking. With this aim, 56 six genotypes of A. comosus and one of Bromelia pinguin were analyzed with a total of 191 AFLP markers. A dendrogram that represents the genetic relationships between these samples based on the AFLP results showed a low level of diversity in the Cuban pineapple collection. All Ananas comosus accessions, being the majority obtained from farmers in different regions in Cuba, are grouped at distances lower than 0.20. Molecular characterization was in line with morphological characterization. These results are useful for breeding and conservation purposes.

  15. The U.S. Navy and the Cuban Missile Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-22

    floor of 1,200 feet, the Guidelines were photographed at Bahia Honda, Havana, La Coloma, Mariel, Matanzas , San Julian, and Cienfuegos. Photography of the...a sharp warning might deter the Soviets from deploying ballistic missiles to Cuba, but unwilling to go public with the evidence 68 available to date...p. 4; "United States Air Force Security Service: Performance During the Cuban Crisis, April- December 1962," n.d., NSACF, pp. 12, 68 ; "Air Force

  16. Chinese artist shows his respect to the Cuban hero

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>The unveiling ceremony of the bronze bust of Jose Marti created by Yuan Xikun was held jointly by the Cuban Embassy to China and the Beijing Jintai Art Museum on the museum’s front lawn in Chaoyang Park, on 12 October. The bronze is another masterpiece by Yuan Xikun, who was awarded the "Art for Peace" medal by the Bulgarian Ministry of Culture on 20 August, after completing a bust of Deng Xiaoping.

  17. Analysis of the Cuban journal Bibliotecas: Anales de Investigacion

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this article is to describe the academic impact, the editorial process quality, and the editorial and visibility strategies of Bibliotecas. Anales de Investigacion (BAI), a scientific Cuban journal edited by National Library of Cuba Jose Marti. The academic impact is determined through a citation analysis, which considers Google Scholar database as reference source. The bibliometric indicators applied are: citation per year, citation vs. self-citation, citable journals vs. no...

  18. Levels of Radioactivity in the Cuban Marine Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, C.A.; Asencio, M.D.; Caravaca, A.M.; Morell, E.S.; Claro, R.M

    1998-07-01

    The National Sampling Programme has been initiated to determine the levels of natural and artificial radioactivity in the Cuban Marine Environment. Samples of water, sediment and marine life were analysed. The levels of {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, {sup 210}Po, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in components of the marine environment are described. The materials and methods used for the work are those recommended by the Centre of Radiation Protection and Hygiene and accepted internationally. (author)

  19. The Impact of Cuban Economic Reform on Older Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strug, David L

    2017-03-01

    This paper discusses the economic reforms initiated by Cuban President Raúl Castro in 2008 and its effect on the country's fast-growing, vulnerable population of older persons 60+ years of age. Cubans are living longer and the country has a very low birthrate. These two factors combined have reduced the proportion of the population in the work force. This adversely affects the economy. Population aging is a major reason why the government has introduced structural reforms and reduced social spending, which have weakened the welfare state on which older persons depend. Many older persons have become critical of the reforms over time. Policy makers need to address the impact the reforms are having on older Cubans and consider them as active participants in economic reform. Data for this paper come from qualitative, case study research carried out in Havana between the years 2008-15 and from a review of the literature on aging and economic reforms in Cuba. Two case studies illustrate the impact of the economic reforms on older persons.

  20. Low loss pole configuration for multi-pole homopolar magnetic bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenstock, Kenneth A. (Inventor); Hakun, Claef F. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A new pole configuration for multi-pole homopolar bearings proposed in this invention reduces rotational losses caused by eddy-currents generated when non-uniform flux distributions exist along the rotor surfaces. The new homopolar magnetic bearing includes a stator with reduced pole-to-pole and exhibits a much more uniform rotor flux than with large pole-to-pole gaps. A pole feature called a pole-link is incorporated into the low-loss poles to provide a uniform pole-to-pole gap and a controlled path for pole-to-pole flux. In order to implement the low-loss pole configuration of magnetic bearings with small pole-to-pole gaps, a new stator configuration was developed to facilitate installation of coil windings. The stator was divided into sector shaped pieces, as many pieces as there are poles. Each sector-shaped pole-piece can be wound on a standard coil winding machine, and it is practical to wind precision layer wound coils. To achieve maximum actuation efficiency, it is desirable to use all the available space for the coil formed by the natural geometric configuration. Then, the coils can be wound in a tapered shape. After winding, the sectored-pole-pieces are installed into and fastened by bonding or other means, to a ring of material which encloses the sectored-pole-pieces, forming a complete stator.

  1. Calligraphic Poling for WGM Resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohageg, Makan; Strekalov, Dmitry; Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Matsko, Andrey; Ilchenko, Vladimir; Maleki, Lute

    2007-01-01

    By engineering the geometry of a nonlinear optical crystal, the effective efficiency of all nonlinear optical oscillations can be increased dramatically. Specifically, sphere and disk shaped crystal resonators have been used to demonstrate nonlinear optical oscillations at sub-milliwatt input power when cs light propagates in a Whispering Gallery Mode (WGM) of such a resonant cavity. in terms of both device production and experimentation in quantum optics, some nonlinear optical effects with naturally high efficiency can occult the desired nonlinear scattering process. the structure to the crystal resonator. In this paper, I will discuss a new method for generating poling structures in ferroelectric crystal resonators called calligraphic poling. The details of the poling apparatus, experimental results and speculation on future applications will be discussed.

  2. Calligraphic Poling of Ferroelectric Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohageg, Makan; Strekalov, Dmitry; Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Matsko, Adrey; Maleki, Lute; Iltchenko, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    Calligraphic poling is a technique for generating an arbitrary, possibly complex pattern of localized reversal in the direction of permanent polarization in a wafer of LiNbO3 or other ferroelectric material. The technique is so named because it involves a writing process in which a sharp electrode tip is moved across a surface of the wafer to expose the wafer to a polarizing electric field in the desired pattern. The technique is implemented by use of an apparatus, denoted a calligraphic poling machine (CPM), that includes the electrode and other components as described in more detail below.

  3. Anti-commodity counterpoint: smallholder diversity and rural development on the Cuban sugar frontier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curry Machado, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    It is established historiographical wisdom to say that the spectacular rise of the Cuban sugar industry in the 19th and early 20th centuries brought with it a stifling of an alternative developmental path for Cuban rural society — an ‘anti-commodity’ vision of ‘little Cuba’, built not upon the

  4. Co-occurrence of invasive Cuban Treefrogs and native treefrogs in PVC pipe refugia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elston, Laura M.; Waddle, J. Hardin; Rice, Kenneth G.; Percival, H. Franklin

    2013-01-01

    The Cuban Treefrog (Osteopilus septentrionalis) was first introduced to Florida at Key West. Since this introduction, Cuban Treefrogs have spread to Miami and are now established throughout most of peninsular Florida. Cuban Treefrogs can become very abundant in areas they colonize. Several reasons contribute to their success, including a generalist diet, high fecundity and the ability to reproduce year-round, and use of disturbed or human-modified habitats. Scientists and managers are concerned that Cuban Treefrogs may contribute to the decline of native treefrogs. Cuban Treefrogs may exclude native treefrogs through both competition and predation. Because the evidence from our study and others suggests that Green and Squirrel Treefrogs do not alter their behavior to avoid Cuban Treefrogs, there is cause for concern that sampling with PVC pipes may increase the vulnerability of the native species to predation. This possibility needs further research, including whether other species of native treefrogs sympatric to where Cuban Treefrogs have invaded are also naïve to the possible threat posed by these frogs, and also if native treefrogs eventually learn to avoid Cuban Treefrogs.

  5. The Three Roots of Cuban Heritage. (Los Tres Raices de la Herencia Cubana.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzaga, Florinda

    1980-01-01

    Discusses legacies of traits left by Cuba's three ethnic streams--the Spanish, Black, and Taino--that together explain Cuban personality and way of life. Asserts that by understanding what each group has contributed, Cubans can better know themselves and better project for their future, both individually and collectively. (DS)

  6. Operation Pedro Pan: The Flight to Neverland for More than 14,000 Cuban Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Barbara C.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author tells the story of the 22-month program involving the political exodus of thousands of Cuban children to the United States in the early 1960s. Fearing communist indoctrination and the rumor of patria potestad--the government assuming legal guardianship of their children--Cuban parents sent their unaccompanied children…

  7. The Cuban Vocational Education and Training System and Its Current Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Stefan; Penton, Felipe A. Hernandez; Marin, Anna Lidia Beltran; Romero, Osvaldo

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of the article is to inform about the Cuban Vocational Education and Training System. Based on the analyse of different studies, on expert interviews and on field experiences the authors give a clear overview of the Cuban VET-System. This description is embedded in the presentation of the general education system in Cuba and in a…

  8. Glass Waveguides for Periodic Poling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage-Pedersen, Jacob; Jacobsen, Rune Shim; Kristensen, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Planar silica-based waveguide devices have been developed for second-harmonic generation by poling with periodic electrodes. We show that detrimental charge transport can occur along interfaces, but with proper choice of fabrication, high-quality devices are obtained....

  9. Kool pole vabrik / Peeter Kreitzberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kreitzberg, Peeter, 1948-2011

    2003-01-01

    Riigikogu liige Peeter Kreitzberg nimetab Res Publica kavandatavat koolireformi kirvereformiks, mis ei lähtu hariduse põhiprobleemidest. Autor pooldab haridusvõimaluste regionaalset võrdsust ning leiab, et hariduses pole vaja võistlust mõttetult õhutada

  10. Glass Waveguides for Periodic Poling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage-Pedersen, Jacob; Jacobsen, Rune Shim; Kristensen, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Planar silica-based waveguide devices have been developed for second-harmonic generation by poling with periodic electrodes. We show that detrimental charge transport can occur along interfaces, but with proper choice of fabrication, high-quality devices are obtained....

  11. Kool pole vabrik / Peeter Kreitzberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kreitzberg, Peeter, 1948-2011

    2003-01-01

    Riigikogu liige Peeter Kreitzberg nimetab Res Publica kavandatavat koolireformi kirvereformiks, mis ei lähtu hariduse põhiprobleemidest. Autor pooldab haridusvõimaluste regionaalset võrdsust ning leiab, et hariduses pole vaja võistlust mõttetult õhutada

  12. Osteoporosis, Global and Iranian Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Larijani

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis, characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue leading to enlarged bone fragility and a consequent increase in fracture risk is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in elderly people. The mortality rate in elderly persons with hip fracture approaches 20%. Half of them will be disabled in the remained life. Iranian Multicenter Osteoporosis Study (IMOS developed by Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (EMRC-TUMS and Ministry of Health and Medical Education in 2000. The aim of this study with more than 6000 participitants, was to determine normal range of BMD in Iranian population and assessing the current calcium and vitamin D status in Iran. The results were used for determining the normrmogram of BMD in Iranians and prevalence of Vit-D deficinecy among them. This document outlines all aspects of osteoporosis including risk factors, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of osteoporosis.

  13. After Marlow’s legacy: contemporary Cuban novels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena LÓPEZ

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is a comparative study of the Cuban novels El libro de la realidad (2001 by Arturo Arango, Las bestias by Ronaldo Menéndez (2006, Paisaje de otoño (1998 by Leonardo Padura, and Cien botellas en una pared (2002 by Ena Lucía Portela. These narratives show the need of deconstructing identitary and teleological statements from the revolutionary discourse. Padura and Portela’s novels also point out to new forms of agency that resist the postutopian catastrophe, neglecting the end of history.

  14. MEDICAL TOURISM : Demand for Cuban Medical Tourism by Russian Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Ulanova, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    Medical tourism, often addressed as health tourism, is a new concept in terms of tourism industry in general, and it is also one of the rapidly developing and growing ones. This thesis gives information on the medical tourism in general and its history. It also revises the development stages of the medical tourism in the world. Cuban medical tourism is analyzed on its own, as well as Russian medical tourism and the demand for it. Medical tourism is rather popular among Russians due to various...

  15. Kinanthropometric profile of Cuban women Olympic volleyball champions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal, Wiliam; Betancourt, Hamlet; León, Sofia; Deturnel, Yanel; Martínez, Miriam; Echevarría, Ivis; Castillo, María Eugenia; Serviat, Noemí

    2012-04-01

    Athletes' kinanthropometric profiles are widely addressed in the scientific literature. Such profiles are particularly important in volleyball because absolute size contributes a significant percentage of total variance associated with athletic success. As in other team sports, volleyball players' kinanthropometric attributes correlate with the game's tactical demands. From 1992 through 2000, the Cuban women's volleyball team achieved top global performance, winning first place in three successive Summer Olympic Games. Describe the kinanthropometric profiles of Cuban women Olympic volleyball champions during 1992-2000 and compare these by position played. Measurements were taken of body composition, somatotype, proportionality and several anthropometric indicators in 41 Cuban women volleyball players, grouped by playing position. All were members of the national team that participated in the Summer Olympic Games in Barcelona (1992), Atlanta (1996) and Sydney (2000). Mean and standard deviations were calculated for all study variables. Analysis of variance was used to compare means for different positions for the variables weight; height; percent adipose, muscle and bone mass; body mass index; and muscle-to-bone ratio. Discriminant analysis was performed to identify anthropometric dimensions differentiating playing positions (center, spiker and setter), using pvolleyball players was balanced mesomorphic (2.7-3.6-2.9). Classified by position, centers (2.9-3.4-3.4) and spikers (2.8-3.6-2.9) presented an average mesomorphic-ectomorphic somatotype, and setters (2.6-3.7-2.6) were balanced mesomorphic. On assessing Somatotype Attitudinal Mean (SAM), centers and spikers showed more intrapositional homogeneity than that of setters. Centers were significantly taller (187.1±2.5 cm) than players in other positions. Centers' percent adipose tissue mass (28.9±2.7%) was significantly higher than that of setters (24.3±2.7%), who were leanest of all positions. The

  16. Resonance poles in three-body systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, B. C.; Afnan, I. R.

    1984-12-01

    We develop a method for finding resonance poles in Faddeev equations. The method is computationally simpler than previous methods and is based on the rotation of contour technique. It is applied to πd elastic scattering with coupling to the NΔ channel. The position of the pole is compared with predictions based on Argand diagram and speed analysis. We find that the conventional methods are unreliable if the pole is further from the real axis than the Δ resonance pole.

  17. Mechanical behaviour of cross-country ski racing poles during double poling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöggl, Thomas; Karlöf, Lars

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the behaviour of cross-country ski poles during double poling on a treadmill using three-dimensional kinematics. The results were compared with standard laboratory tests of the pole manufacturers. A total of 18 skiers were analysed at two speeds (85% and 95% of the maximal speed) at grades of 1.5% and 7%. Variables describing cycle characteristics, bending stiffness, bending behaviour, and trajectories of the pole markers were analysed. Triangular-shaped poles demonstrated the greatest stiffness and lowest variability in maximal bending. Softer poles demonstrated greater variability in bending behaviour and lost ground contact at high skiing speeds, which for some skiers resulted in failure to complete high-speed tests. Considerable variations in pole behaviour for similar poles between skiers were observed, which might be attributed to differences in technique, indicating that mechanical properties of the poles did not exclusively determine pole behaviour in the dynamic situation. The greatest magnitude of pole bending was in the middle part of the pole, which differed from the standard static pole analysis of the manufacturer. Increases in grade demonstrated the greatest effect on pole bending. Distinct differences from the pole manufacturers' laboratory measures were apparent, suggesting that basic pole testing might be adapted.

  18. Physician's acquittal of responsibility in Iranian statutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Mahmoud; Pirouz, Amir Samavati

    2011-02-01

    The physician's acquittal has obsessed Iranian legislator's mind to a large extent. This is exclusively observed in Iranian statuses and specifically in Shi'ite school of though. Muslim jurists' opinions play a very important role in enacting legal articles related to it. After reviewing the literature, the authors tried to pick and collect common features of physician's responsibilities and duties to introduce Iranian Acts with respect to the subject. Also, Iranian Acts are analyzed and the challenging medical topics such as emergency situations and infectious diseases are discussed.Iranian legislator didn't specify a kind of physician's acquittal which received from the patient knowingly and is based on his/her free will. There are also some medical and legal gaps. Patients are not often informed of all exact and scientific information and results of their treatments. Furthermore, the forms prepared to receive the patient's consent do not provide what Iranian legislator meant.

  19. Chemical characterization of Cuban propolis by HPLC-PDA, HPLC-MS, and NMR: the brown, red, and yellow Cuban varieties of propolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta-Rubio, Osmany; Piccinelli, Anna Lisa; Fernandez, Mercedes Campo; Hernández, Ingrid Márquez; Rosado, Arístides; Rastrelli, Luca

    2007-09-05

    Sixty-five samples of propolis were collected from eleven regions of Cuba; methanolic extracts of propolis were prepared from all samples, and a classification method was developed using a combination of NMR, HPLC-PDA, and HPLC-ESI/MS techniques. The analysis of (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra and chromatographic profiles of all propolis extracts allowed the definition of three main types of Cuban propolis directly related to their secondary metabolite classes: brown Cuban propolis (BCP), rich in polyisoprenylated benzophenones, red Cuban propolis (RCP), containing isoflavonoids as the main constituents, and yellow Cuban propolis (YCP), probably with aliphatic compounds. Subsequently, the principal compounds of the brown and red types were characterized by HPLC-ESI/MS analysis. Instrumental techniques used are complementary; NMR was shown to be a quick and informative tool for the rapid analysis of crude propolis polar extracts and allowed the identification of the main class of secondary metabolites, while LC-PDA and LC-MS techniques were useful tools for qualitative and quantitative analysis of marker compounds of Cuban propolis.

  20. The North Ecliptic Pole Supercluster

    OpenAIRE

    Mullis, C. R.; Henry, J. P.; Gioia, I. M.; Boehringer, H.; Briel, U. G.; Voges, W.; Huchra, J. P.

    2001-01-01

    We have used the ROSAT All-Sky Survey to detect a known supercluster at z=0.087 in the North Ecliptic Pole region. The X-ray data greatly improve our understanding of this supercluster's characteristics, approximately doubling our knowledge of the structure's spatial extent and tripling the cluster/group membership compared to the optical discovery data. The supercluster is a rich structure consisting of at least 21 galaxy clusters and groups, 12 AGN, 61 IRAS galaxies, and various other objec...

  1. Microsatellite typing and susceptibilities of serial Cryptococcus neoformans isolates from Cuban patients with recurrent cryptococcal meningitis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Illnait-Zaragozi, M.T.; Martínez-Machin, G.F.; Fernandez-Andreu, C.M.; Hagen, F.; Boekhout, T.; Klaassen, C.H.; Meis, J.F.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cryptococcus neoformans is commonly associated with meningoencephalitis in immunocompromised patients and occasionally in apparently healthy individuals. Recurrence of infection after initial treatment is not uncommon. We studied C. neoformans isolates from 7 Cuban patients with

  2. Microsatellite typing and susceptibilities of serial Cryptococcus neoformans isolates from Cuban patients with recurrent cryptococcal meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Illnait-Zaragozi, M.T.; Martinez-Machin, G.F.; Fernandez-Andreu, C.M.; Hagen, F.; Boekhout, T.; Klaassen, C.H.W.; Meis, J.F.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Cryptococcus neoformans is commonly associated with meningoencephalitis in immunocompromised patients and occasionally in apparently healthy individuals. Recurrence of infection after initial treatment is not uncommon. We studied C. neoformans isolates from 7 Cuban patients with

  3. Eating behaviors in Cuban adults: results from an exploratory transcultural study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris C. Rodríguez-Martín

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate eating behaviors in Cuban adults and compare them with those of a developed Western country, Italy. The study also aimed to determine the overall accuracy of a predictive model intended to define variables which could be used to discriminate between nationalities. Participants were 283 normal weight individuals from Cuba (n = 158 and Italy (n = 125. Italians had higher scores for restrained eating on the questionnaire than Cubans with a considerable effect size. This trend was also found for emotional eating and binge eating, as well as number of current dieters, despite the fact that effect sizes were small. On the other hand, Cubans, when compared to Italians reported higher scores for food thought suppression with reward responsiveness and restrained eating emerging as significant predictors of between-country differences. To conclude, eating behaviors in Cubans could be different from those reported in European countries, perhaps as a consequence of Cuba’s recent history.

  4. Digital literacy for teachers in Cuban Tourism and Hotel Management Schools. Some experiences on its development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Avello Martínez, Raidell; López Fernández, Raúl

    2015-01-01

    .... This research aims to develop a teacher-oriented ICT Competency Framework for Cuban Tourism and Hotel Management School instructors, on the one hand, to have reference points or criteria to make...

  5. Iranian Joint Registry (Iranian National Hip and Knee Arthroplasty Registry).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslani, Hamidreza; Nourbakhsh, Seyed Taghi; Lahiji, Farivar A; Heydarian, Keykavoos; Jabalameli, Mahmood; Ghazavi, Mohammad Taghi; Tahmasebi, Mohammad Naghi; Fayyaz, Mahmoud Reza; Sazegari, Mohammad Ali; Mohaddes, Maziar; Rajabpour, Mojtaba; Emami, Mohammad; Jazayeri, Seyyed Mohammad; Madadi, Firooz; Farahini, Hossein; Mirzatoloee, Fardin; Gharahdaghi, Mohammad; Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad Hossein; Ebrahimian, Mohammadreza; Mirvakili, Hossein; Bashti, Kaveh; Almasizadeh, Mohtasham; Abolghasemian, Mansour; Taheriazam, Afshin; Motififard, Mehdi; Yazdi, Hamidreza; Mobarakeh, Mahmood Karimi; Shayestehazar, Masoud; Moghtadae, Mehdi; Siavashi, Babak; Sajjadi, Mohammadreza M; Rasi, Alireza Manafi; Chabok, Seyyed Kazem; Zafarani, Zohreh; Salehi, Shahin; Ahmadi, Monireh; Mohammadi, Amin; Shahsavand, Mohammad Ebrahim

    2016-04-01

    Periodic evaluation and monitoring the health and economic outcome of joint replacement surgery is a common and popular process under the territory of joint registries in many countries. In this article we introduce the methodology used for the foundation of the National Iranian Joint Registry (IJR) with a joint collaboration of the Social Security Organization (SSO) and academic research departments considering the requirements of the Iran's Ministry of Health and Education.

  6. A Game-Theoretic History of the Cuban Missile Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank C. Zagare

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study surveys and evaluates previous attempts to use game theory to explain the strategic dynamic of the Cuban missile crisis, including, but not limited to, explanations developed in the style of Thomas Schelling, Nigel Howard and Steven Brams. All of the explanations were judged to be either incomplete or deficient in some way. Schelling’s explanation is both empirically and theoretically inconsistent with the consensus interpretation of the crisis; Howard’s with the contemporary understanding of rational strategic behavior; and Brams’ with the full sweep of the events that define the crisis. The broad outlines of a more general explanation that addresses all of the foundational questions associated with the crisis within the confines of a single, integrated, game-theoretic model with incomplete information are laid out.

  7. The Cuban National Healthcare System: Characterization of primary healthcare services.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keli Regina DAL PRÁ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a report on the experience of healthcare professionals in Florianópolis, who took the course La Atención Primaria de Salud y la Medicina Familiar en Cuba [Primary Healthcare and Family Medicine in Cuba], in 2014. The purpose of the study is to characterize the healthcare units and services provided by the Cuban National Healthcare System (SNS and to reflect on this experience/immersion, particularly on Cuba’s Primary Healthcare Service. The results found that in comparison with Brazil’s Single Healthcare System (SUS Cuba’s SNS Family Healthcare (SF service is the central organizing element of the Primary Healthcare Service. The number of SF teams per inhabitant is different than in Brazil; the programs given priority in the APS are similar to those in Brazil and the intersectorial nature and scope of the services prove to be effective in the resolution of healthcare problems.

  8. Revolutionizing Cuban Psychiatry: The Freud Wars, 1955-1970.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambe, Jennifer Lynn

    2017-01-01

    This article traces the battle over Freud within Cuban psychiatry from its pre-1959 origins through the "disappearance" of Freud by the early 1970s. It devotes particular attention to the visit of two Soviet psychiatrists to Cuba in the early 1960s as part of a broader campaign to promote Pavlov. The decade-long controversy over Freud responded to both theoretical and political concerns. If for some Freud represented political conservatism and theoretical mystification, Pavlov held out the promise of a dialectical materialist future. Meanwhile, other psychiatrists clung to psychodynamic perspectives, or at least the possibility of heterogeneity. The Freudians would end up on the losing side of this battle, with many departing Cuba over the course of the 1960s. But banishing Freud did not necessarily make for stalwart Pavlovians-or vanguard revolutionaries. Psychiatry would find itself relegated to a handmaiden position in the work of revolutionary mental engineering, with the government itself occupying the vanguard.

  9. The end of the Cuban contradiction in U.S. refugee policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nackerud, L; Springer, A; Larrison, C; Issac, A

    1999-01-01

    This article describes and analyzes the Clinton Administration's decision to end the almost automatic acceptance of Cubans as political refugees to the US. The decision came after the Balsero Crisis in July 1994 after many people stormed embassies and diplomatic residences in Havana, Cuba, demanding asylum and complaining about impoverished living conditions. Riots erupted. The May 2, 1995, policy ended the indefinite detention of over 28,000 Cubans in safe haven camps, repealed the Cuban Adjustment Act of 1966, restricted travel to Cuba, halted monetary remittances to Cuba, equalized the number of annual visas from Cuba, and legalized the return of Cubans adrift at sea. The goals were to solve the immediate migration crisis created by Cubans detained at Guantanamo Bay, to implement controls of future waves of Cuban asylum seekers, and to oppose Castro with economic and political initiatives. The economic embargo during the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s devastated the Cuban economy and led to its alliance with the USSR. Each of the four waves of migration was distinctive in composition and reasons for migrating. By the mid-1990s, Cuba was no longer a threat, Soviet interests in Cuba had declined, and the policy was hoped to bring about the collapse of Castro and promotion of democracy. The 1994 resolution ended the contradictory and preferential treatment of Cubans. It also ended the selectivity of the US in admitting those from countries the US was directly opposed to. The permanence of the embargo due to legislation in 1996 is a push factor for mass migrations.

  10. The North Ecliptic Pole Supercluster

    CERN Document Server

    Mullis, C R; Gioia, I M; Böhringer, H; Briel, U G; Voges, W; Huchra, J P

    2001-01-01

    We have used the ROSAT All-Sky Survey to detect a known supercluster at z=0.087 in the North Ecliptic Pole region. The X-ray data greatly improve our understanding of this supercluster's characteristics, approximately doubling our knowledge of the structure's spatial extent and tripling the cluster/group membership compared to the optical discovery data. The supercluster is a rich structure consisting of at least 21 galaxy clusters and groups, 12 AGN, 61 IRAS galaxies, and various other objects. A majority of these components were discovered with the X-ray data, but the supercluster is also robustly detected in optical, IR, and UV wavebands. Extending 129 x 102 x 67 (1/h50 Mpc)^3, the North Ecliptic Pole Supercluster has a flattened shape oriented nearly edge-on to our line-of-sight. Owing to the softness of the ROSAT X-ray passband and the deep exposure over a large solid angle, we have detected for the first time a significant population of X-ray emitting galaxy groups in a supercluster. These results demon...

  11. The Cuban Response to the Ebola Epidemic in West Africa: Lessons in Solidarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaple, Enrique Beldarraín; Mercer, Mary Anne

    2017-01-01

    In December 2013 the first case of Ebola appeared in Guinea. In September 2014 the United Nations (UN) and its specialized agency the World Health Organization (WHO) issued a call for medical collaboration in response to the medical crisis and social disaster caused by the Ebola virus epidemic in West Africa. Cuban authorities responded immediately to the call by offering specialized help for the epidemic, in collaboration with WHO. A group of 256 Cuban doctors, nurses and other health professionals provided direct care during the Ebola epidemic in Sierra Leone, Liberia and Equatorial Guinea from October 2014 to April 2015. This paper explains the main features of the Cuban health system, describes the development of Cuba's international medical cooperation approach, and highlights the work done by Cuban health collaborators in addressing the damage caused by the Ebola epidemic. Information used includes reports and documents of the Ministry of Public Health of Cuba, reports of WHO and PAHO, and articles published in scientific journals and newspaper articles. The response of the Cuban medical teams to the Ebola epidemic in West Africa is only one example of the Cuban efforts to strengthening health care provision in areas of need throughout the world.

  12. Navigating hybridity: investigating the dance between culture and values within the cuban national education system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Byker

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hybridity is the dynamic relationship between local and global factors that push and pull on people and nations. Hybridity is deeply situated in socio-contextual factors, like cultural beliefs, education, and political systems, that aid and hinder a people’s navigation of globalized phenomena. Simply put, hybridity is how people and societies adapt to a changing world. This article examines the case of Cuba in response to hybridity. Specifically, the article’s purpose is to examine ways that the Cuban National Education System impacts how Cubans navigate the global march towards hybridity. The article reports on a focused ethnographic study of a week long education trip to Cuba during February 2013. The ethnography includes over 100 hours of data collection, including semi-structured interviews with 26 Cuban participants. The study uses Freire’s (1970 notion of “humanizing pedagogy” to analyze how the impact of the Cuban National Education System values in the context of Cuba and larger global context. The study found that three values in particular, amor, solidaridad, and conciencia de derechos y response, were deeply embedded in the Cuban National Education System and effect the way that Cubans navigate the complex hybridity that situates their island nation.

  13. Moral Distress among Iranian Nurses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hosein Vaziri

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to describe the moral distress among Iranian registered nurses.This was a descriptive -analytic study, in which 264 out of 1000 nurses were randomly selected as a sample group and completed the questionnaire. The nurses' moral distress was assessed using Corley's 30-item Moral Distress Scale adapted for use in an Iranian population. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS version 19.In this study, no correlation was found between the level of moral distress and any of the demographic data. The mean moral distress score ranged from 3.56 to 5.83, indicating moderate to high levels of moral distress. The item with the highest mean score was "working with unsafe levels of nurse staffing". The item with the lowest mean score was "giving medication intravenously to a patient who has refused to take it". Nurses working in EMS and NICU units had the highest levels of moral distress.A higher degree of moral distress is observed among nurses who work in health care systems. The results of this study highly recommend practical and research-oriented evaluation of moral distress in the medical society in Iran. Our findings suggest that Iranian version of MDS is a reliable instrument to measure moral distress in nurses.

  14. Alenush Terian: The Iranian Solar Mother

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebian, Mohammad; Talebian, Ehsan

    2012-06-01

    We present a biographical sketch of Alenush Terian, the first Iranian woman physicist, who was known as the Iranian Solar Mother, since she founded the first solar telescopic observatory in Iran. She taught and carried out astronomical research for three decades with inadequate resources but with unflinching devotion, motivated by a strong desire to propagate scientific education and research in her country.

  15. How Creative Are Iranian EFL Teachers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khany, Reza; Boghayeri, Mahnaz

    2014-01-01

    The study of creativity has been of great interest to educationalists in general and language teaching practitioners in particular. With all these, very little if any has been reported on the issue in Iranian EFL context. Having this in mind and drawing on the latest profile of creativity, effort was made to see how creative Iranian EFL teachers…

  16. 31 CFR 560.303 - Iran; Iranian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Iran; Iranian. 560.303 Section 560.303 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... pursuant to an international agreement. The term Iranian means pertaining to Iran as defined in...

  17. 75 FR 59611 - Iranian Transactions Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... entered into Iranian commerce. Based on this definition, foodstuffs and carpets of third-country origin... carpets of third-country origin that are transshipped through Iran for importation into the United States... of Iranian- origin household goods and personal effects set forth in section 560.524(b) of the...

  18. Iranian Women: Between Education and Repression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousalis, Rina

    2012-01-01

    Iranian women have endured more than 30 years of an Islamist dictatorship that uses religion as a validation for unjust control. Human rights violations against women in Iran are a tragic phenomenon for an otherwise highly developed civilization. Invisible and powerless in a male-dominated society, Iranian women are discouraged from becoming…

  19. Analysis of transverse maxillary diameter. Using Mayoral's method, in Cuban and Namibian young people with normal occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, G; Aguila, F J

    1986-01-01

    The transverse maxillary diameter has been studied for several decades. Mayoral made a study to find the maxillary width by means of the intermolar and interbicuspid distances. We made a study of 540 14-, 15- and 16-year-old Europoid Cubans, Negroid Cubans, and Namibians. They were subdivided by sex and age, forming groups of 30 for each age, sex and ethnic group. The boys almost always had higher figures than the girls, and the Negroid groups always had higher figures than the Europoid Cubans. In almost no cases were significant differences found between the Negroid Cubans and the Namibians.

  20. Menorrhagia Management in Iranian Traditional Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansaz, Mojgan; Memarzadehzavareh, Hajar; Qaraaty, Marzieh; Eftekhar, Tahereh; Tabarrai, Malihe; Kamalinejad, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Menorrhagia is a common problem. Medical management for menorrhagia includes hormonal and nonhormonal treatments. These treatments have different side effects, which reduce quality of life. Complementary and traditional medicines have been used to handle menorrhagia for centuries in many cultures. There is a lot of information and data in Iranian traditional documents or books about medicinal herbs that are used by Iranian traditional medicine scientists for the treatment of menorrhagia. The aim of this study was to review the approaches to menorrhagia in Iranian traditional medicine texts. In this study, some main Iranian traditional medicine manuscripts including Canon of Medicine and Al-Havi of Rhazes were studied to extract important information about menorrhagia management. Iranian traditional medicine physicians have relied on an organized system of etiological theories and treatments for menorrhagia. Their methods for menorrhagia management may be able to convince the desire of many women to preserve their uterus and avoid hormonal therapy. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. New pole placement algorithm - Polynomial matrix approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafai, B.; Keel, L. H.

    1990-01-01

    A simple and direct pole-placement algorithm is introduced for dynamical systems having a block companion matrix A. The algorithm utilizes well-established properties of matrix polynomials. Pole placement is achieved by appropriately assigning coefficient matrices of the corresponding matrix polynomial. This involves only matrix additions and multiplications without requiring matrix inversion. A numerical example is given for the purpose of illustration.

  2. Characterization of thermally poled germanosilicate thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozcan, A.; Digonnet, M.J.F.; Kino, G.S.; Ay, F.; Aydinli, A.

    2004-01-01

    We report measurements of the nonlinearity profile of thermally poled low-loss germanosilicate films deposited on fused-silica substrates by PECVD, of interest as potential electro-optic devices. The profiles of films grown and poled under various conditions all exhibit a sharp peak similar to0.5 mu

  3. Macro Fiber Piezocomposite Actuator Poling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werlink, Rudy J.; Bryant, Robert G.; Manos, Dennis

    2002-01-01

    The performance and advantages of Piezocomposite Actuators are to provide a low cost, in-situ actuator/sensor that is flexible, low profile and high strain per volt performance in the same plane of poled voltage. This paper extends reported data for the performance of these Macrofiber Composite (MFC) Actuators to include 4 progressively narrower Intedigitized electrode configurations with several line widths and spacing ratios. Data is reported for max free strain, average strain per applied volt, poling (alignment of the electric dipoles of the PZT ceramic) voltage vs. strain and capacitance, time to poling voltage 95% saturation. The output strain per volt progressively increases as electrode spacing decreases, with saturation occurring at lower poling voltages. The narrowest spacing ratio becomes prone to voltage breakdown or short circuits limiting the spacing width with current fabrication methods. The capacitance generally increases with increasing poling voltage level but has high sensitivity to factors such as temperature, moisture and time from poling which limit its usefulness as a simple indicator. The total time of applied poling voltage to saturate or fully line up the dipoles in the piezoceramic was generally on the order of 5-20 seconds. Less sensitivity to poling due to the applied rate of voltage increase over a 25 to 500 volt/second rate range was observed.

  4. Miks pole Eestis edukat keskklassi? / Heimar Lenk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lenk, Heimar, 1946-

    2005-01-01

    Riigikogu liikme sõnul pole Eesti häda mitte rikaste rikkuses, vaid selles, et meil pole välja kujunenud keskklassi. Eestis puudub keskklass seetõttu, et rahvas on majanduslikult liialt kihistunud, tugevalt paremale kaldu poliitika on soodustanud vaid kitsa kildkonna rikastumist

  5. Characterization of thermally poled germanosilicate thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, A.; Digonnet, M. J. F.; Kino, G. S.; Ay, F.; Aydinli, A.

    2004-10-01

    We report measurements of the nonlinearity profile of thermally poled low-loss germanosilicate films deposited on fused-silica substrates by PECVD, of interest as potential electro-optic devices. The profiles of films grown and poled under various conditions all exhibit a sharp peak ~0.5 μm beneath the anode surface, followed by a weaker pedestal of approximately constant amplitude down to a depth of 13-16 μm, without the sign reversal typical of poled undoped fused silica. These features suggest that during poling, the films significantly slow down the injection of positive ions into the structure. After local optimization, we demonstrate a record peak nonlinear coefficient of ~1.6 pm/V, approximately twice as strong as the highest reliable value reported in thermally poled fused silica glass, a significant improvement that was qualitatively expected from the presence of Ge.

  6. Pole placement with constant gain output feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, B.; Lindorff, D. P.

    1972-01-01

    Given a linear time invariant multivariable system with m inputs and p outputs, it was shown that p closed loop poles of the system can be preassigned arbitrarily using constant gain output feedback provided (A circumflex, B circumflex) is controllable. These data show that if (A circumflex, B circumflex, C circumflex) is controllable and observable, and Rank B circumflex = m, Rank C circumflex = p, then max (m,p) poles of the system can be assigned arbitarily using constant gain output feedback. Further, it is shown that in some cases more than max (m,p) poles can be arbitrarily assigned. A least square design technique is outlined to approximate the desired pole locations when it is not possible to place all the poles.

  7. Baryon transition form factors at the pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiator, L.; Döring, M.; Workman, R. L.; Hadžimehmedović, M.; Osmanović, H.; Omerović, R.; Stahov, J.; Švarc, A.

    2016-12-01

    Electromagnetic resonance properties are uniquely defined at the pole and do not depend on the separation of the resonance from background or the decay channel. Photon-nucleon branching ratios are nowadays often quoted at the pole, and we generalize the considerations to the case of virtual photons. We derive and compare relations for nucleon to baryon transition form factors both for the Breit-Wigner and the pole positions. Using the MAID2007 and SAID SM08 partial wave analyses of pion electroproduction data, we compare the GM, GE, and GC form factors for the Δ (1232 ) resonance excitation at the Breit-Wigner resonance and pole positions up to Q2=5 GeV2 . We also explore the E /M and S /M ratios as functions of Q2. For pole and residue extraction, we apply the Laurent + Pietarinen method.

  8. Baryon transition form factors at the pole

    CERN Document Server

    Tiator, L; Workman, R L; Hadžimehmedović, M; Osmanović, H; Omerović, R; Stahov, J; Švarc, A

    2016-01-01

    Electromagnetic resonance properties are uniquely defined at the pole and do not depend on the separation of the resonance from background or the decay channel. Photon-nucleon branching ratios are nowadays often quoted at the pole, and we generalize the considerations to the case of virtual photons. We derive and compare relations for nucleon to baryon transition form factors both for the Breit-Wigner and the pole positions. Using the MAID2007 and SAID SM08 partial wave analyses of pion electroproduction data, we compare the $G_M$, $G_E$, and $G_C$ form factors for the $\\Delta(1232)$ resonance excitation at the Breit-Wigner resonance and pole positions up to $Q^2=5$ GeV$^2$. We also explore the $E/M$ and $S/M$ ratios as functions of $Q^2$. For pole and residue extraction, we apply the Laurent + Pietarinen method.

  9. Planar glass devices for efficient periodic poling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage-Pedersen, Jacob; Jacobsen, Rune Shim; Kristensen, Martin

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate that frequency-converting devices of high quality can be realised with glass poling. The devices, made with silica-on-silicon technology, are poled with periodic, embedded electrodes, and used for second-harmonic generation. We obtain precise control of the quasi phase-matching wav......We demonstrate that frequency-converting devices of high quality can be realised with glass poling. The devices, made with silica-on-silicon technology, are poled with periodic, embedded electrodes, and used for second-harmonic generation. We obtain precise control of the quasi phase......-matching wavelength and bandwidth, and a normalised conversion efficiency of 1.4×10-3 %/W/cm2 which, to our knowledge, is the highest obtained so far with periodic glass poling....

  10. Baryon transition form factors at the pole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiator, L.; Döring, M.; Workman, R. L.; Hadžimehmedović, M.; Osmanović, H.; Omerović, R.; Stahov, J.; Švarc, A.

    2016-12-01

    Electromagnetic resonance properties are uniquely defined at the pole and do not depend on the separation of the resonance from background or the decay channel. Photon-nucleon branching ratios are nowadays often quoted at the pole, and we generalize the considerations to the case of virtual photons. We derive and compare relations for nucleon to baryon transition form factors both for the Breit-Wigner and the pole positions. Using the MAID2007 and SAID SM08 partial wave analyses of pion electroproduction data, we compare the $G_M$, $G_E$, and $G_C$ form factors for the $\\Delta(1232)$ resonance excitation at the Breit-Wigner resonance and pole positions up to $Q^2=5$ GeV$^2$. We also explore the $E/M$ and $S/M$ ratios as functions of $Q^2$. For pole and residue extraction, we apply the Laurent + Pietarinen method.

  11. Massage Therapy in Iranian Traditional Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir-Mohammad Jaladat

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Massage training and how the body is influenced by massage are common issues which are seriously under study and discussion in Iranian traditional medicine. Iranian physicians considered motion and massage as major principles of health maintenance.In this study, we examined the available literature of traditional medicine to evaluate location, purpose and use of massage therapy in Iranian medicine in comparison with other popular conventional styles.The aim of Iranian massage is to regulate the core body temperature and aid to eliminate the waste products from the body. This type of massage is divided into five categories including solid, soft, moderate, great and aggressive, based on the intensity, speed, duration and techniques of massage.Iranian physicians proposed general body massage or massage of a particular area based on subjective complaints. They recommended specific massages in particular groups including children, pregnant women, the elderly and athletes. In some cases, the effects of these recommendations have been studied in clinical trials.Conclusion: It seems that the major difference between Iranian massage and other styles of massage is special attention of Iranian massage to the individual circumstances, and the cause of the problem rather than technique of the massage.

  12. Euthanasia in Iranian Criminal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Noori

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mercy killing, euthanasia or killing a person who is terminally ill is not an allowable murder and all kinds of direct killings are in a sense of willful murder. Indirect mercy killing is considered as assisted suicide. According to Iranian criminal system, mercy killing is not allowable because human is a creature superior to an animal and will experience the result of their acts in the eternal world. A lot of efforts are done in many countries for the legalization of euthanasia or mercy killing.

  13. Magic and reality in the literature of the Cuban revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Jesús Martín Sastre

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no innocent literature. Literature is made by love, by hate, by a woman, by an idea, by an injustice, by a hope, to praise or to criticize, but I think literature has never been isolated, pure, detached. [...] Literature cannot escape life and history (Manuel Cofiño Lopez, 1985: 9697. Cofiño Lopezs own literature is no exception. The clear contrast that he presents in The Last Woman and the upcoming battle between magic and reality, ignorance and culture, past and present has a purpose. The author raises the need to end with the old beliefs in order to progress.This inextricable link between magic and reality of the Revolution is present in several novels of the Cuban Revolution. It shows how the two interact, as well as how past and present intermingle. Moreover, we find that magic is present throughout, and is fully compatible with the Revolution. This does not make it erroneous to believe in the stories of Magic Realism. It is a mistake on the part of the revolution and those who write about it for attempting to deny people the magic of their superstitions and beliefs, since magic is not the enemy of progress. They are part of their lives and their culture, and are something that should be respected.

  14. In vitro antimicrobial assessment of Cuban propolis extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianet Monzote

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Propolis is a resinous mixture of different plant exudates collected by honeybees. Currently, propolis is widely used as a food supplement and in folk medicine. We have evaluated 20 Cuban propolis extracts of different chemical types, brown (BCP, red and yellow (YCP, with respect to their in vitro antibacterial, antifungal and antiprotozoal properties. The extracts inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Trichophyton rubrum at low µg/mL concentrations, whereas they were not active against Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. The major activity of the extracts was found against the protozoa Leishmania, Trypanosoma and Plasmodium, although cytotoxicity against MRC-5 cells was also observed. The BCP-3, YCP-39 and YCP-60 extracts showed the highest activity against P. falciparum, with 50% of microbial growth (IC50 values of 0.2 µg/mL. A positive correlation between the biological activity and the chemical composition was observed for YCP extracts. The most promising antimicrobial activity corresponds to YCP subtype B, which contains acetyl triterpenes as the main constituents. The present in vitro study highlights the potential of propolis against protozoa, but further research is needed to increase selectivity towards the parasite. The observed chemical composition-activity relationship of propolis can contribute to the identification of the active principles and standardisation of this bee product.

  15. In vitro antimicrobial assessment of Cuban propolis extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzote, Lianet; Cuesta-Rubio, Osmany; Campo Fernandez, Mercedes; Márquez Hernandez, Ingrid; Fraga, Jorge; Pérez, Kleich; Kerstens, Monique; Maes, Louis; Cos, Paul

    2012-12-01

    Propolis is a resinous mixture of different plant exudates collected by honeybees. Currently, propolis is widely used as a food supplement and in folk medicine. We have evaluated 20 Cuban propolis extracts of different chemical types, brown (BCP), red and yellow (YCP), with respect to their in vitro antibacterial, antifungal and antiprotozoal properties. The extracts inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Trichophyton rubrum at low µg/mL concentrations, whereas they were not active against Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. The major activity of the extracts was found against the protozoa Leishmania, Trypanosoma and Plasmodium, although cytotoxicity against MRC-5 cells was also observed. The BCP-3, YCP-39 and YCP-60 extracts showed the highest activity against P. falciparum, with 50% of microbial growth (IC₅₀) values of 0.2 µg/mL. A positive correlation between the biological activity and the chemical composition was observed for YCP extracts. The most promising antimicrobial activity corresponds to YCP subtype B, which contains acetyl triterpenes as the main constituents. The present in vitro study highlights the potential of propolis against protozoa, but further research is needed to increase selectivity towards the parasite. The observed chemical composition-activity relationship of propolis can contribute to the identification of the active principles and standardisation of this bee product.

  16. Ranking of Cuban Medical Journals according to the Google Scholar H5-Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Benet Rodríguez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: the assessment of journals is undoubtedly a continuous process that is determined by the quality of scientific papers and authors’ recognition of the most cited scientific journals. Objective: to describe the ranking of Cuban medical journals according to the h5-index. Methods: a bibliometric study of all scientific journals related to Cuban medical sciences included in the Virtual Health Library was conducted. The h5-index and the h5-median obtained through Google Scholar Metrics were used to calculate the ranking. Results: eighty two point seven percent of Cuban medical journals have an h5-index registered in Google Scholar Metrics. Seventy two percent are indexed in SciELO Cuba. The average h5-index for Cuban medical journals is 6.88 and the h-median is 6.00. For those indexed in SciELO Cuba, the h5-index is 7.60. The h5-index of journals published by ECIMED is 8.69; showing significant differences in relation to other publishers in the country. Among the top 20 Cuban medical journals according to the Google Scholar H5-index, only seven are not edited by ECIMED. Conclusions: the assessment of national journals using the h5-index is vital, even considering its weaknesses, since most of these journals are not included in databases such as Scopus and WOS.

  17. Structural tailoring effects on the magnetic behavior of symmetric and asymmetric cubane-type Ni complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomaryov, Alexey N; Kim, Namseok; Hwang, Jaewon; Nojiri, Hiroyuki; van Tol, Johan; Ozarowski, Andrew; Park, Jena; Jang, Zeehoon; Suh, Byoungjin; Yoon, Sungho; Choi, Kwang-Yong

    2013-06-01

    Using two kinds of carboxylate ligands with small but significant differences in steric size, symmetric and asymmetric Fe(II) and Ni(II) cubanes have been synthesized in a controlled fashion. Fast sweeping pulsed field measurements showed magnetization hysteresis loops for two cubane-type molecular complexes, [Ni4(μ-OMe)4(O2CAr(4F-Ph))4(HOMe)8] and [Ni4(μ-OMe)4(O2CAr(Tol))4(HOMe)6], thus suggesting single-molecule magnet behavior. To differentiate the magnetic properties between the symmetric and asymmetric cubanes, detailed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements were performed. From the EPR data, taken at various frequencies and temperatures, zero-field splitting parameters D, E, and other higher-order parameters for both cubane samples were extracted. Compared to the symmetric Ni-cubane, the asymmetric one shows an increase in the D and E values by about 20%, thereby suggesting structural engineering effects on the magnetic properties. By using the magnetic parameters determined by EPR, a static magnetization curve at 2 K and a temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility were simulated. A good agreement between theoretical and experimental data confirms the validity of the values obtained from EPR measurements.

  18. Holography with a Landau pole

    CERN Document Server

    Faedo, Anton F; Pantelidou, Christiana; Tarrio, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Holography for UV-incomplete gauge theories is important but poorly understood. A paradigmatic example is $d=4$, $\\mathcal{N}=4$ super Yang-Mills coupled to $N_f$ quark flavors, which possesses a Landau pole at a UV scale $\\Lambda_{LP}$. The dual gravity solution exhibits a UV singularity at a finite proper distance along the holographic direction. Despite this, holographic renormalization can be fully implemented via analytic continuation to an AdS solution. The presence of a UV cut-off manifests itself in several interesting ways. At energies $E \\ll \\Lambda_{LP}$ no pathologies appear, as expected from effective field theory. In contrast, at scales $E \\lesssim \\Lambda_{LP}$ the gravitational potential becomes repulsive, and at temperatures $T \\lesssim \\Lambda_{LP}$ the specific heat becomes negative. Although we focus on $\\mathcal{N}=4$ super Yang-Mills with flavor, our qualitative results apply to a much more general class of theories, since they only depend on the fact that the metric near the UV singular...

  19. 31 CFR 515.549 - Bank accounts and other property of non-Cuban citizens who were in Cuba on or after July 8, 1963.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... non-Cuban citizens who were in Cuba on or after July 8, 1963. 515.549 Section 515.549 Money and... Licensing Policy § 515.549 Bank accounts and other property of non-Cuban citizens who were in Cuba on or... accounts and other property of non-Cuban citizens who have left Cuba, provided that they submit...

  20. What is the Role of the Cuban Revolutionary Armed Forces (FAR) in a Post-Castro Cuba? What Role will the U.S. Military Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    through his brother Raul for the past 30 years. The Spanish heritage and machismo tradition of the Cuban male is strong: the long struggle the Cubans...himself on the air in an attempt to change the course of Cuban history. " (Oppenheimer 132). None of this machismo tradition has been lost on Fidel Castro

  1. Illustrated key for the identification of the mole crabs (Decapoda, Anomura, Hippoidea of the Cuban sea waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogelio Lalana

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available An illustrated key to the identification of the families, four genera and 5 species, as well as a possible additional genus, of the Cuban waters mole crabs (Anomura, Hippoidea are presented. One of these is a new record for Cuba. The general and Cuban distribution of each species and their habitat, are also given.

  2. Feynman rules of higher-order poles in CHY construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rijun; Feng, Bo; Luo, Ming-xing; Zhu, Chuan-Jie

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we generalize the integration rules for scattering equations to situations where higher-order poles are present. We describe the strategy to deduce the Feynman rules of higher-order poles from known analytic results of simple CHY-integrands, and propose the Feynman rules for single double pole and triple pole as well as duplex-double pole and triplex-double pole structures. We demonstrate the validation and strength of these rules by ample non-trivial examples.

  3. Narcissism in Iranian auditing profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Javanmard

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the level of Narcissism among 185 Iranian auditors groups and narcissism has been used to describe people behavior in people groups. The present study uses a questionnaire to measure Narcissism and to examine the hypotheses of the paper analysis of variance and T-test are used. The results of testing hypotheses show that the level of narcissism was significantly different in auditors groups in private sector. However, in public sector, the difference between narcissistic personality in auditors’ groups is not significant. Results of the study also indicated that, in private sector, narcissistic personality in young generation of auditors was higher than audit old generation. These results confirm previous studies on narcissism indicating that narcissistic behavior was high among young generation. We suggest the Iranian association of certified public accountants (IACPA to review the ethical training needs for auditors. In addition, audit firms can provide a system to increase interaction among old generations of auditors with young generation of auditors.

  4. Determinants of Iranian bank profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ghodrati

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Banks are the most important tool for preparing and supplying money in each country. In recent years, by institution of the new private banks and privatization of the governmental banks, banking competition has become very complex. This paper performs an empirical investigation to study the effects of different factors on return on assets and return on equities on 18 selected Iranian firms over the period 2002-2011. Using different regression models, the study studies the effects of total assets, debt ratio, etc. on return of assets (ROA and return on equities (ROE on selected eighteen Iranian banks as statistical community. The study considers total assets, ownership ratio, deposits to assets ratio, and loans to assets ratio as independent variables, and ROE and ROA as dependent variables. The results indicate that the private banks returns were better than governmental banks and the commercial banks’ returns were better than special banks. There is a reverse relationship between logarithm of total assets and ownership ratio with profitability based on return of assets.

  5. Taxonomic status and biology of the Cuban blackhawk, Buteogallus anthracinus gundlachii (AVES: Accipitridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, J.W.; Garrido, O.H.

    2005-01-01

    We reevaluate the taxonomic status of the Cuban population of the Common Black-Hawk (Buteogallus anthracinus) based on our examination of additional specimens, nests, eggs, and voice data. Buteogallus a. gundlachii is smaller than mainland populations of anthracinus and differs from mainland birds in plumage coloration and pattern. The common (alarm) call of gundlachii is a series of three or four notes, differing from that of mainland anthracinus, whose call consists of 9-24 notes. In the Isla de Pinos, Cuba, we observed gundlachii eating two species of land crabs (71.4%), centipedes (7.1%), lizards (10.7%), mammals (7.1%), and a bird (3.6%). We consider Buteogallus gundlachii Cabanis 1854 (1855), the Cuban Black-Hawk, to be a full species, endemic to Cuba, Isla de Pinos, and many of the cays of the Cuban Archipelago. ?? 2005 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  6. Mandibuloacral Dysplasia in An Iranian Girl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Abbasi

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Mandibuloacral dysplasia (MAD is a rare autosomal recessive syndrome. Less than 25 families have been reported, most of which are Italian. Here, we describe a new patient of Iranian origin, born to consanguineous parents.

  7. VT Green Mountain Power Pole Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) Green Mountain Power (GMP) pole and OVERHEAD linear distribution/sub-transmission model data. THE LINEAR DISTRIBUTION LAYER ONLY INCLUDES OVERHEAD...

  8. Endistel ajateenijatel pole karistust karta / Holger Roonemaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roonemaa, Holger

    2007-01-01

    Kevadtormi õppusel kaitseväe korda rikkunud Kuperjanovi pataljoni endistel ajateenijatel pole karistust karta, sest karistust saab määrata vaid teenistusaja jooksul. Lisa: Kuperjanovis oli vähe korda

  9. NATO poliitik : Eestil pole venelastega probleeme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    NATO Parlamentaarse Assamblee poliitik Niki Bettendorf, kes kontrollis Eestis Venemaa etteheiteid, nagu rikutaks Eestis ja Lätis vene vähemuse õigusi, kinnitas, et Eestis pole suuri probleeme vene vähemusega

  10. A Comparative Analysis of the New Five-Pole and Three-Pole Active Magnet Bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedram Vakili

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, more attention has been given to the active AMBs thanks to their low maintenance cost, suitability for clean environments, and high speed. One of the popular types of AMBs is the three-pole type with integrated and separate cores. Some deficiencies of this type of bearing are its high oscillation, low stability and low efficiency. This paper seeks to analyse the three-pole AMBs and describe their deficiencies and introduce and analyse a new five-pole AMB. The model thus proposed has lower oscillation as well as more stability and efficiency. The five-pole AMB has been simulated by a controller in the presence of disturbance. The results of simulation demonstrate lower vibration and oscillation in the five-pole AMB in comparison with the three-pole model.

  11. Economic Benefit for Cuban Laurel Thrips Biological Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shogren, C; Paine, T D

    2016-02-01

    The Cuban laurel thrips, Gynaikothrips ficorum Marchal (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae), is a critical insect pest of Ficus microcarpa in California urban landscapes and production nurseries. Female thrips feed and oviposit on young Ficus leaves, causing the expanding leaves to fold or curl into a discolored leaf gall. There have been attempts to establish specialist predator natural enemies of the thrips, but no success has been reported. We resampled the same areas in 2013-2014 where we had released Montandoniola confusa (= morguesi) Streito and Matocq (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) in southern California in 1995 but had been unable to recover individuals in 1997-1998. Thrips galls were significantly reduced in all three of the locations in the recent samples compared with the earlier samples. M. confusa was present in all locations and appears to be providing successful biological control. The value of the biological control, the difference between street trees in good foliage condition and trees with poor foliage, was $58,766,166. If thrips damage reduced the foliage to very poor condition, the value of biological control was $73,402,683. Total cost for the project was $61,830. The benefit accrued for every dollar spent on the biological control of the thrips ranged from $950, if the foliage was in poor condition, to $1,187, if the foliage was in very poor condition. The value of urban forest is often underappreciated. Economic analyses that clearly demonstrate the very substantial rates of return on investment in successful biological control in urban forests provide compelling arguments for supporting future efforts.

  12. Upper mesosphere dynamical behavior near South Pole

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez, Gonzalo; Smith,Roger W.

    1997-01-01

    Recent ground-based measurements of the neutral winds and temperatures at mesospheric heights near the Earth's rotational pole, at Amundsen-Scott Station, show that the neutral atmosphere has a restricted zonal wavenumber behavior at very-high latitudes. This can be interpreted as the natural response of the atmosphere to the boundary conditions at the rotational pole (s). Experimentally, mostly planetary-scale waves have been observed during the austral winter.

  13. A moving-barber-pole illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peng; Chubb, Charles; Sperling, George

    2014-05-01

    In the barber-pole illusion (BPI), a diagonally moving grating is perceived as moving vertically because of the shape of the vertically oriented window through which it is viewed-a strong shape-motion interaction. We introduce a novel stimulus-the moving barber pole-in which a diagonal, drifting sinusoidal carrier is windowed by a raised, vertical, drifting sinusoidal modulator that moves independently of the carrier. In foveal vision, the moving-barber-pole stimulus can be perceived as several active barber poles drifting horizontally but also as other complex dynamic patterns. In peripheral vision, pure vertical motion (the moving-barber-pole illusion [MBPI]) is perceived for a wide range of conditions. In foveal vision, the MBPI is observed, but only when the higher-order modulator motion is masked. Theories to explain the BPI make indiscriminable predictions in a standard barber-pole display. But, in moving-barber-pole stimuli, the motion directions of features (e.g., end stops) of the first-order carrier and of the higher-order modulator are all different from the MBPI. High temporal frequency stimuli viewed peripherally greatly reduce the effectiveness of higher-order motion mechanisms and, ideally, isolate a single mechanism responsible for the MBPI. A three-stage motion-path integration mechanism that (a) computes local motion energies, (b) integrates them for a limited time period along various spatial paths, and (c) selects the path with the greatest motion energy, quantitatively accounts for these high-frequency data. The MBPI model also accounts for the perceived motion-direction in peripherally viewed moving-barber-pole stimuli that do and do not exhibit the MBPI over the entire range of modulator (0-10 Hz) and carrier (2.5-10 Hz) temporal frequencies tested.

  14. Self Assembly and Pyroelectric Poling for Organics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-06

    ozone or nitrogen oxides) and energetic species from corona discharge . These problems can strongly inhibit the efficient poling and large-scale...respectively. In this idealized model , a modest temperature change (10 to 50 °C) will lead to a considerably large electrostatic field in a thin film dielectric...measurement); (e) contact poling. 4. Systematically analyze electrostatics models to quantify electric field generation from commonly used pyroelectric

  15. Web Impact Factors for Iranian Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Noruzi

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the Web Impact Factors (WIFs for Iranian universities and introduces a new system of measurement. Counts of links to the web sites of Iranian universities were calculated from the output of AltaVista search engine. The WIFs for Iranian universities were calculated by dividing link page counts by the number of pages found in AltaVista for each university at a given point in time. These WIFs were then compared, to study the impact, visibility, and influence of Iranian university web sites. Overall, Iranian university web sites have a low inlink WIF. While specific features of sites may affect an institution's Web Impact Factor, there is a significant correlation between the proportion of English-language pages at an institution's site and the institution's backlink counts. This indicates that for linguistic reasons, Iranian (Persian-language web sites may not receive and attract the attention that they deserve from the World Wide Web. This raises the possibility that information may be ignored due to linguistic and geographic barriers, and this should be taken into account in the development of the global Web.

  16. Poles apart: Scott, Amundsen and science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Edward J

    2011-12-01

    One hundred years ago, teams led by Roald Amundsen and Robert Scott may have been heading in the same direction but they were poles apart in the way they sought their goals. Amundsen led a five-person team of expert Nordic skiers and dog-sledders with a single goal: getting to the South Pole first. He planned and executed the effort brilliantly. Scott, in contrast, led a complex and multi-faceted Antarctic expedition with 33 explorers and scientists, many of whom were focused on ambitious and often taxing scientific research projects that had nothing whatsoever to do with reaching the Pole. Although Scott failed to reach the South Pole first and died with four men on the return trip, his expedition made significant contributions to Antarctic science. Indeed, at least some of Scott's failure to reach the Pole first and the subsequent death of his polar party on the return trip can be attributed to burden of trying to do too much and not focusing on reaching the pole.

  17. Pole movement in electronic and optoelectronic oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, S.; Pal, S.; Biswas, B. N.

    2013-12-01

    An RLC circuit with poles on the left half of the complex frequency plane is capable of executing transient oscillations. During this period, energy conversion from potential to kinetic and from kinetic to potential continuously goes on, until the stored energy is lost in dissipation through the resistance. On the other hand, in an electronic or opto-electronic oscillator with an embedded RLC circuit, the poles are forcibly placed on the right-half plane (RHP) and as far as practicable away from the imaginary axis in order to help the growth of oscillation as quickly as possible. And ultimately, it is imagined that, like the case of an ideal linear harmonic oscillator, the poles are frozen on the imaginary axis so that the oscillation neither grows nor decays. The authors feel that this act of holding the poles right on the imaginary axis is a theoretical conjecture in a soft or hard self-excited oscillator. In this article, a detailed discussion on pole movement in an electronic and opto-electronic oscillator is carried out from the basic concept. A new analytical method for estimating the time-dependent part of the pole is introduced here.

  18. Assessment of structural integrity of wooden poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craighead, Ian A.; Thackery, Steve; Redstall, Martin; Thomas, Matthew R.

    2000-05-01

    Despite recent advances in the development of new materials, wood continues to be used globally for the support of overhead cable networks used by telecommunications and electrical utility companies. As a natural material, wood is subject to decay and will eventually fail, causing disruption to services and danger to public and company personnel. Internal decay, due to basidomycetes fungi or attack by termites, can progress rapidly and is often difficult to detect by casual inspection. The traditional method of testing poles for decay involves hitting them with a hammer and listening to the sound that results. However, evidence suggests that a large number of poles are replaced unnecessarily and a significant number of poles continue to fail unexpectedly in service. Therefore, a more accurate method of assessing the structural integrity of wooden poles is required. Over the last 25 years there have been a number of attempts at improving decay detection. Techniques such as ultrasound, drilling X rays etc. have been developed but have generally failed to improve upon the practicality and accuracy of the traditional testing method. The paper describes the use of signal processing techniques to analyze the acoustic response of the pole and thereby determine the presence of decay. Development of a prototype meter is described and the results of initial tests on several hundred poles are presented.

  19. 2D Stabilised analytic signal method in DC pole-pole potential data interpretation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Paras R Pujari; Rambhatla G Sastry

    2003-03-01

    Using analytic signal method, interpretation of pole-pole secondary electric potentials due to 2D conductive/resistive prisms is presented. The estimated parameters are the location, lateral extent or width and depth to top surface of the prism. Forward modelling is attempted by 2D-Finite Difference method. The proposed stabilised analytic signal algorithm (RES2AS) uses Tikhonov's regularization scheme and FFT routines. The algorithm is tested on three theoretical examples and field data from the campus of Roorkee University. The stability of RES2AS is also tested on synthetic error prone secondary pole-pole potential data.

  20. Clouds Over the North Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 29 June 2004 The atmosphere of Mars is a dynamic system. Water-ice clouds, fog, and hazes can make imaging the surface from space difficult. Dust storms can grow from local disturbances to global sizes, through which imaging is impossible. Seasonal temperature changes are the usual drivers in cloud and dust storm development and growth. Eons of atmospheric dust storm activity has left its mark on the surface of Mars. Dust carried aloft by the wind has settled out on every available surface; sand dunes have been created and moved by centuries of wind; and the effect of continual sand-blasting has modified many regions of Mars, creating yardangs and other unusual surface forms. Like yesterday's image, the linear 'ripples' are water-ice clouds. As spring is deepening at the North Pole these clouds are becoming more prevalent. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 68.9, Longitude 135.5 East (224.5 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are

  1. The attitude of Iranian nurses about do not resuscitate orders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Mogadasian

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Iranian nurses, regardless of their religious sects, reported negative attitude towards many aspects of DNR orders. It may be possible to change the attitude of Iranian nurses towards DNR through education.

  2. 31 CFR 515.415 - Travel to Cuba; transportation of certain Cuban nationals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Travel to Cuba; transportation of... CONTROL REGULATIONS Interpretations § 515.415 Travel to Cuba; transportation of certain Cuban nationals... or a returning resident of the United States, from Cuba to the United States, unless...

  3. Herbert L. Matthews and the Cuban Story. Journalism Monographs No. 54.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudson, Jerry W.

    Herbert L. Matthews, a veteran journalist for the "New York Times," traveled to Cuba in 1957 to interview Fidel Castro, then a revolutionary seeking the overthrow of the Batista regime. This monograph considers the impact of Matthews' newspaper articles about those interviews and of his subsequent articles about the Cuban situation and…

  4. Magnetic Resonance Project 35-26-7: A Cuban Case of Engineering Physics and Biophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabal Mirabal, Carlos A.

    The Magnetic Resonance Project 35-26-7 started in December 1987, commissioned by the [then] Cuban Prime Minister, Fidel Castro, who—concerned about introducing technological advancement into the Cuban health [system]—had for some months taken an interest in the possibility of building magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) equipment for medical diagnosis in Cuba (Zito M, Argüelles MM et al, Y sin embargo-: ciencia: hablan 30 investigadores cubanos. Editoria April, Habana, pp 56-66, 1999; Cabal, Biofísica Médica. In: Fidel Castro Dìas-Balart (eds) Cuba. Amanecer del Tercer Milenio. Ciencia, Sociedad y Tecnología: Biofísica Médica. Debate Editorial, Madrid, pp 31-48, 2002). Many of the companies producing MRI equipment were unable to deliver this technology to Cuba due to the bloqueo, the United States embargo against Cuba. Those who were later to advance the project's progress in scientific technology initially regarded the implementation of such a project in a developing country as unfeasible due to its complexity. But Fidel's belief and confidence and in turn the Cuban scientists' commitment to him and to Cuban science proved to be an undeniable factors for its success.

  5. Cuban Education in Neo-liberal Times: Socialist Revolutionaries and State Capitalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malott, Curry

    2007-01-01

    This article outlines the events that have led to Cuba's current engagement with global capitalism and the implications for Cuban education. The author looks at what Noam Chomsky (1999) has repeatedly referred to as "Cuba's trouble making in the hemisphere," such as it is. The author answers the question, "Why does the US government hate Cuba?" He…

  6. The Cuban Model for Higher Education of Older Adults: Generativity, Social Commitment, and Collaborative Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuni, José Alberto; Urbano, Claudio Ariel

    2014-01-01

    The present work is an approach to study the "Cuban model" for educating the elderly, and its aim is to describe the main features of the experience developed by this country. The University of the Third Age is more than three decades old in Latin America, but none of the countries in the region can show a state educational policy…

  7. Hydrogen Evolution on Supported Incomplete Cubane-type [Mo3S4](4+) Electrocatalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaramillo, Thomas; Bonde, Jacob Lindner; Zhang, Jingdong

    2008-01-01

    Electrocatalytic properties of biomimetic supported incomplete cubane-type [Mo3S4](4+) clusters are investigated. The activity toward the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is evaluated on both a high surface area gas diffusion electrode in a membrane electrode assembly and on highly orientated...

  8. soirées Rock - Cuban salsa, bachata and Kizomba workshops

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Dancing Club

    2015-01-01

    The CERN Dancing Club organizes a Cuban salsa, bachata and Kizomba workshop open to everyone on Saturday 9 May in its B566 ballroom (See the poster). Furthermore, the club invites you to its Rock party. Club parties are free and open to everyone. You bring something to eat and the club offers the drinks (non alcoholic)    

  9. 45 CFR 401.12 - Cuban and Haitian entrant cash and medical assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CUBAN/HAITIAN...) That the entrant is in a voluntary departure status, or (3) That the entrant's residence in a United States community is known to the Immigration and Naturalization Service. The amendments are to be issued...

  10. Cooperative and Competitive Behavior of Cuban-American and Anglo-American Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Carlos M.; Pader, Olga F.

    1979-01-01

    The cooperative behavior of 144 children in three groups--Cuban-Americans in either private or public schools and Anglo-Americans--decreased when task instructions emphasized individual rewards. Only the Anglo-American children, who maintained a significant level of competitiveness throughout, significantly increased their competitive behavior in…

  11. Tampa's Splendid Little War: Local History and the Cuban War of Independence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mormino, Gary R.

    1998-01-01

    Presents a look at the local culture of Tampa, Florida at the turn of the century and how it responded to a massive influx of troops waiting for action during the Spanish-American War. At that time, Tampa was a multiethnic city that included many Cuban-, Spanish-, and African-Americans. (MJP)

  12. Parental Involvement and the Academic Achievement and Social Functioning of Cuban School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Valdivia, Ibis M.; Chavez, Kenia Lorenzo; Schneider, Barry H.; Roberts, Jesse S.; Becalli-Puerta, Laura E.; Perez-Lujan, Dalgys; Sanz-Martinez, Yuri Arsenio

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to investigate whether parental involvement is an important predictor of student outcomes within the Cuban school system, where extensive support for pupils' progress and adjustment are available from the peer group, community, and family. The participants were 188 children in Grades 2 and 3 from four localities…

  13. Cuban Education in Neo-liberal Times: Socialist Revolutionaries and State Capitalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malott, Curry

    2007-01-01

    This article outlines the events that have led to Cuba's current engagement with global capitalism and the implications for Cuban education. The author looks at what Noam Chomsky (1999) has repeatedly referred to as "Cuba's trouble making in the hemisphere," such as it is. The author answers the question, "Why does the US government…

  14. 8 CFR 212.12 - Parole determinations and revocations respecting Mariel Cubans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... respecting Mariel Cubans. 212.12 Section 212.12 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... health; (iv) Institutional progress relating to participation in work, educational and vocational... sibling who is a lawful permanent resident or a citizen of the United States. (g) Timing of reviews....

  15. Cuban Education in Neo-liberal Times: Socialist Revolutionaries and State Capitalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malott, Curry

    2007-01-01

    This article outlines the events that have led to Cuba's current engagement with global capitalism and the implications for Cuban education. The author looks at what Noam Chomsky (1999) has repeatedly referred to as "Cuba's trouble making in the hemisphere," such as it is. The author answers the question, "Why does the US government…

  16. Parental Involvement and the Academic Achievement and Social Functioning of Cuban School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Valdivia, Ibis M.; Chavez, Kenia Lorenzo; Schneider, Barry H.; Roberts, Jesse S.; Becalli-Puerta, Laura E.; Perez-Lujan, Dalgys; Sanz-Martinez, Yuri Arsenio

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to investigate whether parental involvement is an important predictor of student outcomes within the Cuban school system, where extensive support for pupils' progress and adjustment are available from the peer group, community, and family. The participants were 188 children in Grades 2 and 3 from four localities…

  17. Testing the Effects of Collectively Expected Durations of Migration: The Naturalization of Mexicans and Cubans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Benigno E.; Saenz, Rogelio

    2002-01-01

    Investigated whether Mexican foreign-born immigrants who immigrated to the United States for economic reasons naturalized less often than Cubans who immigrated for political reasons. Data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, Latino Sample, indicated that while more Mexicans plan to apply or have applied for naturalization, proportionately more…

  18. 45 CFR 400.62 - Treatment of eligible secondary migrants, asylees, and Cuban/Haitian entrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... establish procedures to ensure that eligible secondary migrant refugees, asylees, and Cuban/Haitian entrants... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Treatment of eligible secondary migrants, asylees... Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  19. Jupiter's interior and deep atmosphere: The initial pole-to-pole passes with the Juno spacecraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolton, S. J.; Adriani, Alberto; Adumitroaie, V.

    2017-01-01

    On 27 August 2016, the Juno spacecraft acquired science observations of Jupiter, passing less than 5000 kilometers above the equatorial cloud tops. Images of Jupiter's poles show a chaotic scene, unlike Saturn's poles. Microwave sounding reveals weather features at pressures deeper than 100 bars,...

  20. Reorientation of the early lunar pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Futoshi; Tsunakawa, Hideo; Shimizu, Hisayoshi; Shibuya, Hidetoshi; Matsushima, Masaki

    2014-06-01

    Palaeomagnetic measurements suggest that an active core dynamo operated on the Moon from 4.2 to 3.56 billion years ago. Since the Apollo era, many magnetic anomalies have been observed on the Moon. The magnetization of the lunar crust in some of these regions could preserve the signature of an early dipolar magnetic field generated by a core dynamo. Thus, the magnetic anomalies may yield information about the position of the palaeomagnetic pole during the time that the dynamo operated. Here we present a comprehensive survey of magnetic anomalies on the lunar surface using magnetometer data obtained by the Lunar Prospector and Kaguya lunar orbiters. We extract magnetization vectors from 24 magnetic anomalies using an iterative inversion method and derive the palaeomagnetic poles. We find that the north poles, as well as the antipodal south poles, cluster in two distinct locations: one near the present rotation axis and the other at mid-latitude. The clustering is consistent with a dipole-dominated magnetic field generated in the lunar core by a dynamo that was reversing, much like that of Earth. Furthermore, the two pole clusters imply that the Moon experienced a polar wander event during its ancient history due to the reorientation of the Moon with respect to its spin axis by 45°-60°.

  1. Industry in growth poles of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Iacoboaea

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A competitive industry can reduce costs and prices, can create new products, thus contributing significantly to productivity growth throughout the economy. The industry is also the main source of innovation necessary for society to meet the challenges faced. Growth poles have the ability to spread economic development in adjacent areas and contributes significantly to the territorial development of the country. This article aims to analyze the current state of industry growth poles of Romania, in terms of number of employees, distribution of sub-industries and density of firms in industry. It also highlights business structures and industry clusters located in the growth poles, as solutions for boosting economic growth and creation of added value. Analysis performed leads to the conclusion that all growth poles are engines of economical development in the industry for the regios of origin. We distinguish growth poles Timişoara and Cluj-Napoca whose economic advantage is given by the favorable position close to the markets of the European Union.

  2. Evaluation of Heavy Metals in Iranian and Non-Iranian Rice Supplied by Shopping Centers of Kashan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabbani D.1 PhD,

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims Heavy metals in the environment are toxic to plants, animals and human. This study aimed to investigate concentration of Arsenic, Lead and Cadmium in Iranian and non- Iranian rice which have been sold in Kashan City, Iran shops. Materials & Methods In this cross-sectional study, 126 samples from 42 trademarks (15 Iranian and 27 non-Iranian rice were collected from Kashan shopping centers. At first each sample was ashed, and then they have been dissolved with nitric acid. Heavy metal concentration was evaluated by inductively coupled plasma emission spectrophotometer. Data were analyzed by SPSS 16 software using One-sample and Independent T-tests. Findings Arsenic was not found in any of rice samples. There was a significant difference between Pb concentration in both Iranian and non-Iranian rice samples. There was not a significance difference between Cd concentration in Iranian (p=0.823 and non-Iranian (p=0.346 rice samples according to Iran national standards but there was a significant difference between Cd concentration in both Iranian (p=0.001 and non-Iranian (p=0.001 rice samples according to WHO and FAO standards. Conclusion Consumed rice pollution with Pb is considerable but with Cd is low. Arsenic concentration in Iranian and non-Iranian rice is less than Iran national and WHO/FAO standards.

  3. A method to determine asteroid poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deangelis, G.

    1993-01-01

    The determination of spin axis and shape is well known to be of fundamental importance for studies about the rotational and physical properties of asteroids. In particular, knowledge that the pole coordinate distribution is random or not could indicate the probable non-Maxwellian distribution of asteroid spin axes, while the distribution in terms of size and shape could place important constraints on the theories about the collisional history of some individual asteroids, of asteroid families, and of the asteroid population as a whole. Many kinds of methods have been developed to determine pole coordinates. An EA method is presented, from which it is possible to obtain the solution with no trial poles, but with a simultaneous least square fit on both the E and A part. Results for rotational and shape parameters were obtained for 18 asteroids: the values of the obtained parameters are generally in close agreement with those of others.

  4. The 10 Meter South Pole Telescope

    OpenAIRE

    Carlstrom, J. E.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aird, K. A.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Busetti, S.; Chang, C. L.; Chauvin, E; Cho, H. -M.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T.; Dobbs, M. A.; Halverson, N. W.; Heimsath, S.; Holzapfel, W. L.

    2009-01-01

    The South Pole Telescope (SPT) is a 10 m diameter, wide-field, offset Gregorian telescope with a 966-pixel, multi-color, millimeter-wave, bolometer camera. It is located at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole station in Antarctica. The design of the SPT emphasizes careful control of spillover and scattering, to minimize noise and false signals due to ground pickup. The key initial project is a large-area survey at wavelengths of 3, 2 and 1.3 mm, to detect clusters of galaxies via the Sunyaev-Zeldov...

  5. Log amplifier with pole-zero compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookshier, William

    1987-01-01

    A logarithmic amplifier circuit provides pole-zero compensation for improved stability and response time over 6-8 decades of input signal frequency. The amplifier circuit includes a first operational amplifier with a first feedback loop which includes a second, inverting operational amplifier in a second feedback loop. The compensated output signal is provided by the second operational amplifier with the log elements, i.e., resistors, and the compensating capacitors in each of the feedback loops having equal values so that each break point or pole is offset by a compensating break point or zero.

  6. Pole solutions for flame front propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Kupervasser, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    This book deals with solving mathematically the unsteady flame propagation equations. New original mathematical methods for solving complex non-linear equations and investigating their properties are presented. Pole solutions for flame front propagation are developed. Premixed flames and filtration combustion have remarkable properties: the complex nonlinear integro-differential equations for these problems have exact analytical solutions described by the motion of poles in a complex plane. Instead of complex equations, a finite set of ordinary differential equations is applied. These solutions help to investigate analytically and numerically properties of the flame front propagation equations.

  7. POLES OF ZETA FUNCTIONS OF COMPLETE INTERSECTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A vanishing theorem is proved for -adic cohomology with compact support on an affine (singular) complete intersection. As an application, it is shown that for an affine complete intersection defined over a finite field of q elements, the reciprocal "poles" of the zeta function are always divisible by q as algebraic integers. A p-adic proof is also given, which leads to further q-divisibility of the poles or equivalently an improvement of the polar part of the AxKatz theorem for an affine complete intersection. Similar results hold for a projective complete intersection.

  8. On the design of pole modules for inverse systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, B. F.; Sain, M. K.

    1985-01-01

    When a linear dynamical system admits more than one inverse, it is known that the pole module of any inverse must contain, either as a submodule or as a factor module, a module of fixed poles isomorphic to the zero module of the original system. Design of the pole module for such an inverse system is resolved by introducing a variable pole module for the inverse, by determining necessary and sufficient conditions for a desired module to be a variable pole module, and by studying the manner in which the fixed and variable modules assemble into the pole module of the inverse. If the fixed and variable pole spectra are disjoint, the pole module of the inverse system is a direct sum of the fixed- and variable-pole modules; if not, procedures for addressing the Jordan structure are presented.

  9. Sustainable architecture in the traditional Iranian homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezaei, Davood; Niloufari, Morteza; Sadegh Falahat, Mohammad [Zanjan University (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], email: d_rezaei@znu.ac.ir, email: mortezagharibeh@yahoo.com, email: safalahat@yahoo.com

    2011-07-01

    With the coming shortage of fossil fuels it is important to develop energy efficient buildings to reduce both energy consumption and pollution at the same time. In Iran, traditional homes have been built in a sustainable manner to withstand the high climate diversity of the country. The aim of this paper is to present the different methods used in Iranian traditional architecture. Among the architectural principles is appropriate orientation of the building to allow the capture of solar energy and at the same time protect against the cold wind. In addition, indigenous materials were used in the constructions to provide the highest degree of comfort possible with minimal damage to the environment. Finally, Iranian traditional architecture took advantage of the soil's constant temperature by building a Shvadan which is an underground space beneath the house. This article highlighted the different Iranian traditional methods which can create a sustainable architecture.

  10. Head circumference in Iranian infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Esmaeili

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Head circumference (HC measurement is one of the important parameter for diagnosis of neurological, developmental disorders and dysmorphic syndromes. Recognition of different disorders requires an understanding of normal variation for HC size, in particular, in infancy period with most rapid growth of the brain. Because of international and interracial standard chart differences about anthropometric indices, some differences from local to local, generation to generation and changes in ethnic mix of population and socioeconomic factors, periodic revolution of HC size is suggested. The aims of our study were presenting local HC standard for an Iranian infant population and comparison with the American national center of health statistics (NCHS charts accepted by WHO. Methods: 1003 subjects aged from birth to 24 months apparently healthy normal children enrolled randomly in this cross sectional study. HC size were measured and recorded. Tables and graphs were depicted by Excel Microsoft Office 2007. We use two tailed t-student test for statistical analysis. Results: The mean of HC size in boys was larger than girls. The curves were followed a similar pattern to NCHS based on a visual comparison. Overall our subjects in both sexes at birth time had smaller HC size than NCHS. In other ages our children had larger HC size than those of NCHS. Conclusion: Because of international and interracial difference of HC size. We recommend in each area of the world, local anthropometric indices are constructed and used clinically. In addition more extensive and longitudinally design comprehensive studies is suggested.

  11. SLEEPINESS AMONG IRANIAN LORRY DRIVERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sadeghniiat Y. Labbafinejad

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS denotes a propensity to doze off or fall asleep unintentionally during the day, particularly in passive situations. There is cumulative evidence pointing to an association between sleepiness and probability of involvement in motor vehicle crashes. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of sleepiness in a group of Iranian lorry drivers and its association with accidents. A cross-sectional study was carried out in lorry drivers of Tehran goods transportation terminal in 2005. This study used a questionnaire and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS. The questionnaire included questions regarding demographic features, professional data, sleep habits and excessive daytime sleepiness. A total of 386 male drivers, aged 43.23 ± 9.72 years were included in the study. ESS was higher than 10 points in 9.1% of the interviewees; 50.8% never have driven drowsy, although 36% rarely, 7.3% half of the times, 4.9% almost always and 1% always have driven drowsy. Logistic regression analysis indicated that EDS, age and job satisfaction were associated with an increased risk of accidents. Sleepiness is a prevailing symptom in lorry drivers and is probably related to accidents.

  12. From "Special Period" Aesthetics to Global Relevance in Cuban Art: Tania Bruguera, Carlos Garaicoa, and Los Carpinteros

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the impact Cuba's Special Period (1990s) had on the arts through analyses of artworks by Cuban artists Tania Bruguera, Carlos Garaicoa, and Los Carpinteros (Alexandre Arrechea, Marco Castillo, and Dagoberto Rodríguez). In 1990, following the collapse of the Soviet Union and termination of subsidies to Cuba, Cuba entered the "Special Period in a Time of Peace" (Special Period). Throughout the early 1990s Cubans suffered from severe shortages of necessary food and...

  13. Prioritization and Ranking Problems Exporting Iranian Saffron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Askandari

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to prioritize and rank problems exporting Iranian saffron. Based on a comprehensive review of the literature on issues related to data and information collected from questionnaires, with 816% reliability is used. In this study, the sample of managers and sales and marketing company is exporting Iranian saffron is the sample size of 231 subjects. The results of this study are positive and significant relationship between the dependent variable and the independent variables of export performance of export barriers exist.

  14. The Iranian nuclear crisis a memoir

    CERN Document Server

    Mousavian, Seyed Hossein

    2012-01-01

    The first detailed Iranian account of the diplomatic struggle between Iran and the international community, The Iranian Nuclear Crisis: A Memoir opens in 2002, as news of Iran's clandestine uranium enrichment and plutonium production facilities emerge. Seyed Hossein Mousavian, previously the head of the Foreign Relations Committee of Iran'sSupreme National Security Council and spokesman for Tehran's nuclear negotiating team, brings the reader into Tehran's private deliberations as its leaders wrestle with internal and external adversaries.Mousavian provides readers with intim

  15. Numerical pole assignment by eigenvalue Jacobian inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevaston, George E.

    1986-01-01

    A numerical procedure for solving the linear pole placement problem is developed which operates by the inversion of an analytically determined eigenvalue Jacobian matrix. Attention is given to convergence characteristics and pathological situations. It is not concluded that the algorithm developed is suitable for computer-aided control system design with particular reference to the scan platform pointing control system for the Galileo spacecraft.

  16. NATO pole suutnud Gaddafit murda / Evelyn Kaldoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaldoja, Evelyn, 1980-

    2011-01-01

    Liibüa diktaatori Muammar Gaddafi režiim pole langenud, Lääneriigid jätkavad sõjalisi operatsioone tsiviilelanike kaitseks. Kolm võimalikku lahendust Liibüa kriisile, BBC diplomaatiakorrespondendi Jonathan Marcuse hinnang

  17. Kosovo : kannatlikkusele lootmine pole plaan / Chris Patten

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Patten, Chris

    2007-01-01

    Autor leiab, et arvestades Kosovo elanike ülekaalukat soovi olla vaba Serbiast, riigist, mis üritas nad kõrvaldada, ning alternatiivi täielikku puudumist Belgradi poolt, pole rahvusvahelisel kogukonnal muud võimalust kui anda Kosovole iseseisvus

  18. NATO pole suutnud Gaddafit murda / Evelyn Kaldoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaldoja, Evelyn, 1980-

    2011-01-01

    Liibüa diktaatori Muammar Gaddafi režiim pole langenud, Lääneriigid jätkavad sõjalisi operatsioone tsiviilelanike kaitseks. Kolm võimalikku lahendust Liibüa kriisile, BBC diplomaatiakorrespondendi Jonathan Marcuse hinnang

  19. Ulysses Passes South Pole of Sun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程林

    1995-01-01

    On the 14th of September,1994, the fastest scientific instrument in space passed the south pole of the Sun,a place where no human-made object has been before. A spaceprobe called Ulysses made the polar pass at about midday as it continued to collect data on the solar wind,a stream of high-energy sub-atomic

  20. The South Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laihem, Karim; IceCube Collaboration

    2012-11-01

    New detection techniques for (GZK) neutrinos are required for instrumenting a large detector volume needed to observe the low neutrino fluxes at the EeV energy range. Studies on a larger IceCube Neutrino Observatory at the South Pole have been intensively investigated in the last decade. A larger effective volume at a reasonable cost is possible if an acoustic array is a part of a large hybrid detector which includes radio and the existing optical array. The feasibility and the physics capabilities of an acoustic array at the South Pole depend on the knowledge of the acoustic properties of the ice such as the sound speed, the attenuation length, the background noise level and the transient rate. To investigate the ice properties, the first three acoustic strings of the South Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS) have been deployed in the austral summer 2006/2007, then completed with an additional string in 2007/2008. With its four strings SPATS was able to evaluate in situ the acoustic properties of the South Pole ice in the 10-100 kHz frequency range. In this paper the performance of SPATS is described, results on the acoustic ice properties are presented and a new drilling method to deploy acoustic strings in ice is introduced.

  1. The South Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laihem, Karim, E-mail: karim.laihem@physik.rwth-aachen.de [III Physikalisches Institut B, Physikzentrum, RWTH Aachen University, Otto-Blumenthal Strasse, 52074 Aachen (Germany)

    2012-11-11

    New detection techniques for (GZK) neutrinos are required for instrumenting a large detector volume needed to observe the low neutrino fluxes at the EeV energy range. Studies on a larger IceCube Neutrino Observatory at the South Pole have been intensively investigated in the last decade. A larger effective volume at a reasonable cost is possible if an acoustic array is a part of a large hybrid detector which includes radio and the existing optical array. The feasibility and the physics capabilities of an acoustic array at the South Pole depend on the knowledge of the acoustic properties of the ice such as the sound speed, the attenuation length, the background noise level and the transient rate. To investigate the ice properties, the first three acoustic strings of the South Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS) have been deployed in the austral summer 2006/2007, then completed with an additional string in 2007/2008. With its four strings SPATS was able to evaluate in situ the acoustic properties of the South Pole ice in the 10-100 kHz frequency range. In this paper the performance of SPATS is described, results on the acoustic ice properties are presented and a new drilling method to deploy acoustic strings in ice is introduced.

  2. Kosovo : kannatlikkusele lootmine pole plaan / Chris Patten

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Patten, Chris

    2007-01-01

    Autor leiab, et arvestades Kosovo elanike ülekaalukat soovi olla vaba Serbiast, riigist, mis üritas nad kõrvaldada, ning alternatiivi täielikku puudumist Belgradi poolt, pole rahvusvahelisel kogukonnal muud võimalust kui anda Kosovole iseseisvus

  3. Stabilization, Pole Placement, and Regular Implementability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belur, Madhu N.; Trentelman, H.L.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we study control by interconnection of linear differential systems. We give necessary and sufficient conditions for regular implementability of a given linear differential system. We formulate the problems of stabilization and pole placement as problems of finding a suitable, regularl

  4. Recent advances in poled optical fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pruneri, V.; Margulis, W.; Myrén, N.

    2005-01-01

    A second-order nonlinearity can be induced in optical fibres through poling. We describe accomplishments of the EU project GLAMOROUS in making low-cost high performance electrooptic and nonlinear optical fibre- and waveguide-based components. In particular a comparison with more traditional...

  5. Recent advances in poled optical fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pruneri, V.; Margulis, W.; Myrén, N.;

    2005-01-01

    A second-order nonlinearity can be induced in optical fibres through poling. We describe accomplishments of the EU project GLAMOROUS in making low-cost high performance electrooptic and nonlinear optical fibre- and waveguide-based components. In particular a comparison with more traditional...

  6. People on the Edge See More. A Conversation with the Cuban-American Writer Cristina García

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Àngels Carabí

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available L'entrevista amb l'escriptora cubano-americana Cristina Garciacute;a explora el tema de la identitat cubanoamericana i desvetlla la riquesa literagrave;ria que sorgeix de la fusioacute; de dues cultures, la cubana i la nord-americana, i com aquesta fusioacute; innova la literatura nord-americana tradicional. En la seva novelmiddot;la, emDreaming in Cuban/em (1992, l'escriptora explora els efectes de la Revolucioacute; castrista des de la perspectiva de les dones cubanes que van quedar-se a l'illa, aixiacute; com de les dones que emigraren als Estats Units. The conversation with Cuban-American writer Cristina Garciacute;a explores what it means to be Cuban-American, and reveals how to grow bicultural enriches mainstream American literature. In her novel emDreaming in Cuban/em (1992, the writer explores the effects of the Castro Revolution from the perspective of Cuban women who remained in Cuba, as well as from the experience of women who emigrated to the United States.

  7. Hepatitis B virus exposure in human immunodeficiency virus seropositive Cuban patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licel Rodríguez

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to estimate the prevalence of serological markers of exposure to Hepatitis B Virus (HBV, 295 subjects were selected at random from the National Registry of human immunodeficiency virus positive subjects. Evidence of exposure to HBV was defined as: testing Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and anti-Hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc positive or anti-HBc positive only. Overall, 133 (45.5% were positive for anti-HBc and 15 (5.1% resulted positive to HBsAg. Significant statistical association was found between male sex and exposure to HBV (p<0.01. Homosexual or bisexual behavior was found to be strongly associated to HBV exposure (p<0.001. In conclusion, the prevalence of HBV serological markers is higher in Cuban HIV positive subjects compared to the Cuban general population.

  8. Emergency Response to Earthquake in Chile: Experience of a Cuban Field Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Carlos R

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents the author's experiences in deploying and later establishing a Cuban field hospital in response to the major earthquake that struck Chile in February 2010. It also reveals the initial difficulties the medical team faced and how collaboration with local social, medical and military partners contributed to response efficiency, and highlights the importance of Cuba's international health cooperation, especially in emergency situations. Over 254 days, Cuban health professionals had 50,048 patient encounters (outpatient visits and hospitalizations), a daily average of 197. They performed 1778 surgeries (1427 major, 80.2% of total) and accumulated valuable experience in managing a field hospital in a disaster situation. KEYWORDS Earthquake, humanitarian aid, health care, emergency response, disaster medicine, logistics, Chile, Cuba.

  9. Morphological measurements and body indices for Cuban Creole goats and their crossbreds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilberto Chacón

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, linear body measures were taken and production indices calculated for 100 Cuban Creole goats and 100 crossbred goats in order to aid in the characterization of animal genetic resources in Cuba. Low variation was found for all indices of the Creole goats, showing homogeneity between the groups of animals studied. Most of the functional indices are related to the milk biotype which is in agreement the possible origin of the breed from animals of the Iberian Peninsula and Canary Islands. The crossbreds were more varied, mostly due to undesigned disorganized crossing. These data may help in identifying a commercial niche for the breed and contribute to in situ conservation of the Cuban Creole goat.

  10. Activity of Cuban propolis extracts on Leishmania amazonensis and Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzote Fidalgo, Lianet; Sariego Ramos, Idalia; García Parra, Marley; Cuesta-Rubio, Osmany; Márquez Hernández, Ingrid; Campo Fernández, Mercedes; Piccinelli, Anna Lisa; Rastrelli, Luca

    2011-07-01

    In this paper we analyzed the antiprotozoal effects of eighteen Cuban propolis extracts (brown, red and yellow type) collected in different geographic areas, using Leishmania amazonensis (as a model of intracellular protozoa) and Trichomonas vaginalis (as a model of extracellular protozoa). All evaluated propolis extracts caused inhibitory effect on intracellular amastigotes of L. amazonensis. However, cytotoxicity on peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice was observed. Only five samples decreased the viability of T. vaginalis trophozoites at concentrations lower than 10 microg/mL. No correlation between the type of propolis and antiprotozoal activity was found. Cuban propolis extracts demonstrated activity against both intracellular and extracellular protozoa model, as well as the potentialities of propolis as a natural source to obtain new antiprotozoal agents.

  11. Iranian mathematics competitions 1973–2007

    CERN Document Server

    Yahaghi, Bamdad R

    2010-01-01

    A collection of problems from a competition for college students organised by the Iranian Mathematical Society. It compiles problems from these competitions between 1973 and 2007 and provides solutions to most of them. It is suitable for students of mathematics preparing for competitions and for advanced studies.

  12. Burn healing plants in Iranian Traditional Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Fahimi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Burns are known as one of the most common forms of injury with devastating consequences. Despite the discovery of several antiseptics, burn wound healing has still remained a challenge to modern medicine. Herbal products seem to possess moderate efficacy with no or less toxicity and are less expensive compared to synthetic drugs. Burn is a well-known disorder in Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM. Iranian physicians have divided burns into various types based on the cause and recommended treatment for each type. According to ITM references, herbal therapy was the major treatment prescribed by Iranian physicians for burns. In the present study, seven ancient Iranian medical texts were screened for the herbs with burn healing effects along with their applied dosage forms. The medicinal herbs were listed and scored based on the frequency of their repetition. Moreover, the best scientific name that was suitable for each plant as well as surveying modern studies about their biological effects has been carried out. In our investigation eighteen plants with seven topical application categories have been obtained as the most frequent herbs for burn healing in ITM. Modern studies have revealed that these plants have shown some biological activities such as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antioxidant effects which might establish the relationship between the mentioned activities and burn wound healing property. This list can provide a suitable resource for future researches in the field of burn treatment.

  13. Iranian National Union Catalog Description and Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, John F.

    This outline of how to establish and maintain an Asian national union catalog contains basic instruction for the staff and for the participating libraries of one of West Asia's largest union catalogs. It has been prepared to: (1) define and clarify the purposes of the Iranian National Union Catalog; (2) explain the policies and procedures under…

  14. Apology Strategies of Iranian Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehrani, Mohammad Dadkhah; Rezaei, Omid; Dezhara, Salman; Kafrani, Reza Soltani

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the different primary and secondary strategies the Iranian EFL students use in different situations and the effect of gender on this. A questionnaire was developed based on Sugimoto's (1995) to compare the apology strategies used by male and female students, only gender was examined as a variable. The results showed that…

  15. Iranian Serials Published in Latin Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, John F.

    A list of English, French and German serials published in Iran and available for subscription abroad is given. Bibliographic information is included for each publication. The list was compiled with the help of Guity Afshar and Anoush Hovsepian from Pouri Soltani's "Directory of Iranian Periodicals," 1971. It was distrubuted to certain…

  16. Iranian Georgians: prerequisites for a research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rezvani, B.

    2009-01-01

    Iranian Georgians are the descendants of Georgians, who were moved to different parts of Iran from the Safavid until the early Qajar period, either voluntarily or by force. The main wave of these migrations occurred in 17th century Safavid Iran. The paper discusses some preliminary issues to the stu

  17. Investigating Outsourcing Implementation in Iranian Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changiz Valmohammadi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is threefold, first to explore the extent of outsourcing implementation in Iranian organizations, second, given contextual factors of the country to identify drivers and barriers of outsourcing implementation among the investigated organizations and thirdly, to survey if there is any relationship between outsourcing functions and organizational performance of Iranian organizations, mainly based on a descriptive analysis. Based on the review of literature 16 main functions and activities which are widely outsourced and drivers and barriers of outsourcing implementation were identified. A questionnaire was designed and distributed among Iranian organizations. Based on 197 returned questionnaires the extent of outsourcing for various functions in the surveyed organizations was determined. Results indicate that most of the sample organizations realize the importance and the role of outsourcing strategy in gaining and increasing competitiveness and competitive advantage over their competition which could hopefully lead to the increase of their profitability. However, the result of the chi-square test cannot confirm that the implementation of outsourcing is significantly related to greater company success in Iranian industries context.

  18. Determinants of Central Adiposity among Iranian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Azadbakht

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Central obesity is one of the major public health problems. Recent studies have indicated that body fat distribution would be important in general health. Materials and Methods: The present study is a review of several studies which discuss the contributing factors of abdominal obesity, particulary in Iran. This study reviews 34 cross-sectional and interventional studies, which have been comducted during 1995-2012 and issued in English language. PubMed search engine and the related keywords were used to search the papers.Results: Breakfast skipping and also the sleep duration as well as the quality of diet are also associated with central adiposity. Dietary diversity score among Iranians can be related to abdominal adiposity. Fastfood consumption can increase the risk of central adiposity among young Iranian population. Red meat intake and food source of trans fat can increase the risk of central adiposity. Low quality diet with low amount of nutrients can increase the risk of central adiposity. Conclusion: Some behaviours such as sleep duration and eating breakfast can be associated with central adiposity among Iranians. Diet quality and dietary diversity score is also associated with this problem among Iranians.

  19. Comparison of fertility indices in Iranian and non-Iranian populations under coverage of Ray's health houses, 1376

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghi Pour Roudsari HR

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available We studied fertility indices of Iranian and non-Iranian populations which were covered by 23 Rays health houses. This cross-sectional study aimed to prove the effect of increasing number of non-Iranian immigrants on health indices of the area covered by Tehran university of medical sciences and health services, consequently giving attention to specific health programs. The data collection method was census of permanent residents of the villages by means of vital horoscopes. 8494 of 27611 persons were non-Iranian. Dependency ratio and natural growth rate was 75%, 1.14% in Iranians and 98%, 1.74% in non-Iranians, respectively. Mortality in non-Iranians was 1.24 times more than Iranians. General fertility rate in Iranians was 60 and in non-Iranians was 110 live births in 1000 women of child bearing age. Total fertility rate in Iranians was 1.73 and in non-Iranians 3.27 neonates for each woman. Age-specific fertility rates were absolutely higher in non-Iranians. Gross eproductive rate was 0.87 in Iranians and 1.59 in non-Iranians. Mean number of girls born by a non-Iranian mother will be double times of an Iranian mother (P<0.01. Modern contraceptive methods coverage was 70% in Iranian couples and less than 40% in non-Iranian couples. 96.94% of Iranian deliveries and 70.9% of non-Iranian deliveries were safe (P<0.01.

  20. Localizing Hybridity: The Politics of Place in Contemporary Cuban Rumba Performance

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This study examines a range of innovations that have emerged in the performance of the Afro-Cuban music and dance genre rumba during the last three decades. Rumba, which emerged in the mid-nineteenth century within black and racially mixed communities in western Cuba, is a hybrid musical practice that integrates Central- and West African-derived percussion instruments and rhythmic patterns with European melody and Spanish poetic forms. Recent innovations include the creation of fusions with a...

  1. Effectiveness of a Cuban marine protected area in meeting multiple management objectives

    OpenAIRE

    Angulo-Valdés, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    In this work the management effectiveness of a Cuban MPA is assessed using an interdisciplinary approach. A series of three hypotheses are tested to determine how effective the Punta Frances Marine Protected Area (PFMPA) has been in meeting the multiple objectives of conserving biological diversity and ecological integrity, while allowing for the development of economic opportunities for tourism, and satisfying the needs of local and distant human populations. A ...

  2. "All Cubans are doctors!" news coverage of health and bioexceptionalism in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Charles L

    2011-10-01

    In a multi-country study of media coverage of health, professionals often deem reporters as only interested in selling newspapers and criticizing physicians. Since the health system and the media are controlled by the socialist state, Cuba provides an interesting test case. Health, the key symbol of the Cuban revolution, is constantly characterized as unique. In this study I asked: will health media also exhibit bioexceptionalism-will coverage differ dramatically from that in capitalist countries? I compiled all health stories published in 2002 in three national newspapers, others appearing 2003-2011, plus television and radio coverage (totaling 961). I recorded interviews during fieldwork periods in 2005, 2006, and 2008 with health and media professionals and laypersons; ethnography focused on media and health institutions and lay reception. Cuban health news stories generally project knowledge as produced in biomedical institutions, circulated by media and health professionals, and received by laypersons, a model common in capitalist countries. A second type lauds "achievements of the revolution" but similarly subordinates lay participation. Nevertheless, avid reception of biomedical knowledge leads many Cubans to describe themselves as "frustrated doctors" who know as much as their physicians. Inviting charges of self-medication, lay reception most closely embodied bioexceptionalism. Stories projecting the quality, accessibility, and humanism of Cuban medicine gained importance as the post-Soviet "Special Period" catalyzed shortages of medications and services and greater inequality; nevertheless, the frustrated citizen-consumers described by researchers do not figure in health coverage or lay reception. Media constructions of laypersons as passive recipients of professional knowledge contradict appeals for popular participation and reveal how political ideologies and health policies often fail to match the way that media coverage differentially projects

  3. Successful Insurgent Revolutions in Latin America: Analysis of the Cuban and Nicaraguan Revolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    as a natural part of one’s life, people are not likely to revolt. Economic depression and notable transitions of an economic system are the leading...religious, language, or ethnic symbols that set the group apart from the opposition and the nation. The use of books, movies, and music to further the...Cuban citizens for Machado’s corrupt regime—tied to the economic downturn of the Great Depression —raised discontent, which led Machado to become

  4. Making sense of Santería: three books on Afro-Cuban religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Palmié

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Santeria from Africa to the New World: The Dead Sell Memories. GEORGE BRANDON. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1993. x + 206 pp. (Cloth US$31.50 Working the Spirit: Ceremonies of the African Diaspora. JOSEPH M. MURPHY. Boston: Beacon, 1994. xiii + 263 pp. (Cloth US$ 25.00 Walking with the Night: The Afro-Cuban World of Santeria. RAUL CANIZARES. Rochester VT: Destiny Books, 1993. xii + 148 pp. (Paper US$ 12.95 Since 1959, the steady exodus from revolutionary Cuba has led to the gradual emergence of an Afro-Cuban religious diaspora in the United States. While this phenomenon has attracted scholarly attention for some time, the literature has grown particularly rapidly in recent years. It is, perhaps, not entirely fortuitous that a spate of current academic publications on the subject coincided with a scramble by the popular media to exploit its exotic potential in the context of the 1993 U.S. Supreme Court case on animal sacrifice. Clearly, what has come to be called an Afro-Cuban "cultic renaissance" in exile holds promise both for sensationalist journalism and certain kinds of theoretical projects. Partly articulating with older, but politically reinvigorated debates about the relations between African and African-American cultures, partly addressing fundamental questions about conventional models of cultural boundedness and coherence, and, finally, calling into question both popular and academic notions of "modernity" (and its inevitable counterpart "tradition", the 292 New West Indian Guide/Nieuwe West-Indische Gids vol. 70 no. 3 &4 (1996problems posed by the emergence of an Afro-Cuban religious diaspora in the United States present a timely challenge.

  5. Evolutionary history of Cuban crocodiles Crocodylus rhombifer and Crocodylus acutus inferred from multilocus markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milián-García, Yoamel; Venegas-Anaya, Miryam; Frias-Soler, Roberto; Crawford, Andrew J; Ramos-Targarona, Roberto; Rodríguez-Soberón, Roberto; Alonso-Tabet, Manuel; Thorbjarnarson, John; Sanjur, Oris I; Espinosa-López, Georgina; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2011-07-01

    Among crocodilians, Crocodylus rhombifer is one of the world's most endangered species with the smallest natural distribution. In Cuba, this endemic species coexists with the American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus). Hybridization between these two species is well known in captivity and might occur in the wild, but has never been demonstrated genetically. Here, we combined molecular data with environmental, geographic, and fossil data to infer the evolutionary history of Crocodylus in the Cuban Archipelago, and to evaluate genealogical support for species boundaries. We analyzed seven microsatellite loci plus DNA sequence data from nuclear (RAG-1) and mitochondrial (cytochrome b and cytochrome oxidase I) genes from 89 wild-caught individuals in Cuba, Grand Cayman Island, Jamaica, and Central America, and two samples from zoo collections. Microsatellites showed evidence of introgression, suggesting potential hybridization among Cuban groups. In Cuba, C. acutus contained one mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotype, whereas C. rhombifer contained two haplotypes. MtDNA data showed that C. acutus is paraphyletic with respect to C. rhombifer, revealing 1% sequence divergence between species within Cuba vs. 8% divergence between Cuban forms and mainland C. acutus. We suggest that hybridization has been a historical as well as a current phenomenon between C. acutus and C. rhombifer. These findings suggest that long-term conservation of crocodiles in Cuba will require identification of genetically pure and hybrid individuals, and a decrease in anthropogenic activities. We also recommend more extensive morphological and genetic analyses of Cuban population to establish clear boundaries of the hybrid zone between C. acutus and C. rhombifer.

  6. Post Castro Cuba: An Opportunity for Normalized Cuban-American Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-01

    required for economic growth. Consequently, diversification of the industrial base was absent. Investors had grown content in maintaining assets in cash...construction of a naval base at Guantanamo Bay. (5:45-46) Although countries such as Mexico, Argentina, and Brazil took important steps toward industrial ...classes of people, which served to unite Cubans regardless of their political persuasions. In the name of "la revolucion ", its force and being could

  7. Social workers’ construction of “family” in Cuban context: Ideas for a debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Isabel Peña Farias

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents preliminary research about the process of the construction of concepts in social work. In this case, it is referred to as a social worker’s construction of “family” as a concept and as a field of practice in a current Cuban context. Based on an exploratory and qualitative research design, the paper presents an analysis that also opens to the discussion about social work with families in Cuba. The findings shows that Cuban social workers think of family as a group with cohabitation and affinity, which is more important than consanguinity, as a dimension for family definitions. They also point at structures of family, special bonds in family network and the social internal and external functions of family in their definitions. Among these functions, the transmission of cultural values, as well as the emotional support and shelter for members, seems relevant.Regarding family as a field of practice, they all share the criteria that is necessary for practice to develop a contextual analysis of each situation that goes from macro-contextual aspects to the micro-reality of family. The importance of structural matters and their impact on family functions is also a common idea, which is nucleated around a multigenerational reality of Cuban families and evaluated as a positive or negative impact depending on the case in question.They consider social work with families, and social work in general, to be in a critical situation in relation to losing professionalization and social recognition. The reasons explaining these ideas have to do with the instability of social work institutionalization and the recent retraction of social services. These variations have obeyed the changes in a Cuban context that affects the entire welfare system and social work’s position in it.

  8. Positive and Negative Thermal Poling of Germanosilicate Fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, D.; Wu, W.; Arentoft, Jesper;

    1999-01-01

    In situ measurements of thermal poling of germanosilicate fibers under positive and negative poling voltages show different dynamics of a linear electro-optic effect induced into fibers. The mechanism for the induced electro-optic effect is addressed......In situ measurements of thermal poling of germanosilicate fibers under positive and negative poling voltages show different dynamics of a linear electro-optic effect induced into fibers. The mechanism for the induced electro-optic effect is addressed...

  9. Genetic features of Huntington disease in Cuban population: implications for phenotype, epidemiology and predictive testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Mojena, Yaimeé; Laguna-Salvia, Leonides; Laffita-Mesa, José M; González-Zaldívar, Yanetza; Almaguer-Mederos, Luis E; Rodríguez-Labrada, Roberto; Almaguer-Gotay, Dennis; Zayas-Feria, Pedro; Velázquez-Pérez, Luis

    2013-12-15

    Huntington disease is the most frequent polyglutamine disorder with variable worldwide prevalence. Although some Latin American populations have been studied, HD prevalence in Cuban population remains unknown. In order to characterize the disease in Cuba, the relative frequency of HD was determined by studying 130 patients with chorea and 63 unrelated healthy controls, emphasizing in the molecular epidemiology of the disease. Sixty-two patients with chorea belonging to 16 unrelated families carried a pathological CAG expansion in the HTT gene, ranging from 39 to 67 repeats. Eighty-three percent of them come from the eastern region of the country. A significant inverse correlation between age at onset and expanded CAG repeats was seen. Intermediate alleles in affected individuals and controls represented 4.8% and 3.97% respectively, which have been a putative source of de novo mutation. This study represents the largest molecular characterization of Huntington disease in the Cuban population. These results may have significant implications for an understanding of the disease, its diagnosis and prognosis in Cuban patients, giving health professionals the tools to implement confirmatory genetic testing, pre-symptomatic testing and clinical trials in this population.

  10. Haitians’ Labor and Leisure on Cuban Sugar Plantations: The Limits of Company Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Casey

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article challenges the common notion that Cuban sugar companies controlled the labor and social relations of Haitian immigrant laborers fully and without challenge during the first half of the 20th century. It begins by showing the way that Cuban newspapers and sugar company administrators projected an image of Haitians as a homogenous group of powerless, culturally isolated cane cutters who were separated from other groups through an idealized labor hierarchy. Then it details Haitians’ laboring lives on Cuban sugar plantations to demonstrate three things. First, that Haitians participated in other aspects of sugar production, including skilled positions within centrales. Second, that cane cutters themselves were divided by their skill levels and (informal hierarchies. Third, that Haitians worked alongside individuals of other nationalities in both sugar fields and the mills where cane was processed. The essay ends by analyzing Haitians’ attempts to carve out autonomy in their work and leisure hours by exerting control over their labor and creating various types of commercial and social networks with individuals of other nationalities on plantations.

  11. Determination of pole orientations and shapes of asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Per; Barucci, M. Antonietta; Drummond, Jack D.; Lumme, Kari; Ostro, Steven J.

    1989-01-01

    The principles of asteroid light-curve inversion are discussed together with basic principles involved in approaches for deriving asteroid pole and shape parameters from photometry data. The merits of various pole determination techniques are described and compared. Results obtained so far on the pole orientations and shapes of asteroids are presented.

  12. SIMULATION OF EARTH'S POLES DYNAMICS USING ASK-ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Cherednychenko N. A.; Lutsenko Y. V.; Trunev A. P.

    2014-01-01

    Based on local semantic information models, we have examined the dependence of the dynamics of the displacement of the pole positions of celestial objects. We have also developed and differentiated an analysis of ASK-pole modeling of dynamics within sixty-year cycles of reference points and substantiated reasons for the population inversion and singular states in the dynamics of the pole

  13. 30 CFR 56.12048 - Communication conductors on power poles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Communication conductors on power poles. 56... Electricity § 56.12048 Communication conductors on power poles. Telegraph, telephone, or signal wires shall not be installed on the same crossarm with power conductors. When carried on poles...

  14. 30 CFR 57.6701 - Tamping and loading pole requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tamping and loading pole requirements. 57.6701 Section 57.6701 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... poles shall be of wood or other nonconductive, nonsparking material. Couplings for poles shall...

  15. Economics of Red Pine Management for Utility Pole Timber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald H. Grossman; Karen Potter-Witter

    1991-01-01

    Including utility poles in red pine management regimes leads to distinctly different management recommendations. Where utility pole markets exist, managing for poles will maximize net returns. To do so, plantations should be maintained above 110 ft2/ac, higher than usually recommended. In Michigan's northern lower peninsula, approximately...

  16. Application of cubane-type structures to hydro-treatment catalysis; Application des structures d'architecture cubane a la catalyse d'hydrotraitement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchand, K.

    2003-11-01

    [Mo{sub 3}S{sub 4}(H{sub 2}O){sub 9}]{sup 4+} has been prepared and supported on zeolites H-USY and NaY. Using this cluster as a precursor for HDT catalysts has many advantages: it is cationic, already in a sulfided form, and a promoter such as a second metal M' such as Cu, Ni or Pd can be incorporated to form Mo{sub 3}M'S{sub 4}{sup 4+}. The cubane structure was found unchanged after loading in the case of NaY (EXAFS, XPS) and although TEM showed that Mo was mainly on the outer surface of the zeolite crystals, DRX confirmed that a modification of the counter ion also occurred, and an isotherm was obtained with NaY zeolite. A thermal stability study was led under N{sub 2} and a mixture of H{sub 2}/H{sub 2}S to optimize the pretreatment of the catalysts. Those were subsequently pre-sulfided and tested in toluene hydrogenation and their activities with both types of zeolites turned out to be the same or even better than that of catalysts prepared by the classical route. An application to mixed cubane-type structures is also reported. (author)

  17. The 10 Meter South Pole Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Carlstrom, J E; Aird, K A; Benson, B A; Bleem, L E; Busetti, S; Chang, C L; Chauvin, E; Cho, H -M; Crawford, T M; Crites, A T; Dobbs, M A; Halverson, N W; Heimsath, S; Holzapfel, W L; Hrubes, J D; Joy, M; Keisler, R; Lanting, T M; Lee, A T; Leitch, E M; Leong, J; Lu, W; Lueker, M; McMahon, J J; Mehl, J; Meyer, S S; Mohr, J J; Montroy, T E; Padin, S; Plagge, T; Pryke, C; Ruhl, J E; Schaffer, K K; Schwan, D; Shirokoff, E; Spieler, H G; Staniszewski, Z; Stark, A A; Vieira, K Vanderlinde J D

    2009-01-01

    The South Pole Telescope (SPT) is a 10 m diameter, wide-field, offset Gregorian telescope with a 966-pixel, multi-color, millimeter-wave, bolometer camera. It is located at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole station in Antarctica. The design of the SPT emphasizes careful control of spillover and scattering, to minimize noise and false signals due to ground pickup. The key initial project is a large-area survey at wavelengths of 3, 2 and 1.3 mm, to detect clusters of galaxies via the Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) effect and to measure the high-l angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The data will be used to characterize the primordial matter power spectrum and to place constraints on the equation of state of dark energy.

  18. Pole Placement with Fields of Positive Characteristic

    CERN Document Server

    Gorla, Elisa

    2009-01-01

    The pole placement problem belongs to the classical problems of linear systems theory. It is often assumed that the ground field is the real numbers R or the complex numbers C. The major result over the complex numbers derived in 1981 by Brockett and Byrnes states that arbitrary static pole placement is possible for a generic set of m-inputs, p-outputs and McMillan degree n system as soon as mp>=n. Moreover the number of solutions in the situation mp=n is an intersection number first computed by Hermann Schubert in the 19th century. In this paper we show that the same result with slightly different proofs holds over any algebraically closed field.

  19. Pole Inflation - Shift Symmetry and Universal Corrections

    CERN Document Server

    Broy, Benedict J; Roest, Diederik; Westphal, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    An appealing explanation for the Planck data is provided by inflationary models with a non-canonical kinetic term: a Laurent expansion of the kinetic function translates into a potential with a nearly shift-symmetric plateau in canonical fields. The shift symmetry can be broken at large field values by including higher-order poles. We show that the resulting corrections to the inflationary dynamics and predictions are universal at lowest order, and can induce power loss at large angular scales. At lowest order there are no corrections from a pole of one order higher; this is referred to as extended no-scale in string theory and we explain why this is a general phenomenon. Finally, we outline which other corrections may arise as string loop corrections.

  20. Pole Assignment for Second-Order Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHU, E. K.

    2002-01-01

    This paper contains some results for pole assignment problems for the second-order system M ẍ(t)+D ẋ(t)+K x (t)=B u (t) . Specifically, Algorithm 0 constructs feedback matrices F1 and F2 such that the closed-loop quadratic pencil Pc( λ)= λ2M+ λ ( D+ BF2)+( K+ BF1) has a desired set of eigenvalues and the associated eigenvectors are well-conditioned. The method is a modification of the SVD-based method proposed by Juang and Maghami [1, 2] which is a second-order adaptation of the well-known robust eigenvalue assignment method by Kautsky et al. [3] for first-order systems. Robustness is achieved by minimising some not-so-well-known condition numbers of the eigenvalues of the closed-loop second-order pencil. We next consider the partial pole assignment problem. In 1997, Datta, Elhay and Ram proposed three biorthogonality relations for eigenvectors of symmetric definite quadratic pencils [4]. One of these relations was used to derive an explicit solution to the partial pole assignment problem by state feedback for the related single-input symmetric definite second-order control system. The solution shed new light on the stabilisation and control of large flexible space structures, for which only one small subset of the spectrum needs to be reassigned while retaining the complementary part of the spectrum. In this paper, the method has been generalised for multi-input and non-symmetric quadratic pencils. Finally, we discuss briefly the output feedback pole assignment problem.

  1. Efficient iterative adaptive pole placement algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊民; 李靖; 杨磊

    2004-01-01

    An iterative adaptive pole placement algorithm is presented. The stability and the convergence of the algorithm are respectively established. Since one-step iterative formulation in computing controller's parameters is used, the on-line computation cost is greatly reduced with respected to the traditional algorithm. The algorithm with the feed-forward can follow arbitrarily bounded output. The algorithm is also extended to multivariate case. Simulation examples show the efficiency and robustness of the algorithm.

  2. The South Pole and the Ross Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This image shows a rare clear view of the South Pole (lower right) and the Ross Sea, Antarctica. The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) acquired the scene on December 26, 2001. The geographic South Pole is located in the center of Antarctica, at an altitude of 2,900 meters (9,300 feet). It rests on a continent-wide ice sheet that is 2,870 m thick, with the underlying bedrock only 30 m (98 feet) above sea level. The ice underlying the South Pole is as much as 140,000 years old, and is currently accumulating at about 82 cm (32 inches) per year. Roughly 2,500 km (1,550 miles) away is the green water of the Ross Sea, which indicates the presence of large numbers of phytoplankton. This is a highly productive part of the world's oceans. Also note the ice gathered around McMurdo Sound, seen toward the lefthand shoreline of the Ross Sea, at the edge of the Ross Ice Shelf. According to National Science Foundation researchers, this ice is making it difficult for penguins to reach their food supply. Separating the continental Antarctic ice sheet from the Ross Sea are the Queen Maud Mountains and the Ross Ice Shelf. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  3. Globalization and post-Islamic revolution: a changing Iranian woman

    OpenAIRE

    KHAKI G.N.; MIR GOUSIA

    2015-01-01

    Globalization and its core components like modernization, secularization, democracy etc. have become most debatable issues in the post-Revolution Iran. There has been a significant impact of globalization over the changing socio-religious milieu of contemporary Iranian society. Iranian women''s position has also come under its profound influence. In the last three decades, the position of Iranian women has come through different development perspectives. While resisting the Islamization polic...

  4. Pole-placement with constant gain output feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, B.; Lindorff, D. P.

    1973-01-01

    Davison (1970) has demonstrated that it is possible to assign max (m, p) poles of a linear time-invariant controllable and observable multivariable system arbitrarily close to desired locations by using constant gain output feedback. A new proof of Davison's theorem on pole placement is developed, and a system design procedure is described which offers some advantages over Davison's method. It is shown that in some cases more than max (m, p) poles can be assigned arbitrarily, and a least square design procedure is proposed to approximate the desired pole locations when it is not possible to place all the poles.

  5. Growth Poles - an Alternative to Reducing Regional Disparities. Case Study-Iaşi Growth Pole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLETA MONICA MUSTĂȚEA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current development of the European Union is based on the cohesion policy which focuses on the attenuation of regional disparities. For this purpose, the idea of growth poles emerged in Romania, and its role became more than familiar: the determination of an internal socio-economic cohesion. Polycentrism becomes a concept of territorial planning increasingly promoted. Development of growth poles aims to reduce the attraction force of large centres and to balance the location of activities generating functions across a territory. This was the idea that led to the formation of Iaşi Metropolitan Area, territorial unit that is intended to be the main regional centre of the North-East Region, thus polarizing the surrounding areas. Iaşi Growth Pole objectives are represented by economic competitiveness, the development of regional connectivity and the promotion of regional cooperation. One of the major assets of the growth pole in achieving these goals is the cross-border position near the eastern border of the European Union. This paper examines to what extent Iași Growth Pole can rise to the required standards, while the peripheral position seems to be rather a disadvantage and the uncertain functionality of the metropolitan area shows that the main problem remains the reduced economic competitiveness.

  6. The science of the lunar poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucey, P. G.

    2011-12-01

    It was the great geochemist Harold Urey who first called attention to peculiar conditions at the poles of the Moon where the very small inclination of the lunar spin axis with respect to the sun causes craters and other depressions to be permanently shaded from sunlight allowing very low temperatures. Urey suggested that the expected low temperature surfaces could cold trap and collect any vapors that might transiently pass through the lunar environment. Urey's notion has led to studies of the poles as a new research area in lunar science. The conditions and science of the poles are utterly unlike those of the familiar Moon of Neil Armstrong, and the study of the poles is similar to our understanding of the Moon itself at the dawn of the space age, with possibilities outweighing current understanding. Broadly, we can treat the poles as a dynamic system of input, transport, trapping, and loss. Volatile sources range from continuous, including solar wind, the Earth's polar fountain and micrometeorites, to episodic, including comets and wet asteroids, to nearly unique events including late lunar outgassing and passage through giant molecular clouds. The lunar exosphere transports volatiles to the poles, complicated by major perturbances to the atmosphere by volatile-rich sources. Trapping includes cold trapping, but also in situ creation of more refractory species such as organics, clathrates and water-bearing minerals, as well as sequester by regolith overturn or burial by larger impacts. Finally, volatiles are lost to space by ionization and sweeping. Spacecraft results have greatly added to the understanding of the polar system. Temperatures have been precisely measured by LRO, and thermal models now allow determination of temperature over the long evolution of the lunar orbit, and show very significant changes in temperature and temperature distribution with time and depth. Polar topography is revealed in detail by Selene and LRO laser altimeters while direct

  7. Purification of fluorescently labeled Saccharomyces cerevisiae Spindle Pole Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Trisha N.

    2016-01-01

    Centrosomes are components of the mitotic spindle responsible for organizing microtubules and establishing a bipolar spindle for accurate chromosome segregation. In budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the centrosome is called the spindle pole body, a highly organized tri-laminar structure embedded in the nuclear envelope. Here we describe a detailed protocol for the purification of fluorescently labeled spindle pole bodes from S. cerevisiae. Spindle pole bodies are purified from yeast using a TAP-tag purification followed by velocity sedimentation. This highly reproducible TAP-tag purification method improves upon previous techniques and expands the scope of in vitro characterization of yeast spindle pole bodies. The genetic flexibility of this technique allows for the study of spindle pole body mutants as well as the study of spindle pole bodies during different stages of the cell cycle. The ease and reproducibility of the technique makes it possible to study spindle pole bodies using a variety of biochemical, biophysical, and microscopic techniques. PMID:27193850

  8. Prendas-Ngangas-Enquisos: turbulence and the influence of the dead in Cuban-Kongo material culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Todd Ramón

    2010-01-01

    Cuban-Kongo praise of the dead in Havana turns insistently around complex agglomerations of materials called "prendas,"ngangas," and "enquisos." This article addresses the ontological status of "prendas-ngangas-enquisos," which practitioners of Cuban-Kongo affliction practices care for as entities that determine the very possibility of their healing and harming craft. Cuban-Kongo societies of affliction, in Havana collectively referred to as "Palo," stake their claim to influence others in and through these entities. In this essay I seek to position the influence generated in prendas-ngangas-enquisos as a problem for Euro-American materialism, to be addressed not through symbolic or representational solutions but, rather, by refocusing the problem itself via alternate distributions of its epistemological, historical, and ethnographic elements. Contextualized within ethnographic description, I first propose that prendas-ngangas-enquisos do not conform to dialectical logic, and should thus be positioned conceptually as something other than "objects" or "fetishes." From there, I consider Creole turns on the term prenda and explore scholarly accounts of 19th-century Cuban slavery and manumission, which I place alongside what is known about pawn slavery among BaKongo people prior to and during the Atlantic slave trade. Having established a basic series of conceptual and historiographic coordinates, I then suggest ethnographically how prendas-ngangas-enquisos come to command others, thereby guaranteeing Cuban-Kongo healing and harming sovereignty in Cuba today.

  9. Supportive care needs of Iranian cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azad Rahmani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A supportive needs assessment is an essential component of any care program. There is no research evidence regarding the supportive care needs of cancer patients in Iran or other Middle Eastern countries. Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the supportive care needs of Iranian cancer patients. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was conducted in a referral medical center in the northwest of Iran. A total of 274 cancer patients completed the Supportive Care Needs Survey (SCNS-59. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis. Results: In 18 items of the SCNS, more than 50% of the participants reported that their needs were unmet. Most frequently, unmet needs were related to the health system, information, physical, and daily living domains, and most met needs were related to sexuality, patient care, and support domains. Conclusions: Iranian cancer patients experience many unmet needs and there is an urgent need for establishing additional supportive care services in Iran.

  10. A Critical Study of Iranian EFL Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Molavi Vardanjani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the theoretical and pedagogical issues in EFL learning and instruction to explore the research problem ‘the EFL teaching deficiencies in Iranian classrooms’. The primary aim of this study is to provide a solid overview of the second language teaching methods and approaches in the context of English as a foreign language in Iran. The theoretical issues discussed include research on the nature of the two commonly used Grammar Translation Method (GTM and Communicative Language Teaching approaches (CLT, the methodology and strategies employed in Iranian EFL classrooms and evaluating the students’ achievement from the point of view of language teachers and learners. To fulfill the aims of the study, a modified version of a BALLI questionnaire was employed. Results show that in spite of its deficiencies, both teachers and students still prefer to use the traditional GTM.

  11. Guest authors in an Iranian journal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghajarzadeh, Mahsa

    2014-04-01

    Although most biomedical journals have adopted the authorship criteria established by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) in 1985, little is known about the extent Iranian researchers are familiar with these criteria. The study seeks to evaluate the number of authors fulfilling ICMJE authorship criteria (considering the names mentioned in the byline of 12 issues of the Archives of Iranian Medicine (AIM) journal), and to determine the type of contribution made by each author. The fulfilment of authorship criteria and contribution percentage of each researcher were evaluated according to their position in the bylines of 12 issues of the Archives of Iranian Medicine (AIM) journal published from January 2005 to October 2007. We asked corresponding authors to answer our questionnaire which was designed to assess authorship criteria and contribution. A total of 576 researchers' names were in the studied article bylines. The ratio of authors to articles was 3.48 in 2005, 4.06 in 2006, and 5.59 in 2007. Sixty three out of 128 corresponding authors (49.21%) responded to our questionnaire, so we evaluated 296 researchers' names, from which 186 authors (62.83%) met the authorship criteria; 110 authors (37.17%) were identified as guest authors, 97 of which deserved to be mentioned in the acknowledgement section. The major criteria used for authors order was their participation in research projects in addition to article writing, mostly determined by the corresponding author. Two authors (0.67%) whose names were not mentioned in the articles were considered to be ghost writers as the articles were based on the results of their thesis. It is essential to make Iranian researchers familiar with ICMJE authorship criteria and to encourage applying the criteria in scientific writing. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. IRANIAN FOREIGN POLICY AFTER THE NUCLEAR DEAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    put Iran back as before the 1979 revolution. However, the infinite political complexities that are intertwined today in the whole Middle East will...unpredictable. The infinite political complexities that are intertwined today in the whole Middle East will not disappear instantaneously with this...passion towards obtaining atomic knowledge. It can be related to how the Iranian perceives their country as being isolated against Israel, Russia and

  13. Aftershock Decay Rates in the Iranian Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ommi, S.; Zafarani, H.; Zare, M.

    2016-07-01

    Motivated by the desire to have more information following the occurrence of damaging events, the main purpose of this article is to study aftershock sequence parameters in the Iranian plateau. To this end, the catalogue of the Iranian earthquakes between 2002 to the end of 2013 has been collected and homogenized among which 15 earthquakes have been selected to study their aftershock decay rates. For different tectonic provinces, the completeness magnitudes ( M c) of the earthquake catalogue have been calculated in different time intervals. Also, the M c variability in spatial and temporal windows has been determined for each selected event. For major Iranian earthquakes, catalogue of aftershocks has been collected thanks to three declustering methods: first, the classical windowing method of Gardner and Knopoff (Bull Seismol Soc Am 64:1363-1367, 1974); second, a modified version of this using spatial windowing based on the Wells and Coppersmith (Bull Seismol Soc Am 84:974-1002, 1994) relations; and third, the Burkhard and Grünthal (Swiss J Geosci 102:149-188, 2009) scheme. Effects of the temporal windows also have been investigated using the time periods of 1 month, 100 days, and 1 year in the declustering method of Gardner and Knopoff (Bull Seismol Soc Am 64:1363-1367, 1974). In the next step, the modified Omori law coefficients have been calculated for the 15 selected earthquakes. The calibrated regional generic model describing the temporal and magnitude distribution of aftershocks is of interest for time-dependent seismic hazard forecasts. The regional characteristics of the aftershock decay rates have been studied for the selected Iranian earthquakes in the Alborz, Zagros and Central Iran regions considering their different seismotectonics regimes. However, due to the lack of sufficient data, no results have been reported for the Kopeh-Dagh and Makran seismotectonic regions.

  14. Modified π π amplitude with σ pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bydžovský, P.; Kamiński, R.; Nazari, V.

    2014-12-01

    A set of well-known once subtracted dispersion relations with imposed crossing symmetry condition is used to modify unitary multichannel S (π π , K K ¯, and η η ) and P (π π , ρ 2 π , and ρ σ ) wave amplitudes mostly below 1 GeV. Before the modifications, these amplitudes significantly did not satisfy the crossing symmetry condition and did not describe the π π threshold region. Moreover, the pole of the S wave amplitude related with the f0(500 ) meson (former f0(600 ) or σ ) had much smaller imaginary part and bigger real one in comparison with those in the newest Particle Data Group Tables. Here, these amplitudes are supplemented by near threshold expansion polynomials and refitted to the experimental data in the effective two pion mass from the threshold to 1.8 GeV and to the dispersion relations up to 1.1 GeV. In result the self consistent, i.e., unitary and fulfilling the crossing symmetry condition, S and P wave amplitudes are formed and the σ pole becomes much narrower and lighter. To eliminate doubts about the uniqueness of the so obtained sigma pole position short and purely mathematical proof of the uniqueness of the results is also presented. This analysis is addressed to a wide group of physicists and aims at providing a very effective and easy method of modification of, many presently used, π π amplitudes with a heavy and broad σ meson without changing of their original mathematical structure.

  15. Perturbing rational harmonic functions by poles

    CERN Document Server

    Sète, Olivier; Liesen, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    We study how adding certain poles to rational harmonic functions of the form $R(z)-\\bar{z}$, with $R(z)$ rational and of degree $d\\geq 2$, affects the number of zeros of the resulting functions. Our results are motivated by and generalize a construction of Rhie derived in the context of gravitational microlensing (ArXiv e-print 2003). Of particular interest is the construction and the behavior of rational functions $R(z)$ that are {\\em extremal} in the sense that $R(z)-\\bar{z}$ has the maximal possible number of $5(d-1)$ zeros.

  16. Tent-Poles of the Bestseller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thessa; Vistisen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This article proposes a framework for understanding and analysing how the passive audience of a media event turns into active stakeholders. The starting point is the cross-media content quadrant (Jensen and Vistisen, 2012), which shows how the producer’s control is distributed on social media pla...... platforms, while storytelling evolves around a tent-pole, for example, a bestseller or blockbuster. To further explain how the audience engages, a three-step rhetoric model largely based on Bitzer (1998) and Tolkien (1971) is developed and explained....

  17. Gauge invariance, causality and gluonic poles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anikin, I.V., E-mail: anikin@theor.jinr.r [Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, JINR, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Teryaev, O.V., E-mail: teryaev@theor.jinr.r [Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, JINR, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2010-07-05

    We explore the electromagnetic gauge invariance of the hadron tensor of the Drell-Yan process with one transversely polarized hadron. The special role is played by the contour gauge for gluon fields. The prescription for the gluonic pole in the twist 3 correlator is related to causality property and compared with the prescriptions for exclusive hard processes. As a result we get the extra contributions, which naively do not have an imaginary phase. The single spin asymmetry for the Drell-Yan process is accordingly enhanced by the factor of two.

  18. Iranian Common Attitude Toward Opium Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarghami, Mehran

    2015-01-01

    Iran is suffering from the 2nd most severe addiction to opioids in the world. While the explanation of this enormous drug problem is refutably related to drug trafficking, the drug dilemma also illustrates the chain reaction of the imposed war with Iraq in 1980 - 88; the problems of poverty, unemployment, urbanization, homelessness, adultery, family crises, divorce, domestic violence, and runaway children. Although opium addiction often linked to these factors, drug use is common among all social classes. It seems that a positive traditional attitude is another reason for widespread raw opium use in this country. A survey in Iranian literature reveals that famous Iranian poets, who have a substantial contribution on cultural attitude formation of Iranian population, have used the phrase “Teriac” (raw opium) as a means of “antidote” a substance that treats every disease. It seems that a concrete deduction from the literature has been leaden to a positive attitude towards opium consumption in Persian culture. Recent research also supports this idea. Many patients use raw opium as a pain killer or for treating hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes and other chronic diseases; most of them had started the use after developing the disease and the remaining had increased the consumption after developing the disease. Regarding this superstitious common belief, drug control headquarters should focus on education and correction of the faulty unhealthy attitude toward opium consumption. PMID:26288642

  19. The Iranian model of living renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavi-Mazdeh, Mitra

    2012-09-01

    Organ shortage for transplantation remains a worldwide serious problem for kidney patients with end-stage renal failure, and several countries have tried different models to address this issue. Iran has 20 years of experience with one such model that involves the active role of the government and charity foundations. Patients with a desperate demand for a kidney have given rise to a black market of brokers and other forms of organ commercialism only accessible to those with sufficient financial resources. The current Iranian model has enabled most of the Iranian kidney transplant candidates, irrespective of socioeconomic class, to have access to kidney transplantation. The Iranian government has committed a large budget through funding hospital and staff at the Ministry of Health and Medical Education by supporting the brain death donation (BDD) program or redirecting part of the budget of living unrelated renal donation (LURD) to the BDD program. It has been shown that it did not prevent the development and progression of a BDD program. However, the LURD program is characterized by several controversial procedures (e.g., confrontation of donor and recipient at the end of the evaluation procedure along with some financial interactions) that should be ethically reviewed. Operational weaknesses such as the lack of a registration system and long-term follow-up of the donors are identified as the 'Achilles heel of the model'.

  20. Bacterial Contamination of Iranian Paper Currency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir-Hassan Moosavy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Transmission of human pathogens can be occurred via inert objects. Paper currency is a further common contact surface whereby pathogens can be transferred within a population although the significance remains unknown. Hence, the aim of the present study was to investigate microbial populations associated with Iranian paper currency.Methods: This study was carried out by getting 108 samples of the Iranian currency notes (1000, 2000, 5000, 10000, 20000 and 50000 RIALS from food-related shops that included food service outlets, greengrocery, supermarket, bakery, confectionary and poultry meat retail outlets. All currency notes were examined for total bacterial count and identification of pathogenic bacteria.Results: The average total bacterial count that was recovered from currency notes was found to be 3.27±0.31 colony forming unites. 2000R had the highest total bacterial count, followed by 5000R, 10000R and the lowest in 50000R. In this study, the isolated bacteria recovered were Bacillus cereus (8.33%, E. coli (48.14%, Staphylococcus aureus (28.7%, Salmonella (0.92%, Listeria monocytogenes (0.92%, Yersinia entrocolitica (6.48%. It was revealed that all the pathogens screened for where encountered on currency notes were recovered from one sample. There were no significant (P>0.05 correlations between the carriage of pathogens/fecal indicator bacteria and currency note condition.Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that Iranian currency notes represent a significant vehicle for human pathogens.

  1. THE INCIDENCE OF BIRTHMARKS IN IRANIAN NEONATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Shajari

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A number of innocent rashes occurs in neonates. They are usually transient and self limited and thus require no therapy but early recognition is important to distinguish these lesions from more serious disorders. In this study, our purpose was to determine the frequency of birthmarks in Iranian neonates. The presence of various types of birthmarks was determined in 503 Iranian neonates under 72 hour of age. The physiological skin changes observed in order to frequency were Epstein pearls in 444 (88.27%, Mongolian spot in 409 (81%, erythema toxicum in 272 (54%, sucking blisters in 264 (52.1%, Salmon patch in 262 (52%, milia in 232 (46%, petechia in 41(0.08% and mottling in 29 (0.06%. Petechia was seen more commonly in vaginal delivery and in babies with more birth weight. Mottling was more common in premature and low birth babies. Our data suggest that the incidence of birthmarks in Iranian neonates is similar to the prevalence reported by others in white neonates.

  2. A concise review of the Iranian calendar

    CERN Document Server

    Heydari-Malayeri, M

    2004-01-01

    We present a general description of the Iranian calendar and Nowruz, which starts at the precise instant when the Sun coincides with the vernal equinox. Although the paper aims at the basic astronomical elements of the calendar, historical aspects are not ignored. Using the ephemeris provided by the French Institut de Mecanique Celeste et de Calcul des Ephemerides (IMCCE) for the period A.D. -4000 to +2500, we discuss the various definitions of the year and show that the Iranian calendar is based upon the vernal-equinox year and not on the ``tropical year'' of 365.2422 days formulated by researchers in the field of celestial mechanics. Neglecting the short-term fluctuations, the mean length of the Iranian year at the present epoch is 365.2424 solar days, corresponding to the mean interval between two successive passages of the Sun through the vernal equinox. There is now a widely spread confusion between the "tropical" and vernal-equinox years, leading to the erroneous value of 365.2422 days often given for t...

  3. Iranian Common Attitude Toward Opium Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarghami, Mehran

    2015-06-01

    Iran is suffering from the 2(nd) most severe addiction to opioids in the world. While the explanation of this enormous drug problem is refutably related to drug trafficking, the drug dilemma also illustrates the chain reaction of the imposed war with Iraq in 1980 - 88; the problems of poverty, unemployment, urbanization, homelessness, adultery, family crises, divorce, domestic violence, and runaway children. Although opium addiction often linked to these factors, drug use is common among all social classes. It seems that a positive traditional attitude is another reason for widespread raw opium use in this country. A survey in Iranian literature reveals that famous Iranian poets, who have a substantial contribution on cultural attitude formation of Iranian population, have used the phrase "Teriac" (raw opium) as a means of "antidote" a substance that treats every disease. It seems that a concrete deduction from the literature has been leaden to a positive attitude towards opium consumption in Persian culture. Recent research also supports this idea. Many patients use raw opium as a pain killer or for treating hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes and other chronic diseases; most of them had started the use after developing the disease and the remaining had increased the consumption after developing the disease. Regarding this superstitious common belief, drug control headquarters should focus on education and correction of the faulty unhealthy attitude toward opium consumption.

  4. Litter assessment on 99 Cuban beaches: A baseline to identify sources of pollution and impacts for tourism and recreation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botero, C M; Anfuso, G; Milanes, C; Cabrera, A; Casas, G; Pranzini, E; Williams, A T

    2017-05-15

    Litter presence was assessed on the entire Cuban coastline, and includes 99 beaches from all Cuban regions, during field work carried out in 2012 and 2015. A standard method verified in several countries was applied, which classified beaches for nine types of litter into four grades (A-excellent to D-poor). Almost half of the Cuban beaches obtained excellent cleanliness scores, although many needed to be better managed. In this baseline, the most common types of residue were general litter (8% grade D and 35% grades B/C) and potentially harmful litter (litter management. Tourism Impacts seems to be related to visitor origin therefore choices to develop sustainable tourism in rural and village beaches (64%) appears low, if beach cleaning gross investment is focused on resort beaches (24%). Finally, this paper highlights geographical distribution and types of litter patterns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Requirements to cuban reinforcing steel under seismic demand; Exigencias al acero de refuerzo cubano ante la demanda sismica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frometa Salas, Z. P.; Villalonga Vianez, J. A.

    2009-07-01

    The behaviour of steel manufactured according to the Cuban standard NC 7:02 is studied, in order to evaluate about the conformance to requirements of the seismic design. Steel bars of Grade G-40 and G-60, of all commercial diameters between 10 and 32 mm, were test with this purpose. An experimental program was developed, that include dimensional verifications, tensile testing, ben and rebend, hardness testing and chemical composition tests. The results showed that steel bars satisfy geometric and tensile requirements of Cuban standard, however, some tested samples fulfill the demands that establish some codes about the required ductility to adequate perform of building of reinforced concrete where prevalence the earthquake. Conclusions about the necessity to consider in the future Cuban standard, special requirements to steel that assist the necessities of the earthquake engineering. Proposals are suggested to guarantee the ductile behaviour of the steel of national production. (Author)

  6. 76 FR 7695 - Iranian Human Rights Abuses Sanctions Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control 31 CFR Part 562 Iranian Human Rights Abuses Sanctions Regulations AGENCY.... The Department of the Treasury's Office of Foreign Assets Control is issuing the Iranian Human Rights... PROPERTY OF CERTAIN PERSONS WITH RESPECT TO SERIOUS HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES BY THE GOVERNMENT OF IRAN AND...

  7. Demotivating Factors Affecting EFL Learning of Iranian Seminary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaei, Omid; Molavi, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, an attempt has been made to determine the demotives affecting EFL learning of Iranian Islamic seminary students and also to distinguish the motivated and demotivated EFL learners in terms of their EFL learning as the major focus of this study. Fifty Iranian EFL seminary students were investigated using two validated…

  8. An Investigation into Ambiguity Tolerance in Iranian Senior EFL Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzban, Amin; Barati, Hossein; Moinzadeh, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to explore how tolerant of ambiguity Iranian EFL learners at university level are and if gender plays a role in this regard. To this end, upon filling in the revised SLTAS scale of ambiguity tolerance 194 male and female Iranian teacher trainees were assigned to three ambiguity tolerance groups; namely, high, moderate and…

  9. Iranian EFL Teachers' Perceptions of the Difficulties of Implementing CALL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayati, Hora; Marandi, S. Susan

    2014-01-01

    Despite the spread of reliable technological tools and the availability of computers in Iranian universities, as well as the mounting evidence of the effectiveness of blended learning, many Iranian language teachers are still reluctant to incorporate such tools in their English as a foreign language (EFL) classes. This study inspected the status…

  10. Reflection of Learning Theories in Iranian ELT Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neghad, Hossein Hashem

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate Iranian ELT English textbooks (Senior High school and Pre-University) in the light of three learning theories i.e., behaviourism, cognitivism, and constructivism. Each of these learning theories embedding an array of instructional strategies and techniques acted as evaluation checklist. That is, Iranian ELT…

  11. The Pole Orientation, Pole Precession, and Moment of Inertia Factor of Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, R. A.; French, R. G.; Nicholson, P. D.; Hedman, M.; Colwell, J. E.; Marouf, E.; Rappaport, N.; McGhee, C.; Sepersky, T.; Lonergan, K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses our determination of the Saturn's pole orientation and precession using a combination of Earthbased and spacecraft based observational data. From our model of the polar motion and the observed precession rate we obtain a value for Saturn's polar moment of inertia

  12. Knowing the Place for the First Time: A Cuban Exile’s Story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Morena

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Playa Abierta is a modern beach-side resort, one hundred kilometres west of Havana. Developed as a private resort in the 1950s, it was seized by the new revolutionary Cuban government in 1959 after its owner fled precipitately to Miami. This autobiographically centred and personally narrated paper reviews the history of Playa Abierta 1956 – 2006 through the eyes of a Cuban New Zealander ‘Marta’ whose uncle first developed the estate. In 1956 her holidays spent at Playa Abierta as a little girl were her most treasured Cuban moments. ‘At this altar’, she says, ‘my uncle was the high priest.’ In 1996 - after a 36-year absence from her native land - she returned for a visit, the only member of her extended family to have done so. Boldly and unannounced she walked through her uncle’s house – by then converted into a military recreational camp. On a subsequent visit, she met with members of her uncle’s domestic staff whose relationship to that same loved beach was by then of many decades. Whose Playa Abierta was she re-visiting now? Who were the true claimants to that family sacred site? Today as she reflects on the private and public meaning of Playa Abierta, her exultation has given way to more complex feelings. The wonder at re-discovering the beach’s beauty was overladen with the guilt of returning to Cuba while still under Castro’s communist rule. Her sense of belonging was later undermined by a sad realisation that those who had stayed behind were also Playa Abierta’s claimants. Above all, she is torn between family loyalties and the promise of a Revolution betrayed.

  13. Endemics under threat: an assessment of the conservation status of Cuban bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Mancina

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Reviewing available information from published literature, museum database, personal communications and from the authors own field data, the conservation status of Cuban bats has been assessed using six qualitative parameters: abundance, distribution, roosting habits, aggregation level, forest dependence, and degree of endemism. The resulting Red List is analogous to that of the IUCN, species having been included in four categories of risk. Four out of the 26 extant bats of Cuba should be considered endangered, four vulnerable to extinction, twelve potentially threatened, and six in a stable situation. Most of the species of bats endemic to Cuba are under some form of threat. The major threats to the survival of Cuban bats are the destruction of forests and the modification of caves, the latter being critical habitats for the mostly cave-dwelling Cuban bat fauna. We argue that its conservation should be the result of a cooperative effort promoting research and habitat management. Riassunto Endemismi minacciati: una valutazione dello stato di conservazione dei chirotteri cubani. Lo stato di conservazione dei chirotteri cubani è stato valutato a partire da sei parametri qualitativi: abbondanza, distribuzione, roost utilizzati, livello di aggregazione, dipendenza da ambienti forestali e grado di endemismo. A questo scopo sono state esaminate le informazioni bibliografiche, i database dei musei e dati non pubblicati, in parte raccolti dagli stessi autori. La Lista Rossa risultante è analoga a quella dell’IUCN, comprendendo quattro categorie di rischio crescente. Delle 26 specie attualmente presenti a Cuba, 4 sono da considerarsi in pericolo di estinzione, 4 "vulnerabili", 12 "potenzialmente minacciate" e 6 "stabili". La maggior parte delle specie endemiche è in qualche misura minacciata. La deforestazione e l’alterazione delle cavità carsiche, che costituiscono un habitat

  14. a New Ediacaran Pole from Easternmost Baltica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meert, J. G.; Levashova, N. M.; Kuznetsov, N. B.; Sergeeva, N. D.; Golovanova, I. V.; Danukalov, K. N.; Bazhenov, M. L.

    2011-12-01

    Ediacaran paleogeography is notoriously messy due to equally confusing paleomagnetic data from both Laurentia and Baltica. Ediacaran (~Vendian) rocks have been studied from several localities from Baltica, but the so far published poles can be used to place the Baltic craton at nearly any latitude and orientation [Meert et al., 2007]. At the same time, it is challenging to understand the paleogeography of the Ediacaran world given all the biologic, climatic and tectonic changes during the time interval from 635-542 Ma. We present preliminary paleomagnetic and geochronological data from (late?) Ediacaran sediments from the deformed (low metamorphic grade) peri-Uralian margin of Baltica. We successfully isolated a dual-polarity high-temperature component from eleven sites; the primary origin of this remanence is strongly supported by a positive reversal test (class B). The corresponding paleomagnetic pole is in close agreement with the coeval results from the Winter Coast of northern Baltica [Popov et al., 2002; 2005; Iglesia Llanos et al., 2005], despite a ~1600 km separation between two study areas. These data jointly indicate a very low (<10 degrees N or S) paleolatitude for eastern Baltica in Ediacaran time. Paleogeographic implications of these new data will be discussed in the context of Ediacaran-Cambrian tectonic models. This study is supported by RFBR grant 11-05-00037 and NSF grant EAR11-19038.

  15. Dynamics of Enceladus South Pole Ejecta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makuch, Martin; Schmidt, J.; Spahn, F.

    2007-10-01

    The Saturnian moon Enceladus was recently found to be a potent source of gas and dust particles. There was an active region observed on the south pole of Enceladus with jets spraying material in the space. The ejected dust particles are considered to be the main source of the faint E ring. In our work we investigate the long-term dynamics of icy particles ejected from the south pole of Enceladus. The motion of the ejected grains, being subject to many perturbation forces, strongly depends on particle properties (e.g. size, charge etc.). We study the resulting spatial distribution of particles in the E ring. Primarily we focus on the structure of the ring in the vicinity of Enceladus. In our study we also concentrated on processes limiting particle lifetime. These are mainly collisions with Enceladus and other Saturnian satellites or main ring, as well as the sputtering of particles by plasma ions bombardment. Modeling the equilibrium between particle sources and sinks we found the size distribution which is expected to be observed in the E ring.

  16. Helioseismology from the South Pole: 1987 campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jefferies, S.; Pomerantz, M.A. (Univ. of Delaware, Newark (USA)); Duvall, T.L. Jr. (Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (USA)); Harvey, J.W.; Jaksha, D. (National Solar Observatory, Tucson, AZ (USA))

    1988-01-01

    Helioseismology is the study of the Sun's interior by means of observations of its global oscillations. The Sun constantly oscillates, at periods of about 5 minutes, in millions of different modes which probe different depth and latitude ranges. Helioseismological observations have been made from the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station nearly every year since 1980. This site offers the unique advantage of uninterrupted sunlight during the austral summer (except for clouds, of course) and otherwise generally good atmospheric conditions for astronomical observations. Thus, it is possible to measure oscillations without long nighttime gaps which confuse measurements made at low-latitude observatories. Measurements from the South Pole and elsewhere have shown that the solar interior is roughly similar to the predictions of the theory of stellar structure and evolution. This theory is one of the key foundations of our present picture of the universe. It is, therefore, disturbing that there are small, but highly significant, discrepancies between theory and observations and that these discrepancies have not been resolved by reasonable adjustments of theoretical parameters and physics. Currently, the source of these discrepancies is not at all clear. Helioseismology, however, not only revealed the problem but offers excellent prospects for solving it.

  17. Landau pole in the pyramid scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Tom; Fortin, Jean-François; Kathrein, Scott

    2010-12-01

    We revisit the problem of the hidden sector Landau pole in the pyramid scheme. There is a fixed line in the plane of hidden sector gauge coupling and Yukawa couplings between the trianon fields. We postulate that the couplings flow to this line, at a point where the hidden sector gauge coupling is close to the strong coupling edge of its perturbative regime. Below the masses of the heavier trianons, the model quickly flows to a confining NF=NC=3 supersymmetric gauge theory, as required by phenomenological considerations. We study possible discrete R symmetries, which guarantee, among other things, that the basin of attraction of the fixed line has full codimension in the space of R-allowed couplings. The Yukawa couplings required to get the fixed line violate the pyrma-baryon symmetries we invoked in previous work to find a dark matter candidate. Omitting one of them, we have a dark matter candidate, and an acceptable renormalization group flow down from the unification scale, if the confinement scale of the hidden sector group is lowered from 5 to 2 TeV. However, we cannot find anomaly-free symmetries, which guarantee a set of pyrma-baryon violating couplings that eliminate the Landau pole, but do not allow a supersymmetry preserving vacuum of the model. We can do this with only one pyrma-baryon violating coupling, but this lowers the confinement scale to 900 GeV, which may already be ruled out due to light hidden sector baryons.

  18. Effects of pole compliance and step frequency on the biomechanics and economy of pole carrying during human walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Eric R; Lieberman, Graham M; McCarty, Logan S; Lieberman, Daniel E

    2014-09-01

    This study investigates whether a flexible pole can be used as an energy-saving method for humans carrying loads. We model the carrier and pole system as a driven damped harmonic oscillator and predict that the energy expended by the carrier is affected by the compliance of the pole and the ratio between the pole's natural frequency and the carrier's step frequency. We tested the model by measuring oxygen consumption in 16 previously untrained male participants walking on a treadmill at four step frequencies using two loaded poles: one made of bamboo and one of steel. We found that when the bamboo pole was carried at a step frequency 20% greater than its natural frequency, the motions of the centers of mass of the load and carrier were approximately equal in amplitude and opposite in phase, which we predicted would save energy for the carrier. Carrying the steel pole, however, resulted in the carrier and loads oscillating in phase and with roughly equal amplitude. Although participants were less economical using poles than predicted costs using conventional fixed-load techniques (such as backpacks), the bamboo pole was on average 5.0% less costly than the steel pole. When allowed to select their cadence, participants also preferred to carry the bamboo pole at step frequencies of ∼2.0 Hz. This frequency, which is significantly higher than the preferred unloaded step frequency, is most economical. These experiments suggest that pole carriers can intuitively adjust their gaits, or choose poles with appropriate compliance, to increase energetic savings.

  19. Notes to Contribute to the Teaching of Marxism in Contemporary Cuban Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian Roque Roque

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at teachers of the Philosophy and Society course, tutors, personnel in charge of the educational work and those involved in the task of leading new generations towards a better society by conducting an appropriate ideological and political work. It is inspired by the objectives of the First National Conference of the Party in its attempt to adjust the teaching of Marxism to the present time; thus our purpose is to contribute to the teaching of this theory, considering the political and ideological impact it will have on Cuban youth dealing with the challenges posed by reality.

  20. [Catalogue of neritic-benthonic echinoderms (Echinodermata: Crinoidea, Echinoidea, Holothuroidea) from the Cuban Archipelago].

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Valle García, Rosa; Solís-Marín, Francisco A; Abreu Pérez, Mercedes; Laguarda-Figueras, Alfredo; Durán-González, Alicia

    2005-12-01

    This is an updated taxonomic catalogue of neritic-benthonic Echinodermata (Crinoidea, Echinoidea, Holothuroidea) from Cuba, that includes locality, range, habitat and depth where each species is found. The species list is based on the collections of the Oceanology Institute; Havana, and the "Felipe Poey" Museum (Havana University) Specimens for those collections were captured by a variety of field techniques, narcotized with Cloral hydrate, fixed in formalin and stored in 70-80% alcohol. A total of 53 species were recorded (eight Crinoids, 22 Echinoids and 23 Holothuroids), in 37 genera, 19 families and 12 orders. Ocnus suspectus (Ludwig, 1874) and Phyllophorus (Urodemella) occidentalis (Ludwig, 1885) are new records for Cuban waters.

  1. Modificaciones en las calderas igneotubulares cubanas // Modifications in the Cuban boilers of fire tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Pérez Mallea

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es optimizar y diseñar las calderas igneotubulares nacionales, incluyendo las de inversión de llama yagua caliente. Con este fin se creo un software como soporte científico técnico que permite realizar los diferentes cálculosverificativos a través de los cuales se optimiza._________________________________________________________________________Abstract .The objective of this work is the optimizing and designing of the Cuban boilers of fire tube, including those of inverting offlame and hot water. A software have been developed as technical scientific supper for different calculations and optimizingprocess.

  2. Quality Management System according to the family of Cuban Standards ISO 9000 CN Total Quality approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonel C. Alfaro Pérez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we develop some considerations and suggestions for organizations in Cuba who want to design and implement systems with Quality Management Total Quality approach to the family of Cuban Standards ISO 9000 CN. It makes a comparative analysis between what is a System of Quality Management, Total Quality and the European model of quality management, detailing the similarities and differences, which allow us to understand how systems can be designed and managed focuses on Total Quality. It describes in a coherent way the main activities of a quality management system which can not be absent in its design and subsequent management.

  3. [Catalogue of neritic-benthonic echinoderms (Echinodermata: Asteroidea and Ophiuroidea) from the Cuban Archipelago].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu-Pérez, Mercedes; Solís-Marín, Francisco A; Laguarda-Figueras, Alfredo

    2005-12-01

    This is an updated taxonomic catalogue of neritic-benthonic Echinodermata (Asteroidea and Ophiuroidea) from Cuba, that includes locality, range, habitat and depth where each species is found. The species list is based on the collections of the Oceanology Institute; Havana; the "Felipe Poey" Museum (Havana University) and the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C. Specimens for those collections were captured by a variety of field techniques, narcotized with Cloral hydrate, fixed in formalin and stored in 70-80% alcohol. A total of 75 species have been identified from Cuban waters: Asteroidea (20 species) and Ophiuroidea (55 species).

  4. The Cuban Economy: Current Situation, and Prospects for the 1980s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    of the institute of Cuban Studies, Ir’avana, August 4, 1980. 9. Castro, " Discurso en !a Clausura del II Periodo . . ." and Faco IVaticnal do Cuba...3430 de Noviembre," Pinar del LUc, August 2, 1930. -,6. Castro, "’ Discurso en la Clausura :Iel I-- erid ... 17. Isa.bel Alfonso y J. 𔄁anUr~o, rl~a...1979), pp. 257-272. 30. F. Castro, " Discurso en la Clausura del II Perfodo . . . 31. CF AL, "Cuba . . . 1980," p. 16. 54 32. LaC;re:ce :e. ic’ ot a

  5. Nonlinear effect induced in thermally poled glass waveguides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Yi-tao

    2006-01-01

    Thermally poled germanium-doped channel waveguides are presented. Multilayer waveguides containing a silicon oxynitride layer were used as charge trapper in this investigation on the effect of the internal field inside the waveguide. Compared to waveguides without the trapping layer, experimental results showed that the induced linear electro-optic (EO) coefficient increases about 20% after poling, suggesting strongly that the internal field is relatively enhanced, and showed it is a promising means for improving nonlinearity by poling in waveguides.

  6. Least Square Approximation by Linear Combinations of Multi(Poles).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-01

    ID-R134 069 LEAST SQUARE APPROXIMATION BY LINEAR COMBINATIONS OF i/i MULTI(POLES). 1U OHIO STATE UNIV COLUMBUS DEPT OF GEODETIC SCIENCE AND SURVEY...TR-83-0 117 LEAST SQUARE APPROXIMATION BY LINEAR COMBINATIONS OF (MULTI)POLES WILLI FREEDEN DEPARTMENT OF GEODETIC SCIENCE AND SURVEYING THE OHIO...Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED LEAST SQUARE APPROXIMATION BY LINEAR Scientific Report No. 3 COMBINATIONS OF (MULTI)POLES 6. PERFORMING ORG

  7. SIMULATION OF EARTH'S POLES DYNAMICS USING ASK-ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherednychenko N. A.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on local semantic information models, we have examined the dependence of the dynamics of the displacement of the pole positions of celestial objects. We have also developed and differentiated an analysis of ASK-pole modeling of dynamics within sixty-year cycles of reference points and substantiated reasons for the population inversion and singular states in the dynamics of the pole

  8. Charge quantisation without magnetic poles: a topological approach to electromagnetism

    OpenAIRE

    Solha, Romero

    2014-01-01

    The present work provides a theoretical explanation for the quantisation of electric charges, an open problem since Millikan's oil drop experiment in 1909. This explanation is based solely on Maxwell's theory, it recasts Electromagnetic theory under the language of complex line bundles; therefore, neither magnetic poles nor quantum mechanics are invoked. The existence of magnetic poles was essentially the only theoretical explanation for charge quantisation (e.g. Dirac's magnetic pole), and t...

  9. South Pole Region of the Moon as Seen by Clementine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Lunar mosaic of 1500 Clementine images of the south polar region of the moon. The projection is orthographic, centered on the south pole. The Schrodinger Basin (320 km in diameter) is located in the lower right of the mosaic. Amundsen-Ganswindt is the more subdued circular basin between Schrodinger and the pole. The polar regions of the moon are of special interest because of the postulated occurrence of ice in permanently shadowed areas. The south pole is of greater interest because the area that remains in shadow is much larger than that at the north pole.

  10. Effects of poling process on KNN-modified piezoceramic properties

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Rubio, F.; Romero, J. J.; Ochoa Guerrero, Diego A.; García García, José Eduardo; Pérez Pérez, Rafael; Fernández, José Francisco

    2010-01-01

    The influence of the orthorhombic to tetragonal phase transition near room temperature in the poling process of KNN-modified piezoceramics was studied. Poling temperatures of 25° and 120°C were used. The percentage of 90° domains reorientation induced by poling was evaluated trough X-ray diffraction analysis. The improvement of the piezoelectric properties when the poling temperature was 25°C could not be explained by the reorientation of 90° domains alone. Raman spectroscopy evidenced that t...

  11. Generalized Pole Inflation: Hilltop, Natural, and Chaotic Inflationary Attractors

    CERN Document Server

    Terada, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    A new paradigm for inflationary model building appeared recently, in which inflationary observables are determined by the structure of a pole in the inflaton kinetic term rather than the shape of the inflaton potential. We comprehensively study this framework with an arbitrary order of the pole taking into account possible additional poles in the kinetic term or in the potential. Depending on the setup, the canonical potential becomes the form of hilltop or plateau models, variants of natural inflation, or monomial or polynomial chaotic inflation. We demonstrate attractor behavior of these models and compute corrections from the additional poles to the inflationary observables.

  12. Iranian Critical ELT: A Belated but Growing Intellectual Shift in Iranian ELT Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghagolzadeh, Ferdows; Davari, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Reviewing and discussing the development of critical studies in the field of applied linguistics in general and English language teaching (ELT) in particular in Iran, this paper attempts to highlight the main contributions in this field. Introducing a new growing critical-oriented shift in Iranian ELT community as the one which has been mostly…

  13. Iranian Democratization Part I: A Historical Case Study of the Iranian Green Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor H. Sundquist

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2009 Iranian Presidential Elections represented one of the most contentious displays of the evolving Iranian democracy since the 1979 Islamic Revolution that led to the removal of Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi – the nation’s last shah. This tumultuous political event not only exposed a growing rift between the political and religious ruling elite in that country; it also led to the emergence of an opposition movement that would later be known as the Green Revolution. Viewed through a Western political lens, this revolution represented yet another opportunity for the demise of the ruling Iranian Islamic Regime. Recently, some scholars have questioned whether this movement was ever intended to topple the government in the first place, and have argued instead that it represented the beginning of a long-term civil rights push. To better understand why the Green Movement emerged one must first understand what the original intent of the movement was, as well as the political factors that led to its rapid growth. In order to answer these questions, this article will compare and contrast identified similarities and differences between the 1979 Islamic Revolution and 2009 Green Movement in order to isolate the true intent behind this perceived Iranian political revolt.

  14. Electromechanical properties of a disc-type salient-pole brushless DC motor with different pole numbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukaniszyn, M.; Jagiela, M.; Wrobel, R.

    2003-04-16

    A brushless, permanent magnet, three-phase disc-type salient-pole DC motor with co-axial flux in the stator is considered. Electromechanical properties of a basic eight-pole motor are compared with those for a 16-pole one of the same volume, in order to contrast the two potential candidates for variable-speed, low-cost drives. As a basis of the comparative analysis, 3D FEM magnetic field modelling and circuit analysis considering an electronic commutator are employed. Increasing the number of poles results in unfavourable raising in the switching frequency. The eight-pole motor construction has been shown in simulations to have higher efficiency and lower power losses than its 16-pole counterpart. (Author)

  15. Pole assignment in descriptor periodic systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN; Hung-Yuan; LIN; Wen-Wei; XU; Shufang

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a pole assignment problem is considered for the descriptor linear discrete-time periodic systems, which is using the periodic proportional-derivative feedback to modify a given system such that the closed loop system has a specified selfconjugate set of eigenvalues. It is shown that the complete reachability of an open loop periodic system is equivalent to the possibility of assigning an arbitrary set of the eigenvalues to the system by choosing the suitable periodic proportional-derivative feedback.A computational approach is also proposed to solve the problem, which uses the reliable numerical techniques based on the orthogonal transformations. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  16. Spherical harmonics, invariant theory and Maxwell's poles

    CERN Document Server

    Dowker, J S

    2008-01-01

    I discuss the relation between harmonic polynomials and invariant theory and show that homogeneous, harmonic polynomials correspond to ternary forms that are apolar to a base conic (the absolute). The calculation of Schlesinger that replaces such a form by a polarised binary form is reviewed. It is suggested that Sylvester's theorem on the uniqueness of Maxwell's pole expression for harmonics is renamed the Clebsch-Sylvester theorem. The relation between certain constructs in invariant theory and angular momentum theory is enlarged upon and I resurrect the Joos--Weinberg matrices. Hilbert's projection operators are considered and their generalisations by Story and Elliott are related to similar, more recent constructions in group theory and quantum mechanics, the ternary case being equivalent to SU(3).

  17. Self-rating of poor health: a comparison of Cuban elders in Havana and Miami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yuri; Chiriboga, David A; Herrera, Julio R; Branch, Laurence G

    2009-06-01

    This study examined the prevalence of self-reported 'poor health' among Cuban elders in Havana (n = 1,183) and Miami (n = 288) and explored the roles of chronic conditions and functional disability in their self-reports. A logistic regression model of reported poor health was estimated for each group, testing both independent and interactive effects of chronic conditions and functional disability. Despite differences in sociodemographic characteristics and disease/disability profiles between Cuban elders in the two cities, an equal proportion of each group (13%) reported poor health. Financial strain and functional disability were common predictors of self-reported poor health across the groups. Gender and chronic conditions were significant only in the Havana sample, among whom the likelihood of reporting poor health increased with female gender and the presence of chronic conditions. In the Havana sample, not only did chronic conditions have an independent effect, but also its interaction with functional disability was significant. The overall results suggest a particular role of chronic conditions in determining subjective health among elders in Havana. Findings are discussed in a sociocultural context.

  18. Detection of Seismic Anomalies Linked to Emanations of Hydrocarbons in the Cuban Northwest Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Miró Pagés

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The exploration of hydrocarbons to international scale constitutes a very complex and expensive task. Traditionally in the coast areas like the ones in the present work, the location of the exploration wells has been based on derived structural and stratigraphic information of geophysical data, mainly seismic; however it is well-known that in several regions similar of the world, the detection of superficial seeps of hydrocarbons confirm the existence of oil systems, has contributed to achieve a bigger dependability of the carried out prospectings, what has great importance considering the millionaire character of the financial expenditures who demands. For that reason, the main objective was to try to identify seismic anomalies typically associate with existences of hydrocarbons in Cuban coastareas. The main conclusion of this article is that the identification of seismic anomalies similar to those observed in the course of the present work can constitute a valuable additional informative element for the prospecting of hydrocarbons in areas of the Cuban coast.

  19. Circomics of Cuban geminiviruses reveals the first alpha-satellite DNA in the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeske, Holger; Kober, Sigrid; Schäfer, Benjamin; Strohmeier, Stephan

    2014-10-01

    Circomics (circular DNA genomics), the combination of rolling circle amplification (RCA), restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and pyro-sequencing, has been used recently to identify geminiviruses with high efficiency and low costs. Circular DNAs associated with Cuban geminiviruses were characterised by RCA/RFLP analysis and 454 sequencing of two batches of DNA amplified from selected plant samples as well as individual cloning and Sanger sequencing of DNA components and compared to other geminiviral DNAs by phylogenetic analysis. Cuban geminiviruses that were closely related to each other challenged the circomics approach. Ten geminiviral components and one alpha-satellite DNA were determined and compared to three geminiviral components obtained by conventional cloning. New strains of Sida yellow mottle virus (SiYMoV), tomato yellow distortion leaf virus (ToYDLV), Sida golden mosaic Florida virus (SiGMFV) and Sida golden mosaic Liguanea virus (SiGMLV) are described with host plant species being classified by molecular PCR-based bar coding. A new virus species is named Peristrophe mosaic virus. The first alpha-satellite found in Middle America establishes the New World branch of these elements which are related to nanoviruses and were previously thought to be restricted to the Old World. In conclusion, circomics is efficient for complex infections and closely related viruses to detected unexpected viral DNAs, but may need some scrutinisation by direct sequencing and cloning of individual components for certain cases.

  20. Incidencia de lipomas en la cotorra cubana (Incidence de lipomas in the cuban parrot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soto Piñeiro, Carlos Jesús;

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Durante la inspección clínica de muchas Cotorras (Amazona l. leucocephala, en la consulta veterinaria de la Asociación Nacional Ornitológica de Cuba se han detectado la presencia de tumores subcutáneos en esta especie. Al realizar cortes histológicos de los mismos luego de ser extraídos mediante métodos quirúrgicos pudimos corroborar la existencia de LIPOMAS. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo valorar la incidencia de esta patología en esta especie, comparándola con otras aves que asisten a la consulta y cuales pueden haber sido las causas que la originaron así como establecer metodologías de prevención y tratamiento para estos casos. Summary During the clinical inspection of many Cuban Parrots (Amazona l. leucocephala, in the veterinary center of the National Ornithological Association of Cuba, we detected the presence of subcutaneous tumors. Histological studies of the same tumors extracted by surgical methods could corroborate the diagnosis of LIPOMA. The present work had the aim to evaluate the incidence of this pathology in the Cuban Parrots, comparing with other birds that attend the veterinary hospital. Furthermore we examined the causes that originated the Lipoma as well as to established prevention and treatment methodologies.

  1. Comparison of Major Immunoglobulins Intrathecal Synthesis Patterns in Ecuadorian and Cuban Patients with Angiostrongyliasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Docal, Bárbara; Dorta-Contreras, Alberto J.; Moreira, Juan M.; Martini-Robles, Luiggi; Muzzio-Aroca, Jenny; Alarcón, Fernando; Magraner-Tarrau, María Esther; Bu-Coifiu-Fanego, Raisa

    2011-01-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis meningitis was first reported in Cuba in 1981, and it was recently reported in South America. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the intrathecal immunoglobulin synthesis patterns from Cuba's and Ecuador's patients with angiostrongyliasis; 8 Ecuadorian patients from two different outbreaks and 28 Cuban patients were studied. Simultaneous blood and cerebrospinal fluid simples were taken. Immunoglobulin (Ig) A, IgM, IgG, and albumin were quantified by radial immunodiffusion. Corresponding Reibergrams were applied. A three-Ig pattern was the most frequent in the two groups, but IgM was presented in all Ecuadorian young mature patients; however, in the Cuban children, only 12 of 28 patients had intrathecal IgM, but about 90% had an IgA and IgG synthesis at time of later puncture. This indicates that, with a larger amount of parasites ingested, clinical symptoms are more severe, and a higher frequency of intrathecal IgM synthesis could be observed. This is discussed as a similarity with the intrathecal IgM synthesis in African trypanosomiasis. PMID:21363978

  2. Exploring the factor structure of the Food Cravings Questionnaire-Trait in Cuban adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Martín, Boris C; Molerio-Pérez, Osana

    2014-01-01

    Food cravings refer to an intense desire to eat specific foods. The Food Cravings Questionnaire-Trait (FCQ-T) is the most commonly used instrument to assess food cravings as a multidimensional construct. Its 39 items have an underlying nine-factor structure for both the original English and Spanish version; but subsequent studies yielded fewer factors. As a result, a 15-item version of the FCQ-T with one-factor structure has been proposed (FCQ-T-reduced; see this Research Topic). The current study aimed to explore the factor structure of the Spanish version for both the FCQ-T and FCQ-T-reduced in a sample of 1241 Cuban adults. Results showed a four-factor structure for the FCQ-T, which explained 55% of the variance. Factors were highly correlated. Using the items of the FCQ-T-reduced only showed a one-factor structure, which explained 52% of the variance. Both versions of the FCQ-T were positively correlated with body mass index (BMI), scores on the Food Thoughts Suppression Inventory and weight cycling. In addition, women had higher scores than men and restrained eaters had higher scores than unrestrained eaters. To summarize, results showed that (1) the FCQ-T factor structure was significantly reduced in Cuban adults and (2) the FCQ-T-reduced may represent a good alternative to efficiently assess food craving on a trait level.

  3. Exploring the factor structure of the Food Cravings Questionnaire-Trait in Cuban adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris C. Rodríguez-Martín

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Food cravings refer to an intense desire to eat specific foods. The Food Cravings Questionnaire-Trait (FCQ-T is the most commonly used instrument to assess food cravings as a multidimensional construct. Its 39 items have an underlying nine-factor structure for both the original English and Spanish version; but subsequent studies yielded fewer factors. As a result, a 15-item version of the FCQ-T with one-factor structure has been proposed (FCQ-T-reduced; see this Research Topic. The current study aimed to explore the factor structure of the Spanish version for both the FCQ-T and FCQ-T-reduced in a sample of 1241 Cuban adults. Results showed a four-factor structure for the FCQ-T, which explained 55 % of the variance. Factors were highly correlated. Using the items of the FCQ-T-reduced only showed a one-factor structure, which explained 52% of the variance. Both versions of the FCQ-T were positively correlated with body mass index, scores on the Food Thoughts Suppression Inventory and weight cycling. In addition, women had higher scores than men and restrained eaters had higher scores than unrestrained eaters. To summarize, results showed that 1 the FCQ-T factor structure was significantly reduced in Cuban adults and 2 the FCQ-T-reduced may represent a good alternative to efficiently assess food craving on a trait level.

  4. Optimization of random amplified polymorphic DNA techniques for use in genetic studies of Cuban Triatominae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Jorge; Rodriguez, Jinnay; Fuentes, Omar; Fernandez-Calienes, Aymé; Castex, Mayda

    2005-01-01

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique is a simple and reliable method to detect DNA polymorphism. Several factors can affect the amplification profiles, thereby causing false bands and non-reproducibility of assay. In this study, we analyzed the effect of changing the concentration of primer, magnesium chloride, template DNA and Taq DNA polymerase with the objective of determining their optimum concentration for the standardization of RAPD technique for genetic studies of Cuban Triatominae. Reproducible amplification patterns were obtained using 5 pmoL of primer, 2.5 mM of MgCl2, 25 ng of template DNA and 2 U of Taq DNA polymerase in 25 microL of the reaction. A panel of five random primers was used to evaluate the genetic variability of T. flavida. Three of these (OPA-1, OPA-2 and OPA-4) generated reproducible and distinguishable fingerprinting patterns of Triatominae. Numerical analysis of 52 RAPD amplified bands generated for all five primers was carried out with unweighted pair group method analysis (UPGMA). Jaccard's Similarity Coefficient data were used to construct a dendrogram. Two groups could be distinguished by RAPD data and these groups coincided with geographic origin, i.e. the populations captured in areas from east and west of Guanahacabibes, Pinar del Río. T. flavida present low interpopulation variability that could result in greater susceptibility to pesticides in control programs. The RAPD protocol and the selected primers are useful for molecular characterization of Cuban Triatominae.

  5. Still crazy after all these years: U.S.-Cuban relations and the embargo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Carroll

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Cuba: Confronting the U.S. Embargo. PETER SCHWAB. New York: St. Martin's, 1999. xiii + 226 pp. (Cloth US$ 29.95 Presidential Decision Making Adrift: The Carter Administration and the Mariel Boatlift. DAVID W. ENGSTROM. New York: Rowman & Littlefield, 1997. x + 239 pp. (Paper US$25.95 Fleeing Castro: Operation Pedro Pan and the Cuban Children's Program. VICTOR ANDRES TRIAY. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1998. xiv + 126 pp. (Cloth US$ 49.95, Paper US$ 14.95 Some forty years after it was first imposed in 1960 in the midst of the cold war, the U.S. embargo against Cuba remains the defining feature of U.S.-Cuban relations. Like the Berlin Wall, the embargo is both a symbolic and a physical barrier keeping apart two neighbors destined to move closer. Unlike the Berlin Wall which feil at the end of the cold war, the U.S. embargo against Cuba still stands.

  6. ‘La Comida Mambisa’: food, farming, and Cuban identity, 1839-1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Lee Dawdy

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Describes how Cuba developed a countrywide system of food meaning and production in the mid-19th c. that became a national, and eventually "nationalist", cuisine during Cuba's revolutionary moments. Author explains how the centrality of food within Cuban national identity was strongly related with the valency associated with the subsistence farming on small family farms ("sitios", producing these native foods and Caribbean ingredients, e.g. cassava, guava, and sweet potatoes. The self-sufficiency of these small farmers was in emerging nationalist discourses opposed to the large-scale, export-oriented, colonial plantations and to slavery. Many small family farmers, of which many were ex-slaves, participated in the armed struggles in part to defend their right of independent, subsistence agriculture. Author outlines how since the early, mid-19th-c. Creole nationalism, Creole food and the small farms remained associated with authentic Cuban folk culture and with national identity, and related to independence struggles, and self-sufficiency, including during and after the 1959 Revolution.

  7. CMB Observations with the South Pole Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keisler, Ryan

    2013-04-01

    I will describe a program of cosmological research centered on using measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) to address questions relevant to physics: What is the absolute mass scale of neutrinos? How many species of neutrino-like particles were present in the early Universe? How does gravity behave on cosmological scales? Did inflation occur, and, if so, at what energy scale? A new generation of CMB experiments is targeting these questions, and I will focus on recent results from the South Pole Telescope (SPT). The SPT is a ground-based mm-wave observatory located at the geographic south pole in Antarctica, and in 2011 finished its initial, 2500 square-degree ``SPT-SZ'' survey. The data from this survey provided an unprecedented combination of resolution, area, and sensitivity, and has been used to make ground-breaking measurements of the CMB anisotropy and the gravitational lensing of the CMB. These measurements have, in conjunction with data from the WMAP satellite, led to strong constraints on the number of neutrino-like particle species present in the early universe and the shape of the power spectrum of primordial density fluctuations. The SPT-SZ data overlaps with the ongoing Dark Energy Survey (DES) footprint, and the joint dataset will provide new probes of large-scale structure, such as the relative velocities of massive galaxy clusters. In 2012, a new polarization-sensitive camera, SPTpol, was installed on the SPT, and I will summarize its performance and prospects for detecting the B-mode CMB polarization pattern. Finally, I will touch on what will be possible with a third-generation camera, SPT-3G. The leap in sensitivity provided by this camera will yield, for example, a constraint on the sum of the neutrino masses relevant for exploring the neutrino mass hierarchy.

  8. Swing phase kinematics of horses trotting over poles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S; Stubbs, N C; Kaiser, L J; Lavagnino, M; Clayton, H M

    2015-01-01

    Trotting over poles is used therapeutically to restore full ranges of limb joint motion. The mechanics of trotting over poles have not yet been described, hence quantitative evidence for the presumed therapeutic effects is lacking. To compare limb kinematics in horses trotting over level ground, over low poles and over high poles to determine changes in joint angulations and hoof flight arcs. Repeated measures experimental study in sound horses. Standard motion analysis procedures with skin-fixed reflective markers were used to measure swing phase kinematics from 8 horses trotting on level ground, over low (11 cm) and high (20 cm) poles spaced 1.05 ± 0.05 m apart. Spatiotemporal variables and peak swing phase joint flexion angles were compared using repeated measures ANOVA (Plow poles (fore: 30.9 ± 4.9 cm; hind: 24.9 ± 3.7 cm) and to high poles (fore: 41.0 ± 3.9 cm; hind: 32.7 ± 4.0 cm). All joints of the fore- and hindlimbs contributed to the increase in hoof height through increased swing phase flexion. The hooves cleared the poles due to increases in joint flexion rather than by raising the body higher during the suspension phases of the stride. The increases in swing phase joint flexions indicate that trotting over poles is effective for activating and strengthening the flexor musculature. Unlike the use of proprioceptive stimulation devices in which the effects decrease over time due to habituation, the horse is required to elevate the hooves to ensure clearance whenever poles are present. The need to raise the limbs sufficiently to clear the poles and place the hooves accurately requires visuomotor coordination, which may be useful in the rehabilitation of neurological cases. The Summary is available in Chinese - see Supporting information. © 2014 EVJ Ltd.

  9. In situ characterization of cofacial Co(IV) centers in Co4O4 cubane: Modeling the high-valent active site in oxygen-evolving catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, Casey N; Hadt, Ryan G; Hayes, Dugan; Reinhart, Benjamin J; Li, Nancy; Chen, Lin X; Nocera, Daniel G

    2017-03-27

    The Co4O4 cubane is a representative structural model of oxidic cobalt oxygen-evolving catalysts (Co-OECs). The Co-OECs are active when residing at two oxidation levels above an all-Co(III) resting state. This doubly oxidized Co(IV)2 state may be captured in a Co(III)2(IV)2 cubane. We demonstrate that the Co(III)2(IV)2 cubane may be electrochemically generated and the electronic properties of this unique high-valent state may be probed by in situ spectroscopy. Intervalence charge-transfer (IVCT) bands in the near-IR are observed for the Co(III)2(IV)2 cubane, and spectroscopic analysis together with electrochemical kinetics measurements reveal a larger reorganization energy and a smaller electron transfer rate constant for the doubly versus singly oxidized cubane. Spectroelectrochemical X-ray absorption data further reveal systematic spectral changes with successive oxidations from the cubane resting state. Electronic structure calculations correlated to experimental data suggest that this state is best represented as a localized, antiferromagnetically coupled Co(IV)2 dimer. The exchange coupling in the cofacial Co(IV)2 site allows for parallels to be drawn between the electronic structure of the Co4O4 cubane model system and the high-valent active site of the Co-OEC, with specific emphasis on the manifestation of a doubly oxidized Co(IV)2 center on O-O bond formation.

  10. Jupiter's interior and deep atmosphere: The initial pole-to-pole passes with the Juno spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, S. J.; Adriani, A.; Adumitroaie, V.; Allison, M.; Anderson, J.; Atreya, S.; Bloxham, J.; Brown, S.; Connerney, J. E. P.; DeJong, E.; Folkner, W.; Gautier, D.; Grassi, D.; Gulkis, S.; Guillot, T.; Hansen, C.; Hubbard, W. B.; Iess, L.; Ingersoll, A.; Janssen, M.; Jorgensen, J.; Kaspi, Y.; Levin, S. M.; Li, C.; Lunine, J.; Miguel, Y.; Mura, A.; Orton, G.; Owen, T.; Ravine, M.; Smith, E.; Steffes, P.; Stone, E.; Stevenson, D.; Thorne, R.; Waite, J.; Durante, D.; Ebert, R. W.; Greathouse, T. K.; Hue, V.; Parisi, M.; Szalay, J. R.; Wilson, R.

    2017-05-01

    On 27 August 2016, the Juno spacecraft acquired science observations of Jupiter, passing less than 5000 kilometers above the equatorial cloud tops. Images of Jupiter's poles show a chaotic scene, unlike Saturn's poles. Microwave sounding reveals weather features at pressures deeper than 100 bars, dominated by an ammonia-rich, narrow low-latitude plume resembling a deeper, wider version of Earth's Hadley cell. Near-infrared mapping reveals the relative humidity within prominent downwelling regions. Juno's measured gravity field differs substantially from the last available estimate and is one order of magnitude more precise. This has implications for the distribution of heavy elements in the interior, including the existence and mass of Jupiter's core. The observed magnetic field exhibits smaller spatial variations than expected, indicative of a rich harmonic content.

  11. The influence of Iranian scientific journals in disseminating medical information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Aminpour

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Scientific journals are the most credible and updated information resources for valid information in the various fields of science and technology. The present study investigates the status of Iranian scientific journals in disseminating medical information to the world of science. Materials and Methods: Total 163 Iranian medical journals accredited by national medical journals commission of Iranian ministry of health and medical education were evaluated through a cross-sectional study. The results were represented in descriptive statistics in the form of table and chart. Results: The study showed that 89.6% of Iranian medical journals were covered by regional information databases. Web of Science database indexed 22 (13.5% Iranian journals in the field of medical science. Only six (6.7% journals were indexed by Medline. Fifty-eight (35.6% journals were in English, 102 (62.6% in Persian, and three (1.8% were bilingual which published their articles both in Persian and English languages. The highest Impact factor belonged to Iranian Journal of Allergy Asthma and Immunology. Conclusions: Improving scientific credibility of Iranian scholarly journals and their influence in disseminating medical information calls for a precise scientific and executive administration in publishing standards and also in the quality of content.

  12. Iranians and Their Pride: Modalities of Political Sovereignty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moaddel, Mansoor

    In 2000, we asked a nationally representative sample of 2,532 Iranian adults "which of the following best describes you: I am an Iranian, above all; I am a Muslim, above all; I am an Arab, a Kurd, a Turk, a Baluch, etc., above all?" We also asked them how proud they are to be Iranian; (1) very proud, (2) proud, (3) not proud, and (4) not proud at all. In the 2005 survey of a nationally representative sample of 2,667 Iranian adults, we asked these questions again. The first question was intended to measure national identity and the second national pride. The results showed that between the two surveys the percent of Iranians who defined themselves as "Iranians, above all" went up significantly-from 35% in 2000 to 42% in 2005. Those who said that they were very proud to be Iranian, on the other hand, went down considerably-from 89% in 2000 to 64% in 2005. What is more, national identity and national pride displayed opposing relationships with the norms and values that were rigorously promoted by Iran's religious regime and these relationships grew stronger between 2000 and 2005. The feeling of national pride was positively linked to attitudes toward gender inequality, religiosity, and religious intolerance, but negatively to attitudes toward the West, while national identity had just the opposite relationships with these variables.

  13. The Cuban Revolution, the drift of the Castro regime and the destinies of Cuba after Fidel Castro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel de Caria Patricio

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to analyze the possible scenarios of evolution of Cuba after Fidel in the short and medium term, after a retrospective of the Cuban Revolution, its democratic and anticommunist motivations and its authoritarian drift and later its Soviet leaning.

  14. 78 FR 9573 - Delegation of Authority To Suspend the Provisions of Title III of the Cuban Liberty and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... III of the Cuban Liberty and Democratic Solidarity (LIBERTAD) Act of 1996 Memorandum for the Secretary... (LIBERTAD) Act of 1996 (Public Law 104-114; 22 U.S.C. 6021-6091), as authorized by section 306(c)(2) of...

  15. A novel presenilin 1 mutation (L174M) in a large Cuban family with early onset Alzheimer disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Marcheco Teruel; J.J. Llibre Rodriguez; N. Gomez Viera; I. Borrajero Martinez; E.A.W.F.M. Severijnen (Lies-Anne); M. Joosse (Marijke); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); L. Heredero-Baute; P. Heutink (Peter); A.M. Bertoli Avella (Aida)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractWe studied a Cuban family with presenile dementia (autosomal dominant) consisting of 281 members within six generations, the proband descended from a Spanish founder. Mean age at onset was 59 years of age. Memory impairment was the main symptom in all patients, additionally, ischemic epi

  16. Analysis of controversial items in the theoretical design of the undergraduate's thesis at the Cuban University of Informatics Sciences (UIS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Quintana Aput

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper encloses the analysis of some troubles related to the development of theoretical design concerning the undergraduate thesis at the Cuban University of Informatics Sciences (UIS. This analysis proves to be decisive due to the existing demand for improving professionals training in the fields of investigation related to computing world.

  17. The cytotoxic effects of brown Cuban propolis depend on the nemorosone content and may be mediated by mitochondrial uncoupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo Andreu, Gilberto L; Reis, Felippe H Z; Dalalio, Felipe M; Nuñez Figueredo, Yanier; Cuesta Rubio, Osmany; Uyemura, Sergio A; Curti, Carlos; Alberici, Luciane C

    2015-02-25

    Three main types of Cuban propolis directly related to their secondary metabolite composition have been identified: brown, red and yellow propolis; the former is majoritarian and is characterized by the presence of nemorosone. In this study, brown Cuban propolis extracts were found cytotoxic against HepG2 cells and primary rat hepatocytes, in close association with the nemorosone contents. In mitochondria isolated from rat liver the extracts displayed uncoupling activity, which was demonstrated by the increase in succinate-supported state 4 respiration rates, dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential, Ca(2+) release from Ca(2+)-loaded mitochondria, and a marked ATP depletion. As in cells, the degree of such mitotoxic events was closely correlated to the nemorosone content. The propolis extracts that do not contain nemorosone were neither cytotoxic nor mitotoxic, except R-29, whose detrimental effect upon cells and mitochondria could be mediated by its isoflavonoids and chalcones components, well known mitochondrial uncouplers. Our results at least partly unravel the cytotoxic mechanism of Cuban propolis, particularly regarding brown propolis, and raise concerns about the toxicological implication of Cuban propolis consumption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Zero Assignment in Multivariable System Using Pole Assignment Method

    OpenAIRE

    Smagina, Ye.

    2002-01-01

    In the paper we consider the invariant zero assignment problem in a linear multivariable system with several inputs/outputs by constructing a system output matrix. The problem is reduced to the pole assignment problem by a state feedback (modal control) in a descriptor system or a regular one. It is shown that the zero assignment and pole assignment are mathematically equivalent problems.

  19. 30 CFR 57.12048 - Communication conductors on power poles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Communication conductors on power poles. 57... MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12048 Communication conductors on power poles. Telegraph, telephone, or signal wires shall not be installed on the same crossarm with power conductors. When...

  20. pbx is required for pole and eye regeneration in planarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Chieh G; Wang, Irving E; Reddien, Peter W

    2013-02-01

    Planarian regeneration involves regionalized gene expression that specifies the body plan. After amputation, planarians are capable of regenerating new anterior and posterior poles, as well as tissues polarized along the anterior-posterior, dorsal-ventral and medial-lateral axes. Wnt and several Hox genes are expressed at the posterior pole, whereas Wnt inhibitory genes, Fgf inhibitory genes, and prep, which encodes a TALE-family homeodomain protein, are expressed at the anterior pole. We found that Smed-pbx (pbx for short), which encodes a second planarian TALE-family homeodomain transcription factor, is required for restored expression of these genes at anterior and posterior poles during regeneration. Moreover, pbx(RNAi) animals gradually lose pole gene expression during homeostasis. By contrast, pbx was not required for initial anterior-posterior polarized responses to wounds, indicating that pbx is required after wound responses for development and maintenance of poles during regeneration and homeostatic tissue turnover. Independently of the requirement for pbx in pole regeneration, pbx is required for eye precursor formation and, consequently, eye regeneration and eye replacement in homeostasis. Together, these data indicate that pbx promotes pole formation of body axes and formation of regenerative progenitors for eyes.

  1. Kolm aastat hiljem : ühisrinnet pole / Erkki Bahovski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bahovski, Erkki, 1970-

    2004-01-01

    Autori hinnangul pole kolm aastat tagasi suurriikide juhtide poolt avaldatud soov koostööks rahvusvahelise terrorismi vastu võitlemisel tänaseks teostunud. Samuti pole suudetud kõrvale tõrjuda riikide omavahelisi huvisid ning ajaloolisi tüliküsimusi

  2. Kremli insaider : Putinil pole peaministri kohta vaja / Jaanus Piirsalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Piirsalu, Jaanus, 1973-

    2007-01-01

    Moskvas arvatakse, et kui president Vladimir Putin on otsustanud saada peaministriks, pole enam eriti oluline järgmise riigipea isik. Kõige suuremaks peetakse Viktor Zubkovi shansse riigipea kohale. Politoloog Gleb Pavlovski hinnangul pole peaministriks saamine Putinile praegu üldse ahvatlev. Lisa: Kas Zhirinovski pääseb uude riigiduumasse?

  3. Measurement of acoustic attenuation in South Pole ice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbasi, R.; Abdou, Y.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J.A.; Ahlers, M.; Andeen, K.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Baker, M.; Barwick, S.W.; Bay, R.; Alba, J.L.B.; Beattie, K.; Beatty, J.J.; Bechet, S.; Becker, J.K.; Becker, K.H.; Benabderrahmane, M.L.; Berdermann, J.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bertrand, D.; Besson, D.Z.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Boersma, D.J.; Bohm, C.; Boser, S.; Botner, O.; Bradley, L.; Braun, J.; Buitink, S.; Carson, M.; Chirkin, D.; Christy, B.; Clem, J.; Clevermann, F.; Cohen, S.; Colnard, C.; Cowen, D.F.; D'Agostino, M.V.; Danninger, M.; Clercq, C. De; Demirors, L.; Depaepe, O.; Descamps, F.; Desiati, P.; Vries-Uiterweerd, G. de; DeYoung, T.; Diaz-Velez, J.C.; Dreyer, J.; Dumm, J.P.; Duvoort, M.R.; Ehrlich, R.; Eisch, J.; Ellsworth, R.W.; Engdegard, O.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P.A.; Fadiran, O.; Fazely, A.R.; Feusels, T.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Foerster, M.M.; Fox, B.D.; Franckowiak, A.; Franke, R.; Gaisser, T.K.; Gallagher, J.; Ganugapati, R.; Geisler, M.; Gerhardt, L.; Gladstone, L.; Glusenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Goodman, J.A.; Grant, D.; Griesel, T.; Gross, A.; Grullon, S.; Gunasingha, R.M.; Gurtner, M.; Gustafsson, L.; Ha, C.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Han, K.; Hanson, K.; Helbing, K.; Herquet, P.; Hickford, S.; Hill, G.C.; Hoffman, K.D.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Hubert, D.; Huelsnitz, W.; Lafebre, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    Using the South Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS) and a retrievable transmitter deployed in holes drilled for the IceCube experiment, we have measured the attenuation of acoustic signals by South Pole ice at depths between 190 m and 500 m. Three data sets, using different acoustic sources, have been

  4. Secondary electron emission yield on poled silica based thick films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braga, D.; Poumellec, B.; Cannas, V.;

    2004-01-01

    Studies on the distribution of the electric field produced by a thermal poling process in a layer of Ge-doped silica on silicon substrate, by using secondary electron emission yield (SEEY) measurements () are presented. Comparing 0 between poled and unpoled areas, the SEEY at the origin of electron...

  5. Pole distribution of PVI transcendents close to a critical point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzetti, Davide

    2012-12-01

    The distribution of the poles of Painlevé VI transcendents associated to semi-simple Frobenius manifolds is determined close to a critical point. It is shown that the poles accumulate at the critical point, asymptotically along two rays. As an example, the Frobenius manifold given by the quantum cohomology of CP2 is considered. The general PVI is also considered.

  6. Lower pole calculi larger than one centimeter: Retrograde intrarenal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas J Gross

    2008-01-01

    The technical developments in laser technology as well as significant improvement in flexible renoscopes have made RIRS for larger lower pole stones possible. The low complication rate gives RIRS for lower pole stones superiority over the invasive percutaneous approach, which is associated with significant morbidity, even in experienced hands.

  7. 49 CFR 229.81 - Emergency pole; shoe insulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency pole; shoe insulation. 229.81 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Electrical System § 229.81 Emergency pole; shoe insulation. (a) Each locomotive equipped with a pantograph...

  8. Sinopec Seeks Full Energy Cooperation with Iranian Firms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Sinopec, one of China's big-three oil companies, is now under negotiation with Iranian companies over a landmark multi-billion dollar deal with Iranian firms to import liquefied natural gas (LNG) from the Middle Eastern nation, which would be one of the biggest LNG purchase transactions in the world. The move was revealed by Iranian Vice-President Mohammad Sattarifar in an interview with China's news media in the beginning of April when he visited Beijing to attend the 12th meeting of the China-Iran Commission for Economic, Trade, Scientific and Technological Cooperation.

  9. Depression and Anxiety in Iranian Mothers of Children with Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    How to Cite this Article: Soltanifar A, Ashrafzadeh F, Mohareri F, Mokhber N. Depression and Anxiety in Iranian Mothers ofChildren with Epilepsy. Iranian Journal of Child Neurology 2012;6(1):29-34. ObjectiveEpilepsy is a common neurological disorder in children. Parents with epileptic children have many psychosocial care needs. So the main goal of this study was to evaluate depression and anxiety in Iranian mothers with epileptic children.Materials & MethodsWe identified 30 mothers of chi...

  10. Pole Dancing Auto-ethnography – Practice, Pedagogy, Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Patricia Cadwallader

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this research paper, the author addresses the following four questions: 1 What are the implications of bringing pole dancing into concert dance, not as a caricature or theatrical version of what is performed in strip clubs, but as its own, free-standing art form? 2 In what ways will years of ballet and modern dance training influence the type of dancing that emerges from dancers when poles and other apparatuses are introduced? 3 How can the author create an original pole dancing style and pedagogical methods for teaching it? 4 Who participates in pole fitness classes and how does the demographic change based on location? What about when pole fitness classes are offered in an academic setting? The author shares first-hand experiences of investigating pole dancing in fitness classes, attending performances, engaging in a rehearsal process with highly trained dancers, and teaching pole dancing to movers with a wide range of abilities. The author addresses how research plans changed as she encountered limitations of budget and time constraints. The author also elaborates on the creative process that she engaged in with her thesis cast, collaborators, and supporting designers in the making of Super-beneath, a theatrical dance work that uses five, free-standing poles. She outline the vignettes, overall structure, and narrative of the work. The author then discusses where this research fits into the larger field of pole dancing, and the even larger field of dance. In the final sections of this paper, the author describes her pedagogical practices relating to pole classes, what “practice as research” means to her, and how she would like to continue on this research trajectory in the future.

  11. Iranian-American’s Perceptions of Prejudice and Discrimination: Differences Between Muslim, Jewish, and Non-Religious Iranian-Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shari Paige

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent political events have created a political and social climate in the United States that promotes prejudice against Middle Eastern, Iranian, and Muslim peoples. In this study, we were interested in investigating two major questions: (1 How much ethnic harassment do Iranian-American men and women from various religious backgrounds (Muslim, Jewish, or no religious affiliation at all perceive in their day-to-day interactions? (2 To what extent does the possession of stereotypical Middle Eastern, Iranian, or Muslim traits (an accent, dark skin, wearing of religious symbols, traditional garb, etc. spark prejudice and thus the perception of ethnic harassment? Subjects were recruited from two very different sources: (1 shoppers at grocery stores in Iranian-American neighborhoods in Los Angeles, and (2 a survey posted on an online survey site. A total of 338 Iranian-Americans, ages 18 and older, completed an in-person or online questionnaire that included the following: a request for demographic information, an assessment of religious preferences, a survey of how “typically” Iranian-American Muslim or Iranian-American Jewish the respondents’ traits were, and the Ethnic Harassment Experiences Scale. One surprise was that, in general, our participants reported experiencing a great deal of ethnic harassment. As predicted, Iranian-American Muslim men perceived the most discrimination—far more discrimination than did American Muslim women. Overall, there were no significant differences between the various religious groups. All felt discriminated against. Iranian-American men and women, whose appearance was stereotypically Middle Eastern (i.e., they wore Middle Eastern clothing, who had sub-ethnic identification, and who had lower family income, generally reported experiencing the most prejudice.

  12. Changes in performance and poling kinetics during cross-country sprint skiing competition using the double-poling technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkola, Jussi; Laaksonen, Marko S; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Nummela, Ari; Linnamo, Vesa

    2013-11-01

    In this study, changes in skiing performance and poling kinetics during a simulated cross-country sprint skiing competition were investigated. Twelve elite male cross-country skiers performed simulated sprint competition (4 x 1,150 m heat with 20 min recovery between the heats) using the double-poling technique. Vertical and horizontal pole forces and cycle characteristics were measured using a force plate system (20-m long) during the starting spurt, racing speed, and finishing spurt of each heat. Moreover, heat and 20-m phase velocities were determined. Vertical and horizontal pole impulses as well as mean cycle length were calculated. The velocities of heats decreased by 2.7 +/- 1.7% (p = 0.003) over the simulated competition. The 20-m spurting velocity decreased by 16 +/- 5% (p < 0.002) and poling time increased by 18 +/- 9% (p < 0.003) in spurt phases within heats. Vertical and horizontal poling impulses did not change significantly during the simulation; however, the mean forces decreased (p < 0.039) (vertical by 24 +/- 11% and horizontal by 20 +/- 10%) within heats but not between the heats. Decreased heat velocities over the simulated sprint and spurting velocities within heats indicated fatigue among the skiers. Fatigue was also manifested by decreased pole force production and increased poling time.

  13. Iranian nurses' constraint for research utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Neda

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper identifies the views of Iranian clinical nurses regarding the utilization of nursing research in practice. There is a need to understand what restricts Iranian clinical nurses to use research findings. The aim of this study was to identify practicing nurses' view of aspects which they perceived constrain them from research utilization that summarizes and uses research findings to address a nursing practice problem. Methods Data were collected during 6 months by means of face-to face interviews follow by one focus group. Analysis was undertaken using a qualitative content analysis. Results Findings disclosed some key themes perceived by nurses to restrict them to use research findings: level of support require to be research active, to be research minded, the extent of nurses knowledge and skills about research and research utilization, level of educational preparation relating to using research, administration and executive challenges in clinical setting, and theory-practice gap. Conclusion This study identifies constraints that require to be overcome for clinical nurses to actively get involved in research utilization. In this study nurses were generally interested to use research findings. However they felt restricted because of lack of time, lack of peer and manager support and limited knowledge and skills of the research process. This study also confirms that research utilization and the change to research nursing practice are complex issues which require both organizational and educational efforts.

  14. Phenotypic and genotypic variation in Iranian Pistachios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Tayefeh Aliakbarkhani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As Iran is one of the richest pistachio germplasms a few studies have been conducted on different sexes of pistachio trees, in areas where this crop emerged. To this end, 40 male and female Iranian pistachio genotypes from Feizabad region, Khorasan, Iran; were evaluated using morphological characters and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers. For morphological assessments, 54 variables were considered to investigate similarities between and among the studied genotypes. Morphological data indicated relative superiority in some female genotypes (such as Sefid 1, Sefid Sabuni 2, Garmesiah, and Ghermezdorosht Z regarding characters such as halfcrackedness, the percentages of protein and fat content. 115 polymorphic bands were recorded with 92.83% average polymorphism among all primers. The total resolving power (Rp of the primers was 74.54. The range of genetic similarity varied from about 0.31 to about 0.70. Genotypes were segregated into eight groups at the similarity limit of 0.41. Results of present investigation could be helpful for strategic decisions for maintaining Iranian pistachio genotypes.

  15. Online Journals Influence amongst Iranian Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Amin Mahdavi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ranking is one of the key measures for evaluating universities. Progress of research at universities is often measured by the rate of its publications. It is also common knowledge in the field of research that journal publications owe their success to their impact factor. However, one of the contributing factors that affect a journal's impact factor is the accessibility and availability of its content. The law of statistics suggests that publishing an electronic version of the journal content through online publications is likely to boost the visibility of a journal; hence, improving the impact factor. The ability to publish electronically is often received favorably by the research community. Despite advances in electronic journal publishing, only recently, online journals have made their way into Iranian university journal publishing. This paper evaluates and reports on the extent of online journal publications among Iranian universities. For the purposes of this study, 653 journals published by 183 universities were studied. The results reveal that 66.7% of all universities have online copies of their journals. This study is carried out for three categories of universities; the Ministry of Health and medical Education universities, the Ministry of Science, Research, and Technology universities (MSRT, and Islamic Azad University Branches (IAU.

  16. The Iranian space endeavor ambitions and reality

    CERN Document Server

    Tarikhi, Parviz

    2015-01-01

    For those who see the trend of progress and movement of the Iranian space endeavor from the outside, it can be difficult to understand what goes on behind the scenes. However, for one who observes these events firsthand, they take on a very different meaning. In this book, the author brings new and different profiles of Iran’s space endeavor to light. Iran claims to be the ninth leading country in the world capable of manufacturing satellites and launching them, plans to land an astronaut on the Moon within a decade, and says its own president plans to be the first Iranian astronaut to travel into space. The author explains in this book that not all of these claims are quite as they seem.  In addition to technical explanations, the book also includes historical, legal, social and cultural aspects of Iran’s space program as well. It is the author’s goal to create a tangible feeling of Iran’s space endeavor for the readers.

  17. Iranian and Kazakh representatives visit CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    On 1st and 4th March respectively, CERN received visits from Asset Issekeshev, Kazakhstan's Vice-Minister of Industry and Trade, and Reza Mansouri, Deputy Minister for Science, Research and Technology of the Islamic Republic of Iran. Asset Issekeshev and his delegation came to CERN with the aim of learning "the European way of building strong and effective ties between science and the industrial sector". Welcomed by Maximilian Metzger, CERN's Secretary-General, he visited the ATLAS assembly hall and the CLIC installations before signing the visitors' book. After a short visit to Point 5 (CMS), Reza Mansouri met CERN's Director-General, Robert Aymar, before talking to Iranian PhD students working on their theses at CERN. Asset Issekeshev, Kazakhstan's Vice-Minister of Industry and Trade, signs the visitors' book, watched by Maximilian Metzger, CERN's Secretary-General.From left to right: Mojtaba Mohammadi and Majid Hashemi (Iranian PhD students at CERN); Dr Daniel Denegri (CMS), Professor Re...

  18. Evaluation of Aluminum in Iranian Consumed Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Asgari

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Black tea leaf is one of the most important sources of Aluminum in dietary. Therefore this research was conducted to assess the amount of Aluminum in Iranian tea infusion. Methods: To assess Aluminum in Iranian consumed tea, 27 tea samples were analyzed for Al concentration for 10 and 60 min infusion, aluminum concentration was measured with atomic absorption and the results were analyzed by SPSS.13 version. Results: The results showed that minimum and maximum concentration of Al in tea infusion for 10 min infusion was 1.59 and 18.60 mg.L-1 respectively in this regard Baroti and Bamdad tea show the highest and lowest concentration respectively in term of Al, Also Statistical analysis with pair T-test showed that infusion time doesn,t significantly effects on aluminum leaching into infusion (P>0.05. Calculation of percentage "available" Al to the human system showed that 1 L of tea can provide 17.68 % of the daily dietary intake of Al, the percentage "available" for absorption in the intestine is only 8.49 % for overall mean Al concentration. Conclusion: Therefore based on our results, tea consumption in medium values cannot cause toxic effects on human. Although it is necessary to note that tea consumption might be toxic because of effects on people with absorption or secretion problems

  19. Glacier melt on the Third Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, T.

    2015-12-01

    With an average elevation above 4,000 metres, the Third Pole (TP) is a unique region with many high mountains centered on the Tibetan Plateau stretching over 5 million square kilometers. Major environmental changes are taking place on the TP characterized by complex interactions of atmospheric, cryospheric, hydrological, geological and environmental processes. These processes are critical for the well-being of the three billion people inhabiting the plateau and the surrounding regions. Glacier melt is one of the most significant environmental changes observed on the TP. Over the past decade, most of the glaciers on the TP have undergone considerable melt. The Third Pole Environment (TPE) has focused on the causes of the glacier melt by conducting large-scale ground in-situ observation and monitoring, analyzing satellite images and remote sensing data, and applying numerical modeling to environmental research on the TP. The studies of long-term record of water stable isotopes in precipitation and ice core throughout the TP have revealed different features with regions, thus proposing significant influence of atmospheric circulations on spatial precipitation pattern over the TP. Validation of the result by isotope-equipped general circulation models confirms the spatial distribution of different atmospheric circulation dominances on the TP, with northern part dominated by the westerlies, southern part by the summer monsoon, and central part featuring the influences of both circulation systems. Such unique circulation patterns also bear directly on the status of glaciers and lakes over the TP and its surroundings. The studies therefore found the largest glacier melt in the monsoon-dominated southern part, moderate melt in the central part of transition, and the least melt, or even slight advance in the westerlies-dominated northern TP. It is clear that some mountains on the TP are undergoing rapid melt and the consequence of without ice and snow will be very soon. The

  20. Territorial Balancing of Poles of Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA POPESCU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is part of the study "Specific problems of the development of the settlement network in south-eastern Romania. Regions of development 3 (South, 4 (South-West and 8 (Bucharest-Ilfov" elaborated during 2004 – 2006, within the AMTRANS programme funded by the Ministry of Education and Research, coordinated by INCD – URBANPROIECT in partnership with the Institute of Geography of the Romanian Academy and the Qualification in Statistics National Centre. The general objective of the project was sustainable and balanced spatial development of the settlement network and promotion of new relationships between urban and rural. Concretely, the study has produced a model of a polycentric and balanced settlement network according to the European principles. The case study testing and validating this model took place in southern Romania, territory exhibiting acutely the entire range of problems related to the state of the settlement network: profoundly large rural areas, accentuated dynamics of declaring new cities without sufficient evidence, excessive polarization exercised by Bucharest, etc. The paper presents the intervention directions needed to balance in the territory urban poles within the studied area, focusing on the establishment of orientation policies to consolidate the role of each settlement based on the hierarchical level of importance: European, national, regional, and local. The paper also identifies possible functional urban areas: the metropolitan area of Bucharest, areas of potential strategic integration, areas of cooperation between the small and medium-sized cities and the rural regions. Within each of these areas, the paper proposes to establish new relationships between urban and rural based on partnership, involving cooperation and coordination in achieving common goals.The study considers that the poles of development are the key element of proposed model, and their identification, formation, and balanced distribution

  1. Heavy Cratering near Callisto's South Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Images from NASA's Galileo spacecraft provide new insights into this region near Callisto's south pole. This two frame mosaic shows a heavily cratered surface with smooth plains in the areas between craters. North is to the top of the image. The smoothness of the plains appears to increase toward the south pole, approximately 480 kilometers (293 miles) south of the bottom of the image. This smoothness of Callisto's surface was not evident in images taken during the 1979 flyby of NASA's Voyager spacecraft because the resolution was insufficient to show the effect. This smooth surface, and the process(es) that cause it, are among the most intriguing aspects of Callisto. Although not fully understood, the process(es) responsible for this smoothing could include erosion by tiny meteorites and energetic ions. Some craters, such as Keelut, the 47 kilometer (29 mile) crater in the lower right corner, have sharp, well defined rims. Keelut contains an inner ring surrounding a central depression about 17 kilometers (11 miles) in diameter. Keelut, and the more irregularly shaped, degraded Reginleif, the 32 kilometer (19.5 mile) crater in the top center of the image, are very shallow and have flat floors. Crater forms can be seen down to less than 2 kilometers (1.2 miles) in diameter in the image. Each picture element (pixel) in this image is approximately 0.68 kilometers (0.41 miles) across.This image which was taken by the Galileo spacecraft's solid state imaging (CCD) system during its eighth orbit around Jupiter, on May 6th, 1997. The center of the image is located at 71.3 degrees south latitude, 97.6 degrees west longitude, and was taken when the spacecraft was approximately 35,470 kilometers (21,637 miles) from Callisto.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http

  2. Iranian Joint Registry(Iranian National Hip and Knee Arthroplasty Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Aslani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Periodic evaluation and monitoring the health and economic outcome of joint replacement surgery is a common and popular process under the territory of joint registries in many countries. In this article we introduce the methodology used for the foundation of the National Iranian Joint Registry (IJR with a joint collaboration of the Social Security Organization (SSO and academic research departments considering the requirements of the Iran’s Ministry of Health and Education.

  3. Perceived discrimination and acculturation among Iranian refugees in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindert, A. te; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.; Vijver, F.J.R. van de; Kroon, S.; Arends-Tóth, J.

    2008-01-01

    The relations between perceived discrimination, perceived acceptance of immigrants, acculturation orientations, and acculturation outcomes (psychological and sociocultural adjustment) were investigated in a sample of 232 Iranian refugees in the Netherlands. A good fit was found for a path model with

  4. GUIDELESS SPATIAL COORDINATE MEASUREMENT TECHNOLOGY BASED ON CODING POLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Min; QIU Zongming; QU Jiamin; LIU Hongzhao

    2008-01-01

    A new method of guideless spatial coordinate measurement technology based on coding pole and vision measurement is proposed. Unequal spacing of bar code is adopted to pole, so that the code combination of pole image in measuring field is unique. Holographic characteristics of numeric coding pole are adopted to obtain pole pose and pole probe position by any section of bar code on the pole. Spatial coordinates of measuring points can be obtained by coordinate transform. The contradiction between high resolution and large visual field of image sensor is resolved, thereby providing a new concept for surface shape measurement of large objects with high precision. The measurement principles of the system are expounded and mathematic model is established. The measurement equation is evaluated by simulation experiments and the measurement precision is analyzed. Theoretical analysis and simulation experiments prove that this system is characterized by simple structure and wide measurement range. Therefore it can be used in the 3-dimentional coordinate measurement of large objects.

  5. Iranian academia: evolution after revolution and plagiarism as a disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazinoory, Sepehr; Ghazinoori, Soroush; Azadegan-Mehr, Mandana

    2011-06-01

    Recently, a few of scientific journals raise serious questions about scientific ethics and moral judgment of some of the Iranian government's senior executives in their papers. Plagiarism, under any circumstances is not justified, and we do not intend to justify it in this note. However, we find it useful in understanding why otherwise respected, responsible individuals may engage in plagiarism by terse review of the history Iranian academia.

  6. Experiences of pregnancy among Iranian adolescents: A qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Dehghan-Nayeri, Nahid; Tajvidi, Mansooreh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pregnancy rate among Iranian adolescents below 20 years of age is increasing. Pregnancy during adolescence is considered a social issue associated with medical, emotional, and social outcomes for the mother, child, and family. The current research examines the experience of pregnancy among Iranian adolescents. Materials and Methods: The qualitative content analysis method was used. A purposive sample of 14 pregnant adolescents was enrolled in the study. Deep interviews were carrie...

  7. On Shifting Sands: Iranian Strategy in a Changing Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    stronger . These issues are discussed at more length in the following chapters. 20 This page intentionally left blank...Iranian nation is not a nation that would bear bullying . The Iranian nation is a strong nation. The Islamic Republic’s system is a deep-rooted and...and Israel’s cyber effort against Iran’s nuclear program.117 Despite some of Iran’s claims, a U.S. role in the assassinations did not gain as much

  8. Conflict among Iranian hospital nurses: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Negarandeh Reza; Dehghan Nayeri Nahid

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background This study aims to explore the experience of conflict as perceived by Iranian hospital nurses in Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran. Although conflict-control approaches have been extensively researched throughout the world, no research-based data are available on the perception of conflict and effective resolutions among hospital nurses in Iran. Methods A qualitative research approach was used to explore how Iranian hospital nurses perceive and resolve conflicts at work. A ...

  9. Experiences of pregnancy among Iranian adolescents: A qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Dehghan-Nayeri, Nahid; Tajvidi, Mansooreh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pregnancy rate among Iranian adolescents below 20 years of age is increasing. Pregnancy during adolescence is considered a social issue associated with medical, emotional, and social outcomes for the mother, child, and family. The current research examines the experience of pregnancy among Iranian adolescents. Materials and Methods: The qualitative content analysis method was used. A purposive sample of 14 pregnant adolescents was enrolled in the study. Deep interviews were carrie...

  10. Reflection of Learning Theories in Iranian ELT Textbooks

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Hashem Neghad

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate Iranian ELT English textbooks (Senior High school and Pre-University) in the light of three learning theories i.e., behaviourism, cognitivism, and constructivism. Each of these learning theories embedding an array of instructional strategies and techniques acted as evaluation checklist. That is, Iranian ELT English textbooks were evaluated in terms of instructional strategies and techniques cited in the related literature for each learning theory. The ana...

  11. Physician′s acquittal of responsibility in Iranian statutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Abbasi

    2011-01-01

    Iranian legislator didn′t specify a kind of physician′s acquittal which received from the patient knowingly and is based on his/her free will. There are also some medical and legal gaps. Patients are not often informed of all exact and scientific information and results of their treatments. Furthermore, the forms prepared to receive the patient′s consent do not provide what Iranian legislator meant.

  12. Expanding the classroom with educational technology: A case study of a Cuban polytechnic high school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Leftwich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Polytechnic instruction has a common place in the Cuban education system (Gasperini, 2000. In polytechnic institutions, teachers leverage technological tools to prepare students for labor market competences. This case study examined a polytechnic institution in Cuba to consider how teachers defined educational technology. Based on teacher questionnaire responses, site-based teacher interviews, and field observations, technology was primarily viewed as a method for student preparation. In other words, teachers used technology to prepare students for their future careers and the technology they will need to be successful in that career. The study found that teachers highly valued their technical pedagogical training, believed that the growing spaces were an integral part of their technology based instruction, and claimed that the limited resources was their greatest barrier to integrating ICT in the classroom.

  13. Structural Analysis of Cuban Typical Model of Telecommunication Self-Supporting Towers under Seismic Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Martín Rodríguez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Self-supporting lattice towers are slender structures with low damping and high flexibility. They are sensitive to dynamic loads such as wind and earthquake. In the West of Cuba, structures should be analyzed under extreme winds and seismic effects, which raised their frequency during 2010 year. Self-supporting towers do not have the same dynamic behavior as buildings under seismic loads. Their specific structure features are not developed at design seismic codes, for that reason it is necessary to study methods of seismic analysis for self-supporting towers. The methods selected in this research are Modal Analysis Method proposed by Cuban Seismic Code (NC-46:1999 and modal superposition lineal dynamic analysis named Time History. It was selected for the study two self-supporting towers designed in Cuba, Versalles Model (3-legged and Najasa Model (4-legged. Comparative analysis between both methods is realized with extreme values of internal forces at element towers.

  14. Management system for the control of the Educative Project in the Higher Cuban Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel Rodolfo Baquero Hernández

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As part of the training of Cuban university students involved educational project that requires proper control of compliance. At the University of Information Science, is done through a digital model developed by the professor of the group which generates poor control and directly undermines the quality of the process. In this work the solution to the problem as basis of computerization, using OpenUP development methodology, programming language Java Script on the NetBeans platform version 8.0 as Integrated Development Environment, with ExtJS 3.4 framework is detailed, with version 8.0 of the Software Engineering tools Computer Assisted Visual Paradigm for modeling and PostgreSQL 9.3 as a management system database. The system also generates the associated compliance status of the activities that make up the educational project of a group, which facilitates the control and decision making reports.

  15. Effect of H2O2 on the in vitro growth of Mycosphaerella fijiensis Cuban isolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María I. Oloriz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Black leaf streak disease (Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet is the main foliar disease of bananas and plantain. One of the possible mechanisms of resistance is the hypersensitive response observed in ‘Calcutta 4’ (Musa AA that involves the formation of reactive oxygen species. In order to determine the effect of H2O2 on the in vitro growth of M. fijiensis Cuban isolate CCIBP-Pf-83, several concentrations added to a culture medium PDB were tested. After seven days of incubation the mycelial dry weight was determined. It was found that with 30 mmol l-1 H2O2 in the culture medium, mycelial growth was stimulated and with 50 up to 100 mmol l-1 it decreased. The results provide elements for understanding plantpathogen interactions in this pathosystem. Key words: black leaf streak disease, in vitro culture, ROS

  16. Resistance patterns to beta-lactams and quinolones in clinical isolates of bacteria from Cuban hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzáles, I; Niebla, A; Vallin, C

    1995-01-01

    The resistance patterns to 26 beta-lactams and 8 quinolones of clinical isolates from Cuban hospitals were evaluated using the disk susceptibility test, according to the NCCLS guidelines (1992). The genera studied were Escherichia sp (320), Enterobacter sp (10), Klebsiella sp (90), Proteus sp (10), Pseudomonas sp (90), Serratia sp (20), and Staphylococcus sp (80). Higher resistance to beta-lactams was observed in the genera Pseudomonas, Escherichia and Klebsiella. For fluoroquinolones we found no significant resistance, with the exception of the genus Klebsiella. The most effective antibiotics were cephalosporins of the second and third generations, fluoroquinolones, and non-classical beta-lactams (cephamycins, moxalactam and monobactams). On the contrary, a pronounced resistance was found to penicillin, oxacillin, ticarcillin, ampicillin, methicillin, nalidixic acid and cinoxacin. These resistance patterns correspond to the high consumption of these antibiotics throughout the country.

  17. Ecological approach of macrolide-lincosamides-streptogramin producing actinomyces from Cuban soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, I; Niebla, A; Lemus, M; González, L; Iznaga, I O; Pérez, M E; Vallin, C

    1999-09-01

    We report in this study the frequency of Streptomyces strains to produce macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin (MLS) antibiotics isolated from Cuban soils. The screening assay is based on the induction of MLS-resistance phenotype in a clinical isolated strain of Staphylococcus aureus S-18. Our results suggest that of 800 Streptomyces strains isolated from different soil samples, 6% were positives in the screening test used. The ferralitic red soil from Pinar del Río (north) provided the major percentage (3.6%) of MLS producing strains. The other soil samples tested belonging to Guira de Melena and Bauta in Havana, Matanzas City, Topes De Collantes (Villa Clara), and Soroa Mountains (Pinar del Rio) hill reached very low percentages.

  18. A K⁺ channel blocking peptide from the Cuban scorpion Rhopalurus garridoi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ravelo, Rodolfo; Restano-Cassulini, Rita; Zamudio, Fernando Z; Coronas, Fredy I V; Espinosa-López, Georgina; Possani, Lourival D

    2014-03-01

    A proteomic analysis of the venom obtained from the Cuban scorpion Rhopalurus garridoi was performed. Venom was obtained by electrical stimulation, separated by high performance liquid chromatography, and the molecular masses of their 50 protein components were identified by mass spectrometry. A peptide of 3940 Da molecular mass was obtained in pure form and its primary structure determined. It contains 37 amino acid residues, including three disulfide bridges. Electrophysiological experiments showed that this peptide is capable of blocking reversibly K(+)-channels hKv1.1 with a Kd close to 1 μM, but is not effective against hKv1.4, hERG1 and EAG currents, at the same concentration. This is the first protein component ever isolated from this species of scorpion and was assigned the systematic number α-KTx 2.14.

  19. Well child care: a comprehensive strategy for Cuban children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel, Mercedes; Álvarez, Gisela; Izquierdo, María Elena; Martínez, Daisy; Tamayo, Vilma

    2014-01-01

    The notable rise in survival rates of Cuban children has presented new challenges in the search for continued improvement of their welfare and quality of life. These advances can be achieved only to the extent that preventive care and health promotion are also improved. This article describes the design of a strategy for comprehensive care of children and adolescents based on better quality of well child visits, defining visit components, age-specific activities for each visit, and guidelines for followup based on visit findings. Complementary to the strategy, indicators and standards are identified for systematic evaluation of visit quality, enabling collection of objective and specific information about individual visits and assessment of trends over time, which in turn facilitates further improvements in this strategy over the long term.

  20. [Nutritional status of Cuban elders in three different geriatric scenarios: community, geriatrics service, nursery home].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Hernández, Alina; Cuyá Lantigua, Magdalena; González Escudero, Hilda; Sánchez Gutiérrez, Ramón; Cortina Martínez, Rafael; Barreto Penié, Jesús; Santana Porbén, Sergio; Rojas Pérez, Alberto

    2007-09-01

    The undernutrition rates observed in Cuban elders surveyed in three different geriatric scenarios: Community: coastal town of Cojímar (City of Havana); Geriatrics Service ("Hermanos Ameijeiras" Hospital, City of Havana); and Nursery Home (city of Cárdenas, province of Matanzas) by means of the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) of the Elderly are presented. Undernutrition rates were 2.7% among elders surveyed in the coastal community of Cojímar, but increased to become 91.6% among those admitted to the hospital Geriatrics Service, and 95.3% for those institutionalized in the Nursery Home, respectively. The occurrence of undernutrition can be low among elders living freely in the community, but it might affect a vast number of those seeking medical assistance at the public health institutions. Extent of undernutrition among elders in geriatric assistance scenarios should lead to the adoption of the required measures for early identification, and timely treatment, of this health problem.

  1. Improving the family orientation process in Cuban Special Schools trough Nearest Prototype classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caballero-Mota, Y.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cuban Schools for children with Affective – Behavioral Maladies (SABM have as goal to accomplish a major change in children behavior, to insert them effectively into society. One of the key elements in this objective is to give an adequate orientation to the children’s families; due to the family is one of the most important educational contexts in which the children will develop their personality. The family orientation process in SABM involves clustering and classification of mixed type data with non-symmetric similarity functions. To improve this process, this paper includes some novel characteristics in clustering and prototype selection. The proposed approach uses a hierarchical clustering based on compact sets, making it suitable for dealing with non-symmetric similarity functions, as well as with mixed and incomplete data. The proposal obtains very good results on the SABM data, and over repository databases.

  2. Industrial property for science’s management, technology and innovation in Cuban State companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulce María Contreras Villavicencio

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper synthesizes some research on industrial property aspects from the socio-legal perspective and financial accounting. Its focus to the socialist state enterprise adaptation in his economic fact, social and environmental responsibility as a fundamental Cuban model reach, competitiveness and high performance in socialist state enterprise. It outlines criteria on the ordering and implementation of industrial property through the management of science and technology, protection and dissemination of knowledge results as alternatives of regulation in chain of value to full cycle of innovation, dynamics of intangible heritage and relationships, exchange with marketing as business philosophy of business application. Strategies are proposed regarding the rights of this institution in the economic-organization management state.

  3. Prevalence and genotype distribution of Pneumocystis jirovecii in Cuban infants and toddlers with whooping cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroy-Vaca, Ernesto X; de Armas, Yaxsier; Illnait-Zaragozí, María T; Toraño, Gilda; Diaz, Raúl; Vega, Dania; Alvarez-Lam, Ileana; Calderón, Enrique J; Stensvold, Christen R

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the prevalence and genotype distribution of Pneumocystis jirovecii obtained from nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs from immunocompetent Cuban infants and toddlers with whooping cough (WC). A total of 163 NP swabs from 163 young Cuban children with WC who were admitted to the respiratory care units at two pediatric centers were studied. The prevalence of the organism was determined by a quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay targeting the P. jirovecii mitochondrial large subunit (mtLSU) rRNA gene. Genotypes were identified by direct sequencing of mtLSU ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) gene amplicons. qPCR detected P. jirovecii DNA in 48/163 (29.4%) samples. mtLSU rDNA sequence analysis revealed the presence of three different genotypes in the population. Genotype 2 was most common (48%), followed in prevalence by genotypes 1 (23%) and 3 (19%); mixed-genotype infections were seen in 10% of the cases. RFLP analysis of DHPS PCR products revealed four genotypes, 18% of which were associated with resistance to sulfa drugs. Only contact with coughers (prevalence ratio [PR], 3.51 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.79 to 6.87]; P = 0.000) and exposure to tobacco smoke (PR, 1.82 [95% CI, 1.14 to 2.92]; P = 0.009) were statistically associated with being colonized by P. jirovecii. The prevalence of P. jirovecii in infants and toddlers with WC and the genotyping results provide evidence that this population represents a potential reservoir and transmission source of P. jirovecii.

  4. Helicobacter pylori cagA and vacA genotypes in Cuban and Venezuelan populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Ortiz-Princz

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the presence of Helicobacter pylori cytotoxin-associated gene (cagA/vacuolating cytotoxin gene (vacA among patients with chronic gastritis in Cuba and Venezuela. Gastric antrum biopsies were taken for culture, DNA extraction and PCR analysis. Amplification of vacA and cagA segments was performed using two regions of cagA: 349 bp were amplified with the F1/B1 primers and the remaining 335 bp were amplified with the B7629/B7628 primers. The VA1-F/VA1-R set of primers was used to amplify the 259-bp (s1 or 286-bp (s2 product and the VAG-R/VAG-F set of primers was used to amplify the 567-bp (m1 or 642-bp (m2 regions of vacA. cagA was detected in 87% of the antral samples from Cuban patients and 80.3% of those from Venezuelan patients. All possible combinations of vacA regions were found, with the exception of s2/m1. The predominant combination found in both countries was s1/m1. The percentage of cagA+ strains was increased by the use of a second set of primers and a greater number of strains was amplified with the B7629/B7628 primers in the Cuban patients (p = 0.0001. There was no significant difference between the presence of the allelic variants of vacA and cagA in both populations. The predominant genotype was cagA+/s1m1 in both countries. The results support the necessary investigation of isolates circulating among the human population in each region.

  5. Cuban Ocular Toxoplasmosis Epidemiology Study (COTES): incidence and prevalence of ocular toxoplasmosis in Central Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustillo, Jorge L; Diaz, Jose D; Pacheco, Idarmes C; Gritz, David C

    2015-03-01

    Serological studies indicate that rates of ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) vary geographically, with higher rates in tropical regions. Little is known about population-based rates of active OT. We aimed to describe the epidemiology of OT in Central Cuba. This large-population, cross-sectional cohort study used a prospective database at a large regional referral centre in Central Cuba. The patient database was searched for all patients who presented with OT during the 12-month study period from 1 April 2011 to 31 March 2012. Inclusion criteria were the clinical diagnosis of OT, characterised by focal retinochoroidal inflammation and a response to therapy as expected. Gender-stratified and age-stratified study population data from the 2012 Cuban Census were used to calculate incidence rates and prevalence ratios. Among 279 identified patients with OT, 158 presented with active OT. Of these, 122 new-onset and 36 prior-onset cases were confirmed. Based on the total population in the Sancti Spiritus province (466,106 persons), the overall incidence of active OT was 26.2 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI 21.7 to 31.3) with an annual prevalence ratio of 33.9 per 100,000 persons (95% CI 28.8 to 39.6). The incidence of active OT was lowest in the oldest age group and highest in patients aged 25-44 years (4.5 and 42.1 per 100,000 person-years, respectively). This first report describing population-based rates of OT in the Cuban population highlights the importance of patient age as a likely risk factor for OT. Disease rates were found to be highest in females and young to middle-aged adults. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. CUBAN AMERICANS HAVE THE HIGHEST RATES OF PERIPHERAL ARTERIAL DISEASE IN DIVERSE HISPANIC/LATINO COMMUNITIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Matthew A.; Gonzalez, Franklyn; Raij, Leopoldo; Kaplan, Robert; Ostfeld, Robert J.; Pattany, Maria S.; Heiss, Gerardo; Criqui, Michael H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Since Hispanic ethnicity in the United States is heterogeneous, the purpose of this study was to determine the epidemiology of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) within US Hispanic/Latino groups defined by national background. Methods 9,648 men and women over the age of 45 years enrolled in the Hispanic Community Health Study – Study of Latinos (HCHS-SOL) included in this analysis. The ankle brachial index (ABI) was computed as the higher of the posterior tibial and dorsalis pedis systolic blood pressures (SBP) for each leg divided by the higher brachial artery SBP. The index ABI was the higher of the two. An ABI ≤ 0.90 was criterion for the presence of PAD. Results The mean age was 56 years and 55% were female. Overall, the prevalence of an ABI ≤ 0.90 (PAD), 0.90 to 0.99 (borderline), 1.0 to 1.39 (normal) and ≥ 1.40 (high) was 5.7, 19.3, 72.5 and 2.6%, respectively. After multivariable adjustment for PAD risk factors, and compared to Mexicans, Cubans had nearly a 3-fold higher odds for PAD (OR: 2.9, 95% CI: 1.9 – 4.4). The odds of PAD for the other Hispanic/Latino groups ranged from 1.2 to 1.8. Although males had over a 3-fold higher odds of an ABI ≥ 1.40 (3.6, 2.0 – 6.5), the odds did not differ significantly by Hispanic/Latino background. Conclusions Compared to Mexican Americans, all other Hispanic/Latino background groups have a significantly higher odds of having PAD, with the odds being nearly 3-fold higher among Cubans. PMID:26141696

  7. Molecular epidemiology of human papillomavirus infections in cervical samples from cuban women older than 30 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Yudira; Torres, Griselda; Kourí, Vivian; Limia, Celia María; Goicolea, Adibel; Capó, Virginia; Pérez, Lissette; de la Torre, Ana Isabel; López, Ledy Xiomara; Govín, Anamays; Correa, Consuelo Beatriz; Alemán, Yoan; Alvarez, Alina Ana; Manzano, Blanca Rosa

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to provide information about the molecular epidemiology of human papillomavirus (HPV) in a group of Cuban women. DNA from cervical samples was analyzed using a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which detects 6 of the clinically most relevant high-risk HPV types. Furthermore, end point PCR and sequencing were performed. Three hundred twenty-two women (211 with positive and 111 with negative cytologic results) aged between 30 and 69 years were enrolled. Risk factors associated with HPV infections and premalignant lesions were also investigated. HPV DNA was detected in 76.1% (245/322) of the studied population, and 34 different genotypes were found. There was an association between HPV infection and low educational level, history of oral contraceptives, menopausal stage, as well as cigarette and/or alcohol consumption. Besides, in a multivariate analysis, previous positive Pap test result and positive colposcopy finding were both predictor variables for HPV infections and for premalignant lesions. Human papillomavirus infection was found in 94.3% of women (199/211) with positive cytologic result and in 41.4% (46/111) of those with negative results, being more likely that the first group was infected with any HPV (odds ratio = 23.43; 95% CI = 11.70-46.92; p = .000). The most common genotypes were HPV types 16, 18, 31, 58, 33, and 45. All the cases with HPV positive findings had at least 1 high-risk HPV genotype. This is the first report of the molecular epidemiology of HPV in Cuban women, based on results from a DNA sequence and quantitative PCR. Most individuals were infected with high-risk HPV types. These findings support the inclusion of HPV vaccine in Cuba.

  8. Impact of periodic selective mebendazole treatment on soil-transmitted helminth infections in Cuban schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Werff, Suzanne D; Vereecken, Kim; van der Laan, Kim; Campos Ponce, Maiza; Junco Díaz, Raquel; Núñez, Fidel A; Rojas Rivero, Lázara; Bonet Gorbea, Mariano; Polman, Katja

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the impact of periodic selective treatment with 500 mg mebendazole on soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in Cuban schoolchildren. We followed up a cohort of 268 STH-positive schoolchildren, aged 5-14 years at baseline, at six-month intervals for two years and a final follow-up after three years. Kato-Katz stool examination was used to detect infections with Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm. Common risk factors related to STHs were assessed by parental questionnaire. A significant reduction in the number of STH infections was obtained after three years with the highest reduction for T. trichiura (87.8%) and the lowest for hookworm (57.9%). After six months, cure rates (CRs) were 76.9% for A. lumbricoides, 67.4% for T. trichiura and 44.4% for hookworm. After two treatment rounds, more than 75% of all STH-positive children at baseline were cured, but with important differences between STH species (95.2% for A. lumbricoides, 80.5% for T. trichiura and 76.5% for hookworm). At the end of the study, these cumulative CRs were almost 100% for all three STHs. Risk factors for STHs were sex, sanitary disposal and habit of playing in the soil. Our results indicate that periodic selective treatment with 500 mg mebendazole is effective in reducing the number of STH infections in Cuban schoolchildren. Although important differences were found between helminth species, two rounds of treatment appeared sufficient to obtain substantial reductions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Analysis of policy implications and challenges of the Cuban health assistance program related to human resources for health in the Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Cuba has extended its medical cooperation to Pacific Island Countries (PICs) by supplying doctors to boost service delivery and offering scholarships for Pacific Islanders to study medicine in Cuba. Given the small populations of PICs, the Cuban engagement could prove particularly significant for health systems development in the region. This paper reviews the magnitude and form of Cuban medical cooperation in the Pacific and analyses its implications for health policy, hu...

  10. Anesthesia and pain management in traditional Iranian medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Alireza; Alembizar, Faranak; Hosseinkhani, Ayda

    2016-12-01

    Studying the history of science could help develop an understanding of the contributions made by ancient nations towards scientific advances. Although Iranians had an important impact on the improvement of science, the history of Iranian medicine seems not to have been given enough attention by historians. The present study focused on the history of anesthesia and pain management in Iranian medical history. In this regard, related books such as Avesta and Shahnameh were studied in order to obtain the history of anesthesiology in Iranian pre Islamic era. This subject was also studied in the famous books of Rhazes, Haly Abbas, Avicenna, Jorjani, MomenTunekaboni and Aghili from different times of the Islamic era. Scientific data bases such as PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar were searched using key words "Iranian", "Persian", "pain management" and "anesthesia". It was discovered that pain management and anesthesiology were well known to the Iranians. Rhazes and Avicenna had innovations in this regard. Fourteen Mokhader (anesthetic) herbs, which were included in the collection of the previous knowledge of the 18th century entitled Makhzan al-Advieyh and used as the Persian Materia Medica, were identified and listed. This study introduces the history of anesthesiology and pain management at different periods in the history of Iran.

  11. Comparison of the Level of Cadmium and Lead between the Cigarette Filters of Different Iranian and non-Iranian Brands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Pashapour

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette butts have been shown to release numerous kinds of chemicals such as heavy metals in water and may be a continual source of aquatic environments contamination after discarding. The objective of the present study was to determine the concentration of Cd and Pb in cigarette filters of different Iranian and non-Iranian brands in smoked and non-smoked samples. Methods: Ten different brands of cigarettes were collected from Tehran, Iran local markets in 2014. Standardized international protocols were followed for preparation of the materials and analysis of heavy metals (Pb and Cd contents. The data were statistically analyzed using SPSS 18 software by ANOVA and Student T tests. Results: The average concentration of Cd in Iranian cigarette filters was 0.42±0.03mg/kg and in non-Iranian cigarette filters was 0.31±0.05mg/kg (p=0.4. The average concentration of Pb in Iranian cigarette filters was 22.32±1.15mg/kg and in non-Iranian cigarette filters was 23.62±3.17mg/kg (p=0.072. The Cadmium concentration in cigarette filters ranged from 0.18 to 0.48μg/g before and 0.25 to 0.88μg/g after smoking. The Lead concentration in cigarette filters ranged from 16.63 to 33.52μg/g before and 20.14 to 53.55μg/g after smoking. Conclusion: Smoked cigarette filters have more concentrations of Cd and Pb than non-smoked cigarette filters and these concentrations are also different between Iranian and non-Iranian cigarette brands.

  12. Antimicrobial activity of some Iranian medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasemi Pirbalouti Abdollah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The major aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial activity of the extracts of eight plant species which are endemic in Iran. The antimicrobial activities of the extracts of eight Iranian traditional plants, including Hypericum scabrum, Myrtus communis, Pistachia atlantica, Arnebia euchroma, Salvia hydrangea, Satureja bachtiarica, Thymus daenensis and Kelussia odoratissima, were investigated against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes and Candida albicans by agar disc diffusion and serial dilution assays. Most of the extracts showed a relatively high antimicrobial activity against all the tested bacteria and fungi. Of the plants studied, the most active extracts were those obtained from the essential oils of M. communis and T. daenensis. The MIC values for active extract and essential oil ranged between 0.039 and 10 mg/ml. It can be said that the extract and essential oil of some medicinal plants could be used as natural antimicrobial agents in food preservation. .

  13. Common Preposition Errors Committed by Iranian Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Yousefi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined some common problems involving prepositions in learning a second language. Many students learning English as a foreign language commonly commit mistakes in prepositions. The aim of this paper is to survey the causes of errors in the use of prepositions that are frequently made by Iranian students. A diagnostic test (35 Multiple choice item was constructed to test the students proficiency in using these prepositions. The prepositions selected for this purpose were; to, in, at, on, with, of, from, for, about, during, into under, over and by. This test was given to a group of 35 intermediate students. The results indicated that the errors committed by the students were due to both Inter-lingual and Intra-lingual interferences. It is hoped that this research will help teachers of English Language to be aware of these problems and re-evaluate their teaching approach.

  14. Predicting Students’ Academic Performance in Iranian Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Namjoo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Data mining is the process of extracting valuable and novel knowledge from large data. It is analysis of data sets for finding patterns, relationships and help to summarize the knowledge for various goals. This investigation is motivated to study the students’ academic performance in high schools during 4 years which are collected from the department of education, Shiraz, Iran. Since one of the main challenges in Iranian schools is, prediction of students’ academic performance and their success in university entrance exam, therefore, we applied different classification and prediction algorithms on students’ data for discovering the possibility of predicting students’ scores before examination. Our results show that, it is possible to predict students’ gender, marks with applying classification and prediction algorithms and verifying some factors which are mentioned in this paper

  15. Iranian university English learners’ discursive demotivation construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Rashidi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Investigating how foreign language learners’ discourse mediates their demotivation construction is a relatively new area of inquiry. This paper examined the discursive construction of four (two males and two females Iranian English as a Foreign Language (EFL learners’ demotivation at Shiraz University, Iran. Employing Fairclough’s (2003 critical discourse analysis framework, the present study revealed that demotivation is not uni-dimensional and static; rather, it is complex, multi-dimensional, and dynamic, which is discursively constructed in the constant interaction between the individual and the social context. Findings also indicated that the discursive construction of demotivation involved simultaneous interaction of multiple levels of learners’ interpersonal relationships, their future self-guides, and factors in local and broader social, cultural and political milieus.

  16. A description of parasites from Iranian snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Vahid; Mobedi, Iraj; Dalimi, Abdolhossein; Mirakabadi, Abbas Zare; Ghaffarifar, Fatemeh; Teymurzadeh, Shohreh; Karimi, Gholamreza; Abdoli, Amir; Paykari, Habibollah

    2014-12-01

    Little is known of the parasitic fauna of terrestrial snakes in Iran. This study aimed to evaluate the parasitic infection rates of snakes in Iran. A total of 87 snakes belonging to eight different species, that were collected between May 2012 and September 2012 and died after the hold in captivity, under which they were kept for taking poisons, were examined for the presence of gastrointestinal and blood parasites. According to our study 12 different genera of endoparasites in 64 (73.56%) of 87 examined snakes were determined. Forty one snakes (47.12%) had gastrointestinal parasites. In prepared blood smears, it was found that in 23 (26.43%) of 87 examined snakes there are at least one hemoparasite. To our knowledge, these are the first data on the internal parasitic fauna of Iranian terrestrial snakes and our findings show a higher prevalence of these organisms among them.

  17. Consanguineous Iranian kindreds with severe Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motlagh, Maria G; Seddigh, Arshia; Dashti, Behnoosh; Leckman, James F; Alaghband-Rad, Javad

    2008-10-30

    The search for vulnerability genes for Tourette syndrome has been ongoing for nearly three decades. The contribution of recessive loci with reduced penetrance is one possibility that has been difficult to explore. Homozygosity mapping has been successfully used to detect recessive loci within populations with high rates of consanguinity. Using this technique, even quite small inbred families can be informative due to autozygosity in which the two alleles at an autosomal locus are identical by descent (i.e., copies of a single ancestral gene). To explore the utility of this approach, we identified 12 consanguineous Iranian families. Remarkably, these families were seen with an unusual natural history characterized by the early onset of vocal tics and coprolalia and frequent comorbidity with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Genotyping the affected and unaffected members of these pedigrees has the potential to identify rare recessive contributions to this disorder.

  18. Apology Strategies of Iranian ESL Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haleh Parsa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main focus of this study, which is of the most important and most frequent speech acts used in multicultural settings, is the speech act of apology. It probes native Persian-speaking ESL university students’ apology and non-apology strategies based on Cohen and Olshtain’s (1981 frame work to evince variations ascribed to gender, mother tongue, and culture. The results of this survey reveal that Iranian male and female respondents use different percentages of apology and non-apology strategies. Considering significance levels, in general, except for a few strategies, there is no statistically significant difference between the groups considering the number and type of strategies used.

  19. Body dysmorphic disorder in Iranian orthodontic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soghra Yassaei

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Patient's preoccupations with perceived defect in appearance or excessive concern about minimal flaws are among diagnostic criteria of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD. Sufferers usually seek cosmetic procedures such as orthodontic treatment. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of BDD among a sample of Iranian orthodontic patients. A total of 270 orthodontic patients were evaluated with BDD-YBOCS questionnaire for the diagnosis of BDD. Fifteen patients (5.5% were screened positive for BDD. BDD was more frequent among females, singles and in younger patients. Most of the BDD patients experienced multiple previous orthodontic evaluations. The relative high prevalence of BDD among orthodontic patients in Iran offers that orthodontists should take psychologically based problems such as BDD into account while evaluating patient's orthodontic problems.

  20. Iranian EFL Learner’s Communication Strategies:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefe Sobhani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Email has become a widespread medium of communication between students and their instructors, however; there is a limited amount of research on instructional role and uses of email in academic context. The present study investigated the communication strategies in email messages sent by Iranian EFL students to their male instructors in relation to their socioeconomic status (such as family income and education level. Moreover, the relationships between communication strategies and gender were examined. Email message sent by male and female students to their male instructors during the academic year 2012-2013 were analyzed for communication strategies (requesting, negotiating, reporting, social. The results of quantitative and qualitative statistics revealed that there were significant relationships between communication strategies and participants’ socioeconomic status. In addition, there were significant relationships between communication strategies and gender.

  1. Genetic analysis of two STR loci (VWA and TPOX in the Iranian province of Khuzestan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammad Foroughmand

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: The examined STR loci in this study have proven a relatively high genetic variation in the Iranian population. The data could be used for construction of a forensic genetic database for the Iranian population.

  2. Pole-to-pole biogeography of surface and deep marine bacterial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiglione, Jean-François; Galand, Pierre E; Pommier, Thomas; Pedrós-Alió, Carlos; Maas, Elizabeth W; Bakker, Kevin; Bertilson, Stefan; Kirchmanj, David L; Lovejoy, Connie; Yager, Patricia L; Murray, Alison E

    2012-10-23

    The Antarctic and Arctic regions offer a unique opportunity to test factors shaping biogeography of marine microbial communities because these regions are geographically far apart, yet share similar selection pressures. Here, we report a comprehensive comparison of bacterioplankton diversity between polar oceans, using standardized methods for pyrosequencing the V6 region of the small subunit ribosomal (SSU) rRNA gene. Bacterial communities from lower latitude oceans were included, providing a global perspective. A clear difference between Southern and Arctic Ocean surface communities was evident, with 78% of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) unique to the Southern Ocean and 70% unique to the Arctic Ocean. Although polar ocean bacterial communities were more similar to each other than to lower latitude pelagic communities, analyses of depths, seasons, and coastal vs. open waters, the Southern and Arctic Ocean bacterioplankton communities consistently clustered separately from each other. Coastal surface Southern and Arctic Ocean communities were more dissimilar from their respective open ocean communities. In contrast, deep ocean communities differed less between poles and lower latitude deep waters and displayed different diversity patterns compared with the surface. In addition, estimated diversity (Chao1) for surface and deep communities did not correlate significantly with latitude or temperature. Our results suggest differences in environmental conditions at the poles and different selection mechanisms controlling surface and deep ocean community structure and diversity. Surface bacterioplankton may be subjected to more short-term, variable conditions, whereas deep communities appear to be structured by longer water-mass residence time and connectivity through ocean circulation.

  3. Pacific Albacore Troll and Pole-and-line Fisheries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The North Pacific and South Pacific Albacore Troll and Pole-and-line Fisheries project contains landings, logbooks, and size composition data from U.S.A. troll and...

  4. A Totem Pole Represents Native Culture at Seattle Pacific University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollefson, Kenneth

    1980-01-01

    The article describes a totem pole carved by a Tlingit artist using traditional symbols to illustrate the history and mission of Seattle Pacific University. The article also reports the 1979 dedication ceremony. (SB)

  5. POLE mutations in families predisposed to cutaneous melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aoude, Lauren G; Heitzer, Ellen; Johansson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Germline mutations in the exonuclease domain of POLE have been shown to predispose to colorectal cancers and adenomas. POLE is an enzyme involved in DNA repair and chromosomal DNA replication. In order to assess whether such mutations might also predispose to cutaneous melanoma, we interrogated...... whole-genome and exome data from probands of 34 melanoma families lacking pathogenic mutations in known high penetrance melanoma susceptibility genes: CDKN2A, CDK4, BAP1, TERT, POT1, ACD and TERF2IP. We found a novel germline mutation, POLE p.(Trp347Cys), in a 7-case cutaneous melanoma family....... Functional assays in S. pombe showed that this mutation led to an increased DNA mutation rate comparable to that seen with a Pol ε mutant with no exonuclease activity. We then performed targeted sequencing of POLE in 1243 cutaneous melanoma cases and found that a further ten probands had novel or rare...

  6. The Achievements of the GLAMOROUS Project on Poling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margulis, Walter; Myrén, N.; Fage-Pedersen, Jacob;

    2005-01-01

    The GLAMOROUS project had as objective to demonstrate the feasibility of fibre and waveguide components with a second order nonlinearity induced by poling. The accomplishments of this nine-partners European Research Project are described....

  7. China Becomes Growth Pole of Global Milk Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ It was recently learnt from China Association of Milk Industry, the developing trend of the global milk industry indicates that,China has become the growth pole of the future development of the global milk industry.

  8. Asymmetric spindle pole formation in CPAP-depleted mitotic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Miseon; Chang, Jaerak; Chang, Sunghoe; Lee, Kyung S; Rhee, Kunsoo

    2014-02-21

    CPAP is an essential component for centriole formation. Here, we report that CPAP is also critical for symmetric spindle pole formation during mitosis. We observed that pericentriolar material between the mitotic spindle poles were asymmetrically distributed in CPAP-depleted cells even with intact numbers of centrioles. The length of procentrioles was slightly reduced by CPAP depletion, but the length of mother centrioles was not affected. Surprisingly, the young mother centrioles of the CPAP-depleted cells are not fully matured, as evidenced by the absence of distal and subdistal appendage proteins. We propose that the selective absence of centriolar appendages at the young mother centrioles may be responsible for asymmetric spindle pole formation in CPAP-depleted cells. Our results suggest that the neural stem cells with CPAP mutations might form asymmetric spindle poles, which results in premature initiation of differentiation.

  9. Forbush Effects on the Martian Surface and Earth's Poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, A.; Guo, J.; Heber, B.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Zeitlin, C.; Zheng, Y.; MacNeice, P. J.; Odstrcil, D.; Rastaetter, L.; Steigies, C. T.; Andrews, J. P.; Appel, J. K.; Beaujean, R.; Berger, L.; Boettcher, S. I.; Brinza, D. E.; Bullock, M.; Burmeister, S.; Cucinotta, F.; Dresing, N.; Drews, C.; Ehresmann, B.; Epperly, M. E.; Hassler, D.; Herbst, K.; Kim, M. H. Y.; Kohler, J.; Kühl, P.; Lohf, H.; Martin-Garcia, C.; Müller-Mellin, R.; Neal, K.; Rafkin, S. C.; Reitz, G.; Smith, K. D.; Tyler, Y.; weigle, G., II

    2015-12-01

    We analyzed MSL/RAD observation of Forbush effects on the surface of Mars over a full Mars year from landing through the Mars opposition period in 2014. For the extended Mars opposition phase we compared the observed Forbush effects with those identified at Earth's south pole utilizing observations of the South Pole neutron monitor. Identification of the drivers of Forbush effects, recurrent and transient solar wind structures in the inner heliosphere, is aided by WSA-ENLIL simulations. We show that a remarkable correlations of count rates of (secondary) cosmic rays at Mars' surface and at the Earth's south pole is established for a minimum duration of 6 months around the Mars opposition, in particular when time shifted with propagation and/or corotation delays of the drivers of cosmic ray decreases in the solar wind. Moreover, the magnitude of Forbush effects on Mars is larger statistically than the equivalent near Earth's poles.

  10. TOUGHENING OF FERROELECTRICS BY THE OUT-OF-PLANE POLING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨卫; 方菲

    2003-01-01

    Subjected to the prior out-of-plane poling, the ferroelectrics can be toughened considerably. The present paper describes the variation of the stress intensity factor (SIF) by 90° switching in ferroelectrics. The analysis is carried out for the combined mechanical and electrical loading, with simple relations obtained for the case of the purely electrical loading. The out-of-plane poling is found to raise the SIF for the crack initiation, but appreciably reduces the SIF for the crack growth in a steady state. More stable fracture resistance curves can be achieved by the out-of-plane poling. This prediction is supported quantitatively by the testing data of SENB specimens of PZT-5 samples, when the toughening effects of polings in three orthogonal directions are compared.

  11. Central Asia in the Iranian geopolitical imagination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Wastnidge

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article charts Iran’s relations with Central Asia following the break-up of the Soviet Union in 1991. This event gave Iran a new set of neighbours to the north, and this came at a time when Iran was undergoing changes in the direction of its foreign policy from radical idealistic goals, such as the export of the Islamic Revolution, to more pragmatic aims, including giving priority to its own national interests and pursuing good neighbourly relations. Since 1991, Iran has attempted to develop relations towards the Central Asian states, both bilaterally and through various regional fora. Iran’s actions have been based, in part, on a greater commitment to regionalism that has been evident in Iranian foreign policy since the early 1990s. This has focused on cultivating economic, infrastructural and cultural links with the region, rather than any form of ideological crusade, and has helped reduce Iran’s international isolation. Following a historical contextualisation and explanation of the place that the lands of Central Asia hold in the Iranian geopolitical imagination, the article explores the key concerns of Iran in the region. It will examine Iran’s position on what it perceives as being the key issues shaping its Central Asian diplomacy, namely regional economic cooperation, pipeline politics, the status of the Caspian Sea, security cooperation and cultural diplomacy. This provides a revealing case study of how Iran perceives itself as a vital player in the region, seeking to emphasise the benefits of its geostrategic location, relative stability, and increasing international role following the nuclear deal.

  12. Results from the South Pole InfraRed EXplorer Telescope

    OpenAIRE

    Rathborne, J.M.; Burton, M. G.

    2003-01-01

    The SPIREX telescope, located at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, was a prototype system developed to exploit the excellent conditions for IR observing at the South Pole. Observations over two winter seasons achieved remarkably deep, high-resolution, wide-field images in the 3-5um wavelength regime. Several star forming complexes were observed, including NGC 6334, Chamaeleon I, eta Chamaeleontis, the Carina Nebula, 30 Doradus, RCW 57, RCW 38, as well as the Galactic Centre. Images were ...

  13. Decentralized-feedback pole placement of linear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Martin, C. F.; Gilliam, D.; Byrnes, C. I.

    1992-01-01

    A projectile product spaces model is used to analyze decentralized systems. The degree of the pole placement map is computed. The conditions under which the degree is odd are also given. Twin lift systems are studied. It is proved that the poles of a twin lift system can be assigned to any values by local static and local dynamic feedback laws if and only if the system is jointly controllable.

  14. On Design of Automatic Choosing Control by Pole Placement

    OpenAIRE

    高田, 等; 提, 祐樹; 八野, 知博; TAKATA, Hitoshi; Sage, Yuki; HACHINO, Tomohiro

    2009-01-01

    This paper is concerned with design of an augmented automatic choosing control (AACC) for nonlinear systems. The AACC is synthesized by smoothly uniting a set of sectionwise linear controls, in which pole placement approach is used. An observer theory is applied to it in a case that the state vector includes some unmeasurable variables directly. Control and observer's gains are obtained by the pole placement method.

  15. Health-related quality of life in a sample of Iranian patients on hemodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pakpour, Amir H; Saffari, Mohsen; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeed;

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a sample of Iranian patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis. The data were compared with the HRQOL for the Iranian general population.......This study evaluated the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a sample of Iranian patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis. The data were compared with the HRQOL for the Iranian general population....

  16. Stability of pole solutions for planar propagating flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahibe, M.; Aubry, N.; Sivashinsky, G. I.

    1996-11-01

    It is well-known that the partial differential equation (PDE)footnote G. I. Sivashinsky, Acta Astronautica, 4, 1177 (1977). describing the dynamics of hydrodynamically unstable planar flame front admits exact pole solutions exhibiting cusps in physical space. For such solutions, the original PDE can be reduced to a set of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) which describe the dynamics of poles in the complex plane. The situation, however, is paradoxical since the steady solutions obtained by numerically integrating the PDE differ, in general, from the exact solutions governed by the ODEs. In physical space, new cusps appear and/or the height of existing cusps increases with time for the PDE and not for the ODEs. In this study, we show that these phenomena are due to the fact that most exact steady pole solutions are unstable for the PDE. In certain cases, such solutions are unstable for the ODEs, in other cases, they are neutrally stable for the ODEs but unstable for the PDE. The only steady pole solutions which are neutrally stable for both the ODEs and the PDE correspond to small interval lengths; both their number of poles and propagation speed are maximal and all their poles are aligned on the same vertical axis in the complex plane.

  17. International Youth Conference on the Poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, A. K.; Kuhn, T. S.; Baeseman, J.; Garmulewicz, A.; Raymond, M.; Salmon, R.

    2006-12-01

    The International Polar Year (IPY) is an international effort, involving more than 50 countries, to focus research in both the sciences and social sciences on the world's Polar Regions. In order to secure youth involvement in the IPY, the Youth Steering Committee (YSC) has been formed, aiming specifically to network young polar researchers from all backgrounds enabling collaboration and to involve this group in outreach focused towards other young people. A conference targeted directly at an audience of early career researchers and international youth will be central to fulfilling these aims. The YSC has therefore developed the concept of the International Youth Conference on the Poles (IYCP). Proposed for 2008, this conference will bring together youth from a diverse set of backgrounds and nationalities to discuss the issues affecting the Polar Regions, their effects on a global scale and ways of addressing these issues. The conference will also serve to highlight ongoing IPY research, especially research being undertaken by young researchers, and provide a perennial framework for youth involvement in polar research and policies. The IYCP will run for three days in May 2008, attracting an international youth audience, as well as representatives from polar organizations, teachers, politicians, policy makers, the general public and media. The IYCP will be divided into three sections. Youth Roundtable Discussions will bring youth together to discuss issues affecting the Polar Regions and potential solutions to these. A Young Researchers Conference will provide the opportunity for young researchers working in the Polar Regions to present their work to an interdisciplinary audience. The Polar Fair will provide an interactive environment for youth to learn about the Polar Regions. The IYCP will be of great importance to the IPY because it will serve as the principle venue during the Polar Year where youth from many different disciplines, backgrounds and countries will

  18. Psychometric Properties of the Iranian Version of the Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir H. Pakpour, PhD

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: The results provide evidence for good reliability and validity of the Iranian version of the PEDT. The questionnaire therefore represents a suitable tool for screening PE in Iranian men. Pakpour AH, Yekaninejad MS, Nikoobakht MR, Burri A, and Fridlund B. Psychometric properties of the Iranian version of the Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool. Sex Med 2014;2:31–40.

  19. A Cross-Cultural Study of Personality: Iranian and English Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eysenck, Sybil B. G.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Junior Eysenck Personality Questionnaire was completed by 1,076 Iranian early adolescents, and their scores were compared to scores obtained previously for English children. Iranian boys scored higher than girls on the psychoticism and lower on the neuroticism and social desirability scales. Iranian children scored higher than English children on…

  20. Attitudes toward English & English Learning at an Iranian Military University: A Preliminary Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavi Zafarghandi, Amir; Jodai, Hojat

    2012-01-01

    This study intends to represent attitudes toward English and English learning at an Iranian military university. Iranian military staff is required to study English in a social environment where there is little immediate need or opportunity to use the language for real communicative purposes.The subjects included 34 Iranian military personnel who…

  1. An Exploratory Study of the Language-Learning Style Preferences of Iranian EFL High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani, Afsaneh Effatdokht; Dehgahi, Meysam; Hashemi, Hanie

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the learning style preferences of 40 Iranian students at Marefat Iranian high school in Kuala Lumpur of which, 20 are females and 20 are males. To this end, this study used structured interview to elicit in-depth information from the students. The results of the study showed that learning style preferences of Iranian students…

  2. Variation of the Pole Length in Pole-Oriented Bonded Rings due to the Location and Number of Injection Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina H. Kurth

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymer bonded magnets are compounds consisting of a polymer matrix with embedded hard magnetic filler particles. These materials are mainly used in applications in actor or sensor technology. One example is the application as multipolar encoder wheel in magnetic sensors. Depending on the application different requirements have to be fulfilled, such as a high pole length accuracy and repeatability. This investigation deals with the production of multipolar rings in the injection molding process for sensor applications and influences of the design of the gating system on the pole length accuracy. It is shown that the number of injection points and developing weld lines, as well as the positioning of the injection points, has a major influence on the magnetization characteristics of the molded rings. In general, a positioning of injection points and weld lines in the pole pitch and higher number of injection points lead to rings with a high reproduction accuracy of the pole length of the mold.

  3. Assessing Local People's Knowledge of the Endangered Cuban Solenodon (Solenodon cubanus) in Alejandro de Humboldt National Park, Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Echenique-Díaz, Lázaro M.; OHDACHI, Satoshi; Kita, Masaki; Begué-Quiala, Gerardo; Páez, Rafael Borroto; Labañino, Jorge L. Delgado; Díez, Jorgelino Gámez; HOSON, Osamu; SAITO, Chiemi

    2014-01-01

    Assessing local people's knowledge of endangered species is important not only for the planning and implementation of environmental education programs, but also to address community-based conservation issues and guarantee an effective engagement of local residents in conservation efforts. A questionnaire-based study conducted in Alejandro de Humboldt National Park assessed local people’s knowledge of the endangered Cuban Solenodon (Solenodon cubanus). From this it was found that although chil...

  4. Synthesis, structure and properties of {M4O4} cubanes containing nickel(II) and cobalt(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isele, Katharina; Gigon, Fabienne; Williams, Alan F; Bernardinelli, Gérald; Franz, Patrick; Decurtins, Silvio

    2007-01-21

    A survey of the crystal structures containing simple {M4O4} cubane units is reported. It shows that the average M-M distance in these complexes is relatively constant for a given metal ion M. The structures are all distorted from the idealised cube to a T(d) structure, and most show a further distortion which, however, usually maintains some elements of symmetry. A system for classifying the different types of ligand in these complexes is proposed. Two new cubanes of cobalt(II) and nickel(II) with the ligand (R,R)-bis-1,2-(1-methylbenzimidazol-2-yl)ethane-1,2-diol, (R,R)- or its enantiomer have been isolated and the crystal structure of the cobalt(II) complex confirms the cubane structure. Electronic, CD and (1)H NMR spectra and magnetic susceptibility data are reported. The magnetic data for these and other compounds in the literature are discussed in terms of the structural parameters.

  5. Late Cretaceous to Middle Eocene Geological Evolution of the Northwestern Caribbean - Constraints from Cuban Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobiella, J.; Hueneke, H.; Meschede, M.; Sommer, M.

    2006-05-01

    Cuba acts as the northwestern boundary of the Caribbean Sea. However it is not part of the Caribbean plate, its geological development is deeply related to the plate history. In fact, its Cretaceous volcanic arc rocks tightly correlate with coeval sections in Hispaniola and Puerto Rico, and the same probably occurs with the ophiolites. The early Palaeogene events in Cuba were also involved in the Caribbean plate history. In general, two principal structural levels can be distinguished in the geological structure of Cuba. The rocks belonging to the upper level (Eocene to Quaternary) are little disturbed and can be referred to as the cover. Below it occurs the great complex of the Cuban orogenic belt, which consists mainly of rocks of Jurassic to Eocene age. In addition, small outcrops of Proterozoic metamorphic rocks also occur in north central Cuba. The Palaeocene-Eocene section contains volcanic arc sequences in SE Cuba and northward thrusted piggy back and foreland basins in central and western Cuba. The Mesozoic rocks lies unconformably below. The contacts between the major Mesozoic elements are always tectonic. With the exception of the rocks of the passive Mesozoic margin of North America in northern Cuba, the remaining units represent tectonostratigraphic terranes extending parallel to the axis of the present main island of Cuba. The northernmost unit is the Mesozoic passive continental margin of North America. It consists of a Jurassic- Cretaceous mainly marine sedimentary sequence now exposed as a thrust and fold belt along the northern edge of the Cuban mainland. The other units are, from north to south: the Northern Ophiolitic Belt, the Volcanic Arc Terrane and the Southern Metamorphic Terranes. The ophiolites and the Cretaceous volcanic arc terranes belong to the Proto-Caribbean plate and were accreted to the palaeomargin during Late Cretaceous and early Palaeogene episodes. Some constrains to Caribbean plate origin and evolution according to data from

  6. Iranian EFL Learners' Familiarity with Reduced Forms in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouhollah Zarei

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Reduced forms are thought to have a significant influence on understanding spoken language. They are important aspects of spoken language which have sometimes been undervalued in material development, teaching, and testing. This problem is further aggravated in an Iranian EFL setting. In an attempt to address this issue, this study set out to examine the familiarity of Iranian EFL learners with reduced forms as well as the relationship between the proficiency level of language learners and their familiarity with reduced forms. To this end, a test of RFs on listening comprehension was developed based on the literature and findings of a pilot study. Afterward, 306 English language learners were selected from two Iranian cities of Shiraz and Ahwaz based on multi-stage cluster sampling to participate in the study. The results of this study indicate that Iranian EFL learners are not familiar with RFs in spoken language. However, in contrast to earlier findings, there was a significant difference between the performance of advanced and intermediate learners based on their familiarity with reduced forms. Keywords: Iranian EFL Learners, Reduced Forms, Spoken English, Proficiency Level

  7. Vernalization and Photoperiod Genes in Iranian Wheat Cultivars

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    Seyyed Hamid Reza Ramazani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. can avoid the deleterious effects of low temperatures by using environmental adaptation strategies such as vernalization requirement and photoperiod reaction. Awareness of the genetic factors influencing growth and flowering patterns is necessary for introducing new varieties to specific environments. We performed morphological and genetic studies of 104 lines and cultivars of Iranian wheat genotypes, including four durum genotypes, obtained from national wheat breeding programmes. We used sequence-tagged site (STS-PCR with specific primers to identify alleles affecting the sensitivity to vernalization and photoperiod response at the Vrn-A1, Vrn-B1, Vrn-D1, Ppd-A1, Ppd-B1, and Ppd-D1 loci. Some morphological traits such as percentage germination, growth habit, final leaf number (FLN, ear length, and days to ear emergence were also measured. Results showed that FLN and days to ear emergence are the best morphological traits to study wheat flowering time. Allelic variation showed that Vrn-D1 is more frequent than other genes in Iranian wheat genotypes, and so most Iranian genotypes are vernalization-insensitive. In addition, most genotypes were photoperiod-insensitive because of the semi-dominant mutation allele, Ppd-D1a. Based on allelic variation and morphological traits, we identified five classes of Iranian genotypes. The allelic variation study and morphology evaluation of this germplasm showed that the majority of Iranian cultivars and breeding lines are spring varieties and insensitive to day length.

  8. La población de Cuba hoy. Cuban population today

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    Grisell Rodríguez Gómez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available El cambio de la población cubana no debe continuar siendo percibido como un problema o un reto, sino que debe abordarse en un marco de interacción con el desarrollo económico y social. Por lo tanto, nada de lo que suceda en términos de política de hoy es compatible con una visión fragmentada en lo que se refiere a los aspectos demográficos. Es factible que se diseñen o implementen acciones en este sentido, pero ellas deben ser manejadas desde la perspectiva de su impacto sistémico en la dinámica de la población. Este documento se centra en el análisis del comportamiento de la población cubana a través de la explicación de la evolución de sus determinantes: la mortalidad, la fecundidad y la migración, en un escenario de disminución real del número de habitantes en una sociedad que se encuentra inmersa en un importante conjunto de cambios, ajustes y desafíos, poniendo el tema en un plano de análisis que excede el estudio exclusivo de los rasgos demográficos desde solo sus indicadores a nivel macro para reclamar la necesidad de abordar la incidencia específica de lo cultural y lo social, así como su atención desde la política. The Cuban population change should not be perceived as a problem or a challenge but it should be addressed in a framework of interaction with economic and social development. Therefore, nothing that happens in terms of policy today supports a fragmented view as far as demography is concerned. It does not mean that no action could be drawn or carried out in that sense, but certainly, it is vital that any action must be handled from the perspective of its systemic impact on population dynamics. This paper focuses on the analysis of the behavior of the Cuban population through the explanation of the evolution of its determinants: mortality, fertility and migration, in a scenario of real decline in the number of people in a society that is immersed in an important set of changes, adjustments and

  9. Analyses of DNA from ancient bones of a pre-Columbian Cuban woman and a child

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    Ricardo Lleonart

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Molecular anthropology has brought new possibilities into the study of ancient human populations. Amplification of chromosomal short tandem repeat (STR loci and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA has been successfully employed in analyses of ancient bone material. Although several studies have reported on continental Amerindian populations, none have addressed the ancient populations inhabiting the Caribbean islands. We used STR and mtDNA analyses to study the skeletal remains of a Cuban Ciboney female adult holding an infant. Results showed that for the STR analyzed the skeletal remains shared common alleles, suggesting a relationship. Mitochondrial DNA analysis showed sequence identity, thus corroborating a possible mother-child relationship. The mtDNA sequence grouped these remains into haplogroup A, commonly found in Amerindian populations. Based on these results, we speculated on a South American origin of pre-Columbian Antilles populations and possible infanticide practices in these populations. This constitutes the first report on DNA analysis of ancient pre-Columbian Cuban populations.A antropologia molecular trouxe novas possibilidades para o estudo de populações humanas antigas. A amplificação de loci em pequenos segmentos cromossômicos repetidos (short tandem repeat, STR e de DNA mitocondrial (mtDNA tem sido empregada com sucesso em análises de material ósseo antigo. Embora vários estudos tenham sido publicados a respeito de populações ameríndias continentais, nenhum estudou as populações antigas que habitavam as ilhas do Caribe. Nós usamos análise de STR e mtDNA para estudar os restos de ossos de uma mulher adulta da tribo Ciboney cubana carregando uma criança. Os resultados mostraram que para o STR analisado os restos ósseos compartilhavam alelos comuns, sugerindo um parentesco. A análise de mtDNA mostrou identidade de seqüência, corroborando assim uma possível relação mãe-filho. A seqüência de mtDNA alocou esses

  10. Estudio de la quitosana cubana como agente aglutinante Study of Cuban quitosana as agglutination agent

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    Diamelva del Campo Portales

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Para evaluar la capacidad como agente aglutinante de la quitosana cubana, derivada de quitina de langosta, se realizó un diseño experimental cuyas variables fueron la relación entre la masa de quitosana y granulado base, así como la concentración de ácido láctico en la solución aglutinante. Los resultados muestran que el porcentaje de ácido láctico no tiene influencia en las propiedades de los granulados elaborados con quitosana. La relación quitosana/granulado base influye sobre el tamaño de partícula promedio de los granulados estudiados. Las propiedades de los granulados elaborados con quitosana, independientemente de la relación de quitosana/granulado base y el porcentaje de ácido láctico, tienen un comportamiento intermedio entre la polivinilpirrolidona y la gelatina. Con el fármaco modelo sulfato de cloroquina, al emplear la quitosana cubana como agente aglutinante se obtuvieron tabletas con adecuadas propiedades. Adicionalmente se comparó su efectividad como aglutinante con respecto a excipientes de uso tradicional: gelatina, polivinilpirrolidona y celacol, con el clorhidrato de propranolol como fármaco modelo. Los granulados obtenidos muestran que la quitosana al 1 % tiene un comportamiento próximo al polivinilpirrolidona, celacol y gelatina, mientras que para las tabletas, independientemente del valor de la concentración de la quitosana, es similar al polivinilpirrolidona.To assess ability of Cuban quitosona as agglutination agent, derived from lobster quitine, we performed an experimental design of which he variable were: relationship between quitosana mass and granular base as well as lactic acid concentration in agglutination solution. Results shows that lactic acid percentage hasn’t influence on properties of granules processed using quitosana. Above mentioned relationship influences on average particle size of study granules. Properties of quitosana-processed granules, regardless of whether quitosana

  11. The solar energy photovoltaic one option to the Cuban rural electrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alabart, J. A. [Centro de Investigaciones de Energia Solar (CIES), (Cuba); Friedman, D. [ECOSOL (COPEXTELL S. A.), (Cuba); Ramos, R.; Moreira, J.; Batista, I.; Garcia, R.; Rodriguez, M. [Centro de Investigaciones de Energia Solar (CIES), (Cuba)

    1995-12-31

    This paper analyzes the work done in Cuba over the last years in the field of photovoltaic, from its R and D and Industrial capacities to the Rural Electrification Program. Based on this work a Development Program for the PV industry is proposed, which is defected towards the integration of all necessary factors that will ensure a sustainable Rural Electrification Program. This program is divided in 5 main stages: 1. Import of solar cells and other elements for the assembly in Cuba of modules and diverse system components (1995-2005). 2. Production of solar cells from imported wafers (1997-2005). 3. Production of monocrystalline silicon wafers from imported plycrystalline silicon (1998-2005). 4. Production of polycrystalline silicon from Cuban silica sand (2000-2005). 5. Development and introduction of new technologies for the production of solar cells (2000-2005). The combination of the PV Development program and the Rural Electrification program will guarantee the supply of electricity to 100% of the Cuban population, and at same time accelerate the technological, industrial and research infrastructure on which a large scale national PV industry would be supported. The implementation of such a program would also make cost on the National Electrical Grid (NEG), avoiding the need for new generation facilities based on fossil fuels. [Espanol] Este articulo analiza el trabajo hecho en Cuba durante los ultimos anos en el campo de los fotovoltaicos, desde su Investigacion y Desarrollo y capacidades Industriales, hasta el Programa de Electrificacion Rural. Basado en este trabajo se propone un Programa de Desarrollo para la industria de PV que esta dirigido hacia la integracion de todos los factores necesarios que aseguraran un Programa de Electrificacion sostenido. Este programa esta dividido en 5 principales etapas: 1. Importacion de celdas solares y otros elementos para el ensamblado en Cuba de modulos y diversos componentes del sistema (1995-2005); 2. Produccion de

  12. The practice of pole dance as a leisure activity in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Andorra Lynn

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the how pole dance is practiced as a form of leisure activity in Denmark. The methodical approach is qualitative and inspired by ethnography. I have conducted a field study where I have observed and participated in the pole dance culture in Copenhagen from May...... to October 2014. Furthermore, I have conducted five interviews with pole studio owners and 14 shorter interviews with pole dancers. The study showed that the pole dance culture is complex; there is more than one way to practice pole dance both in terms of movements, attire, and attitude. This article...... addresses the difference between a focus on dance and a focus on tricks in pole dancing as well as it examines the different opinions pole studio owners have concerning ‘sexiness’ in pole dance and how this affects the way pole dance is practiced....

  13. Tinnitus: an epidemiologic study in Iranian population.

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    Maryam Jalessi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of population, 4% to 30%, suffers from tinnitus that is defined as perception of sound without apparent acoustic stimulus. We conducted the present study to determine the prevalence of tinnitus in Iranian population; Tehran province. This cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2009 to December 2009, recruiting 3207 individuals (age range, 7-98 who were residing in Tehran province, Iran. Participants were asked to fill two questionnaires; the validated Persian version of Tinnitus Questionnaire (TQ and another one that was specifically designed for this study. Prevalence of tinnitus and its association factors were evaluated. 3207 participants enrolled into our study comprising 1429 (44.7% male and 1765 (55.3% female with mean age of 55.01±17.85. Of total of 3207 participants, 146 (4.6% had tinnitus consisting of 80 male (54.8% and 66 (45.2% female participants. It showed a rising trend with increasing age that was especially significant after the sixth decade of life (P=0.001. The analysis showed mean TQ global score of 35.96±25.52 that was significantly different between male and female participants (P=0.051 and had no significant correlation with increasing age (Spearman's r=0.1, P=0.10. The tinnitus intensity was moderate to very severe in 95 (56.1% of the participants. Its severity level was not significantly different between men and women (P=0.09. Tinnitus intensity had no significant association with increasing age (Spearman's r=0.1, P=0.31. Patients with higher TQ global score had higher tinnitus intensities (P=0.001. The annoyance level was significantly different between men and women (P=0.04 and its impact on the participants daily routine functions were significantly higher in men (P=0.003. Given the results of the study, demonstrating that prevalence of tinnitus in Iranian population (Tehran province was lower than the other countries and had a direct correlation with increasing age only after the sixth

  14. THE ESTIMATION OF ORDERING DEGREE OF CORONA-POLED NONLINEAR OPTICAL POLYMER FILMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Cheng; DONG Haiou; WANG Jiafu

    1992-01-01

    The investigation of electrochromic effect of corona-poled nonlinear optical polymer films is an effective method for the estimation of poling level and the selection of poling conditions. The poling electric field Ep and orientational order parameter φ, which are the important parameters to predict d33 of poled tilms, can be calculated by a simple operation from the number of red shift of charge transfer absorption band. The calculated results are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  15. Poles in the Dutch Cape Colony 1652-1814

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    Kowalski Mariusz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of Poles to the colonisation and development of the Dutch Cape Colony is not commonly known. Yet, Poles have been appearing in this colony since its very inception (1652. During the entire period considered here the presence of Poles was the result of the strong economic ties between Poland and the Netherlands. At the end of this period there was an increase in their share, in connection with the presence of numerous alien military units on the territory of the Colony, because of Poles having served in these units. Numerous newcomers from Poland settled in South Africa for good, established families, and their progeny made up part of the local society. The evidence of this phenomenon is provided by the present-day Afrikaner families of, for instance, Drotsky, Kitshoff, Kolesky, Latsky, Masuriek, Troskie, Zowitsky, and others. A quite superficial estimation implies that the settlers coming from Poland could make up a bit over 1% of the ancestors of the present-day Afrikaners. Poles would also participate in the pioneering undertakings within the far-off fringes of the Colony, including the robbery-and-trade expedition of 1702.

  16. Assessment of Pole Erosion in a Magnetically Shielded Hall Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Ortega, Alejandro L.

    2014-01-01

    Numerical simulations of a 6-kW laboratory Hall thruster called H6 have been performed to quantify the erosion rate at the inner pole. The assessments have been made in two versions of the thruster, namely the unshielded (H6US) and magnetically shielded (H6MS) configurations. The simulations have been performed with the 2-D axisymmetric code Hall2De which employs a new multi-fluid ion algorithm to capture the presence of low-energy ions in the vicinity of the poles. It is found that the maximum computed erosion rate at the inner pole of the H6MS exceeds the measured rate of back-sputtered deposits by 4.5 times. This explains only part of the surface roughening that was observed after a 150-h wear test, which covered most of the pole area exposed to the plasma. For the majority of the pole surface the computed erosion rates are found to be below the back-sputter rate and comparable to those in the H6US which exhibited little to no sputtering in previous tests. Possible explanations for the discrepancy are discussed.

  17. Development of a multi-pole magnetorheological brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiao, Yaojung; Nguyen, Quang-Anh

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents a new approach in the design and optimization of a novel multi-pole magnetorheological (MR) brake that employs magnetic flux more effectively on the surface of the rotor. MR brakes with conventional single ring-type electromagnetic poles have reached the limits of torque enhancement. One major reason is the limitation of the magnetic field strength within the active area of the MR fluid due to the geometric constraints of the coil. The multi-pole MR brake design features multiple electromagnetic poles surrounded by several coils. As a result, the active chaining areas for the MR fluid are greatly increased, and significant brake torque improvement is achieved. The coil structure, as a part of the stator, becomes flexible and customizable in terms of space usage for the winding and bobbin design. In addition, this brake offers extra options in its dimensions for torque enhancement because either the radial or the axial dimensions of the rotor can be increased. Magnetic circuit analysis was conducted to analyze the effects of the design parameters on the field torque. After that, simulations were done to find the optimal design under all major geometric constraints with a given power supply. The results show that the multi-pole MR brake provides a considerable braking torque increase while maintaining a compact and solid design. This is confirmation of its feasibility in actual braking applications.

  18. A nondestructive characterization system of periodically poled crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huaixi; Zhou, Huang; Chen, Liyuan; Zou, Xiaolin; Miao, Long; Feng, Xinkai; Li, Guangwei; Liang, Wanguo

    2015-08-01

    Periodically poled crystals are widely used as SHG, DFG, SFG, OPO and THz generation, and there is a broad application prospect in some areas such as the laser display, optical fiber communication, atmospheric exploration and military confrontation. At present, to get the parameters of periodically poled crystals, like duty ratio, the main method is chemical etching of the samples. In this paper, we present a nondestructive characterization system of periodically poled crystals. When we apply a proper high voltage on both sides of the periodically poled crystal, the refractive index difference of positive and negative domain will be increased and we can observe a clear domain pattern by the a microscope so as to obtain general information. Then a single frequency laser is prepared to radiate on +z surface of the periodically poled crystal, we can get some orders of diffraction according to diffraction optics principle. Finally, we can measure the parameters such as period, duty ratio by use of numerical analysis. The testing sample size of this system can be up to 60mm, The accuracy of the testing period can be 0.1μm, and the measurement range of duty ratio is 20%-50%.

  19. Two-pole structure of the D0* (2400)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albaladejo, Miguel; Fernandez-Soler, Pedro; Guo, Feng-Kun; Nieves, Juan

    2017-04-01

    The so far only known charmed non-strange scalar meson is dubbed as D0* (2400) in the Review of Particle Physics. We show, within the framework of unitarized chiral perturbation theory, that there are in fact two (I = 1 / 2 ,JP =0+) poles in the region of the D0* (2400) in the coupled-channel Dπ, Dη and Ds K bar scattering amplitudes. With all the parameters previously fixed, we predict the energy levels for the coupled-channel system in a finite volume, and find that they agree remarkably well with recent lattice QCD calculations. This successful description of the lattice data is regarded as a strong evidence for the two-pole structure of the D0* (2400). With the physical quark masses, the poles are located at (2105-8+6 - i102-12+10) MeV and (2451-26+36 - i134-8+7) MeV, with the largest couplings to the Dπ and Ds K bar channels, respectively. Since the higher pole is close to the Ds K bar threshold, we expect it to show up as a threshold enhancement in the Ds K bar invariant mass distribution. This could be checked by high-statistic data in future experiments. We also show that the lower pole belongs to the same SU(3) multiplet as the Ds0 * (2317) state. Predictions for partners in the bottom sector are also given.

  20. Assessment of Pole Erosion in a Magnetically Shielded Hall Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Ortega, Alejandro L.

    2014-01-01

    Numerical simulations of a 6-kW laboratory Hall thruster called H6 have been performed to quantify the erosion rate at the inner pole. The assessments have been made in two versions of the thruster, namely the unshielded (H6US) and magnetically shielded (H6MS) configurations. The simulations have been performed with the 2-D axisymmetric code Hall2De which employs a new multi-fluid ion algorithm to capture the presence of low-energy ions in the vicinity of the poles. It is found that the maximum computed erosion rate at the inner pole of the H6MS exceeds the measured rate of back-sputtered deposits by 4.5 times. This explains only part of the surface roughening that was observed after a 150-h wear test, which covered most of the pole area exposed to the plasma. For the majority of the pole surface the computed erosion rates are found to be below the back-sputter rate and comparable to those in the H6US which exhibited little to no sputtering in previous tests. Possible explanations for the discrepancy are discussed.

  1. Teacher Autonomy Perceptions of Iranian and Turkish EFL Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim KHEZERLOU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at examining Iranian (N= 218 and Turkish (N=142 high school EFL teachers’ opinions about teacher autonomy over (a the choice of appropriate teaching methods, strategies and techniques and implementation of the established curriculum (b teacher involvement in decision making processes and (c teachers’ use of personal initiative in solving their work problems. An 11-item questionnaire (α= .758 was used to measure autonomy perceptions of the participants. The results revealed that Turkish teachers’ autonomy perceptions were greater than that of Iranian teachers in the three teacher autonomy dimensions. Moreover, it was observed that male and master- holder teachers perceive less autonomy than female and bachelor-holder ones; whereas, no significant relationship were observed for the age and marital status variables with any teacher autonomy dimensions. Lastly, decision making dimension was the strongest predictor of teacher autonomy among both Iranian and Turkish teachers.

  2. Impacts of international sanctions on Iranian pharmaceutical market

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Iran in recent decade faced several regional and international sanctions in foreign trade, financial and banking services. Iran national pharmaceutical industry has always played a major role in providing medicines to the Iranian patients. However, following the sanctions it has faced profound difficulties for importing of both finished products and pharmaceutical raw materials. Although medicines are exempted from sanctions, due to restriction on money transaction and proper insurance Iranian pharmaceutical companies have to pay cash in advance for imports of medicines and raw materials or to secure offshore funds at very high risks. Current situation in Iran pharmaceutical market confirms that the sanctions against Iran are affecting ordinary citizens and national health sector which resulted to reduction of availability of lifesaving medicines in the local market and has caused increasing pain and suffering for Iranian patients. PMID:23902642

  3. Sunken garden: remarkable example of Iranian sustainable architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezaei, Davood; Toufani, Sargol; Sadegh Falahat, Mohammad [Zanjan University (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], email: d_rezaei@znu.ac.ir, email: sargol2fun@gmail.com, email: safalahat@yahoo.com

    2011-07-01

    The energy crisis and climate change give new importance to sustainable architecture which reduces the negative impacts that buildings can have on the environment. In ancient times, architects did not have access to modern equipment and had to use natural energies to provide pleasant indoor conditions. Iran has various climatic zones and Iranian traditional architecture relied on a variety of solutions to provide for human comfort. The aim of this study is to present those solutions used in traditional Iranian architecture. This paper presents the use of the energy of the earth depth and other methods such as Syzan, a cellar, Shvadan, pool house, Zmhryr in addition to the sunken garden, which taps geothermal energy by constructing a courtyard lower than street level. This document showed that traditional Iranian architectural strategies are efficient in providing sustainable buildings and could be applied in the design of new construction.

  4. Sales concentration index in the Iranian car market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazemzadeh Emad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentration is among the key indicators of market structure. The number of manufacturers and distribution of market between firms with different sizes can be examined using concentration index. In this paper, the concentration ratio, Herfindahl-Hirschman Index, Hall-Tiedman Index, comprehensive industrial concentration index, entropy and Hannah-Kay index were used during 1996, 2011, 2006 and 2011. The main objective of the present study is to measure concentration in the Iranian car market and show its changes during 1996-2011. The results indicated a high concentration in the Iranian automotive industry. Even with the advent of new firms to the Iranian automotive industry and increased total production, there has been a constant concentration in the automotive industry.

  5. Volatile Composition of Smoked and Non-Smoked Iranian Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leontina Lipan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the volatile profiles of smoked and non-smoked Iranian rice were identified, and their relative abundance was calculated and compared. Headspace solid-phase microextraction together with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS were used to extract and identify the volatile compounds. The main groups of volatiles in Iranian rice were aldehydes, ketones, phenol derivatives, furans, linear hydrocarbons, esters and terpenes. The chemical family aldehydes was the most abundant one in the profile of non-smoked rice, while phenol derivatives and furans predominated in smoked samples. This study is the first one reporting comparative data of volatile compounds between smoked and non-smoked Iranian rice.

  6. Psychological Distress in Iranian International Students at an Australian University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahidi, Shizar; Blignault, Ilse; Hayen, Andrew; Razee, Husna

    2017-05-03

    This study investigated psychological distress in Iranian international students at UNSW Australia, and explored the psychosocial factors associated with high levels of distress. A total of 180 Iranian international students pursuing undergraduate and postgraduate degrees during 2012/2013 completed an email questionnaire containing socio-demographic items and five standardized and validated scales. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyse the predictors of psychological distress. Compared to domestic and international students at two other Australian universities, a significantly smaller proportion of Iranian international students scored as distressed on the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10). Greater levels of psychological distress were associated with being female, poorer physical health, less social support, less religious involvement and spirituality, and negative attitudes towards seeking professional psychological help. Findings from this growing group of international students can help inform culturally competent mental health promotion and service provision in their host countries.

  7. Antimicrobial activity of Iranian propolis and its chemical composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaghoubi M.J.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of ethanol extract of Iranian propolis on some microorganisms using disc diffusion method. The chemical composition of the propolis was also investigated using thin layer chromatography and spectrophotometric methods. Ethanol extract of propolis showed activity only against Gram-positives and fungi, whereas no activity was observed against Gram-negatives. Thin layer chromatography screening revealed the presence of pinocembrine, caffeic acid, kaempferol, phenethyl caffeate, chrysin, and galangin in Iranian propolis. The total flavonoid and phenolic contents were 7.3% and 36%, respectively, which suggests that the strong antimicrobial activity of Iranian propolis may be due to high levels of phenolic and flavonoid compounds.

  8. Criteria for Evidence-based Practice in Iranian Traditional Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SeyyedKamran SoltaniArabshahi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The major difference between Iranian traditional medicine and allopathic medicine is in the application  of  evidence  and  documents.  In  this  study,  criteria  for  evidence-based  practice  in  Iranian traditional medicine and its rules of practice were studied. The experts’ views were investigated through in- depth, semi-structured interviews and the results were categorized into four main categories including Designing clinical questions/clinical question-based search, critical appraisal, resource search criteria and clinical prescription appraisal. Although the application of evidence in Iranian traditional medicine follows Evidence Based Medicine (EBM principles but it benefits from its own rules, regulations, and criteria that are compatible with EBM.

  9. Impacts of international sanctions on Iranian pharmaceutical market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheraghali, Abdol Majid

    2013-07-31

    Iran in recent decade faced several regional and international sanctions in foreign trade, financial and banking services. Iran national pharmaceutical industry has always played a major role in providing medicines to the Iranian patients. However, following the sanctions it has faced profound difficulties for importing of both finished products and pharmaceutical raw materials. Although medicines are exempted from sanctions, due to restriction on money transaction and proper insurance Iranian pharmaceutical companies have to pay cash in advance for imports of medicines and raw materials or to secure offshore funds at very high risks. Current situation in Iran pharmaceutical market confirms that the sanctions against Iran are affecting ordinary citizens and national health sector which resulted to reduction of availability of lifesaving medicines in the local market and has caused increasing pain and suffering for Iranian patients.

  10. Criteria for evidence-based practice in Iranian traditional medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani Arabshahi, SeyyedKamran; Mohammadi Kenari, Hoorieh; Kordafshari, Gholamreza; Shams-Ardakani, MohammadReza; Bigdeli, Shoaleh

    2015-07-01

    The major difference between Iranian traditional medicine and allopathic medicine is in the application  of  evidence  and  documents.  In  this  study,  criteria  for  evidence-based  practice  in  Iranian traditional medicine and its rules of practice were studied. The experts' views were investigated through in- depth, semi-structured interviews and the results were categorized into four main categories including Designing clinical questions/clinical question-based search, critical appraisal, resource search criteria and clinical prescription appraisal. Although the application of evidence in Iranian traditional medicine follows Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) principles but it benefits from its own rules, regulations, and criteria that are compatible with EBM.

  11. Bioemulsan Production by Iranian Oil Reservoirs Microorganisms

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    A Amiriyan, M Mazaheri Assadi, VA Saggadian, A Noohi

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The biosurfactants are believed to be surface active components that are shed into the surrounding medium during the growth of the microorganisms. The oil degrading microorganism Acinetobacter calcoaceticus RAG-1 produces a poly-anionic biosurfactant, hetero-polysaccharide bioemulsifier termed as emulsan which forms and stabilizes oil-water emulsions with a variety of hydrophobic substrates. In the present paper results of the possibility of biosurfactant (Emulsan production by microorganisms isolated from Iranian oil reservoirs is presented. Fourthy three gram negative and gram positive, non fermentative, rod bacilli and coccobacilli shaped baceria were isolated from the oil wells of Bibi Hakimeh, Siri, Maroon, Ilam , East Paydar and West Paydar. Out of the isolated strains, 39 bacterial strains showed beta haemolytic activity, further screening revealed the emulsifying activity and surface tension. 11 out of 43 tested emulsifiers were identified as possible biosurfactant producers and two isolates produced large surface tension reduction, indicating the high probability of biosurfactant production. Further investigation revealed that, two gram negative, oxidase negative, aerobic and coccoid rods isolates were the best producers and hence designated as IL-1, PAY-4. Whole culture broth of isolates reduced surface tension from 68 mN /m to 30 and 29.1mN/m, respectively, and were stable during exposure to high salinity (10%NaCl and elevated temperatures(120C for 15 min .

  12. First Iranian imported case of dengue

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    Masoud Mardani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever, a mosquito-borne flavivirus infection, is endemic in Southeast Asia. Currently, incidences have been increasing among adults. There have been no published reports of dengue fever from Iran. Widespread connection between different countries may predispose them for acquisition of infection. The patient was a 58-year-old Iranian woman with acute unexplained high-grade fever for 4 days, associated with skin rash, after returning from Southeast Asia. CBC showed WBC = 1600/mm 3 and platelet count 99,000/mm 3 . The patient also had hematuria. ELISA immunoglobulin M (IgM antibodies to dengue and serum RT-PCR for dengue virus was positive. The patient managed with conservative treatment and due to good general condition and improvement specific antiviral treatment was not started. She became afebrile at the 3 rd day of hospitalization and discharged with good general condition on fourth day. She was afebrile after two weeks follow-up. Dengue fever has been increasing among adults. It should be suspected, when a patient presents with acute febrile illness and skin rashes returning from endemic region. Conservative treatment may be conducted in uncomplicated cases .

  13. Obstacles Facing the Iranian Basketball Academy

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    Hamta Hadian

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study, which is a strategic study with a mixed research approach aimed to identify obstacles facing the academies of Iranian Basketball Federation. The population comprises board of directors and committees responsible for Education and Talent Spotting Association, academy administrators, physical education instructors, qualified experts, professors, coaches, referees and heads of delegations who were asked via interviews and questionnaire (exploratory manner to state internal and external obstacles facing basketball academies in following 8 components in order of importance utilizing the Delphi method: management and planning, training, human resources, financial resources, talent spotting, scientific and research and information technology, venues and infrastructures. Items were identified in 34 external and 49 internal factors. For weighting and prioritizing of items, the questionnaire was completed by 27 subjects employing AHP method based on pairwise comparisons. SPSS software version18 was utilized for descriptive statistics while AHP method in Expert Choice software was utilized for inferential statistics. At the end, a total of 11 executive strategies were proposed for removing the obstacles.

  14. Challenges of Implementing Iranian National Laboratory Standards

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    S Mahdavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available After four years of publishing the Iranian National Laboratory Standard and following a strategic plan to implement its requirements, it was decided to review the taken actions, evaluating the achievements and the failures, as well as analyzing the gaps and planning the interventional activities to resolve the problems. A thorough evaluation revealed that the progress of implementation process varies considerably in different provinces, as well as in laboratories in different public and private sectors. Diversity and heterogeneousity of laboratories throughout the country is one of unresolvable problems. Although we encounter shortage of resources in the country, improper allocation or distribution of resources and budgets make the problems more complicated. Inadequacy of academic training in laboratory sciences has resulted in necessity of holding comprehensive post-graduate training courses. Revising academic curriculum of laboratory sciences could be mostly helpful, moreover there should be organized, training courses with pre-determined practical topics. providing specific technical guidelines, to clarify the required technical details could temporarily fill the training gaps of laboratory staff. Inadequate number of competent auditors was one of the difficulties in universities. Another important challenge returns to laboratory equipment, developing the national controlling system to manage the laboratory equipment in terms of quality and accessibility has been planned in RHL. At last cultural problems and resistance to change are main obstacles that have reduced the pace of standardization, it needs to rationalize the necessity of establishing laboratory standards for all stakeholders.

  15. Psychosocial profile of Iranian adolescents' Internet addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Saghafi, Abolfazl

    2013-07-01

    In the present study, factors that could play an important role in Internet addiction (IA) in 4,177 Iranian high school and secondary school adolescents (age range: 14-19 years) were examined. Data for the present study were gathered through Young's IA test, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), and family relationship questionnaires distributed between high school and secondary school students in different demographic regions, carefully selected using multistage sampling techniques. Among the study participants, 21.1% of the students were in some way victims of IA, among whom 1.1% had significant problematic symptoms. Familial relationships was the most important factor related to IA; religious beliefs, moreover, was the second most important factor. The father's level of education was more important than that of the mother's by nearly twice as much. Other factors had important roles in the kind of Internet use, but not as much as the above mentioned factors. The findings of this study could help parents, school counselors, and teachers to pay more attention to excessive Internet use in adolescents and propose possible solutions.

  16. Challenges of implementing Iranian national laboratory standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safadel, N; Dahim, P; Anjarani, S; Rahnamaye Farzami, M; Samiee, S Mirab; Amini, R; Farsi, Sh; Mahdavi, S; Khodaverdian, K; Rashed Marandi, F

    2013-01-01

    After four years of publishing the Iranian National Laboratory Standard and following a strategic plan to implement its requirements, it was decided to review the taken actions, evaluating the achievements and the failures, as well as analyzing the gaps and planning the interventional activities to resolve the problems. A thorough evaluation revealed that the progress of implementation process varies considerably in different provinces, as well as in laboratories in different public and private sectors. Diversity and heterogeneousity of laboratories throughout the country is one of unresolvable problems. Although we encounter shortage of resources in the country, improper allocation or distribution of resources and budgets make the problems more complicated. Inadequacy of academic training in laboratory sciences has resulted in necessity of holding comprehensive post-graduate training courses. Revising academic curriculum of laboratory sciences could be mostly helpful, moreover there should be organized, training courses with pre-determined practical topics. providing specific technical guidelines, to clarify the required technical details could temporarily fill the training gaps of laboratory staff. Inadequate number of competent auditors was one of the difficulties in universities. Another important challenge returns to laboratory equipment, developing the national controlling system to manage the laboratory equipment in terms of quality and accessibility has been planned in RHL. At last cultural problems and resistance to change are main obstacles that have reduced the pace of standardization, it needs to rationalize the necessity of establishing laboratory standards for all stakeholders.

  17. Iranian Corporations and Corporate Social Responsibility

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    Hadi Chapardar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Comparative studies have demonstrated that the themes for corporate social responsibility (CSR initiatives are different among nations and geographic regions based on their cultural, political, legal, social, and economic contexts. In this research, which was conducted on 56 corporations from IMI100 (100 Iranian companies with highest annual sales, ranked by Industrial Management Institute or IMI, CSR themes in priority have been identified. Data collected from a semistructured questionnaire and some complementary interviews were analyzed against the results of a reference study over 100 companies from developed countries. The resulted themes, some of which may have several subthemes, were developed in three economic, environmental, and social categories. Beside these qualitative findings, two indices are constructed for indicating the “importance” of and “contribution” to each theme. The results and discussions are supposed to help business leaders, international companies inside Iran, governmental authorities, and researchers to improve CSR discussions and practices in the country where CSR undergoes a less structured platform.

  18. Adherence to Antihypertensive Medications in Iranian Patients

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    Azin Behnood-Rod

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Appropriate adherence to medication is still a challenging issue for hypertensive patients. We determined adherence to antihypertensive(s and its associated factors among 280 Iranian patients. Methods. They were recruited consecutively from private and university health centers and pharmacies in four cities. The validated Persian version of the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8 was administered to measure adherence. Results. Mean (±SD overall MMAS-8 score was 5.75 (±1.88. About half of the sample (139 cases, 49.6% showed low adherence (MMAS-8 score < 6. There was a negative linear association between the MMAS-8 score and systolic BP (r=-0.231, P<0.001 as well as diastolic BP (r=-0.280, P<0.001. In linear regression model, overweight/obesity (B=-0.52, P=0.02, previous history of admission to emergency services due to hypertensive crisis (B=-0.79, P=0.001, and getting medication directly from drugstore without refill prescription in hand (B=-0.51, P=0.04 were factors recognized to have statistically significant association with the MMAS-8 score. Conclusion. Antihypertensive adherence was unsatisfactory. We suggest that health care providers pay special attention and make use of the aforementioned findings in their routine visits of hypertensive patients to recognize those who are vulnerable to poor adherence.

  19. Iranian Permanent GPS Network for Geodynamics (IPGN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, F.; Nankali, H. R.; Sedighi, M.; Djamour, Y.; Mosavi, Z.

    2009-04-01

    Iran is one of the most tectonically active zone in Alpine-Himalayan seismic belt where has been shaken by largely destroying historical and instrumental earthquakes. Iran is located in the convergence zone between Arabia and Eurasia with a velocity of 22 mm/yr nearly to the North. The shortening between Arabian and Eurasian plates in Iran is mainly distributed on Zagros and Alborz belts. Despite the historical and scientific awareness of seismic hazard in Iran, unfortunately this country lacked a Continuous GPS network to study geodynamic and tectonic movements. Such geodetic measurement can play an important role to understand the tectonic deformation then to evaluate the seismic hazard on Iran. Since early 2005 National Cartographic Center of Iran (NCC) is establishing a continuous GPS network named Iranian Permanent GPS Network for Geodynamics (IPGN). Taking into account the number of provided GPS receivers, (108) we made a priority based on two factors of seismicity and population. At the first, in order to study general tectonic behavior in Iran 41 stations, globally distributed in whole of Iran, were been considered. Three other areas in the priority list were: Centeral Alborz, North-West of Iran and North-East of Iran. The rest of receivers, i.e. ~60, were considered for these areas as local networks. These four networks are daily processed and give us a continuous monitoring of any surface deformation. In this paper we try to present the results obtained from the network

  20. Investigating Iranian EFL learners’ writing metacognitive awareness

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    Parviz Maftoon

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available There has been a growing body of research in the few past decades on the role of metacognition in learning. In line with the evolution of research in the area of metacognition in education, there is a growing need for the better understanding the nature of the construct in foreign language (FL teaching especially writing skill. In an attempt to develop a model of writing metacognitive awareness, based on both Flavel’s (1987 and the two-dimensional dichotomy of knowledge and regulation of cognition (Brown, 1987; Jacobs & Paris, 1987; Schraw & Moshman, 1995, 59 English as a foreign language (EFL learners with different proficiency levels were divided into two novice and expert groups. After writing an essay, the participants took part in a semi-structured interview. The content analysis of the data as well as the related literature revealed a model for Iranian EFL learners’ writing metacognitive awareness in which knowledge of cognition with four subcomponents and regulation of cognition with five sub-components emerged.

  1. Dropout Reasons in Iranian Youth Roller Skaters

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    Hosein H E Y D A R I

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main drop - out reasons from the sport of roller skating amongst Iranian youth skaters has been examined. A questionnaire with 53 items (adopted from Enoksen, 2011 representing seven subscales namel y: training factors and facilities, executive factors and team, education and work obligations, motivational aspects, social - cultural environment, choice of other sport activities and interests and economic factors was especially developed for this researc h. Responses were measured on a Likert scale ranging from “strongly disagree” to “strongly agree” in relation to each statement. In all 11 2 skaters predominantly male (mean age 17.1, SD = 1.63 with a mean = 5.43 years of experience (SD = 2.92 that had di scontinued in the past two years completed the questionnaire. Results of one sample t - tests showed that all factors expect “social - cultural environment” are significant indicators for drop out from skating with “economical factors” scoring the highest rank ing. Correlational analysis showed that younger participants agree more strongly th at “executive factors and team” and “education and work obligations” were the best predictors of drop out. Those with fewer years of experience considered “training factors and facilities”, “motivational aspects and social and cultural environment” as more likely reasons for quitting. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  2. Adherence to Antihypertensive Medications in Iranian Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnood-Rod, Azin; Rabbanifar, Omid; Pourzargar, Pirouz; Rai, Alireza; Saadat, Zahra; Saadat, Habibollah; Moharamzad, Yashar; Morisky, Donald E

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Appropriate adherence to medication is still a challenging issue for hypertensive patients. We determined adherence to antihypertensive(s) and its associated factors among 280 Iranian patients. Methods. They were recruited consecutively from private and university health centers and pharmacies in four cities. The validated Persian version of the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8) was administered to measure adherence. Results. Mean (±SD) overall MMAS-8 score was 5.75 (±1.88). About half of the sample (139 cases, 49.6%) showed low adherence (MMAS-8 score obesity (B = -0.52, P = 0.02), previous history of admission to emergency services due to hypertensive crisis (B = -0.79, P = 0.001), and getting medication directly from drugstore without refill prescription in hand (B = -0.51, P = 0.04) were factors recognized to have statistically significant association with the MMAS-8 score. Conclusion. Antihypertensive adherence was unsatisfactory. We suggest that health care providers pay special attention and make use of the aforementioned findings in their routine visits of hypertensive patients to recognize those who are vulnerable to poor adherence.

  3. Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome in Iranian Female Athletes

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    Hamid Reza Baradaran

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS is the most common overuse syndrome in athletes. It is one of the causes of anterior knee pain in athletic population who come to the sports medicine clinic. Patellofemoral pain is more common among female athletes especially adolescents and young adults. Symptoms include: persistent pain behind the patella or peripatella. Pain increases on ascending and descending stairs and squatting and prolonged sitting. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of PFPS in Iranian female athletes. 418 female athletes aged 15-35 years were examined in five sports: Soccer (190, volleyball (103, running (42, fencing (45 and rock climbing (38. The athletes who had non- traumatic onset anterior knee pain of at least 3 months that increased in descending and ascending stairs and squatting, had no other causes of anterior knee pain such as ligament instability, bursitis, meniscal injury, tendonitis and arthritis and no history of knee surgery during the one past year were diagnosed as PFPS. 26/190 (13.68 % soccer players, 21/103(20.38 % volleyball players, 7/42 (16.66 % runners, 6/45(13.33 % fencers and 10/38 (26.31% rock climbers had patellofemoral pain. Among the 418 female athletes who were evaluated 70 had PFPS. Rock climbers were the most common athletes with PFPS followed by volleyball players and runners.

  4. Exercise prescription for Iranian midlife women

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    Khadigeh Mirzaii Najmabadi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Khadigeh Mirzaii NajmabadiShahroud University of Medical Sciences, Shahroud, IranObjectives: The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of a multimodal intervention (including the Women’s Wellness Program on increasing levels of physical activity in Iranian midlife women.Study design: This 12-week study was conducted in women aged 50–65 years living in the general population. Women who were allocated to the intervention group (n = 40 received an intervention, which combined a multimodal program of physical activity and health education. Women in the control group continued their normal physical activities (n = 45.Mean outcome measure: The women completed a questionnaire that included measures for items of interest for this analysis, such as menopausal status, sociodemographic, and exercise and activity levels.Results: Analysis of covariance indicated that the intervention was effective in improving women’s physical activity. The test showed that there was a significant difference between intervention and control in current vigorous activity.Conclusion: Physical activity should be encouraged for prevention and reduction of risks for chronic disease and for improvement of health in midlife women. The multimodal intervention program may offer implications for designing and implementing exercise interventions in further studies.Keywords: midlife women, intervention, physical activity, menopause

  5. Abundance, distribution and size structure of Diadema antillarum (Echinodermata: Diadematidae) in South Eastern Cuban coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Blanco, F; González Sansón, G; Pina Amargós, F; Clero Alonso, L

    2010-06-01

    The 1983-1984 mass mortality event of Diadema antillarum affected more than 93% of the total Caribbean population. Although there are no records about the status of Diadema populations before and after die-off on Cuban reefs, anecdotal information suggests that populations were struck. We analyzed spatial variation in the abundance and size structure of D. antillarum in 22 reefs sites in Jardines de la Reina, from June 2004 to September 2005. Counts of Diadema were performed in five 30x2 m transects at each sampling site and sampling time, and test diameters were measured in September 2005 at the same fore reefs. Abundances were higher at reef crests (mean densities 0.08-2.18 ind./m2), while reef slope populations reached a maximum site level of 0.13 ind./m2 at only one site and showed values up to three orders of magnitude lower than those from reef crests. Highest abundance occurred at the west margin of major channels between keys where larval recruitment seems to be favored by local oceanographic features and facilitated by the abundance of Echinometra lucunter. The size frequency distribution of D. antillarum indicates that recruitment began to be noticeable three years before September 2005, suggesting these populations were depleted in the past and they are recovering now.

  6. Hospitalization of Cuban children for giardiasis: a retrospective study in a paediatric hospital in Havana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo, A A; Almirall, P; Alfonso, M; Salazar, Y; Avila, I; Cimerman, S; Núñez, F A; Dawkins, I V

    2011-01-01

    The medical records of the 185 children who, in 2007, were admitted to the Academic Paediatric Hospital 'Centro Habana', in the Cuban capital of Havana, because of giardiasis were analysed retrospectively. A standardized form was used to collect data on the socio-demographic characteristics, clinical features, laboratory diagnosis, treatment and length of stay of each child. Information on the 15 children who had incomplete medical records was excluded from the data analysis. Of the remaining 170 children, 85 (50·0%) were aged 1-4 years, 97 (57·1%) were male, and 106 (62·4%), 92 (54·1%) and 69 (40·6%) had presented with diarrhoea, vomiting, and/or abdominal pain, respectively. Most (91·2%) of the cases had been diagnosed by the microscopical examination of a duodenal aspirate, and the drugs that had been most used frequently were quinacrine and tinidazole, which had been given to 72 (42·4%) and 62 (36·5%) of the cases, respectively. The mean length of hospital stay was 4·9 days. Such information on the clinical characteristics of giardiasis among children living in an endemic area may be valuable to paediatricians and public-health officials who wish to screen for the disease.

  7. Petrophysical Clasification of Different Rocks in Carbonate Reservoirs of the Northern Cuban Heavy Oil Belt

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    Odalys Reyes Paredes

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The permeability is one of the main parameters to classify the porosity environment, this parametercan't be measured by log's tools, and it has no direct relation with the total porosity. It is closely relatedto the kind of rock (size and distribution of particles. In the Northern Cuban Heavy Oil Belt (FNCPC,the reservoirs are made up of carbonate rocks (mudstone / wackestone, with fracture porosity andother types of porosity such as: joins of dissolution and estilolitos formed from diagenetic processes.The different formations frequently show heterogeneities that can be noticeable hindering their owncharacterization. The cores present a very poor recuperation and on numerous occasions recoveringonly intervals that don't contribute anything to the flow of fluids. The analysis about different kinds ofrocks is done in this article; it is conceived throughout data of cores and thin sections. The petrophysicalclassification of different kinds of rocks for carbonate reservoirs are established from the porosity andpermeability relationships and porosity environment structure.

  8. The Flowering and Bee-like Insurance, Economic Standards for the Cuban Apian’s Productions.

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    Remigio Eusebio Pérez Morejón

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work grasped Cuban archipelago with the purpose of promoting the financial protection in agricultural sector, giving options of security to the country Apian’s producers against incontrollable natural risks. A study of the hurricanes in Cuba was carried out, so as evaluation of danger, vulnerability and sensitivity of the Apian’s echo-systems (AE; the analysis of occurrence frequency (OF demonstrate that in Cuba doesn’t exist low dangerous zones for the hurricanes impact. Recovery of heavy losses has delayed very variable time intervals which oscillate between 3 to 34 months. Considerable damages could be confirmed in arboreous covering of the (AE. As final results were presented the apian insurance as an economical necessity standard to transfer risks before whips of climatic changes, expressed in the increase of number and intensity of the hurricanes and long drought. It is proved that the losses in this lapse of time are assumed by the insurance enterprise in a 70 %, which economically justify the fact of protecting the apian productions to guarantees of itself and it was demonstrated that it is necessary and feasible the application of the proposal of apian insure. To the development of this work were used analysis methods statistical and survey.

  9. Disaster management tool serving information reducing health disasters in animals and plants in Cuban

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    Haymee Canales Becerra

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The present article aims to disseminate the experiences of the information management work in REDesastres, the first telematic network of the Training Center for the Reduction of Animal and Plant Health Disasters (CEDESAP, attached to the National Center for Agricultural and Livestock Health (CENSA and Sponsored by the Ministry of Higher Education (MES and the National Civil Defense National Staff (EMNDC of Cuba. REDesastres provides informational support to all members of the network as a key factor for updating, timely decision making and active participation of all actors and sectors involved in the reduction of animal and plant health disasters. It has more than 510 destinations and enables the real-time interconnection of professionals, executives and officials from various Cuban and Latin American disciplines and institutions. Through the network, more than 1376 messages have been circulated with relevant up-to-date and commented information from health agencies and international news agencies, scientific publications and national sources on emerging, reemerging, transboundary diseases and disaster management.

  10. Management of Sigmoid Volvulus in Three General Community Hospitals of the Cuban Medical Mission in Bolivia

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    Jorge Luís Estepa Pérez

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sigmoid volvulus is an emergency that occurs very frequently in the South American Andean area hospitals. It accounts for over 50% of all intestinal obstructions and still retains high mortality rates. Objective: To characterize the management of sigmoid volvulus. Methods: A prospective and descriptive study was conducted including all patients with sigmoid volvulus who attended three general community hospitals of the Cuban medical mission in Bolivia from June 2006 to June 2007 and were treated trough general surgery. We analyzed the following variables: age, sex, medical history, surgical diagnosis, classification and type of surgery, surgery performed, evolution, complications, use of antibiotic-prophylaxis and admission to intensive care units. The information was obtained from medical records, operative reports and a data collector model. Results: Sigmoid volvulus occurred more frequently in the Yapacaní hospital, department of Santa Cruz; the predominant age group was that from 55 to 64 years old as well as the predominant sex was that of males. Chagas disease was detected in most of the patients studied. Among symptoms those that predominated were distension, abdominal pain and stool detention. Decompression, devolvulation and surgical treatment were the processes followed in all cases, being the Rankin-Mikulicz colostomy the most widely used. No patients underwent a second surgery, and there were no mortality rates. Conclusions: Decompression, devolvulation and surgical treatment were the processes followed in all cases, being the Rankin-Mikulicz colostomy the most widely used. Most patients had a satisfactory evolution.

  11. Diagnosis to Evaluate the Degree of the Customer’s Orientation in Cuban Enterprises.

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    Mirya Valdivia Hernández

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the enterprise world of today, the organizations that occupy privileged places in the market, offer their products in the proper place and moment, with competitive prices and the appropriate quality at minimum possible cost. The use of quality as a strategic weapon implies the development of an organizational culture through out the enterprise parts, guided to obtain a final product or service that not only satisfies the customers´ expectations, but enhances them. The customers´ orientation and quality management has been object of different theories and enterprises focuses, which through their evolution have converged to the costumer. In this work it is proposed the implementation of a Procedure, scientifically validated, to evaluate the costumer’s orientation, to contribute to improve the Quality Management in the Cuban enterprises. In the diagnosis procedure the customers´ criteria are identified, the degree of the costumer’s orientation is evaluated and the incidences that influence on the quality management are analyzed. Some actions were proposed based on the diagnosis´ results to the possible causes solution.

  12. NEW CONCEPTION OF THE REUTILIZATION OF SOLID WASTE FROM CUBAN NICKELIFEROUS HYDROMETALLURGICAL INDUSTRY

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    Rafael Quintana Puchol

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The acid and ammoniacal-carbonate hydrometallurgical industrial processes of the Cuban nickeliferous mines produce yearly, thousands tons of solid wastes, which are dumped in big waste dams that pollute the environment and, besides, they occupy big extensions of possible cultivated land areas. These hydrometallurgical tailings present appreciable contents of various minerals, which contain iron, aluminum, chrome, nickel, silicon, among other heavy metal elements. These nickel-ferriferous wastes constitute an attractive raw material source, which can be useful to obtain products of substantial demands and high use value. The aluminothermic process, using wastes (shavings and sawdust of the aluminum carpentry and this metal's scrap, offers an attractive metallurgical method for the elaboration of the nickeliferous solid waste. Alumino-pyrometallurgical process offers commendable economic and energetic saving advantages and, besides, does not produce residual solids; therefore, this method belongs to the cleaner-production range. By means of the aluminothermic process of these nickeliferous tailings, a similar metal to a white iron and a slag of alumina and various spiels type with high grade of abrasion are simultaneously obtained.

  13. Cobalt(III)-oxo cubane clusters as catalysts for oxidation of organic substrates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Birinchi Kumar Das; Rajesh Chakrabarty

    2011-03-01

    Transition metal coordination complexes play a vital role as catalysts in the oxidation of organic substrates including renewable chemicals in an economically viable and environmentally friendly way. Here we highlight the preparation, characterization and application of oxo-cubane complexes of cobalt(III) as oxidation catalysts using air and water as oxidants. Cobalt(III)-oxo complexes of the type Co4O4(O2CR)4L4 have been prepared by a general method and these have been characterized by analytical, spectroscopic, electrochemical and crystallographic methods. These soluble complexes have shown promising utility as catalysts in the aerobic oxidation of side chains of alkylaromatic hydrocarbon compounds. Oxidation of neat ethylbenzene has shown very high conversion and selectivity for acetophenone formation. On the other hand, oxidation of -xylene has been found to yield both -toluic acid and terephthalic acid. It is also possible to oxidize -xylene in an aqueous medium under moderate applied O2 pressure. Selective epoxidation of -pinene with air as the oxidant also takes place with the cobalt(III)-based homogeneous catalysts.

  14. Age, fertility and reproductive behavior in cuban crocodiles, Crocodylus rhombifer, at the Smithsonian's National Zoological Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, Lauren; Watkins, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The Smithsonian's National Zoological Park (NZP) has a long history with Cuban crocodiles, Crocodylus rhombifer, beginning in 1900's when the first animals arrived at the NZP. Today, the Zoo has two breeding groups of C. rhombifer and has observed and analyzed reproductive behavior and fertility rates over the last three years. Fertility rates were determined initially by observing the formation of an opaque band that forms on the shell of a fertile egg, called banding. The fertility rates by banding were later compared to the observation made after opening the eggs to verify fertility. In addition to tracking fertility, nesting and agonistic behavior were also observed. Several notable observations were documented over the same period. These included a male predating a nesting female's eggs, increased aggression between two females housed together, the continued development of a partially banded egg, and the discovery of 19 additional egg shells post oviposition by both females in the enclosure. Here we discuss the nest phenology, fertility and behavior of the five exhibited C. rhombifer at the Smithsonian's National Zoological Park over a 3-year period. Zoo Biol. 34:278-284, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals Inc.

  15. Nova como sistema operativo embebido para hardware cubano Nova as embedded operating system for cuban hardware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ernesto Torres Sánchez

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo expone los resultados de construir un sistema operativo embebido basado en Nova, el cual brinda las funcionalidades necesarias para crear el Cliente Ligero Cubano, utilizando como componente de hardware, la Computadora en una Tarjeta CID 300/9 diseñada por el Instituto Central de Investigación Digital. Obteniéndose la primera versión de Nova para la arquitectura de computadora Advanced RISC Machine y el primer sistema operativo base, estable y de propósito general para la CID 300/9. Se expone un estado del arte de los sistemas operativos embebidos más utilizados actualmente; la estructura de la solución, los métodos y herramientas empleados para obtenerla.This paper presents the results of the construction a an embedded operating system based on Nova, which provides the needed features to create the Cuban Thin Client, using as hardware component the Computer on a CID 300/9 Board designed by the Central Institute for Digital Research, obtaining the first version of Nova for the Advance RISC Machine  computer architecture and the first base operating system, stable and for general purposes for the CID 300/9. A state of the art of the currently most used embedded operating systems, the solution's structure, the methods and tools used for its development are presented.

  16. Nova as embedded operating system for cuban hardware Nova como sistema operativo embebido para hardware cubano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijail Hurtado Fedorovich

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the construction a an embedded operating system based on Nova, which provides the needed features to create the Cuban Thin Client, using as hardware component the Computer on a CID 300/9 Board designed by the Central Institute for Digital Research, obtaining the first version of Nova for the Advance RISC Machine  computer architecture and the first base operating system, stable and for general purposes for the CID 300/9. A state of the art of the currently most used embedded operating systems, the solution's structure, the methods and tools used for its development are presented. Este trabajo expone los resultados de construir un sistema operativo embebido basado en Nova, el cual brinda las funcionalidades necesarias para crear el Cliente Ligero Cubano, utilizando como componente de hardware, la Computadora en una Tarjeta CID 300/9 diseñada por el Instituto Central de Investigación Digital. Obteniéndose la primera versión de Nova para la arquitectura de computadora Advanced RISC Machine y el primer sistema operativo base, estable y de propósito general para la CID 300/9. Se expone un estado del arte de los sistemas operativos embebidos más utilizados actualmente; la estructura de la solución, los métodos y herramientas empleados para obtenerla.

  17. Hospitalization of Cuban children for giardiasis: a retrospective study in a paediatric hospital in Havana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo, A A; Almirall, P; Alfonso, M; Salazar, Y; Ávila, I; Cimerman, S; Núñez, F A; Dawkins, I V

    2011-01-01

    The medical records of the 185 children who, in 2007, were admitted to the Academic Paediatric Hospital ‘Centro Habana’, in the Cuban capital of Havana, because of giardiasis were analysed retrospectively. A standardized form was used to collect data on the socio–demographic characteristics, clinical features, laboratory diagnosis, treatment and length of stay of each child. Information on the 15 children who had incomplete medical records was excluded from the data analysis. Of the remaining 170 children, 85 (50.0%) were aged 1–4 years, 97 (57.1%) were male, and 106 (62.4%), 92 (54.1%) and 69 (40.6%) had presented with diarrhoea, vomiting, and/or abdominal pain, respectively. Most (91.2%) of the cases had been diagnosed by the microscopical examination of a duodenal aspirate, and the drugs that had been most used frequently were quinacrine and tinidazole, which had been given to 72 (42.4%) and 62 (36.5%) of the cases, respectively. The mean length of hospital stay was 4.9 days. Such information on the clinical characteristics of giardiasis among children living in an endemic area may be valuable to paediatricians and public-health officials who wish to screen for the disease. PMID:21294948

  18. Microsatellite typing and susceptibilities of serial Cryptococcus neoformans isolates from Cuban patients with recurrent cryptococcal meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaassen Corné HW

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cryptococcus neoformans is commonly associated with meningoencephalitis in immunocompromised patients and occasionally in apparently healthy individuals. Recurrence of infection after initial treatment is not uncommon. We studied C. neoformans isolates from 7 Cuban patients with recurrent cryptococcal meningitis. Antifungal susceptibility and genotyping with microsatellite molecular typing were carried out. Methods Isolates (n = 19 were recovered from cerebrospinal fluid, blood, urine and semen. Antifungal susceptibilities for amphotericin B, fluconazole, flucytosine, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole and isavuconazole were tested by CLSI M27A3 broth microdilution method. Genotyping was done using a panel of 9 microsatellite (STR markers: (CTn, (TGn, (TAn, (CTAn, (TCTn, (CCAn, (TTATn, (ATCCn and (TATTn. Results The average number of isolates/patient was 2.71. The mean time interval between the collection of any two isolates was 52.5 days. All strains were identified as C. neoformans var. grubii (serotype Aα. Although none of the strains were resistant to the studied drugs, in serial isolates from two patients, MICs values of triazoles increased 4-5 log2 dilutions over time. STR patterns showed 14 distinctive profiles. In three patients the recurrent infection was associated with genotypically identical isolates. The four other patients had relapse isolates which were genotypically different from the initial infecting strain. Conclusion Recurrences of cryptococcal meningitis in our series of patients was not associated with development of drug resistance of the original strain but by an initial infection with different strains or a reinfection with a new strain.

  19. Asymbiotic germination in vitro in seeds of four species of Cuban orchids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loexis Rodríguez

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available About the most of 300 species of Cuban native orchids is have few reference of the micropropagation in the science literature. However, the biotechnical techniques fulfill an important acting in the rescue of threatened species. By that in the laboratory of Vegetable Biotechnology of the Mountain Development Center in Guantanamo, aspects related with the germination were studied in vitro of Campylocentrum micrantrum, Encyclia cochleata, Epidendrum difforme and Oceoclade maculata using the salts of the culture medium Murashige and Skoog (1962 and Knudson (1946, increasing with activate charcoal (0; 1; 2 g.l-1, Agar tachnical No. 3 6 g.l-1 and the adjusted pH at 5.6. The seeds was incubated under conditions of 16 hours light to intensity of 27 uMol.m².s-¹ and 24 ± 1 °C. The reached results showed that the germination of the studied species was obtained under different times and conditions of the medium of cultivation where it stood out for the smallest time used for the germination Encyclia cochleata to the eight weeks in the salts of Murashige and Skoog (1962 and without the addition of activated charcoal, as long as Oceoclade maculata needed 24 weeks to germinate. Key words: antioxidante, biotechnology, flowers, micropropagación, native species

  20. Tratamiento térmico de acero cubano // Thermal treatment of cuban steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Caballero Stevens

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se muestran algunos de los resultados obtenidos durante la investigación de un nuevo acero cubano que sepretende destinar a la fabricación de elementos de corte para máquinas combinadas cortadoras de caña de azúcar,herramientas de mano y otras piezas de gran responsabilidad que requieren elevada dureza para su trabajo. En el trabajo sepresentan los aspectos principales que relacionan la composición química, microestructura y dureza de este acero. Seestablecen experimentalmente las temperaturas de los puntos críticos para definir los regímenes de tratamiento térmico. Seincluye el comportamiento de las propiedades de dureza ante diferentes regímenes de tratamiento térmico.Palabras claves: Acero, recocido, temple, revenido, martensita, dureza________________________________________________________________________________AbstractIn this article are shown some of the results obtained during the investigation of a new cuban steel that it is going to beused in the manufacture of blades for cane cutting machines, hand tools and other part of great responsibility that requirehigh hardness for the job.In the article are presented the principles aspects of quimical composition, microstructure and hardness of this steel. Thereare stablished experimentally the temperature of the critic points in order to determine the regimes of the thermal treatment.The behavior of the properties of hardness is included at different regimes of thermal treatment.Key words: Steel, thermal treatment, quenching, tempering, hardness.

  1. Quasinormal modes and Regge poles of the canonical acoustic hole

    CERN Document Server

    Dolan, Sam R; Crispino, Luis C B

    2014-01-01

    We compute the quasinormal mode frequencies and Regge poles of the canonical acoustic hole (a black hole analogue), using three methods. First, we show how damped oscillations arise by evolving generic perturbations in the time domain using a simple finite-difference scheme. We use our results to estimate the fundamental QN frequencies of the low multipolar modes $l=1, 2, \\ldots$. Next, we apply an asymptotic method to obtain an expansion for the frequency in inverse powers of $l+1/2$ for low overtones. We test the expansion by comparing against our time-domain results, and (existing) WKB results. The expansion method is then extended to locate the Regge poles. Finally, to check the expansion of Regge poles we compute the spectrum numerically by direct integration in the frequency domain. We give a geometric interpretation of our results and comment on experimental verification.

  2. Ising Spectroscopy II: Particles and poles at T>Tc

    CERN Document Server

    Zamolodchikov, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    I discuss particle content of the Ising field theory (the scaling limit of the Ising model in a magnetic field), in particular the evolution of its mass spectrum under the change of the scaling parameter. I consider both real and pure imaginary magnetic field. Here I address the high-temperature regime, where the spectrum of stable particles is relatively simple (there are from one to three particles, depending on the parameter). My goal is to understand analytic continuations of the masses to the domain of the parameter where they no longer exist as the stable particles. I use the natural tool -- the $2\\to 2$ elastic scattering amplitude, with its poles associated with the stable particles, virtual and resonance states in a standard manner. Concentrating attention on the "real" poles (those corresponding to stable and virtual states) I propose a scenario on how the pattern of the poles evolves from the integrable point $T=T_c,\\ H\

  3. A HIGH PERFORMANCE OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUE FOR POLE BALANCING PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahadır KARASULU

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available High performance computing techniques can be used effectively for solution of the complex scientific problems. Pole balancing problem is a basic benchmark tool of robotic field, which is an important field of Artificial Intelligence research areas. In this study, a solution is developed for pole balancing problem using Artificial Neural Network (ANN and high performance computation technique. Algorithm, that basis of the Reinforcement Learning method which is used to find the force of pole's balance, is transfered to parallel environment. In Implementation, C is preferred as programming language and Message Passing Interface (MPI is used for parallel computation technique. Self–Organizing Map (SOM ANN model's neurons (artificial neural nodes and their weights are distributed to six processors of a server computer which equipped with each quad core processor (total 24 processors. In this way, performance values are obtained for different number of artificial neural nodes. Success of method based on results is discussed.

  4. Global plate tectonics and the secular motion of the pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, T.

    1977-01-01

    Astronomical data compiled during the last 70 years by the international organizations providing the coordinates of the instantaneous pole clearly shows a persistent drift of the mean pole. The differential contributions to the earth's second-order tensor of inertia were obtained and applied, resulting in no significant displacement of the earth's principal axis. In view of the above, the effect that theoretical geophysical models for absolute plate velocities may have on an apparent displacement of the mean pole as a consequence of station drifting was analyzed. The investigation also reports new values for the crustal tensor of inertia (assuming an ellipsoidal earth) and the orientation of its axis of figure, reopening the old speculation of a possible sliding of the whole crustover the upper mantle, including the supporting geophysical and astronomic evidence.

  5. PLANNING THE QUALITY OF LIFE FOR TIMISOARA GROWTH POLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălina-Livia POPA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to show that planning the quality of life at local level through economic development can be a new approach for policy makers and community in improving quality of life. In this purpose, the Quality Function Deployment (QFD model will be use to planning the quality of life and to identify the main directions of economic development to support improving the quality of life at the level of Timisoara Growth Pole from Romania. The dimensions of quality of life are analyzed starting from the point of view of inhabitants. The results include a new approach in which the dimensions of quality of life are the key element that orients economic development in order to improve the quality of life of human being. The case study results refer to the main elements of quality of life at Timisoara Growth Pole and the relevant directions of economic development to improve the quality of life for Timisoara Growth Pole.

  6. Electromagnetic Radial Forces in a Hybrid Eight-Stator-Pole, Six-Rotor-Pole Bearingless Switched-Reluctance Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Carlos R.; Siebert, Mark W.; Ho, Eric J.

    2007-01-01

    Analysis and experimental measurement of the electromagnet force loads on the hybrid rotor in a novel bearingless switched-reluctance motor (BSRM) have been performed. A BSRM has the combined characteristics of a switched-reluctance motor and a magnetic bearing. The BSRM has an eight-pole stator and a six-pole hybrid rotor, which is composed of circular and scalloped lamination segments. The hybrid rotor is levitated using only one set of stator poles. A second set of stator poles imparts torque to the scalloped portion of the rotor, which is driven in a traditional switched reluctance manner by a processor. Analysis was done for nonrotating rotor poles that were oriented to achieve maximum and minimum radial force loads on the rotor. The objective is to assess whether simple one-dimensional magnetic circuit analysis is sufficient for preliminary evaluation of this machine, which may exhibit strong three-dimensional electromagnetic field behavior. Two magnetic circuit geometries, approximating the complex topology of the magnetic fields in and around the hybrid rotor, were employed in formulating the electromagnetic radial force equations. Reasonable agreement between the experimental results and the theoretical predictions was obtained with typical magnetic bearing derating factors applied to the predictions.

  7. NON-FUNCTIONAL SHOPPING MOTIVES AMONG IRANIAN CONSUMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahriar AZIZI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore the non functional shopping motives among Iranian consumers. In addition, the effects of marital status, gender, age and residential region as an indicator for social class on the non-functional shopping motives are investigated. This paper uses a self-reported and 15 items questionnaire. The analysis is done based on 363 returned and usable questionnaires. Multivariate analysis of variance is applied for this study. MANOVA results show that marital status, gender, age and region have different significant effects on the non-functional shopping motives among Iranian consumers.

  8. Sleep Problems Under-Reported by Parents in Iranian Children

    OpenAIRE

    Shahla Afsharpaiman; Ali Bagheri Hagh; Mohammad Kolbadi Nejad; Susan Amirsalari; Mohammad Torkaman

    2015-01-01

    Sleep problems are common in childhood, but there are limited studies regarding that in Iranian children and awareness of the sleep problems and their complication in Iranian parents. We arranged this study in which parents of children attending for a sick visit or routine growth control to assess whether sleep problems are under-reported at general pediatric visits. In a cross - a sectional study from April 2010 to April 2011 in 301 children aged 2-14 years old attending to pediatric clinics...

  9. Bacterial scaffold directs pole-specific centromere segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptacin, Jerod L; Gahlmann, Andreas; Bowman, Grant R; Perez, Adam M; von Diezmann, Alexander R S; Eckart, Michael R; Moerner, W E; Shapiro, Lucy

    2014-05-13

    Bacteria use partitioning systems based on the ParA ATPase to actively mobilize and spatially organize molecular cargoes throughout the cytoplasm. The bacterium Caulobacter crescentus uses a ParA-based partitioning system to segregate newly replicated chromosomal centromeres to opposite cell poles. Here we demonstrate that the Caulobacter PopZ scaffold creates an organizing center at the cell pole that actively regulates polar centromere transport by the ParA partition system. As segregation proceeds, the ParB-bound centromere complex is moved by progressively disassembling ParA from a nucleoid-bound structure. Using superresolution microscopy, we show that released ParA is recruited directly to binding sites within a 3D ultrastructure composed of PopZ at the cell pole, whereas the ParB-centromere complex remains at the periphery of the PopZ structure. PopZ recruitment of ParA stimulates ParA to assemble on the nucleoid near the PopZ-proximal cell pole. We identify mutations in PopZ that allow scaffold assembly but specifically abrogate interactions with ParA and demonstrate that PopZ/ParA interactions are required for proper chromosome segregation in vivo. We propose that during segregation PopZ sequesters free ParA and induces target-proximal regeneration of ParA DNA binding activity to enforce processive and pole-directed centromere segregation, preventing segregation reversals. PopZ therefore functions as a polar hub complex at the cell pole to directly regulate the directionality and destination of transfer of the mitotic segregation machine.

  10. Poles Living in Ireland and their Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka NOLKA

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The economic growth of Ireland resulted in a significant number of Poles migrating to Ireland following the EU enlargement in 2004. The article explores the quality of life of Poles living in Ireland. Using data from a preliminary survey conducted in 2006, several dimensions of living conditions are analysed, including interpersonal relations, material security, health and healthcare. The study shows that evaluations of almost all aspects of quality of life improved, apart from components such as healthcare and the ability to acquire help from social organisations. Also interpersonal relations, contrary to the initial assumption, were enhanced by migration to Ireland.

  11. Express method of construction of accurate inverse pole figures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlovich, Yu; Isaenkova, M.; Fesenko, V.

    2016-04-01

    With regard to metallic materials with the FCC and BCC crystal lattice a new method for constructing the X-ray texture inverse pole figures (IPF) by using tilt curves of spinning sample, characterized by high accuracy and rapidity (express), was proposed. In contrast to the currently widespread method to construct IPF using orientation distribution function (ODF), synthesized in several partial direct pole figures, the proposed method is based on a simple geometrical interpretation of a measurement procedure, requires a minimal operating time of the X-ray diffractometer.

  12. Multiobjective H2/H? Control Design with Regional Pole Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaidi Junaidi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents multiobjective H2/H? control design with regional pole constraints. The state feedback gain can be obtained by solving a linear matrix inequality (LMI feasibility problem that robustly assigns the closed-loop poles in a prescribed LMI region. The proposed technique is illustrated with applications to the design of stabilizer for a typical single-machine infinite-bus (SMIB power system. The LMI-based control ensures adequate damping for widely varying system operating conditions. The simulation results illustrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed stabilizer.

  13. Regional pole assignment for uncertain delta-operator systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Man LIU; Yuanwei JING; Siying ZHANG

    2004-01-01

    The pole assignment in a specified disk by state feedback for uncertain delta-operator systems is studied.By making use of algebra Riccati equations,a sufficient and necessary condition of pole assignment for a kind of parameter uncertain delta-operator system in a specified disk by state feedback is presented.And the design method of state feedback controller is also developed.The proposed method can unify some previous related results of continuous and discrete time systems into the delta framework.The efficiency of the design method is illustrated by a numerical example.

  14. Multichannel Anomaly of the Resonance Pole Parameters Resolved

    OpenAIRE

    Ceci, Sasa; Stahov, Jugoslav; Svarc, Alfred; Watson, Shon; Zauner, Branimir

    2006-01-01

    Inspired by anomalies which the standard scattering matrix pole-extraction procedures have produced in a mathematically well defined coupled-channel model, we have developed a new method based solely on the assumption of partial-wave analyticity. The new method is simple and applicable not only to theoretical predictions but to the empirical partial-wave data as well. Since the standard pole-extraction procedures turn out to be the lowest-order term of the proposed method the anomalies are un...

  15. Model for Formation of Dunes at the North Martian Pole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Jie; CHEN Chu-Xin

    2010-01-01

    @@ The Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera(MOC)took images of a series of strange horseshoe-shaped dunes at the North Martian pole in 2004.These dunes would be formed due to the strong Martian winds whose pattern is different from that on the Earth.We study the cause of the formation of these dunes and make a model for them.In this model,wind speed near the north Martian pole can be evaluated based on the shape of the dunes.We also estimate the surpassing speed of dunes of different sizes.

  16. Multichannel Anomaly of the Resonance Pole Parameters Resolved

    CERN Document Server

    Ceci, S; Svarc, A; Watson, S; Zauner, B; Ceci, Sasa; Stahov, Jugoslav; Svarc, Alfred; Watson, Shon; Zauner, Branimir

    2006-01-01

    Inspired by anomalies which the standard scattering matrix pole-extraction procedures have produced in a mathematically well defined coupled-channel model, we have developed a new method based solely on the assumption of partial-wave analyticity. The new method is simple and applicable not only to theoretical predictions but to the empirical partial-wave data as well. Since the standard pole-extraction procedures turn out to be the lowest-order term of the proposed method the anomalies are understood and resolved.

  17. Role of pion pole in hard exlusive meson leptoproduction

    CERN Document Server

    Goloskokov, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    We consider the pion pole contribution and transversity effects determined by the $H_T$ and $\\bar E_T$ Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) which are essential in hard pseudoscalar and vector meson leptoproduction. We investigate spin effects in the $\\omega$ and $\\rho^0$ reactions. It is shown that the pion pole contribution is very important in the $\\omega$ production. Such effects in the $\\rho^0$ channel are much smaller. Our results on spin asymmetries and spin density matrix elements in these reactions were found to be in good agreement with HERMES data.

  18. Nontraumatic osteonecrosis of the distal pole of the scaphoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavuk Garg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Post traumatic osteonecrosis of distal pole of scaphoid is very rare. We present a case of 34 years old male, drill operator by occupation with nontraumatic osteonecrosis of distal pole of the scaphoid. The patient was managed conservatively and was kept under regular follow-up every three months. The patient was also asked to change his profession. Two years later, the patient had no pain and had mild restriction of wrist movements (less than 15 degrees in either direction. The radiographs revealed normal density of the scaphoid suggesting revascularization.

  19. Induction Motor with Switchable Number of Poles and Toroidal Winding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUNTEANU, A.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of an induction motor provided with toroidal stator winding. The ring-type coils offer a higher versatility in obtaining a different number of pole pairs by means of delta/star and series/parallel connections respectively. As consequence, the developed torque can vary within large limits and the motor can be utilized for applications that require, for example, high load torque values for a short time. The study involves experimental tests and FEM simulation for an induction machine with three configurations of pole pairs. The conclusions attest the superiority of the toroidal winding for certain applications such as electric vehicles or lifting machines.

  20. From 'third pole' to north pole: a Himalayan origin for the arctic fox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoming; Tseng, Zhijie Jack; Li, Qiang; Takeuchi, Gary T; Xie, Guangpu

    2014-07-22

    The 'third pole' of the world is a fitting metaphor for the Himalayan-Tibetan Plateau, in allusion to its vast frozen terrain, rivalling the Arctic and Antarctic, at high altitude but low latitude. Living Tibetan and arctic mammals share adaptations to freezing temperatures such as long and thick winter fur in arctic muskox and Tibetan yak, and for carnivorans, a more predatory niche. Here, we report, to our knowledge, the first evolutionary link between an Early Pliocene (3.60-5.08 Myr ago) fox, Vulpes qiuzhudingi new species, from the Himalaya (Zanda Basin) and Kunlun Mountain (Kunlun Pass Basin) and the modern arctic fox Vulpes lagopus in the polar region. A highly hypercarnivorous dentition of the new fox bears a striking resemblance to that of V. lagopus and substantially predates the previous oldest records of the arctic fox by 3-4 Myr. The low latitude, high-altitude Tibetan Plateau is separated from the nearest modern arctic fox geographical range by at least 2000 km. The apparent connection between an ancestral high-elevation species and its modern polar descendant is consistent with our 'Out-of-Tibet' hypothesis postulating that high-altitude Tibet was a training ground for cold-environment adaptations well before the start of the Ice Age.

  1. Request Strategy Development in Iranian Study Abroaders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Rasouli Khorshidi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This longitudinal study empirically investigated the development of request strategies in Iranian study abroaders. More specifically, this study aimed at exploring if length of stay in L2 context impacts learners’ number and type of strategies. To this end, 72 students who registered in a six month study abroad program and 60 native speakers from U.S. Britain, Australia, and Canada agreed to participate in the present study. The learners in this investigation were tested at three phases. In the first phase, the study abroad (SA group was given a Discourse Completion Task (DCT at the beginning of the program as a pre-test. Three months later the same test was administered to the learners as post-test 1 and subsequently at the end of the program once again the test was given to the learners as post-test 2 in order to measure their achievement after three and six months sojourn. The native speakers were also asked to fill the DCT in order to compare the learners’ responses to the native speakers’. Finally, through comparing the learners’ performances in pre-test and post-tests with each other and with the native speakers’, it was found out that first, majority of learners and native speakers used conventionally indirect strategies in their request utterances, second, the number of strategies used by the students steadily increased over time from pre-test to the first and second post-test and third, the type of request strategies used by learners changed to be native like at the end of their sojourn.Keywords: interlanguage pragmatics, pragmatic competence, request strategies, speech acts, study abroad

  2. Maternal Origin of Turkish and Iranian Native Chickens Inferred from Mitochondrial DNA D-loop Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Meydan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available To assess genetic diversity and maternal origin of Turkish and Iranian native chicken breeds, we analyzed the mtDNA D-loop sequences of 222 chickens from 2 Turkish (Denizli and Gerze and 7 Iranian (White Marandi, Black Marandi, Naked Neck, Common Breed, Lari, West Azarbaijan, and New Hampshire native chicken breeds, together with the available reference sequences of G. gallus gallus in GenBank. The haplotype diversity was estimated as 0.24±0.01 and 0.36±0.02 for Turkish and Iranian populations, respectively. In total, 19 haplotypes were observed from 24 polymorphic sites in Turkish and Iranian native chicken populations. Two different clades or haplogroups (A and E were found in Turkish and Iranian chickens. Clade A haplotypes were found only in White Marandi, Common Breed and New Hampshire populations. Clade E haplotypes, which are quite common, were observed in Turkish and Iranian populations with 18 different haplotypes, of which Turkish and Iranian chickens, Clade E, haplotype 1 (TRIRE1 was a major haplotype with the frequency of 81.5% (181/222 across all breeds. Compared to red jungle fowl, Turkish and Iranian chicken breeds are closely related to each other. These results suggest that Turkish and Iranian chickens originated from the same region, the Indian subcontinent. Our results will provide reliable basic information for mtDNA haplotypes of Turkish and Iranian chickens and for studying the origin of domestic chickens.

  3. Maternal Origin of Turkish and Iranian Native Chickens Inferred from Mitochondrial DNA D-loop Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meydan, Hasan; Jang, Cafer Pish; Yıldız, Mehmet Ali; Weigend, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    To assess genetic diversity and maternal origin of Turkish and Iranian native chicken breeds, we analyzed the mtDNA D-loop sequences of 222 chickens from 2 Turkish (Denizli and Gerze) and 7 Iranian (White Marandi, Black Marandi, Naked Neck, Common Breed, Lari, West Azarbaijan, and New Hampshire) native chicken breeds, together with the available reference sequences of G. gallus gallus in GenBank. The haplotype diversity was estimated as 0.24±0.01 and 0.36±0.02 for Turkish and Iranian populations, respectively. In total, 19 haplotypes were observed from 24 polymorphic sites in Turkish and Iranian native chicken populations. Two different clades or haplogroups (A and E) were found in Turkish and Iranian chickens. Clade A haplotypes were found only in White Marandi, Common Breed and New Hampshire populations. Clade E haplotypes, which are quite common, were observed in Turkish and Iranian populations with 18 different haplotypes, of which Turkish and Iranian chickens, Clade E, haplotype 1 (TRIRE1) was a major haplotype with the frequency of 81.5% (181/222) across all breeds. Compared to red jungle fowl, Turkish and Iranian chicken breeds are closely related to each other. These results suggest that Turkish and Iranian chickens originated from the same region, the Indian subcontinent. Our results will provide reliable basic information for mtDNA haplotypes of Turkish and Iranian chickens and for studying the origin of domestic chickens. PMID:27189637

  4. Catapult effect in pole vaulting: is muscle coordination determinant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frère, Julien; Göpfert, Beat; Hug, François; Slawinski, Jean; Tourny-Chollet, Claire

    2012-02-01

    This study focused on the phase between the time of straightened pole and the maximum height (HP) of vaulter and aimed at determining the catapult effect in pole vaulting on HP. Seven experienced vaulters performed 5-10 vaults recorded by two video cameras, while the surface electromyography (sEMG) activity of 10 upper limbs muscles was recorded. HP was compared with an estimated maximum height (HP(est)) allowing the computation of a push-off index. Muscle synergies were extracted from the sEMG activity profiles using a non-negative matrix factorization algorithm. No significant difference (p>0.47) was found between HP(est) (4.64±0.21m) and HP (4.69±0.23m). Despite a high inter-individual variability in sEMG profiles, two muscle synergies were extracted for all the subjects which accounted for 96.1±2.9% of the total variance. While, the synergy activation coefficients were very similar across subjects, a higher variability was found in the muscle synergy vectors. Consequently, whatever the push-off index among the pole vaulters, the athletes used different muscle groupings (i.e., muscle synergy vectors) which were activated in a similar fashion (i.e., synergy activation coefficients). Overall, these results suggested that muscle coordination adopted between the time of straightened pole and the maximum height does not have a major influence on HP.

  5. Design and performance of the South Pole Acoustic Test Setup

    CERN Document Server

    Abdou, Yasser; Berdermann, Jens; Bissok, Martin; Bohm, Christian; Boeser, Sebastian; Bothe, Martin; Carson, Michael; Descamps, Freija; Fischer-Wolfarth, Jan-Hendrik; Gustafsson, Leif; Hallgren, Allan; Heinen, Dirk; Helbing, Klaus; Heller, Reinhart; Hundertmark, Stephan; Karg, Timo; Krieger, Kevin; Laihem, Karim; Meures, Thomas; Nahnhauer, Rolf; Naumann, Uwe; Oberson, Filip; Paul, Larissa; Pohl, Mario; Price, Buford; Ribordy, Mathieu; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Schunck, Matthias; Semburg, Benjamin; Stegmaier, Jutta; Sulanke, Karl-Heinz; Tosi, Delia; Vandenbroucke, Justin; Wiebusch, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    The South Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS) was built to evaluate the acoustic characteristics of the South Pole ice in the 10 kHz to 100 kHz frequency range, for the purpose of assessing the feasibility of an acoustic neutrino detection array at the South Pole. The SPATS hardware consists of four vertical strings deployed in the upper 500 m of the South Pole ice cap. The strings form a trapezoidal array with a maximum baseline of 543 m. Each string has 7 stages equipped with one transmitter and one sensor module. Sound is detected or generated by piezoelectric ceramic elements inside the modules. Analogue signals are sent to the surface on electric cables where they are digitized by a PC-based data acquisition system. The data from all strings are collected on a central computer in the IceCube Laboratory from where they are send to a central data storage facility via a satellite link or stored locally on tape. A technical overview of SPATS and its performance is presented.

  6. Families of Poles in the Netherlands (FPN) survey. Wave 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karpinska, K.; Dykstra, P.A.; Fokkema, T.

    2016-01-01

    The release of formal restrictions on the free movement of Central and Eastern Europeans that started with the end of the Cold War and the eastward enlargement of the European Union in the 2000s have led to new migration flows in Europe. In the Netherlands, in absolute terms, Poles are the largest g

  7. Liz Taylor : minu van Gogh pole natsidele kuulunud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Elizabeth Taylor palus kohtult otsust, et talle kuuluvat 15 miljonit dollarit maksvat Vincent van Goghi maali "Vaade Saint-Remy varjupaigale" pole natsid Margarete Mauthneri juudiperekonna käest vägivaldselt ära võtnud. E. Taylori isa ostis maali 1963. a. Londonis oksjonilt

  8. Pole-Based Approximation of the Fermi-Dirac Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin LIN; Jianfeng LU; Lexing YING; Weinan E

    2009-01-01

    Two approaches for the efficient rational approximation of the Fermi-Dirac function are discussed: one uses the contour integral representation and conformal map-ping, and the other is based on a version of the multipole representation of the Fermi-Dirac function that uses only simple poles. Both representations have logarithmic computational complexity. They are of great interest for electronic structure calculations.

  9. ENPA endine juht seisukohti muutnud pole / Hendrik Vosman

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vosman, Hendrik

    2008-01-01

    Eelmisel aastal Eestit vähemuste diskrimineerimises süüdistanud Euroopa Nõukogu Parlamentaarse Assamblee endine esimees Rene van der Linden pole oma seisukohta muutnud ning usub endiselt, et tema jutt inimõiguste rikkumiste kohta Eestis peab paika. Vt. samas: Van der Linden

  10. Liz Taylor : minu van Gogh pole natsidele kuulunud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Elizabeth Taylor palus kohtult otsust, et talle kuuluvat 15 miljonit dollarit maksvat Vincent van Goghi maali "Vaade Saint-Remy varjupaigale" pole natsid Margarete Mauthneri juudiperekonna käest vägivaldselt ära võtnud. E. Taylori isa ostis maali 1963. a. Londonis oksjonilt

  11. Poling process optimization of piezo nano composite PZT/polimer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridlo, M. Rosyid; Lestari, Titik; Mardiyanto, Oemry, Achiar

    2013-09-01

    The objective of poling process is to make the electric dipole directions to be parallel in the inside perovskite crystal of piezo materials. In simply way, poling was carried out by giving the two sides of a piezo material by highly electrical potential. More parallel of electrical dipoles, it is more strength the piezo characteristics. The optimization involved control of temperature, time depth and the electrical voltage. The samples was prepared by solgel method with precursor tetrabutyl titanat Ti(OC4H9)4, zirconium nitrat Zr(NO3)4ṡ5H2O, Pb(CH3COO)2ṡ3H2O and solution ethylene glycol. Molar ratio Pb:Zr:Ti = 1,1:0,52:0,48 with concidering lossed Pb. Result of solgel process is nano powder PZT. The formed nano powder PZT was then mixed with polimer PVDF and pressed 10 MPa at 150 °C with the size 15 mm in diameter. After poling, piezoelectric constant d33 was measured. The highest d33 = 45 pC/N was found at poling parameters V = 5 kV/ mm, T = 120 °C dan time depth = 1 hours.

  12. Design and performance of the South Pole Acoustic Test Setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdou, Y. [Department of Subatomic and Radiation Physics, University of Gent, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Becker, K.-H. [Department of Physics, University of Wuppertal, D-42119 Wuppertal (Germany); Berdermann, J. [DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen (Germany); Bissok, M. [III. Physikalisches Institut, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen (Germany); Bohm, C. [Oskar Klein Centre and Department of Physics, Stockholm University, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Boeser, S.; Bothe, M. [DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen (Germany); Carson, M. [Department of Subatomic and Radiation Physics, University of Gent, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Descamps, F., E-mail: Freija.Descamps@icecube.wisc.edu [Department of Subatomic and Radiation Physics, University of Gent, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Fischer-Wolfarth, J.-H. [DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen (Germany); Gustafsson, L.; Hallgren, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, S-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Heinen, D. [III. Physikalisches Institut, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen (Germany); Helbing, K. [Department of Physics, University of Wuppertal, D-42119 Wuppertal (Germany); Heller, R. [DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen (Germany); Hundertmark, S. [Oskar Klein Centre and Department of Physics, Stockholm University, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Karg, T. [Department of Physics, University of Wuppertal, D-42119 Wuppertal (Germany); Krieger, K. [DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen (Germany); Laihem, K.; Meures, T. [III. Physikalisches Institut, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen (Germany); and others

    2012-08-11

    The South Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS) was built to evaluate the acoustic characteristics of the South Pole ice in the 10-100 kHz frequency range, for the purpose of assessing the feasibility of an acoustic neutrino detection array at the South Pole. The SPATS hardware consists of four vertical strings deployed in the upper 500 m of the South Pole ice cap. The strings form a trapezoidal array with a maximum baseline of 543 m. Each string has seven stages equipped with one transmitter and one sensor module (glaciophone). Sound is detected or generated by piezoelectric ceramic elements inside the modules. Analogue signals are sent to the surface on electric cables where they are digitized by a PC-based data acquisition system. The data from all strings are collected on a central computer in the IceCube Laboratory from where they are sent to a central data storage facility via a satellite link or stored locally on tape. A technical overview of SPATS and its performance is presented.

  13. Design and performance of the South Pole Acoustic Test Setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, Y.; Becker, K.-H.; Berdermann, J.; Bissok, M.; Bohm, C.; Böser, S.; Bothe, M.; Carson, M.; Descamps, F.; Fischer-Wolfarth, J.-H.; Gustafsson, L.; Hallgren, A.; Heinen, D.; Helbing, K.; Heller, R.; Hundertmark, S.; Karg, T.; Krieger, K.; Laihem, K.; Meures, T.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Oberson, F.; Paul, L.; Pohl, M.; Price, B.; Ribordy, M.; Ryckbosch, D.; Schunck, M.; Semburg, B.; Stegmaier, J.; Sulanke, K.-H.; Tosi, D.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Wiebusch, C.

    2012-08-01

    The South Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS) was built to evaluate the acoustic characteristics of the South Pole ice in the 10-100 kHz frequency range, for the purpose of assessing the feasibility of an acoustic neutrino detection array at the South Pole. The SPATS hardware consists of four vertical strings deployed in the upper 500 m of the South Pole ice cap. The strings form a trapezoidal array with a maximum baseline of 543 m. Each string has seven stages equipped with one transmitter and one sensor module (glaciophone). Sound is detected or generated by piezoelectric ceramic elements inside the modules. Analogue signals are sent to the surface on electric cables where they are digitized by a PC-based data acquisition system. The data from all strings are collected on a central computer in the IceCube Laboratory from where they are sent to a central data storage facility via a satellite link or stored locally on tape. A technical overview of SPATS and its performance is presented.

  14. Simple Regge pole model for Compton scattering of protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleem, M.; Fazal-e-Aleem

    1978-08-01

    It is shown that by a phenomenological choice of the residue functions, the differential cross section for ..gamma.. p ..-->.. ..gamma.. p, including the very recent measurements up to /sup -/t=4.3 (GeV/c)/sup 2/, can be explained at all measured energies greater than 2 GeV with simple Regge pole model.

  15. Kick, Glide, Pole! Cross-Country Skiing Fun (Part II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duoos, Bridget A.

    2012-01-01

    Part I of Kick, Glide, Pole! Cross-Country Skiing Fun, which was published in last issue, discussed how to select cross-country ski equipment, dress for the activity and the biomechanics of the diagonal stride. Part II focuses on teaching the diagonal stride technique and begins with a progression of indoor activities. Incorporating this fun,…

  16. Finite element analysis of boron diffusion in wooden Poles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhøft, Kristian; Hoffmeyer, Preben; Bechgaard, Carl;

    2004-01-01

    The problem of describing the migration of dissolved boron in wood is treated with special reference to the commonly used remedial treatment of wooden poles. The governing equations are derived and discussed together with some of the material parameters required. The equations are solved by the f...... by the finite element method and, finally, results showing the effect of different treatment strategies are presented....

  17. Finite Element Analysis of Boron Diffusion in Wooden Poles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhøft, Kristian; Hoffmeyer, Preben; Bechgaard, Carl;

    2004-01-01

    The problem of describing the migration of dissolved boron in wood is treated with special reference to the commonly used remedial treatment of wooden poles. The governing equations are derived and discussed together with some of the material parameters required. The equations are solved by the f...... by the finite element method and, finally, results showing the effect of different treatment strategies are presented....

  18. Finite Element Analysis of Boron Diffusion in Wooden Poles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhøft, Kristian; Hoffmeyer, P.; Bechgaard, C.;

    2003-01-01

    The problem of describing the migration of dissolved boron in wood is treated with special reference to the commonly used remedial treatment of wooden poles. The governing equations are derived and discussed together with some of the material parameters required. The equations are solved by the f...... by the finite element method and, finally, results showing the effect of different treatment strategies are presented....

  19. Charge quantisation without magnetic poles: A topological approach to electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solha, Romero

    2016-01-01

    The present work provides a theoretical explanation for the quantisation of electric charges, an open problem since Millikan's oil drop experiment in 1909. This explanation is based solely on Maxwell's theory, it recasts Electromagnetic theory under the language of complex line bundles; therefore, neither magnetic poles nor quantum mechanics are invoked.

  20. Poled-glass devices: Influence of surfaces and interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage-Pedersen, Jacob; Jacobsen, Rune Shim; Kristensen, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Devices in periodically poled glass must have a large periodic variation of the built-in field. We show that the periodic variation can be severely degraded by charge dynamics taking place at the external (glass–air) interface or at internal (glass–glass) interfaces if the interfaces have imperfe...

  1. OSBPL10, RXRA and lipid metabolism confer African-ancestry protection against dengue haemorrhagic fever in admixed Cubans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Pedro; Garcia, Gissel; Perez, Ana B.; Aguirre, Eglys; Cavadas, Bruno; Regnault, Béatrice; Alvarez, Mayling; Ruiz, Didye; Guzman, Maria G.

    2017-01-01

    Ethnic groups can display differential genetic susceptibility to infectious diseases. The arthropod-born viral dengue disease is one such disease, with empirical and limited genetic evidence showing that African ancestry may be protective against the haemorrhagic phenotype. Global ancestry analysis based on high-throughput genotyping in admixed populations can be used to test this hypothesis, while admixture mapping can map candidate protective genes. A Cuban dengue fever cohort was genotyped using a 2.5 million SNP chip. Global ancestry was ascertained through ADMIXTURE and used in a fine-matched corrected association study, while local ancestry was inferred by the RFMix algorithm. The expression of candidate genes was evaluated by RT-PCR in a Cuban dengue patient cohort and gene set enrichment analysis was performed in a Thai dengue transcriptome. OSBPL10 and RXRA candidate genes were identified, with most significant SNPs placed in inferred weak enhancers, promoters and lncRNAs. OSBPL10 had significantly lower expression in Africans than Europeans, while for RXRA several SNPs may differentially regulate its transcription between Africans and Europeans. Their expression was confirmed to change through dengue disease progression in Cuban patients and to vary with disease severity in a Thai transcriptome dataset. These genes interact in the LXR/RXR activation pathway that integrates lipid metabolism and immune functions, being a key player in dengue virus entrance into cells, its replication therein and in cytokine production. Knockdown of OSBPL10 expression in THP-1 cells by two shRNAs followed by DENV2 infection tests led to a significant reduction in DENV replication, being a direct functional proof that the lower OSBPL10 expression profile in Africans protects this ancestry against dengue disease. PMID:28241052

  2. Revolución Cubana y educación superior The Cuban Revolution and higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinesio C. Santos Gutiérrez

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Los autores elaboran un panorama de la educación superior cubana de los últimos años, subrayando los desafíos económicos y políticos debidos a las dificultades que el gobierno de Cuba está enfrentando desde 1989 (la desaparición del campo socialista; el recrudecimiento del bloqueo de EE.UU, la crisis económica y social del Sur; la "victoria del neoliberalismo", la necesidad de insertarse en un nuevo tipo de mercado mundial global. El artículo analiza las demandas e indicadores de la educación superior cubana, realzando las transformaciones que ocurren especialmente a partir del año 2001 respecto al aumento de la equidad, políticas de inclusión y consolidación de un nuevo modelo de ciencia y tecnología. Además, los autores presentan una tipología de la educación superior y consideran sus impactos en la sociedad cubana.The authors trace a view of Cuban higher education in recent years, emphasizing the economic and political challenges due to the difficulties faced by Cuba since 1989 at national and international levels (disappearance of the socialist field, tightening of the American blockade, the social and economic crisis of the South, the "victory of neo-liberalism", the need to insert itself in a new type of global market, etc.. The article analyses the demands and indicators of Cuban higher education, stressing the transformations that have occurred particularly after 2001, in relation to the increase of equity and inclusion policies, as well as the consolidation of a new model of science and technology. Furthermore, the authors present a typology of higher education and consider its impacts on the Cuban society.

  3. O rastro do dragão em quatro narradores cubanos The trail of the dragon in four cuban writers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogelio Rodríguez Coronel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Seguindo o rastro da cultura chinesa na cultura e literatura cubanas, este trabalho revela-se como um espaço para a discussão de um tema pouco tratado pela crítica, a presença chinesa na constituição da literatura cubana. O "rastro do dragão" é acompanhado desde o século XVII até a contemporaneidade, passando pela obra de autores como Severo Sarduy, Ramón Meza, José Martí e José Lezama Lima, máximos expoentes da modernidade nas letras em Cuba.Siguiendo las huellas de la cultura china en la cultura y la literatura cubanas, este trabajo se revela como un espacio para la discusión de un tema escasamente tratado por la crítica, la presencia china en la constitución de la literatura cubana. La "huella del dragón" es seguida en este estudio, desde el siglo XVII hasta la contemporaneidad, pasando por la obra de autores como Severo Sarduy, Ramón Meza, José Martí e José Lezama Lima, máximos exponentes de la modernidad de las letras en Cuba.Following the trail of Chinese culture in Cuban culture and literature, the paper discusses the Chinese presence in Cuban literature, a subject seldom covered by literary criticism, "The Trail of the...Dragon" is traced in this study from the XVII Century to the present, covering the work of such writers as Severo Sarduy, Ramón Meza, José Martí and José Lezama Lima, outstanding exponents of modernism in Cuban letters.

  4. Emotional Intelligence Moderates Perfectionism and Test Anxiety among Iranian Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Abbas; Abu Talib, Mansor

    2015-01-01

    Test anxiety is one of the common forms of anxiety for students. Thus, it is necessary to improve our knowledge regarding the etiology of test anxiety. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between perfectionism, emotional intelligence, and test anxiety among Iranian students. This study also was conducted to test emotional…

  5. Common Error Types of Iranian Learners of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezami, Ali; Najafi, Mousa Sadraie

    2012-01-01

    This paper aimed at obtaining a clear understanding of Iranian EFL learners' L2 writing error types. To develop such an understanding, a research question was formulated to see whether there is any significant difference between the participants' language proficiency level and their error types in writing. To this end, a sample version of the…

  6. Integrating CALL into an Iranian EAP Course: Constraints and Affordances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehran, Parisa; Alizadeh, Mehrasa

    2015-01-01

    Iranian universities have recently displayed a growing interest in integrating Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) into teaching/learning English. The English for Academic Purposes (EAP) context, however, is not keeping pace with the current changes since EAP courses are strictly text-based and exam-oriented, and little research has thus…

  7. Identity Construction and Reversal Conceptual Transfer among Iranian EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholaminejad, Razieh

    2017-01-01

    This article draws on a qualitative study which seeks to explore whether Iranian English as a foreign language learners experience any reversal conceptual transfer and whether they construct two identities as a result of learning a foreign language. The findings from the open-ended questionnaires distributed among 65 undergraduates at the…

  8. Female Empowerment in Iran: The Voice of Iranian University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fereidouni, Somayeh; Mehran, Golmar; Mansourian, Yasdan

    2015-01-01

    In line with global trends, the rate of Iranian female students' enrolment in higher education has increased. However, some policy makers have been concerned about this and without considering the female voice, they have implemented strategies to balance the labour market, which has led to a decrease in female students in certain majors. The…

  9. Methods of assessing reading used by Iranian EFL teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somaye Ketabi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Investigating the effects of different methods of assessing reading on students’ reading comprehension has been one of the major topics among Iranian EFL researchers (Atai & Nikuinezhad, 2006; Delgoshaei, Kharrazi, & Talkhabi, 2011; Shams & Tavakoli, 2014. However, the amount of popularity of these methods among teachers has not gained this much attention. The present study examined the popularity of different methods of assessing reading among teachers of adult and young adult learners and also investigated the difference in the frequency of the methods used by these two groups of teachers. Categories of different methods were chosen based on Brown's (2004 taxonomy and the study conducted by Cheng, Rogers, and Hu (2004. Background Information Questionnaire and assessment questionnaire were used to collect the data. The results revealed that Iranian teachers did not use a variety of reading assessment methods in their classes. The most common method to assess reading among Iranian teachers was reported to be reading aloud, and other methods of assessing reading ‒ e.g. preparing summaries and oral questioning ‒ were far less common than reading aloud. Alternative methods of assessment ‒ e.g. journals and portfolios ‒ were the least common methods as were reported by Iranian EFL teachers.

  10. Multiple Intelligences Theory and Iranian Textbooks: An Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taase, Yoones

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate locally designed ELT textbooks in the light of multiple intelligences theory. Three textbooks (grade 1.2.3) used in guidance school of Iranian educational system were analyzed using MI checklist developed by Botelho, Mario do Rozarioand. Catered for kinds of intelligences in the activities and exercises…

  11. Anti-halitosis plants in Iranian Traditional Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Fahimi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Halitosis is an oral health condition characterized by unpleasant odors emanating constantly from oral cavity. Almost 22-50% of the population experiences such a condition during lifespan and about half of them suffer from personal discomfort and social embarrassment. Based on the literature survey, it seems that the oral cavity is the most important origin of halitosis; therefore, this area could be considered as the best target for the treatment. Halitosis is a well-known disorder in Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM; Avicenna and some other famous Iranian traditional physicians have described this condition in their manuscripts precisely. Herbal therapy was the major treatment suggested by Iranian scholars in which mixtures of medicinal plants were used in the form of mouthwashes and other oral formulations. In the present study, six Iranian ancient medical texts were screened for the herbs with anti-halitosis effects. Subsequent to this study, the medicinal herbs were listed and scored based on the frequency of their repetition. Moreover, the effort has been taken to provide the best scientific name for each plant as well as searching modern studies about their biological effects. In our investigation fourteen plants were obtained as the most frequent herbs for treatment of halitosis in ITM. Previous studies revealed that some of these plants have shown biological activities relating to anti-halitosis effect. The present study introduces some more plants for future studies about anti-halitosis property.

  12. Error Analysis in Composition of Iranian Lower Intermediate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghavi, Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    Learners make errors during the process of learning languages. This study examines errors in writing task of twenty Iranian lower intermediate male students aged between 13 and 15. A subject was given to the participants was a composition about the seasons of a year. All of the errors were identified and classified. Corder's classification (1967)…

  13. An Analysis of Iranian Language Learners' Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalzadeh Borazjani, Ashraf

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how learner variables, including language proficiency, motivation, effort, and family background affect Iranian language learners' EFL vocabulary strategy use? Subjects in this study were 450 EFL students (N = 450) at Payam e Noor University, Borazjan, Iran. After a placement test, they were grouped into…

  14. Gene Susceptibility in Iranian Asthmatic Patients: A Narrative Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular and Cell Biology Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, 1Department of ... between gene polymorphism and risk of asthma in Iranian population, and the study should ... distribution (no allelic distribution) was considered for .... geographic locations are more likely to be associated with.

  15. Ethnographic Households and Archaeological Interpretations: A Case from Iranian Kurdistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Carol

    1982-01-01

    Shows how archaeological interpretation based strictly on the evidence of architectural remains may lead to inaccurate conclusions about social patterns in extinct societies. An ethnographic study of an Iranian Kurdish village is used to illustrate the possible variations of residential social relationships within buildings with similar…

  16. Soft tissue cephalometric norms in Iranian normal subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Aghili

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Soft tissue analysis has been proposed by many authors as a reliable guide in treatment planning. Thus establishing population norms is an important issue in orthodontic treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the mean values of some of the soft tissue facial traits in Iranian subjecsts as determined by Bergman. Lateral cephalograms of 120 Iranian subjects (60 males and 60 females in five age groups (n= 24 with well balanced face and normal occlusion were used.statistical analyses were done by means of unpaired student’s t-test and one way AOVA. The associations of variables with age and also with each other were assessed using Pearson’s correlation coefficient. The norms valuesfor Iranian subjects differ from those of Bergman in upper and lower lip thicknesses, facial profile angle and upper lip length (in males.sexual dimorphism was determined in lower facial height, upper lip length, upper lip thickness and lower lip thickness. All of the variables were significantly correlated with age except for facial profile angle. Iranian norms differ from those of other population which are usually used. Therefore, when planning a treatment for this population their own norms should be employed

  17. Emotional Intelligence Moderates Perfectionism and Test Anxiety among Iranian Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Abbas; Abu Talib, Mansor

    2015-01-01

    Test anxiety is one of the common forms of anxiety for students. Thus, it is necessary to improve our knowledge regarding the etiology of test anxiety. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between perfectionism, emotional intelligence, and test anxiety among Iranian students. This study also was conducted to test emotional…

  18. Vocabulary Learning Strategies of Iranian Upper-Intermediate EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatib, Mohammad; Hassanzadeh, Mohammad; Rezaei, Saeed

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the preferred vocabulary learning strategies of Iranian upper-intermediate EFL learners. In order to identify the aforementioned group in terms of language proficiency, a TOEFL test was administered to a population of 146 undergraduate EFL students at the university of Vali-e-Asr in Rafsanjan, Iran. Those scoring above 480 were…

  19. Implementing root cause analysis in Iranian hospitals: challenges and benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Zhaleh; Ravaghi, Hamid

    2017-04-01

    Root cause analysis (RCA) has been widely used for retrospective investigations of patient safety incidents. To increase patient safety competencies, RCA has recently been introduced in Iranian hospitals. The aims of the current study were to explore team members' experiences and perceptions of RCA and to identify the challenges and benefits of using it in Iranian hospitals from their perspective. A qualitative study was conducted consisting of 32 semi-structured interviews with health professionals who participated in the national training programme and were involved in RCA investigations. Data were analysed using the thematic analysis method. The participants encountered a range of obstacles while conducting RCA, including time constraints, a lack of resources, the blame culture and unsupportive colleagues. They stressed the need for further leadership support and cultural change within the Iranian healthcare system to facilitate the application of RCA. RCA was perceived as a beneficial analytical tool that improved patient care, fostered teamwork and communication among staff and promoted safety culture. This study concluded that applying RCA in the Iranian healthcare setting has had a significant impact on improving commitment to safety. However, the general adoption of this method is hindered by the lack of workplace and system supports. To maximize profits from RCA, clinical leaders must assign a high priority to RCA investigations and support RCA team efforts. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Legal Issues of A Surrogacy Contract Based on Iranian Acts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Pirouz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Assistive technologies have always opened new horizons in human's life, posed solutions to problemsand brought relief and prosperity for human beings. Iranian judicial authorities have recently recognizedthe importance of medical technologies. Accordingly, Iranian legal system has recognized surrogacy anda surrogacy contract seems unavoidable for surrogacy to be legally valid, socially acceptable andreligiously legitimate. As a legal defense of including a typical surrogacy contract in contract law, thisreview studies the four building blocks of a valid contract: the intention and consent of parties, theirlegal capacity, the subject of the contract and its legitimacy. Discussing related Iranian Acts concerningcontracts and responsibilities of parties, the authors of the present article deal with main commitmentsand responsibilities of the parties to a typical surrogacy contract: infertile couples, surrogate, fertilityclinic or medical institute, and surrogate's husband. The authors conclude that a surrogacy contract isaccepted based on article 10 of Iranian Civil Act 1928, pose some suggestions to be included in such acontract, and emphasize that a specific Act concerning surrogacy should be approved to cover rights andlegal needs of all parties to a surrogacy contract.