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Sample records for cuba exposicion radiologica

  1. Acting of the radiological surveillance of food in Cuba before anomalous situations; Actuacion de la vigilancia radiologica de alimentos en Cuba ante situaciones anomalas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez G, I.M.; Rodriguez C, G.; Carrazana G, J.; Capote F, E. [CPHR, Calle 20, No. 4113 e/41 y 47, Playa, La Habana, 11300 (Cuba)]. e-mail: isis@cphr.edu.cu

    2006-07-01

    Keeping in mind the real possibility of that would be imported to Cuba polluted foods with radionuclides, product of a nuclear or radiological accident happens one contamination of foods inside the national territory, it was designed and was into effect in January, 2000, a Program of Radiological Surveillance of Foods and Water, in the marks of the National Program of Surveillance of Pollutants in Foods and Water. This surveillance is executed in group among the National Unit of Health Environmental of the Ministry of Health and the Center of Protection and Hygiene of those Radiations of the Ministry of Sciences, Technology and Environment. In this work the design in the way of acting of the Radiological Surveillance of Foods and Water in Cuba, in the event of detection of anomalous situations is presented. The same one includes, the establishment of investigation levels for radionuclides in foods, the ways of performance of the System, of to be overcome or to be equaled the performance levels or established investigation, the flow of the information, as well as the work routine to continue by the essay laboratories, in the event of an anomalous situation. (Author)

  2. Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    Cuba's population characteristics, geography, history, government, political conditions, and foreign relations were briefly described. Cuba, the largest island in the East Indies, has a tropical climate and is made up of a large area of rolling plains and a smaller mountainous region. Cuba's current population of 9.946 million (1983) is 70% urban and 30% rural. The annual population growth rate is 1.1%. The literacy rate among those aged 10-49 years is 96%, and school is compulsory for 6 years. The infant mortality rate is 21/1000 live births, and life expectancy is 74.7 years. 47% of the work force is engaged in industry and commerce, 28% in services and government, and 25% in agriculture. Since the revolution, Cuba has had a centrally planned, nonmarket economy. Large state enterprises run all segments of the economy, and economic policy is formulated by a central planning board. Farmers are allowed to privately market some of their produce. The government provide a wide range of social services. Most of the services are free, but some entail a minimal fee. Cuba's economy is depressed and overly dependent on the production of sugar. Since the revolution, Cuba's sugar production has increased by only 1.1% annually. In addition to sugar production, the country is engaged in some food processing and other light forms of industry. Cuba has a large reserve of nickle. Cuba's economic indicators are calculated differently than those used in market countries and are not comparable to those used in market countries. In 1983, disposable national income was US$15.8 billion, and per capita income was US$2,590. Cuba's imports exceed her exports. In 1983 exports totalled US$6.5 billion and imports amounted to US$7.2 billion. Cuba's foreign debt is increasing annually, and Cuba is highly dependent on economic assistance from Russia. Between 1961-83, the USSR provided Cuba with US$30 billion in economic aid and US$10 billion in military aid. The country's serious economic

  3. Evaluation of radiation packages type A from the center of isotopes in Cuba; Evaluacion radiologica de los bultos tipo A del centro de isotopos de Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balbona, Zayda Amador; Pijuan, Saul Perez, E-mail: zabalbona@centis.edu.cu [Centro de Isotopos (CENTIS), Mayabeque (Cuba); Gual, Maritza Rodriguez, E-mail: mrgual@instec.cu [Instituto Superior de Tecnologias y Ciencias Aplicadas (InSTEC), la Habana (Cuba)

    2013-07-01

    The Isotope Center (CENTIS) of the Republic of Cuba makes the transportation of its products mainly in packaged type A. To undertake the design of packages, packaging components from 6 producing firms (including those found Amersham, CISBIO and IZOTOP) are studied. From the applicable regulations, security features and requirements are established as well as the technical characteristics of the packaging components. This study evaluated according each radioisotope, product and specific activity, high activity that can be included in a Type A package with the limitation that the dose rate on their surfaces is less than or equal to 2 mSv/h. In addition, each package is characterized taking into account the value of the maximum dose rate at maximum contact and the transport index for the day of transport. For this, the Microshield code using version 5.0.3. The dose rate in contact with the package of {sup 90}Y is calculated using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX version 2.6.0. The maximum possible activity values are obtained for each shielding transport radionuclides CENTIS produced, namely {sup 131}I, {sup 125}I, {sup 32}P, {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc, {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 188}Re and {sup 90}Y and 69 radioactive packages type A are evaluated.

  4. Program for the radiological protection of the embryos-fetuses due to the medical exposure of him mother; Programa para la proteccion radiologica del embrio-feto debido a la exposicion medica de su progenitora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez B, G.M.; Martinez G, A.; Cardenas H, J.; Gonzalez R, N.; Valdes R, M.; Zaldivar H, W. [CPHR, Calle 20 No. 4113 e/41 y 47, Playa C.P. 11300, La Habana (Cuba)]. e-mail: gladys@cphr.edu.cu

    2006-07-01

    In the last years the organizations in charge of the regulation in matter of radiological protection, its have adopted measures to minimize the risks derived of the medical exposures, paying special attention to those that involve women in age of procreation, gestating and in period of lactation, because the embryo - fetus and the newborn babies ones are very vulnerable to the risks of the ionizing radiations, which can end up producing them multiple effects of variable severity. In Cuba, a Maternal-children program that includes the genetic advice to the pregnant woman from the medical point of view exists but didn't so the evaluation of the radiological risk; which is only carried out by the Medical Surveillance Service of the Protection and Hygiene of the Radiations Center (CPHR), without that mediates an official link among both parts and whose existence is only known by a reduced group of professionals of the health and of specialists in Radiological Protection. On the other hand is not established a strategy at national level for the differentiated information and systematic in these topics that it contributes to the control of the exposures of the embryo fetus and the breast-fed baby. Keeping in mind the above-mentioned the specialists of the CPHR have elaborated a proposal of national program for the radiological protection of the embryo- fetus due to the medical exposure of its progenitor. In the same one it is settles down the interrelation between work groups and multidisciplinary institutions to achieve the detection, communication and consultant ship of the cases of exposure to the fetus or breast-fed baby that happen in the country and at the same time include the training so much of the professionals of the health like of the public in general. Presently work the program and the elements that conform it among those that are, the on-line system developed for the automation of the medical dosimetric evaluation, the technician

  5. Evaluation of the occupational exposure to external sources of ionizing radiation in Cuba in the period 2001-2005; Evaluacion de la exposicion ocupacional a fuentes externas de radiacion ionizante en Cuba en el periodo 2001-2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina P, D.; Martinez H, E.; Castro S, A. [Laboratorio de Dosimetria Externa, CPHR, A.P. 6195, C.P. 10600, La Habana (Cuba)]. e-mail: daniel@cphr.edu.cu

    2006-07-01

    The single radiological surveillance of the occupational exposure to external radiation sources in Cuba it is carried out by the Radiation Protection and Hygiene Center (CPHR). The data corresponding to the external exposure are presented. The service it covers to all the occupationally exposed workers (TOEs) of the country that work fundamentally the radiodiagnostic practices, nuclear medicine, radiotherapy and research. The purpose of this work is to carry out an analysis of the occupational exposures of the TOE of the country starting of the results registered by the service of single radiological surveillance in the period 2001 to 2005, keeping in mind the indicators used by the UNSCEAR. The annual average effective dose (E) for each practice is shown. The obtained results showed that the values of annual average effective dose (E) its are bigger for the radiodiagnostic practices, radiotherapy and nuclear medicine. In a general way, all the E values are inferior to 2.00 mSv. The number of TOEs that overcame the 20 mSv established as annual dose limit, it went inferior to 1% of the controlled total universe. (Author)

  6. Use of information technologies to contribute for optimizing the safety radiation management in Cuba; Uso de las tecnologias de la informacion, para contribuir a la optimizacion de la gestion de la seguridad radiologica en Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdes Ramos, M.; Prendes Alonso, M.; Hernandez Saiz, A.; Manzano de Armas, J., E-mail: zury@cphr.edu.cu [Agencia de Energia Nuclear y Tecnologias de Avanzada (CPHR/AENTA), La Habana (Cuba). Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents the results achieved in Cuba, with the development of a group of information management tools to implement radiation safety systemic and proactive approaches to safety and ICT supported. These tools were designed for different organisms with responsibility for the security at the country level, to the regulatory authority, for user entities, for individual monitoring services and other radiation protection services. It describes the philosophy of information management model used, the characteristics of the developed tools and their integration, the work performed for the homogenization of information available and the ability to capture and deliver data at different levels in decision making. The tools developed are based on the use of variables and indicators of importance to the safety and the systemic approach adopted allows to facilitate the optimization process for supervision of safety practices as well as contribute to the management of knowledge in radiation safety, through a synergistic combination of process data, information, information management systems, and the creative and innovative radiation safety experts.

  7. Validation of the implementation of the basic standards of national radiological safety in radioactive facilities of the east Cuba; Valoracion de la implementacion de las normas basicas de seguridad radiologica nacionales en instalaciones radiactivas del oriente de Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez G, F.; Fornet R, O.M. [Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnologia y Medio Ambiente. Delegacion Territorial Holguin, Peralta No.16. Rpto Peralta, C.P. 80400 Holguin (Cuba)]. e-mail: ornuc@citmahlg.holguin.inf.cu

    2006-07-01

    Since with it publication in the Official Gazette of the Republic of Cuba began to govern the Basic Standards of Radiological Safety (NBSR) its have lapsed five years. In it practical implementation, by part of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN), several resources have been applied among those that its find the identification of the nonfulfillment of the requirements of the NBSR in the inspections, the establishment of validity conditions of the authorizations that are granted, emission and the publication of specific Safety Guides by practice. In the work it is carried out a detailed and integral analysis of the execution of those settled down requirements by the Standards in a representative group of radioactive medical and industrial facilities in the east of the country, by means of the valuation of the deficiencies and requirements pointed out in the inspections carried out during those years 2004 and 2005. As a result of the work the particularities of the level of proven implementation of this body are exposed from the point of view of the ARN that one keeps in mind for it later performance and can being of interest for others regulatory authorities. (Author)

  8. Sala de exposiciones, en Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sáenz de Oiza, Francisco

    1964-09-01

    Full Text Available The Huarte Building houses an 800 square metre section devoted to meetings, lectures and exhibitions. This extends over three storeys, namely ground floor, first and second basements. The first basement level is a single large room, meant primarily for meetings and exhibitions. It has a large table in the centre, folding seats round the sides, two small discussion Corners and a bar. Illumination is provided through stiff plastic trays hanging from the ceiling, which serve to diffuse the fluorescent lighting. They also distribute the conditioned air, which emerges from the joints between the trays. The second basement is also an exhibition room, but is meant to function as a permanent installation. There is a central platform, and it can serve as a small discussion and lecture hall. As the ceiling is very low, the lighting comes from the perimeter, and point lights are also fitted. The floors, walls and columns are painted in brilliant white: this aids the lighting and tends to offset the sensation of being in a confined space, below street level. Building materials include Balsain pinewood, steel and lather fittings: the wood and leather are left in their natural colour, and steel has been painted red. The sheer yellow of the timber and orange red of the steel, as well as the yellow green of the carpet are part of an important colour pattern that, together with indoor vegetation give this hall its essential ambiental quality.Dentro del edificio Huarte, este local de exposiciones, reuniones y conferencias ocupa un total aproximado de 800 m2, repartidos en tres plantas: baja, primer sótano y segundo sótano. El primer sótano forma un espacio único, dedicado esencialmente a reuniones y exposiciones, con una gran mesa central, asientos incorporados replegables, y dos pequeños ambientes de tertulia con bar. La iluminación, artificial, proviene de un techo de bandejas de plástico rígido, que actúan como disperseras de la luz fluorescente, y al

  9. Concurrent Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, T.

    2016-10-01

    The parallel version of the multidimensional numerical integration package Cuba is presented and achievable speed-ups discussed. The parallelization is based on the fork/wait POSIX functions, needs no extra software installed, imposes almost no constraints on the integrand function, and works largely automatically.

  10. Radiation protection in occupational exposure to microwave electrotherapy units; Proteccion radiologica en exposicion ocupacional a microondas en unidades de electroterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guardia, V.; Ferrer, S.; Alonso, O.; Almonacid, M.

    2012-07-01

    During the last years, electromagnetic emitters are more and more commonly used for therapeutic treatments in electrotherapy centers. This extended use has caused worries workers, who believe that microwave radiation radiation might have effects similar to those induced by radioactivity, even if the only effects recognised by international regulatory bodies concerning microwave exposure of humans are those of thermal origin. The present study aims to answer the existing concerns about electromagnetic exposure in electrotherapy facilities. After monitoring environmental values in an electrotherapy facility, we conclude that actions must be undertaken in order to reduce the exposure levels, as proposed by the current European guidelines, which should become legally binding for all EU state members within the current year. With the purpose of reducing potential risks of occupational overexposure, we are developing innovative fabrics for microwave shielding. These new materials are able to attenuate 85% of the microwave radiation. As these are light materials, they can be used in all kind of facilities, as wall covers, movable screens or even as personal protection, like lab clothes or gloves. (Author) 6 refs.

  11. Tsunamis in Cuba?; Tsunamis en Cuba?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotilla Rodriguez, M. O.

    2011-07-01

    Cuba as neo tectonics structure in the southern of the North American plate had three tsunamis. One of them [local] occurred in the Central-Northern region [1931.10.01, Nortecubana fault], the other was a tele tsunami [1755.11.01, in the SW of the Iberian Peninsula] that hit the Bay of Santiago de Cuba, and the third took place at 1867.11.18, by the regional source of Virgin Islands, which produced waves in the Eastern Cuban region. This tsunami originated to the NE of Puerto Rico in 1918.10.11, with another earthquake of equal magnitude and at similar coordinates, produced a tsunami that did not affect Cuba. Information on the influence of regional tsunami in 1946.08.08 of the NE of the Dominican Republic [Matanzas] in Northwestern Cuba [beaches Guanabo-Baracoa] is contrary to expectations with the waves propagation. The local event of 1939.08.15 attributed to Central- Northern Cuba [Cayo Frances with M = 8.1] does not correspond at all with the maximum magnitude of earthquakes in this region and the potential of the Nortecubana fault. Tsunamis attributed to events such as 1766.06.11 and 1932.02.03 in the Santiago de Cuba Bay are not reflected in the original documents from experts and eyewitnesses. Tsunamis from Jamaica have not affected the coasts of Cuba, despite its proximity. There is no influence in Cuba of tsunamigenic sources of the southern and western parts of the Caribbean, or the Gulf of Mexico. Set out the doubts as to the influence of tsunamis from Haiti and Dominican Republic at Guantanamo Bay which is closer to and on the same latitude, and spatial orientation than the counterpart of Santiago de Cuba, that had impact. The number of fatalities by authors in the Caribbean is different and contradictory. (Author) 76 refs.

  12. Centro de exposiciones en Chicago – EE.UU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F. Murphy, Asociados, arquitectos-ingenieros

    1972-11-01

    Full Text Available This building, the reconstruction and enlargement of the old, fire-damaged Center of Expositions, has been executed in three levels consisting of various exhibition halls, theater, and complemented by cafeterias, restaurants, meeting rooms, dignitary suites, and parking facilities. The access and unloading platforms which serve the exhibition sites are located in the intermediate level. Principal characteristics are, on the one hand, the large area for pedestrians and automobiles, which separates the exhibition area from the theater area, and on the other hand, the structure. The 150-foot square bays for the two-way steel truss roof system impart a spaciousness consonant with the prior design concept. For this enlargement it was necessary to use part of the adjoining lake to effect retaining walls and earth fill in the newly acquired zones.Este edificio, reconstrucción y ampliación del antiguo Centro de Exposiciones que fue dañado por un incendio, ha sido planteado en tres niveles, en los que se distribuyen los diversos salones de exposición y el teatro, completados por cafeterías, restaurante, cocinas, almacenes, tiendas y zona de aparcamientos. El acceso y los muelles de descarga que sirven a los locales de exposición, están situados en el nivel intermedio. Sus características principales son, por una parte, el gran paso para peatones y automóviles, que separa la zona de exposiciones y la del teatro, y por otra, la estructura, a base de entramados metálicos apoyados sobre grandes pilares muy distanciados, creando amplios espacios libres, acordes con su utilización posterior. Para esta ampliación hubo que utilizar parte del lago cercano, disponiendo muros de contención y rellenos de tierra en la nueva zona adquirida.

  13. Las representaciones del trabajo en clave efimera: escenarios vendimiales y pabellones de exposiciones en Mendoza , 1946-1955

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marchionni, Franco

    2012-01-01

    .... A partir del estudio de escenarios vendimiales y pabellones de exposiciones utilizados por el aparato de propaganda peronista, se intenta reconstruir una mirada que advierte la accion deliberada...

  14. Black Youth in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Gerald C.

    1975-01-01

    Cuban social system has eliminated discrimination, racism, sexism and unemployment and created equal opportunity for all. Cuba is upheld as model for all forward looking U.S. citizens to study. (Author/AM)

  15. Las Haloragaceae de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betancourt Gandul, Martha

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A study of the Haloragaceae in Cuba is presented. The presence of Proserpinaca palustris, P. pectinata. Myriophyllum laxum and M. pinnatum is confirmed, and the possible extinction of M. sparsiflorum is suggestedEstudio de la familia Haloragaceae en Cuba. Se confirma la existencia de Proserpinaca palustris, P. pectinata. Myriophyllum laxum y M, pinnatum, y se plantea la posible extinción de M. sparsiflorum.

  16. Cuba: transition of disintegration?

    OpenAIRE

    Jean Stubbs

    1998-01-01

    [First paragraph] Toward a New Cuba? Legacies of a Revolution. MIGUEL ANGEL CENTENO & MAURICIO FONT (eds.). Boulder CO: Lynne Rienner, 1997. ix + 245 pp. (Cloth US$ 49.95) Essays on Cuban History: Historiography and Research. Louis A. PEREZ, JR. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1994. xiv + 306 pp. (Cloth US$ 44.95) Cuba's Second Economy: From Behind the Scenes to Center Stage. JORGE F. PEREZ-LOPEZ. New Brunswick NJ: Transaction, 1995. 221 pp. (Cloth US$ 32.95)...

  17. An Island Called Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Stubbs

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Review of: An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba. Ruth Behar, photographs by Humberto Mayol. New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2007. xiii + 297 pp. (Cloth US$ 29.95 Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography. Fidel Castro & Ignacio Ramonet. New York: Scribner/Simon & Schuster, 2008. vii + 724 pp. (Paper US$ 22.00, e-book US$ 14.99 Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know. Julia E. Sweig. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. xiv + 279 pp. (Paper US$ 16.95 [First paragraph] These three ostensibly very different books tell a compelling story of each author’s approach, as much as the subject matter itself. Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography is based on a series of long interviews granted by the then-president of Cuba, Fidel Castro, to Spanish-Franco journalist Ignacio Ramonet. Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know, by U.S. political analyst Julia Sweig, is one of a set country series, and, like Ramonet’s, presented in question/answer format. An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba, with a narrative by Cuban-American anthropologist Ruth Behar and photographs by Cuban photographer Humberto Mayol, is a retrospective/introspective account of the Jewish presence in Cuba. While from Ramonet and Sweig we learn much about the revolutionary project, Behar and Mayol convey the lived experience of the small Jewish community against that backdrop.

  18. Cuba. A healthy revolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, M; Haendel, M

    1991-01-01

    Discussing Cuba's remarkable accomplishments in health care, this article considers the cost of maintaining such a system at a time of economic hardship. Following the revolution of 1959, Cuba has achieved immense advances in health care. Today, its infant mortality rate if the lowest in Latin America and at par with industrialized countries. Its life expectancy is actually higher than that of the US. At 1 doctor for every 297 inhabitants, Cuba has one of the highest ratios in the world. Furthermore, the island nation has created a pharmaceutical industry that supplies 80% of the country's needs, and has a developed high-tech medical techniques which rival the best in the world. And beginning in mid-1980s, Cuba began the Family Doctor Program, in which a physician lives and works in the neighborhood and acts as a public health advocate, while remaining part of the larger health care system. The program has been very popular with the population, and evidence suggests that the program has been highly successful in reducing infant mortality, the number of emergency room visits, and the average hospital stay. Despite its remarkable success, Cuba's health care system does attract criticism. Some charge that Cubans are "over-medicated," and that Cubans no longer take responsibility for their health. Also, some charge that the country has too many doctors and not enough assistants, nurses, and midwives. These criticisms have become even more pointed, as the country's economic crisis deepens. People complain about the scarcity of food. And due to drastic cuts in Soviet aid and the US blockade, Cuba has been forced to impose severe austerity measures. While the authors believe it unlikely that Cuba will be able to maintain its health care system, they say that ending it will be tragic.

  19. The `Sol` of Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, L. [Solar Energy International, Carbondale, CO (United States)

    1997-03-01

    Cuba`s renewable energy program was discussed. Prior to 1989, Cuba`s electricity was based on petroleum imported from the socialist bloc at low prices. With the demise of the socialist bloc, Cuba had to reduce its energy usage by 50 per cent, which led to a complete revamping of the national energy plan and a huge push for renewable energy. Today, sugar cane is supplying almost 30 per cent of the energy used in Cuba. 156 sugar mills use sugar cane residue to power their mills. The excess is sold back to the grid. Micro-hydro power is the second most important renewable energy source in the country. A total of 220 micro-hydro systems generate 80 GWh annually. The mountain town of Magdalena, a photovoltaic (PV)-powered community of 574 people, was cited as an example of the strides made in renewable energy development in the Carribean island country. Because the community is off the power grid, each house has its own 70 watt PV system which supplies 18 lighting hours power day. There are 11-watt PV street lights lining the streets. A 3 kW PV powered water pumping system pumps 30,000 gallons of water per day for the entire community. Throughout Cuba there are a total of 295 PV powered rural homes, three community systems averaging 2500 peak watts each, and over 50 PV powered doctor`s offices. Because of the intense summer heat, Cubans have devised a reverse greenhouse so they can grow winter crops in the summer. There are also 9000 wind mills in service, pumping water. 3 figs.

  20. TRASTORNOS DEL ESPECTRO AUTISTA Y EXPOSICIONES OCUPACIONALES DE LOS PROGENITORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Pino-López

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamentos: Estudios con hermanos y gemelos sugieren un componente genético en el origen del autismo que no explica su crecimiento actual. El objetivo es investigar si factores ambientales como algunas exposiciones profesionales (trabajo nocturno, manejo de disolventes y/o campos electromagnéticos incrementan la probabilidad de trastornos del espectro autista (TEA en los hijos. Métodos: Estudio observacional de casos y controles mediante análisis de expedientes de 206 niños entre 16 y 36 meses de edad evaluados en el Servicio de Atención Temprana de Ciudad Real (70 con TEA y 136 no afectados. Para medir el riesgo de TEA asociado al trabajo nocturno, con disolventes y/o campos electromagnéticos se calculó la odds ratio (OR con un intervalo de confianza (IC del 95%. Resultados: El riesgo de TEA se multiplica por 2,22 cuando un progenitor trabaja en las ocupaciones estudiadas (OR=2,22, IC 95%=1,42-3,48, destacando trabajo con disolventes (OR=2,81, IC 95%=1,28-6,17 y nocturno (OR=2,18, IC 95%=1,21-3,93. El riesgo se multiplica por 3 si la madre trabaja en estas ocupaciones (OR=3, IC95%=1,44-6,26, destacando trabajo nocturno (OR=3,47, IC 95%=1,39-8,63 y con disolventes (OR=2,88, IC 95%=1,28-6,17. El riesgo se multiplica por 1,94 si el padre trabaja en estas ocupaciones(OR=1,94, IC 95%=1,07-3,53 y por 2,81 con disolventes (OR=2,81, IC 95%=1,01-7,86. Se encontró asociación positiva entre nivel educativo de los progenitores y TEA. Conclusiones: Encontramos relación significativa entre exposición de los progenitores a los riesgos estudiados y TEA en los hijos. Los resultados sugieren la participación de alteraciones genéticas ocasionadas por factores ambientales en el origen del trastorno.

  1. Cuba: Background to a Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Fuente, Alejandro

    2000-01-01

    Provides historical information on Cuba. Addresses early colonization, the advent of plantation agriculture, the role and presence of the United States in the Caribbean and Cuba, and the social and economic developments in Cuba after the revolution in 1959 led by Fidel Castro. (CMK)

  2. Cuba: transition of disintegration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Stubbs

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Toward a New Cuba? Legacies of a Revolution. MIGUEL ANGEL CENTENO & MAURICIO FONT (eds.. Boulder CO: Lynne Rienner, 1997. ix + 245 pp. (Cloth US$ 49.95 Essays on Cuban History: Historiography and Research. Louis A. PEREZ, JR. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1994. xiv + 306 pp. (Cloth US$ 44.95 Cuba's Second Economy: From Behind the Scenes to Center Stage. JORGE F. PEREZ-LOPEZ. New Brunswick NJ: Transaction, 1995. 221 pp. (Cloth US$ 32.95 Sport in Cuba: The Diamond in the Rough. PAULA J. PETTAVINO & GERALYN PYE. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1994. ix + 301 pp. (Cloth US$ 49.94, Paper US$ 19.95 Cuba is clearly at yet another major turning point, and the four books under review here testify, each in its way, to this. Two are single-authored monographs (one on sport, the other on the informal economy one is a single-authored collection of essays on history and historiography; and one is a multidisciplinary anthology of essays by various authors. In approach, they cover a broad political spectrum, and all are concerned with an understanding of process in Cuba, whether prior to or since the 1959 revolution, pre- or post-1989, or during the 1990s.

  3. Historical revision of the exposure magnitude and the dosimetric magnitudes used in radiological protection; Revision historica de la magnitud exposicion y las magnitudes dosimetricas empleadas en proteccion radiologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez J, F. [UNAM, Facultad de Ciencias, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Alvarez R, J. T., E-mail: trinidad.alvarez@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Departamento de Metrologia de Radiaciones Ionizantes, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    In this work a historical revision of the exposure magnitude development and their roentgen unit (1905 - 2011) is made, noting that it had their origin in the electric methods for the detection of the ionizing radiation in the period of 1895 at 1937. However, the ionization is not who better characterizes the physical, chemical and biological effects of the ionizing radiations, but is the energy deposited by this radiation in the interest bodies, which led historically to the development of dosimetric magnitudes in energy terms like they are: the absorbed dose D (1950), the kerma K (1958) and the equivalent dose H (1962). These dosimetric magnitudes culminated with the definition of the effective equivalent dose or effective dose which is not measurable and should be considered with the operative magnitudes ICRU: H environmental equivalent dose and/or H directional equivalent dose, which can be determined by means of a conversion coefficient that is applied to the exposure, kerma in air, fluence, etc. (Author)

  4. Radiation protection and quality for medical exposures. Recommendations for its promotion and coordination; Proteccion radiologica y calidad en las exposiciones medicas. Sugerencias para su promocion y coordinacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vano, E.; Bezares, M.; Lopez, P.

    2003-07-01

    Relevant aspects on radiological protection for medical exposures are described taking into account the Spanish and European legal frameworks. Some specific topics will still require clarification or additional actions. The called special practices: exposures of children, health screening and high doses exposures to the patients need particular attention in the quality programmes. The need for coordination at local (Autonomous Communities), national and european level is highlighted. Safety and radiological protection aspects entail additional requirements to the quality programmes at the medical installations using ionizing radiations. Appropriate staffing and infrastructure are especially critical. Priorities from several international and european programmes and working groups are quoted. A proposal for actions to foster quality aspects in the medical exposures, with emphasis in resources, training and research is made. The impact of the introduction of digital radiology in the health system during the next years will require specific quality programmes to profit the advantages of this new technology. (Author) 19 refs.

  5. Variaciones en los costos de tratamientos farmacologicos segun exposicion al habito tabaquico: estudio de caso en pacientes cardiovasculares

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ripari, Nadia Vanina; Elorza, Maria Eugenia; Moscoso, Nebel Silvana; Vega, Maria Elena

    2011-01-01

    Diferentes autores han demostrado la asociacion existente entre la exposicion a ciertos factores de riesgo y el incremento en los costos de los tratamientos farmacologicos de las enfermedades cardiovasculares...

  6. Periferia de la periferia. Sobre el papel de las exposiciones colectivas en la definicion del arte caribeno contemporaneo

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garrido Castellano, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    El presente articulo se aproxima a la realidad del arte contemporaneo del Caribe a traves de las exposiciones colectivas de arte caribeno que se generan en la decada de los noventa y que constituyen...

  7. Occupational exposure in services of Oncological Hospital of Camaguey; Exposicion ocupacional en los servicios del Hospital Oncologico de Camaguey, Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreras, C.A.; Brigido, F.O.; Naranjo, L.A. [Centro de Atencion a la Actividad Nuclear, Camaguey (Cuba)]. E-mail: sean@caonao.cmw.inf.cu; Sanches, M.P. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: msanches@net.ipen.br; Lasserra, S.O.; Hernandez, G.J. [Hospital Oncologico Marie Curie, Camaguey (Cuba)

    2001-07-01

    The Nuclear Medicine Service of the Cancer Hospital at Camaguey presents data on the occupationally exposure workers, during 1990-1999, obtained from film dosimetry. The outcomes show that: the average of annual effective equivalent dose for nuclear medical personnel was 2.47 mSv, while 2.13 mSv were to represent radiotherapy and 1.11 mSv were to represent the personnel tied to the others radiodiagnostic services, in the same period; 88,3% of the nuclear medicine personnel and the 94.9% of the radiotherapy personnel have received doses inferior to 3 mSv/year; the total collective dose for the studied period were 212.5, 189.8 and 22.3 mSv.man for nuclear medicine and radiotherapy and other medical users respectively. In this work, the annual behavior of the total collective doses is described based on the evaluation of the contribution of different radiodiagnostic procedures carried out at the Hospital. Others aspects related to biological radiation effects of occupational exposure and some outcomes are compared with those from the data of the other countries.

  8. Storm Warnings for Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    cabo importantes innovaciones en la agricultural estatal," Granma, September 15, 1993, p. 1. ’ 5 Douglas Farah, "Slowly, Cuba Reaps Profit with...major obstacle to a negotiated pact be- tween the regime and opposition groups. Without a Solidarity-type movement, a strong Catholic Church, and a Lech

  9. Cuba's National Immunization Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Gail; Galindo, Miguel A

    2008-10-01

    The National Immunization Program (NIP) begun in 1962 has considerably reduced the infectious disease burden in Cuba over the years, especially among children. The Ministry of Public Health estimates that some 560,000 children would have contracted these diseases, some with fatal outcomes, had it not been for the aggressive vaccination strategy begun 45 years ago and developed since then.

  10. IDRC in Cuba

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Draw ing on research findings, for example, Cuba's. Ministry of Health recognized a basic list of medicinal plants for use in primary health care. With the traditional seed supply system in disarray, researchers improved crops by putting farmers at the heart of the plant-breeding process. Local farmers worked with researchers.

  11. The challenge for Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudio, L

    1999-05-01

    The restrictions of a U.S. trade embargo and the collapse of the Soviet Union marked the beginning of a period of extreme economic hardship in Cuba. Economic adversity has had tremendous effects, both positive and negative, on all aspects of life on the Island, including environmental and public health.

  12. Where Does Cuba Stand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-14

    number of foreign tourists visiting the island, which has resulted in the virtual exclusion of the criollos from the choice spots in the littoral, and has...Anallsis Infurmativo de la Realidad ," paper delivered at the Annual Congress of the Partido Democrat. Cristlano de Cuba, Miami, June 4, 1993, pp. 19-23. 25

  13. Normas de préstamo de obras de la biblioteca para exposiciones

    OpenAIRE

    Jornadas de Cooperación Bibliotecaria Grupo de Trabajo de Patrimonio Bibliográfico

    2002-01-01

    Normas elaboradas por el Grupo de Trabajo de Patrimonio Bibliográfico, constituido en el marco de las Jornadas de Cooperación Bibliotecaria entre el Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deporte y las Comunidades Autónomas. Aquí se establecen un conjunto de normas para el préstamo a otras instituciones de los fondos conservados en las bibliotecas públicas en materia de exposiciones bibliográficas.

  14. Bagasse utilization in Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-11-01

    Fluctuations in world sugar prices retard economic development in sugar-producing countries like Cuba, and so there is a pressing need to find alternative uses for sugar cane through the industrialization of its by-products, such as bagasse. In 1971 the United Nations Development Program began a cooperative venture with the Cuban Research Institute for Sugar Cane Derivatives to develop methods of making newsprint from bagasse. An experimental plant - Cuba 9, located 35 kilometers south of Havana, was inaugurated in May 1981. It is semi-commercial in character and has a daily capacity of 34 tonnes of newsprint and five tonnes of dissolving pulp. Pilot plants for the production of furfural and for the production of reconstituted panelboard are in operation.

  15. Cuba confronts climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Gisela; Clark, Ismael

    2015-04-01

    Among environmental problems, climate change presents the greatest challenges to developing countries, especially island nations. Changes in climate and the resulting effects on human health call for examination of the interactions between environmental and social factors. Important in Cuba's case are soil conditions, food availability, disease burden, ecological changes, extreme weather events, water quality and rising sea levels, all in conjunction with a range of social, cultural, economic and demographic conditions.

  16. Cuba on our minds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Rutheiser

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Conversatons with Cuba. C. PETER RIPLEY. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1999. xxvi + 243 pp. (Cloth US$ 24.95 Real Life in Castro's Cuba. CATHERINE MOSES. Wilmington DE: Scholarly Resources, 2000. xi + 184 pp. (Paper US$ 18.95 The Cuban Way: Capitalism, Communism, and Confrontation. ANA JULIA JATAR-HAUSMANN. West Hartford CT: Kumarian Press, 1999. xvii + 161 pp. (Paper US$21.95 Castro and the Cuban Revolution. THOMAS M. LEONARD. Westport CT: Greenwood Press, 1999. xxv + 188 pp. (Cloth US$ 45.00 Cuba has attracted a great deal of attention from both scholarly and popular authors since 1959. The literature that they have produced has generated much heat, but has shed a considerably smaller amount of light. Most accounts have been situated at the polar extremes of ideology, either condemning or celebrating the island's revolutionary experiment and its maximum leader (for the former is often virtually totally collapsed into the personage of Fidel Castro with the same degrees of vociferous, simplistic certitude. However, neither the fulminating diatribes of the anti-Castro Right nor the fulsome paeans of the Euro-American Left have done much justice to making sense of the complex, confounding, and contradictory realities of Cuban society before, during, and after the Revolution. Indeed, contemporary developments have only magnified the distortions rendered by the astigmatic lenses of cold war intellectualism.

  17. A democracia em Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Guanche Zaldívar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O triunfo revolucionário de 1959 consagrou em Cuba um novo conceito de democracia, com o intuito de garantir o acesso à vida política ativa de grandes setores da população, antes excluídos. Para isso, foi desenvolvida uma política de inclusão social com caráter universal. A prática política popular deixou as riquezas do país em mãos da população carente e gerou uma grande mobilidade social, fato que foi central para o aumento da participação popular. O contexto de agressão imperialista e o próprio desenvolvimento do processo produziram a consolidação de noções que limitaram a participação popular: o apogeu da burocracia, a compreensão da unidade como unanimidade e o seguimento, em certa medida, de correntes do marxismo soviético. Os desafios atuais para aprofundar a democracia em Cuba se apresentam em três planos: socializar o poder, promover a sociodiversidade e desenvolver a ideologia revolucionária.El triunfo revolucionario de 1959 consagró en Cuba un nuevo concepto de democracia, basado en garantizar acceso a la vida política activa a grandes sectores poblacionales, antes excluidos de ella. Para ello desarrolló una política de inclusión social con carácter universal. La práctica política popular puso las riquezas del país en manos de los desposeídos y generó gran movilidad social, hecho que resultó clave para el aumento de la participación popular. El contexto de agresión imperialista y el propio desarrollo del proceso produjo el afianzamiento de nociones que limitaron la participación popular: el auge de la burocracia, la comprensión de la unidad como unanimidad y el seguimiento, en parte, de corrientes del marxismo soviético. Los desafíos actuales se presentan en tres planos para profundizar la democracia en Cuba: socializar el poder, promover la sociodiversidad y desarrollar la ideología revolucionaria.The revolutionary triumph of 1959 established in Cuba a new concept of democracy, one that

  18. Cuba: The Successful Insurgency

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    of jr-.the D,,par.tent ,f C.-. mense or r.ny of its Agencies... ,, T -cj’ o ent may not be ;.zleaa.cd for open publication C4 until it as been cleared...clearly an act he would later regret. 4 1 In July 1956, Castro departed Cuba to self-imposed exile in Mexico . It was here that the groundwork was laid for...revolution was initiated on 25 November 1956 with the departure of the seagoing cruiser "Granma" from Tuxpan, Mexico .49 The M26 campaign plan was again

  19. Distancia anogenital en mujeres y su relación con exposiciones prenatales maternas

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Pilar Mira-Escolano; Jaime Mendiola Olivares; Lidia Minguez-Alarcón; Manuela Roca; Jose Juan Lopez-Espin; Alberto Manuel Torres-Cantero

    2014-01-01

    La distancia anogenital (DAG) es un marcador de desarrollo genital que presenta un dimorfismo sexual en mamíferos. Diversos estudios experimentales han mostrado que la DAG al nacimiento refleja la exposición androgénica a la que el feto ha estado expuesto durante su desarrollo intraútero. El objetivo de nuestro estudio fue explorar la relación entre exposiciones prenatales (maternas) a distintos productos o sustancias de uso cotidiano durante el embarazo y la DAG de sus hijas como marcador in...

  20. Cuba in the World, the World in Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Lorini, Alessandra; Basosi, Duccio

    2009-01-01

    The volume approaches Cuba as a nation that hosts a convergence of extraordinary global developments and, in turn, projects itself onto the world's major cultural, political and economic processes. From different perspectives, ranging from architecture and music to politics and economics, the twenty-one essays presented here embrace the multifaceted interactions between Cuba and foreign imperial strategies during the 19th century, the troublesome formation of national political cultures in th...

  1. The pharmaceutical industry in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tancer, R S

    1995-01-01

    Cuba has developed a relatively sophisticated pharmaceutical sector, originally to provide medicinal products for her own population and, more recently, to earn hard currency through exports. Cuba has achieved both of these goals despite the US trade embargo, which isolates Cuba from commercial relations with US firms. Cuba is opening its economy to firms from other countries through the use of joint ventures and other forms of cooperation. US firms are unable to avail themselves of these opportunities, and the opportunities are thus being lost. In the case of pharmaceuticals, the Cubans recognize that they need assistance, particularly in the areas of marketing and packaging. Allowing the participation of US firms in the Cuban pharmaceutical industry could enhance the possibility of improving worldwide health care.

  2. El sida en Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Roch, Liana

    1997-01-01

    Las siglas S.I.D.A. significan síndrome de inmuno deficiencia adquirida. Sida es una definición operativa del estadio extremo de la infección por el VIH (virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana).Las estadísticas indican que las vías de difusión más frecuentes en el mundo son las relaciones sexuales de riesgo y la utilización de drogas por vía intravenosa, hecho este último que no constituye un problema en Cuba.Con el sida, la sexualidad y la muerte, ambos viejos tabúes, han saltado a la palestra...

  3. Incidencia de exposiciones accidentales a sangre y fluidos biológicos en el personal sanitario de un hospital comarcal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Pérez Ruiz

    2017-11-01

    Conclusiones: La incidencia ocupacional de exposiciones percutáneas declaradas en el hospital sufre oscilaciones significativas a lo largo del periodo analizado. El riesgo de exposición está relacionado con la categoría laboral, la experiencia profesional, el área de trabajo y la actividad realizada.

  4. Dificultades en los métodos de estudio de exposiciones ambientales y defectos del tubo neural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borja-Aburto Víctor Hugo

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Discutir las actitudes en la evaluación de las exposiciones ambientales como factores de riesgo para defectos de riesgo del tubo neural, al tiempo que se presentan los principales factores estudiados hasta la fecha. Resultados. Las exposiciones ambientales se citan muy a menudo como causa de malformaciones congénitas; sin embargo, ha sido difícil establecer esta asociación en los estudios de poblaciones humanas, debido a problemas en su diseño y conducción. Lo anterior es particularmente marcado en el caso del estudio de los defectos del cierre del tubo neural (DTN, que es una de las principales malformaciones y que incluye anencefalia, espina bífida y encefalocele, y su asociación con exposiciones ambientales. Las dificultades en los métodos surgen de: a la medida de frecuencia para realizar comparaciones espacio-temporales; b la clasificación y heterogeneidad de las malformaciones; c la consideración de los factores relacionados con la madre, el padre y el producto, de manera conjunta, y d la evaluación de las exposiciones ambientales. Conclusiones. Hipotéticamente las exposiciones ambientales tanto del padre como de la madre pueden producir daño genético antes y/o después de la concepción por la acción directa sobre el embrión o sobre el complejo fetoplacentario, de tal manera que en la evaluación de exposiciones ambientales: a deben tomarse en cuenta las exposiciones maternas y paternas; b debe considerarse el periodo crítico de exposición, esto es, tres meses anteriores a la concepción para el padre y un mes alrededor de la concepción para la madre; c en la medida de lo posible, la evaluación de la exposición deberá ser cuantitativa, evitando clasificar a los grupos únicamente como expuestos y no expuestos, y d es recomendable emplear marcadores biológicos de exposición siempre que sea posible, así como utilizar marcadores biológicos que permitan clasificar a la población en grupos con distinta

  5. Cuba: The Next Unanticipated Anticipated Strategic Crisis?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gorrell, Tim

    2005-01-01

    ...; and the current Bush administration with the global war on terrorism (GWOT). Cuba, specifically post-Castro Cuba, could very well trigger the next unanticipated crisis even though the writing is on the...

  6. Toxocariasis in Cuba: a literature review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sariego, Idalia; Kanobana, Kirezi; Rojas, Lázara; Speybroeck, Niko; Polman, Katja; Núñez, Fidel A

    2012-01-01

    .... In Cuba, a clear overview on the status of the disease is lacking. Here, we review the available information on toxocariasis in Cuba as a first step to estimate the importance of the disease in the country...

  7. 15 CFR 746.2 - Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cuba. 746.2 Section 746.2 Commerce and... § 746.2 Cuba. (a) License requirements. As authorized by section 6 of the Export Administration Act of... subject to the EAR) to Cuba, except as follows. (1) License Exceptions. You may export or reexport without...

  8. Río, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. García-Quintana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo se realizó como estudio de caso en el ambiente de Viñales, Pinar del Río, Cuba con el objetivo de seleccionar material genético de especial valor para la conservación y mejoramiento de la especie; a partir de nueve procedencias, encontrando diferencias significativas entre procedencias para las variables altura, diámetro y ramificación. Se clasificaron las procedencias en grupos de calidad A, B, C y D, recomendando los grupos A y B para el desarrollo de la especie en estos sitios de baja fertilidad. El coeficiente de variación cambió 29.5 y 44.8 %, siendo los parámetros altura y diámetro los de mayor variabilidad, así la selección debe tener estas características, seleccionando como procedencias superiores Marbajita, Cajálbana, El Burén, Los Palacios, La Jagua, La Güira y Juan Manuel.

  9. Analisis integral del marco normativo colombiano en materia de exposicion publica a radiaciones electromagneticas emitidas por estaciones base de telefonia movil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gallego Serna, Lina Maria; Torres Osorio, Javier Ignacio; Agudelo Sanchez, Luz Elena

    2014-01-01

    En el presente articulo se analiza de forma integral el marco normativo colombiano referente a la exposicion del publico a las radiaciones electromagneticas emitidas por estaciones base de telefonia movil...

  10. Distancia anogenital en mujeres y su relación con exposiciones prenatales maternas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Pilar Mira-Escolano

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available La distancia anogenital (DAG es un marcador de desarrollo genital que presenta un dimorfismo sexual en mamíferos. Diversos estudios experimentales han mostrado que la DAG al nacimiento refleja la exposición androgénica a la que el feto ha estado expuesto durante su desarrollo intraútero. El objetivo de nuestro estudio fue explorar la relación entre exposiciones prenatales (maternas a distintos productos o sustancias de uso cotidiano durante el embarazo y la DAG de sus hijas como marcador indirecto del ambiente hormonal intrauterino. Se trata de un estudio transversal que incluyó 100 jóvenes universitarias sanas entre 18 y 23 años. A cada participante se le realizó un examen ginecológico completo y se midieron dos variantes de DAG: ano-clítoris (DAGAC y ano-horquilla vulvar (DAGAH. Tanto las jóvenes como sus madres completaron un cuestionario epidemiológico sobre estilos de vida, incluyendo exposición a productos prenatales e historia ginecológica. Las asociaciones entre la exposición a productos prenatales y las DAG de las hijas se realizaron mediante análisis de regresión lineal y logística múltiple. Una mayor exposición materna a insecticidas/plaguicidas y disolventes/desengrasantes se asoció significativamente con una DAGAH alargada en las hijas (ORa: 3,9; IC 95 % 1,2,- 12,7 y 3,8; IC 95 % 1,1 - 12,6, respectivamente. Nuestros resultados respaldan que ciertas exposiciones prenatales maternas ambientales podrían estar asociadas con variaciones significativas de las DAG en sus hijas, un biomarcador que refleja la exposición androgénica fetal durante el desarrollo intraútero.

  11. Centro de reuniones y exposiciones - Los Ángeles (EE. UU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Luckman, Asociados

    1972-04-01

    Full Text Available Its users, meeting-goers, exhibitors and visitors, find in it —with its well-studied traffic adequately equipped with signals— a basic centre for activities and a stimulus within the commercial life of the city. As well as the main hall which can accommodate 15,000 people, or for banquets, 8,000 seated at tables, there is a smaller hall, 2,232 sq. metres in size, which can also be used for exhibitions, meetings and banquets. The administration and exhibitors' offices, control room, radio, television and press rooms are on the mezzanine floor. This centre has an air about it of humanity, energy and comfort, within an elegant framework.Sus usuarios: asambleístas, expositores y visitantes, encuentran en él (con circulaciones bien estudiadas y adecuadamente señalizadas un Centro básico de actividades y un estímulo dentro de la vida comercial de la ciudad. Además de la sala principal de exposiciones, en la cual se pueden congregar 15.000 personas o celebrar banquetes para 8.000 comensales, hay otra más pequeña, de 2.232 m2, que se puede utilizar asimismo para exposiciones, reuniones y banquetes. Las oficinas de la administración, de los expositores, sala de control, salas para los medios informativos de prensa, radio y TV., están situadas en el entresuelo. Se respira en este Centro un clima humano, activo y agradable, dentro de un marco elegante.

  12. Cuba: the demography of revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-briquets, S; Perez, L

    1981-04-01

    Cuba's post-revolution demographic trends, especially in regard to fertility and emigration, and the causes and consequences of these trends, were examined using available statistical data. The authors maintain that both fertility and emigration trends were highly infuenced by economic factors. The trends are described in the context of the social and economic changes instituted by the revolutionary government. Government policies were aimed at 1) eradicating inequalities in housing, income, education, and health; 2) improving the status of women; and 3) upgrading the living standards of the rural population. Government policies did alleviate many social problems and greatly improved the health and educational status of the population; however, these policies had a marked adverse effect on economic performance. The demographic transition began in Cuba earlier than in most other developing countries and it began long before the 1959 revolution. These earlier changes must be taken into account when assessing the impact of post-revolution policies on demographic trends. Cuba's birthrate declined from 26-14.8/1000 population between 1959-1979 and the total fertility rate declined from 3.7-1.9 between 1970-1978; however, during the 1960s there was a baby boom and the birth rate for 1963 exceeded 35/1000 population. The baby boom was largely a response to the temporary improvement in economic conditions which occurred shortly after the revolution. The decline in fertility during the 1970s was due in part to the increased availability of abortion and contraceptive services and to a decline in the marriage rate; however, Cuba's deteriorating economy was also a major contributing factor. The baby boom of the 1960s is negativley affecting the current economy of the country. Individuals born during the baby boom are entering adulthood and are contributing toward Cuba's current unemployment problems. Prior to the revolution, Cuba experienced a high rate of in

  13. Cuba — Farmers and Researchers Reshape Cuba's Agriculture

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-05

    Jan 5, 2011 ... Necessity drives the search for alternatives Faced with a unique economic crisis, Cuba's national agriculture system was near collapse, threatening the country's food security. But working together with groups of farmers, a team of young plant breeders is turning things around. And by working together both ...

  14. U.S.-Cuba Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-07

    in 1962, due to their efforts to promote rebellions in Venezuela, Guatemala , and Bolivia. Cuba’s survival continued to depend heavily on economic aid...regime boosted the economy by allowing foreign investors in such areas as tourism, oil exploration, and biotechnology . However, Cuba lacks the

  15. Presencia de la pedagogía española en las exposiciones universales del XIX

    OpenAIRE

    María del Mar del POZO ANDRÉS

    2010-01-01

    RESUMEN: Las exposiciones mundiales celebradas profusamente en la segunda mitad del siglo XIX pueden considerarse como muestras interdisciplinarias internacionales, ilustrativas del progreso industrial y social alcanzado por los países occidentales, y demostrativas del modus vivendi existente en los pueblos africanos y orientales, que aún mantenían su exotismo y misterio para los hombres europeos. El objetivo fundamental de estas muestras, llenas de espectacularidad y colorido, debido a la cu...

  16. 48 Human Rights in and around Cuba

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The article takes point of department in the current reform process in Cuba and its perspectives regarding human rights. To understand the background of the fundamental human rights' problems in Cuba, an analysis of the 'constituting dichotomy' is included and discussed in relation to its represe...... representation in the film, 'Strawberry and Chocolate'. The further perspectives for human rights in Cuba in relation to other Developments in Latin America constitutes the last part....

  17. Complejo deportivo y sala de exposiciones «Ahoy». en Roherdam – Holanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passchier, G.

    1975-09-01

    Full Text Available This complex occupies an extraordinarily situated plot, in view of its excellent communications, and it is bound to become a centre of great social and economic importance. It is located only 12 minutes away from Rotterdam railway station and equally close to bus and underground transports and will eventually comprise: a shopping centre, garages, office buildings, housings, a hotel, etc. This article especially describes: the sports palace, with 6,000 seats; a central building for restaurants, coffe-shops, offices, the press and installations; exhibition halls, with altogether 12,000 m2 of exhibition space.Este conjunto edificado ocupa un solar de extraordinaria ubicación, en cuanto a comunicaciones se refiere, y está llamado a ser un centro de gran importancia social y económica. A sólo 12 minutos de la estación de ferrocarril de Rotterdam y en conexión con ella y con otros puntos vitales por autobús y metro, comprenderá: un centro comercial, garajes, edificios de oficinas, viviendas, un hotel, etc. En este artículo se describen especialmente: el palacio de deportes, de 6.000 plazas sentadas; un edificio central para restaurantes, cafeterías, oficinas, prensa e instalación; y salas de exposiciones, con un total de 12.000 m2 utilizables.

  18. En busca del arte contemporáneo: exposiciones de arte en Bucaramanga 1960-1979

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Leonardo Caballero

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo expone el ambiente artístico vivido en Bucaramanga durante las décadas de 1960 y 1970. Exposiciones y concursos de arte fueron organizados en la ciudad por diversas instituciones, sin embargo, no generaron los espacios suficientes para dar apoyo a los nacientes artistas educados por los distinguidos pintores de la ciudad, egresados de escuelas academicistas europeas. Bucaramanga era una ciudad carente de formación en artes plásticas a nivel profesional, y la mayoría de sus artistas complementaba o iniciaba su formación artística fuera del departamento de Santander, anulándose la posibilidad de un arte contemporáneo generado desde la región. Fue hasta 1973 que Jorge Mantilla Caballero organizó un colectivo artístico que apostaba por el arte contemporáneo, y así empezó a solidificar lo que en esa época proclamaba la esfera nacional e internacional de las artes plásticas. En el artículo se documentó la transición del arte costumbrista a las tendencias y temáticas del arte contemporáneo, tomando como fuente primaria la literatura artística de la época, especialmente fuentes periódicas y catálogos de arte.

  19. Cuba: Multidimensional numerical integration library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    The Cuba library offers four independent routines for multidimensional numerical integration: Vegas, Suave, Divonne, and Cuhre. The four algorithms work by very different methods, and can integrate vector integrands and have very similar Fortran, C/C++, and Mathematica interfaces. Their invocation is very similar, making it easy to cross-check by substituting one method by another. For further safeguarding, the output is supplemented by a chi-square probability which quantifies the reliability of the error estimate.

  20. El envejecimiento poblacional en Cuba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Bernal Sánchez

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available En todo el mundo las poblaciones de los distintos países están envejeciendo, por tanto, la gente vive más tiempo y el número de personas adultas es cada vez mayor. Esto requiere de la toma de medidas con el fin de lograr mantener a estas personas vinculadas a la sociedad. Cuba teniendo en cuenta esta realidad se ha enfrascado en una serie de programas al respecto en lo cual Sancti Spíritus no se ha quedado detrás, llegando a cada rincón del país. Este trabajo presenta la investigación llevada a cabo de un estudio referativo sobre el envejecimiento poblacional en Cuba, cuyos objetivos son, profundizar en las diferentes aristas del tema así como valorar las dimensiones del mismo, para lo cual se emplearon métodos del nivel teórico y empírico. Entre los resultados obtenidos se encuentra diseño de un trabajo referativo que abarca doce dimensiones del envejecimiento poblacional en Cuba. La realización de este documento facilita el estudio del tema ya que permite profundizar en el contenido sobre Adulto Mayor visto como un sistema desde múltiples aristas.

  1. Early Literacy in Cuba: Lessons for America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Carolyn Davidson; Abel, Charles Frederick

    2017-01-01

    How did Cuba erase illiteracy in a single year? How did they combine both a phonics approach with the constructivist meaning-based model for teaching reading that we cannot seem to manage here in the states? This paper seeks to shed light on Cuba's impressive 1961 National Literacy Campaign and reflects upon implications for early literacy…

  2. Linguistic Policy in Post-revolutionary Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, James

    1995-01-01

    Focuses on the influence of language on economic, social, and political change in postrevolutionary Cuba. One of Cuba's primary postrevolutionary objectives was the eradication of illiteracy. Linguistic policies with respect to both Spanish and foreign languages were seen as a means to build human value and to establish a strong base for future…

  3. Surgidero de Batabanó Harbor, Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopmans, R.; Van Kessel, L.; Lendering, K.; Oud, M.; Tromp, R.

    2011-01-01

    The harbor of Surgidero de Batabano is a harbor that lies in the Gulf of Batabano in the South-Western part of Cuba. It serves as a connection between the main land of Cuba and the islands 'Isla de la Juventud' and Cayo Largo. The Batabano harbor suffers from sediment accretion. The accretion of

  4. Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Remittances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-31

    office. In January 2006, OFAC suspended a South Florida travel agency, La Estrella de Cuba, from booking travel to Cuba. The agency reportedly was one...plans to conduct 25 on-site audits in 2006 at agencies that do business with Cuba.22 In addition to La Estrella de Cuba, OFAC suspended the service

  5. Through the looking glass on Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Stubbs

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] State Resistance to Globalisation in Cuba. Antonio Carmona Báez. Sterling VA: Pluto Press, 2004. vii + 264 pp. (Paper US$ 29.95 La Lucha for Cuba: Religion and Politics on the Streets of Miami. Miguel A. de la Torre. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003. xi + 181 pp. (Paper US$ 21.95 By Heart/De Memoria: Cuban Women’s Journeys in and out of Exile. María de los Angeles Torres (ed.. Philadelphia PA: Temple University Press, 2003. vii + 192 pp. (Paper US$ 19.95 Looking at Cuba: Essays on Culture and Civil Society. Rafael Hernández. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2003. vii + 145 pp. (Cloth US$ 24.95 In the politically charged world of scholarship on Cuba, it is salutary to comment in one review essay on four quite different volumes, each complementing the others. Three are single-authored, two on island Cuba (by Antonio Carmona Báez and Rafael Hernández and one on Miami (by Miguel A. de la Torre. All three draw on theory and concepts and are male-authored and place-centric (Cuba/Miami. The fourth (by María de los Angeles Torres is an edited collection of the personal testimonies of women seeking a place in between the hardened politics of Cuba and Miami.

  6. Cuba: Issues for the 111th Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    Comisión Cubana de Derechos Humanos y Reconciliacion Nacional, “Cuba a Inicios del 2010: Continúa empeorando la situación de derechos humanos,” January 19...March 2010. 22 “Infant Mortality, 5.3 in 2007!” Granma Internacional , January 4, 2008. . Cuba: Issues for the 111th Congress Congressional Research...163 “Cuba is Proud to Be Outside of the OAS,” Granma Internacional , May 26, 2009. 164 “Reflections of Fidel, The Trojan Horse

  7. Analisis integral del marco normativo colombiano en materia de exposicion publica a radiaciones electromagneticas emitidas por estaciones base de telefonia movil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gallego Serna, Lina Maria; Torres Osorio, Javier Ignacio; Agudelo Sanchez, Luz Elena

    2014-01-01

    .... Finalmente, se determino que Colombia no cuenta con un precepto legal que garantice la seguridad de la poblacion ante los posibles efectos nocivos por la exposicion a las radiaciones no ionizantes; igualmente, no se ha empleado el principio de precaucion para establecer medidas que garanticen la seguridad de los ciudadanos en lo referente a radioproteccion.

  8. Sistema de salud de Cuba The health system of Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Domínguez-Alonso

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se describen las condiciones de salud de Cuba y el sistema cubano de salud, incluyendo su estructura y cobertura, sus fuentes de financiamiento, su gasto en salud, los recursos físicos, materiales y humanos de los que dispone, y las actividades de rectoría e investigación que desarrolla. También se discute la importancia de sus instituciones de investigación y se describe el papel de los usuarios de los servicios en la operación y evaluación del sistema, así como las actividades que en este sentido desarrollan la Federación de Mujeres Cubanas y los Comités de Defensa de la Revolución. La parte final de este trabajo se dedica a discutir las innovaciones más recientes dentro de las que destacan las redes de cardiología, la Misión Milagro y la Batalla de Ideas.This paper describes the health conditions in Cuba and the general characteristics of the Cuban health system, including its structure and coverage, its financial sources, its health expenditure, its physical, material and human resources, and its stewardship functions. It also discusses the increasing importance of its research institutions and the role played by its users in the operation and evaluation of the system. Salient among the social actors involved in the health sector are the Cuban Women Federation and the Committees for the Defense of the Revolution. The paper concludes with the discussion of the most recent innovations implemented in the Cuban health system, including the cardiology networks, the Miracle Mission (Misión Milagro and the Battle of Ideas (Batalla de Ideas.

  9. Cuba: Issues for the 109th Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sullivan, Mark P

    2006-01-01

    Since the early 1960s, U.S. policy toward Cuba under Fidel Castro has consisted largely of isolating the communist nation through comprehensive economic sanctions, which have been significantly tightened by the Bush Administration...

  10. Cuba: A Short Critical Bibliographic Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basosi, Duccio

    An island with a population of approximately eleven million citizens, Cuba has been the topic of a huge amount of books and articles by scholars, politicians, artists, tourists and—why not?—foreign undercover agents. A random search in a well-known on-line bookshop gives some 118,000 results for the island's name. In brief, to present a selection of basic works on Cuba is a very harsh task that necessarily leads to difficult choices.

  11. PULPA CUBA MILL ENERGY ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pedro Hernández Touset

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available An energy study was performed at Pulpa Cuba Paper Mill, located in Sancti Spiritus, where an energy management system was applied according to NC: ISO 50001, in order to assess the energy system by applying energy management systems for energy and water reduction in the paper mill, in which the current steam generation, distribution and consumption system is diagnosed. The proposal of a modified energy scheme with 1 MW Backpressure Steam Turbine Generator and rehabilitation of the original boiler or installing a lower capacity boiler contributes to save financial resources by the concept of water, fuel and electricity. The implementation of four projects will save 3,095,574 CUC / y and an average payback period of about 1 year is expected.

  12. Becoming a Chemist in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taft, Hessy L.

    2003-08-01

    Education in Cuba is a national priority. Overall, the population is skilled and motivated to use all available resources; furthermore teachers are dedicated and focused on their mission. This paper reports on information obtained as a result of visits to several secondary schools and three premier institutions of higher learning: the University of Havana, the Higher Polytechnic Institute "Jose Antonio Echevaria", and an Institute for Pedagogy. University tuition is free for all Cubans: students can not work for a salary during the typical five-year program of post-secondary study and instead serve as interns in government, industry, or schools. Experience working abroad is encouraged upon graduation. An overview of Cuban university admissions criteria, some specific programs of study, and placement of students in career jobs upon graduation is presented.

  13. The Curious Case of Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Gail A.

    2012-01-01

    As health professionals in the United States consider how to focus health care and coverage to ensure better, more equitable patient and population health outcomes, the experience of Cuba’s National Health System over the last 5 decades may provide useful insights. Although mutual awareness has been limited by long-term political hostilities between the United States and Cuban governments, the history and details of the Cuban health system indicate that their health system merits attention as an example of a national integrated approach resulting in improved health status. More extensive analysis of the principles, practices, and outcomes in Cuba is warranted to inform health system transformation in the United States, despite differences in political-social systems and available resources. PMID:22698011

  14. Pediatric Gastroenterology in Cuba: Evolution and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda-Guillot, Carlos

    2016-10-01

    INTRODUCTION The professional practice of pediatric gastroenterology arose in Cuba as an expression of the specialty's development internationally and Cuba's new strategies in public health, and in response to national needs for health care expertise in digestive diseases of infants, older children and adolescents. OBJECTIVES Describe the history of pediatric gastroenterology's development in Cuba since its inception at the National Gastroenterology Institute in the early 1970s, its contributions, and efforts to extend it to pediatric hospitals throughout Cuba. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION This is a historical review based on document analysis. Institutional sources from the National Gastroenterology Institute and Ministry of Public Health were reviewed, as well as international and national literature on the history of pediatric gastroenterology and unpublished texts since its emergence in 1972. DEVELOPMENT Although pediatric gastroenterology has not been formally recognized as a medical specialty in Cuba, there have been important achievements in establishing a network of specialized health care services for digestive diseases of children and adolescents. Gastrointestinal endoscopy and other auxiliary diagnostic modalities have been introduced for children and play a major role in clinical trials and research. This article describes the international context that promoted the specialty's development in Cuba. Reference is made to specialized training from its initial stages in 1972, its consolidation as an emerging discipline in Cuban medicine, and its diffusion in Latin American and Caribbean countries. Professional development and specialized training to meet health human resource needs in pediatric hospitals are described, as well as Cuban participation in the Latin American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition. National and international milestones, publications, awards and recognitions that indicate advances despite difficulties are also

  15. Lisboa 1998. Un punto de inflexión en la orientación de las grandes exposiciones internacionales: del optimismo desarrollista a la reflexión sobre los problemas del planeta

    OpenAIRE

    Gil Pérez, Daniel; Gavidia Catalán, Valentín; Vilches Peña, Amparo; Ambrosio Morales, María Teresa; Oliveira,Teresa; Malheiro, Manuela

    1999-01-01

    Las grandes exposiciones internacionales han constituido hasta aquí exponentes privilegiados de los avances tecnológicos, contribuyendo de ese modo a transmitir optimistas visiones de 'futuros de progreso'. Con la Expo '98 de Lisboa se ha comenzado a poner en práctica una nueva concepción del papel de estas exposiciones, mucho más útil, pensamos, desde el punto de vista de la educación de la ciudadanía

  16. 31 CFR 515.420 - Travel to Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Travel to Cuba. 515.420 Section 515....420 Travel to Cuba. The prohibition on dealing in property in which Cuba or a Cuban national has an interest set forth in § 515.201(b)(1) includes a prohibition on the receipt of goods or services in Cuba...

  17. Waterfowl in Cuba: Current status and distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco Rodríquez, Pedro; Vilella, Francisco; Sánchez Oria, Bárbara

    2014-01-01

    Cuba and its satellite islands represent the largest landmass in the Caribbean archipelago and a major repository of the region’s biodiversity. Approximately 13.4% of the Cuban territory is covered by wetlands, encompassing approximately 1.48 million ha which includes mangroves, flooded savannas, peatlands, freshwater swamp forests and various types of managed wetlands. Here, we synthesise information on the distribution and abundance of waterfowl on the main island of Cuba, excluding the numerous surrounding cays and the Isla de la Juventud (Isle of Youth), and report on band recoveries from wintering waterfowl harvested in Cuba by species and location. Twenty-nine species of waterfowl occur in Cuba, 24 of which are North American migrants. Of the five resident Anatid species, three are of conservation concern: the West Indian Whistling-duck Dendrocygna arborea (globally vulnerable), White-cheeked Pintail Anas bahamensis (regional concern) and Masked Duck Nomonyx dominicus(regional concern). The most abundant species of waterfowl wintering in Cuba include Blue-winged Teal A. discors, Northern Pintail A. acuta, and Northern Shoveler A. clypeata. Waterfowl banded in Canada and the United States and recovered in Cuba included predominantly Blue-winged Teal, American Wigeon and Northern Pintail. Banding sites of recovered birds suggest that most of the waterfowl moving through and wintering in Cuba are from the Atlantic and Mississippi flyways. Threats to wetlands and waterfowl in Cuba include: 1) egg poaching of resident species, 2) illegal hunting of migratory and protected resident species, 3) mangrove deforestation, 4) reservoirs for irrigation, 5) periods of pronounced droughts, and 6) hurricanes. Wetland and waterfowl conservation efforts continue across Cuba’s extensive system of protected areas. Expanding collaborations with international conservation organisations, researchers and governments in North America will enhance protection

  18. Herbal mixtures in the traditional medicine of Eastern Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernández, J.; Volpato, G.

    2004-01-01

    Herbal mixtures in the traditional medicine of Eastern Cuba. Traditional herbal mixtures in Eastern Cuba are investigated through interviews with 130 knowledgeable people and traditional healers of the provinces of Santiago de Cuba and Guantanamo. One hundred seventy plant species and other products

  19. Joint Ventures in Cuba: Opportunities for Direct Foreign Investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tancer, Robert S.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a brief history of direct foreign investment in Cuba since 1982. This investment currently plays an important role in Cuba as a replacement to Soviet aid and as a means to earn foreign exchange. Tourism and mining are the preferred area for foreign investment because both of these sectors offer hard currency returns for Cuba. (20…

  20. 31 CFR 515.570 - Remittances to Nationals of Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Remittances to Nationals of Cuba. 515..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.570 Remittances to Nationals of Cuba. (a) Family... older are authorized to make remittances to nationals of Cuba who are close relatives, as defined in...

  1. 31 CFR 515.563 - Journalistic activities in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Journalistic activities in Cuba. 515..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.563 Journalistic activities in Cuba. (a) General license... directly incident to journalistic activities in Cuba by persons regularly employed as journalists by a news...

  2. 14 CFR 91.709 - Operations to Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operations to Cuba. 91.709 Section 91.709... Board Such Aircraft § 91.709 Operations to Cuba. No person may operate a civil aircraft from the United States to Cuba unless— (a) Departure is from an international airport of entry designated in § 6.13 of...

  3. 31 CFR 515.566 - Religious activities in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Religious activities in Cuba. 515.566..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.566 Religious activities in Cuba. (a) Specific license... involving transactions (including travel-related transactions) in which Cuba or a Cuban national has an...

  4. Science and Technology Diplomacy with Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon, Frances

    President Obama's announcement of U. S. policy change toward Cuba and increased freedom of interaction with the Cuban people opens unprecedented and long-awaited opportunities for the scientific and engineering communities in the U. S. and in Cuba to establish and expand collaborative efforts that will greatly advance U.S. and Cuba science and technology agendas. New rules for export of donated-only items for scientific use will bring researchers closer to the level of their professional peers around the world. Increasing Cubans' access to information will result in greater interactions between scientific communities and enable the sharing of ideas and discoveries that can fuel entrepreneurship on the island. The scientific community has expressed an extraordinary level of interest in the wide range of scientific opportunities that the new policy presents, in collaborating with their Cuban counterparts, and in supporting the development of scientific capacity in Cuba. In response to numerous expressions of interest and inquiries from the scientific community, the Office of the Science and Technology Adviser to the Secretary of State (STAS) has engaged in public outreach to inform the U.S. science and technology community of the implications of the new policy for collaborative research, emerging scientific opportunities, and the standing limitations for engagement with the people of Cuba.

  5. Cuba: healthcare and the revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binns, L A

    2013-03-01

    This paper depicts Cuba as a relic of the Cold War Its coverage of healthcare demonstrates steadfastness and success in surmounting hurdles of complacency and disregard to socialized medicine - an extension of Soviet patronage and third world alliances. The literature relays a mission of inclusivity underpinned by political ideology and a conviction to humanity. With the aid ofendorsements, it speaks to contrasts and critiques in service and results by reflecting on the delivery offree healthcare for all Cuban citizens and its impression on the eradication of numerous diseases, reduced mortality rate and increased life expectancy. Punished by the longest trade embargo in modern history, the regime is in possession of limited resources to expedite remedy to its subjects. Such, much to the dislike of the authorities, elevates elements of distinction in association with the dispensation of service and drugs demonstrated by an evolving two-tier system for the disenfranchised and privileged clientele while simultaneously impacting the maintenance of facilities and equipment. Consequently, it recognizes harsh ramifications attributed to compliance with ideology and subtle adjustments to withstand external exertion. The Cuban replica is currently a tale of sorts awaiting a comprehensible definition for future generations.

  6. Astronomy TV outreach, CUBA experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Oscar

    2015-08-01

    As professional astronomer and science communicator, I want to share my personal experience communicating Astronomy and general science principles in maybe, the most popular science outreach devoted TV program in Cuba. It is broadcasted nationwide in a prime time schedule every Sunday. The Science Popularization on TV, is in a Third World Country hard to do if you want to produce attractive materials for a broad audience. Budgets constraints in most of the cases and lack of the technical equipment required to produce first class visual materials conspire, against motivation and creativity of local scientists and media professionals. A way to show the advance of the national scientific community in Science fields and connecting them in a friendly relation with a broad majority of the people, is to combine the wisdom and knowledge of the local scientists together with the most spectacular TV production of the first world countries. Commenting, analyzing and conveying the hard science into the public debate of the common citizens. Here is shown a way to convey cutting edge science to the general public, using limited resources to produce imaginative television productions, highlighting the development, knowledge and wisdom of the local scientists.

  7. HBV Genotypic Variability in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, Carmen L.; Aguilar, Julio C.; Aguiar, Jorge; Muzio, Verena; Pentón, Eduardo; Garcia, Daymir; Guillen, Gerardo; Pujol, Flor H.

    2015-01-01

    The genetic diversity of HBV in human population is often a reflection of its genetic admixture. The aim of this study was to explore the genotypic diversity of HBV in Cuba. The S genomic region of Cuban HBV isolates was sequenced and for selected isolates the complete genome or precore-core sequence was analyzed. The most frequent genotype was A (167/250, 67%), mainly A2 (149, 60%) but also A1 and one A4. A total of 77 isolates were classified as genotype D (31%), with co-circulation of several subgenotypes (56 D4, 2 D1, 5 D2, 7 D3/6 and 7 D7). Three isolates belonged to genotype E, two to H and one to B3. Complete genome sequence analysis of selected isolates confirmed the phylogenetic analysis performed with the S region. Mutations or polymorphisms in precore region were more common among genotype D compared to genotype A isolates. The HBV genotypic distribution in this Caribbean island correlates with the Y lineage genetic background of the population, where a European and African origin prevails. HBV genotypes E, B3 and H isolates might represent more recent introductions. PMID:25742179

  8. Exposiciones digitales y reutilización: aplicación del software libre Omeka para la publicación estructurada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saorín Pérez, Tomás

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El artículo contextualiza las exposiciones digitales en el marco de la difusión digital de las colecciones de museos y patrimonio, presentando las funcionalidades del software libre Omeka para la gestión especializadas de este tipo de contenidos, a través de una combinación ágil de gestor de colecciones digitales vinculado a generador de exposiciones. El sistema usa metadatos normalizados y aplica Oai/PMH, de forma que permite la reutilización y distribución de contenidos en la web. También se analizan las ventajes del software como servicio (SaaS para el caso de Omeka Net.

  9. La Antropología en Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Leif Korsbaek

    2009-01-01

    El texto presenta varios aspectos de las actividades antropológicas en Cuba, partiendo de la paradoja de que la antropología no existe formalmente ahí, pues no existe una carrera de esta disciplina pero sí una multitud de actividades que claramente pertenecen al universo y al horizonte de la antropología. Se presentan algunas de las raíces de la antropología en Cuba: sabios e investigadores de la medicina, la antropología física, la filosofía y el derecho, que al mismo tiempo han iniciado las...

  10. Cuba | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In the early 2000s, Cuban researchers improved crops by putting farmers at the heart of the plant-breeding process. Local farmers worked with researchers and government to develop new bean varieties that increased yields by 15 to 36% in test areas. Some 7,000 farmers in 51 communities in Cuba benefited from these ...

  11. Reflections on Educational Reform in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Ronald A.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews Cuban educational reforms, highlighting 1959, 1976, and 1980s initiatives. Compares Cuba's progress with John Kotter's eight-step process based on establishing a sense of urgency, creating a guiding coalition, developing and communicating the change vision, empowering broad-based action, generating short-term wins, consolidating gains, and…

  12. Palo Monte, um rito Congo em Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José da Silva Ribeiro

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Juntaram-se em Cuba a partir do século XVI africanos provenientes de toda a costa ocidental africana pertencentes a muitos grupos étnicos. Estes em contacto com as culturas em presença (autóctone, espanhola, portuguesa, africanas desenvolveram diversos sistemas de crença, rituais e práticas mágico-religiosas. No Século XIX o dia de Reis construía o momento mais alto da afirmação da cultura africana em Cuba. Estas manifestações eram acompanhadas da coroação de reis e rainhas Congo, figuras principais da festa e da vida social africana.Africans coming from all West Africa coasts from a large variety of ethnic groups gathered in Cuba since XVIth century. These, in contact with other cultures (native, Spanish, Portuguese, Africans developed some belief systems, rituals and magical-religious practices. On XIXth century the King’s day was the highest moment of affirmation of African culture in Cuba. These experiences were accompanied of king and queen’s crowning, principal figures of African festival and social life.

  13. The Transformation of Political Culture in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagen, Richard R.

    Cuba has experienced drastic social, economic, and political change since 1959. This book examines and analyses three important programs of Castro's regime which incorporate some of the distinctive features of the entire Cuban experience political socialization and cultural change; the literacy campaign of 1961, which was perhaps the most…

  14. Cuba: Issues for the 111th Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-04

    the Afro-Cuban religion Santería had been taking large groups to Cuba as a means of skirting U.S. travel restrictions.55 In 2006, the Administration...sentenced to two and one-half years in prison in March 2009.102 Another group, Grupo de Apoyo a la Democracia (Group in Support of Democracy), has also

  15. Cuba shows jump in HIV positives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuba experienced a substantial increase in the number of HIV cases in 1996 due primarily to a growth of foreign tourism and an increase in prostitution, health officials said. The Juventud Rebelde newspaper said that since HIV/AIDS testing began in 1985, government-run hospitals and clinics have detected 1609 HIV-positive cases. In 1995 the total was reported at 1196, meaning that 413 new cases were detected in 1996. This compared with only 97 new cases reported during 1995. HIV infection among the island's 11 million inhabitants has remained relatively low due to a massive testing program and a public health infrastructure that provides universal and free medical treatment. Cuba was a pioneer in the use of interferon on those testing HIV-positive. Cuba produces its own interferon, which prolongs the life expectancy of patients, and also reagents for AIDS testing. There are special sanitariums for AIDS patients in most of Cuba's 12 provinces. Cuban adults who test HIV-positive are required to enter the sanitarium in a policy reminiscent of the way tuberculosis patients were tested in the US earlier in this century. Officials said the isolation of patients in sanitariums has been somewhat relaxed over past years by introducing greater flexibility in allowing persons who are considered reliable to live at home or make prolonged visits. full text

  16. The history of physics in Cuba

    CERN Document Server

    Renn, Jürgen; Wendt, Helge

    2014-01-01

    This book brings together a broad spectrum of authors, both from inside and from outside Cuba, who describe the development of Cuba's scientific system from the colonial period to the present. It is a unique documentation of the self-organizing power of a local scientific community engaged in scientific research on an international level. The first part includes several contributions that reconstruct the different stages of the history of physics in Cuba, from its beginnings in the late colonial era to the present. The second part comprises testimonies of Cuban physicists, who offer lively insights from the perspective of the actors themselves. The third part presents a series of testimonies by foreign physicists, some of whom were directly involved in developing Cuban physics, in particular in the development of teaching and research activities in the early years of the Escuela de Física. The fourth part of the volume deals with some of the issues surrounding the publishing of scientific research in Cuba. C...

  17. Forest nursery pest management in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rene Alberto Lopez Castilla; Angela Duarte Casanova; Celia Guerra Rivero; Haylett Cruz Escoto; Natividad Triguero Issasi

    2002-01-01

    A systematic survey of methods to detect pests in forest nurseries before they damage plants was done. These surveys recorded the most important forest nursery pests during 18 years (from 1980 to 1998) and their geographical and temporal distribution in the principal enterprises in Cuba. Approximately a dozen insect species and three fungi species responsible for the...

  18. Historical Overview of Leprosy Control in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldarraín-Chaple, Enrique

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Leprosy, an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, affects the nervous system, skin, internal organs, extremities and mucous membranes. Biological, social and environmental factors influence its occurrence and transmission. The first effective treatments appeared in 1930 with the development of dapsone, a sulfone. The main components of a control and elimination strategy are early case detection and timely administration of multidrug therapy. OBJECTIVES Review the history of leprosy control in Cuba, emphasizing particularly results of the National Leprosy Control Program, its modifications and influence on leprosy control. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION The historiological method was applied using document review, complemented by interviews with experts on leprosy and its control. Archived documents, medical records, disease prevalence censuses conducted since 1942, and incidence and prevalence statistics for 1960-2015 from the Ministry of Public Health's National Statistics Division were reviewed. Reports and scientific literature published on the Program and the history of leprosy in Cuba were also reviewed. DEVELOPMENT Leprosy has been documented in Cuba since 1613. In 1938, the Leprosy Foundation was created with ten dispensaries nationwide for diagnosis and treatment. The first National Leprosy Control Program was established in 1962, implemented in 1963 and revised five times. In 1972, leper colonies were closed and treatment became ambulatory. In 1977, rifampicin was introduced. In 1988, the Program instituted controlled, decentralized, community-based multidrug treatment and established the criteria for considering a patient cured. In 2003, it included actions aimed at early diagnosis and prophylactic treatment of contacts. Since 2008, it prioritizes actions directed toward the population at risk, maintaining five-year followup with dermatological and neurological examination. Primary health care carries out diagnostic and treatment

  19. Dificultades en los métodos de estudio de exposiciones ambientales y defectos del tubo neural Methodological challenges to assess environmental exposures related to neural tube defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Hugo Borja-Aburto

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Discutir las actitudes en la evaluación de las exposiciones ambientales como factores de riesgo para defectos de riesgo del tubo neural, al tiempo que se presentan los principales factores estudiados hasta la fecha. Resultados. Las exposiciones ambientales se citan muy a menudo como causa de malformaciones congénitas; sin embargo, ha sido difícil establecer esta asociación en los estudios de poblaciones humanas, debido a problemas en su diseño y conducción. Lo anterior es particularmente marcado en el caso del estudio de los defectos del cierre del tubo neural (DTN, que es una de las principales malformaciones y que incluye anencefalia, espina bífida y encefalocele, y su asociación con exposiciones ambientales. Las dificultades en los métodos surgen de: a la medida de frecuencia para realizar comparaciones espacio-temporales; b la clasificación y heterogeneidad de las malformaciones; c la consideración de los factores relacionados con la madre, el padre y el producto, de manera conjunta, y d la evaluación de las exposiciones ambientales. Conclusiones. Hipotéticamente las exposiciones ambientales tanto del padre como de la madre pueden producir daño genético antes y/o después de la concepción por la acción directa sobre el embrión o sobre el complejo fetoplacentario, de tal manera que en la evaluación de exposiciones ambientales: a deben tomarse en cuenta las exposiciones maternas y paternas; b debe considerarse el periodo crítico de exposición, esto es, tres meses anteriores a la concepción para el padre y un mes alrededor de la concepción para la madre; c en la medida de lo posible, la evaluación de la exposición deberá ser cuantitativa, evitando clasificar a los grupos únicamente como expuestos y no expuestos, y d es recomendable emplear marcadores biológicos de exposición siempre que sea posible, así como utilizar marcadores biológicos que permitan clasificar a la población en grupos con distinta

  20. Las exposiciones temporales como campo de investigación en el Museo de Arte Contemporáneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molins de la Fuente, Patricia

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Research in the museum has a wide territory before it, involving not only the works, but also how they are arranged and displayed, the narration established with them. Various exhibitions prepared by the author show different aspects of research in the museum that affect museology as a vehicle for a history of art that is distinct from and complementary to the academic discipline.La investigación en el museo tiene un amplio territorio ante sí, del que no forman parte solo las obras, sino también los modos en que se agrupan y muestran, la narración que se establece con ellas. A través de varias exposiciones comisariadas por la autora se muestran aspectos de la investigación en el museo que atañen a la museología como vehículo de una historia del arte distinta y complementaria a la académica.

  1. Presencia de la pedagogía española en las exposiciones universales del XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Mar del POZO ANDRÉS

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Las exposiciones mundiales celebradas profusamente en la segunda mitad del siglo XIX pueden considerarse como muestras interdisciplinarias internacionales, ilustrativas del progreso industrial y social alcanzado por los países occidentales, y demostrativas del modus vivendi existente en los pueblos africanos y orientales, que aún mantenían su exotismo y misterio para los hombres europeos. El objetivo fundamental de estas muestras, llenas de espectacularidad y colorido, debido a la cuidadosa elección del espacio en el que se extendían y a la construcción de grandiosos edificios que las albergaban, era la exhibición didáctica de los logros técnicos conseguidos en multitud de manifestaciones particulares: Economía, Ciencias Naturales, Etnología, Comercio, Comunicaciones, Industria, Educación y Artes Plásticas. En este sentido, constituyen un elemento básico para el análisis de la cultura y la sociedad decimonónicas.

  2. Geologic Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the North Cuba Basin, Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Petroleum generation in the North Cuba Basin is primarily the result of thrust loading of Jurassic and Cretaceous source rocks during formation of the North Cuba fold and thrust belt in the Late Cretaceous to Paleogene. The fold and thrust belt formed as Cuban arc-forearc rocks along the leading edge of the Caribbean plate translated northward during the opening of the Yucatan Basin and collided with the passive margin of southern North America in the Paleogene. Petroleum fluids generated during thrust loading migrated vertically into complex structures in the fold and thrust belt, into structures in the foreland basin, and possibly into carbonate reservoirs along the margins of the Yucatan and Bahama carbonate platforms. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) defined a Jurassic-Cretaceous Composite Total Petroleum System (TPS) and three assessment units (AU)-North Cuba Fold and Thrust Belt AU, North Cuba Foreland Basin AU, and the North Cuba Platform Margin Carbonate AU-within this TPS based mainly on structure and reservoir type (fig. 1). There is considerable geologic uncertainty as to the extent of petroleum migration that might have occurred within this TPS to form potential petroleum accumulations. Taking this geologic uncertainty into account, especially in the offshore area, the mean volumes of undiscovered resources in the composite TPS of the North Cuba Basin are estimated at (1) 4.6 billion barrels of oil (BBO), with means ranging from an F95 probability of 1 BBO to an F5 probability of 9 BBO; and (2) 8.6 trillion cubic feet of of gas (TCFG), of which 8.6 TCFG is associated with oil fields, and about 1.2 TCFG is in nonassociated gas fields in the North Cuba Foreland Basin AU.

  3. The normalization of sexual diversity in revolutionary Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Kirk, Emily J.

    2015-01-01

    Cuba, once understood to be a highly homophobic country, has been lauded internationally for its attention to sexual diversity rights since 2008. This Thesis examines and analyzes the development of the normalization of attitudes towards sexual diversity in revolutionary Cuba. This includes the evolution of homophobia in Cuba, the Federation of Cuban Women’s development of sexual education, the establishment of the Nation Centre for Sexual Education (CENESEX), and how these elements engage wi...

  4. An educator's perspective on the emerging Cuba and multiculturalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Carla D

    2006-01-01

    Plagued by many years of frequent leadership changes, and influences from power brokers whose policies and politics were oftentimes detrimental to Cuba's emerging as an industrialized and diverse economy nation, Cuba is now attempting to move beyond the survival mode. After the symbiotic relationship between the Soviet Union was dismantled in the 90s, Cuba is now undergoing metamorphoses of growth and change, socially, politically and culturally, while still remaining a mixture of worlds both rural and urban. This narrative article describes the multicultural experiences that an American university professor recently experienced while visiting Cuba.

  5. Cuba's involvement in Angola and Ethiopia: a question of autonomy in Cuba's relationship with the Soviet Union

    OpenAIRE

    Kessler, Stephanie Schehara

    1990-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited This thesis examines Cuban involvement in Angola and Ethiopia in light of Cuba's Foreign policy and Cuban Soviet relations. Utilizing the two case studies, it analyzes the degree to which Cuban activities in Africa were Soviet directed or Soviet sponsored. The conclusion is that Cuba exhibited substantial relative autonomy in Angola, but limited autonomy in Ethiopia. That conclusion is applied to Cuba in the 1990's, in which the curren...

  6. Four decades of kidney transplantation in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonzo, Jorge P

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the background, beginnings, development, evolution and outcomes of kidney transplantation in Cuba. Nephrology as a medical specialty in Cuba began in 1962 and was formalized in 1966. Conditions were created to implement renal replacement therapy (including transplants), bring nephrology care to the entire country and train human resources who would assume this responsibility, making Cuba one of the first countries with a comprehensive program for renal patient care. After three unsuccessful cadaveric-donor kidney transplantations in 1968-69, the ensuing history of kidney transplantation can be summarized in the following three stages. 1970-1975: In January 1970, cadaveric-donor kidney transplantation began at the Nephrology Institute. That year, 17 kidney transplantations were performed; four of these patients lived with functional kidneys for 15-25 years; 10-year graft survival was 23.5% (Kaplan-Meier survival curve); HLA typing began in 1974. By December 1975, 170 grafts had been done in three hospitals. 1976-1985: Seven transplantation centers performed 893 grafts during this period. HLA-DR typing was introduced in 1976 and the National Histocompatibility Laboratory Network was founded in 1978. The first related living-donor kidney transplantation was done in 1979. 1986-2011: The National Kidney Transplantation Coordinating Center and the National Kidney Transplantation Program were created in 1986; the first combined kidney-pancreas transplantation was performed the same year. In 1990, cyclosporine and the Cuban monoclonal antibody IOR-T3 were introduced for immunosuppression to prevent rejection, as were other Cuban products (hepatitis B vaccine and recombinant human erythropoietin) for transplant patients. By December 2011, the cumulative number of transplants was 4636 (384 from related living donors). With over 40 years of experience, kidney transplantation is now well established in Cuba; it is free and universally accessible, on the

  7. Cuba y la OEA: cambio y continuidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo LÓPEZ LEVY

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La Carta de la OEA proclamó la norma de gobernabilidad democrática que validó la importancia de la democracia representativa como central a la paz y estabilidad del hemisferio occidental. Aunque ese compromiso normativo tuvo sentido en la era de la política del buen vecino, el multilateralismo y la no intervención, el abandono por Estados Unidos de esos principios desde la administración Eisenhower debilitó la norma y creó una crisis de legitimidad en la OEA a raíz de los casos de Guatemala en 1954 y Cuba en 1962. La aprobación de la Resolución VI en la reunión de cancilleres de 1962, excluyendo a Cuba de la OEA debido a la ideología marxista de su gobierno fue un caso de institucionalización contraproducente de la norma de gobernabilidad democrática. Este artículo explora el ciclo de retroceso y renovación de la norma de gobernabilidad democrática a través del examen del tratamiento de Cuba en la OEA desde 1962 hasta la Asamblea General n.° 39 de la OEA en San Pedro Sula en junio de 2009.

  8. Economy, politics, and health status in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas Ochoa, F; López Pardo, C M

    1997-01-01

    An economic contraction occurred in Cuba at the beginning of the 1990s, of a magnitude greater than in any developed country in the last half century. This resulted primarily from the disappearance of the European socialist bloc and simultaneous tightening of the U.S. government's blockade at a time when Cuba was engaged in correcting its main economic problems. The economic crisis affected a number of areas of Cuban society. The state adopted a series of measures to cope with the socioeconomic situation, which have yielded positive results in the social and economic fields, as well as some undesirable results. In the health sector, the economic crisis has mainly reduced the availability of resources and has adversely affected some health determinants and some aspects of the population's health status. Despite the prevailing economic difficulties, the government is determined to preserve the country's achievements in health, and to develop them still further. The solution is not privatization or the introduction of health insurance systems or similar measures. Rather, Cuba will seek greater rationality and economic efficiency in the health sector. It has ratified the principles that the state should continue to finance the health system and maintain universal coverage and accessibility through free services.

  9. Toxocariasis in Cuba: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sariego, Idalia; Kanobana, Kirezi; Rojas, Lázara; Speybroeck, Niko; Polman, Katja; Núñez, Fidel A.

    2012-01-01

    Human toxocariasis (HT) is a zoonotic disease caused by infection with the larval stage of Toxocara canis, the intestinal roundworm of dogs. Infection can be associated with a wide clinical spectrum varying from asymptomatic to severe organ injury. While the incidence of symptomatic human toxocariasis appears to be low, infection of the human population is widespread. In Cuba, a clear overview on the status of the disease is lacking. Here, we review the available information on toxocariasis in Cuba as a first step to estimate the importance of the disease in the country. Findings are discussed and put in a broader perspective. Data gaps are identified and suggestions on how to address these are presented. The available country data suggest that Toxocara infection of the definitive dog host and environmental contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs is substantial, but information on HT is less conclusive. The availability of adequate diagnostic tools in the country should be guaranteed. Dedicated studies are needed for a reliable assessment of the impact of toxocariasis in Cuba and the design of prevention or control strategies. PMID:22389726

  10. Drinking water in Cuba and seawater desalination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meneses-Ruiz, E. [CUBAENERGIA, Playa, Havana (Cuba)]. E-mail: emeneses@cien.energia.inf.cu; Turtos-Carbonell, L.M.; Oviedo-Rivero, I. [CUBAENERGIA, Playa, Havana (Cuba)

    2004-07-01

    The lack of drinking water has become a problem at world level because, in many places, supplies are very limited and, in other places, their reserves have been drained. At the present time there are estimated to be around two thousand million people that don't have drinking water for several reasons, such as drought, contamination and the presence of saline waters not suitable for human consumption. Because of the human need for water, they have always taken residence in areas where the supply was guaranteed, sometimes impeding the exploitation of other areas that can be economically very interesting. However, this resource is usually very close and in abundance in the form of seawater but its salinity makes it unusable for many basic requirements. Humanity has been forced, therefore, to take into consideration the possibilities of the economic treatment of seawater. Cuba has regions where the supplies of drinking water are scarce and others where the lack of this resource limits economic exploitation. The present work is approached with regard to the situation of hydro resources in Cuba, it includes: a description of the main hydrographic basins of the country; the contamination levels of the waters and the measures for mitigation; analysis of the supplies and demand for drinking water and its quality; regulatory aspects. The state of seawater desalination in Cuba is also included and the possibility of its realisation using nuclear energy and the advantages that this would bring is evaluated. (author)

  11. Toxocariasis in Cuba: a literature review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idalia Sariego

    Full Text Available Human toxocariasis (HT is a zoonotic disease caused by infection with the larval stage of Toxocara canis, the intestinal roundworm of dogs. Infection can be associated with a wide clinical spectrum varying from asymptomatic to severe organ injury. While the incidence of symptomatic human toxocariasis appears to be low, infection of the human population is widespread. In Cuba, a clear overview on the status of the disease is lacking. Here, we review the available information on toxocariasis in Cuba as a first step to estimate the importance of the disease in the country. Findings are discussed and put in a broader perspective. Data gaps are identified and suggestions on how to address these are presented. The available country data suggest that Toxocara infection of the definitive dog host and environmental contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs is substantial, but information on HT is less conclusive. The availability of adequate diagnostic tools in the country should be guaranteed. Dedicated studies are needed for a reliable assessment of the impact of toxocariasis in Cuba and the design of prevention or control strategies.

  12. Los dispositivos tecnológicos cotidianos en libros de texto. Presencia y análisis de las exposiciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Fernández-González

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se estudian los dispositivos tecnológicos cotidianos que presentan los libros de texto de 4º de ESO (Física y Química. En primer lugar se ha determinado cuáles son los mostrados y si es frecuente su presencia. Se señala que entre los manuales suele aparecer un núcleo más o menos fijo de dispositivos y el resto variable, formado sobre todo por aquellos más actuales. Se ha constatado que la frecuencia con que aparece un dispositivo suele depender de su conexión estrecha con un principio o ley y de su uso extendido, reforzado por su carácter innovador. La comparación realizada con manuales de los años 70 ha revelado un incremento del número de referencias, pero la metodología con que se exponen, igual que en la actualidad, sigue una exposición de corte tradicional, muy deductivista y subordinada a la teoría. Por último se ha acometido el análisis de las propias exposiciones, comprobándose que, en la gran mayoría de los casos, responden a un esquema común constituido por tres elementos: presentación y finalidad, fundamento, y funcionamiento. La ausencia de alguno de ellos conlleva una pérdida de calidad explicativa. El proceso de análisis se ha apoyado en la realización de mapas conceptuales para marcar nítida-mente los bloques correspondientes a dichos elementos.

  13. The United States and Cuba: Past, Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-04-01

    Cooperativas Independenties: Medio Ambiente , Ecologia, y Su Impacto al Campesino Cubano, CubaNet, [article on- line accessed 4 May 2000], available from http...Independientes: Medio Ambiente , Ecologia y Su Impacto al Campesino Cubano.” CubaNet News. Available at http://www.cubanet.org/cooperativa

  14. Zoological Collections and Collecting in Cuba during the Twentieth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taboada, Gilberto Silva

    1994-01-01

    Traces the history of 20th-century zoological collections in Cuba, and the present whereabouts of Cuba's zoological collections. The historical accounts are divided into two periods: from 1902 to 1959 and from 1959 to the present. A preliminary survey of the nature, size, and current state of these collections is included. (MDH)

  15. Coping with water crisis in Cuba | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-07-14

    Jul 14, 2011 ... Over the past ten years, Cuba's economic decline has led to a slow but steady deterioration of water supplies and sanitation services — and a resulting increase in water-borne disease. When water shortages in parts of Cuba reached crisis proportions last year, two communities solved the problem by ...

  16. Coping with water crisis in Cuba | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Over the past ten years, Cuba's economic decline has led to a slow but steady deterioration of water supplies and sanitation services — and a resulting increase in water-borne disease. When water shortages in parts of Cuba reached crisis proportions last year, two communities solved the problem by taking matters in their ...

  17. Perspectivas para la lexicografía especializada en Cuba

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Sven

    1995-01-01

    En diskussion af muligheder for at udvikle et fagleksikografisk arbejde på Cuba og i det øvrige Latinamerika......En diskussion af muligheder for at udvikle et fagleksikografisk arbejde på Cuba og i det øvrige Latinamerika...

  18. Children Are the Revolution: Day Care in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiner, Marvin

    This book discusses the educational philosophy, accessibility, administration, staffing and other related aspects of day care services in Cuba. Chapter I identifies three long-term goals which form the philosophical basis of early childhood programs in Cuba: the liberation of Cuban women from the exploitation and chauvinism of the past; the…

  19. Development of a system for landslide risk assessment for Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castellanos Abella, E.A.; Westen, C.J. van

    2005-01-01

    In many developing countries, such as Cuba, landslide-affected areas are not systematically mapped in a national inventory and no “regional to local” approach for landslide hazard and risk assessment has been carried out so far. Most of the conventional landslide studies in Cuba are qualitative in

  20. ÉTUDE DE CAS — Cuba : Le logement et le capital humain à Cuba ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    10 janv. 2011 ... À Cuba, une équipe de spécialistes de nombreux domaines -- médecine, sociologie, psychologie, économie, génie et architecture, notamment -- a travaillé en collaboration avec les dirigeants des secteurs structuré et non structuré de Cayo Hueso. « L'avantage de cette approche ' transdisciplinaire ' ...

  1. Actions to achieve competence in radiation protection practices in the Republic of Cuba; Acciones para lograr la competencia en proteccion radiologica en las practicas en la Republica de Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prendes Alonso, M.; Tomas Zerquera, J.; Valdes Ramos, M., E-mail: prendes@cphr.edu.cu [Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones (CPHR), Agencia de Energia Nuclear y Tecnologias de Avanzada, La Habana (Cuba); Guillen Campos, A. [Centro Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear (CNSN), La Habana (Cuba); Santana Nunez, J.F. [Agencia de Energia Nuclear y Tecnologias de Avanzada (AENTA), La Habana (Cuba)

    2013-07-01

    The article addresses the goals of a national project created with the purpose of systematize all actions of the country in this area, including the definition of the responsibilities of the participating institutions and the actions to ensure consistency with the guidelines of the IAEA in this field.The experiences of projects currently being developed in other countries, as it is the case of the European project ENETRAP, were taken into account in the conception of the project and its contents. The work also describes other actions that this field is developing in the country.

  2. Nuevos registros de clorofitas marinas para Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, A.; Fujii, M. T.; Suárez, A. M.; Wynne, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    A partir de muestras colectadas en la bahía de Cienfuegos y de Santa Lucía (Pinar del Río), se identificaron dos nuevos registros de macroalgas marinas (clorofitas) para Cuba: Cladophora blomquistii C. Hoek y Udotea fibrosa D. S. Littler & M. M. Littler. C. blomquistii se registra por primera vez para la región del Caribe ya que se había consignado solo para lagunas costeras de la Florida, y la parte noreste del golfo de México. Se ofrecen además comentarios sobre la taxonomía, ...

  3. Cuba: Issues for 111th Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-14

    park. On April 21, 2008, ten members of the Ladies in White were 12 Comision Cubana de Derechos ...Humanos y Reconciliacion Nacional, “Cuba en el año 2009: la situacíon de derechos civiles, políticos y económicos,” February 2, 2009. 13 Anita Snow...Economist Intelligence Unit, February 2009. 24 “Infant Mortality, 5.3 in 2007!” Granma Internacional , January 4, 2008. 25 Larry Luxner, “New

  4. Cuba's Aging and Alzheimer Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llibre-Rodríguez, Juan de Jesús; Valhuerdi-Cepero, Adolfo; López-Medina, Ana M; Noriega-Fernández, Lisseth; Porto-Álvarez, Rutbeskia; Guerra-Hernández, Milagros A; Bosch-Bayard, Rodolfo I; Zayas-Llerena, Tania; Hernandez-Ulloa, Elaine; Rodríguez-Blanco, Ana L; Salazar-Pérez, Enrique; Llibre-Guerra, Juan C; Llibre-Guerra, Jorge J; Marcheco-Teruel, Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    Aging and Alzheimer is a prospective, longitudinal cohort study involving 2944 adults aged ≥65 years from selected areas in Cuba's Havana and Matanzas Provinces. This door-to-door study, which began in 2003, includes periodic assessments of the cohort based on an interview; physical exam; anthropometric measurements; and diagnosis of dementia and its subtypes, other mental disorders, and other chronic non-communicable diseases and their risk factors. Information was gathered on sociodemographic characteristics; disability, dependency and frailty; use of health services; and characteristics of care and caregiver burden. The first assessment also included blood tests: complete blood count, blood glucose, kidney and liver function, lipid profile and ApoE4 genotype (a susceptibility marker). In 2007-2011, the second assessment was done of 2010 study subjects aged ≥65 years who were still alive. The study provides data on prevalence and incidence of dementia and its risk factors, and of related conditions that affect the health of older adults. It also contributes valuable experiences from field work and interactions with older adults and their families. Building on lessons learned, a third assessment to be done in 2016-2018 will incorporate a community intervention strategy to respond to diseases and conditions that predispose to dementia, frailty and dependency in older adults. KEYWORDS Dementia, Alzheimer disease, chronic disease, aging, chronic illness, frailty, dependency, cohort studies, Cuba.

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL TAX IN CUBA, CONTROL YOUR FUND IN SANTIAGO DE CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira Vázquez-Díaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available By issuing the Law 73 of the Tax System in 1994, the taxation on the usage and exploitation of natural resources began to be applied to promote a rational usage of these resources on the protection of the environment. This article refers to the application of this tax in Cuba based on records of imprinted and digital bibliography containing considerations of environmental economists about the subject on a legal approach. It also offers the reader a general view of the application of this tax in the province of Santiago de Cuba as well as information for the specialists incharge of collecting its income which is used to encourage the protection of the environment. 

  6. El Programa de Medicina Transfusional de Cuba The Transfusion Medicine Program in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Ballester Santovenia

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Cuba's Transfusion Medicine Program (TMP is a subsystem of the country's National Health System. The TMP's objective is to ensure hemotherapy with blood that is safe and sufficient for all the individuals who need it. The TMP subsystem is made up of the National Commission on Transfusion Medicine, the Institute of Hematology and Immunology, 37 clinical services, 44 blood banks, 120 collection centers, 19 mobile units, and 37 blood certification laboratories. Additional facilities include a laboratory for plasma separation, a laboratory that produces leukocyte interferon and transfer factor, and two laboratories that produce reagents for blood classification and blood diagnosis systems. In Cuba, blood donation is voluntary. Since 1997 approximately 5% of the population per year has donated blood, thus meeting the goal recommended by the Pan American Health Organization of one voluntary blood donation annually for every 20 persons. During 2002, 563 204 blood donations were received, and there were 445 898 transfusions of blood or blood components. All donations are individually screened for HIV 1 and 2, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and syphilis, thus meeting the country's current regulations. In 2002 these screening measures led to discarding, respectively, 0.12%, 0.60%, 0.71%, and 1.8% of the blood donations. Although the prevalence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus I and II in Cuba is very low, this test will soon be added to the screening process.

  7. Cuba : tous les projets | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: NATURAL DISASTERS, DISASTER PREPAREDNESS, EARLY WARNING SYSTEMS, DISASTER MANAGEMENT, EMERGENCY RELIEF, INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, TELECOMMUNICATIONS. Région: North and Central America, South America, West Indies, Cuba, Haiti, Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago.

  8. Towards an HIV-free generation in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Last year Cuba became the first country in the world to eliminate mother-to-child transmission of HIV and syphilis as public health problems. Other countries are following suit. Andréia Azevedo Soares reports.

  9. Visiting the Republic of Cuba: An Experience to Remember.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Geraldine

    2015-01-01

    A few years ago, I was privileged to visit the Republic of Cuba as a summer vacation. Officially, this Spanish island is the largest island in the Caribbean, with more than 12 million people. It is only second as being most populous after Hispaniola with its people, culture and customs. Havana is the capital and Cuba's largest city. The United States lies to the immediate north only about 95 miles away, and the Bahamas and Mexico to the west, the Cayman Islands and Jamaica are on the southern end, and Haiti and the Dominion Republic are in the southeastern area. The history of this island is truly amazing. I was able to vist a hospital, and ride public transportation (bus). The trip was made at the time when Cuba was not open to travelers coming direct from the United States. I traveled to Montreal, Canada to board Cabana Arlines to Havana, Cuba.

  10. Situacion de la gestion de inventarios en Cuba

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lopes-Martinez, Igor; Gomez-Acosta, Martha Ines; Acevedo-Suarez, Jose Antonio

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo del presente articulo es analizar la situacion de la gestion de inventarios en Cuba, a partir de las experiencias obtenidas durante mas de 10 anos en entidades de los sectores de servicios...

  11. Corales pétreos: jardines sumergidos de Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    González-Ferrer, S.

    2004-01-01

    Se describen los principios fundamentales para la tenencia de corales en acuarios marinos, los diferentes sistemas que se aplican y la experiencia obtenida en el Acuario Nacional de Cuba en la exhibición de estos organismos.

  12. Radiation protection in medical and biomedical research; Proteccion radiologica en la investigacion medica y biomedica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuente Puch, A.E. de la, E-mail: andres@orasen.co.cuES [Centro Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear, La Habana (Cuba)

    2013-11-01

    The human exposure to ionizing radiation in the context of medical and biomedical research raises specific ethical challenges whose resolution approaches should be based on scientific, legal and procedural matters. Joint Resolution MINSAP CITMA-Regulation 'Basic Standards of Radiation Safety' of 30 November 2001 (hereafter NBS) provides for the first time in Cuba legislation specifically designed to protect patients and healthy people who participate in research programs medical and biomedical and exposed to radiation. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the need to develop specific requirements for radiation protection in medical and biomedical research, as well as to identify all the institutions involved in this in order to establish the necessary cooperation to ensure the protection of persons participating in the investigation.

  13. Organic agriculture in Cuba: The revolution goes green

    OpenAIRE

    Kilcher, Lukas

    2001-01-01

    Agriculture in post-revolutionary Cuba is based on large-scale, capital-intensive and labour-extensive monocultures. In order to sustain these, the island continually imported fertilizers, pesticides and diesel at subsidized prices from the former Soviet economic aid community, COMECOM. Since this collapsed in the early 1990s, Cuba has suffered from an acute shortage of raw materials. At the same time, the main sales market for Cuban agricultural production has disappeared. Given this situati...

  14. [Some epidemiological aspects of myasthenia gravis in Cuba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisneros, A D; Luis, R S; León, R; Carrera, P L

    1996-04-01

    We estimated the rates of prevalence, incidence, mortality and lethality for myasthenia gravis in Cuba based upon previous epidemiological studies carried out in eight of Cuba's fourteen provinces: Pinar del Río, Havana City, Havana, Matanzas, Cienfuegos, Sancti Spíritus, Camagüey and Guantánamo. Rates of incidence, prevalence and mortality were 4.52, 29.22 and 0.72 per million inhabitants respectively. Lethality rate was 10.77%.

  15. Ciencia y coleccionismo en Cuba en el siglo XIX

    OpenAIRE

    Valero González, Mercedes; García González, Armando

    1999-01-01

    In this article a panoramic is exposed about museums and cabinets which existed in Cuba during the nineteenth century, describing functions and characteristics as well as the causes that made some of them disappear. It is also shown the continuity, asumed by the scientific collection over since major nationalized-institute in the nineteenth century. It is likewise intended to give a general and complete chronology about the development of museum in Cuba, taking into account the lasting-long o...

  16. Cuba: the surge of export-oriented services

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriele, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    Since the inception of the special period and the loss of its traditional export markets for sugar and other goods, Cuba has turned towards services as new sources of foreign exchange. Tourism has been reactivated and its performance has been broadly satisfactory, yet its long term growth potential should not be overstated. Since the mid-2000s, a new sector - professional services - has become the island's largest foreign exchange earner. Cuba's comparative advantage in this sector is the pro...

  17. An Overview of the Linkages Between Spain's Regions and Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Freres, Christian

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyses the mutual interests and benefits for Cuba and for Spanish regions involved in decentralized cooperation. From Cuba's perspective, the author argues, regional and institutional ties with Spain provide political, economic and technical benefits. On the part of Spanish regions, it reflects a perceived need to project their identity abroad, to compete in the international economy and to exert their autonomy vis-à-vis the central government.

  18. Cuba: Plenty of Care, Few Condoms, No Corruption.

    OpenAIRE

    Veeken, H.

    1995-01-01

    The health system in Cuba guarantees accessibility to the entire population, is free of charge, and covers the spectrum from vaccinations to sophisticated interventions. The results are impressive: Cuba's health figures are on a par with developed countries that have 20 times the budget. The country is experiencing a difficult period because of the collapse and loss of support from the Soviet Union; over 30 years' trade embargo by the United States; and the gradual change from a centrally pla...

  19. U.S.-Cuba relations : revisiting the sanctions policy

    OpenAIRE

    Giscard, John C.

    2002-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. In October 1960, faced with an increasingly hostile and threatening Marxist dictator, the United States implemented economic sanctions against Cuba. As Cuba aligned itself with the Soviet Union, it became a legitimate threat to U.S. national security interests. During the Cold War period, the sanctions policy was successful in achieving some of its aims; most notably, containing Communism in the hemisphere. However, it clearly failed ...

  20. Climate vulnerability in Cuba. The role of social networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sygna, L.

    2005-10-01

    The case of Cuba offers a unique opportunity to investigate the dynamics of climate vulnerability. This paper takes a closer look at recent economic and social developments in Cuba, and how these affect patterns of vulnerability. Faced with the ongoing processes of climate change and economic globalization, Cuban households are carefully trying to sustain livelihood. Findings suggest that social networks are important as means of accessing coping strategies. Their access is on the other hand not equally distributed.

  1. Cuba y las fronteras de la utopía

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Artiklen indeholder nogle generelle overvejelser om den sociale utopi som fænomen samt en række empiriske observationer og del analyser af dette fænomen i ft det revolutionære Cuba.......Artiklen indeholder nogle generelle overvejelser om den sociale utopi som fænomen samt en række empiriske observationer og del analyser af dette fænomen i ft det revolutionære Cuba....

  2. Oncology nursing in Cuba: report of the delegation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Lisa Kennedy; Leonard, Kathleen; Gross, Anne; Hartnett, Erin; Poage, Ellen; Squires, Jennifer; Ullemeyer, Vicki; Schueller, Mary; Stary, Susan; Miller, Mary Alice

    2012-08-01

    In December 2011, the first delegation of oncology nurses from the United States visited Havana, Cuba. The delegation included oncology nurses, educators, and leaders from across America and provided opportunities to learn about the healthcare system, cancer, and oncology nursing in Cuba. Delegation members attended lectures, toured facilities, and enjoyed Cuban culture. This exchange highlighted the similarities in cancer care and oncology nursing between countries and opened doors for future collaborations.

  3. EX_posiciones

    OpenAIRE

    Rabazas Romero, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    La presente comunicación está conformada por una reflexión teórica “Comencemos a caminar” en la que trato algunas cuestiones genéricas en torno a la noción de deriva urbana, el trabajo con el cuerpo, la memoria y los lugares. Utilizaré como mapa de este breve recorrido algunas reflexiones de Maaschelein y Agamben en torno a la idea de estudio, el viaje y la atención y la importancia de la experiencia para “ver” el camino. Citaré “el caminar a pie” de Walter Benjamin en Dirección Única y algun...

  4. International Medical Collaboration: Lessons from Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Castelló González

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Over 50,000 Cuban health professionals are currently working overseas in 67 different countries. They work in conjunction with local health professionals. The majority work in primary care in deprived areas. The aim is to reduce morbidity and mortality but also improve health in the long term by training local health professionals, and building both institutions and a structure to deliver health care alongside educating the local population. Cuba is a small, middle-income country. It has, however, made a significant international contribution in relation to medical collaboration. Cuba’s international collaboration is based on the principles of social justice and equity for all. It has set an example for other countries to emulate.

  5. Virtual Visit - Cuba/March 30 2016

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Visitor Centre

    2016-01-01

    No próximo dia 30/03/2016, o Centro de Promoción Cultural Comunitário KCHO ESTUDIO ROMERILLO (http://www.kchoestudio.com/proyecto/Kcho%20Estudio%20Romerillo,%20Laboratorio%20para%20el%20Arte/) realizará uma Visita Virtual ao Experimento ATLAS, no Centro Europeu de Pesquisa Nuclear, o CERN, na Suíça. Em CUBA, a visita será coordenada pelos professores Amadeu Albino Junior (IFRN - BRASIL), Anderson Guimarães Guedes (UFRN – Brasil). Na Suíça, o detector será apresentado por Denis Oliveira Damazio (BNL/CERN). Após uma curta apresentação sobre o LHC e o Detector ATLAS, os participantes poderão fazer perguntas sobre a experiência.

  6. International Medical Collaboration: Lessons from Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelló González, Mauro; Pons Vásquez, Reinaldo; Rodriguez Bencomo, David; Choonara, Imti

    2016-01-01

    Over 50,000 Cuban health professionals are currently working overseas in 67 different countries. They work in conjunction with local health professionals. The majority work in primary care in deprived areas. The aim is to reduce morbidity and mortality but also improve health in the long term by training local health professionals, and building both institutions and a structure to deliver health care alongside educating the local population. Cuba is a small, middle-income country. It has, however, made a significant international contribution in relation to medical collaboration. Cuba’s international collaboration is based on the principles of social justice and equity for all. It has set an example for other countries to emulate. PMID:27763571

  7. ENERGY AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debrayan Bravo Hidalgo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Employment and enhancing the use of renewable energy sources could be considered as the beginning of a third ¨Industrial Revolution¨. The transition to a low carbon dioxide emission permits to a momentous turning point in the fight against climate change, improve energy security, and last but not least, significantly reduce the geopolitical intentions of this. The increase in renewable sources constitutes a guideline for energy policy in Cuba. Thus, programs for the construction of small hydropower plants, plant cells and photovoltaic panels, solar thermal energy systems for various services are developed; and the use of other primary sources such as wind and biomass. This work shows the implementation of these practices in the nation, the present results and future aspirations facing the demands of sustainable and steady development of generation and power consumption.

  8. First heat flow density assessments in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    čermák, V.; Krešl, M.; Šafanda, J.; Nápoles-Pruna, M.; Tenreyro-Perez, R.; Torres-Paz, L. M.; Valdés, J. J.

    1984-03-01

    The first determinations of heat flow density in Cuba are reported. Precise temperature loggings were carried out in 12 holes in the western and central parts of Cuba. Along the northwestern shore, the mean temperature gradient ranges from 14-16 mK/m in the Pinar del Rio province and 18-22 mK/m east of Habana to 30 mK/m in northern Matanzas. In the Central Basin it ranges from 23-24 mK/m west of Ciego de Avila to 28-39 mK/m east of Sancti Spiritus. Rock samples for laboratory determination of thermal conductivity could be collected only from two holes in Pinar del Rio; their mean conductivity amounts to 4.1 W m -1 K -1. From other holes no core samples were available and characteristic rocks were collected from surface outcrops in the vicinity of each hole. The measured conductivity ranges from 0.8 to 3.0 W m -1 K -1. Heat flow density assessments revealed very low heat flow near Habana and south of Varadero (30-40 mW m -2) and relatively higher but still rather subnormal values in Pinar del Rio (60 mW m -2) and in the Central Basin (50-65 mW m -2). The generally low heat flow density found in western and central parts of the island thus seems to agree well with the results of marine observations in surrounding areas reported by other authors.

  9. MEDIO SIGLO DE VIVIENDA SOCIAL EN CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dania González Couret

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El próximo año 2010 cumple un siglo el primer barrio obrero proyectado y construido en Cuba. Después de 1959 la vivienda cubana se ha caracterizado por un estándar general y uniforme correspondiente al modelo de la vivienda social masiva nacida en Europa a inicios del siglo XX, y a diferencia de lo que sucede en otros países en desarrollo, continúa siendo una responsabilidad del Estado. El artículo ofrece una panorámica de la evolución y tendencias de la vivienda social en Cuba durante la segunda mitad del siglo XX. Los inicios en los anos '60s se caracterizaron por la búsqueda de tecnologías apropiadas y nuevas formas de expresión para la vivienda social masiva de un país en desarrollo y en Revolución, intentando "erradicar" las condiciones habitacionales precarias, y las diferencias entre la ciudad y el campo. A partir de los 70s la vivienda cubana se vio comprometida con los sistemas de prefabricación de alta tecnología, como vía para dar solución a la demanda masiva. En los '80s cobró fuerza la conservación de los centros urbanos tradicionales y la crisis de los '90s obligó a abandonar definitivamente la industrialización pesada y buscar soluciones "alternativas". El trabajo concluye con el debate actual.

  10. The exposure to electromagnetic fields and its association with children`s leukemia; Exposicion a campos electromagneticos y su asociacion con leucemia en ninos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fajardo Gutierrez, Arturo; Velasquez Perez, Leora [Unidad de Investigacion en Epidemiologia Clinica, Hospital de Pediatria, Centro Medico Nacional Siglo XXI, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Matinez Mendez, Jose Antonio [Luz y Fuerza del Centro, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    found a relative risk of 1.5. Conclusions: It is not known with certainty if the exposure to EMF can be considered a risk factor for the leukemia or not. [Espanol] Dentro de las neoplasias en los ninos la leucemia es la mas frecuente en paises de Europa y de America. No se conocen las causas de su desarrollo, pero desde 1979 se ha senalado que la exposicion a los campos electromagneticos puede ser una de las causas de su etiologia. Campos Electromagneticos: Los campos electromagneticos (CEM) son ubicuos o sea se encuentran en practicamente todos los lugares en donde vive el hombre. Pueden ser ionizantes o no ionizantes, los CEM que producen las lineas electricas (transmision o distribucion) son no ionizantes y por su frecuencia se les conoce como CEM de frecuencia extremadamente baja. No todas las personas estan expuestas a la misma cantidad de CEM, de ahi que se senale la existencia de gradientes de exposicion a los CEM; el gradiente de exposicion esta en relacion directa con el tipo de cable, el voltaje, la corriente que llevan y la distancia a la cual viven los individuos. Por lo tanto mientras mas cerca vivan los individuos a cables electricos estaran mas expuestos a este tipo de CEM. Efectos biologicos de los de CEM: dentro de los mecanismos biologicos que producen los CEM en organismos vivientes se encuentran: a) Alteraciones del flujo de calcio en el tejido cerebral del pollo; b) Cambios en ritmo circadiano de diferentes especies; c) Cambios en la frecuencia cardiaca de los humanos; d) Diminucion de la secrecion de melatonia por la glandula pineal; c) Otros. Leucemia y CEM: la asociacion entre leucemia y la exposicion a CEM fue senalada por estudios epidemiologicos iniciados en 1979, pero en la actualidad esta asociacion es una controversia, ya que no todos los estudios muestran consistencia en sus resultados, algunos son positivos pero otros no. El riesgo relativo que se ha encontrado varia entre 1.5 y 3.0 y solo dos estudios han encontrado gradiente dosis

  11. Cuba after Fidel Castro: Issues and Strategic Considerations for the Employment of United States Armed Forces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wood, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Cuba is an important interest of the United States and at times, a vital one. The situation in Cuba is tenuous, considering the strained political, social, and economic conditions, and exacerbated by questions about Castro's health...

  12. La colección de catálogos de mano de exposiciones de la Biblioteca General d'Història de l'Art del MNAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coso, Teresa

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available El origen de la colección de pequeños catálogos de exposiciones de la Biblioteca General d'História de l'Art está en el anuncio que en fecha 23.01.1913 apareció en la página artística del diario "La Veu de Catalunya" (semanario y diario catalán publicado en Barcelona desde 1891 hasta 1937, haciendo un llamamiento a los artistas y sociedades culturales para que enviaran dos ejemplares de las invitaciones y catálogos de sus exposiciones a la que entonces se llamaba "Biblioteca especial de Arte".

  13. Las “Exposiciones Orientalistas Salesianas” de 1943-1944: la puesta en escena de la construcción del Estado en la Amazonía ecuatoriana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Ortiz Batallas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza las Exposiciones Orientalistas Salesianas llevadas a cabo entre 1943 y 1944, en Quito, Guayaquil y Cuenca, como eventos que permiten elucidar el proceso de incorporación de los pueblos amazónicos al Estado ecuatoriano. Dichas exposiciones representaron a los territorios de los pueblos shuar, en la coyuntura posterior al conflicto limítrofe entre Ecuador y Perú de 1941. La contribución sostiene que en este espacio periférico el Estado se construyó de manera descentralizada y por medio de la delegación de sus funciones en distintos actores locales.

  14. Baculovirus potential for agricultural pests management in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis Ayala Sifontes

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cuba has an international reputation for implementing widespread biological control of pests, and microbial biocontrol is an integral component of most pest management programs. One class of microbial pesticides however, has not been developed in Cuba, bio-insecticides based on the Baculoviridae. This class of safe and environmentally protective microbial pesticides is used ever more commonly worldwide as an alternative to chemical pesticides. The characteristics of the viruses of this family, particularly their high host specificity, safety to non-target organisms, capacity to persist in nature and create epizootics, and the economy with which they can be produced "in vivo", all make them attractive for incorporation into pest management programs along with other pesticides developed in Cuba. The mass production technology is well understood in Cuba and biofactories already exist for a number of microbial biocontrol products. In the province of Sancti Spíritus, the Plant Protection Laboratory of the Ministry of Agriculture, with the cooperation of the Institute for Sustainable Horticulture, Kwantlen Polytechnic University, are resuming the work which began in the 90´s to develop baculovirus products in support of sustainable agriculture in Cuba. This work is being carried out with the participation of young Canadian and Cuban students and professionals. The program includes research with the multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis viruses of Spodoptera frugiperda (SfMNPV and S. exigua (SeMNPV and the search for native isolates of Baculovirus in Plutella xylostella, three priority pests in Cuba. In other jurisdictions they are well controlled by baculoviruses, and the expectation is that this same result is possible in Cuba.

  15. Implementation of QUANUM in Cuba. Preliminary results; Resultados preliminares de la implementacion del QUANUM en Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Barreto, M.; Varela Corona, C.; Lopez Bejerano, G. M.; Lopez Diaz, A.; Torres Arocha, L.; Coca Perez, M. A.; Fernandez Herrera, A. O.

    2011-07-01

    Setting up quality management systems in nuclear medicine in Cuba has been an aim for medical physicists. In the last decade, we have walked with steady steps towards that direction, by setting up national standards and regulations, and carrying out research projects in order to ensure the improvement of quality assurance and management programs. In 2010 the IAEA's QUANUM document has been applied, as a methodology for quality management audits in nuclear medicine. Five audits have shown that most of class A regulatory items are guaranteed at nuclear medicine services. However, quality management system performing is still inappropriate. (Author) 13 refs.

  16. Preparing for Post-Embargo Cuba: Effects on Businesses and Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Nina M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Discusses a brief history of U.S. trade with Cuba, the current status of Cuba's role in world trade, and the effects the U.S. embargo has on American businesses and U.S. and Cuban citizens. The article presents suggestions on how U.S. businesses can prepare for an open Cuba and argues for the lifting of the U.S. embargo against Cuba. (84…

  17. Historia de la Puericultura en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Román Lafont

    Full Text Available En la Edad Media los niños eran tratados como adultos pequeños. A partir del Renacimiento surge mayor interés en la infancia. En 1722 aparece el término Pediatría en la Europa Central, y en 1865, por primera vez, es acuñado el término Puericultura por Alfred Pierre Caron, profesor en la Universidad de París. Realizar consultas de Puericultura en la primera mitad del siglo XX en Cuba era prácticamente un lujo. Con el sistema único de salud y cobertura total de la atención primaria a partir de 1959, se lograron establecer consultas de Pediatría (1960 y Puericultura (1963 en los policlínicos. El nuevo enfoque de la práctica médica preventivo-curativa influyó en el desarrollo de la Puericultura, con programas como: Atención integral al niño y la mujer, la normación de las especialidades, la reducción de la mortalidad infantil, la medición de indicadores de salud en la población cubana de 0 a 19 años, la dispensarización de niños y adolescentes, Puericultura prenatal, así como la evaluación de "Hospitales y policlínicos Amigos de la madre y el niño". En 2004 fue creado un grupo multidisciplinario para el rescate de la calidad de las consultas de Puericultura, y se inauguró el Centro de Referencia Nacional de Puericultura en el año 2007, con funciones docentes, de investigación, asistenciales-metodológicas y administrativas. Sorprende la búsqueda de cómo se introdujo en Cuba la Puericultura, a través de Infomed e Internet, visitas a bibliotecas especializadas y la Oficina del Historiador del Ministerio de Salud Pública.

  18. EL PROCESO DE ORDENAMIENTO AMBIENTAL EN CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obllurys Cárdenas López

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La necesaria interacción entre el ordenamiento territorial y ordenamiento ambiental fue promulgada en la Ley 81 y en las Estrategias Ambientales Nacionales (EAN desde 1997, en Cuba. Varias situaciones frenaron su cumplimentación, la falta de procedimientos metodológicos que guiaran el proceso, fue una de ellas por lo que la EAN de 2011-2015 y los Lineamientos del PCC lo ratifican como objetivo. En el abordaje de este problema y en la inclusión de los resultados de los estudios de peligro, vulnerabilidad y riesgo y de los escenarios de cambio climático radica la actualidad de la presente investigación. Teniendo como hipótesis que: el empleo de procedimientos metodológicos integradores y participativos facilitará la elaboración de modelos de ordenamiento ambiental (MOA que aporten regulaciones, lineamientos y normas ambientales al proceso de ordenamiento territorial; se persigue como objetivo principal: proponer los procedimientos metodológicos para la elaboración de los MOA y realizar su validación a nivel nacional y municipal. Son empleados métodos teóricos y empíricos combinados en la elaboración de los procedimientos y en su validación a diferentes escalas. Se obtienen como resultado los procedimientos metodológicos, con cinco fases de trabajo y su validación con la elaboración del MOA para el territorio emergido de Cuba, para los sectores agrícola y pecuario y del MOA para el municipio de Yagüajay, para los sectores agrícola, pecuario, forestal, hídrico, turismo y conservación. Se concluyó en la pertinencia de utilizar los procedimientos propuestos para la elaboración de los MOA, teniendo como base el enfoque participativo y a las unidades de paisaje, como unidad de análisis.

  19. Cuba: The Pearl of the Antilles. Cuban Ethnic Studies; Resource Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolet, Margareta; And Others

    This collection of resource material includes descriptions of historical and cultural factors dealing with Cuba and Cuban Americans. Included are brief descriptions of Cuba, its people, its agriculture and natural resources, and its economic development. A brief historical review of Cuba, ranging from its discovery to its takeover by the…

  20. 31 CFR 515.415 - Travel to Cuba; transportation of certain Cuban nationals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Travel to Cuba; transportation of... CONTROL REGULATIONS Interpretations § 515.415 Travel to Cuba; transportation of certain Cuban nationals... or a returning resident of the United States, from Cuba to the United States, unless otherwise...

  1. 31 CFR 515.561 - Persons visiting close relatives in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Cuba. 515.561 Section 515.561 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... Cuba. (a) General license. (1) Persons subject to the jurisdiction of the United States and persons... close relative, as defined in § 515.339 of this part, who is a national of Cuba, as defined in § 515.302...

  2. 31 CFR 515.337 - Prohibited officials of the Government of Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Government of Cuba. 515.337 Section 515.337 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 515.337 Prohibited officials of the Government of Cuba. For purposes of this part, the term prohibited officials of the Government of Cuba means Ministers and Vice-ministers...

  3. 31 CFR 515.207 - Entry of vessels engaged in trade with Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... with Cuba. 515.207 Section 515.207 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 515.207 Entry of vessels engaged in trade with Cuba. Except as specifically... place in Cuba to engage in the trade of goods or the purchase or provision of services, may enter a U.S...

  4. 75 FR 54594 - Effectiveness of Licensing Procedures for Agricultural Commodities to Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... Cuba AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and Security, Commerce. ACTION: Request for comments. SUMMARY: The... Cuba. BIS will include a description of these comments in its biennial report to the Congress, as... of the Export Administration Regulations (EAR), to Cuba. Requirements and procedures associated with...

  5. 31 CFR 515.553 - Bank accounts of official representatives in Cuba of foreign governments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representatives in Cuba of foreign governments. 515.553 Section 515.553 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Bank accounts of official representatives in Cuba of foreign governments. Specific licenses are issued authorizing payments from accounts of official representatives in Cuba of foreign governments for transactions...

  6. 77 FR 55183 - Effectiveness of Licensing Procedures for Agricultural Commodities to Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-07

    ... Cuba AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and Security, Commerce. ACTION: Request for comments. SUMMARY: The... Cuba. BIS will include a description of these comments in its biennial report to the Congress, as... 772 of the Export Administration Regulations (EAR), to Cuba. Requirements and procedures associated...

  7. 77 FR 23598 - Technical Amendment to Cuba Airport List: Addition of Recently Approved Airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection 19 CFR Part 122 Technical Amendment to Cuba Airport List... from Cuba. DATES: Effective: April 20, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Arthur A.E. Pitts, Sr., U... to all aircraft (except public aircraft) entering or departing the United States to or from Cuba...

  8. 76 FR 5058 - Airports of Entry or Departure for Flights to and From Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... or Departure for Flights to and From Cuba AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, DHS. ACTION... United States and Cuba must arrive at or depart from one of three named U.S. airports: John F. Kennedy... the United States and Cuba. These amendments are in accordance with the President's recent statement...

  9. 31 CFR 515.548 - Services rendered by Cuba to United States aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Services rendered by Cuba to United... REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.548 Services rendered by Cuba to United States aircraft. Specific licenses are issued for payment to Cuba of charges for services...

  10. 31 CFR 515.564 - Professional research and professional meetings in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... professional meetings in Cuba. 515.564 Section 515.564 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to... research and professional meetings in Cuba. (a) General license—(1) Professional research. The travel... to professional research by full-time professionals who travel to Cuba to conduct professional...

  11. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency Relating to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating to the Regulation of the Anchorage and Movement of Vessels... Emergency Relating to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating to the Regulation of the Anchorage and... north of Cuba. In July 1996 and on subsequent occasions, the Cuban government stated its intent to...

  12. Cholera with severe renal failure in an Italian tourist returning from Cuba, July 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarello, M; Deiana, M L; Maurel, C; Lucarelli, C; Luzzi, I; Luzzati, R

    2013-08-29

    In July 2013, an Italian tourist returning from Cuba was hospitalised in Trieste, Italy, for cholera caused by Vibrio cholerae O1 serotype Ogawa with severe renal failure. An outbreak of cholera was reported in Cuba in January 2013. Physicians should consider the diagnosis of cholera in travellers returning from Cuba presenting with acute watery diarrhoea.

  13. Revolution on the mind: Cuba, between fact and fable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Stubbs

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] To make a world safe for revolution: Cuba's foreign policy. JORGE I. DOMÏNGUEZ. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 1989. viii + 365 pp. (Cloth US$ 35.00 U.S. - Cuba relations in the 1990s. JORGE I. DoMfNGUEZ & RAFAEL HERNANDEZ (eds.. Boulder CO: Westview, 1989. ix + 324 pp. (Cloth US$ 42.00, Paper US$ 15.95 Transformation and struggle: Cuba faces the 1990s. SANDOR HALEBSKY & JOHN M. KIRK (eds.. with the assistance of Rafael Hernéndez. New York: Praeger, 1990. xxvi + 291 pp. (Cloth US$ 45.00, Paper US$ 17.95 "A masterpiece of political intrigue" was one description of Jorge Dominguez' earlier book, Cuba: order and revolution; and it is a fitting comment for its sequel foreign policy volume. Dominguez himself opens with: "This is not a book of fiction, yet much of the story seems a fantasy." The story is how, from 1959 to 1988, Cuban leaders sought "to make a world safe for revolution" and, in the process, that small country Cuba came to have "the foreign policy of a big power." In his thorough, methodical fashion, Dominguez marshalls a wealth of documentary evidence from varied and conflicting sources, backed with extensive interview material, to paint a "behind the scènes" story of policymakers and their policy.

  14. Cancer survival in Cuba, 1994-1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrote, L F; Alvarez, Y G; Babie, P T; Yi, M G; Alvarez, M G; Cicili, M L

    2011-01-01

    The population-based cancer registry in Cuba is a national cancer registry established in 1964; cancer registration is entirely done by passive methods. Data on survival from 13 cancer sites or types registered during 1994-1995 are reported. Follow-up has been carried out predominantly by passive methods, with median follow-up ranging from 13-54 months. The proportion with histologically verified diagnosis for various cancers ranged between 34-100%; death certificates only (DCOs) comprised 8-50%; 50-89% of total registered cases were included for the survival analysis. The 5-year age-standardized relative survival for selected cancers were breast (69%), colon (41%), cervix (56%), urinary bladder (64%), rectum (48%) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (49%). The 5-year relative survival by age group showed no distinct pattern or trend, and was fluctuating. A decreasing survival with increasing clinical extent of disease was noted for all cancers studied. The data on survival trend revealed that the 5-year relative survival of most cancers diagnosed in 1994-1995 was greater than that in 1988-1989.

  15. Mortalidad infantil en Cuba 1959-1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Riverón Corteguera

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available De 1959 a 1999, con los datos estadísticos disponibles, la mortalidad infantil en Cuba disminuyó en 81,3 %, la mortalidad neonatal precoz se redujo el 73,4 %, la mortalidad neonatal tardía el 83,6 % y la posneonatal en 86,0 %. Las reducciones obtenidas en el período se distribuyeron uniformemente entre todas las provincias, aunque la mayor disminución se produjo en las provincias centrales y occidentales. Los rubros que más disminuyeron sus tasas fueron: enteritis y otras enfermedades diarreicas, infecciones respiratorias agudas, afecciones perinatales en general y las meningitis, aunque todas las causas reducen la mortalidad en el período. La natalidad descendió el 51,3 %, la fecundidad lo hizo en 30 %, el crecimiento demográfico bruto de la población disminuyó el 59,8 %, el parto institucional aumentó en 65,9 %, el bajo peso al nacer descendió el 36,9 %, la mortalidad perinatal se redujo el 67,2 %, los nacidos vivos disminuyeron el 21,1 % y la supervivencia infantil a los 5 años aumentó el 3,8 %. Esto ha sido posible debido principalmente a la decisión política de priorizar el sector de la salud y muy especialmente la salud maternoinfantil adoptada por nuestro Estado a principios de la década de los 60, lo que permitió alcanzar avances en la organización, calidad de la atención y una amplia cobertura de los servicios de salud. También fueron elementos importantes, el mejoramiento del nivel de vida y de la educación alcanzados por la población, las mejoras logradas en la situación sanitaria y epidemiológica, la distribución equitativa de los alimentos que prioriza a la madre y al niño. Un elemento fundamental en la última década ha sido el desarrollo del "médico de la familia" en la atención primaria y el mejoramiento de la atención hospitalaria. Por otra parte han contribuido de manera notable el establecimiento del Programa Nacional de Atención Maternoinfantil, que abarca las inmunizaciones, el control de las

  16. Las actuales transformaciones en Cuba y sus efectos en las relaciones Cuba-CARICOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Laguardia Martínez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En 2011 Cuba aprobó una nueva política económica con el objetivo de relanzar su economía sin comprometer los principales logros sociales asociados a su modelo socialista. La apuesta es lo suficientemente ambiciosa como para generar dudas sobre la posibilidad real de instrumentar con éxito una transformación socioeconómica de tales dimensiones. Lo cierto es que, a pesar de los temores y resistencias a la “actualización” del modelo económico cubano, los cambios internos son obligatorios con el fin de construir un socialismo “próspero y sostenible”, idea que el presidente Raúl Castro ha promovido como objetivo central de los cambios. El artículo analiza las relaciones de Cuba y los países del CARICOM en el contexto de la cambiante realidad cubana actual y examina las posibles modificaciones que esta relación podría experimentar en un futuro próximo como consecuencia de la actualización económica cubana.

  17. La internacionalización del arte abstracto español : el intercambio de exposiciones con los Estados Unidos (1950-1964

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genoveva Tusell García

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A comienzos de la década de los cincuenta, el régimen franquista luchaba por hacerse un hueco en el panorama internacional fuera del aislamiento al que había sido sometido tras el final de la Guerra Civil. Comenzaron a aparecer las primeras muestras de aceptación e incluso de promoción del arte de vanguardia desde las instancias oficiales, que también promovieron la organización de exposiciones que dieran a conocer poco a poco en España el arte que se hacía fuera. Tras una primera exposición de grabados abstractos, la exposición «El Arte Moderno en los EE. UU.» dio a conocer el arte norteamericano en Madrid y Barcelona en 1955. Tres años más tarde tendría lugar en el Museo Nacional de Arte Contemporáneo de Madrid la muestra «La Nueva Pintura Americana», compuesta de nuevo por una selección de obras de la colección del MOMA de Nueva York. Esta exposición coincidió con el momento de mayor auge del informalismo español gracias a los éxitos conseguidos en la Bienal de Venecia de 1958. Tras largos años de aislamiento e indiferencia hacia el arte que España presentaba en sus exposiciones oficiales en el exterior, la crítica internacional reconocía el pabellón español como el mejor de la Bienal. La política cultural que entonces emprendió el régimen franquista en el exterior llegó a su culmen en 1960 con la exhibición simultánea de dos exposiciones de informalismo español en Nueva York: «Before Picasso, after Miró» en el Guggenheim Museum y «New Spanish Painting and Sculpture» en el MOMA.At the start of the fifties, the Franco regime fought for a place at the international panorama out of the isolation that Spain had after its Civil War. It became to appear signs of acceptance and even a promotion of the avantgarde art from the official policies, that also promote the organization ofseveral exhibitions in Spain that slowly began to show the art done abroad, with was completely unknown. After a first exhibition

  18. 31 CFR 515.559 - Certain transactions by U.S.-owned or controlled foreign firms with Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... controlled foreign firms with Cuba. 515.559 Section 515.559 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating... transactions by U.S.-owned or controlled foreign firms with Cuba. (a) Effective October 23, 1992, no specific... controlled firms in third countries and Cuba for the exportation to Cuba of commodities produced in the...

  19. [Public health and intellectual property in Cuba: a conceptual map].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Delgado, Beatriz; Di Fabio, José Luis; Vidal Casanovas, Jaume; Fitzgerald, James; Silva, Ana Paula

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the legal framework for health and intellectual property in Cuba and its impact on people's access to health resources and on the roles of different social actors. The methods used were those developed by the Pan American Health Organization to implement the project of the Conceptual Map on Public Health and Intellectual Property. Information retrieved specifically on the legal framework for the National Health System, the Intellectual Property System and the strengthening of the country's biopharmaceutical industry-and on the framework's development over time-was processed and analyzed to generate Cuba's Conceptual Map on Public Health and Intellectual Property. Analysis of Cuba's adaptation of its legal framework and assessment of the interaction between the social actors involved show how the political will that has prevailed over several decades has had a positive impact on people's access to health resources.

  20. The Debate in Cuba's Scientific Community on Sudden Cardiac Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilches, Ernesto; Ochoa, Luis A; Ramos, Lianne

    2015-10-01

    Sudden cardiac death poses a challenge to modern medicine because of its high incidence, the unexpected and dramatic nature of the event, and years of potential life lost. What's more, despite modest decreases in global mortality attributed to cardiovascular diseases, incidence of sudden cardiac death has not declined. Cuba, like most of the Americas, suffers from knowledge gaps that hamper adequate strategies to address sudden cardiac death as a population health problem. We suggest that a generally accepted operational definition of sudden cardiac death be agreed upon, and a national registry developed that recognizes this cause of death on death certificates. These two actions will enable Cuba's public health authorities to assess the extent of the problem and to design intervention strategies for the population with intermediate and lower cardiovascular risk, the group in which most cases occur. KEYWORDS Sudden cardiac death, cardiovascular disease, sudden death, sudden cardiac arrest, risk reduction, prevention and control, Cuba.

  1. [Comparative study of various heath indicators in Japan and Cuba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanabria, G; Ozaki, K

    1984-10-01

    The medical systems in Cuba and Japan are described by using specific indicators and considering geographical, demographic and economical situations of the two countries. Objective data were tabulated to compare the present situation. An attempt was made to predict the future prospects of the medical system in both countries. The following difference between the two countries was noted. Japan is a highly industrialized country with a high standard of living and a mature economy that can tolerate unfavourable international economy. In recent years, the growth of the economy in Cuba has been made stable due to government planning at a rate of 5 percent in 1983. However, Cuba is still in the midst of industrialization and highly susceptible to the bad condition of the international economy.

  2. Mobility, energy, and emissions in Cuba and Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, J.P. [The Open University, Cambridge (United Kingdom). Faculty of Technology; Enoch, M.P. [Loughborough University (United Kingdom). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2006-01-15

    In many ways Cuba and the USA state of Florida are similar; both comprise similar areas and sized populations, and until 45 years ago they were economically linked. Now, despite being physically close, in economic and political terms Cuba and Florida are worlds apart. Overall, while Florida has grown economically stronger over time, economic growth in Cuba has been far more constrained due to external pressures-most notably the economic blockade by the US and the collapse of the Soviet Block. This paper devises a range of indicators for both territories to explore how mobility, energy use and emissions might be influenced by socio-economic conditions. Specifically, it compares and contrasts how transport policies have developed in an environment with virtually no economic constraints, and a situation where strong constraints were in place. (author)

  3. Intelectualidad criolla y nación en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel GARCÍA MORA

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En este artículo se analizan las interacciones entre las posiciones intelectuales de los autonomistas cubanos y su idea de la nacionalidad, y la utilización que de la "raza" hicieron los científicos criollos. En una primera parte, se estudian los debates en torno a los pobladores "ideales" con los que constituir una nación moderna y "civilizada", que alejara de Cuba el fantasma de la "africanización". La segunda parte del trabajo se centra en el análisis de la publicación cultural más importante del momento, como fue la Revista de Cuba (1877-1884. Una publicación al servicio de una ciencia criolla, en la que se expuso el concepto de nacionalidad y el proyecto político de los autonomistas, compartido por la mayoría de los científicos cubanos. Palabras Clave: Cuba, ciencia criolla, autonomismo, intelectuales, nacionalidad. ABSTRACT: This article analyzes the interactions between the Cuban Autonomists, their intellectual positions and their ideas about "nationality", and the use of the concept of "race" made by the Criollo scientists. The first part studies debates on the "ideal" settlers for the forming of a modern and "civilized" nation, which would remove the spectre of "Africanization" from Cuba. The second part of this work is focused on the analysis of the most important cultural review of the time, the Revista de Cuba (1877-1884. It was in this publi- cation —which acted as the voice of Criollo science— that the concept of nationality and the political project of the Autonomists, which was shared by most of the Cuban scientists, was expressed. Key words: Cuba, Criollo Science, Autonomism, Intellectuals, Nationality.

  4. Some considerations on the Music Education in Santiago de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysmara Borlot-Faure

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the distinctive features of music education in Santiago de Cuba, to enhance historical knowledge in professional education (Bachelor's Degree in Art Education and Art Instructor. the historical and pedagogical process of musical education, an essential aspect in order to rescue and preservation of our most genuine traditions in the formation of present and future generations addresses. For education professionals is a conception of learning developer, in order to promote a new content to encourage new knowledge in the educational process taking place in higher education in Cuba.

  5. A POLÍTICA AFRICANA DE CUBA: IDEALISMO OU PRAGMATISMO?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analúcia Danilevicz Pereira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As relações cubano-africanas são marcadas por traços de excepcionalidade. A Revolução Cubana coincide, temporalmente, com o aprofundamento do processo descolonizatório na África. Desde os primeiros anos da Revolução, Cuba definiu sua linha de atuação no continente africano, marcada pela cooperação militar e civil. A política africana de Cuba, foi, assim, definida pela autopreservação e zelo revolucionário.

  6. A New Approach to Health Services and Pharmacy in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Alina M

    2015-12-01

    In December 17, 2014, U.S. President Barack Obama surprised the world by announcing his intention to enter into negotiations aimed at reestablishing diplomatic relations with Cuba. Since then, expectations and interest regarding the health system of that country have increased. This report focuses on the Cuban health and pharmacy systems from a practical and educational standpoint. Pharmaceutical services, strengths, opportunities, and challenges are described. Cuba's new trends toward patient-centered care are analyzed to provide insights for developing pharmaceutical care practice and implementing policies suitable for practice in all health care settings. © 2015 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  7. [Eugenic abortion could explain the lower infant mortality in Cuba compared to that in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoso S, Enrique; Carvajal C, Jorge A

    2012-08-01

    Cuba and Chile have the lower infant mortality rates of Latin America. Infant mortality rate in Cuba is similar to that of developed countries. Chilean infant mortality rate is slightly higher than that of Cuba. To investigate if the lower infant mortality rate in Cuba, compared to Chile, could be explained by eugenic abortion, considering that abortion is legal in Cuba but not in Chile. We compared total and congenital abnormalities related infant mortality in Cuba and Chile during 2008, based on vital statistics of both countries. In 2008, infant mortality rates in Chile were significantly higher than those of Cuba (7.8 vs. 4.7 per 1,000 live born respectively, odds ratio (OR) 1.67; 95% confidence intervals (Cl) 1.52-1.83). Congenital abnormalities accounted for 33.8 and 19.2% of infant deaths in Chile and Cuba, respectively. Discarding infant deaths related to congenital abnormalities, infant mortality rate continued to be higher in Chile than in Cuba (5.19 vs. 3.82 per 1000 live born respectively, OR 1.36; 95%CI 1.221.52). Considering that antenatal diagnosis is widely available in both countries, but abortion is legal in Cuba but not in Chile, we conclude that eugenic abortion may partially explain the lower infant mortality rate observed in Cuba compared to that observed in Chile.

  8. Dispositivos de visibilización y ocultamiento: genealogía y devenir del discurso medioambiental contemporáneo en las Exposiciones Universales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Herrera Lima

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es dar cuenta de la estrategia analítica diseñada y puesta en operación en una investigación centrada en la pregunta por las transformaciones en los discursos sobre la relación sociedad/naturaleza en el tránsito de la modernidad temprana a la modernidad tardía de finales del siglo XX y principios del siglo actual. El problema central fue comprender la constitución y configuración del actual discurso dominante sobre la relación sociedad/naturaleza en el escenario de las Exposiciones Universales. La propuesta metodológica consistió en construirlas como Dispositivos de visibilización y ocultamiento, en una apropiación y reconfiguración de la Analítica del discurso de Foucault. Se diseñaron y aplicaron tres modelos analíticos cuya articulación permitió dilucidar elementos y procesos fundamentales del discurso medioambiental contemporáneo.

  9. De unas exposiciones a una biblioteca virtual escolar de libros anteriores a 1950. // From some exhibitions to a school virtual library with books before the 1950.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Fusté Bonet

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available (ES La idea surgida en el año 2006 de montar una serie de exposiciones con los manuales escolares antiguos de los que disponía la Associació per a la Recerca Pedagògica TP de Tàrrega (Lleida se convirtió, posteriormente, en una realidad a lo largo de los años 2007 y 2008. Ante la buena acogida de la anterior iniciativa, la asociación aprobó la creación de una Biblioteca Virtual Escolar para poner al alcance de todos los estudiosos de la historia de la educación, así como del público en general, su fondo bibliográfico, tarea que continúan desarrollando en la actualidad. // (EN The idea emerged in 2006 to mount a series of exhibitions with the old textbooks available to the Associació per a la Recerca Pedagògica of Tàrrega (Lleida became subsequently a reality over the years 2007 and 2008. Given the good reception of the previous initiative, the association approved the creation of a Biblioteca Virtual Escolar (virtual library school to make available to all students of the history of education, as well as the general public, its bibliographic, who continue to work in present.

  10. Cuba's Strategy for Alzheimer Disease and Dementia Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch-Bayard, Rodolfo I; Llibre-Rodríguez, Juan J; Fernández-Seco, Alberto; Borrego-Calzadilla, Carmen; Carrasco-García, Mayra R; Zayas-Llerena, Tania; Moreno-Carbonell, Carmen R; Reymond-Vasconcelos, Ana G

    2016-10-01

    Dementia is a great challenge to public health in Cuba due to its impact on society and families. Cuba's National Intervention Strategy for Alzheimer Disease and Dementia Syndromes is designed to address this challenge. The Strategy includes working guidelines for primary and secondary care, education about rights of people with cognitive impairment, professional development, research, and health promotion and dementia prevention. An associated action plan, focused on primary care, includes proposals for creation of memory clinics, day centers and comprehensive rehabilitation services for cognitive stimulation. Short-term measures proposed include increasing early detection; creating a dementia morbidity and mortality registry; promoting professional training; providing support for families; and promoting basic and clinical research on dementia. Medium-term proposals aim to reduce dementia incidence and mortality by controlling risk factors and promoting healthy lifestyles, offering new treatment options and optimizing early detection. A set of indicators has been developed to evaluate strategy implementation. With this strategy, Cuba joins the small number of developing countries that have responded to WHO's call to improve care for patients with dementia and alleviate its impact on society and families. KEYWORDS Dementia, Alzheimer disease, aging, national health programs, social stigma, primary prevention, health promotion, civil rights, Cuba.

  11. Medicinal plants sold at the El Rio Market, Camaguey, Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godinez-Caraballo, D.; Volpato, G.

    2008-01-01

    Information regarding medicinal plants sold in the El Rio Market, Camaguey, Cuba, revealed 184 species belonging to 69 vascular plant families. The most important family was Fabaceae s.l. with 13 species, followed by Lamiaceae with 12, and Asteraceae with 8. More than 90 general medicinal

  12. Cuba: Moving Back to the Future with Tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Gerald R.

    1992-01-01

    Addresses Cuba's attempt to rebuild its tourism industry in an effort to combat its declining economy in the wake of reduced Russian aid. Provides a sketch of Cuban history and a discussion of the tourism highlighting contradictions between political rhetoric and economic policy. Reviews resource materials and ideas for classroom use. (DK)

  13. Reflexions on multidisciplinarity and geologic risk management in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galbán Rodríguez Liber

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Geological risk management has special relevance in construction and the creation of new infrastructure in Cuba. The aim of this work was to focus on making some reflections about the multidisciplinarity analysis of geological risk management in the country from a critical perspective

  14. All projects related to Cuba | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    People living in informal urban settings in Latin America and the Caribbean are highly vulnerable to water-related risks associated with climate change. Region: Chile, Colombia, Cuba, ... Total Funding: CA$ 749,100.00. Enhancing the Effectiveness of ICT Applications and Tools for Disaster Management in the Caribbean.

  15. Multi-scale landslide risk assessment in Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castellanos Abella, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    Landslides cause a considerable amount of damage in the mountainous regions of Cuba, which cover about 25% of the territory. Until now, only a limited amount of research has been carried out in the field of landslide risk assessment in the country. This research presents a methodology and its

  16. Fifty years of Cuba's medical diplomacy: from idealism to pragmatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinsilver, Julie M

    2010-01-01

    Medical diplomacy, the collaboration between countries to simultaneously produce health benefits and improve relations, has been a cornerstone of Cuban foreign policy since the outset of the revolution fifty years ago. It has helped Cuba garner symbolic capital (goodwill, influence, and prestige) well beyond what would have been possible for a small, developing country, and it has contributed to making Cuba a player on the world stage. In recent years, medical diplomacy has been instrumental in providing considerable material capital (aid, credit, and trade), as the oil-for-doctors deals with Venezuela demonstrates. This has helped keep the revolution afloat in trying economic times. What began as the implementation of the one of the core values of the revolution, namely health as a basic human right for all peoples, has continued as both an idealistic and a pragmatic pursuit. This article examines the factors that enabled Cuba to conduct medical diplomacy over the past fifty years, the rationale behind the conduct of this type of soft power politics, the results of that effort, and the mix of idealism and pragmatism that has characterized the experience. Moreover, it presents a typology of medical diplomacy that Cuba has used over the past fifty years.

  17. Educational Reform and Economic Development in Cuba: Recent Developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnoy, Martin

    While the overall change in Cuban education came about because of the revolution, expansion took place in several stages, each largely a function of the economic development policy being followed at the time. In the period up to 1964 when Cuba thought it could industrialize under the Soviet model it concentrated on developing basic education for…

  18. Socialism and Education in Cuba and Soviet Uzbekistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charon-Cardona, Euridice

    2013-01-01

    During the Cold War over half a million Asians, Africans and Latin Americans studied and graduated in the Soviet Union's universities and technical schools as part of this country's educational aid policies. Cuba was an intermediary player in the Cold War geopolitical contest between the United States and the Soviet Union, fuelled by the…

  19. Courting the future: cancer and genetics in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Describing this double issue of MEDICC Review could be an exercise for a first-year philosophy course in logic. It's not about "cancer and genetics" in Cuba. It's about cancer in Cuba and about genetics in Cuba, not about exploring relationships between them. Nevertheless, while the marriage of the two themes was fortuitous, in that the two had long been scheduled for the journal in 2014, there is a certain felicity to their sharing an issue. To date, the outstanding accomplishments of genetics have been most helpful for conditions occurring at the beginning of life and cancer is largely (though not exclusively) a disease related to aging. But the two are intrinsically connected: Although only a few of the more than 100 different diseases grouped under the term cancer are known to be hereditary, every cancer begins with a mutation in one or more genes, whether the mutation is inherited, due to an exposure, or is simply a random error in the millions of cell divisions that are part and parcel of cellular reproduction. Our cover image, a stained-glass window by Cuban artist Rosa María de la Terga at Cuba's National Medical Genetics Center, illustrates the elegance of the DNA molecule, the intricate key to life.

  20. Disaster management and multihazard risk assessment in Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castellanos Abella, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    The success, statistically proved, of the civil defense system in Cuba have been justified differently worldwide. While some experts relate this fact to the social welfare others debate about the forced evacuation. Beside, the long term development of disaster reduction in the country is commonly

  1. Different Strokes: Spanish Policy toward Cuba and Equatorial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spanish policy toward Cuba and Equatorial Guinea up to the end of the 19th century differed markedly. The policy itself is difficult to define but the general principle emphasized the exploitation of the resources of the colonies for the benefit of Spain. It also provided for the spread of Spanish culture and the Christian faith.

  2. Poliomyelitis and its elimination in Cuba: an historical overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldarraín, Enrique

    2013-04-01

    Polio was first detected in Cuba in the late 19th century among residents of the US community on the Isla de Pinos (Isle of Pines, now Isle of Youth), apparently introduced through migration from the USA. The first outbreak was reported in 1906 on the Isle, with the first epidemic reported in the former province of Las Villas in 1909. The epidemics subsequently intensified, by 1934 becoming periodic every four to five years, and accompanied by high morbidity, mortality and crippling sequelae, primarily among children. To review and analyze the history of polio and its control in Cuba, from the disease's first appearance in 1898 until WHO/PAHO certification of elimination in 1994. The historiological method was used; archival documents, medical records, and available polio morbidity and mortality statistics from the Ministry of Public Health's National Statistics Division before 1959 and from 1959 through 2000 were reviewed. Crude morbidity and mortality rates were calculated using population estimates at mid-period. Reports and scientific publications describing polio vaccination campaigns and their results were also reviewed, and key informants were interviewed. After initial introduction of polio in Cuba, five major epidemics occurred between 1932 and 1958: in 1934 (434 cases, 82 deaths); 1942 (494 cases, 58 deaths); 1946 (239 cases, 33 deaths), 1952 (492 cases, 15 deaths) and 1955 (267 cases, 8 deaths). Between 1957 and 1961 the disease's endemicity reached epidemic levels, with the last outbreak occurring in 1961, with 342 cases, 30% of them in children aged >4 years. In 1962, Cuba launched a nationwide polio vaccination campaign, the first of annual campaigns thereafter carried out in the framework of a coherent national program aimed at polio elimination. Using the Sabin oral vaccine and targeting the entire pediatric population in a single time period, five million doses were administered in the first campaign, reaching 87.5% of the target population aged 1

  3. Antenatal cytogenetic testing in Havana, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Rosado, Luis A; Quiñones, Olga; Molina, Odalys; González, Nereida; del Sol, Marylin; Maceiras, Luanda; Bravo, Yomisleidy

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Antenatal cytogenetic testing was started in Havana in 1984, as a diagnostic option for fetal chromosome complement. The techniques applied are amniocyte culture, chorionic villus sampling, cordocentesis and fluorescence in situ hybridization in interphase cells. OBJECTIVE Describe the results of antenatal cytogenetic testing in the cytogenetic laboratory of the Cuba's National Medical Genetics Center in Havana, from 1984 through 2012. METHODS A retrospective descriptive study was carried out of the 22,928 pregnant women who had antenatal testing with conclusive results during the period 1984-2012. Information was obtained from laboratory databases for four antenatal diagnostic techniques. Variables studied were: antenatal diagnostic method, indications for genetic testing, type of chromosomal abnormality detected and couple's decision concerning pregnancy continuation if hereditary disease was diagnosed. Results were reported in absolute numbers and percentages. RESULTS Overall positivity was 2.8% (641 cases). Of the total, 20,565 samples were from amniocyte culture (558 positive cases, 2.7%); 1785 chorionic villus sampling (38 positive, 2.1%); 407 cord blood culture (28 positive, 6.9%); and 171 fluorescence in situ hybridization in interphase cells (17 positive, 9.9%). Advanced maternal age was the predominant indication for amniocyte culture and chorionic villus sampling. Positivity was higher for the two less frequently used methods, cordocentesis (6.9% positivity) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (9.9%). The predominant chromosomal abnormality was Down syndrome, with 45.4% of cases detected (291/641; 279 pure lines and 12 mosaic trisomies), followed by Edward syndrome with 12% (77/641, 71 pure lines and 6 mosaics) and Patau syndrome 4.7% (30/641, 27 pure lines and 3 mosaics). Sexual aneuploidy with pure lines affected 6.9% of cases (44/641) and with mosaicism 4.7% (30/641). Structural chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 22.5% of cases

  4. La tuberculosis pulmonar, enfermedad reemergente en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita González Tapia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sr. Editor: La tuberculosis es una de las enfermedades remergentes en Cuba; por ello en todas las provincias cubanas se trabaja con mucha fuerza, dedicación y profesionalidad con respecto a esta problemática. En este contexto, resulta muy acertada la publicación del artículo “Algunas variables clínico-epidemiológicas de la tuberculosis pulmonar. Puerto Padre, 2008-2012”, que salió en el Vol.38 No.6.01 del mes de junio de 2013 de la Revista Electrónica Dr. Zoilo E. Marinello Vidaurreta; tanto por el significado social que reviste la divulgación de este tema, como por el propio resultado de la investigación realizada. La historia de la tuberculosis es un tema apasionante. En pocas enfermedades es posible documentar su estrecha relación con la historia de la propia humanidad como en la que nos ocupa. Existen evidencias paleológicas de tuberculosis vertebral en momias egipcias que datan aproximadamente del año 2400 a.C. La tuberculosis se ha conocido a través de la historia, con los nombres de: tisis, consunción, escrófula, mal de Pott, plaga blanca y mal del rey.1 En el artículo se plantea como conclusión que la tendencia de la tuberculosis en el quinquenio de estudio es estacionaria, pero en los últimos cuatro años tiende al ascenso. En los casos diagnosticados de tuberculosis en este quinquenio más de dos tercios correspondieron al sexo masculino y mayores de 45 años, las ocupaciones que más prevalecieron fueron recluso, desocupado, ama de casa y jubilado. Los factores de riesgo que más se relacionaron fueron el albergamiento prolongado en instituciones cerradas, el alcoholismo, y la edad mayor de 65 años; la forma clínica de mayor incidencia en casi la totalidad de los pacientes fue la pulmonar y, dentro de ella, los casos con baciloscopia positiva. Hubo fallas en el diagnóstico, ya que alrededor de la mitad de los casos se diagnosticaron en la atención secundaria y con un tiempo de demora de más de dos meses de

  5. La Educacion de los Jesuitas en Cuba durante el Siglo XVI (1566-1574) (Jesuit Education in Cuba during the 16th Century (1566-1574).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentes, Roberto Valdes

    2000-01-01

    Explains the relationship between Spanish colonialism in Cuba, evangelization of the Indians, and the origins of Cuban culture, as well as the role the Jesuits played in this process of transculturation. Analyzes the first phase in the history of the educational work of the Jesuits in Cuba (1566-1574). (BT)

  6. Radiological protection on interstitial brachytherapy and dose determination and exposure rate of an Ir-192 source through the MCNP-4B; Proteccion radiologica en braquiterapia intersticial y determinacion de la dosis y tasa de exposicion de una fuente de Ir-192 mediante el MCNP-4B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales L, M.E. [INEN, Av. Angamos Este 2520- Surquillo, Lima (Peru)

    2006-07-01

    The present work was carried out in the Neurological Sciences Institute having as objective to determine the dose and the rate of exhibition of the sources of Iridium 192, Iodine 125 and Palladium 103; which are used to carry out implant in the Interstitial Brachytherapy according to the TG43. For it we carry out a theoretical calculation, its are defined in the enter file: the geometry, materials of the problem and the radiation source, etc; in the MCNP-4B Monte Carlo code, considering a punctual source and for the dose determination we simulate thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD): at 5 cm, 50 cm, 100 cm and 200 cm of the source. Our purpose is to analyze the radioprotection measures that should take into account in this Institute in which are carried out brain biopsies using a Micro mar stereotactic mark, and in a near future with the collaboration of a doctor and a cuban physique seeks to be carried out the Interstitial Brachytherapy technique with sources of Ir-192 for patient with tumors like glioblastoma, astrocytoma, etc. (Author)

  7. Speciose opportunistic nectar-feeding avifauna in Cuba and its association to hummingbird island biogeography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Bo; Baquero, Andrea C.; Rahbek, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    rich than expected based on Cuba's elevation, when compared to the rest of the West Indian islands. Thereafter, we report nectar-feeding behaviour by 26 non-Trochilidae bird species in Cuba, encompassing pigeons/doves, woodpeckers and passerines, and endemic, resident and migratory species. We discuss...... if Cuba's speciose non-Trochilidae nectar-feeding avifauna may be associated with its depauperate hummingbird fauna....

  8. Assessment of the Impact of Super Storm Sandy on Coral Reefs of Guantanamo Bay, Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    TECHNICAL REPORT 2065 January 2015 Assessment of the Impact of Super Storm Sandy on Coral Reefs of Guantánamo Bay , Cuba...TECHNICAL REPORT 2065 January 2015 Assessment of the Impact of Super Storm Sandy on Coral Reefs of Guantánamo Bay , Cuba Cheryl...thank the staff of U.S. Navy Diving Locker, Guantánamo Bay , Cuba. Without their support, diving and boat operations would not have been accomplished

  9. Radium-226 on drinking water of Camaguey, Cuba; Radio-226 en agua potable de Camaguey, Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montalvan Estrada, Adelmo; Brigido Flores, Osvaldo; Barrera Caballero, Aldo [Centro de Atencion a la Actividad Nuclear, Camaguey (Cuba)]. E-mail: sean@caonao.cmw.inf.cu; Escalante, Alexander [Centro Provincial de Higiene y Epidemiologia, Camaguey (Cuba)

    2001-07-01

    The specific activity of Ra-226 in drinking water of Camaguey city, Cuba, was measured using the emanometric method. The specific activity of Ra-226 in drinking water ranged from 15 {+-} 5 mBq.l{sup -1} to 39 {+-}12 mBq.l{sup -1}. The mean specific activity of Ra-226 was found to be 27 {+-} 8 mBq.l{sup -1}. No seasonal variation was found. Water samples were collected from the two main sources of drinking water: private wells and governmental water supply system, being the mean specific activities of Ra-226: 25 {+-} 7 mBq.l{sup -1} and 31 {+-} 9 mBq.l{sup -1} , respectively. Based upon measured concentrations the age-dependent associated effective doses due to the ingestion of Ra-226, as a consequence of direct consumption of drinking water, have been calculated. For the age interval 1 year to 5 years, the average effective dose was 6,2 {mu}Sv.y{sup -1}, and for adults the average effective dose was 5,2 {mu}Sv.y{sup -1}. (author)

  10. La postemancipación y trabajo en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Zeuske

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza los procesos de transculturación y fecundación mutua entre los espacios de trabajo en la postemancipación. El caso de Cuba es complejo, pues se dio en una época de desestructuración progresiva de la esclavitud, jalonada por guerras anticoloniales y una modernización tecnológica ininterrumpida. Se argumenta que aunque las condiciones de trabajo no mejoraron en lo sustancial, sí lo hizo la división sexual del trabajo, los patrones de movilidad, y el acceso a la propiedad informal de la tierra. La modernización de Cuba como productor azucarero introdujo fuerzas de inmenso calado en las luchas sociales del período.

  11. Anglicism in the press of Santiago de Cuba city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusnel Tabares-Tabares

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The preliminary findings from an unfinished investigation having a synchronic approach are presented. The objective of this study is to analyze the English loanwords that appear in the press of Santiago de Cuba city at the beginning of the XX century. This analysis will allow to draw significant conclusions concerning the presence of anglicisms in the Spanish spoken in Cuba. The methodology is based on a random revision of “El Cubano Libre” newspaper, at the time it is counted some aspects, namely: how many anglicisms were found, their typology, grammatical category, their frequency of appearance, and the year they were published in the dictionary of the Spanish Royal Academy.  Among the outstanding results is remarkable that few English loanwords were registered in the dictionary of the Spanish Royal Academy, the topics more profitable to search were those of politics and sport, and the sort of anglicisms more frequent belong to the category of patent loanword.

  12. Cuba: plenty of care, few condoms, no corruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeken, H.

    1995-01-01

    The health system in Cuba guarantees accessibility to the entire population, is free of charge, and covers the spectrum from vaccinations to sophisticated interventions. The results are impressive: Cuba's health figures are on a par with developed countries that have 20 times the budget. The country is experiencing a difficult period because of the collapse and loss of support from the Soviet Union; over 30 years' trade embargo by the United States; and the gradual change from a centrally planned economy towards more of a free market system. Shortages are experienced in every sector, and maintaining health care services at the current level is too expensive. Doctors and nurses continue to work towards the goal of health for all Cubans, even though their salaries are minimal. Signs of negligence or corruption, often seen in other socialist countries where incentives for output are lacking, are unknown. Topics such as family planning and AIDS deserve immediate attention. Images p936-a PMID:7580557

  13. Familia homoparental en Cuba: una realidad no contada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Acosta Damas

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa aborda temáticas relacionadas à comunidade LGTBI e, dentre estas, à família homoparental em Cuba, a fim de desvelar seus traços na produção audiovisual cubana, e os fatores socioculturais e jurídicos que os determinam. A partir deste resultado, o estudo propõe uma aproximação ao processo de produção do documentário Sí, quiero, realizado por estudantes de Jornalismo da Universidade de La Habana, que baseia seu discurso audiovisual em uma construção de gênero inclusiva para promoção do debate público sobre os direitos das famílias homoparentais, tradicionalmente invisibilizadas nos conteúdos midiáticos e da indústria cultural em Cuba e outras partes do mundo.

  14. The United States and Cuba: An Intermestics Agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Soreanu Pecequilo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Após mais de meio século, Estados Unidos e Cuba sinalizaram, em 2014, o reatamento de suas relações diplomáticas. Diante da importância desse acontecimento, o artigo visa analisar as perspectivas para a relação bilateral e seus impactos regionais, globais e domésticos, tomando por base seus antecedentes históricos.  After almost half a century, in 2014, the United States and Cuba indicated the revival of their diplomatic ties. Due to the relevance of this agenda this article aims to analyze the prospects of this bilateral relation and its regional, global and domestic impacts, starting from a brief analysis of its historical features.

  15. Europa y Estados Unidos ante los Derechos Humanos en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Gratius

    2008-01-01

    de la UE no han sido estrategias eficaces para promover los derechos humanos en la isla. Al ser diferentes, las políticas de la UE y EEUU incluso han contribuido a mantener el régimen castrista en el poder: la UE por su reconocimiento diplomático y la cooperación económica; EEUU, al proporcionar una imagen de enemigo externo. Por ello, y ante el nuevo panorama que ofrece el cambio de gobierno en Cuba, la próxima revisión de la Posición Común de la UE y las elecciones presidenciales en EEUU, es necesario replantearse los objetivos y estrategias políticas para incentivar los derechos humanos en Cuba.

  16. Modelling the UV/X-ray cosmic background with CUBA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haardt, F.; Madau, P.

    In this paper, I will describe the features of the numerical code CUBA, aimed at the solution of the radiative transfer equation in a cosmological context. CUBA will be soon available for public use at the URL http://pitto.mib.infn.it/~haardt/, allowing for several user-supplied input parameters, such as favourite cosmology, luminosity functions, Type II object evolution, stellar spectra, and many others. I will also present some new results of the UV/X-ray cosmic background as produced by the observed populations of QSOs and star forming galaxies, updating and extending our previous works. The background evolution is complemented with a number of derived quantities such as the ionization and thermal state of the IGM, the HeII opacity, the HI and HeII ionization rates, and the HI, HeII and Compton heating rates.

  17. China, Global Governance and the Future of Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian H. Hearn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available China’s deepening engagement with Latin America has been accompanied by concerns about the Chinese government’s regard for international conventions of economic governance. Critics claim that across Latin America and the Caribbean, Chinese aid and trade are characterised by excessive state intervention. This article argues that, for two reasons, the rationale for these misgivings is dissipating. First, since the onset of the global financial crisis, China has gained influence in multilateral institutions, prompting them toward greater acceptance of public spending in developing countries. Second, recent developments in Cuba show that China is actively encouraging the Western hemisphere’s only communist country to liberalise its economy. China sits at the crossroads of these local and global developments, prompting Cuba toward rapprochement with international norms even as it works to reform them.

  18. Origin of invasive Florida frogs traced to Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinicke, Matthew P.; Diaz, Luis M.; Hedges, S. Blair

    2011-01-01

    Two of the earliest examples of successful invasive amphibians are the greenhouse frog (Eleutherodactylus planirostris) and the Cuban treefrog (Osteopilus septentrionalis) in Florida. Although both are generally assumed to be recent introductions, they are widespread on Caribbean islands and also have been proposed as natural colonizers. We obtained nucleotide sequence data for both species and their closest relatives in their native and introduced ranges. Phylogenetic analyses trace the origin of E. planirostris to a small area in western Cuba, while O. septentrionalis is derived from at least two Cuban sources, one probably a remote peninsula in western Cuba. The tropical-to-temperate invasion began with colonization of the Florida Keys followed by human-mediated dispersal within peninsular Florida. The subtropical Keys may have served as an adaptive stepping stone for the successful invasion of the North American continent. PMID:21270024

  19. [A battle won: the elimination of poliomyelitis in Cuba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaple, Enrique Beldarraín

    2015-01-01

    Poliomyelitis was introduced in Cuba in the late nineteenth century by American residents in Isla de Pinos. The first epidemics occurred in 1906 and 1909 and increased in intensity between 1930 and 1958. The scope of the paper is to reconstruct the history of the disease and its epidemics in Cuba prior to 1961, the first National Polio Vaccination Campaign (1962) and its results, as well as analyze the ongoing annual vaccination campaigns through to certified elimination of the disease (1994). The logical historical method was used and archival documents and statistics from the Ministry of Health on morbidity and mortality through 2000 were reviewed. Gross morbidity and mortality rates were calculated and interviews with key figures were conducted.

  20. Comparison of family planning in Cuba and Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Suzie; Stronge, Shirley

    2015-08-26

    Family planning gives individuals and couples control and choice over the number of children they have and the timing of their births. Developments in reproductive health have resulted in major changes in the options for family planning, providing more choice and control over fertility. This article explores reproductive health in the Republic of Cuba and the Republic of Ireland, with a focus on contraceptive use and termination of pregnancy as methods of family planning. The predominant religion in both countries is Catholicism, which promotes the right to life of the unborn child. The two countries have adopted different approaches to the availability of both contraception and termination of pregnancy. Cuba has offered free access to contraception and termination of pregnancy since the 1960s to reduce maternal mortality. In Ireland, contraception was not widely available until 1995 and termination of pregnancy is available only in extremely limited circumstances.

  1. Cuba: plenty of care, few condoms, no corruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeken, H

    1995-10-07

    The health system in Cuba guarantees accessibility to the entire population, is free of charge, and covers the spectrum from vaccinations to sophisticated interventions. The results are impressive: Cuba's health figures are on a par with developed countries that have 20 times the budget. The country is experiencing a difficult period because of the collapse and loss of support from the Soviet Union; over 30 years' trade embargo by the United States; and the gradual change from a centrally planned economy towards more of a free market system. Shortages are experienced in every sector, and maintaining health care services at the current level is too expensive. Doctors and nurses continue to work towards the goal of health for all Cubans, even though their salaries are minimal. Signs of negligence or corruption, often seen in other socialist countries where incentives for output are lacking, are unknown. Topics such as family planning and AIDS deserve immediate attention.

  2. The European Union Perception of Cuba : From Frustation to Irritation

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Joaquín

    2003-01-01

    On Friday May 16, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Cuba summoned the newly-appointed charged’affairs of the European Commission in Havana and announced the withdrawal of the application procedure for membership in the Cotonou Agreement of the Africa, Caribbean, and Pacific (ACP) countries, and in fact renouncing to benefit from European development aid.1 In a blistering note published in the Granma official newspaper of the Cuban Communist Party, the government blamed the EU Commission for ...

  3. Diversifying the picture: indigenous responses to European arrival in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Martinón-Torres

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in cultural contact between indigenous peoples and Europeans following their arrival in the New World. In this article the authors explore local responses to European arrival in Cuba, through analysis of metalwork found in indigenous graves. These studies demonstrate that the local communities valued particular metals quite differently from the Europeans, as the imported materials were incorporated into pre-existing symbolic systems relating to sacred power.

  4. Phylodynamics of the HIV-1 epidemic in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delatorre, Edson; Bello, Gonzalo

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the HIV-1 epidemic in Cuba displayed a complex molecular epidemiologic profile with circulation of several subtypes and circulating recombinant forms (CRF); but the evolutionary and population history of those viral variants remains unknown. HIV-1 pol sequences of the most prevalent Cuban lineages (subtypes B, C and G, CRF18_cpx, CRF19_cpx, and CRFs20/23/24_BG) isolated between 1999 and 2011 were analyzed. Maximum-likelihood analyses revealed multiple introductions of subtype B (n≥66), subtype C (n≥10), subtype G (n≥8) and CRF18_cpx (n≥2) viruses in Cuba. The bulk of HIV-1 infections in this country, however, was caused by dissemination of a few founder strains probably introduced from North America/Europe (clades B(CU-I) and B(CU-II)), east Africa (clade C(CU-I)) and central Africa (clades G(CU), CRF18(CU) and CRF19(CU)), or locally generated (clades CRFs20/23/24_BG). Bayesian-coalescent analyses show that the major HIV-1 founder strains were introduced into Cuba during 1985-1995; whereas the CRFs_BG strains emerged in the second half of the 1990s. Most HIV-1 Cuban clades appear to have experienced an initial period of fast exponential spread during the 1990s and early 2000s, followed by a more recent decline in growth rate. The median initial growth rate of HIV-1 Cuban clades ranged from 0.4 year⁻¹ to 1.6 year⁻¹. Thus, the HIV-1 epidemic in Cuba has been a result of the successful introduction of a few viral strains that began to circulate at a rather late time of the AIDS pandemic, but then were rapidly disseminated through local transmission networks.

  5. Technology transfer and expert migration in nineteenth-century Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández de Pinedo Echevarría, Nadia; Pretel, David

    2013-01-01

    During the nineteenth century the Cuban sugar plantation became a highly dynamic space, open to foreign intervention at many levels. The increasing commercial prospects in the Cuban economy from the mid-nineteenth century led American, French and British manufacturers of refining equipment to actively commercialize their innovations in Cuba. Many of these foreign manufacturers of machinery had branches and agents in Havana. This article seeks to highlight the technological links b...

  6. Cuba: dancing in the streets; working in the fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, R

    1979-10-01

    In Cuba, a new system of economic management and planning is being gradually introduced. Under this system, every enterprise will have to try and operate at a profit, and social services will have to make the best possible use of resources. The Soviet Union, which subsidizes the Cuban economy at an estimated level of $2 millions a day, is encouraging the implementation of this program.

  7. EL LARGO COMPROMISO DE CANADÁ CON CUBA: PARADOJAS Y POSIBILIDADES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas LEGLER

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Tanto la Unión Europea como América Latina, e incluso Estados Unidos, han iniciado distintos procesos de diálogo con Cuba. ¿Cuáles lecciones relevantes se pueden extraer de la larga historia canadiense de compromiso con la Revolución Cubana? Este artículo documenta la evolución de las relaciones entre Canadá y Cuba desde la década de 1940, centrándose en sus altibajos desde que se lanzó, a mediados de la década de 1990, una política de «compromiso constructivo ». Se argumenta que este acercamiento (en sus diversas formas no ha tenido mayor influencia en la liberalización de la política cubana. Además, la poca influencia que Canadá pudo haber tenido durante el «Periodo Especial» ha disminuido con la recuperación económica y diversificación de las relaciones exteriores de Cuba en la última década. En ese sentido, los autores concluyen que la estrategia más apropiada para Canadá y otros actores es llevar a cabo un acercamiento coordinado y de largo plazo que brinde apoyo a una variedad de procesos endógenos de cambio en Cuba. Una estrategia realista debería incluir diálogo de bajo perfil con el régimen actual, cooperación con un amplio espectro de posibles reformadores dentro y fuera del Estado y apoyo para la realización de cambios sociales más extensos a través del comercio, la inversión extranjera, el turismo así como los intercambios académicos y culturales.

  8. Soil Influence in Seismic Design of Bridges in Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Dario Candebat Sánchez; Guillermo Godínez Melgares; Luis Felipe Caballero Cornier; Zulima Caridad Rivera Álvarez

    2017-01-01

    Soil geological conditions affect directly the seismic structural behavior of bridges. This work shows the importance of determining the site coefficient, a parameter used by Cuban seismic code for considering the influence of soil in the structural response. The research is based in the results obtained from the application of geophysical seismic refraction method. It is presented as an example a bridge located on Granma highway in Santiago de Cuba city, showing variations in lithology prese...

  9. Flowering of taro germplasm (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) in Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Yadelys Figueroa Águila; Marilys D Milián Jiménez; Yuniel Rodríguez García; Manuel Lima Díaz

    2016-01-01

    Research was done at the Center for Tropical Crop Research (INIVIT), to evaluate inflorescence of taro germplasm (104 accessions) in Cuba´s climatic conditions. Sampling was made every 7 days in the 2013-2014 period to evaluate inflorescence; accessions were characterized according to flowering parameters. The results showed that natural flowering by the 26-accession sample (25%), was observed to early blossom from July to October in 18 accessions (69.2%). Increased temperature and relative h...

  10. CUBA: TRANSICIÓN, SUCESIÓN, ESTABILIDAD, SEGURIDAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín ROY

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este análisis trata de la relación entre la estabilidad del presente gobierno cubano y la necesidad de seguridad en su territorio y en la zona circundante. Este vínculo se produce en un momento político de Cuba, entre un primer paso de la sucesión de Fidel Castro a Raúl, sin que se den señales claras de una transición hacia otro tipo de sistema político. Mientras tanto, el gobierno de Estados Unidos ha declarado que su prioridad estriba en el reestablecimiento de la democracia en Cuba, tanto durante el último periodo de la administración de George W. Bush como con Barack Obama ya asentado en la Casa Blanca. Sin embargo, las delicadas circunstancias de Cuba (precariedad económica, desastres naturales, dependencia alimentaria y energética, etc. señalan que la prioridad de los intereses nacionales de Estados Unidos se centran primero en la estabilidad del escenario. Incluso al precio del retraso de la evolución del régimen, un cierto grado de seguridad es necesario para enfrentarse a los riesgos de una emigración incontrolada y las hipotéticas tensiones internas que provoquen confrontaciones.

  11. Risk factors for wheezing in infants born in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venero-Fernández, S J; Suárez-Medina, R; Mora-Faife, E C; García-García, G; Valle-Infante, I; Gómez-Marrero, L; Abreu-Suárez, G; González-Valdez, J; Fabró-Ortiz, D Dania; Fundora-Hernández, H; Venn, A; Britton, J; Fogarty, A W

    2013-11-01

    Cuba is a unique country, and despite limited economic development, has an excellent health system. However, the prevalence of asthma symptoms in children in Havana, Cuba, is unusually high. As early life exposures are critical to the aetiology of asthma, we have studied environmental influences on the risk of wheezing in Cuban infants. Cross-sectional study. A random sample of 2032 children aged 12-15 months living in Havana was selected for inclusion in the cohort. Data were collected using questionnaires administered by researchers. Of 2032 infants invited to participate, 1956 (96%) infants provided data. The prevalence of any wheeze was 45%, severe wheeze requiring use of emergency services was 30% and recurrent wheeze on three or more occasions was 20%. The largest adjusted risk factors for any wheeze were presence of eczema [odds ratio (OR) 2.09; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.48-2.94], family history of asthma (OR 2.05; 95% CI 1.60-2.62), poor ventilation in the house (OR 1.99; 95% CI 1.48-2.67), attendance at nursery (OR 1.78; 95% CI 1.24-2.57), male sex (OR1.52; 95% CI 1.19-1.96) and the number of smokers in the house (P Cuba. As the prevalence of smoking in the house is high (51%), intervention studies are required to determine effective strategies to improve infant health.

  12. In Defense of Clinical Autopsy and Its Practice in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Brito, Alfredo D; de Mendoza-Amat, José Hurtado

    2017-01-01

    There has been a notable decrease in the global practice of clinical autopsy; the rate has fallen to below 10%, even in high-income countries. This is attributed to several causes, including increased costs, overreliance on modern diagnostic techniques, cultural and religious factors, the emergence of new infectious diseases and negative attitudes on the part of doctors, even pathologists. Alternative methods to autopsy in postmortem studies have been developed based on imaging, endoscopy and biopsy (all quite expensive). These methods have been used in developed countries but never as effectively as the classic autopsy for identifying cause of death and potential medical errors. Although Cuba has also seen a decrease in its autopsy rates, they remain comparatively high. Between 1996 and 2015, there were 687,689 hospital deaths in Cuba and 381,193 autopsies, 55.4% of the total. These autopsies have positively affected medical care, training, research, innovation, management and society as a whole. Autopsies are an important tool in the National Health System's quest for safe, quality patient care based on the lessons learned from studying the deceased. KEYWORDS Autopsy, postmortem examination, postmortem diagnosis, quality of care, patient safety, medical error, Cuba.

  13. Recent trends in Cuba's mining and petroleum industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacaster, Susan; Baker, Michael S.; Soto-Viruet, Yadira; Textoris, Steven D.

    2015-01-01

    The Report is Temporarily UnavailableIn response to recent diplomatic developments between Cuba and the United States, the National Minerals Information Center compiled available information on the mineral industries of Cuba. This fact sheet highlights a new map and table that identify mines, mineral processing facilities, and petroleum facilities as well as information on location, operational status, and ownership. It also addresses the current status of known mineral industry projects, historical developments, and trends of the Cuban economy with an emphasis on mineral industries, and the supply and demand for Cuba’s mineral resources.In 2013, Cuba was estimated to be among the world’s top ten producers of cobalt and nickel, which are the country’s leading exports. Cuba’s current crude oil and associated natural gas production from onshore and shallow water coastal reservoirs is approximately 50,000 barrels per day of liquids and about 20,000 barrels per day oil equivalent of natural gas. In 2013, the value of mining and quarrying activities accounted for 0.6 percent of Cuba’s gross domestic product (GDP), compared with 1.4 percent in 2000. The value of production from Cuba’s industrial manufacturing sector increased by 88 percent between 1993 and 2013 whereas the sector’s share in the GDP decreased by about 3 percent during the same time period reflecting economic growth in other sectors of the economy.

  14. Tricontinental Routes of Solidarity: Stokely Carmichael in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Seidman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Stokely Carmichael’s visit to Cuba for three weeks in the summer of 1967 illustrates a convergence in the transnational routes of the African American freedom struggle and the Cuban Revolution. African American activists saw Cuba as a model for resisting US power, eradicating racism, and enacting societal change, while the Cuban government considered African Americans allies against US imperialism and advocates of Cuba’s antiracist stance. Amidst racial violence in the United States and Cuba’s efforts to inspire revolution, Carmichael’s presence at the Organization of Latin American Solidarity conference in Havana—and in particular his interactions with Fidel Castro—caused ripples worldwide. A shared “tricontinental” vision that promoted unity in the Global South against imperialism, capitalism, and racism facilitated Carmichael’s solidarity with Castro. Yet divergent views on the role of race in fighting oppression limited their solidarity. Carmichael and Castro’s spectacular alliance demonstrated their personal affinity and ideological commonalities but did not result in an institutional alliance between the black liberation movement and the Cuban state. Instead Carmichael’s connection with the Cuban Revolution left an underexplored legacy. Examining Carmichael’s visit to Cuba illustrates the possibilities and pitfalls of transnational solidarity and furthers our understanding of postwar struggles for change.

  15. The mechanisms of direct democracy in Cuba: design and reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    (Teodoro Yan Guzman Hernández

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In Cuba the 1940 Constitution regulated different mechanisms of direct democracy (mdd that were not implemented; while the 1976 Constitution in force, although committed from the norm with the direct participation and popular sovereignty, was unambitious in regulating these mechanisms. After the Revolution, direct participation has had different expressions that have been nominated wrongly as some of the mdd, that political theory today recognizes on the ba­sis of certain assumptions. This article examines the mdd in Cuba from 1940 until the present. For this purpose it makes a critical analysis of its regulation, based on the criteria that political theory and constitutional law have offered for the configuration of these mechanisms, and tak­ing into account the particularities and results of the implementation in the Cuban context. The main conclusion of this work is that Cuba regulates forms of participation that directly involve the citizenry, but require changes in its design, so that they become real mechanisms of direct democracy that contribute to the political empowerment of citizens.

  16. Acute myocardial infarction mortality in Cuba, 1999-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Nurys B; Ortega, Yanela Y; de la Noval, Reinaldo; Suárez, Ramón; Llerena, Lorenzo; Dueñas, Alfredo F

    2012-10-01

    Acute myocardial infarction is one of the leading causes of death in the world. This is also true in Cuba, where no national-level epidemiologic studies of related mortality have been published in recent years. Describe acute myocardial infarction mortality in Cuba from 1999 through 2008. A descriptive study was conducted of persons aged ≥25 years with a diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction from 1999 through 2008. Data were obtained from the Ministry of Public Health's National Statistics Division database for variables: age; sex; site (out of hospital, in hospital or in hospital emergency room) and location (jurisdiction) of death. Proportions, age- and sex-specific rates and age-standardized overall rates per 100,000 population were calculated and compared over time, using the two five-year time frames within the study period. A total of 145,808 persons who had suffered acute myocardial infarction were recorded, 75,512 of whom died, for a case-fatality rate of 51.8% (55.1% in 1999-2003 and 49.7% in 2004-2008). In the first five-year period, mortality was 98.9 per 100,000 population, falling to 81.8 per 100,000 in the second; most affected were people aged ≥75 years and men. Of Cuba's 14 provinces and special municipality, Havana, Havana City and Camagüey provinces, and the Isle of Youth Special Municipality showed the highest mortality; Holguín, Ciego de Ávila and Granma provinces the lowest. Out-of-hospital deaths accounted for the greatest proportion of deaths in both five-year periods (54.8% and 59.2% in 1999-2003 and 2004-2008, respectively). Although risk of death from acute myocardial infarction decreased through the study period, it remains a major health problem in Cuba. A national acute myocardial infarction case registry is needed. Also required is further research to help elucidate possible causes of Cuba's high acute myocardial infarction mortality: cardiovascular risk studies, studies of out-of-hospital mortality and quality of care

  17. 76 FR 11071 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-28

    ... Emergency With Respect to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating to the Regulation of the Anchorage... ] Notice of February 24, 2011 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Cuba and of the....-registered civilian aircraft in international airspace north of Cuba. On February 26, 2004, by Proclamation...

  18. 78 FR 13207 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... Emergency With Respect to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating to the Regulation of the Anchorage... ] Notice of February 22, 2013 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Cuba and of the....-registered civilian aircraft in international airspace north of Cuba. On February 26, 2004, by Proclamation...

  19. 77 FR 11377 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... With Respect to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating to the Regulation of the Anchorage and..., 2012 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority....-registered civilian aircraft in international airspace north of Cuba. On February 26, 2004, by Proclamation...

  20. 75 FR 8791 - Continuation of the National Emergency Relating to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... Notice of February 23, 2010--Continuation of the National Emergency Relating to Cuba and of the Emergency... Emergency Relating to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating to the Regulation of the Anchorage and... north of Cuba. On February 26, 2004, by Proclamation 7757, the national emergency was extended and its...

  1. Comparing the Role of Education in Serving Socioeconomic and Political Development in Tanzania and Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mtonga, Harry L.

    1993-01-01

    Compares Tanzania and Cuba to show how, in each case, the state has used education in political and socioeconomic development as a means of achieving socialism. In Cuba, the school system has contributed to creation of the new society, whereas Tanzania continues with piecemeal reconstruction of the educational system. (SLD)

  2. American Delegation Is Blocked from Attending an Academic Conference in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haworth, Karla

    1997-01-01

    American academics planning to attend an international conference on operations research in Cuba, including the keynote speaker, had to cancel plans when the Treasury Department did not approve licenses they needed to spend money in Cuba. They claim the lack of approval was for political reasons, but the government claims the application was…

  3. Cambio climático, afectaciones y oportunidades para la ganadería en Cuba Climate change, affectations and opportunities for livestock production in Cuba

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Milagros de la C Milera

    2011-01-01

    ... producción ante las afectaciones del cambio climático en Cuba y los resultados de fincas diversificadas que emplean alimentos locales y se han convertido en un recurso, por su contribución para mitigarlo...

  4. Notes on the presence of Justicia secunda (Acanthaceae in Cuba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Pavel García-Lahera

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A detailed and illustrated characterization of the botanical species denominated Justicia secunda, exotic plant cultivated as medicinal and ornamental in Cuba, probably of recent introduction, is presented, in order to facilitate its identification and differentiation from the plants with it is usually confused: Justicia spicigera and Justicia candicans. The work trait to get the attention of the Cuban scientific community about the promissory ethnobotany of the plant, because of the interesting medicinal properties that people attributed, as well as on its possible naturalization in the country and potentialities as an invasive plant.

  5. Estrategias para reducir la mortalidad infantil, Cuba 1959-1999

    OpenAIRE

    Raúl L. Riverón Corteguera

    2000-01-01

    Se describen las estrategias utilizadas por el Ministerio de Salud Pública en las diferentes etapas del Programa de Atención Maternoinfantil, para reducir la mortalidad infantil en Cuba de 1959 a 1999. Este período se dividió para su comprensión en 4 decenios. Se hace referencia a las diferentes medidas utilizadas, desde la creación del Sistema Nacional de Salud, la formación de recursos humanos; el desarrollo de la Educación Médica, la edificación de Facultades de Ciencias Médicas y la capac...

  6. Cuba-guatemala cooperation: building viable models for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorry, Conner

    2009-07-01

    The intertwined history of Cuba and Guatemala goes back almost five centuries. In 1536, Friar Bartolom� de las Casas sailed from Cuba to Guatemala with material for his book, A Brief Account of the Destruction of the Indies, seared upon his conscience. Documenting atrocities against Cuba's indigenous populations, the book persuaded Guatemala's colonial powers to rewrite abusive labor laws that were killing the Maya; the book also earned De las Casas the nickname 'apostle of the Indians.' Over 300 years later, the apostle of Cuban independence, Jos� Mart�, cut his journalistic teeth in Guatemala, while Cuban poet Jos� Joaqu�n Palma authored Guatemala's national anthem. More recently, in the 1950s, Dr Ernesto ('Che') Guevara's time in the country solidified his belief in the need for radical social change a few years before he would join Fidel Castro's Rebel Army. And in 1998, Guatemala, like Cuba so many times before and since, was struck by a fierce, fatal hurricane, opening in its wake a new chapter in the countries' shared history. Hurricane Mitch took over 30,000 lives in Central America and is widely considered the deadliest hurricane to hit the Western Hemisphere in 200 years. The storm made landfall in Guatemala on October 26, 1998 killing 268 people and displacing 106,000. Losses were estimated at US$750 million, with 6,000 homes completely destroyed and another 20,000 damaged. Seven health centers and 48 rural health stations serving 50,000 people were affected.[1] Within days, a team of 19 Cuban doctors landed in Puerto San Jos� in the southern department of Escuintla to provide medical assistance. Working alongside Spanish, US, and Guatemalan relief workers, the Cuban contingent set broken bones, treated some 900 cases of cholera[2] and 14,000 of malaria,[3] evacuated pregnant women, and delivered babies. Implementing vector control, safeguarding food supplies, and providing potable water were other measures taken by the Cuban volunteers, who

  7. El programa de control de la tuberculosis en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Marrero Figueroa

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available La evolución de la tuberculosis en Cuba, después de una reducción progresiva de la incidencia en los últimos años, modifica su comportamiento a partir de 1992 al producirse un incremento en la detección de casos. Se describe este problema, se analizan las principales características de la enfermedad y la estrategia del programa de control adoptada para enfrentar esta nueva situación.

  8. Alternative interpretation for the active zones of Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Mario Octavio Cotilla

    2014-11-01

    An alternative explanation to the seismoactivity of Cuban faults is presented. The model is a consequence of the interaction between Caribbean and North American plates. It is made with 12 geodynamic cells form by a set of 13 active faults and their 14 areas of intersection. These cells are recognized morpho-structural blocks. The area between Eastern Matanzas and Western Cauto-Nipe is excluded because of the low level of seismic information. Cuba has two types of seismogenetic structures: faults and intersection of faults.

  9. Ron, negocios y sociedad en Cuba, 1832-1965

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Lázaro, Javier

    2016-01-01

    En este trabajo sostengo la hipótesis de que Cuba pudo convertirse en uno de los grandes países productores de ron a escala mundial gracias a las economías externas generadas por el capital social. En efecto, los roneros cubanos tuvieron que hacer frente a las trabas arancelariasde España, primero, y de Estados Unidos después. Solo gracias a las redes económicas y sociales tejidas por los productores catalanes en los distritos industriales que formaron, las empresas productoras de ron redujer...

  10. Medical genetics in Cuba and its social impact.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith María Beltrán Molina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Genetics it is the science that studies the genes of the individuals, their operation, their transmission, their alterations, their relationships with other genes and their interaction with the environment. The present article approaches aspects of great interest corresponding to this science, in the same one he/she appears reflected a summary of examples that you/they evidence the advances of the medical genetics in Cuba as well as achievements in favor of the health and the well-being of the children and the Cuban family in general that they register among the noblest ideals and it reflects the humanist and solidary character of the Cuban Revolution.

  11. Epidemiology of Suicide in Cuba, 1987-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona-Miranda, Beatriz; Hernández-Sánchez, Mariela; Lomba-Acevedo, Paula

    2016-07-01

    INTRODUCTION Suicide is a health problem influenced by biological, genetic, psychological, social and economic factors. It is responsible for 50% of violent deaths in the male population, worldwide, and 71% in the female. In the Americas, 65,000 deaths by suicide occur every year. It is the ninth most frequent cause of death in Cuba, and third among people aged 10-19. OBJECTIVE Characterize the epidemiology of suicide in Cuba from 1987 to 2014. METHODS A retrospective descriptive study was conducted. The information comprised all records of death by suicide from January 1, 1987 to December 31, 2014, in the Cuban Ministry of Public Health's National Statistics Division database. The variables were sex, age, skin color, employment status/occupation, marital status, and method of suicide. Crude and age-standardized mortality rates and age-sex specific mortality rates were calculated, all per 100,000 population, as well as the sex ratio. Relative change over the series was calculated as a percentage. Distribution of suicides by variable was calculated and proportions expressed as percentages. RESULTS A total of 51,113 deaths by suicide were reported (annual average 1825), of which 34,671 (67.8%) were among men. The sex ratio was 2.1:1 for the entire study period, and 3.9:1 for 2011-2014. Over the course of the period studied, age-standardized suicide rates decreased from 23.9 to 10.8 per 100,000 population (54.8% reduction). The group aged ≥60 years had the highest average age-standardized rate, 44.6 per 100,000 population. The highest suicide burden by age was in the group aged 20-59 years (60.5%). By skin color, the highest burden was in those recorded as white, 68.9%. By marital status, the highest burden was in persons with a stable partner (46.7%), and by employment status/occupation, in retired (25.9%). The most commonly used method was hanging (59.4%). CONCLUSIONS Over the course of about three decades, suicide mortality rates have declined by almost half and

  12. L’insegnamento della lingua e letteratura italiane a Cuba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayerìn Bello Valdés

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} Nel suo articolo l’autrice ricostruisce la storia dell’insegnamento delle lingua e della letteratura italiane a Cuba dal Novecento ai giorni nostri, e fornisce una ricca documentazione sui corsi di italiano, sugli studi e  sulle opere più importanti pubblicate a Cuba sulla nostra letteratura e sulle manifestazioni realizzate per la diffusione della cultura italiana nel paese. In particolare riferisce dell’importante ruolo svolto dalla rivista “Cuadernos de italianística cubana” – e dalle istituzioni accademiche e culturali che ad essa fanno riferimento – nel campo della ricerca linguistica, della glottodidattica, dello studio della cultura italiana nelle sue diverse manifestazioni, tra cui la musica e l’opera lirica, e nella diffusione dell’italiano attraverso specifici programmi televisivi.  Normal 0 14 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} In her article the author reconstructs the history of Italian language and literature teaching in Cuba from the Nineteen Hundreds up to the present and provides a wealth of documentation on the Italian courses, studies and the most important works published in Cuba on our literature, as well as on events organized to spread Italian culture throughout the country.  In particular

  13. Ciência em Cuba: uma aposta pela soberania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orfilio Peláez Mendoza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available No dia 15 de janeiro de 1960, o então primeiro-ministro do Governo Revolucionário, Fidel Castro Ruz, disse que o futuro de Cuba teria que ser necessariamente um futuro de homens de ciência, um futuro de homens de pensamento. Meio século depois de pronunciada tão profética frase, a ilha caribenha é um país de pesquisadores, especialistas e operários altamente qualificados, que dispõe de uma das indústrias biotecnológicas mais importantes do mundo, com resultados comparáveis aos atingidos pelas nações líderes nessa área do conhecimento, e na qual a atividade científica está a caminho de se converter numa potente força produtiva, geradora de significativo ingresso de divisas e de um bem-estar maior para a sociedade.El 15 de enero de 1960 el entonces primer ministro del Gobierno Revolucionario, Fidel Castro Ruz, dijo que el futuro de Cuba tendría que ser necesariamente un futuro de hombres de ciencia, un futuro de hombres de pensamiento. Medio siglo después de pronunciada tan profética frase, la Isla caribeña es un país de investigadores, especialistas y obreros altamente calificados, que dispone de una de las industrias biotecnológicas más pujantes del mundo, con resultados comparables a los alcanzados por las naciones líderes en esta esfera del conocimiento, y donde la actividad científica va en camino de convertirse en una potente fuerza productiva, generadora de significativos ingresos en divisas y de un mayor bienestar para la sociedad.On January 15, 1960, Fidel Castro Ruz, then prime minister of the Revolutionary Government, said that Cuba's future would necessarily have to be a future of men of science, a future of men of thought. Half a century after this prophetic announcement, the Caribbean island is a country of researchers, specialists and highly skilled workers, boasting one of the world's most important biotechnological industries, with achievements comparable to those of leading nations in this field of

  14. Flowering of taro germplasm (Colocasia esculenta (L. Schott in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadelys Figueroa Águila

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Research was done at the Center for Tropical Crop Research (INIVIT, to evaluate inflorescence of taro germplasm (104 accessions in Cuba´s climatic conditions. Sampling was made every 7 days in the 2013-2014 period to evaluate inflorescence; accessions were characterized according to flowering parameters. The results showed that natural flowering by the 26-accession sample (25%, was observed to early blossom from July to October in 18 accessions (69.2%. Increased temperature and relative humidity lasted until November, when inflorescence ends.

  15. The right to health care for transsexual people in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Alberto; Rodríguez, R Mayra

    2012-04-01

    Gender identity is a sociocultural construct based (in nearly every society) on a binary norm: female and male. Transsexual individuals suffer from intense family and social discrimination because they express a dissident sexuality incongruent with this norm. They assert they feel trapped in a body that does not belong to them, so they seek help from health professionals to modify their bodies, to "adapt their bodies to their minds." This essay discusses health care for transsexual persons in Cuba from a human rights perspective that does not pathologize their gender identification.

  16. La United Fruit Company en Cuba: Organización del trabajo y resistencia obrera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Zanetti Lecuona Lecuona

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En Cuba la United Fruit actuó como una empresa azucarera, situación hasta cierto punto excepcional dentro de la especialización bananera que trazó el perfil de esa empresa a escala continental. El estudio que aquí se propone sobre las prácticas de la Compañía en Cuba, en particular respecto a su manejo de la fuerza de trabajo y las relaciones laborales, contribuye a esclarecer algunas constantes de la conducta empresarial de la United en sus diferentes ámbitos de operación.Palabras Clave: Cuba; United Fruit Company; trabajadores; condiciones de trabajo; relaciones laborales. The United Fruit Company in Cuba: Work organization and labor resistanceAbstractIn Cuba, the United Fruit Company was a sugar company, a situation to some extent exceptional in the banana profile of this company. The analysis of the practices of the United Fruit in Cuba, in particular with regard to its handling of the labor force and of labor relations, will contribute to a better knowledge of the entrepreneurial behavior of this company in its different areas of operations.Keywords: Cuba; United Fruit Company; workers; labor conditions; labor relations.

  17. Cuba's oil crisis spells trouble for Castro; Opportunity for foreign petroleum investment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-06

    This paper reports on Cuba's oil crisis which presents long term woes for the government of Fidel Castro but new opportunities for foreign petroleum investment. That's the main thesis of a study by East-West Center (EWC), Honolulu. Since the cutoff of subsidized oil supplies from the former Soviet Union at the first of the year, Cuba has endured a crippling loss of export revenues and draconian energy rationing measures at home. The Soviets had reduced oil supplies to Cuba since 1989 after decades of providing the Castro government with subsidized oil supplies. Former Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev exempted Cuba from paying market prices for Soviet oil in 1991 while requiring that of Soviet trading partners in eastern Europe. With the collapse of Communism in the former U.S.S.R., however, oil supplies from that region are available to Cuba only at market prices and for hard currency. That has triggered a crisis in the Western Hemisphere's sole Communist regime as Cuba's gross special product - equivalent to GNP - fell by 5% in 1990 and a further 20% in 1991. The foreign exchange loss of $1.6 billion stemming from the loss of Soviet subsidized oil supplies exceeds that of total foreign exchange earnings from all other sources. If Cuba imports oil in 1989 volumes at current prices, its oil import tab alone will be $1.3 billion, EWC projects.

  18. Investigation on possible risks to human health by exposure to the radiation of electromagnetic waves produced by the radio communications; Investigacion sobre posibles riesgos a la salud humana por exposicion a la radiacion de ondas electromagneticas producidas por las radiocomunicaciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Hernandez, Carlos Felipe; Ibarguengoytia Gonzalez, Pablo Hector; Flores Garcia, Andres; Franco Campos, Laura Elena [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2011-06-13

    This verification procedure is based on a research work on the possible risks to human health by exposure to the radiation of electromagnetic waves produced by the radio communications, cases of study: cellular telephony, radio digital troncalized and wireless telephony IP of Voice on IP (wireless local area network). The revision of all the international standards and the applicable national standardization was included, as well as the verification of fulfillment. [Spanish] Este procedimiento de verificacion esta basado en un trabajo de investigacion sobre posibles riesgos a la salud humana por exposicion a la radiacion de ondas electromagneticas producidas por la radiocomunicaciones, casos de estudio: telefonia celular, radio troncalizado digital y telefonia IP inalambrica de Voz sobre IP (red de area local inalambrica). Se incluyo la revision de todos los estandares internacionales y de la normatividad nacional aplicable, asi como la verificacion de cumplimiento.

  19. EnculturApp : Disseny d'una aplicació mòbil per a geolocalitzar exposicions segons l'estat d'ànim basada en el concepte de gamificació

    OpenAIRE

    Escudé Recasens, Núria

    2016-01-01

    Tenint en compte que cada vegada més els museus són 2.0, es propossa la creació d'Enculturapp, una aplicació mòbil que geolocalitza exposicions d'acord amb l'estat d'ànim i el temps disponible de l'usuari basada en el concepte de gamificació. S'aborda l'ús de la tecnologia dels Beacons que es comunica amb el dispositiu mòbil del visitant per aconseguir uns objectius determinats. Així doncs, les tres parts importants de que consta l'aplicació són: la part funcional, que dóna la informació bàsi...

  20. Innovative Tuberculosis Symposium held during Cuba Salud 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Helena J; Armas Pérez, Luisa

    2016-12-01

    The fourth Tuberculosis (TB) Symposium, held during the Cuba Salud 2015 International Convention, highlighted advancements in research on TB and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) by interdisciplinary teams from academic and federal institutions in Cuba, Colombia, Mexico, and the Dominican Republic. Delegates focused on the targets presented in the World Health Organization End TB Strategy for 2016-2035 and elaborated on four primary themes: 1) attention to vulnerable populations such as immunocompromised individuals, health care workers, and residents of long-term institutions such as prisons and nursing homes; 2) identification of active and latent TB cases through contact investigations; 3) spread and control of drug-resistant Mtb strains; and 4) advancements in the development of novel vaccines or "booster" immunizations. This international TB forum served as a platform for experts in diverse disciplines in these Latin American countries to discuss challenges faced by TB research and control programs, proposing novel research initiatives and promoting collaborative teamwork strategies for TB elimination. In solidarity, collaborative efforts in TB control require identification of symptomatic individuals, rapid diagnostic testing for TB, drug susceptibility assays on Mtb strains, and management that provide universal and gratuitous access to directly observed short-course therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Implementation of tissue microarrays technique for cancer research in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Lahera-Sánchez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The tissue microarray (TMA technique is based on making cylindrical cores from paraffin donor blocks and transfer to a single recipient block. The TMA has revolutionized the field of pathology for the possibility to evaluate multiple samples in one slide. There is no precedent of this subject in Cuba, so the objective of this research was to implement the TMA technique. The concordance of the results obtained by complete section and the TMA were evaluated for this purpose, in the evaluation of the estrogen receptors (ER, progesterone (PR and epidermal growth factor type 2 (HER2 in samples of breast cancer. Forty-five paraffin-embedded samples from women diagnosed with breast cancer at the Institute of Oncology in 2012 were studied. Two TMA blocks were constructed, and subsequently the expression of markers ER, PR and HER2 was determined by immunohistochemistry, in the complete section of tissue and in the TMA. Kappa index was used for concordance analysis. A good concordance was obtained for all three markers (ER k=0.8272; PR k=0.793 and HER2 k=0.716. This study constitutes the first report on the TMA technique in Cuba and shows that it is a valuable tool, suggesting its potential use in translational research and clinical trials on vaccines.

  2. The Prevalence, Correlates and Impact of Dementia in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llibre Rodríguez, J.; Valhuerdi, A.; Sanchez, l.l.; Reyna, C.; Guerra, M.A.; Copeland, J.R.M.; McKeigue, P.; Ferri, C.P.; Prince, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Background We aimed to estimate the prevalence, correlates and impact of dementia in Havana and Matanzas, Cuba. Methods A 1-phase catchment area survey of all over 65-year-old residents of 7 catchment areas in Havana and 1 in Matanzas was conducted. Dementia diagnosis was established according to DSM-IV and our own, pre-validated10/66 criteria. The impact of dementia was assessed through associations with needs for care, cutting back on work to care and caregiver psychological morbidity. Results We interviewed 2,944 older people, a response proportion of 96.4%. The prevalence of DSM-IV dementia was 6.4% and that of 10/66 dementia 10.8%. Both dementia outcomes were associated with older age, less education, a family history of dementia, shorter leg length and smaller skull circumference. Dementia, rather than physical health problems or depression, was the main contributor to needs for care (population-attributable prevalence fraction = 64.6%) and caregiver cutting back on work (population-attributable prevalence fraction = 57.3%). Conclusion The prevalence of dementia in Cuba is similar to Europe. Among health conditions, dementia is the major contributor to dependency and caregiver economic and psychological strain. More attention needs to be given to it and other chronic diseases associated more with disability than premature mortality. PMID:18931519

  3. United Vietnam and Cuba will overcome all obstacles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This article presents the speech of the President of the Viet Nam Women's Union, given on April 15, 1998, at a world women's solidarity meeting held in Cuba. The President gave the Cuban Women's Federation US$50,000 for women's and children's programs. The President indicated that the Vietnamese people wanted to help alleviate the hardships of the Cuban people and show solidarity with Cuba and Comrade Fidel Castro. The money was collected in a nationwide campaign in an effort to express Viet Nam's sympathy for Cubans who face difficult living conditions due to the US embargo. The President thanked the Cuban people for standing up to a superpower for all the world to see and for being confident and optimistic despite hardships. The Vietnamese are ready to defend revolutionary achievements, independence, and socialism. The Vietnamese will be celebrating the 35th year of the founding of the Cuban Committee for Solidarity with Viet Nam, Laos, and Cambodia. The Vietnamese delegation offered warm greetings to the Cuban Party and State and the Cuban women and children under the leadership of Comrade Fidel Castro.

  4. Vietnamese women at solidarity meeting of world women in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This article summarizes experiences of a Vietnamese delegation at a solidarity meeting of world women during April 13-16, 1998, in Cuba. The President of the Viet Nam Women's Union headed the delegation. The advisor was the vice-chairperson of the Vietnamese National Assembly. The delegation participated in 6 forums: women and sustainable economic development; women, health, education, and social security; women, communication and the mass media; women in politics and decision-making; women, violence and discrimination; and national independence, sovereignty, peace, and women. The delegation also participated in sessions on women's issues; implementation issues; women parliamentarians; and migrant and displaced women. The delegation met with delegates from other countries and participated in a world meeting and an Asian-Pacific meeting to support Cuban women. The entire delegation presented a stage show of songs, which was well received by the 3000 participants. The delegation met with Cuban delegates to discuss the formation of women's groups and to build better relations between the women of both countries. The delegation visited a training center of women cadres and the center for gender education. Participants adopted the Havana Declaration, which states the intention of world women to eradicate poverty and war and to promote peace, progress, and happiness in all countries. The Havana Declaration condemned the US embargo against Cuba. Fidel Castro spoke and expressed gratitude for the strong support from world women, especially Vietnamese women.

  5. Current status of renal replacement therapy in Cuba 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Oliva, J F

    2009-01-01

    We present the main structural and organizational features, as well as the human resources and the activities of Cuba in nephrology, dialysis, and transplantation. Access to renal replacement therapy is universal (not restricted). There are 47 hemodialysis services. There are 281 renal physicians (216 serving adult patients and 65 pediatric nephrologists). The incidence of renal replacement rose from 71 per million population (pmp) in 2000 to 98 pmp in 2006. The prevalence of patients on dialysis treatment increased from 100 pmp in 2000 to 194 pmp in 2006. Growth rates for dialysis increased by an average of 10.6% annually in this time. The overall prevalence of patients increased from 156 pmp in 1999 to 275 pmp in 2006. The main cause of endstage renal disease was diabetes mellitus. Main causes of death on dialysis were cardiovascular disease (43.7%) and infectious disease (22.8%). Ninety percent of the organs were retrieved from cadavers. The cadaveric donation rate was 10 pmp. Cuba shares economic limitations with its neighbors but is one of the emerging world's least socially stratified countries, with a universal, free public healthcare system emphasizing primary health care and prevention in nephrology.

  6. Virtual Tour Environment of Cuba's National School of Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitano, R. K.; Douglas, I. P.; Garlock, M. E.; Glisic, B.

    2017-08-01

    Innovative technologies have enabled new opportunities for collecting, analyzing, and sharing information about cultural heritage sites. Through a combination of two of these technologies, spherical imaging and virtual tour environment, we preliminarily documented one of Cuba's National Schools of Art, the National Ballet School.The Ballet School is one of the five National Art Schools built in Havana, Cuba after the revolution. Due to changes in the political climate, construction was halted on the schools before completion. The Ballet School in particular was partially completed but never used for the intended purpose. Over the years, the surrounding vegetation and environment have started to overtake the buildings; damages such as missing bricks, corroded rebar, and broken tie bars can be seen. We created a virtual tour through the Ballet School which highlights key satellite classrooms and the main domed performance spaces. Scenes of the virtual tour were captured utilizing the Ricoh Theta S spherical imaging camera and processed with Kolor Panotour virtual environment software. Different forms of data can be included in this environment in order to provide a user with pertinent information. Image galleries, hyperlinks to websites, videos, PDFs, and links to databases can be embedded within the scene and interacted with by a user. By including this information within the virtual tour, a user can better understand how the site was constructed as well as the existing types of damage. The results of this work are recommendations for how a site can be preliminarily documented and information can be initially organized and shared.

  7. Cuba: Time to Expand Health in All Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castell-Florit Serrate, Pastor; Más-Bermejo, Pedro

    2016-10-01

    The Adelaide Statement on Health in All Policies (2010), lays out equity-based principles designed to guide policymakers on incorporating health and well-being components into the development, implementation and evaluation of policy and practice while moving towards shared governance at all levels-local, regional, national and international. Special emphasis is placed on cross-sector coordination to achieve policy goals, while improving health and well-being for all.[1] In Cuba's case, experience in disaster preparedness, particularly for hurricanes, has shown good cross-sector coordination.[2] Zika serves as another recent example. First identified in Uganda in 1947, Zika, an emerging disease with outbreaks in Africa, Asia, the Pacific and the Americas and linked to neurological disorders in newborns, was declared a global health emergency by WHO on February 1, 2016.[3] In response, Cuba further stepped up measures for surveillance, prevention and control it had already announced in December 2015. Building on decades of experience fighting dengue, intensified efforts to stamp out Aedes aegypti and albopictus, the mosquitoes that transmit Zika (as well as dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever), and issued a national 11-point Zika Action Plan to prevent, detect and respond to these arboviral infections.

  8. Las finanzas de Cuba en el ocaso colonial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iglesias García, Fe

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses the repercussions of the War of Independence on the Cuban economy as a Whole. The data provided include costs per sector, their effects on exports, customs figures and collection of taxes. In addition, the author's analysis on property imposts provides the reader with information on Cuba´s financial situation and that of the landowners at the time when the reconstruction of the country began.

    En este artículo se estudian las repercusiones provocadas por la Guerra de Independencia en el conjunto de la economía cubana, así mismo se aporta información del costo por sectores, su repercusión sobre las exportaciones, los ingresos aduaneros y el cobro de impuestos, y se traza en líneas generales la situación financiera de Cuba y de los propietarios al momento de iniciarse la reconstrucción del país, a partir del estudio de los gravámenes que afectaban la propiedad.

  9. The role of popular energy education and diffusion in Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montesinos Larrosa, A. [Sociedad Cubana para la Promocion de las Energias Renovables (Cuba); Moreno Figueredo, C. [Centro de Estudio de Tecnologias Energeticas Renovables (Cuba)

    2008-07-01

    Cuba's Energy Revolution is a national program for developing renewable energy sources to conserve energy, promote sustainable development and address environmental concerns. It includes the Energy Saving Program by the Ministry of Education (PAEME), the Electricity Saving Program in Cuba (PAEC) by the Ministry of Basic Industry (MINBAS) and the National Program for Energy Sustainable Culture developed by CUBASOLAR. The most important programs related to the use of renewable energy sources have been carried out in the field of biomass, hydropower, wind energy, water supply and solar photovoltaic energy in rural areas. This paper presented the Cuban experiences on education, diffusion and publication of energy themes. Mass communication including television, radio and magazines has been used to explain the rationale of using renewable energy, its efficiency and social impact. The positive results thus far indicate that these measures can be applied in other developing countries such as Latin America and Caribbean, and could also serve as a guide for other areas, including developed countries.

  10. Exposiciones conmemorativas en institutciones escolares: Diálogo entre memoria, historia e identidad. Commemorative exhibitions in educational institutions: dialogue betwen memory, history and identity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cristina Menezes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available (ES En este artículo ofrecemos una reflexión en torno al impacto que tuvieron las exposiciones, que sirvieron para conmemorar, en el año de 2013, el nacimiento de dos instituciones emblemáticas en la ciudad de Campinas: la “Escola Estadual ‘Culto a la Ciencia’", primer Gimnasio republi-cano, fundada hace140 años y la “Escola Estadual ‘Carlos Gomes’", primera Escuela Normal de Campinas, inaugurada hace 110 años. Estas actividades estuvieron bajo la responsabilidad del “Grupo de Estudios y Pesquisas en Historia de la Educación, Cultura Escolar y Ciudadanía” (CIVILIS, de la Facultad de Educación de la Universidad de Campinas/UNICAMP, responsable de desarrollar diferentes proyectos museológicos, entre estos se encuentra el proyecto de preser-vación del patrimonio histórico de las primeras escuelas públicas de Campinas, São Paulo, Bra-sil. Con la exhibición de documentos escritos, iconográficos y materiales, tanto del mobiliario como de enseñanza, pertenecientes a las colecciones de estas dos instituciones centenarias logramos, por una parte, profundizar sobre el significado que los usuarios de la escuela otorgan a los obje-tos que fueron expuestos, así como, las diferentes formas de entender el diálogo entre la memo-ria, la historia y la identidad, que van más allá de los límites del inventario y la catalogación, para representar prácticas de otros tiempos. (EN The CIVILIS GROUP of the FE/UNICAMP´s projects develop actions turned to the preserva-tion of the historical patrimony of the first public school institutions of Campinas, São Paulo state, Brazil. The aim of this communication is to present a contemplation upon two exhibitions carried out by the group, with the exhibition of iconographic and written documents, furnish-ings, schooling materials belonging to the historical collection of two of these institutions, hav-ing in sight the commemorations of the 140 years of the “E E Culto à Ciência

  11. Radiological control of the junk exports in Cuba; Control radiologico de las exportaciones de chatarra en Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez L, O.; Capote F, E.; Carrazana G, J.A.; Zerquera, J.T.; Ramos V, O.; Alonso A, D.; Fernandez, I.M.; Caveda R, C.A.; Madrazo M, S.; Barroso P, I. [CPHR, Calle 20 No. 4113 e/41 y 47, Playa, C.P. 11300, A.P. 6195, C.P. 10600 La Habana (Cuba)]. e-mail: orlando@cphr.edu.cu

    2006-07-01

    Even when in Cuba a strict control exists on the radiation sources that enter to the country to be used in the different applications, it can be given the case that sources or contaminated materials that never were under this control due fundamentally to that entered to the country before the same one existed, appear in the junk that is marketed. In our country it is effective the Combined Resolution CITMA-MINCEX dated on April, 2002 that settles down the necessity and obligation that has all that manipulates, imports, exports or process junk of carrying out it a radiological control. From April, 2002 making use of a minimum of resources, an own methodology, a properly qualified personnel and the support of a credited laboratory by the ISO 17025 standard, the radioactivity measurement service in junk belonging to the Center of Protection and Hygiene of the Radiations (CPHR), it has reduced the risks that sources or contaminated materials are found in the junk that is exported in the main exporter companies of this line in Cuba avoiding possible radiological emergency situations that affect the population and the environment. (Author)

  12. Burden of Self-reported Acute Gastrointestinal Illness in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Pablo Aguiar; Finley, Rita L.; Guerin, Michele T.; Isaacs, Sandy; Domínguez, Arnaldo Castro; Marie, Gisele Coutín; Perez, Enrique

    2009-01-01

    Acute gastrointestinal illness is an important public-health issue worldwide. Burden-of-illness studies have not previously been conducted in Cuba. The objective of the study was to determine the magnitude, distribution, and burden of self-reported acute gastrointestinal illness in Cuba. A retrospective, cross-sectional survey was conducted in three sentinel sites during June-July 2005 (rainy season) and during November 2005–January 2006 (dry season). Households were randomly selected from a list maintained by the medical offices in each site. One individual per household was selected to complete a questionnaire in a face-to-face interview. The case definition was three or more bouts of loose stools in a 24-hour period within the last 30 days. In total, 97.3% of 6,576 interviews were completed. The overall prevalence of acute gastrointestinal illness was 10.6%. The risk of acute gastrointestinal illness was higher during the rainy season (odds ratio [OR]=3.85, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.18-4.66) in children (OR=3.12, 95% CI 2.24-4.36) and teens (OR=2.27, 95% CI 1.51-3.41) compared to people aged 25-54 years, in males (OR=1.24, 95% CI 1.04-1.47), and in the municipality of Santiago de Cuba (OR=1.33, 95% CI 1.11-1.61). Of 680 cases, 17.1-38.1% visited a physician, depending on sentinel site. Of the cases who visited a physician, 33.3-53.9% were requested to submit a stool sample, and of those, 72.7-100.0% complied. Of the cases who sought medical care, 16.7- 61.5% and 0-31.6% were treated with antidiarrhoeals and antibiotics respectively. Acute gastrointestinal illness represented a substantial burden of health compared to developed countries. Targeting the identified risk factors when allocating resources for education, food safety, and infrastructure might lower the morbidity associated with acute gastrointestinal illness. PMID:19507750

  13. El turismo como estrategia de desarrollo en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    del Risco Yera, Yoel

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Tourism has become an economic activity which is becoming more and more important, socially, economically and environmentally. This fact is especially relevant in the case of Cuba. The tourist activity is seen as a form of stabilising the balance of payments, a source of income and employment. However, in this times of economic and political uncertainty, the dangers of substituting the basic commodity of sugar for something else (tourism is very big and it may be necessary to revise the use of tourism as a way of future development.

    [es] El turismo se ha convertido en una actividad económica que, cada vez tiene mayor importancia en el desarrollo económico, social y medio ambiental. Este hecho adquiere una especial relevancia en el caso de Cuba. La actividad turística es vista como una forma de equilibrar la balanza de pagos, una fuente de divisas y de empleo. Sin embargo, en momentos de incertidumbre económica y política como son los actuales, los peligros de sustituir un monocultivo (del azúcar por otro (el turismo son muy grandes y se hace necesario revisar su utilización como vía para el desarrollo. [fr] Le tourisme est devenu une activité économique de plus en plus importante du point de vue économique, social et environnemental. Il s'agit là d'un fait tout particulièrement essentiel dans le cas de Cuba. L'activité touristique est abordée comme un moyen permettant d'équilibrer la balance des paiements, ainsi qu'une source de devises et d'emploi. Cependant, considérant la conjoncture actuelle d'incertitude économique et politique qui accroît les risques de remplacer une monoculture (celle du sucre par une autre (le tourisme, il est donc nécessaire de réétudier l'utilisation du tourisme en tant que voie de développement.

  14. Uso tradicional de plantas medicinales con accion diuretica en el Municipio de Quemado de Guines, Cuba

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perez Machin, Maykel; Sueiro, Mario L; de la Cruz, Ania; Boffill, Maria A; Moron, Francisco; Mendez, Orestes R; Cardenas, Jaqueline

    2011-01-01

    La flora de Cuba es muy rica en plantas medicinales, de las cuales se reportan aproximadamente 179 especies que la poblacion utiliza para fines diureticos, sin embargo, un gran numero de ellas carece...

  15. Intestinal parasites in children from a day care centre in Matanzas City, Cuba

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cañete, Roberto; Díaz, Mariuska Morales; Avalos García, Roxana; Laúd Martinez, Pedro Miguel; Manuel Ponce, Félix

    2012-01-01

    .... A cross-sectional study was carried to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in stool samples among children who attend to a day care centre in an urban area of Matanzas city, Cuba, from March to June 2012...

  16. Carga del cáncer ginecológico en Cuba

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Domínguez Alonso, Emma; Seuc Jo, Armando H; Galán Álvarez, Yaima; Tuero Iglesias, Ángela

    2009-01-01

    Objetivos Describir la carga integral asociada a localizaciones ginecológicas de cáncer como son: mama, cuello de útero, endometrio y ovario, para Cuba, sus provincias y el Municipio Especial Isla de la Juventud, para...

  17. Desarrollo y perspectivas de la gestion empresarial en Cuba. El ejemplo de la Corporacion CIMEX

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ramos Diaz, Jesus; Macias Mesa, Jose A; Garcia Rodriguez, Carlos M

    2008-01-01

    .... En el articulo se aborda la gestacion en el mundo y en Cuba de una nueva empresa denominada Emergente, consecuencia del entorno de los negocios, caracterizados fundamentalmente por la globalizacion...

  18. Baseline research for action: adolescent alcohol consumption in Los Palacios Municipality, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Yolanda; Espinosa, Yairelis

    2013-04-01

    In Cuba, alcohol is an important contributor to morbidity, mortality and social problems. The foundation of Cuba's universal primary health care coverage, family doctor-and-nurse offices play a critical role in prevention, early detection and treatment of alcohol abuse. Los Palacios Municipality of the westernmost province of Pinar del Río, Cuba, is a socially complex, periurban area where alcohol abuse and alcoholism have been identified as important health problems. Adolescents constitute a population at high risk for alcohol abuse because of their receptivity to social influences, but the precise extent of the problem is unknown. This paper reports baseline findings from a survey and direct observation of alcohol consumption in the catchment area of a primary care center, conducted to inform planning for an educational intervention. KEYWORDS Alcohol, alcoholism, alcohol abuse, alcohol dependence, adolescence, primary health care, Cuba.

  19. First report of a Florida Manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Aleman, Anmari; Beck, Cathy A.; Powell, James A.

    2010-01-01

    Manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) in Florida utilize intake and effluent canals of power plants as resting and thermoregulatory habitat. We report the use of a power plant canal in Cuba by a known Florida manatee, the first documented case of movement by a manatee between Florida and Cuba. In January, February, and April 2007, two manatees (mother and calf) were reported entering a power plant canal in north Havana, Cuba. The larger manatee had several distinctive scars which were photographed. Digital images were matched to a previously known Florida manatee (CR131) with a sighting history dating from December 1979 to July 2006. Exchanges of individuals between Florida and Cuba may have important genetic implications, particularly since there appears to be little genetic exchange between the Florida manatee subspecies with populations of the Antillean manatee subspecies (T. m. manatus) in Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic.

  20. Informational Element of Power: The Role of Public Diplomacy in United States-Cuba Policy Implementation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andujar, Roberto C

    2005-01-01

    ...: The Castro Regime has a monopoly on all media and information in Cuba which permits the regime to control what the Cuban people see and believe about the outside world and indeed their own country...

  1. Economic and Security Reasons Why the U.S. Should Normalize Relations with Cuba

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Curtain, Joseph W

    2008-01-01

    ...) that has occurred as a result. The thesis also shows how China, Venezuela and Iran continue to invest more money in the island and subsequently threaten to wield more influence over Cuba. The U.S...

  2. Farming like we're here to stay : the mixed farming alternative for Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Funes Monzote, F.R.

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: Crop-livestock, agro-diversity, mixed farming, dairy production, agro-ecological indicators, sustainability, energy efficiency, local development, Cuba Specialization, as opposed to diversification, and export orientation have been historically the basis for patterns of dependence on

  3. Vodú Chic: Cuba's Haitian Heritage, the Folkloric Imaginary, and the State

    OpenAIRE

    Viddal, Grete Tove

    2014-01-01

    Hundreds of thousands of Haitian agricultural laborers arrived in Cuba to cut cane as the Cuban sugar industry was expanding between the 1910s and the 1930s, and many settled permanently on the island. Historically, Haitian laborers occupied the lowest strata in Cuban society. Until relatively recently, the maintenance of Haitian traditions in Cuba was associated with rural isolation and poverty. Today however, the continuation of Haitian customs is no longer associated with isolation, but ex...

  4. The Significance of Nationalism for the Spread of Communism to Vietnam and Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Rausch, Joseph Anthony

    2011-01-01

    This thesis explores the effect that nationalism had on the spread of communism to Vietnam and Cuba during the first half of the twentieth century. Using a case studies approach to analyze the revolution of Ho Chi Minh in Vietnam and Fidel Castro in Cuba, the thesis seeks to determine the extent to which nationalism directed these revolutions and their turn to communism once assuming power. The study examines the conditions that existed in each country that allowed for a nationalist revolut...

  5. The Cuba-United States Thaw: Building Bridges Through Science and Global Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bausch, Daniel G; Kouri, Vivian; Resik, Sonia; Acosta, Belsy; Guillen, Gerardo; Goraleski, Karen; Espinal, Marcos; Guzman, Maria G

    2017-06-01

    AbstractBeginning in 2014, there has been significant progress in normalization of relations between Cuba and the United States. Herein, we discuss the history and recent progress in scientific collaboration between the two countries as well as the continued challenges. Science and global health diplomacy can be key tools in reestablishing a trusting and productive relationship of mutual and global benefit, bringing about better and healthier lives for people in both Cuba and the United States.

  6. Rivulus berovidesi, a new killifish species (Teleostei: Rivulidae) from western Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rodet Rodriguez

    2015-04-24

    Rivulus berovidesi, a new killifish species, is described from a small stream in Sierra de Cajalbana, northwestern Cuba. It is readily distinguished from Rivulus cylindraceus Poey by the combination of an exclusive color pattern and meristic characters such as a d-type frontal scalation pattern (versus e-type pattern in Rivulus cylindraceus). The current diagnosis of Rivulus berovidesi based on chromatic, morphological and meristic characters is consistent with a recent molecular analysis of this genus in Cuba.

  7. What We Talk About When We Talk About Transition: The case of Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Valentin, Lukas; Aagerup Jensen, Jens Gustav; Bisbjerg, Mark; Holme Larsen, Nichlas

    2015-01-01

    Since 1959, Cuba has been struggling against internal and external forces in order to preserve their totalitarian regime and communist ideology. With the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, Cuba displayed two unexpected tendencies; regime survival and a gradual reformation of their plan-economy towards market economy. This project utilises a combination of regime survival theory and transition theory to investigate the political and economic inputs and outputs in the interest of understandi...

  8. En el reino de la ambivalencia. La Cuba de Alejandro de Humboldt

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver Lubrich

    2001-01-01

    Article in Spanish, Abstracts in English and German.In the Realm of Ambivalence.The Question of Cuba in Alexander von Humboldt’s American TravelogueCuba has a special role in Alexander von Humboldt’s American travel narrative: Humboldt’s experience of colonial slave economy drives his optimistic philosophy, inspired by European Enlightenment, into a crisis, and brings to surface the inherent contradictions of his discourse. This phenomenon is particularly interesting from the perspective of l...

  9. Making Travel to Cuba Work for Health and Sustainable Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorry, Conner

    2017-01-01

    In 2015, a record-breaking 3.5 million visitors-1 million from Canada alone-traveled to Cuba to explore its history, culture, natural splendor, and visit family. That same year, US President Barack Obama relaxed travel restrictions, giving general authorization for a dozen categories of legal travel by US citizens and residents. As a result, US visitors to the island ballooned by 80% between January 2015 and June 2016. And the numbers keep growing: the latest data show that foreign arrivals reached 4 million in 2016.[1] The surge in visitors highlights the potential negative impact of tourism on a developing country's infrastructure, environment, cultural patrimony and local economy-all considered important social determinants of health.

  10. Inventory of land snails from Boquerones, Ciego de Avila, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Jonathan Pereira-Miller

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A census of mollusks in Boquerones, Ciego de Avila, Cuba was carried out. Biodiversity index were studied by vegetal formation, which are: Evergreen Forest, Semideciduous Forest and Mogote Vegetation Complex. The families best represented were Helicinidae, Annularidae, Urocoptidae and Subulinidae, taking the 97.6% of the species some degree of national endemism and being the 45.24% of these local endemic. The most widely distributed species was Farcimen camaguayanum Torre & Bartsch 1941 and the rarest was Euclastaria euclasta Shuttleworth 1852. The highest biodiversity values were observed in the Mogote Vegetation Complex being of 2,856 according to Shannon-Wiener (H´ index. So far species extinction events are not seen but not discarded for the future due to a decline in local rainfall during the last 15 years as well as human activities such as agriculture and local tourism.

  11. La vacuna en Cuba durante el gobierno de Someruelos

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez Cienfuegos, Sigfrido

    2004-01-01

    La Real Expedición Filantrópica de la Vacuna (1803-1806), dirigida por Francisco Javier de Balmis, se dirigió al Nuevo Mundo para paliar las epidemias de viruelas que habían venido asolando América desde casi el mismo momento del Descubrimiento. Para entonces en la isla de Cuba ya se había iniciado una labor con el mismo objetivo por el médico cubano Tomás Romay, apoyado en el fomento de la introducción y aplicación de la vacuna por el marqués de Someruelos gobernador y capitán general de la ...

  12. Mycoplasmas hyorhinis in different regions of cuba: diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Lobo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available M. hyorhinis is considered one of the etiological agents of arthritis in sucking pigs, but recently as seen, some strains can produce pneumonia that could not be distinguished from the mycoplasmosis caused by M. hyopneumoniae. The study was conducted to research the presence of Mycoplasma hyorhinis (M. hyorhinis in different regions of the country from exudates of pig lungs with typical EP lesions. Exudates from 280 pig lungs with typical EP lesions were studied using molecular techniques such as PCR, real time PCR and amplification of the 16S-23S rRNA. It was detected that the 66% of the samples studied resulted positive to M. hyorhinis, and the presence of this species was detected in all the provinces. Amplification and studies on the intergenic region 16S-23S of M. hyorhinis rRNA demonstrated the existing variability among strains of a same species. This study is the first report on M. hyorhinis detection in Cuba.

  13. Familia homoparental en Cuba: una realidad no contada

    OpenAIRE

    Maribel Acosta Damas; Zenaida Costales Pérez; Beatriz Rosales Vicente

    2017-01-01

    A pesquisa aborda temáticas relacionadas à comunidade LGTBI e, dentre estas, à família homoparental em Cuba, a fim de desvelar seus traços na produção audiovisual cubana, e os fatores socioculturais e jurídicos que os determinam. A partir deste resultado, o estudo propõe uma aproximação ao processo de produção do documentário Sí, quiero, realizado por estudantes de Jornalismo da Universidade de La Habana, que baseia seu discurso audiovisual em uma construção de gênero inclusiva para promoção ...

  14. Meditate about the racial identity and the heritage in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maricelys E. Manzano-García

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The positive influences of the human creation in own humanization of social relations, with active role of heritage for confront predator actions of time and people left in the last middle century toward the increasing of goods including in the Humaneness Heritage. From this point of view, with the consensus involving human groups, and supported researches and the act of spreading of its results, could establish new goods to keep. These goods in Cuba could be singular aspects of racial identity, such as an wide diversity of the skin colors; appreciative flexibilities; existing races turn into differences by the skin color inside of the Cuban peoples, including fear to Negro and tendency to whiteness.

  15. The societies of french tomb in Cuba: investigative precedents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Coca-Izaguirre

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes the studies related with the Societies of French tomb in Cuba, aspect that has been treated by Cuban novelists, essayists and investigators and foreing as well. The epistemolological point of view revealed that this group has of Franc-Haitian traditions that, although it was for a lot of time to the margin of the "dominant culture" in the oriental region of the country, it has gotten the attention of diverse specialists interested in preserving the roots of the marginals. The present study intends to evidence the bibliographic referents that these musical dancing spaces of over a century of existence. This publication, between other benefits, contribute in the rescue and the safeguard of the information once the French tomb was  related to, declared Oral and Inmaterial Patrimony of the UNESCO from 2003. The text constitutes a reference document, as base for the future incursions on the societies of french tomb.

  16. First molecular evidence of Coxiella burnetii infecting ticks in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Angel A; Rodríguez, Islay; Miranda, Jorge; Contreras, Verónica; Mattar, Salim

    2016-02-01

    Coxiella burnetii is the causative agent of Q fever. In order to explore the occurrence of C. burnetii in ticks, samples were collected from horses, dogs and humans living in a Cuban occidental community. The species most commonly recovered were Amblyomma mixtum (67%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l. (27%) and Dermacentor nitens (6%). Specific IS1111 PCR and amplicon sequencing allowed the identification of C. burnetii DNA in A. mixtum collected from a domestic horse. These findings, for first time in Cuba, indicate the need for an in-depth assessment of the C. burnetii occurrence in hosts and humans at risk of infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Sugarcane biomass for power generation in Cuba - Feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    We analyze technical and economic feasibility of a 17 MW power plant in Cuba fuelled by sugarcane biomass. The power plant makes use of the BIG-GT gasification technology. The highly energy efficient BIG-GT technology is generally seen as promising, but it has not as yet been commercially proven. We conclude that the plant is technically and commercially feasible given a grant element of 38 per cent of its capital cost. The grant estimate assumes an electricity price of 5.2 cent/kWh, but is highly sensitive to the price level. The grant is lower than the value of non-commercial benefits of the plant. Therefore the plant passes the cost-benefit test. The most important benefit of the plant may be its demonstration value, which contributes to reducing costs of future plants. Costs are likely to be halved as more plants using the same technology are developed. (Author)

  18. TRINIDAD, PRODUCTO TURÍSTICO INTEGRAL Y SOSTENIBLE EN CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorio Canales Martínez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el desmantelamiento de la Unión Soviética, Cuba apostó claramente por el desarrollo del sector turístico. Trinidad, debido a su histórico conjunto urbano propio de la ciudad colonial y su enclave geográfico entre la montaña y el litoral, se ha convertido en un importante destino que aúna el turismo de playa con el de naturaleza y el cultural. En el presente artículo se analizarán los factores que hacen de Trinidad un referente internacional, así como la repercusión que esta actividad ejerce tanto en la economía familiar como en la recuperación del patrimonio local y su entorno ambiental; por ello ha sido declarado Patrimonio de la Humanidad.

  19. Che in Santiago de Cuba. His Universidad de Oriente visit

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    Yolanda Corujo-Vallejo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ernesto Che Guevara begins his activity in the process of the Cuban Revolution since 1955, stamped by the meeting with Fidel Castro in Mexico. After the triumph, transformed in one of the Revolution´s Commandants for his distinguished attitude, develops a multifaceted and creative activity, in the process of the construction of the new society. For that reason, between 1959 and 1964, in some opportunities he visits the city of Santiago of Cuba. His presence is also felt in the University of Oriente, where he comes on his first visit to the city, checks the construction of the university city, interchanges with students and teachers about the relevance of the application of the scientific knowledge in the development of the new society.

  20. Santiago de Cuba: between july 1955 and november 1956

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    Manuel Pevida-Pupo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the historical context of the city of Santiago de Cuba in the months prior to November 30, 1956, when the armed uprising took place in support of the landing of the Granma yacht expedition led by Fidel Castro Ruz; The material and human assurances made by the 26th of July Revolutionary Movement (MR-26-7 to provide all possible assistance to those arriving at the coast of the country; Among this action is the making of uniforms and the location of medical kits. It also emphasizes the role played by young teacher Frank País García at the front of the plan drawn up months before 

  1. US-CUBA RELATIONS: A NEW WAVE OF CONFRONTATION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С Перес Бенитес

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article seeks to analyze the role of the changes introduced by the administration of the former president Barack Obama in 2014-2016 into the bilateral US-Cuba relations; and the way in which the new presidential team are to reorganize this direction. The question on the attitude of Donald Trump towards currently existing policies aimed at solving the long-lasting problem with Cuban socialism is especially interesting since new US president has multiple times condemned the old ways practiced by the former establishment, but at the same time has shown readiness to act in a straight-forward and confrontational manner. One of contributors of the paper, Santiago Perez Benitez, deputy director of the Center for International Political Studies in Havana, is attempting to provide his professional expertise in granting an insider view from the Cuban side, evaluating the progress made since the 2014 and interpret the notion of the upcoming policy changes in Washington. The importance of the Cuban issue in the framework of US. policy in the Western hemisphere is explained by the fact that a solution in this sphere could help remake a negative image of Pan-American policies that haunts Washington. Cuban issue has also been long considered a possible key for reestablish-ment of trust between the United States and Latin American countries. For president Trump, quite unpopular judging by the polls, Cuban issue also has a potential to earn support of his own constituents, who strongly support lifting the embargo from Cuba. However now after certain decisions of Donald Trump the future of US-Cuban relations seems to get gloomier by the day.

  2. Los intereses sectoriales de la vivienda social en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Rabinovich

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Dans les premières années qui ont suivi la révolution cubaine, l’Etat embrassa la responsabilité totale dans le domaine du logement social. Cette contribution analyse les modalités de prise en compte des tensions entre critères technocratiques et ceux du « design » ainsi que le rôle attribué à la population dans les politiques et programmes d’habitations collectives depuis 1959. Elle met en lumière le modèle étatique sectoriel lequel a progressivement priorisé la quantité et défini la qualité par des critères de productivité à bas coûts. L’exemple de l’ONG Habitat-Cuba illustre également la fragilité des expériences innovantes des années 1990 qui ont tenté de réconcilier les aspects technocratiques avec les attributs esthétiques, spatiaux et fonctionnels de l’habitat par des approches dites participatives.In the first few years following the Cuban revolution, the State assumed full responsibility for public housing. The present contribution analyzes modalities for dealing with the tensions between technological and design-related criteria, as well as the role set aside for the public in collective housing policies and programmes since 1949. It sheds light on the statist model that has gradually given priority to quantity while defining quality via criteria for low-cost productivity. The example of the NGO Habitat-Cuba also illustrates the fragile nature of the innovative experiments of the 1990s, which attempted to reconcile technocratic aspects with the aesthetic, spatial and functional attributes of housing by means of so-called participatory approaches.

  3. A magnetic survey of mineral resources in northeastern Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista Rodriguez, Jose Alberto [Instituto Superior Minero Metalurgico de Moa (Cuba)

    2006-01-15

    Interpretation of the aeromagnetic survey of northeastern Cuba at scale 1 50 000 is presented. Mainly ophiolitic rocks are characterized by a high magnetic response. The aeromagnetic data was reduced to the pole and the horizontal and vertical gradients, as well as the upward continuation were calculated. To define areas of serpentinized ultrabasic rocks at surface and depth, the magnetic field transformations were interpreted. We discuss lateral extension of outcrops, thickness variation of the ophiolitic rocks, basement extension and fault zones. Hydrothermal alterations indicate associated precious metal secondary mineralization. Operations are planned to limit damage to mining by siliceous material in Fe+Ni laterites. [Spanish] Cuba, en la cual afloran fundamentalmente rocas ofioliticas caracterizadas por un alto grado de magnetizacion. Los datos aeromagneticos fueron reducidos al polo y luego se realizaron los calculos de gradientes horizontales y verticales y la continuacion analitica ascendente. A partir de los resultados de estas transformaciones se delimitaron zonas donde predominan las rocas ultrabasicas serpentinizadas tanto en superficie como en profundidad, definiendose la extension lateral de estas rocas por debajo de las rocas que afloran en superficie. Tambien se estimaron las variaciones de los espesores de las rocas ofioliticas, el basamento de las rocas que afloran, la presencia de estructuras disyuntivas, y se proponen nuevas estructuras de este tipo. Por ultimo se delimitan las zonas de alteracion hidrotermal, lo cual posee gran importancia, ya que con las mismas se pueden vincular mineralizaciones de metales preciosos. Ademas, su delimitacion en depositos lateriticos permite orientar los trabajos de explotacion minera, teniendo en cuenta el dano que causa al proceso metalurgico la presencia de material silicio en las lateritas Fe+Ni.

  4. On politics and health: an epidemic of neurologic disease in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, G C

    1995-04-01

    Political decisions may cause disease. During 1992 and 1993, an epidemic of neuropathy in Cuba--largely overlooked by U.S. physicians--affected more than 50,000 persons and caused optic neuropathy, deafness, myelopathy, and sensory neuropathy. Patients with the neurologic disease responded to B group vitamins, and oral vitamin supplementation of the population curbed the epidemic. Dietary restrictions and excessive carbohydrate intake were the immediated cause of the epidemic; however, the primary cause might have been political. Political changes in eastern Europe had major repercussions on Cuba's economy and food supply. In turn, these changes compounded the effects of internal political decisions in the island, leading toward isolationism and economic dependence on the former Soviet Union. Also, for more than 30 years, the United States has maintained an economic embargo against Cuba. In 1992, the U.S. embargo was tightened by the Torricelli amendment (or the Cuba Democracy Act), which prohibited third-country subsidiaries of U.S. companies from trading with Cuba and prevented food and medicines from reaching the island; this amendment produced a virtual economic blockade. Penuries resulting from all these political events resulted in the largest epidemic of neurologic disease in this century. Physicians may need to use their influence to modify political decisions when these decisions result in adverse health consequences. The American Academy of Neurology has issued a plea to encourage physicians and other health personnel to support efforts leading to lifting of the U.S. embargo against Cuba for humanitarian reasons.

  5. Una literatura sin residencia fija. Insularidad, historia y dinámica sociocultural en la Cuba del siglo XX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ette, Ottmar

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available From its very beginnings, Cuban literature has been a literature with no fixed abode: written between Cuba and Mexico (Jose María Heredia, Cuba and Spain (Gertrudis Gómez de Avellaneda, Cuba and the U.S. (Cirilo Villaverde, or between Cuba, Europe and the Americas (Jose Martí, but to mention the outstanding figures in Cuba's 19th Century. This article tries to unfold and develop the consequences of this new perspective by insisting on the specific «frictional» character of Cuban literature and culture today.

    Desde sus inicios, la literatura cubana se ha constituido como literatura sin residencia fija: entre Cuba y México (José María Heredia, entre Cuba y España (Gertrudis Gómez de Avellaneda, entre Cuba y Estados Unidos (Cirilo Villaverde o entre Cuba, Europa y las Américas (Jose Martí, para solo mencionar las grandes figuras del siglo XIX. Partiendo de este análisis, el presente artículo trata de sacar las consecuencias de este hecho desarrollando una nueva visión de la cultura y de las letras cubanas insistiendo, además, en su carácter especificamente «friccional».

  6. Edad de ocurrencia de los fallecimientos por diabetes en Cuba Age of occurrence of deaths from diabetes in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Domínguez Alonso

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el incremento de la tasa bruta de mortalidad en Cuba durante los últimos años, unido al acelerado proceso de envejecimiento poblacional, nos encauzó en el presente estudio. Objetivo: identificar diferencias en la edad de ocurrencia de las defunciones por diabetes en Cuba del año 1990 a 2010. Métodos: se incluyeron todas las defunciones por diabetes ocurridas en el país durante los años 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005 y 2010. A partir de estas se calcularon: las tasas de años de vida potencial perdidos por mortalidad por 1 000, los años de vida potencial perdidos por cada defunción, la media de la edad de los fallecidos, los cuartiles de la distribución de la edad de la muerte, y el porcentaje del total de fallecidos por diabetes por grupos quinquenales de edad. Resultados: la tasa de años de vida potencial perdidos se elevó en el sexo masculino de 2,44 a 2,63 por 1 000, mientras que en las mujeres tuvo un comportamiento discretamente descendente (de 4,54 a 4,46 por 1 000. Los años de vida potencial perdidos por cada defunción disminuyeron en ambos sexos (de 15,98 a 14,83 en hombres, y de 16,31 a 15,27 en mujeres. Esto último se relaciona directamente con el incremento de la media de la edad de los fallecidos, de 67,51 y 69,31 en 1990, a 70,24 y 72,33 en 2010 en hombres y mujeres respectivamente, así como con que los tres cuartiles se correspondieron con una mayor edad en los años 2005 y 2010, en relación con 1990 en ambos sexos. El porcentaje del total de defunciones perteneciente al grupo de 85 años y más fue de 9,9 y 16,2 % en 1990 y 2010 respectivamente. Las defunciones en las mujeres ocurrieron más tardíamente, a pesar de mostrar mayores tasas de años de vida potencial perdidos. Conclusiones: la mortalidad por diabetes en Cuba durante los últimos años se ha desplazado a los grupos de edades más avanzadas.Introduction: the increase of the gross mortality rate in Cuba in the last few years, together with the

  7. Male reproduction and environmental and occupational exposures: a review of epidemiologic methods Reproducción masculina y exposiciones ambientales u ocupacionales: una revisión de métodos epidemiológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne L. Golden

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Concerns that chemical exposures in the environment have been detrimental to male sexual development and fertility have been heightened by reports of declining sperm counts over the past 50 years. Marked geographic variation has been found in semen quality and in the incidence of testicular cancer and certain urogenital defects. Debate continues over the existence, magnitude and significance of these trends, and how best to evaluate the hypothesis that in utero and childhood exposures to estrogenic compounds may be to blame. Epidemiologic methods for assessing the impact of hazardous substances on male reproductive health have been developed mainly in the area of occupational medicine, and this paper will review the currently recommended methods. These include questionnaires to determine reproductive history and sexual function; reproductive hormone profiles; and semen analyses such as sperm concentration, motility, and morphology. New research tools that show significant promise from the fields of clinical reproductive medicine and reproductive toxicology are discussed as possible additions to epidemiologic studies, including assays of sperm function and genetic integrity, and biomarkers of DNA damage. For population-based studies involving occupational groups or communities with environmental exposures, issues related to the cost, validity, precision and utility of these methods must be carefully considered.Varios artículos publicados informan acerca de una declinación en la concentración de espermatozoides durante los últimos 50 años; lo anterior ha motivado una preocupación creciente en el sentido de que las exposiciones ambientales a diversos químicos actúen en detrimento del desarrollo sexual y de la fertilidad masculina. Se ha observado una marcada variación geográfica en la calidad del semen y en la incidencia del cáncer testicular y diversas malformaciones urogenitales. Persiste un debate acerca de la existencia, magnitud y

  8. Increased sex ratio in Russia and Cuba after Chernobyl: a radiological hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The ratio of male to female offspring at birth may be a simple and non-invasive way to monitor the reproductive health of a population. Except in societies where selective abortion skews the sex ratio, approximately 105 boys are born for every 100 girls. Generally, the human sex ratio at birth is remarkably constant in large populations. After the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in April 1986, a long lasting significant elevation in the sex ratio has been found in Russia, i.e. more boys or fewer girls compared to expectation were born. Recently, also for Cuba an escalated sex ratio from 1987 onward has been documented and discussed in the scientific literature. Presentation of the hypothesis By the end of the eighties of the last century in Cuba as much as about 60% of the food imports were provided by the former Soviet Union. Due to its difficult economic situation, Cuba had neither the necessary insight nor the political strength to circumvent the detrimental genetic effects of imported radioactively contaminated foodstuffs after Chernobyl. We propose that the long term stable sex ratio increase in Cuba is essentially due to ionizing radiation. Testing of the hypothesis A synoptic trend analysis of Russian and Cuban annual sex ratios discloses upward jumps in 1987. The estimated jump height from 1986 to 1987 in Russia measures 0.51% with a 95% confidence interval (0.28, 0.75), p value < 0.0001. In Cuba the estimated jump height measures 2.99% (2.39, 3.60), p value < 0.0001. The hypothesis may be tested by reconstruction of imports from the world markets to Cuba and by radiological analyses of remains in Cuba for Cs-137 and Sr-90. Implications of the hypothesis If the evidence for the hypothesis is strengthened, there is potential to learn about genetic radiation risks and to prevent similar effects in present and future exposure situations. PMID:23947741

  9. Increased sex ratio in Russia and Cuba after Chernobyl: a radiological hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherb, Hagen; Kusmierz, Ralf; Voigt, Kristina

    2013-08-15

    The ratio of male to female offspring at birth may be a simple and non-invasive way to monitor the reproductive health of a population. Except in societies where selective abortion skews the sex ratio, approximately 105 boys are born for every 100 girls. Generally, the human sex ratio at birth is remarkably constant in large populations. After the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in April 1986, a long lasting significant elevation in the sex ratio has been found in Russia, i.e. more boys or fewer girls compared to expectation were born. Recently, also for Cuba an escalated sex ratio from 1987 onward has been documented and discussed in the scientific literature. By the end of the eighties of the last century in Cuba as much as about 60% of the food imports were provided by the former Soviet Union. Due to its difficult economic situation, Cuba had neither the necessary insight nor the political strength to circumvent the detrimental genetic effects of imported radioactively contaminated foodstuffs after Chernobyl. We propose that the long term stable sex ratio increase in Cuba is essentially due to ionizing radiation. A synoptic trend analysis of Russian and Cuban annual sex ratios discloses upward jumps in 1987. The estimated jump height from 1986 to 1987 in Russia measures 0.51% with a 95% confidence interval (0.28, 0.75), p value Cuba the estimated jump height measures 2.99% (2.39, 3.60), p value Cuba and by radiological analyses of remains in Cuba for Cs-137 and Sr-90. If the evidence for the hypothesis is strengthened, there is potential to learn about genetic radiation risks and to prevent similar effects in present and future exposure situations.

  10. Corrupción, burocracia colonial y veteranos separatistas en Cuba, 1868-1910

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quiroz, Alfonso W.

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Administrative corruption in Cuba during the nineteenth century was a serious problem addressed both by Spanish authorities and the critics of the colonial system in Cuba. In the long run the fiscal, financial, institutional, and ideological costs of corruption undermined Spanish colonial control in Cuba. While the state and Cuban taxpayers had to pay for the increased costs of corruption, corrupt public officials and private contractors and financiers benefited. This study uses both archival manuscript administrative sources and published sources to assess the impact of corruption and its institutional bases during the final phase of Spanish colonialism in Cuba and the early period of post-colonial transition.

    La corrupción administrativa en Cuba durante el siglo XIX constituyó un problema reconocido como muy grave tanto por las autoridades españolas como por los críticos del sistema colonial cubano. Los costos fiscales, institucionales, e ideológicos de la corrupción contribuían a la erosión del dominio español en Cuba. A causa de la corrupción el Estado percibía menos ingresos y los contribuyentes cubanos se veían forzados a llevar a cuestas una creciente deuda pública. Los funcionarios corruptos y los contratistas y financistas privilegiados por el rígido sistema colonial, por el contrario, percibían los beneficios informales a que se creían acreedores por defender el dominio territorial español en Cuba. Utilizando fuentes administrativas manuscritas de archivos cubanos y españoles, así como fuentes públicas impresas, este trabajo evalúa el impacto de la corrupción y sus particulares bases institucionales en la fase final del colonialismo español en la isla y la transición post-colonial temprana.

  11. Intimate Encounters: Affective Economies in Cuba and the Dominican Republic

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    Amalia L. Cabezas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on research in Cuba and the Dominican Republic this paper explores the uses of intimacy in both the corporate sector and in romantic relationships. I use research with hotel workers and with people involved in sexual-affective exchanges connected to tourism to link intimacy to the political economic structures of transnational tourism. These are new spaces of analysis that present practices of transnational corporategenerated intimacy that combine love – or the exploitation of worker’s emotions − and labour. The central aim is to intertwine the intimate with the global, from the formal customer service policies of transnational hotels with the informal, on-the-ground, intimate encounters between tourists and hospitality workers. The commercialization of intimacy, including sexual-affective relations in the delivery of hospitality services, is linked to political and economic processes that are part of transnational tourism practices. This paper challenges the notion that sex tourism and sex work are individualistic practices that exist outside of the spaces of corporate global profit. It further posits that relationships where money is exchanged are not necessarily devoid of care and intimacy.Resumen: Encuentros íntimos: economías afectivas en Cuba y República Dominicana A partir de investigaciones en Cuba y la República Dominicana, este trabajo explora los usos de la intimidad, tanto en el sector empresarial como en las relaciones románticas. Se hicieron investigaciones entre trabajadores de hostelería y personas involucradas en el intercambio afectivosexual relacionado con el turismo con el fin de vincular la intimidad de las estructuras políticoeconómicas del turismo transnacional. Estos son nuevos espacios de análisis que las prácticas de las empresas transnacionales generan por el uso de la intimidad que combinan el amor – o la explotación de las emociones del trabajador – y la mano de obra. El objetivo central

  12. Evangelizacion Indigena en Cuba (1512-1550): Estrategia y Razones de su Fracaso (Evangelization of Indigenous People in Cuba (1512-1550): Strategies and Reasons for its Failure).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentes, Roberto Valdes; Reyes, Francisco Barroso

    2000-01-01

    Presents the different moments and contents of the strategies of the evangelization process practiced by the Spanish during the conquest and colonization of Cuba, as well as possible reasons for its failure. States that the Indians were enslaved and directed through evangelism toward acculturation. (BT)

  13. Antenatal testing for cystic fibrosis in Cuba, 1988-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collazo, Teresa; López, Ixchel; Clark, Yulia; Piloto, Yaixa; González, Laura; Gómez, Manuel; García, Marileivis; Reyes, Lidice; Rodríguez, Fidel

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Cystic fibrosis is a multisystem autosomal recessive disease with wide variability in clinical severity. It is incurable and characterized by elevated and premature mortality, as well as poor quality of life. Its frequency, lethality and devastating impact on both the physical and psychological wellbeing of patients and their families, make it a serious health problem. Its frequency in Cuba is 1 in 9862 live births, where marked molecular heterogeneity of the CFTR gene makes molecular diagnosis difficult. Six mutations have been identified that together enable molecular characterization of only 55.5% of cystic fibrosis chromosomes. This paper presents national results of antenatal diagnostic testing, using direct and indirect methods, for detection of cystic fibrosis. OBJECTIVE Characterize the Cuban public health system's experience with antenatal molecular testing for cystic fibrosis from 1988 through 2011. METHODS A retrospective descriptive study was conducted with results of antenatal diagnostic testing of amniotic fluid, performed nationwide from 1988 through 2011, for 108 fetuses of couples with some risk of having children affected by cystic fibrosis, who requested testing. Polymerase chain reaction detected mutations p.F508del, p.G542X, p.R1162X, p.R334W, p.R553X and c.3120+1G>A, and markers XV2C and KM19. Data were analyzed using absolute frequencies and percentages, and presented in tables. RESULTS For 93 cases (86.1%), testing for cystic fibrosis was done using direct analysis of mutations p.F508del, p.G542X, p.R1162X, p.R334W, p.R553X and c.3120+1G>A; five cases (4.6%) were tested indirectly using markers XV2C/Taq I and KM19/Pst I; and 10 (9.3%) were tested using a combination of the two methods. A total of 72 diagnoses (66.7% of studies done) were concluded, of which there were 20 healthy fetuses, 16 affected, 27 carrier, and 9 who were either healthy or carriers of an unknown mutation. CONCLUSIONS Direct or indirect molecular study was

  14. 31 CFR 515.560 - Travel-related transactions to, from, and within Cuba by persons subject to U.S. jurisdiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., and within Cuba by persons subject to U.S. jurisdiction. 515.560 Section 515.560 Money and Finance... Licensing Policy § 515.560 Travel-related transactions to, from, and within Cuba by persons subject to U.S... guidelines with respect to Cuba or engaged in by U.S.-owned or -controlled foreign firms (general and...

  15. 31 CFR 515.549 - Bank accounts and other property of non-Cuban citizens who were in Cuba on or after July 8, 1963.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... non-Cuban citizens who were in Cuba on or after July 8, 1963. 515.549 Section 515.549 Money and... Licensing Policy § 515.549 Bank accounts and other property of non-Cuban citizens who were in Cuba on or... accounts and other property of non-Cuban citizens who have left Cuba, provided that they submit evidence...

  16. Chemical composition and insecticidal activity of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil from Cuba and Brazil against housefly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeneida Teixeira Pinto

    Full Text Available Essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus collected from Brazil and Cuba was tested to a chemical characterization and then was tested on the post-embryonic development of Musca domestica. The chemical composition analysis by GC-MS of the oils from Brazil/Cuba allowed the identification of 13 and 12 major constituents respectively; nine of them common to both. In the both oils, the main components were the isomers geranial and neral, which together form the compound citral. This corresponds to a total of 97.92%/Brazil and 97.69%/Cuba of the compounds identified. The monoterpene myrcene, observed only in the sample of Cuba, presented a large relative abundance (6.52%. The essential oil of C. citratus (Brazil/Cuba was dissolved in DMSO and tested at concentrations of 5, 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100% and citral was prepared by mixing 16.8 mg with 960 µL DMSO. Both essential oils and monoterpene citral were applied topically to newly-hatched larvae (1µL/larva. The results showed a lethal concentration (LC50 of 4.25 and 3.24% for the Brazilian and Cuban essential oils, respectively. Mortalities of larval and newly-hatched larvae to adult periods were dose-dependent for the two both oils as for monoterpene citral, reaching 90%. Both essential oils and citral caused morphological changes in adult specimens.

  17. Diversidad haplotípica en el manatí Trichechus manatus en Cuba: resultados preliminares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Martinez, Damir; Alvarez-Aleman, Anmari; Bonde, Robert K.; Powell, James A.; Garcia-Machado, Erik

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this analysis was to obtain information regarding the mtDNA haplotype composition of the manatee (T. manatus) occupying the Cuban archipelago. A fragment of 410 bp of the non-coding region was analyzed for 12 individual manatees from Cuba and one from Florida, USA. Only two haplotypes were identified. Haplotype A1, found exclusively in Florida (including in the sample analyzed here) but also found in Mexico, the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico, was the most frequent haplotype (11 of the 12 samples from Cuba) and widely distributed. The second haplotype A3, previously referred to as endemic from Belize, was identified from an individual stranded in Isabela de Sagua, north of Cuba. These preliminary results provide information about three major aspects of manatee biology: (1) the mtDNA genetic diversity of T. manatus in Cuba seems low as compared to other regions of the Caribbean; (2) the Cuban population likely belongs to the group comprising Florida and the portions of the Greater Antilles; and (3) the territories of Belize and Cuba have exchanged individuals at present or in a relatively recent past.

  18. Chemical composition and insecticidal activity of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil from Cuba and Brazil against housefly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Zeneida Teixeira; Sánchez, Félix Fernández; dos Santos, Arith Ramos; Amaral, Ana Claudia Fernandes; Ferreira, José Luiz Pinto; Escalona-Arranz, Julio César; Queiroz, Margareth Maria de Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus collected from Brazil and Cuba was tested to a chemical characterization and then was tested on the post-embryonic development of Musca domestica. The chemical composition analysis by GC-MS of the oils from Brazil/Cuba allowed the identification of 13 and 12 major constituents respectively; nine of them common to both. In the both oils, the main components were the isomers geranial and neral, which together form the compound citral. This corresponds to a total of 97.92%/Brazil and 97.69%/Cuba of the compounds identified. The monoterpene myrcene, observed only in the sample of Cuba, presented a large relative abundance (6.52%). The essential oil of C. citratus (Brazil/Cuba) was dissolved in DMSO and tested at concentrations of 5, 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100% and citral was prepared by mixing 16.8 mg with 960 µL DMSO. Both essential oils and monoterpene citral were applied topically to newly-hatched larvae (1µL/larva). The results showed a lethal concentration (LC50) of 4.25 and 3.24% for the Brazilian and Cuban essential oils, respectively. Mortalities of larval and newly-hatched larvae to adult periods were dose-dependent for the two both oils as for monoterpene citral, reaching 90%. Both essential oils and citral caused morphological changes in adult specimens.

  19. Cuba and the Philippines: contrasting cases in world-system analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brun, S; Elling, R H

    1987-01-01

    Cuba and the Philippines are countries with broad similarities in historical background yet sharp divergences in political economic developments and relations to the capitalist world-system in recent times. U.S. economic and political interests dominated both countries during the first half of the 20th century. The changes generated by the Cuban revolution resulted in the end of U.S. power in Cuba in 1959. The Philippines, however, remain profoundly dependent on the United States. The approach taken in this article contrasts these countries, asking what the results of their divergent paths are in terms of health and health services. The ability of Cuba and the Philippines to support the primary health care (PHC) approach by fostering socioeconomic justice, authentic citizen participation, and a regionalized health system is examined. It is clear that the last 25 years of socialist-oriented development in Cuba reversed the negative effects of the previous market economy by providing improved social and health services. The success of the political economy and the fully regionalized health system, supportive of the PHC approach in Cuba, is reflected in the high-level health status of the people. In contrast, poverty, gross social and economic inequities, high prevalence of infectious disease, and inaccessible, inadequate, and uncoordinated health services persist in the Philippines after some 85 years of international and national capitalist development. The poor health status of the Philippine people is a direct reflection of this underdeveloped system.

  20. En el reino de la ambivalencia. La Cuba de Alejandro de Humboldt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Lubrich

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Article in Spanish, Abstracts in English and German.In the Realm of Ambivalence.The Question of Cuba in Alexander von Humboldt’s American TravelogueCuba has a special role in Alexander von Humboldt’s American travel narrative: Humboldt’s experience of colonial slave economy drives his optimistic philosophy, inspired by European Enlightenment, into a crisis, and brings to surface the inherent contradictions of his discourse. This phenomenon is particularly interesting from the perspective of literary criticism: Alexander von Humboldt conceives Cuba as a poetic space, where contradictions and ambivalences coexist. Already on the boat to the island from Venezuela he creates destablizing effects of sensual perceptions. He stages his landing in Havana as a moment of oppositional impressions. Within the symbolic topography of his geographic fantasy, Cuba functions as an imaginary in-between space. And Humboldt’s philosophical and aesthetic terminology undergoes a semantic recoding in Cuba: what was once used in a philosophical and aesthetic sense, now has become charged with an economic and political meaning.

  1. Homeland Security in Absentia: Policing Miami in the Era of the New U.S.- Cuba Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    traffic stop.120 The starting salary, accounting for inflation , would be roughly $34,000; the MPD current minimum salary is $46,000. The MPD was plagued...solidarity.net. Amnesty International USA . “Annual Report: Cuba 2011.” May 28, 2011. http://www. amnestyusa.org/research/reports/annual-report-cuba-2011

  2. The Basic Secondary School in the Country: An Educational Innovation in Cuba. Experiments and Innovations in Education 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Max; And Others

    The "secondary school in the country" is a concept becoming a reality in revolutionary Cuba. The concept is based on Cuba's need to feed itself and on the pedagogic and ideological premises that productive work molds man, that responsible participation by youth in building a new society is achieved by association with economic and social…

  3. Miconia bullotricha and M. hirtistyla, two new species of Miconia sect. Lima (Miconieae, Melastomataceae) from eastern Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majure, Lucas C; Bécquer, Eldis R; Judd, Walter S

    2014-01-01

    We describe two new species in Miconia sect. Lima, Miconia bullotricha Bécquer & Majure and Miconia hirtistyla Majure & Judd, from eastern, Cuba. We also provide illustrations and distribution maps for the two species, as well as a key to members of the Lima clade on Cuba.

  4. Miconia bullotricha and M. hirtistyla, two new species of Miconia sect. Lima (Miconieae, Melastomataceae) from eastern Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majure, Lucas C.; Bécquer, Eldis R.; Judd, Walter S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We describe two new species in Miconia sect. Lima, Miconia bullotricha Bécquer & Majure and Miconia hirtistyla Majure & Judd, from eastern, Cuba. We also provide illustrations and distribution maps for the two species, as well as a key to members of the Lima clade on Cuba. PMID:24526849

  5. La carrera de Farmacia en Cuba entre 1910 y 1921

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    Pilar Marchante Castellanos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Una vez concluida la segunda intervención militar norteamericana en 1909 y como parte del esfuerzo del gobierno cubano para proyectar una imagen de renacer republicano, a partir del curso 1910-1911 se pusieron en vigor los primeros estatutos universitarios redactados sin la presencia de autoridades colonialistas ni de gobiernos interventores en Cuba. Desde entonces vivió la Universidad hasta 1921 en un ambiente de cierta normalidad, aunque se fue convirtiendo en fiel reflejo del estado de corrupción que se había generalizado en casi todas las esferas del quehacer político y administrativo del país. El agravamiento de esa actuación y la actitud indigna de una gran parte de los profesores y autoridades universitarias, aceleró la toma de conciencia del estudiantado cubano y desencadenó una crisis que alteró por completo la vida académica en la Universidad de La Habana. Se presenta un breve resumen de lo acontecido en la mencionada institución y, particularmente, en su Escuela de Farmacia entre los cursos 1910-1911 y 1920-1921.

  6. [Infant mortality in Cuba in the 1970-1979 decade].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riverón Corteguera, R; Gutiérrez Muñiz, J A; Valdés Lazo, F

    1982-05-01

    This paper discusses the 50% reduction in infant mortality achieved in Cuba during the decade 1970-1979. After an analysis of the various factors that contributed to such a reduction, it is pointed out that early neonatal mortality during that period declined by 36.2%; late neonatal mortality by 67.2%, and postnatal mortality by 59.3%. By province, the lowest mortality rates were in Matanzas (14.9%), Villa Clara (15.6%), and the city of Havana (16.2%). The highest rates were in Las Tunas (26.1%), Guantanamo (24.1%), and Granma (23.9%) in infants of 1 year of age/1000 live births. With respect to cause of death, diarrheal diseases dropped from 2nd to 6th place, with a reduction of 71.4% in mortality. As a result of decreases in other causes, congenital malformations moved up to 2nd place. Also, acute respiratory diseases were lowered by 43.4%. Furthermore, it is pointed out that 11 consultations/delivery and 6.7 checkups/healthy infant under 1 year of age were attained as an annual average. In the same decade, the birth rate declined from 27.7 to 14.7/1000 inhabitants. (author's)

  7. Communicative intercultural competence in Medical Postgraduate Education in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Hernández Díaz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the results of the investigation “Developing Communicative Intercultural Competence in Medical Postgraduate Education in Cuba through English”, a master´s degree thesis whose aim was to design a postgraduate course of English for Specific Purposes which would focus on the development of the communicative competence of doctors going to health missions in English-speaking countries or where English is spoken as a lingua franca.This course is based on Developmental Pedagogy, the Communicative Approach and Task-Based Learning. It emphasizes cultural and important intercultural issues to be kept in mind during doctor-patient interviews, doctor-doctor relationships and doctor-family exchanges in a professional context so as to make it possible to establish cultural differences and similarities between the students´ culture and the foreign country´s culture.This is an exploratory investigation with a fundamentally quantitative focus using resources of the qualitative one. This design is a curricular document with all its didactic components, aimed at the development of intercultural communicative competence that responds to the current needs of the participants. 

  8. Thirty-four identifiable airborne fungal spores in Havana, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Almaguer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The airborne fungal spore content in Havana, Cuba, collected by means a non-viable volumetric methodology, was studied from November 2010 – October 2011. The study, from a qualitative point of view, allowed the characterization of 29 genera and 5 fungal types, described following the Saccardo´s morphotypes, as well as their morphobiometrical characteristics. In the amerospores morphotype, the conidia of 7 genera (with ascospores, basidiospores and uredospores and 5 fungal types were included. Among phragmospores morphotype, the ascospores and conidia of 12 different genera were identified. The dictyospores morphotype only included conidial forms from 6 genera. Finally, the less frequent morphotypes were staurospores, didymospores and distosepted spores. In general, the main worldwide spread mitosporic fungi also predominated in the Havana atmosphere, accompanied by some ascospores and basidiospores. [i]Cladosporium[/i] cladosporioides type was the most abundant with a total of 148,717 spores, followed by [i]Leptosphaeria, Coprinus[/i] and the [i]Aspergillus-Penicillium [/i]type spores, all of them with total values ranging from 20,591 – 16,392 spores. The higher monthly concentrations were registered in January (31,663 spores and the lowest in December (7,314 spores. Generally, the average quantity of spores recorded during the months of the dry season (20,599 spores was higher compared with that observed during the rainy season (17,460 spores.

  9. Expresiones y frases en el lenguaje tabacalero de Cuba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Torrecilla Guerra

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available El tabaco Nicotiana tabacum L. es una de las plantas que requiere de mucha laboriosidad, cuidado y dedicación, donde en sus hojas se realizan más de cien actividades para ser fumadas. En Cuba con más de cinco siglos de experiencia en el cultivo, se realiza por miles de familias campesinas. Producto del arduo trabajo desde el semillero hasta la comercialización, se ha desarrollado un alto número de frases y expresiones de alto significado para el que trabaja con la hoja. El presente trabajo incluye una gran gama de expresiones utilizadas por los productores encargados de las labores tabacaleras y brinda elementos de índole práctico de primerísima importancia para los que tienen que ver con la planta. Los resultados que se presentan en este artículo han permitido enriquecer el conocimiento científico técnico, histórico, popular, etc., acerca del tabaco y en breve tiempo el lector se ubica en aspectos técnicos de la hoja, particularmente en los procesos productivos. El principal objetivo de este trabajo es dar a conocer que dentro del trabajador del sector del tabaco cubano existen frases de profundo e importante valor educativo y cultural.

  10. Thirty-four identifiable airborne fungal spores in Havana, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Almaguer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The airborne fungal spore content in Havana, Cuba, collected by means a non-viable volumetric methodology, was studied from November 2010 – October 2011. The study, from a qualitative point of view, allowed the characterization of 29 genera and 5 fungal types, described following the Saccardo´s morphotypes, as well as their morphobiometrical characteristics. In the amerospores morphotype, the conidia of 7 genera (with ascospores, basidiospores and uredospores and 5 fungal types were included. Among phragmospores morphotype, the ascospores and conidia of 12 different genera were identified. The dictyospores morphotype only included conidial forms from 6 genera. Finally, the less frequent morphotypes were staurospores, didymospores and distosepted spores. In general, the main worldwide spread mitosporic fungi also predominated in the Havana atmosphere, accompanied by some ascospores and basidiospores. Cladosporium cladosporioides type was the most abundant with a total of 148,717 spores, followed by Leptosphaeria, Coprinus and the Aspergillus-Penicillium type spores, all of them with total values ranging from 20,591 – 16,392 spores. The higher monthly concentrations were registered in January (31,663 spores and the lowest in December (7,314 spores. Generally, the average quantity of spores recorded during the months of the dry season (20,599 spores was higher compared with that observed during the rainy season (17,460 spores.

  11. Wind energy perspectives for electrification of isolated communities in Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellano, M. [Government of Cuba, Havana (Cuba)

    2008-07-01

    In 2005, the Government of Cuba implemented an energy strategy that has radically changed the way energy is produced, consumed and administered in the country. In 1958, only 56 per cent of the population had access to electricity. The installed power was 397.1 MW with 13098 km of power transmission and distribution lines. Currently, the national electric system has 4522 MW of installed capacity and 77000 km of power transmission and distribution lines that provide electricity to 98 per cent of the population. The energy strategy places emphasis on energy conservation, energy efficiency and the use of renewable energy resources. Programs have been launched to improve the quality of life in rural and remote areas of the country and to facilitate access to electricity generated by photovoltaic systems, small wind turbines and hybrid systems. Starting in 2005 as part of the Program for Social Development, more than 5000 social facilities such as primary schools, rural medical clinics and isolated houses were electrified using diesel generator sets and renewable sources. A wind resource assessment was carried out in the whole country, to determine the feasibility of using small wind energy as a local solution to replace diesel fuel in existing facilities. Efforts are also underway in the design and national production of small wind turbines. 1 tab., 4 figs.

  12. Fungi associated with Phaseolus vulgaris L. seeds cultivated in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einar Martínez de la Parte

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., is the most important legume specie for Cuba, 123 434 ha were harvested for a production of 127 100 t during 2012. Most of phytopathogenic fungi associated to beans used seeds to move their inoculum to new areas, which under favorable condition can cause considerable yield losses. The objective of the present study was to identify fungi associated with bean seeds, their frequency and incidence for bean variety. 102 seed bean lots of 16 varieties for Pinar del Río, Mayabeque and Artemisa provinces were studied. For each seed lot 400 seed were analyzed by blotter test. 679 fungal isolates belonging to 34 species of 20 genera were detected. Penicillium sp. (78.4%, Rhizoctonia solani (77.5%, Aspergillus niger (68.6% and Fusarium solani (51.0% were the predominant species. Nine Fusarium species and six Aspergillus species were identified. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum was detected in BAT-58, BAT-93 and Delicia-365 varieties, on which higher infected seed percent was detected in BAT-93. This paper is the first report of S. sclerotiorum incidence on Cuban seed bean. Key words: Aspergillus, Fusarium, mycobiota, Phaseolus, Sclerotinia

  13. Estado actual de la homeopatía en Cuba

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    Nelson Steegers Martin

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available El conocimiento de la homeopatía en nuestro país es exiguo, a pesar del reconocido desarrollo de la medicina cubana en todos sus órdenes y de la existencia de esta modalidad terapéutica en gran cantidad de países incluso en los más industrializados del mundo. No es hasta 1992 que el Ministerio de Salud Pública decidió incorporar la homeopatía a las llamadas "terapéuticas alternativas". A partir de entonces ha existido un desarrollo acelerado de esta entidad que es desconocido por la casi totalidad de nuestros profesionales de la salud.The knowledge of homeopathy in our country is exiguous, in spite of the recognized development of Cuban medicine in all its spheres and of the existance of this therapeutic modality in a lot of countries, even in the most industrialized. It is not until 1992 that the Ministry of Public Health decided to incorporate homeopathy to the socalled "alternative therapeutics". Since then, there has been an accelerated development of this entity that is unknown by most of our health professionals. It is made a synthesis on the present status of homeopathy in Cuba starting from the arduous work carried out by the "Dr. Juan Antiga" Cuban Group of Homeopathy as a leading group of this discipline, taking into account its history, composition, structure, functioning, and its results in the assistance, scientific and teaching activities.

  14. Proceedings of the 21 National seminar on the rational use of energy and exposition of equipment and services. [Selected Papers]; 21 Seminario nacional sobre el uso racional del a energia y exposicion de equipos y servicios. Memoria Tecnica. [Ponencias seleccionadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the 21 national seminar on the rational use of energy and exposition of equipment and services, organized by the Asociacion de Tecnicos y Profesionistas en Aplicacion Energetica (ATPAE), in Mexico, D.F., from the 14 to the 16 of March of 2001. This Seminar covered subjects such as: Energy saving in the power sector, power efficiency in industrial processes and practical developments, practical cases of energy saving in industry, energy saving in constructions, transport, utilization of renewable energies and the environment. [Spanish] Este documento contiene la memoria tecnica del 21 seminario nacional sobre el uso racional de la energia y exposicion de equipos y servicios, organizado por la Asociacion de Tecnicos y Profesionistas en Aplicacion Energetica (ATPAE), en Mexico, D.F., del 14 al 16 de marzo de 2001. Este seminario trato de temas tales como: Ahorro de energia en el sector energetico, eficiencia energetica en procesos industriales y desarrollos practicos, casos practicos de ahorro de energia en la industria, ahorro de energia en edificaciones, transporte, aprovechamiento de energias renovables y ambiente.

  15. 19. National seminar on the rational use of energy and exposition of equipment and services. Transactions. [Selected Papers]; 19. Seminario nacional sobre el uso racional de la energia y exposicion de equipos y servicios. Memoria Tecnica. [Ponencias seleccionadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    This document contains the technical proceedings of the 19 national seminar on the rational use of energy and exposition of equipment and services, organized by the Asociacion de Tecnicos y Pofesionistas en Aplicacion Energetica (ATPAE) (Association of Technicians and Professionals on Energy Application) conducted in Mexico City on September 21-25, 1998. This seminar encompassed subjects such as: energy saving in the energy sector, energy efficiency in industrial processes and practical developments, practical cases of energy saving in industry, energy saving in buildings, transportation, non-renewable energy utilization and environmental impact and eco-energies. [Espanol] Este documento contiene la memoria tecnica del 19 seminario nacional sobre el uso racional de la energia y exposicion de equipos y servicios, organizado por la Asociacion de Tecnicos y Profesionistas en Aplicacion Energetica (ATPAE), en Mexico, D.F, los dias 21-25 de septiembre de 1998. Este seminario trato de temas tales como: Ahorro de energia en el sector energetico, eficiencia energetica en procesos industriales y desarrollos practicos, casos practicos de ahorro de energia en la industria, ahorro de energia en edificaciones, transporte, aprovechamiento de energias renovables, e impacto ambiental y eco-energias.

  16. Proceedings of the 20 National seminar on the rational use of energy and exposition of equipment and services. [Selected Papers]; 20. Seminario nacional sobre el uso racional de la energia y exposicion de equipos y servicios. Memoria Tecnica. [Ponencias seleccionadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the 20 national seminar on the rational use of energy and exposition of equipment and services, organized by the Asociaciacion de Tenicos y Profesionistas en Aplicacion Energetica (ATPAE), in Mexico, D.F, from the 15 to the 19 of November of 1999. This Seminar covered subjects such as: Energy saving in the power sector, power efficiency in industrial processes and practical developments, practical cases of energy saving in industry, energy saving in constructions, transport, utilization of renewable energies, and energy and the environment. [Spanish] Este documento contiene la memoria tecnica del 20 seminario nacional sobre el uso racional de la energia y exposicion de equipos y servicios, organizado por la Asociacion de Tecnicos y Profesionistas en Aplicacion Energetica (ATPAE), en Mexico, D.F., del 15 al 19 de noviembre de 1999. Este seminario trato de temas tales como: Ahorro de energia en el sector energetico, eficiencia energetica en procesos industriales y desarrollos practicos, casos practicos de ahorro de energia en la industria, ahorro de energia en edificaciones, transporte, aprovechamiento de energias renovables, y energia y ambiente.

  17. Advance of the National Program of Radiological Protection and Safety for medical diagnostic with X-rays; Avance del Programa Nacional de Proteccion y Seguridad Radiologica para diagnostico medico con rayos X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdejo S, M. [Direccion de Riesgos Radiologicos, Direccion General de Salud Ambiental (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    The National Program of Radiological Protection and Safety for medical diagnostic with X-ray (Programa Nacional de Proteccion y Seguridad Radiologica para diagnostico medico con rayos X) was initiated in the General Direction of Environmental Health (Direccion General de Salud Ambiental) in 1995. Task coordinated with different dependences of the Public Sector in collaboration between the Secretary of Health (Secretaria de Salud), the National Commission of Nuclear Safety and Safeguards (Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias) and, the National Institute of Nuclear Research (Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares). The surveillance to the fulfilment of the standardization in matter of Radiological Protection and Safety in the medical diagnostic with X-rays has been obtained for an important advance in the Public sector and it has been arousing interest in the Private sector. (Author)

  18. Critical discourse analysis of the arguments about Cuba present on the New York Times Editorial (2008-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyden Figueredo-Portuondo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Nineteen months after the proclamation of Fidel Castro in which the president of Cuba for almost half a century left her post due to an illness that placed him between life and death, the New York Times, published on its opinion page on February 20, 2008 editorial "Twilight of the Dictators: And a Chance for Cuba -and the US". This article is an argumentative discourse study of Cuba in New York Times editorials (2008-2015, whose main objective is to analyze the construction of journalistic discourse in this American newspaper about Cuba regarding diplomatic relations between the two countries. This work aims to take steps in order to articulate the historical-cultural approach in psychology to Discourse Analysis (AD, and from an integrated and holistic perspective plan a discourse analysis as a fulcrum to a better understanding of journalistic discourse about Cuba in Internet.

  19. Constructions of Collective Belongings through Art by Migrants from Cuba in Germany and South Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Köttig

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This essay focuses on Cuban immigration to South Florida and Germany. Focusing on two biographies, this essay shall introduce the migration backgrounds and living conditions in the countries of immigration. The construction of ethnic belonging for migrants from Cuba is unquestioningly self-evident for migrants from Cuba both in Germany and Florida. In creating this ethnic belonging, immigrants refer to Cuba's history, culture and art. Strong similarities can be found in these constructions despite the rather different circumstances that the migrants face in their countries of immigration. In terms of the use of art in these constructions, a biographical empirical approach can show how occupation as an artist can either help individuals find solutions for contradictory aspects of life in the country of immigration or help create continuity with the migrants' past prior to their migration. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0903318

  20. El género Macroptilium (Benth. Urb. (Leguminosae en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beyra Matos, Ángela

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a preliminary synopsis of the Cuban species of Macroptilium (Benth. Urb. that includes keys, descriptions, illustrations, chromosome numbers, palinology, phenology, ecology, distribution maps, notes on chemical composition and ethnobotany for each of the four species known for Cuba. We also discuss on the diagnostic characters of the genus and the species present in the Cuban flora.Se presenta una sinopsis de las especies del género Macroptilium (Benth. Urb. presentes en Cuba. Se incluyen claves dicotómicas, descripciones, ilustraciones, datos químicos, cromosómicos, palinológicos, fenológicos, etnobotánicos, así como la distribución y ecología de las cuatro especies del género. Se discuten los caracteres diagnósticos del género y de las especies presentes en Cuba.

  1. A review of the genus Berosus Leach of Cuba (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deler-Hernández, Albert; Fikáček, Martin; Cala-Riquelme, Franklyn

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The Cuban fauna of the genus Berosus Leach, 1817 is reviewed based on newly collected material as well as historical and type specimens. Nine species are recognized, including three recorded from Cuba for the first time: Berosus infuscatus LeConte, 1855, Berosus interstitialis Knisch, 1924 (= Berosus stribalus Orchymont, 1946 syn. n.) and Berosus metalliceps Sharp, 1882. Only one of the nine Cuban species, Berosus chevrolati, remains endemic to Cuba, as two other species previously considered as endemic to Cuba are recorded from elsewhere: Berosus quadridens from Mexico and Central America and Berosus trilobus from the Dominican Republic. Notes on biology and Cuban distribution are provided for all nine species. Berosus quadridens Chevrolat, 1863, stat. restit. is removed from synonym with Berosus truncatipennis and considered a valid species. PMID:23794806

  2. Family medicine in Cuba: community-oriented primary care and complementary and alternative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresang, Lee T; Brebrick, Laurie; Murray, Danielle; Shallue, Ann; Sullivan-Vedder, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    Family physicians in Cuba and the United States operate within very different health systems. Cuba's health system is notable for achieving developed country health outcomes despite a developing country economy. The authors of this study traveled to Cuba and reviewed the literature to investigate which practices of Cuban family physicians might be applicable for US family physicians wishing to learn from the Cuban experience. We found that community-oriented primary care (COPC) and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) are well developed within the Cuban medical system. Because COPC and CAM are already recommended by US family medicine professional bodies, US family physicians may want to learn from the Cuban experience and perhaps incorporate elements into their individual practices.

  3. Cuba: the strategic choice of advanced scientific development, 1959-2014

    CERN Document Server

    Baracca, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Cuba is continuing attracting the attention of the international scientific community for some important and unexpected achievements in applied science such as health biotechnology. They represent outcomes of the 1959 decision of Cuba to develop an advanced scientific system in order to address the most urgent problems for the development of the country and to overcome the condition of subalternity. This ambitious objective was tackled in a very original way, making a broad and wide-ranging recourse to every effective support and collaboration, with Soviet but also Western scientists and institutions, in addition to a peculiar Cuban inventiveness. Indeed, immediately after the revolution, Cuba developed an advanced and articulated scientific system, and achieved a level of excellence in leading scientific fields, like biotechnology, quite independently from the Soviet Union, which was behind in this field. Even the collapse of the Soviet Union in the early 1990s, that could have put the achievements of the Re...

  4. Linguistic characterization of handwritten documents, century XVII in Santiago de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Bidot-Martínez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The work focuses on the description from the lexical-semantic-phonic chart and morphosyntactic levels of 40 handwritten documents (baptismal records and notarial protocols located in the provincial and Historical Archive of the Archbishopric of Santiago de Cuba, to contribute to the study of the history of the Cuban variant of the language. This work provides the linguistic description, the paleographic transcription and rescue of the documents under consideration and determination of its formulaic structure that responds generally to the scheme: dating, provision of the Act, references to the participants and signatures of witness. These results are inserted into the line “Documentary sources in eastern of Cuba and its contribution to the rescue, preservation and promotion of heritage” VLIR Project “Social, humanities and architecture: Facing the Challenges of Local Development in Santiago de Cuba. The Enhancement of Heritage Preservation”.

  5. The Telephony in the City of Santiago of Cuba (1893 - 1959

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maithe Sánchez-Garrido

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the substantial advantages which it specifically contributed the restoration of the telephone in Cuba and in the oriental locality, like an element of modernity that contributed to improve the form of life of the population, as well as the quality of mass media, the subject from its arrival to Santiago of Cuba is very little disclosed and/or not known, to grief that with the triumph of the Cuban Revolution considerably spread the use of the same one and some writings were published on the matter. The present research shows an analysis of the historical evolution of the telephony in the Island, but having like attention center the city of Santiago of Cuba. For it the antecedents of this phenomenon consider, the political, economic-social and cultural circumstances that influenced in their evolution and development, as well as their within the framework local incidence.

  6. Especies nuevas de abejas de Cuba y La Española (Hymenoptera: Colletidae, Megachilidae, Apidae

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    Julio A. Genaro

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describen e ilustran cinco especies nuevas de abejas antillanas: Collectes granpiedrensis n. sp. (Cuba (Colletidae; Osmia (Diceratosmia stangei n. sp. (República Dominicana; Coelioxys (Cyrtocoelioxys alayoi n. sp. (Cuba; C. (Boreocoelioxys sannicolarensis n. sp. (Cuba (Megachilidae y Triepeolus nisibonensis n. sp. (República Dominicana (ApidaeFive new species of Antillean bees are described and illustrated: Colletes granpiedrensis n. sp. (Cuba (Colletidae is charaterized as follows: Head and mesosoma black, legs and metasoma brown. Dense brown hairs on head and mesosoma; white on frons and metasomal terga. Clypeus, frons and mesosoma with large punctures, lesser on vertex and metasoma. Malar space more wide than long. Male and female slightly similar, except in the apical margin of clypeus, supraclipeal area, and color of the pubescence on legs and sterna; Osmia (Diceratosmia stangei n. sp. (Dominican Republic (Megachilidae is charaterized as follows: Dark metallic green, metasoma black with metallic green reflections. Pubescence light; body with large, closed punctures. Female with violet reflections in tergum III and mandible tridentate; Coelioxys (Cyrtocoelioxys alayoi n. sp. (Cuba (Megachilidae is charaterized as follows: Female black, except basal area of mandibles, tegula, legs, lateral area of tergum I and sterna, reddish brown. Posterior margin of scutellum rounded. Apex of tergum VI with spine curved up. Sternum VI fringed with short, closed setae, and the apex with short spine; Coelioxys (Boreocoelioxys sannicolarensis n. sp. (Cuba (Megachilidae is charaterized as follows: Black, except antenna and tegula brown; legs and sterna reddish brown. Clypeal margin straight in profile. Gradular grooves on metasomal terga II and III distinct medially. Fovea on metasomal tergum II of male deep and short, and Triepeolus nisibonensis n. sp. (Dominican Republic (Apidae is charaterized as follows: Dorsal pubescence (short and dense on mesosoma

  7. Masculinities studies in eastern Cuba: imaginaries significations. Estudios de masculinidades en la región oriental de Cuba: develando imaginarios. Estudios de masculinidades en la región oriental de Cuba: develando imaginarios.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Regina Quaresma da Silva

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we approached a study about masculinities imaginaries significations in eastern Cuba. Firstly, we rescued relevant moments of the masculinities studies in the country and some theoretical contributions to understand the social production of the masculinities. Besides, we show the qualitative results from the groups with men.En este artículo abordamos un estudio sobre significaciones imaginarias en torno a las masculinidades en la región oriental de Cuba. Primeramente, rescatamos momentos relevantes del desarrollo de los estudios de masculinidades en el país y algunas contribuciones teóricos que consideramos necesarias para comprender la producción de las masculinidades. Presentamos, además, los resultados cualitativos que emergieron de grupos de discusión realizados con hombres.En este artículo abordamos un estudio sobre significaciones imaginarias en torno a las masculinidades en la región oriental de Cuba. Primeramente, rescatamos momentos relevantes del desarrollo de los estudios de masculinidades en el país y algunas contribuciones teóricos que consideramos necesarias para comprender la producción de las masculinidades. Presentamos, además, los resultados cualitativos que emergieron de grupos de discusión realizados con hombres.

  8. Especies nuevas del género Gibberula (Mollusca: Cystiscidae de Cuba y Venezuela New species of the genus Gibberula (Mollusca: Cystiscidae from Cuba and Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Espinosa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Se describen 3 especies nuevas de moluscos marinos: Gibberula palmasola sp. n., recolectada en la vegetación asociada a rocas rodeadas de sedimentos blandos en una laguna costera cercada por mangle en la península de Guanahacabibes, Cuba, y caracterizada por presentar, el animal vivo, la cabeza negra y una distribución típica de bandas negras y pardas con lunares anaranjados en el manto bajo la concha; Gibberula dosmosquises sp. n., recolectada en fondos rocosos del Caribe insular de Venezuela, se caracteriza por una discreta coloración del manto y un patrón de manchas en el pie, y Gibberula thetisae sp. n, proveniente de los pastos marinos del golfo de Batabanó, Cuba, con 3 pliegues en la columela, el último muy débil, y un labio externo casi cortante, caracteres que permiten separarla de todas las demás especies conocidas en el área antillana, aunque se desconozca la anatomía del animal. Se discute la lista de especies válidas del género para Cuba y Venezuela, y se hacen adiciones y consideraciones al complejo de especies en torno a Gibberula ubitaensis Espinosa y Ortea, 2000.Three new species of marine molluscs are described. Gibberula palmasola new species, collected in vegetation associated with rocks surrounded by soft sediments in a coastal lagoon surrounded by mangroves in Guanahacabibes Peninsula, Cuba, and characterized by a black head and typical distribution of black and brown bands and orange spots in the mantle. Gibberula dosmosquises new species, collected in rocky bottoms of a Caribbean island from Venezuela, characterized by a simple staining in the mantle and a pattern of spots on the foot, and Gibberula thetisae new species, from sea grass in the gulf of Batabano, Cuba, with shell having 3 columellar folds, the last very weak, and a sharp outer lip; although, its anatomy is not known, these conchological characters separate it from all other known species in the Antilles. Aditionally, the list of valid species

  9. Are increased chronic diseases a potential legacy of Cuba's special period?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Gail A

    2013-07-01

    Cuba is the only country I know to erect a monument to the egg….and so it should. Located on Havana's Fifth Avenue, the simple sculpture pays homage to the salva vida-literally the life saver of many a Cuban family, particularly in the 1990s. Those were the worst years of what was euphemistically called the "Special Period," when the economy careened ever downward, reeling from the loss of 85% of Cuba's aid and trade in the post-Soviet era.

  10. Cuba: transición, sucesión, estabilidad, seguridad

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Joaquín

    2009-01-01

    Este análisis trata de la relación entre la estabilidad del presente gobierno cubano y la necesidad de seguridad en su territorio y en la zona circundante. Este vínculo se produce en un momento político de Cuba, entre un primer paso de la sucesión de Fidel Castro a Raúl, sin que se den señales claras de una transición hacia otro tipo de sistema político. Mientras tanto, el gobierno de Estados Unidos ha declarado que su prioridad estriba en el reestablecimiento de la democracia en Cuba, tanto ...

  11. Comparison of health care financing in Egypt and Cuba: lessons for health reform in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gericke, C A

    2005-01-01

    Egypt and Cuba are both lower-middle income countries with a history of socialist rule, which have embarked on economic liberalization since the 1990s. Cuba has achieved exemplary health status whereas health status in Egypt is lower than could be expected for its level of income. In this article, health care financing mechanisms in both countries are analysed on their effectiveness, efficiency, and equity, with the objective of identifying the determinants of success in the Cuban health system from which valuable lessons for current health reforms in Egypt may be derived.

  12. The Hydraenidae of Cuba (Insecta: Coleoptera) III. Description of two new hygropetric species of Hydraena Kugelann.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deler-Hernández, Albert; Fikáček, Martin; Delgado, Juan A

    2017-04-07

    Two new species of the genus Hydraena Kugelann, 1794 collected from hygropetric habitats in eastern Cuba are described: Hydraena (Hydraenopsis) blancae sp. nov. from the Nipe-Sagua-Baracoa mountain range, and Hydraena (Hydraenopsis) matthiasi sp. nov. from the Sierra Maestra mountain range. Both species, especially the latter, are closely related to Hydraena (Hydraenopsis) franklyni Deler-Hernández & Delgado, 2012. Diagnostic characters for both new species are provided and illustrated; habitat information and distributional data are also included. An updated key to Cuban species of Hydraena is provided. With this study, the number of species of Hydraena known from Cuba raises to six.

  13. Economic and security reasons why the U.S. should normalize relations with Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Curtain, Joseph W.

    2008-01-01

    Cuba's economy has not only survived the end of Soviet-era subsidies but has thrived in the era of globalization. This thesis documents the adjustments the Cuban government has made to the economy and the increase in foreign direct investment (FDI) that has occurred as a result. The thesis also shows how China, Venezuela and Iran continue to invest more money in the island and subsequently threaten to wield more influence over Cuba. The U.S. has the opportunity to mitigate the threats pos...

  14. The genus Loxosceles Heineken & Lowe (Araneae: Sicariidae) in Cuba and Hispaniola, West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Alexander Sánchez; Brescovit, Antonio D

    2013-10-30

    The three known species of the genus Loxosceles Heineken & Lowe from Cuba and Hispaniola are revised and two new species, Loxosceles maisi sp. nov. and Loxosceles mogote sp. nov., are described from the eastern region of Cuba. These new species are included in the reclusa group, and are considered close to Loxosceles taino Gertsch & Ennik as they have a greatly thickened male palpal tibia, a projecting cymbium, and large receptacles in the female genitalia. The distribution ranges of the known Cuban and Hispaniolan species are extended.

  15. The tourism model in Post-Castro Cuba: Challenges and opportunities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Helene; Velázquez, Mario

    2018-01-01

    This chapter explores tourism in Cuba within the framework of alternative economies to tap into the debate about the diversity of modes of exchange. Cuba is at a crossroad in the country’s transition from socialist to capitalist economy. The death of Fidel Castro and the steps taken by Raúl Castro...... the entrepreneurial businesses, casas particulares, and its broader significance for Cuba’s political futures. We conducted ethnographic fieldwork to explore the everyday practices and exchanges to nuance the social and political significance of the State’s policies. The setting is Viñales, which has experienced...

  16. The Dimension of Sustainability in Engineering Education in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Díaz Duque

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The human species crosses one of the most complex and dangerous stages in its development. The disordered growth of the production of goods and services, the irrational and unequal consumption, as well as the inequitable distribution, without keeping in mind the limits that impose the natural resources, has placed it in the vortex of an existence crisis. Numerous they have been the contributions of the scientific and technological knowledge, but at the same time they have provoked negative enormous impacts in the natural systems. The engineering have contributed to the human development, but not in a sustainable way. The main objectives of the present work consist in to identify the sustainability demands for the engineering and to specify the key aspects in the formation of the engineers to contribute to the sustainable development of the society. In consequence, it is proposed the Decalogue of the sustainability for the engineering and it is presented an outline for the implementation of the sustainability dimension in engineering education. Finally the Cuban situation is analyzed in this respect and it is proposed the step to a new cycle of improvement of the plans and study programs, with the transformation of the professional’s model based on the sustainability problems.How to reference this articleDíaz Duque, J. A. (2015. La Dimensión de la Sostenibilidad en la Enseñanza de las Ingenierías en Cuba. Foro de Educación, 13(19, 241-262. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.14516/fde.2015.013.019.011

  17. Stroke incidence and risk factors in Havana and Matanzas, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llibre-Guerra, J C; Valhuerdi Cepero, A; Fernández Concepción, O; Llibre-Guerra, J J; Gutiérrez, R F; Llibre-Rodriguez, J J

    2015-10-01

    Cerebrovascular disease is the third-leading cause of death and the second-leading cause of disability and dementia. Determine stroke incidence and risk factors in a population of adults aged 65 and over in Cuba (Havana and Matanzas). This prospective longitudinal study, completed between April 2008 and Abril 2011, re-evaluated 2916 elderly adults with an average follow-up time of 4 years. Cases included 2316 living subjects and 600 verbal autopsies. Study variables were age, sex, educational level, self-reported health, and description of chronic diseases and substance abuse. Laboratory tests included genotyping APOE. Stroke was diagnosed based on the World Health Organization definition. We calculated the global incidence rate for stroke, broken down by sex, age group, and risk factors for incident stroke. Stroke incidence was 786.2 in 100000 persons/year (95% CI: 672.3-906.4). History of alcohol consumption (HR: 3.5; 95% CI: 3.3-3.7), dementia (HR: 3.0; 95% CI, 1.6-5.5) and male sex (HR: 1.8; 95% CI, 1.2-2.8) were shown to be risk factors for incident stroke. Stroke incidence was similar to rates reported in developed countries and lower than that in low- to middle-income countries. Given that diabetes mellitus, heart disease, arterial hypertension, smoking, APOE4, etc. are associated with higher mortality rates, they will require separate analysis in a study of stroke risk factors. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Graham Greene and Cuba: Our man in Havana?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hulme

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Graham Greene’s novel Our Man in Havana was published on October 6, 1958. Seven days later Greene arrived in Havana with Carol Reed to arrange for the filming of the script of the novel, on which they had both been working. Meanwhile, after his defeat of the summer offensive mounted by the Cuban dictator, Fulgencio Batista, in the mountains of eastern Cuba, just south of Bayamo, Fidel Castro had recently taken the military initiative: the day after Greene and Reed’s arrival on the island, Che Guevara reached Las Villas, moving westwards towards Havana. Six weeks later, on January 1, 1959, after Batista had fled the island, Castro and his Cuban Revolution took power. In April 1959 Greene and Reed were back in Havana with a film crew to film Our Man in Havana. The film was released in January 1960. A note at the beginning of the film says that it is “set before the recent revolution.” In terms of timing, Our Man in Havana could therefore hardly be more closely associated with the triumph of the Cuban Revolution. But is that association merely accidental, or does it involve any deeper implications? On the fiftieth anniversary of novel, film, and Revolution, that seems a question worth investigating, not with a view to turning Our Man in Havana into a serious political novel, but rather to exploring the complexities of the genre of comedy thriller and to bringing back into view some of the local contexts which might be less visible now than they were when the novel was published and the film released.

  19. Cuba and origins of the US sugar quota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dye, Alan D.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available In the history of Cuban sugar industry, the most significant institutional factor after 1930 was the export quota gained in the 1934 United States market, which has been regarded in a positive perspective. This is here re-examined in the light of later events which prove that the quota system was detrimental to the island economy, particularly in the fifties. The analysis is based on the examination of sugar companies’ stock prices which are a useful indicator of investment expectations. Finally, it is concluded that the 1934 North American quota system issued from the conviction that the tariff system applied until then was not enough to protect the domestic sugar beet production.

    El factor institucional más importante en la historia de la industria del azúcar en Cuba después de 1930 fue la cuota de exportación que obtuvo en el mercado de los Estados Unidos en 1934. Este artículo revisa las tesis que consideran ese hecho como relativamente positivo y lo hace a la luz de los acontecimientos posteriores, que muestran que dicho sistema de cuotas perjudicó a la economía insular, sobre todo en la década de 1950, y examinando los stock prices de las empresas del sector, un buen indicador de las expectativas de retorno de las inversiones. Como conclusión afirma que el reparto del consumo azucarero norteamericano entre diferentes abastecedores fue fruto de la convicción de que el instrumento arancelario usado hasta entonces para proteger a la producción remolachera interna ya no era eficaz.

  20. ¿Dominio público en Cuba?.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerbys Hernández Dorta

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available La construcción doctrinal del Dominio Público como categoría jurídica nació con la finalidad de articular un sistema de protección de las necesidades colectivas que satisfacían determinados bienes. Esta función de protección se le atribuyó al Estado, su titular. La titularidad de éste sobre los bienes de Dominio Público no podía ir acompañada de las facultades de disposición propias del derecho de propiedad. Sin embargo, la existencia dentro del Dominio Público de bienes creados por el hombre y bienes provenientes de la naturaleza dio lugar a la distinción entre el “Dominio público natural”, integrado por los recursos naturales destinados al uso común de todos, y el “Dominio público artificial”, formado por bienes de uso público construidos para dar respuesta a las necesidades del hombre. Por ello se cuestiona si constituye el Dominio Público un mecanismo de gestión ambiental en Cuba. Pudiendo determinarse que no existe una nominación de dominio público en el país y por consiguiente no se utiliza esta institución como mecanismo de protección ambiental, recomendando prestar una especial atención a este novedoso mecanismo de protección con la finalidad de su aplicación en el territorio nacional.

  1. Jurassic-Cretaceous Composite Total Petroleum System and Geologic Assessment of Oil and Gas Resources of the North Cuba Basin, Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) World Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geologically based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the world. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed an assessment of the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the North Cuba Basin. The assessment is based on the geologic elements of the total petroleum system (TPS) defined in the province, including petroleum source rocks (source-rock maturation, generation, and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and petroleum traps (Trap formation and timing). Using this geologic framework, the USGS defined a Jurassic-Cretaceous Total Petroleum System in the North Cuba Basin Province. Within this TPS, three assessment units were defined and assessed for undiscovered oil and gas resources.

  2. Cuba: An Historical Appraisal of Its Foreign Debt and Soviet Economic Assistance and Cuba: An Evaluation of Its Military Relations with the Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-12-01

    proved to be most generous from 1964 to 1970. For the latter years of the 1960’s the estimate of $1 million in aid per day may actually have been an...export in 1986 was actually the reexport of Soviet oil. Through this reexport process Cuba earned 40% of its hard 101 currency. The Soviets did this in...Estatal de Estadisticas , Compendio de Estadisticas de Americana Latina, Febrero de 1982. Comparative Politics, Revolutions and the Restructuring of National

  3. Cognitive Functioning and the Probability of Falls among Seniors in Havana, Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Antonio J.; Hyder, Adnan A.; Steinhardt, Laura C.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the connection between cognitive functioning and falls among seniors (greater than or equal to 60 years of age) in Havana, Cuba, after controlling for observable characteristics. Using the SABE (Salud, Bienestar, and Envejecimiento) cross-sectional database, we used an econometric strategy that takes advantage of available…

  4. Composition of mixed-species flocks of migrant and resident birds in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul B. Hamel; Arturo Kirkconnell

    2005-01-01

    Mixed-species flocks are common and obvious in Neotropical habitats. In the Caribbean islands flocks have been noted on Puerto Rico2,5,24,29, Jamaica4, Haiti20, in Dominican Republic18, the virgin Islands7 and on Cuba6,16. Unlike...

  5. Agriculture in the City: A Key to Sustainability in Havana, Cuba ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    During the 1990s, several national economies saw their urban food markets collapse. Like Zambia, Mozambique, and Armenia, Cuba responded to this crisis with a food program that included support to urban agriculture: farming in the city. As a result, food prices are increasing, free markets have been reinstated, ...

  6. Critical metals (REE, Sc, PGE) in Ni laterites from Cuba and the Dominican Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aiglsperger, T.; Proenza, J. A.; Lewis, J. F.; Labrador, M.; Svojtka, Martin; Rojas-Purón, A.; Longo, F.; Ďurišová, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 73, March 01 (2016), s. 127-147 ISSN 0169-1368 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Caribbean * Cuba * Dominican Republic * Falcondo mining area * Moa Bay mining area * Ni laterite * Platinum Group Elements * Rare Earth Elements * Scandium Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 3.095, year: 2016

  7. Contribution to the study of the genus Helicopsyche (Trichoptera) from Cuba, Hispaniola, and Puerto Rico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botosaneanu, L.; Flint, O.S.

    1991-01-01

    Seven new species and one new subspecies of Helicopsyche von Sieboid are described from Cuba, Hispaniola, and Puerto Rico based on adults; additionally four species and one subspecies belonging to the fauna of these islands are redescribed. Both sexes are described when correct association of

  8. [Characteristics of the ecology of the eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus in the Republic of Cuba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezin, V V

    1977-01-01

    Virologic and serological surveys of wild vertebrates carried out in various provinces of Cuba demonstrated definitely that birds were the main hosts of eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) virus in this territory. Fifteen strains of this virus were isolated from 8 species of birds belonging to 5 orders. Isolation of EEE virus from the blood of the endemic genus of iguanas indicates a certain role of cold-blooded animals in the ecology of this agent. Active EEE virus foci have been found in 4 provinces of the Republic of Cuba: Pinar del Rio, Havana, Matanzas and Las Villas. Isolation of a number of EEE virus strains from sick horses during an epizootic in the latter province confirmed the importance role of this agent in the infectious pathology of domestic animals in Cuba. The experimental results suggest that in Cuba there occur at least two types of foci of this infection: forest and water-littoral (fresh-water swamps and lakes, and sea coast with mangrove forests).

  9. Under the Shadow of the Big Stick: U.S. Intervention in Cuba, 1906-1909

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-21

    downplayed the provisional government‟s accomplishments under Charles Magoon. Ibid., 90. 5 Gott highlighted the racism present in Cuba and its effects...16 Meanwhile, Spain fought wars against Morocco, Chile, Mexico, Peru , and Cochin China throughout the nineteenth century. 17 The Creoles negotiated

  10. Improving Oasis Beach: Creating a sustainable and attractive beach around hotel Oasis in Varadero Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrolijk, E.F.; Poelhekke, L.; Schlepers, M.H.; De Boer, G.G.

    2014-01-01

    In the North of Cuba, the Oasis beach area is situated. The beach suffers from structural erosion and earlier measures to deal with this have not succeeded. In this project, a solution is offered to reach two goals: foremost, a beach improvement to the Oasis beach sector and second, a halt to the

  11. The land and freshwater gastropods collected in Cuba by M.G. Rutten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobson, Morris K.

    1970-01-01

    While making geological studies in Cuba during 1933 Recent gastropods were collected by M.G. Rutten and H.J. MacGillavry in the provinces of Pinar del Río, Las Villas, and Camagüey. The collection of 54 species and subspecies is stored in the Zoölogisch Museum in Amsterdam. Some new locality records

  12. Turning Javanese: The Domination of Cuba's Sugar Industry by Java Cane Varieties (1880-1950)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, U.; Curry Machado, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    By the end of the nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth, two islands had come to dominate global cane-sugar production. For most of the sixty-year period between 1870 and 1930, around half of the world's internationally traded crop came from Cuba and Java. The two islands had many

  13. Historia de la angiología y cirugía vascular en Cuba

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hernández Seara, Alejandro

    2008-01-01

    El autor realiza una descripción y análisis del desarrollo de la Angiología y Cirugía Vascular en Cuba con aportaciones de referencias de personajes y acontecimientos a lo larga de la historia desde sus comienzos hasta el momento actual...

  14. Cuban Sugar Industry: Transnational Networks and Engineering Migrants in Mid-Nineteenth Century Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curry Machado, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Technological innovation was central to nineteenth-century Cuba’s lead in world sugar manufacture. Along with steam-powered machinery came migrant engineers, indispensable aliens who were well rewarded for their efforts. These migrant engineers remained perennial outsiders, symbolic of Cuba's

  15. Notes on the Herpetology of the U.S. Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lando, R.V.; Williams, Ernest E.

    1969-01-01

    The present relative inaccessibility of Cuba to citizens of the United States has been particularly disappointing since very much still remains for the herpetologist to do in that country. In particular, the province of Oriente is very inadequately known; we know just enough to be aware how much

  16. Generation of a landslide risk index map for Cuba using spatial multi-criteria evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castellanos Abella, E.A.

    2007-01-01

    his paper explains the procedure for the generation of a landslide risk index map at national level in Cuba, using a semiquantitative model with ten indicator maps and a cell size of 90× 90 m. The model was designed and implemented using spatial multi-criteria evaluation techniques in a GIS system.

  17. Comparative Policy Brief: Status of Intellectual Disabilities in the Republic of Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice, Alejandro E.

    2008-01-01

    It is estimated that 3.2% of Cuba's population of 11.4 million persons has a severe disability of some kind. Recent economic difficulties have, it may be assumed, had a negative impact on health service provision--which is free to all--and thus, on population health outcomes and nutritional levels. There is a traditional culture of family care for…

  18. Education in Cuba--An Alternative Educational Discourse: Lessons to Be Learned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breidlid, Anders

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on the Cuban education system, which is well known for its focus on inclusion and equality of opportunity, but also for its focus on political and ideological conformity. The economic crisis in Cuba has led to an educational crisis as well, both in terms of teacher shortages and a decrease in quality and in…

  19. Militares españoles transmigrantes de Cuba a México, 1898-1910

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrera B., Maria de Socorro

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the emigration of Spanish military men from Cuba to Mexico at the end of the Cuban wars for independence. After 1898, these military preferred to emigrate to Mexico rather than remaining in Cuba or returning to Spain. In Mexico they tried to solve problems of money and other legal affairs related to the Ministry of War and Navy in Spain. This migration is characterized as a transmigratory movement.

    El objetivo de este artículo es analizar la emigración de Cuba a México de algunos militares españoles al término de las guerras de independencia de esta Isla, en el ámbito de los movimientos de transmigración. Este trabajo muestra cómo después de 1898, dichos militares prefirieron emigrar a México en lugar de permanecer en Cuba o de volver a España. Desde México, algunos de ellos tramitaban asuntos pendientes con el Ministerio de Guerra y Marina español.

  20. The University for Older Adults: On Cuba's Universalization of the University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, Clara Lig Long; Proenza, Antonia Zenaida Sanchez

    2006-01-01

    In this study we focus on a new program in Cuba, university studies for older adults or seniors. Specifically, we look at the Special Municipality of the Isla de la Juventud (Isle of Youth) in the context of the larger policy of "universalization of higher education." We provide information about Cuban perspectives on adult education,…

  1. Developing Strategies for Waste Reduction by Means of Tailored Interventions in Santiago De Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Robert; Brugger, Adrian; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces an approach to tailoring behavior-change campaigns to target populations using the example of solid waste reduction in Santiago de Cuba. Tailoring is performed in the following steps: (1) Psychological constructs are selected to detect problems in performing the target behavior, and data are gathered on these constructs.…

  2. Lessons from Cuba: Using Sense of Place as a Tool to Connect Internationally and at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dear, Samantha; Sayle, Hilary

    2011-01-01

    In the spring of 2010, 16 Recreation and Leisure Studies students from Brock University in St. Catharines, Ontario, travelled to Cuba to complete a fourth-year field class titled International Field Experiences in Recreation and Leisure. After a week spent in Havana, Brock University students engaged in a unique outdoor education experience. With…

  3. High proportion of mannosidosis and fucosidosis among lysosomal storage diseases in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez-Sainz, C; González-Quevedo, A; González-García, S; Peña-Sánchez, M; Giugliani, R

    2012-08-13

    Although lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) are considered individually rare, as a group they present a non-negligible frequency. Few studies have been made of populational occurrence of LSDs; they have been conducted predominantly on Caucasian populations. We studied the occurrence of LSDs in Cuba. Data from individuals who had been referred to the Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery in Havana from hospitals all over the country between January 1990 and December 2005 were analyzed. This institute was the only laboratory to provide enzyme-based diagnostic testing for 19 LSDs in Cuba during this period. Occurrence rates were calculated by dividing the number of postnatal diagnoses by the number of births during the study period. The combined occurrence of LSDs in Cuba was 5.6 per 100,000, lower than that reported in other studies conducted on Caucasian populations. The most frequent individual LSDs were: mucopolysaccharidosis type I (1.01 per 100,000) and, surprisingly, alpha-mannosidosis (0.72 per 100,000) and fucosidosis (0.62 per 100,000). These findings may be related to specific genetic characteristics and admixture of the Cuban population. This is the first comprehensive study of the occurrence of LSDs in Cuba. We conclude that the epidemiology of these diseases can vary regionally, and we stress the need for similar surveys in other Latin American countries.

  4. The population of Cuba: the growth and characteristics of its labor force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, L

    1995-01-01

    "This paper analyzes Cuba's current demographic picture, and emphasizes the characteristics of its labor force that will influence dynamic change. Overall, the contribution of the labor force to the development of a market economy is likely to be positive, given its low dependency ratio, the high level of education, and the value placed on entrepreneurship." excerpt

  5. Evaluation of the feeding value of Dichrostachys cinerea pods for fattening pigs in Cuba

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casas, Norman Martin; Reinoso Pérez, M.; Garcia-Dias, J. R.

    2017-01-01

    Dichrostachys cinerea (L.) Wight & Arn. is a tropical leguminous shrub widely regarded as an invasive species in Cuba, after having invaded a significant proportion of its arable land during the past decades. Concurrently, smallholder pig producers are highly constrained by the scarcity of protein...

  6. Collaborative efforts for managing Melaleuca in the Ciénega de Zapata, Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Ciénega de Zapata Biosphere Reserve is the largest protected area not only in Cuba but also throughout the Caribbean. This swamp ecosystem is characterized by a high biodiversity that comprises several endemic birds, reptiles and invertebrates and is visited by 65 species of birds during their a...

  7. El uso de residuales agroindustriales en la alimentacion animal en Cuba: pasado, presente y futuro

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, P.C

    2009-01-01

    .... Las tecnologias empleadas han ido evolucionando desde procesos mecanicos y de mezclado hasta procesos de caracter biotecnologico, a traves de los cuales, se mejora la digestibilidad y el contenido de nitrogeno proteico y no proteico de estos materiales, convertidos en alimentos. Se ofrece, asimismo, informacion de los niveles de fabricacion y venta de algunos de estos alimentos en Cuba.

  8. A Historical Analysis of the Educational Modalities of Inequalities Management in Costa Rica, Cuba and Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulot, Eric

    2004-01-01

    This article provides a historical and comparative study of the role that management of inequalities has played in the formation and evolution of educational institutions in three countries: Costa Rica, Cuba and Guatemala. This particular focus shows that this function has played a determining role, even if its organization has varied deeply in…

  9. Solenoptera Audinet-Serville, 1832 (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Prioninae, Solenopterini) in Cuba, with description of a new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devesa, Sergio; Fonseca, Elier; Barro, Alejandro

    2016-11-02

    The genus Solenoptera Audinet-Serville in Cuba is reviewed and S. zayasi sp. nov. is described from Cuba. The following nomenclatural changes are proposed: 1) S. fraudulenta Galileo & Martins, 1993 is synonymized with S. dominicensis Gahan, 1890; 2) S. cubana (Zayas, 1975) is transferred from Prosternodes cubanus Zayas, 1975. Furthermore, S. dominicensis is removed from the Cuban fauna and new localities for S. cubana are recorded. A key to all three Solenoptera species known from Cuba, both for males and females, is included.

  10. HIV-1 Genetic Variability in Cuba and Implications for Transmission and Clinical Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Madeline; Machado, Liuber Y; Díaz, Héctor; Ruiz, Nancy; Romay, Dania; Silva, Eladio

    2015-10-01

    INTRODUCTION Serological and molecular HIV-1 studies in Cuba have shown very low prevalence of seropositivity, but an increasing genetic diversity attributable to introduction of many HIV-1 variants from different areas, exchange of such variants among HIV-positive people with several coinciding routes of infection and other epidemiologic risk factors in the seropositive population. The high HIV-1 genetic variability observed in Cuba has possible implications for transmission and clinical progression. OBJECTIVE Study genetic variability for the HIV-1 env, gag and pol structural genes in Cuba; determine the prevalence of B and non-B subtypes according to epidemiologic and behavioral variables and determine whether a relationship exists between genetic variability and transmissibility, and between genetic variability and clinical disease progression in people living with HIV/AIDS. METHODS Using two molecular assays (heteroduplex mobility assay and nucleic acid sequencing), structural genes were characterized in 590 people with HIV-1 (480 men and 110 women), accounting for 3.4% of seropositive individuals in Cuba as of December 31, 2013. Nonrandom sampling, proportional to HIV prevalence by province, was conducted. Relationships between molecular results and viral factors, host characteristics, and patients' clinical, epidemiologic and behavioral variables were studied for molecular epidemiology, transmission, and progression analyses. RESULTS Molecular analysis of the three HIV-1 structural genes classified 297 samples as subtype B (50.3%), 269 as non-B subtypes (45.6%) and 24 were not typeable. Subtype B prevailed overall and in men, mainly in those who have sex with men. Non-B subtypes were prevalent in women and heterosexual men, showing multiple circulating variants and recombinant forms. Sexual transmission was the predominant form of infection for all. B and non-B subtypes were encountered throughout Cuba. No association was found between subtypes and

  11. Estrategias para reducir la mortalidad infantil, Cuba 1959-1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl L. Riverón Corteguera

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Se describen las estrategias utilizadas por el Ministerio de Salud Pública en las diferentes etapas del Programa de Atención Maternoinfantil, para reducir la mortalidad infantil en Cuba de 1959 a 1999. Este período se dividió para su comprensión en 4 decenios. Se hace referencia a las diferentes medidas utilizadas, desde la creación del Sistema Nacional de Salud, la formación de recursos humanos; el desarrollo de la Educación Médica, la edificación de Facultades de Ciencias Médicas y la capacitación del posgraduado, el incremento de hospitales y el aumento de las camas hasta los programas de inmunización, de lucha contra la gastroenteritis y para disminuir el bajo peso al nacer, el uso racional de los antimicrobianos; la presencia de la madre acompañante; la implantación del uso de las sales de rehidratación oral (SRO para prevenir y tratar la deshidratación por enfermedades diarreicas; el desarrollo de la Atención Primaria de Salud; los programas de tecnología avanzada para la detección de anomalías congénitas; la promoción de la lactancia materna exclusiva (LME; la categorización, por UNICEF, de los hospitales "Amigos de la Madres y el Niño", el desarrollo de investigaciones que sirvieron de base al Programa de Atención Maternoinfantil; la edificación de hospitales; la construcción de las unidades de terapia intensiva con equipamiento moderno tanto en pediatría como en neonatología y otros muchos elementos puestos en prácticas durante estos 40 años. Esto ha contribuido a que la mortalidad infantil, a pesar de haberse incrementado en el primer decenio (1959-1969 en el 25,5 %, a partir del 2do. decenio (1970-1979 iniciara un descenso mantenido en el 50 %; en el 3er. decenio (1980-1989 del 43,4 % y en el 4to. decenio (1990-1999 del 40,2 %. Se concluye exponiendo las principales estrategias que contribuyeron a reducir la mortalidad infantil en los últimos años de este siglo.The strategies used by the Ministry of

  12. Reformas coloniales, economía y especialización productiva en Puerto Rico y Cuba, 1760-1850

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Santamaría García, Antonio

    2005-01-01

    In the last third of the 18th Century and the early decades of 19th Century the economies of Puerto Rico and Cuba started a process of strong expansion and especialization, mainly in the area of sugar production...

  13. The Cuban Revolution, the drift of the Castro regime and the destinies of Cuba after Fidel Castro

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raquel de Caria Patricio

    2016-01-01

    This article intends to analyze the possible scenarios of evolution of Cuba after Fidel in the short and medium term, after a retrospective of the Cuban Revolution, its democratic and anticommunist...

  14. La incidencia de la Didáctica General en el proceso docente de las Lenguas Extranjeras en Cuba

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carlos Martínez Linares

    2017-01-01

    ... de la Didáctica General en el proceso docente de las lenguas extranjeras en Cuba, y sobre esa base, explicar los fundamentos de dicho proceso, bajo una concepción verdaderamente científica e integradora.

  15. Lo público y lo privado en los escritos de Alexander Von Humboldt sobre Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebok, Sandra

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to collect the comments and judgements that Humboldt makes about Cuba and evaluate their character. The resulting analysis and interpretation will be undertaken on two different levels: One refers to the information that can be found in his unofficial works, which means the letters Humboldt sent during or shortly after of his visits to Cuba, as well as the diaries he used during his expedition. The other is based on the official works, which include his travel description, his famous Essay on Cuba and his autobiographical text written in 1804. Constrasting these descriptions, we will compare the evaluations of this Prussian traveller elaborated in the moment he visited the island, with the works he wrote 22 years after his return to Europe.

    Este trabajo tiene el objeto de recopilar los comentarios y juicios que hace Humboldt sobre Cuba y valorar su carácter. El análisis e interpretación que resultará de ello se realiza en dos niveles distintos: uno se refiere a las informaciones que se encuentran en escritos no oficiales, es decir, en las cartas que Humboldt envió durante o poco tiempo después de sus visitas a Cuba, y en los diarios que utilizó a lo largo de su expedición. El otro se fundamenta en los escritos oficiales, que comprenden su narración del viaje, el famoso Ensayo sobre Cuba y la memoria autobiográfica escrita en 1804. Mediante el contraste de estas descripciones se pretende comparar las apreciaciones de este viajero prusiano elaboradas en el preciso momento que visita la isla, cotejándolas con las obras que redactó 22 años después de su vuelta a Europa. Este trabajo tiene el objeto de recopilar los comentarios y juicios que hace Humboldt sobre Cuba y valorar su carácter. El análisis e interpretación que resultará de ello se realiza en dos niveles distintos: uno se refiere a las informaciones que se encuentran en escritos no oficiales, es decir, en las cartas que Humboldt envi

  16. Slave resistance and the politics of slavery: Brazil and Cuba, 1791-1825

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parron, Tâmis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the political impact of slave activism in Brazil and Cuba from 1790 to 1825, covering the period from the beginning of the Revolution of Saint-Domingue to the establishment of the Constitution of Brazil (1824 and the granting of absolute power to the captains general of Cuba (1825, in the immediate context of the end of the wars of independence on the continent. Instead of discussing and classifying the specific character of the different expressions of collective slave resistance in a typological order, this article tries to understand the effect of those actions on the macro-political dynamic of these two aspects by verifying to what extent they made up the political and institutional framework of slavery in Brazil and Cuba.

    El artículo examina el impacto político del activismo esclavo, en Brasil y Cuba, de 1790 a 1825, esto es, desde el inicio de la Revolución de Saint-Domingue al otorgamiento de la Constitución del Brasil (1824 y al decreto de facultades omnímodas para los capitanes generales de Cuba (1825, en el contexto inmediato del término de las guerras de independencia en el continente. En lugar de discutir y clasificar en un orden tipológico el carácter específico de las diversas expresiones de resistencia esclava colectiva, el artículo intenta comprender el efecto de esas acciones en la dinámica macropolítica de los dos espacios, verificando en qué medida aquéllas conformaron el cuadro político e institucional de la esclavitud en Brasil y en Cuba. [pt] O artigo examina o impacto político do ativismo escravo, no Brasil e Cuba, de 1790 a 1825, isto é, do início da Revolução de Saint-Domingue à outorga da Constituição do Brasil (1824 e à decretação das faculdades onímodas para os capitães generais de Cuba (1825, no contexto imediato do término das guerras de independência no continente. Ao invés de discutir e classificar em uma ordem tipológica o caráter específico das

  17. Promotional cultural poster: Major features of the sociocultural peak in Santiago de Cuba city, between 1970-1980

    OpenAIRE

    Zoilo Rafael Fernández-Hernández

    2016-01-01

    During 70´s and 80´s of the last century, the promotional cultural poster in Santiago de Cuba gained a remarkable peak, due to historical and culturals conditions. Many important institutions were founded, that promote graphic design and sociocultural actions in the city, expressed in a lot of cultural events in that period. Nonetheless is impossible deny the education that acquired artists and designers, who with their creations increased the graphic arts movement in Santiago de Cuba, becaus...

  18. Doctor Octavio Montoro y los primeros casos de diabetes tratados con insulina en Cuba Doctor Octavio Montoro and the first cases of diabetes treated with insulin in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagoberto Álvarez Aldana

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available El uso clínico de la insulina por Banting y Best representa un hito en la historia de las ciencias médicas. Los avances en este campo han sido espectaculares y nuestro país no está ajeno a ellos. Sin embargo, poco se conoce sobre los primeros trabajos realizados por los médicos cubanos en relación con la insulinoterapia, hecho trascendental en la historia de la endocrinología cubana, pero desconocido principalmente para las nuevas generaciones de endocrinólogos. Esta revisión tiene como objetivos destacar la introducción en la clínica moderna de la insulina como un importante suceso en la historiografía médica cubana y divulgar la evolución clínica y el esquema terapéutico aplicado a los primeros casos de diabetes mellitus tratados con insulina en Cuba, así como resaltar el empeño y la capacidad de los profesionales de la salud pioneros en el uso clínico de la insulina en aquellos años, entre los que se destaca el Doctor Octavio Montoro. Para realizar este trabajo fue consultada la bibliografía médica de la época, archivos y otras fuentes. Como resultado se obtuvo que en Cuba se introdujo la insulina en el tratamiento de los pacientes diabéticos en febrero de 1923, por el Doctor Montoro, quien fue reconocido por sus conocimientos médicos y por su vasta cultura. Desempeñó múltiples cargos y recibió numerosas condecoraciones. Se concluyó que Cuba fue uno de los primeros países en el mundo que contó con la insulina como arma terapéutica contra la diabetes. El Doctor Octavio Montoro hizo importantes aportes en la investigación sobre la diabetes, por lo que merece ser considerado, a nuestro juicio, como el padre de la diabetología en nuestro país.The clinical use of insulin by Banting and Best represents a hallmark in the history of medical sciences. The advances in this field have been amazing and our country was also involved in this development. However, little is known about the first works carried out by Cuban

  19. Algoritmo de manejo del trauma craneoencefálico leve: Una necesidad social en Cuba Algorism for mild craneo - encephalic trauma management social necessity in Cuba

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    Ariel Varela Hernández

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available El tema del traumatismo craneoencefálico leve ha sido poco estudiado es Cuba por lo que se presenta este artículo con el objetivo de demostrar la necesidad social de la aplicación de un algoritmo de manejo de estos pacientes que se adapte al contexto social cubano. Se ofrecen conceptos actualizados sobre la importancia de la ciencia y la tecnología en la sociedad moderna y se aborda la significación de la innovación tecnológica para el desarrollo de la tecnociencia en Cuba. Se trata, basado en una epistemología compleja, las relaciones que se establecen entre el desarrollo social y los servicios de salud, así como entre la evolución de la tecnociencia y el trauma craneoencefálico. Se argumenta la relevancia social del traumatismo craneoencefálico leve tanto a nivel mundial como local, así como el impacto favorable de la aplicación de un algoritmo de manejo de estos enfermos, realizado sobre una base científica, el cual permite un empleo óptimo y racional de las tecnologías imagenológicas de avanzada con que se cuenta.The topic about mild cranium-encephalic traumatism has been little studied in Cuba, that is why this article is presented with the objective to demonstrate the social necessity to apply an algorism for these patient's handling adapted to the Cuban social context. The article offers present-day concepts about the importance of science and technology in modern society and the significance of the technological innovation in the development of the techno-science in Cuba. The relationships between the social development and health services, as well as between the evolution of the techno-science and the cranium-encephalic trauma is treated, based on a complex apistemiology. The article argues the social relevance of the mild cranium-encephalic traumatism in the world and in the country, and the favourable impact of the application of an algorism of these sick persons' handling, carried out upon a scientific base which

  20. Especies nuevas del género Gibberula (Mollusca: Cystiscidae) de Cuba y Venezuela New species of the genus Gibberula (Mollusca: Cystiscidae) from Cuba and Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    José Espinosa; Jesús Ortea; Manuel Caballer

    2011-01-01

    Se describen 3 especies nuevas de moluscos marinos: Gibberula palmasola sp. n., recolectada en la vegetación asociada a rocas rodeadas de sedimentos blandos en una laguna costera cercada por mangle en la península de Guanahacabibes, Cuba, y caracterizada por presentar, el animal vivo, la cabeza negra y una distribución típica de bandas negras y pardas con lunares anaranjados en el manto bajo la concha; Gibberula dosmosquises sp. n., recolectada en fondos rocosos del Caribe insular de Venezuel...

  1. Cambio climático, afectaciones y oportunidades para la ganadería en Cuba Climate change, affectations and opportunities for livestock production in Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Milagros de la C Milera

    2011-01-01

    Los fenómenos de la desertificación y la degradación de las tierras, la contaminación de las aguas, los suelos y la atmósfera, la pérdida de la diversidad biológica, el agotamiento de la capa de ozono, la deforestación, el recalentamiento del planeta y otros, han conducido a una encrucijada de la existencia humana. El objetivo del presente trabajo es analizar la adecuación de los principales sistemas de producción ante las afectaciones del cambio climático en Cuba y los resultados de fincas d...

  2. Vigilancia de la resistencia a los fármacos antituberculosos en Cuba, 2000-2009 Surveillance of resistance to antitubercular drugs in Cuba, 2000-2009

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    Ernesto Montoro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia de la resistencia a los fármacos antituberculosos en Cuba en el decenio 2000-2009. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio prospectivo longitudinal. El universo de trabajo estuvo constituido por un total de 2 285 aislamientos de Mycobacterium tuberculosis obtenidos de todo el país en el período comprendido entre el 1 de enero de 2000 y el 31 de diciembre de 2009. Se empleó el método de las proporciones en medio Löwenstein-Jensen con los fármacos de primera línea: isoniazida, estreptomicina, etambutol y rifampicina. RESULTADOS: La resistencia entre los casos nuevos y los pacientes con antecedente de tratamiento previo fue de 8,5% y 37,0%, respectivamente; para estas mismas categorías de caso, la multirresistencia fue de 0,4% y 8,8%, respectivamente. CONCLUSIONES: El presente estudio muestra baja prevalencia de cepas multirresistentes en Cuba. Estos resultados reflejan los avances logrados por el programa nacional de control, que trabaja en la actualidad hacia la eliminación de la tuberculosis como problema de salud pública en el país.OBJECTIVE: Determine the prevalence of resistance to antitubercular drugs in Cuba in the 2000-2009 decade. METHODS: A prospective longitudinal study was conducted. The sample group consisted of 2  285 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates obtained from throughout the country in the period from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2009. The proportion method was used in Löwenstein-Jensen media with the first-line drugs: isoniazid, streptomycin, ethambutol, and rifampicin. RESULTS: In the new cases and patients with a history of previous treatment, resistance was 8.5% and 37.0%, respectively. In these case categories, multidrug resistance was 0.4% and 8.8%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows low prevalence of multidrug-resistant strains in Cuba. The results reflect the progress made by the national control program, which is currently working on the elimination of

  3. Logros y retos de la colecistectomía laparoscópica en Cuba Achievements and challenges of the laparoscopic cholecystectomy in Cuba

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    Orlando Zamora Santana

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: conocer los resultados de la generalización de la colecistectomía laparoscópica en Cuba. Métodos: se realizó un estudio retrospectivo y descriptivo a través de una encuesta completada por 16 grupos de cirugía de mínimo acceso de hospitales universitarios en 9 provincias del país para definir carácter, conversiones, conducta ante litiasis de la vía biliar, morbilidad y mortalidad perioperatoria. Resultados: se obtuvieron datos relacionados con 56 878 intervenciones realizadas, desde los inicios de la actividad en esos servicios, hasta noviembre de 2007, y se definió carácter, conversiones, conducta ante litiasis de la vía biliar, morbilidad y mortalidad perioperatoria. El acceso laparoscópico se usó en 80,7 % de los casos, electivo en 97,1 %, con índices de conversión de 1,4 %, morbilidad de 0,58 % y mortalidad de 0,10 %. Predominó, ante el hallazgo de litiasis coledociana, el convertir y explorar de forma convencional. Conclusiones: los resultados de la generalización de la colecistectomía laparoscópica en Cuba son excelentes, pero es necesario extender su uso como arsenal en el tratamiento de las complicaciones de la litiasis biliar.Objective: to know the results from the standardization of the laparoscopic cholecystectomy in Cuba. Methods: a descriptive and retrospective study was conducted be means of a survey completed by 16 groups of minimal access surgery from university hospital in 9 provinces of our country to define the character, conversions, behavior in face of biliary tract lithiasis, perioperative morbidity and mortality. Results: it was possible to obtain data related to 56 878 surgical interventions performed from the onset of activity in these centers up to November, 2007 defining the character, conversions, behavior in face of a biliary tract lithiasis and perioperative morbidity and mortality. The laparoscopic approach was used in the 80.7 % of cases, elective in the 97.1 %, with conversion rates

  4. Presencia y perspectivas de los búfalos en Cuba Presence and perspective of buffaloes in Cuba

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    L Simón

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Los búfalos fueron introducidos en el país a principios de la década de los 80, con el objetivo de producir alimentos para el consumo humano. Los criterios para su introducción fueron: su rusticidad y el aprovechamiento de alimentos de baja calidad nutritiva, sus posibilidades para la cría extensiva en lugares donde los bovinos y otras especies no podían producir, además de las cualidades nutritivas e industriales de sus productos. Las razas que se encuentran en el país son el Buffalypso y el de pantano o Carabao, este último utilizado para la producción de carne por su pobre rendimiento lechero, por lo que se realiza un programa genético de cruzamiento entre ellos para mejorar sus características lecheras. Se ha demostrado que pueden disipar el calor a la sombra de los árboles de los potreros y mantener una elevada tasa de natalidad (más del 80% que supera la de los bovinos; no obstante, su producción de leche resulta extensiva por las bajas cargas (0,6-0,8 UGM/ha que hay que emplear en pastoreo, debido a su hábito alimentario y a la capacidad productiva de los Buffalypsos (700 y 1 000 kg de leche por lactancia. Por ello el mejoramiento lechero mediante cruzamientos con razas de mayor potencial y la transformación de la base alimentaria en los lugares que se encuentren, podrían aportar positivamente en la intensificación de su producción y hacerlos más competitivos con los bovinos en producción de leche.Buffaloes were introduced in the country in the early 80's, in order to produce food for human consumption. The criteria followed for their introduction were their rusticity and utilization of feedstuffs with low nutritional quality, their possibilities for extensive rearing in places where cattle and other species could not produce, in addition to the nutritional and industrial qualities of their products. The breeds present in Cuba are Buffalypso and the swamp buffalo or Carabao, the latter used for meat production due to

  5. Los prácticos de Farmacia en Cuba hasta 1912 Practitioners related to Pharmacy in Cuba up to 1912

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    Caridad Sedeño Argilagos

    2009-12-01

    specialists, dentists and midwives. From then was made official the training or Pharmacy practitioner. In the first half of XX century, Cuban pharmacy becames exclusive of the society elite that could to pay the university studies. Besides, training of Pharmacy practitioner was done, which by means independent study of theoretical-practical contents, previous payment of the corresponding registration, could make the pertinent examinations. Logically, access to these types of studies had predominance in young people from middle class. It is important to emphasize the merit of these middle technicians of the profession known as Pharmacy practitioners. Despite that in pharmaceutical activity in that period, there was a predominance of commercial criterion, this staff became in the "physician of poor people" by its contribution in relief of slight health pain of the more dispossessed. During the first years of XX century, the intervening American authorities in Cuba, in 1908 they tried to make academically official the professional exercise of the Pharmacy practitioners, action with the opposition of pharmaceutical graduates and University representative. It favored the drawing up of a new Pharmacy Act, first published in the Official Gazette in February 29, 1912.

  6. Historia de un fracaso. Las exposiciones del fascismo en la España de la Segunda República (1933-1936 / The story of a failure. The Fascism exhibitions in Spain during the Second Republic

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    Alina Navas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Las exposiciones proyectadas por el fascismo en España durante la Segunda República, nos ayudan a entender mejor las características de la propaganda y la política cultural de ambos regímenes, los productos culturales elegidos y el papel que tuvieron para exportar una cierta imagen a través de la cultura. Aunque el plan fue un fracaso, este asunto tiene interés porque muestra que la propaganda cultural fue una estrategia particular del fascismo hacia la España republicana. De hecho, los agentes fascistas involucrados defi nieron la propaganda artística como un arma útil para luchar contra la «indiferencia» republicana en el marco de unas relaciones bilaterales tensas. Por lo que respecta a la metodología, este es un análisis de los documentos del Fondo Antonio Maraini de Roma, uno de los principales agentes involucrados en estas iniciativas. Debido al tipo de fuente, este enfoque enfatiza el papel de los diplomáticos italianos y el régimen al que representaban. También es importante destacar el papel de agentes republicanos, como Juan de la Encina, que a pesar de la tensa situación política, colaboraron con el régimen fascista para poder exponer arte italiano en España. The exhibitions projected by Fascism in Spain during Second Republic, helps to better understand the characteristics of the propaganda and cultural policy of both regimes, the cultural products chosen by regimes, their role in order to export a particular image through culture. Even though the plan was a failure, this matter doesn’t lack interest. In this sense, we consider that cultural propaganda was a particular Fascist strategy for republican Spain. Indeed, fascist agents declared the artistic propaganda useful to fi ght the republican “indifference” in the frame of bilateral relations. Regarding methodology, this is mainly an analyse of the documents gathered in the Fondo Antonio Maraini in Rome, one of the main agents involved in this actions. Due

  7. Una llamada de “urgencia” para tutela cautelar en la justicia administrativa en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolene Pereira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available El régimen jurídico de la tutela cautelar que rige hoy por hoy para la justicia administrativa en Cuba, se basa en el principio de ejecutabilidad de los actos administrativos, y por tanto, en la regla de la no suspensión de las decisiones de la administración pública. El modelo construido tomó como referencia el sistema de justicia cautelar administrativa del derecho franco-español de finales del siglo xix. En el siguiente trabajo se parte del presupuesto de la necesidad de un cambio de paradigma en torno a la ordenación jurídica de la tutela cautelar administrativa en Cuba; para la cual se aportan argumentos teóricos que justifican una modificación en pos de ampliar y reforzar el rol de la tutela cautelar en la jurisdicción contencioso-administrativa.

  8. Cuba y Bolivia: dos procesos distintos, ¿una sola revolución verdadera?

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    Boris Salazar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article claims that the Bolivian revolutionary process of 2000-2005 did not follow on the steps of the Cuban Revolution's strategy. The sheer strength and autonomy of its social mobilization, the absence of a maximum leader, and the meshing of democratic elections with mass mobilization have given a turn of the screw on revolutionary strategy in Latin America, producing stable majorities through a lock-in process, whose ultimate outcome has not been the assault on state power. The emergence of a dictator and a unique party in Cuba, and their absence in Bolivia, are explained by the size of their autonomous sociabilities: very large in Bolivia, and very weak in Cuba.

  9. Una batalla ganada: la eliminación de la poliomielitis en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Beldarraín Chaple

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available La poliomielitis fue introducida en Cuba a finales del siglo XIX por norteamericanos residentes en Isla de Pinos. Las primeras epidemias ocurrieron en 1906 y 1909, aumentaron en intensidad entre 1930-1958. El objetivo del artículo es reconstruir la historia de la enfermedad y sus epidemias en Cuba hasta 1961, de la primera Campaña Nacional de Vacunación Antipolio (1962 y de sus resultados, bien como analizar la continuidad de las campañas anuales de vacunación hasta la certificación de su eliminación (1994. Se siguió el método histórico lógico; se revisaron documentos de archivos, las estadísticas del Ministerio de Salud Pública sobre morbilidad y mortalidad hasta el 2000. Se calcularon tasas brutas de morbilidad y mortalidad. Se realizaron entrevistas a personajes claves.

  10. The discipline of ergonomics in Cuba within the occupational health framework: background and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Yaniel; Rodríguez, Yordán; Viña, Silvio

    2013-01-01

    The concept of ergonomics was introduced in Cuba at the beginning of the 1970s. More than 40 years later, the prevailing approach to workers' health is still generally reactive rather than proactive, despite the commitment of the government to the subject. A factor influencing this issue is, generally, lack of recognition of the benefits of establishing ergonomic principles within most occupational activities. Recent progress to move occupational health practice toward a more preventive approach has been conducted, frequently with international support. The introduction of a set of Cuban standards proposing the necessity of ergonomic evaluations is an example of this progress. The main challenge for Cuban ergonomists is to transfer knowledge to occupational health practitioners in order to be in concordance with basic standards and regulations regarding ergonomics. The article offers a short description of the history of ergonomics and an overview of ergonomics practice in Cuba.

  11. Escuelas Normales en Cuba (1890-1898): un profesorado de ida y vuelta

    OpenAIRE

    Huerta Martínez, Ángel

    2017-01-01

    Tres Escuelas Normales fundó el Gobierno español en Cuba, en la segunda mitad del siglo XIX: la primera en Guanabacoa, cerca de la capital de la Isla, en 1857; las dos restantes en La Habana en 1890, una para la formación de maestros y la otra para la de maestras. La Escuela Normal de Guanabacoa fue el primer centro que se creó en Cuba con esa específica misión de preparar a los docentes de primeras letras. Dada la situación política de la isla y la manifestación continua de brotes independen...

  12. Genetic and infective diversity of the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica (Trematoda: Digenea) from Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, A A; Lounnas, M; Sánchez, J; Alba, A; Milesi, A; Hurtrez-Boussès, S

    2016-11-01

    In this study we present the first approach to exploration of the genetic diversity of Cuban Fasciola hepatica populations using microsatellite markers, coupled with observed prevalence in slaughterhouses. Nine populations of flukes recovered from cows and buffalos were studied in the central-western region of Cuba. The observed infection rates of definitive hosts (bovines) were 70-100% in most cases. An important amount of polymorphism was found in the four loci explored. However, no apparent genetic differences were found between populations from different provinces or bovine species. The absence of deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium suggests a high rate of cross-fertilization between F. hepatica individuals. This result was confirmed when all multilocus genotypes were tested for clonal reproduction and only four individuals differed statistically (P sexCuba. Our findings should be taken into consideration by veterinary authorities to help mitigate fasciolosis transmission.

  13. práctica del turismo rural en la República de Cuba

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    Isis Alejandra Camargo Toribio

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo incluye parte de los resultados que se obtuvieron en la tesis doctoral “Aportaciones metodológicas para la implementación del turismo rural en la República de Cuba. Estudio de caso: zona turística de Viñales” (Camargo, 2003. El objetivo principal de este artículo es conocer las preferencias de los clientes internacionales para la práctica del turismo rural, modalidad que no está establecida de forma consciente en la República de Cuba y que, de acuerdo con el potencial naturalcultural existente, tiene amplias posibilidades para su introducción. Con este fin se aplica una encuesta donde los viajeros evalúan, en una escala ascendente, la importancia que le conceden a un conjunto de elementos para la práctica de la modalidad rural

  14. GEOLOGY OF THE FLORENCIA GOLD – TELLURIDE DEPOSIT (CAMAGÜEY, CUBA AND SOME METALLURGICAL CONSIDERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López K Jesús M.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the results from a study of the Florencia gold-telluride deposit in Central Cuba, including mineralogical, petrographical, microprobe and chemical analysis. Valuable information is provided for the exploration, mining and processing of gold ores from other nearby deposits with similar characteristics. Results highlight changes in the mineralogical composition of the ores between the north and south sectors of the deposit, as reflected in metallurgical concentrates after beneficiation and flotation of samples from these sectors.
    It is shown that gold deposits of the Cretaceous Volcanic Arc of Cuba largely consist of native gold, telluride and pyrite, where arsenopyrite is almost absent. Traces of lead, zinc and cadmium are present in the periphery of the main ore zones.

  15. The Chemical Diversity of Lantana camara: Analyses of Essential Oil Samples from Cuba, Nepal, and Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyal, Prabodh; Crouch, Rebecca A; Monzote, Lianet; Cos, Paul; Awadh Ali, Nasser A; Alhaj, Mehdi A; Setzer, William N

    2016-03-01

    The aerial parts of Lantana camara L. were collected from three different geographical locations: Artemisa (Cuba), Biratnagar (Nepal), and Sana'a (Yemen). The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. A cluster analysis of 39 L. camara essential oil compositions revealed eight major chemotypes: β-caryophyllene, germacrene D, ar-curcumene/zingiberene, γ-curcumen-15-al/epi-β-bisabolol, (E)-nerolidol, davanone, eugenol/alloaromadendrene, and carvone. The sample from Cuba falls into the group dominated by (E)-nerolidol, the sample from Nepal is a davanone chemotype, and the sample from Yemen belongs to the β-caryophyllene chemotype. The chemical composition of L. camara oil plays a role in the biological activity; the β-caryophyllene and (E)-nerolidol chemotypes showed antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. © 2016 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  16. Safeguarding musical heritage. Memories of the rescue of the Hymn of Santiago de Cuba

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    Daylenis Blanco-Lobaina

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The musicality that highlights Santiago de Cuba as one of its fundamental attractions motivated one of the lines of work of the Escalinata project, focused on communication and promotion of Santiago's heritage. The city treasures several hymns composed in different periods and historical contexts, among them some dedicated to the Virgin of the Charity of the Copper and Santiago Apostle, patron of the city. However, dedicated to the city, Santiago's musical history has revealed the existence of a single anthem, which is why a process of restoration and digitization of its scores began in function of the rescue of this musical composition of the early nineteenth century. This work reveals the process of safeguarding and enhancing the value of this piece of music, considered to be the city's cultural heritage, just 88 years after it was premiered in the Municipal Government of Santiago de Cuba.

  17. Racial Geographies, Imperial Transitions: Property Ownership and Race Relations in Cienfuegos, Cuba, 1894–1899

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie Lucero

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores race relations in the provincial city of Cienfuegos, Cuba, during a time of immense political change from 1894 to 1899. In those five years, Cuba was transformed from a Spanish colony struggling for independence to an occupied territory of the United States. This political transformation brought into direct confrontation two models of race relations: one Spanish, characterized by racial integration, and the other American, renowned for Jim Crow segregation. This essay examines the lived significance of this political transformation through interracial property transactions recorded in the notarial protocols of Cienfuegos. The findings suggest that the final war of independence provided opportunities for Afro-descendants to purchase prime properties within the official city bounds. Yet, with US intervention in 1898, a subtle but increasing marginalization of men and women of color from the market in urban property is evident. Lucero contends that this marginalization reflects a shift in race relations due to the American imperial presence.

  18. Historical evolution of main trends in academic rehearsals in Natural Experimental Sciences in Cuba

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    Marquez, Rolando

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Historical analysis of data plays a key role in scientific research for understanding reality. This is a common starting point for the majority o studies in didactics, particular in the didactic of experimental sciences. The objective of this paper is to characterize the historical tendencies concerning methods and procedures of conducted science experiments in Cuba. On the basis of the application of the “Scientific Method”, several indicators are proposed.

  19. Historical evolution of main trends in academic rehearsals in Natural Experimental Sciences in Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Marquez, Rolando

    2011-01-01

    Historical analysis of data plays a key role in scientific research for understanding reality. This is a common starting point for the majority o studies in didactics, particular in the didactic of experimental sciences. The objective of this paper is to characterize the historical tendencies concerning methods and procedures of conducted science experiments in Cuba. On the basis of the application of the “Scientific Method”, several indicators are proposed.

  20. España y Cuba. Cien años de relaciones financieras

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    Inés ROLDÁN DE MONTAUD

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Desde la pérdida del imperio continental americano, Cuba se convierte en el territorio colonial de mayor importancia para la metrópoli. Mercado preferencial para la producción española y fuente de capitales que ayudó a paliar el déficit del Tesoro peninsular, las páginas siguientes se dedican a estudiar las diferentes etapas por las que atravesaron las relaciones financieras entre metrópoli y colonia a lo largo del siglo XIX. Estudio centrado en el aspecto institucional, es decir, en las relaciones entre los Tesoros y por tanto en la especial configuración de la Hacienda colonial y la concepción y estructura del sistema presupuestario. Palabras Clave: España, Cuba, Siglo XIX, Relaciones financieras, Hacienda colonial, Presupuestos. ABSTRACT: After metropolis lost its empire on the American continent, Cuba became its most important colonial territory and a preferential market for Spanish production as well as a source of capital which helped to mitigate the deficit in the Spanish Treasury. The pages that follow study the different stages through which the financial relations between the metropolis and the colony passed during the 19th century. This study focuses on the institutional aspect, i.e., on the relations between the treasuries and therefore on the special configuration of the colonial Treasuty and the conception and structure of the budgetary system. Key words: Spain, Cuba 19th Century, Financial Relation, Colonial Treasury, Budgets.

  1. An eighteenth-century community in exile : the 'floridanos' in Cuba

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    Jane Landers

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available History of the evacuation of 1763, when Floridians had to move away after the English seized the colony from Spain. Most of the migrants settled in Cuba. Several hundred families of Spanish descent and their slaves made new lives in Havana. Author focuses on the Florida Africans and Indians and the history of a new multi-ethnic settlement named San Agustín de la Nueve Florida.

  2. TEJEDORAS DE SONIDOS DE LA REGIÓN CENTRAL DE CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselda Hernández Ramírez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is a reflection on the role of women in the geo-cultural region of Villa Clara, Cuba, in the development of music in the above area, it emphasizes the different roles of a group of women who served or do today as a musician, composers and pedagogues. It uses a metaphor that moves through time stamp of women in the music of Villa Clara

  3. A History of the Ballet Nacional de Cuba: gendered labor and its representations

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, Andrew Michael

    2013-01-01

    This thesis examines the ways that the Ballet Nacional de Cuba (BNC) was enfranchised into the 1959 Cuban Revolution. By foregrounding the national projects of the Revolution and examining representations of the homosexual Cuban male experience, I explore how the internationally distinct Cuban ballet technique emerged in dialogue and in response to the new man (el hombre nuevo) and the new nation that was being forged. Part I explores the Cuban ballet technique as a repository of the socio-po...

  4. Construyendo identidades desde la excepcionalidad: mujer, divorciada y maestra en Santiago de Cuba, siglo XIX

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    Provencio Garrigós, Lucía

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with a complex matter: the construction of female gender identity, and it does so though the figure of a paradigmatic woman: Baldomera Fuentes Segura (Santiago de Cuba 1807-1876, a cultivated, learned schoolteacher, married and divorced. She knew how to make her way in life, both personally and intellectually, from the exceptionality marked by the gender discourse, except for when she used her wit and intelligence both orally and in writing, to defend her autonomy as well as her personal and professional dignity, facing attacks which aimed to discredit her. Henceforth, her accusers (her husband and the Board of Public Instruction in Cuba would turn her attributes as inappropriate for the female gender situation, as a wife and schoolteacher, being thus Baldomera an impossible exception.

    Este trabajo aborda un tema complejo: la construcción de la identidad genérica femenina y lo hace al hilo de una paradigmática mujer. Ella es Baldomera Fuentes Segura (Santiago de Cuba, 1807-1876, culta, ilustrada, maestra, casada y divorciada, caminos vitales e intelectuales que supo andar desde la excepcionalidad posible que marcaban los discursos genéricos, salvo cuando usó su ingenio e inteligencia, a través de la palabra y la escritura, para defender su autonomía y dignidad personal y profesional, frente a ataques que pretendían desprestigiarla. A partir de ese momento, sus acusadores (marido y Junta de Instrucción Pública de Cuba convertirán esos atributos en impropios del espacio genérico femenino, de esposa y maestra, pasando a ser Baldomera una excepción imposible.

  5. Epiphytic dinoflagellates associated with ciguatera in the northwestern coast of Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Gilma Delgado; Lechuga-Devéze, Carlos H.; Genoveva Popowski; Luis Troccoli; Cesar A Salinas

    2014-01-01

    The spatial and temporal abundance of epiphytic dinoflagellates associated with ciguatera was studied over two annual cycles (March 1999 to March 2000 and March 2001 to March 2002) in the northwestern coast of Cuba. From 14 species of macroalgae (Phaeophyta, Chlorophyta, and Rhodophyta), 1340 samples were obtained identifying seven species as potentially noxious; five of them are new reports for Cuba’s phytobenthos: Prorocentrum belizeanum Faust, P. concavum Fukuyo, P. mexicanum Tafall, Cooli...

  6. Potentially Harmful Microalgae from the Southern-Central Coast of Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, A.; Reguera, B.; Alonso, C; Comas, A.

    2013-01-01

    Benthic and planktic toxic microalgae from the southern-central region of Cuba were surveyed intermittently between 2007 and 2009, mainly in the estuarine Cienfuegos Bay and its adjacent coast. The highest abundance of both benthic and planktic species were recorded in dry season and at the beginning of the rainy period which is directly correlated with a higher incidence of ciguatera and other episodes associated to harmful algal blooms. Ostreopsis ...

  7. Evolución y perspectivas del registro de medicamentos en Cuba

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    Celeste A Sánchez González

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una evaluación de las autoridades sanitarias a cargo de la autorización para la comercialización de medicamentos en Cuba desde 1959 hasta el 2001 y de su nivel de subordinación. Se describió la evolución de los documentos normativos y legales que dan la base al Registro de Medicamentos en Cuba y a su evaluación, con lo que se caracterizó el enfoque nacional de los requerimientos y procedimientos exigidos para registrar un medicamento. Se identificaron etapas en la evolución de las autoridades y se enumeraron los aspectos que han marcado saltos de calidad en la espiral de desarrollo de la actividad. Se identificó la situación actual y perspectivas para garantizar la elevación del nivel normativo y legal del Sistema Regulador de Medicamentos.The health authorities in charge of authorizing the commercialization of drugs in Cuba from 1959 to 2001, as well as their subordination level were evaluated. The evolution of the normative and legal documents, which are the basis of the Drug Registry in Cuba and of its evaluation, was described in order to characterize the national approach of the requirements and procedures demanded to register a drug. Some stages in the evolution of the authorities were identified and those aspects considered as quality leaps in the development spiral of this activity were approached. Emphasis was made on the present situation and on the outlooks to guarantee the improvement of the normative and legal level of the Drug Control System.

  8. United States - Cuba Relations: Does the War on Terrorism Change Our Stance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-04-09

    Solidarity Act, also known as the Libertad Act. The legislation, among other provisions, codified the U.S. trade embargo into law and imposed additional...maintaining pressure on the Cuban Government for change through the embargo and the Libertad Act while providing humanitarian assistance to the Cuban... Libertad ) Act; also known as the Helms-Burton Act, which tightened the trade embargo on Cuba. It also codified or put into law all previous presidential

  9. MANAGEMENT OF SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATIVE ACTIVITY STUDENT OF ECONOMICS POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTES OF CUBA

    OpenAIRE

    Alba Sánchez Arencibia; Jorge Alejandro Laguna Cruz; Miguel Alejandro Cruz Cabezas; Luis Anibal Alonso Betancourt

    2014-01-01

    With this article, the authors reveal the results of an investigation that sought to address the shortcomings in the performance of students in polytechnics Economics Holguin, Cuba, in scientific-research activity, limiting compliance demands made by society to the Technical and Vocational Education. To do this, a pedagogical model that considers the link between the orientations contextualized scientific-research activity, contextualized systematization of scientific-research activity and it...

  10. Empiric Study on Reverse Logistic Strategies in the Manufacturing Sector in the Central Area of Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Cespón, Michel Feitó; Faculty of Industrial Engineering Central University of Las Villas, Cuba; Castro, Roberto Cespón; Faculty of Industrial Engineering Central University of Las Villas, Cuba; Lundquist, Janerik; Department of Production Economics Linköping University

    2013-01-01

    The growing need of correct implementation of reverse logistic strategies in the modern company, along with the ignorance of their tendency and behavior in the manufacturing sector in the central area of Cuba, make possible the develop of this study. The main objective is to identify a generic configuration on reverse logistic strategies in manufacturing companies from the Cuban central area. As a result, this research detects the existence of three generic reverse logistic strategies which a...

  11. Ecology of the Scorpion, Microtityus jaumei in Sierra de Canasta, Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cala-Riquelme, Franklyn; Colombo, Marco

    2011-01-01

    An assessment of the population dynamics of Microtityus jaumei Armas (Scorpiones: Buthidae) on the slopes south of Sierra de Canasta, Guantánamo Province, Cuba show an increase in activity over the year (≤ 0.05). The activity peak is related to the reproductive period from June to November. The abundance of scorpions was significantly related to density of the canopy and thickness of the substrate. PMID:21870972

  12. HIV/AIDS among women in Havana, Cuba: 1986-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Dinorah C; Viñas, Arturo L; Saavedra, Clarivel; Oliva, Maritza; González, Ciro; de la Torre, Caridad

    2013-10-01

    Women are being diagnosed with HIV infection in increasing numbers, and now account for 50% of cases worldwide. In Cuba, HIV is more frequent in men, but in recent years, a growing number of women have been diagnosed. Describe patterns of HIV among women in Havana, Cuba, 1986-2011. Descriptive study of women with HIV aged >14 years, residents of Havana, Cuba, who were diagnosed with HIV from 1 January 1986 through 31 December 2011. Information was obtained from the limited-access HIV/AIDS database of Cuba's Ministry of Public Health. Data were studied from all reported cases, a total of 1274 women. Variables selected were age at diagnosis, education, municipality of residence, screening group, year of HIV diagnosis, late presentation, AIDS-defining condition, year of diagnosis as AIDS case, vital status at the end of 2011, and year of death (if applicable). Incidence of HIV and AIDS, cumulative incidence by municipality of residence, and case fatality rates were calculated. Those aged 20-29 years were most affected by HIV. Almost half (46.7%) the women had completed middle school, and a further 35.4% had completed high school or middle-level technical studies. HIV incidence began to increase more steeply starting in 1998, as did AIDS incidence by year of diagnosis, though to a lesser extent. Central Havana and Old Havana municipalities had the highest cumulative incidence. Late presentation was seen in 7.4% of cases; mean age of those diagnosed late was 38.9 years. Wasting syndrome and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia were the most frequent AIDS-defining conditions. Case fatality rates started to decline in 1998. HIV infection in women is occurring in a predominantly young, relatively well-educated population. Increasing rates of HIV and AIDS in the past decade are a warning sign of the possible expansion of HIV infection in women, even though mortality is declining.

  13. Comparing environmental issues in Cuba before and after the Special Period: balancing sustainable development and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maal-Bared, Rasha

    2006-04-01

    Following the Earth Summit in 1992, Cuba designed and implemented a variety of programs, administrative structures, and public awareness activities to promote sound environmental management and sustainable development. This came shortly after the fall of the Soviet Union and the strengthening of the US blockade in 1990, which resulted in a 35% drop in Cuban GDP. This period, referred to as the Special Period, witnessed a decrease in many environmentally damaging activities both by choice and by necessity, but also resulted in many decisions to resuscitate the Cuban economy. The purpose of this work was to compare and rank the environmental risks Cuba faced before and during the Special Period (1990-2000) using two Comparative environmental risk assessments (CERAs). To do so, an ecosystem integrity risk assessment matrix was constructed with 42 risk end points. The matrix assessed the risk posed by 17 problem areas including air pollution, water contamination, solid waste sites, pesticides and ecosystem degradation. The risks were calculated using five criteria: area affected, vulnerability of affected population, severity of impact, irreversibility of effect and uncertainty. To construct this matrix, both literature reviews and expert interviews in Cuba were conducted in 2000. The results showed a general decrease in risk scores during the Special Period. Before the Special Period, high risks were posed by: terrestrial degradation and industrial wastewater and sludge, followed by freshwater degradation, surface water stressors, and pesticides. After the Special Period, industrial wastewater and sludge and pesticides were no longer high-risk areas, but municipal wastewater and marine coastal degradation ranked higher than previously. Also, the risk endpoints most stressed after 1990 were affected by activities controlled by the government, such as mining and tourism, and lack of infrastructure. Therefore, the claims that public environmental education is the main

  14. Dolarización: Definición, costos y beneficios. El caso de Cuba.

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez Corzo, Mario

    2005-01-01

    The official dollarization of the Cuban economy starting in 1993 was an integral part of the policy reforms measured implemented to confront the economic crisis of the 1990s. The socioeconomic effects of these policies are still being felt in Cuban society today. What is dollarization? What were its principal causes in the case of Cuba? How has dollarization impacted Cuba’s economy and society? This paper addressed these questions. Section one describes the process of dollarization, an...

  15. El largo compromiso de Canadá con Cuba: paradojas y posibilidades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas LEGLER

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tanto la Unión Europea como América Latina, e incluso Estados Unidos, han iniciado distintos procesos de diálogo con Cuba. ¿Cuáles lecciones relevantes se pueden extraer de la larga historia canadiense de compromiso con la Revolución Cubana? Este artículo documenta la evolución de las relaciones entre Canadá y Cuba desde la década de 1940, centrándose en sus altibajos desde que se lanzó, a mediados de la década de 1990, una política de «compromiso constructivo ». Se argumenta que este acercamiento (en sus diversas formas no ha tenido mayor influencia en la liberalización de la política cubana. Además, la poca influencia que Canadá pudo haber tenido durante el «Periodo Especial» ha disminuido con la recuperación económica y diversificación de las relaciones exteriores de Cuba en la última década. En ese sentido, los autores concluyen que la estrategia más apropiada para Canadá y otros «actores» es llevar a cabo un acercamiento coordinado y de largo plazo que brinde apoyo a una variedad de procesos endógenos de cambio en Cuba. Una estrategia realista debería incluir diálogo de bajo perfil con el régimen actual, cooperación con un amplio espectro de posibles reformadores dentro y fuera del Estado y apoyo para la realización de cambios sociales más extensos a través del comercio, la inversión extranjera, el turismo así como los intercambios académicos y culturales

  16. The United States and Cuba: From a Strategy of Conflict to Constructive Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-12

    scheduled for publication this year by Westview Press. Currently he is editing a book on Cuba and the Future and another on Mexico . His most recent...terms of the San Jose Pact, under which Mexico and Venezuela sold oil to Central American and Caribbean countries at preferential rates, seemed beyond...campaign and certain other policies as well. For details of the Ochoa case, see Narcotrafico : Crimen Sin Fronteras (La Habana: Editorial Jose Marti, 1989

  17. A New Look at U.S. Foreign Policy toward Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    program. La Habana Servicio Internacional , on 10 February 1991, reported on an agreement between Cuba, Mexico, 50 and the Peoples Republic of Korea...Poder Popular, Defensa, La Habana, Editorial Jose Marti, 1991. rliba, Asamblea Nacional del Poder Popular, Li Biotechnologla: un Derecho Conquistado por...Latin America, No. 90-248, 26 December 1990, p. 21. 60. Habana Servicio Internacional , Nuclear Agreement Signed with Mexico, DPRK, 10 february 1991

  18. ESTADO E PRODUÇÃO CULTURAL EM CUBA (1961-1971

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    Juliano Silva de Figueiredo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo examina la relación entre el Estado y los intelectuales en la Cuba revolucionaria en los años 1960 y principios del 1970. La discusión se orienta a partir de la lectura de algunas obras, actitudes y eventos que componen la escena de la producción cultural cubana después de la revolución de 1959.

  19. Cuba | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le développement ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Nous finançons des recherches à Cuba depuis 1974 et travaillons avec des chercheurs cubains depuis cette époque, principalement dans les secteurs de la santé et de l'agriculture, et plus récemment dans les secteurs des changements climatiques et de la gestion durable de l'eau. Amélioration de la sécurité alimentaire ...

  20. Une solution aux problèmes hydriques de Cuba | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    14 juil. 2011 ... Au cours des dix dernières années, le recul économique que Cuba a connu a entraîné une détérioration lente mais constante des services d'assainissement et d'approvisionnement en eau — et une augmentation des maladies d'origine hydrique. Lorsque les pénuries d'eau ont atteint des proportions ...

  1. Cuba: transición, sucesión, estabilidad, seguridad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín ROY

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este análisis trata de la relación entre la estabilidad del presente gobierno cubano y la necesidad de seguridad en su territorio y en la zona circundante. Este vínculo se produce en un momento político de Cuba, entre un primer paso de la sucesión de Fidel Castro a Raúl, sin que se den señales claras de una transición hacia otro tipo de sistema político. Mientras tanto, el gobierno de Estados Unidos ha declarado que su prioridad estriba en el reestablecimiento de la democracia en Cuba, tanto durante el último periodo de la administración de George W. Bush como con Barack Obama ya asentado en la Casa Blanca. Sin embargo, las delicadas circunstancias de Cuba (precariedad económica, desastres naturales, dependencia alimentaria y energética, etc. señalan que la prioridad de los intereses nacionales de Estados Unidos se centran primero en la estabilidad del escenario. Incluso al precio del retraso de la evolución del régimen, un cierto grado de seguridad es necesario para enfrentarse a los riesgos de una emigración incontrolada y las hipotéticas tensiones internas que provoquen confrontaciones

  2. Height, zinc and soil-transmitted helminth infections in schoolchildren: a study in Cuba and Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gier, Brechje; Mpabanzi, Liliane; Vereecken, Kim; van der Werff, Suzanne D; D'Haese, Patrick C; Fiorentino, Marion; Khov, Kuong; Perignon, Marlene; Chamnan, Chhoun; Berger, Jacques; Parker, Megan E; Díaz, Raquel Junco; Núñez, Fidel Angel; Rivero, Lázara Rojas; Gorbea, Mariano Bonet; Doak, Colleen M; Ponce, Maiza Campos; Wieringa, Frank T; Polman, Katja

    2015-04-20

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections and zinc deficiency are often found in low- and middle-income countries and are both known to affect child growth. However, studies combining data on zinc and STH are lacking. In two studies in schoolchildren in Cuba and Cambodia, we collected data on height, STH infection and zinc concentration in either plasma (Cambodia) or hair (Cuba). We analyzed whether STH and/or zinc were associated with height for age z-scores and whether STH and zinc were associated. In Cuba, STH prevalence was 8.4%; these were mainly Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections. In Cambodia, STH prevalence was 16.8%, mostly caused by hookworm. In Cuban children, STH infection had a strong association with height for age (aB-0.438, p = 0.001), while hair zinc was significantly associated with height for age only in STH uninfected children. In Cambodian children, plasma zinc was associated with height for age (aB-0.033, p = 0.029), but STH infection was not. Only in Cambodia, STH infection showed an association with zinc concentration (aB-0.233, p = 0.051). Factors influencing child growth differ between populations and may depend on prevalences of STH species and zinc deficiency. Further research is needed to elucidate these relationships and their underlying mechanisms.

  3. The genus Apodrosus Marshall, 1922 in Cuba (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Entiminae, Polydrusini

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    Robert S. Anderson

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The genus Apodrosus Marshall is newly recorded for, and revised for Cuba. Nine new species are recognized as follows: Apodrosus alberti (type locality, Granma, Parque Nacional Pico Turquino, A. alternatus (type locality, Guantánamo, El Yunque, A. franklyni (type locality, Cienfuegos, Parque Nacional Pico San Juan, A. griseus (type locality, Santiago de Cuba, Siboney-Jutici Ecological Reserve, A. mensurensis (type locality, Holguin, Parque Nacional La Mensura-Piloto, A. pseudoalternatus (type locality, Matanzas, Varahicacos, A. beckeli (type locality, Guantánamo, 8 km W. Imias, A. sandersoni (type locality, Guantánamo, Loma Lafarola, and A. zayasi (type locality, Cienfuegos, Parque Nacional Pico San Juan. A key for their identification, descriptions, summaries of natural history information and data on distributions are presented. A molecular phylogeny based on 11 species of Apodrosus from Cuba, Hispaniola and Puerto Rico is reconstructed. A sister group relationship between Polydrusus and Apodrosus is recovered with a limited sampling of the former genus. The monophyly of Apodrosus is recovered with strong support. Cuban Apodrosus are not monophyletic. Five of the six sampled Cuban species form a clade, sister to an undescribed Apodrosus species from the Dominican Republic; and, Apodrosus alternatus is sister to A. quisqueyanus Girón & Franz, 2010, a species from the Dominican Republic. Biogeographic implications for Cuban species are discussed in light of the phylogeny.

  4. The genus Apodrosus Marshall, 1922 in Cuba (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Entiminae, Polydrusini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Robert S; Zhang, Guanyang

    2017-01-01

    The genus Apodrosus Marshall is newly recorded for, and revised for Cuba. Nine new species are recognized as follows: Apodrosus alberti (type locality, Granma, Parque Nacional Pico Turquino), A. alternatus (type locality, Guantánamo, El Yunque), A. franklyni (type locality, Cienfuegos, Parque Nacional Pico San Juan), A. griseus (type locality, Santiago de Cuba, Siboney-Jutici Ecological Reserve), A. mensurensis (type locality, Holguin, Parque Nacional La Mensura-Piloto), A. pseudoalternatus (type locality, Matanzas, Varahicacos), A. beckeli (type locality, Guantánamo, 8 km W. Imias), A. sandersoni (type locality, Guantánamo, Loma Lafarola), and A. zayasi (type locality, Cienfuegos, Parque Nacional Pico San Juan). A key for their identification, descriptions, summaries of natural history information and data on distributions are presented. A molecular phylogeny based on 11 species of Apodrosus from Cuba, Hispaniola and Puerto Rico is reconstructed. A sister group relationship between Polydrusus and Apodrosus is recovered with a limited sampling of the former genus. The monophyly of Apodrosus is recovered with strong support. Cuban Apodrosus are not monophyletic. Five of the six sampled Cuban species form a clade, sister to an undescribed Apodrosus species from the Dominican Republic; and, Apodrosus alternatus is sister to A. quisqueyanus Girón & Franz, 2010, a species from the Dominican Republic. Biogeographic implications for Cuban species are discussed in light of the phylogeny.

  5. Adolescent fertility in Cuba: some reflections on its behavior by provinces and areas of residence

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    Daylin Rodríguez Javiqué

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to describe the adolescent fertility in Cuba during the period 2010-2014 and analyze its proximate determinants both nationally and by territory. Based on the data published in Demographic Yearbook, Studies and Data of the Population and birth databases of the National Bureau of Statistics and Information (ONEI, adolescent fertility rates in Cuba are calculated according to the groups 10-14 and 15-19, by province and area of residence. In addition, data on family formation, contraception and abortion of Cuban adolescents are shown. These elements could allow hypothesizing about the behavior of adolescent fertility in Cuba. The first important result is that fertility among 15-19 years group had a slight decrease in the period; however, the 10-14 years group has increased its level. On the other hand, the analysis by area of residence shows that urban fertility has gained prominence in the Cuban provinces, with an increase between 2010 and 2012 in more than half of them. Similarly, about a third of the provinces analyzed show higher levels of adolescent fertility in urban areas than in rural areas. High rates of abortion in adolescence, which exceeds fertility rates in ten provinces of the country; early onset of sexual intercourse and first marriage, and improper use of contraceptive methods, are elements worth looking into in order to find explanations to the reproductive behavior of Cuban adolescents.

  6. Epiphytic dinoflagellates associated with ciguatera in the northwestern coast of Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Gilma; Lechuga-Devéze, Carlos H; Popowski, Genoveva; Troccoli, Luis; Salinas, Cesar A

    2006-06-01

    The spatial and temporal abundance of epiphytic dinoflagellates associated with ciguatera was studied over two annual cycles (March 1999 to March 2000 and March 2001 to March 2002) in the northwestern coast of Cuba. From 14 species of macroalgae (Phaeophyta, Chlorophyta, and Rhodophyta), 1340 samples were obtained identifying seven species as potentially noxious; five of them are new reports for Cuba's phytobenthos: Prorocentrum belizeanum Faust, P. concavum Fukuyo, P. mexicanum Tafall, Coolia monotis Meunier, and Ostreopsis lenticularis Fukuyo. ANOVA/MANOVA analysis showed significant spatial differences: lower cell abundance near the shoreline adjacent to a river inlet and higher cell abundance in the deepest area. Prorocentrum lima (Ehrenberg) Dodge 1975 was found mainly on Phaeophyta followed by Chlorophyta and Rhodophyta. Gambierdiscus toxicus was found mainly on Phaeophyta followed by Rhodophyta and Chlorophyta. All the species reported in the study area were mainly on Padina spp. (Phaeophyta). Acanthophora spicifera (Rhodophyta) did not host dinoflagellate species. Environmental conditions in summer (higher temperature, more nutrients, greater water transparency, and low wind intensity) are suitable for macroalgae development, which serves as a substrate for potentially harmful dinoflagellates, and possibly the main vector for spreading ciguatera along the coast of Cuba.

  7. ¿PERLAS DEL CARIBE?. La salud pública en Haití y Cuba

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    Arachu Castro-Paul Farmer

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A PARTIR DE LAS TRAYECTORIAS DEL SIDA EN HAITÍ Y EN CUBA, SE PROPONEN ALTERnativas a las ideologías predominantes en salud pública internacional, que sobreenfatizan la costo-efectividad y la sostenibilidad como criterios para asignar recursos. En Haití, donde el sida es la principal causa de muerte, la prevalencia de VIH es la más alta de América. En Cuba, con la menor prevalencia de América, su gobierno continúa mejorando los indicadores de salud y provee de atención integral a todas las personas con sida, a pesar de la grave crisis económica. Las situaciones de sida tan dispares reflejan los caminos divergentes hacia el desarrollo: mientras Cuba promueve los derechos sociales y económicos de su población, Haití sucumbe a la desigualdad creciente y a la deuda externa. Lo insostenible no es tratar el sida de quienes viven en la miseria, sino el abismo mundial, cada vez mayor, que impide que la tecnología médica alcance a quienes más la necesitan: los pobres.

  8. The impact of the economic crisis and the US embargo on health in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfield, R; Santana, S

    1997-01-01

    This paper examines the combined effects of a severe economic decline since 1989 and a tightening of the US embargo in 1992 on health and health care in Cuba. Data from surveillance systems for nutrition, reportable diseases, and hospital diagnoses were reviewed. These sources were supplemented with utilization data from the national health system and interviews with health leaders. Changes in Cuba include declining nutritional levels, rising rates of infectious diseases and violent death, and a deteriorating public health infrastructure. But despite these threats, mortality levels for children and women remain low. Instead, much of the health impact of the economic decline of Cuba has fallen on adult men and the elderly. To be consistent with international humanitarian law, embargoes must not impede access to essential humanitarian goods. Yet this embargo has raised the cost of medical supplies and food Rationing, universal access to primary health services, a highly educated population, and preferential access to scarce goods for women and children help protect most Cubans from what otherwise might have been a health disaster.

  9. Effect of the U.S. embargo and economic decline on health in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, M

    2000-01-18

    This article describes the ways in which economic crisis and the U.S. embargo have affected Cuba's health care system during the past 15 years. With the demise of subsidized trade, the absence of aid from the former Soviet Union, and the progressive tightening of U.S. sanctions, Cuba's model health care system has become threatened by serious shortages of medical supplies. Several public health catastrophes have occurred, including an epidemic of blindness that was partially attributed to a dramatic decrease in access to nutrients; an outbreak of the Guillain-Barré syndrome caused by lack of chlorination chemicals; and an epidemic of lye ingestion in toddlers due to severe shortages of soap. The policy of mandatory quarantine for HIV-infected Cubans has evolved into a less rigid system. Although the prevalence of HIV infection in Cuba is low compared with that in the United States and other Caribbean nations, it is threatened by prostitution, which has increased along with tourism. In general, economic sanctions may have an unintended but profound effect on the health and nutrition of vulnerable populations.

  10. Current status of prenatal diagnosis in Cuba: causes of low prevalence of Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Rosado, L A; Hechavarría-Estenoz, D; de la Torre, M E; Pimentel-Benitez, H; Hernández-Gil, J; Perez, B; Barrios-Martínez, A; Morales-Rodriguez, E; Soriano-Torres, M; Garcia, M; Suarez-Mayedo, U; Cedeño-Aparicio, N; Blanco, I; Díaz-Véliz, P; Vidal-Hernández, B; Mitjans-Torres, M; Miñoso, S; Alvarez-Espinosa, D; Reyes-Hernández, E; Angulo-Cebada, E; Torres-Palacios, M; Lozano-Lezcano, L; Lima-Rodriguez, U; Mayeta, M; Noblet, M; Benítez, Y; Lardoeyt-Ferrer, R; Yosela-Martin, S; Carbonell, P; Pérez-Ramos, M; de León, N; Perez, M; Carbonell, J

    2014-11-01

    To analyze trends in cytogenetic prenatal diagnosis in Cuba and to analyze possible causes leading to a low Down syndrome prevalence in a country where the triple test is not available. An analysis of the Cuban program in prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis from 1984 to 2012 was conducted. Results are described, with particular emphasis on indications, abnormal results, types of invasive procedures, and terminations of pregnancy. Cytogenetic prenatal diagnostic analyses (n = 75,095) were conducted; maternal age was the indication for 77.9% of the amniocenteses and chorionic villus samplings. The detection rate of chromosomally abnormal pregnancies was 2.3% for maternal age and increased to 8-9% for other indications. When a chromosomal abnormality was identified, 88.5% terminated the pregnancy. In 2002, the live birth prevalence of Down syndrome was 8.4 per 10,000 live births, and in 2012, 7 per 10,000. Prenatal diagnosis in Cuba has contributed to a significant reduction in chromosomal aberrations. The impact increased because of the demographic trends of the population, the high index of terminations of pregnancy, and the establishment of a network of cytogenetic laboratories throughout Cuba. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Newborn screening for congenital adrenal hyperplasia in Cuba: six years of experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Ernesto Carlos; Carvajal, Frank; Frómeta, Amarilys; Arteaga, Ana Luisa; Castells, Elisa María; Espinosa, Tania; Coto, Remigio; Pérez, Pedro Lucio; Tejeda, Yileidis; Del Río, Lesley; Segura, Mary Triny; Almenares, Pedro; Robaina, René; Fernández, José Luis

    2013-06-05

    Since 2005, a newborn screening program for congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) by measuring 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP) in dried blood spots was introduced in Cuba. The hormone was measured by the 17OHP Neonatal UMELISA method, in samples collected on the 5th day as average. Confirmatory test was performed to those neonates with 17OHP values above 55 nmol/l. Some perinatal factors that can influence on 17OHP levels were studied. From January 2005 to December 2010, 621,303 newborns were screened and 39 CAH cases were detected. Coverage of the program reached 98%. The incidence of CAH in Cuba was 1:15,931, similar to that reported by other programs. A recall for suspected CAH was performed in 10,799 cases (1.74%). Therapy in classical CAH patients was started at the mean age of 22 days. 17OHP levels were significantly higher in newborns with lower birth-weight (BW) and/or gestational age (GA). In addition, 17OHP values were affected by the gender, twin status or mode of delivery. In Cuba, the nationwide newborn screening program has allowed the early detection of CAH. The use of an optimized cut-off level for BW or GA could lead to a reduction in the percentage of recalled babies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Kaposi's Sarcoma and Human Herpesvirus 8 in Cuba: evidence of subtype B expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourí, Vivian; Martínez, Pedro A; Capó, Virginia; Blanco, Orestes; Rodríguez, María E; Jiménez, Narciso; Fleites, Gilberto; Caballero, Iraida; Dovigny, María C; Alemán, Yoan; Correa, Consuelo; Pérez, Lissette; Soto, Yudira; Cardellá, Lidia; Álvarez, Alina; Nambiar, Sandeep; Hengge, Ulrich

    2012-10-25

    To evaluate the temporal distribution (1991-2009) and associated variation of KSHV subtypes in Cuba. Phylogenetic characterization based on the KSHV K1 gene was performed using 90 KSHV positive samples. Molecular characterization confirmed the prevalence of a wide range of KSHV subtypes (A: n=48 [A5=12]; C: n=15; B: n=22; and E: n=5). In the current study, we observed a significant increase in HHV-8 subtype B after 2004 (p=0.0063). This Subtype B in Cuba was associated with: heterosexual behaviour (OR: 3.63, CI: 1,2-10,98; p=0.03), with the antecedent of acquiring HIV/KSHV in Africa (p=0.0003), with nodular stage of KS lesions (OR 4.2, CI: 1.1 to 15.7; p=0.04). Our study is the first to report KSHV Subtype B expansion in Cuba, that might be reflective of a change in human behavioural pattern. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Genetic origin, admixture, and asymmetry in maternal and paternal human lineages in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Background Before the arrival of Europeans to Cuba, the island was inhabited by two Native American groups, the Tainos and the Ciboneys. Most of the present archaeological, linguistic and ancient DNA evidence indicates a South American origin for these populations. In colonial times, Cuban Native American people were replaced by European settlers and slaves from Africa. It is still unknown however, to what extent their genetic pool intermingled with and was 'diluted' by the arrival of newcomers. In order to investigate the demographic processes that gave rise to the current Cuban population, we analyzed the hypervariable region I (HVS-I) and five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) coding region in 245 individuals, and 40 Y-chromosome SNPs in 132 male individuals. Results The Native American contribution to present-day Cubans accounted for 33% of the maternal lineages, whereas Africa and Eurasia contributed 45% and 22% of the lineages, respectively. This Native American substrate in Cuba cannot be traced back to a single origin within the American continent, as previously suggested by ancient DNA analyses. Strikingly, no Native American lineages were found for the Y-chromosome, for which the Eurasian and African contributions were around 80% and 20%, respectively. Conclusion While the ancestral Native American substrate is still appreciable in the maternal lineages, the extensive process of population admixture in Cuba has left no trace of the paternal Native American lineages, mirroring the strong sexual bias in the admixture processes taking place during colonial times. PMID:18644108

  14. Twenty years experiences of Bamboo propagation at the potanical Garden of Cienfuegos, Cuba

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    Julio León Cabrera

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Bamboo plants have fascinated growers and have motivated several specialists in their study due to their beauty and many applications. They are mostly originated in tropical and subtropical regions of the planet. In Cuba, the level of endemism is low and there are primarily herbaceous size species. For this reason, tree-sized woody species present in Cuba were introduced mainly by the Harvard Botanical Garden, Cienfuegos Botanical Garden today. The main objective is to study the economic potential and adaptation under the climatic conditions of Cuba, overlooking the extensive use of these resources. In previous years the use of these species has only been for emerging and craft work and its extension in reforestation plans has been limited. In 1989 began the first steps to encourage the cultivation and application of this wonder plant in our country. In this paper we show the results achieved in the propagation of bamboo in twenty years of work under different conditions. This helps to diversify the results in several provinces of the country with prospects for a local bamboo economy. Besides, it encourages job opportunities, satisfaction of many basic needs and import substitutions. Keyword: Poaceas, reforest, woody plants

  15. La imagen del turismo cultural en Cuba percibida por el mercado español

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    Yamilé Pérez Guilarte

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available El turismo cultural, percibido no solo como las visitas a sitios y monumentos históricos, sino ampliado al conocimiento de la forma de vida y tradiciones de las poblaciones locales, podría constituir una importante alternativa para Cuba. La presente investigación tiene como objetivos determinar si Cuba es apreciada como un destino cultural desde la perspectiva del mercado español e identificar cuáles son sus elementos distintivos. Por medio de un cuestionario realizado a 400 españoles, se evalúan los dos componentes de la imagen de un destino: el cognitivo y el afectivo. El estudio revela una preferencia por el turismo cultural y señala a la gente, la música, al Centro Histórico de La Habana y el estilo de vida como los elementos distintivos de Cuba. Estos resultados contribuyen a un diseño más efectivo de la promoción turística en el mercado español, aunque se recomienda ampliar el estudio a otros mercados potenciales.

  16. «Mayo Teatral 2008»: o teatro contemporâneo em Havana – Cuba

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    Marcos Antônio Alexandre

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Este artigo traz para discussão o panorama artístico cubano a partir da análise crítica de alguns textos espetaculares que foram apresentados no evento 8ª Temporada de Teatro Latinoamericano y Caribeño Mayo Teatral 2008. Para esta reflexão, são utilizadas as contribuições da semiótica teatral e são discutidas temáticas relacionadas, entre outras questões, à memória, à cultura cubana e afrocubana e às identidades.  Palavras-chave: Teatro; semiótica teatral; Cuba; memória; cultura; identidade.Resumen: Este artículo se propone a discutir el panorama artístico cubano a través del análisis de algunos textos espectaculares que fueron presentados en el evento 8ª Temporada de Teatro Latinoamericano y Caribeño – Mayo Teatral 2008. Para esta reflexión son utilizados los aportes de la semiótica teatral y son discutidas temáticas relacionadas, entre otras cuestiones, a la memoria, a la cultura cubana y afro-cubana y a las identidades.Palabras-clave: Teatro; semiótica teatral; Cuba; memoria; cultura; identidad.Keywords: Theater; theater semiotics; Cuba; memory; culture; identity.

  17. Height, Zinc and Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections in Schoolchildren: A Study in Cuba and Cambodia

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    Brechje de Gier

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections and zinc deficiency are often found in low- and middle-income countries and are both known to affect child growth. However, studies combining data on zinc and STH are lacking. In two studies in schoolchildren in Cuba and Cambodia, we collected data on height, STH infection and zinc concentration in either plasma (Cambodia or hair (Cuba. We analyzed whether STH and/or zinc were associated with height for age z-scores and whether STH and zinc were associated. In Cuba, STH prevalence was 8.4%; these were mainly Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections. In Cambodia, STH prevalence was 16.8%, mostly caused by hookworm. In Cuban children, STH infection had a strong association with height for age (aB-0.438, p = 0.001, while hair zinc was significantly associated with height for age only in STH uninfected children. In Cambodian children, plasma zinc was associated with height for age (aB-0.033, p = 0.029, but STH infection was not. Only in Cambodia, STH infection showed an association with zinc concentration (aB-0.233, p = 0.051. Factors influencing child growth differ between populations and may depend on prevalences of STH species and zinc deficiency. Further research is needed to elucidate these relationships and their underlying mechanisms.

  18. Resultados del RACSS en Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba, 2005

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    Juan R Hernández Silva

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realiza un RACSS (Rapid Assessment of Cataract Surgical Services, en Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba en el año 2005, en la población mayor de 50 años. Se determinó un tamaño de muestra de 2 760 personas distribuidos en 46 cluster (consultorios del médico de la familia que fueron seleccionados aleatoriamente mediante un muestreo sistemático en todos los municipios de la Ciudad de La Habana. Para el cálculo del tamaño de muestra se tuvieron en consideración los siguientes criterios: prevalencia de ceguera esperada de 2,5 %, error aceptable de 3 % y un efecto de diseño de 70 %. Los indicadores estimados fueron: la prevalencia de de ceguera en mayores de 50 años según sexo, grupos de edad, y causa, la prevalencia de afáquicos y pseudofáquicos, la cobertura y resultados de la cirugía de catarata. El estudio tuvo una cobertura de 98,3 % de la muestra seleccionada. La prevalencia de ceguera fue de 2.4 % en total. La prevalencia de personas ciegas por edad aumenta desde 2,6 % con 50 años a 15,2 % con 80 años y más. Las causas más importantes de ceguera fueron catarata 50 %, glaucoma 26 % y retinopatía diabética 9 %. La prevalencia de ceguera por catarata según sexos es de 3,64 % para el sexo femenino y 4,06 % para el masculino; se estimó un total de 10 184 de ciegos, y de 47 529 ojos ciegos por catarata. Las principales barreras para la cirugía de la catarata fueron: el desconocimiento de la enfermedad en 4,4 % de los casos, 17,9 % esperaba por su maduración y 11,5 % presentaba una enfermedad que contraindicaba la cirugía. En total 70,7 % de los pseudoafáquicos o afáquicos tenían AVcc de 0,3 y más. En general 62,3 % de los pacientes tenían colocados lentes intraocularesA RACSS (Rapid Assessment of Cataract Surgical Services was made on the population aged over 50 years in the City of Havana. A sampling size of 2 760 persons distributed into 46 clusters (family physician's offices, which were randomly selected by a systematic

  19. Sobre algunos precursores de la práctica farmacéutica en Cuba Cuba: On some precursors of pharmaceutical practice

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    José Antonio López Espinosa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan las semblanzas de algunos de los primeros profesionales que ejercieron la ciencia farmacéutica en Cuba. Los datos que sirvieron de fuente para preparar esta obra de referencia se extrajeron en principio de varios documentos inéditos del período colonial y de otras publicaciones que vieron la luz con posterioridad. Dicha información se procesó de modo conveniente para sacar de las sombras los nombres de estos hombres que no deben ser desconocidos por las generaciones actuales y futuras de los que se consagran a esta profesión. El presente trabajo, que aspira a cumplir ese propósito, trata asimismo de constituirse en modesto tributo a su memoria.In present paper are showed the features of some of the first professional precursors of Pharmacy Science in Cuba. Previously, data as source to prepare this reference work were searched from some unpublished documents from colonial period and from other subsequent publications. Such information was processed in a suitable way to extract from the anonymity the name of these men that must no be unknown by present and future generations of that devoted to this profession. Present paper wants to fulfill this objective and to be a modest tribute to their memory.

  20. Strengthening the Radiation Protection System in Cuba (SRPS - Cuba). A co-operation project between Cuban and Swedish institutions, February 2001 - June 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, Rodolfo; Larsson, Carl-Magnus; Prendes, Miguel; Zerquera, Juan Tomas

    2004-02-01

    This project results from the co-operation between a number of Cuban and Swedish institutions. It started in February 2001 and ended in June 2003 and was made possible thanks to the contributions of the Swedish International Development Co-operation Agency (SIDA), the Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones, Cuba (CPHR), and the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI). The overall objective was to strengthen the radiation protection system in Cuba, and in this way contribute with the control and reduction of risks to man and the environment from exposures to ionizing radiation. The project focused on four priority areas: 1) Protection of workers and patients exposed to radiation in radiation practices; 2) Preparedness for response to an emergency situation; 3) Environmental radiological protection; and, 4) Exposure to radiation in areas with high levels of natural radioactivity. The present report summarizes the findings of the whole project period, providing an overview of the overall achievements, as well as listing its deliverables. The results of an evaluation of the project, conducted during the final workshop, are also included. The report ends with a list of generic and specific conclusions and recommendations for implementation of the project's achievements and for further development of co-operation.

  1. Perfil profesional del Licenciado en Farmacia de la Universidad de Oriente, Cuba Professional profile of the Bachelor of Pharmacy in Universidad de Oriente, Cuba

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    Irma Leonor Ortega López

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Teniendo en cuenta la necesidad de un currículo que garantice una formación universitaria universal, contextual, flexible y comprometida con la realidad social y profesional, en el presente trabajo se diseñó el perfil profesional que caracterizará al egresado de la Licenciatura en Ciencias Farmacéuticas de la Universidad de Oriente, Cuba. Se utilizó para ello el Modelo de Actuación Profesional; se precisó el problema profesional, el objeto de la profesión y el objetivo profesional, y sobre la base del sentido articulador entre estas configuraciones se definieron los campos, esferas y modos de actuación, dejando explícito, además, los objetivos educativos e instructivos que se aspiran alcanzar.Taking into account the need of a curriculum assuring universal, contextual and flexible university formation that is committed to the social and professional realities of the country, the present paper designed the professional profile of the Pharmaceutical Sciences graduate in the University of Oriente, Cuba. To this end, the Professional Performance Model was used; the professional problem, the object of the profession and the professional objectives were defined. On the basis of the articulation of these configurations, the various fields, spheres and modes of performance were established, thus clearly stating the educational and learning objectives that are expected to be attained.

  2. Medición de campos electromagnéticos en redes de distribución: Experiencias en Cuba; Electromagnetic Measurements on Electric Network: Experiences in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Castro Fernández

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available La problemática de las posibles influencias sobre la salud humana de los campos electromagnéticosasociados a las instalaciones de alta tensión sigue manteniendo una actualidad total y los problemas quea escala internacional se han suscitado por las continuas referencias que en publicaciones de todo tipose han dado a la luz exige mantener líneas de estudio que aporten información al respecto. El presentetrabajo expone los resultados obtenidos durante la ejecución de un grupo de mediciones efectuadas enlíneas y subestaciones de distribución pertenecientes al Sistema Electroenergético Nacional (SEN deCuba, analizando dichos resultados con los niveles límites de las recomendaciones internacionales yalgunos otros resultados obtenidos por otros grupos de trabajo.  The influence of the electromagnetic fields on human health associated with High Voltage utilities hastotal actuality and very different result had been obtained for researchers. The discussion about its influencehas been necessary to increase efforts to obtain levels and time exposure to these fields. The levels ofEMF at electric lines and substations located in the National Electric System obtained by measurementsin different places in Cuba are presented in this paper; the authors compare these results with othersobtained for different scientific groups and international institutions.

  3. Actitudes lingüísticas en Cuba. Cambios positivos hacia la variante nacional de lengua

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    Roxana Sobrino Triana

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Este artículo analiza las actitudes lingüísticas de hablantes nativos de español de La Habana, frente al español de Cuba y hacia el español de los otros países hispanohablantes. El artículo es parte de los resultados del Proyecto LIAS (Linguistic Identity and Attitudes in Spanish-speaking Latin America, financiado por El Consejo Noruego de Investigación (RCN. La recolección de los datos se realizó en la capital del país, entrevistando a una muestra de 400 informantes, estratificada con las variables de edad, sexo y nivel socioeconómico. El análisis está centrado en las denominaciones dadas a la lengua española, las percepciones cognitivo-lingüísticas y las actitudes, tanto positivas como negativas, que manifiestan los informantes hacia su variedad nacional y el resto de los países hispanohablantes, así como las opiniones sobre corrección y unidad lingüísticas. Entre los resultados obtenidos destaca la valoración positiva hacia la variante cubana, en relación con investigaciones anteriores. El estudio contribuye a actualizar el panorama sobre actitudes en Cuba y se suma a la serie de trabajos, que con una metodología común, se han realizado en el mundo hispánico dentro del proyecto LIAS. Abstract This article analyzes the linguistic attitudes of native Spanish speakers from Havana, towards Spanish spoken in Cuba and in the other Spanish-speaking countries. It is a result of the LIAS-Project (Linguistic Identity and Attitudes in Spanish-speaking Latin America, funded by The Research Council of Norway (RCN. The data were gathered in the capital of the country, interviewing a stratified sample of 400 respondents based on the variables of age, sex and socioeconomic status. The analysis addresses several issues, such as the various names given to the Spanish language in Cuba, the cognitive linguistic perceptions and the positive and negative attitudes of Cuban speakers towards Spanish, as well as their opinions

  4. Recursos genéticos del boniato (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam. en Cuba. Especies silvestres

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    Oscar Leopoldo Parrado Alvarez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Se presentan los resultados de la valoración de los recursos genéticos del boniato (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam a partir del estudio de material de herbario y fuentes bibliográficas teniendo en consideración el criterio de grupo taxón de Maxted de acuerdo con el cual en Cuba se reporta la presencia de los grupos siguientes: Grupo Taxón 2 – misma serie o sección que el cultivo (7 especies; Grupo Taxón 3 – mismo subgénero que el cultivo Eriospermum (45 especies dentro de este grupo se encuentran 21 especies endémicas y el Grupo Taxón 4 – mismo género que el cultivo (57 especies lo que potencia a Cuba como un centro de diversidad importante para Ipomoea batatas en Latinoamérica y el Caribe . Se ofrece una descripción sucinta de las especies tratadas que incluye distribución, fenología, datos etnobotánicos y el material de herbario consultado. Genetic resources of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L. lam. in Cuba. Wild species. ABSTRACT The results of the evaluation of the genetic resources of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam are presented from the study of herbarium material and bibliographic sources taking into account the criterion of Maxted´s taxon group according to which in Cuba is reported the presence of the following groups : Taxon group 2 - same series or section cultivation (7 species Taxon group 3 - same subgenus Eriospermum the crop (45 species within this group are 21 endemic species and Taxon group 4 - same genus as the crop (57 species that fact potenciate to Cuba as an important center of diversity for Ipomoea batatas in Latin America and the Caribbean. A brief description of the treated species including distribution, phenology, ethnobotanical data and herbarium material consulted is provided. A brief description of the treated species including distribution, phenology, ethnobotanical data and herbarium material consulted is provided.

  5. Distribución y abundancia de la ascidia Ecteinascidia turbinata (Ascidiacea: Perophoridae en Cuba

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    Aida Hernández-Zanuy

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Ecteinascidia turbinata está ampliamente distribuida en las áreas de mangle rojo (Rhizophora mangle de tipo sobrelavados donde ocupa la porción permanentemente sumergida. Ocasionalmente se encontró sobre el coral negro Antipathes caribeana a 22 y 38 m de profundidad. Sin embargo no fue frecuente en los manglares de borde ni de ribera. Se muestrearon 58 localidades estando presente la especie en un 75 % de las mismas. Sus poblaciones son abundantes pues en el 57 % de las zonas prospectadas más del 25 % de las raíces del manglar poseen al menos una colonia. Las mayores densidades se encontraron en la costa noroeste de Cuba (Pinar del Río con valores cercanos a una colonia por metro lineal de manglar, siendo Cayo Jutías la de mayor densidad (1.46 col/m. La mayor biomasa también se registró en la mencionada localidad con valores comprendidos entre 25 y 660 g/m lineal de manglar. El promedio general de la biomasa en los manglares estudiados fue de 73.63 g/m lineal de manglar.Distribution and abundance of the ascidian Ecteinascidia turbinata (Ascidiacea: Perophoridae in Cuba. Permanently submerged mangrove roots (Rhizophora mangle are the main habitat of the ascidian Ecteinascidia turbinata in Cuba. It was occasionally found on black coral (Antiphates caribeana between 22 and 38 meters deep. This species exhibits a wide distribution in all the mangrove keys surrounding the Island of Cuba but does not occur in riparian or fringing mangroves. Populations of this species are abundant in Cuba: in 75 % of the 58 localities sampled the species was present and in 57 % more than 50 % of the roots held at least one colony. The highest colony densities were found in the northern coast of Pinar del Río province with values near one colony per lineal meter of mangrove root. We found the highest density (1.46 col/m and greatest biomass at Jutías Key, with values between 25 and 660 g/m. The average of wet biomass in the studied mangroves was 73.63 g

  6. Factores socioeconomicos asociados a la mortalidad postneonatal en Cuba Fatores sócio-econômicos associados à mortalidade pós-neonatal em Cuba Socioeconomic factors associated with postneonatal mortality in Cuba

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    Guillermo Gonzalez Perez

    1990-04-01

    Full Text Available Se intentam identificar aquellos factores socioeconomicos que puedan ser considerados como factores de riesgo, tanto de la mortalidad postneonatal como de la exógena, asi como su relevancia social, para Cuba en 1982. Mediante un estudio caso-control basado en una muestra nacional de fallecidos menores de un ano y sobrevivientes a la misma edad - para cuyo analisis se emplearon técnicas asociadas a la regresión logística - se pudo estimar el riesgo relativo; el riesgo atribuible y las probabilidades de morir en presencia o ausencia de los factores identificados. Los resultados apuntan hacia la carencia de servicios sanitarios en el interior de la vivienda y el hacinamiento - 3 o mas personas por habitación - como los factores de riesgo mas trascendentes tanto para propiciar la mortalidad postneonatal como la exógena. Se ratifica la condición de "reserva" que posee el componente postneonatal para la redución ulterior de la mortalidad infantil en el pais.Foram identificados os fatores sócio-econômicos que podem ser considerados de risco para a mortalidade pós-neonatal e mortalidade exógena, e seu impacto social em Cuba, em 1982. Realizou-se estudo caso-controle baseado numa amostra nacional dos óbitos menores de um ano, e dos sobreviventes da mesma idade. Os dados foram analisados com o emprego da técnica de regressão logística, para calcular o risco relativo, o risco atribuível e a probabilidade de morte na presença desses fatores. Os resultados indicaram que a falta de instalações sanitárias no domicílio e o excesso de pessoas em cada moradia (3 pessoas e mais por habitação são os mais fortes fatores de risco tanto para a morte pós-neonatal como por causa exógena. Foi confirmada a importância da redução da mortalidade pós-neonatal e exógena para a diminuição da taxa de mortalidade infantil em Cuba.Economic and social risk factors for both postneonatal and exogenous mortality are evaluated for Cuban children for

  7. Experiences in planning and response for the radiological emergencies in a radioactive facility; Experiencias en la planificacion y respuesta para las emergencias radiologicas en una instalacion radiactiva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amador B, Z.H.; Perez P, S.; Torres B, M.B.; Ayra P, F.E. [Centro de Isotopos, Ave. Monumental y Carretera La Rada, Km. 3, Guanabacoa, Apartado 3415, Ciudad de La Habana (Cuba)]. e-mail: dsr@centis.edu.cu

    2006-07-01

    It is internationally recognized the importance of the planning and the assurance for the effective response to the radiological emergencies. In the work those experiences on this thematic one in the Isotopes Center (CENTIS), the radioactive facility where the biggest radioactive inventory is manipulated in Cuba are presented. Due to CENTIS is also the sender and main transport of radioactive materials, it is included this practice. The revision of the abnormal situations during the years 1997 at the 2005, starting from the classification adopted by the Regulatory Authority of the country is carried out. Its are register the details of these occurrences in the Radiological Events Database (BDSR). A correspondence among the radiological impact evaluated in the Emergency Plan for the possible events and that of the registered ones is obtained. The complete training programs and realization of the exercises are carried out. Those results of 3 mockeries made to full scale are picked up. It was concluded that the operational experience and the maintained infrastructure, determine the answer capacity for radiological emergencies in the CENTIS. (Author)

  8. Estados Unidos – Cuba : historia de un embargo : análisis del cambio a través de los titulares en prensa

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Millán Regueira

    2015-01-01

    Se analiza la historia de las relaciones entre Estados Unidos y Cuba, desde la victoria de la Revolución en Cuba hasta la actualidad y las noticias o reportajes que se publicaron en varios medios de diferentes países de Latinoamérica, Estados Unidos y Europa

  9. Situación de la gestión de inventarios en Cuba/Situation of Stock Management in Cuba

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    Igor Lopes-Martínez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente artículo es analizar la situación de la gestión de inventarios en Cuba, a partir de las experiencias obtenidas durante más de 10 años en entidades de los sectores de servicios, comerciales y producción. En nuestro país existen problemas como: la falta de disponibilidad, la inestabilidad de suministros, la baja rotación de inventarios, los deficientes estudios realizados sobre demanda y productos obsoletos; todos los cuales están relacionados directamente con los inventarios. Es por ello que se propone analizar estos problemas desde la perspectiva de la empresa y tratarlos a nivel de cadena de suministro, integración débilmente estructurada en nuestras entidades. Se realiza un análisis de la relación entre la legislación vigente en Cuba y la gestión del inventario, por lo que se recomienda la utilización, en próximos estudios, de un modelo de referencia para evaluar la situación de la gestión de los inventarios en las empresas y cadenas de forma más integral./The main objective of this article is to analyze the stock management situation in Cuba, taking into account the experiences obtained for more than 10 years in several enterprises which develop their activities in connection with the service, commercial and production fields. Cuban companies are facing problems such as: lack of availability, supply instability, low rotation of the stock, poor studies of demand, and obsolete productions; which have in common their relation with the stock management. That is why this research proposes to make an assessment of these problems from the point of view of the enterprise in connection with their supply chains. Such a comprehensive analysis is poorly developed in Cuban enterprises so far. It is also proposed an analysis of the laws and their connection with stock management. Finally, it is suggested the introduction of a reference model in order to assess, with more integrality, the status of the stock

  10. A new species of Desmopachria Babington (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) from Cuba with a prediction of its geographic distribution and notes on other Cuban species of the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megna, Yoandri S; Sánchez-Fernández, David

    2014-01-10

    A new species, Desmopachria andreae sp. n. is described from Cuba. Diagnostic characters including illustrations of male genitalia are provided and illustrated for the five species of the genus occurring on the island. For these five species both a simple key to adults and maps of their known distribution in Cuba are also provided. Using a Maximun Entropy method (MaxEnt), a distribution model was developed for D. andreae sp.n. Based on the model's predictions, this species has a higher probability of occurring in high altitude forests (above 1000 m a.s.l.), characterised by relatively low temperatures especially during the hottest and wettest seasons, specifically, the mountainous areas of the Macizo de Guamuhaya (Central Cuba), Sierra Maestra (S Cuba) and Nipe-Sagua-Baracoa (NE Cuba). In some of these areas the species has not yet been recorded, and should be searched for in future field surveys.

  11. De las estructuras laminares a las estructuras metálicas en la arquitectura de Félix Candela. Análisis y reconstitución de la sala de exposiciones para el concurso del Palacio Olímpico de los Deportes, México 1968

    OpenAIRE

    Federico Luis del Blanco García; Ismael García Ríos

    2016-01-01

    El trabajo que se expone a continuación es parte del resultado de un trabajo de investigación realizado en la Universidad Politécnica de Madrid. A través de este artículo, se analiza el proyecto de la sala de exposiciones para el concurso del Palacio de los Deportes de México realizado por Félix Candela en asociación con Enrique Castañeda y Antonio Peiri en el año 1968. En el artículo se incluye la documentación original conservada en los depósitos de la Avery Architectural and Fine Arts L...

  12. Exposiciones rábicas en Colombia: evaluación del sistema de vigilancia desde los actores/ Rabies exposures in Colombia: an evaluation by the actors of the surveillance system

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    Claudia P. Roncancio-Melgarejo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Objetivo: identificar la percepción que tienen los actores frente a los atributos del sistema de vigilancia de las exposiciones rábicas para generar las recomendaciones que se requieran. Metodología: se utilizó la teoría fundada hasta análisis de categorías interpretativas; once entrevistas semiestructuradas enmarcadas en los atributos considerados por los Centros de Control y Prevención de Enfermedades (cdc para la evaluación de sistemas de vigilancia se realizaron a personas con un rol activo (desde notificación hasta administrador del sistema, en los departamentos con mayor y menor notificación del evento en el país. Resultados: emergieron catorce categorías descriptivas relacionadas con los nueve atributos, sistema de vigilancia, rabia y propuestas para la mejora; de éstas, cinco categorías analíticas las enmarcan con recursos para la operación, experiencia, control directo de la rabia y papel de los actores en el proceso. Se destacó la importancia del sistema en la recolección de información en Salud Pública; se desconocen publicaciones relacionadas y se percibió como baja la participación de los actores en la planificación. Se manifestaron dificultades con la calidad de la información: clasificación de casos, afectando la representatividad y sensibilidad. La aceptabilidad se relaciona con las tareas del sistema y el tiempo dedicado al proceso. La oportunidad varía en procesos de notificación y ajuste. Conclusiones: la percepción sobre los atributos denota la articulación de conceptos del sistema y la experiencia adquirida; aspectos positivos como representatividad e historia y negativos relacionados con calidad, sensibilidad, utilidad y aceptabilidad. Recomendaciones: realizar publicaciones y mejorar la participación en la planificación del sistema. / Abstract Objective: to identify the perception of the actors regarding the attributes of the rabies exposures surveillance system to generate any

  13. Los bioinsecticidas de nim en el control de plagas de insectos en cultivos económicos : La Habana (Cuba)

    OpenAIRE

    López Díaz, María Teresa; Estrada Ortíz, Jesús

    2005-01-01

    En Cuba, la generalización del cultivo del Nim (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) y el uso de los bioinsecticidas producidos a partir de éste como apoyo al desarrollo de una agricultura sostenible y ecológica, trae consigo la necesidad de validar su efectividad biológica en una gama cada vez más amplia de plagas de interés agrícola. En el presente trabajo se demuestra que con el uso de los productos OleoNim 80 CE, NeoNim 60 CE, CubaNim T, CubaNim SM y FoliarNim HM es posible controlar con eficac...

  14. Fasciola hepatica in Cuba: compatibility of different isolates with two intermediate snail hosts, Galba cubensis and Pseudosuccinea columella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, A A; Sánchez, J; Pointier, J-P; Théron, A; Hurtrez-Boussès, S

    2014-12-01

    In Cuba, only two lymnaeid snails, Galba cubensis and Pseudosuccinea columella, with different ecology and distribution patterns, are intermediate hosts for Fasciola hepatica. The compatibility of these two species as hosts was analysed through their rates of infection, the production of rediae and survivorship when exposed to F. hepatica miracidia. Ten populations of G. cubensis, eight of P. columella collected from various habitats and six isolates of F. hepatica sampled in slaughterhouses from different localities were tested. Our results clearly demonstrate that G. cubensis is a more compatible host for F. hepatica in Cuba when compared with P. columella. However, the role that P. columella may have in fascioliasis transmission under certain conditions should not be disregarded. Variation in infectivity among isolates of F. hepatica were also observed and may explain why some regions in Cuba are more commonly subjected to fascioliasis outbreaks.

  15. The Media’s Construction of Cuba. An Analysis of the Journalistic Discourse of The Washington Post

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    Mg. Miguel Ernesto Gómez Masjuán

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the main findings of a qualitative piece of research based on a unique, inclusive, descriptive case aimed at critically analysing the journalistic discourse of American newspaper The Washington Post about Cuba in two significant moments of the island´s recent history: Fidel Castro´s Proclamation in July 31, 2006, and Raúl Castro’s Presidential election in February, 2008. The main topics, discursive strategies and linguistic resources prioritised by the newspaper to portray Cuba during that period are examined and several converging points between the newspaper´s discourse and Bush Administration´s political discourse about Cuba are revealed.

  16. Función social de la epidemiología de los medicamentos: Su desarrollo en Cuba

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    Caridad Sedeño Argilagos

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión sobre los efectos indeseables de los medicamentos y su repercusión en la sociedad, a partir de planteamientos declarados por científicos que vivieron a.n.e. como Hipócrates, hasta la actualidad y el surgimiento de la epidemiología de los medicamentos en la década de los 60. Se describe brevemente el desarrollo de esta especialización en Cuba.A review is made on the undesirable effects of drugs and their impact on society, starting from the statements made by scientists who lived B.C. such as Hippocrates up to the present time and the emergence of drug epidemiology in Cuba in the 60´s. The development of this specialization in Cuba is briefly described.

  17. Resultados del Programa Nacional de Prevención de Ceguera por Catarata: Cuba 2000-2003 Results of the National Program of Prevention of Blindness due to Cataract: Cuba 2000-2003

    OpenAIRE

    Juan R. Hernández Silva; Carmen M Padilla González; Meisy Ramos López; Reinaldo Ríos Cazo; Marcelino Río Torres

    2004-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio descriptivo retrospectivo y se describen las cirugías de catarata realizadas en Cuba, agrupadas por año, para Ciudad de La Habana y el resto del país, clasificadas según la utilización de lentes intraocualres. Se calculó la tasa de cirugía de catarata; los datos fueron obtenidos del reporte anual realizado por los Grupos Provinciales de Oftalmología.A descriptive and retrospective study was conducted. The cataract surgeries performed in Cuba, grouped by year for Havana C...

  18. Analysis and Planning of the Cash Flows at the “Empresa de Aseguramiento y Servicios” of the Agriculture Ministry of Santiago de Cuba, Cuba

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    María Esperanza González-del Foyo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The following paper is about the analysis and planning of the cash flows at the “Empresa de Aseguramiento y Servicios” of the Agriculture Ministry of Santiago de Cuba with the goal of knowing how is generated and applied the cash at the enterprise in the period of 2008-2009 and its behavior for the year 2013. This paper makes for the five-year period related the Statements of Cash Flows and its interpretation as an analysis tool for the directors of the company, and also its foreseeing for the next period from the making of the Pro forma Financial Statements applying the method of the rate of sustainable growing of the sales. As a result of the analysis it was able to verify the difficulties of the enterprise to generate cash operative flows in opportune quantities and sufficient that limits the operation with levels of adequate solvency.

  19. Cáncer de tiroides en Cuba: estudio de 14 años Thyroid cancer in Cuba: A 14-year study

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    José Luis Valenciaga Rodríguez

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available El Registro Nacional del Cáncer en Cuba (RNCC aporta la información para el análisis de incidencia de cáncer en nuestro país. Constituye una herramienta para identificar necesidades asistenciales, planificar el uso adecuado de recursos y plantear estrategias en cuanto a las acciones de salud a desarrollar. Su objetivo es exponer y analizar la incidencia del cáncer de tiroides (CT en Cuba. Se realizó una investigación descriptiva y retrospectiva sobre el CT en el período de 1988 al 2001. Se emplearon las variables: edad, sexo, provincia de procedencia, diagnóstico histológico y etapa clínica, aportadas por el RNCC. Se calcularon distribuciones de frecuencia y tasas ajustadas y se expusieron los datos en tablas y gráficos. De 4 183 casos, el 81,3 % perteneció al sexo femenino y la media de edad calculada fue 45,9 ±17,5 años. La incidencia aumentó bruscamente en 1996, y mantuvo cifras estables, pero superiores a años precedentes. En general y en los varones la afectación fue mayor, coincidentemente, en mayores de 60 años (23,7 y 33,2 % pero en las féminas fue entre 30 y 39 (22,2. Cienfuegos tuvo más casos notificados. El 42 % fue bien diferenciado y el 40,4 perteneció a la etapa clínica I. Se desconoció el grado de diferenciación histológica y la etapa clínica en un 52 y un 41,8 % respectivamente. Se concluye que por su tendencia creciente en los últimos años es preciso mejorar la calidad en la notificación del CT para contribuir al mejor conocimiento de este en nuestro medio, y así plantear estrategias adecuadas de prevención y control.The National Cancer Registry of Cuba (NCRC provides information for the analysis of the incidence of this disease in our country, which is a tool to identify medical assistance needs, to plan the adequate use of resources and lay out strategies on the health care actions to be taken. The objective of this study was to present and analyze the incidence of thyroid cancer (TC in Cuba. A

  20. Moluscos terrestres de las elevaciones cársticas de Viñales, Pinar del Río, Cuba

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    Wilfredo Oliva-Olivera

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available De acuerdo a los muestreos efectuados en localidades representativas de las elevaciones cársticas de Viñales (Cuba, la consulta de catálogos no automatizados de colecciones malacológicas y la revisión de la literatura, se dan a conocer 136 especies, agrupadas en 49 géneros y 19 familias, de moluscos terrestres procedentes de la región. El 90% de las especies identificadas son endémicas de Cuba y sólo cinco especies no son autóctonas del archipiélago cubano. Las familias mejor representadas son Annulariidae y Urocoptidae. Los géneros con mayor número de especies son Chondrothyra y Liocallonia. Cuarenta y cuatro especies detectadas en Viñales no estaban representadas en las colecciones consultadas, y 23 de ellas han sido recolectadas en este trabajo y aportadas a las colecciones del Instituto de Ecología y Sistemática de Cuba. Se dan a conocer 16 nuevos registros de especies en localidades de la región, mientras que 12 especies parecen haberse extinguido localmente.Land snails from the Viñales limestone highlands, Pinar del Río, Cuba. The land snails inhabiting the limestone highlands in Cuba are poorly known. From field surveys, traditional collection catalogues, and the literature, we list 136 species, 49 genera and 19 families, 90 % of the species endemic to Cuba; only five species are non-indigenous of the Cuban archipelago. Annulariidae and Urocoptidae are the most represented families, and Chondrothyra and Liocallonia are the genera with the highest number of species. Forty-four species of this list were absent from the consulted collections. We provide 16 new records of species in localities of the region; and 12 species seem to have become locally extinct. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (3: 589-604. Epub 2009 September 30.

  1. Orígenes de la enseñanza de la Farmacia en Cuba Origin of Pharmacy teaching in Cuba

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    Pilar Marchante Castellanos

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Aunque la Universidad cubana cuenta con casi tres siglos de existencia, hasta el momento no ha sido realizado un estudio que presente la historia de la carrera de Farmacia de manera cronológica y sistemática. El objetivo del presente trabajo ha sido comenzar la búsqueda de la información más antigua disponible para presentar, en apretada síntesis, los antecedentes y orígenes de la enseñanza universitaria de las Ciencias Farmacéuticas en Cuba tomando lo más significativo de la situación imperante en la Isla antes del surgimiento de su primera Universidad, en 1728. Adicionalmente, y mediante el análisis de la documentación existente, se logra precisar el año en que se incluyó, por primera vez, la carrera de Farmacia en esa Universidad.Havana University is almost three centuries-old; however, no study has been made so far in which the history of Pharmacy career has been chronologically and systematically presented. The objective of this paper was to look for the most ancient information available in order to present in a brief way the antecedents and origins of Pharmaceutical Sciences teaching at university in Cuba, taking the most significant aspects of the situation prevailing in the island before the emergence of the first university in 1728 as a basis. Additionally, through the analysis of existing documents of that time, it was possible to precise over the year when Pharmacy career was included in that first university.

  2. Fuentes de infeccion de histoplasmosis en la Isla de la Juventud, Cuba Sources of infection of histoplasmosis in the Island of Youth, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Manuel Fernandez Andreu

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available El propósito del presente trabajo es reportar el aislamiento de Histoplasma capsulation, agente etiológico de la histoplasmosis, a partir del suelo de lugares habitados por murciélagos y gallinas en la Isla de la Juventud, Cuba. El hongo fue cultivado también a partir de los órganos de cuatro especies de murciélagos capturados en cuevas. La identificación de H. capsulatum se realizó mediante la conversión de la fase miceliana a levadura y por el test de exoantígenos. Se señala el valor epidemiológico de estos hallazgos en cuevas de gran importancia arqueológica, espeleológica y turística, así como el riesgo potencial que representan para la salud humana. Los autores concluyen con recomendaciones para evitar la infección por H. capsulatum en aquellas personas que por determinadas razones tengan que estar en contacto con estos ambientes contaminados.The purpose of this work is to report the isolation of Histoplasma capsulatum, etiologic agent of histoplasmosis, from soil in sites inhabited by bats and chicken in the Island of Youth, Cuba. The fungus was cultured from four species of cavedwelling bats too. The identification of H. capsulatum was done by mycelial to yeast conversion and exoantigen test. It is pointed out the epidemiological value of some of these isolations in caves of great importance from the archeologic, speleologic or touristic point of view; and the potential risk that they represent to human health. The authors conclude with some recommendation to prevent the infection with H. capsultatum in people who have to keep in contact with those environments.

  3. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ESTHETIC SENSIBILITY THROUGH THE SUBJECT HISTORY OF CUBA / EL DESARROLLO DE LA SENSIBILIDAD ESTÉTICA DESDE LA ASIGNATURA HISTORIA DE CUBA

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    Martha María Casas Rodríguez

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The work presented herein is a synthesis of an important pedagogical investigation for the aesthetic education of the art student in the elementary level. It was developed and validated in practice at Luis Casas Romero primary school. The objective is to reveal the relationship between the historical contents and aesthetics through a pedagogical model for the development of the aesthetic expression in the learning of Cuban History. It offers a pedagogical alternative for the aesthetic development in the teaching learning process of Cuban History. A relationship between intituitive and rational learning associated with affective and volitive processes, for the development of aesthetic expression is established.ResumenEl presente trabajo es la síntesis de una investigación pedagógica, de actualidad e importancia, para la educación estética del estudiante de arte en el Nivel Elemental de la Enseñanza Artística, que se desarrolló y validó en la práctica educativa de la Enseñanza Primaria de la Escuela Vocacional de Arte “Luis Casas Romero”. Tiene como objetivo develar las relaciones entre los contenidos históricos y la estética, a través de un modelo pedagógico para el desarrollo de la expresión estética del aprendizaje de la Historia de Cuba. Su importancia radica en que ofrece una alternativa pedagógica para el desarrollo estético a partir del proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje de la Historia de Cuba, que establece la relación del aprendizaje intuitivo y el racional, en relación con los procesos afectivos y volitivos, para el desarrollo de la expresión estética.

  4. Desarrollo de las ciencias farmacéuticas: su expresión dialéctica en Cuba Development of pharmaceutical sciences: its dialectic expression in Cuba

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    Eduardo Fernández-Sánchez

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan los distintos períodos de desarrollo de la ciencia y se enmarcan las ciencias farmacéuticas en particular. Se expone cómo la práctica farmacéutica en el siglo XIX abandona su utilidad social para convertirse en una actividad mercantil, que deriva en el siglo XX en la aparición de consorcios transnacionales, todo lo cual va incidiendo en los países menos desarrollados, y de hecho en sus instituciones universitarias. Las universidades se vuelven dependientes de las economías imperantes, y estas a su vez condicionan un nivel correspondiente a los intereses clasistas. Se aborda la aparición de la enseñanza universitaria en Cuba antes de 1959, donde no constituye una excepción del resto de Latinoamérica. Se preconizan serias transformaciones en la Universidad de La Habana, a partir de la introducción del nuevo proyecto social cubanoThe different periods of the development of science are analyzed, making emphasis on the pharmaceutical sciences in particular. It is exposed how the pharmaceutical practice in the XIX century left its social usefulness to become a trading activity that gave rise in XX century to the appearance of transnational consortia, which influenced on the least developed countries and in their university institutions. The universities began to depend on the dominating economies, which at the same time conditioned a level corresponding to the classist interests. The appearance of the university teaching in Cuba before 1959, which was not an exception to the rest of Latin America, was dealt with. Serious transformations in the University of Havana were praised, starting from the introduction of the new Cuban social project

  5. Morbidity, utilization of curative care and service entry point preferences in metropolitan Centro Habana, Cuba

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    Armando Rodríguez

    Full Text Available Abstract: First-line health services with a primary health care approach are a strong trigger for adequate health-care-seeking behavior. Research on the association between prevalence of chronic diseases and acute illnesses and use of health services emphasizes the importance of socioeconomic determinants in such patterns of utilization. In a cross-sectional study of 408 families in Centro Habana, Cuba, home interviews were conducted between April and June 2010 to analyze socio-demographic determinants of acute and chronic health problems and use of formal health services. Bivariate and logistic regression models were used. 529 persons reported a chronic disease. During the previous month, 155 of the latter reported an exacerbation and 50 experienced an unrelated acute health problem. 107 persons without chronic diseases reported acute health problems. Age was the strongest determinant of chronic disease prevalence. Adult women and the elderly were more likely to report acute problems. Acute patients with underlying chronic disease used formal services more often. No socio-demographic variable was associated with services use or consultation with the family physician. While the family physician is defined as the system's entry-point, this was the case for only 54% of patients that had used formal services, thus compromising the physician's role in counseling patients and summarizing their health issues. The importance of chronic diseases highlights the need to strengthen the family physician's pivotal role. New economic policies in Cuba, stimulating self-employment and private initiative, may increase the strain on the exclusively public health care system. Still, the Cuban health system has demonstrated its ability to adapt to new challenges, and the basic premises of Cuba's health policy are expected to be preserved.

  6. Morbidity, utilization of curative care and service entry point preferences in metropolitan Centro Habana, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Armando; Díaz, Addys; Balcindes, Susana; García, René; Vos, Pol De; Stuyft, Patrick Van der

    2016-11-03

    First-line health services with a primary health care approach are a strong trigger for adequate health-care-seeking behavior. Research on the association between prevalence of chronic diseases and acute illnesses and use of health services emphasizes the importance of socioeconomic determinants in such patterns of utilization. In a cross-sectional study of 408 families in Centro Habana, Cuba, home interviews were conducted between April and June 2010 to analyze socio-demographic determinants of acute and chronic health problems and use of formal health services. Bivariate and logistic regression models were used. 529 persons reported a chronic disease. During the previous month, 155 of the latter reported an exacerbation and 50 experienced an unrelated acute health problem. 107 persons without chronic diseases reported acute health problems. Age was the strongest determinant of chronic disease prevalence. Adult women and the elderly were more likely to report acute problems. Acute patients with underlying chronic disease used formal services more often. No socio-demographic variable was associated with services use or consultation with the family physician. While the family physician is defined as the system's entry-point, this was the case for only 54% of patients that had used formal services, thus compromising the physician's role in counseling patients and summarizing their health issues. The importance of chronic diseases highlights the need to strengthen the family physician's pivotal role. New economic policies in Cuba, stimulating self-employment and private initiative, may increase the strain on the exclusively public health care system. Still, the Cuban health system has demonstrated its ability to adapt to new challenges, and the basic premises of Cuba's health policy are expected to be preserved.

  7. Background concentrations and reference values for heavy metals in soils of Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro, Mirelys Rodríguez; Montero, Alfredo; Ugarte, Olegario Muñiz; do Nascimento, Clístenes Williams Araújo; de Aguiar Accioly, Adriana Maria; Biondi, Caroline Miranda; da Silva, Ygor Jacques Agra Bezerra

    2015-01-01

    The potential threat of heavy metals to human health has led to many studies on permissible levels of these elements in soils. The objective of this study was to establish quality reference values (QRVs) for Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr, Fe, Mn, As, Hg, V, Ba, Sb, Ag, Co, and Mo in soils of Cuba. Geochemical associations between trace elements and Fe were also studied, aiming to provide an index for establishing background concentrations of metals in soils. Surface samples of 33 soil profiles from areas of native forest or minimal anthropic influence were collected. Samples were digested (USEPA method 3051A), and the metals were determined by ICP-OES. The natural concentrations of metals in soils of Cuba followed the order Fe > Mn > Ni > Cr > Ba > V > Zn > Cu > Pb > Co > As > Sb > Ag > Cd > Mo > Hg. The QRVs found for Cuban soils were as follows (mg kg(-1)): Ag (1), Ba (111), Cd (0.6), Co (25), Cr (153), Cu (83), Fe (54,055), Mn (1947), Ni (170), Pb (50), Sb (6), V (137), Zn (86), Mo (0.1), As (19), and Hg (0.1). The average natural levels of heavy metals are above the global average, especially for Ni and Cr. The chemical fractionation of soil samples presenting anomalous concentrations of metals showed that Cu, Ni, Cr, Sb, and As have low bioavailability. This suggests that the risk of contamination of agricultural products via plant uptake is low. However, the final decision on the establishment of soil QRVs in Cuba depends on political, economic, and social issues and in-depth risk analyses considering all routes of exposure to these elements.

  8. Development of an active risk-based surveillance strategy for avian influenza in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, E; Alfonso, P; Ippoliti, C; Abeledo, M; Calistri, P; Blanco, P; Conte, A; Sánchez, B; Fonseca, O; Percedo, M; Pérez, A; Fernández, O; Giovannini, A

    2014-09-01

    The authors designed a risk-based approach to the selection of poultry flocks to be sampled in order to further improve the sensitivity of avian influenza (AI) active surveillance programme in Cuba. The study focused on the western region of Cuba, which harbours nearly 70% of national poultry holdings and comprise several wetlands where migratory waterfowl settle (migratory waterfowl settlements - MWS). The model took into account the potential risk of commercial poultry farms in western Cuba contracting from migratory waterfowl of the orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes through dispersion for pasturing of migratory birds around the MWS. We computed spatial risk index by geographical analysis with Python scripts in ESRI(®) ArcGIS 10 on data projected in the reference system NAD 1927-UTM17. Farms located closer to MWS had the highest values for the risk indicator pj and in total 31 farms were chosen for targeted surveillance during the risk period. The authors proposed to start active surveillance in the study area 3 weeks after the onset of Anseriformes migration, with additional sampling repeated twice in the same selected poultry farms at 15 days interval (Comin et al., 2012; EFSA, 2008) to cover the whole migration season. In this way, the antibody detectability would be favoured in case of either a posterior AI introduction or enhancement of a previous seroprevalence under the sensitivity level. The model identified the areas with higher risk for AIV introduction from MW, aiming at selecting poultry premises for the application of risk-based surveillance. Given the infrequency of HPAI introduction into domestic poultry populations and the relative paucity of occurrences of LPAI epidemics, the evaluation of the effectiveness of this approach would require its application for several migration seasons to allow the collection of sufficient reliable data. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Cuba y el despertar de los nacionalismos en la España peninsular

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    Enric UCELAY DA CAL

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El presente artículo analiza el papel nuclear que el nacionalismo cubano tuvo en la aparición y crecimiento de los nacionalismos contemporáneos en España. Tanto el nacionalismo español como los nacionalismos periféricos, especialmente el catalán y el vasco, estuvieron determinados por el modelo y las formas nacionalistas que surgieron de manera pionera en la Gran Antilla. Por otro lado, el enfrentamiento entre nacionalismo cubano y respuesta españolista establecería las pautas ideológicas de radicalización que posteriormente serían repetidas en contextos metropolitanos. Desentrañar esas determinaciones y esas pautas en el marco de la dimensión cubana de la política española es, pues, el tema central de este trabajo. Palabras Clave: Cuba, España, Imperio, Nacionalismo cubano, Nacionalismos peninsulares. ABSTRACT: The article analyzed the central role that Cuban nationalism played in the appearance and growth of contemporary nationalism in Spain. Both Spanish nationalism and peripheral nationalism, especially in Catalonia and the Basque Country, were determined by the nationalist model and forms that were pioneered in Cuba. Moreover, the confrontation between Cuban nationalism and the Spanish response was to establish the ideological lines of radicalization that would subsequently be repeated in metropolitan contexts. The deciphering of these determinations and these lines in the framework of the Cuban dimension of Spanish politics is thus the central theme of this study. Key words: Cuba, Spain, Empire, Cuban Nationalism, Peninsular Nationalism.

  10. Examen estatal de la carrera de Medicina. Evolución en Cuba

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    Guadalupe Alvarez-Bustamante

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir la evolución del examen estatal en Cuba de la carrera de Medicina. Desarrollo: Un dilema de las facultades y escuelas de Medicina en todo el mundo y en Cuba, ha sido la evaluación del progreso de los estudiantes a la largo de la carrera. En Cuba el pensamiento estratégico educacional del Comandante en Jefe, Fidel Castro Ruz, ha permitido mantener un desarrollo ascendente en la educación cubana, A partir del curso académico 1998-1999, se determinó por el Ministerio de Salud Pública (Minsap la realización del examen estatal a los estudiantes de sexto año de Medicina. En la metodología que existe para la realización del instrumento evaluativo escrito del examen estatal no existe una indicación declarada por etapas y organizada, que pueda guiar a la Comisión Nacional de Examen Estatal con uniformidad y siguiendo un pensamiento científico para la confección de estos instrumentos evaluativos. Los autores de la presente revisión consideran que estos exámenes deben responder a los objetivos generales de la carrera y al perfil del egresado, con la utilización de una metodología más precisa. Conclusiones: El Examen Estatal de la carrera de Medicina ha tenido una evolución en ascenso desde sus inicios, precisando en la actualidad una nueva metodología para la confección de su instrumento teórico.

  11. LAS ESTRATEGIAS DE ENSEÑANZA Y APRENDIZAJE EN LA HISTORIA DE CUBA EN LA ESCUELA PRIMARIA MULTIGRADO

    OpenAIRE

    Ada Iris Nápoles Cruz; José Ignacio Reyes González

    2015-01-01

    Este artículo contiene ideas que reflexionan sobre la necesidad de desarrollar en las escuelas primarias multigrados estrategias didácticas para el proceso de enseñanza aprendizaje de la Historia de Cuba en este contexto educativo, que potencie las relaciones entre los componentes de dicho proceso y promueva las estrategias, tanto para el maestro como para los escolares primarios, que favorezcan la enseñanza y el aprendizaje de la Historia de Cuba con el objetivo de materializar las aspirac...

  12. Promotional cultural poster: Major features of the sociocultural peak in Santiago de Cuba city, between 1970-1980

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    Zoilo Rafael Fernández-Hernández

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available During 70´s and 80´s of the last century, the promotional cultural poster in Santiago de Cuba gained a remarkable peak, due to historical and culturals conditions. Many important institutions were founded, that promote graphic design and sociocultural actions in the city, expressed in a lot of cultural events in that period. Nonetheless is impossible deny the education that acquired artists and designers, who with their creations increased the graphic arts movement in Santiago de Cuba, because they had a unique style. Because they had developed a unique style, apart of the Havana´s art movement.

  13. El universo material de la vida domestica de la elite de Santiago de Cuba entre 1830 y 1868

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morales Tejeda, Aida

    2009-01-01

    ... y de otros llegados directamente desde Francia, que conformaron una pujante colonia en la ciudad. De tal manera se procura revelar cómo el universo material del patriciado santiaguero se transformó a partir de la influencia de modos de hacer traídos por los franceses asentados en la ciudad. PALABRAS CLAVE Santiago de Cuba, vivienda, símbolos, cultura francesa, mobiliario. ABSTRACT This article explores the material and domestic world of the elite from Santiago de Cuba from the perspective of the Arts. In p...

  14. La farmacoeconomía en la industria farmacéutica y el sistema sanitario de Cuba

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    Collazo Herrera Manuel M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This piece describes how pharmacoeconomic studies promote rational and efficient drug use. The pharmaceutical industry of Cuba has become more interested in such analytical techniques and has begun to use them to develop strategies for research and development, production, and product marketing. This paper describes research related to pharmacological treatments, through practical examples of pharmacoeconomic evaluations carried out jointly by the pharmaceutical sector and the health care system in Cuba. These efforts demonstrate the applicability that pharmacoeconomics has for health decision-making based on clinical effectiveness and the costs of the pharmacotherapeutics used.

  15. Development of an informative system on aspects of radiological protection in the medical practices; Desarrollo de un sistema informativo sobre aspectos de proteccion radiologica en las practicas medicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez B, G.M.; Martinez G, A.; Gonzalez R, N.; Hernandez A, R.; Valdes R, M.; Cardenas H, J.; Zaldivar H, W. [CPHR, Calle 20 No. 4113 e/41 y 47, Playa C.P. 11300 La Habana (Cuba); Diaz B, M.; Machado T, A. [Centro Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear, Ciudad de la Habana (Cuba)]. e-mail: gladys@cphr.edu.cu

    2006-07-01

    Today in day is difficult to imagine the development of the medical practices in the diagnosis and treatment of diverse illnesses without the use of the ionizing radiations. In spite of the diffusion and application of these practices, the patients and the public in general don't have full conscience of like the procedures are carried out and the risks that these involve. For it diverse international and national organizations in the last years recommend to include in the programs of radiological protection, all the information that should be given to the patients and the one public that attend as users to the medical institutions to undergo to procedures that imply the use of the ionizing radiations. In Cuba a growing and quick tendency exists to the introduction of nuclear techniques for medical ends, however paradoxically the relative aspects to the communication to the patients and the public in general about the risks of the procedures to that they will be subjected and in consequence on the measures to minimize them is not adequate. Keeping in mind the above-mentioned, specialists of national centers linked to the control and consultant ship in the topics of radiological protection in the medical practices that use ionizing radiations, they worked in the country in the design of an information system that should contribute to elevate the population's culture before the mentioned aspects. The present work describes the structure of this system in function of the different medical attention levels of our national health system. Additionally it exposes the development of a package of varied informative and training tools among those that are folding, posters, guides, instructions, CD Show that its approach general and specific aspects of the uses and risks of medical practices in nuclear medicine, radiodiagnostic and radiotherapy directed so much to health professionals, patients as public in general. (Author)

  16. ‘Going back home’: slave suicide in nineteenth century Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Barcia, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    The issue of African slave suicides in Cuba was an always present one in the minds of slave traders, planters, and the colonial authorities. During the first half of the nineteenth century, discussions among the reasons behind this behavior included basically all sectors of the island’s society, including the main authorities. In this article, slave suicides are discussed both as a day-to-day action of resistance undertaken by the slaves, and as a social concern for those who had invested int...

  17. El comercio de esclavos a Cuba, 1790- 1840: Una proporción femenina

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz Joda Esteve

    2014-01-01

    Desde una perspectiva comparativa y de género, se realiza un análisis de la trata de esclavos africanos dirigida a Cuba entre 1790 y 1840. Por un lado, se aborda la controversia de las fuentes para investigar y cuantificar las mujeres esclavas llevadas a la isla y, por otro, la evolución de la proporción de mujeres que hicieron parte de la trata de esclavos. Las causas e hipótesis que pueden explicar los porcentajes hallados nos plantean la dicotomía entre producción y reproducción femenina....

  18. A HOUSE FOR THE REVOLUTION: A PROJECT OF CULTURAL LEGITIMATION IN CUBA (1959-1965

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    GREYSER COTO SARDINA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With the revolutionary triumph I Cuba, a deep transformation of all the socio-economic, political and cultural structures is started. As part of this dynamics a process of institutionalization which finds in the scope of culture one of its higher referents in the creation of Casa de las Americas in July 1959 starts. The needs of legitimation of the new system found in the institution a mechanism to encourage and stimulate the revolutionary ideas and its projections towards Latin-America. In the period from 1959 to 1965, through its main actions, understood as its magazine and contest, the intellectual compromise as principal foundation of its discourse was authenticated.

  19. Figuraciones de la esclavitud en novelas y ensayos antiesclavistas de Cuba y Brasil, 1840-1880

    OpenAIRE

    Novau, Julieta

    2016-01-01

    La tesis doctoral presentada da cuenta de las "figuraciones de la esclavitud" en un amplio corpus textual (ensayos y novelas) de autores representativos de la "narrativa antiesclavista" en el siglo XIX, centrada en las áreas de Cuba y Brasil. Desde una perspectiva comparativa, que atiende a los planos retóricos y discursivos, se analizan puntualmente novelas y ensayos de autores canónicos como Gertrudis Gómez de Avellaneda, Cirilo Villaverde, José Antonio Saco, Alejandro von Humboldt, José de...

  20. Los amargos beneficios del dulce. Azúcar, Cuba y deuda ecológica

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    Rodrigo y Alharilla, Martín

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is placed within the paradigm of environmental history. From a focus that is both macrohistorical and inductive, it offers a reflection upon the link between the deforestation registered in Cuba as a result of the expansion of sugar cane cultivation, and the transfer of part of the gains produced by sugar towards economies in other latitudes, particularly towards Catalonia. The study analyzes first of all the establishment of sugar cane “haciendas” in the old Cuban province of Las Villas during the second third of the 19th century. It then inquires into the life trajectory of several “hacienda” owners of the region, who in the last period of their lives settled down in Catalonia, where they transferred a large part of the capital they had accumulated on the island. Finally, the essay points at evidence that suggests that the proposed analysis may be applied to other regions in Cuba as well as to Puerto Rico.

    El artículo se situa en el paradigma de la historia ambiental. A partir de un enfoque a la vez microhistórico e inductivo, ofrece una reflexión sobre el vínculo existente entre la deforestación registrada en Cuba por efecto de la expansión del cultivo de la caña de azúcar y la transferencia de parte de las ganancias producidas por el azúcar a economías de otras latitudes, particularmente hacia Cataluña. Se analiza, en primer lugar, el proceso de implantación de las haciendas cañeras en la antigua provincia cubana de Las Villas, durante el segundo tercio del siglo XIX, y, a continuación, la trayectoria vital de varios hacendados de la región, los cuales acabaron instalándose en la etapa final de su vida en Cataluña, adonde trasladaron buena parte de los capitales acumulados en la isla. Por último, se apuntan diferentes evidencias que sugieren que el análisis planteado podría realizarse igualmente para otras regiones de Cuba así como para Puerto Rico.