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Sample records for cuban power sector

  1. Technology policy and planning in the Third World pharmaceutical sector: the Cuban and Caribbean community approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrupp, L A

    1984-01-01

    There has been growing international concern over many aspects of the use and flow of medicines in developing countries. This article briefly reviews factors which have contributed to problems in this area including marketing and promotional practices of the pharmaceutical companies, rising drug import costs, and the unsuitability or poor quality of available drugs. This analysis is primarily concerned with policies that have emerged from efforts to alleviate such problems, to increase control over multinational drug companies, and to bring about changes in the technology transaction processes and in the pharmaceutical sector. It focuses on two cases: the regional cooperation scheme of the Caribbean countries (CARICOM) and the national-level policy of Cuba. It is shown that the CARICOM strategy has significant limitations, primarily due to its voluntary nature and lack of enforcement mechanisms for member countries. On the other hand, the Cuban approach has brought about positive effects and progressive changes, made through political commitment to achieve social benefits, and in conjunction with integrated broad reforms of the entire health system within a socialist framework. Thus, the problems and promises of such strategies are viewed in a context which emphasizes the prevailing forces of the global political economy. The lessons from this study, applicable to other developing countries, not only reveal important measures for the pharmaceutical sector, but also stress the ultimate need for strong commitment to enforce policies at the national level and for major structural changes, in order to adequately meet the health and medical needs of the people.

  2. Regulation of the power sector

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Regulation of the Power Sector is a unified, consistent and comprehensive treatment of the theories and practicalities of regulation in modern power-supply systems. The need for generation to occur at the time of use occasioned by the impracticality of large-scale electricity storage coupled with constant and often unpredictable changes in demand make electricity-supply systems large, dynamic and complex and their regulation a daunting task. Conceptually arranged in four parts, this book addresses both traditional regulatory frameworks and also liberalized and re-regulated environments. First, an introduction gives a full characterization of power supply including engineering, economic and regulatory viewpoints. The second part presents the fundamentals of regulation and the third looks at the regulation of particular components of the power sector in detail. Advanced topics and subjects still open or subject to dispute form the content of the fourth part. In a sector where regulatory design is the key driver...

  3. Power sector reforms in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajaj, Harbans L.; Sharma, Deepak

    2007-07-01

    India faces endemic electrical energy and peaking shortages. The Power Sector is plagued with mounting commercial losses due various inefficiencies, colossal commercial and technical losses and increasing subsidy burden on the states. These shortages have had a very detrimental effect on the overall economic growth of the country. In order to re-vitalise the sector and improve the techno-economic performance, the Government of India has initiated the reform process in 1991. This paper analyses the pre-reform era and identifies the key concerns which led to the initiation of the reforms. It also analyses the likely impact of the major policy and regulatory initiatives that have been undertaken since 1991 including the provisions of the new enactments which have come into force eventually in the form of The Electricity Act, 2003. This paper details out the key features of the Act and its likely impact on the Indian electricity industry in the emerging scenario. The paper also discusses major issues like power trading, role of regulator in the new regime, issue of open access, introduction of power markets and role of Appellate Tribunal for Electricity in harmonizing the orders of the various regulators.

  4. Sector 7-8 powered up

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    1. Frédéric Gicquel from the Cryogenics for Accelerators Group (AT/ACR) and Anupama Kulkarni from the Magnets and Electrical Systems Group (AT/MEL) at the CERN Control Centre during the powering-up of Sector 7-8. 2. Frédérick Bordry, leader of the Power Converter Group (AB/PO), and Roberto Saban, responsible for coordinating the LHC commissioning (TS/HDO), celebrate the end of the first powering-up of an entire LHC sector: Sector 7-8.

  5. La Gestión Documental y su Impacto en el Sector Empresarial Cubano (Document Management and its Impact on Cuban Enterprise Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de los Ángeles Ruiz González

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen En el presente artículo se aborda la tendencia actual de los sistemas de gestión documental como nuevos paradigmas de gestión organizacional. Se realiza un énfasis en el sector empresarial cubano y el impacto de la gestión de información, documental y del conocimiento en los nuevos escenarios del sector empresarial cubano en las actuales condiciones de actualización del Modelo Económico. Se destaca a su vez el trabajo por proyectos que se establece entre las universidades y el sector empresarial. Se exponen algunos resultados derivados del diagnóstico de los subsistemas de información, documentación y conocimiento, aplicadas en las Unidades Docentes pertenecientes al Grupo Empresarial en Perfeccionamiento, aportando sugerencias y buenas prácticas, que permitan retroalimentar a las organizaciones en el uso de metodologías, herramientas y tecnologías basadas en el acceso abierto que permita apoyar a las empresas en el cumplimiento de las resoluciones y decretos ley vigentes en el país; así como identificar los problemas que afectan al subsistema de gestión de información y documentación, elementos claves que constituyen factores dinamizadores en el éxito empresarial. Abstract This paper studies current trend in document management systems as new paradigms of organizational management. Special emphasis is placed on the impact of information, document and knowledge management in the new scenarios of Cuban business given the current process of updating the economic model. The importance of working on projects between universities and business is also emphasized. This paper exposes some results from the diagnostic of the following subsystems: information, documentation and knowledge. This analysis was applied to teaching units belonging to the Business Group under Improvement. Suggestions and good practices were providing to organizations for feedback organizations in the use of methodologies and tools based on open access

  6. Least cost power sector strategy for Lithuania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-01

    The project consists of 2 phases: Phase 1- Least Cost Power Sector Strategy for Lithuania. Phase 2 - CHP - Development Strategy/Pre-feasibility Analysis. The main objective was to establish a framework for decisions and an updated development plan for the Lithuanian Power sector. The specific objectives set up for the Least Cost Power Sector Group were: - (1)To evaluate, co-ordinate and harmonise the decision basis established through the many different actions and projects dealing with the future of the Lithuanian electricity system development. (2) To analyse the consequences for the entire Lithuanian power sector of Ignalina NPP scenarios to be used as basis for the new National Energy Strategy (NES). (3) To evaluate the measures necessary in the power sector and, to a lesser extent, the district heating sector for compliance with Kyoto commitments under the alternative nuclear scenarios. (4) To evaluate the models used in former least cost studies in respect of their applicability in general and specifically in relation to include a CHP development scenario in the analysis. (5) To establish a single updated least-cost power sector development plan for the short-term and least-cost development scenarios for the medium/long term; all within the overall context of the energy strategy. (6) To support decision makers in general through technical and economic consequence analyses of questions raised during the decision period related to the future power sector development in Lithuania. During phase 1: A consistent set of assumptions was set up and described; Scenarios illustrating the main scope for different decision lines and development strategies were evaluated; An analytical methodology and the associated tools were developed; Consequences of a number of strategies, decisions and assumptions were analysed and presented. During phase 2, the technical and economic analysis of a CHP development strategy complying with Lithuania's environmental commitments have

  7. Market Power in the Czech Banking Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Řepková Iveta

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper estimates the market power in the Czech banking sector during the period 2000 2010. In order to measure the degree of market power in the Czech banking sector, the authors used the Lerner index, the Herfindahl-Hirschman index and the concentration ratio. The Lerner index is applied to data from 15 banks, which covers about 90% of the Czech banking market. The paper describes the theoretical framework of the competition, especially the Lerner index and measures of concentration. Authors also compute separate Lerner index for the Czech credit market and the Czech deposit market. The estimations of the Lerner index do not confirm either monopoly or perfect competition structure in the Czech banking sector over the period analyzed. The competition decreased in the period 2000-2005 which was affected by the decrease in the price of funds and capital. However, the competition increased in the period 2005-2010, and it was influenced by the increase in the price of funds and capital. From the value obtained from the Lerner index, it was found that the lowest competition was in the deposit market.

  8. Cuban Landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scarpaci, Joseph L.; Portela, Armando

    This accessible book offers a vivid geographic portrait of Cuba, exploring the island’s streetscapes, sugar cane fields, beaches, and rural settlements; its billboards, government buildings, and national landmarks. The authors illuminate how natural and built landscapes have shaped Cuban identity...... (cubanidad), and vice versa. They provide a unique perspective on Cuba’s distinct historical periods and political economies, from the colonial period through republicanism and today’s socialist era. Compelling topics include the legacies of slavery and the sugar industry, the past and future of urban...

  9. La Gestión Documental y su Impacto en el Sector Empresarial Cubano (Document Management and its Impact on the Cuban Enterprise Sector)

    OpenAIRE

    María de los Ángeles Ruiz González; Ariel Bodes Bas

    2014-01-01

    Spanish abstract. En el presente artículo se aborda la tendencia actual de los sistemas de gestión documental como nuevos paradigmas de gestión organizacional. Se realiza un énfasis en el sector empresarial cubano y el impacto de la gestión de información, documental y del conocimiento en los nuevos escenarios del sector empresarial cubano en las actuales condiciones de actualización del Modelo Económico. Se destaca a su vez el trabajo por proyectos que se establece entre las universidades y ...

  10. The Indian power sector - Role of appellate tribunal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajaj, Harbans; Sharma, Deepak

    2010-09-15

    India's electricity-supply industry mainly owned and operated by the public sector has been facing endemic energy and peaking shortages with huge commercial losses. Power sector reforms initiated in 1990s culminated with enactment of The Electricity Act, 2003 is briefly discussed here. Appellate Tribunal for Electricity - a unique feature of the Act - constituted to redress grievances of stakeholders has set ground rules for the power sector having harmonizing effect on the various power sector issues and have reduced the element of uncertainty which was prevalent hitherto fore as revealed by the several case studies this paper presents.

  11. The economics of transition in the power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The power sector carries a considerably great burden of the CO2 emission reductions required to address climate change, a feature common to many scenarios of emissions abatement. These reductions will only be possible if existing plants are replaced with more efficient and less-emitting types of plants over the coming decades. This report identifies the investments needed in the power sector, and their related risk factors.

  12. MOREMix - Power sector optimization for Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Jürgen; Fichter, Tobias; Moser, Massimo; Trieb, Franz; Seidel, Frank; Heising, Klas; Lempp, Philippe

    2016-05-01

    DLR developed the optimization model REMix-CEM (Renewable Energy Mix - Capacity Expansion Model). REMix CEM to generate a cost-effective expansion planning of thermal and renewable assets with respect to a use optimization (dispatch) of various types of power plants for the energy system. Working closely with the Moroccan Ministry of Energy energy scenarios are created to support Morocco in the medium to long-term energy planning to develop cost-effective, and technically feasible expansion plans for renewable energy and better coordinate the interaction between different forms of electricity generation.

  13. Restructuring of the power sector in Romania - options and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leca, A. [University Politechnica, Bucharest (Romania)

    1999-07-01

    Discusses the Romanian energy sector covering the situation under the Communist government and attempts at restructuring since the fall of Communism. Following the fall of Communism 1989, the power sector remained in State ownership and suffered problems such as a lack of a national energy strategy, a weak institutional framework, and the persistence of monopolistic relationships between suppliers and consumers. In 1997 a new government began a programme of energy reform aiming to, for example, improve energy efficiency, set up an institutional framework, reduce environmental impacts and re-evaluate generation capacities of existing plants and those under construction but political problems have slowed the process down. The paper suggests that privatisation is becoming the only solution to problems in the power sector caused by the deterioration of the economic and social situation in Romania. 8 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Power, Governance and Boundary Spanning Leadership in Public Sector Organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmholdt, Claus Westergård; Fogsgaard, Morten

    2015-01-01

    the fact that analysis of boundary spanning leadership and power relations is an essential, significant, and critical tool in questioning different forms of management in public sector organizations. The aim of the workshop is to investigate, elucidate and discuss management across organizational units......The phenomenon of power and boundary spanning leadership in public sector organizations is the topic for the present workshop. In this workshop we present a practice perspective (Corradi, Gherardi and Verzelloni 2010) on the management of power and boundary spanning leadership. We will focus...... on the practice that evolves on the boundaries that span occupational groups, departments and organizations. The workshop takes it’s starting point in an interdisciplinary Scandinavian research project which deals with the question of how power processes can promote, or hinder, boundary spanning leadership...

  15. The Implications of Legal Reform in the Nigeria Power Sector

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    info

    Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/afrrev.v10i3.18. The Implications of Legal Reform in the Nigeria Power Sector. Onyi-Ogelle, Helen Obioma. Faculty of Law. Nnamdi ... through the application of law and its overall benefits to the economic, social and ..... The current reforms target gas utilization for electricity supply in Nigeria.

  16. Discussion on China's Power Sector Reforms and Where to Next?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qingnan; Ma, Zheng; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2016-01-01

    the SWOT analysis (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats). The research results show that, after a series of reform actions, China's Power sector has shifted from an absolute monopoly to a relative monopoly. This paper conducts four strategic recommendations for the acceleration of China...

  17. Technology Development Prospects for the Indian Power Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The Indian power sector will face numerous challenges over the next four decades. More than one third of India's population currently do not have access to electricity. Urgent action is needed to overcome this problem of energy poverty. At the same time rapid economic growth is projected to increase electricity demand by fivefold to sixfold between now and 2050. Massive investments will be needed to meet this increased demand, but this will also create unique opportunities to transform the power sector towards a low-carbon future. This Information Paper presents in more detail the analysis for India published in Energy Technology Perspectives 2010. The paper investigates the best way of achieving deep CO2 emission cuts in the Indian power system while allowing the Indian economy to continue growing and meeting the challenge of alleviating energy poverty. It does so from a techno-economic perspective - building on detailed resource and technology data for India - and identifies the key power sector technologies needed for India to realise such a transition.

  18. Water Use in the US Electric Power Sector: Energy Systems ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation reviews the water demands of long-range electricity scenarios. It addresses questions such as: What are the aggregate water requirements of the U.S. electric power sector? How could water requirements evolve under different long-range regional generation mixes? It also looks at research addressing the electricity generation water demand from a life cycle perspective, such as water use for the fuel cycle (natural gas, coal, uranium, etc.) and water use for the materials/equipment/manufacturing of new power plants. The presentation is part of panel session on the Water-Energy Nexus at the World Energy Engineering Congress

  19. Cubane Cross-Coupling and Cubane-Porphyrin Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, Stefan S R; Locke, Gemma M; Plunkett, Shane; Meindl, Alina; Flanagan, Keith J; Senge, Mathias O

    2018-01-24

    Herein, an improved methodology for aryl-cubane cross-coupling is reported. The peculiarities of the cubane core and its behavior during cross-coupling conditions were analyzed, while the versatility of this adapted Baran cross-coupling methodology was demonstrated by the synthesis of various aryl-cubane systems, including coupling products of cubanes and porphyrins. Furthermore, arm extension of alkynyl-cubanes by Sonogashira reactions is demonstrated, showcasing the first proof of the stability of the cubane core in the presence of palladium catalysts. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Emissions of mercury from the power sector in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyśk, J.; Wyrwa, A.; Pluta, M.

    2011-01-01

    Poland belongs to the European Union countries with the highest mercury emissions. This is mainly related to coal combustion. This paper presents estimates of mercury emissions from power sector in Poland. In this work, the bottom-up approach was applied and over 160 emission point sources were analysed. For each, the characteristics of the whole technological chain starting from fuel quality, boiler type as well as emission controls were taken into account. Our results show that emissions of mercury from brown coal power plants in 2005 were nearly four times greater than those of hard coal power plants. These estimates differ significantly from national statistics and some possible reasons are discussed. For the first time total mercury emissions from the Polish power sector were differentiated into its main atmospheric forms: gaseous elemental (GEM), reactive gaseous (RGM) and particulate-bound mercury. Information on emission source location and the likely vertical distribution of mercury emissions, which can be used in modelling of atmospheric dispersion of mercury is also provided.

  1. Recent Changes in U.S.-Cuba Relations: Implications for the Cuban-American Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Duany

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cuban Americans will likely be one of the key social actors in the reconstruction of the Cuban economy after the restoration of diplomatic relations between Cuba and the United States. They are already sending large sums of money, purchasing goods, transferring technology, and consuming services in the private sector of the Cuban economy. The role of Cuban-American remittances could be even more significant in the near future as sources of funding for independent business growth on the Island. However, in order to maximize the potential contribution of Cuban Americans to the Cuban economy, substantial changes in the laws and regulations established by both the Cuban and U.S. governments are necessary.

  2. La Naturaleza del Estado Cubano y el Llamado a La Inversion Extranjera: Crisis o Invitacion al Cambio (The Nature of the Cuban State and the Call for Foreign Investment: Crisis or Invitation to Change).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Luis E. Hartly

    1995-01-01

    Presents a study of the period of crisis in modern Cuba dating back to 1991. An overview of the Cuban character is given in order to promote understanding of the environment that has permitted the present socialist government to remain in power since 1959. It is concluded that Cuba requires massive foreign investment in every sector for its…

  3. Sustainability in the Power Sector. 2010 Update. The Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinweg, T.; Ten Kate, A.; Racz, K.

    2010-11-15

    This 2010 series of power company and thematic fact sheets aims to raise public awareness about sustainability issues in the electricity sector and to improve the sustainability of power companies operating in the Netherlands. The fact sheet series investigates the companies' performance on incorporating renewable energy sources into their fuel mix for both generation and supply of electricity, and on their investments and future plans with respect to energy sources at both the Dutch and European level. The 2010 fact sheet series is the annual update that is going into its fourth year, and builds on the work from previous years (available at www.somo.nl), but includes a slightly different range of companies due to a number of recent and pending mergers and acquisitions among power companies with operations in the Netherlands.

  4. Effect of nuclear power on CO₂ emission from power plant sector in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargari, Nargess; Mastouri, Reza

    2011-01-01

    It is predicted that demand for electricity in Islamic Republic of Iran will continue to increase dramatically in the future due to the rapid pace of economic development leading to construction of new power plants. At the present time, most of electricity is generated by burning fossil fuels which result in emission of great deal of pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHG) such as SO₂, NOx, and CO₂. The power industry is the largest contributor to these emissions. Due to minimal emission of GHG by renewable and nuclear power plants, they are most suitable replacements for the fossil-fueled power plants. However, the nuclear power plants are more suitable than renewable power plants in providing baseload electricity. The Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant, the only nuclear power plant of Iran, is expected to start operation in 2010. This paper attempts to interpret the role of Bushehr nuclear power plant (BNPP) in CO₂ emission trend of power plant sector in Iran. In order to calculate CO₂ emissions from power plants, National CO₂ coefficients have been used. The National CO₂ emission coefficients are according to different fuels (natural gas, fuels gas, fuel oil). By operating Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant in 2010, nominal capacity of electricity generation in Iran will increase by about 1,000 MW, which increases the electricity generation by almost 7,000 MWh/year (it is calculated according to availability factor and nominal capacity of BNPP). Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant will decrease the CO₂ emission in Iran power sector, by about 3% in 2010.

  5. Assessment of the impacts on health due to the emissions of Cuban power plants that use fossil fuel oils with high content of sulfur. Estimation of external costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbonell, L. Turtos; Ruiz, E. Meneses; Gacita, M. Sanchez; Oliva, J. Rivero; Rivero, N. Diaz [Cubaenergia, Playa, Ciudad de la Habana (Cuba)

    2007-03-15

    Fossil fuel electricity generation has been demonstrated to be a main source of atmospheric pollution. The necessity of finding out a balance between the costs of achieving a lower level of environmental and health injury and the benefits of providing electricity at a reasonable cost have lead to the process of estimating the external costs derived from these impacts and not included in the electricity prices as a quantitative measure of it that, even when there are large uncertainties involved, can be used by decision makers in the process of achieving a global sustainable development. The external costs of the electricity generation in three Cuban power plants that use fossil fuel oils with high sulfur content have been assessed. With that purpose a specific implementation of the Impact Pathways Methodology for atmospheric emissions was developed. Dispersion of atmospheric pollutants is modeled at local and regional scales in a detailed way. Health impacts include mortality and those morbidity effects that showed relation with the increment of selected pollutant concentration in national studies. The external cost assessed for the three plants was 40, 588, 309 USD yr{sup -1} (min/max: 10, 194, 833/169, 013, 252), representing 1.06 USD Cent kWh{sup -1}. Costs derived from sulfur species (SO{sub 2} and sulfate aerosol) stand for 93% of the total costs. (Author)

  6. A Smart Power Electronic Multiconverter for the Residential Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Martinez, Miguel Angel; Milanes-Montero, Maria Isabel; Barrero-Gonzalez, Fermin; Miñambres-Marcos, Victor Manuel; Romero-Cadaval, Enrique; Gonzalez-Romera, Eva

    2017-05-26

    The future of the grid includes distributed generation and smart grid technologies. Demand Side Management (DSM) systems will also be essential to achieve a high level of reliability and robustness in power systems. To do that, expanding the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) and Energy Management Systems (EMS) are necessary. The trend direction is towards the creation of energy resource hubs, such as the smart community concept. This paper presents a smart multiconverter system for residential/housing sector with a Hybrid Energy Storage System (HESS) consisting of supercapacitor and battery, and with local photovoltaic (PV) energy source integration. The device works as a distributed energy unit located in each house of the community, receiving active power set-points provided by a smart community EMS. This central EMS is responsible for managing the active energy flows between the electricity grid, renewable energy sources, storage equipment and loads existing in the community. The proposed multiconverter is responsible for complying with the reference active power set-points with proper power quality; guaranteeing that the local PV modules operate with a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) algorithm; and extending the lifetime of the battery thanks to a cooperative operation of the HESS. A simulation model has been developed in order to show the detailed operation of the system. Finally, a prototype of the multiconverter platform has been implemented and some experimental tests have been carried out to validate it.

  7. The Water-Use Implications of a Changing Power Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peer, R.; Sanders, K.

    2016-12-01

    Changing policies, declining natural gas prices due to shale production and, growing pressure for cleaner energy sources are causing significant shifts in the fuels and technologies utilized for US electricity generation. These shifts have already impacted the volumes of water required for cooling thermal power plants, imposing consequences for watersheds that have yet to be quantified. This research investigates how these regulatory, economic, and socially-driven changes in the power sector have impacted cooling water usage across the US, which currently represents nearly half of US water withdrawals. This study uses plant-specific fuel consumption, generation, and cooling water data to assess water usage trends in the power sector from 2008 to 2014 across HUC-8 hydrologic units. Over this period, transitions from steam-cycle coal and nuclear units towards combined-cycle natural gas units and renewables, as well as transitions from once-through cooling towards wet recirculating tower and dry cooling systems resulted in large shifts in water usage. Trends towards non-traditional cooling water sources such as recycled water reduced freshwater consumption in some watersheds. Although US cooling water withdrawals and consumption increased from 2008 to 2014 largely due to electricity demand growth, the average water withdrawn and consumed per unit of electricity generated decreased and remained similar in magnitude, respectively. Changes at the watershed scale were not uniform, with some experiencing significant water use reductions and environmental benefits, especially due to coal-fired power plant retirements. Results highlight the importance of evaluating both water withdrawals and consumption at local spatial scales, as these shifts have varying consequences on water availability and quality for downstream users and ecosystems. This analysis underscores the importance of prioritizing local water security in global climate change adaptation and mitigation efforts.

  8. Prospects for the power sector in nine developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, S.; Goldman, N.; Martin, N.; Friedmann, R.

    1993-04-01

    Based on information drawn primarily from official planning documents issued by national governments and/or utilities, the authors examined the outlook for the power sector in the year 2000 in nine countries: China, India, Indonesia, Thailand, the Philippines, South Korea, Taiwan, Argentina and Mexico. They found that the implicit rates of average annual growth of installed electric power capacity between 1991 and 2001 range from a low of 3.3% per year in Argentina to a high of 13.2% per year in Indonesia. In absolute terms, China and India account for the vast majority of the growth. The plans call for a shift in the generating mix towards coal in six of the countries, and continued strong reliance on coal in China and India. The use of natural gas is expected to increase substantially in a number of the countries. The historic movement away from oil continues, although some countries are maintaining dual-fuel capabilities. Plans call for considerable growth of nuclear power in South Korea and China and modest increases in India and Taiwan. The feasibility of the official plans varies among the countries. Lack of public capital is leading towards greater reliance on private sector participation in power projects in many of the countries. Environmental issues are becoming a more significant constraint than in the past, particularly in the case of large-scale hydropower projects. The financial and environmental constraints are leading to a rising interest in methods of improving the efficiency of electricity supply and end use. The scale of such activities is growing in most of the study countries.

  9. La innovación y la transferencia de tecnologías en la Estación Experimental "Indio Hatuey": 50 años propiciando el desarrollo del sector rural cubano (Parte II Innovation and technology transference at the Experimental Station "Indio Hatuey": 50 years propitiating the development of the Cuban rural sector (Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taymer Miranda

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Los cambios acontecidos en la agricultura cubana a finales del siglo XX provocaron la ruptura del paradigma basado en la dependencia de importaciones, por lo que se precisó comenzar a construir un nuevo modelo técnico-económico sobre la base del desarrollo endógeno, asociado al fomento de capacidades innovadoras y de tecnologías sostenibles; ello exigió que los centros de desarrollo de conocimiento se centraran en la aplicación de innovaciones, mediante adecuados procesos de extensión rural. En este sentido, la Estació n Experimental "Indio Hatuey" concentró los esfuerzos en el fomento de los procesos de innovación en la ganadería cubana, que fueron potenciados a inicios de la primera década del actual milenio cuando se dio un giro en el sistema convencional de transferencia tecnológica para fomentar la innovación y el desarrollo local rural. Ejemplos destacados de la aplicación de este enfoque son: el Programa de Desarrollo Agropecuario en el municipio Martí, el fortalecimiento de los procesos de innovación agropecuaria local y de fomento de sistemas locales de innovación en el sector cooperativo y campesino de la provincia de Matanzas, así como la producción integrada de alimentos y energía sobre bases agroecológicas en cinco provincias cubanas.The changes occurred in Cuban agriculture at the end of the 20th century caused the rupture of the paradigm based on import dependence, for which it became necessary to begin building a new technical-economic model based on endogenous development, associated to the promotion of innovative capacities and sustainable technologies; this demanded that knowledge-development centers focused on the application of innovations, through adequate rural extension processes. In this sense, the Experimental Station "Indio Hatuey" focused the efforts on the promotion of innovation processes in Cuban livestock production, which were enhanced at the beginning of the first decade of this millennium

  10. Hydroclimatic risks and uncertainty in the global power sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidden, Matthew; Byers, Edward; Greve, Peter; Kahil, Taher; Parkinson, Simon; Raptis, Catherine; Rogelj, Joeri; Satoh, Yusuke; van Vliet, Michelle; Wada, Yoshide; Krey, Volker; Langan, Simon; Riahi, Keywan

    2017-04-01

    Approximately 80% of the world's electricity supply depends on reliable water resources. Thermoelectric and hydropower plants have been impacted by low flows and floods in recent years, notably in the US, Brazil, France, and China, amongst other countries. The dependence on reliable flows imputes a large vulnerability to the electricity supply system due to hydrological variability and the impacts of climate change. Using an updated dataset of global electricity capacity with global climate and hydrological data from the ISI-MIP project, we present an overview analysis of power sector vulnerability to hydroclimatic risks, including low river flows and peak flows. We show how electricity generation in individual countries and transboundary river basins can be impacted, helping decision-makers identify key at-risk geographical regions. Furthermore, our use of a multi-model ensemble of climate and hydrological models allows us to quantify the uncertainty of projected impacts, such that basin-level risks and uncertainty can be compared.

  11. Access to Power: Governance and Development in the Pakistani Electrical Power Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Ijlal

    This dissertation explores governance in Pakistan through a study of the state-run electrical power sector. At both the micro and macro level, the Pakistani power sector provides a lens into the heart of the Pakistani state and its governance institutions. This ethnographic and historical study offers an in-depth look at state operations in a developing country, situates the current Pakistani power crisis in a larger context of continuity through periods of dictatorship and democracy, and suggests how efforts to make state service delivery more responsive to citizens might be reconceived. A historical review of the Pakistani power sector establishes first and foremost that the current crisis is the product of longer-term processes for which the policy solutions currently being proposed (with the support of international donors and multilateral lenders) are inadequate. Depoliticized attempts at power sector reform have little to offer in light of the pervasively informal and negotiated nature of the fragmented Pakistani state. The institutions of power sector governance are mutually constituted by the formal rules and the informal---personal relationships, language, violence, money, and power. These rules of the game are as relevant to relations within and between public sector organizations as they are to the engagement of citizens with their state. The same rules apply at the margins of the state---informal squatter settlements---as at the core, though the resources brought to bear and the resultant outcomes are different. The internal incoherence of this state underscores the limitations of formal rules in determining outcomes, and the poor prospects for reform efforts that focus exclusively on the formal aspects of governance. To proactively engage with the question of political will leads away from top-down policy perspectives and counter to the depoliticizing tendencies that currently shape policy reforms. Instead, an energized and informed local participation

  12. Sustainability in the Power Sector. 2010 Update. Belgium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinweg, T.; Ten Kate, A.; Racz, K.

    2010-11-15

    This 2010 series of power company and thematic fact sheets aims to raise public awareness about sustainability issues in the electricity sector and to improve the sustainability of power companies operating in the Netherlands. The fact sheet series investigates the companies' performance on incorporating renewable energy sources into their fuel mix for both generation and supply of electricity, and on their investments and future plans with respect to energy sources at both the Dutch and European level. The 2010 fact sheet series is the annual update that is going into its fourth year, and builds on the work from previous years (available at www.somo.nl), but includes a slightly different range of companies due to a number of recent and pending mergers and acquisitions among power companies with operations in the Netherlands. For the first time this year, Essent is fully incorporated in the RWE company profile. SPE, a company covered for the first time, is included in the company profile of its owner EdF. The Vattenfall and Nuon fact sheets were drafted and reviewed separately, and combined into one company profile afterwards. In total, the 2010 series consist of ten company fact sheets; Delta, Dong Energy, E.ON, EdF, SPE, Eneco, Enel, Gdf Suez/Electrabel, Iberdrola, Nuon/Vattenfall and RWE. The company fact sheets form the basis of three separate reports, covering companies active in (1) The Netherlands, (2) Belgium, and an overview of (3) the largest European companies. This report is the version for Belgium, and covers the following companies, all active on the Belgian market: EdF, GDF Suez/Electrabel, RWE, SPE, Vattenfall/Nuon.

  13. Sustainability in the Power Sector. 2010 Update. Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinweg, T.; Ten Kate, A.; Racz, K.

    2010-11-15

    This 2010 series of power company and thematic fact sheets aims to raise public awareness about sustainability issues in the electricity sector and to improve the sustainability of power companies operating in the Netherlands. The fact sheet series investigates the companies' performance on incorporating renewable energy sources into their fuel mix for both generation and supply of electricity, and on their investments and future plans with respect to energy sources at both the Dutch and European level. The 2010 fact sheet series is the annual update that is going into its fourth year, and builds on the work from previous years (available at www.somo.nl), but includes a slightly different range of companies due to a number of recent and pending mergers and acquisitions among power companies with operations in the Netherlands. For the first time this year, Essent is fully incorporated in the RWE company profile. SPE, a company covered for the first time, is included in the company profile of its owner EdF. The Vattenfall and Nuon fact sheets were drafted and reviewed separately, and combined into one company profile afterwards. In total, the 2010 series consist of ten company fact sheets; Delta, Dong Energy, E.ON, EdF, SPE, Eneco, Enel, Gdf Suez/Electrabel, Iberdrola, Nuon/Vattenfall and RWE. The company fact sheets form the basis of three separate reports, covering companies active in (1) The Netherlands, (2) Belgium, and an overview of (3) the largest European companies. This report is the version for Europe, and covers the following companies, all among the largest electricity companies in Europe: EdF, Enel, E.ON, GDF Suez/Electrabel, Iberdrola, RWE, Vattenfall/Nuon.

  14. Is the level of financial sector development a key determinant of private investment in the power sector?

    OpenAIRE

    Gasmi, Farid; Lika, Ba; Noumba Um, Paul

    2010-01-01

    TThis paper seeks to assess the extent to which a country’s overall level of development and that of its financial sector, in particular, are factors that attract private capital into infrastructure projects. The authors investigate these effects in a 1990–2007 dataset on the power sector in 37 developing countries. The results suggest that economic growth is a key determinant of private investors’ investment in infrastructure projects, and that investors tend to take countries’ governance...

  15. Is the level of financial sector development a key determinant of private investment in the power sector?

    OpenAIRE

    Gasmi, Farid; Lika, Ba; Noumba Um, Paul

    2010-01-01

    TThis paper seeks to assess the extent to which a country’s overall level of development and that of its financial sector, in particular, are factors that attract private capital into infrastructure projects. The authors investigate these effects in a 1990–2007 dataset on the power sector in 37 developing countries. The results suggest that economic growth is a key determinant of private investors’ investment in infrastructure projects, and that investors tend to take countries’ governance qu...

  16. Erotic(izing Cubans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia R. Domínguez

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Sugar's Secrets: Race and the Erotics of Cuban Nationalism. VERA M. KUTZINSKI. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1993. xvii + 287 pp. (Cloth US$ 40.00, Paper US$ 17.95 Life on the Hyphen: The Cuban-American Way. GUSTAVO PÉREZ FlRMAT. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1994. xii + 217 pp. (Cloth US$ 30.00, Paper US$ 12.95 When a country is subjected to as much external political and ideological scrutiny as Cuba in the post-Batista years, scholarly explorations of something other than its foreign policy, its political economy, and its human rights abuses provide a breath of fresh air. But I am struck by the other things Sugar's Secrets and Life on the Hyphen have in common and how suspicious I am of their commonalities.

  17. Emerging Changes in the Worldwide Power Sector: The Assets of Thermal Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moliere, Michel; Girardot, Amelie; Jones, Robert M.

    2007-07-01

    In forthcoming decades we will see major changes in the landscape of the worldwide power sector as CO2 management and incipient hydrocarbon scarcity exert their increasing influence. The power generation community must be prepared to satisfy a particularly complex and challenging set of requirements. These issues include curbing CO2 emissions, coping with surging primary energy prices, and compliance with regional and local emissions requirements such as SOx and NOx-while maintaining maximum efficiency. In this context, as confirmed by International Energy Agency forecasts, thermal power will maintain a prominent position in overall power generation since it enables the large capacity additions required in emerging countries. Thanks to their reliable assets (such as energy efficiency and environment) gas turbine-based power systems, including Gas Turbine Combined Cycles (GTCC) and Combined Heat & Power (CHP), will continue to be major contributors to worldwide power generation. However, evolving changes in the spectrum of fuels will create an additional challenge for power generation equipment manufacturers-requiring innovative technologies in fuel processing, combustion, and emission controls to address these needs. This paper reviews the factors underlining the changing power generation environment worldwide, including the increasing scarcity of conventional fuels and the growing interest in biofuels and hydrogen. Insights will be offered into various technologies needed to support the growing need for increased fuel flexibility.

  18. Spatial indeterminacy and power sector carbon emissions accounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiusto, J. Scott

    Carbon emission indicators are essential for understanding climate change processes, and for motivating and measuring the effectiveness of carbon reduction policy at multiple scales. Carbon indicators also play an increasingly important role in shaping cultural discourses and politics about nature-society relations and the roles of the state, markets and civil society in creating sustainable natural resource practices and just societies. The analytical and political significance of indicators is tied closely to their objective basis: how accurately they account for the places, people, and processes responsible for emissions. In the electric power sector, however, power-trading across geographic boundaries prevents a simple, purely objective spatial attribution of emissions. Using U.S. states as the unit of analysis, three alternative methods of accounting for carbon emissions from electricity use are assessed, each of which is conceptually sound and methodologically rigorous, yet produces radically different estimates of individual state emissions. Each method also implicitly embodies distinctly different incentive structures for states to enact carbon reduction policies. Because none of the three methods can be said to more accurately reflect "true" emissions levels, I argue the best method is that which most encourages states to reduce emissions. Energy and carbon policy processes are highly contested, however, and thus I examine competing interests and perspectives shaping state energy policy. I explore what it means, philosophically and politically, to predicate emissions estimates on both objectively verifiable past experience and subjectively debatable policy prescriptions for the future. Although developed here at the state scale, the issues engaged and the carbon accounting methodology proposed are directly relevant to carbon analysis and policy formation at scales ranging from the local to the international.

  19. Power sector development in a common Baltic electricity market. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-05-01

    In the years to come the Baltic electricity sector is expected to go through major changes. up till recently the sector has been characterised by vertically integrated monopolies, but at present the electricity sectors in the Baltic States are undergoing reform processes to meet the requirements of the EU directives regarding liberalisation of electricity sectors. This implies a different organisation of the sector, with new roles and responsibilities, and focus on new issues such as a well-functioning electricity market, security of supply and market power. In this project long-term scenario analyses are used to clarify the challenges facing the future Baltic electricity market and to analyse the robustness of the power sector. The project examines how existing power plants will manage in a competitive market, how power prices will develop and which investments are likely to be preferred by investors, among other issues. (BA)

  20. El mantenimiento a los transformadores de potencia; su análisis en el caso de una Central termoeléctrica cubana;Maintenance of power transformers; its analysis in the case of a Cuban thermal power station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Juan Montané - García,et al.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo está dirigido a la exposición del proceso de mantenimiento a los transformadores de potencia, el mantenimiento preventivo, las normativas de mantenimiento y las pruebas a transformadores de potencia, el mantenimiento predictivo, el análisis de gases disueltos en el aceite de transformadores, las condiciones de los transformadores según este análisis, las más importantes características del aislamiento de celulosa de los transformadores de potencia y la necesidad de complementar el análisis de gases disueltos con el análisis de derivados furánicos en el aceite para evaluar la disminución del grado de polimerización del aislamiento de celulosa, los índices de clase mundial del proceso de mantenimiento a transformadores de potencia y su cálculo para el caso de una central termoeléctrica cubana y el análisis del proceso utilizando la Distribución de Weibull, ofreciéndose recomendaciones para mejorar este proceso de mantenimiento.The authors write about the process of power transformers maintenance, the preventive maintenance, the maintenance standards and the tests of power transformers, the predicative maintenance, the analysis of dissolved gas in the transformers oil, the conditions of transformers in accordance with this analysis, the most important characteristics of the cellulose insulation of power transformers and the necessity to complement the dissolved gas analysis with the analysis of furan byproducts in the transformers oil in order to assess the reduction of the degree of polymerization of the cellulose insulation, the world class indicators of the process of power transformers maintenance and its calculation in the case of one of the Cuban steam power plants and the assess of this process using the Weibull distribution; at the end, authors give recommendations to improve the process of power transformers maintenance.

  1. European power struggles. Can the EU's decarbonisation agenda break the state-company axis in the power sector?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sattich, T; Ydersbond, IM; Scholten, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    Europe’s power system is still marked by a distinct national component, and despite some regions with strongly integrated power systems, electricity supply today still has a largely national basis. Policies to decarbonise the power sector may fundamentally alter this situation, because power

  2. Innovation policy for directing technical change in the power sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalbers, R.; Shestalova, V.; Kocsis, V.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses policy instruments for redirecting technical change within the electricity sector to mitigate climate change. First, we unravel the mechanism behind directed technical change, explaining why markets may underprovide innovations in expensive renewable technologies in comparison

  3. Strategic Role of Financial Institutions in Sustainable Development of Indian Power Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, V.K.

    2007-07-01

    Paper focuses on appraisal of Indian power sector, its achievements and inadequacies, measures and initiatives taken by Government of India (GOI) and blueprint for the development of power sector in next five years i.e. XI Plan (2007-2012); the role played by various Financial Institutions, Banks, Bilateral/Multilateral agencies etc. with focus on role of Power Finance Corporation (PFC) in development and financing of Indian Power sector and in Institutional development of State power utilities by facilitating in their reform and restructuring process and improving their financial health; role played by PFC in implementation of various policies and programmes of GOI; its competitive edge in Indian financial sector and growth strategies for enriching the stakeholders' value and acting as a significant partner in the development of power sector and growth of the nation. The paper provides information on capacity addition planned along with matching transmission and distribution system in the next five years to achieve GOI's 'Mission 2012: Power for All'; estimated funds required; funds that can be generated both in the form of Debt and Equity; the funding gap; proposed measures to meet overall funding requirement for sustainable development of the power sector. (auth)

  4. Evaluation of the impact of power sector reforms on the Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The electrical power industry in Nigeria has been in a deplorable state for many years. Large, medium and small scale industries suffer adverse effects due to poor services from power utility, which results in dire consequences on the nation's economy. This paper analyzes the economic effects of the power sector reforms ...

  5. Topography of Power Relations in Slovak Preschool Sector Based on Bourdieu's Field Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kašcák, Ondrej; Pupala, Branislav

    2017-01-01

    The article analyses the Slovak preschool education sector using Bourdieu's field theory. It describes stable and volatile points in the evolution of preschool education in terms of the power games occurring within the specific social field of power relations shaped during these games. It explores the groups of powerful players that represent the…

  6. El mantenimiento a los transformadores de potencia; su análisis en el caso de una Central termoeléctrica cubana; Maintenance of power transformers; its analysis in the case of a Cuban thermal power station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Juan Montané García

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo está dirigido a la exposición del proceso de mantenimiento a los transformadores de potencia, el mantenimiento preventivo, las normativas de mantenimiento y las pruebas a transformadores de potencia, el mantenimiento predictivo, el análisis de gases disueltos en el aceite de transformadores, las condiciones de los transformadores según este análisis, las más importantes características del aislamiento de celulosa de los transformadores de potencia y la necesidad de complementar el análisis de gases disueltos con el análisis de derivados furánicos en el aceite para evaluar la disminución del grado de polimerización del aislamiento de celulosa, los índices de clase mundial del proceso de mantenimiento a transformadores de potencia y su cálculo para el caso de una central termoeléctrica cubana y el análisis del proceso utilizando la Distribución de Weibull, ofreciéndose recomendaciones para mejorar este proceso de mantenimiento.    The authors write about the process of power transformers maintenance, the preventive maintenance, the maintenance standards and the tests of power transformers, the predicative maintenance, the analysis of dissolved gas in the transformers oil, the conditions of transformers in accordance with this analysis, the most important characteristics of the cellulose insulation of power transformers and the necessity to complement the dissolved gas analysis with the analysis of furan byproducts in the transformers oil in order to assess the reduction of the degree of polymerization of the cellulose insulation, the world class indicators of the process of power transformers maintenance and its calculation in the case of one of the Cuban steam power plants and the assess of this process using the Weibull distribution; at the end, authors give recommendations to improve the process of power transformers maintenance.

  7. Challenges of attracting private capital investments in the Russian power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiss, Peter; Sagodi, Attila

    2010-09-15

    The level of investment required by the Russian power sector by 2020 are expected to be in the range of USD 500-550 billion. It is of vital importance that Russia outlines an appropriate regulatory regime for its energy market that attracts foreign investors and combats corruption. The most important challenges determining the long term development of the country's power sector are skills development, regulatory effectiveness, corporate governance, and assurance regarding private investments.

  8. Effects of large-scale power to gas conversion on the power, gas and carbon sectors and their interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Vandewalle, Jeroen; BRUNINX, Kenneth; D'HAESELEER, William

    2015-01-01

    The increasing share of intermittent renewable electricity production leads to operational challenges in the electric power sector. Storage will be needed, among other options, to ensure an efficient and reliable operation of the electric power system. The power to gas (PtG) concept provides a possibility to store excess renewable electric power and as such it can increase the utilisation of RES-based electricity generation. The renewable methane, produced via PtG, can be stored in the gas sy...

  9. China's power sector reforms - where to next?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-12-15

    With the fastest growing energy demand in the world, China is now the largest electricity consumer after the United States. How can the government best assure affordable and environmentally sustainable electricity supply in the future? The Chinese government has initiated electricity sector reforms to overhaul an antiquated system and attain new energy security and environmental objectives. How China proceeds with these reforms will have lasting consequences, both locally and globally. Assessing the current state of electricity regulation in China, this report draws on experience elsewhere to explore how better to develop and communicate strategy, how to moderate growth in demand through increased efficiency, how to integrate environmental goals into planning and operation, how to ensure sufficient supply when and where it is needed, and how to handle institutional and governance challenges. In this respect, electricity sector reform in other countries offers valuable lessons as to how China might proceed.

  10. Energy efficiency and restructuring of the Brazilian power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Martino Jannuzzi, Gilberto [State University of Campinas, Sao Paulo, (Brazil)

    1999-07-01

    Since the early nineties Brazil has initiated a program of reforms in its electric sector which includes utility privatization, de-verticalization. The main objectives were to promote a market-oriented energy industry attractive to private investments. This has led to the loss of sponsorship for the public-interest programs formerly undertaken by the state utilities. In particular, of significant concern are the programs for promotion of energy efficiency, renewable energy technologies, rural electrification and environmental protection. In the midst of the privatization effort, the National Agency for Electrical Energy ANEEL was created (end of 1997). One of the tasks of the regulatory agency is to provide funds and incentives to energy conservation. In this paper we review the role of ANEEL in promoting energy efficiency investments in the context of a market-oriented sector, its limitations and prospects. [Spanish] Desde principios de los anos noventa Brasil ha iniciado un programa de reformas en su sector electrico que incluye la privatizacion del servicio electrico y la desverticalizacion. Los objetivos principales eran promover una industria de la energia orientada comercialmente de la energia electrica, atractiva a las inversiones privadas. Esto ha conducido a la perdida de patrocinio de los programas de interes publico emprendidos antes por las empresas electricas del estado. En particular, de preocupacion significativa estan los programas para la promocion del rendimiento energetico, de las tecnologias de la energia renovable, de la Electrificacion rural y de la proteccion del medio ambiente. En medio del esfuerzo de la privatizacion, la agencia nacional para la energia electrica ANEEL fue creada (finales de 1997). Una de las tareas de la agencia reguladora es proporcionar fondos e incentivos a la conservacion de energia. En este trabajo repasamos el papel de ANEEL en promover inversiones del rendimiento energetico en el contexto de un sector orientado

  11. Effects of Climate Change on the European Nuclear Power Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Vögele, Stefan; Rübbelke, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    4 p. Anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases cause climate change and this change in turn induces various direct impacts, e.g., changes in regional weather patterns. The frequency of heat waves and droughts in Europe is likely to rise. Yet, beyond these immediate effects of climate change, there are more indirect effects: Droughts in Europe will cause water scarcity and a lack in water supply will affect further sectors and critical infrastructures. An arising lack in water supply for ...

  12. Aboriginal groups taking leadership positions in power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishewitsch, S.

    2009-09-15

    First Nations and Metis communities are now initiating and managing projects in the Canadian energy sector. Federal and provincial governments are now developing training programs to ensure that Aboriginal communities develop the skills needed to successfully manage energy projects. The Supreme Court of Canada has issued a number of rulings ensuring that companies and government agencies have a duty to consult with Aboriginal people when Crown decisions impact Treaty or Aboriginal rights. The Ministry of Energy and Infrastructure has now set up a unit to provide advice and guidance to facilitate partnership opportunities with First Nations and Metis communities. Major companies in Ontario have also developed consultation policies that focus on relationship building, internal education, and promoting business and workforce development. The Pic River First Nation group now owns a minority interest in the Wawatay generating station. A 23 MW facility is fully owned by the First Nations group. The province of Ontario has made a provision for up to $250 million to serve as loan guarantees for First Nations groups. It was concluded that the Electricity Sector Council (ESC) has developed an Aboriginal participation engagement project designed to increase Aboriginal awareness of opportunities within the electricity and renewable energy sector. 3 figs.

  13. Power and selection of contract terms: The case from the Brazilian orange juice sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuiuki Costa Ito

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We propose a model to explain how contract terms are selected in the presence of a form of economic power: contract power. The orange juice sector is used to illustrate an analysis that demonstrates the effects of contract power on the economic organization of the sector. We define contract power as the ability to exploit contractual gaps or failures of contractual provisions, which are strategically left incomplete. Empirical evidence from content analysis of antitrust documents supports the logic of contract power in the orange juice sector in three forms: avoiding changes to payment methods from weight to solid contents (quality; using information asymmetries to manipulate indexes that calculate the formula of orange prices; and deliberately harvesting oranges late in order to dehydrate the fruit, which consequently reduces weight and price. The paper contributes to understanding the selection of contract terms and the debate about how antitrust offices can deal with this issue.

  14. The implications of legal reform in the Nigeria power sector | Onyi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The power sector in Nigeria through the years have been a tortuous, difficult, painful, devastating and herculean task for both the governments and the populace. A population of about 170 million people with more than half of them living without electric power supply, certainly presents a catastrophic situation for economic ...

  15. Designing effective power sector reform: A road map for the republic of Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurdgelashvili, Lado

    Around the world, network utilities (i.e., electricity, natural gas, railway, telecommunications, and water supply industries) are undergoing major structural transformation. A new wave of market liberalization, together with rapid technological changes, has challenged the previously dominant monopoly organization of these industries. A global trend toward deregulation and restructuring is evident in countries at different levels of social and economic development. The challenges of transition from a monopolistic to an open market competitive structure are numerous. Understanding these problems and finding solutions are essential to successful restructuring. In developing countries and economies in transition (i.e., the Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union), government-owned utilities are often considered to be highly inefficient. The dominant power sector restructuring strategies seek to promote economic efficiency through a gradual introduction of competition into the power sector. Five components of power sector reform are commonly proposed by the World Bank and others for these countries: commercialization, privatization, establishment of an independent regulatory agency, unbundling and gradual introduction of competition in generation and retail markets. The Republic of Georgia, like many economies in transition (e.g., Hungary, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan) has followed this reform model. However, outcomes of the reform have not been as promised. The acute economic problems facing Georgia after it regained independence have compounded problems in the power sector. A review of Georgia's utility reforms reveals that the country has undertaken electricity industry restructuring without giving substantial consideration to the problems that these reforms might have created within the industry or society. The main task of this dissertation is to find the restructuring model, which can best serve economic, social and environmental goals under circumstances similar

  16. Evolving Role of the Power Sector Regulator: A Clean Energy Regulators Initiative Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinaman, O.; Miller, M.; Bazilian, M.

    2014-04-01

    This paper seeks to briefly characterize the evolving role of power sector regulation. Given current global dynamics, regulation of the power sector is undergoing dramatic changes. This transformation is being driven by various factors including technological advances and cost reductions in renewable energy, energy efficiency, and demand management; increasing air pollution and climate change concerns; and persistent pressure for ensuring sustainable economic development and increased access to energy services by the poor. These issues add to the already complex task of power sector regulation, of which the fundamental remit remains to objectively and transparently ensure least-cost service delivery at high quality. While no single regulatory task is trivial to undertake, it is the prioritization and harmonization of a multitude of objectives that exemplifies the essential challenge of power sector regulation. Evolving regulatory roles can be understood through the concept of existing objectives and an additional layer of emerging objectives. Following this categorization, we describe seven existing objectives of power sector regulators and nine emerging objectives, highlighting key challenges and outlining interdependencies. This essay serves as a preliminary installment in the Clean Energy Regulatory Initiative (CERI) series, and aims to lay the groundwork for subsequent reports and case studies that will explore these topics in more depth.

  17. Bonneville Power Administration`s Commercial Sector Conservation Market.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordan, Frederick M. [Pacific Energy Associates, Inc. (United States)

    1992-11-10

    Bonneville has, as part of its resource plan, accepted targets for commercial conservation which are quite ambitious. To meet these targets, Bonneville will need to acquire as much cost-effective conservation as possible over the next twelve years. With this in mind, this document explores the relative importance of different commercial market segments and the types of assistance each market needs to install as many cost-effective conservation measures in as many buildings as possible. This document reviews Bonneville`s marketing environment and position, and suggests goals for commercial sector conservation marketing at Bonneville. Then it presents a broad market segmentation and series of additional demographic analyses. These analyses assess what groups of consumers Bonneville must reach to achieve most of the commercial conservation potential and what is needed to reach them. A final section reviews the success of Bonneville programs at reaching various markets. The market segmentation identifies different types of consumers and opportunities which would require distinct program approaches. Four large market segments are identified that have distinct program needs. Then four ``building life-cycle events`` are identified which provide important conservation opportunities and also require distinct program services. This creates a matrix of 16 cells which delineate distinct needs for program marketing. Each of the four key market segments manages at least 20% of the Region`s commercial floorspace.

  18. Culture of labour. Concept and approach in Cuban scientific experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Martín Romero

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the author tries to convey the Cuban experience in the study of the culture of work, from research conducted in the tourism sector between 2006-2007. It was confirmed the presence of a unit of the diversity that characterizes different work cultures that are being developed in Cuba, and that unit reflects the cultural reference model worker, and also different visions from the managerial point of view.

  19. Power-Controlled CDMA Cell Sectorization with Multiuser Detection: A Comprehensive Analysis on Uplink and Downlink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh Changyoon

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the joint optimization problem of cell sectorization, transmit power control and multiuser detection for a CDMA cell. Given the number of sectors and user locations, the cell is appropriately sectorized such that the total transmit power, as well as the receiver filters, is optimized. We formulate the corresponding joint optimization problems for both the uplink and the downlink and observe that in general, the resulting optimum transmit and receive beamwidth values for the directional antennas at the base station are different. We present the optimum solution under a general setting with arbitrary signature sets, multipath channels, realistic directional antenna responses and identify its complexity. We propose a low-complexity sectorization algorithm that performs near optimum and compare its performance with that of optimum solution. The results suggest that by intelligently combining adaptive cell sectorization, power control, and linear multiuser detection, we are able to increase the user capacity of the cell. Numerical results also indicate robustness of optimum sectorization against Gaussian channel estimation error.

  20. Power-Controlled CDMA Cell Sectorization with Multiuser Detection: A Comprehensive Analysis on Uplink and Downlink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aylin Yener

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We consider the joint optimization problem of cell sectorization, transmit power control and multiuser detection for a CDMA cell. Given the number of sectors and user locations, the cell is appropriately sectorized such that the total transmit power, as well as the receiver filters, is optimized. We formulate the corresponding joint optimization problems for both the uplink and the downlink and observe that in general, the resulting optimum transmit and receive beamwidth values for the directional antennas at the base station are different. We present the optimum solution under a general setting with arbitrary signature sets, multipath channels, realistic directional antenna responses and identify its complexity. We propose a low-complexity sectorization algorithm that performs near optimum and compare its performance with that of optimum solution. The results suggest that by intelligently combining adaptive cell sectorization, power control, and linear multiuser detection, we are able to increase the user capacity of the cell. Numerical results also indicate robustness of optimum sectorization against Gaussian channel estimation error.

  1. CO2 trade and market power in the EU electricity sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Vesterdal, Morten

    2002-01-01

    The EU commission is planning to launch an emission trading market for greenhouse gases within near future. This to meet its obligations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol. After a theoretical discussion on market power in such a market, we turn...... sector seems a suitable testing ground for an EU-scheme of emissions trading. In the longer run, it will be important to broaden the scope of the trading scheme as the inclusion of other sectors will further limit the risk of market power....... to the empirical evidence which suggests that a reasonable number of sources of CO2 emissions in the power sector exists for boilers larger than 25MW. Overall, together with the contestable single market for electricity, the risk of significant strategic behaviour seems negligible. Thus, the electric utility...

  2. CO2 trade and market power in the EU electricity sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinggaard Svendsen, G.; Vesterdal, M.

    2002-07-01

    The EU commission is planning to launch an emission trading market for greenhouse gases within near future. This to meet its obligations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol. After a theoretical discussion on market power in such a market, wc turn to the empirical evidence which suggests that a reasonable number of sources of C02 emissions in the power sector exists for bollers larger than 25MW. Overall, together with the contestable single market for electricity, the risk of significant strategis behaviour seems negligible. Thus, the electric utility sector seems a suitable testing ground for an EU-scheme of emissions trading. In the longer run, it will be important to broaden the scope of the trading scheme as the inclusion of other sectors will further limit the risk of market power. (au)

  3. Determinación del estatismo del sistema electroenergético nacional de Cuba; Determination of the Statism of the Cuban Electric Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazáro Guerra Hernández

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available El conocer el coeficiente de amortiguamiento de la carga de un sistema eléctrico es de vital importanciapara el control de la frecuencia, pues permite conocer para una determinada variación de la frecuencia apartir de 60 Hz cuál debe ser la variación de la generación necesaria para restablecer de nuevo la frecuenciaal valor nominal. En la bibliografía internacional se dan valores típicos de estatismo de la carga y se diceque deben estar entre 1 y 2 %. En este caso es importante determinar con la mayor precisión posible losvalores reales de estatismo de la carga en diferentes horarios y meses del año. En el presente trabajo sedescribe un método para medir el estatismo en el SEN de  Cuba y se relacionan los resultados obtenidos.  Knowledge of load damping constant is necessary in frequency control, because it permits   an efficientsecondary control of frequency to return the system frequency to 60 Hz after a perturbation. Typicalreported values of load damping constants are in the interval 1-2%. In the present paper authors describea procedure to measure load damping constant of Cuban electric system in different seasons of the dayand year.

  4. Development of a Cuban Ethnic Identity Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Margarita; Lega, Leonor I.

    1979-01-01

    The Cuban Behavioral Identity Questionnaire is a short, eight-item questionnaire answerable in a seven-point Likert-scale format. It inquires as to the frequency with which respondents engage in several ethnic behaviors and the degree to which they are familiar with Cuban idiomatic expressions and Cuban artists/musicians. (Author/NQ)

  5. Restructuring of the coal industry and thermal power sector in the Commonwealth of Independent States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-30

    The paper summarizes the most recent developments in the transformation of the coal and thermal power sector in Kazakhstan, Russian Federation and Ukraine to market economy conditions. It also provides statistical data concerning the dynamics of the major indicators of restructuring, such as the allocation of state subsidies, productivity growth, employment and investment. Over the last three years, the restructuring of the coal and thermal power sectors has progressed differently in the above three countries. Both sectors and especially the coal industry sector have been forced to restructure with extreme rapidity under unstable conditions, such as economic decline, absence of stable economic and fiscal laws, hyperinflation, loss of purchasing power, collapse of payment system. The transformation has been management restructuring rather than technical or reinvestment. The programmes of restructuring were mor ambitious than their realistic implementation as the lack of financial resources had, in many cases, delayed or even postponed the deadlines and objectives. The first stage has been completed in the Russian Federation, but has not yet started in Ukraine. In Kazakhstan, the coal industry has been fully privatized, mainly by foreign companies, power generation is now following along the same lines. Both sectors adapt their structure to new market requirements.

  6. Foreign powers competition in the mining sector of Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodionov Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is about the issue of Mongolia cooperation with foreign companies playing an important role in its foreign policy strategy and national security. At the beginning of the 1990s, having proclaimed a “multipillar” policy strategy in relations with the world, Ulaanbaatar tends to follow it in the economic cooperation not willing to give any preference to any country. It creates a situation of competition between foreign companies backed by their states, especially such great powers as Russia, China, the USA. The most tense moment in the struggle for the influence in Mongolia is the rivalry betw een the different discourses, pretending the exclusive right to nominate the most effective model of cooperation between Mongolia and foreign states in the ore-mining industry. Among the most well-defined discourses, there are three of them. China prefers to define the discourse of “economic feasibility”. Western states, as a rule, tend to rely on the discourse of “values community”, which includes such concepts as “democracy”, “environmentally friendly”, “transparency” Russia often uses the “geopolitical” discourse. In spite of the attractiveness and relative effectiveness of the discourse selected by Russia, there are certain limits to its use.

  7. Competition and Market Power in the Romanian Banking Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Căpraru

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The current paper analyses the competition degree among Romanian banks during 2005- 2015. We determine the bank-level competition for loans and deposits using efficiency-adjusted Lerner index, while Boone indicator shows how competitive these two markets are. Marginal costs (MC are estimated with a Fourier flexible form cost function with two bank products, that generate the largest portion of revenues, (i.e. loans and deposits and three input prices (i.e. labour, funds and physical capital. We use DFA for efficiency-improved Lerner index and Generalized Method of Moments with one-, two- or three-year lagged values of marginal costs as instrumental variables for Boone indicator. The results are compared to the values of HHI and C5, provided by European Central Bank. Overall, bank competition in Romania improves as a direct result of decreasing market power and concentration. On the loan market, we can notice that starting with 2014 banks have changed their behaviour by focusing more on optimizing their portfolios through a complex process of balance sheet cleaning, instead of acquiring additional market share and be more competitive.

  8. Impact of Clean Energy R&D on the U.S. Power Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donohoo-Vallett, Paul [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States); Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Strategic Energy Analysis Center. Energy Forecasting and Modeling Group; Mowers, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Strategic Energy Analysis Center. Energy Forecasting and Modeling Group; Porro, Gian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Strategic Energy Analysis Center. Energy Forecasting and Modeling Group

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. government, along with other governments, private corporations and organizations, invests significantly in research, development, demonstration and deployment (RDD&D) activities in clean energy technologies, in part to achieve the goal of a clean, secure, and reliable energy system. While specific outcomes and breakthroughs resulting from RDD&D investment are unpredictable, it can be instructive to explore the potential impacts of clean energy RDD&D activities in the power sector and to place those impacts in the context of current and anticipated market trends. This analysis builds on and leverages analysis by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) titled “Energy CO2 Emissions Impacts of Clean Energy Technology Innovation and Policy” (DOE 2017). Similar to DOE (2017), we explore how additional improvements in cost and performance of clean energy technologies could impact the future U.S. energy system; however, unlike the economy-wide modeling used in DOE (2017) our analysis is focused solely on the electricity sector and applies a different and more highly spatially-resolved electric sector model. More specifically, we apply a scenario analysis approach to explore how assumed further advancements in clean electricity technologies would impact power sector generation mix, electricity system costs, and power sector carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions.

  9. Cuban internationalism - an alternative form of globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Maria; Melluish, Steve; Lorenzo, Alexis

    2014-10-01

    This paper looks at how the principles of internationalism have been integral to the Cuban healthcare system and to Cuba's cooperation and medical support in other countries around the world. The paper details the range and scope of Cuban health internationalism and the principles that underpin the Cuban approach of long-term collaboration, humane care, contextualization, trans-disciplinarity, respect for collective/historical memory and an ethical stance. The paper details the role of Cuban psychologists who have contributed to disaster relief work and gives an example of the Cuban approach in relation to Haiti following the earthquake in 2010.

  10. Optimization of carbon mitigation paths in the power sector of Shenzhen, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Hu, Guangxiao; Duan, Ying; Ji, Junping

    2017-08-01

    This paper studied the carbon mitigation paths of the power sector in Shenzhen, China from a supply-side perspective. We investigated the carbon mitigation potentials and investments of seventeen mitigation technologies in the power sector, and employed a linear programming method to optimize the mitigation paths. The results show that: 1) The total carbon mitigation potential is 5.95 MtCO2 in 2020 in which the adjustment of power supply structure, technical improvements of existing coal- and gas-fired power plant account for 87.5%,6.5% and 6.0%, respectively. 2) In the optimal path, the avoided carbon dioxide to meet the local government’s mitigation goal in power sector is 1.26 MtCO2.The adjustment of power supply structure and technical improvement of the coal-fired power plants are the driving factors of carbon mitigation, with contributions to total carbon mitigation are 72.6% and 27.4%, respectively.

  11. The new institutional model of the electric power sector; O novo modelo institucional do setor eletrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto Junior, Helder Queiroz; Bicalho, Ronaldo

    2007-07-01

    The proposal of a new institutional model for the Brazilian electric sector, launched by the Mine and Energy Ministry (MME) on December 2003, must be faced as one more event along the transition process of transition of the electric power industry, not only in Brazil but also in the entire world.

  12. Upcoming Role of Condition Monitoring in Risk-Based Asset Management for the Power Sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehairjan, R.P.Y.; Zhuang, Q.; Djairam, D.; Smit, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    The electrical power sector is stimulated to evolve under the pressures of the energy transition, the deregulation of electricity markets and the introduction of intelligent grids. In general, engineers believe that technologies such as monitoring, control and diagnostic devices, can realize this

  13. Latin America: market mechanisms and supply adequacy in power sector reforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammons, T.J. [University of Glasgow, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Barroso, L.A. [PSR, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Rudnick, H. [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile)

    2011-03-15

    The process of transformation in government and operations in the power sector leads to interaction between increasing integrated markets and public agencies in charge of policy making, regulation and control. This is examined for Latin America where state and marketing power sector planning, contract auctions to assure supply adequacy in an uncertain market environment, cross-border contracts, financing challenges for generation investments, and auctions of contracts to secure supply adequacy in the second stage of power sector reform are discussed. First, the state and market in power sector planning reform and state policies in Latin America are considered. Here, present concerns; the state-market relationship (the position of regulation, globalisation, internationalisation), and state market in the energy sector (correction and adjustments) are reviewed. Case studies for Argentina and Brazil are briefly outlined. The paper then examines contract auctions to assure supply adequacy in an uncertain energy environment that are being explored to face supply problems over recent years in the Chilean electricity market, taking into account the unexpected restrictions in natural gas transfers from Argentina. Also discussed are supply adequacy mechanisms and cross-border contracts in the Central American regional electricity market including firm transmission rights and financing challenges for generation investments. The final part of the paper discusses auctions of contracts and energy call options to ensure supply adequacy in the Brazilian power sector reform. Here, first stage of power sector reform, what went wrong, the second stage of reform and the move towards energy supply auctions, energy supply auctions so far and what's next in the challenges of environmental constraints and electricity-gas integration are reviewed. The reform being proposed to the electric regulatory framework for wholesale transactions in Peru is also reviewed. Considered are bids for

  14. Contesting authority: China and the new landscape of power sector governance in the developing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannam, Phillip Matthew

    Two co-constructed trends threaten to complicate global efforts to manage climate change. Electric power in developing countries is becoming more coal-intensive, while the international institutions capable of assisting lower-carbon growth paths are having their authority challenged by an emergent set of institutions under China's leadership. In the last decade Chinese firms and state banks have become central players in power sector development across the developing world; China has been involved in over sixty percent of Africa's hydropower capacity and is the single largest exporter of coal power plants globally. Statistical and qualitative evidence suggests that China's growing role in these power markets has contributed to re-prioritization of the power sector in U.S. bilateral development assistance, complicated negotiation and implementation of coal power finance rules among OECD export credit agencies, and influenced where the World Bank chooses to build hydropower projects. The thesis establishes a framework for understanding responses to discord in development governance by drawing inductively on these contemporary cases. Competition between established and emerging actors increases with two variables: 1) conflicting ideological, commercial and diplomatic goals (difference in interests); and 2) the degree to which the emerging actor challenges rules and norms upheld by the established actor (contested authority). Competitive policy adjustment - one actor seeking to undermine or diminish the other's pursuit of its objectives - has been historically commonplace when an emerging actor challenged an established actor in the regime for development assistance. China's growing authority in global power sector assistance has prompted competitive policy adjustment among established donors while also enabling recipient countries to leverage donors and better direct their own development pathways. The thesis shows that although contested authority increases

  15. Insurgency, Theoretical Decolonization and Social Decolonization: Lessons From Cuban Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Lacerda

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes how Cuban Psychology is related to the longstanding process of social insurgency against colonialism in Cuba. The paper suggests that the emergence of critical ideas in Psychology does not depend only upon intellectual developments; rather, social struggles can be a driving force that catalyze the development of critical ideas in Psychology. The paper is divided in three parts. First, the text briefly touches the issue of the intrinsic ties between insurgent activity, decolonization, and critical social sciences. Second, the paper presents a general historical description of Latin America and the challenges faced during and after the Cuban Revolution. Finally, the last part the paper offers a general overview of the historical development of Cuban Psychology history in order to analyze the dialectical relations between social and theoretical decolonization. Four developments of Cuban Psychology are presented: (a how patriotism changed studies of national identity and History of Psychology; (b professional practices that developed to better address social issues; (c theoretical debates about the "new human" and the active nature of subjectivity; and (d the influence of Soviet Psychology and the turn to Latin American Critical Psychology. Concluding notes consider the dialectical relation between, on one side, struggles for socialization of power and, on the other side, theoretical production of Critical Psychologies.

  16. Greenhouse gas emission mitigation in the Sri Lanka power sector supply side and demand side options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijayatunga, P.D.C. [University of Moratuwa (Sri Lanka). Centre for Energy Studies; Fernando, W.J.L.S. [Sri Lanka Energy Managers Association, Colombo (Sri Lanka); Shrestha, R.M. [Asian Inst. of Technology, Pathumthani (Thailand). Energy Program

    2003-12-01

    Sri Lanka has had a hydropower dominated electricity generation sector for many years with a gradually decreasing percentage contribution from hydroresources. At the same time, the thermal generation share has been increasing over the years. Therefore, the expected fuel mix in the future in the large scale thermal generation system would be dominated by petroleum products and coal. This will result in a gradual increase in greenhouse gas (GHG) and other environmental emissions in the power sector and, hence, require special attention to possible mitigation measures. This paper analyses both the supply side and demand side (DSM) options available in the Sri Lanka power sector in mitigating emissions in the sector considering the technical feasibility and potential of such options. Further, the paper examines the carbon abatement costs associated with such supply side and DSM interventions using an integrated resource planning model, which is not used in Sri Lanka at present. The sensitivities of the final generation costs and emissions to different input parameters, such as discount rates, fuel prices and capital costs, are also presented in the paper. It is concluded that while some DSM measures are economically attractive as mitigation measures, all the supply side options have a relatively high cost of mitigation, particularly in the context of GHG emission mitigation. Further it is observed that when compared with the projected price of carbon under different global carbon trading scenarios, these supply side options cannot provide economically beneficial CO{sub 2} mitigation in countries like Sri Lanka. (author)

  17. Effectiveness of state climate and energy policies in reducing power-sector CO2 emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Geoff; Saikawa, Eri

    2017-12-01

    States have historically been the primary drivers of climate change policy in the US, particularly with regard to emissions from power plants. States have implemented policies designed either to directly curb greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from power plants, or to encourage energy efficiency and renewable energy growth. With the federal government withdrawing from the global climate agreement, understanding which state-level policies have successfully mitigated power-plant emissions is urgent. Past research has assessed policy effectiveness using data for periods before the adoption of many policies. We assess 17 policies using the latest data on state-level power-sector CO2 emissions. We find that policies with mandatory compliance are reducing power-plant emissions, while voluntary policies are not. Electric decoupling, mandatory GHG registry/reporting and public benefit funds are associated with the largest reduction in emissions. Mandatory GHG registry/reporting and public benefit funds are also associated with a large reduction in emissions intensity.

  18. Bibliography of Cuban terrestrial Mollusca, including related and biohistorical papers on Cuban malacology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breure, A.S.H.; González Guillén, A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive overview of literature on Cuban terrestrial molluscs since the 18th century. It currently cites approximately 1000 references, dealing with a) primary and secondary sources directly treating Cuban taxa or relevant for the study of the Cuban malacofauna; b)

  19. Performance Analysis of CDMA WLL Systems with Imperfect Power Control and Imperfect Sectorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami A. El-Dolil

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless local loop (WLL provides reliable, flexible, and economical access to the local telephone service using radio technology in the place of traditional wireline. In this paper, an analytical model is derived to evaluate the effect of both imperfect power control and imperfect sectorization on the performance of code division multiple access (CDMA WLL systems. The results show that the capacity degradation, due to imperfect power control, is about 25.8% and 11.5% for single cell and multiple cell systems, respectively. Increasing the overlapping angle from 0∘ to 5∘ causes the capacity gain to decrease from 6 to 5.53, while the corresponding sectorization efficiency drops from 100% to 92.3%.

  20. Opportunities for Synergy Between Natural Gas and Renewable Energy in the Electric Power and Transportation Sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A.; Zinaman, O.; Logan, J.

    2012-12-01

    Use of both natural gas and renewable energy has grown significantly in recent years. Both forms of energy have been touted as key elements of a transition to a cleaner and more secure energy future, but much of the current discourse considers each in isolation or concentrates on the competitive impacts of one on the other. This paper attempts, instead, to explore potential synergies of natural gas and renewable energy in the U.S. electric power and transportation sectors.

  1. Power sector reform and distributed generation in sub-Saharan Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turkson, J.K.; Wohlgemuth, N.

    2001-01-01

    As part of the current liberalisation process sweeping sub-Saharan Africa, power sectors across the region are being scrutinised and restructured. A critical aspect of the reform is improving access to electricity by large segments of the population. Many in the continent are, therefore,looking a......As part of the current liberalisation process sweeping sub-Saharan Africa, power sectors across the region are being scrutinised and restructured. A critical aspect of the reform is improving access to electricity by large segments of the population. Many in the continent are, therefore......,looking at the issue of distributed generation as opposed to grid extension and the role of renewable energy in this process. The purpose of this paper is to inform this discussion by two means. First, after examining the concept of distributed - or decentralised - generation in a region where urban population is...... of the world might be transferable to the countries of sub-Saharan Africa is assessed. The paper concludes by investigating the prospects for distributed generation in power sector reform in sub-Saharan Africa, arguing that though lessons from other parts of the world will be helpful, they cannot be all...

  2. The Cuban Scenario 25 Years after the Fall of the Berlin Wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onesimo Julian Moreira Seijos

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the situation in Cuba after 25 years of the fall of the Berlin Wall. The Cuban political system has prevailed despite predictions foresaw its imminent end since the soviet-like socialism crumbled in East Europe and then in the USSR itself. Although the end of the cold war led to profound adjustments in the international system, the Cuban model remained almost unchanged; however, a Cuban repaired communism emerged in the nineties. Dollarization of the economy and permission for foreign investment affected the ideological purity as the main basis of the system persisted untouched. Nevertheless, since Raul Castro took over power from his brother Fidel in 2006 expectations for reform have increased. In fact, in 2011 the Sixth Congress of the Communist Party was held and some reforms have been implemented ever since. The paper focuses on the scope of those reforms as there are still many open questions about the future of the Cuban society.

  3. Renewable energy and CCS in German and European power sector decarbonization scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludig, Sylvie

    2013-11-06

    In order to avoid unmanageable impacts of anthropogenic climate change, it is necessary to achieve substantial CO{sub 2} emission reductions in all energy sectors. Due to salient decarbonization options such as renewable energy technologies and carbon capture and storage (CCS), the power sector plays a major role in climate change mitigation strategies. However, these options come with a set of challenges: the output of wind and solar energy varies in time and space and CCS faces technical challenges and public acceptance problems. This thesis develops power sector decarbonization scenarios for the EU and Germany while taking into account both the interplay of renewable energy technologies and CCS as mitigation options as well as the technical challenges of renewable energy integration. More specifically, a series of model based studies address the respective roles of CCS and renewable energy technologies in emission reduction strategies while evaluating technical integration options such as transmission, storage and balancing technologies. Results show that large-scale expansion of renewable energies will play the main role in power sector decarbonization scenarios, but the availability of CCS could lead to lower total costs and easier reaching of emission reduction targets through compensation of emissions generated by balancing technologies. Long-distance transmission enables better siting of renewable energy and thus higher achievable renewable shares in power generation and higher capacity factors. These indirect effects of delayed expansions induce additional power system costs, which are high relative to investment costs for new transmission lines. Results also reveal a preference for flexible technologies in combination with high shares of renewables for balancing purposes rather than inflexible baseload plants. A case study for the EU shows that a near-complete decarbonization is possible both with and without transmission expansions, but total power

  4. Crisp and fuzzy integer programming models for optimal carbon sequestration retrofit in the power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, R.R.; Ng, D.K.S.; Foo, D.C.Y.; Aviso, K.B. [De La Salle University, Manila (Philippines)

    2010-12-15

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is one of the interim technologies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions from stationary sources such as power plant and large industrial facilities. CCS allows for continued utilization of fossil fuels (e.g. coal, natural gas and oil), which are still relatively inexpensive and reliable in comparison to inherently low-carbon renewable resources (e.g. wind, solar etc.). On the other hand, retrofitting power plants for carbon capture (CC) entails major capital costs as well as reduction of thermal efficiency and power output. This paper presents integer programming optimization models for planning the retrofit of power plants at the regional, sectoral or national level. In addition to the base case (i.e., non-fuzzy or crisp) formulation, two fuzzy extensions are given to account for the inherent conflict between environmental and economic goals, as well as parametric uncertainties pertaining to the emerging CC technologies. Case studies are shown to illustrate the modeling approach.

  5. Feasibility Study of the Post-2020 Commitment to the Power Generation Sector in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taesik Yun

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the economic effects of greenhouse gases (GHG reduction measures of the generation sector of South Korea to accomplish the 2030 GHG reduction target using a scenario-based approach. We estimate the GHG emission of the South Korean power industry in 2030 based on both the 7th Electricity Supply and Demand Plan and the GHG emission coefficients issued by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA. We establish four scenarios for reduction measures by replacing the coal-fired power plants with nuclear power, renewable energy and carbon capture and storage, and liquefied natural gas (LNG combined cycle generation. Finally, the nuclear power scenario demonstrates the most positive measure in terms of GHG reduction and economic effects.

  6. Public Benefits and Power Sector Reform. Report from an International Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Lars J.; Arvidson, Anders; Eberhard, Anton (eds.)

    2003-10-01

    The Workshop on Public Benefits and Power Sector Reform was motivated by the need to address broader development goals and advance the provision of public benefits in power sector reforms. The primary objectives were: To provide a forum for a discussion among specialists, of how the provision of public benefits can be expanded as power sectors in developing countries are reformed, and review the experience (Day 1). To identify the needs for training and capacity building and institutional arrangements, as well as make recommendations for their design and implementation, for policy makers, regulators, and other professionals in developing countries (Day 2). Public benefits is a socially constructed concept that includes activities that are not adequately conceived by competitive markets. Public benefit policies and programmes include those that expand electricity access to rural areas and the urban poor, improve security of supply, promote energy efficiency and renewable energy, etc. Reforms have indeed been a threat to public benefits as traditionally delivered through electric utilities. However, in many cases public benefit programmes have also been rescued. In fewer cases, public benefit programmes have been conceived in the reform process. From experience so far it is clear that power sector reforms must be made more compatible with broader sustainable development goals. Recognising the need for broader policy integration and putting public benefits higher on the reform agenda points to the importance of reaching beyond energy ministries and power sector experts at an early stage in the reform process. Other actors, such as NGOs and academia, may also be instrumental in monitoring and assessing the impacts of reform. Public benefits can be an integral part of a reform package, or a complement to reform. It does appear that reform creates space and opportunity to achieve public benefits, but someone has to utilise that opportunity. The need to make trade

  7. Economic Valuation Methods: The Perception of the Accountants of the Hydroeletric Power Sector in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aracéli Cristina de S. Ferreira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to verify how accountants perceive the electric power companies in Brazil, regarding the use of economic valuation methods for measuring environmental impacts on hydroelectric power generation. These methods would be used in the internalisation of impacts in compliance with accounting theory criteria of recognition, measurement and disclosure of relevant economic activities. This is an exploratory study based on the conclusion regarding the collected data from a questionnaire answered by accountants, who worked in the electric power sector and were members of the Brazilian Electric Power Sector Accountants Association (ABRACONEE. The research showed that 74% of respondents were accountants or accounting analysts, 92% of them believed that companies should account for (internalise environmental impacts caused by their activities, and 75% of them believed that this task should be based on detailed and specific norms determining what should be done and when and how to do it. Despite their high level of accounting knowledge and complete familiarity with the changes determined by the Brazilian Securities Commission, respondents adopted a conservative stance in relation to the use of estimated values or those obtained in hypothetical markets. The study revealed the existence of a vast field of research that has yet to be explored by accounting in the field of environmental accounting, especially in terms of both measurement and recognition of environmental impacts caused by diverse economic activities

  8. An Investigation of Atmospheric Mercury from Power Sector in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thao Thi Bich Pham

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mercury (Hg is a highly toxic pollutant with a long range transport in the atmosphere resulting in both local and global concerns. Understanding of emissions is required to support an effective control strategy. In this study, atmospheric Hg emissions from power sector in Thailand in 2010 were investigated by using the bottom-up approach to improve the accuracy of the estimate by up to 50% in comparison to those provided in global inventories. The activity data of each individual source were collected and emissions factors were assessed based on local sources, well reflecting the emissions behavior of various emitters in Thailand. The atmospheric Hg emissions from power sector in 2010 amounted to 844.5 kg, in which emissions from coal and lignite power plants constituted up to 92.3% and biomass power plants constituted up to 7.4%. Spatial and temporal distribution analysis indicated high emissions in the Central and Northern regions, and from February to July. Annual trends in emissions from 2010 to 2030 were estimated and discussed.

  9. Nuclear position in power generation sector - under the pressure of anti-global warming and power market reform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Taizo

    2005-12-15

    The future structure surrounding fuel choice in power generation sector should be understood how to evaluate actual and potential merit and demerit both in economic and environmental aspects on nuclear power generation. That is i.e. nuclear can be understood as superior power source without GHGs and on the other hand, as unfavorable power source which might cause some critical dangers due to its hazardous radioactive nuclear waste. On this specific characteristic, this theme on fuel choice surrounding nuclear in power generation sector could be understood as a highly cultural problem as much as economic and political one. For instance, we can observe quite opposite direction with each other on nuclear power development in European countries like France and Finland on one hand and Germany and Sweden on the other hand. Looking at Asian countries, we also observe the very reality of high economic growth with rapid growth of electricity demand like China. What on earth, is it really possible without nuclear power source for such gigantic countries. I will develop my personal idea on nuclear power source based on Japanese experience towards successfully managing nuclear power technologies in the world, consisting of developing countries with growing economies and of advanced ones with rather matured nuclear technology under the pressure of environmentally restricted world order. My basic view point to discuss nuclear power problem has, conclusionally speaking, several aspects; The first one is in the relation with deregulation or liberalization of electricity market, which has been undergoing among such developed countries as OECD member countries i.e. USA, EU, Japan and other countries. Deregulation or liberalization of electricity market seems to be the inevitable process towards more matured market economy among developed countries group, and that process inevitably forces management of power companies towards more near sighted attitude if those companies are

  10. Linking the Power and Transport Sectors—Part 2: Modelling a Sector Coupling Scenario for Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Robinius

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available “Linking the power and transport sectors—Part 1” describes the general principle of “sector coupling” (SC, develops a working definition intended of the concept to be of utility to the international scientific community, contains a literature review that provides an overview of relevant scientific papers on this topic and conducts a rudimentary analysis of the linking of the power and transport sectors on a worldwide, EU and German level. The aim of this follow-on paper is to outline an approach to the modelling of SC. Therefore, a study of Germany as a case study was conducted. This study assumes a high share of renewable energy sources (RES contributing to the grid and significant proportion of fuel cell vehicles (FCVs in the year 2050, along with a dedicated hydrogen pipeline grid to meet hydrogen demand. To construct a model of this nature, the model environment “METIS” (models for energy transformation and integration systems we developed will be described in more detail in this paper. Within this framework, a detailed model of the power and transport sector in Germany will be presented in this paper and the rationale behind its assumptions described. Furthermore, an intensive result analysis for the power surplus, utilization of electrolysis, hydrogen pipeline and economic considerations has been conducted to show the potential outcomes of modelling SC. It is hoped that this will serve as a basis for researchers to apply this framework in future to models and analysis with an international focus.

  11. Compendium of information of the Mexican power sector; 1. ed.; Compendio de Informacion del sector energetico mexicano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulas del Pozo, Pablo; Reinking Cejudo, Arturo [eds.] [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    This first Compendium of information of the Mexican power sector was elaborated with the purpose of concentrating the most relevant information on energy in a single volume to facilitate the search and consults of people interested in this subject. In Chapter I (Reserves), the numbers of hydrocarbon of petroleum and gas reserves appear, non-conventional energies such as: coal, hydroelectricity, geothermal, uranium, at National level. All these numbers correspond to year 1997. In Chapter II (Production), the events and results of 1997 are discussed in the text and in the tables the numbers of hydrocarbon production appear, the non-conventional energies and of electricity generation, of 1996 as well as of 1997. In chapter III (Facilities), the capacity of refineries and processing plants are shown, as they can be oil, gas, petroleum-producing products of the petrochemical industry; in the same way the national electrical system is approached, which counts on with an extensive infrastructure standing out the electricity generation plants, the transmission lines and the substations, distributed all over the country. The detailed information of each type of plant is presented. The information provided in this chapter corresponds to the 31 of December of 1997, although certain details are included whose information 1996 only know. In chapter IV (Energy Consumption), appears the most relevant information on the destiny and consumption of energy. To relate this information with the data of chapter II the conventions on how the gross internal offer is conformed and the data to arrive to this last one are presented. The numbers of the National energy balance are presented for 1996, as well as the ones of self-consumption of the energy sector and the ones of transformation consumption. The numbers of foreign trade of energy to relate all these concepts to the production and offer of energy are presented. In the price and tariffs section of this chapter, the 1997 and the 1996

  12. China’s Energy Transition in the Power and Transport Sectors from a Substitution Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shangfeng Han

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Facing heavy air pollution, China needs to transition to a clean and sustainable energy system, especially in the power and transport sectors, which contribute the highest greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. The core of an energy transition is energy substitution and energy technology improvement. In this paper, we forecast the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE for power generation in 2030 in China. Cost-emission effectiveness of the substitution between new energy vehicles and conventional vehicles is also calculated in this study. The results indicate that solar photovoltaic (PV and wind power will be cost comparative in the future. New energy vehicles are more expensive than conventional vehicles due to their higher manufacturer suggested retail price (MSRP. The cost-emission effectiveness of the substitution between new energy vehicles and conventional vehicles would be $96.7/ton or $114.8/ton. Gasoline prices, taxes, and vehicle insurance will be good directions for policy implementation after the ending of subsidies.

  13. Competing Air Quality and Water Conservation Co-benefits from Power Sector Decarbonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, W.; Wagner, F.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Ramana, M. V.; Zhai, H.; Small, M.; Zhang, X.; Dalin, C.

    2016-12-01

    Decarbonizing the power sector can reduce fossil-based generation and associated air pollution and water use. However, power sector configurations that prioritize air quality benefits can be different from those that maximize water conservation benefits. Despite extensive work to optimize the generation mix under an air pollution or water constraint, little research has examined electricity transmission networks and the choice of which fossil fuel units to displace in order to achieve both environmental objectives simultaneously. When air pollution and water stress occur in different regions, the optimal transmission and displacement decisions still depend on priorities placed on air quality and water conservation benefits even if low-carbon generation planning is fixed. Here we use China as a test case, and develop a new optimization framework to study transmission and displacement decisions and the resulting air quality and water use impacts for six power sector decarbonization scenarios in 2030 ( 50% of national generation is low carbon). We fix low-carbon generation in each scenario (e.g. type, location, quantity) and vary technology choices and deployment patterns across scenarios. The objective is to minimize the total physical costs (transmission costs and coal power generation costs) and the estimated environmental costs. Environmental costs are estimated by multiplying effective air pollutant emissions (EMeff, emissions weighted by population density) and effective water use (Weff, water use weighted by a local water stress index) by their unit economic values, Vem and Vw. We are hence able to examine the effect of varying policy priorities by imposing different combinations of Vem and Vw. In all six scenarios, we find that increasing the priority on air quality co-benefits (higher Vem) reduces air pollution impacts (lower EMeff) at the expense of lower water conservation (higher Weff); and vice versa. Such results can largely be explained by differences

  14. Impacts of Federal Tax Credit Extensions on Renewable Deployment and Power Sector Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cole, Wesley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lantz, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Marcy, Cara [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sigrin, Benjamin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Federal tax credits for renewable energy (RE) have served as one of the primary financial incentives for RE deployment over the last two decades in the United States. In December 2015, the wind power production tax credit and solar investment tax credits were extended for five years as part of the Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2016. This report explores the impact that these tax credit extensions might have on future RE capacity deployment and power sector carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The analysis examines the impacts of the tax credit extensions under two distinct natural gas price futures as natural gas prices have been key factors in influencing the economic competitiveness of new RE development. The analysis finds that, in both natural gas price futures, RE tax credit extensions can spur RE capacity investments at least through the early 2020s and can help lower emissions from the U.S. electricity system. More specifically, the RE tax credit extensions are estimated to drive a net peak increase of 48-53 GW in installed RE capacity in the early 2020s -- longer term impacts are less certain. In the longer term after the tax credits ramp down, greater RE capacity is driven by a combination of assumed RE cost declines, rising fossil fuel prices, and other clean energy policies such as the Clean Power Plan. The tax credit extension-driven acceleration in RE capacity development can reduce fossil fuel-based generation and lower electric sector CO2 emissions. Cumulative emissions reductions over a 15-year period (spanning 2016-2030) as a result of the tax credit extensions are estimated to range from 540 to 1420 million metric tonnes CO2. These findings suggest that tax credit extensions can have a measurable impact on future RE deployment and electric sector CO2 emissions under a range of natural gas price futures.

  15. Case of reforms in the Indian power distribution sector: A move towards eradicating energy poverty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madhav, Mrinal; Mehta, Shivika

    2010-09-15

    India's transmission and distribution losses are among the highest in the world. When non-technical losses such as energy theft are included in the total, losses go as high as 65% in some states and average about 35-40%. The financial loss has been estimated at 1.5% of the national GDP. These act as a major deterrent to the private as well as global investments in the sector. To address the issue of Aggregate Transmission and Commercial (AT&C) losses funding mechanism was introduced for in the form of the Accelerated Power Development Reforms Programme (APDRP).

  16. Modeling the Value of Integrated Canadian and U.S. Power Sector Expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Wesley, Beiter, Philipp; Steinberg, Daniel

    2016-09-08

    The United States and Canada power systems are not isolated. Cross-border transmission and coordination of system operation create an interconnected power system, which results in combined imports and exports of electricity of greater than 70 TWh per year [1]. Currently, over 5 GW of new international transmission lines are in various stages of permitting and development. These lines may enable greater integration and coordination of the U.S. and Canada systems, which can in turn reduce challenges associated with integration of high penetrations of variable renewables. Furthermore, low-cost Canadian resources, such as wind and hydro, could contribute to compliance with the EPA's recently released Clean Power Plan. Improving integration and coordination internationally will reduce the costs of accessing these resources. This analysis work build on previous work by Ibanez and Zinaman [2]. In this work we seek to better understand the value of additional interconnection between the U.S. and Canadian power systems. Specifically, we quantify the value of additional interconnection and coordination within the Canadian-US integrated power system under scenarios in which large reductions (>80%) in power sector CO2 emissions are achieved. We explore how the ability to add additional cross-border transmission impacts capacity investment, the generation mix, system costs, and the ability of the system to integrate variable renewable energy into the power system. This analysis uses the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) capacity expansion model [3], [4] to quantify the value of the integrated power system expansion of the United States and Canada. ReEDS is an optimization model that assesses the deployment and operation (including transmission) of the electricity sector of the contiguous United States and Canadian provinces from 2016 through 2050. It has the ability to model the integration of renewable energy technologies into the grid. ReEDS captures renewable

  17. Testing for cross-subsidisation in the combined heat and power generation sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amundsen, Eirik S; Andersen, Per; Jensen, Frank

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we examine cross-subsidisation among combined heat and power producers in Denmark.Information on stand-alone costs for heat generation allows us to empirically compare the Faulhaber tests,tests with an upper bound on stand-alone costs (the Palmer tests) and the fully distributed cost...... test (FDC). All tests indicate a substantial amount of cross-subsidisation from heat generation to power generation. It is shown that the FDC test is closer to that of the Faulhaber tests in its results than the Palmer tests. Thus as the Faulhaber tests are considered in the literature...... to be the theoretically correct tests, the FDC test is shown to be the best approximation for tests of cross-subsidisation for this specific sector....

  18. Lifestyle Risk Factors and Cardiovascular Disease in Cubans and Cuban Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa S. Burroughs Peña

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in Cuba. Lifestyle risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD in Cubans have not been compared to risk factors in Cuban Americans. Articles spanning the last 20 years were reviewed. The data on Cuban Americans are largely based on the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HHANES, 1982–1984, while more recent data on epidemiological trends in Cuba are available. The prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus remains greater in Cuban Americans than in Cubans. However, dietary preferences, low physical activity, and tobacco use are contributing to the rising rates of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and CHD in Cuba, putting Cubans at increased cardiovascular risk. Comprehensive national strategies for cardiovascular prevention that address these modifiable lifestyle risk factors are necessary to address the increasing threat to public health in Cuba.

  19. Gas allocation plans based on failures scenarios: PETROBRAS-Gas and Power Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faertes, Denise; Vieira, Flavia; Saker, Leonardo; Heil, Luciana [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Galvao, Joao [DNV, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present gas allocation plans developed for PETROBRAS Gas and Power Sector, considering failure to supply scenarios that could occur along gas supply network. Those scenarios, as well as the associated contingency plans, were identified and validated by an experienced team, composed by engineers and operators from different PETROBRAS sectors. The key issue of concern was the anticipation of possible undesired scenarios that could imply on contract shortfalls, the evaluation of possible maneuvers, taking into account best gas delivery allocation. Different software were used for the simulation of best gas supply allocation and for the verification of delivery pressure and conditions for final consumers. The ability of being capable of dealing with undesired or crisis scenarios, based on suitable anticipation levels, is, nowadays, a highly valuable attribute to be presented by competitive corporations, for best crisis management and prompt recovery response. Those plans are being used by Gas and Power Gas Operation Control Centre and as an input for reliability modeling of gas supply chain. (author)

  20. The input of electric power in the transportation sector. Inzet van elektriciteit in de transportsector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Haspel, B.; Elderman, M.; Haverkorn, K.

    1992-02-27

    The environmental effects and exploitation costs of different types of electric-driven road transport (automobiles, vans, buses and trucks) have been studied. For each vehicle category a comparison is made by means of a computer model (spreadsheets)between the environmental effects of electric-powered cars and the environmental effects of cars equipped with gasoline engines or diesel engines. Four scenario's (E1-E4) were developed for the transportation sector with a considerable input of electric-driven road transport and electric railroad transport. For each scenario the environmental effects were calculated and compared with conventional vehicles. The results of the study provide a broad overview of the possible applications of electric traction. For each specific application, dependent on the annual number of kilometres and type of traffic, the amount of air pollution can be deducted. The effects of a substantial introduction of electric traction in the transportation sector (more than 50% of the road vehicles is a hybrid or electric system) is deducted on the scenario level. An indication is given of the electricity demand pattern in the scenarios. The exploitation costs of electric-powered road vehicles are outlined. 25 figs., 27 tabs., 6 apps., 70 refs.

  1. The power sector in the melting pot. Perspectives for the structure of the sector in eastern Norway; Kraftsektor i stoepeskjeen. Perspektiver for bransjestrukturen paa Oestlandet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The Norwegian power sector is undergoing basic changes. All the energy utilities are affected. This report describes the options faced by the owners and the effects of making different choices. It (1) discusses the implications of competition and the new external conditions for publicly owned utilities, (2) analyses the profit obtainable through cooperation and changes in the structure within production, power sale and network activities, and (3) draws up the perspectives of the future structure of the power sector in eastern Norway, where many of the largest suppliers are situated. Two scenarios are discussed for the structure of the power sector in eastern Norway in 2010: (1) Regional focus. The owners have a deliberate attitude to the possibilities of a publicly owned and competitive energy supply and they want to exploit the economic potential to the benefit of the inhabitants of the region. The energy users are offered services that are competitive both on price and quality and the policy instrument is to develop regional solutions that realize the possibilities of large-scale operation and coordination within production, sales and network. (2) Industrial energy supply. Large industrial actors have won most of the auctions as the smaller distribution works were offered for sale. Both scenarios are rooted in changes that have actually occurred or are still in progress. There is no socioeconomic justification for asserting that one scenario is better than the other. The choice of action taken by the owners will first of all affect the distribution of the values managed and created by the power sector. 27 figs., 12 tabs.

  2. Implications of electric power sector restructuring on climate change mitigation in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasson, G.; Bouille, D. [Instituto de Economia Energetica, (Argentina); Redlinger, R. [UNEP, (Denmark)

    2000-05-01

    The Argentine electricity industry has undergone fundamental reforms since 1992, involving large-scale privatisation, and competition in generation and wholesale power markets. In terms of climate change mitigation, these reforms have had the beneficial effect of encouraging improved generation efficiency among thermal power plants and improved end-use consumption efficiency among large industrial firms. However, the reforms have also had the negative effect (from a climate change perspective) of encouraging an ever-increasing use of natural gas combustion for electricity generation, greatly diminishing the role of hydroelectric power which had previously played an important role in the Agentine electricity sector. This report examines the current structure and regulations of the Argentine electricity system and analyses the forces at work which are influencing current technology choices, both in terms of power generation and end-use consumption. The report goes on to examine international experiences in promoting renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies; and finally, the report considers the applicability of these various policy mechanisms within the Agentine context. (EHS)

  3. Published assessments bearing on the future use of ceramic superconductors by the electric power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giese, R.F.; Wolsky, A.M.

    1992-08-25

    Much has been written about ceramic superconductors since their discovery in 1986. Most of this writing reports and describes scientific research. However, some authors have sought to put this research in context: to assess where the field stands, what might be technically feasible, what might be economically feasible, and what potential impacts ceramic superconductors will bring to the electric power sector. This report`s purpose is to make the results of already published assessments readily available. To that end, this report lists and provides abstracts for various technical and economic assessments related to applications of High-Temperature Superconductors (HTS) to the electric power sector. Those studies deemed most important are identified and summarized. These assessments were identified by two means. First, members of the Executive Committee identified some reports as worthy of consideration and forwarded them to Argonne National Laboratory. Twelve assessments were selected. Each of these is listed and summarized in the following section. Second, a bibliographic search was performed on five databases: INSPEC, NTIS, COMPENDEX, Energy Science & Technology, and Electric Power Database. The search consisted of first selecting all papers related to High Temperature Superconductors. Then papers related to SMES, cables, generators, motors, fault current limiters, or electric utilities were selected. When suitable variants of the above terms were included, this resulted in a selection of 493 citations. These citations were subjected to review by the authors. A number of citations were determined to be inappropriate (e.g. a number referred to digital transmission lines for electronics and communications applications). The reduced list consisted of 200 entries. Each of these citations, with an abstract, is presented in the following sections.

  4. Published assessments bearing on the future use of ceramic superconductors by the electric power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giese, R.F.; Wolsky, A.M.

    1992-08-25

    Much has been written about ceramic superconductors since their discovery in 1986. Most of this writing reports and describes scientific research. However, some authors have sought to put this research in context: to assess where the field stands, what might be technically feasible, what might be economically feasible, and what potential impacts ceramic superconductors will bring to the electric power sector. This report's purpose is to make the results of already published assessments readily available. To that end, this report lists and provides abstracts for various technical and economic assessments related to applications of High-Temperature Superconductors (HTS) to the electric power sector. Those studies deemed most important are identified and summarized. These assessments were identified by two means. First, members of the Executive Committee identified some reports as worthy of consideration and forwarded them to Argonne National Laboratory. Twelve assessments were selected. Each of these is listed and summarized in the following section. Second, a bibliographic search was performed on five databases: INSPEC, NTIS, COMPENDEX, Energy Science Technology, and Electric Power Database. The search consisted of first selecting all papers related to High Temperature Superconductors. Then papers related to SMES, cables, generators, motors, fault current limiters, or electric utilities were selected. When suitable variants of the above terms were included, this resulted in a selection of 493 citations. These citations were subjected to review by the authors. A number of citations were determined to be inappropriate (e.g. a number referred to digital transmission lines for electronics and communications applications). The reduced list consisted of 200 entries. Each of these citations, with an abstract, is presented in the following sections.

  5. Fighting AIDS the Cuban way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, N S

    1995-01-01

    Cuba is using elements of classical public health practice in its national AIDS control program. Its AIDS policy appears to be successful. Cuba has 927 HIV-positive cases and 187 AIDS cases (111 deaths) in a population of more than 10 million. Its neighbors have cumulative AIDS prevalence rates at least on par with those of the US. Puerto Rico (around 3 million population) has more than 8000 AIDS cases. Cuba's health system provides for a family physician for every 12 apartment blocks. This physician lives in the community and makes home visits. Medical testing and screenings, including HIV screening, are routine in Cuba. Cuba has the most comprehensive HIV testing program in the world. This program detects fewer than 125 new HIV-positive cases annually. Cuba's successful health system existed before the advent of AIDS. More than 60% of HIV-positive persons are heterosexuals. Many were infected while serving abroad (internationalists) or as sexual partners of internationalists. Cuba considered AIDS as just another health threat and handled it accordingly. It did not worry about offending high risk populations. HIV-infected persons living in the HIV/AIDS sanatoria receive full salaries regardless of their work status and are expected to follow rules that serve to benefit themselves as well as Cuban society. They must accept the three safe sex commandments of the sanatoria before being allowed to leave after completion of a 6-month probationary period. Some patients are allowed to return home after the probationary period. Residents who practice unsafe sex lose their right to leave unchaperoned. All residents receive an individually tailored regimen, which regimen includes exercise, interferon or AZT, and a high calorie and protein diet (5000 kc/day). The Cuban AIDS program focuses on protecting gays, women, and children.

  6. The Cuban School in the Countryside

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Max Figueroa

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of the typical Cuban secondary school which is developing in response to a need for technical and vocational instruction. Objectives of the schools are listed in view of Cuba's increasingly mechanized industrial and agricultural production. (AV)

  7. Force Projection, the 5th Marine Expeditionary Brigade, and the Planned Amphibious Assault during the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    to the Spanish -American War (1898) and up to the rise of Fidel Castro and the Cuban Revolution (1959). Next, the strategic situation and tension...Doctrine, moves to the Spanish -American War, and continues up to the Cuban Revolution, which brought Fidel Castro to power. Following the historical...would not permit any new or re- colonization by Europe and that “any attempt . . . to extend their [monarchical] system to the [Western] hemisphere

  8. Assessment of On-Site Power Opportunities in the Industrial Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryson, T.

    2001-10-08

    The purpose of this report is to identify the potential for on-site power generation in the U.S. industrial sector with emphasis on nine industrial groups called the ''Industries of the Future'' (IOFs) by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Through its Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT), the DOE has teamed with the IOFs to develop collaborative strategies for improving productivity, global competitiveness, energy usage and environmental performance. Total purchases for electricity and steam for the IOFs are in excess of $27 billion annually. Energy-related costs are very significant for these industries. The nine industrial groups are (1) Agriculture (SIC 1); (2) Forest products; (3) Lumber and wood products (SIC 24); (4) Paper and allied products (SIC 26); (5) Mining (SIC 11, 12, 14); (6) Glass (SIC 32); (7) Petroleum (SIC 29); (8) Chemicals (SIC 28); and (9) Metals (SIC 33): Steel, Aluminum, and Metal casting. Although not currently part of the IOF program, the food industry is included in this report because of its close relationship to the agricultural industry and its success with on-site power generation. On-site generation provides an alternative means to reduce energy costs, comply with environmental regulations, and ensure a reliable power supply. On-site generation can ease congestion in the local utility's electric grid. Electric market restructuring is exacerbating the price premium for peak electricity use and for reliability, creating considerable market interest in on-site generation.

  9. Feasibility analysis of fuel cells for combined heat and power systems in the tertiary sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabalza, Ignacio; Aranda, Alfonso [CIRCE - Centre of Research for Energy Resources and Consumption, Polytechnic Centre, University of Zaragoza, Maria de Luna, 3, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Dolores de Gracia, Maria [Institute for Energy Engineering, Advanced Systems Group, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2007-07-15

    The aim of this paper is to present a feasibility analysis of the application of fuel cells for a combined heat and power system with grid connection in the tertiary sector. Although the analysis considers Spanish data, the methodology proposed is developed to be applicable at the EU level. The current legislative framework is analysed in order to establish the suitability of the payment scheme considered for the sale of surplus electricity from these systems. The paper also establishes criteria for the optimal design of distributed generation systems based on fuel cells from a technical, economic and environmental point of view, presenting the strategies that should be implemented to promote the future implantation of these systems and their progressive introduction to the market. (author)

  10. Implications of renewable energy technologies in the Bangladesh power sector. Long-term planning strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondal, Alam Hossain

    2010-10-04

    Bangladesh is facing daunting energy challenges: Security concerns over growing fuel imports, limited domestic energy resources for power generation, and projected demands for electricity that will exceed domestic supply capabilities within a few years. By acknowledging the potential of renewable energy resources, the country could possibly meet its unprecedented energy demand, thus increasing electricity accessibility for all and enhancing energy security through their advancement. The integration of renewable energy technologies in the power sector through national energy planning would, therefore, be a step in the right direction, not only for sustainable development of the country but also as part of Bangladesh's responsibility toward the global common task of environmental protection. This study estimates the potential of renewable energy sources for power generation in Bangladesh from the viewpoint of different promising available technologies. Future long-term electricity demand in Bangladesh is projected based on three economic growth scenarios. The energy planning model LEAP is applied to forecast the energy requirements from 2005 to 2035. Different policy scenarios, e.g., accelerated renewable energy production, null coal import, CO2 emission reduction targets and carbon taxes in the power sector from 2005 to 2035 are explored. The analyses are based on a long-term energy system model of Bangladesh using the MARKAL model. Prospects for the power sector development of the country are identified, which ensure energy security and mitigate environmental impacts. The technical potential of grid-connected solar photovoltaic and wind energy are estimated at 50174 MW and 4614 MW, respectively. The potential of energy from biomass and small hydro power plants is estimated at 566 MW and 125 MW, respectively. Total electricity consumption was 18 TWh in 2005 and is projected to increase about 7 times to 132 TWh by 2035 in the low GDP growth scenario. In the

  11. Exploring the impact of reduced hydro capacity and lignite resources on the Macedonian power sector development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taseska-Gjorgievskaa Verica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The reference development pathway of the Macedonian energy sector highlights the important role that lignite and hydro power play in the power sector, each accounting for 40% of total capacity in 2021. In 2030, this dominance continues, although hydro has a higher share due to the retirement of some of the existing lignite plants. Three sensitivity runs of the MARKAL-Macedonia energy system model have been undertaken to explore the importance of these technologies to the system, considering that their resource may be reduced with time: (1 Reducing the availability of lignite from domestic mines by 50% in 2030 (with limited capacity of imports, (2 Removing three large hydro options, which account for 310 MW in the business-as-usual case, and (3 Both of the above restrictions. The reduction in lignite availability is estimated to lead to additional overall system costs of 0.7%, compared to hydro restrictions at only 0.1%. With both restrictions applied, the additional costs rise to over 1%, amounting to 348 M€ over the 25 year planning horizon. In particular, costs are driven up by an increasing reliance on electricity imports. In all cases, the total electricity generation decreases, but import increases, which leads to a drop in capacity requirements. In both, the lignite and the hydro restricted cases, it is primarily gas-fired generation and imports that “fill the gap”. This highlights the importance of an increasingly diversified and efficient supply, which should be promoted through initiatives on renewables, energy efficiency, and lower carbon emissions.

  12. THE NIGERIAN GAS MASTER-PLAN, INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITIES, CHALLENGES, ISSUES AFFECTING POWER SECTOR: AN ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. INGWE

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Nigerian Gas Master-Plan, Investment Opportunities, Challenges, Issues Affecting Power Sector: an Analysis. The objective of this article is to contribute towards understanding of the Nigerian Gas Master Plan (NGMP/Plan and its bifurcations with key socio-economic development factors. I applied the method of discourse to bring to being some points that have hitherto been unknown about the Master-plan and its inter-relationships and bifurcations. Elaborated here are the spectacular gains that have accrued to the Latin American country, Trinidad and Tobago, from its recent development of natural gas resources. This was considered suitable and significant here for highlighting that if such spectacular achievements could be realized from Trinidad and Tobago’s relatively smaller gas deposit (15.3 tcf, probable reserves (8.4 tcf, possible reserves (6.2 tcf would be by far greater considering Nigeria’s larger natural gas reserves (184 tcf wealth as earlier stated. I show that the Plan is well designed relevant to addressing Nigeria’s current development needs generally. It presents potentials for stimulating Nigeria’s economic growth by harnessing the country’s abundant natural gas reserves. The Plan enumerates/ elaborates huge investment opportunities. Some challenges likely to be faced in the implementation/management of the Plan are already being surmounted as recent reports show that some of its key investments have been realized and the required infrastructure are being provided. Regarding the issues in the Master-plan that are likely to affect and are affecting Nigeria’s power sector development, I reckon that they are mostly positive factors due to the way the plan promises to stimulate electricity generation in our country.

  13. The impact of climate change on the U.S. power sector: Price and quantity effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veliz, Karina

    In U.S. homes, 22 percent and 6 percent of the consumption of electricity is devoted to satisfy cooling and heating demands, respectively. A warming climate alters these consumption patterns by increasing the demand for cooling and reducing the demand for heating. This dissertation uses econometric techniques to examine the effect of climate change on the U.S. power industry through the study of the responsiveness of electricity demand to changes in temperature, and the impact of a climate-induced demand on electricity price and expenditures. In the second chapter a fixed-effects model and a cointegration model at the state level are used to investigate the determinants of residential, commercial and industrial electricity consumption for the 48 contiguous states. The results indicate substantial geographical heterogeneity in the response of demand to cooling and heating degree days, with the Midwest showing the greatest sensitivity. Residential consumers are impacted the most; on average, they experience a 13--18 percent increase in expenditures. In the third chapter the standard method of modeling electricity consumption is extended by the analysis of a wide range of set points above and below 65°F, and by including wet bulb temperatures. The statistical results for Massachusetts validate the use of 65F for the residential sector, but demonstrate that a set point of 55°F and wet bulb temperature best characterizes the commercial sector. Using the models generated with these set points, climate change is projected to raise residential and commercial demand by 2.6 percent and 4 percent, respectively. In the fourth chapter, previous analyses on climate-induced expenditures are improved by accounting for the dual impact that climate change has on the electric power sector: an increase in both demand and price. A projected 2.6°C rise in temperature by 2070 in Massachusetts increases electricity prices by 11 to 18 percent. This increase in price, together with the

  14. Prospects for the African Power Sector. Scenarios and Strategies for Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-01-15

    Electricity has become an indispensable prerequisite for enhancing economic activity and improving human quality of life. Agricultural and industrial production processes are made more efficient through the use of electricity. Households need electricity for many purposes, including cooking, lighting, refrigeration, study and home-based economic activity. Essential facilities, such as hospitals, require electricity for cooling, sterilisation and refrigeration. Africa currently has 147 GW of installed capacity, a level comparable to the capacity China installs in one or two years. Average per capita electricity consumption in sub-Saharan Africa (excluding South Africa) is just 153 kWh/year. This is one-fourth of the consumption in India and just 6% of the global average. Nearly 600 million people in Africa lack access to electricity. Electricity blackouts occur on a daily basis in many African countries. Faced with this situation, people and enterprises often have to rely on expensive diesel power generation to meet their electricity needs, costing some African economies between 1% and 5% of GDP annually. To meet its growing demand Africa has an urgent need to raise the level of investment in its power sector. Analysis of a range of country and regional studies suggests the continent will need to add around 250 GW of capacity between now and 2030 to meet demand growth. This will require capacity additions to double to around 7 GW a year in the short-term and to quadruple by 2030. The magnitude of the investments required is such that governments will need public-private partnerships in order to scale up investment in generation capacity. While access rates are improving in some countries, the business environment and policy framework are still not sufficiently robust to attract the level of private investment required to install the additional 250 GW by 2030. Many African countries are burdened by opaque policy frameworks and excessive red tape, while electricity

  15. THE CUBAN DANCE CONStRUCT: A MECHANISM FOR CREATIVE AGENCY AND IDENTITY FORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Gahl

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Cuban state project of arts institutionalization has created a dance construct that is world-renowned and plays an important role in Cuban society as an outlet for expression and commentary, a protected space for dialogue, and a conduit to the international artistic arena. During a 30-day period in Havana, Cuba, the author explored the anatomy of the life of the Cuban dancer; from interviewing dancers, teachers, choreographers, and directors; attending performances; observing lectures, classes and rehearsals; and taking classes with the national dance companies. the author investigated how the dance construct influences the individual artists and the Cuban society at large and why the dance construct plays such a critical role. Dance as an emotional practice expands the range of creative agency and facilitates the expression of individual and community identity. The dance construct fulfills an artistic social contract between artists and the public to provide a protected space for dialogue and innovation. The vibrant Cuban dance construct demonstrates the potential of this contract when both parties participate in fulfilling their obligations in this agreement. Through deeper understanding of the cultural societal forces at work, the power of dance can be maximized to produce a positive impact on communities around the world.

  16. The impact of the EU ETS on the sectoral innovation system for power generation technologies. Findings for Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogge, Karoline [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology Zurich (ETH Zurich) (Switzerland). Dept. of Management, Technology, and Economics; Hoffmann, Volker [Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology Zurich (ETH Zurich) (Switzerland). Dept. of Management, Technology, and Economics

    2009-07-01

    This paper provides an overview of early changes in the sectoral innovation system for power generation technologies which have been triggered by the European Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS). Based on a broad definition of the sector, our research analyses the impact of the EU ETS on the four building blocks 'knowledge and technologies', 'actors and networks', 'institutions' and 'demand' by combining two streams of literature, namely systems of innovation and environmental economics. Our analysis is based on 42 exploratory inter-views with German and European experts in the field of the EU ETS, the power sector and technological innovation. We find that the EU ETS mainly affects the rate and direction of the technological change of power generation technologies within the large-scale, coal-based power generation technological regime to which carbon capture technologies are added as a new technological trajectory. While this impact can be interpreted as defensive behaviour of incumbents, the observed changes should not be underestimated. We argue that the EU ETS' impact on corporate CO2 culture and routines may prepare the ground for the transition to a low carbon sectoral innovation system for power generation technologies. (orig.)

  17. Private Investment in Power Sector in Developing Countries: Lessons from Reforms in Asian and Latin American Countries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Anoop

    2007-07-01

    The demand for investment in the electricity sector in the world between 2000 and 2030 is estimated to be USD9.8 trillion. Developing countries would require more than half of this investment. Given the limited fiscal space for public investment, a number of developing countries have undertaken policy initiatives to improve the investment climate for the private sector. The pace, scope, sequencing and outcome of reform process varies across countries. This paper undertakes a comparative evaluation of policy and regulatory reforms in Argentina, Brazil, India, Mexico, PRC and Thailand. The paper concludes that apart from macroeconomic stability, the pace and sequencing of reforms influences private investment in the power sector. Distribution reforms and setting up of an independent regulatory institution reduces risk for investors. A peace-meal approach to reform keeps uncertainties alive for investors and does not translate in significant investment in the sector. (auth)

  18. Current practices for risk zoning around nuclear power plants in comparison to other industry sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchsteiger, Christian

    2006-08-25

    This paper analyses the background and current status of the information basis leading to the definition of risk and emergency zones around nuclear power plants (NPPs) in different countries in Europe and beyond. Although dependable plant-specific probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) of level 2 and/or level 3 could in principle provide sufficiently detailed input to define the geographical dimension of a NPP's risk and emergency zones, the analysis of the status in some European and other countries shows that other, "deterministic" approaches using a reference accident are actually used in practice. Regarding use of level 2 PSA for emergency planning, the approach so far has been to use the level 2 PSA information retrospectively to provide the justification for the choice of reference accident(s) used to define the emergency plans and emergency planning zones (EPZs). There are significant differences in the EPZs that are defined in different countries, ranging from a few up to 80km. There is a striking contrast in the extent of using probabilistic information to define emergency zones between the nuclear and other high risk industry sectors, such as the chemical process industry, and the reasons for these differences are not entirely clear, since the risk of chemical industry is similar as that of the nuclear sector. The differences seem to be more related to risk perception than to the actual risk potential. Therefore, there is a strong need to be able to communicate risk information to the Public both before and following an accident. In addition, there is a need to educate the Public so that they can understand risk information in a comparative sense. Finally, based on the consensus discussions at a recent JRC/OECD International Seminar on Risk and Emergency Zoning around NPPs, a set of recommendations is given in the areas of: -a more comprehensive use of the available risk information for risk zoning purposes, -risk communication; -comparative (energy) risk

  19. Engaging Cuban Physicists Through the APS/CPS Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch, Irving A.; Lerch, Irving A.

    In his reflections on Cuban physics, Marcelo Alonso urges APS to take steps to promote interactions between Cuban and US physicists. As an introduction to Marcello's essay, this note will summarize past and current activities.

  20. Multi-Sector General Permit Annual Industrial Storm Water Training, TA-3-22 Power and Steam Plant (Sector 0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shendo, Marwin Patrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-01-12

    This report offers training for employees who work at TA-3-22, the Power and Steam Plant that move product, metal, and other pollutants like oil, fuel, equipment, pumps, etc. outside or that work outside with industrial materials exposed to storm water.

  1. Review of carbon dioxide capture and storage with relevance to the South African power sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Osman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions and their association with climate change are currently a major discussion point in government and amongst the public at large in South Africa, especially because of the country's heavy reliance on fossil fuels for electricity production. Here we review the current situation regarding CO2 emissions in the South African power generation sector, and potential process engineering solutions to reduce these emissions. Estimates of CO2 emissions are presented, with the main sources of emissions identified and benchmarked to other countries. A promising mid-term solution for mitigation of high CO2 emissions, known as CO2 capture and storage, is reviewed. The various aspects of CO2 capture and storage technology and techniques for CO2 capture from pulverised coal power plants are discussed; these techniques include processes such as gas absorption, hydrate formation, cryogenic separation, membrane usage, sorbent usage, enzyme-based systems and metal organic frameworks. The latest power plant designs which optimise CO2 capture are also discussed and include integrated gasification combined cycle, oxy-fuel combustion, integrated gasification steam cycle and chemical looping combustion. Each CO2 capture technique and plant modification is presented in terms of the conceptual idea, the advantages and disadvantages, and the extent of development and applicability in a South African context. Lastly, CO2 transportation, storage, and potential uses are also presented. The main conclusions of this review are that gas absorption using solvents is currently most applicable for CO2 capture and that enhanced coal bed methane recovery could provide the best disposal route for CO2 emissions mitigation in South Africa.

  2. Development perspectives of the Polish power generation sector according to the climate preservation conference COP21 policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szczerbowski Radosław

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Power generation policy equals the safety policy of a certain country. It should be reasonable and it should consider the access to available energy sources. The crucial issue revolves around minimizing the negative influence of power generation sector on the environment. At the same time, recent years have proven the united stand of world policies toward power generation. Poland has also attempted to determine a new model of power generation strategy. This strategy ought to consider the needs of both the recipients and climate challenges. But there is a crucial question of the shape of the new strategy for development of power system within the next years in the light of requirements of convention on climate change. During the Climate Conference in Paris in December 2015 – 195 countries accepted the first world agreement related to climate preservation. The agreement determines a world action plan, which is to prevent climate change as the result of climate warming. One of the goals is a quick reduction of emissions including power generation sector. This overview presents a current state of National Power System, availability of primary energy sources and various power technologies of future strategy for power system development. The technologies are described in view of their possible use for power generation and their applicability for the reduction of emissions of harmful substances to the atmosphere.

  3. The Impact of CCS Readiness on the Evolution of China's Electric Power Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.; Yu, Sha; Horing, Jill D.; Wei, Ning; Clarke, Leon E.; Bender, Sadie R.

    2017-07-01

    In this study, GCAM-China is exercised to examine the impact of CCS availability on the projected evolution of China’s electric power sector under the Paris Increased Ambition policy scenario developed by Fawcett et al. based on the Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) submitted under the COP-21 Paris Agreement. This policy scenario provides a backdrop for understanding China’s electric generation mix over the coming century under several CCS availability scenarios: CCS is fully available for commercial-scale deployment by 2025; by 2050; by 2075; and CCS is unavailable for use in meeting the modelled mitigation targets through 2100. Without having CCS available, the Chinese electric power sector turns to significant use of nuclear, wind, and solar to meet growing demands and emissions targets, at a cost. Should large-scale CCS deployment be delayed in China by 25 years, the modeled per-ton cost of climate change mitigation is projected to be roughly $420/tC (2010 US dollars) by 2050, relative to $360/tC in the case in which CCS is available to deploy by 2025, a 16% increase. Once CCS is available for commercial use, mitigation costs for the two cases converge, equilibrating by 2085. However, should CCS be entirely unavailable to deploy in China, the mitigation cost spread, compared to the 2025 case, doubles by 2075 ($580/tC and $1130/tC respectively), and triples by 2100 ($1050/tC vs. $3200/tC). However, while delays in CCS availability may have short-term impacts on China’s overall per-ton cost of meeting the emissions reduction target evaluated here, as well as total mitigation costs, the carbon price is likely to approach the price path associated with the full CCS availability case within a decade of CCS deployment. Having CCS available before the end of the century, even under the delays examined here, could reduce the total amount of nuclear and renewable energy that must deploy, reducing the overall cost of meeting the emissions

  4. Climate challenges in the power sector towards 2100. Summary report; Klimautfordringer i kraftsektoren frem mot 2100. Sammendragsrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steen, Roger; Hamnaberg, Haavard; Arnesen, Svein Olav; Jensen, Carsten Stig; Malvik, Ingvild Vaggen; Molkersroed, Kjell; Soerensen, Jan

    2010-03-15

    This report is a summary of a larger study NVE have done on behalf of the NOU Climate Adaptation, a public committee with a mandate to study the vulnerability and need for adaptation to climate change in Norway. This report's focus is on climate change and adaptation needs in the power sector towards the year 2100. (AG)

  5. THE CUBAN WOMEN IN AGRICULTURE: RECOVERY OF EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Beatriz Arce-Rodríguez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The author brings an analysis about Cuban rural women in development projects due to different historical moments of Cuban Revolution of Fidel Castro after 1959. An experience in the western part of the country, Holguin, is showed as an example of improvement of Cuban rural women participation in development local projects with gender perspective.

  6. Cuban Science and the Open Access Alternative

    CERN Document Server

    Arencibia Jorge, Ricardo; Torricella-Morales, Raúl G

    2004-01-01

    Science in Cuba has experienced extraordinary development since the triumph of the Cuban Revolution, in spite of the blockade to which Cuba has been subjected by the United States Government, and thanks to the support and cooperation of the countries that were part of the former Socialist Block. However, after the destruction of the Socialist Block, the Cuban economy suffered through a restructuring process that included the reorganization of the traditional systems for spreading scientific information. At that moment, it was necessary to use alternative means to effectively publicise, to the international scientific community, the information generated by Cuban scientists and scholars. This paper briefly reviews this new era, the institutions that led the process of change, and the future projections based on knowledge of the digital environment and the creation of electronic and open access information sources.

  7. Historical personalities of the Cuban education. A reflection necesary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yordan Nápoles-Ramírez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Along the History of the Cuban education, the teaching and the learning of the life and work of the historical personalities has constituted a priority. However, the tendency has prevailed to alone to approach in the different teaching levels the historical personalities from a political-military focus, without conceiving an integrative treatment that embraces other spheres of the social activity. Equal limitations exist in reconstructing the historical context where the same ones were developed and to analyze their narrow one with the diverse social sectors that accompanied her. The present article seeks to demonstrate the necessity to transform the treatment of the historical personalities at the present time. 

  8. Design of a Corporate SDI in Power Sector Using a Formal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Italo L. Oliveira

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Geospatial data are essential for the decision-making process. However, obtaining and keeping such data up to date usually require much time and many financial resources. In order to minimize the production costs and incentivize sharing these data, countries are promoting the implementation of Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDI at the different public administration levels. The International Cartographic Association (ICA proposes a formal model that describes the main concepts of an SDI based on three of the five viewpoints of the Reference Model for Open Distributed Processing (RM-ODP. Afterwards, researchers extended ICA’s model to describe, more properly, the actors, hierarchical relationship and interactions related to the policies that drive an SDI. However, the proposed extensions are semantically inconsistent with the original proposal. Moreover, the use of ICA’s formal model and its extensions has not been assessed yet to specify a corporate-level SDI. This study describes the merger of actors and policies proposed by the ICA and its extensions in order to eliminate differences in the semantics or terminology among them. This unified model was applied to specify a corporate SDI for a large Brazilian corporation, the Minas Gerais Power Company (Companhia Energética de Minas Gerais (Cemig, which is comprised of about 200 companies in the power sector. The case study presents part of the specification of the five RM-ODP viewpoints, i.e., the three viewpoints featured in ICA’s formal model (Enterprise, Information, and Computation and the other two viewpoints that make up the RM-ODP (Engineering and Technology. The adapted ICA’s model proved adequate to describe SDI-Cemig. In addition, the case study may serve as an example of the specification and implementation of new SDIs, not only corporate ones, but also of public agencies at any hierarchical level.

  9. Next-Generation Performance-Based Regulation: Emphasizing Utility Performance to Unleash Power Sector Innovation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, Jeffrey S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zinaman, Owen R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Littell, David [Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP), Montpelier, VT (United States); Kadoch, Camille [Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP), Montpelier, VT (United States); Baker, Phil [Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP), Montpelier, VT (United States); Bharvirkar, Ranjit [Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP), Montpelier, VT (United States); Dupuy, Max [Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP), Montpelier, VT (United States); Hausauer, Brenda [Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP), Montpelier, VT (United States); Linvill, Carl [Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP), Montpelier, VT (United States); Migden-Ostrander, Janine [Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP), Montpelier, VT (United States); Rosenow, Jan [Regulatory Assistance Project; Xuan, Wang [Regulatory Assistance Project

    2017-09-12

    Performance-based regulation (PBR) enables regulators to reform hundred-year-old regulatory structures to unleash innovations within 21st century power systems. An old regulatory paradigm built to ensure safe and reliable electricity at reasonable prices from capital-intensive electricity monopolies is now adjusting to a new century of disruptive technological advances that change the way utilities make money and what value customers expect from their own electricity company. Advanced technologies are driving change in power sectors around the globe. Innovative technologies are transforming the way electricity is generated, delivered, and consumed. These emerging technology drivers include renewable generation, distributed energy resources such as distributed generation and energy storage, demand-side management measures such as demand-response, electric vehicles, and smart grid technologies and energy efficiency (EE). PBR enables regulators to recognize the value that electric utilities bring to customers by enabling these advanced technologies and integrating smart solutions into the utility grid and utility operations. These changes in the electric energy system and customer capacities means that there is an increasing interest in motivating regulated entities in other areas beyond traditional cost-of-service performance regulation. This report addresses best practices gleaned from more than two decades of PBR in practice, and analyzes how those best practices and lessons can be used to design innovative PBR programs. Readers looking for an introduction to PBR may want to focus on Chapters 1-5. Chapters 6 and 7 contain more detail for those interested in the intricate workings of PBR or particularly innovative PBR.

  10. Design of a sector bowtie nano-rectenna for optical power and infrared detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Hu, Haifeng; Lu, Shan; Guo, Lingju; He, Tao

    2015-10-01

    We designed a sector bowtie nanoantenna integrated with a rectifier (Au-TiO x -Ti diode) for collecting infrared energy. The optical performance of the metallic bowtie nanoantenna was numerically investigated at infrared frequencies (5-30 μm) using three-dimensional frequency-domain electromagnetic field calculation software based on the finite element method. The simulation results indicate that the resonance wavelength and local field enhancement are greatly affected by the shape and size of the bowtie nanoantenna, as well as the relative permittivity and conductivity of the dielectric layer. The output current of the rectified nano-rectenna is substantially at nanoampere magnitude with an electric field intensity of 1 V/m. Moreover, the power conversion efficiency for devices with three different substrates illustrates that a substrate with a larger refractive index yields a higher efficiency and longer infrared response wavelength. Consequently, the optimized structure can provide theoretical support for the design of novel optical rectennas and fabrication of optoelectronic devices.

  11. Current status of fuel cell based combined heat and power systems for residential sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellamla, Harikishan R.; Staffell, Iain; Bujlo, Piotr; Pollet, Bruno G.; Pasupathi, Sivakumar

    2015-10-01

    Combined Heat and Power (CHP) is the sequential or simultaneous generation of multiple forms of useful energy, usually electrical and thermal, in a single and integrated system. Implementing CHP systems in the current energy sector may solve energy shortages, climate change and energy conservation issues. This review paper is divided into six sections: the first part defines and classifies the types of fuel cell used in CHP systems; the second part discusses the current status of fuel cell CHP (FC-CHP) around the world and highlights the benefits and drawbacks of CHP systems; the third part focuses on techniques for modelling CHP systems. The fourth section gives a thorough comparison and discussion of the two main fuel cell technologies used in FC-CHP (PEMFC and SOFC), characterising their technical performance and recent developments from the major manufacturers. The fifth section describes all the main components of FC-CHP systems and explains the issues connected with their practical application. The last part summarises the above, and reflects on micro FC-CHP system technology and its future prospects.

  12. Social cost of carbon pricing of power sector CO2: accounting for leakage and other social implications from subnational policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bistline, John E.; Rose, Steven K.

    2018-01-01

    In environments where climate policy has partial coverage or unequal participation, carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions or economic activity may shift to locations and sectors where emissions are unregulated. This is referred to as leakage. Leakage can offset or augment emissions reductions associated with a policy, which has important environmental and economic implications. Although leakage has been studied at national levels, analysis of leakage for subnational policies is limited. This is despite greater market integration and many existing state and regional environmental regulations in the US. This study explores leakage potential, net emissions changes, and other social implications in the US energy system with regionally differentiated pricing of power sector CO2 emissions. We undertake an economic analysis using EPRI’s US-REGEN model, where power sector CO2 emissions are priced in individual US regions with a range of social cost of carbon (SCC) values. SCC estimates are being considered by policy-makers for valuing potential societal damages from CO2 emissions. In this study, we evaluate the emissions implications within the SCC pricing region, within the power sector outside the SCC region, and outside the power sector (i.e. in the rest of the energy system). Results indicate that CO2 leakage is possible within and outside the electric sector, ranging from negative 70% to over 80% in our scenarios, with primarily positive leakage outcomes. Typically ignored in policy analysis, leakage would affect CO2 reduction benefits. We also observe other potential societal effects within and across regions, such as higher electricity prices, changes in power sector investments, and overall consumption losses. Efforts to reduce leakage, such as constraining power imports into the SCC pricing region likely reduce leakage, but could also result in lower net emissions reductions, as well as larger price increases. Thus, it is important to look beyond leakage and consider a

  13. Electricity cost effects of expanding wind power and integrating energy sectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez, Victor Adrian Maxwell; Sperling, Karl; Hvelplund, Frede Kloster

    2015-01-01

    energy sectors may be an effective means of dealing with these concerns. The following article takes the case of a community owned renewable energy project as a microcosm for the entire Danish energy system. The local project seeks to integrate energy sectors so as to create physical and financial...

  14. Public sector controllership—reinventing the financial specialist as a countervailing power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Bogt, Henk; van Helden, G. Jan; van der Kolk, Berend

    2016-01-01

    Different types of ‘controllers’ can be distinguished in the public sector. The authors’ research indicates that public sector controllers acknowledge the distinctive characteristics of ‘hybrid’ controllers, but question some of the possible advantages of ‘pure’ controllers. This result could signal

  15. KinoCuban: the significance of Soviet and East European cinemas for the Cuban moving image

    OpenAIRE

    Smith Mesa, V. A.

    2011-01-01

    Kinocuban: the significance of Soviet and East European cinemas for the Cuban moving image examines a piece of evidence that has been misunderstood in the existing body of Cuban film studies. The first revolutionary legislation concerning the arts was the creation of the ICAIC in 1959, a fact that demonstrates the importance of cinema for the new cultural project. This thesis argues that the moving image was radically affected by the proclamation of the socialist character of the Revolution o...

  16. Community social support for Cuban refugees in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Donelle M; Aguilar, Rocio

    2007-02-01

    Social support has been linked to positive health outcomes for many populations across multiple health issues. The interactional approach defines social support as a complex, transactional process between the person and his or her social environment. Being part of a community enhances the likelihood of social bonding, leading to increased perceived support. In this study, the authors describe recently arrived adult Cuban refugees' perceptions of community-level support in Texas. Practical and emotional support needs included jobs and companionship away from everyday problems. The two major sources of practical support were resettlement agencies and other Cubans. The two major sources of emotional support were other Cubans and English-speaking friends. There were no local Cuban clubs or associations where Cubans could meet. Besides receiving support, many Cubans were also supporting other Cubans locally and in Cuba, and some experienced discrimination.

  17. Regional ozone impacts of increased natural gas use in the Texas power sector and development in the Eagle Ford shale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacsi, Adam P; Kimura, Yosuke; McGaughey, Gary; McDonald-Buller, Elena C; Allen, David T

    2015-03-17

    The combined emissions and air quality impacts of electricity generation in the Texas grid and natural gas production in the Eagle Ford shale were estimated at various natural gas price points for the power sector. The increased use of natural gas in the power sector, in place of coal-fired power generation, drove reductions in average daily maximum 8 h ozone concentration of 0.6-1.3 ppb in northeastern Texas for a high ozone episode used in air quality planning. The associated increase in Eagle Ford upstream oil and gas production nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions caused an estimated local increase, in south Texas, of 0.3-0.7 ppb in the same ozone metric. In addition, the potential ozone impacts of Eagle Ford emissions on nearby urban areas were estimated. On the basis of evidence from this work and a previous study on the Barnett shale, the combined ozone impact of increased natural gas development and use in the power sector is likely to vary regionally and must be analyzed on a case by case basis.

  18. 76 FR 5072 - Cuban Assets Control Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... branch. The individual provides the Spanish branch with a copy of her third- country passport and voter registration card demonstrating her permanent residence status in the third country. The Spanish branch may... Cuba will be accepted for credit toward that degree; (4) Teaching at a Cuban academic institution by an...

  19. Ethnobotany of pru, a traditional Cuban refreshment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volpato, G.; Godínez, D.

    2004-01-01

    Gouania polygama (Jacq.) Urban, Smilax domingensis Willd., and Pimenta dioica Merr., are three species widely used within Cuban ethnobotanical traditions and practices. Pru is a traditional refreshment and medicinal drink produced by their decoction and fermentation with sugar. It is claimed to have

  20. Cuban medical collaborations: Contextual and clinical challenges

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-10-01

    Oct 1, 2016 ... Context and setting. Cuban medical internationalism[1] is a strategy aimed at providing medical personnel to under-resourced countries. To address the severe shortage of medical doctors in rural South Africa (SA), our government forged an intergovernmental agreement to train rural and disadvantaged ...

  1. An inside view: A Cuban trainee's journey

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    up to 8 facilities a week and spending one day a week in the hospital 'to keep my clinical skills sharpened'. ... Cuban-trained doctor programme as 'a disaster'. Mpumalanga experimentally dispatched 10 rural students ... Of the 49 students in Kegakilwe's group, 7 quit within their first 3 months in Cuba; 3 failed first year twice ...

  2. La Innovación y la transferencia de tecnologías en la Estación Experimental "Indio Hatuey": 50 años propiciando el desarrollo del sector rural cubano (Parte I Innovation and technology transference at the Experimental Station "Indio Hatuey": 50 years propitiating development in the Cuban rural sector (Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taymer Miranda

    2011-12-01

    tecnología, al visualizarla como un componente del desarrollo territorial rural que ha determinado la apropiación de nuevos conceptos y construcciones sociales. Se realizaron investigaciones en seis municipios de la provincia de Matanzas, con resultados relevantes para las localidades.With the triumph of the Cuban Revolution, the Ministry of Agriculture (MINAGRI created a centralized management and technological innovation system, which generated substantial changes in the farmers' living and working conditions. However, this enhancement had structural limitations that caused unfavorable economic and environmental consequences, which determined the need for a technological change in the Cuban agriculture of the 1990's. This problem forced the knowledge development centers to search for new ways for the effective application of the innovations, an issue that was priority of the EEPF "Indio Hatuey" since its creation. The highest impact generated by the Station in terms of generalization of results was associated to the opportunities originated by the MINAGRI with the creation of a system of agricultural extension in 1976-1980. The scientific results were focused on forage conservation, as strategy to relieve the feed deficit occurred every year, during the dry season. With the economic crisis of the 90's, a reconversion process began in the dairy cattle exploitation technologies. In the mid 90's, the silvopastoral system technology emerged, gradually introduced in 16 provinces of the country, with the advisory of a multidisciplinary group in charge of monitoring and feedback between the generating center and the receptors. Nevertheless, to guarantee the sustainability of the dissemination of these systems, the availability of pasture seeds was a limiting factor. In spite of the novelty of the technologies generated by the Institution, the adoption rate was not in correspondence with the real needs and the effort made by Cuba to reverse the situation of livestock

  3. Shifting Formalization Policies and Re-Centralizing Power:The Case of Zimbabwe’s Artisanal Gold Mining Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Spiegel, Sam

    2015-01-01

    In the 1990s, government authorities in Zimbabwe introduced internationally praised policies to formalize the artisanal and small-scale mining sector, using a combination of district-administered and nationally administered licensing and capacity-building measures. While ‘‘decentralization’’ efforts in the 1990s and early 2000s were hampered by insufficient resource and power transfers, the model was seen by environmental scholars as a source of optimism. However, as economic crisis deepened ...

  4. Estimating carbon dioxide emission factors for the California electric power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marnay, Chris; Fisher, Diane; Murtishaw, Scott; Phadke, Amol; Price, Lynn; Sathaye, Jayant

    2002-08-01

    The California Climate Action Registry (''Registry'') was initially established in 2000 under Senate Bill 1771, and clarifying legislation (Senate Bill 527) was passed in September 2001. The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) has been asked to provide technical assistance to the California Energy Commission (CEC) in establishing methods for calculating average and marginal electricity emissions factors, both historic and current, as well as statewide and for sub-regions. This study is exploratory in nature. It illustrates the use of three possible approaches and is not a rigorous estimation of actual emissions factors. While the Registry will ultimately cover emissions of all greenhouse gases (GHGs), presently it is focusing on carbon dioxide (CO2). Thus, this study only considers CO2, which is by far the largest GHG emitted in the power sector. Associating CO2 emissions with electricity consumption encounters three major complications. First, electricity can be generated from a number of different primary energy sources, many of which are large sources of CO2 emissions (e.g., coal combustion) while others result in virtually no CO{sub 2} emissions (e.g., hydro). Second, the mix of generation resources used to meet loads may vary at different times of day or in different seasons. Third, electrical energy is transported over long distances by complex transmission and distribution systems, so the generation sources related to electricity usage can be difficult to trace and may occur far from the jurisdiction in which that energy is consumed. In other words, the emissions resulting from electricity consumption vary considerably depending on when and where it is used since this affects the generation sources providing the power. There is no practical way to identify where or how all the electricity used by a certain customer was generated, but by reviewing public sources of data the total emission burden of a

  5. Estado actual del diagnóstico De transformadores de potencia en las centrales eléctricas cubanas; Present status considerations about power transformers diagnosis in Cuban power stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Juan Montané García

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo está dirigido a la discusión del estado presente de las técnicas de diagnóstico en el área específica de los transformadores de potencia, comenzando por el nivel mundial [1, 2], para centrarse finalmente en la aplicación de estos métodos y técnicas en Cuba. Se plantean las características y requerimientos técnicos para el diagnóstico, los parámetros fundamentales a monitorear, y los diferentes métodos.  This paper describes the present status of diagnosis techniques for power transformers, starting on world level and focusing on methods and techniques applied in Cuba. Characteristics and requirements are presented for diagnostic process, including main monitoring parameters and methods.

  6. Review of Sector and Regional Trends in U.S. Electricity Markets. Focus on Natural Gas. Natural Gas and the Evolving U.S. Power Sector Monograph Series. Number 1 of 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, Jeffrey; Medlock III, Kenneth B.; Boyd, William C.

    2015-10-15

    This study explores dynamics related to natural gas use at the national, sectoral, and regional levels, with an emphasis on the power sector. It relies on a data set from SNL Financial to analyze recent trends in the U.S. power sector at the regional level. The research aims to provide decision and policy makers with objective and credible information, data, and analysis that informs their discussions of a rapidly changing energy system landscape. This study also summarizes regional changes in natural gas demand within the power sector. The transition from coal to natural gas is occurring rapidly along the entire eastern portion of the country, but is relatively stagnant in the central and western regions. This uneven shift is occurring due to differences in fuel price costs, renewable energy targets, infrastructure constraints, historical approach to regulation, and other factors across states.

  7. Renewable energy utilization and CO2 mitigation in the power sector: A case study in selected GMS countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong Pagnarith

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy is an alternative resource to substitute fossil fuels. Currently, the share of renewable energy inpower generation is very low. The selected Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS, namely, Cambodia, Laos, Thailand andVietnam is a region having abundant of renewable energy resources. Though these countries have a high potential of renewableenergy utilization, they are still highly dependent on the imported fossil fuels for electricity generation. The less contributionof renewable energy in the power sector in the region is due to the high cost of technologies. Renewable energytechnology cannot compete with the conventional power plant. However, in order to promote renewable energy utilizationand reduce dependency on imported fossil fuel as well as to mitigate CO2 emissions from the power sector, this study introducesfour renewable energy technologies, namely, biomass, wind, solar PV, and geothermal power, for substitution of conventionaltechnologies. To make the renewable energy competitive to the fossil fuels, incentives in terms of carbon credit of20$/ton-ne CO2 are taken into account. Results are analyzed by using the Long-Range Energy Alternative Planning System(LEAP modeling. Results of analyses reveal that in the renewable energy (RE scenario the biomass power, wind, solarphotovoltaics, and geothermal would contribute in electricity supply for 5.47 GW in the region, accounted for 3.5% in 2030.The RE scenario with carbon credits could mitigate CO2 emissions at about 36.0 million tonne at lower system cost whencompared to the business-as-usual scenario.

  8. Power and process: The politics of electricity sector reform in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Christopher David

    In 2007, Uganda had one of the lowest levels of access to electricity in the world. Given the influence of multilateral and bilateral agencies in Uganda; the strong international reputation and domestic influence of its President; the country's historic achievements in public sector and economic reform; and the intimate connection between economic performance, social well-being and access to electricity, the problems with Uganda's electricity sector have proven deeply frustrating and, indeed, puzzling. Following increased scholarly attention to the relationship between political change, policymaking, and public sector reform in sub-Saharan Africa and the developing world generally, this thesis examines the multilevel politics of Uganda's electricity sector reform process. This study contends that explanations for Uganda's electricity sector reform problems generally, and hydroelectric dam construction efforts specifically, must move beyond technical and financial factors. Problems in this sector have also been the result of a model of reform (promoted by the World Bank) that failed adequately to account for the character of political change. Indeed, the model of reform that was promoted and implemented was risky and it was deeply antagonistic to domestic and international civil society organizations. In addition, it was presented as a linear, technical, apolitical exercise. Finally the model was inconsistent with key principles the Bank itself, and public policy literature generally, suggest are needed for success. Based on this analysis, the thesis contends that policymaking and reform must be understood as deeply political processes, which not only define access to services, but also participation in, and exclusion from, national debates. Future approaches to reform and policymaking must anticipate the complex, multilevel, non-linear character of 'second-generation' policy issues like electricity, and the political and institutional capacity needed to increase

  9. Managing environmental problems in Cuban karstic aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Leslie Molerio; Parise, Mario

    2009-07-01

    The Cuban archipelago hosts some of the most typical karst features in the Caribbean, and has very important and high-quality resources of karst water. Carbonate rocks cover about 70% of the country area, with a great variety of karst features, and outstanding exokarstic landforms such as the cone karst; in addition, many caves are regarded as cultural and historical sites. Protection of the karst hydric resources is therefore essential. In karst, the intrinsic vulnerability of the environment makes it highly susceptible to pollution, which may result in dramatic consequences for both the quality of karst water and the amount of water available. Many anthropogenic activities produce negative changes in the karst aquifers, in some cases with unrecoverable effects. In Cuba, five main sources of pollution to karst aquifers have been identified: sea water intrusion, agricultural practices, waste disposal, industrial activity, and mining and oil production. Due to the narrow and elongated configuration of the main island, wide portions of the territory are mostly affected by seawater intrusion problems, exacerbated by the concentration of both population and human activities in the largest towns located along, or very close to, the coasts. Seawater intrusion, however, is not the only source of pollution for Cuban karst aquifers. The other aforementioned sources are important, and may locally prevail (e.g. pollution resulting from sugar cane factories). Considerations on the management of karst aquifers and a brief description of the water quality monitoring system of Cuban inland waters are also provided.

  10. Getting reforms done in inhospitable institutional environments: untying a Gordian Knot in India's power distribution sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tankha, Sunil, E-mail: tankha@iss.n [Institute of Social Studies, Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2518 AX The Hague (Netherlands); Misal, Annasahed B., E-mail: misal@iss.n [Maharashtra Housing and Area Development Authority, Mumbai (India); Fuller, Boyd W., E-mail: boyd.fuller@nus.edu.s [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore (Singapore)

    2010-11-15

    When grand institutional reforms based on idealized models are stalled by the poor institutional environments and difficult politics which often surround large infrastructure systems in developing countries, partial reforms whose design and implementation take into account the different interests of the key stakeholders can provide valuable and immediate benefits while moving these systems from low- towards higher-level equilibria. Strategically negotiated, experimentally partial and purposefully hybrid, these reforms are based on careful stakeholder analysis and strategic coalition building that avoid rigid positions based on idealized models. Our findings are based on a study of power sector reforms in India, where we performed a micro-level and in-depth analysis of a partial and innovative experiment which has allowed private sector participation in electricity distribution within a hostile institutional environment.

  11. Getting reforms done in inhospitable institutional environments. Untying a Gordian Knot in India's power distribution sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tankha, Sunil [Institute of Social Studies, Erasmus University Rotterdam, 2518 AX The Hague (Netherlands); Misal, Annasahed B. [Maharashtra Housing and Area Development Authority, Mumbai (India); Fuller, Boyd W. [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore (Singapore)

    2010-11-15

    When grand institutional reforms based on idealized models are stalled by the poor institutional environments and difficult politics which often surround large infrastructure systems in developing countries, partial reforms whose design and implementation take into account the different interests of the key stakeholders can provide valuable and immediate benefits while moving these systems from low- towards higher-level equilibria. Strategically negotiated, experimentally partial and purposefully hybrid, these reforms are based on careful stakeholder analysis and strategic coalition building that avoid rigid positions based on idealized models. Our findings are based on a study of power sector reforms in India, where we performed a micro-level and in-depth analysis of a partial and innovative experiment which has allowed private sector participation in electricity distribution within a hostile institutional environment. (author)

  12. Addressing Palm Biodiesel as Renewable Fuel for the Indonesian Power Generation Sector: Java-Madura-Bali System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natarianto Indrawan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy security defined as how to equitably provide available, affordable, reliable efficient, environmentally friendly, proactively governed and socially acceptable energy services to end user. It has in recent years taken attention of policymakers in different parts of the world. Formulating policy to improve energy security is mandatory, not only because of depleting fossil resource, but also implementing diversity of energy source since utilization abundant renewable energy resources can increase the security of energy supply. One of the abundant renewable energy resources in Indonesia is palm oil. This study analyses the utilization of palm biodiesel for Indonesian power generation sector in the Java-Madura-Bali (JAMALI system. Two scenarios were created by projecting the demand and environmental impact as well as GHG emissions reduction over the next 25 years. The first scenario subjects on current energy policy, while the second scenario is to substitute of fossil fuel which is still used in the JAMALI power generation system. Effect of palm biodiesel on emission of Carbon Dioxide, Carbon Monoxide, Sulfur Dioxide, Nitrogen Oxides, Particulate Matter, and Volatile Organic Compounds were estimated for each scenario. An externality analysis to complete the environmental analysis was conducted and resource analysis of palm oil plantation based biodiesel was also estimated. Finally, the economics feasibility of palm biodiesel in the power generation sector was analyzed.

  13. Assessing the impact of nuclear retirements on the U.S. power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, James; Cole, Wesley J.

    2017-11-01

    This work utilizes the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model to analyze the impacts of four nuclear retirement scenarios of the U.S. electricity sector, from nuclear plant lifetimes of 50 to 80 years. The analysis finds that longer nuclear lifetimes decrease the amount of renewable and natural gas capacity. Longer nuclear lifetimes also resulted in lower cumulative and annual carbon emissions, lower transmission builds, and higher energy curtailment and water usage.

  14. The construction and legitimation of workplace bullying in the public sector: insight into power dynamics and organisational failures in health and social care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Marie; Jackson, Debra

    2015-03-01

    Health-care and public sector institutions are high-risk settings for workplace bullying. Despite growing acknowledgement of the scale and consequence of this pervasive problem, there has been little critical examination of the institutional power dynamics that enable bullying. In the aftermath of large-scale failures in care standards in public sector healthcare institutions, which were characterised by managerial bullying, attention to the nexus between bullying, power and institutional failures is warranted. In this study, employing Foucault's framework of power, we illuminate bullying as a feature of structures of power and knowledge in public sector institutions. Our analysis draws upon the experiences of a large sample (n = 3345) of workers in Australian public sector agencies - the type with which most nurses in the public setting will be familiar. In foregrounding these power dynamics, we provide further insight into how cultures that are antithetical to institutional missions can arise and seek to broaden the debate on the dynamics of care failures within public sector institutions. Understanding the practices of power in public sector institutions, particularly in the context of ongoing reform, has important implications for nursing. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Using the sun to decarbonize the power sector: The economic potential of photovoltaics and concentrating solar power

    OpenAIRE

    Pietzcker, Robert Carl; Stetter, Daniel; Manger, Susanne; Luderer, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    Photovoltaics (PV) has recently undergone impressive growth and substantial cost decreases, while deployment for concentrating solar power (CSP) has been much slower. As the share of PV rises, the challenge of system integration will increase. This favors CSP, which can be combined with thermal storage and co-firing to reduce variability. It is thus an open question how important solar power will be for achieving climate mitigation targets, and which solar technology will be dominant in the l...

  16. Power Watch: Increasing Transparency and Accessibility of Data in the Global Power Sector to Accelerate the Transition to a Lower Carbon Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, R. J.; Friedrich, J.; Malaguzzi Valeri, L.; McCormick, C.; Lebling, K.; Kressig, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Power Watch project will offer open data on the global electricity sector starting with power plants and their impacts on climate and water systems; it will also offer visualizations and decision making tools. Power Watch will create the first comprehensive, open database of power plants globally by compiling data from national governments, public and private utilities, transmission grid operators, and other data providers to create a core dataset that has information on over 80% of global installed capacity for electrical generation. Power plant data will at a minimum include latitude and longitude, capacity, fuel type, emissions, water usage, ownership, and annual generation. By providing data that is both comprehensive, as well as making it publically available, this project will support decision making and analysis by actors across the economy and in the research community. The Power Watch research effort focuses on creating a global standard for power plant information, gathering and standardizing data from multiple sources, matching information from multiple sources on a plant level, testing cross-validation approaches (regional statistics, crowdsourcing, satellite data, and others) and developing estimation methodologies for generation, emissions, and water usage. When not available from official reports, emissions, annual generation, and water usage will be estimated. Water use estimates of power plants will be based on capacity, fuel type and satellite imagery to identify cooling types. This analysis is being piloted in several states in India and will then be scaled up to a global level. Other planned applications of of the Power Watch data include improving understanding of energy access, air pollution, emissions estimation, stranded asset analysis, life cycle analysis, tracking of proposed plants and curtailment analysis.

  17. Productivity and Efficiency Measurement of the Danish Centralized Biogas Power Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Racz, Viktor Jozsef; Vestergaard, Niels

    2016-01-01

    energy based heat and power source by 2050. Theoretically, the centralized biogas combined heat and power plants can play a determinant role in the subsequent Danish energy supply scheme, due to its feature to satisfy base load demand. The productivity and efficiency analysis of the currently operating......The widespread use of the renewable energy sources in the future's energy production is necessary, in order to avoid the predicted environmental, economic and social effects which can be derived from the overuse of fossil fuels. Denmark has announced to be fossil fuel independent with a renewable...... Danish centralizes biogas CHP power plants is crucial in order to study whether there is a most efficient power plant which can be introduced as a “best practice” innovative technology for the future's Danish biogas power plants. In this paper we use the intertemporal Malmquist total factor productivity...

  18. Potential impact of (CET) carbon emissions trading on China’s power sector: A perspective from different allowance allocation options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cong, Ronggang; Wei, Yi-Ming

    2010-01-01

    impact are unknown to us. This paper studies the potential impact of introduction of CET on China’s power sector and discusses the impact of different allocation options of allowances. Agent-based modeling is one appealing new methodology that has the potential to overcome some shortcomings...... solar power generation in particular develops significantly, with final proportion increasing by 14%. (3) Emission-based allocation brings about both higher electricity and carbon prices than by output-based allocation which encourages producers to be environmentally friendly. Therefore, output......In Copenhagen climate conference China government promised that China would cut down carbon intensity 40–45% from 2005 by 2020. CET (carbon emissions trading) is an effective tool to reduce emissions. But because CET is not fully implemented in China up to now, how to design it and its potential...

  19. Acculturation, Media Exposure, and Eating Disorders in Cuban American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jane, Dulce M.; Hunter, George C.; Lozzi, Bettina

    This study examined the dual roles of continued close ties with the Cuban community and culture of origin, as well as influences of print and broadcast media, in the development of attitudes toward both type and propensity toward eating disorders among young Cuban-American women. Continued exclusive or primary use of Spanish language in the home,…

  20. 31 CFR 515.574 - Support for the Cuban People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Support for the Cuban People. 515.574..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.574 Support for the Cuban People. (a) Specific licenses may be issued on a case-by-case basis authorizing the travel-related transactions set forth in § 515...

  1. Cuban School Dictionaries for First-Language Learners: A Shared ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It will give no final answer, but it will discuss an experience with a Cuban school dictionary which has reached its target users in large numbers. The contribution will particularly look at the multi-faceted relation between lexicographers and users which characterises the Cuban dictionary project. The objective is not to copy ...

  2. Funding for universal service obligations in electricity sector: the case of green power development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favard, P.; Mirabel, F.; Poudou, J.Ch

    2002-07-01

    The process of deregulation in network industries, in particular in the electric sector, raises the problem of financing the Universal Service Obligations (USO) corresponding to the production, transport and distribution operations. In this paper, we study three ways of funding for an USO of production, especially the 'green' electricity development; the financing with cross-subsidies, the implementation of a fund (financing by a tax) and finally a voluntary funding system by direct subscriptions of consumers. We notably show that this last one Pareto dominates mostly, from a welfare point of view, the other scenarios. (authors)

  3. Reframing Financial Sector Identity: Options For Reducing Mexican Drug Cartel Economic Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    Sobre “ Lavado ” en Sector Financiero ”). 14 October 2011. www.eluniversal.com.mx/finanzas/90262.html/. Mexico City el Universal. “Gulf Cartel Leader...Laundering” (“Músicos detenidos en ‘narcofiesta’, acusados de delincuencia organizada y lavado de dinero ”), 16 December 2009. www.proceso.com.mx/?p...llt Compu y of A!ltioquia and C«dob3 - Owm Gas. Statioas -Ownslsla Ps\\·ito BIENESTAR Y El .. PORVE NIR :~:led~[n, Colombia NI’T # 900310323-9

  4. Private participation in infrastructure: A risk analysis of long-term contracts in power sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceran, Nisangul

    The objective of this dissertation is to assess whether the private participation in energy sector through long term contracting, such as Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) type investments, is an efficient way of promoting efficiency in the economy. To this end; the theoretical literature on the issue is discussed, the experience of several developing countries are examined, and a BOT project, which is undertaken by the Enron company in Turkey, has been studied in depth as a case study. Different risk analysis techniques, including sensitivity and probabilistic risk analysis with the Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) method have been applied to assess the financial feasibility and risks of the case study project, and to shed light on the level of rent-seeking in the BOT agreements. Although data on rent seeking and corruption is difficult to obtain, the analysis of case study investment using the sensitivity and MCS method provided some information that can be used in assessing the level of rent-seeking in BOT projects. The risk analysis enabled to test the sustainability of the long-term BOT contracts through the analysis of projects financial feasibility with and without the government guarantees in the project. The approach of testing the sustainability of the project under different scenarios is helpful to understand the potential costs and contingent liabilities for the government and project's impact on a country's overall economy. The results of the risk analysis made by the MCS method for the BOT project used as the case study strongly suggest that, the BOT projects does not serve to the interest of the society and transfers substantial amount of public money to the private companies, implying severe governance problems. It is found that not only government but also private sector may be reluctant about full privatization of infrastructure due to several factors such as involvement of large sunk costs, very long time period for returns to be received, political and

  5. Financial Instruments: the Essence, Diversity and Role in the Process of Modernization of the Electric Power Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abakumenko Olha V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to clarify the methodological basis for further research concerning analysis of the existing practices and development of proposals on using financial instruments for the modernization of the Ukrainian electric power sector, in particular, to clarify the definition of “financial instruments” and justify their classification, taking into account the defining characteristics. Based on the critical evaluation of various scientific approaches to interpretation of the essence of financial instruments, the author’s definition is proposed. Thus, it is advisable to consider them as means, techniques and methods of attracting financial resources (capital from other entities and as absolutely liquid assets. The generalization and rethinking of the criteria for classification of financial instruments allowed the authors to divide them into financial assets (cash, bank metals, currency, financial obligations (equity and debt instruments, and instruments of irrevocable financial aid (charitable contributions, grants, crowdfunding, fundraising. The received methodological conclusions quite fully characterize the essence and variety of types of financial instruments, taking into account their principal properties, which will allow to make a well-considered justification for choosing the optimal instruments for the modernization of the electric power sector.

  6. Electric Power Interruption Cost Estimates for Individual Industries, Sectors, and U.S. Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balducci, Patrick J.; Roop, Joseph M.; Schienbein, Lawrence A.; DeSteese, John G.; Weimar, Mark R.

    2002-02-27

    During the last 20 years, utilities and researchers have begun to understand the value in the collection and analysis of interruption cost data. The continued investigation of the monetary impact of power outages will facilitate the advancement of the analytical methods used to measure the costs and benefits from the perspective of the energy consumer. More in-depth analysis may be warranted because of the privatization and deregulation of power utilities, price instability in certain regions of the U.S. and the continued evolution of alternative auxiliary power systems.

  7. Gas to Coal Competition in the U.S. Power Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    With the newfound availability of natural gas due to the shale gas revolution in the United States, cheap gas now threatens coal’s longstanding position as the least costly fuel for generating electricity. But other factors besides cost come into play when deciding to switch from coal to gas. Electricity and gas transmission grid constraints, regulatory and contractual issues, as well as other factors determine the relative share of coal and gas in power generation. This paper analyzes competition between coal and gas for generating power in the United States and the factors explaining this dynamic. It also projects coal-to-gas switching in power generation for 18 states representing 75% of the surplus gas potential in the United States up to 2017, taking into consideration the impact of environmental legislation on retirement of coal-fired power plants.

  8. Internalisation of external cost in the power generation sector: Analysis with Global Multi-regional MARKAL model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Rafaj; Socrates Kypreos [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen-PSI (Switzerland). Energy Economics Modelling Group, General Energy Department

    2007-02-15

    The Global MARKAL-Model (GMM), a multi-regional 'bottom-up' partial equilibrium model of the global energy system with endogenous technological learning, is used to address impacts of internalisation of external costs from power production. This modelling approach imposes additional charges on electricity generation, which reflect the costs of environmental and health damages from local pollutants (SO{sub 2}, NOx) and climate change, wastes, occupational health, risk of accidents, noise and other burdens. Technologies allowing abatement of pollutants emitted from power plants are rapidly introduced into the energy system, for example, desulphurisation, NOx removal, and CO{sub 2} scrubbers. The modelling results indicate substantial changes in the electricity production system in favour of natural gas combined cycle, nuclear power and renewables induced by internalisation of external costs and also efficiency loss due to the use of scrubbers. Structural changes and fuel switching in the electricity sector result in significant reduction of emissions of both local pollution and CO{sub 2} over the modelled time period. Strong decarbonisation impact of internalising local externalities suggests that ancillary benefits can be expected from policies directly addressing other issues then CO{sub 2} mitigation. Finally, the detailed analysis of the total generation cost of different technologies points out that inclusion of external cost in the price of electricity increases competitiveness of non-fossil generation sources and fossil power plants with emission control. 28 refs., 13 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Internalisation of external cost in the power generation sector: Analysis with Global Multi-regional MARKAL model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafaj, Peter [Energy Economics Modelling Group, General Energy Department, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232. Villigen-PSI (Switzerland)]. E-mail: Peter.Rafaj@psi.ch; Kypreos, Socrates [Energy Economics Modelling Group, General Energy Department, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232. Villigen-PSI (Switzerland)]. E-mail: Socrates.Kypreos@psi.ch

    2007-02-15

    The Global MARKAL-Model (GMM), a multi-regional 'bottom-up' partial equilibrium model of the global energy system with endogenous technological learning, is used to address impacts of internalisation of external costs from power production. This modelling approach imposes additional charges on electricity generation, which reflect the costs of environmental and health damages from local pollutants (SO{sub 2}, NO {sub x} ) and climate change, wastes, occupational health, risk of accidents, noise and other burdens. Technologies allowing abatement of pollutants emitted from power plants are rapidly introduced into the energy system, for example, desulphurisation, NO {sub x} removal, and CO{sub 2} scrubbers. The modelling results indicate substantial changes in the electricity production system in favour of natural gas combined cycle, nuclear power and renewables induced by internalisation of external costs and also efficiency loss due to the use of scrubbers. Structural changes and fuel switching in the electricity sector result in significant reduction of emissions of both local pollution and CO{sub 2} over the modelled time period. Strong decarbonisation impact of internalising local externalities suggests that ancillary benefits can be expected from policies directly addressing other issues then CO{sub 2} mitigation. Finally, the detailed analysis of the total generation cost of different technologies points out that inclusion of external cost in the price of electricity increases competitiveness of non-fossil generation sources and fossil power plants with emission control00.

  10. THE RESTRUCTURING OF ROMANIAN POWER SECTOR AT THE CROSSROADS: COMPETITIVE MARKETS OR NEO-COLBERTISM?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Diaconu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite efforts made by European Commission to liberalize electricity markets and foster integration, there are still significant barriers to free competition. Until now, Romania was one of the countries that have been compliant to the European Union’s electricity directives, being ahead of several older member states in this area. However, reforms have not started to pay out, suggesting that the model of combining state-owned non-competing generators with private/privatized distributors and suppliers may not be the best model of market deregulation. As a result, Romanian authorities have started to talk about plans to restructure the sector, by re-consolidating the unbundled generation companies and the state-owned distribution companies into one national energy company, aiming to create a national champion, competitive on the regional markets. However, these proposals are based on questionable economics and their adoption will have negative effects on market competition and, thus, on consumers.

  11. Uncertainty in energy-economic modelling of the electrical power sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, H.F.; Skytte, K.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to investigate what significance, if any, inclusion of uncertainties has for the conclusions of the modelling and analysis, i.e., whether the policy recommendations implicit in the results of the analysis depend on the inclusion or not of uncertainties. We do...... this within the context of a model of the Northern European electricity sector. The paper considers uncertainties about future states of nature. More specifically, we consider the inflow of water into a hydropower production system, where the states of nature are represented by a "dry", a "normal" and a "wet...... of electricity and that the consumers pay an energy tax on their use of electricity. The consumers are divided into two groups, households and industry. Also, complementarity formulations are used, as these are shown to be more adequate for certain aspects, in particular where risk aversion within a liberalised...

  12. The Role of Technology in Mitigating Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Power Sector in Developing Countries: the Case of China, India, and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    For Frank Princiotta’s book, Global Climate Change—The Technology Challenge China, India, and Mexico are the top emitters of CO2 among developing nations. The electric power sectors in China and India is dominated by coal-fired power plants, whereas in Mexico, fuel oil and natur...

  13. Toward sustainable energy development in the Indian power sector: A critique of fifty years of power development in India and an analysis of sustainable energy alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajalu, Chandrasekhar

    At present, the Indian electric power sector (EPS) finds itself in a "triple bind," plagued by a severe resource crunch, adverse environmental impacts and unequal social access to energy services, and a poor record of technical performance in generation and distribution of electricity. The problems of the EPS are seen in this dissertation as manifestations of a larger crisis of unsustainable energy development, rooted in the political economy of power development in India. A theoretical framework is articulated based on a political economy approach constructed for this dissertation. The political economy framework is comprised of three elements: a materialization thesis that describes the core social relations in support of a specific political and economic structure; an institutionalization thesis that describes how these material relations are reproduced; and an ideology thesis which argues that a pervasive ideology exists making intelligible the existence of a particular form of political economy. From the vantage-point of this framework, and through a detailed examination of the political history of the power sector in India, the crisis in the Indian power sector is linked to the contradictions of what is termed as the "conventional model of energy development" (CMED) embraced by Indian planners at the time of independence. It is argued that the crisis in the EPS is caused by the intensive bureaucratization and technicization of the system, all but removing it from social and environmental evaluation. Current policy prescriptions for the Indian EPS, both Western as well as domestic, call for further strengthening the technocratic construct of the EPS. Privatization and restructuring experiments, underway in India, rather than breaking away from the existing approach, actually deepen the institutional hold of the CMED. Sustainable energy development (SED) is examined as an alternative to the CMED. The meaning and relevance of this concept in the context of the

  14. A new paradigm for the Indian power sector: going beyond the 'Silver Bullet' privatisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruet, J.

    2001-07-01

    This paper focuses on the Indian power sector. However, the situation in France will be briefly recalled, for the rationales of privatisation, levels of analysis and issues to be solved are not at all the same, and for a part of the solution could be drawn from the French public experience. Section one deals with the rationale for privatisation in India, as assessed by its supporters. In practice, this policy has not reached its declared targets in India (absence of commitment, delayed projects, assets 'sold for a song'). This allows space for questioning the implicit or explicit assumptions in present reforms. For privatisation is being supported due to so called 'political interference', and 'lack of money', these issues will be put in perspective with some more structural roots in inefficiency of the Indian power sector. Indeed, these two explanations are meaningless in telling why inefficient decisions are selected preferably to efficient ones. Namely, the internal organisation itself of power utilities has to be questioned. Section two focuses on the decision-making in State Electricity Boards, especially on the absence of proper tools for delegation of power (a proper budget allocation, a proper delegation of managerial power, a reporting system which makes people accountable for decisions). It shows how this leads to a decision-making system being more dependent on administrative procedures than dedicated to solve actual issues. This analysis as well explains how the inability to have assumptions strong enough to carry out 'costs vs. benefits' analysis leads to inefficiencies. This ultimately explains the disinterest of private investors or the high premiums they take. Section three calls for an inflexion to the current reforms, which do not take into account these characteristics of public utilities. Further to the experience of reform in Russia, Eastern Europe and China, this section calls for a very &apos

  15. Torrefied biomass for use in power station sector; Torrefizierte Biomasse zum Einsatz im Kraftwerkssektor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witt, Janet; Schaubach, Kay [Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum (DBFZ) gemeinnuetzige GmbH, Leipzig (Germany). Bereich Bioenergiesysteme; Kiel, Jaap; Carbo, Michiel [Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), Petten (Netherlands); Wojcik, Magdalena [OFI Austrian Research Institute for Chemistry and Technology, Vienna (Austria)

    2013-10-01

    In the torrefaction process biomass is heated up in the absence of oxygen to a temperature of at least 250 C. By combining torrefaction with pelletisation or briquetting, biomass materials can be converted into a high-energy-density bioenergy carrier with improved behaviour in (long-distance) transport, handling and storage. Torrefaction also creates superior properties for biomass in many major end-use applications. The process has the potential to provide a significant contribution to an enlarged raw material portfolio for sustainable biomass fuel production inside Europe by including both agricultural and forestry biomass (residues). The article will briefly introduce the concept and objectives of the project and the different torrefaction technologies involved and then focus on the results obtained within the first project phase of the EU-project SECTOR. This comprises production of torrefied biomass batches, subsequent densification (pelletisation and briquetting), characterisation and Round Robin testing of characterisation methods, initial logistics and end-use performance testing, material safety data sheet preparation and sustainability assessment along the value chain. (orig.)

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN THE ENERGY SECTOR ON THE EXAMPLE OF POWER PLANT IN BELCHATOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BARTŁOMIEJ OKWIET

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The environment is the area which includes forests, fields, lakes, rivers, ponds, mountains, hills and valleys. In Poland, the environment is visible from all sides, as opposed to fully urbanized areas, such as occurring in China, bigger parts of our country has not yet been destroyed by human activities. And, for a few years, awareness of environmental protection gradually increases in both, private individuals and large companies. This article shows how the power plant in Belchatow, one of the biggest polluters and the units responsible for environmental degradation, can cope with the problem of what is the impact of its activities on the environment. In this article will be presented all the activities of power plant in order to minimize its negative impact on the surrounding environment.

  17. The agropecuarian sector in Los Lagos region, and the paradigm "Chile power food": challenges for a national agrarian policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ríos Núñez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The restructuring of the economic model in Chile in the mid- seventies hit all productive fields and the agropecuarian sector was no exception. Thus started the beginning of the "Agricultural export Age" that fostered productive guidelines with clear competitive advantages in international markets. The Chilean agricultural paradigm has been characterized by functioning on the basis of low wages, availability of labor and favorable exchange rate. In 2006, under this scenario, the public policy called "Chile Power Food 2020" was implemented, which seeks to reinforce the above formula. This initiative considers growth strategies which make bimodal agrarian structure, present in the country, invisible. To the above an added aggravating factor is that territories (such as Los Lagos Region in southern Chile with traditional productive orientations (specifically cattle have clearly vulnerable positions, especially in those producer groups which are characterized by different rationales to run business

  18. Nigeria’s Roadmap for Power Sector Reform -- Will It Succeed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-02

    infrastructure projects unfinished. 58  2.5 billion naira ($15.9 million) in pension funds found stashed in hidden accounts.59  $20 billion...transmission, distribution, fuel-to-power, privatization , corruption, vandalism, sabotage, economic growth, human development, poverty mitigation, security...4 GW. 11 By comparison, Brazil and Pakistan, Nigeria’s population near-peers, field electrical generation capacities of 114 GW and 22 GW

  19. The Carnol process for CO{sub 2} mitigation from power plants and the transportation sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, M.

    1995-12-01

    A carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) mitigation process is developed which converts waste CO{sub 2}, primarily from coal-fired power plant stack gases, to methanol for use as a liquid fuel and a coproduct carbon for use as a materials commodity. The Carnol process chemistry consists of methane decomposition to produce hydrogen which is catalytically reacted with the recovered waste CO{sub 2} to produce methanol. The carbon is either stored or sold. A process design is modeled, and mass and energy balances are presented as a function of reactor pressure and temperature conditions. The Carnol process is a viable alternative to sequestering CO{sub 2} in the ocean for purposes of reducing CO{sub 2} emissions from coal burning power plants. Over 90% of the CO{sub 2} from the coal burning plant is used in the process which results in a net CO{sub 2} emission reduction of over 90% compared to that obtained for conventional methanol production by steam reforming of methane. Methanol, as an alternative liquid fuel for automotive engines and for fuel cells, achieves additional CO{sub 2} emission reduction benefits. The economics of the process is greatly enhanced when carbon can be sold as a materials commodity. The process design and economics could possibly be achieved by developing a molten metal (tin) methane decomposition reactor and a liquid phase, slurry catalyst, methanol synthesis reactor directly using the solvent saturated with CO{sub 2} scrubbed from the power plant stack gases. The application of CO{sub 2} mitigation technologies, such as the Carnol process, depends to some extent, on how serious the country and the world takes the global greenhouse gas warming problem.

  20. Electricity Generation and the Present Challenges in the Nigerian Power Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sambo, Abubakar Sani; Garba, Bashiru; Zarma, Ismaila Haliru; Gaji, Muhammed Musa

    2010-09-15

    Adequate power supply is an unavoidable prerequisite to any nation's development, and electricity generation, transmission and distribution are capital-intensive requiring huge resources for both funds and capacity. In Nigeria where funds are available and has an estimated of 176 trillion cubic feet of proven natural gas reserves, giving the country one of the top ten natural gas endowments in Africa. Natural gas is a natural occurring gaseous mixture of hydrocarbons gases found in underground reservoirs. It consists mainly of methane (70% - 95%). With small percentage of ethane, butane and other heavier hydrocarbons with some impurities such as water vapour, etc.

  1. The Northeastern United States Energy-Water Nexus: Climate Change Impacts and Alternative Water Management Strategies for the Power Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miara, A.; Macknick, J.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Cohen, S. M.; Rosenzweig, B.

    2014-12-01

    The Northeastern United States (NE) relies heavily on thermoelectric power plants (90% of total capacity) to provide electricity to more than 70 million people. This region's power plants require consistent, large volumes of water at sufficiently cold temperatures to generate electricity efficiently, and withdraw approximately 10.5 trillion gallons of water annually. Previous findings indicate that assessments of future electricity pathways must account for water availability, water temperature and the changing climate, as changes in these conditions may limit operational efficiency in the future. To account for such electric system vulnerabilities, we have created a link between an electricity system capacity expansion model (ReEDS) and a hydrologic model that is coupled to a power plant simulation model (FrAMES-TP2M) that allows for a new approach to analyze electricity system development, performance, and environmental impacts. Together, these coupled tools allow us to estimate electricity development and operations in the context of a changing climate and impacts on the seasonal spatial and temporal variability of water resources, downstream thermal effluents that cause plant-to-plant interferences and harm aquatic habitat, economic costs of water conservation methods and associated carbon emissions. In this study, we test and compare a business-as-usual strategy with three alternative water management scenarios that include changes in cooling technologies and water sources utilized for the years 2014-2050. Results of these experiments can provide useful insight into the feasibility of the electricity expansion scenarios in terms of associated water use and thermal impacts, carbon emissions, the cost of generating electricity, and also highlight the importance of accounting for water resources in future power sector planning and performance assessments.

  2. Sustainable Low-Carbon Expansion for the Power Sector of an Emerging Economy: The Case of Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvallo, Juan-Pablo; Shaw, Brittany J; Avila, Nkiruka I; Kammen, Daniel M

    2017-09-05

    Fast growing and emerging economies face the dual challenge of sustainably expanding and improving their energy supply and reliability while at the same time reducing poverty. Critical to such transformation is to provide affordable and sustainable access to electricity. We use the capacity expansion model SWITCH to explore low carbon development pathways for the Kenyan power sector under a set of plausible scenarios for fast growing economies that include uncertainty in load projections, capital costs, operational performance, and technology and environmental policies. In addition to an aggressive and needed expansion of overall supply, the Kenyan power system presents a unique transition from one basal renewable resource-hydropower-to another based on geothermal and wind power for ∼90% of total capacity. We find geothermal resource adoption is more sensitive to operational degradation than high capital costs, which suggests an emphasis on ongoing maintenance subsidies rather than upfront capital cost subsidies. We also find that a cost-effective and viable suite of solutions includes availability of storage, diesel engines, and transmission expansion to provide flexibility to enable up to 50% of wind power penetration. In an already low-carbon system, typical externality pricing for CO 2 has little to no effect on technology choice. Consequently, a "zero carbon emissions" by 2030 scenario is possible with only moderate levelized cost increases of between $3 and $7/MWh with a number of social and reliability benefits. Our results suggest that fast growing and emerging economies could benefit by incentivizing anticipated strategic transmission expansion. Existing and new diesel and natural gas capacity can play an important role to provide flexibility and meet peak demand in specific hours without a significant increase in carbon emissions, although more research is required for other pollutant's impacts.

  3. Obtaining superfine ethanol in a Cuban distillery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yailet Albernas Carvajal

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes obtaining superfine ethanol in a Cuban distillery from molasses as base raw material. The operational characteristics of the main stages for obtaining superfine alcohol have been described, emphasising alcohol fermentation due to its complexity in achieving process continuity; a Gantt chart led to determining a 31-hour process time and 5-hour cycle time. The influence of fermentation yield on process profitability was determined through mass and energy balances, demonstrating that a 4ºGL degree of alcohol was feasible. The main water-consuming elements were also determined (98% in molasses dilution as well as steam consumption (91% during distillation. A preliminary analysis was made of the opportunities provided by material and energy integration, mainly for distillation, contributing towards a positive environmental impact.

  4. Environmental Quality and the U.S. Power Sector: Air Quality, Land Use and Environmental Justice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massetti, Emanuele [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Brown, Marilyn Ann [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Lapsa, Melissa Voss [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sharma, Isha [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bradbury, James [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Cunliff, Colin [American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, DC (United States); Li, Yufei [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2017-01-04

    This baseline report summarizes key environmental quality issues associated with electricity generation, transmission, distribution, and end use in the United States. Its scope includes non-greenhouse gas air pollution (i.e., sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter and hazardous air pollutants), land use, water pollution, ecological impacts, human health, and environmental justice. The discussion characterizes both current impacts and recent trends, as well as assessments of key drivers of change. For example, the air emissions section includes a quantitative decomposition analysis of the drivers of change in sulfur dioxide emissions reductions from coal-fired power plants. The report is divided into four topical sections: air emissions, land use and ecology, water quality, and environmental justice.

  5. The innovation impact of the EU Emission Trading System. Findings of company case studies in the German power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogge, Karoline S. [Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research (ISI), Competence Center Energy Policy and Energy Systems, Karlsruhe (Germany); Schneider, Malte; Hoffmann, Volker H. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, ETH Zurich (Switzerland). Department of Management, Technology, and Economics

    2011-01-15

    This paper provides a detailed analysis of how the European Emission Trading System (EU ETS) as the core climate policy instrument of the European Union has impacted innovation. Towards this end, we investigate the impact of the EU ETS on research, development and demonstration (RD and D), adoption, and organizational change. In doing so, we pay particular attention to the relative influences of context factors (policy mix, market factors and public acceptance) and firm characteristics (value chain position, technology portfolio, size and vision). Empirically, our qualitative analysis is based on multiple case studies with 19 power generators, technology providers and project developers in the German power sector which were conducted in 2008/09. We find that the innovation impact of the EU ETS has remained limited so far because of the scheme's initial lack of stringency and predictability and the relatively greater importance of context factors. Additionally, the impact varies significantly across technologies, firms, and innovation dimensions and is most pronounced for RD and D on carbon capture technologies and organizational changes. Our analysis suggests that the EU ETS on its own may not provide sufficient incentives for fundamental changes in corporate innovation activities at a level which ensures political long-term targets can be achieved. (author)

  6. The innovation impact of EU emission trading. Findings of company case studies in the German power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogge, Karoline S. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology Zurich (ETH Zurich) (Switzerland). Dept. of Management, Technology, and Economics; Schneider, Malte; Hoffmann, Volker H. [Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology Zurich (ETH Zurich) (Switzerland). Dept. of Management, Technology, and Economics

    2010-05-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive analysis of how the European Emission Trading System (EU ETS) as the core climate policy instrument of the European Union has impacted innovation. Towards this end, we investigate the impact of the EU ETS on research, development, and demonstration (RD and D), adoption, and organizational change. In doing so, we pay particular attention to the rela-tive influences of context factors (policy mix, market factors, public acceptance) as well as firm characteristics (value chain position, technology portfolio, size, vision). Empirically, our analysis is based on multiple case studies with 19 power generators, technology providers, and project developers in the German power sector which we conducted from June 2008 until June 2009. We find that the innovation impact of the EU ETS has remained limited so far because of the scheme's initial lack in stringency and predictability and the relatively greater importance of context factors. Additionally, the impact varies tremendously across technologies, firms, and innovation dimensions, and is most pronounced for RD and D on carbon capture technologies and corporate procedural change. Our analysis suggests that the EU ETS by itself may not provide sufficient incentives for fundamental changes in corporate climate innovation activities at a level adequate for reaching political long-term targets. Based on the study's findings, we derive a set of policy and research recommendations. (orig.)

  7. FAILURE OF NUCLEAR DETERRENCE IN THE CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-06

    Malmstrom AFB, Montana in June 2017. iv Abstract Most of the attention and scholarly analysis of the Cuban Missile Crisis focuses on 13 days...their constituents by accurately articulating what is an existential threat to a nation that spans approximately 3.8 million square miles with over...to violate it. Most of the attention and scholarly analysis of the Cuban Missile Crisis focuses on 13 days, specifically 16-28 October 1962. However

  8. Electrification and Decarbonization: Exploring U.S. Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Scenarios with Widespread Electrification and Power Sector Decarbonization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, Daniel [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bielen, Dave [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eichman, Josh [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eurek, Kelly [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Logan, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McMillan, Colin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Parker, Andrew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Vimmerstedt, Laura [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wilson, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-07-19

    Electrification of end-use services in the transportation, buildings, and industrial sectors coupled with decarbonization of electricity generation has been identified as one of the key pathways to achieving a low-carbon future in the United States. By lowering the carbon intensity of the electricity generation and substituting electricity for higher-emissions fossil fuels in end-use sectors, significant reductions in carbon dioxide emissions can be achieved. This report describes a preliminary analysis that examines the potential impacts of widespread electrification on the U.S. energy sector. We develop a set of exploratory scenarios under which electrification is aggressively pursued across all end-use sectors and examine the impacts of achieving these electrification levels on electricity load patterns, total fossil energy consumption, carbon dioxide emissions, and the evolution of the U.S. power system.

  9. Combustion efficiency: Greenhouse gas emission reductions from the power generation sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kane, R.; South, D.W.; Fish, A.L. [Argonne National Laboratory, Upton, IL (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Concern for the possibility of an enhanced greenhouse effect and global climate change (GCC) has often been associated with energy use in general, and fossil fuel combustion in particular, because of associated emissions of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases (GHG). Therefore, energy policies play a significant role in determining greenhouse gas emissions. The generation of electricity and power from more efficient fossil energy technologies provides an opportunity to significantly lower GHG emissions, together with other pollutants. The U.S. government oversees a broad-based program to facilitate the development, demonstration, and deployment of these technologies. Advanced fossil technologies offer other benefits as well, in that they permit continued use of widely available fuels such as coal. An international perspective is critical for assessing the role of these fuels, since countries differ in terms of their ability to maximize these benefits. Often, new technologies are considered the domain of industrialized countries. Yet more efficient technologies may have their greatest potential - to concurrently permit the utilization of indigenous fuels and to lower global GHG emissions in developing countries, especially those in the Asia-Pacific region.

  10. The evolution of legal aspects on the Brazilian electric power sector, a critical analysis; Evolucao dos marcos regulatorios do mercado de energia eletrica no Brasil, uma analise critica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastos, Adriano Silva

    2007-07-01

    The electric sector went through deep changes along these 125 years of electrification of the country, mainly the alternation of their investment bases, hour being private for the most part, state hour. The legal bases of concession and regulation also varied in this period, trying to adapt to the effective model of the time. This work intends to analyze the evolution of the regulatory models of the electric sector, identifying the main changes of paradigms and to compare the efficiency of the models already implanted in the segment, with views to the increment of the offer of energy in the period, molding a critical profile of the best model already adopted in the national electric sector. To compare qualitatively these models requests an analysis of the investment bases a priori in the sector, identifying the contribution of resources has been private or state, following by the government's legal positioning in the sense of being only regulator, or regulator and investor, concluding with an analysis of the electric power offer in the period and the power of self-financing of the companies, in order to assent that the mixed model is the most appropriate model for the sustainable growth of the electric power generation sector in Brazil. (author)

  11. Incorporating global warming risks in power sector planning: A case study of the New England region. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, F.; Busch, J.; Koomey, J.

    1992-11-01

    Growing international concern over the threat of global climate change has led to proposals to buy insurance against this threat by reducing emissions of carbon (short for carbon dioxide) and other greenhouse gases below current levels. Concern over these and other, non-climatic environmental effects of electricity generation has led a number of states to adopt or explore new mechanisms for incorporating environmental externalities in utility resource planning. For example, the New York and Massachusetts utility commissions have adopted monetized surcharges (or adders) to induce emission reductions of federally regulated air pollutants (notably, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and particulates) beyond federally mandated levels. These regulations also include preliminary estimates of the cost of reducing carbon emissions, for which no federal regulations exist at this time. Within New England, regulators and utilities have also held several workshops and meetings to discuss alternative methods of incorporating externalities as well as the feasibility of regional approaches. This study examines the potential for reduced carbon emissions in the New England power sector as well as the cost and rate impacts of two policy approaches: environmental externality surcharges and a target- based approach. We analyze the following questions: Does New England have sufficient low-carbon resources to achieve significant reductions (10% to 20% below current levels) in fossil carbon emissions in its utility sector? What reductions could be achieved at a maximum? What is the expected cost of carbon reductions as a function of the reduction goal? How would carbon reduction strategies affect electricity rates? How effective are environmental externality cost surcharges as an instrument in bringing about carbon reductions? To what extent could the minimization of total electricity costs alone result in carbon reductions relative to conventional resource plans?

  12. The Cuban health care system and factors currently undermining it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayeri, K

    1995-08-01

    This paper explores the dynamics of health and health care in Cuba during a period of severe crisis by placing it within its economic, social, and political context using a comparative historical approach. It outlines Cuban achievements in health care as a consequence of the socialist transformations since 1959, noting the full commitment by the Cuban state, the planned economy, mass participation, and a self-critical, working class perspective as crucial factors. The roles of two external factors, the U.S. economic embargo and the Council of Mutual Economic Cooperation (CMEA), are explored in shaping the Cuban society and economy, including its health care system. It is argued that the former has hindered health efforts in Cuba. The role of the latter is more complex. While the CMEA was an important source for economic growth, Cuban relations with the Soviet bloc had a damaging effect on the development of socialism in Cuba. The adoption of the Soviet model of economic development fostered bureaucracy and demoralization of Cuban workers. As such, it contributed to two internal factors that have undermined further social progress including in health care: low productivity of labor and the growth of bureaucracy. While the health care system is still consistently supported by public policy and its structure is sound, economic crisis undermines its material and moral foundations and threatens its achievements. The future of the current Cuban health care system is intertwined with the potentials for its socialist development.

  13. Empirical support for global integrated assessment modeling: Productivity trends and technological change in developing countries' agriculture and electric power sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, Jayant A.

    2000-04-01

    Integrated assessment (IA) modeling of climate policy is increasingly global in nature, with models incorporating regional disaggregation. The existing empirical basis for IA modeling, however, largely arises from research on industrialized economies. Given the growing importance of developing countries in determining long-term global energy and carbon emissions trends, filling this gap with improved statistical information on developing countries' energy and carbon-emissions characteristics is an important priority for enhancing IA modeling. Earlier research at LBNL on this topic has focused on assembling and analyzing statistical data on productivity trends and technological change in the energy-intensive manufacturing sectors of five developing countries, India, Brazil, Mexico, Indonesia, and South Korea. The proposed work will extend this analysis to the agriculture and electric power sectors in India, South Korea, and two other developing countries. They will also examine the impact of alternative model specifications on estimates of productivity growth and technological change for each of the three sectors, and estimate the contribution of various capital inputs--imported vs. indigenous, rigid vs. malleable-- in contributing to productivity growth and technological change. The project has already produced a data resource on the manufacturing sector which is being shared with IA modelers. This will be extended to the agriculture and electric power sectors, which would also be made accessible to IA modeling groups seeking to enhance the empirical descriptions of developing country characteristics. The project will entail basic statistical and econometric analysis of productivity and energy trends in these developing country sectors, with parameter estimates also made available to modeling groups. The parameter estimates will be developed using alternative model specifications that could be directly utilized by the existing IAMs for the manufacturing

  14. Determinación de diapasones de potencia necesarios para el control de frecuencia en el sistema eléctrico cubano; Determination of Necessary Ranges of Power for the Frecuency Control in Cuban Electric System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoino A Martínez García

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Basado en un análisis estadístico de una base de datos en tiempo real se propone un procedimiento paradeterminar los diapasones de potencia activa necesarios para desarrollar un efectivo control de la frecuencia. A generalized approach based on statistical analis of real time data base is proposed to determine themargins of real Power necessary to perform an effective load frequency control.

  15. Contribution for a history of the regulation of the electric energy sector in Brazil: the Water Code of 1934 and the Water and Electric Power National Council

    OpenAIRE

    Corrêa, Maria Letícia; Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro

    2005-01-01

    This study aims to analyse the history of the Brazilian electric power sector, throughout the development of the Water and Electric Power National Council (CNAEE), between 1939 and 1954. The CNAEE was originally created to execute the Water Code — an legislative act conceived in 1934, which represented the consolidation of federal public authority concerning strategic resources, defining its competencies, responsibilities and rights —, but it also undertakes the assignment o...

  16. Environmental co-benefits of energy efficiency improvement in coal-fired power sector: A case study of Henan Province, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Ke; Wang, Shanshan; Liu, Lei; Yue, H.; Zhang, Ruiqin; Tang, Xiaoyan

    2016-01-01

    The coal-fired power sector is one of the major contributors to environmental problems and has great potential of air pollution abatement. This study employs Energy Conservation Supply Curves (ECSCs) combined with pollutant surcharge and health benefits to evaluate the environmental co-benefits of

  17. CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR EMISSION REDUCTIONS FROM THE COAL-FIRED POWER SECTOR IN GROWING ECONOMIES: THE CASE OF COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY PLANTS IN RUSSIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    China, Russia and India together contribute over one-fourth of the total global greenhouse gas emissions from the combustion of fossil-fuels. This paper focuses on the Russian coal-fired power sector, and identifies potential opportunities for reducing emissions. The Russian powe...

  18. The reformation of the electric power sector in India: Pendjab and Andhra Pradesh; La reforme du secteur electrique en Inde: le Pendjab et l'Andhra Pradesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruet, Ph.

    1999-11-01

    This paper presents a project of analysis of the reformation of the electric power sector in India through the analysis of two case studies carried out in Pendjab and Andhra Pradesh, two states with very different degrees of reformation progress. The aim is to evaluate the economical rationality and feasibility of the reformations in progress. (J.S.)

  19. Role of Seawater Desalination in the Management of an Integrated Water and 100% Renewable Energy Based Power Sector in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upeksha Caldera

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a pathway for Saudi Arabia to transition from the 2015 power structure to a 100% renewable energy-based system by 2050 and investigates the benefits of integrating the power sector with the growing desalination sector. Saudi Arabia can achieve 100% renewable energy power system by 2040 while meeting increasing water demand through seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO and multiple effect distillation (MED desalination plants. The dominating renewable energy sources are PV single-axis tracking and wind power plants with 243 GW and 83 GW, respectively. The levelised cost of electricity (LCOE of the 2040 system is 49 €/MWh and decreases to 41 €/MWh by 2050. Corresponding levelised cost of water (LCOW is found to be 0.8 €/m3 and 0.6 €/m3. PV single-axis tracking dominates the power sector. By 2050 solar PV accounts for 79% of total electricity generation. Battery storage accounts for 41% of total electricity demand. In the integrated scenario, due to flexibility provided by SWRO plants, there is a reduced demand for battery storage and power-to-gas (PtG plants as well as a reduction in curtailment. Thus, the annual levelised costs of the integrated scenario is found to be 1–3% less than the non-integrated scenario.

  20. The past, present, and future of the U.S. electric power sector: Examining regulatory changes using multivariate time series approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Kyle Edwin

    The U.S. energy sector has undergone continuous change in the regulatory, technological, and market environments. These developments show no signs of slowing. Accordingly, it is imperative that energy market regulators and participants develop a strong comprehension of market dynamics and the potential implications of their actions. This dissertation contributes to a better understanding of the past, present, and future of U.S. energy market dynamics and interactions with policy. Advancements in multivariate time series analysis are employed in three related studies of the electric power sector. Overall, results suggest that regulatory changes have had and will continue to have important implications for the electric power sector. The sector, however, has exhibited adaptability to past regulatory changes and is projected to remain resilient in the future. Tests for constancy of the long run parameters in a vector error correction model are applied to determine whether relationships among coal inventories in the electric power sector, input prices, output prices, and opportunity costs have remained constant over the past 38 years. Two periods of instability are found, the first following railroad deregulation in the U.S. and the second corresponding to a number of major regulatory changes in the electric power and natural gas sectors. Relationships among Renewable Energy Credit prices, electricity prices, and natural gas prices are estimated using a vector error correction model. Results suggest that Renewable Energy Credit prices do not completely behave as previously theorized in the literature. Potential reasons for the divergence between theory and empirical evidence are the relative immaturity of current markets and continuous institutional intervention. Potential impacts of future CO2 emissions reductions under the Clean Power Plan on economic and energy sector activity are estimated. Conditional forecasts based on an outlined path for CO2 emissions are

  1. Strain energies of cubane derivatives with different substituent groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan Xiaowei [Department of Chemistry, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Ju Xuehai [Department of Chemistry, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China)], E-mail: xhju@mail.njust.edu.cn; Xia Qiying [Department of Chemistry, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Department of Chemistry, Linyi Teachers University, Linyi 276005 (China); Xiao Heming [Department of Chemistry, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China)

    2008-02-28

    Homodesmotic reaction and isodesmotic reaction were designed for the computation of strain energies (SE) for a series of cubane derivatives. Total energies of the optimized geometric structures at the DFT-B3LYP/6-31G* level were used to derive the SE. The SE value of cubane is 169.13 kcal/mol for homodesmotic reaction, which is in good agreement with the experimental value. The variation of SE with respect to the number of substituents is similar for the homodesmotic reaction and isodesmotic reaction. The SE values of polynitrocubane and polydifluoroaminocubane increase slightly as up to four substituent groups being added to the cage skeleton. On contrary, the SE dramatically increases when the number of substituent groups m increases from 5 up to 8. For polynitratocubane, the SE decreases slightly at the beginning then increases as the number of group increases. For polyazidocubane, there are very small group effects on the SE. Among four types of substituent groups, the nitro group has greatest effect on the strain energy of caged cubane skeleton. The calculated SE value of octanitrocubane is 257.20 kcal/mol, while that of octaazidocubane is 166.48 kcal/mol via isodesmotic reaction. The azido group releases the strain energy of cubane skeleton when the number of azido groups is less than 7. The interactions among the substituted groups deviated from group additivity. The substituted groups withdraw electrons from the cubane, reducing the repulsion between C-C bonds and resulting the release the strain of the skeleton for isomers with fewer substituents. Group repulsions increase sharply with more and more nitro, nitrato and difluoroamino groups being attached to cubane, resulting large strains of the skeleton. The average negative charges of the substituted groups influence the strain energy of cubane derivatives.

  2. Cuban Techno-physical Experiments in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altshuler, José; Calzadilla Amaya, Ocatvio; Falcon, Federico; Fuentes, Juan E.; Lodos, Jorge; Vigil Santos, Elena

    When Cuba joined the Intercosmos Program of the socialist countries in the mid-1960s, the great educational and scientific reform taking place at that time in the country had hardly begun to bear fruit. But when, a decade later, the Soviet Union offered all the participant countries the chance to make use of its space vehicles and related installations so that their cosmonauts could carry out original scientific experiments in space, the situation had changed radically in Cuba. In a short time around 200 people already involved in scientific and technological activities succeeded in designing and setting up—in close collaboration with various Soviet, East German and Bulgarian institutions—some 20 scientific experiments that were to be carried out in orbit around the earth during the joint Soviet-Cuban space flight of September 18-26, 1980. Those experiments, and a further one that was also set up for the same space flight—but carried out during a later flight, as mentioned below—are historically important since they were the first in their class to be carried out by humans in space under microgravity conditions.

  3. Sex and sentiment in Cuban tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babb, Florence E

    2010-01-01

    Helen Safa has been a leading program builder and pioneer in research that examines the complex intersections of gender, race, class, and nation in Latin America and the Caribbean. Her comparative research culminated in her influential book, The Myth of the Male Breadwinner: Women and Industrialization in the Caribbean (1995), which examined gender, family, and employment across three Caribbean societies. Over several decades Safa has inspired scholarship throughout the Caribbean and the Americas and her work is exemplary of engaged anthropology in the region. Here I present work I conducted in Cuba that was guided, like my work in Peru, Nicaragua, and southern Mexico by the writings of Safa and others who saw the critical need to bring gender into meaningful discussion in the field of Latin American and Caribbean studies. In what follows, drawn from my broader research on tourism in four nations, I explore and reflect on the contemporary dynamics of sex and romance tourism in Cuba. I suggest that the allure of this domain of tourism may be enhanced by Cuba's global political identity, and that Cuban women participating in commodified and intimate exchanges reveal an ability to get along in a market economy that generally excludes them.

  4. Least cost supply-side options for mitigating greenhouse gas and other harmful emissions from the power sector. Sri Lanka case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernando, W.J.L.S. [Sri Lanka Energy Managers' Association, Colombo (Sri Lanka); Priyantha, D.C. [Wijayatunga Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Moratuwa, Moratuwa (Sri Lanka); Shrestha, Ram [Energy Program, Asian Institute of Technology, Klong Luang, Pathumthani (Thailand)

    2002-03-01

    Sri Lanka is predominantly a fossil fuel-importing country with relatively high rainfall mainly in the central hilly region. This factor has led to its heavy dependence on hydro-power to satisfy its power generation needs during the past century since electricity was first introduced into the country. However, the economic hydro-power resources are limited, as Sri Lanka has already exploited the major component of these economic resources. The long-term least-cost option of power generation has given rise to the installation of approximately 600 MW of oil-fired plants. Further, this planning process will result in the addition of 1800 MW of coal-fired plants within the next 15 years. These thermal plant additions will undoubtedly increase harmful emissions, which at present stand at a relatively low level, from the power sector. This paper analyses various clean coal options and renewable energy technologies as supply-side options for mitigating harmful emissions from the power sector, considering their technical potential and economic feasibility with emphasis on carbon dioxide emissions, given their global warming potential. The sensitivities of the results of the study to different input parameters are also presented in the paper. It is concluded that the least expensive supply-side options for emission reduction in Sri Lanka are the use of renewable energy technologies such as wind power and fuelwood-fired dendrothermal plants. Further, in percentage terms, the incremental cost of these reductions is only half the value of the emission reductions achieved.

  5. Integration of the heat and refrigeration sector into the electricity market model PowerFlex for the analysis of sector encompasing effects on the climate protection goals and EE integration. Scientific final report - actualized version; Einbindung des Waerme- und Kaeltesektors in das Strommarktmodell PowerFlex zur Analyse sektoruebergreifender Effekte auf Klimaschutzziele und EE-Integration. Wissenschaftlicher Endbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Matthias; Hesse, Tilman; Kenkmann, Tanja [Oeko-Institut e.V., Institut fuer Angewandte Oekologie, Freiburg (Germany); and others

    2017-06-21

    The report covers the following issues: (i) Detailed description of the heat sector and its coupling to the electricity sector within the electricity market model PowerFlex: provate heat demand, derivation of heat load profiles, development of a technology and energy carrier mix, data inputs for the electricity market regulation. (ii) Creation of an empirically based data basis for the air conditioning of building, its coupling to the electricity system and derivation of recommendations: preparation of a representative empirical determination of the status quo and the factors that provoke private households to install air conditions, effective parameters for the development of energy demand for air conditioning of residential homes, preparation of a data input for the electricity market model - methodology and results. (iii) Preparation of generic renewable energy supply time series with different levels of fluctuation: Methodology of the renewable energy profile calculation, calculation of the supply profile for photovoltaics, calculation of the supply profile for onshore wind and offshore wind. (iv) Extension of the electricity market model PowerFlex to PowerFlex-heat and cold for the sector encompassing scenario analysis: extension of the module to cogeneration power plants, power-to-heat and power-to-gas for the detailed description of the heat sector, extension of the module for load management, scenarios and interpretation of the results.

  6. Combined heat and power in the Swedish district heating sector-impact of green certificates and CO{sub 2} trading on new investments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knutsson, David [Energy Systems Technology, Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden)]. E-mail: dak@entek.chalmers.se; Werner, Sven [Energy Systems Technology, Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Ahlgren, Erik O. [Energy Systems Technology, Department of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2006-12-15

    Combined heat and power (CHP) has been identified by the EU administration as an important means of reducing CO{sub 2}-emissions and increasing the energy efficiency. In Sweden, only about one third of the demand for district heat (DH) is supplied from CHP. This share could be significantly larger if the profitability of CHP generation increased. The objective of this study was to analyse the extent to which the profitability for investments in new CHP plants in the Swedish DH sector have changed thanks to the recently implemented trading schemes for green certificates (TGCs) and CO{sub 2} emissions (TEPs). The analysis was carried out using a simulation model of the Swedish DH sector in which the profitability of CHP investments for all DH systems, with and without the two trading schemes applied, is compared. In addition, a comparison was made of the changes in CHP generation, CO{sub 2} emissions, and operation costs if investments are made in the CHP plant shown to be most profitable in each system according to the model. The study shows that the profitability of investments in CHP plants increased significantly with the introductions of TGC and TEP schemes. If all DH utilities also undertook their most profitable CHP investments, the results indicate a major increase in power generation which, in turn, would reduce the CO{sub 2} emissions from the European power sector by up to 13 Mton/year, assuming that coal condensing power is displaced.

  7. Combined heat and power in the Swedish district heating sector - impact of green certificates and CO{sub 2} trading on new investments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knutsson, David; Werner, Sven; Ahlgren, Erik O. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Dept. of Energy and Environment, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2006-12-15

    Combined heat and power (CHP) has been identified by the EU administration as an important means of reducing CO{sub 2}-emissions and increasing the energy efficiency. In Sweden, only about one third of the demand for district heat (DH) is supplied from CHP. This share could be significantly larger if the profitability of CHP generation increased. The objective of this study was to analyse the extent to which the profitability for investments in new CHP plants in the Swedish DH sector have changed thanks to the recently implemented trading schemes for green certificates (TGCs) and CO{sub 2} emissions (TEPs). The analysis was carried out using a simulation model of the Swedish DH sector in which the profitability of CHP investments for all DH systems, with and without the two trading schemes applied, is compared. In addition, a comparison was made of the changes in CHP generation, CO{sub 2} emissions, and operation costs if investments are made in the CHP plant shown to be most profitable in each system according to the model. The study shows that the profitability of investments in CHP plants increased significantly with the introductions of TGC and TEP schemes. If all DH utilities also undertook their most profitable CHP investments, the results indicate a major increase in power generation which, in turn, would reduce the CO{sub 2} emissions from the European power sector by up to 13 Mton/year, assuming that coal condensing power is displaced. (Author)

  8. 19 CFR 151.111 - Cigars, cigarillos, and tobacco of Cuban origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cigars, cigarillos, and tobacco of Cuban origin..., Cigarillos, and Tobacco § 151.111 Cigars, cigarillos, and tobacco of Cuban origin. The tobacco National... tobacco which may be of Cuban origin. ...

  9. Speaking from experience: today's Cuban women and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Marta

    2012-04-01

    Over 2200 new cases of breast cancer are diagnosed annually in Cuba, and a decade ago I became one of them. Late in 2000, I underwent breast cancer surgery at the National Oncology and Radiology Institute in the Cuban capital. My experience-both with the disease and as a sociologist at the University of Havana studying gender relations-serves as the basis for the following essay. The article characterizes today's Cuban women, particularly those of us with or at risk of breast cancer, and describes my own and others' responses to our disease. My aim is to provide insights useful to the physicians, nurses, engineers, physicists, technicians, and service and administrative workers in Cuba's health services who interact with us, whose increased awareness will make us feel more deeply understood and respected. In this context, I also reflect on the Cuban media's portrayal of cancer, with recommendations for dismantling the biases of fatalism and even pity often conveyed.

  10. Nostalgia, Shame and the Transplanted Cuban: "la cubana arrepentida"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Lorenzo

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Literature can illuminate and extend our understanding of the affect of shame. In this paper, I will use extracts from my fictional works, published and in progress, and other fictional work and poetry by Cuban and Cuban-American exile writers to illustrate some aspects of shaming in relation to the experience of being a Cuban-American migrant in the United States, particularly relative to the sense of exilic nostalgia for the lost homeland. I will also look at how shame is used by the minority culture to control, erode or slow the process of assimilation and to try to maintain the illusion of the superiority of the minority culture.

  11. Social Responsibility: approach for the development of the Cuban company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusmelys Ferrales-Arias

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article to analyze the methodological approach theoretical foundations of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR. To determine the degree of similarity of the impact of different variables on the concepts developed by the authors, agglomerative hierarchical method was used average between PSS groups through .1.19 statistical Package for statistical processing. The importance of Corporate Social Responsibility in the Cuban business environment and its link to the conceptualization of the Social Economic Model and Development Cuban Socialist analyzed.

  12. Trump And Obama’s “Cuban Legacy”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh. Sh. Ulugova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available After the triumph of revolution in Cuba in 1959 Washington and Havana have been hostile to each other for more than half a century. Even the end of the Cold War and disintegration of the bipolar international system left intact the antagonism between the two. Only after Barack Obama came to power did normalization become possible. He admitted the failure of the policy of sanctions and declared a “new beginning” in US-Cuba relations. There is a risk now that under the new administration of Donald Trump the efforts made before can be neutralized if the US president keeps his recent pre-election promise and cancels all the previous agreements on normalization. The question remains open – whether Obama’s achievements in this regard will be preserved or Trump will manage to reverse the normalization policy of his predecessor. There will be either pragmatic Trump the businessman who understands the benefits of continuing Obama’s policy, or Trump the politician who will stand firm on his pre-election pledge to roll back on once promising initiative. The article analyzes the process of normalization initiated by Obama and Castro in 2014, explains its background motivations and builds various scenarios of further development of Cuban-American relations, as well as Trump’s policy towards Cuba. It is unlikely that the Trump administration will abandon what has already been achieved. It may entail significant political and economic costs, which is unacceptable for Trump the businessman. However, any new progressive steps towards the normalization should not be expected in the short term.

  13. The thermochemistry of cubane 50 years after its synthesis: a high-level theoretical study of cubane and its derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapito, Filipe; Santos, Rui C; Borges dos Santos, Rui M; Martinho Simões, José A

    2015-03-26

    The gas-phase enthalpy of formation of cubane (603.4 ± 4 kJ mol(-1)) was calculated using an explicitly correlated composite method (W1-F12). The result obtained for cubane, together with the experimental value for the enthalpy of sublimation, 54.8 ± 2.0 kJ mol(-1), led to 548.6 ± 4.5 kJ mol(-1) for the solid-phase enthalpy of formation. This value is only 6.8 kJ mol(-1) higher than the 50-year-old original calorimetric result. The carbon-hydrogen bond dissociation enthalpy (C-H BDE) of cubane (438.4 ± 4 kJ mol(-1)), together with properties relevant for its experimental determination using gas-phase ion thermochemistry, namely the cubane gas-phase acidity (1704.6 ± 4 kJ mol(-1)), cubyl radical electron affinity (45.8 ± 4 kJ mol(-1)), cubane ionization energy (1435.1 ± 4 kJ mol(-1)), cubyl radical cation proton affinity (918.8 ± 4 kJ mol(-1)), cubane cation appearance energy (1099.6 ± 4 kJ mol(-1)), and cubyl ionization energy (661.2 ± 4 kJ mol(-1)), were also determined. These values were compared with those calculated for unstrained hydrocarbons (viz., methane, ethane, and isobutane). The strain energy of cubane (667.2 kJ mol(-1)) and cubyl radical (689.4 kJ mol(-1)) were independently estimated via quasihomodesmotic reactions. These values were related via a simple model to the C-H BDE in cubane. Taking into account the accuracy of the computational method, the comparison with high-precision experimental results, and the data consistency afforded by the relevant thermodynamic cycles, we claim an uncertainty better than ±4 kJ mol(-1) for the new enthalpy of formation values presented.

  14. Cuban Migration Trends and Their Impact on Central America Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charleene Cortez Sosa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the migration of Cuban population has taken new directions; this is mainly due to the migration policy flexibility adopted by the Cuban government and other Latin America governments, such as Ecuador, Grenada, Trinidad and Tobago, Dominican Republic, and Haiti, among others, by issuing visas in favorable conditions for the population. Although there are varied reasons to migrate, this population has traditionally migrated motivated by the United States Cuban Adjustment Act which grants administrative advantages for regularization; no other country of the continent offers this privilege. Due to their political exile condition, whoever arrives to the United States will easily have access to legal mechanisms for migrant regularization. Although there has been great work on migration in general terms, little has been addressed on the Cuban migration in the Central American region; possibly this is due to the difficulty to find quantitative information in this regard. The article aims to facilitate the understanding of migration in a context of flexibility and establishment of new relations between the Caribbean and Central America.

  15. Language Use and Identity in the Cuban Community in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakushkina, Maria; Olson, Daniel J.

    2017-01-01

    A significant body of research has begun to explore the association between language and identity, a relationship that becomes more complex when considering multilingual communities. Important for this field, a number of studies have examined the interrelation between language and identity in the Cuban population in the USA, a case in which…

  16. THE CUBAN ENTERPRISE, COMPETITIVENESS, IMPROVEMENT BUSINESS AND QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Fernández-Companioni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article offers some reflections on the Cuban enterprise, its business process improvement and competitiveness that firms must have in entering the world market. It analyzes the economic policies of the last two Congresses of the Communist Party of Cuba that give importance to the role of the Cuban socialist state enterprise system. It conceptualizes the category: business. Knowledge of the categories: effectiveness, efficiency, effectiveness, competitiveness, quality and productivity must for Cuban entrepreneurs. To increase export capacity, we must address a number of factors such as quality and product innovation, the price level depends on the productivity of the inflation differential between countries and other factors with indirect effects on competitiveness, and service quality or corporate image. Are some of the mistakes made in business development in the country. Relate some of the quality awards granted in the world and which should aim to achieve the necessary visibility in international business. Relate some of the quality awards that are granted in the world and which should aim for Cuban entrepreneurs to achieve the necessary visibility in international business. It provides a table that lists the entities Award Winning Quality in Cuba until 2008. It shows a country ranking of the indicators of global competitiveness generated annually by The Global Competitiveness Report. Reasoning about the causes that led to the business improvement process (SPE (Legislative Decree 252 and Decree 281. 

  17. Cuban Geography in Higher Education: Survival in the "Special Period."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mark M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Provides a concise and interesting overview of the state of higher education in Cuba, specifically focusing on geography. The interests, methodologies, and programs of Cuban geographers are similar to other countries, albeit at a truncated level due to the United States embargo. Discusses international educational exchange efforts. (MJP)

  18. Cuban Women, Sex Role Conflicts and Use of Prescription Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Diana H.; Page, J. Brian

    This paper focuses on Cuban women migrants living in Miami (Florida) and on their adaptation to life in exile, especially their use of minor tranquilizers. Many of these women left Cuba for political and economic reasons. The migration process restructured their social status in many ways. They were not allowed to bring valuables or financial…

  19. Doctor shortages: Unpacking the 'Cuban solution' | Bateman | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Medical Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 103, No 9 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Doctor shortages: Unpacking the 'Cuban solution'. C Bateman. Abstract.

  20. The life at the gates of the iron cage. Power relations through practices of participation in the Third Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Sahagún Padilla, Miguel Ángel

    2009-01-01

    Descripció del recurs: el 26-11-2009 El objeto de estudio de esta tesis es producto de una mirada problematizadora sobre la confluencia entre a) la participación, como idea y como práctica en los ámbitos más variados y bajo las concepciones más diversas; b) el Tercer Sector, como conjunto más o menos delimitado de organizaciones distinguibles respecto a los sectores público o privado y c) en el plano conceptual, el entrecruzamiento entre fenómenos organizativos y fenómenos de poder. El o...

  1. Analysis of policy implications and challenges of the Cuban health assistance program related to human resources for health in the Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asante Augustine D

    2012-05-01

    return from Cuba, some PICs may face substantial rises in salary expenditure which could significantly strain already stretched government budgets. Finally, the Cuban engagement in the Pacific has implications for the wider geo-political and health sector support environment as the relatively few major bilateral donors, notably Australia (through AusAID and New Zealand (through NZAID, and multilaterals such as the World Bank will need to accommodate an additional player with whom existing links are limited.

  2. Isolating the effects of climate-mediated changes in temperature and water availability on the capacity expansion and operations of the U.S. power sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badger, A.; Macknick, J.; Averyt, K.; Livneh, B.; Steinberg, D. C.; Eurek, K.; Newmark, R. L.

    2016-12-01

    Climate change has the potential to affect the U.S. power sector in several ways. Rising air temperatures can affect the seasonal and total demand for electricity (by affecting heating and cooling service demands), alter the thermal efficiency of power plants, and lower the maximum capacity of electric transmission lines. Changes in precipitation and the hydrologic cycle can affect the seasonal and total availability of water used for power plant operations. As a result of these and other effects, climate change has potential to affect both the supply and demand of electricity in the United States. Quantifying the magnitude, direction, and interaction of these potential impacts is challenging but essential for understanding how climate change may shape the evolution of the U.S. power sector at a national and regional level. While prior studies have examined some of these effects, there has been no systematic study quantifying and comparing the importance of these climate-induced effects in isolation and in combination. To address this gap, we perform a systematic assessment using the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) electricity sector model in combination with downscaled climate results from several models in the CMIP5 archive. The ReEDS model captures dynamic climate and hydrological resource data in its optimization routines. Climate scenarios and associated downscaled results are selected through an algorithm evaluating regional trends and intra-annual variability in temperature and runoff. In this effort, through scenario analysis we examine how different climate-induced changes in air temperature and water availability, considered in isolation and in combination, may affect key energy and economic outcomes at a regional and national level from the present through 2050. Results of this modeling effort help indicate which climate-induced effects could contribute most to projected changes in national level energy-economic outcomes and which could

  3. The power sector in China and India: greenhouse gas emissions reduction potential and scenarios for 1990-2020

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroeze, C.; Vlasblom, J.; Gupta, J.; Boudri, J.C.; Blok, K.

    2004-01-01

    Emissions of greenhouse gases from China and India are expected to increase in the coming two decades. The objectives of this study are two-fold: (1) to quantify the technical potential of various options to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases from the electricity sector in China and India in the

  4. Mentoring: At the Crossroads of Education, Business and Community. The Power and Promise of Private Sector Engagement in Youth Mentoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    MENTOR: National Mentoring Partnership, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This report examines private sector engagement in youth mentoring across the United States, starting with an overview of the youth mentoring movement, then offering perspectives on trends and best practices in corporate engagement and snapshots of a range of initiatives. The information provided in this report is based on a series of structured…

  5. Using of electric power auctions in the Brazilian energy sector; A utilizacao de leiloes de energia eletrica no setor eletrico brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Luis Henrique Bassi [Agencia Nacional de Energia Eletrica (ANEEL), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)]. E-mail: lhbassi@aneel.gov.br; Camargo, Ivan Marques de Toledo [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil)]. E-mail: ivancamargo@unb.br

    2006-07-01

    The Brazilian power industry has undergone fundamental institutional changes in order to introduce competition in generation segment by allowing more flexibility to the electricity trading arrangements since mid 90. These reforms were aimed at increasing economic efficiency and both cost and energy price reduction. The restructuring process requested a highly complex legal framework in order to: ensure the necessary investments for the expansion of power infrastructure; stimulate the participation of private capital; and guarantee power supply adequacy at desired safety and reliability levels. The electricity rationing, occurred in 2001, was a result of: lack of investments, growing demand and supply vulnerability to adverse hydrological shocks. As a consequence, the Brazilian Government initiated a wide debate concerning the loopholes in the implanted model as well as the improvements needed to be adopted. The refinement of the electricity trading arrangements is an important aspect of the electric sector model revitalization. It resulted in the implantation of energy auctions aiming at increasing transactions transparency as well as establishing a long run energy price market reference and promoting market efficiency and competition. This paper analyses the implementation of energy auctions as a mechanism for trading power purchase agreements in the long term. It also discusses the Brazilian power industry restructuring process, in the face of the distribution utilities' obligation to purchase power for their captive customers. (author)

  6. Considering the Role of Natural Gas in the Deep Decarbonization of the U.S. Electricity Sector. Natural Gas and the Evolving U.S. Power Sector Monograph Series: Number 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Wesley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beppler, Ross [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zinaman, Owen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Logan, Jeffrey [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-02-12

    Natural gas generation in the U.S. electricity sector has grown substantially in recent years, while the sector's carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions have generally declined. This relationship highlights the concept of natural gas as a potential enabler of a transition to a lower-carbon future. This work considers that concept by using the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Renewable Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model. ReEDS is a long-term capacity expansion model of the U.S. electricity sector. We examine the role of natural gas within the ReEDS modeling framework as increasingly strict carbon emission targets are imposed on the electricity sector. In addition to various natural gas price futures, we also consider scenarios that emphasize a low-carbon technology in order to better understand the role of natural gas if that low-carbon technology shows particular promise. Specifically, we consider scenarios with high amounts of energy efficiency (EE), low nuclear power costs, low renewable energy (RE) costs, and low carbon capture and storage (CCS) costs. Within these scenarios we find that requiring the electricity sector to lower CO2 emissions over time increases near-to-mid-term (through 2030) natural gas generation (see Figure 1 - left). The long-term (2050) role of natural gas generation in the electricity sector is dependent on the level of CO2 emission reduction required. Moderate reductions in long-term CO2 emissions have relatively little impact on long-term natural gas generation, while more stringent CO2 emission limits lower long-term natural gas generation (see Figure 1 - right). More stringent carbon targets also impact other generating technologies, with the scenarios considered here seeing significant decreases in coal generation, and new capacity of nuclear and renewable energy technologies over time. Figure 1 also demonstrates the role of natural gas in the context of scenarios where a specific low-carbon technology is advantaged. In

  7. Genetic diversity of Cuban pineapple germplasm assessed by AFLP Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermis Yanes Paz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cuban pineapple germplasm collection represents the genetic diversity of pineapple cultivated in that country and includes other important genotypes obtained from the germplasm collections in Brazil and Martinique. The collection has previously been characterized with morphological descriptors but a molecular characterization has been lacking. With this aim, 56 six genotypes of A. comosus and one of Bromelia pinguin were analyzed with a total of 191 AFLP markers. A dendrogram that represents the genetic relationships between these samples based on the AFLP results showed a low level of diversity in the Cuban pineapple collection. All Ananas comosus accessions, being the majority obtained from farmers in different regions in Cuba, are grouped at distances lower than 0.20. Molecular characterization was in line with morphological characterization. These results are useful for breeding and conservation purposes.

  8. Sector Economic Outlook. Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-04-15

    The energy sector is a key driver of the economic pillar of Vision 2030. As the economy grows, urbanization intensifies and incomes increase, corporate and household demand for energy also rises. To meet this growth in demand for energy, the sector needs to increase investments and diversify into more sources of energy such as geothermal and wind power. It is therefore critical that focus is directed towards development and sustainability of the energy sector to ensure delivery of least cost power that will improve Kenya's competitiveness and achieve the Vision 2030 objective of 10% average annual economic growth.

  9. Incorporating global warming risks in power sector planning: A case study of the New England region. Volume 2, Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, F.; Busch, J.; Koomey, J.

    1992-11-01

    The following topics are described in reference to electric power production in New England: Fuel Prices; Emission Factors and Externality Surcharges; Cost and Potential of Demand-Site Efficiency Improvements; Fuel Switching; Conventional Utility Generation; Gas Supply Constraints; Cogeneration Potential; Biomass Resources; Potential Power Production from Municipal Solid Waste; and Wind Resource Potential.

  10. Effects of humanitarian aid : a Cuban case study

    OpenAIRE

    Brandt, Jason K.

    2002-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The end of the Cold War left Cuba without a superpower ally. It lost military protection and the majority of its trading partners. As the isolated Cuban economy faltered many predicted an end to the Castro government. Cuba entered a "Special Period" plagued with massive shortages of basic goods like fuel, food, and medicine. Cuba's only hope for survival seemed to be to normalize relations with the United States so as to end the embarg...

  11. Insurgency, Theoretical Decolonization and Social Decolonization: Lessons From Cuban Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Lacerda

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes how Cuban Psychology is related to the longstanding process of social insurgency against colonialism in Cuba. The paper suggests that the emergence of critical ideas in Psychology does not depend only upon intellectual developments; rather, social struggles can be a driving force that catalyze the development of critical ideas in Psychology. The paper is divided in three parts. First, the text briefly touches the issue of the intrinsic ties between insurgent activity, dec...

  12. The Impact of Cuban Economic Reform on Older Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strug, David L

    2017-03-01

    This paper discusses the economic reforms initiated by Cuban President Raúl Castro in 2008 and its effect on the country's fast-growing, vulnerable population of older persons 60+ years of age. Cubans are living longer and the country has a very low birthrate. These two factors combined have reduced the proportion of the population in the work force. This adversely affects the economy. Population aging is a major reason why the government has introduced structural reforms and reduced social spending, which have weakened the welfare state on which older persons depend. Many older persons have become critical of the reforms over time. Policy makers need to address the impact the reforms are having on older Cubans and consider them as active participants in economic reform. Data for this paper come from qualitative, case study research carried out in Havana between the years 2008-15 and from a review of the literature on aging and economic reforms in Cuba. Two case studies illustrate the impact of the economic reforms on older persons.

  13. Industrial property for science’s management, technology and innovation in Cuban State companies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dulce María Contreras Villavicencio; Evelio Suárez Gutiérrez; Marta Milagros Moreno Cruz; Pascual Correa Álvarez

    2017-01-01

    .... Its focus to the socialist state enterprise adaptation in his economic fact, social and environmental responsibility as a fundamental Cuban model reach, competitiveness and high performance in...

  14. Mechanisms of the rotational dynamics of C70 in C70-cubane heteromolecular crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faro, Tatiana M C; Skaf, Munir S; Coluci, Vitor R

    2011-12-28

    Fullerenes and cubane (C(8)H(8)) can be arranged to form heteromolecular crystals that exhibit interesting crystal phases. Experimental measurements indicate a rotor-stator phase for C(60)-cubane crystals in which the C(60) molecules rotate freely whereas cubane molecules are essentially static. A similar phase is found for C(70)-cubane crystals but, due to C(70)'s asymmetry, hindered rotations can be observed in specific crystal phases. Details of the rotational dynamics of the fullerenes in these heteromolecular crystals are difficult to be completely assessed by experiments. To this end, we have performed classical molecular dynamics simulations of C(70)-cubane crystals to investigate the behavior of C(70) fullerenes and cubanes in the face-centered cubic and body-centered tetragonal crystallographic phases. Our simulations show that, in the cubic phase, C(70) molecules are allowed to freely rotate whereas cubanes act as molecular bearings. In the tetragonal phase, the cubane molecules also remain practically fixed and the rotation of C(70) fullerenes becomes hindered. In this phase, C(70) molecules rotate around the fivefold axis, which in turn precesses about the c crystallographic direction of the unit cell. Details regarding the dynamics (e.g., energy barriers, reorientational relaxation processes, and phonon-libration coupling) of the C(70) molecules in both crystal phases are discussed. In general, our results agree with previous experimental findings for C(70)-cubane crystals.

  15. U.S. electric power sector transitions required to achieve 80% reductions in economy-wide greenhouse gas emissions: Results based on a state-level model of the U.S. energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyer, Gokul C.; Clarke, Leon E.; Edmonds, James A.; Kyle, Gordon P.; Ledna, Catherine M.; McJeon, Haewon C.; Wise, M. A.

    2017-05-01

    The United States has articulated a deep decarbonization strategy for achieving a reduction in economy-wide greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of 80% below 2005 levels by 2050. Achieving such deep emissions reductions will entail a major transformation of the energy system and of the electric power sector in particular. , This study uses a detailed state-level model of the U.S. energy system embedded within a global integrated assessment model (GCAM-USA) to demonstrate pathways for the evolution of the U.S. electric power sector that achieve 80% economy-wide reductions in GHG emissions by 2050. The pathways presented in this report are based on feedback received during a workshop of experts organized by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis. Our analysis demonstrates that achieving deep decarbonization by 2050 will require substantial decarbonization of the electric power sector resulting in an increase in the deployment of zero-carbon and low-carbon technologies such as renewables and carbon capture utilization and storage. The present results also show that the degree to which the electric power sector will need to decarbonize and low-carbon technologies will need to deploy depends on the nature of technological advances in the energy sector, the ability of end-use sectors to electrify and level of electricity demand.

  16. E-service quality: An investigation of its key dimensions and the discriminatory power in the residential property sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Beneke

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Research Statement: With an increase in competition within the South African property sector, real estate agencies need to ensure that their channels are as effective as possible. Using the Internet and mobile technologies represents a new means to reach customers and achieve lower operating costs. This study seeks to ascertain which factors potential buyers consider important when perusing residential property in an online environment. Hence, the dimensions of e-service quality, which constitute their online experience, will be explored. In addition, this research explores buyer typologies and probes whether other forms of technology, such as a mobile interface, may be of commercial value to the realtor. Methodology: The empirical analysis was conducted by means of a quantitative survey. A questionnaire was designed to test the application of the e-service quality construct in the South African real-estate sector. Data was obtained from 300 respondents, across the age spectrum, who filled the criteria of being prospective buyers. Convenience sampling was primarily used to collect responses as the researchers were unable to obtain access to a specific database of listed property buyers. Results & Conclusion: As mirrored in other studies of this nature, it was found that trust is paramount when initiating property sales online. All other variables in the construct (site features, information, accessibility, communication, reliability, responsiveness and personalisation also proved significant. A cluster analysis revealed that older respondents preferred a higher level of support - across all attributes of e-service quality - when interacting with online property services. Lastly, the mobile interface appears to appeal to 'students' as well as 'mature workers'. It is surmised that these individuals have access to smart phones capable of being used for accessing property portals. However, the 'young workers' appear less enthusiastic about the

  17. A JOINT VENTURE MODEL FOR ASSESSMENT OF PARTNER CAPABILITIES: THE CASE OF ESKOM ENTERPRISES AND THE AFRICAN POWER SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.V. Soni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This article investigates the concept of joint ventures in the international energy sector and develops a joint venture model, as a business development and assessment tool. The joint venture model presents a systematic method that relies on modern business intelligence to assess a potential business venture by using a balanced score card technique to screen potential partners, based on their technological and financial core capabilities. The model can be used by business development managers to harness the potential of joint ventures to create economic growth and sustainable business expansion. Furthermore, partnerships with local companies can help to mitigate econo-political risk, and facilitate buy-in from the national governments that are normally the primary stakeholders in the energy sector ventures (directly or indirectly. The particular case of Eskom Enterprises (Pty Ltd, a wholly owned subsidiary of Eskom, is highlighted.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie artikel ondersoek die begrip gesamentlike onderneming in die internasionale energiesektor en ontwikkel 'n gesamentlike-onderneming-model as 'n sake-ontwikkeling- en takseermodel. Die gesamentlike-onderneming-model bied 'n stelselmatige metode wat op moderne sake-intelligensie staat maak om 'n potensiële sake-onderneming op grond van die tegnologiese en finansiële kernvermoëns daarvan te takseer deur 'n gebalanseerdepuntekaart-tegniek te gebruik. Die model kan deur sake-ontwikkelingsbestuurders gebruik word om die potensiaal van gesamentlike ondernemings in te span om ekonomiese groei en volhoubare sake-uitbreiding daar te stel. Verder kan venootskappe met plaaslike maatskappye help om die ekonomiese risiko te verminder en inkoop te vergemaklik van die nasionale regerings wat gewoonlik die primêre belanghebbendes in die energiesektorondernemings is (hetsy regstreeks of onregstreeks. Die besondere geval van Eskom Enterprises (Edms Bpk, 'n vol filiaal van Eskom

  18. Agriculture Sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Agriculture sectors comprise establishments primarily engaged in growing crops, raising animals, and harvesting fish and other animals. Find information on compliance, enforcement and guidance on EPA laws and regulations on the NAICS 111 & 112 sectors.

  19. The Relative Importance of Market Power and Efficiency to Profitability in the Defense Sector: A Firm Based Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    industries. The basic model states that profits are a function of market power, effi- ciency, growth, product differentiation , geographic dispersion...absolute cost advantages of established firms, and product differentiation . Other lesser variables are also discussed in the literature. These...third major source of entry barriers is provided by strong consumer preferences for established, differentiated products. Product differentiation transforms

  20. Sectoral analysis in the European power and gas market. What is to be expected by the marketers?; Sektoruntersuchungen im europaeischen Strom- und Gasmarkt. Was haben die Marktbeteiligten zu erwarten?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linsmeier, P. [Kanzlei Gleiss Lutz, Muenchen (Germany)

    2005-10-15

    Electric utilities are presently facing several official requests for information, among which were sectoral analysis of the Directorate General Competition in Brussels. The affected enterprises would be well advised to answer coherently and consistently. The Commission's latest surveys in the power and natural gas sector were carried out efficiency and emphatically and they reveal Brussels' will to create competitive markets.

  1. Price elastic power consumption as reserve power - a demonstration in the horticultural sector. Final report; Priselastisk elforbrug som reservekraft - et demonstrationsprojekt i gartneribranchen. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    Danish greenhouses have a relatively high level of electricity consumption for plant growth lighting. Part of the electricity consumption is flexible, and the main purpose of the project was to find out if the plant growth lighting of the greenhouses is fit for the market for reserve power. The greenhouses' total potential for delivery of upgrading services was up to 80 MW for a short period in spring 2007. Four greenhouses participated in practise on the regulating power market with a flexible consumption. The upscaling of the demonstration was not carried through because e.g. the price development on the regulating power market reduced the gain considerably, and the investments for installation of on-line metering at the greenhouses did not measure up with the earnings. (Author)

  2. Co-occurrence of invasive Cuban Treefrogs and native treefrogs in PVC pipe refugia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elston, Laura M.; Waddle, J. Hardin; Rice, Kenneth G.; Percival, H. Franklin

    2013-01-01

    The Cuban Treefrog (Osteopilus septentrionalis) was first introduced to Florida at Key West. Since this introduction, Cuban Treefrogs have spread to Miami and are now established throughout most of peninsular Florida. Cuban Treefrogs can become very abundant in areas they colonize. Several reasons contribute to their success, including a generalist diet, high fecundity and the ability to reproduce year-round, and use of disturbed or human-modified habitats. Scientists and managers are concerned that Cuban Treefrogs may contribute to the decline of native treefrogs. Cuban Treefrogs may exclude native treefrogs through both competition and predation. Because the evidence from our study and others suggests that Green and Squirrel Treefrogs do not alter their behavior to avoid Cuban Treefrogs, there is cause for concern that sampling with PVC pipes may increase the vulnerability of the native species to predation. This possibility needs further research, including whether other species of native treefrogs sympatric to where Cuban Treefrogs have invaded are also naïve to the possible threat posed by these frogs, and also if native treefrogs eventually learn to avoid Cuban Treefrogs.

  3. Cuban heritage in Africa: Deported Ñáñigos to Fernando Po in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focuses on the 19th century deportation of Ñáñigos (members of Abakuá, a Cuban secret society) to Fernando Po (Bioko). I argue against the widely held negative image of this group as portrayed in the news and press information in Spanish newspapers from 1865 to 1950 that document the Cuban heritage in ...

  4. The Three Roots of Cuban Heritage. (Los Tres Raices de la Herencia Cubana.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzaga, Florinda

    1980-01-01

    Discusses legacies of traits left by Cuba's three ethnic streams--the Spanish, Black, and Taino--that together explain Cuban personality and way of life. Asserts that by understanding what each group has contributed, Cubans can better know themselves and better project for their future, both individually and collectively. (DS)

  5. Operation Pedro Pan: The Flight to Neverland for More than 14,000 Cuban Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Barbara C.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author tells the story of the 22-month program involving the political exodus of thousands of Cuban children to the United States in the early 1960s. Fearing communist indoctrination and the rumor of patria potestad--the government assuming legal guardianship of their children--Cuban parents sent their unaccompanied children…

  6. Applicability of laws and regulations of the Brazilian power sector in the Western Amazon; Aplicabilidade das leis e normas do setor eletrico brasileiro nos estados da Amazonia Ocidental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valois, I.M. [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Fac. de Tecnologia], E-mail: ivalois@ufam.edu.br; Cartaxo, E.F. [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (NIEMA/UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Fac. de Tecnologia. Nucleo de Energia, Meio Ambiente e Agua], E-mail: ecartaxo@ufam.edu.br

    2009-07-01

    This analysis is developed within a broad context that is characterized by efficient use of electricity in a region environmentally and socially diverse. It considers that energy efficiency is required throughout the process from generation to power consumption, resulting in an interdisciplinary view of the problems reported here. With this guiding principle, the article analyzes the crises of electricity and makes a historical account of some important legal provisions to the environmental and social problems of the state. It assumes that the applicability of the Electric Sector Legislation, in Amazon, becomes inadequate, once in the depopulated endless area, the solutions do not come, simply, by modern technologies where either the traditional ones have place. Studies carried out by the Federal University of Amazonas bring subsidies to the analysis, which aims to create a forum for discussion about the practice of treating as equal parts of deep diversity. (author)

  7. Integrated Canada-U.S. Power Sector Modeling with the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, A.; Eurek, K.; Mai, T.; Perry, A.

    2013-02-01

    The electric power system in North America is linked between the United States and Canada. Canada has historically been a net exporter of electricity to the United States. The extent to which this remains true will depend on the future evolution of power markets, technology deployment, and policies. To evaluate these and related questions, we modify the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model to include an explicit representation of the grid-connected power system in Canada to the continental United States. ReEDS is unique among long-term capacity expansion models for its high spatial resolution and statistical treatment of the impact of variable renewable generation on capacity planning and dispatch. These unique traits are extended to new Canadian regions. We present example scenario results using the fully integrated Canada-U.S. version of ReEDS to demonstrate model capabilities. The newly developed, integrated Canada-U.S. ReEDS model can be used to analyze the dynamics of electricity transfers and other grid services between the two countries under different scenarios.

  8. Cuban Cinema in a Global Context: The Impact of Eastern European Cinema on the Cuban Film Industry in the 1960s

    OpenAIRE

    Matuskova, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    The study analyzes how the socialist bloc film industry integrated Cuba in socialist internationalism, and how Cuba benefited from and resisted that integration. I argue that negotiating two competing narratives – socialist internationalism (solidarity) and the Cuban anti-neocolonialism (sovereignty) – affected this cultural exchange. Cubans enjoyed the material benefits of socialist solidarity, but strongly resisted when it threatened their decision-making. As a result of this, Cuba downplay...

  9. Kinanthropometric profile of Cuban women Olympic volleyball champions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal, Wiliam; Betancourt, Hamlet; León, Sofia; Deturnel, Yanel; Martínez, Miriam; Echevarría, Ivis; Castillo, María Eugenia; Serviat, Noemí

    2012-04-01

    Athletes' kinanthropometric profiles are widely addressed in the scientific literature. Such profiles are particularly important in volleyball because absolute size contributes a significant percentage of total variance associated with athletic success. As in other team sports, volleyball players' kinanthropometric attributes correlate with the game's tactical demands. From 1992 through 2000, the Cuban women's volleyball team achieved top global performance, winning first place in three successive Summer Olympic Games. Describe the kinanthropometric profiles of Cuban women Olympic volleyball champions during 1992-2000 and compare these by position played. Measurements were taken of body composition, somatotype, proportionality and several anthropometric indicators in 41 Cuban women volleyball players, grouped by playing position. All were members of the national team that participated in the Summer Olympic Games in Barcelona (1992), Atlanta (1996) and Sydney (2000). Mean and standard deviations were calculated for all study variables. Analysis of variance was used to compare means for different positions for the variables weight; height; percent adipose, muscle and bone mass; body mass index; and muscle-to-bone ratio. Discriminant analysis was performed to identify anthropometric dimensions differentiating playing positions (center, spiker and setter), using pvolleyball players was balanced mesomorphic (2.7-3.6-2.9). Classified by position, centers (2.9-3.4-3.4) and spikers (2.8-3.6-2.9) presented an average mesomorphic-ectomorphic somatotype, and setters (2.6-3.7-2.6) were balanced mesomorphic. On assessing Somatotype Attitudinal Mean (SAM), centers and spikers showed more intrapositional homogeneity than that of setters. Centers were significantly taller (187.1±2.5 cm) than players in other positions. Centers' percent adipose tissue mass (28.9±2.7%) was significantly higher than that of setters (24.3±2.7%), who were leanest of all positions. The

  10. After Marlow’s legacy: contemporary Cuban novels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena LÓPEZ

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is a comparative study of the Cuban novels El libro de la realidad (2001 by Arturo Arango, Las bestias by Ronaldo Menéndez (2006, Paisaje de otoño (1998 by Leonardo Padura, and Cien botellas en una pared (2002 by Ena Lucía Portela. These narratives show the need of deconstructing identitary and teleological statements from the revolutionary discourse. Padura and Portela’s novels also point out to new forms of agency that resist the postutopian catastrophe, neglecting the end of history.

  11. MEDICAL TOURISM : Demand for Cuban Medical Tourism by Russian Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Ulanova, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    Medical tourism, often addressed as health tourism, is a new concept in terms of tourism industry in general, and it is also one of the rapidly developing and growing ones. This thesis gives information on the medical tourism in general and its history. It also revises the development stages of the medical tourism in the world. Cuban medical tourism is analyzed on its own, as well as Russian medical tourism and the demand for it. Medical tourism is rather popular among Russians due to various...

  12. The Flowering and Bee-like Insurance, Economic Standards for the Cuban Apian’s Productions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remigio Eusebio Pérez Morejón

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work grasped Cuban archipelago with the purpose of promoting the financial protection in agricultural sector, giving options of security to the country Apian’s producers against incontrollable natural risks. A study of the hurricanes in Cuba was carried out, so as evaluation of danger, vulnerability and sensitivity of the Apian’s echo-systems (AE; the analysis of occurrence frequency (OF demonstrate that in Cuba doesn’t exist low dangerous zones for the hurricanes impact. Recovery of heavy losses has delayed very variable time intervals which oscillate between 3 to 34 months. Considerable damages could be confirmed in arboreous covering of the (AE. As final results were presented the apian insurance as an economical necessity standard to transfer risks before whips of climatic changes, expressed in the increase of number and intensity of the hurricanes and long drought. It is proved that the losses in this lapse of time are assumed by the insurance enterprise in a 70 %, which economically justify the fact of protecting the apian productions to guarantees of itself and it was demonstrated that it is necessary and feasible the application of the proposal of apian insure. To the development of this work were used analysis methods statistical and survey.

  13. Disaster management tool serving information reducing health disasters in animals and plants in Cuban

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haymee Canales Becerra

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The present article aims to disseminate the experiences of the information management work in REDesastres, the first telematic network of the Training Center for the Reduction of Animal and Plant Health Disasters (CEDESAP, attached to the National Center for Agricultural and Livestock Health (CENSA and Sponsored by the Ministry of Higher Education (MES and the National Civil Defense National Staff (EMNDC of Cuba. REDesastres provides informational support to all members of the network as a key factor for updating, timely decision making and active participation of all actors and sectors involved in the reduction of animal and plant health disasters. It has more than 510 destinations and enables the real-time interconnection of professionals, executives and officials from various Cuban and Latin American disciplines and institutions. Through the network, more than 1376 messages have been circulated with relevant up-to-date and commented information from health agencies and international news agencies, scientific publications and national sources on emerging, reemerging, transboundary diseases and disaster management.

  14. U.S. power generation, water stress, and climate change: using science to understand "water-smart" electricity-sector decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, J. H.; Frumhoff, P. C.; Averyt, K.; Newmark, R. L.

    2012-12-01

    implications of the mixes at water-relevant scales. We then examined how the different scenarios fared under changing water conditions, particular in the face of droughts and increases in water temperature. Our findings help enhance understanding within the general public, electricity-sector decision makers, and elected officials, and provide science-based information to inform decisions about new power plants, plant retirements, and cooling technology choices. We discuss the results of outreach to date around these findings, and opportunities to inform and motivate a more sustainable energy, water, and climate future.

  15. Improvement of the electric power sector through the access to the national power transmission system - SINTREL (Brazilian National System of Electric Power Transmission); Aperfeicoamento do setor de energia eletrica atraves do acesso a transmissao - SINTREL (Sistema Nacional de Transmissao de Energia Eletrica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-04-01

    This report presents the organization and the operation of SINTREL (Brazilian National System of Electric Power Transmission), the national power transmission system, and it defines its function in the process of reform of the Brazilian electric sector. Besides showing the traditional organization of the companies and of the electric system, and the evolution of the organization of the Brazilian electric system to favor the competition.

  16. Estimation and diminution of CO2 emissions by clean development mechanism option at power sector in Oman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh Solanki, Parmal; Sarma Mallela, Venkateswara [Caledonian (University) College of Engineering, Muscat (Oman); Zhou, Chengke [Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is one of the major pollutants among greenhouse gases emitted by fossil fuel based power plants and responsible for environmental tribulations. Therefore diminution of carbon dioxide level by Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is now serious concern worldwide. This paper evaluates the emission factors of national electric grid in Oman and proposes a wind energy based CDM project to diminish the CO2 emissions. Estimations show that operating margin emission factors of national grid during five years lies in the range of 0.74 to 0.69 kg CO2/kWh. Further, proposed CDM project revealed the annual baseline emissions reduction of 45552 ton CO2 and able to earn the revenue of US$ 61.49 million by certify emission reductions in the first crediting period of project. Paper also critically analyse the opportunities for CDM project, its lucrative aspect, barrier and challenges.

  17. The utilization of excess wind-electric power from stock water pumping systems to heat a sector of the stock tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nydahl, J.E.; Carlson, B.O. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)

    1996-12-31

    On the high plains, a wind-electric stock water pumping system produces a significant amount of excess power over the winter months due to intense winds and the decreased water consumption by cattle. The University of Wyoming is developing a multi-tasking system to utilize this excess energy to resistively heat a small sector of the stock tank at its demonstration/experimental site. This paper outlines the detailed heat transfer analysis that predicted drinking water temperature and icing conditions. It also outlines the optimization criteria and the power produced by the Bergey 1500 wind electric system. Results show that heating a smaller insulated tank inserted into the larger tank would raise the drinking water temperature by a maximum of 6.7 {degrees}C and eliminate icing conditions. The returns associated with the additional cattle weight gain, as a result of the consumption of warmer water, showed that system modification costs would be recovered the first year. 12 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Electric Vehicle Charging and the California Power Sector: Evaluating the Effect of Location and Time on Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohnen, Julia Meagher

    This thesis explores the implications of the increased adoption of plug-in electric vehicles in California through its effect on the operation of the state's electric grid. The well-to-wheels emissions associated with driving an electric vehicle depend on the resource mix of the electricity grid used to charge the battery. We present a new least-cost dispatch model, EDGE-NET, for the California electricity grid consisting of interconnected sub-regions that encompass the six largest state utilities that can be used to evaluate the impact of growing electric vehicle demand on existing power grid infrastructure system and energy resources. This model considers spatiality and temporal dynamics of energy demand and supply when determining the regional impacts of additional charging profiles on the current electricity network. Model simulation runs for one year show generation and transmission congestion to be reasonable similar to historical data. Model simulation results show that average emissions and system costs associated with electricity generation vary significantly by time of day, season, and location. Marginal cost and emissions also exhibit seasonal and diurnal differences, but show less spatial variation. Sensitivity of demand analysis shows that the relative changes to average emissions and system costs respond asymmetrically to increases and decreases in electricity demand. These results depend on grid mix at the time and the marginal power plant type. In minimizing total system cost, the model will choose to dispatch the lowest-cost resource to meet additional vehicle demand, regardless of location, as long as transmission capacity is available. Location of electric vehicle charging has a small effect on the marginal greenhouse gas emissions associated with additional generation, due to electricity losses in the transmission grid. We use a geographically explicit, charging assessment model for California to develop and compare the effects of two charging

  19. The Cuban National Healthcare System: Characterization of primary healthcare services.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keli Regina DAL PRÁ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a report on the experience of healthcare professionals in Florianópolis, who took the course La Atención Primaria de Salud y la Medicina Familiar en Cuba [Primary Healthcare and Family Medicine in Cuba], in 2014. The purpose of the study is to characterize the healthcare units and services provided by the Cuban National Healthcare System (SNS and to reflect on this experience/immersion, particularly on Cuba’s Primary Healthcare Service. The results found that in comparison with Brazil’s Single Healthcare System (SUS Cuba’s SNS Family Healthcare (SF service is the central organizing element of the Primary Healthcare Service. The number of SF teams per inhabitant is different than in Brazil; the programs given priority in the APS are similar to those in Brazil and the intersectorial nature and scope of the services prove to be effective in the resolution of healthcare problems.

  20. Criminal Policy and its fields of action. The Cuban experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iracema Gálvez Puebla

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A subject area that has become important nowadays, given the different changes taking place in the structure of core criminal law, is the reaction to the criminal phenomenon and how this is arranged and organized by States. The design and implementation of a criminal policy in line with the political, economic, social, historical and cultural conditions of the State where such policy is developed are necessary premises of the analysis to address this issue. The concept we have of criminal policy, in a broad or narrow sense, allows us to understand its nature and its encompassing and comprehensive contents. A discussion of the fields of action of those criminal policies is emerging, that goes from the very concept of substantive and procedural rule to how such provision is implemented, with a perspective on the Cuban experience is the key focus of this research. 

  1. Revolutionizing Cuban Psychiatry: The Freud Wars, 1955-1970.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambe, Jennifer Lynn

    2017-01-01

    This article traces the battle over Freud within Cuban psychiatry from its pre-1959 origins through the "disappearance" of Freud by the early 1970s. It devotes particular attention to the visit of two Soviet psychiatrists to Cuba in the early 1960s as part of a broader campaign to promote Pavlov. The decade-long controversy over Freud responded to both theoretical and political concerns. If for some Freud represented political conservatism and theoretical mystification, Pavlov held out the promise of a dialectical materialist future. Meanwhile, other psychiatrists clung to psychodynamic perspectives, or at least the possibility of heterogeneity. The Freudians would end up on the losing side of this battle, with many departing Cuba over the course of the 1960s. But banishing Freud did not necessarily make for stalwart Pavlovians-or vanguard revolutionaries. Psychiatry would find itself relegated to a handmaiden position in the work of revolutionary mental engineering, with the government itself occupying the vanguard.

  2. Cuban entities management. Cedrux just around the corner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Rodríguez Sánchez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The direction of the country as part of strengthening entities management and the informatization of Cuban society, presented the need to create a System of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP, which would be able to computerize management processes of business and budgeted entities on national scale. It is in this way that since July 2008 CEDRUX product was developed composed by 15 subsystems. It will constitute the core on which new solutions will be developed that will extend its functionalities in a constantly way, including new entities management processes and allowing constant updating. In its first operational phase that will be in this very year 2011, Cedrux will only integrate 9 subsystems that will answer the economic needs of any organization.

  3. Nivel de integración del Sistema Nacional de Salud Cubano Integration level of the Cuban Health National System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro López Puig

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: En el Sistema Sanitario Cubano, la salud pública y la salud individual se integran bajo los principios de universalidad, gratuidad, accesibilidad, continuidad, responsabilidad e integralidad de la atención que se brinda a individuos, familias y comunidades. Objetivo: Identificar el nivel de integración del Sistema Sanitario Cubano en distintos niveles de complejidad en la gestión y prestación de servicios. Métodos: Se tuvieron en cuenta los atributos propuestos por la Organización Panamericana de la Salud en el 2008, para conformar redes integradas de servicios de salud. Se aplicó una escala cualitativa ordinal, propuesta por la Organización Panamericana de la Salud. Se aplicó un instrumento a 58 unidades de análisis, de estas 15 en el grupo I, considerado expertos; 13 en el II (directivos de nivel municipal y 30 en el III (directivos de nivel provincial. Se diseñó ad hoc un sistema de evaluación por índices para analizar los resultados. Resultados: Predominaron los atributos considerados integrados o parcialmente integrados. Los atributos de la integración, con mayores debilidades, fueron los relacionados con la integración del financiamiento presupuestado a las necesidades del sector y la integración de los procesos formativos del recurso humano en cantidad y calidad suficiente para las necesidades actuales, así como su comprometimiento con los servicios que prestan. El índice de integración por atributo y global, fueron similares para cada grupo, e indican una tendencia del Sistema de Salud Cubano hacia la integración. Conclusiones: El Sistema Sanitario Cubano tiende a la integración. Existen reservas de mejora en todos los atributos para la integración.Introduction: In the Cuban Health System, the public and individual health care integrated under the principles of universality, gratuitousness, accessibility, responsibility and completeness of the care offered to subjects, families and communities

  4. Toxocara seropositivity, atopy and asthma: a study in Cuban schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanobana, K; Vereecken, K; Junco Diaz, R; Sariego, I; Rojas, L; Bonet Gorbea, M; Polman, K

    2013-04-01

    Evidence suggests that human toxocariasis (HT) could stimulate the onset of allergic diseases such as asthma. More specifically, in subjects having a hypothetical 'atopic genotype', HT could boost preexistent allergy symptoms. We tested the latter hypothesis in Cuba, a country where both asthma and HT are prevalent. In a group of Cuban school-aged children (n = 958), we investigated the association of Toxocara seropositivity and atopic status with asthma. Toxocara seropositivity was diagnosed with ELISA and atopy by allergen skin prick test. Both physician-diagnosed asthma and current wheeze, as determined by International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire, were considered. Associations were assessed using multivariable logistic regression analyses, with either 'physician-diagnosed asthma' or 'current wheeze' as outcome variable. 40.1% of the children were Toxocara seropositive. Prevalences were 21.7% for current wheeze and 32.7% for physician-diagnosed asthma. The odds of having asthma were almost two times higher in atopic children, but only reached borderline significance (OR=1.90, CI 95%: 0.95-3.80 for physician-diagnosed asthma and OR=1.94, CI 95%: 0.98-3.85 for current wheeze). Toxocara seropositivity and physician-diagnosed asthma were associated (OR=1.51, CI 95%: 1.01-2.26). Moreover, in children without antibodies to Toxocara, being atopic was significantly associated with having physician-diagnosed asthma (OR=2.53, CI 95%: 1.63-3.90), while this association was not present in Toxocara positives (OR=1.38, CI 95%: 0.82-2.37). Our data confirm previous observations of higher Toxocara seropositivity rates in asthmatic children. Toxocara seropositivity appeared to abrogate the apparent association between atopy and asthma in Cuban children. Although this observation was limited to physician-diagnosed asthma, it challenges the hypothesis that HT stimulates the onset of allergic diseases such as asthma in atopic individuals.

  5. Validation of the Pascual Graphomotor Test in Cuban school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garófalo Gómez, N; Goicoechea Astencio, A; Gómez García, A M; Pascual Pascual, S I

    2011-05-01

    The ability to draw is a complex perception and cognition function, which is acquired in infancy and is not usually investigated in the neuropaediatric clinic. To validate the Pascual graphomotor test (PGT) in 5 to 11 year-old Cuban school children. The PGT was performed on a total of 172 children from the city of Havana Círculo Infantil del Municipio Plaza nursery school and from the 1st to 5th year of a primary school in the same area. The sample was systematic. The test was repeated the following day. All the drawings were scored blind by a neurologist and neurology resident. For the validation of the test the differentiation with age and school year was taken as a validation criterion. A high correlation was obtained between the ages of the children and the scores obtained. The Spearman coefficient was -0.78 (P=0.01), and a there was a similar inverse correlation between the school year and the test scores (Spearman coefficient=-0.79, P=0.01). The test was very reliable, with an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.99 for inter-observer agreement and 0.97 for the test-retest. The test was valid according to the criterion employed, differentiation with age and school year. The PGT demonstrated good temporal and inter-observer stability. We believe that it is a very useful tool in the neurological examination of Cuban school children. Copyright © 2010 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Briefing book: Major projects in the upstream, downstream, petrochemical and power sectors of Vietnam. Final definitional mission report. Export trade information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-06

    The purpose of the briefing book is to provide project information to U.S. Businesses who seek cooperative partnerships with Vietnamese officials on a number of major development projects. The report is divided into the following sections: (1) Executive Summary; (2) Overview of Vietnam; (3) Overview of the Upstream Sector; (4) Overview of the Downstream Sector; (5) Overview of the Petrochemical Sector; (6) Overview of the Electric Energy Sector; (7) Project Development Processes; (8) Project Financing; (9) Foreign Competition and U.S. Competitiveness; (10) Project Profiles; (11) Key Contracts; (12) U.S. Commercial Service.

  7. Walk Score®: associations with purposive walking in recent Cuban immigrants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, Scott C; Pantin, Hilda; Lombard, Joanna; Toro, Matthew; Huang, Shi; Plater-Zyberk, Elizabeth; Perrino, Tatiana; Perez-Gomez, Gianna; Barrera-Allen, Lloyd; Szapocznik, José

    2013-01-01

    .... To examine the relationship of Walk Score to walking behavior in a sample of recent Cuban immigrants, who overwhelmingly report little choice in their selection of neighborhood built environments...

  8. Evolving Cuban-CARICOM relations : a comparative cost/benefit analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Erisman

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Survey of the basic developmental dynamics involved in the evolving Cuban-CARICOM relationship. On the basis of a cost-risk/benefit analysis, the author provides some projections regarding the future of this relationship. He concludes that there appear sufficient potential benefits for both sides to deepen the relationship. Cuban-CARICOM integration, however, has no top priority for either partner.

  9. Cuban Support to Latin American and Caribbean Insurgencies: 1978-1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    RICA------------------------------------ 62 F. COLOMBIA-------------------------------------- 65 IV. THE CUBAN OFFENSIVE IN THE CARRIBEAN : 1978-1983... Carribean Basin and its littoral states. (Ref. 21:pp. 236-371 34 Ill. THE CUBAN OFFENSIVE IN CENTRAL AMERICA: 1978-1983 In June 1975, Fidel hosted a...conference in Havana for 24 Communist Parties from Latin America and the Carribean . All of the invited parties were advocates of Soviet ideology; Maoists

  10. The end of the Cuban contradiction in U.S. refugee policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nackerud, L; Springer, A; Larrison, C; Issac, A

    1999-01-01

    This article describes and analyzes the Clinton Administration's decision to end the almost automatic acceptance of Cubans as political refugees to the US. The decision came after the Balsero Crisis in July 1994 after many people stormed embassies and diplomatic residences in Havana, Cuba, demanding asylum and complaining about impoverished living conditions. Riots erupted. The May 2, 1995, policy ended the indefinite detention of over 28,000 Cubans in safe haven camps, repealed the Cuban Adjustment Act of 1966, restricted travel to Cuba, halted monetary remittances to Cuba, equalized the number of annual visas from Cuba, and legalized the return of Cubans adrift at sea. The goals were to solve the immediate migration crisis created by Cubans detained at Guantanamo Bay, to implement controls of future waves of Cuban asylum seekers, and to oppose Castro with economic and political initiatives. The economic embargo during the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s devastated the Cuban economy and led to its alliance with the USSR. Each of the four waves of migration was distinctive in composition and reasons for migrating. By the mid-1990s, Cuba was no longer a threat, Soviet interests in Cuba had declined, and the policy was hoped to bring about the collapse of Castro and promotion of democracy. The 1994 resolution ended the contradictory and preferential treatment of Cubans. It also ended the selectivity of the US in admitting those from countries the US was directly opposed to. The permanence of the embargo due to legislation in 1996 is a push factor for mass migrations.

  11. Power

    OpenAIRE

    Bowles, Samuel; Gintis, Herbert

    2007-01-01

    We consider the exercise of power in competitive markets for goods, labour and credit. We offer a definition of power and show that if contracts are incomplete it may be exercised either in Pareto-improving ways or to the disadvantage of those without power. Contrasting conceptions of power including bargaining power, market power, and consumer sovereignty are considered. Because the exercise of power may alter prices and other aspects of exchanges, abstracting from power may miss essential a...

  12. Co-generation and thermometrical power generation feasibility and perspectives for the sugar-alcohol sector; Viabilidade e perspectivas da cogeracao e da geracao termoeletrica junto ao setor sucro-alcooleiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, Arnaldo Cesar da Silva

    1994-11-01

    This work deals with cogeneration and independent power production and, more specifically, with the feasibility and perspectives of these technologies in the Brazilian sugar-cane industry. In the first part of thesis, cogeneration and independent power production are assessed as decentralised power generation options. Some aspects of these technologies are identified, as the conditions in which they have developed in recent years, world-wide, and how they have been dealt with in the institutional structural changes under way in the public owned electric power sector in several countries. In the second part, the Brazilian sector and the sugar-cane industry are evaluated. The organisational structure of the electric power sector, the reasons of its institutional and financial crises and some structural changes proposals are discussed. In the other hand, the sugar-cane industry is studied according to the following aspects: its expansion in recent years, the concentration of the production, the alcohol production costs and why some degree of production diversification in this industrial branch is desirable. Several technological alternatives that allow a large scale electricity production in the sugar and alcohol sector are examined in the final part of this thesis. A simulation procedure was specially developed in this thesis and applied to a typical sugar and alcohol plant. With the help of this simulation procedure, technical and economic evaluations were carried out and the best alternatives are identified. Finally, their potential was calculated for the sugar-cane industry in the State of Sao Paulo, considering the possible expansion of the sugar and alcohol production and the mills that are amore appropriate to respond for this increase. The large scale electric power generation from sugar-cane by-products is an option that can bring about some advantages for the public owned electric power sector, as well for the sugar-cane one. As a matter of fact, looking

  13. Manganese-Cobalt Oxido Cubanes Relevant to Manganese-Doped Water Oxidation Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Andy I; Suess, Daniel L M; Darago, Lucy E; Oyala, Paul H; Levine, Daniel S; Ziegler, Micah S; Britt, R David; Tilley, T Don

    2017-04-19

    Incorporation of Mn into an established water oxidation catalyst based on a Co(III)4O4 cubane was achieved by a simple and efficient assembly of permanganate, cobalt(II) acetate, and pyridine to form the cubane oxo cluster MnCo3O4(OAc)5py3 (OAc = acetate, py = pyridine) (1-OAc) in good yield. This allows characterization of electronic and chemical properties for a manganese center in a cobalt oxide environment, and provides a molecular model for Mn-doped cobalt oxides. The electronic properties of the cubane are readily tuned by exchange of the OAc- ligand for Cl- (1-Cl), NO3- (1-NO3), and pyridine ([1-py]+). EPR spectroscopy, SQUID magnetometry, and DFT calculations thoroughly characterized the valence assignment of the cubane as [MnIVCoIII3]. These cubanes are redox-active, and calculations reveal that the Co ions behave as the reservoir for electrons, but their redox potentials are tuned by the choice of ligand at Mn. This MnCo3O4 cubane system represents a new class of easily prepared, versatile, and redox-active oxido clusters that should contribute to an understanding of mixed-metal, Mn-containing oxides.

  14. Navigating hybridity: investigating the dance between culture and values within the cuban national education system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Byker

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hybridity is the dynamic relationship between local and global factors that push and pull on people and nations. Hybridity is deeply situated in socio-contextual factors, like cultural beliefs, education, and political systems, that aid and hinder a people’s navigation of globalized phenomena. Simply put, hybridity is how people and societies adapt to a changing world. This article examines the case of Cuba in response to hybridity. Specifically, the article’s purpose is to examine ways that the Cuban National Education System impacts how Cubans navigate the global march towards hybridity. The article reports on a focused ethnographic study of a week long education trip to Cuba during February 2013. The ethnography includes over 100 hours of data collection, including semi-structured interviews with 26 Cuban participants. The study uses Freire’s (1970 notion of “humanizing pedagogy” to analyze how the impact of the Cuban National Education System values in the context of Cuba and larger global context. The study found that three values in particular, amor, solidaridad, and conciencia de derechos y response, were deeply embedded in the Cuban National Education System and effect the way that Cubans navigate the complex hybridity that situates their island nation.

  15. Empiric Study on Reverse Logistic Strategies in the Manufacturing Sector in the Central Area of Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Cespón, Michel Feitó; Faculty of Industrial Engineering Central University of Las Villas, Cuba; Castro, Roberto Cespón; Faculty of Industrial Engineering Central University of Las Villas, Cuba; Lundquist, Janerik; Department of Production Economics Linköping University

    2013-01-01

    The growing need of correct implementation of reverse logistic strategies in the modern company, along with the ignorance of their tendency and behavior in the manufacturing sector in the central area of Cuba, make possible the develop of this study. The main objective is to identify a generic configuration on reverse logistic strategies in manufacturing companies from the Cuban central area. As a result, this research detects the existence of three generic reverse logistic strategies which a...

  16. Sector Switching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Carol; Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    Much of the literature on industry evolution has found firm dynamics to be an important source of sector-level productivity growth. In this paper, we ask whether the delineation of entry and exit firms matters in assessing the impact of firm turnover. Using detailed firm level data from Vietnam, ...

  17. Application of a multi-criteria analysis approach for decision-making in the energy sector: the case of concentrating solar power in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Broughton, EK

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The current decision-making processes that are involved in Environmental Impact Assessments in the energy sector of South Africa suffer from, amongst others, the lack of coherence and the integration of the opinions of decision...

  18. Restructuring of the electric power sector in Brazil. Analysis of the new institutional structure; Reestruturacao do setor eletrico no Brasil. Analise da nova estrutural institucional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Marcelo Jose C.; Oliveira, Humberto Renato de; Sampaio, Cristiane Collich [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents the risks related to the State of not following its original principles and objectives regarding the energy sector. The challenges and risks of the State with its new function as regulator, through the regulation agencies, will be analysed. A comparison between the institutional structure of the Brazilian electrical sector and other countries will be accomplished, focusing on the following aspects: competition, regulation and commercial operation. (author)

  19. Near-unisons in Afro-Cuban Ensemble Drumming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Benadon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Working with an original corpus of Afro-Cuban drumming recordings shared by Andrew McGraw, I examine the nature and extent of non-simultaneous attacks between ensemble players. Quantitative analyses of ~30,000 drum onset times in four- and five-player performances reveal that these non-simultaneities, or near-unisons, are widespread and often sizeable. Their frequency and magnitude depend on selection style, measurement method used, location of the analysis window within the bar cycle, and instruments involved. I show that near-unisons result (in part from the layering of 'idiosyncratically' timed ostinatos, and that the effect can be achieved by layering not only different timing contours but also equivalent contours that are slightly displaced with respect to each other. I also show that near-unison configurations can be either consistent or variable, so that certain leader-follower associations remain stable from cycle to cycle while others vary more freely. Beyond pairwise associations, I explore rhythmic density via the notion of onset clusters: groups of closely spaced attacks produced by up to five different players.

  20. Facebook social uses by young Cubans on the island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliam Marrero Santana

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available It proposes an approach to the social uses of the social networking site (SNS Facebook made by a group of young Cubans residents in the country, as a result of a qualitative research of an empirical-descriptive nature. The virtual ethnography is the main methodological strategy and it is complemented with the application of different techniques like the documentary and literature review, the semi-structured interview and the discussion group. As a part of the analysis’ results, are referred some of the determinant factors of the social uses of Facebook and are described the practices of the young associated with the better use of the techno-communicatives codes of the computing platform, the content production and the collective construction of meaning in this particular network environment. Among the main conclusions of the study, the relevance of the category social uses for the analysis of socio-historical and cultural processes mediated by and mediators of ICT is reaffirmed.

  1. In vitro antimicrobial assessment of Cuban propolis extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianet Monzote

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Propolis is a resinous mixture of different plant exudates collected by honeybees. Currently, propolis is widely used as a food supplement and in folk medicine. We have evaluated 20 Cuban propolis extracts of different chemical types, brown (BCP, red and yellow (YCP, with respect to their in vitro antibacterial, antifungal and antiprotozoal properties. The extracts inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Trichophyton rubrum at low µg/mL concentrations, whereas they were not active against Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. The major activity of the extracts was found against the protozoa Leishmania, Trypanosoma and Plasmodium, although cytotoxicity against MRC-5 cells was also observed. The BCP-3, YCP-39 and YCP-60 extracts showed the highest activity against P. falciparum, with 50% of microbial growth (IC50 values of 0.2 µg/mL. A positive correlation between the biological activity and the chemical composition was observed for YCP extracts. The most promising antimicrobial activity corresponds to YCP subtype B, which contains acetyl triterpenes as the main constituents. The present in vitro study highlights the potential of propolis against protozoa, but further research is needed to increase selectivity towards the parasite. The observed chemical composition-activity relationship of propolis can contribute to the identification of the active principles and standardisation of this bee product.

  2. The limited worldwide opening of the electric power sector: from States pre-eminence to the relative comeback of the Centre; La mondialisation limitee du secteur electrique: de la preeminence des Etats au retour relatif du Centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruet, J.

    2002-07-01

    There are at least two reasons for undertaking a study of the political economy of India's electrical sector. Given that it is placed under the joint responsibility of the Centre and the States, its evolution reflects the relations between these two levels of the Indian federal system. Besides, the recent implementation of guidelines which have found favour with a large number of foreign countries could camouflage a subtle relationship with globalization which, in the case of India, is determined largely by the power equations within the country. Indeed, the reform path chosen integrates two elements: the argument that reforms have become necessary on account of the inefficiency of public sector organisations whose modes of functioning are inherited from the Indian bureaucratic system; secondly, there are political and economic forces who demand reforms as an essential element of their political strategy. In particular, contrary to the classical view in India that with liberalization there has been an emancipation of the States with regard to the Centre and the creation of expanding markets for foreign investments, the 'globalization' of the electricity sector, understood here as the opening up to the foreign private sector, could in reality be equated to a relative strengthening of the Centre vis-a-vis the States. It could also turn out to be to the advantage of some very local components, such as consumers' associations, whether rural or of local communities. (author)

  3. 78 FR 9573 - Delegation of Authority To Suspend the Provisions of Title III of the Cuban Liberty and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... III of the Cuban Liberty and Democratic Solidarity (LIBERTAD) Act of 1996 Memorandum for the Secretary of State By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United... the authority to suspend the provisions of title III of the Cuban Liberty and Democratic Solidarity...

  4. Sectoral Innovation Watch Space and Aeronautics Sectors. Final sector report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giessen, A.M. van der

    2011-01-01

    The space and aeronautics sectors are high-technology sectors and belong to the most innovative sectors in Europe1. Analysis of CIS4 data shows that the space and aeronautics sectors continue to be very innovative. 85% of the firms is engaged in intramural R&D. Total R&D expenditures are between 21%

  5. 31 CFR 515.549 - Bank accounts and other property of non-Cuban citizens who were in Cuba on or after July 8, 1963.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... non-Cuban citizens who were in Cuba on or after July 8, 1963. 515.549 Section 515.549 Money and... Licensing Policy § 515.549 Bank accounts and other property of non-Cuban citizens who were in Cuba on or... accounts and other property of non-Cuban citizens who have left Cuba, provided that they submit evidence...

  6. What is the Role of the Cuban Revolutionary Armed Forces (FAR) in a Post-Castro Cuba? What Role will the U.S. Military Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    through his brother Raul for the past 30 years. The Spanish heritage and machismo tradition of the Cuban male is strong: the long struggle the Cubans...himself on the air in an attempt to change the course of Cuban history. " (Oppenheimer 132). None of this machismo tradition has been lost on Fidel Castro

  7. Taxonomic status and biology of the Cuban blackhawk, Buteogallus anthracinus gundlachii (AVES: Accipitridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, J.W.; Garrido, O.H.

    2005-01-01

    We reevaluate the taxonomic status of the Cuban population of the Common Black-Hawk (Buteogallus anthracinus) based on our examination of additional specimens, nests, eggs, and voice data. Buteogallus a. gundlachii is smaller than mainland populations of anthracinus and differs from mainland birds in plumage coloration and pattern. The common (alarm) call of gundlachii is a series of three or four notes, differing from that of mainland anthracinus, whose call consists of 9-24 notes. In the Isla de Pinos, Cuba, we observed gundlachii eating two species of land crabs (71.4%), centipedes (7.1%), lizards (10.7%), mammals (7.1%), and a bird (3.6%). We consider Buteogallus gundlachii Cabanis 1854 (1855), the Cuban Black-Hawk, to be a full species, endemic to Cuba, Isla de Pinos, and many of the cays of the Cuban Archipelago. ?? 2005 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  8. Economic Benefit for Cuban Laurel Thrips Biological Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shogren, C; Paine, T D

    2016-02-01

    The Cuban laurel thrips, Gynaikothrips ficorum Marchal (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae), is a critical insect pest of Ficus microcarpa in California urban landscapes and production nurseries. Female thrips feed and oviposit on young Ficus leaves, causing the expanding leaves to fold or curl into a discolored leaf gall. There have been attempts to establish specialist predator natural enemies of the thrips, but no success has been reported. We resampled the same areas in 2013-2014 where we had released Montandoniola confusa (= morguesi) Streito and Matocq (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) in southern California in 1995 but had been unable to recover individuals in 1997-1998. Thrips galls were significantly reduced in all three of the locations in the recent samples compared with the earlier samples. M. confusa was present in all locations and appears to be providing successful biological control. The value of the biological control, the difference between street trees in good foliage condition and trees with poor foliage, was $58,766,166. If thrips damage reduced the foliage to very poor condition, the value of biological control was $73,402,683. Total cost for the project was $61,830. The benefit accrued for every dollar spent on the biological control of the thrips ranged from $950, if the foliage was in poor condition, to $1,187, if the foliage was in very poor condition. The value of urban forest is often underappreciated. Economic analyses that clearly demonstrate the very substantial rates of return on investment in successful biological control in urban forests provide compelling arguments for supporting future efforts. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. A case analysis of INFOMED: the Cuban national health care telecommunications network and portal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séror, Ann C

    2006-01-27

    The Internet and telecommunications technologies contribute to national health care system infrastructures and extend global health care services markets. The Cuban national health care system offers a model to show how a national information portal can contribute to system integration, including research, education, and service delivery as well as international trade in products and services. The objectives of this paper are (1) to present the context of the Cuban national health care system since the revolution in 1959, (2) to identify virtual institutional infrastructures of the system associated with the Cuban National Health Care Telecommunications Network and Portal (INFOMED), and (3) to show how they contribute to Cuban trade in international health care service markets. Qualitative case research methods were used to identify the integrated virtual infrastructure of INFOMED and to show how it reflects socialist ideology. Virtual institutional infrastructures include electronic medical and information services and the structure of national networks linking such services. Analysis of INFOMED infrastructures shows integration of health care information, research, and education as well as the interface between Cuban national information networks and the global Internet. System control mechanisms include horizontal integration and coordination through virtual institutions linked through INFOMED, and vertical control through the Ministry of Public Health and the government hierarchy. Telecommunications technology serves as a foundation for a dual market structure differentiating domestic services from international trade. INFOMED is a model of interest for integrating health care information, research, education, and services. The virtual infrastructures linked through INFOMED support the diffusion of Cuban health care products and services in global markets. Transferability of this model is contingent upon ideology and interpretation of values such as individual

  10. Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmholdt, Claus Westergård; Fogsgaard, Morten

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we will explore the dynamics of power in processes of creativity, and show its paradoxical nature as both a bridge and a barrier to creativity in organisations. Recent social psychological experimental research (Slighte, de Dreu & Nijstad, 2011) on the relation between power...... and creativity suggests that when managers give people the opportunity to gain power and explicate that there is reason to be more creative, people will show a boost in creative behaviour. Moreover, this process works best in unstable power hierarchies, which implies that power is treated as a negotiable...... and floating source for empowering people in the organisation. We will explore and discuss here the potentials, challenges and pitfalls of power in relation to creativity in the life of organisations today. The aim is to demonstrate that power struggles may be utilised as constructive sources of creativity...

  11. The Dynamics of Cuba Anticyclones (CubANs) and Interaction With the Loop Current/Florida Current System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourafalou, Vassiliki; Androulidakis, Yannis; Le Hénaff, Matthieu; Kang, HeeSook

    2017-10-01

    Mesoscale anticyclonic eddies along the northern Cuban coast (CubANs) have been identified in the Straits of Florida, associated with the northward shift of the Florida Current (FC) and the anticyclonic curvature of the Loop Current (LC) at the western entrance of the Straits. The dynamics of CubAN eddies and their interaction with the LC/FC system are described for the first time using satellite, drifter and buoy data, and a high-resolution model. It is shown that the evolution of CubANs to the south of the FC front complements the evolution of cyclonic eddies to the north of the FC, advancing previous studies on synergy between FC meandering and eddy activity. Two types of CubAN eddies are characterized: (a) a main anticyclonic cell (type "A") within the core of the LC during retracted phase conditions, associated with the process of LC Eddy (LCE) shedding from an extended LC, and (b) an individual, distinct anticyclonic eddy that is released from the main LC core and is advected eastward, along the northern Cuban coast (type "B"). There are also mixed cases, when the process of LCE shedding has started, so a type "A" CubAN is being formed, in the presence of one or more eastward progressing type "B" eddies. CubAN evolution is associated with an increased mixed layer and weaker stratification of the upper ocean along the eddy's track. The cyclonic activity along the Cuban coast and wind-induced upwelling events also contribute to the evolution and fate of the CubAN eddies.

  12. Interaction among the electric power concessionaire, the private sector and the customers; Interacao concessionaria de energia eletrica, iniciativa privada e clientes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Pontes, Valdenir da; Mendonca, Antonio Carlos de; Pennachiotti, Carlos Cesar [Companhia Paulista de Forca e Luz (CPFL), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    1992-12-31

    This present work shows a franchising plan for the consumer sector services: reading of the electric energy measuring equipment and bill delivering. In order to reduce the operational costs of the electric energy enterprises and the payment sheet, this plan will leads to optimize the crescent demand services. 1 tab., 2 refs.

  13. The wind power in Brazil: Proinfa and the new model of the electric sector; A energia eolica no Brasil: Proinfa e o novo modelo do setor eletrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutra, Ricardo Marques; Szklo, Alexandre Salem [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the Proinfa - Programa de Incentivo as Fontes Alternativas de Energia (Energy Alternative Sources Improvement Program), its maturation period, the first stage results and the difficulties and the conflicts generated by the New Model of Electric Sector for the development of the aeolian energy in the Brazilian electric matrix.

  14. Modeling the Integrated Expansion of the Canadian and U.S. Power Sectors with the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinaman, Owen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ibanez, Eduardo [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heimiller, Donna [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eurek, Kelly [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-07-02

    This document describes the development effort for creating a robust representation of the combined capacity expansion of the U.S. and Canadian electric sectors within the NREL ReEDS model. Thereafter, it demonstrates the newly established capability through an illustrative sensitivity analysis. In conducting the sensitivity analysis, we describe the value of an integrated modeling approach.

  15. The new tariff model based on marginal costs developing concept for Brazilian electric sector. A case study for Power and Light Company of Sao Paulo State (Brazil); O novo modelo tarifario baseado no conceito de custos marginais em desenvolvimento para o setor eletrico brasileiro. Um estudo de caso para a Companhia Paulista de Forca e Luz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, S.P.S.

    1991-12-31

    A new methodology for power generation cost accounts in Brazilian electric sector is described, with the application of marginal costs theory and its deviation in developing economies. A case report from a Brazilian Power and Light Company is studied, focalizing the seasoning, the planning, the tariff model and the power generation, transmission and distribution. (M.V.M.). 19 refs, 28 figs, 1 tab.

  16. Macrosomia Predictors in Infants Born to Cuban Mothers with Gestational Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Jeddú; Grandía, Raiden; Padilla, Liset; Rodríguez, Suilbert; Hernández García, Pilar; Lang Prieto, Jacinto; Márquez-Guillén, Antonio

    2015-07-01

    INTRODUCTION Fetal macrosomia is the most important complication in infants of women with diabetes, whether preconceptional or gestational. Its occurrence is related to certain maternal and fetal conditions and negatively affects maternal and perinatal outcomes. The definitive diagnosis is made at birth if a newborn weighs >4000 g. OBJECTIVE Identify which maternal and fetal conditions could be macrosomia predictors in infants born to Cuban mothers with gestational diabetes. METHODS A case-control study comprising 236 women with gestational diabetes who bore live infants (118 with macrosomia and 118 without) was conducted in the América Arias University Maternity Hospital, Havana, Cuba, during 2002-2012. The dependent variable was macrosomia (birth weight >4000 g). Independent maternal variables included body mass index at pregnancy onset, overweight or obesity at pregnancy onset, gestational age at diabetes diagnosis, pregnancy weight gain, glycemic control, triglycerides and cholesterol. Fetal variables examined included third-semester fetal abdominal circumference, estimated fetal weight at ≥28 weeks (absolute and percentilized by Campbell and Wilkin, and Usher and McLean curves). Chi square was used to compare continuous variables (proportions) and the student t test (X ± SD) for categorical variables, with significance threshold set at p macrosomia were for maternal hypertriglyceridemia (OR 4.80, CI 2.34-9.84), third-trimester fetal abdominal circumference >75th percentile (OR 7.54, CI 4.04-14.06), and estimated fetal weight >90th percentile by Campbell and Wilkin curves (OR 4.75, CI 1.42-15.84) and by Usher and McLean curves (OR 8.81, CI 4.25-18.26). CONCLUSIONS Most variables assessed were predictors of macrosomia in infants of mothers with gestational diabetes. They should therefore be taken into account for future studies and for patient management. Wide confidence intervals indicate uncertainty about the magnitude of predictive power. KEYWORDS Fetal

  17. Power

    OpenAIRE

    Hafford-Letchfield, Trish

    2015-01-01

    This chapter looks at the concept of power in social work by focusing on what this means as a ‘professional’ and theorizes competing discourses of empowerment in social work and its key concepts, drawing in particular on the explanatory powers of critical theorist Michel Foucault (1991). The chapter problematizes the concept of power by explicitly drawing on both users’ and carers’ accounts from the literature to demonstrate different external and internal influences on the root causes of dis...

  18. Leading sector development in Muaro Jambi District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Safri

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to improve economic development and economic growth of Muaro Jambi Regency is a must. Efforts to increase economic development and economic growth can occur, if local governments are able to determine or identify priority sectors or become a base sector. Given the importance of determining and defining the right and correct strategy in the development of leading economic sectors/bases, it is necessary to conduct further study related to the development of leading sector policy in Muaro Jambi Regency. Analysis tools that are used are LQ (Location Quotient and SWOT analysis. The results of the analysis found that of there are three sectors that are the main sector or base in Muaro Jambi Regency, namely agriculture, livestock, plantation, fishery and forestry sector, mining and quarrying sector and manufacturing industry sector. Strategies that can be done in order to maintain and develop the sector and sub-sectors/recommended base there are several alternative strategies that combine internal environmental conditions and external environment Muaro Jambi Regency is S - O (power against opportunities, S - T (power against threats W - O (weakness to opportunity and W - T (weakness to threat. Keywords: Location Quotient, SWOT Analysis, Base Sector

  19. Sectoral assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callaway, J.M.; Fenhann, J.; Gorham, R.; Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J.

    1999-09-01

    This publication contains five papers that were written as a part of the GEF project, The Economics of Greenhouse Gas Limitations. The main goal of the project was to assess the greenhouse gas reductions and incremental costs of mitigation option sin Ecuador, Argentina, Senegal, Mauritius, Vietnam, Indonesia, Estonia and Hungary. In addition, regional studies were conducted for the Andean Pact nations and Southern Africa to assess various aspects of regional co-operation in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The GEF study also involved the development of a methodological framework for climate change assessment, with a special emphasis on developing countries. These guidelines have been published in a separate document, Economics of Greenhouse Gas Limitations: Methodological Guidelines. The papers in this publication focus on various methodological and policy aspects of greenhouse gas mitigation at the sectoral level, and are outgrowth of work performed on other parts of the GEF project. (au)

  20. Modelling energy savings in the Danish building sector combined with internalisation of health related externalities in a heat and power system optimisation model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zvingilaite, Erika

    2013-01-01

    A substantial untapped energy saving potential rests in the building sector and is expected to play an important role in achieving reduction of environmental impacts of energy. In order to utilise this potential, effective policy measures need to be adopted to remove the existing barriers...... and create incentives. For that purpose, the cost effective energy saving options together with an optimal level of savings and expected environmental benefits have to be identified. The paper reports on a study that analyses these questions by including heat-saving measures in buildings into an energy....... Furthermore, the results suggest that changes in the energy generation sector are the prime driver behind the reduction of environmental externalities of energy. Heat savings in buildings play only a small role under model assumptions. © 2012Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  1. The Variability and Intermittency of Wind and Solar Power Can Be Overcome Without Storage By Using the National Energy With Weather System (NEWS) Simulator To Design A National US Electric (and Energy) Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clack, C.; MacDonald, A. E.; Wilczak, J. M.; Alexander, A.; Dunbar, A. D.; Xie, Y.; Picciano, P.; Paine, J.; Terry, L.; Marquis, M.

    2015-12-01

    The importance of weather-driven renewable energies for the United States energy portfolio is growing. The main perceived problems with weather-driven renewable energies are their intermittent nature, low power density, and high costs. The Cooperative Institute for the Research in Environmental Sciences at the University of Colorado collaborated with the Earth Systems Research Laboratory of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration to construct a mathematical optimization of a reduced form of the US electric sector. Care was taken to retain salient features of the electric sector, while allowing for detailed weather and power data to be incorporated for wind and solar energies. The National Energy with Weather System (NEWS) simulator was created. With the NEWS simulator tests can be performed that are unique and insightful. The simulator can maintain the status quo and build out a system following costs or imposed targets for carbon dioxide emission reductions. It can find the least cost electric sector for each state, or find a national power system that incorporates vast amounts of variable generation. In the current presentation, we will focus on one of the most unique aspects of the NEWS simulator; the ability to specify a specific amount of wind and/or solar each hour for a three-year historical period for the least total cost. The simulator can find where to place wind and solar to reduce variability (ramping requirements for back-up generators). The amount of variable generation each hour is very different to an RPS type standard because the generators need to work in concert for long periods of time. The results indicate that for very similar costs the amount of back-up generation (natural gas or storage) can be reduced significantly.

  2. The challenges of the enterprise stainability in the Brazilian electric power sector; O desafio da sustentabilidade empresarial no setor eletrico brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Katia C.; Pires, Silvia Helena M.; Matos, Denise F. de; Paz, Luciana L.R.; Damazio, Jorge M.; Menezes, Paulo Cesar P.; Medeiros, Alexandre M. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Otimizacao Energetica e Meio Ambiente], e-mail: igs@cepel.br

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents the results of the analyses and assessments carried out at the first phase of the 'Socioenvironmental Indexes for the Management of Enterprise Sustainability of the ELETROBRAS (IGS-GELB) group', under development by the CEPEL. The paper presents the assessment, detailed development, and the comparative analysis of the different reports and questionnaires for evaluation of the enterprise sustainability existing in Brazil and in the world, and sector enterprise practices.

  3. Modeling analyses of the effects of changes in nitrogen oxides emissions from the electric power sector on ozone levels in the eastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gégo, Edith; Gilliland, Alice; Godowitch, James; Rao, S Trivikrama; Porter, P Steven; Hogrefe, Christian

    2008-04-01

    In this paper, we examine the changes in ambient ozone concentrations simulated by the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model for summer 2002 under three different nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission scenarios. Two emission scenarios represent best estimates of 2002 and 2004 emissions; they allow assessment of the impact of the NOx emissions reductions imposed on the utility sector by the NOx State Implementation Plan (SIP) Call. The third scenario represents a hypothetical rendering of what NOx emissions would have been in 2002 if no emission controls had been imposed on the utility sector. Examination of the modeled median and 95th percentile daily maximum 8-hr average ozone concentrations reveals that median ozone levels estimated for the 2004 emission scenario were less than those modeled for 2002 in the region most affected by the NOx SIP Call. Comparison of the "no-control" with the "2002" scenario revealed that ozone concentrations would have been much higher in much of the eastern United States if the utility sector had not implemented NOx emission controls; exceptions occurred in the immediate vicinity of major point sources where increased NO titration tends to lower ozone levels.

  4. Understanding the Uncertainties in Consequences of Climate Change for the United States Power Sector Infrastructure when Considering a Realistic Mitigation Pace and Adaptation Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, I.

    2015-12-01

    In order to overcome the potential damages associated with climate change, a massive reduction in greenhouse gas emissions is necessary. Achieving these levels of emissions reductions will require dramatic changes in the U.S. electricity generating infrastructure: almost all of the fossil-generation fleet will need to be replaced with low-carbon sources and society would have to maintain a high build rate of new capacity for decades. Because the build rate of new electricity generating capacity may be limited, the timing of regulation is critical—the longer the U.S. waits to start reducing emissions, the faster the turnover in the electricity sector must occur in order to meet the same target. We investigate the relationship between climate policy timing and infrastructure turnover in the electricity sector. How long can we wait before constraints on infrastructure turnover in the electricity sector make achieving our climate goals impossible? We show that delaying climate change policy increases average construction rates by 25% to 85% and increases maximum construction rates by 50% to 300%. We also show that delaying climate policy has little effect on the age of retired plants or the stranded costs associated with premature retirement. We show that as we delay policy action, some goals won't be possible for attain. For example, unless we enable emissions reductions today, reducing cumulative emissions between now and 2040 by 50% when compared to a no-policy scenario is not possible.

  5. Use of nuclear power and global climate policy. A model-based approach to analysing the air pollution abatement strategies developed for the energy sector of the European Union; Kernenergienutzung und Klimaschutz. Ein modellbasierter Analyseansatz zu Emissionsminderungsstrategien des europaeischen Energiesektors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enzensberger, N.; Fichtner, W.; Rentz, O. [Karlsruhe Univ. (DE). Inst. fuer Industriebetriebslehre und Industrielle Produktion (IPP)

    2004-02-01

    The PERSEUS-CERT model and the results of model calculations are discussed in the context of GHG abatement policies and the emission allowance trading scheme for the energy sector of the European Union. The contribution of nuclear power to air pollution abatement is assessed using various scenarios linked to alternative public policy and economic frameworks. (orig./CB) [German] Der vorliegende Beitrag stellt das PERSEUS-CERT-Modell und Ergebnisse von Modellrechnungen zu Emissionsminderungsstrategien des europaeischen Energiesektorsvor. Die Schluesselrolle der Kernenergie fuer effiziente Minderungsstrategien wird erlaeutert unter alternativen Rahmenannahmen. (orig./CB)

  6. Searching for Dark Sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yi-Ming

    The existence of Dark Matter suggests the presence of a dark sector, consisting of particles neutral under all Standard Model forces. Various "portals" can connect the dark sector to the Standard Model sector. Two popular examples are the vector portal, which gives rise to a "dark photon" ( A'), and the Higgs portal, which gives rise to a "dark Higgs". Such dark forces appear in many well-motivated extensions of the Standard Model. In some cases, they may resolve discrepancies between experimental data and theoretical predictions, such as the muon anomalous magnetic moment. We show that dark sectors and forces can be constrained from several novel probes in current and future experiments, including mono- photon searches in low-energy positron-electron colliders, rare muon decays in the Mu3e, and exotic Higgs decays at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). We first investigate the power of low-energy, high-luminosity electron-positron colliders to probe dark sectors with a mass below 10 GeV, which couple to Standard Model particles through a low-mass dark mediator. Dark matter candidates in this mass range are well- motivated and can give rise to distinctive mono-photon signals at B-factories and similar experiments. We use data from an existing mono-photon search by BABAR to place new constraints on this class of models, and give projections for the sensitivity of a similar search at a future B-factory such as Belle II. We find that the sensitivity of such searches are more powerful than searches at other collider or fixed-target facilities for dark-sector mediators and particles with masses between a few hundred MeV and 10 GeV. We compare our results to existing and future direct detection experiments and show that low-energy colliders provide an indispensable and complementary avenue to search for light dark matter. We also find that dark photons with masses 10 MeV - 80 MeV can probed in the rare muon decay process mu+→ e+nue numuA', A '→ e+ e-, in the upcoming Mu

  7. Palabras de origen chino en el habla cubana (Words of Chinese Origin in Cuban Spanish).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Beatriz

    1979-01-01

    Presents a historical analysis of the Chinese in Cuba and examines the influence of the Chinese language on Spanish. Examples are given of Chinese words used in Cuba today and it is concluded that they have made a considerable contribution to Cuban Spanish. (NCR)

  8. Far Away from the Revolution: Understanding the Cuban Revolutionary Armed Forces Mission Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    107 Deborah Norden, “Civilian Authority Without Civilian Dominance? Assessing Venezuelan Political-Military Relations under Chavez.” Nueva Sociedad ...Relations under Chavez.” Nueva Sociedad , 2008. Perez-Lopez, Jorge F. “The Cuban Sugar Industry After the Transition.” In Cuba After Castro: Legacies

  9. Magnetic Resonance Project 35-26-7: A Cuban Case of Engineering Physics and Biophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabal Mirabal, Carlos A.

    The Magnetic Resonance Project 35-26-7 started in December 1987, commissioned by the [then] Cuban Prime Minister, Fidel Castro, who—concerned about introducing technological advancement into the Cuban health [system]—had for some months taken an interest in the possibility of building magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) equipment for medical diagnosis in Cuba (Zito M, Argüelles MM et al, Y sin embargo-: ciencia: hablan 30 investigadores cubanos. Editoria April, Habana, pp 56-66, 1999; Cabal, Biofísica Médica. In: Fidel Castro Dìas-Balart (eds) Cuba. Amanecer del Tercer Milenio. Ciencia, Sociedad y Tecnología: Biofísica Médica. Debate Editorial, Madrid, pp 31-48, 2002). Many of the companies producing MRI equipment were unable to deliver this technology to Cuba due to the bloqueo, the United States embargo against Cuba. Those who were later to advance the project's progress in scientific technology initially regarded the implementation of such a project in a developing country as unfeasible due to its complexity. But Fidel's belief and confidence and in turn the Cuban scientists' commitment to him and to Cuban science proved to be an undeniable factors for its success.

  10. soirées Rock - Cuban salsa, bachata and Kizomba workshops

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Dancing Club

    2015-01-01

    The CERN Dancing Club organizes a Cuban salsa, bachata and Kizomba workshop open to everyone on Saturday 9 May in its B566 ballroom (See the poster). Furthermore, the club invites you to its Rock party. Club parties are free and open to everyone. You bring something to eat and the club offers the drinks (non alcoholic)    

  11. Educational Reform Hyperwaves: Reconceptualizing Cuban's Theories of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkovich, Izhak

    2017-01-01

    The present work builds on Cuban's ("Educ Res" 19(1):3-13, 1990) seminal work on reform waves. The research explores reform waves in Israeli educational policies since 2000s. The historical case study analysis focuses on conservative and liberal-progressive reforms in education, and reveals that these reforms took place as reoccurring…

  12. Hydrogen Evolution on Supported Incomplete Cubane-type [Mo3S4](4+) Electrocatalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaramillo, Thomas; Bonde, Jacob Lindner; Zhang, Jingdong

    2008-01-01

    Electrocatalytic properties of biomimetic supported incomplete cubane-type [Mo3S4](4+) clusters are investigated. The activity toward the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is evaluated on both a high surface area gas diffusion electrode in a membrane electrode assembly and on highly orientated...

  13. Cuba: The Pearl of the Antilles. Cuban Ethnic Studies; Resource Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolet, Margareta; And Others

    This collection of resource material includes descriptions of historical and cultural factors dealing with Cuba and Cuban Americans. Included are brief descriptions of Cuba, its people, its agriculture and natural resources, and its economic development. A brief historical review of Cuba, ranging from its discovery to its takeover by the…

  14. Grounding Immigrant Generations in History: Cuban Americans and Their Transnational Ties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstein, Susan; Barberia, Lorena

    2002-01-01

    Investigated differences in views and involvements between two cohorts of first generation Cuban-American immigrants. Interviews with immigrants indicated that the first wave left between 1959-1979 mainly for political reasons and publicly opposes travel to Cuba. The second wave immigrated largely for economic reasons and is enmeshed in…

  15. 31 CFR 515.415 - Travel to Cuba; transportation of certain Cuban nationals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Travel to Cuba; transportation of... CONTROL REGULATIONS Interpretations § 515.415 Travel to Cuba; transportation of certain Cuban nationals... or a returning resident of the United States, from Cuba to the United States, unless otherwise...

  16. Parental Involvement and the Academic Achievement and Social Functioning of Cuban School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Valdivia, Ibis M.; Chavez, Kenia Lorenzo; Schneider, Barry H.; Roberts, Jesse S.; Becalli-Puerta, Laura E.; Perez-Lujan, Dalgys; Sanz-Martinez, Yuri Arsenio

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to investigate whether parental involvement is an important predictor of student outcomes within the Cuban school system, where extensive support for pupils' progress and adjustment are available from the peer group, community, and family. The participants were 188 children in Grades 2 and 3 from four localities…

  17. 8 CFR 1212.12 - Parole determinations and revocations respecting Mariel Cubans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parole determinations and revocations respecting Mariel Cubans. 1212.12 Section 1212.12 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS DOCUMENTARY REQUIREMENTS: NONIMMIGRANTS; WAIVERS; ADMISSION OF CERTAIN INADMISSIBLE ALIENS;...

  18. 8 CFR 212.12 - Parole determinations and revocations respecting Mariel Cubans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parole determinations and revocations respecting Mariel Cubans. 212.12 Section 212.12 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS DOCUMENTARY REQUIREMENTS: NONIMMIGRANTS; WAIVERS; ADMISSION OF CERTAIN INADMISSIBLE ALIENS; PAROLE § 212.12 Parole...

  19. Documentation of the status of international geothermal power plants and a list by country of selected geothermally active governmental and private sector entities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    This report includes the printouts from the International Geothermal Power Plant Data Base and the Geothermally Active Entity Data Base. Also included are the explanation of the abbreviations used in the power plant data base, maps of geothermal installations by country, and data base questionnaires and mailing lists.

  20. The Early Iron Age in the central sector of the Duero river basin: domestic architecture and political power in the Soto Facies (IX-VII centuries BC)

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Ángel Arnaiz Alonso

    2017-01-01

    El texto analiza las trasformaciones de la arquitectura doméstica durante el tránsito entre la Fase Inicial y Plena de la Facies Soto, I-Edad del Hierro en el sector central de la cuenca del Duero. Se conectan tales modificaciones con los cambios políticos desarrollados en comunidades autosuficientes estructuradas bajo el Modo de producción doméstico. El nuevo marco político conlleva trastornos en las relaciones de reproducción social basadas en intercambios simétricos, sustituidas por otras ...

  1. Demand-side management energy saving potential in commercial and governmental/institutional sectors and its impact on power planning : a case study of central grid of Oman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, A.S.; Al-Khrousi, A.R.; Al-Hindi, M.; Al-Mahrouqi, Y. [Sultan Qaboos Univ., Al-Khod (Oman). College of Engineering

    2006-07-01

    The results of Demand-Side Management (DSM) energy saving potential in commercial, government and institutional sectors of Oman were presented along with an evaluation of its impact on generation capacity and energy savings. DSM was defined as electricity demand management by methods such as peak clipping, valley filling, load shifting, and strategic conservation. Peak clipping reduces electricity demand during on-peak periods of the day, thus lowering the peak demand that utilities must meet. In contrast, valley filling increases the electrical load during off-peak periods. Load shifting refers to the movement of loads from peak periods to off-peak periods without any shift in energy use. Strategic load growth aims to increase the load in the future, while strategic conservation aims to decrease the load in the future without any shift in demand to another time. The purpose of DSM is to influence the amount or timing of customers' energy use. It has a positive environmental outlook and provides the best solution between load growth and increasing constraints on new and existing generation, transmission and distribution capacity. Resource options for DSM include energy efficiency options, such as energy efficient appliances, lighting, high efficiency heating, ventilating and air conditioning. Other options include load management and tariffs such as time-of-use incentives. The goal of electricity planning is to meet the load forecast with high reliability at a minimum cost. DSM economic energy savings potential is worked out from both the customer point of view and the electric utility's point of view. The study showed that the use of DSM in commercial and government sectors is economically justified from the customer point of view. DSM programs in the government and commercial sectors reduced the energy consumption to 21 and 38 per cent respectively. The discounted payback period of investment in efficient lighting and air-conditioning was between 4

  2. Assessment of the trade-offs and synergies between low-carbon power sector transition and land and water resources of the United Kingdom using the "ForeseerTM" approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konadu, D. D.; Sobral Mourao, Z.

    2016-12-01

    Transitioning to a low-carbon power system has been identified as one of the main strategies for achieving GHG emissions reduction targets stipulated in the UK Climate Change Act (2008). However, projected mix of technologies aimed at achieving the targeted level of decarbonisation have implications for sustainable level natural resource exploitation at different spatial and temporal scales. Critical among these are the impact on land use (food production) and water resources, which are usually not adequately analysed and accounted for in developing these long-term energy system transition strategies and scenarios. Given the importance of the UK power sector to meeting economy-wide emissions targets, the overall environmental consequence of the prescribed scenarios could significantly affect meeting long-term legislated GHG emission reduction targets. It is therefore imperative that synergies and trade-offs between the power systems and these resources are comprehensively analysed. The current study employs an integrated energy and resource use accounting methodology, called ForeseerTM, to assess the land and water requirement for the deployment of the power sector technologies of the UK Committee on Climate Change (CCC) Carbon Budget scenarios. This is analysed under different scenarios of energy crop yield and electricity infrastructure location. The outputs are then compared with sustainable limits of resource exploitation to establish the environmental tractability of the scenarios. The results show that even if stringent environmental and land use restrictions are applied, all the projected bioenergy and ground-mounted solar PV can be deployed within the UK with no significant impacts on land use and food production. However, inland water resources would be significantly affected if high Carbon Capture and Storage deployment, and without new nuclear capacity. Overall, the output highlights that contrary to the notion of the inevitability of CCS deployment in

  3. SEE Action Guide for States: Energy Efficiency as a Least-Cost Strategy to Reduce Greenhouse Gases and Air Pollution and Meet Energy Needs in the Power Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Lisa [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Leventis, Greg [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schiller, Steven R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fadrhonc, Emily Martin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); shenot, John [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Colburn, Ken [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); James, Chris [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Zetterberg, Johanna [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Roy, Molly [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This guide is designed to provide information to state decision makers and staff on options to advance energy efficiency through strategies designed or implemented at the state and local levels of government and in the private sector.1 The information in this guide is intended to be useful to a wide variety of partners and stakeholders involved in energy-related discussions and decision-making at state and local levels. These energy efficiency options, or “pathways” as they are identified in this guide, can assist states in using energy efficiency to meet air pollution reduction and other policy objectives such as energy affordability and reliability. A pathway is a set of interdependent actions that results in measurable energy savings streams and associated avoided air emissions and other benefits over a period of time. These activities can include state, local, or private sector regulations, policies, programs and other activities. For each of five broad pathways that offer sizable cost-effective energy savings, the guide addresses likely questions policy makers and regulators face when screening for the best opportunities to advance energy efficiency in their state.

  4. A questão do investimento no Setor Elétrico Brasileiro: reforma e crise The investment in the Brazilian power sector: reform and crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Lizardo de Araújo

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is presently going through its worse electricity supply crisis in fifty years. This happens after seven year efforts of market-oriented reforms, and inevitably raises the issue of whether the design and rhythm of the reform have been correct. The roots of the present crisis lie in a long period of underinvestment dating from the eighties; sector reforms were aimed at correcting this situation, but have been unsuccessful thus far. This article discusses the causes of this failure and attempts a way out of the present problems. The present crisis requires an emergency answer, but also a long term policy. I argue that such a policy must be based upon the acknowledgement that electricity demand in Brazil will tend to grow fast for the foreseeable future and that sector reform must be based upon dynamic rather than static efficiency. Furthermore, the large Brazilian hydropower system requires special treatment if we are to have investment in hydro and in thermal plants.

  5. El Habla Cubana en las Estampas de Eladio Secades: Caudal de Cubanismos, Dichos y Frases Populares (Cuban Speech in the Writings of Eladio Secades: A Wealth of Cubanisms, Proverbs, and Popular Idioms)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lama, Sonia

    1977-01-01

    This article presents a glossary of popular expressions, slang and Cubanisms found in the writing of Eladio Secades. The words and phrases are defined in standard Spanish and translated into English. (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  6. Performance of Generating Plant: Managing the Changes. Supporting paper: The evolution of the electricity sector and renewable sources in Italy: opportunities and problems for wind power integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvaderi, Luigi [IEEE Fellow (Italy)

    2008-05-15

    The WEC Committee on the Performance of Generating Plant (PGP) has been collecting and analysing power plant performance statistics worldwide for more than 30 years and has produced regular reports, which include examples of advanced techniques and methods for improving power plant performance through benchmarking. A series of reports from the various working groups was issued in 2008. This document serves as a supporting paper. Sections include: features of Italian energy and electricity; the evolution of liberalisation; support mechanism for renewables; connection to wind farm transmission network; wind source integration into power system; and, final comments.

  7. Results of HBsAg examination with immunoelectrophoresis and radioimmunoassay in VPR, Laotian PDR and Cuban R

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michal, L.; Szilagyiova, M.; Zahradny, V.; Holan, J.; Krajnak, V. (Komenskeho Univ., Martin (Czechoslovakia). Lekarska Fakulta); Padurova, J. (Okresna Hygienicka Stanica, Zilina (Czechoslovakia))

    1984-06-21

    The results are compared of examining 112 Vietnamese, 30 Laotian and 50 Cuban citizens for HBsAg using IEP and RIA methods. Of the examined persons with no liver disorders HBsAg was found in 23 (31.5%) of the Vietnamese and 1 (2.5%) of the Cubans using the RIA method and only in 4 (5.5%) of the Vietnamese using the IEP method. Of the examined persons with liver disorders RIA found HBsAg in 12 (30.8%) of the Vietnamese, 5 (71.4%) of the Laotians and 2 (20.0%) of the Cubans while with IEP only in 3 (7.7%) Vietnamese 2 (28.6%) Laotians and 1 (10.0%) of the Cubans examined.

  8. The contribution of educational work of the Martín Rodríguez Vivanco to development Cuban education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lídice MESA GÓMEZ

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Martín Rodríguez Vivanco was a valuable exponent of the Cuban education during the republican period (1902-1958. He developed their work in a complex historical context, conditioned by the politics of North American dominance. In the article it is demonstrated that it was continuator of the line of the most representative Cuban educators’ in the xix century thought. The staging steps carried out revealed the contribution of the educational work from this professor to the development of the Cuban education, which is related fundamentally with the sociology of the education, the school inspection and the history of the education. Their conceptions about the three areas constitute a starting point for their study in Cuba. Those related with the school inspection serve of with respect to the address educational scientist and to the educational-methodological work at the present time and to sustain the roots of the Cuban pedagogy.

  9. The Cuban Revolution, the drift of the Castro regime and the destinies of Cuba after Fidel Castro

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raquel de Caria Patricio

    2016-01-01

    This article intends to analyze the possible scenarios of evolution of Cuba after Fidel in the short and medium term, after a retrospective of the Cuban Revolution, its democratic and anticommunist...

  10. The power of r - pharmaceutical sales decomposition in Cyprus public healthcare sector and determinants of drug expenditure evolution: any lessons learned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrou, Panagiotis

    2014-04-01

    The pharmaceutical sector has been established as the primary cost driver in health. The scope of this paper is to explore the drivers of pharmaceutical expenditure in Cyprus by decomposing sales and assessing impact of prices, volumes and substitution effect. We used a statistical approach to decompose the growth of public pharmaceutical expenditure during 2005-2011 into three elements: 1) substitution effect; 2) price effect; and 3) increase of consumption. We further decomposed consumption into: 1) prescription/visits; 2) visits/beneficiaries; and 3) beneficiaries. Pharmaceutical expenditure grew by 31.4 % and volume of medicines dispensed increased by 55%. Prices declined by 11% and product-mix residual was -5.5%, indicating that Cyprus experienced a switch to cheaper medicines (generics) without compromising access of patients to innovative medicines. This was enhanced by guidelines, monitoring of prescribing behavior, generic substitution and efficient tendering. The increasing number of products per prescriptions should be monitored with caution.

  11. Learn about Smart Sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    about the Smart Sectors program including: Meaningful Collaboration with Regulated Sectors; Sensible Policies to Improve Environmental Outcomes; Better EPA Practices and Streamlined Operations; Historical Context

  12. Regulatory Information By Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find environmental regulatory, compliance, & enforcement information for various business, industry and government sectors, listed by NAICS code. Sectors include agriculture, automotive, petroleum manufacturing, oil & gas extraction & other manufacturing

  13. Survey of the Danish power sector's Smart Grid R and D activities; Kortlaegning af den danske elbranches Smart Grid FUD-indsats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, P.; Strunge, C.; Johansen, Knud (Energinet.dk (Denmark)); Norsk Jensen, A.; Nordentoft, N.C. (Dansk Energi (Denmark)); Dybdal Cajar, P. (Dong Energy (Denmark)); Soerensen, Per (Tre-For El-net (Denmark)); Andreasen, J. (SydEnergi Net (Denmark)); Graves Christensen, N. (SydEnergi Service (Denmark))

    2011-01-15

    The expectation for the structure of the future power system causes many challenges for the grid. A significantly higher proportion of renewable energy in electricity generation will lead to more and more hours with few or no central power plants in operation. Electric cars and heat pumps in the Danish homes will lead to a higher load of the distribution network. The power system of today is challenged towards the future power system. Control and flexibility in consumption is a new instrument to obtain balanced consumption and production in the future, but there are also major challenges in implementation of intelligent control systems, which still must be resolved. In the identification of the challenges we face the following three main categories have been reviewed: 1) Power grid and management; 2) Communications; 3) Markets. Based on an overview of completed and ongoing research, development and demonstration (RDD) activities in Denmark a gap analysis is conducted in order to provide recommendations and guidance on the need to coordinate already completed and ongoing projects, and to initiate new projects or activities that fill the gaps in relation to the already decided RDD activities. (ln)

  14. Environmental implications of carbon limits on market penetration of combined heat and power with the U.S. energy sector (Slides)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combined heat and power (CHP) is promoted as an economical, energy-efficient option for combating climate change. To fully examine the viability of CHP as a clean-technology solution, its market potential and impacts need to be analyzed as part of scenarios of the future energy s...

  15. Agent-Based Control of Distributed Electricity Generation with Micro Combined Heat and Power : Cross-Sectoral Learning for Process and Infrastructure Engineers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dam, K.H.; Houwing, M.; Lukszo, Z.; Bouwmans, I.

    2007-01-01

    For the distributed control of an electricity infrastructure incorporating clusters of residential combined heat and power units (micro-CHP or ?CHP) a Multi-Agent System approach is considered. The network formed by households generating electricity with ?CHP units and the facilitating energy

  16. Hepatitis B virus exposure in human immunodeficiency virus seropositive Cuban patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licel Rodríguez

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to estimate the prevalence of serological markers of exposure to Hepatitis B Virus (HBV, 295 subjects were selected at random from the National Registry of human immunodeficiency virus positive subjects. Evidence of exposure to HBV was defined as: testing Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and anti-Hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc positive or anti-HBc positive only. Overall, 133 (45.5% were positive for anti-HBc and 15 (5.1% resulted positive to HBsAg. Significant statistical association was found between male sex and exposure to HBV (p<0.01. Homosexual or bisexual behavior was found to be strongly associated to HBV exposure (p<0.001. In conclusion, the prevalence of HBV serological markers is higher in Cuban HIV positive subjects compared to the Cuban general population.

  17. Morphological measurements and body indices for Cuban Creole goats and their crossbreds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilberto Chacón

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, linear body measures were taken and production indices calculated for 100 Cuban Creole goats and 100 crossbred goats in order to aid in the characterization of animal genetic resources in Cuba. Low variation was found for all indices of the Creole goats, showing homogeneity between the groups of animals studied. Most of the functional indices are related to the milk biotype which is in agreement the possible origin of the breed from animals of the Iberian Peninsula and Canary Islands. The crossbreds were more varied, mostly due to undesigned disorganized crossing. These data may help in identifying a commercial niche for the breed and contribute to in situ conservation of the Cuban Creole goat.

  18. Activity of Cuban propolis extracts on Leishmania amazonensis and Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzote Fidalgo, Lianet; Sariego Ramos, Idalia; García Parra, Marley; Cuesta-Rubio, Osmany; Márquez Hernández, Ingrid; Campo Fernández, Mercedes; Piccinelli, Anna Lisa; Rastrelli, Luca

    2011-07-01

    In this paper we analyzed the antiprotozoal effects of eighteen Cuban propolis extracts (brown, red and yellow type) collected in different geographic areas, using Leishmania amazonensis (as a model of intracellular protozoa) and Trichomonas vaginalis (as a model of extracellular protozoa). All evaluated propolis extracts caused inhibitory effect on intracellular amastigotes of L. amazonensis. However, cytotoxicity on peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice was observed. Only five samples decreased the viability of T. vaginalis trophozoites at concentrations lower than 10 microg/mL. No correlation between the type of propolis and antiprotozoal activity was found. Cuban propolis extracts demonstrated activity against both intracellular and extracellular protozoa model, as well as the potentialities of propolis as a natural source to obtain new antiprotozoal agents.

  19. Normalization of US-Cuban Relations: Obama Doctrine and International Security in the Western Hemisphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Łaciński

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Strained relations between the US and Cuba after the victory of the Cuban revolution were a permanent element of the destabilization of international security in the Western Hemisphere. During the Cold War, this destabilization was a function of the East-West confrontation. Since the end of Cold War the importance of Cuba as a Western Hemisphere entity hostile to the United States has diminished radically. Definite steps to normalize relations with Cuba have been taken only in 2014. The media named the change of policies of the US towards Cuba (and Iran as the Obama Doctrine. This article will try to prove that the continuation of the confron-tational and hostile US-Cuban relations after the collapse of the Eastern bloc was an exceptional and "unnatural" phenomenon from the perspective of realistic school of international relations, both for Washington and Havana.

  20. A proposal for evaluation of the owner capital cost for the Brazilian electric power sector; Uma proposta de avaliacao do custo do capital proprio para o setor de energia eletrica brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, Ricardo Oliveira L.

    2003-12-01

    This work studies the owner capital cost of the brazilian electric sector, according to three methods: Comparable Accounting Earnings, that uses historical values in its measuring and Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) and the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM), elaborated from the expected values. The obtained results by using the CAE method showed that the Brazilian electric sector has not been rewarded in its real necessity of maintenance and expansion. From this observation, it was considered appropriated not to take this method in the methodology presently proposed, which will be using only the single average of the CAPM and DCF models. The use of the results single average of this model presents the advantage of selecting specific characteristics of each one, and diluting the effects of occasional peak values. The owner capital cost obtained from this work was the average value of 19.73% for the studied period - 1995/2003 (17.12% for 2003), proximate to the obtained result by ANEEL - brazilian agency of electric power - for investments in energy distribution in Brazil, 17.47%, while Minardi and Sanvicente (2003) obtained 36.06% for the owner capital cost of CEMIG in 2002, specifically.

  1. Molecular diversity of Cuban cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz cultivars assessed by simple sequences repeats (SSR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beovides, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 36 microsatellites (SSR markers were used to analyze the genetic diversity of 163 accessions of cultivated cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz, 94 accessions of them from the Cuban Cassava Germplasm Collection and 69 genotypes from different countries and conserved at the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (Colombia. This study was carried out to determine genetic diversity within and between all accessions to promote their better use and conservation strategies. Thirty-four of those markers were used for the genetic diversity study based on their higher polymorphism. The Cuban cultivars showed the highest average allele number per loci with 5.8 and 100% of the loci were polymorphic, as well as those from Guatemala. The average proportion of individual heterozygocity observed (HO was high (0.5918 ± 0.0351, while the highest HO rates were observed in groups of genotypes from Cuba (0.6016 and Tanzania (0.6459. The total heterozygocity (HT was high (0.6538 ± 0.1770, but only 7.4% (GST = 0.0740 ± 0.0377 was due to differences between the five countries studied. Genetic differentiation coefficients (estimated by F-statistics were low to moderate (FST > 0.04 and 17 unique alleles with low frequency were found in Cuban cultivars. The results provide the first molecular characterization of Cuban cassava genotypes and showed a wide diversity among landraces from Cuba. Application of this valuable information can be used for genetic diversity conservation and genotype identification studies for the genetic breeding program of cassava.

  2. Castro’s Ploy-America’s Dilemma: The 1980 Cuban Boatlift

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    oil products. Nunez and Patolichev also signed joint communiques on trade, general economic relations, and cultural cooperation. Nunez said in the...dollars, two blue-topped Cuban government turismo boats quickly appeared in the harbor to sell goods to the woaters. Ham sandwiches cost $i one day, $3...York State. When Casey took charge in the slower- paced environment of south Florida, however, he encoun- tered major cultural differences with the

  3. Effectiveness of a Cuban marine protected area in meeting multiple management objectives

    OpenAIRE

    Angulo-Valdés, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    In this work the management effectiveness of a Cuban MPA is assessed using an interdisciplinary approach. A series of three hypotheses are tested to determine how effective the Punta Frances Marine Protected Area (PFMPA) has been in meeting the multiple objectives of conserving biological diversity and ecological integrity, while allowing for the development of economic opportunities for tourism, and satisfying the needs of local and distant human populations. A ...

  4. Social workers’ construction of “family” in Cuban context: Ideas for a debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Isabel Peña Farias

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents preliminary research about the process of the construction of concepts in social work. In this case, it is referred to as a social worker’s construction of “family” as a concept and as a field of practice in a current Cuban context. Based on an exploratory and qualitative research design, the paper presents an analysis that also opens to the discussion about social work with families in Cuba. The findings shows that Cuban social workers think of family as a group with cohabitation and affinity, which is more important than consanguinity, as a dimension for family definitions. They also point at structures of family, special bonds in family network and the social internal and external functions of family in their definitions. Among these functions, the transmission of cultural values, as well as the emotional support and shelter for members, seems relevant.Regarding family as a field of practice, they all share the criteria that is necessary for practice to develop a contextual analysis of each situation that goes from macro-contextual aspects to the micro-reality of family. The importance of structural matters and their impact on family functions is also a common idea, which is nucleated around a multigenerational reality of Cuban families and evaluated as a positive or negative impact depending on the case in question.They consider social work with families, and social work in general, to be in a critical situation in relation to losing professionalization and social recognition. The reasons explaining these ideas have to do with the instability of social work institutionalization and the recent retraction of social services. These variations have obeyed the changes in a Cuban context that affects the entire welfare system and social work’s position in it.

  5. Two new 1D chains of Ni2Na2 heterometallic double half-cubane ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Two new 1D chains of Ni2Na2 heterometallic double half-cubane building units: Synthesis, structures and variable temperature magnetic study ... of light green precipitate which upon crystallization from dimethylformamide (DMF) yielded light green single crystals [{Ni2Na2(pic)4(N3)2(H2O)2(MeOH)}· MeOH·3H2O] (1) and ...

  6. The future faces of the Cuban economy [electronic resource]: a Bayesian forecast

    OpenAIRE

    Bernales, Barton J.

    1995-01-01

    This thesis investigates the applicability and results of a Bayesian approach used to forecast the future direction of the Cuban economy. The Castro regime, bound to a stagnant political ideology, has limited the options by which to save socialism and the revolution. This study first examines the historical, political and economic contexts that define the decision environment and then proceeds to formalize hypotheses, target variables and relevant events indicative of Cuba's economic directio...

  7. Making sense of Santería: three books on Afro-Cuban religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Palmié

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Santeria from Africa to the New World: The Dead Sell Memories. GEORGE BRANDON. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1993. x + 206 pp. (Cloth US$31.50 Working the Spirit: Ceremonies of the African Diaspora. JOSEPH M. MURPHY. Boston: Beacon, 1994. xiii + 263 pp. (Cloth US$ 25.00 Walking with the Night: The Afro-Cuban World of Santeria. RAUL CANIZARES. Rochester VT: Destiny Books, 1993. xii + 148 pp. (Paper US$ 12.95 Since 1959, the steady exodus from revolutionary Cuba has led to the gradual emergence of an Afro-Cuban religious diaspora in the United States. While this phenomenon has attracted scholarly attention for some time, the literature has grown particularly rapidly in recent years. It is, perhaps, not entirely fortuitous that a spate of current academic publications on the subject coincided with a scramble by the popular media to exploit its exotic potential in the context of the 1993 U.S. Supreme Court case on animal sacrifice. Clearly, what has come to be called an Afro-Cuban "cultic renaissance" in exile holds promise both for sensationalist journalism and certain kinds of theoretical projects. Partly articulating with older, but politically reinvigorated debates about the relations between African and African-American cultures, partly addressing fundamental questions about conventional models of cultural boundedness and coherence, and, finally, calling into question both popular and academic notions of "modernity" (and its inevitable counterpart "tradition", the 292 New West Indian Guide/Nieuwe West-Indische Gids vol. 70 no. 3 &4 (1996problems posed by the emergence of an Afro-Cuban religious diaspora in the United States present a timely challenge.

  8. Spatial Politics in Metropolitan Miami: Cuban American Empowerment, Municipal Incorporations, and Cultural Production

    OpenAIRE

    Burga, Hector Fernando

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the political tensions between metropolitan planning and immigrant incorporation in Miami over the past 50 years. I develop a planning history encompassing the transformation of metropolitan planning in Dade County from the early 1960's to the post-Cuban period in contemporary times. By combining the historical analysis of planning documents, data from interviews with different actors shaping planning practice - metropolitan planners, community development practiti...

  9. Dietary glycemic index and load in relation to cardiovascular disease risk factors in Cuban American population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Fatma G; Zarini, Gustavo G; Cooper, Vanessa

    2010-11-01

    To examine whether dietary glycemic index (GI) or glycemic load (GL) had an effect on the cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and whether the effects were dependent on the diabetes status in the Cuban American population. A case–control, single-time-point study. A total of 324 middle-aged Cuban American adults had completed data on fasting blood lipids, physical activity level and usual dietary intake using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Published GI values were assigned to food items and average dietary GI and GL were calculated per participant. Subjects without type 2 diabetes (T2D) were 3.3 times more likely to be in the recommended, highest high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol category if they were in the second dietary GL tertile as compared with those in the first dietary GL tertile (P = 0.042, 95% confidence interval = 1.94, 10.78). The results of the present study suggest that in this sample of Cuban Americans a high GI or GL diet do not adversely affects blood lipids, especially among subjects without T2D.

  10. The contribution of plukenetione A to the anti-tumoral activity of Cuban propolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Carballo, David; Malak, Sascha; Bardenheuer, Walter; Freistuehler, Michael; Peter Reusch, H

    2008-11-15

    Increasing efforts are directed toward finding applications for natural products and their derivatives in the treatment of human diseases. Among such products, propolis, a resinous substance produced by honey bees from various plant sources, has been found to be a promising source of potential therapeutics. In the present work, we aimed at studying the perspective of Cuban propolis as a source of possible anti-cancer agents. We found an anti-metastatic effect in mice and considerable cytotoxicity without cross-resistance in both wild-type and chemoresistant human tumor cell lines. Plukenetione A--identified for the first time in Cuban propolis--induced G0/G1 arrest and DNA fragmentation in colon carcinoma cells. Furthermore, the activities of both topoisomerase I and DNA polymerase were inhibited, while the expression of topoisomerase II-beta, EGF receptor, and multidrug resistance-related protein genes was found repressed. We assume that plukenetione A contributes to the anti-tumoral effect of Cuban propolis mainly by targeting topoisomerase I as well as DNA polymerase.

  11. Application of cubane-type structures to hydro-treatment catalysis; Application des structures d'architecture cubane a la catalyse d'hydrotraitement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchand, K.

    2003-11-01

    [Mo{sub 3}S{sub 4}(H{sub 2}O){sub 9}]{sup 4+} has been prepared and supported on zeolites H-USY and NaY. Using this cluster as a precursor for HDT catalysts has many advantages: it is cationic, already in a sulfided form, and a promoter such as a second metal M' such as Cu, Ni or Pd can be incorporated to form Mo{sub 3}M'S{sub 4}{sup 4+}. The cubane structure was found unchanged after loading in the case of NaY (EXAFS, XPS) and although TEM showed that Mo was mainly on the outer surface of the zeolite crystals, DRX confirmed that a modification of the counter ion also occurred, and an isotherm was obtained with NaY zeolite. A thermal stability study was led under N{sub 2} and a mixture of H{sub 2}/H{sub 2}S to optimize the pretreatment of the catalysts. Those were subsequently pre-sulfided and tested in toluene hydrogenation and their activities with both types of zeolites turned out to be the same or even better than that of catalysts prepared by the classical route. An application to mixed cubane-type structures is also reported. (author)

  12. Covalent Metal-Metal-Bonded Mn4 Tetrahedron Inscribed within a Four-Coordinate Manganese Cubane Cluster, As Evidenced by Unexpected Temperature-Independent Diamagnetism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaddypally, Shivaiah; Jovinelli, Daniel J; McKendry, Ian G; Zdilla, Michael J

    2017-04-03

    The electronic structures of the manganese(IV) cubane cluster Mn(μ3-NtBu)4(NtBu)4 (1) and its one-electron-oxidized analogue, the 3:1 MnIV/MnV cluster [Mn(μ3-NtBu)4(NtBu)4]+[PF6]- (1+[PF6]), are described. The S = 0 spin quantum number of 1 is explained by a diamagnetic electronic structure where all metal-based d electrons are paired in Mn-Mn bonding orbitals. Temperature- and power-dependent studies of the S = 1/2 electron paramagnetic resonance signal of 1+ are consistent with an electronic structure described as a delocalized one-electron radical.

  13. Assessing the 2D models of geotechnical variables in a block of a Cuban lateritic site. Fifth part: combinatorial optimization of the UPD method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arístides A. Legrá-Lobaina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the work, through exhaustive searches, we study the combinatorial optimization of two - dimensional UPD modeling of the variables: thickness and concentrations of nickel, iron and cobalt in a block of a Cuban lateritic deposit. The UPD method is a numerical estimator with parameters q, δ and ε that from a set of data allows to obtain a mesh model that represents the behavior of a property U of some natural or technological object that is investigated in a certain spatial domain. For a set of n points (Pi; Ui, which express the values Ui for the corresponding spatial coordinates Pi, this method allows to estimate the value of U for any coordinate P of its domain, as a linear combination of powers q of euclidian distances.

  14. Colombia and Cuba, contrasting models in Latin America's health sector reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, Pol; De Ceukelaire, Wim; Van der Stuyft, Patrick

    2006-10-01

    Latin American national health systems were drastically overhauled by the health sector reforms the 1990s. Governments were urged by donors and by the international financial institutions to make major institutional changes, including the separation of purchaser and provider functions and privatization. This article first analyses a striking paradox of the far-reaching reform measures: contrary to what is imposed on public health services, after privatization purchaser and provider functions are reunited. Then we compare two contrasting examples: Colombia, which is internationally promoted as a successful--and radical--example of 'market-oriented' health care reform, and Cuba, which followed a highly 'conservative' path to adapt its public system to the new conditions since the 1990s, going against the model of the international institutions. The Colombian reform has not been able to materialize its promises of universality, improved equity, efficiency and better quality, while Cuban health care remains free, accessible for everybody and of good quality. Finally, we argue that the basic premises of the ongoing health sector reforms in Latin America are not based on the people's needs, but are strongly influenced by the needs of foreign--especially North American--corporations. However, an alternative model of health sector reform, such as the Cuban one, can probably not be pursued without fundamental changes in the economic and political foundations of Latin American societies.

  15. Use Of Renewable Energy In The Electric Power Generation Sector In Mexico: Political, Regulatory, Economic And Technical Issues From 1965 To 2018

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elizalde-Baltierra, Alberto; Sasse, Diana; Zeferino-Abundis, Yolanda; Quiroz-Juarez, Carolina; Lopez-Satow, Edgar; Beltran-Mora, Hector; Crisostomo-Ramirez, David

    2010-09-15

    The aim of this work is to analyze the political, regulatory, economic and technical issues that have determined the use of primary energies for power generation in Mexico from 1965 to 2008, and its perspectives for the next 10 years, in particular the prospects of using renewable energies. In the 60's, hydro was the preferred source of energy to produce electricity for economical and technical reasons. Under the 'oil boom' in the 70s, transition to hydrocarbons resources (fuel oil) was progressive. As a result of implementing environmental policies, electricity has mainly been generated with natural gas since the early 2000.

  16. Education and the Cuban Revolution: A Selected Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutjens, Sheryl L.

    1998-01-01

    Annotated bibliography of 56 books, book chapters, journal articles, research reports, and government reports on education in Cuba, published 1971-97. Categories include general overviews; the 1960s; improvement policies and the 1970s; ongoing improvement, 1986-97; political economy issues; youth and socialization; power and people; and…

  17. Competency-orientated brand cooperations of power supply companies in the B2B sector; Kompetenzorientierte Markenkooperationen von Energieversorgungsunternehmen im B2B-Kundenbereich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peuser, M.M.

    2008-07-01

    On the basis of an extensive empirical study with B2B electricity users, the author of the book under consideration examines brand co-operations of power supply companies with companies not working in the area of energy production. Based on the view of various co-operation alternatives, impact relations and success-determining factors of influence in the area of B2B customers are identified. The term of the authority of an energy brand is discussed. Beside this, profiles of concrete brands of current power supply companies from the view of B2B customers are pointed out, and recommendations for the organization of brand co-operation and the structure of mark authority in practice are shown. This contribution is written for lecturers and students of the management economics with the emphasis of marketing and management as well as high-level personnel in the energy industry, who wants to develop strong mark authority by brand co-operation.

  18. The sector restructuring and the consequences on the planning and the marketing studies of the electric power distributors; A reestruturacao setorial e os reflexos sobre o planejamento e os estudos de mercado das distribuidoras de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsudo, Eduardo

    2001-05-15

    After the restructuring of the Brazilian power sector during the 1990's a new set of rules and players (regulators, traders, etc.) was introduced. This situation resulted in significantly impacting the distribution companies in terms of market risks and commercial opportunities. Electric power market assessments that provide fundamental information to the system and tariff planning groups can also be used to support the distribution companies in analyzing various questions within the new rules that have been created. These questions include such items as: how much energy should be contracted in the future in the wholesale market?; how much opportunity is available in offering commercial services to the customer?. This work describes the main changes that have occurred due to the restructuring, such as: the privatization process, a wholesale market implementation, rules for energy trading, and planning and regulatory process. The main challenges for distribution companies as a result of these changes are identified, especially focusing on energy trading in retail and wholesale markets. The process of electric power market assessments is presented and describing the accepted methodology used for demand forecasting for distribution companies. Information required by distribution companies in order to deal with the market challenges are specified - e.g. energy trading, market risks and customer relationship. It is concluded there is a need to obtain detailed information about consumers and to develop market forecast for specific time frame. It must take into consideration all the issues around the retail market - the study needs to analyze the basic factors that impact customer consumption. In order to improve the electric market assessment, it has been useful to apply specific models. After reviewing the existing tools for electric power market assessments (analysis and forecast), it has been found that the models that combined methods of end use analysis with

  19. Trading in the rain. Rainfall and European power sector emissions. Research note no. 9; Trading in the rain. Precipitations et emissions du secteur electrique europeen. Note d'etude n.9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Analysts often say that temperature and rainfall have an impact on the price of CO{sub 2}, as they influence the conditions of electric power supply and demand. Rainfall mainly affects the capacity of hydropower production, the third largest source of electricity in Europe and by far the leading source of renewable energy. The variability of hydroelectric volumes is indeed usually offset by other, higher-emitting sources of electricity, which has repercussions on the European allowances trading market. In 2005, rainfall was unusually low in several European countries: in the Iberian peninsula and in France, drought is believed to have brought about a rise of approximately 15 Mt CO{sub 2} in power sector emissions. In contrast, hydrological conditions were particularly good in the Nordic countries, allowing them to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions in the region as a whole through hydropower-based exports. The additional allowances demand would therefore have been 'only' about 9 Mt CO{sub 2}. To make the interaction with the CO{sub 2} market easier to understand, an indicator of rainfall in Europe must include this compensating phenomenon resulting from the heterogeneity of the climatic conditions and volumes produced in Europe.

  20. Prendas-Ngangas-Enquisos: turbulence and the influence of the dead in Cuban-Kongo material culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Todd Ramón

    2010-01-01

    Cuban-Kongo praise of the dead in Havana turns insistently around complex agglomerations of materials called "prendas,"ngangas," and "enquisos." This article addresses the ontological status of "prendas-ngangas-enquisos," which practitioners of Cuban-Kongo affliction practices care for as entities that determine the very possibility of their healing and harming craft. Cuban-Kongo societies of affliction, in Havana collectively referred to as "Palo," stake their claim to influence others in and through these entities. In this essay I seek to position the influence generated in prendas-ngangas-enquisos as a problem for Euro-American materialism, to be addressed not through symbolic or representational solutions but, rather, by refocusing the problem itself via alternate distributions of its epistemological, historical, and ethnographic elements. Contextualized within ethnographic description, I first propose that prendas-ngangas-enquisos do not conform to dialectical logic, and should thus be positioned conceptually as something other than "objects" or "fetishes." From there, I consider Creole turns on the term prenda and explore scholarly accounts of 19th-century Cuban slavery and manumission, which I place alongside what is known about pawn slavery among BaKongo people prior to and during the Atlantic slave trade. Having established a basic series of conceptual and historiographic coordinates, I then suggest ethnographically how prendas-ngangas-enquisos come to command others, thereby guaranteeing Cuban-Kongo healing and harming sovereignty in Cuba today.

  1. Sector Information Data Set

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fishing sectors were established in the Greater Atlantic region in 2010 under catch share management initiatives. Sector data kept at GARFO is mostly a collection of...

  2. Jurisdictional Competition Between Private and Public Sector Auditors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarskov Jeppesen, Kim

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the apparent paradox that while public sector auditors have become more powerful by claiming performance auditing expertise and linking this to New Public Management reforms, the same reforms have provided an opening for competition between private and public sector auditors...... such an identity and gain professional recognition, public sector auditors need to convince parliaments, standard-setting bodies and universities that a public sector auditing qualification serves as a solution to some of their problems, too....

  3. Survey and Assessment of Laws on the Informal Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Tolentino, Maria Catalina M.; Sibal, Jorge V.; Macaranas, Bonifacio S.

    2001-01-01

    This study classifies the laws affecting the informal sector and assesses the extent of the empowerment of the sector based on the provisions in the laws that allow for organization, decision making mechanisms and transfer of power from the traditional center to another. Results indicate that, to some extent, four groups within the sector are accorded empowerment through Philippine laws: the agricultural sector, small and medium enterprises, industrial home workers and cooperatives. These gro...

  4. Development of bioinspired Mn4O4-cubane water oxidation catalysts: lessons from photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dismukes, G Charles; Brimblecombe, Robin; Felton, Greg A N; Pryadun, Ruslan S; Sheats, John E; Spiccia, Leone; Swiegers, Gerhard F

    2009-12-21

    Hydrogen is the most promising fuel of the future owing to its carbon-free, high-energy content and potential to be efficiently converted into either electrical or thermal energy. The greatest technical barrier to accessing this renewable resource remains the inability to create inexpensive catalysts for the solar-driven oxidation of water. To date, the most efficient system that uses solar energy to oxidize water is the photosystem II water-oxidizing complex (PSII-WOC), which is found within naturally occurring photosynthetic organisms. The catalytic core of this enzyme is a CaMn(4)O(x) cluster, which is present in all known species of oxygenic phototrophs and has been conserved since the emergence of this type of photosynthesis about 2.5 billion years ago. The key features that facilitate the catalytic success of the PSII-WOC offer important lessons for the design of abiological water oxidation catalysts. In this Account, we examine the chemical principles that may govern the PSII-WOC by comparing the water oxidation capabilities of structurally related synthetic manganese-oxo complexes, particularly those with a cubical Mn(4)O(4) core ("cubanes"). We summarize this research, from the self-assembly of the first such clusters, through the elucidation of their mechanism of photoinduced rearrangement to release O(2), to recent advances highlighting their capability to catalyze sustained light-activated electrolysis of water. The [Mn(4)O(4)](6+) cubane core assembles spontaneously in solution from monomeric precursors or from [Mn(2)O(2)](3+) core complexes in the presence of metrically appropriate bidentate chelates, for example, diarylphosphinates (ligands of Ph(2)PO(2)(-) and 4-phenyl-substituted derivatives), which bridge pairs of Mn atoms on each cube face (Mn(4)O(4)L(6)). The [Mn(4)O(4)](6+) core is enlarged relative to the [Mn(2)O(2)](3+) core, resulting in considerably weaker Mn-O bonds. Cubanes are ferocious oxidizing agents, stronger than analogous complexes

  5. Litter assessment on 99 Cuban beaches: A baseline to identify sources of pollution and impacts for tourism and recreation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botero, C M; Anfuso, G; Milanes, C; Cabrera, A; Casas, G; Pranzini, E; Williams, A T

    2017-05-15

    Litter presence was assessed on the entire Cuban coastline, and includes 99 beaches from all Cuban regions, during field work carried out in 2012 and 2015. A standard method verified in several countries was applied, which classified beaches for nine types of litter into four grades (A-excellent to D-poor). Almost half of the Cuban beaches obtained excellent cleanliness scores, although many needed to be better managed. In this baseline, the most common types of residue were general litter (8% grade D and 35% grades B/C) and potentially harmful litter (Tourism Impacts seems to be related to visitor origin therefore choices to develop sustainable tourism in rural and village beaches (64%) appears low, if beach cleaning gross investment is focused on resort beaches (24%). Finally, this paper highlights geographical distribution and types of litter patterns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Molecular Mixed-Metal Manganese Oxido Cubanes as Precursors to Heterogeneous Oxygen Evolution Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suseno, Sandy; McCrory, Charles C L; Tran, Rosalie; Gul, Sheraz; Yano, Junko; Agapie, Theodor

    2015-09-14

    Well-defined mixed-metal [CoMn3 O4 ] and [NiMn3 O4 ] cubane complexes were synthesized and used as precursors for heterogeneous oxygen evolution reaction (OER) electrocatalysts. The discrete clusters were dropcasted onto glassy carbon (GC) and indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes, and the OER activities of the resulting films were evaluated. The catalytic surfaces were analyzed by various techniques to gain insight into the structure-function relationships of the electrocatalysts' heterometallic composition. Depending on preparation conditions, the Co-Mn oxide was found to change metal composition during catalysis, while the Ni-Mn oxides maintained the NiMn3 ratio. XAS studies provided structural insights indicating that the electrocatalysts are different from the molecular precursors, but that the original NiMn3 O4 cubane-like geometry was maintained in the absence of thermal treatment (2-Ni). In contrast, the thermally generated 3-Ni develops an oxide-like extended structure. Both 2-Ni and 3-Ni undergo structural changes upon electrolysis, but they do not convert into the same material. The observed structural motifs in these heterogeneous electrocatalysts are reminiscent of the biological oxygen-evolving complex in Photosystem II, including the MMn3 O4 cubane moiety. The reported studies demonstrate the use of discrete heterometallic oxide clusters as precursors for heterogeneous water oxidation catalysts of novel composition and the distinct behavior of two sets of mixed metal oxides. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Endemics under threat: an assessment of the conservation status of Cuban bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Mancina

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Reviewing available information from published literature, museum database, personal communications and from the authors own field data, the conservation status of Cuban bats has been assessed using six qualitative parameters: abundance, distribution, roosting habits, aggregation level, forest dependence, and degree of endemism. The resulting Red List is analogous to that of the IUCN, species having been included in four categories of risk. Four out of the 26 extant bats of Cuba should be considered endangered, four vulnerable to extinction, twelve potentially threatened, and six in a stable situation. Most of the species of bats endemic to Cuba are under some form of threat. The major threats to the survival of Cuban bats are the destruction of forests and the modification of caves, the latter being critical habitats for the mostly cave-dwelling Cuban bat fauna. We argue that its conservation should be the result of a cooperative effort promoting research and habitat management. Riassunto Endemismi minacciati: una valutazione dello stato di conservazione dei chirotteri cubani. Lo stato di conservazione dei chirotteri cubani è stato valutato a partire da sei parametri qualitativi: abbondanza, distribuzione, roost utilizzati, livello di aggregazione, dipendenza da ambienti forestali e grado di endemismo. A questo scopo sono state esaminate le informazioni bibliografiche, i database dei musei e dati non pubblicati, in parte raccolti dagli stessi autori. La Lista Rossa risultante è analoga a quella dell’IUCN, comprendendo quattro categorie di rischio crescente. Delle 26 specie attualmente presenti a Cuba, 4 sono da considerarsi in pericolo di estinzione, 4 "vulnerabili", 12 "potenzialmente minacciate" e 6 "stabili". La maggior parte delle specie endemiche è in qualche misura minacciata. La deforestazione e l’alterazione delle cavità carsiche, che costituiscono un habitat

  8. Cuban Calisto (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae), a review based on morphological and DNA data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguila, Rayner Núñez; Plasencia, Edelquis Oliva; Maravi, Pavel F. Matos; Wahlberg, Niklas

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The Cuban species of Calisto are reviewed based on the morphology of adult and immature stages, as well as DNA sequences of six genes (COI, EF1α, wingless, GAPDH, RpS5, CAD). A new species, Calisto occulta sp. n., is described from the northeastern Cuban mountains. Calisto smintheus Bates, 1935 and Calisto bruneri, Michener 1949 are revised and revalidated. A new status, the species level, is proposed for Calisto brochei, Torre 1973, Calisto muripetens, Bates 1939 and Calisto bradleyi, Munroe 1950. The immature stages of Calisto smintheus, Calisto brochei,and Calisto occulta are described for the first time, and those of Calisto herophile, Hübner 1823 are redescribed. Useful morphological characters for adults are the shape and conspicuousness of androconial patch, the number and relative size of white dots on underside of hindwing, the shape of aedeagus, the shape of digitiform projection of genitalia valve, the shape and relative size of tegumen and uncus, the relative size of female genitalia, the height of sterigmal ring dorsal crown of the latter, and the relative size of corpus bursae and ductus bursae. For the immature stages, the most important characters are the color pattern of head capsule, the number and width of longitudinal lines of body, in the larvae; and the color pattern and the absence or presence of dorsal ridges on the abdomen of pupae. The phylogenetic relationships between the Cuban Calisto species are quite robust and well-supported; however, conflict between mitochondrial and nuclear datasets was detected in Calisto brochei, Calisto muripetens and to a lesser degree in Calisto bradleyi. PMID:22328857

  9. Quality Management System according to the family of Cuban Standards ISO 9000 CN Total Quality approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonel C. Alfaro Pérez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we develop some considerations and suggestions for organizations in Cuba who want to design and implement systems with Quality Management Total Quality approach to the family of Cuban Standards ISO 9000 CN. It makes a comparative analysis between what is a System of Quality Management, Total Quality and the European model of quality management, detailing the similarities and differences, which allow us to understand how systems can be designed and managed focuses on Total Quality. It describes in a coherent way the main activities of a quality management system which can not be absent in its design and subsequent management.

  10. The legacy of Adolfina Cossío Esturo to the cuban pedagogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle María Méndez-Hernández

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of the investigation is guided to the systematization of the pedagogic conception of Adolfina Cossío Esturo, from the appreciation of her career in educative institutions of the oriental zone. Like this, helps the educational improvement, while the rescue of her work can promote the consolidation of the ethic-pedagogic values of the teacher, as well as his professional action ways, this way tribute to the integral formation of the university student. On the other side, the study of Adolfina open a new space dedicated to the rescue of the Cuban pedagogic bases, particularly in the dimension of the regional.

  11. Modelling Transition Towards Sustainable Transportation Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominkovic, Dominik Franjo; Bačeković, I.; Mýrdal, Jón Steinar Garðarsson

    2016-01-01

    In a transition towards 100% renewable energy system, transportation sector is rarely dealt withusing the holistic approach and measuring its impact on the whole energy system. Furthermore, assolutions for power and heat sectors are clearer, it is a tendency of the researchers to focus on thelatter...... two energy sectors. In order to deal with the raised issue, authors of this paper developed amethodology for calculation of the transition towards sustainable transport sector, focusing on thesolutions that are already available. Furthermore, as a part of the model, a detailed mapping ofresources...... needed has been carried out for each of the alternatives. It was shown that theelectrification of the transportation sector is a crucial point in transition, while for the transportmodes that cannot be electrified, or shifted to different transportation modes, four alternatives weredefined: synthetic...

  12. Business venture-analysis case study relating to the manufacture of gas turbines for the generation of utility electric power. Volume II. Private sector and public sector venture studies. Final report. [Use of coal gasifier with combined gas and steam system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davison, W.R.

    1978-05-05

    Increasing national attention is being directed toward the search for clean, efficient, and reliable energy-conversion systems, capable of using abundant indigenous fuels such as coal, for generation of utility electric power. A prime candidate in this area is the combined gas and steam (COGAS) system employing a high-temperature gas turbine with a steam-turbine bottoming cycle, fed by a coal gasifier. This program demonstrates the use of a logical and consistent venture-analysis methodology which could also be applied to investigate other high-technology, energy-conversion systems that have yet to reach a state of commercialization but which are of significant interest to the U.S. Government. The venture analysis was performed by using a computer to model the development, production, sales, and in-service development phases of programs necessary to introduce new gas turbines in COGAS systems. The simulations were produced in terms of estimated cash flows, rates of returns, and risks which a manufacturer would experience. Similar simulations were used to estimate public-sector benefits resulting from the lower cost of power and improved environment gained from the use of COGAS systems rather than conventional systems. The study shows that substantial social benefits could be realized and private investment would be made by the gas-turbine manufacturers if an infusion of external funds were made during key portions of the gas-turbine development program. It is shown that there is substantial precedent for such public assistance to make possible economic and environmental benefits that otherwise would not be possible. 42 references.

  13. The Ten-Year 2007-2016 Plan of Power Expansion in the context of the recovering of Brazilian electric sector planning: advances and possible enhancements; O Plano Decenal de Expansao de Energia 2007/2016 no contexto da retomada do planejamento do setor eletrico brasileiro: avancos e possiveis aprimoramentos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buratini, Ricardo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (IE/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Economia

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the methodology for power consumption projection presented in the Ten-year (2007-2016) Plan of Power Expansion (PDEE 2007/2016) and to propose some questions for discussion. Indeed, bearing in mind the progress achieved in the recent past with respect to the resumption of long term planning in the Brazilian electric power sector, it is pertinent to promote a discussion about the possible limitations of the expansion methodology proposed in PDEE. In short, it is believed that, starting from such a discussion, it could be possible to contribute towards the aim of making the planning process of the Brazilian electric power sector expansion more transparent, more consistent and more participative, consequently bringing a greater convergence of the expectations of the agents of the sector. The main questions raised in this paper about the PDEE's methodology are with respect to the absence of sufficient detail about the interactive adjustment of the several models used to project the consumption, as well as to the lack of information about the models themselves. The general conclusion of this paper is that, in order that the PDEE meets its objective of providing correct signals to all the agents, it is necessary to include more incisively the sector's specialists and the private agents in the methodological discussions, so that no important doubts will remain about the various projections. In our understanding, the success of such an enterprise will depend not only on the disposition of the agents, but on the greater detail and depth that should be previously given to the questions raised in this paper. It is certainly a significant challenge, of a high complexity but of an even higher importance to the electric power sector and to the Brazilian economy. (author)

  14. The impact of CO 2 capture in the power and heat sector on the emission of SO 2, NO x, particulate matter, volatile organic compounds and NH 3 in the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koornneef, Joris; Ramirez, Andrea; van Harmelen, Toon; van Horssen, Arjan; Turkenburg, Wim; Faaij, Andre

    2010-04-01

    This study quantifies the trade-offs and synergies between climate and air quality policy objectives for the European power and heat (P&H) sector. An overview is presented of the expected performance data of CO 2 capture systems implemented at P&H plants, and the expected emission of key air pollutants, being: SO 2, NO X, NH 3, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and particulate matter (PM). The CO 2 capture systems investigated include: post-combustion, oxyfuel combustion and pre-combustion capture. For all capture systems it was found that SO 2, NO x and PM emissions are expected to be reduced or remain equal per unit of primary energy input compared to power plants without CO 2 capture. Increase in primary energy input as a result of the energy penalty for CO 2 capture may for some technologies and substances result in a net increase of emissions per kWh output. The emission of ammonia may increase by a factor of up to 45 per unit of primary energy input for post-combustion technologies. No data are available about the emission of VOCs from CO 2 capture technologies. A simple model was developed and applied to analyse the impact of CO 2 capture in the European P&H sector on the emission level of key air pollutants in 2030. Four scenarios were developed: one without CO 2 capture and three with one dominantly implemented CO 2 capture system, varying between: post-combustion, oxyfuel combustion and pre-combustion. The results showed a reduction in GHG emissions for the scenarios with CO 2 capture compared to the baseline scenario between 12% and 20% in the EU 27 region in 2030. NO x emissions were 15% higher in the P&H sector in a scenario with predominantly post-combustion and lower when oxyfuel combustion (-16%) or pre-combustion (-20%) were implemented on a large scale. Large scale implementation of the post-combustion technology in 2030 may also result in significantly higher, i.e. increase by a factor of 28, NH 3 emissions compared to scenarios with other CO 2

  15. Sectoral Innovation Watch Biotechnology Sector. Final sector report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enzing, C.

    2011-01-01

    Biotechnology has evolved from a single set of technologies in the mid 1970s into a full grown technological field that is the driving force in innovation processes in many industrial sectors (pharmaceutical, medical, agriculture, food, chemical, environment, instruments). Nowadays, biotechnology is

  16. Sectoral Innovation Watch Food and Drinks Sector. Final Sector Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leis, M.; Gijsbers, G.; Zee, F. van der

    2011-01-01

    The food and drinks manufacturing industry is a diverse and complex sector. There are ample possibilities for performance improvement and innovation in the food and drinks industry as well as a variety of challenges ranging from a lack of financial and human resources, fragmented consumer interests

  17. Second sector cool down

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    At the beginning of July, cool-down is starting in the second LHC sector, sector 4-5. The cool down of sector 4-5 may occasionally generate mist at Point 4, like that produced last January (photo) during the cool-down of sector 7-8.Things are getting colder in the LHC. Sector 7-8 has been kept at 1.9 K for three weeks with excellent stability (see Bulletin No. 16-17 of 16 April 2007). The electrical tests in this sector have got opt to a successful start. At the beginning of July the cryogenic teams started to cool a second sector, sector 4-5. At Point 4 in Echenevex, where one of the LHC’s cryogenic plants is located, preparations for the first phase of the cool-down are underway. During this phase, the sector will first be cooled to 80 K (-193°C), the temperature of liquid nitrogen. As for the first sector, 1200 tonnes of liquid nitrogen will be used for the cool-down. In fact, the nitrogen circulates only at the surface in the ...

  18. Políticas para a inovação no Brasil: efeitos sobre os setores de energia elétrica e de bens de informática Policies for innovation in Brazil: effects on the electric power sector and IT goods sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique M. Barros

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo examina como políticas públicas afetam o comportamento das empresas com relação à inovação. Através do método de pesquisa de estudos de caso, o trabalho identifica como as empresas, em dois setores industriais no Brasil, têm respondido aos esforços governamentais para estimular sua capacitação tecnológica. São comparadas empresas do setor de energia elétrica do Brasil e do setor de informática do polo industrial de Manaus. De forma geral, os resultados indicam que as políticas de inovação têm contribuído para aumentar o interesse das empresas por inovação. No entanto, esse interesse tem se mostrado maior por parte das empresas cujo controle de capital é estatal e/ou estrangeiro, do que pelas empresas de controle de capital privado nacional. Isso é particularmente relevante, pois as empresas de capital privado nacional atuam em mercados pouco regulamentados, em que o nível de competição é crescente. O limitado interesse dessas empresas por inovação reforça a ideia de que políticas de inovação não podem englobar apenas ações voltadas para o lado da oferta, nem podem ser dissociadas de políticas voltadas para o fortalecimento do ambiente institucional.This article examines how public policies to foster innovation affect companies' behavior. Based on the case study research method, the article identifies how firms operating in the Brazilian electric power and IT sectors of the Manaus industrial district have responded to public efforts to stimulate technological innovation in both sectors. In general, the results suggest that these policies have increased private interest for innovation. However, this interest is greater among state controlled and multinational corporations than among domestic private companies. This finding is particularly relevant because domestic companies operate in deregulated markets with increasing competitive pressures. The limited interest of domestic companies for

  19. ‘La Comida Mambisa’: food, farming, and Cuban identity, 1839-1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Lee Dawdy

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Describes how Cuba developed a countrywide system of food meaning and production in the mid-19th c. that became a national, and eventually "nationalist", cuisine during Cuba's revolutionary moments. Author explains how the centrality of food within Cuban national identity was strongly related with the valency associated with the subsistence farming on small family farms ("sitios", producing these native foods and Caribbean ingredients, e.g. cassava, guava, and sweet potatoes. The self-sufficiency of these small farmers was in emerging nationalist discourses opposed to the large-scale, export-oriented, colonial plantations and to slavery. Many small family farmers, of which many were ex-slaves, participated in the armed struggles in part to defend their right of independent, subsistence agriculture. Author outlines how since the early, mid-19th-c. Creole nationalism, Creole food and the small farms remained associated with authentic Cuban folk culture and with national identity, and related to independence struggles, and self-sufficiency, including during and after the 1959 Revolution.

  20. Consequences of sea level variability and sea level rise for Cuban territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hernández

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present paper was to determine a first approximation of coastal zone flooding by 2100, taking into account the more persistent processes of sea level variability and non-accelerated linear sea level rise estimation to assess the main impacts. The annual linear rate of mean sea level rise in the Cuban archipelago, obtained from the longest tide gauge records, has fluctuated between 0.005 cm/year at Casilda and 0.214 cm/year at Siboney. The main sea level rise effects for the Cuban coastal zone due to climate change and global warming are shown. Monthly and annual mean sea level anomalies, some of which are similar to or higher than the mean sea level rise estimated for halfway through the present century, reinforce the inland seawater penetration due to the semi-daily high tide. The combination of these different events will result in the loss of goods and services, and require expensive investments for adaption.

  1. Molecular evidence of high-risk human papillomavirus infection in colorectal tumours from Cuban patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudira Soto

    Full Text Available The association between colorectal cancer and human papillomavirus (HPV infection is still unproven. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of high-risk HPV (HR-HPV DNA in colorectal tissues from Cuban patients. A total of 63 colorectal formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues were studied (24 adenocarcinoma, 18 adenoma, and 21 colorectal tissues classified as benign colitis. DNA from colorectal samples was analysed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to detect the most clinically relevant high HR-HPV types (HPV-16, -18, -31, -33, -45, -52, and -58. Associations between histologic findings and other risk factors were also analysed. Overall, HPV DNA was detected in 23.8% (15/63 of the samples studied. Viral infections were detected in 41.7% of adenocarcinoma (10/24 and 27.7% of adenoma cases (5/18. HPV DNA was not found in any of the negative cases. An association between histological diagnosis of adenocarcinoma and HPV infection was observed (odd ratio = 4.85, 95% confidence interval = 1.40-16.80, p = 0.009. The only genotypes identified were HPV 16 and 33. Viral loads were higher in adenocarcinoma, and these cases were associated with HPV 16. This study provides molecular evidence of HR-HPV infection in colorectal adenocarcinoma tissues from Cuban patients.

  2. Cogeneration of electric power in the sugar and alcohol sectors: registration of the power plants in Sao Paulo, Brazil; Cogeracao de energia eletrica no setor sucroalcooleiro: cadastro das usinas em Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Gustavo Goncalves [Federacao das Industrias do Estado de Sao Paulo (FIESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Moreira, Helemilton Rios; Silva, Edison da [Agencia Reguladora de Saneamento e Energia do Estado de Sao Paulo (ARSESP), SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    One of the major difficult for the planning of co-generation industry of electricity from the sugar cane bagasse is the determination of their true potential. This question comes up, especially in the lack of information about the sugar and ethanol facilities, therefore for the study of potential, we can not just focus on the issue of the cane grinding, but also in technology, the configuration of the power plant and its capacity to export energy. This paper presents a proposal to minimize this difficulty, detailing a solution dedicated to the development of a database for the registration and monitoring of these plants, part of a series of actions regarding in the Understanding Protocol for the promotion of co-generation of bagasse, signed between FIESP and the Government of the State of Sao Paulo. (author)

  3. The emerging fourth sector

    OpenAIRE

    Friis, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    The Fourth Sector is a new phenomenon related to dual social and financial value creation, until now not clearly defined with crisp sectoral boundaries and an operationalized definition. The phenomenon is getting increased attention in media, conferences, business schools and by organizations all over the world, and this study intends to explain the macroenvironmental changes that led to the rise of the fourth sector, describe new trends of social value creation in the private ...

  4. Communicating forest sector sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Korhonen, E.; Toppinen, Anne; Lähtinen, K.; Ranacher, L.; Werner, Andrea; Stern, Tobias; Kutnar, Andreja

    2016-01-01

    Communication is an important tool in maintaining legitimacy and acceptability of forest sector operations and activities, and expectations by the general public on the forest sector conduct in Europe are in general very high. Despite this, there is scarce research in crossnational context on how forest sector sustainability is communicated to the general public, and what development areas can be identified in terms of communication content. This study applies a qualitative content analysis i...

  5. Malawi - Infrastructure Development and Power Sector Reform

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — Social Impact was contracted by MCC to develop and conduct an evaluation of the Malawi Compact. Specifically, SI has been tasked to “assess the program design and...

  6. The relationship between governmental and industrial players in national contexts. A multi-dimensional analysis of power in the telecommunication and energy sectors in Great Britain and Germany; Das Verhaeltnis von staatlichen und marktwirtschaftlichen Akteuren im nationalen Kontext. Eine mehrdimensionale Machtanalyse der Telekommunikations- und Energiebranche in Grossbritannien und Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philippi, Roland Gottfried

    2011-07-01

    Using the telecommunication and energy sectors in Great Britain and Germany as a case example the present study examines the power relationships between states and transnational companies. A multi-dimensional study of power relationships covering instrumental, structural and discursive dimensions was designed and carried out by empirical means. The results are discussed on the basis of theories of international relations and international political economy. This is used as a point of departure for seeking answers to frequently asked questions regarding the state's ability to act and the shift in power towards industrial players.

  7. Mineral Processing Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find environmental regulatory and compliance information for the nonmetallic mineral processing sector (NAICS 327), including NESHAPs for asbestos and hazardous waste, and wastewater permit information.

  8. Cuban Youth Culture and Receding Futures: Hip Hop, Reggaetón and "Pedagogías Marginal"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon-Román, Ezekiel; Gomez, Wilfredo

    2012-01-01

    Cuba finds itself at the centre of various discourses yet again, as publications such as "The Economist" and others debate the future of Cuban culture and society. While issues of economics, ideology and politics are fertile ground for discussion, they do not encompass the totality of such a conversation. The authors argue that critical…

  9. The Cuban Revolution, the drift of the Castro regime and the destinies of Cuba after Fidel Castro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel de Caria Patricio

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to analyze the possible scenarios of evolution of Cuba after Fidel in the short and medium term, after a retrospective of the Cuban Revolution, its democratic and anticommunist motivations and its authoritarian drift and later its Soviet leaning.

  10. The influence of the reactive energy in the electric power sector planning and the need of consolidation of the hourly period for evaluation of the power factor of the loads; A influencia da energia eletrica reativa no planejamento do setor eletrico e a necessidade de consolidacao do periodo horario para avaliacao do fator de potencia das cargas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Moacyr Trindade de Oliveira

    1993-07-01

    Among expectations of optimization of electric power systems and the national electric rating laws, there is the important factors of consumption and transmission of reactive energy which concerns the objectives of electric sector. Related to it, the DNAEE, ELETROBRAS and the concessionaires have been developing studies in order to optimize the electric system performance, and consequently the investments of concessionaires and consumers, reducing costs imposed to society due to the form of consumption and/or compensation of reactive loads. This work shows the evolution and consolidation of tariff studies and electric performance of the system, indicating the ways which attend the expectations os all segments of the society through a small adaptation of present regulations an rules related to reactive energy, making possible the system growing in supply by the minimum cost. The main objective of this work is to reinforce the real necessity of to remain intact all the new regulation of power factor, that has been consolidated by the DNAEE's document number 085/92 and your revaluation document number 613/93, including the interval of hourly integration for reactive energy at the determinate date and show the damages for the society caused by the postponement of this condition, that has been considerate in the document number 613/93, from April 1994 until April 1996, however keeping in 1994 the introduction of the new power factor reference of 0.92. (author)

  11. The Civil Society Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Anheier, Helmut K.; Lester M. Salamon

    2015-01-01

    Salamon and Anheier bring the civil society sector - the plethora of private, nonprofit, and nongovernmental organizations that have emerged in recent decades - into better focus conceptually as well as empirically. They draw on the results of a major inquiry into the scope, structure, financing and role of the "nonprofit sector" in a broad cross-section of countries around the world.

  12. Chemical and Petrochemical Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This publication is a background document on the global chemical and petrochemical sector for the IEA publication Energy Technology Transitions in Industry (IEA, 2009). It provides further, more detailed information on the methodology and data issues for energy efficiency indicators for the sector. The indicators discussed offer insight regarding the energy efficiency improvement potential in the short- to medium-term (by proven technologies).

  13. The Value of Lost Load for Sectoral Load Shedding Measures: The German Case with 51 Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Praktiknjo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The transition of the German electricity system towards a renewable, nuclear free and increasingly fluctuating power generation raises concerns about supply security. A possible contribution to solve this issue might lie in demand response or load shedding measures. The goal of our work is to monetarily quantify the consequences of power interruptions. The focus lies on power interruption costs in 51 economic sectors. Two input-output models are proposed to estimate the Value of Lost Load for each sector. The first does not take inter-linkages of the sectors and possible cascading effects on interruption costs into account. The second model is a new and innovative approach which is based on the Ghosh Input-Output model and which accounts for these effects. We assume that the first model is adequate to assess shorter power interruptions, whereas the second model might be more appropriate when estimating costs of longer interruptions.

  14. Sectoral Innovation Performance in the Electrical and Optical Equipment Sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, T. van den; Giessen, A.M. van der

    2010-01-01

    The Electrical and Optical equipment sector is a high-tech manufacturing sector. It is one of the most innovative sectors in Europe with investments and advances in fundamental research, applied R&D and innovation in the actual use of equipment. This sector is also one of the most global sectors

  15. Exploring the Dark Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essig, Rouven

    2014-03-01

    Dark sectors, consisting of new, light, weakly-coupled particles that do not interact with the known strong, weak, or electromagnetic forces, are a particularly compelling possibility for new physics. Nature may contain numerous dark sectors, each with their own beautiful structure, distinct particles, and forces. This talk summarizes the physics motivation for dark sectors and the exciting opportunities for experimental exploration. It discusses axions, axion-like particles, dark photons, and other dark-sector particles, including sub-GeV dark matter. In many cases, the exploration of dark sectors can proceed with existing facilities and comparatively modest experiments. A rich, diverse, and low-cost experimental program has the potential for one or more game-changing discoveries.

  16. 2017 Standard Scenarios Report: A U.S. Electricity Sector Outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Wesley J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, Trieu T. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Richards, James [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Das, Paritosh [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Donohoo-Vallett, Paul [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    2017-10-03

    The 2017 Standard Scenarios includes a suite of U.S. electricity sector scenarios. The report explores four power sector storylines, including the growth in natural gas and renewable energy, the relative competitiveness of wind and solar PV, the potential impact of low-cost battery storage, and the impact of nuclear lifetimes on the capacity expansion of the power sector.

  17. Management system for the control of the Educative Project in the Higher Cuban Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel Rodolfo Baquero Hernández

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As part of the training of Cuban university students involved educational project that requires proper control of compliance. At the University of Information Science, is done through a digital model developed by the professor of the group which generates poor control and directly undermines the quality of the process. In this work the solution to the problem as basis of computerization, using OpenUP development methodology, programming language Java Script on the NetBeans platform version 8.0 as Integrated Development Environment, with ExtJS 3.4 framework is detailed, with version 8.0 of the Software Engineering tools Computer Assisted Visual Paradigm for modeling and PostgreSQL 9.3 as a management system database. The system also generates the associated compliance status of the activities that make up the educational project of a group, which facilitates the control and decision making reports.

  18. For a Critique of Transatlantic Mestiza Territoriality: Challenging the Angolan-Cuban Revolutionary Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena López

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay presents the transatlantic confluence of two hegemonic cultural traditions; the ideology of mestizaje and lusotropicalismo in the discourses of the Angolan and Cuban socialist regimes. The shared political utopia during the Angolan Civil War envisioned a South-South community, racially homogeneous. In the last part of the essay I review the works Dulces guerreros cubanos (1999 by Norberto Fuentes, Desconfiemos de los amaneceres apacibles (2011 by Emilio Comas Paret, Geração da Utopía (1992 by Pepetela, and Estação das Chuvas (1996 by José Eduardo Agualusa, in order to demonstrate socio-racial conflicts embedded in the leftist armed struggle. These narratives challenge the homogeneity of official discourses about identity that sustained the transatlantic mestiza territoriality. In doing so, they note a historical continuity of inequality and authoritarianism between colonial and postcolonial, between pre-national and revolutionary nation.

  19. Expanding the classroom with educational technology: A case study of a Cuban polytechnic high school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Leftwich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Polytechnic instruction has a common place in the Cuban education system (Gasperini, 2000. In polytechnic institutions, teachers leverage technological tools to prepare students for labor market competences. This case study examined a polytechnic institution in Cuba to consider how teachers defined educational technology. Based on teacher questionnaire responses, site-based teacher interviews, and field observations, technology was primarily viewed as a method for student preparation. In other words, teachers used technology to prepare students for their future careers and the technology they will need to be successful in that career. The study found that teachers highly valued their technical pedagogical training, believed that the growing spaces were an integral part of their technology based instruction, and claimed that the limited resources was their greatest barrier to integrating ICT in the classroom.

  20. [HIV mother to child transmission: report of nine Cuban fatal cases in ten years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González N, Ida; Díaz-Jidy, Manuel; Berdasquera C, Denis; Toledo R, M Eugenia; Pérez A, Jorge

    2008-02-01

    Vertical transmission of HIV infection constitutes one of the most sensitive pillars of the current pandemic of this disease. This article carries out a report of the nine Cuban children who acquired this way the infection and died between 1986 and 2006. Prophylactic management of the cases and the clinical and anatomic pathological manifestations of those in whom autopsy was performed are described. The average gestational age was of 37.6 weeks, four of the pregnancies were captured late. Six children were born by caesarean section and in all transmission were presumably intrauterine. The average birth weight was 2786 grams. Four mother-sibling binomial received prophylaxis with AZT. The autopsy was carried out only in 4 children.

  1. Industrial property for science’s management, technology and innovation in Cuban State companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulce María Contreras Villavicencio

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper synthesizes some research on industrial property aspects from the socio-legal perspective and financial accounting. Its focus to the socialist state enterprise adaptation in his economic fact, social and environmental responsibility as a fundamental Cuban model reach, competitiveness and high performance in socialist state enterprise. It outlines criteria on the ordering and implementation of industrial property through the management of science and technology, protection and dissemination of knowledge results as alternatives of regulation in chain of value to full cycle of innovation, dynamics of intangible heritage and relationships, exchange with marketing as business philosophy of business application. Strategies are proposed regarding the rights of this institution in the economic-organization management state.

  2. Ecological approach of macrolide-lincosamides-streptogramin producing actinomyces from Cuban soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, I; Niebla, A; Lemus, M; González, L; Iznaga, I O; Pérez, M E; Vallin, C

    1999-09-01

    We report in this study the frequency of Streptomyces strains to produce macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin (MLS) antibiotics isolated from Cuban soils. The screening assay is based on the induction of MLS-resistance phenotype in a clinical isolated strain of Staphylococcus aureus S-18. Our results suggest that of 800 Streptomyces strains isolated from different soil samples, 6% were positives in the screening test used. The ferralitic red soil from Pinar del Río (north) provided the major percentage (3.6%) of MLS producing strains. The other soil samples tested belonging to Guira de Melena and Bauta in Havana, Matanzas City, Topes De Collantes (Villa Clara), and Soroa Mountains (Pinar del Rio) hill reached very low percentages.

  3. [Nutritional status of Cuban elders in three different geriatric scenarios: community, geriatrics service, nursery home].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Hernández, Alina; Cuyá Lantigua, Magdalena; González Escudero, Hilda; Sánchez Gutiérrez, Ramón; Cortina Martínez, Rafael; Barreto Penié, Jesús; Santana Porbén, Sergio; Rojas Pérez, Alberto

    2007-09-01

    The undernutrition rates observed in Cuban elders surveyed in three different geriatric scenarios: Community: coastal town of Cojímar (City of Havana); Geriatrics Service ("Hermanos Ameijeiras" Hospital, City of Havana); and Nursery Home (city of Cárdenas, province of Matanzas) by means of the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) of the Elderly are presented. Undernutrition rates were 2.7% among elders surveyed in the coastal community of Cojímar, but increased to become 91.6% among those admitted to the hospital Geriatrics Service, and 95.3% for those institutionalized in the Nursery Home, respectively. The occurrence of undernutrition can be low among elders living freely in the community, but it might affect a vast number of those seeking medical assistance at the public health institutions. Extent of undernutrition among elders in geriatric assistance scenarios should lead to the adoption of the required measures for early identification, and timely treatment, of this health problem.

  4. Sustainability performance measurement with Analytic Network Process and balanced scorecard: Cuban practical case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Medel-González

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The recent years has arisen a global discussion in relation with how to incorporate sustainability at a business level. Corporate sustainability is a multidimensional concept, is the translation of Sustainable Development concept at a business level. Sustainability in organizations must be managed and assessed by decision makers, for that reason a multi-criteria sustainability performance measurement is necessary. The aim of this paper is combine different important tools that helps to make operative corporate sustainability and sustainability performance measurement in Cuban organizations. The combination of Sustainability Balanced Scorecard, multi-criteria decisions models like: Analytic Network Process, and Matrix of Sustainable Strategic Alignment, can help managers in sustainability performance measurement and assessment. The result of this paper focus in a Corporate Sustainability Measurement Network design as a first approach for further sustainability performance measurement systems development emphasizing in multi-criteria analysis.

  5. Studies on the constituents of yellow Cuban propolis: GC-MS determination of triterpenoids and flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez Hernández, Ingrid; Cuesta-Rubio, Osmany; Campo Fernández, Mercedes; Rosado Pérez, Arístides; Montes de Oca Porto, Rodny; Piccinelli, Anna Lisa; Rastrelli, Luca

    2010-04-28

    In this study, on the basis of the information supplied by NMR and HPLC-PDA data, we reported a quali-quantitative GC-MS study of 19 yellow Cuban propolis (YCP) samples collected in different regions of Cuba. The profiles of YCP samples allowed us to define two main types of YCP directly related to their secondary metabolite classes: type A, rich in triterpenic alcohols and with the presence of polymethoxylated flavonoids as minor constituents, and type B, containing acetyl triterpenes as the main constituents. For the first time, triterpenoids belonging to oleanane, lupane, ursane, and lanostane skeletons were reported as major compounds in propolis. Also, the presence of polymethoxylated flavones or flavanones was found for the first time in propolis.

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION IN PLASTIC ELEMENTARY EDUCATION CUBAN. POSITIVE AND GOOD PRACTICE EXPERIENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Torres Gutiérrez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Current environmental issues require strengthening the work of environmental education at different educational systems of the XXI century. To this end , it is crucial the work to be performed , from the earliest ages and considering the relationship between the different subjects of the school curriculum . Therefore, the Environmental Education stated general objective in the Cuban Model Elementary School, that is treated with an interdisciplinary character. Based on existing even in achieving these purpose limitations, a study / research leading to the development of scientific result presented is performed. The criteria of experts and the results of the application in practice, confirmed the relevance, importance and effectiveness of the system of activities that promotes Plastic Education Environmental Education school 4. Grade ENU " Hurtado de Mendoza" Township santa Clara, Villa Clara province, Cuba.

  7. The Financial Structure and its Impact on Financial -Economic Results in Cuban Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Esperanza González-del-Foyo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The financial structure refers to the way a company finances its assets through a combination of equity, debtor hybrid securities. Financial decisions are important in business management, on which heavily rely the viability and rentability of business. Hence the need for managers to know and analyze the financing structure in order to evaluate the impact on its results from the point of view of risk, cost and performance. In the article the main theories of financial structure are based, and the different approaches for its study. Considerations are made on this issue in the Cuban economy, and techniques are applied to evaluate the impact of financing in the form of risk and performance against the company on the “Cecilio Sanchez Valiente” in Santiago de Cuba.

  8. Improving the family orientation process in Cuban Special Schools trough Nearest Prototype classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caballero-Mota, Y.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cuban Schools for children with Affective – Behavioral Maladies (SABM have as goal to accomplish a major change in children behavior, to insert them effectively into society. One of the key elements in this objective is to give an adequate orientation to the children’s families; due to the family is one of the most important educational contexts in which the children will develop their personality. The family orientation process in SABM involves clustering and classification of mixed type data with non-symmetric similarity functions. To improve this process, this paper includes some novel characteristics in clustering and prototype selection. The proposed approach uses a hierarchical clustering based on compact sets, making it suitable for dealing with non-symmetric similarity functions, as well as with mixed and incomplete data. The proposal obtains very good results on the SABM data, and over repository databases.

  9. Resistance patterns to beta-lactams and quinolones in clinical isolates of bacteria from Cuban hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzáles, I; Niebla, A; Vallin, C

    1995-01-01

    The resistance patterns to 26 beta-lactams and 8 quinolones of clinical isolates from Cuban hospitals were evaluated using the disk susceptibility test, according to the NCCLS guidelines (1992). The genera studied were Escherichia sp (320), Enterobacter sp (10), Klebsiella sp (90), Proteus sp (10), Pseudomonas sp (90), Serratia sp (20), and Staphylococcus sp (80). Higher resistance to beta-lactams was observed in the genera Pseudomonas, Escherichia and Klebsiella. For fluoroquinolones we found no significant resistance, with the exception of the genus Klebsiella. The most effective antibiotics were cephalosporins of the second and third generations, fluoroquinolones, and non-classical beta-lactams (cephamycins, moxalactam and monobactams). On the contrary, a pronounced resistance was found to penicillin, oxacillin, ticarcillin, ampicillin, methicillin, nalidixic acid and cinoxacin. These resistance patterns correspond to the high consumption of these antibiotics throughout the country.

  10. Water oxidation catalysis upon evolution of molecular Co(III) cubanes in aqueous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genoni, Andrea; La Ganga, Giuseppina; Volpe, Andrea; Puntoriero, Fausto; Di Valentin, Marilena; Bonchio, Marcella; Natali, Mirco; Sartorel, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The increasing global energy demand has stimulated great recent efforts in investigating new solutions for artificial photosynthesis, a potential source of clean and renewable solar fuel. In particular, according to the generally accepted modular approach aimed at optimising separately the different compartments of the entire process, many studies have focused on the development of catalytic systems for water oxidation to oxygen. While in recent years there have been many reports on new catalytic systems, the mechanism and the active intermediates operating the catalysis have been less investigated. Well-defined, molecular catalysts, constituted by transition metals stabilised by a suitable ligand pool, could help in solving this aspect. However, in some cases molecular species have been shown to evolve to active metal oxides that constitute the other side of this catalysis dichotomy. In this paper, we address the evolution of tetracobalt(III) cubanes, stabilised by a pyridine/acetate ligand pool, to active species that perform water oxidation to oxygen. Primary evolution of the cubane in aqueous solution is likely initiated by removal of an acetate bridge, opening the coordination sphere of the cobalt centres. This cobalt derivative, where the pristine ligands still impact on the reactivity, shows enhanced electron transfer rates to Ru(bpy)3(3+) (hole scavenging) within a photocatalytic cycle with Ru(bpy)3(2+) as the photosensitiser and S2O8(2-) as the electron sink. A more accentuated evolution occurs under continuous irradiation, where Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy reveals the formation of Co(ii) intermediates, likely contributing to the catalytic process that evolves oxygen. All together, these results confirm the relevant effect of molecular species, in particular in fostering the rate of the electron transfer processes involved in light activated cycles, pivotal in the design of a photoactive device.

  11. Helicobacter pylori cagA and vacA genotypes in Cuban and Venezuelan populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Ortiz-Princz

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the presence of Helicobacter pylori cytotoxin-associated gene (cagA/vacuolating cytotoxin gene (vacA among patients with chronic gastritis in Cuba and Venezuela. Gastric antrum biopsies were taken for culture, DNA extraction and PCR analysis. Amplification of vacA and cagA segments was performed using two regions of cagA: 349 bp were amplified with the F1/B1 primers and the remaining 335 bp were amplified with the B7629/B7628 primers. The VA1-F/VA1-R set of primers was used to amplify the 259-bp (s1 or 286-bp (s2 product and the VAG-R/VAG-F set of primers was used to amplify the 567-bp (m1 or 642-bp (m2 regions of vacA. cagA was detected in 87% of the antral samples from Cuban patients and 80.3% of those from Venezuelan patients. All possible combinations of vacA regions were found, with the exception of s2/m1. The predominant combination found in both countries was s1/m1. The percentage of cagA+ strains was increased by the use of a second set of primers and a greater number of strains was amplified with the B7629/B7628 primers in the Cuban patients (p = 0.0001. There was no significant difference between the presence of the allelic variants of vacA and cagA in both populations. The predominant genotype was cagA+/s1m1 in both countries. The results support the necessary investigation of isolates circulating among the human population in each region.

  12. Impact of periodic selective mebendazole treatment on soil-transmitted helminth infections in Cuban schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Werff, Suzanne D; Vereecken, Kim; van der Laan, Kim; Campos Ponce, Maiza; Junco Díaz, Raquel; Núñez, Fidel A; Rojas Rivero, Lázara; Bonet Gorbea, Mariano; Polman, Katja

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the impact of periodic selective treatment with 500 mg mebendazole on soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in Cuban schoolchildren. We followed up a cohort of 268 STH-positive schoolchildren, aged 5-14 years at baseline, at six-month intervals for two years and a final follow-up after three years. Kato-Katz stool examination was used to detect infections with Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm. Common risk factors related to STHs were assessed by parental questionnaire. A significant reduction in the number of STH infections was obtained after three years with the highest reduction for T. trichiura (87.8%) and the lowest for hookworm (57.9%). After six months, cure rates (CRs) were 76.9% for A. lumbricoides, 67.4% for T. trichiura and 44.4% for hookworm. After two treatment rounds, more than 75% of all STH-positive children at baseline were cured, but with important differences between STH species (95.2% for A. lumbricoides, 80.5% for T. trichiura and 76.5% for hookworm). At the end of the study, these cumulative CRs were almost 100% for all three STHs. Risk factors for STHs were sex, sanitary disposal and habit of playing in the soil. Our results indicate that periodic selective treatment with 500 mg mebendazole is effective in reducing the number of STH infections in Cuban schoolchildren. Although important differences were found between helminth species, two rounds of treatment appeared sufficient to obtain substantial reductions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Novel class of heterometallic cubane and boride clusters containing heavier group 16 elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Arunabha; Sao, Soumik; Ramkumar, V; Ghosh, Sundargopal

    2012-08-06

    Thermolysis of an in situ generated intermediate, produced from the reaction of [Cp*MoCl(4)] (Cp* = η(5)-C(5)Me(5)) and [LiBH(4).THF], with excess Te powder yielded isomeric [(Cp*Mo)(2)B(4)TeH(5)Cl] (2 and 3), [(Cp*Mo)(2)B(4)(μ(3)-OEt)TeH(3)Cl] (4), and [(Cp*Mo)(4)B(4)H(4)(μ(4)-BH)(3)] (5). Cluster 4 is a notable example of a dimolybdaoxatelluraborane cluster where both oxygen and tellurium are contiguously bound to molybdenum and boron. Cluster 5 represents an unprecedented metal-rich metallaborane cluster with a cubane core. The dimolybdaheteroborane 2 was found to be very reactive toward metal carbonyl compounds, and as a result, mild pyrolysis of 2 with [Fe(2)(CO)(9)] yielded distorted cubane cluster [(Cp*Mo)(2)(BH)(4)(μ(3)-Te){Fe(CO)(3)}] (6) and with [Co(2)(CO)(8)] produced the bicapped pentagonal bipyramid [(Cp*MoCo)(2)B(3)H(2)(μ(3)-Te)(μ-CO){Co(3)(CO)(6)}] (7) and pentacapped trigonal prism [(Cp*MoCo)(2)B(3)H(2)(μ(3)-Te)(μ-CO)(4){Co(6)(CO)(8)}] (8). The geometry of 8 is an example of a heterometallic boride cluster in which five Co and one Mo atom define a trigonal prismatic framework. The resultant trigonal prism core is in turn capped by two boron, one Te, and one Co atom. In the pentacapped trigonal prism unit of 8, one of the boron atoms is completely encapsulated and bonded to one molybdenum, one boron, and five cobalt atoms. All the new compounds have been characterized in solution by IR, (1)H, (11)B, and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, and the structural types were unambiguously established by crystallographic analysis of 2 and 4-8.

  14. Cuban Ocular Toxoplasmosis Epidemiology Study (COTES): incidence and prevalence of ocular toxoplasmosis in Central Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustillo, Jorge L; Diaz, Jose D; Pacheco, Idarmes C; Gritz, David C

    2015-03-01

    Serological studies indicate that rates of ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) vary geographically, with higher rates in tropical regions. Little is known about population-based rates of active OT. We aimed to describe the epidemiology of OT in Central Cuba. This large-population, cross-sectional cohort study used a prospective database at a large regional referral centre in Central Cuba. The patient database was searched for all patients who presented with OT during the 12-month study period from 1 April 2011 to 31 March 2012. Inclusion criteria were the clinical diagnosis of OT, characterised by focal retinochoroidal inflammation and a response to therapy as expected. Gender-stratified and age-stratified study population data from the 2012 Cuban Census were used to calculate incidence rates and prevalence ratios. Among 279 identified patients with OT, 158 presented with active OT. Of these, 122 new-onset and 36 prior-onset cases were confirmed. Based on the total population in the Sancti Spiritus province (466,106 persons), the overall incidence of active OT was 26.2 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI 21.7 to 31.3) with an annual prevalence ratio of 33.9 per 100,000 persons (95% CI 28.8 to 39.6). The incidence of active OT was lowest in the oldest age group and highest in patients aged 25-44 years (4.5 and 42.1 per 100,000 person-years, respectively). This first report describing population-based rates of OT in the Cuban population highlights the importance of patient age as a likely risk factor for OT. Disease rates were found to be highest in females and young to middle-aged adults. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Walk Score®: associations with purposive walking in recent Cuban immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Scott C; Pantin, Hilda; Lombard, Joanna; Toro, Matthew; Huang, Shi; Plater-Zyberk, Elizabeth; Perrino, Tatiana; Perez-Gomez, Gianna; Barrera-Allen, Lloyd; Szapocznik, José

    2013-08-01

    Walk Score® is a nationally and publicly available metric of neighborhood walkability based on proximity to amenities (e.g., retail, food, schools). However, few studies have examined the relationship of Walk Score to walking behavior. To examine the relationship of Walk Score to walking behavior in a sample of recent Cuban immigrants, who overwhelmingly report little choice in their selection of neighborhood built environments when they arrive in the U.S. Participants were 391 recent healthy Cuban immigrants (mean age=37.1 years) recruited within 90 days of arrival in the U.S., and assessed within 4 months of arrival (mean=41.0 days in the U.S.), who resided throughout Miami-Dade County FL. Data on participants' addresses, walking, and sociodemographics were collected prospectively from 2008 to 2010. Analyses conducted in 2011 examined the relationship of Walk Score for each participant's residential address in the U.S. to purposive walking, controlling for age, gender, education, BMI, days in the U.S., and habitual physical activity level in Cuba. For each 10-point increase in Walk Score, adjusting for covariates, there was a significant 19% increase in the likelihood of purposive walking, a 26% increase in the likelihood of meeting physical activity recommendations by walking, and 27% more minutes walked in the previous week. Results suggest that Walk Score is associated with walking in a sample of recent immigrants who initially had little choice in where they lived in the U.S. These results support existing guidelines indicating that mixed land use (such as parks and restaurants near homes) should be included when designing walkable communities. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cross-sector Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtz Jessen, Søren; Linnet, Andreas; Tscherning, Rasmus Wiinstedt

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this handbook is to help improve your opportunities for getting started on innovative and business development projects that reach beyond your own sector, commonly known as ’Cross-sector innovation’, or ’Cross innovation’ for short. We believe that there is a need for an easily read...... innovation handbook that can reach out to all sectors and potential partners whose point of departure, language use and understanding of customers is often very different to that of businesses. These differences constitute a resource for business development. If exploited they can lead to new ways of doing...

  17. Aid and sectoral growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selaya, Pablo; Thiele, Rainer

    2010-01-01

    This article examines empirically the proposition that aid to poor countries is detrimental for external competitiveness, giving rise to Dutch disease type effects. At the aggregate level, aid is found to have a positive effect on growth. A sectoral decomposition shows that the effect is (i......) significant and positive in the tradable and the nontradable sectors, and (ii) equally strong in both sectors. The article thus provides no empirical support for the hypothesis that aid reduces external competitiveness in developing countries. A possible reason for this finding is the existence of large idle...

  18. Formal sector subcontracting and informal sector employment in Indian manufacturing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moreno-Monroy, A.I; Pieters, J; Erumban, A.A

    2014-01-01

    Using nationally representative survey dta of Indian manufacturing enterprises spanning the period 1995-2006, we analyze the link between formal sector subcontracting and informal sector employment...

  19. Sectoral Innovation Watch electrical and Optical Equipment Sector. Final sector report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, T. van den; Giessen, A.M. van der

    2011-01-01

    The electrical and optical equipment sector is a high-tech manufacturing sector. It is one of the most innovative sectors in Europe with investments and advances in fundamental research, applied R&D and innovation in the actual use of equipment. This sector is also one of the most global sectors

  20. El sector productivo The productive sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Encarna Santolaria

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available El crecimiento del sector servicios en detrimento del sector primario, la flexibilidad del mercado laboral y la progresiva incorporación de la mujer a dicho mercado son los cambios más destacados del sector productivo español en los últimos 25 años. Las mujeres en España presentan tasas de desempleo, trabajo temporal y a tiempo parcial mucho mayores que los hombres. Además, las condiciones de acceso al mercado de trabajo y las condiciones en las que éste se desempeña están también muy relacionadas con la clase social. Las mujeres cubren la escasez de servicios públicos destinados al cuidado de las criaturas pequeñas y de las personas mayores o dependientes, y realizan una labor de cuidadoras informales sin reconocimiento social, lo cual les impide el acceso a un puesto de trabajo o su mantenimiento y limita de forma decisiva las posibilidades de desarrollo y progreso profesional. Todo ello indica una clara diferencia con respecto a los hombres en cuanto a la frecuencia de contratos temporales y de tiempo parcial, así como en la segregación laboral, tanto horizontal como vertical. Estos aspectos de segregación son más evidentes en las mujeres de clases sociales menos privilegiadas, en las que se concentran las peores condiciones de acceso al mercado laboral y de trabajo. En España es imprescindible llevar a cabo políticas que ofrezcan servicios que permitan compatibilizar la vida laboral y familiar en condiciones de mayor equidad, tanto en razón de género como de clase social.In the last 25 years, the production sector in Spain has undergone important changes. Among these changes, the important growth of the services sector at the expense of the primary sector, the increasing flexibility of the labour market, and the rise in the female workforce could be considered as the most relevant ones. Spanish women have higher rates of unemployment, temporary jobs and part time contracts than Spanish men. Moreover, job access and work

  1. Public Sector Expatriate Managers:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenner, Charles, R., Jr.; Selmer, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Although public sector expatriates are becoming increasingly common, research on them is very limited. There is reason to believe that the situation for expatriates from the public sector may be different than for those from the private sector. This study investigated U.S. Department of Defense...... administrators assigned to U.S. embassies worldwide. Results showed that self efficacy, role clarity and role discretion had a positive association with the psychological adjustment of the respondents while role conflict and role overload only had a marginal negative relationship with the criterion variable....... On the other hand, neither international experience nor the effectiveness of preparatory training had any association with the psychological adjustment of respondents. Surprisingly, these findings suggest a similar picture for the expatriates from the public and private sector. Implications of these findings...

  2. Tanzania - Water Sector Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — Social Impact (SI) has been contracted by MCC to carry out an impact evaluation (IE) of the Tanzania Water Sector Project. This IE examines the effect of the WSP...

  3. Buildings Sector Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hostick, Donna J.; Nicholls, Andrew K.; McDonald, Sean C.; Hollomon, Jonathan B.

    2005-08-01

    A joint NREL, ORNL, and PNNL team conducted market analysis to help inform DOE/EERE's Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program planning and management decisions. This chapter presents the results of the market analysis for the Buildings sector.

  4. Construction Sector (NAICS 23)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find environmental regulatory information for the construction sector, including the construction of buildings or engineering projects. This includes RCRA information for hazardous waste, refrigeration compliance, asbestos, effluent guidelines & lead laws

  5. Social consequences of the globalization of the media and communication sector : some strategic considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Siochrú, Seán Ó

    2004-01-01

    Argues that globalization of the media sector affects, e.g., human needs and human rights in a similar way like globalization in other sectors. Highlights the particular role of the media sector as an enabler and as a powerful transformation agent of social, cultural and political structures. Proposes to aim for a more balanced power distribution between the global actors comprised of governments, the private sector, civil society, and multilateral systems (UN, WTO, G8, OECD).

  6. Study of energy optimization in textile sector; Estudo de otimizacao energetica setorial textil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simoes, N.W.B.; Camargos, J.O. [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Morais, F.M. de; Mattos Silva, E. de [Centro de Apoio a Pequena e Media Empresa, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    1990-12-31

    This paper presents the results of a study carried by CEMIG (electric power public utility of Minas Gerais state) and CEAG (support center for the medium and small company of Minas Gerais State) on the energy optimization in the textile sector. The main results were the following: characterization of the sector`s productive process; consumption distribution of electric power and alternative sources of energy; specific consumptions; recommendations for energy conservation and technologic situation of the sector. 11 refs., 4 tabs

  7. Public sector wages

    OpenAIRE

    B. Eugène

    2011-01-01

    Remuneration paid by public administrations in Belgium amounted to one-quarter of their primary expenditure in 2010. Because current conditions call for fiscal consolidation, it is important to examine whether this component of spending could be a source of budget savings, including by adjusting wages. The article focuses principally on wage gaps between the public sector and the private sector. The authors are especially interested in the situation in Belgium as compared with those of nine o...

  8. Public Sector Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Renate; Leixnering, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    New public management-inspired reforms created numerous autonomous units with many different faces and labels. This variety of organizations and organizational forms precludes a straightforward definition of what constitutes a public sector organization and blurs the boundaries between the public...... and private sectors as well as the boundaries of single organizations. In addition, the complexity of the interlocking arrangements and relationships in this public organizational landscape has resulted in considerable governance problems with serious implications for coordination and policy coherence....

  9. Contribution of Agricultural Sector and Sub Sectors on Indonesian Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Refa’ul Khairiyakh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to analyze trend of agricultural GDP and agricultural contribution in Indonesia, and identify the role of agricultural sector and sub sectors in provinces of Indonesia. Source of data this research use linear trend analysis to analyze trend agricultural Gross Domestic Product (GDP and agricultural contribution. Location Quotient (LQ, Dynamic Location Quotient (DLQ, and combination LQ and DLQ is used to identify the role of agricultural sector and sub sectors. The analysis found that agricultural GDP in Indonesia has increasing trend while agricultural contribution has decreasing trend. Agricultural sector is basic sector in 29 provinces in Indonesia. Farm food crop is leading sub sector in 6 provinces, farm non food crops is leading sub sector in 14 provinces, livestock is leading sub sector in 3 provinces, forestry is leading sub sector in 1 provinces, fishery is leading sub sector in 5 provinces.

  10. Guantanamo Bay, Cuba 1996: psychiatric services to Cuban migrants in the final days of Operation Sea Signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieger, T A; Adams, B

    1997-12-01

    Conditions during the final days of Operation Sea Signal in Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, presented a unique challenge for the U.S. Naval Hospital psychiatry/mental health team. The team was charged with evaluation and treatment of Cuban migrants and with determining suitability for immigration to the United States. Degradation of social support networks appeared to be a factor in the course of psychiatric symptoms. The cases of two Cuban migrant males presenting with psychiatric disorders in the final month of the operation illustrate the complexities of the operation's psychiatric mission. Our focus was on behavioral interventions and social supports rather than definitive pharmacologic management of the underlying psychiatric disorders. Suggestions for management of similar missions in the future are provided.

  11. Using Value Proposition Design and Lean Method to Reduce Risks of Starting a Business : Case: Cuban Art Gallery

    OpenAIRE

    Junttila, Eero

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to create modern dynamic version of business plan to help create products or services with lower risks. The aim of the thesis was to create a successful starting point for a Cuban art gallery by using latest knowledge in business model design to reduce uncertainties. The basic idea was to use Value Proposition Design to design the service around validated customer needs. This thesis includes quantitative researches that were made about customers and their ...

  12. The Cuban Economy: Data on Today’s Performance and Information on Tomorrow’s Projected Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Al Campbell

    2008-01-01

    There is widespread discussion both within and outside Cuba concerning what direction the Cuban economy will go under its new interim president Raúl Castro. This short paper is intended to contribute two pieces of information that are needed to intelligently discuss that issue- where Cuba's economy stands today, and what type of reforms Cuba's political and economic leadership say they intend to implement. Its goal is to compactly present current information on some of the key economic issues...

  13. Founded: Genetic Reconstruction of Lineage Diversity and Kinship Informs Ex situ Conservation of Cuban Amazon Parrots (Amazona leucocephala).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milián-García, Yoamel; Jensen, Evelyn L; Madsen, Jeanette; Álvarez Alonso, Suleiky; Serrano Rodríguez, Aryamne; Espinosa López, Georgina; Russello, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    Captive breeding is a widespread conservation strategy, yet such programs rarely include empirical genetic data for assessing management assumptions and meeting conservation goals. Cuban Amazon parrots (Amazona leucocephala) are considered vulnerable, and multiple on-island captive populations have been established from wild-caught and confiscated individuals of unknown ancestry. Here, we used mitochondrial haplotypic and nuclear genotypic data at 9 microsatellite loci to quantify the extent and distribution of genetic variation within and among captive populations in Zapata Swamp and Managua, Cuba, and to estimate kinship among breeders (n = 88). Using Bayesian clustering analysis, we detected 2 distinct clusters within the Zapata population, one of which was shared with Managua. Individuals from the cluster unique to Zapata possessed mitochondrial haplotypes with affinities to Cuban subspecies (A. l. leucocephala, A. l. palmarum); the shared cluster was similar, but also included haplotypes closely related to the subspecies restricted to Cayman Brac (A. l. hesterna). Overall mean kinship was low within each captive population (-0.026 to -0.012), with 19 and 11 recommended breeding pairs in Zapata and Managua, respectively, ranked according to mean kinship and informed by molecular sexing. Our results highlight the importance of understanding population history within ex situ management programs, while providing genetic information to directly inform Cuban parrot conservation. © The American Genetic Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Energy commercialization in the new environment of the Brazilian electric power sector. A methodology for production allocation strategies analysis; Comercializacao de energia no novo ambiente do setor eletrico brasileiro. Uma metodologia para analise de estrategias de alocacao da producao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Dorel Soares [Companhia Energetica de Sao Paulo (CESP), SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: dorelam@cesp.com.br; Lima, Wagner da Silva [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica]. E-mail: wagner@pea.usp.br; Castro, Roberto [ELEKTRO - Eletricidade e Servicos S.A., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: castro@mt2net.com.br

    1999-07-01

    The restructuring of the Brazilian Electric Sector has modified the rules for purchase and sale of energy, resulting in the creation of the Wholesale Energy Market. In this new context, the decision of the exposure level to the spot market price and the purchase of energy through bilateral contracts becomes so much a strategic variable for consumers or dealers, as for hydro and thermal generators. This work presents a methodology for planning of energy commercialization envisaging purchase and sale energy opportunities provided by the new Regulatory Framework of the Brazilian Electric Sector. (author)

  15. The solar energy photovoltaic one option to the Cuban rural electrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alabart, J. A. [Centro de Investigaciones de Energia Solar (CIES), (Cuba); Friedman, D. [ECOSOL (COPEXTELL S. A.), (Cuba); Ramos, R.; Moreira, J.; Batista, I.; Garcia, R.; Rodriguez, M. [Centro de Investigaciones de Energia Solar (CIES), (Cuba)

    1995-12-31

    This paper analyzes the work done in Cuba over the last years in the field of photovoltaic, from its R and D and Industrial capacities to the Rural Electrification Program. Based on this work a Development Program for the PV industry is proposed, which is defected towards the integration of all necessary factors that will ensure a sustainable Rural Electrification Program. This program is divided in 5 main stages: 1. Import of solar cells and other elements for the assembly in Cuba of modules and diverse system components (1995-2005). 2. Production of solar cells from imported wafers (1997-2005). 3. Production of monocrystalline silicon wafers from imported plycrystalline silicon (1998-2005). 4. Production of polycrystalline silicon from Cuban silica sand (2000-2005). 5. Development and introduction of new technologies for the production of solar cells (2000-2005). The combination of the PV Development program and the Rural Electrification program will guarantee the supply of electricity to 100% of the Cuban population, and at same time accelerate the technological, industrial and research infrastructure on which a large scale national PV industry would be supported. The implementation of such a program would also make cost on the National Electrical Grid (NEG), avoiding the need for new generation facilities based on fossil fuels. [Espanol] Este articulo analiza el trabajo hecho en Cuba durante los ultimos anos en el campo de los fotovoltaicos, desde su Investigacion y Desarrollo y capacidades Industriales, hasta el Programa de Electrificacion Rural. Basado en este trabajo se propone un Programa de Desarrollo para la industria de PV que esta dirigido hacia la integracion de todos los factores necesarios que aseguraran un Programa de Electrificacion sostenido. Este programa esta dividido en 5 principales etapas: 1. Importacion de celdas solares y otros elementos para el ensamblado en Cuba de modulos y diversos componentes del sistema (1995-2005); 2. Produccion de

  16. On the pursuit of a nuclear development capability: The case of the Cuban nuclear program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin-Alvarado, Jonathan Calvert

    1998-09-01

    While there have been many excellent descriptive accounts of modernization schemes in developing states, energy development studies based on prevalent modernization theory have been rare. Moreover, heretofore there have been very few analyses of efforts to develop a nuclear energy capability by developing states. Rarely have these analyses employed social science research methodologies. The purpose of this study was to develop a general analytical framework, based on such a methodology to analyze nuclear energy development and to utilize this framework for the study of the specific case of Cuba's decision to develop nuclear energy. The analytical framework developed focuses on a qualitative tracing of the process of Cuban policy objectives and implementation to develop a nuclear energy capability, and analyzes the policy in response to three models of modernization offered to explain the trajectory of policy development. These different approaches are the politically motivated modernization model, the economic and technological modernization model and the economic and energy security model. Each model provides distinct and functionally differentiated expectations for the path of development toward this objective. Each model provides expected behaviors to external stimuli that would result in specific policy responses. In the study, Cuba's nuclear policy responses to stimuli from domestic constraints and intensities, institutional development, and external influences are analyzed. The analysis revealed that in pursuing the nuclear energy capability, Cuba primarily responded by filtering most of the stimuli through the twin objectives of economic rationality and technological advancement. Based upon the Cuban policy responses to the domestic and international stimuli, the study concluded that the economic and technological modernization model of nuclear energy development offered a more complete explanation of the trajectory of policy development than either the

  17. Disability-adjusted Life Years for Diabetes in Cuban Children and Adolescents, 1990-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Alonso, Emma

    2016-10-01

    INTRODUCTION Shifts in diabetes onset to earlier ages, globally and in Cuba, signify greater risk of early complications and premature death, with consequent economic and social repercussions for families and health systems. OBJECTIVE Describe the trend in diabetes burden in Cuban children and adolescents in the period 1990 to 2010, in terms of disability-adjusted life years. METHODS A descriptive epidemiological study was conducted of diabetes burden in Cuba, analyzing the years 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005 and 2010 for the age group 0-19 years. Disability-adjusted life years were obtained from the sum of potential years of life lost plus years lived with disability. The first is calculated based on total deaths in the country in which diabetes was recorded as underlying cause; the second from the product of severity, as assigned to diabetes in similar studies, and incidence and average duration, provided by the DISMOD II program, which estimates six internally consistent epidemiological indicators. RESULTS Mortality indicators improved, with a decrease in the rate of potential years of life lost in boys from 21.9/100,000 population in 1990 to 0 in 2010, and in girls from 38.8/100,000 in 1990 to 4.9/100,000 in 2010 (1% of disability-adjusted life years in girls in 2010, corresponding to one death). In contrast, years lived with disability increased by 134.5% in boys and 156.4% in girls. The net result was that disability-adjusted life years increased by >100% in both sexes (from 137.2 to 321.9/100,000 in boys and from 157.3 to 403.3/100,000 in girls, increases of 102.3% and 108.1%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS Disability-adjusted life years lost for diabetes in Cuban children and adolescents have increased, due to disability, while mortality has decreased. KEYWORDS Diabetes mellitus, childhood, adolescence, disability-adjusted life years, potential years of life lost, years lived with disability, Cuba.

  18. Estudio de la quitosana cubana como agente aglutinante Study of Cuban quitosana as agglutination agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diamelva del Campo Portales

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Para evaluar la capacidad como agente aglutinante de la quitosana cubana, derivada de quitina de langosta, se realizó un diseño experimental cuyas variables fueron la relación entre la masa de quitosana y granulado base, así como la concentración de ácido láctico en la solución aglutinante. Los resultados muestran que el porcentaje de ácido láctico no tiene influencia en las propiedades de los granulados elaborados con quitosana. La relación quitosana/granulado base influye sobre el tamaño de partícula promedio de los granulados estudiados. Las propiedades de los granulados elaborados con quitosana, independientemente de la relación de quitosana/granulado base y el porcentaje de ácido láctico, tienen un comportamiento intermedio entre la polivinilpirrolidona y la gelatina. Con el fármaco modelo sulfato de cloroquina, al emplear la quitosana cubana como agente aglutinante se obtuvieron tabletas con adecuadas propiedades. Adicionalmente se comparó su efectividad como aglutinante con respecto a excipientes de uso tradicional: gelatina, polivinilpirrolidona y celacol, con el clorhidrato de propranolol como fármaco modelo. Los granulados obtenidos muestran que la quitosana al 1 % tiene un comportamiento próximo al polivinilpirrolidona, celacol y gelatina, mientras que para las tabletas, independientemente del valor de la concentración de la quitosana, es similar al polivinilpirrolidona.To assess ability of Cuban quitosona as agglutination agent, derived from lobster quitine, we performed an experimental design of which he variable were: relationship between quitosana mass and granular base as well as lactic acid concentration in agglutination solution. Results shows that lactic acid percentage hasn’t influence on properties of granules processed using quitosana. Above mentioned relationship influences on average particle size of study granules. Properties of quitosana-processed granules, regardless of whether quitosana

  19. Implantation of hydroelectric power plants and the environmental licensing: the importance of the articulation among the electrical and environment sectors in Brazil; A implantacao de usinas hidreletricas e o processo de licenciamento ambiental: a importancia da articulacao entre os setores eletrico e de meio ambiente no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facuri, Micheline Ferreira

    2004-07-01

    Hydroelectric power plants stand for the main generation source in Brazil. The basis of the national generator park installed capacity is the exploration of hydraulic potency when the Brazilian energetic die is observed. The atmosphere that the Brazilian electric sector is found now asks for new generator units. In this sense, it would decrease energy offer deficit risk, which collaborates to the electric energy offer expansion effort. This research aims to join and to comment on a group of data and information regarding to the process of implantation of hydroelectric power plants already bid. It includes up to date data on hydroelectric power plants bid since 1996. This data describe the main implications found in the enterprises that are late in their schedules. It shows that the greater the environmental management instruments incorporation in hydroelectric projects planning process, the greater the possibility of new hydraulic generation enterprises with better quality of environmental studies implantation. In this way, it makes even better the process of environmental licensing that could occur in a more adequate deadline. As a result, 28 - out of 54 - enterprises bid are found with environmental problems, which represent 43.30% of bestowed potency. It is possible to infer, thus, that there is a need of more interaction between the electric and the environmental sectors. After analyzing the results, it is concluded that the generation enterprises environmental licensing has been worrying the electric sector agents. This happens due to the need of refinement on environmental studies or due to the need of bureaucracy to get licenses - mainly regarding to judicial actions and environmental issues. Finally, the adequate identification of environmental licensing drags allows a more efficient process to hydroelectric power plants implantation, which generates more consistent and faster results. (author)

  20. Sectoral Market Mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This paper first reviews proposals for the design of sectoral and related market mechanisms currently debated, both in the UNFCCC negotiations, and in different domestic legislative contexts. Secondly, it addresses the possible principles and technical requirements that Parties may wish to consider as the foundations for further elaboration of the mechanisms. The third issue explored herein is domestic implementation of sectoral market mechanisms by host countries, incentives to move to new market mechanisms, as well as how the transition between current and future mechanisms could be managed.

  1. Sectoral and regional expansion of emissions trading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehringer, Christoph; Bouwe, Dijkstra; Rosendahl, Knut Einar

    2011-07-01

    We consider an international emissions trading scheme with partial sectoral and regional coverage. Sectoral and regional expansion of the trading scheme is beneficial in aggregate, but not necessarily for individual countries. We simulate international CO{sub 2} emission quota markets using marginal abatement cost functions and the Copenhagen 2020 climate policy targets for selected countries that strategically allocate emissions in a bid to manipulate the quota price. Quota exporters and importers generally have conflicting interests about admitting more countries to the trading coalition, and our results indicate that some countries may lose substantially when the coalition expands in terms of new countries. For a given coalition, expanding sectoral coverage makes most countries better off, but some countries (notably the USA and Russia) may lose out due to loss of strategic advantages. In general, exporters tend to have stronger strategic power than importers.(Author)

  2. The reform of the Indian power sector: administrations for sale. Transforming the state electricity boards into enterprises; La reforme du secteur electrique de l'Inde: administrations a vendre. Transformer les state electricity boards en entreprises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruet, J

    2001-10-01

    The present thesis is about the reforms in the electricity sector in India, and more specifically about those in the State Electricity Boards (SEBs), organisations responsible for generation, transmission and distribution of electricity at the level of each of the States of India. The thesis is interested in practical questions of industrial economy such as: what is the impact of de-integration on the functioning of the SEBs?, impact of the creation of regulatory committees?, of privatisation?. Going beyond the critical analysis of the proposed reforms, the thesis also puts forward certain practical propositions as regards the way of reforming the SEBs. The thesis is divided in two parts (of four chapters each). The first part analyses and characterizes the functioning of a SEB. It presents practical description of the organisational characteristics, but also of their linking to the decision making mechanisms at work. On the theoretical plane, it settles the debate on the validity of the analytical concept of soft budget constraint for a SEB, and specifies the modalities of an analysis in terms of property rights, as well as the pertinence of several concepts derived from that of cost. The second part deals with the ongoing reforms and those to be implemented. It defines the concept of enterprising and proposes a critical discussion of the ongoing reforms, in the light of the normative criterion of enterprisation. It distinguishes conceptually and in the practical analysis, the 'structural' reforms (corporatisation, de-integration, and setting up of regulatory commissions) on the one hand and the questions of privatisation on the other. It proposes a model explaining the 'trade off' between public enterprisation and rapid privatisation. The first chapter situates the SEBs in the Indian power sector, shows the limit of the analyses in terms of lack of funds or political interference. Chapter 2 makes a critical presentation of the various tools

  3. Minitubers formation of four Cuban varieties of Solanum tuberosum L. in greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyanis García-Águila

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The production of seed potato (Solanum tuberosum L. plants coming from in vitro culture will ensure the rapid spread of promising varieties. The aim of this work was to determine the response of four Cuban varieties during minitubers formation in greenhouse from plants in vitro obtained. Plants of the varieties 'Yuya', 'Marinca', 'Grettel' and 'Ibis' with height between 6.5 and 7.0cm were used. These were planted at a distance of 10x10cm on a substrate composed of organic matter (100%. At 15 days of culture the number of live plants was quantified and the percentage of survival was calculated. Subsequently, the fresh and dry mass of the foliage and root system were determined every 15 days and up to 90 days of culture and the absolute and relative growth rate were calculated. At 75 days of culture the number, diameter, fresh and dry mass of the minitubers were quantified. The results showed high plant survival (> 96.5%. The absolute and relative growth rate in the time and the formation of minitubers were dependent on the variety. The highest number of minitubers per plant was obtained in the variety 'Ibis' while the largest number with seed size (2.9-4.5 cm in diameter was obtained in the varieties 'Yuya' and Grettel. The results of the work provided important information to establish differential agronomic management for each variety to increase the number of seed size minitubers.   Keywords: fresh mass, minitubers, potato, growth rate

  4. Production and characterization of cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase from Bacillus sp. isolated from Cuban

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kárel Hernández Sánchez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase from an alkaliphilic Bacillus sp. strain, isolated from Cuban soil, was purified with Sephadex G-50 with a yield of 66.5%. The CGTase was stable over a very wide pH range, 6.0–10, at 25°C and was most active at pH 7.5. The enzyme exhibited an optimum temperature of 60°C and was stable to 50°C for at least 8 h. The T50 value – defined as the temperature at which 50% of the initial activity was retained–was 63°C in this enzyme. The influence of substrate or product concentration on the initial rate of CD production was studied, and the kinetic parameters were determined. The analysis of kinetic parameters Km and Vmax was obtained by the action of CGTase on the starch of corn with respect to β-CD, and the values were 4.1 g/L and 5.2 μM β-CD/min ml, respectively. The purified CGTase from Bacillus sp. could be used for an efficient cyclodextrin (CD production which is the significant yield of γ- CDs.

  5. Abundance, distribution and size structure of Diadema antillarum (Echinodermata: Diadematidae in South Eastern Cuban coral reefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Martín Blanco

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The 1983-1984 mass mortality event of Diadema antillarum affected more than 93% of the total Caribbean population. Although there are no records about the status of Diadema populations before and after die-off on Cuban reefs, anecdotal information suggests that populations were struck. We analyzed spatial variation in the abundance and size structure of D. antillarum in 22 reefs sites in Jardines de la Reina, from June 2004 to September 2005. Counts of Diadema were performed in five 30x2m transects at each sampling site and sampling time, and test diameters were measured in September 2005 at the same fore reefs. Abundances were higher at reef crests (mean densities 0.08-2.18 ind./m², while reef slope populations reached a maximum site level of 0.13 ind./m² at only one site and showed values up to three orders of magnitude lower than those from reef crests. Highest abundance occurred at the west margin of major channels between keys where larval recruitment seems to be favored by local oceanographic features and facilitated by the abundance of Echinometra lucunter. The size frequency distribution of D. antillarum indicates that recruitment began to be noticeable three years before September 2005, suggesting these populations were depleted in the past and they are recovering now. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (2: 663-676. Epub 2010 June 02.

  6. NEW CONCEPTION OF THE REUTILIZATION OF SOLID WASTE FROM CUBAN NICKELIFEROUS HYDROMETALLURGICAL INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Quintana Puchol

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The acid and ammoniacal-carbonate hydrometallurgical industrial processes of the Cuban nickeliferous mines produce yearly, thousands tons of solid wastes, which are dumped in big waste dams that pollute the environment and, besides, they occupy big extensions of possible cultivated land areas. These hydrometallurgical tailings present appreciable contents of various minerals, which contain iron, aluminum, chrome, nickel, silicon, among other heavy metal elements. These nickel-ferriferous wastes constitute an attractive raw material source, which can be useful to obtain products of substantial demands and high use value. The aluminothermic process, using wastes (shavings and sawdust of the aluminum carpentry and this metal's scrap, offers an attractive metallurgical method for the elaboration of the nickeliferous solid waste. Alumino-pyrometallurgical process offers commendable economic and energetic saving advantages and, besides, does not produce residual solids; therefore, this method belongs to the cleaner-production range. By means of the aluminothermic process of these nickeliferous tailings, a similar metal to a white iron and a slag of alumina and various spiels type with high grade of abrasion are simultaneously obtained.

  7. In vitro propagation of Cubans varieties of Solanum tuberosum L. `Yuya', `Marinca', `Grettel' and `Ibis'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyanis García Águila

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro culture techniques are used to support the production processes of potato seed (Solanum tuberosum L. because it ensure the rapid propagation of promising varieties, genetic stability and high quality plant. This study aimed to determine the response of four potato varieties `Yuya' `Marinca' `Grettel' and `Ibis' during in vitro propagation. Meristems were stablished (0.3-0.5 mm long, multiplied plants and microtubers were formed. During the process of in vitro propagation it were described the morphological characteristics of the plant material. The percent survival of the meristems and the multiplication coefficient were calculated and the number of microtubers per plant was quantified. The results showed a differential response of varieties during in vitro propagation. `Yuya' and `Ibis' had the highest survival meristem rates, high frequency of plants with normal morphology characterized by dark green color, stem of between 2.5 and 4.5 cm in length and presence of leaves and roots. The microtubers formation with diameters between 0.1 to 1.0 cm occurred in all varieties and the highest number per plant was obtained in variety `Marinca'. These results provide important information that will establish quality and planning indicators during in vitro propagation of Cuban potato varieties. Key words: meristems, microtubers, morphology, potato, survival

  8. Asymbiotic germination in vitro in seeds of four species of Cuban orchids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loexis Rodríguez

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available About the most of 300 species of Cuban native orchids is have few reference of the micropropagation in the science literature. However, the biotechnical techniques fulfill an important acting in the rescue of threatened species. By that in the laboratory of Vegetable Biotechnology of the Mountain Development Center in Guantanamo, aspects related with the germination were studied in vitro of Campylocentrum micrantrum, Encyclia cochleata, Epidendrum difforme and Oceoclade maculata using the salts of the culture medium Murashige and Skoog (1962 and Knudson (1946, increasing with activate charcoal (0; 1; 2 g.l-1, Agar tachnical No. 3 6 g.l-1 and the adjusted pH at 5.6. The seeds was incubated under conditions of 16 hours light to intensity of 27 uMol.m².s-¹ and 24 ± 1 °C. The reached results showed that the germination of the studied species was obtained under different times and conditions of the medium of cultivation where it stood out for the smallest time used for the germination Encyclia cochleata to the eight weeks in the salts of Murashige and Skoog (1962 and without the addition of activated charcoal, as long as Oceoclade maculata needed 24 weeks to germinate. Key words: antioxidante, biotechnology, flowers, micropropagación, native species

  9. Antioxidant, photoprotective and antimutagenic properties of Phyllanthus spp. from Cuban flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivette M. Menéndez-Perdomo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Context: Sunlight ultraviolet (UV radiation constitutes a significant physical carcinogen in nature. It could induce direct and indirect DNA damage, which if not properly repaired may generate mutations. Plants in the genus Phyllanthus (Phyllanthaceae are widely used in traditional medicine and known as natural sources of antioxidant compounds. Recent investigations support their genoprotective activity against chemical and physical mutagens, among them UV radiation. Aims: To compare the antioxidant, photoprotective and antimutagenic activity of aqueous extracts obtained from three Cuban endemic Phyllanthus species: P. chamaecristoides Urb., P. microdictyus Urb., and P. williamioides Gr. Methods: DPPH radical scavenging assay was use for quantify the in vitro antioxidant capacity. Genoprotection against UVC radiation was measured at two levels: structural DNA damage and mutations, by means of the SOS Chromotest, Survival assay, and RifR mutagenicity test in Caulobacter crescentus cells. Results: P. chamaecristoides extract showed the highest antioxidant capacity (IC50 = 0.032 mg/mL, and together with P. microdictyus exhibited the greatest bioantimutagenic effects (RMF ≤ 5%, diminishing UVC-induced DNA damage in three and five times, respectively. Conclusions: The reduction in DNA damage is not founded in a Phyllanthus aqueous extracts desmutagenic effect. It is possible that the genoprotective activity detected could be due to modulation of DNA repair mechanisms, diminishing SOS response and related mutagenicity induced by UVC radiation. Moreover, high antioxidant capacity could also decrease UV radiation oxidative-damage. Altogether, these outcomes validate future pre-clinic research regarding Phyllanthus photoprotective capacities.

  10. Tratamiento térmico de acero cubano // Thermal treatment of cuban steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Caballero Stevens

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se muestran algunos de los resultados obtenidos durante la investigación de un nuevo acero cubano que sepretende destinar a la fabricación de elementos de corte para máquinas combinadas cortadoras de caña de azúcar,herramientas de mano y otras piezas de gran responsabilidad que requieren elevada dureza para su trabajo. En el trabajo sepresentan los aspectos principales que relacionan la composición química, microestructura y dureza de este acero. Seestablecen experimentalmente las temperaturas de los puntos críticos para definir los regímenes de tratamiento térmico. Seincluye el comportamiento de las propiedades de dureza ante diferentes regímenes de tratamiento térmico.Palabras claves: Acero, recocido, temple, revenido, martensita, dureza________________________________________________________________________________AbstractIn this article are shown some of the results obtained during the investigation of a new cuban steel that it is going to beused in the manufacture of blades for cane cutting machines, hand tools and other part of great responsibility that requirehigh hardness for the job.In the article are presented the principles aspects of quimical composition, microstructure and hardness of this steel. Thereare stablished experimentally the temperature of the critic points in order to determine the regimes of the thermal treatment.The behavior of the properties of hardness is included at different regimes of thermal treatment.Key words: Steel, thermal treatment, quenching, tempering, hardness.

  11. Hospitalization of Cuban children for giardiasis: a retrospective study in a paediatric hospital in Havana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo, A A; Almirall, P; Alfonso, M; Salazar, Y; Ávila, I; Cimerman, S; Núñez, F A; Dawkins, I V

    2011-01-01

    The medical records of the 185 children who, in 2007, were admitted to the Academic Paediatric Hospital ‘Centro Habana’, in the Cuban capital of Havana, because of giardiasis were analysed retrospectively. A standardized form was used to collect data on the socio–demographic characteristics, clinical features, laboratory diagnosis, treatment and length of stay of each child. Information on the 15 children who had incomplete medical records was excluded from the data analysis. Of the remaining 170 children, 85 (50.0%) were aged 1–4 years, 97 (57.1%) were male, and 106 (62.4%), 92 (54.1%) and 69 (40.6%) had presented with diarrhoea, vomiting, and/or abdominal pain, respectively. Most (91.2%) of the cases had been diagnosed by the microscopical examination of a duodenal aspirate, and the drugs that had been most used frequently were quinacrine and tinidazole, which had been given to 72 (42.4%) and 62 (36.5%) of the cases, respectively. The mean length of hospital stay was 4.9 days. Such information on the clinical characteristics of giardiasis among children living in an endemic area may be valuable to paediatricians and public-health officials who wish to screen for the disease. PMID:21294948

  12. Diagnosis to Evaluate the Degree of the Customer’s Orientation in Cuban Enterprises.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirya Valdivia Hernández

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the enterprise world of today, the organizations that occupy privileged places in the market, offer their products in the proper place and moment, with competitive prices and the appropriate quality at minimum possible cost. The use of quality as a strategic weapon implies the development of an organizational culture through out the enterprise parts, guided to obtain a final product or service that not only satisfies the customers´ expectations, but enhances them. The customers´ orientation and quality management has been object of different theories and enterprises focuses, which through their evolution have converged to the costumer. In this work it is proposed the implementation of a Procedure, scientifically validated, to evaluate the costumer’s orientation, to contribute to improve the Quality Management in the Cuban enterprises. In the diagnosis procedure the customers´ criteria are identified, the degree of the costumer’s orientation is evaluated and the incidences that influence on the quality management are analyzed. Some actions were proposed based on the diagnosis´ results to the possible causes solution.

  13. Public sector innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the value dimension of public innovation in the light of practitioners’ values and asks why there seems to be a clash between innovation imperatives and workplace practices in the public sector. The paper contributes to the research on public innovation from a practice...

  14. Financial Sector Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; International Monetary Fund

    2017-01-01

    A joint International Monetary Fund (IMF)-World Bank mission visited Rabat and Casablanca in 2015, to assess the soundness and resilience of the banking system, the state of play in financial inclusion and infrastructure, the oversight frameworks for banking, capital markets and financial market infrastructures, crisis preparedness, and update the findings of the Financial Sector Assessme...

  15. Financial Sector Assessment : Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    This Financial Sector Assessment (FSA) provides a summary of the policy priorities, and main findings intended to assist the Moroccan authorities in evaluating the country's financial system. It reviews the uneasy trade-off between concerns for stability, and development, suggesting Morocco's macroeconomic policies and practices as a whole tend to err more on the side of the concerns of pr...

  16. Public Sector Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Kuhry

    2004-01-01

    The performance of the public sector of national economies is a crucial factor in the race to achieve the goals in the Lisbon Agenda. It is therefore useful to relate differences in performance in education, health care, law and order, and public administration to differences in resource use and

  17. nigeria's banking sector reforms

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NESG PUBLICATIONS

    the Banks and Other Financial. Institutions Act of (BOFIA)1 1991 as amended, the CBN anchored the banking sector reform on a 13-point agenda involving (CBN, 2005: 16). Minimum bank capital base of N25 billion that must be met on or before 31st December, 2005: ♢. Consolidation through mergers and acquisition,.

  18. Energy transition in transport sector from energy substitution perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wangmin; Yang, Xiaoguang; Han, Song; Sun, Xiaoyang

    2017-10-01

    Power and heating generation sector and transport sector contribute a highest GHG emissions and even air pollutions. This paper seeks to investigate life cycle costs and emissions in both the power sector and transport sector, and evaluate the cost-emission efficient (costs for one unit GHG emissions) of the substitution between new energy vehicles and conventional gasoline based vehicles under two electricity mix scenarios. In power sector, wind power and PV power will be cost comparative in 2030 forecasted with learning curve method. With high subsidies, new energy cars could be comparative now, but it still has high costs to lower GHG emissions. When the government subsidy policy is reversible, the emission reduction cost for new energy vehicle consumer will be 900/ton. According to the sensitive analysis, the paper suggests that the government implement policies that allocate the cost to the whole life cycle of energy production and consumption related to transport sector energy transition and policies that are in favor of new energy vehicle consumers but not the new energy car producers.

  19. Water consumption in the energy sector

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Morten Andreas Dahl; Drews, Martin; Gani, Rafiqul

    2016-01-01

    Energy, water, and food systems are closely interlinked in the Energy-Water-Food Nexus. Water is of paramount importance for the energy sector. Fossil fuels require water for extraction, trans-port and processing. Thermal power plants require water for cooling, whether they use nuclear, fossil or biofuels. Hydropower is based on water in rivers or reservoirs. Feedstock production for biofuels may depend on water for irrigation. On the other hand, energy is necessary for pumping of ground- and...

  20. Towards a new titanium sector: Aerospace

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Preez, W

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Sector: Aerospace 4th Biennial Conference Presented by: Dr Willie du Preez Director: Titanium Centre of Competence Date: 9 October 2012 Outline ? Why Titanium? ? The Opportunity for South Africa ? The SA Titanium Industry Strategy ? Primary... 3 USD/kg Ti Ti Powder 40 USD/kg Ti SA Opportunity ? Technology-led Industry Development ? CSIR 2012 Slide 9 Raw material Market 2nd largest Ti producer 3rd largest V producer Aerospace Automotive Medical Recreational Industrial Power...

  1. Composite Dark Sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmona, Adrián [Institute for Theoretical Physics, ETH Zurich,Wolfgang-Pauli-Str. 27, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Chala, Mikael [DESY,Notkestraße 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-06-16

    We introduce a new paradigm in Composite Dark Sectors, where the full Standard Model (including the Higgs boson) is extended with a strongly-interacting composite sector with global symmetry group G spontaneously broken to H⊂G. We show that, under well-motivated conditions, the lightest neutral pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons are natural dark matter candidates for they are protected by a parity symmetry not even broken in the electroweak phase. These models are characterized by only two free parameters, namely the typical coupling g{sub D} and the scale f{sub D} of the composite sector, and are therefore very predictive. We consider in detail two minimal scenarios, SU(3)/[SU(2)×U(1)] and [SU(2){sup 2}×U(1)]/[SU(2)×U(1)], which provide a dynamical realization of the Inert Doublet and Triplet models, respectively. We show that the radiatively-induced potential can be computed in a five-dimensional description with modified boundary conditions with respect to Composite Higgs models. Finally, the dark matter candidates are shown to be compatible, in a large region of the parameter space, with current bounds from dark matter searches as well as electroweak and collider constraints on new resonances.

  2. Composite Dark Sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmona, Adrian [ETH Zuerich (Switzerland). Inst. for Theoretical Physics; Chala, Mikael [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-06-15

    We introduce a new paradigm in Composite Dark Sectors, where the full Standard Model (including the Higgs boson) is extended with a strongly-interacting composite sector with global symmetry group G spontaneously broken to H is contained in G. We show that, under well-motivated conditions, the lightest neutral pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons are natural dark matter candidates for they are protected by a parity symmetry not even broken in the electroweak phase. These models are characterized by only two free parameters, namely the typical coupling g{sub D} and the scale f{sub D} of the composite sector, and are therefore very predictive. We consider in detail two minimal scenarios, SU(3)/[SU(2) x U(1)] and [SU(2){sup 2} x U(1)]/[SU(2) x U(1)], which provide a dynamical realization of the Inert Doublet and Triplet models, respectively. We show that the radiatively-induced potential can be computed in a five-dimensional description with modified boundary conditions with respect to Composite Higgs models. Finally, the dark matter candidates are shown to be compatible, in a large region of the parameter space, with current bounds from dark matter searches as well as electroweak and collider constraints on new resonances.

  3. Transformation of the Polish Banking Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Stefański

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In the post-war period the banking system in Poland underwent two important system transitions: after 1946 and after 1989. The third transformation began after May 1, 2004, but it did not have a systemic character. The Polish banking sector started to operate on the Single European Market. The first part of the paper is devoted to the problems of the banks transformations after 1989 with a special focus on the quantitative development of banks in 19892008, and on subsequent privatisation and consolidation processes. The former intensified in 19891999, and the latter in 19992002. The consolidation process was very noticeable in the sector of cooperative banks after 1994. The second part of the paper includes an economic and financial analysis of the banks. A lot of attention was paid to the liquidity of the banking sector. It was assessed as good, which was confirmed by a short-term rating of Moodys and by the Financial Stability Report 2009, published by the National Bank of Poland in June 2009. The comparison of the net profit of the banking sector in 19972008 shows its dependence on the economic situation and policy. The number of banks with capital adequacy ratio well above the minimum required by the banking supervision is rising. The financial power ratings are not favorable for the domestic banks. The third part of the paper focuses on the development directions of the Polish banking sector. It may be concluded on the basis of the analysis that privatisation and consolidation processes will be continued. They will concentrate on the capital of foreign banks already operating in Poland. As compared with individual foreign banks, the potential of the Polish banking sector is week. The fourth part of the paper focuses on the presentation Polish banking sector in the context of European Union banking sector. The paper finishes with conclusions. Generally, Polish banks have to implement a strategy to enable them to compete on the Single

  4. Scenarios for Deep Carbon Emission Reductions from Electricity by 2050 in Western North America using the Switch Electric Power Sector Planning Model: California's Carbon Challenge Phase II, Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, James; Mileva, Ana; Johnston, Josiah; Kammen, Daniel; Wei, Max; Greenblatt, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    This study used a state-of-the-art planning model called SWITCH for the electric power system to investigate the evolution of the power systems of California and western North America from present-day to 2050 in the context of deep decarbonization of the economy. Researchers concluded that drastic power system carbon emission reductions were feasible by 2050 under a wide range of possible futures. The average cost of power in 2050 would range between $149 to $232 per megawatt hour across scenarios, a 21 to 88 percent increase relative to a business-as-usual scenario, and a 38 to 115 percent increase relative to the present-day cost of power. The power system would need to undergo sweeping change to rapidly decarbonize. Between present-day and 2030 the evolution of the Western Electricity Coordinating Council power system was dominated by implementing aggressive energy efficiency measures, installing renewable energy and gas-fired generation facilities and retiring coal-fired generation. Deploying wind, solar and geothermal power in the 2040 timeframe reduced power system emissions by displacing gas-fired generation. This trend continued for wind and solar in the 2050 timeframe but was accompanied by large amounts of new storage and long-distance high-voltage transmission capacity. Electricity storage was used primarily to move solar energy from the daytime into the night to charge electric vehicles and meet demand from electrified heating. Transmission capacity over the California border increased by 40 - 220 percent by 2050, implying that transmission siting, permitting, and regional cooperation will become increasingly important. California remained a net electricity importer in all scenarios investigated. Wind and solar power were key elements in power system decarbonization in 2050 if no new nuclear capacity was built. The amount of installed gas capacity remained relatively constant between present-day and 2050, although carbon capture and sequestration was

  5. Synthesis, Crystal Structure, and Magnetic Properties of a New Mixed Metal (Co(II), Ni(II)) Cubane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmehdawi, Ramadan Mohamed; El-Kaheli, Mohamed Nasir; Abuhmaiera, Ramadan Gamodi; Treish, Fathia Ali; Ben Younes, Mufida El Mabruk; Bazzicalupi, Carla; Guerri, Annalisa; Caneschi, Andrea; Amjad, Asma

    2017-02-14

    The mixed Co(II)/Ni(II) complex, [Co2.67Ni1.33L₄(CH₃COO)₂][BPh₄]₂·0.75H₂O where HL = 4-(salicylaldimine)antipyrine, was isolated as an orange solid from the reaction of 4-(salicylaldimine)antipyrine, with mixed cobalt(II) acetate and nickel(II) acetate in ethanol. The complex was characterized by Frustrated Total Internal Reflection (FTIR), UltraViolet Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), X-ray single crystal diffraction, and by elemental analysis. The complex is composed of two symmetry independent cationic units, A and B. The two units are essentially isostructural; nevertheless, small differences exist between them. The units contain four metal atoms, arranged at the corners of a distorted cubane-like core alternately with phenoxy oxygen of the Schiff base. The overall eight corners occupied by metal ions in the asymmetric unit are shared between cobalt and nickel in a 5.33:2.67 ratio. Each metal divalent cation binds three coordinated sites from the corresponding tridentate Schiff base ligand, the fourth one is bound by the acetate oxygen, the fifth and the sixth donor sites come from the phenolate oxygens of other Schiff base ligands. Intermolecular hydrogen bonds join the complexes to the water molecules present in the crystal packing. The magnetic characterization was carried out for this new complex and for its isostructural counterpart containing only cobalt ions. The magnetic measurements for the cobalt(II)/nickel(II) mixed compound indicate either antiferromagnetic interactions among the two cubanes or an anisotropic contribution, whereas a ferromagnetic interaction is observed within the cubane, for both the complexes, as expected by geometrical considerations. A comparison between the magnetic properties of the pure cobalt(II) derivative and similar systems discussed in literature, is presented.

  6. Synthesis, Crystal Structure, and Magnetic Properties of a New Mixed Metal (Co(II, Ni(II Cubane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadan Mohamed Elmehdawi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The mixed Co(II/Ni(II complex, [Co2.67Ni1.33L4(CH3COO2][BPh4]2·0.75H2O where HL = 4-(salicylaldimineantipyrine, was isolated as an orange solid from the reaction of 4-(salicylaldimineantipyrine, with mixed cobalt(II acetate and nickel(II acetate in ethanol. The complex was characterized by Frustrated Total Internal Reflection (FTIR, UltraViolet Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis, X-ray single crystal diffraction, and by elemental analysis. The complex is composed of two symmetry independent cationic units, A and B. The two units are essentially isostructural; nevertheless, small differences exist between them. The units contain four metal atoms, arranged at the corners of a distorted cubane-like core alternately with phenoxy oxygen of the Schiff base. The overall eight corners occupied by metal ions in the asymmetric unit are shared between cobalt and nickel in a 5.33:2.67 ratio. Each metal divalent cation binds three coordinated sites from the corresponding tridentate Schiff base ligand, the fourth one is bound by the acetate oxygen, the fifth and the sixth donor sites come from the phenolate oxygens of other Schiff base ligands. Intermolecular hydrogen bonds join the complexes to the water molecules present in the crystal packing. The magnetic characterization was carried out for this new complex and for its isostructural counterpart containing only cobalt ions. The magnetic measurements for the cobalt(II/nickel(II mixed compound indicate either antiferromagnetic interactions among the two cubanes or an anisotropic contribution, whereas a ferromagnetic interaction is observed within the cubane, for both the complexes, as expected by geometrical considerations. A comparison between the magnetic properties of the pure cobalt(II derivative and similar systems discussed in literature, is presented.

  7. O rastro do dragão em quatro narradores cubanos The trail of the dragon in four cuban writers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogelio Rodríguez Coronel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Seguindo o rastro da cultura chinesa na cultura e literatura cubanas, este trabalho revela-se como um espaço para a discussão de um tema pouco tratado pela crítica, a presença chinesa na constituição da literatura cubana. O "rastro do dragão" é acompanhado desde o século XVII até a contemporaneidade, passando pela obra de autores como Severo Sarduy, Ramón Meza, José Martí e José Lezama Lima, máximos expoentes da modernidade nas letras em Cuba.Siguiendo las huellas de la cultura china en la cultura y la literatura cubanas, este trabajo se revela como un espacio para la discusión de un tema escasamente tratado por la crítica, la presencia china en la constitución de la literatura cubana. La "huella del dragón" es seguida en este estudio, desde el siglo XVII hasta la contemporaneidad, pasando por la obra de autores como Severo Sarduy, Ramón Meza, José Martí e José Lezama Lima, máximos exponentes de la modernidad de las letras en Cuba.Following the trail of Chinese culture in Cuban culture and literature, the paper discusses the Chinese presence in Cuban literature, a subject seldom covered by literary criticism, "The Trail of the...Dragon" is traced in this study from the XVII Century to the present, covering the work of such writers as Severo Sarduy, Ramón Meza, José Martí and José Lezama Lima, outstanding exponents of modernism in Cuban letters.

  8. Revolución Cubana y educación superior The Cuban Revolution and higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinesio C. Santos Gutiérrez

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Los autores elaboran un panorama de la educación superior cubana de los últimos años, subrayando los desafíos económicos y políticos debidos a las dificultades que el gobierno de Cuba está enfrentando desde 1989 (la desaparición del campo socialista; el recrudecimiento del bloqueo de EE.UU, la crisis económica y social del Sur; la "victoria del neoliberalismo", la necesidad de insertarse en un nuevo tipo de mercado mundial global. El artículo analiza las demandas e indicadores de la educación superior cubana, realzando las transformaciones que ocurren especialmente a partir del año 2001 respecto al aumento de la equidad, políticas de inclusión y consolidación de un nuevo modelo de ciencia y tecnología. Además, los autores presentan una tipología de la educación superior y consideran sus impactos en la sociedad cubana.The authors trace a view of Cuban higher education in recent years, emphasizing the economic and political challenges due to the difficulties faced by Cuba since 1989 at national and international levels (disappearance of the socialist field, tightening of the American blockade, the social and economic crisis of the South, the "victory of neo-liberalism", the need to insert itself in a new type of global market, etc.. The article analyses the demands and indicators of Cuban higher education, stressing the transformations that have occurred particularly after 2001, in relation to the increase of equity and inclusion policies, as well as the consolidation of a new model of science and technology. Furthermore, the authors present a typology of higher education and consider its impacts on the Cuban society.

  9. Phylogeography of Cuban Rivulus: evidence for allopatric speciation and secondary dispersal across a marine barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce de León, José Luis; León, Gunnary; Rodríguez, Rodet; Metcalfe, Cushla J; Hernández, Damir; Casane, Didier; García-Machado, Erik

    2014-10-01

    The genus Rivulus is currently comprised of two species, R. cylindraceus and R. insulaepinorum, which are endemic to Cuba. However, the taxonomic status of the latter species remains dubious because of the poor quality of the original description. In addition, a recent barcoding survey suggests that the two species may be conspecific. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the two species represent a single evolutionary clade. To delimit the species and their evolutionary history, we used a combination of molecular phylogenetic analyses, with both mitochondrial and nuclear sequences, tests of phylogeographic hypotheses, combined with morphological measurements and information on known dispersal barriers and species distribution. None of the data sets support R. insulaepinorum and R. cylindraceus as separate taxa. However, a new species, restricted to the northwestern part of the main island, was identified by phylogenetic analyses, body colour pattern and geographical distribution. The evolutionary distance between the two lineages (cytb, d=15%; CAM-4, d=2.5%) indicates a long period of divergence. Phylogeographic analyses shed light on the dispersal history of R. cylindraceus, which probably originated on the Isla de la Juventud. They also suggest that each lineage had contrasting histories; Rivulus sp. is restricted to a relatively small geographic area whereas R. cylindraceus has dispersed considerably and more than once from its centre of origin, probably facilitated by sea level fluctuations. These results strengthen previous findings, i.e. that the diversity of Cuban freshwater fishes is far from well-known and deserves more in-depth studies, and that vicariance and dispersal events have resulted in a complex biogeographical landscape which has had a significant impact on the freshwater fishes of the Caribbean islands. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Perceptions of the Third Sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, R.H.F.P.; Brink Lund, A.

    2014-01-01

    How do citizens in Europe view third sector organizations? How can differences in perceptions of the third sector among citizens in Europe be explained? And how is the third sector assessed therein with regard to its contribution to social innovation? Based on the limited scope of the evidence

  11. Higgs Portal into Hidden Sectors

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    Several attractive theoretical ideas suggest the existence of one or more 'hidden sectors' consisting of standard model singlet fields, some of which may not be too heavy. There is a profound reason to think that the Higgs sector might provide the first access to these hidden sectors. This scenario could affect Higgs phenomenology in drastic ways.

  12. GOVERNMENT ASSISTANCE FOR INFORMAL SECTOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UDS-CAPTURED

    operators of informal sector activities in three urban areas of Fiji that the major obstacle to informal sector business in Fiji is lack of finance (60%). Other constraints include lack of know- how and skills, and discriminatory government regulation. The most important expectation or requirement of informal sector operators in Fiji ...

  13. Factores de éxito y fracaso en el comportamiento innovador de las empresas ganaderas cubanas Success and failure factors in the innovating performance of the Cuban livestock production enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Suárez

    2007-09-01

    de éxito y fracaso de la innovación en el sector ganadero cubano son muy similares a los obtenidos en el sector industrial y referidos en la literatura internacionalWith the objective of learning the factors that favor the success of innovation and those that cause its failure, in the Cuban livestock production sector, a questionnaire was applied to the directors of a non probabilistic sample of 34 livestock production enterprises (36% of the sector, which comprised the different geographical zones of the country, all the types of production systems existing in Cuban livestock production, organizations in the different stages of the Enterprise Improvement process and the different enterprise sizes. The internal factors with the highest incidence on the success of innovation in the enterprises were considered to be: A Top Management opened to new ideas and inclined to assuming risks, the decentralization in decision-making and a participatory management, motivation and commitment to innovation in the managers, constant training of the personnel and execution of team work; while the external factors were the dynamics and turbulence of the surroundings, which demand changes in the enterprise, the establishment of cooperation links and networks in the country, the existence of state policies of support to innovation, having facility of access to international funding sources and possibilities of national financing for the development of innovation. Regarding the obstacles that constrain to a higher extent innovation in the enterprises, they are: scarcity of financial resources, external pressures on the enterprise, which have incidence on the productive and management processes, the possession of insufficient scientific and technological information, problems of availability and utilization of computing equipment, lack of efficient financing mechanisms for innovation, as well as insufficient mechanisms of incentives that encourage to innovate and establish links with

  14. Decadal variability in growth of the Caribbean spiny lobster Panulirus argus (Decapoda: Paniluridae in Cuban waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Estela de León

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Annual von Bertalanffy growth parameters of the Caribbean spiny lobster (Panulirus argus in Cuban waters were estimated from a long term study (40 years by length-based methods ELEFAN and the new version of SLCA. Data of around 800 000 lobsters (with carapace length ranging 14 to 199mm were randomly sampled in artificial shelters (a non selective fishing gear very common in the lobster fishery, through the field monitory program established for this species since 1963 in 14 localities of southwestern Cuban shelf. The software ELEFAN showed problems to converge in an optimal combination of the instantaneous growth coefficient (K and the asymptotic length (L8 of the von Bertalanffy equation, whereas the new SLCA software produced value estimates of K between 0.20 and 0.27 year-1 and values of L8 between 177 and 190 mm carapace length, all within the range reported in the literature. The standardized anomalies of both parameters showed the presence of cycles along the analyzed time series. Decadal variability in growth parameters was revealed through the spectral analysis indicating cycles of 16 and 20 years for K and of 16 years for L8. The incidence of some factors such as biomass and temperature that modulate growth in this crustacean was explored, using a nonlinear multiple regression model. These combined factors explained 33% and 69% of the variability of K and L8 respectively. The growth coefficient appeared to be maximum with annual mean sea surface temperature of 28.1º C and the largest L 8is reached at a annual men biomass level of 23 000 t. These results should be the basis to understand the Cuban lobster population dynamics. Rev. Biol. Trop. 53(3-4: 475-486. Epub 2005 Oct 3.Los parámetros de crecimiento anuales para la langosta espinosa del Caribe (Panulirus argus en aguas cubanas se estimaron para una serie de 40 años de datos de composición por longitud, a través de los métodos indirectos basados en la talla ELEFAN y el nuevo

  15. Performance indicators proposal for the government electric power distribution facilities in the Brazilian electric sector; Proposta de indicadores de desempenho as distribuidoras de energia federalizadas do setor eletrico brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carregaro, Jose Carlos

    2003-07-01

    In this dissertation a set of indicators is proposed to the Centrais Eletricas Brasileiras S/A - ELETROBRAS, allowing the holding companies to attain the top position in the market, and a global vision of their performance. The methodology applied the definition of the performance indicators and the context, existing studies, and the indicators used by the Brazilian electric sector. It is expected that the proposed set of indicators be used by ELETROBRAS for a better planning and a more objective control of the holding companies performance, as well as an analysis of their administration strong and weak aspects.

  16. The Wave Energy Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2017-01-01

    shaped by the development, research, and teaching that we have carried out at the Wave Energy Research Group at Aalborg University over the past decades. It is our belief and experience that it would be useful writing and compiling such a handbook in order to enhance the understanding of the sector......This Handbook for Ocean Wave Energy aims at providing a guide into the field of ocean wave energy utilization. The handbook offers a concise yet comprehensive overview of the main aspects and disciplines involved in the development of wave energy converters (WECs). The idea for the book has been...

  17. Private Sector Involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    New and independent donors are adding their own twist to the experiences of receiving ODA and their examples are already inspiring the DAC, UN, and other multiple- and bilateral aid relationships. Rather than competition among development paradigms, I see negotiations of ideas of development and ...... and a co-existence of a multiplicity of approaches. I will argue that a trend of new and old actors inspiring each other will continue and the explicit focus on private sector development is just a first outcome....

  18. [Materials for construction sector].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchia, C

    2012-01-01

    The construction sector is characterized by high complexity due to several factors. There are a lot of processes within the building sites and they need the use of different materials with the help of appropriate technologies. Traditional materials have evolved and diversified, meanwhile new products and materials appeared and still appear, offering services which meet user needs, but that often involve risks to the health of workers. Research in the field of materials, promoted and carried out at various levels, has led to interesting results, encoded in the form of rules and laws.

  19. Magnets repair for 3-4 sectors

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, L; Modena, M

    2009-01-01

    The incident in 3-4 sector has affected some 50 main LHC magnets. Such a scenario was never considered as realistic in the past. Our reserve of magnet has been barely sufficient (some 40 dipoles and 14 SSS, in some cases the reserve magnet types are not compatible with the one damaged). Furthermore the subsequent measurements on other sectors have shown the necessity to replace other magnets. The plan and methods for assessing the damage that occurred to a cold mass and the decision on its substitution, rather than a simple revamping of the magnet itself, will be discussed. The question if the magnets in the sector are adequate for powering and beam operation will be addressed. The implementation of the changes and their traceability will be presented. Finally the spare situation, which includes the plan for repairing and testing of all damaged cold masses of sector 3-4 and the impact on it of the 3-4 incident, is discussed.

  20. The Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962: A Case Study of the Tailored Use of Instruments of National Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    was to conduct a high altitude photo-reconnaissance mission to obtain aerial photographs of San Cristobal , Cuba. Major Heyser piloted his specially...Doctrine In 1823 President James Monroe proclaimed a policy ofnon- colonization and noninterference as a result ofnegotiations with Russia regarding...I I main themes: no European country could colonize within the Americas (North, South, and Central America) to include the Caribbean islands

  1. Energy and Exergy Analyses of the Danish Industry Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bühler, Fabian; Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Elmegaard, Brian

    2016-01-01

    with data for the years 2006 and 2012. The sectoral energy and exergy losses, as well as the exergy destruction, were further established to quantify the potential for recovering and valorising heat otherwise lost. By also considering transformation processes occurring in the utility sector, the impact...... analyses. The exergy losses amounted to 3800 TJ for the same year. Meanwhile, the complete exergy losses, including the central production of heat and power, exceeded 8700 TJ. This analysis illustrates for the case study of Denmark how waste heat recovery potentials in the industrial sectors are found...

  2. GLOBALIZATION IN TOURISM SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana LUPAN

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper points to recent developments in the tourism sector and highlights the leading factors of the internationalization of tourists travel and of tourism services, including information technologies, as well as the internationalization of hotel and tourism enterprises. Without neglecting the huge subsector of small and medium-sized enterprises, it describes typical features related to the composition of the labour force and to working conditions. It raises questions concerning the difficulties faced by the sector in attracting and retaining skilled workers in enhancing the skills of newcomers to the labour market in order to stabilize the sector’s labour force, while increasing the productivity of enterprises and the quality of services. Particular emphasis is put on new forms of management entailing new skills requirements, with a general tendency towards increased worker responsibility in an environment of flat hierarchies, multiskilling and teamwork.

  3. Oxygen-atom transfer chemistry and thermolytic properties of a di-tert-butylphosphate-ligated Mn4O4 cubane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Allsburg, Kurt M; Anzenberg, Eitan; Drisdell, Walter S; Yano, Junko; Tilley, T Don

    2015-03-16

    [Mn4O4{O2P(OtBu)2}6] (1), an Mn4O4 cubane complex combining the structural inspiration of the photosystem II oxygen-evolving complex with thermolytic precursor ligands, was synthesized and fully characterized. Core oxygen atoms within complex 1 are transferred upon reaction with an oxygen-atom acceptor (PEt3), to give the butterfly complex [Mn4O2{O2P(OtBu)2}6(OPEt3)2]. The cubane structure is restored by reaction of the latter complex with the O-atom donor PhIO. Complex 1 was investigated as a precursor to inorganic Mn metaphosphate/pyrophosphate materials, which were studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy to determine the fate of the Mn4O4 unit. Under the conditions employed, thermolyses of 1 result in reduction of the manganese to Mn(II) species. Finally, the related butterfly complex [Mn4O2{O2P(pin)}6(bpy)2] (pin = pinacolate) is described. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. [Change in the survival of Cuban AIDS patients with tuberculosis in the Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) era].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Corcho, Andrés; Capo de Paz, Virginia; Díaz-Jidy, Manuel; Pérez-Avila, Jorge; Bouza-Jiménez, Yadira

    2008-09-01

    HIV infection affected 0.06% of the Cuban population and AIDS associated tuberculosis (TB) represented 4.4% of cases in 2004. The objective of this study was to determine the survival of AIDS patients with TB. 167 individuals of both sexes and ages between 15 and 60 years old were studied; all of them were diagnosed in the Havana's Tropical Medicine Institute "Pedro Kourí", Cuba, between January 1st 1997 and May 31st 2005. The Kaplan-Meier's method and the Long-rank test were used for the survival, and the Cox's multivariate method to identify the variables associated with mortality by means of SPSS 9.0. 78 individuals of the total died at the end of study, 71.8% belonged to the pre highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era and 28.2% to the later period. From all deceased cases due to TB, 82.1% were diagnosed in the pre HAART era. The median survival was 41 months (CI=20-62). TB diagnosis in the pre HAART period, TB not being the first disease indicator of AIDS, suffering from candidiasis of esophagus before TB and a LTCD4+ count < 200 at the diagnosis of TB, were all independently associated with mortality. This study demonstrated the positive impact of HAART in the survival of Cuban AIDS patients with TB and also identified advanced immunodepression and opportunistic infections as predictors of mortality.

  5. Newly developed compact magnetic sector mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Dong; Yongjun, Cheng; Wenjun, Sun; Meiru, Guo; Lian, Chen; Huzhong, Zhang; Gang, Li; Xiaoqiang, Pei

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, a novel compact magnetic sector mass spectrometer has been developed and tested at the Lanzhou Institute of Physics. Its design is based on the mass separation of a 90° magnetic sector-field analyzer with a double trajectory, which has a magnetic induction of 0.7 T. The instrument can record mass range from 1 to 50 amu based on two special trajectories when the accelerating voltage of the ion source changes from 200 V to 2500 V. The dimensions of the device together with the electronic unit are approximately 220  ×  165  ×  165 mm3 (length  ×  depth  ×  height). The weight is 10.2 kg and the maximum power consumption was measured to be 20 W. The instrument successfully provided mass spectrum information on the vacuum test chamber, resolving power of about 58 at full width half maximum (FWHM), and demonstrated a sensitivity of 7.2  ×  10‑5 A Pa‑1. The compact magnetic sector mass spectrometer is designed for space application and can be extended to other portable analytical fields on Earth.

  6. Scheduling the powering tests

    CERN Document Server

    Barbero-Soto, E; Casas-Lino, M P; Fernandez-Robles, C; Foraz, K; Pojer, M; Saban, R; Schmidt, R; Solfaroli-Camillocci, M; Vergara-Fernandez, A

    2008-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider is now entering in its final phase before receiving beam, and the activities at CERN between 2007 and 2008 have shifted from installation work to the commissioning of the technical systems ("hardware commissioning"). Due to the unprecedented complexity of this machine, all the systems are or will be tested as far as possible before the cool-down starts. Systems are firstly tested individually before being globally tested together. The architecture of LHC, which is partitioned into eight cryogenically and electrically independent sectors, allows the commissioning on a sector by sector basis. When a sector reaches nominal cryogenic conditions, commissioning of the magnet powering system to nominal current for all magnets can be performed. This paper briefly describes the different activities to be performed during the powering tests of the superconducting magnet system and presents the scheduling issues raised by co-activities as well as the management of resources.

  7. Human papillomavirus infection in anal intraepithelial lesions from HIV infected Cuban men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limia, Celia M; Soto, Yudira; García, Yanara; Blanco, Orestes; Kourí, Vivian; López, María V; Toledo, María E; Pérez, Lissette; Baños, Yoanna; Caturla, Yaniris; Aguayo, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    An association between HPV infection and progression to anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASIL) has been established, specifically in high-risk populations such as HIV-infected men. In this population, anal cancer is one of the most common non-AIDS-defining malignancies. A cross-sectional study to detect anal lesions and HPV infection was performed. Anal mucosa samples were collected from 56 HIV-infected men from Cuba. The cytological diagnosis was done according to Bethesda 2001 System. HPV DNA detection was determined by qPCR for six high-risk HPV types and end point PCR for low-risk HPV types (6 and 11). The end point PCR with nucleotide sequencing technique was achieved to detect other genotypes of HPV not included in the qPCR in those samples negative for HPV- 6 and 11 or negative for the six genotypes identified in the qPCR. Cytological diagnosis identified 53 of 56 (95%) men with abnormal anal cytology. Among those, 26% (14/53) had atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US), 4% (2/53) had atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance cannot exclude high-grade lesions (ASC-H), 64% (34/53) had low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), and 6% (3/53) had high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL). HPV DNA was detected in 89% (50/56) of men and 79% had at least one of the high-risk HPV types. HPV- 16 was the most common genotype (52%), while HPV-18 was the most frequently detected genotype in men with HSIL. We found statistically significant differences in the HPV viral loads with respect to the cytology results (p = 0.0006) and that the practice of receptive anal sex was a risk factor for anal HPV infection (p = 0.032). This study shows a high prevalence of ASIL and high-risk HPV infections in the study group and is the first study showing the distribution of HPV genotypes in HIV infected Cuban men with abnormal anal cytology. This information may be of importance for local decision makers to improve

  8. Efficiency of basalt zeolite and Cuban zeolite to adsorb ammonia released from poultry litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuernberg, Giselle B; Moreira, Marcelo A; Ernani, Paulo R; Almeida, Jaime A; Maciel, Tais M

    2016-12-01

    Confined poultry production is an important livestock activity, which generates large amounts of waste associated with the potential for environmental pollution and ammonia (NH3) emissions. The release of ammonia negatively affects poultry production and decreases the N content of wastes that could be used as soil fertilizers. The objective of this study was to evaluate a low-cost, simple and rapid method to simulate ammonia emissions from poultry litter as well as to quantify the reduction in the ammonia emissions to the environment employing two adsorbent zeolites, a commercial Cuban zeolite (CZ) and a ground basalt Brazilian rock containing zeolite (BZ). The experiments were conducted in a laboratory, in 2012-2013. The zeolites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), physical adsorption of N2 (BET) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Ammonia released from poultry litter and its simulation from NH4OH solution presented similar capture rates of 7.99 × 10-5 and 7.35 × 10-5 mg/h, respectively. Both zeolites contain SiO2 and Al2O3 as major constituents, with contents of 84% and 12% in the CZ, and 51% and 12% in the BZ, respectively, besides heulandite groups. Their BET surface areas were 89.4 and 11.3 m2 g-1, respectively, and the two zeolites had similar surface morphologies. The zeolites successfully adsorbed the ammonia released, but CZ was more efficient than BZ, since to capture all of the ammonia 5 g of CZ and 20 g of BZ were required. This difference is due to higher values for the superficial area, porosity, CEC and acid site strength of CZ relatively to BZ. The proposed methodology was shown to be an efficient method to simulate and quantify the ammonia released from poultry litter. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Modelling a sector undergoing structural change: The case of Danish energy supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik

    2000-01-01

    emphasises that the large reduction potential of emissions from the energy supply sector is a one-time gain. Fuel switching and increasing use of wind power cannot be repeated. Scenarios carried out with the combined model show that emission reduction in the energy supply sector will decrease the share......This paper examines structural change in the power and heat producing sector (energy supply) and its implications for the economy. An integrated approach is used to describe the interactions between this sector and the rest of the economy. Thus, a very detailed model of the sector for Denmark has...... been linked to a macroeconometric model of the Danish economy. It is argued that analysing sectors that undergo radical changes, for example, the energy supply sector should be undertaken by using a model that describes the technological and organisational changes in production along with implications...

  10. COMPETITION IN ROMANIAN BANKING SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capraru Bogdan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent turmoil in the global financial system has impacted severely on the banking sector with many banks suffering large losses and necessitating the need to raise additional capital privately or through their respective national governments. In our study we investigate the impact of structural reforms performed throughout the European Union (EU accession process on competition and contestability of banking systems in Romania. The literature of the measurement of competition can be divided into two major approaches: structural and non-structural. The structural approach to the assessment of competition embraces the Structure-Conduct-Performance Hypothesis (SCP and the Efficient Structure Hypothesis (ESH. The structural approach, as the name suggests, assesses bank competition by examining measures of market structure such as concentration ratios (the share of assets held by the top 3 or 5 institutions or indices (e.g., the Herfindhal-Hirschman index and supposes that higher concentration in the banking market causes less competitive bank conduct and leads to higher bank profitability. The SCP model is originally developed by Bain (1956. The second approach, ESH, developed by Demsetz (1973 and Peltzmann (1977 suggests that the superior performance of the market leaders determines the market structure, implying that higher efficiency produces both higher concentration and greater profitability. The non-structural indicators of competition are mainly based on the measures of monopoly power developed by Lerner (1934. The Lerner Index suggests the mark-up of price over marginal cost. An alternative non-structural indicator of the degree of market competition is the Panzar and Rosse (1987 H-statistic. The H-statistic measures the extent to which changes in banking costs are reflected in changes in banking revenues. In order to examine the level of competition and market power of banks in Romania for period 2003 - 2009, we estimate the non

  11. State aid in banking sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Mikušová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The financial crisis has hit Europe with a truly unprecedented power, which has in early 2008 expected only a very small circle of pessimists. After the first cracks began to appear on the mortgage market in the U.S., however, started an avalanche that rolls until today. In today’s globalized world, it would be very naive to believe that this would not have an impact on the European Union internal market.With the crisis in the banking sector, the Member States of the European Union fought against the crisis in various ways. Allocation of the state aid in the first months of the crisis took place within the existing rules, yet it was necessary to enclose these huge expenditures by rules and regulations issued by the European Commission.This article discusses the types of state aid, which were used at the time from the first wave of state aid granted by Member States from 2008 to 2010 and also assess the current situation together with the evaluation of the approach of the European Commission.

  12. Regional transport sector mitigation options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Peter [EECG Consultants, Gaborone (Botswana)

    1998-10-01

    The rationale for conducting climate change mitigation studies in the transport sector is on the premise that: The transport sector is the second largest consumer of fossil fuels in the region; The regional transport sector is an area with high opportunity for infrastructural development under UNFCCC financial mechanism; The regional transport sector is crucial in the SADC region for trade and coupled with the Trade Protocol will play a major role in development hence the need to make it efficient in terms of energy demand and provision of services; The sector offers many mitigation options but with a challenge to evaluate their energy saving and GHG saving potential and yet there is need to quantify possible emission reduction for possible future emission trading. This is also a sector with potential to qualify for financing through Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) recently stipulated in the Kyoto Protocol. (au)

  13. SECTORAL SHARES AND ECONOMIC GROWTH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Nisar; Naveed, Amjad; Naz, Amber

    2013-01-01

    believe that structural change is an unimportant side effect of the economic development. On the contrary, economists associated with the World Bank and some others posit that growth is brought about by the changes in sectoral composition. The objective of this study is to empirically test...... the relationship between sectoral shares and economic growth by using the panel data for 20 developed countries. The results of the granger causality suggest that both services and agriculture sectors do granger cause economic growth, whereas industrial sector does not granger cause growth. Reverse causality does...... not hold for any of the three sectors. The results of Barro and Non-Barro regressions along with the set of control variables have suggested that services sector is negatively affecting growth, whereas both industrial and agriculture shares are positively affect economic growth....

  14. The Evolution of the Soviet Use of Surrogates in Military Relations with the Third World, with Particular Emphasis on Cuban Participation in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    terrorist groups can be maintained through the Cubans, so that the USSR can avoid the stigma attached, at least in the West, to support of terrorism. The...1976, p. Ql. But was the MPLA a "formally established government"? 3. Most accounts stress that voi’nteers are eager to escape boredom, racism , or

  15. The provincial archive as a place of memory: confronting oral and written sources on the role of former slaves in the Cuban war of independence (1895-98

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca J. Scott

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Focuses on the study of the role of former slaves in the Cuban War of Independence, in light of the avoidance of the theme of race within this war in Cuban historiography. Author discusses reasons for the silence on race issues, and for the historic construction of the "myth" of racial equality in this era. Then, she points at the difficulties in the studying of the presence of former slaves among the Cuban soldiers in the War of Independence, due to the absence of racial labels for the registered soldiers. She describes how the research on the theme became more local, and focused on the Cienfuegos region, in part because of Cienfuegos' extensive local archive. Then, she outlines the different approaches to research on the matter by the archives' director Orlando García Martínez, by Michael Zeuske, and by the author herself. The latter explains how she extended her archival research with oral testimonies of descendants in Cienfuegos of black soldiers, and how through examining life histories, collective biographies, and genealogies, she ascertained that the number of former slaves in the rebellious Cuban army was relatively small, but the number of free-born blacks and mulattoes was high.

  16. Cross-sectoral Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lene Ekholm

    2016-01-01

    workers like nurses, therapists, teachers and educators. The study indicates that the importance of the welfare worker has been overlooked in past discussions about the influence of talent on innovation and economic growth. Cooke (2013) sees the core process of innovation as knowledge recombination...... to the importance of joint learning in setups where experts and non-experts can meet and learn from each other in order to improve and innovate on the products. Something you could call a setup of temporary communities of practice (Gherardi and Nicolini, 2003). The case also shows that there is great interest......Cross-sectoral Innovation – The Challenge of Knowledge Sharing Keywords: Knowledge sharing, clusters, ANT, Communities of Practice, welfare technology With regard to meeting the challenges of the knowledge economy, a mode 2 of production (Gibbons et al., 2010), collaboration between actors across...

  17. Sector y empresa informal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Membreño Idiáquez

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Detrás de su aparente heterogeneidad, las distintas teorías sobre el sector y la empresa informal tienen en común importantes presupuestos epistemológicos y metodológicos. Esto se debe a que todos los teóricos de la informalidad han ido a llenar sus cántaros conceptuales a una misma y única fuente: la noción de informalidad propuesta originalmente por Keith Hart (1971 en los años setenta. Pero cuando hicieron suya la -noción de informalidad, los seguidores de Hart no pudieron despojarla nunca de las inconsistencias teóricas que le eran inherentes desde su origen, a pesar de haberla traducido y reformulado en el lenguaje propio de sus respectivas escuelas de pensamiento. Tal es la tesis que defiende el autor de este artículo.

  18. Energy Sector Market Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arent, D.; Benioff, R.; Mosey, G.; Bird, L.; Brown, J.; Brown, E.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Aabakken, J.; Parks, K.; Lapsa, M.; Davis, S.; Olszewski, M.; Cox, D.; McElhaney, K.; Hadley, S.; Hostick, D.; Nicholls, A.; McDonald, S.; Holloman, B.

    2006-10-01

    This paper presents the results of energy market analysis sponsored by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Weatherization and International Program (WIP) within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). The analysis was conducted by a team of DOE laboratory experts from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), with additional input from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The analysis was structured to identify those markets and niches where government can create the biggest impact by informing management decisions in the private and public sectors. The analysis identifies those markets and niches where opportunities exist for increasing energy efficiency and renewable energy use.

  19. Formal sector subcontracting and informal sector employment in Indian manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno-Monroy, A.I.; Pieters, J.; Erumban, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Using nationally representative survey dta of Indian manufacturing enterprises spanning the period 1995-2006, we analyze the link between formal sector subcontracting and informal sector employment. A novelty in our analysis is that this relationship is allowed to differ between modern and

  20. Trading of the electric power originated at biomass - regulatory incentives in the new electric sector model; Comercializacao de energia eletrica proveniente de biomassa. Incentivos regulatorios no novo modelo do setor eletrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariotoni, Carlos Alberto [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo. Grupo de Planejamento Energeticos e Sistemas Eletricos]. E-mail: cam@fec.unicamp.br; Agapito, Cassiano Augusto; Lima, Rodrigo Alves [AES Tiete S.A., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: cassiano.agapito@aes.com; rodrigoa.lima@aes.com

    2006-07-01

    Brazil offers excellent conditions to produce and use biomass as fuel in large scale. The electric energy generation from biomass presents a huge potential, however it is poorly explored up to this moment. Among the prime reasons by the lack of investments in that sector are the institutional obstacles and the risk aversion of investors who have a different focus in business and have difficulty to understand the complex market rules. The Brazilian government shows interest in increase the share of that source in the national installed capacity, since various social and environmental advantages, besides supplementary between the hydraulic and biomass inventory. The regulation changes since the law 10,848/04 and the decree 5,163/04 modify the structure of the electrical energy market and brought some incentives to the sells of the energy deriving from biomass. The possibility of trade your capacity, the annual Physical Guarantee definition and the reduction on transmission and distribution costs will be the center of our discussion. (author)