WorldWideScience

Sample records for cuba durante 2001-2004

  1. "Masonerías en Cuba durante el siglo XIX"

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Torres Cuevas

    2011-01-01

    Esta investigación analiza el desarrollo de las masonerías cubanas durante el siglo XIX y sus relaciones con los principales procesos políticos, económicos y sociales de la Isla, en especial con los de emancipación y de llegada de ideas liberales, civilistas, laicas y seculares. Asimismo, este trabajo funciona como un estado de cuestión sobre lo escrito con respecto al específico objeto de estudio.

  2. "Masonerías en Cuba durante el siglo XIX"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Torres Cuevas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación analiza el desarrollo de las masonerías cubanas durante el siglo XIX y sus relaciones con los principales procesos políticos, económicos y sociales de la Isla, en especial con los de emancipación y de llegada de ideas liberales, civilistas, laicas y seculares. Asimismo, este trabajo funciona como un estado de cuestión sobre lo escrito con respecto al específico objeto de estudio.

  3. Los hospitales militares en la isla de Cuba durante la guerra de 1895-1898

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Marfil, Bonifacio

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article I analyse the development of the sanitary network of infirmaries, clinics and military hospitals that the Military Medical Corp achieved during the war of Cuba from 1895 to 1898. The great amount of sick people made many sanitary centres receive more patients than they were designed for, also they were established in places that, many times, did not have adequate technical or sanitary conditions.

    En este artículo se analiza la creación y desarrollo de la red sanitaria de enfermerías, clínicas y hospitales militares que el Cuerpo de Sanidad Militar puso en funcionamiento durante la guerra de Cuba entre los años 1895 a 1898. La gran cantidad de enfermos originó que muchos de estos centros sanitarios acogieran un mayor número de pacientes que aquel para el que estaban inicialmente diseñados, y que se instalaran en edificios y locales que muchas veces no reunían las condiciones técnicas e higiénico-sanitarias adecuadas.

  4. Inequidad salarial en Cuba durante el Período Especial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura SPAGNOLO

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Este trabajo analiza la evolución de la inequidad salarial en Cuba desde principios de la década de 1990 hasta 2004, durante y luego de lo que fue conocido como el «Período Especial». Específicamente, medimos la inequidad salarial a nivel sectorial y regional usando el componente intergrupal del estadístico de Theil y rastreamos los componentes cambiantes de este estadístico con el fin de proveer un resumen compacto de los cambios de carácter estructural acaecidos en la economía cubana durante este período. A nivel sectorial, los asalariados empleados en ramas económicas asociadas a la producción de bienes transables y programas estratégicos de la Revolución percibieron consistentemente salarios por encima del promedio nacional durante el período de estudio. Regionalmente, observamos que la principal línea de división entre sectores con salarios por encima del promedio y aquellos por debajo se explica por la presencia de atracciones turísticas: el incremento reciente de la desigualdad a nivel regional está asociado primordialmente a los cambios salariales en la ciudad de La Habana y la provincia de Matanzas.ABSTRACT: This essay analyzes the evolution of wage inequality in Cuba since the beginning of the 1990s to 2004, during and after the «Special Period». Specifically, we measure the wage inequality at sector and regional levels using the intergroup component of Theil statistics and we track the changing components of this statistics with the goal of providing a compact summary about the structural changes in the Cuban economy during this period. At a sector level, the wage employees of economic branches associated to the production of interchangeable goods and strategic programs of Revolution, gain consistently wages over the national average during the study period. Regionally, the main division between sectors with wages above the average and those below them is explained by the presence of touristic

  5. Inequidad salarial en Cuba durante el Período Especial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel MUNEVAR

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Este trabajo analiza la evolución de la inequidad salarial en Cuba desde principios de la década de 1990 hasta 2004, durante y luego de lo que fue conocido como el «Período Especial». Específicamente, medimos la inequidad salarial a nivel sectorial y regional usando el componente intergrupal del estadístico de Theil y rastreamos los componentes cambiantes de este estadístico con el fin de proveer un resumen compacto de los cambios de carácter estructural acaecidos en la economía cubana durante este período. A nivel sectorial, los asalariados empleados en ramas económicas asociadas a la producción de bienes transables y programas estratégicos de la Revolución percibieron consistentemente salarios por encima del promedio nacional durante el período de estudio. Regionalmente, observamos que la principal línea de división entre sectores con salarios por encima del promedio y aquellos por debajo se explica por la presencia de atracciones turísticas: el incremento reciente de la desigualdad a nivel regional está asociado primordialmente a los cambios salariales en la ciudad de La Habana y la provincia de Matanzas.ABSTRACT: This essay analyzes the evolution of wage inequality in Cuba since the beginning of the 1990s to 2004, during and after the «Special Period». Specifically, we measure the wage inequality at sector and regional levels using the intergroup component of Theil statistics and we track the changing components of this statistics with the goal of providing a compact summary about the structural changes in the Cuban economy during this period. At a sector level, the wage employees of economic branches associated to the production of interchangeable goods and strategic programs of Revolution, gain consistently wages over the national average during the study period. Regionally, the main division between sectors with wages above the average and those below them is explained by the presence of touristic

  6. Government/Andra 2001/2004 quadrennial contract; Contrat quadriennal 2001/2004 Etat/Andra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The French national agency for the management of radioactive wastes (ANDRA) was created on December 31, 1991 with the objective of carrying out research works in the domain of the long term management of radioactive wastes: research programs, management of waste disposal facilities, realisation and exploitation of underground laboratories for the design and setting up of new disposal facilities, definition of safety rules, conditioning and disposal specifications, inventory and localization of all radioactive wastes inside the French territory. This documents aims at defining the missions of the Andra for the 2001-2004 era, ten years after its creation: classification of radioactive wastes; positioning and missions of the Agency; objectives for the industrial mission (safety, storage and disposal solutions, management solutions, continuation of the inventory work, optimization of disposal costs, memory and surveillance); objectives of the research mission (high scientific level projects, structuration of researches, reinforcement of the coordination between the 3 axes of the 1991 law, exploitation and management of underground laboratories, spreading out of scientific results); objectives of the information mission (inventory and localization of wastes, realization of a reference inventory, contribution to the local information, proposal for a clear and verifiable information); international policy objectives (promotion of contacts and cooperations with foreign partners, representation of the Agency among the big international organizations, punctual missions for the valorization of the Agency competencies); evaluation and quality assurance inside the Agency (safety evaluation, scientific and technical evaluation, quality policy and environment, ethics, contract follow up). (J.S.)

  7. Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-01

    Cuba is a country of 110,860 sq.km with 10.8 million inhabitants, of whom 99% are literate. Independence was gained on May 20, 1902. The terrain consists of flat or gently rolling plains, hills, and mountains up to 2000 meters in the Southeast, with a climate which is tropical, yet moderated by trade winds. Spanish is spoken by the Spanish-African mixed population. Life expectancy ranges over 74-77 years. Gross social product is $21 billion, declining at a rate of -20%. Per capita income is $1500. The country's natural resources include nickel, cobalt, iron ore, copper, manganese, salt, and timber. Sugar, fruits, tobacco, coffee, rice, beans, meat, vegetables, food processing, oil refining, cement, electric power, light consumer, and industrial products are areas of economic production. Capital goods, industrial raw materials, food, petroleum, and consumer goods are imported, and sugar and its by-products, petroleum, nickel, seafood, citrus, tobacco products and rum are exported. Indepth information is also given on the people and history, government and principal officials, political conditions, the economy, defense, foreign relations, relations with the U.S., and names of principal U.S. officials in the country.

  8. La Educacion de los Jesuitas en Cuba durante el Siglo XVI (1566-1574) (Jesuit Education in Cuba during the 16th Century (1566-1574).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentes, Roberto Valdes

    2000-01-01

    Explains the relationship between Spanish colonialism in Cuba, evangelization of the Indians, and the origins of Cuban culture, as well as the role the Jesuits played in this process of transculturation. Analyzes the first phase in the history of the educational work of the Jesuits in Cuba (1566-1574). (BT)

  9. La formación del médico en Cuba durante la etapa colonial:evolución histórico-pedagógica

    OpenAIRE

    Fuentes Lafargues, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    El estudio del proceso de formación universitaria del médico en Cuba durante la etapa colonial constituye el objeto de estudio de esta investigación, que respalda la necesidad de sistematizar el estudio de este proceso formativo para su contribución al proceso de perfeccionamiento de planes y programas de estudio vigentes en la actualidad. La investigación se desarrolla mediante la aplicación de métodos teóricos y empíricos, que hacen posible la construcción de un enfoque de investigación his...

  10. Karakteristik Penderita Dispepsia Rawat Inap Di RSUP.H. Adam Malik Medan Tahun 2001-2004

    OpenAIRE

    Sianturi, Chandra D.

    2012-01-01

    Dispepsia sering ditemukan di masyarakat dengan angka morbiditas yang tinggi. Dispepsia merupakan kumpulan keluhan/gejala klinis, rasa tidak nyaman di daerah abdomen bagian atas. Untuk mengetahui distribusi proporsi penderita dispepsia rawat inap di RSUP.H.Adam Malik Medan tahun 2001-2004 dilakukan penelitian bersifat deskriptif dengan desain case series, yang menggunakan data sekunder dengan populasi 484 penderita dan sampel yang diambil dari catatan rekam medik selama tahun 2001-2004 seb...

  11. La prohibición norteamericana y el contrabando entre Cuba y los Estados Unidos durante los años veinte y treinta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Sáenz Rovner

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available La prohibición de los Estados Unidos entre 1920 y 1933 estimuló el contrabando de licor desde varios países, incluido Cuba. La Habana se convirtió en destino del turismo norteamericano, no sólo por su posición geográfica, sino también por su desarrollo urbano, el rápido crecimiento económico y la riqueza de Cuba, el carácter cosmopolita del país, sumado a la vitalidad de las corrientes migratorias internacionales, y el desarrollo de las comunicaciones entre la isla y los Estados Unidos. El contrabando de licor desde Cuba hacía parte de una tradición -socialmente aceptada- de tráfico de diversos bienes desde épocas de la Colonia. Al contrabando de licor se sumaron el de inmigrantes ilegales y narcóticos durante los años veinte y treinta.

  12. Metales pesados en tejido muscular del bagre Ariopsis felis en el sur del golfo de México (2001-2004)

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez, Felipe; Florville-Alejandre,Tomás R; Herrera,Miguel; Díaz de León,Luz María

    2008-01-01

    Se analizó el contenido de metales pesados en tejido muscular del bagre, Ariopsis felis en el sur del golfo de México durante el período 2001-2004. La investigación fue efectuada buscando establecer un marco de referencia ambiental para este organismo. La concentración metálica siguió el orden: Hg < Co < Pb < Ni < V < Cr. Fue observado un decremento en contenido de cobalto y vanadio, incremento en contenido de níquel, mercurio y cromo, y ausencia de estos comportamientos para contenido de plo...

  13. Haemophilus influenzae : Caracterización de aislamientos recuperados de enfermedades invasivas en Cuba durante el período 2008-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilda Toraño

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de caracterizar los aislamientos de Haemophilus influenzae, responsables de enfermedades invasivas en Cuba, en la etapa posterior a la vacunación se estudió el total de los recuperados durante el período 2008-2011, remitidos al Instituto "Pedro Kourí" desde diferentes provincias del país. La confirmación de especie y determinación de serotipos se realizó atendiendo al requerimiento de los factores V y X y empleando el método de aglutinación en lámina, respectivamente. Se definieron los biotipos a través de las pruebas de indol, urea y ornitina; se determinó la concentración mínima inhibitoria (CMI mediante la prueba del elipsómetro para la ampicilina, la ceftriaxona, el cloranfenicol y la rifampicina. Para 23 aislamientos se corroboró la identificación como H. influenzae : 21 fueron serotipables y 2 no tipables (HNT. El 90,4% de los serotipables fueron serotipo b y se detectaron dos serotipos a. Nueve aislamientos de H. influenzae b pertenecieron al biotipo I y los aislamientos, serotipo a y HNT, al biotipo II. En una cepa se demostró producción de la enzima ß-lactamasa y resistencia para la ampicilina y el cloranfenicol, con valores de CMI= 8 y 12 µg/mL, respectivamente. Se puso en evidencia que a pesar de la disminución de la incidencia de la enfermedad invasiva por Hib, este serotipo aún constituye el más frecuente y se alerta sobre la necesidad de una vigilancia sostenida que permita detectar fallos vacunales. La susceptibilidad antimicrobiana demostrada para este período pudiera considerarse como un beneficio adicional de la introducción de la vacunación en Cuba.

  14. Metales pesados en tejido muscular del bagre Ariopsis felis en el sur del golfo de México (2001-2004) Heavy metals in muscular tissue of the catfish, Ariopsis felis, in the southern Gulfof México (2001-2004)

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Vázquez; Tomás R Florville-Alejandre; Miguel Herrera; Luz María Díaz de León

    2008-01-01

    Se analizó el contenido de metales pesados en tejido muscular del bagre, Ariopsis felis en el sur del golfo de México durante el período 2001-2004. La investigación fue efectuada buscando establecer un marco de referencia ambiental para este organismo. La concentración metálica siguió el orden: Hg < Co < Pb < Ni < V < Cr. Fue observado un decremento en contenido de cobalto y vanadio, incremento en contenido de níquel, mercurio y cromo, y ausencia de estos comportamientos para contenido de plo...

  15. Further Tests of Abortion and Crime: A Response to Donohue and Levitt (2001,2004, 2006)

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    The association between legalized abortion and crime remains a contentious finding with major implications for social policy. In this paper, I replicate analyses of Donohue and Levitt (2001, 2004, 2006) in which they regress age-specific arrests and homicides on cohort-specific abortion rates. I find that the coefficient on the abortion rate in a regression of age-specific homicide or arrest rates has either the wrong sign or is small in magnitude and statistically insignificant when adjusted...

  16. Variaciones de la infracomunidad parásita durante la ontogenia de Chromis cyanea(Perciformes: Pomacentridae en la costa norte de La Habana, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Alexis Fernández Osorio

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chromis cyaneaes una de las especies marinas más comunes y abundantes de los arrecifes cubanos. En este estudio se cuantifica la infracomunidad de parásitos durante el desarrollo ontogenético de Chromis cyanea(Pisces: Pomacentridae de la costa norte de La Habana, Cuba. Los objetivos son probar que las especies núcleo son responsables de la estructura en la infracomunidad y aparecen antes que las especies raras y estocásticas. Determinar si existe relación entre los descriptores ecológicos de la infraco-munidad parásita con la longitud total. Se capturaron 278 ejemplares de C. cyaneadurante la estación de seca (Abril del 2010. Se analizó un rango de tallas de 1.5 a 11.5 cm de largo total y se incluyeron ejemplares juveniles y adultos. Se recolectaron 2 861 especímenes parásitos pertenecientes a 20 taxa: Crustacea (5, Nematoda (5, Trematoda (4, Cestoda (2, Monogenea (2, Turbellaria (1 y Ciliophora (1. Los taxa Tetraphyllidea y Anilocra chromisconstituyen el núcleo de la infracomunidad parásita. La secuencia de aparición y la persistencia de estos taxa durante el desarrollo ontogenético apoyan la hipótesis de las especies núcleo. Los cambios en la infracomunidad, a partir de la talla de 6 cm, podrían ser el resultado de un efecto acumulativo unido a cambios en la dieta que provocan la ingestión de nuevos estadíos infectivos. Se concluye que el desarrollo ontogenético de C. cyaneaconstituye una variable importante en la formación de la infracomunidad parásita.

  17. Ventilación neonatal en Cuba, modalidades más utilizadas y sobrevida durante el período 2002-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Armando Morilla Guzmán

    Full Text Available Introducción: la asistencia respiratoria es un marcador de la evolución de la Neonatología. Objetivo: describir el comportamiento de las modalidades ventilatorias y su sobrevida en Cuba. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, multicéntrico nacional en 14 377 recién nacidos ventilados, durante el período 2002-2011. Se calculó el índice de ventilados, los porcentajes de las modalidades con presión positiva intermitente, presión positiva continua y alta frecuencia oscilatoria, y el porcentaje de sobrevida de cada una de ellas. Resultados: aumentó el índice de ventilación a 2 %, el uso de presión positiva continua a 29 % y con alta frecuencia oscilatoria a 7,2 %, disminuyó la utilización de presión positiva intermitente a 64 %. La sobrevida aumentó en todas las modalidades. Conclusiones: hubo un incremento de la ventilación con presión positiva continua, acompañado de una disminución de la ventilación con presión positiva intermitente. La sobrevida se incrementó en todas las modalidades empleadas.

  18. «Ala y Raíz». Identidad y nacionalismo en Cuba durante la República a través de Revista de Avance (1927-1930

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramírez Chicharro, Manuel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The following study deals with how the cultural elites defined the paradigm of identity in Cuba during the first third of the twentieth century by one of the most important publications by the time in Cuba, but also in Latin America: Revista de Avance (1927-1930. Firstly, it is exposed the historiography about the identity in Cuba. Then, It is explained the historical context in which it was Cuba, when the editorial team was formed. Finally, taking into account the social origins and ideological affinities of the editorial team and the other essayist, it is tried to be drawn what characterizes and constitutes, according to them, the “cuban nature”.El estudio aborda los modos a través de los cuales parte de la elite cultural esbozó y definió la identidad en Cuba durante el primer tercio del siglo XX. Para ello se ha analizado una de las publicaciones más relevantes del momento en Cuba, cuyo impacto también se extendió a otros países de Hispanoamérica: Revista de Avance (1927-1930. En primer lugar se expone la historiografía sobre la identidad cubana. A continuación, se esboza el contexto histórico en el cual se conformó el equipo editorial. Por último, teniendo siempre en cuenta los orígenes sociales y las afinidades ideológicas tanto de la dirección como de los demás autores, se establecen las líneas maestras de lo que para estos intelectuales caracterizaba y constituía «el ser cubano».

  19. Hawaii Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (CRAMP): Benthic Data from Rapid Assessment Transects 2001-2004 (NODC Accession 0002464)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of CRAMP Rapid Assessment Transect surveys taken in 2001-2004 and includes quantitative estimates of substrate type and species. The types and...

  20. Caracterización fenotípica de cepas invasivas de Neisseria meningitidis aisladas en Cuba durante 20 años

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Martínez

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Se investigaron los marcadores epidemiológicos (serogrupos, serotipos, subtipos, inmunotipos de 429 cepas invasivas, aisladas en Cuba durante 20 años (1982-2002. Basándonos en el comportamiento de la incidencia de la Enfermedad Meningocócica (EM en el período investigado, las cepas se distribuyeron en dos etapas: epidémica y postepidémica. La epidémica, comprendió 279 cepas aisladas entre 1982-1992 y la ostepidémica, incluyó 150 aislamientos pertenecientes al período comprendido entre 1993-2002. Todas se cultivaron en Agar Mueller Hinton con suero fetal bovino (5% y se incubaron 24-48 horas, 37 0C, en atmósfera húmeda con 5% de C02. La identificación de género, especie y serogrupo, se realizó mediante métodos convencionales; para la caracterización de los sero/subtipos e inmunotipos, se utilizó el ensayo inmunoenzimático (ELISA de células enteras con anticuerpos monoclonales. En ambas etapas predominó el serogrupo B (97,90%: epidémica (96,77% y postepidémica (100%. Sin embargo, el serogrupo C (1,43% y cepas no agrupables (1,8%, sólo se observaron en aislamientos de la etapa epidémica. Los otros marcadores prevalentes fueron: serotipo 4 (86,48%, subtipo P1.19,15 (78,32%, inmunotipo L3,7,9 (90,2% , todos mostraron cifras similares en ambos períodos.Predominó el fenotipo B:4:P1.19,15:L3,7,9 (69,69%, aunque, en la etapa postepidémica (77,34%, el porcentaje fue superior al de la etapa epidémica (65,66% (p<0,05; además, en las cepas de este período, se observó una mayor diversidad de asociaciones fenotípicas. Los resultados obtenidos de esta caracterización fenotípica de las cepas de Neisseria meningitidis aisladas de enfermos aporta datos valiosos al estudio, prevención y control exitoso de la EM en Cuba.

  1. Comportamiento de la aeromicrobiota en dos depósitos del Archivo Nacional de la República de Cuba durante 7 años de estudio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofía Flavia Borrego Alonso

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available En depósitos de archivos, bibliotecas y museos donde se conservan obras de valor patrimonial, la presencia de elevadas concentraciones fúngicas en el aire con potencialidades para degradar los soportes orgánicos constituyen un riesgo elevado para la preservación de ese patrimonio. En países de clima tropical estos efectos dañinos pueden potenciarse por los valores altos de humedad relativa y temperatura existentes durante la mayor parte del año. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron: evaluar el comportamiento de la concentración microbiana aérea en el interior de dos depósitos del Archivo Nacional de la República de Cuba (ARNAC en 7 años así como determinar la densidad y frecuencia relativa de los géneros y especies fúngicas para conocer su impacto ecológico y ambiental. Los muestreos microbiológicos se realizaron en la Fototeca y la Mapoteca empleando medios de cultivo apropiados y un método de sedimentación. Se determinó cualitativamente la actividad celulolítica, amilolítica y proteolítica, así como la excreción de ácidos y pigmentos. En la Fototeca la concentración fúngica se mantuvo más alta que en la Mapoteca durante el estudio y los géneros fúngicos predominantes fueron Aspergillus, Penicillium y Cladosporium aunque en algunos años Curvularia, Alternaria y Fusarium se detectaron a densidades relativas considerables, fundamentalmente en Fototeca. Las especies fúngicas de mayor impacto ecológico en los depósitos correspondieron a los géneros Aspergillus y Cladosporium. La mayoría de las cepas aisladas degradaron celulosa, gelatina y almidón, todas excretaron ácidos y más del 50% produjeron pigmentos de colores diversos.

  2. EPIDEMIOLOGÍA DEL DENGUE EN PALMIRA VALLE, COLOMBIA 2001-2004 Dengue in Palmira-Vallle(Colombia2001-2004. An epidemiological

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Martín Rodríguez

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes. El dengue es una enfermedad viral, de zonas tropicales y subtropicales, transmitida por mosquitos. Su amplia gama de manifestaciones clínicas, se ha agrupado en tres formas específicas con diversos niveles de gravedad: dengue clásico, dengue hemorrágico y síndrome de choque por dengue. Objetivo. Describir y generar posibles explicaciones acerca del comportamiento del dengue en sus formas clásica y hemorrágica observadas en el municipio de Palmira, Valle del Cauca, entre 2001- 2004. Material y métodos. Estudio descriptivo con los registros del sistema de vigilancia en salud pública, de Palmira, provenientes de la recolección diaria en las instituciones prestadoras de de salud y de su consolidación semanal en la dirección local de salud. Resultados. Se observó una reducción del 88.2 por ciento en los registros de dengue clásico en 2001-2004, mayor en el grupo de 15-44 años por una descenso del 92.2 por ciento; en el grupo de 5-14 la disminución fue del 89.8 por ciento y en las personas de 45-59 años fue del 88.2 por ciento. La notificación de casos probables de dengue clásico y hemorrágico se vio afectada, por déficit, pues el personal médico de las instituciones de salud, no utiliza los criterios estandarizados de diagnóstico para estas enfermedades. Conclusión. Es necesario implementar capacitaciones periódicas para los profesionales de salud en el diagnóstico del dengue en sus formas clásicas y hemorrágicas y mantener los procesos de vigilancia entomológica y participación social para el control y prevención de esta enfermedad.Background. Dengue is a viral disease of tropical and subtropical zones transmitted by bites. Dengue produces many manifestations, and it is classified in: classic, hemorrhagic and shock dengue syndrome with differences in its severity. Objective. To describe and to generate possible explanations about the behavior of dengue in its classic and hemorrhagic varieties observed in

  3. Trends of Maternal Health Services Implementation in Indonesia (Data Analysis Susenas 2001, 2004 and 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Dharmayanti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKLatar Belakang:Status kesehatan ibu dan anak di Indonesia sampai saat ini masih harus menjadi perhatian karena angka kematian ibu dan angka kematian bayi yang masih tinggi. Rendahnya kesadaran masyarakat akan pelayanan kesehatan oleh tenaga kesehatan yang terampil merupakan faktor yang perlu diperhatikan dalam menangani persoalan tersebut. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui trend pemanfaatan tenaga kesehatan penolong kelahiran di Indonesia tahun 2001–2007. Metode: Analisis menggunakan data Survey Sosial Ekonomi Nasional (Susenas Kor tahun 2001, 2004 dan 2007. Disain penelitian menggunakan disain Cross Sectional. Ruang lingkup wilayah penelitian meliputi seluruh provinsi di Indonesia. Hasil:penelitian menunjukkan bahwa dalam kurun waktu tujuh tahun (2001–2007, pola pemanfaatan penolong kelahiran di Indonesia menunjukkan kecenderungan penggunaan tenaga kesehatan (dokter dan bidan sebagai penolong kelahiran Hasil analisis bivariat pada faktor kepulauan, pendidikan ibu, usia ibu, kepemilikan jaminan pembiayaan/asuransi kesehatan, dan sosial ekonomi terhadap klasifikasi desa/kota ikut berperan dalam pemilihan tenaga persalinan. Saran:mengupayakan kerja sama lintas sektor untuk meningkatkan taraf hidup masyarakat serta perbaikan akses pelayanan kesehatan di perdesaan akan sangat bermanfaat bagi masyarakat.Kata kunci: penolong kelahiran, dokter, bidan, dukun bayiABSTRACTBackground:The health status of mothers and children in Indonesia is still need special attention of concern because maternal and infant mortality rates are still high. The low public awareness of health services by trained health worker is a factor to consider in addressing these issues. This study aims to determine the trends in the use of maternal health services in Indonesia in 2001–2007. Methods:This analysis used National Socio-Economic Survey (NSES Core 2001, 2004 and 2007. The design of NSES was descriptive cross sectional cover all provinces in Indonesia as

  4. Characterizing the Fish Passage Environment at The Dalles Dam Spillway: 2001-2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richmond, Marshall C.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Serkowski, John A.; Cook, Chris B.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Perkins, William A.

    2007-10-10

    The spill environment at The Dalles Dam in 2001-2004 was characterized using a field-deployed autonomous sensor (the so-called Sensor Fish), computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling, and Lagrangian particle tracking. The sensor fish has a self-contained capability to digitally the record pressure and triaxial accelerations it was exposed to following its release into the spillway. After recovery downstream of the tailrace, the data stored in the memory of the sensor are downloaded and stored for analysis. The spillway, stilling basin, and tailrace hydrodynamics were simulated using an unsteady, free-surface, three-dimensional CFD code that solved the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations in conjunction with a two-equation turbulence model. The results from the CFD simulations were then used in a Lagrangian particle tracking model that included the effects of mass, drag, and buoyancy in the particle equation of motion. A random walk method was used to simulate the effects of small-scale turbulence on the particle motion. Several operational and structural conditions were evaluated using the Sensor Fish, CFD, and particle tracking. Quantifying events such as strike and stilling basin retention time characterized exposure conditions in the spill environment.

  5. Francine AGARD-LAVALLÉ, Bernard LAVALLÉ, Christophe LAVALLÉ, Burdeos y la emigración francesa a Cuba durante el siglo XIX

    OpenAIRE

    Guicharnaud-Tollis, Michèle

    2013-01-01

    Cet ouvrage collectif (147 pages) rédigé en langue espagnole étudie l’émigration française vers Cuba à partir de Bordeaux au XIXe siècle. Les auteurs, qui ont déjà effectué des recherches sur l’émigration à destination du Chili et du Venezuela, étudient ici les fonds d’archives relatives aux émigrés partis vers la Caraïbe et plus spécialement Cuba. En l’occurrence, il s’agit des Archives départementales de la Gironde et les Archives municipales de Bordeaux. Après un état de la question et une...

  6. Experience in Cuba in the licensing during import, commissioning and operation of an Irradiator LLCo ISOGAMMA; Experiencia en Cuba en el licenciamiento durante la importacion, puesta en servicio y operacion de un irradiador ISOGAMMA LLCo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forteza, Yamil Lopez; Reyes, Yolanda Perez; Garcia, Jose R. Quevedo; Molina, Igor I. Sarabia; Gonzalez, Leonel Omarovich; Zubiaur, Omar Cruz, E-mail: yamil@orasen.co.cu, E-mail: yolanda@orasen.co.cu, E-mail: quevedo@orasen.co.cu [Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnologia y Medio Ambiente (CNSN/CITMA), La Habana (Cuba). Centro Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear

    2013-07-01

    This work presented the experiences during the process of licensing an irradiator ISOGAMMA LLCo model according to the recommendations of the International Atomic Energy (IAEA). Aspects of the safety assessment are detailed, as well as control and verification requirements for radiation safety and security at different stages of the process (import, transportation, installation irradiator loading 60Co sources, commissioning and operation) of irradiator recently installed in Cuba. The results of the evaluation carried a source of reference and consultation necessary for the work of the regulator to consider for similar processes that lie ahead in other facilities irradiation.

  7. Avian comparisons between Kingman and Kenilworth Marshes: Final report 2001-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, M.; Krafft, C.; Hammerschlag, D.

    2006-01-01

    In 2001 avi-fauna was added as a parameter to be monitored as an indicator of the status and relative success of the two reconstructed freshwater tidal wetlands residing in the Anacostia River estuary in Washington, D.C. at that time. They were Kenilworth Marsh which was reconstructed in 1993 and Kingman Marsh seven years later in 2000. Other studies were already underway looking at vegetation, seeds, soils and contaminants. Even though these new wetlands were relatively small, together about 70 acres, it was felt this might be sufficient area to sustain and attract birds to the habitat. Birds have been used elsewhere as wetland indicators and we hoped they could prove useful here especially in terms of numbers and species richness. The study was conducted for almost four years (2001-2004) and was designed to ascertain if the recently reconstructed Kingman Marsh evolved similarly with respect to the avi fauna as Kenilworth which had the seven year head start. Twelve observation points were established, six at each marsh, which were to be used weekly so as to alternate the high and low tidal regimes and the observation start times. Additional notations were recorded for species while walking between observation points. The course of the study became interrupted with the incursion of resident Canada geese particularly upon the Kingman Marsh site. Goose herbivory coupled with lowered sediment elevations reduced vegetation cover at Kingman Marsh to less than one-third its intended scope while Kenilworth was barely affected. The result was actually much less impact on the bird populations than on the vegetation. In fact the additional mudflat area at Kingman may have actually helped attract some birds. Together 177 species were identified at the marshes comprising 14 taxonomic orders and 16 families, 137 species at Kingman and 164 at Kenilworth. However, Kingman actually attracted more birds than Kenilworth, whether or not Canada Geese were included. At both wetlands

  8. Cuba precolombina

    OpenAIRE

    Pilarek, Rafał

    2015-01-01

    The article is devoted to ethongenesis issues of native inhabitants of America with focus on the Great Antilles region. The author presents the history of further migratory movement to reach Cuba during Pre-Columbian era. The material contains basic facts about the history and achievement of material culture, spiritual and social of native inhabitants of Cuba: Indian Guanahatabeyes Ciboneys and Tainos.

  9. Salida, voz y hostilidad en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep M. COLOMER

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Utilizando las categorías analíticas de Hirschman de "salida", "voz" y "lealtad", se realiza un análisis de los flujos migratorios de Cuba hacia Estados Unidos durante el régimen revolucionario y del desarrollo de la oposición anticastrista en la isla. En particular, se discute el esquema de Hirschman y su utilidad para analizar las interacciones entre los gobiernos de Estados Unidos y de Cuba y para interpretar las sucesivas oleadas de "salida" desde Cuba hacia Estados Unidos.ABSTRACT: This article analyzes emigration from Cuba to the United States after the the 1959 revolution by using Hirschman's concepts of "exit", "voice" and "loyalty." It also analyzes the development of the anti-Castro opposition within Cuba. In particular, this article uses Hirschman's key concepts in order to interprete the relationships between Cuban and the Unisted States and to examine emigration from Cuba to United States.

  10. Salida, voz y hostilidad en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep M. COLOMER

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Utilizando las categorías analíticas de Hirschman de "salida", "voz" y "lealtad", se realiza un análisis de los flujos migratorios de Cuba hacia Estados Unidos durante el régimen revolucionario y del desarrollo de la oposición anticastrista en la isla. En particular, se discute el esquema de Hirschman y su utilidad para analizar las interacciones entre los gobiernos de Estados Unidos y de Cuba y para interpretar las sucesivas oleadas de "salida" desde Cuba hacia Estados Unidos.ABSTRACT: This article analyzes emigration from Cuba to the United States after the the 1959 revolution by using Hirschman's concepts of "exit", "voice" and "loyalty." It also analyzes the development of the anti-Castro opposition within Cuba. In particular, this article uses Hirschman's key concepts in order to interprete the relationships between Cuban and the Unisted States and to examine emigration from Cuba to United States.

  11. Comportamiento de la aeromicrobiota en dos depósitos del Archivo Nacional de la República de Cuba durante 7 años de estudio

    OpenAIRE

    Sofía Flavia Borrego Alonso; Alian Molina Veloso

    2014-01-01

    En depósitos de archivos, bibliotecas y museos donde se conservan obras de valor patrimonial, la presencia de elevadas concentraciones fúngicas en el aire con potencialidades para degradar los soportes orgánicos constituyen un riesgo elevado para la preservación de ese patrimonio. En países de clima tropical estos efectos dañinos pueden potenciarse por los valores altos de humedad relativa y temperatura existentes durante la mayor parte del año. Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron: evaluar e...

  12. HIV-associated TB in An Giang Province, Vietnam, 2001-2004: epidemiology and TB treatment outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trinh Thanh Thuy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mortality is high in HIV-infected TB patients, but few studies from Southeast Asia have documented the benefits of interventions, such as co-trimoxazole (CTX, in reducing mortality during TB treatment. To help guide policy in Vietnam, we studied the epidemiology of HIV-associated TB in one province and examined factors associated with outcomes, including the impact of CTX use. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We retrospectively abstracted data for all HIV-infected persons diagnosed with TB from 2001-2004 in An Giang, a province in southern Vietnam in which TB patients receive HIV counseling and testing. We used standard WHO definitions to classify TB treatment outcomes. We conducted multivariate analysis to identify risk factors for the composite outcome of death, default, or treatment failure during TB treatment. From 2001-2004, 637 HIV-infected TB patients were diagnosed in An Giang. Of these, 501 (79% were male, 321 (50% were aged 25-34 years, and the most common self-reported HIV risk factor was sex with a commercial sex worker in 221 (35%. TB was classified as smear-positive in 531 (83%. During TB treatment, 167 (26% patients died, 9 (1% defaulted, and 6 (1% failed treatment. Of 454 patients who took CTX, 116 (26% had an unsuccessful outcome compared with 33 (70% of 47 patients who did not take CTX (relative risk, 0.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.3-0.5. Adjusting for male sex, rural residence, TB smear status and disease location, and the occurrence of adverse events during TB treatment in multivariate analysis, the benefit of CTX persisted (adjusted odds ratio for unsuccessful outcome 0.1; CI, 0.1-0.3. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In An Giang, Vietnam, HIV-associated TB was associated with poor TB treatment outcomes. Outcomes were significantly better in those taking CTX. This finding suggests that Vietnam should consider applying WHO recommendations to prescribe CTX to all HIV-infected TB patients.

  13. Metales pesados en tejido muscular del bagre Ariopsis felis en el sur del golfo de México (2001-2004 Heavy metals in muscular tissue of the catfish, Ariopsis felis, in the southern Gulfof México (2001-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Vázquez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó el contenido de metales pesados en tejido muscular del bagre, Ariopsis felis en el sur del golfo de México durante el período 2001-2004. La investigación fue efectuada buscando establecer un marco de referencia ambiental para este organismo. La concentración metálica siguió el orden: Hg We analyzed the heavy metal content in the muscular tissue of the catfish, Ariopsis felis, in the southern Gulf of México between 2001 and 2004. The research was done in order to establish an environmental frame of reference for this organism. The metal concentration was as follows: Hg < Co < Pb < Ni < V < Cr. Cobalt and vanadium contents were found to decrease and those of nickel, mercury, and chromium to ulerease; however, neither of these trends was observed for the lead content. One-way analyses of variance con-firm significant temporal variation only for cobalt, mercury, lead, and vanadium. Significant linear correlation coefficients (p ≤ 0.05 were found for Co-V, Cr-Ni, Cr-Pb, Co-Hg, Ni-V, and V-Pb. The first three associa-tions showed positive correlations, whereas the remaining ones had negative correlations. A factor analysis grouped the studied metals depending on their origins. The metal levels found in the muscular tissue of A. felis from the southern Gulf of México were lower than those set by national and international regulations.

  14. Concurrent Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, T.

    2016-10-01

    The parallel version of the multidimensional numerical integration package Cuba is presented and achievable speed-ups discussed. The parallelization is based on the fork/wait POSIX functions, needs no extra software installed, imposes almost no constraints on the integrand function, and works largely automatically.

  15. Situacion de la gestion de inventarios en Cuba

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lopes-Martinez, Igor; Gomez-Acosta, Martha Ines; Acevedo-Suarez, Jose Antonio

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo del presente articulo es analizar la situacion de la gestion de inventarios en Cuba, a partir de las experiencias obtenidas durante mas de 10 anos en entidades de los sectores de servicios...

  16. Overweight and obesity in children and adolescents from Serbia in the period 2001-2004 and 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakić, Rada; Pavlica, Tatjana; Jovičić, Dubravka

    In recent years an increasing prevalence in overweight and obesity of children and adolescents has been recorded worldwide. Childhood obesity is a risk factor for adulthood obesity. The aim of the study is to examine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents aged 7-19 in a 10-year long period in Serbia. Cross sectional investigation was conducted in the periods 2001-2004 and 2011-2014. The first investigation included 8965 individuals, 4344 schoolboys and 4621 schoolgirls aged 7-19, while the second investigation included 2507 schoolboys and 3083 schoolgirls. The body mass index (BMI kg m(-2)) was obtained from the recorded height and weight and the assessment of overweight and obesity was based on IOTF reference values. In the first period investigation overweight prevalence was detected in 18% of subjects (21.1% in boys and 15.1% in girls) and obesity prevalence in 5.5% of subjects (6.7% in boys and 4.4% in girls). In the second investigation the overweight and obesity prevalence was observed in 17.4% and 4.5% of subjects, respectively (20.6% in boys and 14.8% in girls; 5.3% in boys and 3.9% in girls). The results indicate that in the ten-year period there has been no increase in the number of overweight and obese children and adolescents in Serbia.

  17. Predictors of favorable results in pulmonary tuberculosis treatment (Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil, 2001-2004 Factores predictivos al resultado favorable del tratamiento de la tuberculosis pulmonar (Recife-Pernambuco, Brasil, 2001-2004 Fatores preditivos ao resultado favorável de tratamento da tuberculose pulmonar (Recife-Pernambuco, Brasil, 2001-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthia Midori Sassaki

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on data available in the Information System for Notifiable Diseases, predictive factors of favorable results were identified in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis, diagnosed between 2001 and 2004 and living in Recife-PE, Brazil. Uni- and multivariate logistic regression methods were used. In multivariate analysis, the following factors remained: Age (years, 0 to 9 (OR=4.27; p=0.001 and 10 to 19 (OR=1.78; p=0.011, greater chance of cure than over 60; Education (years, 8 to 11 (OR=1.52; p=0.049, greater chance of cure than no education; Type of entry, new cases (OR=3.31; pConsiderando datos disponibles en el Sistema de Información de Enfermedades de Notificación, fueron identificados y analizados factores predictivos al resultado favorable del tratamiento de los casos de tuberculosis pulmonar, diagnosticados entre 2001-2004, correspondientes a residentes en Recife-PE (Brasil. Fueron utilizados métodos estadísticos univariado y multivariado de regresión logística. En el multivariado se consideraron: edad (años, 0 a 9 (OR= 4,27; p=0,001 y 10 a 19 (OR=1,78; p=0,011, mayor chance de cura que más de 60; escolaridad (años, 8 a 11 (OR=1,52; p=0,049, mayor chance de cura que ninguna escolaridad; tipo de entrada, casos nuevos (OR=3,31; pPartindo de dados disponíveis no Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação, identificaram-se e analisaram-se fatores preditivos ao resultado favorável de tratamento dos casos de tuberculose pulmonar, diagnosticados no período de 2001-2004, residentes em Recife-PE. Utilizaram-se métodos estatísticos uni e multivariado de regressão logística. No multivariado permaneceram: Idade (anos, 0 a 9 (OR=4,27; p=0,001 e 10 a 19 (OR=1,78; p=0,011, maior chance de cura que mais de 60; Escolaridade (anos, 8 a 11 (OR=1,52; p=0,049, maior chance de cura que nenhuma escolaridade; Tipo de entrada, casos novos (OR=3,31; p<0,001 e recidiva (OR=3,32; p<0,001, maiores chances de cura que reingresso p

  18. Cuba, Are Sanctions Working?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    1993), 870. 50 Ló pez, 4; quoted in Claudia Ma´rguez Linares, Encuesta informal sobre la atención mé dica primaria en Cuba, (CubaNet, 23 March...University Press, 2002. 4. Quoted in Claudia Ma´rguez Linares, Encuesta informal sobre la atencio´n me´dica primaria en Cuba. CubaNet, 23 March 2001

  19. para Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Eloy García de la Figal Costales

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Sobre la base del análisis de la aplicación del plan de estudio «C Perfeccionado» (cuarta versión de Mecanización Agropecuaria, desde 1999 se determina como objetivo el diseño del plan de estudio de la nueva carrera de Ingeniería Agrícola para Cuba, mediante la precisión del encargo social en las nuevas condiciones, la preparación profesional existente en el ámbito mundial y nacional y las tendencias mundiales en el desarrollo de la ciencia y la técnica, empleando la metodología del diseño curricular por objetivos. Se determinaron: el objeto de estudio y de la profesión; principales problemas a resolver; campos de acción; modo de actuación; esferas de actuación y el Modelo del Profesional, siendo su objetivo más general: explotar los sistemas de ingeniería agrícola para los procesos tecnológicos y biotecnológicos de la producción agropecuaria sostenible. El plan posee como currículo básico el 79,62 % y el 40,04 % de práctica laboral e investigativa, ambos respecto al total de horas de 5 594.

  20. Qualidade do emprego na agricultura brasileira no período 2001-2004 e suas diferenciações por culturas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otavio Valentim Balsadi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A partir dos microdados da Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (PNAD, o presente estudo analisou a qualidade do emprego na agricultura brasileira como um todo e, também, em seis culturas (arroz, café, cana-de-açúcar, mandioca, milho e soja no período 2001-2004. Para a análise, foi construído um Índice de Qualidade de Emprego (IQE, composto por quatro dimensões: nível educacional dos empregados; grau de formalidade do emprego; rendimento recebido no trabalho principal; e auxílios recebidos pelos empregados. O IQE foi calculado para os empregados permanentes e para os empregados temporários, levando-se em consideração o local de moradia dos mesmos (urbano ou rural.Based on the Nacional Households Survey (PNAD, this paper analyzed the employment quality in the Brazilian agriculture and six main crops (rice, coffee, sugarcane, manioc, corn and soybean in the 2001-2004 period. An Employment Quality Index (EQI was created for this analysis, based on four dimensions: level of education; degree of job formalization; main job income; and employee benefits. The EQI was calculated for the permanent and temporary workers, considering the local of the households (urban and rural.

  1. Tsunamis in Cuba?; Tsunamis en Cuba?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotilla Rodriguez, M. O.

    2011-07-01

    Cuba as neo tectonics structure in the southern of the North American plate had three tsunamis. One of them [local] occurred in the Central-Northern region [1931.10.01, Nortecubana fault], the other was a tele tsunami [1755.11.01, in the SW of the Iberian Peninsula] that hit the Bay of Santiago de Cuba, and the third took place at 1867.11.18, by the regional source of Virgin Islands, which produced waves in the Eastern Cuban region. This tsunami originated to the NE of Puerto Rico in 1918.10.11, with another earthquake of equal magnitude and at similar coordinates, produced a tsunami that did not affect Cuba. Information on the influence of regional tsunami in 1946.08.08 of the NE of the Dominican Republic [Matanzas] in Northwestern Cuba [beaches Guanabo-Baracoa] is contrary to expectations with the waves propagation. The local event of 1939.08.15 attributed to Central- Northern Cuba [Cayo Frances with M = 8.1] does not correspond at all with the maximum magnitude of earthquakes in this region and the potential of the Nortecubana fault. Tsunamis attributed to events such as 1766.06.11 and 1932.02.03 in the Santiago de Cuba Bay are not reflected in the original documents from experts and eyewitnesses. Tsunamis from Jamaica have not affected the coasts of Cuba, despite its proximity. There is no influence in Cuba of tsunamigenic sources of the southern and western parts of the Caribbean, or the Gulf of Mexico. Set out the doubts as to the influence of tsunamis from Haiti and Dominican Republic at Guantanamo Bay which is closer to and on the same latitude, and spatial orientation than the counterpart of Santiago de Cuba, that had impact. The number of fatalities by authors in the Caribbean is different and contradictory. (Author) 76 refs.

  2. Francine Agard-Lavallé, Bernard Lavallé y Christophe Lavallé, Burdeos y la emigración francesa a Cuba durante el siglo XIX, Pessac, Presses Universitaires de Bordeaux, 2012, 148 p.

    OpenAIRE

    Ghorbal, Karim

    2013-01-01

    El fenómeno de la emigración francesa hacia Cuba no es una incógnita y, sin embargo, hasta la fecha, ningún estudio específico había puesto énfasis en las diferentes fases del movimiento migratorio, en el origen geográfico y el medio sociocultural en el que vivieron estos migrantes, así como en las actividades profesionales a las que se dedicaron. Los autores de esta obra “familiar a seis manos” son Francine Agard-Lavallé, a quien se deben varios trabajos sobre la emigración francesa a Améric...

  3. Sociedad y psicología en Cuba: avanzando en uno de sus caminos de investigación y construcción teórica durante tres décadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Luis Gonzalez Rey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo discute hechos importantes de la psicología cubana que son inseparables del desarrollo de la realidad política, social e institucional del país en las décadas de los años setenta, ochenta y noventa del siglo XX. Se analiza el desarrollo de la psicología en Cuba, no como suma fría de hechos, sino a través de interpretaciones que se sustentan en amplias referencias. En el curso del análisis histórico que aquí se presenta, se analiza el desarrollo progresivo de la psicología cubana en el contexto de la psicología latinoamericana, y se destacan procesos institucionales de la psicología cubana y de la Sociedad Interamericana de psicología. Finalmente, el artículo discute la evolución de una de las líneas más productivas de la psicología cubana en esas décadas, profundizando sus aspectos teóricos, metodológicos y epistemológicos.

  4. Results of the Service of External Dosimetry of the Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones (CPHR), Cuba during the biennium 2010 - 2011; Resultados del servicio de dosimetria externa del CPHR durante el bienio 2010-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina Perez, Daniel; Verdecia Sanchez, Maribel; Castro Soler, Ailza; Farrada Neyra, Yamilia, E-mail: daniel@cphr.edu.cu [Laboratorio de Dosimetria Externa (LDE), Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones (CPHR), La Habana (Cuba)

    2013-07-01

    The Service of Personal Dosimetry of the External Dosimetry Laboratory of the Centro de Proteccion y Higiene de las Radiaciones - CPHR of Cuba works with an automatic RADOS TLD system and includes the surveillance of the doses of whole body and extremities for photon radiation. The work presents the results of the service in the period 2010-2011, showing data related to the number and distribution of workers monitored for areas. The levels of occupational exposure area analyzed using various indicators such as: annual average dose for areas, number of workers who receive annual doses greater than zero, distribution of workers by dose intervals, and others. These indicators are compared with previous periods and with the values published by the UNSCEAR. In general, the average annual dose for all areas was less than 1 mSv for whole body and 3 mSv for hands. The number of exposed workers experienced significant variation from one year to another, considerably decreasing from 60% to 12% of the total. The work presents an analysis of this behavior and highlights that the country guarantees the personal dosimetry to 100% of exposed workers and that the results of the occupational exposure are within the established requirements.

  5. Water-quality characteristics, including sodium-adsorption ratios, for four sites in the Powder River drainage basin, Wyoming and Montana, water years 2001-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Melanie L.; Mason, Jon P.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality, monitors streams throughout the Powder River structural basin in Wyoming and parts of Montana for potential effects of coalbed natural gas development. Specific conductance and sodium-adsorption ratios may be larger in coalbed waters than in stream waters that may receive the discharge waters. Therefore, continuous water-quality instruments for specific conductance were installed and discrete water-quality samples were collected to characterize water quality during water years 2001-2004 at four sites in the Powder River drainage basin: Powder River at Sussex, Wyoming; Crazy Woman Creek near Arvada, Wyoming; Clear Creek near Arvada, Wyoming; and Powder River at Moorhead, Montana. During water years 2001-2004, the median specific conductance of 2,270 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius (?S/cm) in discrete samples from the Powder River at Sussex, Wyoming, was larger than the median specific conductance of 1,930 ?S/cm in discrete samples collected downstream from the Powder River at Moorhead, Montana. The median specific conductance was smallest in discrete samples from Clear Creek (1,180 ?S/cm), which has a dilution effect on the specific conductance for the Powder River at Moorhead, Montana. The daily mean specific conductance from continuous water-quality instruments during the irrigation season showed the same spatial pattern as specific conductance values for the discrete samples. Dissolved sodium, sodium-adsorption ratios, and dissolved solids generally showed the same spatial pattern as specific conductance. The largest median sodium concentration (274 milligrams per liter) and the largest range of sodium-adsorption ratios (3.7 to 21) were measured in discrete samples from the Powder River at Sussex, Wyoming. Median concentrations of sodium and sodium-adsorption ratios were substantially smaller in Crazy Woman Creek and Clear Creek, which tend to

  6. CPAFFC Delegation in Cuba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>Invited by the Cuban Institute of Friendship with the Peoples and the Cuba-China Friendship Association,a CPAFFC delegation headed by Zhang Enxiang,vice chairman of the Standing Committee of the Jilin Provincial People’s Congress and honorary president of the Jilin Provincial People’s Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries,paid a friendly visit to Cuba from May 29 to June 3,during which it participated in the celebrations of the 160th anniversary of the Chinese arrival in Cuba.

  7. How Cuba Fought Illiteracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozol, Jonathan

    1977-01-01

    This article describes the successful effort to reduce illiteracy in Cuba by sending young student teachers into the rural areas to teach reading to workers in isolated spots throughout the country. (JD)

  8. Cuba: Clearing Perilous Waters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    democratization was on permanent hold. Interviewed by Tele- mundo , a Spanish-language TV network in the United States, the Cuban president was...states in Eastern Europe and Asia is the same as that with Cuba. But Cuba is a sui generis case in which analogies drawn from other countries do...United States and the West would not necessarily abate the regime’s authoritarian character. As Latin America, China, and Southeast Asia have demon

  9. Las Mayacaceae de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urquiola Cruz, Armando J.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The problems of the genus Mayaca Aublet in Cuba are discussed. M. aubletii is confirmed as a distinct species, and a key, illustrations and distribution maps of M. aubletii and M. fluviatilis are included.Se discute la problemática del género Mayaca Aublet en Cuba. Se revalida Mayaca aubletii Michaux, y se ofrecen una clave, ilustraciones y mapa de distribución de M. aubletii y M. fluviatilis.

  10. An Island Called Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Stubbs

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Review of: An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba. Ruth Behar, photographs by Humberto Mayol. New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2007. xiii + 297 pp. (Cloth US$ 29.95 Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography. Fidel Castro & Ignacio Ramonet. New York: Scribner/Simon & Schuster, 2008. vii + 724 pp. (Paper US$ 22.00, e-book US$ 14.99 Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know. Julia E. Sweig. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. xiv + 279 pp. (Paper US$ 16.95 [First paragraph] These three ostensibly very different books tell a compelling story of each author’s approach, as much as the subject matter itself. Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography is based on a series of long interviews granted by the then-president of Cuba, Fidel Castro, to Spanish-Franco journalist Ignacio Ramonet. Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know, by U.S. political analyst Julia Sweig, is one of a set country series, and, like Ramonet’s, presented in question/answer format. An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba, with a narrative by Cuban-American anthropologist Ruth Behar and photographs by Cuban photographer Humberto Mayol, is a retrospective/introspective account of the Jewish presence in Cuba. While from Ramonet and Sweig we learn much about the revolutionary project, Behar and Mayol convey the lived experience of the small Jewish community against that backdrop.

  11. Cuba: Background to a Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Fuente, Alejandro

    2000-01-01

    Provides historical information on Cuba. Addresses early colonization, the advent of plantation agriculture, the role and presence of the United States in the Caribbean and Cuba, and the social and economic developments in Cuba after the revolution in 1959 led by Fidel Castro. (CMK)

  12. Revista Contabilidade & Finanças - USP: uma comparação entre os períodos 1989/2001 e 2001/2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre César Batista da Silva

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é destacar a importância da Revista Contabilidade & Finanças - USP no meio acadêmico nacional e observar as transformações ocorridas no periódico desde a pesquisa realizada por Martins (2002. A metodologia utilizada para tal foi o método dedutivo-analítico, descritivo, com abordagem qualitativa-quantitativa. Conclui-se que a Revista sofreu consideráveis mudanças no período 2001/2004, em que os resultados alcançados demonstram que houve uma evolução significativa principalmente com relação ao tipo de pesquisa utilizada para elaboração dos artigos, que era expressivamente bibliográfica e passou a ser em grande parte fruto de trabalhos empírico-teóricos. Outro aspecto relevante é o aumento na diversidade de autores e instituições que têm trabalhos publicados, antes grande maioria dos escritores eram de São Paulo e faziam parte ou tinham ligação com o Departamento de Contabilidade e Atuária da FEA - USP e no período em análise há participações dos vários Estados brasileiros e também de outros países.This article aims to highlight the importance of the Journal of Accounting & Finance - USP in the Brazilian academic area and point out the changes this publication has gone through since the study by Martins (2002. We used a deductive-analytical and descriptive method from a quali-quantitative approach. Considerable changes were made between 2001 and 2004, resulting in a meaningful evolution in terms of research types used to elaborate the articles, which were mostly empiric-theoretical. Another essential fact is the increased diversity of authors and institutions represented in the Journal, proceeding not only from different Brazilian states but also from other countries.

  13. Storm Warnings for Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    which market-type re- forms must be introduced in the economy to find a way out of Cuba’s callej6n sin salida (cul-de-sac). At issue, also, is whether...in northern Mexico. See Wayne A. Cornelius and Ann L. Craig, The Mexican Political System in Transition, San Diego: University of California , Center...special circumstances whereby his salida (exit) rebounds to Cuba’s advantage and his greater glory. For Endgame IV to start unfolding without violence

  14. Las Najadaceae de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urquiola Cruz, Armando J.

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a study of the family Najadaceae in Cuba. The presence of Najas marina, N. guadalupensis f. floridana and N. arguta var. arguta is confirmed, and the area of distribution of N. guadalupensis f. guadalupensis and N. wrightiana is extended. A general key, illustrations and distribution maps are included.Estudio de la familia Najadaceae en Cuba. Se confirma la presencia de Najas marina, N. guadalupensis f.floridana y N. arguta var. arguta, y se amplía la distribución de N. guadalupensis f. guadalupensis y N. wrightiana. Se presenta una clave general, ilustraciones y mapas de distribución.

  15. Cuba, cultures contemporaines

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Les principaux thèmes de ce numéro consacré à Cuba portent sur la culture insulaire contemporaine appréhendée dans une double perspective : depuis Cuba et également depuis l’exil. Pour le volet cubain, le dossier comprend : une étude des carnets de l’universitaire française Wanda Lekszycka rédigés pendant la période spéciale en temps de paix ; une approche de la revue culturelle et patrimoniale Opus Habana, actuellement produite et éditée par la Oficina del Historiador de la Ciudad de La Haba...

  16. Cuba confronts climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Gisela; Clark, Ismael

    2015-04-01

    Among environmental problems, climate change presents the greatest challenges to developing countries, especially island nations. Changes in climate and the resulting effects on human health call for examination of the interactions between environmental and social factors. Important in Cuba's case are soil conditions, food availability, disease burden, ecological changes, extreme weather events, water quality and rising sea levels, all in conjunction with a range of social, cultural, economic and demographic conditions.

  17. Cuba on our minds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Rutheiser

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Conversatons with Cuba. C. PETER RIPLEY. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1999. xxvi + 243 pp. (Cloth US$ 24.95 Real Life in Castro's Cuba. CATHERINE MOSES. Wilmington DE: Scholarly Resources, 2000. xi + 184 pp. (Paper US$ 18.95 The Cuban Way: Capitalism, Communism, and Confrontation. ANA JULIA JATAR-HAUSMANN. West Hartford CT: Kumarian Press, 1999. xvii + 161 pp. (Paper US$21.95 Castro and the Cuban Revolution. THOMAS M. LEONARD. Westport CT: Greenwood Press, 1999. xxv + 188 pp. (Cloth US$ 45.00 Cuba has attracted a great deal of attention from both scholarly and popular authors since 1959. The literature that they have produced has generated much heat, but has shed a considerably smaller amount of light. Most accounts have been situated at the polar extremes of ideology, either condemning or celebrating the island's revolutionary experiment and its maximum leader (for the former is often virtually totally collapsed into the personage of Fidel Castro with the same degrees of vociferous, simplistic certitude. However, neither the fulminating diatribes of the anti-Castro Right nor the fulsome paeans of the Euro-American Left have done much justice to making sense of the complex, confounding, and contradictory realities of Cuban society before, during, and after the Revolution. Indeed, contemporary developments have only magnified the distortions rendered by the astigmatic lenses of cold war intellectualism.

  18. Ciencia y coleccionismo en Cuba en el siglo XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valero González, Mercedes

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article a panoramic is exposed about museums and cabinets which existed in Cuba during the nineteenth century, describing functions and characteristics as well as the causes that made some of them disappear. It is also shown the continuity, asumed by the scientific collection over since major nationalized-institute in the nineteenth century. It is likewise intended to give a general and complete chronology about the development of museum in Cuba, taking into account the lasting-long or not of such institute. The authors regret the work shortege that considers the subject and total absence from the comparative standpoint.

    En este artículo se brinda una panorámica de los museos y gabinetes que existieron en Cuba durante el siglo XIX, describiéndose las características y funciones, así como las causas que hicieron desaparecer a algunos de ellos. También se destaca la continuidad asumida por el coleccionismo científico desde el siglo XVIII y su mayor institucionalización en el XIX. Asimismo se intenta dar una cronología muy general sobre el desarrollo de los museos en Cuba, teniéndose en cuenta la perdurabilidad o no de dicha institucionalización. Los autores lamentan la escasez de trabajos que traten el tema y la ausencia total desde el punto de vista comparativo.

  19. Indicação e intermediação de interesses: uma análise da conexão eleitoral na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, 2001-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo M. d'Avila Filho

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, os autores analisam a relação entre a sociedade e o poder público a partir do Poder Legislativo, tomando como objeto de estudo as indicações feitas pelos vereadores da Câmara Municipal do Rio de Janeiro aos órgãos da Prefeitura deste município nesse período. O objetivo é analisar a dinâmica político-eleitoral a partir das estratégias adotadas pelos vereadores para se reelegerem ou se elegerem para outro cargo público. A hipótese da pesquisa é que os legisladores municipais utilizam as indicações para intermediar a relação entre os eleitores e o Poder Executivo e, desta forma, construir sua conexão eleitoral. Os dados utilizados na pesquisa são secundários e qualitativos, constituindo uma base em Access (Microsoft proveniente do Banco de indicações dos vereadores do Rio de Janeiro (Câmara Municipal do Rio de Janeiro, 2004. Seu conteúdo constitui-se de características das indicações produzidas pelos vereadores no período 2001-2004, tais como o ano de emissão e a zona de destino na cidade. A base, transportada para o Excel, foi depurada e nela cada indicação foi categorizada conforme a sua destinação a um serviço de investimento, de manutenção ou imaterial. As tabelas de frequências simples e de contingência foram geradas no pacote SPSS. Os dados característicos das indicações foram associados e identificaram-se padrões de emissão de ordens temporal, de categoria e de região de destinação. As indicações disponíveis são a totalidade daquelas emitidas pela Câmara do Rio no período mencionado. Constituem, ao mesmo tempo, uma população analisada em um período definido e uma grande amostra do processo histórico amplo e dinâmico de geração de indicações. Submetidos à análise descritiva e ao testeχ² de aderência, os dados confirmam parcialmente a hipótese da pesquisa. Em primeiro lugar, eles sugerem que os vereadores tendem a usar as indicações de modo que o bem ou

  20. Contratados peninsulares para Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iglesias García, Fe

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Not available.

    Ante las presiones británicas, la metrópoli española y los ideólogos de los hacendados cubanos tuvieron que dar, desde la tercera década del siglo XIX, una respuesta a la previsible escasez de mano de obra esclava. El artículo estudia los sistemas de contrata implantados en la isla para abastecer de mano de obra blanca y barata a Cuba, deteniéndose particularmente la autora en el estudio de las condiciones de semiesclavitud que se escondían en las mencionadas contratas y en el perfil de los inmigrantes (profesiones, sexo, edad, procedencia....

  1. Cuba's kidney transplantation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mármol, Alexander; Pérez, Alexis; Pérez de Prado, Juan C; Fernández-Vega, Silvia; Gutiérrez, Francisco; Arce, Sergio

    2010-10-01

    The first kidney transplant in Cuba was performed on 24 February 1970, using a cadaveric donor. In 1979, living donor kidney transplantation began between first-degree relatives. A total of 2775 patients are enrolled in renal replacement therapy in 47 hospitals across the country, 1440 of whom are awaiting kidney transplantation. Organs for the kidney program are procured in 63 accredited hospitals equipped for multidisciplinary management of brain death. Accordingly, over 90% of transplanted kidneys are from cadaveric donors. Identification of potential recipients is carried out through a national, computerized program that affords all patients the same opportunity regardless of distance from a transplant center, and selection of the most suitable candidate is based primarily on HLA compatibility. KEYWORDS Chronic renal failure, kidney transplantation.

  2. MEDIO SIGLO DE VIVIENDA SOCIAL EN CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dania González Couret

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El próximo año 2010 cumple un siglo el primer barrio obrero proyectado y construido en Cuba. Después de 1959 la vivienda cubana se ha caracterizado por un estándar general y uniforme correspondiente al modelo de la vivienda social masiva nacida en Europa a inicios del siglo XX, y a diferencia de lo que sucede en otros países en desarrollo, continúa siendo una responsabilidad del Estado. El artículo ofrece una panorámica de la evolución y tendencias de la vivienda social en Cuba durante la segunda mitad del siglo XX. Los inicios en los anos '60s se caracterizaron por la búsqueda de tecnologías apropiadas y nuevas formas de expresión para la vivienda social masiva de un país en desarrollo y en Revolución, intentando "erradicar" las condiciones habitacionales precarias, y las diferencias entre la ciudad y el campo. A partir de los 70s la vivienda cubana se vio comprometida con los sistemas de prefabricación de alta tecnología, como vía para dar solución a la demanda masiva. En los '80s cobró fuerza la conservación de los centros urbanos tradicionales y la crisis de los '90s obligó a abandonar definitivamente la industrialización pesada y buscar soluciones "alternativas". El trabajo concluye con el debate actual.

  3. CUBA: TRANSICIÓN, SUCESIÓN, ESTABILIDAD, SEGURIDAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín ROY

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este análisis trata de la relación entre la estabilidad del presente gobierno cubano y la necesidad de seguridad en su territorio y en la zona circundante. Este vínculo se produce en un momento político de Cuba, entre un primer paso de la sucesión de Fidel Castro a Raúl, sin que se den señales claras de una transición hacia otro tipo de sistema político. Mientras tanto, el gobierno de Estados Unidos ha declarado que su prioridad estriba en el reestablecimiento de la democracia en Cuba, tanto durante el último periodo de la administración de George W. Bush como con Barack Obama ya asentado en la Casa Blanca. Sin embargo, las delicadas circunstancias de Cuba (precariedad económica, desastres naturales, dependencia alimentaria y energética, etc. señalan que la prioridad de los intereses nacionales de Estados Unidos se centran primero en la estabilidad del escenario. Incluso al precio del retraso de la evolución del régimen, un cierto grado de seguridad es necesario para enfrentarse a los riesgos de una emigración incontrolada y las hipotéticas tensiones internas que provoquen confrontaciones.

  4. 15 CFR 746.2 - Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cuba. 746.2 Section 746.2 Commerce and... § 746.2 Cuba. (a) License requirements. As authorized by section 6 of the Export Administration Act of... subject to the EAR) to Cuba, except as follows. (1) License Exceptions. You may export or reexport...

  5. Río, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. García-Quintana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo se realizó como estudio de caso en el ambiente de Viñales, Pinar del Río, Cuba con el objetivo de seleccionar material genético de especial valor para la conservación y mejoramiento de la especie; a partir de nueve procedencias, encontrando diferencias significativas entre procedencias para las variables altura, diámetro y ramificación. Se clasificaron las procedencias en grupos de calidad A, B, C y D, recomendando los grupos A y B para el desarrollo de la especie en estos sitios de baja fertilidad. El coeficiente de variación cambió 29.5 y 44.8 %, siendo los parámetros altura y diámetro los de mayor variabilidad, así la selección debe tener estas características, seleccionando como procedencias superiores Marbajita, Cajálbana, El Burén, Los Palacios, La Jagua, La Güira y Juan Manuel.

  6. "La conexión francesa" y el narcotráfico en cuba a mediados del siglo XX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Sáenz Rovner

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo económico y el avance de las comunicaciones tanto marítimascomo aéreas contribuyeron al contrabando y al narcotráfico en Cuba, llegándosea convertir la isla en uno de los principales puntos en el tráfico de drogasilegales en el mundo durante

  7. EL LARGO COMPROMISO DE CANADÁ CON CUBA: PARADOJAS Y POSIBILIDADES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas LEGLER

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Tanto la Unión Europea como América Latina, e incluso Estados Unidos, han iniciado distintos procesos de diálogo con Cuba. ¿Cuáles lecciones relevantes se pueden extraer de la larga historia canadiense de compromiso con la Revolución Cubana? Este artículo documenta la evolución de las relaciones entre Canadá y Cuba desde la década de 1940, centrándose en sus altibajos desde que se lanzó, a mediados de la década de 1990, una política de «compromiso constructivo ». Se argumenta que este acercamiento (en sus diversas formas no ha tenido mayor influencia en la liberalización de la política cubana. Además, la poca influencia que Canadá pudo haber tenido durante el «Periodo Especial» ha disminuido con la recuperación económica y diversificación de las relaciones exteriores de Cuba en la última década. En ese sentido, los autores concluyen que la estrategia más apropiada para Canadá y otros actores es llevar a cabo un acercamiento coordinado y de largo plazo que brinde apoyo a una variedad de procesos endógenos de cambio en Cuba. Una estrategia realista debería incluir diálogo de bajo perfil con el régimen actual, cooperación con un amplio espectro de posibles reformadores dentro y fuera del Estado y apoyo para la realización de cambios sociales más extensos a través del comercio, la inversión extranjera, el turismo así como los intercambios académicos y culturales.

  8. Corrupción, burocracia colonial y veteranos separatistas en Cuba, 1868-1910

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quiroz, Alfonso W.

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Administrative corruption in Cuba during the nineteenth century was a serious problem addressed both by Spanish authorities and the critics of the colonial system in Cuba. In the long run the fiscal, financial, institutional, and ideological costs of corruption undermined Spanish colonial control in Cuba. While the state and Cuban taxpayers had to pay for the increased costs of corruption, corrupt public officials and private contractors and financiers benefited. This study uses both archival manuscript administrative sources and published sources to assess the impact of corruption and its institutional bases during the final phase of Spanish colonialism in Cuba and the early period of post-colonial transition.

    La corrupción administrativa en Cuba durante el siglo XIX constituyó un problema reconocido como muy grave tanto por las autoridades españolas como por los críticos del sistema colonial cubano. Los costos fiscales, institucionales, e ideológicos de la corrupción contribuían a la erosión del dominio español en Cuba. A causa de la corrupción el Estado percibía menos ingresos y los contribuyentes cubanos se veían forzados a llevar a cuestas una creciente deuda pública. Los funcionarios corruptos y los contratistas y financistas privilegiados por el rígido sistema colonial, por el contrario, percibían los beneficios informales a que se creían acreedores por defender el dominio territorial español en Cuba. Utilizando fuentes administrativas manuscritas de archivos cubanos y españoles, así como fuentes públicas impresas, este trabajo evalúa el impacto de la corrupción y sus particulares bases institucionales en la fase final del colonialismo español en la isla y la transición post-colonial temprana.

  9. Etapas principales de la Educación Superior en Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo Guadarrama González

    2005-01-01

    La educación superior en Cuba ha desempeñado un papel protagónico en la conformación de la cultura y la sociedad cubana y ha contribuido de manera diferenciada durante las tres épocas básicas de su historia: la colonial (1728-1898), la república neocolonial (1900-1958) y etapa revolucionaria (1959-hasta hoy), a consolidar las aspiraciones liberadoras en diferentes planos de la vida nacional.

  10. Cuba y la Unión Europea. Una perspectiva histórica

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Ojeda Revah

    2012-01-01

    El artículo pasa revista a las relaciones de Cuba con los principales países de Europa Occidental, desde el triunfo de la Revolución cubana hasta la caída del bloque soviético. Asimismo explora las relaciones del régimen revolucionario cubano con la unión Europea durante el periodo especial, los constantes desencuentros entre la Isla y la uE, especialmente tras la asunción por el bloque europeo de la Posición Común y la represión de la disidencia durante la llamada Primavera Negra . El art...

  11. 48 Human Rights in and around Cuba

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The article takes point of department in the current reform process in Cuba and its perspectives regarding human rights. To understand the background of the fundamental human rights' problems in Cuba, an analysis of the 'constituting dichotomy' is included and discussed in relation to its represe...... representation in the film, 'Strawberry and Chocolate'. The further perspectives for human rights in Cuba in relation to other Developments in Latin America constitutes the last part....

  12. Madruga, en Cuba, festeja a la virgen en primera peregrinación en 52 años

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Palacios Barra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Miles de fieles recibieron el domingo 4 de septiembre pasado, en las calles del pueblo de Madruga, a 65 km al este de La Habana y tierra natal del poeta cubano Porfirio Robau (1914-1993, la imagen de la Virgen de la Caridad del Cobre, Patrona de Cuba, en su primera peregrinación por la isla en 52 años de gobierno comunista. La Virgen, Patrona de Cuba desde 1916 por decreto del Papa Benedicto XV, fue coronada y consagrada el año 1998 por Juan Pablo II durante su visita a la isla.

  13. Playing Business "Ball" with Cuba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wei; Gong Liming

    2007-01-01

    @@ If you were lucky enough to have seen the World Volleyball Tournament,you must have seen the Cuban Women's volleyball team take on China in the championship game,a game of which Cuba has become the world champion for 10 times.The great determination and strong tenacity of these young Cuban girls' has been an encouragement to everyone that watches them play.

  14. Cuba: Multidimensional numerical integration library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    The Cuba library offers four independent routines for multidimensional numerical integration: Vegas, Suave, Divonne, and Cuhre. The four algorithms work by very different methods, and can integrate vector integrands and have very similar Fortran, C/C++, and Mathematica interfaces. Their invocation is very similar, making it easy to cross-check by substituting one method by another. For further safeguarding, the output is supplemented by a chi-square probability which quantifies the reliability of the error estimate.

  15. El envejecimiento poblacional en Cuba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Bernal Sánchez

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available En todo el mundo las poblaciones de los distintos países están envejeciendo, por tanto, la gente vive más tiempo y el número de personas adultas es cada vez mayor. Esto requiere de la toma de medidas con el fin de lograr mantener a estas personas vinculadas a la sociedad. Cuba teniendo en cuenta esta realidad se ha enfrascado en una serie de programas al respecto en lo cual Sancti Spíritus no se ha quedado detrás, llegando a cada rincón del país. Este trabajo presenta la investigación llevada a cabo de un estudio referativo sobre el envejecimiento poblacional en Cuba, cuyos objetivos son, profundizar en las diferentes aristas del tema así como valorar las dimensiones del mismo, para lo cual se emplearon métodos del nivel teórico y empírico. Entre los resultados obtenidos se encuentra diseño de un trabajo referativo que abarca doce dimensiones del envejecimiento poblacional en Cuba. La realización de este documento facilita el estudio del tema ya que permite profundizar en el contenido sobre Adulto Mayor visto como un sistema desde múltiples aristas.

  16. Time for a New Cuba Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    government took over leadership of the island. The newly elected leader of Cuba, Estrada Palma , was forced by the United States Congress to rule under...providing oil on preferential terms, and it currently supplies about 100,000 barrels per day of petroleum products. Cuba has been paying for the oil

  17. Surgidero de Batabanó Harbor, Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopmans, R.; Van Kessel, L.; Lendering, K.; Oud, M.; Tromp, R.

    2011-01-01

    The harbor of Surgidero de Batabano is a harbor that lies in the Gulf of Batabano in the South-Western part of Cuba. It serves as a connection between the main land of Cuba and the islands 'Isla de la Juventud' and Cayo Largo. The Batabano harbor suffers from sediment accretion. The accretion of sed

  18. Surgidero de Batabanó Harbor, Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopmans, R.; Van Kessel, L.; Lendering, K.; Oud, M.; Tromp, R.

    2011-01-01

    The harbor of Surgidero de Batabano is a harbor that lies in the Gulf of Batabano in the South-Western part of Cuba. It serves as a connection between the main land of Cuba and the islands 'Isla de la Juventud' and Cayo Largo. The Batabano harbor suffers from sediment accretion. The accretion of

  19. Psychology and Health Care in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Averasturi, Lourdes

    1980-01-01

    Describes the orientation and development of professional psychological services in Cuba since the 1959 revolution. Discusses the integration of psychological services with educational and primary health services. Also describes research trends and the relationship between psychology and psychiatry in Cuba. (GC)

  20. Through the looking glass on Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Stubbs

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] State Resistance to Globalisation in Cuba. Antonio Carmona Báez. Sterling VA: Pluto Press, 2004. vii + 264 pp. (Paper US$ 29.95 La Lucha for Cuba: Religion and Politics on the Streets of Miami. Miguel A. de la Torre. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003. xi + 181 pp. (Paper US$ 21.95 By Heart/De Memoria: Cuban Women’s Journeys in and out of Exile. María de los Angeles Torres (ed.. Philadelphia PA: Temple University Press, 2003. vii + 192 pp. (Paper US$ 19.95 Looking at Cuba: Essays on Culture and Civil Society. Rafael Hernández. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2003. vii + 145 pp. (Cloth US$ 24.95 In the politically charged world of scholarship on Cuba, it is salutary to comment in one review essay on four quite different volumes, each complementing the others. Three are single-authored, two on island Cuba (by Antonio Carmona Báez and Rafael Hernández and one on Miami (by Miguel A. de la Torre. All three draw on theory and concepts and are male-authored and place-centric (Cuba/Miami. The fourth (by María de los Angeles Torres is an edited collection of the personal testimonies of women seeking a place in between the hardened politics of Cuba and Miami.

  1. Arqueofauna del Nororiente de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Pérez Iglesias

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available La región nororiental de Cuba, que abarca el norte de los territorios de las provincias Las Tunas, Holguín y Guantánamo, posee un potencial arqueológico de alrededor de 220 sitios, de ellos se posee información zooarqueológica de 35 localidades. Esta información se ha reunido en un sistema de información geográfica(SIG denominado Arqueofauna del Nororiente de Cuba, que permite el manejo de los datos a través de entradas como: nombre del sitio, coordenadas, provincia, municipio, categoría, filiación, lista de taxones presentes (Moluscos, Crustáceos, Peces, Reptiles, Aves, Mamíferos, número de especies respectiva a cada taxón, fechado del sitio, persona y fecha en que fue trabajado. Este levantamiento zooarqueológico ofrece además, una aproximación del uso de los recursos faunísticos por parte de las comunidades aborígenes, en esta área geográfica, así como datos sobre el uso de especies extintas, variaciones en la distribución de especies en el pasado, cuestión tratada en el presente trabajo.

  2. Sistema de salud de Cuba The health system of Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Domínguez-Alonso

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se describen las condiciones de salud de Cuba y el sistema cubano de salud, incluyendo su estructura y cobertura, sus fuentes de financiamiento, su gasto en salud, los recursos físicos, materiales y humanos de los que dispone, y las actividades de rectoría e investigación que desarrolla. También se discute la importancia de sus instituciones de investigación y se describe el papel de los usuarios de los servicios en la operación y evaluación del sistema, así como las actividades que en este sentido desarrollan la Federación de Mujeres Cubanas y los Comités de Defensa de la Revolución. La parte final de este trabajo se dedica a discutir las innovaciones más recientes dentro de las que destacan las redes de cardiología, la Misión Milagro y la Batalla de Ideas.This paper describes the health conditions in Cuba and the general characteristics of the Cuban health system, including its structure and coverage, its financial sources, its health expenditure, its physical, material and human resources, and its stewardship functions. It also discusses the increasing importance of its research institutions and the role played by its users in the operation and evaluation of the system. Salient among the social actors involved in the health sector are the Cuban Women Federation and the Committees for the Defense of the Revolution. The paper concludes with the discussion of the most recent innovations implemented in the Cuban health system, including the cardiology networks, the Miracle Mission (Misión Milagro and the Battle of Ideas (Batalla de Ideas.

  3. The Beginning of Semiconductor Research in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltfort, Theodore

    I was invited to Cuba in 1962 to initiate some efforts in semiconductor development. I had been a physicist and senior research engineer with various electronic companies of the "Silicon Valley" of California, south of San Francisco. I had heard of the efforts made by the new revolutionary government of Cuba to advance the level of science and technology, and I was anxious to see what I could do to help.

  4. Cuba: A Short Critical Bibliographic Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basosi, Duccio

    An island with a population of approximately eleven million citizens, Cuba has been the topic of a huge amount of books and articles by scholars, politicians, artists, tourists and—why not?—foreign undercover agents. A random search in a well-known on-line bookshop gives some 118,000 results for the island's name. In brief, to present a selection of basic works on Cuba is a very harsh task that necessarily leads to difficult choices.

  5. The Curious Case of Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Gail A.

    2012-01-01

    As health professionals in the United States consider how to focus health care and coverage to ensure better, more equitable patient and population health outcomes, the experience of Cuba’s National Health System over the last 5 decades may provide useful insights. Although mutual awareness has been limited by long-term political hostilities between the United States and Cuban governments, the history and details of the Cuban health system indicate that their health system merits attention as an example of a national integrated approach resulting in improved health status. More extensive analysis of the principles, practices, and outcomes in Cuba is warranted to inform health system transformation in the United States, despite differences in political-social systems and available resources. PMID:22698011

  6. PULPA CUBA MILL ENERGY ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pedro Hernández Touset

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available An energy study was performed at Pulpa Cuba Paper Mill, located in Sancti Spiritus, where an energy management system was applied according to NC: ISO 50001, in order to assess the energy system by applying energy management systems for energy and water reduction in the paper mill, in which the current steam generation, distribution and consumption system is diagnosed. The proposal of a modified energy scheme with 1 MW Backpressure Steam Turbine Generator and rehabilitation of the original boiler or installing a lower capacity boiler contributes to save financial resources by the concept of water, fuel and electricity. The implementation of four projects will save 3,095,574 CUC / y and an average payback period of about 1 year is expected.

  7. Becoming a Chemist in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taft, Hessy L.

    2003-08-01

    Education in Cuba is a national priority. Overall, the population is skilled and motivated to use all available resources; furthermore teachers are dedicated and focused on their mission. This paper reports on information obtained as a result of visits to several secondary schools and three premier institutions of higher learning: the University of Havana, the Higher Polytechnic Institute "Jose Antonio Echevaria", and an Institute for Pedagogy. University tuition is free for all Cubans: students can not work for a salary during the typical five-year program of post-secondary study and instead serve as interns in government, industry, or schools. Experience working abroad is encouraged upon graduation. An overview of Cuban university admissions criteria, some specific programs of study, and placement of students in career jobs upon graduation is presented.

  8. Lo público y lo privado en los escritos de Alexander Von Humboldt sobre Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebok, Sandra

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to collect the comments and judgements that Humboldt makes about Cuba and evaluate their character. The resulting analysis and interpretation will be undertaken on two different levels: One refers to the information that can be found in his unofficial works, which means the letters Humboldt sent during or shortly after of his visits to Cuba, as well as the diaries he used during his expedition. The other is based on the official works, which include his travel description, his famous Essay on Cuba and his autobiographical text written in 1804. Constrasting these descriptions, we will compare the evaluations of this Prussian traveller elaborated in the moment he visited the island, with the works he wrote 22 years after his return to Europe.

    Este trabajo tiene el objeto de recopilar los comentarios y juicios que hace Humboldt sobre Cuba y valorar su carácter. El análisis e interpretación que resultará de ello se realiza en dos niveles distintos: uno se refiere a las informaciones que se encuentran en escritos no oficiales, es decir, en las cartas que Humboldt envió durante o poco tiempo después de sus visitas a Cuba, y en los diarios que utilizó a lo largo de su expedición. El otro se fundamenta en los escritos oficiales, que comprenden su narración del viaje, el famoso Ensayo sobre Cuba y la memoria autobiográfica escrita en 1804. Mediante el contraste de estas descripciones se pretende comparar las apreciaciones de este viajero prusiano elaboradas en el preciso momento que visita la isla, cotejándolas con las obras que redactó 22 años después de su vuelta a Europa. Este trabajo tiene el objeto de recopilar los comentarios y juicios que hace Humboldt sobre Cuba y valorar su carácter. El análisis e interpretación que resultará de ello se realiza en dos niveles distintos: uno se refiere a las informaciones que se encuentran en escritos no oficiales, es decir, en las cartas que Humboldt envi

  9. Dengue y dengue hemorrágico, Cuba 1981-2005

    OpenAIRE

    Guzmán Tirado, Maria Guadalupe

    2008-01-01

    En Cuba existen reportes de varias epidemias tipo dengue en el siglo XIX (81-83). En 1945, se notificó un brote en la Habana no reportándose de nuevo la enfermedad clínica hasta el año 1977 cuando se produce una epidemia de FD causada por el virus Den 1 durante la cual se documentó casi medio millón de enfermos de todo el país. Estudios seroepidemiológicos realizados con anterioridad (1975) y posterioridad (1978) a esta epidemia, mostraron que de una cifra de 2.6% personas inmunes a dengue e...

  10. La Habana británica: Once meses claves en la historia de Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez Cienfuegos, Sigfrido

    2001-01-01

    Este trabajo tiene como eje central la copia de varios capítulos de las representaciones que el obispo de Cuba Pedro Morell de Santa Cruz hizo a Carlos III sobre las infracciones de los tratados de rendición de dicha ciudad durante la ocupación británica, así como la propia correspondencia personal entre el obispo y el conde de Albemarle, gobernador inglés de la plaza. La conquista de La Habana puso en evidencia la vulnerabilidad del imperio español y conmocionó profundamente a la Corona, per...

  11. Haemophilus influenzae susceptibilidad a los antimicrobianos y comportamiento frente a la vacuna en Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Llop Hernández, Alina Etelvina

    2006-01-01

    Se presenta el resultado del Monitoreo/Vigilancia de la Resistencia de las cepas circulantes de Haemophilus influenzae en Cuba, aisladas de pacientes con procesos invasivos de meningoencefalitis bacteriana. Fueron estudiadas 1155 cepas colectadas recibidas de todo el paí­s, durante un período ininterrumpido de 17 años, desde enero del 1989 a diciembre de 2005. El trabajo se desarrolló en el Laboratorio Nacional de Referencia de Microbiologí­a del Instituto de Medicina Tropical "Pedro Kourí" M...

  12. Pediatric Gastroenterology in Cuba: Evolution and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda-Guillot, Carlos

    2016-10-01

    INTRODUCTION The professional practice of pediatric gastroenterology arose in Cuba as an expression of the specialty's development internationally and Cuba's new strategies in public health, and in response to national needs for health care expertise in digestive diseases of infants, older children and adolescents. OBJECTIVES Describe the history of pediatric gastroenterology's development in Cuba since its inception at the National Gastroenterology Institute in the early 1970s, its contributions, and efforts to extend it to pediatric hospitals throughout Cuba. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION This is a historical review based on document analysis. Institutional sources from the National Gastroenterology Institute and Ministry of Public Health were reviewed, as well as international and national literature on the history of pediatric gastroenterology and unpublished texts since its emergence in 1972. DEVELOPMENT Although pediatric gastroenterology has not been formally recognized as a medical specialty in Cuba, there have been important achievements in establishing a network of specialized health care services for digestive diseases of children and adolescents. Gastrointestinal endoscopy and other auxiliary diagnostic modalities have been introduced for children and play a major role in clinical trials and research. This article describes the international context that promoted the specialty's development in Cuba. Reference is made to specialized training from its initial stages in 1972, its consolidation as an emerging discipline in Cuban medicine, and its diffusion in Latin American and Caribbean countries. Professional development and specialized training to meet health human resource needs in pediatric hospitals are described, as well as Cuban participation in the Latin American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition. National and international milestones, publications, awards and recognitions that indicate advances despite difficulties are also

  13. Laringoespasmo durante la anestesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lincoln de la Parte Pérez

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realiza una revisión bibliográfica sobre los factores que desencadenan laringoespasmo durante la administración de la anestesia. Se describen los síntomas y las medidas de tratamiento indicadas en estos casos, así como las medidas preventivas para evitar su desencadenamiento.A literature review of the factors that lead to laryngospam during the administration of anesthesia is made. Observed symptoms and indicated treatments for these cases are described together with the preventive measures to avoid laryngospam.

  14. HISTORICAL ECOTOXICOLOGICALASSESSMENT OF SAN JUAN ECOSYSTEM, SANTIAGO DE CUBA, CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argota, George

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the environmental decision-making related to watershed preservation is oriented under the precepts of an historical environmental assessment. The objective of this research was to conduct a historical ecotoxicological assessment of the San Juan de Santiago de Cuba ecosystem. This was considered a systematic environmental monitoring which ran from 2010 to 2013, made q?uarterly. Physicochemical parameters such as electrical conductivity, total alkalinity, total hardness, pH, total solids, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand were determined. All parameters of environmental risk prediction were performed using the GECOTOX program. The concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd on three target organs (brain, gills and liver in the biomonitor adult Gambusia punctata (Poecilidae were analyzed. In this species, the effect of total protein and enzymatic activity of acetylcholinesterase as biomarkers were evaluated. In general, the parameters were outside the values set used by the Cuban quality standards. The GECOTOX program said that the waters of the San Juan ecosystem presented a high rate of risk. The highest concentrations of metals were determined in the gills, liver and brain, respectively. Biomarker values w? ere high, being higher for females. Finally, it was concluded that from one year to another all responses were ascending; thus, the San Juan ecosystem presented ecotoxicological effects in time.

  15. Unconventional Gas, Status and Perspectives for Its Exploration in Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Orelvis Delgado López; Osvaldo López Corzo; Rafael Tenreyro Pérez; Juan Guillermo López Rivera

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this paper, is to define the unconventional gas types that can be found in Cuba andelaborate premises of perspectives areas for its exploration in Cuba. For this reason, a bibliographicrevision was done over the internet, because of the absent of textbooks and experiences of this topicin Cuba. For the enunciation of perspectives areas for unconventional gas exploration in Cuba, bothgas exploration reports in national territory and theoretical aspects elucidated over the intern...

  16. Waterfowl in Cuba: Current status and distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco Rodríquez, Pedro; Vilella, Francisco; Sánchez Oria, Bárbara

    2014-01-01

    Cuba and its satellite islands represent the largest landmass in the Caribbean archipelago and a major repository of the region’s biodiversity. Approximately 13.4% of the Cuban territory is covered by wetlands, encompassing approximately 1.48 million ha which includes mangroves, flooded savannas, peatlands, freshwater swamp forests and various types of managed wetlands. Here, we synthesise information on the distribution and abundance of waterfowl on the main island of Cuba, excluding the numerous surrounding cays and the Isla de la Juventud (Isle of Youth), and report on band recoveries from wintering waterfowl harvested in Cuba by species and location. Twenty-nine species of waterfowl occur in Cuba, 24 of which are North American migrants. Of the five resident Anatid species, three are of conservation concern: the West Indian Whistling-duck Dendrocygna arborea (globally vulnerable), White-cheeked Pintail Anas bahamensis (regional concern) and Masked Duck Nomonyx dominicus(regional concern). The most abundant species of waterfowl wintering in Cuba include Blue-winged Teal A. discors, Northern Pintail A. acuta, and Northern Shoveler A. clypeata. Waterfowl banded in Canada and the United States and recovered in Cuba included predominantly Blue-winged Teal, American Wigeon and Northern Pintail. Banding sites of recovered birds suggest that most of the waterfowl moving through and wintering in Cuba are from the Atlantic and Mississippi flyways. Threats to wetlands and waterfowl in Cuba include: 1) egg poaching of resident species, 2) illegal hunting of migratory and protected resident species, 3) mangrove deforestation, 4) reservoirs for irrigation, 5) periods of pronounced droughts, and 6) hurricanes. Wetland and waterfowl conservation efforts continue across Cuba’s extensive system of protected areas. Expanding collaborations with international conservation organisations, researchers and governments in North America will enhance protection

  17. Cuba: transición, sucesión, estabilidad, seguridad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín ROY

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este análisis trata de la relación entre la estabilidad del presente gobierno cubano y la necesidad de seguridad en su territorio y en la zona circundante. Este vínculo se produce en un momento político de Cuba, entre un primer paso de la sucesión de Fidel Castro a Raúl, sin que se den señales claras de una transición hacia otro tipo de sistema político. Mientras tanto, el gobierno de Estados Unidos ha declarado que su prioridad estriba en el reestablecimiento de la democracia en Cuba, tanto durante el último periodo de la administración de George W. Bush como con Barack Obama ya asentado en la Casa Blanca. Sin embargo, las delicadas circunstancias de Cuba (precariedad económica, desastres naturales, dependencia alimentaria y energética, etc. señalan que la prioridad de los intereses nacionales de Estados Unidos se centran primero en la estabilidad del escenario. Incluso al precio del retraso de la evolución del régimen, un cierto grado de seguridad es necesario para enfrentarse a los riesgos de una emigración incontrolada y las hipotéticas tensiones internas que provoquen confrontaciones

  18. Cuba: transición, sucesión, estabilidad, seguridad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín ROY

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este análisis trata de la relación entre la estabilidad del presente gobierno cubano y la necesidad de seguridad en su territorio y en la zona circundante. Este vínculo se produce en un momento político de Cuba, entre un primer paso de la sucesión de Fidel Castro a Raúl, sin que se den señales claras de una transición hacia otro tipo de sistema político. Mientras tanto, el gobierno de Estados Unidos ha declarado que su prioridad estriba en el reestablecimiento de la democracia en Cuba, tanto durante el último periodo de la administración de George W. Bush como con Barack Obama ya asentado en la Casa Blanca. Sin embargo, las delicadas circunstancias de Cuba (precariedad económica, desastres naturales, dependencia alimentaria y energética, etc. señalan que la prioridad de los intereses nacionales de Estados Unidos se centran primero en la estabilidad del escenario. Incluso al precio del retraso de la evolución del régimen, un cierto grado de seguridad es necesario para enfrentarse a los riesgos de una emigración incontrolada y las hipotéticas tensiones internas que provoquen confrontaciones

  19. 31 CFR 515.570 - Remittances to Nationals of Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Remittances to Nationals of Cuba. 515..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.570 Remittances to Nationals of Cuba. (a) Family... older are authorized to make remittances to nationals of Cuba who are close relatives, as defined...

  20. 31 CFR 515.563 - Journalistic activities in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Journalistic activities in Cuba. 515..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.563 Journalistic activities in Cuba. (a) General license... directly incident to journalistic activities in Cuba by persons regularly employed as journalists by a...

  1. 31 CFR 515.420 - Travel to Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Travel to Cuba. 515.420 Section 515....420 Travel to Cuba. The prohibition on dealing in property in which Cuba or a Cuban national has an interest set forth in § 515.201(b)(1) includes a prohibition on the receipt of goods or services in...

  2. 31 CFR 515.566 - Religious activities in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Religious activities in Cuba. 515.566..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.566 Religious activities in Cuba. (a) Specific license... involving transactions (including travel-related transactions) in which Cuba or a Cuban national has...

  3. 14 CFR 91.709 - Operations to Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operations to Cuba. 91.709 Section 91.709... Board Such Aircraft § 91.709 Operations to Cuba. No person may operate a civil aircraft from the United States to Cuba unless— (a) Departure is from an international airport of entry designated in § 6.13...

  4. Joint Ventures in Cuba: Opportunities for Direct Foreign Investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tancer, Robert S.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a brief history of direct foreign investment in Cuba since 1982. This investment currently plays an important role in Cuba as a replacement to Soviet aid and as a means to earn foreign exchange. Tourism and mining are the preferred area for foreign investment because both of these sectors offer hard currency returns for Cuba. (20…

  5. Herbal mixtures in the traditional medicine of Eastern Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernández, J.; Volpato, G.

    2004-01-01

    Herbal mixtures in the traditional medicine of Eastern Cuba. Traditional herbal mixtures in Eastern Cuba are investigated through interviews with 130 knowledgeable people and traditional healers of the provinces of Santiago de Cuba and Guantanamo. One hundred seventy plant species and other products

  6. Science and Technology Diplomacy with Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon, Frances

    President Obama's announcement of U. S. policy change toward Cuba and increased freedom of interaction with the Cuban people opens unprecedented and long-awaited opportunities for the scientific and engineering communities in the U. S. and in Cuba to establish and expand collaborative efforts that will greatly advance U.S. and Cuba science and technology agendas. New rules for export of donated-only items for scientific use will bring researchers closer to the level of their professional peers around the world. Increasing Cubans' access to information will result in greater interactions between scientific communities and enable the sharing of ideas and discoveries that can fuel entrepreneurship on the island. The scientific community has expressed an extraordinary level of interest in the wide range of scientific opportunities that the new policy presents, in collaborating with their Cuban counterparts, and in supporting the development of scientific capacity in Cuba. In response to numerous expressions of interest and inquiries from the scientific community, the Office of the Science and Technology Adviser to the Secretary of State (STAS) has engaged in public outreach to inform the U.S. science and technology community of the implications of the new policy for collaborative research, emerging scientific opportunities, and the standing limitations for engagement with the people of Cuba.

  7. Os estudos sobre as limitações do folclore e o alcance da cultura popular tradicional em Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Guanche

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Os diversos estudos sobre a cultura popular tradicional em Cuba têm amplos precedentes, desde o final do século XIX até o presente. A realização, ao longo de duas décadas, do Atlas de los instrumentos de la música folclórico-popular de Cuba e do Atlas etnográfico de Cuba, cultura popular tradicional, marca a maioridade dessas pesquisas em Cuba, não só pela grande aplicação que tiveram no ensino de diversos níveis e pelos múltiplos contatos com a América Latina, o Caribe e a Europa, mas também porque, pela primeira vez, pode-se contar com uma amostra nacional dessas expressões populares que destacam a riqueza da diversidade cultural. Essa experiência possibilitou, como em grande parte da América Latina e do Caribe, questionar as limitações disciplinares do folclore e ampliar o alcance antropológico da cultura.Los diversos estudios sobre la cultura popular tradicional en Cuba tienen amplios precedentes desde fines del siglo XIX hasta el presente. La realización durante dos décadas del Atlas de los instrumentos de la música folclórico-popular de Cuba y del Atlas etnográfico de Cuba, cultura popular tradicional, marcan la mayoría de edad de estas investigaciones en Cuba, no solo por la amplia aplicación que ha tenido en la enseñanza de diversos niveles y los múltiples contactos con Latinoamérica, el Caribe y Europa, sino porque, por vez primera se cuenta con una muestra nacional de estas expresiones populares que destacan la amplia riqueza de la diversidad cultural. Esta experiencia facilitó, como en gran parte de América Latina y el Caribe, cuestionar las limitaciones disciplinares del folklore y ampliar el alcance antropológico de la cultura.The various studies of traditional popular culture in Cuba have many precedents, dating from the late 19th century to the present. The development, over two decades, of the Atlas de los instrumentos de la música folclórico-popular de Cuba [Atlas of Cuban folk-popular music

  8. Edad de ocurrencia de los fallecimientos por diabetes en Cuba Age of occurrence of deaths from diabetes in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Domínguez Alonso

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el incremento de la tasa bruta de mortalidad en Cuba durante los últimos años, unido al acelerado proceso de envejecimiento poblacional, nos encauzó en el presente estudio. Objetivo: identificar diferencias en la edad de ocurrencia de las defunciones por diabetes en Cuba del año 1990 a 2010. Métodos: se incluyeron todas las defunciones por diabetes ocurridas en el país durante los años 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005 y 2010. A partir de estas se calcularon: las tasas de años de vida potencial perdidos por mortalidad por 1 000, los años de vida potencial perdidos por cada defunción, la media de la edad de los fallecidos, los cuartiles de la distribución de la edad de la muerte, y el porcentaje del total de fallecidos por diabetes por grupos quinquenales de edad. Resultados: la tasa de años de vida potencial perdidos se elevó en el sexo masculino de 2,44 a 2,63 por 1 000, mientras que en las mujeres tuvo un comportamiento discretamente descendente (de 4,54 a 4,46 por 1 000. Los años de vida potencial perdidos por cada defunción disminuyeron en ambos sexos (de 15,98 a 14,83 en hombres, y de 16,31 a 15,27 en mujeres. Esto último se relaciona directamente con el incremento de la media de la edad de los fallecidos, de 67,51 y 69,31 en 1990, a 70,24 y 72,33 en 2010 en hombres y mujeres respectivamente, así como con que los tres cuartiles se correspondieron con una mayor edad en los años 2005 y 2010, en relación con 1990 en ambos sexos. El porcentaje del total de defunciones perteneciente al grupo de 85 años y más fue de 9,9 y 16,2 % en 1990 y 2010 respectivamente. Las defunciones en las mujeres ocurrieron más tardíamente, a pesar de mostrar mayores tasas de años de vida potencial perdidos. Conclusiones: la mortalidad por diabetes en Cuba durante los últimos años se ha desplazado a los grupos de edades más avanzadas.Introduction: the increase of the gross mortality rate in Cuba in the last few years, together with the

  9. HBV genotypic variability in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, Carmen L; Aguilar, Julio C; Aguiar, Jorge; Muzio, Verena; Pentón, Eduardo; Garcia, Daymir; Guillen, Gerardo; Pujol, Flor H

    2015-01-01

    The genetic diversity of HBV in human population is often a reflection of its genetic admixture. The aim of this study was to explore the genotypic diversity of HBV in Cuba. The S genomic region of Cuban HBV isolates was sequenced and for selected isolates the complete genome or precore-core sequence was analyzed. The most frequent genotype was A (167/250, 67%), mainly A2 (149, 60%) but also A1 and one A4. A total of 77 isolates were classified as genotype D (31%), with co-circulation of several subgenotypes (56 D4, 2 D1, 5 D2, 7 D3/6 and 7 D7). Three isolates belonged to genotype E, two to H and one to B3. Complete genome sequence analysis of selected isolates confirmed the phylogenetic analysis performed with the S region. Mutations or polymorphisms in precore region were more common among genotype D compared to genotype A isolates. The HBV genotypic distribution in this Caribbean island correlates with the Y lineage genetic background of the population, where a European and African origin prevails. HBV genotypes E, B3 and H isolates might represent more recent introductions.

  10. HBV Genotypic Variability in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, Carmen L.; Aguilar, Julio C.; Aguiar, Jorge; Muzio, Verena; Pentón, Eduardo; Garcia, Daymir; Guillen, Gerardo; Pujol, Flor H.

    2015-01-01

    The genetic diversity of HBV in human population is often a reflection of its genetic admixture. The aim of this study was to explore the genotypic diversity of HBV in Cuba. The S genomic region of Cuban HBV isolates was sequenced and for selected isolates the complete genome or precore-core sequence was analyzed. The most frequent genotype was A (167/250, 67%), mainly A2 (149, 60%) but also A1 and one A4. A total of 77 isolates were classified as genotype D (31%), with co-circulation of several subgenotypes (56 D4, 2 D1, 5 D2, 7 D3/6 and 7 D7). Three isolates belonged to genotype E, two to H and one to B3. Complete genome sequence analysis of selected isolates confirmed the phylogenetic analysis performed with the S region. Mutations or polymorphisms in precore region were more common among genotype D compared to genotype A isolates. The HBV genotypic distribution in this Caribbean island correlates with the Y lineage genetic background of the population, where a European and African origin prevails. HBV genotypes E, B3 and H isolates might represent more recent introductions. PMID:25742179

  11. Astronomy TV outreach, CUBA experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Oscar

    2015-08-01

    As professional astronomer and science communicator, I want to share my personal experience communicating Astronomy and general science principles in maybe, the most popular science outreach devoted TV program in Cuba. It is broadcasted nationwide in a prime time schedule every Sunday. The Science Popularization on TV, is in a Third World Country hard to do if you want to produce attractive materials for a broad audience. Budgets constraints in most of the cases and lack of the technical equipment required to produce first class visual materials conspire, against motivation and creativity of local scientists and media professionals. A way to show the advance of the national scientific community in Science fields and connecting them in a friendly relation with a broad majority of the people, is to combine the wisdom and knowledge of the local scientists together with the most spectacular TV production of the first world countries. Commenting, analyzing and conveying the hard science into the public debate of the common citizens. Here is shown a way to convey cutting edge science to the general public, using limited resources to produce imaginative television productions, highlighting the development, knowledge and wisdom of the local scientists.

  12. Soil and Terrain Database for Cuba, primary data (version 1.0) - scale 1:1 million (SOTER_Cuba)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkshoorn, J.A.; Huting, J.R.M.

    2014-01-01

    The Soil and Terrain database for Cuba primary data (version 1.0), at scale 1:1 million (SOTER_Cuba), was compiled of enhanced soil informtion within the framework of the FAO's program Land Degradation Assessment in Drylands (LADA). Primary soil and terrain data for Cuba were obtained from the SOTER

  13. durante el embarazo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Falcón Romero

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El consumo de drogas de abuso durante el embarazo supone una situación de riesgo objetivo sobre la salud del feto que difícilmente puede justifi carse desde una perspectiva basada únicamente en la libertad de la embarazada. Desde un análisis ético-jurídico parece razonable instaurar una política de prevención basada en la protección de los derechos del ser más vulnerable, en este caso el embrión o el feto. La libertad de decisión supone la capacidad de asumir riesgos de carácter personal, pero no debería suponer la posibilidad de imponer esos riesgos a terceras personas y más aún cuando estos carecen de la capacidad de elegir.

  14. Cuba vs H1N1 Influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail Reed

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available El Comité Editorial de MediSur agradece a Gail Reed, editora de Medicc Review la autorización expresa, para reproducir el artículo titulado “Cuba vs H1N1 Influenza”. Este trabajo resume el esfuerzo realizado por todos los organismos en Cuba y en especial el Ministerio de Salud Pública en la lucha para disminuir los efectos de la influenza H1N1 en la población. El artículo original se puede encontrar en: Reed G. Faceoff: Cuba vs H1N1 Influenza. MEDICC Review. 2010; 12(1:6-12. Disponible en: http://www.medicc.org/mediccreview/index.php?issue=11

  15. A Perspective on Physics in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handy, Carlos R.

    The author is Cuban by birth: the son of an Afro-Cuban mother and an Afro-American father. He spent the first 8 years of his life attending schools in Havana and New York City. He left Cuba in 1958 so as to gain a more uninterrupted educational experience. This led to his PhD in theoretical physics from Columbia University in 1978, followed by a post-doctoral appointment at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico. He returned to Cuba in 1980 as a member of an academic tour organized by the University of New Mexico in Albuquerque. This provided an introduction to various government-run scientific facilities in Havana and the easternmost city of "Santiago de Cuba" in the province of Oriente.

  16. Reconnaissance paleomagnetic results from western Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazhenov, Mikhail L.; Pszczolkowski, Andrzej; Shipunov, Stanislav V.

    1996-03-01

    A paleomagnetic study of Mesozoic rocks from the Sierra de Los Organos and Sierra del Rosario fold belts of western Cuba revealed postfolding magnetisation in diabases of the Late Jurassic El Sábalo Formation and carbonates of the middle Cretaceous Pons and the Late Cretaceous Carmita and Moreno formations. Steep components with inclinations of about 70° were isolated from all three formations; at the same time, postfolding shallow components were also found in a few samples of the Pons limestones. We rule out a possibility to account for these results by either horizontal movements or non-dipole field anomaly. Neither very appealing is a hypothesis of a post-remagnetization tilt of the entire region. All the components appear to be confined to a plane perpendicular to the main structural trends; we hypothesize that the remanences might have been distorted or re-aligned during deformation; this assumption, however, is far from being proven. In contrast, well-defined characteristic components were isolated from basalts of the Aptian-Albian Encrucijada ( {D}/{I} = {247°}/{23°}, K = 14, a95 = 9.0°) and the Late Cretaceous Orozco ( {D}/{I} = {228°}/{22°}, K = 110, a95 = 4.7) formations from the Bahia Honda zone in the north of western Cuba; the remanence in the Encrucijada Formation is shown to predate deformation. Mean inclinations in both formations match those in Cretaceous volcanics from central Cuba, and all the results show lower latitudes than expected from the reference data for the North American plate thus implying that volcanic domains of Cuba were displaced northward by about 1000 km prior to the Middle Eocene. Cretaceous declinations in western and central Cuba differ by about the same amount as the major structural trends of these two areas suggesting oroclinal bending of Cuba. At the same time, both areas are rotated counterclockwise with respect to North America thus implying movements on a broader scale.

  17. Spain and Cuba: A very Special Relationship?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Roy

    1995-11-01

    Full Text Available In spite of political changes than include the rise and fall of the Franco regime, the triumph of the Cuban Revolution, and the restoration of democracy in Spain, historical links have had and still have an influence on the continuation of a very specialrelationship between Spain and Cuba since the Spanish Civil War.Spain not only did not brake its diplomatic relation Cuba, but during the harshest periods of international isolation and ideological confrontation Madrid still became the primary economic partner of Havana in the capitalist world. Under the PSOE leadership, Spain's role in the pre-transition in Cuba, via aid and cooperation programs,impressive trade figures, and investment, has produced polemical debates with the opposition including threats of termination of aid in the event of a PP victory in the coming elections of March 1996.Spain's foreign policy toward Latin America has experienced an evolution from a policy of substitution and legitimation, to one of pressure. In the case of Cuba, justification for increased trade, aid, and political agreements seems to based on a more traditionalhistorical obligation, plus the added feature of doing fast business. However, the absence of clear accomplishments in the political arena have created a climate of frustration in Spanish diplomatic circles, which has resulted in leaks to the press and resignations.This added to the frequent verbal confrontations and discussions on the U.S. economic embargo, has converted the Cuban topic from a foreign issue to an "internal matter" of Spain. Finally, in spite of the active pressure that Spanish government has applied in Brussels during the second semester of 1995 as president of the European Union,the project of an agreement with Cuba received a delay when political liberalization did not meet European expectations.Only when the final stage of true political and economic transition takes place in Cuba, will the proper evaluation of Spain's role in

  18. El largo compromiso de Canadá con Cuba: paradojas y posibilidades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas LEGLER

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tanto la Unión Europea como América Latina, e incluso Estados Unidos, han iniciado distintos procesos de diálogo con Cuba. ¿Cuáles lecciones relevantes se pueden extraer de la larga historia canadiense de compromiso con la Revolución Cubana? Este artículo documenta la evolución de las relaciones entre Canadá y Cuba desde la década de 1940, centrándose en sus altibajos desde que se lanzó, a mediados de la década de 1990, una política de «compromiso constructivo ». Se argumenta que este acercamiento (en sus diversas formas no ha tenido mayor influencia en la liberalización de la política cubana. Además, la poca influencia que Canadá pudo haber tenido durante el «Periodo Especial» ha disminuido con la recuperación económica y diversificación de las relaciones exteriores de Cuba en la última década. En ese sentido, los autores concluyen que la estrategia más apropiada para Canadá y otros «actores» es llevar a cabo un acercamiento coordinado y de largo plazo que brinde apoyo a una variedad de procesos endógenos de cambio en Cuba. Una estrategia realista debería incluir diálogo de bajo perfil con el régimen actual, cooperación con un amplio espectro de posibles reformadores dentro y fuera del Estado y apoyo para la realización de cambios sociales más extensos a través del comercio, la inversión extranjera, el turismo así como los intercambios académicos y culturales

  19. de la República de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ponce de León Lima

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un esbozo de las estrategias a seguir para la inserción de la información edafológica en la Infraestructura de Datos Espaciales de la República de Cuba, a partir de un análisis del estado actual de desarrollo de la cartografía digital edafológica de Cuba y del desarrollo de bases de datos de la información de perfiles de suelo asociada. Se proponen una serie de tareas para lograr estos fines

  20. Cuba: Issues for the 111th Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-18

    April 21, 2008, ten members of the Ladies in White were 12 Comision Cubana de Derechos Humanos y...Fidel, “Health Changes within the Council of Ministers,” from CubaDebate as translated by Granma International, March 3, 2009. 8 Wildredo Cancio Isla ...Reconciliacion Nacional, “Cuba en el año 2009: la situacíon de derechos civiles, políticos y económicos,” February 2, 2009. 13 Anita Snow, “Cuban

  1. Palo Monte, um rito Congo em Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José da Silva Ribeiro

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Juntaram-se em Cuba a partir do século XVI africanos provenientes de toda a costa ocidental africana pertencentes a muitos grupos étnicos. Estes em contacto com as culturas em presença (autóctone, espanhola, portuguesa, africanas desenvolveram diversos sistemas de crença, rituais e práticas mágico-religiosas. No Século XIX o dia de Reis construía o momento mais alto da afirmação da cultura africana em Cuba. Estas manifestações eram acompanhadas da coroação de reis e rainhas Congo, figuras principais da festa e da vida social africana.Africans coming from all West Africa coasts from a large variety of ethnic groups gathered in Cuba since XVIth century. These, in contact with other cultures (native, Spanish, Portuguese, Africans developed some belief systems, rituals and magical-religious practices. On XIXth century the King’s day was the highest moment of affirmation of African culture in Cuba. These experiences were accompanied of king and queen’s crowning, principal figures of African festival and social life.

  2. Reflections on Educational Reform in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Ronald A.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews Cuban educational reforms, highlighting 1959, 1976, and 1980s initiatives. Compares Cuba's progress with John Kotter's eight-step process based on establishing a sense of urgency, creating a guiding coalition, developing and communicating the change vision, empowering broad-based action, generating short-term wins, consolidating gains, and…

  3. Teaching American Diplomacy Using Primary Sources: Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Michael; Anderson, David J.; Starbird, Caroline; Ertenberg, Samantha

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to allow high school students to examine the relationship between Cuba and the United States by studying a rich collection of primary materials and classroom-ready lessons which incorporate those materials. This book contains materials from 27 primary sources, including texts of speeches before the House and Senate,…

  4. Cuba Adrift in a Postcommunist World

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    1989 when Castro changed Cuba’s traditional revolutionary slogan from "Patria o Muerte ." (Fatherland or Death!) to "Socialismo o Muerte !" (Socialism...8217 prestigious government-affiliated publishing house, Fondo de Cultura Economics (FCE), has just been allowed to open an office in Havana. pretigou goermen

  5. Cuba shows jump in HIV positives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuba experienced a substantial increase in the number of HIV cases in 1996 due primarily to a growth of foreign tourism and an increase in prostitution, health officials said. The Juventud Rebelde newspaper said that since HIV/AIDS testing began in 1985, government-run hospitals and clinics have detected 1609 HIV-positive cases. In 1995 the total was reported at 1196, meaning that 413 new cases were detected in 1996. This compared with only 97 new cases reported during 1995. HIV infection among the island's 11 million inhabitants has remained relatively low due to a massive testing program and a public health infrastructure that provides universal and free medical treatment. Cuba was a pioneer in the use of interferon on those testing HIV-positive. Cuba produces its own interferon, which prolongs the life expectancy of patients, and also reagents for AIDS testing. There are special sanitariums for AIDS patients in most of Cuba's 12 provinces. Cuban adults who test HIV-positive are required to enter the sanitarium in a policy reminiscent of the way tuberculosis patients were tested in the US earlier in this century. Officials said the isolation of patients in sanitariums has been somewhat relaxed over past years by introducing greater flexibility in allowing persons who are considered reliable to live at home or make prolonged visits.

  6. The history of physics in Cuba

    CERN Document Server

    Renn, Jürgen; Wendt, Helge

    2014-01-01

    This book brings together a broad spectrum of authors, both from inside and from outside Cuba, who describe the development of Cuba's scientific system from the colonial period to the present. It is a unique documentation of the self-organizing power of a local scientific community engaged in scientific research on an international level. The first part includes several contributions that reconstruct the different stages of the history of physics in Cuba, from its beginnings in the late colonial era to the present. The second part comprises testimonies of Cuban physicists, who offer lively insights from the perspective of the actors themselves. The third part presents a series of testimonies by foreign physicists, some of whom were directly involved in developing Cuban physics, in particular in the development of teaching and research activities in the early years of the Escuela de Física. The fourth part of the volume deals with some of the issues surrounding the publishing of scientific research in Cuba. C...

  7. Cuba: Issues for 111th Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-14

    Humanos y Reconciliacion Nacional, “Cuba en el año 2009: la situacíon de derechos civiles, políticos y económicos,” February 2, 2009. 13 Anita Snow...park. On April 21, 2008, ten members of the Ladies in White were 12 Comision Cubana de Derechos

  8. El movimiento del Software Libre en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Rodríguez Figueredo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el movimiento de Software Libre y estándares abiertos de software en Cuba, su surgimiento y evolución hasta la fecha. Se analiza además la necesidad de incorporarlo en el proceso de informatización de la sociedad cubana y lo que ha venido haciéndose en ese sentido.

  9. Historical Overview of Leprosy Control in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldarraín-Chaple, Enrique

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Leprosy, an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, affects the nervous system, skin, internal organs, extremities and mucous membranes. Biological, social and environmental factors influence its occurrence and transmission. The first effective treatments appeared in 1930 with the development of dapsone, a sulfone. The main components of a control and elimination strategy are early case detection and timely administration of multidrug therapy. OBJECTIVES Review the history of leprosy control in Cuba, emphasizing particularly results of the National Leprosy Control Program, its modifications and influence on leprosy control. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION The historiological method was applied using document review, complemented by interviews with experts on leprosy and its control. Archived documents, medical records, disease prevalence censuses conducted since 1942, and incidence and prevalence statistics for 1960-2015 from the Ministry of Public Health's National Statistics Division were reviewed. Reports and scientific literature published on the Program and the history of leprosy in Cuba were also reviewed. DEVELOPMENT Leprosy has been documented in Cuba since 1613. In 1938, the Leprosy Foundation was created with ten dispensaries nationwide for diagnosis and treatment. The first National Leprosy Control Program was established in 1962, implemented in 1963 and revised five times. In 1972, leper colonies were closed and treatment became ambulatory. In 1977, rifampicin was introduced. In 1988, the Program instituted controlled, decentralized, community-based multidrug treatment and established the criteria for considering a patient cured. In 2003, it included actions aimed at early diagnosis and prophylactic treatment of contacts. Since 2008, it prioritizes actions directed toward the population at risk, maintaining five-year followup with dermatological and neurological examination. Primary health care carries out diagnostic and treatment

  10. Medición de campos electromagnéticos en redes de distribución: Experiencias en Cuba; Electromagnetic Measurements on Electric Network: Experiences in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Castro Fernández

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available La problemática de las posibles influencias sobre la salud humana de los campos electromagnéticosasociados a las instalaciones de alta tensión sigue manteniendo una actualidad total y los problemas quea escala internacional se han suscitado por las continuas referencias que en publicaciones de todo tipose han dado a la luz exige mantener líneas de estudio que aporten información al respecto. El presentetrabajo expone los resultados obtenidos durante la ejecución de un grupo de mediciones efectuadas enlíneas y subestaciones de distribución pertenecientes al Sistema Electroenergético Nacional (SEN deCuba, analizando dichos resultados con los niveles límites de las recomendaciones internacionales yalgunos otros resultados obtenidos por otros grupos de trabajo.  The influence of the electromagnetic fields on human health associated with High Voltage utilities hastotal actuality and very different result had been obtained for researchers. The discussion about its influencehas been necessary to increase efforts to obtain levels and time exposure to these fields. The levels ofEMF at electric lines and substations located in the National Electric System obtained by measurementsin different places in Cuba are presented in this paper; the authors compare these results with othersobtained for different scientific groups and international institutions.

  11. 31 CFR 515.564 - Professional research and professional meetings in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... tourism in Cuba or other commercial activities involving Cuba that are inconsistent with this part; and... a professional who plans to travel to Cuba. Example 1 to paragraph (e): A professor of history...

  12. Geologic Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the North Cuba Basin, Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Petroleum generation in the North Cuba Basin is primarily the result of thrust loading of Jurassic and Cretaceous source rocks during formation of the North Cuba fold and thrust belt in the Late Cretaceous to Paleogene. The fold and thrust belt formed as Cuban arc-forearc rocks along the leading edge of the Caribbean plate translated northward during the opening of the Yucatan Basin and collided with the passive margin of southern North America in the Paleogene. Petroleum fluids generated during thrust loading migrated vertically into complex structures in the fold and thrust belt, into structures in the foreland basin, and possibly into carbonate reservoirs along the margins of the Yucatan and Bahama carbonate platforms. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) defined a Jurassic-Cretaceous Composite Total Petroleum System (TPS) and three assessment units (AU)-North Cuba Fold and Thrust Belt AU, North Cuba Foreland Basin AU, and the North Cuba Platform Margin Carbonate AU-within this TPS based mainly on structure and reservoir type (fig. 1). There is considerable geologic uncertainty as to the extent of petroleum migration that might have occurred within this TPS to form potential petroleum accumulations. Taking this geologic uncertainty into account, especially in the offshore area, the mean volumes of undiscovered resources in the composite TPS of the North Cuba Basin are estimated at (1) 4.6 billion barrels of oil (BBO), with means ranging from an F95 probability of 1 BBO to an F5 probability of 9 BBO; and (2) 8.6 trillion cubic feet of of gas (TCFG), of which 8.6 TCFG is associated with oil fields, and about 1.2 TCFG is in nonassociated gas fields in the North Cuba Foreland Basin AU.

  13. Comportamiento del asma bronquial en Cuba e importancia de la prevención de las enfermedades alérgicas en infantes Behavior of bronchial asthma in Cuba and importance of the prevention from allergic diseases in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselmo Abdo Rodríguez

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available El asma es una enfermedad frecuente que continúa siendo difícil de diagnosticar, sobre todo en la primera infancia; y además, es de difícil tratamiento, a pesar de los avances medicamentosos de los últimos años. Por tales razones, las organizaciones de salud pública y los organismos que se ocupan de ella a nivel mundial, cada día enfocan su atención, fundamentalmente, al capítulo de la prevención, particularmente, en el niño propenso a ser asmático. Se analizan las estadísticas relacionadas con el asma bronquial de los años 2001-2004 en Cuba, específicamente en lo referente a: prevalencia en pacientes dispensarizados por asma según grupos de edad y sexo; número de pacientes dispensarizados por asma según grupos de edad; tasa de prevalencia de pacientes dispensarizados por asma según provincias; así como las principales causas de egresos hospitalarios con diagnóstico de asma según estado al egreso. Se presentan recomendaciones prácticas para la prevención de enfermedades alérgicas en infantes con riesgo.Asthma is a frequent disease that is still difficult to diagnose, mainly in early childhood. It is also difficult to treat, in spite of the medical advances attained in the last years. For these reasons, the health public organizations and the bodies having to do with it at the world level focus their attention mainly on prevention, particularly in the child that is prone to be asthmatic. The statistics related to bronchial asthma from 2001 to 2004 in Cuba, specially what refers to the prevalence in patients suffering from asthma categorized by age and sex, the number of asthmatic patients categorized by age groups, the rate of prevalence of asthmatic patients categorized by province, as well as the main causes of hospital discharges with asthma diagnosis according to their state at discharge, are analyzed. Practical recommendations are given for the prevention of allergic diseases in infants at risk.

  14. Aplicabilidad del modelo de nueva administración pública (New Public managment al sistema de contratación estatal colombiano, a la luz de las estrategias asumidas por el poder político, durante el período 2001 - 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela María Páez-Murcia

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available La tendencia a la modernización de la administración pública parece relacionarse con una modificación en el concepto de Estado, producida bajo el influjo del fenómeno de la globalización. El modelo de Nueva Administración Pública busca modificar algunas características del modelo tradicional de gestión con miras a favorecer principios tales como la transparencia, la eficiencia y la publicidad. Uno de los principales ámbitos de la gestión pública que ha recibido el influjo de esta tendencia modernizadora es el sistema de contratación pública, el cual es objeto de múltiples presiones surgidas desde el conglomerado. Es necesario verificar las diferentes medidas de  dicha tendencia a la modernización con miras a garantizar que el cambio responda a un intento homogéneo que fortalezca el sistema en lugar de suscitar esfuerzos en diferentes sentidos que pueden generar un colapso en su ejercicio.

  15. Hallazgos imagenológicos en radiografía panorámica, de alteraciones en el crecimiento y desarrollo dentario en niños entre 4 y 11 años de edad, atendidos en una clínica odontológica, durante el período 2001- 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia García Salazar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available El estudio epidemiológico radiográfico sobre la prevalencia de las anomalías dentarias en niños de una determinada población, es de gran valor para conocer la realidad de las condiciones bucales en una forma regionalizada, creando posibilidades de tratar precoz y adecuadamente los problemas bucales desde la primera infancia, así mismo para preparar al paciente a convivir con las posibles anomalías de forma definitiva, llevando una vida normal e integrándose a la sociedad. La radiografía panorámica, por sus características topográficas y por permitir la observación de todo el complejo maxilofacial, es reconocida como la mejor imagen convencional para visualizar las anomalías dentomaxilo-mandibulares. Se observaron, las radiografías panorámicas seleccionadas y se registraron los hallazgos en un formato previa-mente validado, previa consulta bibliográfica y la construcción de un marco conceptual, se realizó la interpretación y análisis, iluminados por las categorías conceptuales y reales surgidas dentro de la observación e interpretación de la radiografía panorámica y se logró el propósito de establecer los índices de las anomalías más frecuentes de crecimiento y desarrollo dentario, observables en radiografía panorámica entre pacientes de ambos sexos de 4 a 11 años de edad, generando un impacto entre los profesionales y estudiantes de odontología sobre el uso de la radiografía panorámica en la población infantil como complemento necesario de la historia clínica, de otro tipo de radiografías (periapicales para un fomento de la práctica de una odontología basada en la evidencia. (Duazary 2006; 1: 45 - 54

  16. Hallazgos imagenológicos en radiografía panorámica, de alteraciones en el crecimiento y desarrollo dentario en niños entre 4 y 11 años de edad, atendidos en una clínica odontológica, durante el período 2001- 2004

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Claudia García Salazar; Ivan Manotas Arevalo

    2006-01-01

    ... población, es de gran valor para conocer la realidad de las condiciones bucales en una forma regionalizada, creando posibilidades de tratar precoz y adecuadamente los problemas bucales desde la primera infancia, así...

  17. Hallazgos imagenológicos en radiografía panorámica, de alteraciones en el crecimiento y desarrollo dentario en niños entre 4 y 11 años de edad, atendidos en una clínica odontológica, durante el período 2001- 2004

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia García Salazar; Ivan Manotas Arevalo

    2013-01-01

    El estudio epidemiológico radiográfico sobre la prevalencia de las anomalías dentarias en niños de una determinada población, es de gran valor para conocer la realidad de las condiciones bucales en una forma regionalizada, creando posibilidades de tratar precoz y adecuadamente los problemas bucales desde la primera infancia, así mismo para preparar al paciente a convivir con las posibles anomalías de forma definitiva, llevando una vida normal e integrándose a la sociedad. La radiografía panor...

  18. An educator's perspective on the emerging Cuba and multiculturalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Carla D

    2006-01-01

    Plagued by many years of frequent leadership changes, and influences from power brokers whose policies and politics were oftentimes detrimental to Cuba's emerging as an industrialized and diverse economy nation, Cuba is now attempting to move beyond the survival mode. After the symbiotic relationship between the Soviet Union was dismantled in the 90s, Cuba is now undergoing metamorphoses of growth and change, socially, politically and culturally, while still remaining a mixture of worlds both rural and urban. This narrative article describes the multicultural experiences that an American university professor recently experienced while visiting Cuba.

  19. Cuba's National eHealth Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Ariel; Gorry, Conner

    2008-01-01

    Cuba has been building a national strategy using information and communication technologies (ICTs) for health since the establishment of the National Medical Sciences Information Center (CNICM) in 1965. Back then, vital statistics and health data - considered a cornerstone of the country's new universal health system - were transmitted by hand or over the phone. As technology grew more sophisticated over the next 30 years, microprocessors and computers were integrated into the process. In 1992, reeling from economic crisis, Cuba founded the national health telematics network known as INFOMED (www.sld.cu), betting on the strategy that ICTs could be used to improve population health at low cost. From these initial efforts until today, the country has followed a policy to build and strengthen a virtual health information infrastructure.[1].

  20. Cuba - a library for multidimensional numerical integration

    CERN Document Server

    Hahn, T

    2004-01-01

    The Cuba library provides new implementations of four general-purpose multidimensional integration algorithms: Vegas, Suave, Divonne, and Cuhre. Suave is a new algorithm, Divonne is a known algorithm to which important details have been added, and Vegas and Cuhre are new implementations of existing algorithms with only few improvements over the original versions. All four algorithms can integrate vector integrands and have very similar Fortran, C/C++, and Mathematica interfaces.

  1. Four decades of kidney transplantation in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonzo, Jorge P

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the background, beginnings, development, evolution and outcomes of kidney transplantation in Cuba. Nephrology as a medical specialty in Cuba began in 1962 and was formalized in 1966. Conditions were created to implement renal replacement therapy (including transplants), bring nephrology care to the entire country and train human resources who would assume this responsibility, making Cuba one of the first countries with a comprehensive program for renal patient care. After three unsuccessful cadaveric-donor kidney transplantations in 1968-69, the ensuing history of kidney transplantation can be summarized in the following three stages. 1970-1975: In January 1970, cadaveric-donor kidney transplantation began at the Nephrology Institute. That year, 17 kidney transplantations were performed; four of these patients lived with functional kidneys for 15-25 years; 10-year graft survival was 23.5% (Kaplan-Meier survival curve); HLA typing began in 1974. By December 1975, 170 grafts had been done in three hospitals. 1976-1985: Seven transplantation centers performed 893 grafts during this period. HLA-DR typing was introduced in 1976 and the National Histocompatibility Laboratory Network was founded in 1978. The first related living-donor kidney transplantation was done in 1979. 1986-2011: The National Kidney Transplantation Coordinating Center and the National Kidney Transplantation Program were created in 1986; the first combined kidney-pancreas transplantation was performed the same year. In 1990, cyclosporine and the Cuban monoclonal antibody IOR-T3 were introduced for immunosuppression to prevent rejection, as were other Cuban products (hepatitis B vaccine and recombinant human erythropoietin) for transplant patients. By December 2011, the cumulative number of transplants was 4636 (384 from related living donors). With over 40 years of experience, kidney transplantation is now well established in Cuba; it is free and universally accessible, on the

  2. Cuba: Issues for the 111th Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    Congress Congressional Research Service 7 only a small and tightly regulated private sector, no independent labor movement, and no unified political...75 democracy activists, including independent journalists and librarians and leaders of independent labor unions and opposition parties. At present...Comisión Cubana de Derechos Humanos y Reconciliacion Nacional, “Cuba a Inicios del 2010: Continúa empeorando la situación de derechos humanos,” January 19

  3. Florida, Bahamas, Cuba and Gulf Stream, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This unique photo offers a view of the Florida peninsula, western Bahamas, north central Cuba and the deep blue waters of the Gulf Stream, that hugs the east coast of Florida (27.0N, 82.0W). In addition to being an excellent photograph for showing the geographical relationships between the variety of landforms in this scene, the typical effect of the land-sea breeze is very much in evidence as few clouds over water, cumulus build up over landmass.

  4. Cuba y la OEA: cambio y continuidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo LÓPEZ LEVY

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La Carta de la OEA proclamó la norma de gobernabilidad democrática que validó la importancia de la democracia representativa como central a la paz y estabilidad del hemisferio occidental. Aunque ese compromiso normativo tuvo sentido en la era de la política del buen vecino, el multilateralismo y la no intervención, el abandono por Estados Unidos de esos principios desde la administración Eisenhower debilitó la norma y creó una crisis de legitimidad en la OEA a raíz de los casos de Guatemala en 1954 y Cuba en 1962. La aprobación de la Resolución VI en la reunión de cancilleres de 1962, excluyendo a Cuba de la OEA debido a la ideología marxista de su gobierno fue un caso de institucionalización contraproducente de la norma de gobernabilidad democrática. Este artículo explora el ciclo de retroceso y renovación de la norma de gobernabilidad democrática a través del examen del tratamiento de Cuba en la OEA desde 1962 hasta la Asamblea General n.° 39 de la OEA en San Pedro Sula en junio de 2009.

  5. Toxocariasis in Cuba: a literature review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idalia Sariego

    Full Text Available Human toxocariasis (HT is a zoonotic disease caused by infection with the larval stage of Toxocara canis, the intestinal roundworm of dogs. Infection can be associated with a wide clinical spectrum varying from asymptomatic to severe organ injury. While the incidence of symptomatic human toxocariasis appears to be low, infection of the human population is widespread. In Cuba, a clear overview on the status of the disease is lacking. Here, we review the available information on toxocariasis in Cuba as a first step to estimate the importance of the disease in the country. Findings are discussed and put in a broader perspective. Data gaps are identified and suggestions on how to address these are presented. The available country data suggest that Toxocara infection of the definitive dog host and environmental contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs is substantial, but information on HT is less conclusive. The availability of adequate diagnostic tools in the country should be guaranteed. Dedicated studies are needed for a reliable assessment of the impact of toxocariasis in Cuba and the design of prevention or control strategies.

  6. Toxocariasis in Cuba: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sariego, Idalia; Kanobana, Kirezi; Rojas, Lázara; Speybroeck, Niko; Polman, Katja; Núñez, Fidel A

    2012-01-01

    Human toxocariasis (HT) is a zoonotic disease caused by infection with the larval stage of Toxocara canis, the intestinal roundworm of dogs. Infection can be associated with a wide clinical spectrum varying from asymptomatic to severe organ injury. While the incidence of symptomatic human toxocariasis appears to be low, infection of the human population is widespread. In Cuba, a clear overview on the status of the disease is lacking. Here, we review the available information on toxocariasis in Cuba as a first step to estimate the importance of the disease in the country. Findings are discussed and put in a broader perspective. Data gaps are identified and suggestions on how to address these are presented. The available country data suggest that Toxocara infection of the definitive dog host and environmental contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs is substantial, but information on HT is less conclusive. The availability of adequate diagnostic tools in the country should be guaranteed. Dedicated studies are needed for a reliable assessment of the impact of toxocariasis in Cuba and the design of prevention or control strategies.

  7. Toxocariasis in Cuba: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sariego, Idalia; Kanobana, Kirezi; Rojas, Lázara; Speybroeck, Niko; Polman, Katja; Núñez, Fidel A.

    2012-01-01

    Human toxocariasis (HT) is a zoonotic disease caused by infection with the larval stage of Toxocara canis, the intestinal roundworm of dogs. Infection can be associated with a wide clinical spectrum varying from asymptomatic to severe organ injury. While the incidence of symptomatic human toxocariasis appears to be low, infection of the human population is widespread. In Cuba, a clear overview on the status of the disease is lacking. Here, we review the available information on toxocariasis in Cuba as a first step to estimate the importance of the disease in the country. Findings are discussed and put in a broader perspective. Data gaps are identified and suggestions on how to address these are presented. The available country data suggest that Toxocara infection of the definitive dog host and environmental contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs is substantial, but information on HT is less conclusive. The availability of adequate diagnostic tools in the country should be guaranteed. Dedicated studies are needed for a reliable assessment of the impact of toxocariasis in Cuba and the design of prevention or control strategies. PMID:22389726

  8. CUBA Y LA OEA: CAMBIO Y CONTINUIDAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo LÓPEZ LEVY

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La Carta de la OEA proclamó la norma de gobernabilidad democrática que validó la importancia de la democracia representativa como central a la paz y estabilidad del hemisferiooccidental. Aunque ese compromiso normativo tuvo sentido en la era de la política del buen vecino, el multilateralismo y la no intervención, el abandono por Estados Unidos de esos principios desde la administración Eisenhower debilitó la norma y creó una crisis de legitimidad en la OEA a raíz de los casos de Guatemala en 1954 y Cuba en 1962. La aprobación de la Resolución VI en la reunión de cancilleres de 1962, excluyendo a Cuba de la OEA debido a la ideología marxista de su gobierno fue un caso de institucionalización contraproducente de la norma de gobernabilidad democrática. Este artículo explora el ciclo de retroceso y renovación de la norma de gobernabilidad democrática a través del examen del tratamiento de Cuba en la OEA desde 1962 hasta la Asamblea General n.° 39 de la OEA en San Pedro Sula en junio de 2009.

  9. Censos lato sensu. La abolición de la esclavitud y el número de esclavos en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piqueras, José Antonio

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the greater part of the 19th century, statistics on the Cuban slave population were deliberately inexact. Colonial authorities and the hacendados were interested in covering up the actual number of slaves; the former preferred to ignore the elevated presence of African natives of different ages, while the hacienda owners evaded taxes and avoided explaining the origin of their workforce. Based on an analysis of official and reserved censuses, British reports and demographic estimations, this article reconsiders the number of slaves that was present in Cuba between 1867 and 1886. This results in a reevaluation of their total number, of the labor needs at the sugar mills and of the conditions in the dissolution of slavery.Durante la mayor parte del siglo XIX las estadísticas de población esclava de Cuba fueron deliberadamente inexactas. El presente artículo, basado en un análisis de censos oficiales y reservados, en informes británicos y estimaciones demográficas, reconsidera el número de esclavos existente en Cuba entre 1867 y 1886. De ello resulta una reevaluación de su monto, de las necesidades laborales en los ingenios y de las condiciones de disolución de la esclavitud.

  10. Valoraciones sobre la gestión del sistema de seguridad vial en Cuba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Ivón Sosa Ibarra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo valorar con enfoque crítico el cumplimiento de la agenda del Observatorio Iberoamericano para la Seguridad Vial (OISEVI que evidencie los aciertos y desaciertos en esta actividad, se analiza en la literatura los enfoques de los autores Tony Bliss y Jeanne Breen que enfatizan en la concepción de sistema no solo a la seguridad vial sino también a la gestión de esta como sistema y se realiza una aplicación de los aspectos de la encuesta del OISEVI a la gestión de la seguridad vial en Cuba por el grupo de asesores de la Comisión Nacional de seguridad vial, pertenecientes a la Universidad de Sancti Spíritus, que durante los últimos años estudian esta problemática, detallando los argumentos que conciben para otorgar los valores en las respuestas al cuestionario. Con esta encuesta se obtiene una primera aproximación del estado de la gestión de la seguridad vial en el país, y se arriban a valoraciones acerca de cómo se encuentra Cuba respecto a los lineamientos básicos y generales que hacen exitosa a la gestión en seguridad vial, basada en los cinco pilares del Plan Mundial para el Decenio de Acción para la Seguridad Vial 2011-2020.

  11. Vigilancia de la resistencia de Mycobacterium tuberculosis a las drogas antituberculosas en Cuba, 1995-1998.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Montoro

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available La vigilancia de la resistencia a fármacos a través del cultivo y de las pruebas de susceptibilidad in vitro permite conocer la magnitud regional y mundial de la resistencia en tuberculosis. En el presente trabajo se determinó la prevalencia de la resistencia a fármacos antituberculosos en Cuba, durante el periodo 1995-1998 en casos nuevos y en aquéllos que han recibido tratamiento previo. Los resultados incluidos en este estudio forman parte de los dos proyectos mundiales organizados por la OMS/UICTER. La resistencia a los medicamentos se evaluó usando el método de las proporciones en 1.379 cepas de Mycobacterium tuberculosis a los fármacos de primera línea (isoniacida, rifampicina, estreptomicina y etambutol. La resistencia en casos nuevos fue del 8,3% y 6,5% y la resistencia múltiple a fármacos (multidrug-resistance, MDR fue del 0,7% y 0% en el primer y segundo estudio, respectivamente. Estos resultados permitieron demostrar la escasa circulación de cepas MDR en Cuba; se reconoció a nivel mundial el buen funcionamiento del Programa Nacional de Control y el éxito de la aplicación en nuestro país de la estrategia del tratamiento estrictamente supervisado desde 1971.

  12. Los primeros tiempos de Cuba en la ruta antillana del café

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Álvarez, Alejandro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The author analizes the historical process of Cuban coffee along two and a half centuries (until the end of Spanish colonial era, its transformation in a international commoditie from the end of XVIIIth century (after Saint Domingue revolution, its phases, the coffee cultivated land dismiss for sugar production and coffee popular difussion in Cuban cities and villages.En el presente artículo se da a conocer el proceso cafetalero en Cuba durante siglo y medio de actividad (desde su introducción al fin del dominio español sobre la isla, su transformación en objeto de comercio internacional desde finales del siglo XVIII tras la destrucción de Saint Domingue, sus etapas de auge y decadencia en la isla, el abandono de sus tierras de cultivo en favor del azúcar y la rápida difusión de su ingesta por la población de ciudades y pueblos de Cuba.

  13. Perspectivas para la lexicografía especializada en Cuba

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Sven

    1995-01-01

    En diskussion af muligheder for at udvikle et fagleksikografisk arbejde på Cuba og i det øvrige Latinamerika......En diskussion af muligheder for at udvikle et fagleksikografisk arbejde på Cuba og i det øvrige Latinamerika...

  14. Development of a system for landslide risk assessment for Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castellanos Abella, E.A.; Westen, C.J. van

    2005-01-01

    In many developing countries, such as Cuba, landslide-affected areas are not systematically mapped in a national inventory and no “regional to local” approach for landslide hazard and risk assessment has been carried out so far. Most of the conventional landslide studies in Cuba are qualitative in n

  15. Development of a system for landslide risk assessment for Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castellanos Abella, E.A.; Westen, C.J. van

    2005-01-01

    In many developing countries, such as Cuba, landslide-affected areas are not systematically mapped in a national inventory and no “regional to local” approach for landslide hazard and risk assessment has been carried out so far. Most of the conventional landslide studies in Cuba are qualitative in

  16. Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Remittances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-31

    Cierran en Miami otra agencia de viajes a Cuba,” El Nuevo Herald, June 6, 2006; U.S. Department of the Treasury, Office of Foreign Assets Control, List...23 Wilfredo Cancio Isla, “Aprietan las restricciones para los viajes a Cuba,” El Nuevo Herald (Miami), April 28, 2006, and

  17. USA300 Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hopman Joost

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is an increasing problem in the Caribbean. We investigated the molecular epidemiology of MRSA isolates on Cuba. Findings The predominant clone was of the spa type t149, followed by community-associated MRSA USA300. Conclusions We report the first molecular typing results of MRSA isolates from Cuba.

  18. La nutricion durante el embarazo

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Chanivet, Gwendolin; Aragón Flores, Jose Andrés; Cabeza Garcia, María Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Cartel presentado en la Segunda Conferencia Internacional de Comunicación en Salud, celebrada el 23 de octubre de 2015 en la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid Introducción: durante los primeros meses de embarazo, es cuando se forma los órganos vitales por lo que es muy importante , una buena dieta materna. Existe un estudio que pone de manifiesto la relación de la aparición de alergias en el recién nacido y el estado nutricional materno. Objetivo: evaluar el estado nutricional durante...

  19. La nutricion durante el embarazo

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Chanivet, Gwendolin; Aragón Flores, Jose Andrés; Cabeza Garcia, María Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Cartel presentado en la Segunda Conferencia Internacional de Comunicación en Salud, celebrada el 23 de octubre de 2015 en la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid Introducción: durante los primeros meses de embarazo, es cuando se forma los órganos vitales por lo que es muy importante , una buena dieta materna. Existe un estudio que pone de manifiesto la relación de la aparición de alergias en el recién nacido y el estado nutricional materno. Objetivo: evaluar el estado nutricional durante...

  20. Informe de nuevas variedades LORITA: NUEVO GENOTIPO DE Spathoglottis plicata BLUME (ORCHIDACEAE) OBTENIDO POR MODIFICACIONES OCURRIDAS DURANTE EL CULTIVO In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    L. Suárez; María M. Hernández; Regla M. Lara

    2009-01-01

    Se muestran las principales características de un nuevo genotipo de orquídea terrestre producido en Cuba por modificaciones ocurridas durante el cultivo in vitro de semillas de Spathoglottis plicata var. Rosa. Lorita presenta sépalos y pétalos de color blanco, principal característica que lo distingue del genotipo donante. Esta nueva especie contribuirá al embellecimiento del entorno y constituye un valioso aporte a la agricultura ornamental cubana.

  1. Cuba a la Deriva en un Mundo Postcommunista (Cuba Adrift in a Postcommunist World)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    oxporimontados pot ]a mayor parto do los paisos on los cualos sucumbi6 ol sistoma comunista. 6 Una confwotseift con Eatada UnIdo. a la G~tterdlmuanwig Aunque en...y las fuorzas armadas do Cuba, asi como gran part. do Arn~rica Latina, so pasarfan a ou bando, asegur~ndole mu lugar en Is historia . Estados Unidos

  2. Physics in Cuba from the Perspective of Bibliometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Werner; Cardona, Manuel

    We present a bibliometric analysis of the development of the physical sciences in Cuba since the revolution of 1959. We analyze, using available databases (Web of Science, Essential Science Indicators, INSPEC), the development of the output (number of publications of authors based in Cuba) and of their impact (number of citations) from 1959 until now. We discuss the productivity of Cuba in comparison to the Latin American sister republics and the collaborative efforts between Cuba and highly developed countries. The most important areas of scientific activity within the field of physics, the preferred journals and the leading affiliations are identified. The most frequently cited Cuban physics publications are given. Finally, the overall scientific ranking of Cuba among the world nations is investigated.

  3. Theological Higher Education in Cuba. Part 4: The Historical Roots and Milestones of the Eastern Cuba Baptist Theological Seminary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esqueda, Octavio J.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the Eastern Cuba Baptist Theological Seminary. The seminary was founded in the city of Santiago de Cuba, on October 10, 1949, by the Eastern Baptist Convention. The seminary exists to provide training for pastors in the Eastern Baptist Convention. The school offers a four-year program leading to a bachelor in…

  4. Meio século de artes plásticas em Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelaida de Juan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante as recentes décadas, as artes plásticas em Cuba desenvolveram diversas tendências como a abstração, o fotorrealismo, o neoexpressionismo, o conceitualismo etc., enquanto algumas temáticas e alguns caracteres cuja base remete às culturas afro-cubanas são mantidos. Às manifestações com antecedentes nacionais se agregará, como manifestação orgânica, o design gráfico, que vem se constituindo numa escola de particularidades próprias. Na atualidade proliferam as instalações e as performances, muitas vezes com caráter interdisciplinar, como no caso da video art.Durante las recientes décadas, las artes plásticas en Cuba han desarrollado diversas tendencias como la abstracción, el fotorrealismo, el neoexpresionismo, el conceptualismo, etc., mientras mantienen algunas temáticas y caracteres cuya base se remite a las culturas afrocubanas. A las manifestaciones con antecedentes nacionales se añadirá, como manifestación orgánica, el diseño gráfico que se ha constituido en una escuela de caracteres propios. En la actualidad proliferan las instalaciones y los performances, a menudo con carácter interdisciplinario, así como el video art.During recent decades, several trends have emerged in the Cuban visual arts, e.g., abstraction, photorealism, neoexpressionism and conceptualism, among others, without losing sight of certain themes and characters based on Afro-Cuban cultures. To the manifestations of a national heritage should be added, as an organic expression, graphic design, which is becoming a school with unique features. Today, we have a proliferation of performances and installations, often of interdisciplinary nature, as is the case of video art.

  5. Nanotechnologies in Cuba: Popularization and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Castellanos, Carlos

    In Cuba, as in other countries, activities in the field of nanotechnology emerged from the converging development of research in materials physics and chemistry, microelectronics, supramolecular physics, microbiology and molecular biology. During the 1990s, theoretical and experimental work on semiconductor nanostructures gained in importance. Cuban physicists organized the Red CYTED (Network CYTED) to "study fabrication and characterization of semiconductor nanostructures for micro and optoelectronics" which functioned between 1998 and 2003 with the participation of eight Spanish-American countries. The network organized various courses and scientific meetings, edited a book and supported the scientific collaboration among the participant institutions.

  6. The Physics of Complex Systems in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotolongo-Costa, Oscar

    In relating the circumstances that led to the birth and development of the physics of complex systems in Cuba, it is difficult to avoid being anecdotal—particularly because of the difficult times during which this research started. Cuban eclecticism, whose spectrum extends from religious syncretism to world-class medicine, seems quite coherent with the field of complex systems, characterized by the synergy of diverse fields. Such a combination, however, in the beginning seemed to be quite removed from the physicists' standard research dogmas.

  7. Cuba. Section 23. Weather and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    1959-05-01

    CACO I SAN ANiONIO i MM] 0 I 120327 AWfi ■MOMMm 84 c r L /■ o i M i: \\ i co HAM^ *** ^ Esperanza • Bahla Honda San Cristobal, \\JSLS...C»BO PEPE Jaguey Grande Aguada de Pasajeros i ii-- i \\i;tii\\t CUBA STATION LOCATIONS • METEOROLOGICAL STATION Locations aw shown...40 60 80 100 m&m r 1 A’ / H />’ E A s GRAND CAYMAN H R(» CIENfg CEIv N I 84 83 82 81 oMCLASSIflEO ^ Jf IB ’■ CAYO

  8. Cuba: Issues for the 109th Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-19

    years, and Omar Rodríguez Saludes , sentenced to 27 years. Other sentenced democracy activists included economist Marta Beatriz Roque (who had been...Convertible Peso ’ No Longer Linked to U.S. Dollar,” CubaNews, April 2005, p. 3. Beginning in 1993, Cubans were allowed to own and use U.S. dollars and to...exchange their dollars for “convertible pesos ,” with a 10% surcharge for the exchange. Cubans could exchange their dollars or deposit them in banks with

  9. Los amargos beneficios del dulce. Azúcar, Cuba y deuda ecológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo y Alharilla, Martín

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is placed within the paradigm of environmental history. From a focus that is both macrohistorical and inductive, it offers a reflection upon the link between the deforestation registered in Cuba as a result of the expansion of sugar cane cultivation, and the transfer of part of the gains produced by sugar towards economies in other latitudes, particularly towards Catalonia. The study analyzes first of all the establishment of sugar cane “haciendas” in the old Cuban province of Las Villas during the second third of the 19th century. It then inquires into the life trajectory of several “hacienda” owners of the region, who in the last period of their lives settled down in Catalonia, where they transferred a large part of the capital they had accumulated on the island. Finally, the essay points at evidence that suggests that the proposed analysis may be applied to other regions in Cuba as well as to Puerto Rico.

    El artículo se situa en el paradigma de la historia ambiental. A partir de un enfoque a la vez microhistórico e inductivo, ofrece una reflexión sobre el vínculo existente entre la deforestación registrada en Cuba por efecto de la expansión del cultivo de la caña de azúcar y la transferencia de parte de las ganancias producidas por el azúcar a economías de otras latitudes, particularmente hacia Cataluña. Se analiza, en primer lugar, el proceso de implantación de las haciendas cañeras en la antigua provincia cubana de Las Villas, durante el segundo tercio del siglo XIX, y, a continuación, la trayectoria vital de varios hacendados de la región, los cuales acabaron instalándose en la etapa final de su vida en Cataluña, adonde trasladaron buena parte de los capitales acumulados en la isla. Por último, se apuntan diferentes evidencias que sugieren que el análisis planteado podría realizarse igualmente para otras regiones de Cuba así como para Puerto Rico.

  10. Rangely Oil Field Perch Survey, 2001-2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Data are the results of raptor perch surveys conducted monthly from August 2001 - July 2004 along a standardized survey route in the Rangely Oil Field (ROF),...

  11. Vestas 2001-2004 - en årasaganalyse

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Projektet omhandler en intern og en ekstern analyse af Vestas Windsystems A/S, med henblik på at finde årsager til deres dårlige økonomiske resultat. Projektet er tværfagligt og indeholder fagdisciplinerne økonomi og sociologi, herunder organisation. Vi har i vores projekt valgt at lave en analyse af Vestas organisationsstruktur/kultur, for at analysere dennes påvirkning på Vestas, efterfølgende lavede vi en regnskabsanalyse, for at belyse hvor Vestas klare sig økonomisk dårligt. Vi fortager ...

  12. An overview of genetic counseling in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Araceli Lantigua

    2013-12-01

    This brief report provides an overview of the history and current status of genetic services in Cuba. In 1971, the University of Medical Sciences of Havana began to train doctors in medical genetics according to the medicine development plan in Cuba. With the aim of introducing genetic services to the population, two main issues were identified: the impact of neural tube defects as a cause of infantile mortality, and a founder effect resulting in a high frequency of sickle cell anemia, which increased the mortality rate and impacted the quality of peoples' lives. The impact of consanguinity is variable; it depends on the isolation of the population, with rates of 1 to 11% in different regions for first and second cousin marriages. From 1981, the services of medical genetics began to expand to the entire country, according to a government directive, and the need to design a program for the specialty became evident. From 1995 to 2000, two Masters-level programs were designed by professors of the Department of Medical Genetics, University of Medical Sciences of Havana, and authorized by the Ministry of Higher Education. One program in medical genetics was designed for physicians with other specialties, and the second program was designed to train professionals to become genetic counselors. The majority of graduates from the latter program are working at the primary level of healthcare.

  13. Empresarios asturianos en Cuba (1840-1920

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collazo Pérez, Enrique

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available This article studies a representative group of emigrants from Asturias who settled in Cuba from the second half of the 19th Century up to 1920, as well as their entreprenurial activities in some key economical sectors such as commerce, Bank, agriculture and sugar industry. It is also analysed the role played and the historical place taken by these businessmen as regards the economical growth of the Island during the said period. Finally, four case studies are made on so many firms of merchants-bankers of Asturian ascendancy.

    En este estudio se examina a un grupo representativo de emigrados asturianos afincados en Cuba desde la segunda mitad del siglo XIX hasta 1920 y la actividad empresarial desplegada por ellos en algunos sectores económicos claves como el comercio, la banca, la agricultura y la industria azucarera. Asimismo se analiza el papel desempeñado y el lugar histórico ocupado por estos empresarios en el crecimiento económico ocurrido en la Isla en el período histórico aludido. En relación con los empresarios dedicados al negocio de banca se realiza un estudio de caso sobre cuatro firmas de comerciantes-banqueros de ascendencia asturiana.

  14. Las relaciones entre México y Cuba después del 11 de septiembre y el rol de EE.UU.

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo Telman Sánchez Ramírez

    2008-01-01

    Las relaciones entre México y Cuba habían permanecido apartadas de los enfoques ideológicos, lo que permitió el desarrollo de una relación bilateral estable y constante. La política del gobierno de México se caracterizó por un discurso oficial de apoyo al proceso cubano y a su libre determinación; durante años México fue el principal inversionista latinoamericano en la isla y a su vez Cuba era el segundo socio de México en el Caribe, sin embargo, las cifras eran muy bajas. Según el autor, pro...

  15. Situación de la gestión de inventarios en Cuba/Situation of Stock Management in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Lopes-Martínez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente artículo es analizar la situación de la gestión de inventarios en Cuba, a partir de las experiencias obtenidas durante más de 10 años en entidades de los sectores de servicios, comerciales y producción. En nuestro país existen problemas como: la falta de disponibilidad, la inestabilidad de suministros, la baja rotación de inventarios, los deficientes estudios realizados sobre demanda y productos obsoletos; todos los cuales están relacionados directamente con los inventarios. Es por ello que se propone analizar estos problemas desde la perspectiva de la empresa y tratarlos a nivel de cadena de suministro, integración débilmente estructurada en nuestras entidades. Se realiza un análisis de la relación entre la legislación vigente en Cuba y la gestión del inventario, por lo que se recomienda la utilización, en próximos estudios, de un modelo de referencia para evaluar la situación de la gestión de los inventarios en las empresas y cadenas de forma más integral./The main objective of this article is to analyze the stock management situation in Cuba, taking into account the experiences obtained for more than 10 years in several enterprises which develop their activities in connection with the service, commercial and production fields. Cuban companies are facing problems such as: lack of availability, supply instability, low rotation of the stock, poor studies of demand, and obsolete productions; which have in common their relation with the stock management. That is why this research proposes to make an assessment of these problems from the point of view of the enterprise in connection with their supply chains. Such a comprehensive analysis is poorly developed in Cuban enterprises so far. It is also proposed an analysis of the laws and their connection with stock management. Finally, it is suggested the introduction of a reference model in order to assess, with more integrality, the status of the stock

  16. THE CUBA COMPANY AND EASTERN CUBA’S ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT, 1900-1959

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Santamarina

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This artide evaluates the Cuba Company’s impact on eastern Cuban economic development. It argues that the Cuba Company’s railroads, together with its development plans and strategies, helped stimulate the extraordinary economic growth of eastern Cuba between 1900 and 1959, especially in the production of sugar. Sugar was king in Cuba before 1900 but only inwestern Cuba; eastern Cuba produced only a minuscule fraction of total Cuban sugar production. Moreover, the Cuban Independence War of 1895-1898 had destroyed the industry. Due to the Cuba Company’s strategy, however, by the 1920s Cuba was once again the largest producer of sugar in the world and eastern Cuba represented over 50% of total Cuban sugarproduction.

  17. Visiting the Republic of Cuba: An Experience to Remember.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Geraldine

    2015-01-01

    A few years ago, I was privileged to visit the Republic of Cuba as a summer vacation. Officially, this Spanish island is the largest island in the Caribbean, with more than 12 million people. It is only second as being most populous after Hispaniola with its people, culture and customs. Havana is the capital and Cuba's largest city. The United States lies to the immediate north only about 95 miles away, and the Bahamas and Mexico to the west, the Cayman Islands and Jamaica are on the southern end, and Haiti and the Dominion Republic are in the southeastern area. The history of this island is truly amazing. I was able to vist a hospital, and ride public transportation (bus). The trip was made at the time when Cuba was not open to travelers coming direct from the United States. I traveled to Montreal, Canada to board Cabana Arlines to Havana, Cuba.

  18. Physics and Women: A Challenge Being Successfully Met in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias de Fuentes, Olimpia

    The history of physics in Cuba, like all the country's educational and scientific development, cannot be understood without taking into account its close relationship with the social changes that took place in Cuba during the five decades elapsed since 1959. This should include due consideration to the role played by women in this process, all the more since the link between science and gender is now generally regarded as a subject of growing special interest

  19. Cuba y las fronteras de la utopía

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Artiklen indeholder nogle generelle overvejelser om den sociale utopi som fænomen samt en række empiriske observationer og del analyser af dette fænomen i ft det revolutionære Cuba.......Artiklen indeholder nogle generelle overvejelser om den sociale utopi som fænomen samt en række empiriske observationer og del analyser af dette fænomen i ft det revolutionære Cuba....

  20. Burden of Self-reported Acute Gastrointestinal Illness in Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Prieto, Pablo Aguiar; Finley, Rita L; Muchaal, P.K.; Guerin, Michele T; Isaacs, Sandy; Domínguez, Arnaldo Castro; Marie, Gisele Coutín; Perez, Enrique

    2009-01-01

    Acute gastrointestinal illness is an important public-health issue worldwide. Burden-of-illness studies have not previously been conducted in Cuba. The objective of the study was to determine the magnitude, distribution, and burden of self-reported acute gastrointestinal illness in Cuba. A retrospective, cross-sectional survey was conducted in three sentinel sites during June-July 2005 (rainy season) and during November 2005–January 2006 (dry season). Households were randomly selected from a ...

  1. International Medical Collaboration: Lessons from Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Castelló González

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Over 50,000 Cuban health professionals are currently working overseas in 67 different countries. They work in conjunction with local health professionals. The majority work in primary care in deprived areas. The aim is to reduce morbidity and mortality but also improve health in the long term by training local health professionals, and building both institutions and a structure to deliver health care alongside educating the local population. Cuba is a small, middle-income country. It has, however, made a significant international contribution in relation to medical collaboration. Cuba’s international collaboration is based on the principles of social justice and equity for all. It has set an example for other countries to emulate.

  2. International Medical Collaboration: Lessons from Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelló González, Mauro; Pons Vásquez, Reinaldo; Rodriguez Bencomo, David; Choonara, Imti

    2016-01-01

    Over 50,000 Cuban health professionals are currently working overseas in 67 different countries. They work in conjunction with local health professionals. The majority work in primary care in deprived areas. The aim is to reduce morbidity and mortality but also improve health in the long term by training local health professionals, and building both institutions and a structure to deliver health care alongside educating the local population. Cuba is a small, middle-income country. It has, however, made a significant international contribution in relation to medical collaboration. Cuba’s international collaboration is based on the principles of social justice and equity for all. It has set an example for other countries to emulate. PMID:27763571

  3. Cuba, desarrollo, dependencia y heterogeneidad estructural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edel J. Fresneda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo reexamina la estrategia de desarrollo prevaleciente en Cuba, observando las variables de dependencia y heterogeneidad estructural. Busca distinguir cómo, a pesar de haber existido una desconexión política en la isla, su estrategia de desarrollo socialista enfrenta retos significativos que están determinados por el grado de heterogeneidad de su economía y por la profundidad de su dependencia al sistema de intercambio mundial. Como desafíos más importantes para la estrategia de desarrollo prevaleciente, se denotan: a evaluar los efectos de la incorporación de actores supranacionales en los marcos de una heterogeneidad estructural, por la insuficiencia de financiamientos y capital; y b proponer un desarrollo endógeno a partir de la incorporación del capital humano logrado en la isla.

  4. La obra de Mariano Benlliure en Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Laguna Enrique, Martha Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Este artículo aborda el estudio de la obra escultórica de Mariano Benlliure Gil en Cuba. Justamente los dos trabajos de mayor envergadura del maestro valenciano en la isla caribeña son el panteón de la familia Falla Bonet, ubicado en el Cementerio de Colón, y el grupo escultórico de tema taurino El coleo. No obstante, existen otras piezas de mediano y pequeño formato de las que también nos hacemos eco en este artículo. Este valioso conjunto de obras procede de la afición al coleccionismo de a...

  5. Virtual Visit - Cuba/March 30 2016

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Visitor Centre

    2016-01-01

    No próximo dia 30/03/2016, o Centro de Promoción Cultural Comunitário KCHO ESTUDIO ROMERILLO (http://www.kchoestudio.com/proyecto/Kcho%20Estudio%20Romerillo,%20Laboratorio%20para%20el%20Arte/) realizará uma Visita Virtual ao Experimento ATLAS, no Centro Europeu de Pesquisa Nuclear, o CERN, na Suíça. Em CUBA, a visita será coordenada pelos professores Amadeu Albino Junior (IFRN - BRASIL), Anderson Guimarães Guedes (UFRN – Brasil). Na Suíça, o detector será apresentado por Denis Oliveira Damazio (BNL/CERN). Após uma curta apresentação sobre o LHC e o Detector ATLAS, os participantes poderão fazer perguntas sobre a experiência.

  6. ENERGY AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debrayan Bravo Hidalgo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Employment and enhancing the use of renewable energy sources could be considered as the beginning of a third ¨Industrial Revolution¨. The transition to a low carbon dioxide emission permits to a momentous turning point in the fight against climate change, improve energy security, and last but not least, significantly reduce the geopolitical intentions of this. The increase in renewable sources constitutes a guideline for energy policy in Cuba. Thus, programs for the construction of small hydropower plants, plant cells and photovoltaic panels, solar thermal energy systems for various services are developed; and the use of other primary sources such as wind and biomass. This work shows the implementation of these practices in the nation, the present results and future aspirations facing the demands of sustainable and steady development of generation and power consumption.

  7. Caries dental asociada a factores de riesgo durante el embarazo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Cecilio Pérez Oviedo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El periodo gestacional se relaciona con una mayor incidencia de caries dental, aunque la asociación entre gestación e incremento de caries no ha podido aún ser científicamente demostrada. Se propuso realizar un estudio para determinar la presencia de caries dental y algunos factores de riesgo asociados en el primer y tercer trimestre del embarazo, para detectar la aparición de lesiones cariosas nuevas y cambios relacionados con los factores de riesgo entre ambos trimestres. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo longitudinal desde diciembre de 2006 a febrero de 2008 en el municipio de Florida, Camagüey, Cuba. El universo de estudio estuvo constituido por 38 embarazadas y la muestra por 21, que fueron interrogadas y examinadas en ambos trimestres con el objetivo de determinar la presencia de caries y los factores de riesgo asociados como: higiene bucal deficiente, dieta cariogénica, pH salival bajo, ocurrencia de vómitos y embarazo previo. La información necesaria fue recogida en un formulario confeccionado al efecto. En el primer trimestre el 80,95 % estaban afectadas por caries dental y se observó aparición de lesiones nuevas en 6 embarazadas, en el tercer trimestre. Los factores de riesgo presentados con mayor frecuencia en el primer trimestre fueron la dieta cariogénica en el 66,66 % y la higiene bucal deficiente en el 47,61 % de las pacientes. Ninguna embarazada modificó la dieta durante el embarazo, sin embargo la higiene bucal deficiente persistió en el 14,28 %. El 52,38 % de las embarazadas afectadas en el primer trimestre consumían dieta cariogénica y el 47,61 % habían tenido embarazo previo. Se concluyó que hubo afectación por nuevas caries durante el embarazo, los factores de riesgo que predominantes fueron la dieta cariogénica, la higiene bucal deficiente y el embarazo previo. Las pacientes no modificaron la dieta durante el embarazo, pero sí mejoraron la higiene bucal. Todas las que presentaban vómitos y pH salival

  8. DISTRIBUCIÓN TEMPORAL DE SÍNTOMAS DEL AMARILLAMIENTO DE LA HOJA EN LA CAÑA DE AZÚCAR EN CUBA

    OpenAIRE

    Osmany de la Caridad Aday-D\\u00EDaz; Jos\\u00E9 Mar\\u00EDa Mesa-L\\u00F3pez; Mar\\u00EDa La O-Hechavarr\\u00EDa; F\\u00E9lix Ren\\u00E9 D\\u00EDaz- Mujica; Irenaldo Delgado-Mora; Mayelin Morales-Sarmiento

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la distribución temporal de los síntomas fi siológicos de la enfermedad amarillamiento de la hoja (SCYP) y su relación con las variables climáticas en la región central de Cuba. Las evaluaciones mensuales de campo se efectuaron en tres experimentos ubicados en dos localidades, durante el período del 2003 al 2007 desde el comienzo de los primeros síntomas. Con un refractómetro de mano se registraron los valores de brix refractométrico del tercio ...

  9. Efectos del trabajo nocturno en trabajadores de la salud de un hospital público universitario en la ciudad de Pinar del Río, Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Veloz, Maria Nereyda Triguero; Pérez, Jesús Carlos Gil; Triguero, Tania Machín; Hernández, Benardo Fernández

    2010-01-01

     Foi realizado um estudo descritivo transversal sobre os efeitos do trabalho noturno na saúde de 102 trabalhadores das unidades fechadas (terapia intensiva e cuidados coronários) durante o ano 2008, no Hospital Universitário "Abel Santamaría" da cidade de Pinar del Río, em Cuba. Avaliaram-se aspectos da saúde de médicos e paramédicos depois do trabalho noturno, e relacionaram-se variáveis como idade, sexo, manifestações psicopáticas, estresse, libido, transtornos cardiovasculares e do sono me...

  10. MODELO DE ATENCIÓN ESTOMATOLÓGICA EN LA COMUNIDAD. UN ESTUDIO DE MAS DE 50 AÑOS EN LA REPÚBICA DE CUBA

    OpenAIRE

    Poussin-Molinet, Ernesto Hipolito

    2015-01-01

    Este trabajo se encuentra dentro del marco conceptual, de políticas públicas, estudiadas durante el desarrollo del Máster de Intervención Social en la Sociedad del Conocimiento”. Debemos considerar que este trabajo se estructuró, atendiendo a los proyectos y actividades que el estado cubano, desarrollo a través de la administración del Ministerio de Salud Pública de Cuba, con el objetivo de satisfacer las necesidades del pueblo cubano en lo que a odontología se refiere. (Graglia, 2012) ...

  11. MODELO DE ATENCIÓN ESTOMATOLÓGICA EN LA COMUNIDAD. UN ESTUDIO DE MAS DE 50 AÑOS EN LA REPÚBICA DE CUBA

    OpenAIRE

    Poussin-Molinet, Ernesto Hipolito

    2015-01-01

    Este trabajo se encuentra dentro del marco conceptual, de políticas públicas, estudiadas durante el desarrollo del Máster de Intervención Social en la Sociedad del Conocimiento”. Debemos considerar que este trabajo se estructuró, atendiendo a los proyectos y actividades que el estado cubano, desarrollo a través de la administración del Ministerio de Salud Pública de Cuba, con el objetivo de satisfacer las necesidades del pueblo cubano en lo que a odontología se refiere. (Graglia, 2012) ...

  12. La guerra de 1895 en Cuba y sus consecuencias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarragó, Rafael E.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available On 24 February 1895 most people in Cuba did not want a war of independence, because reforms for the island had been approved by the Madrid parliament. The reaction to the insurrection begun in Cuba on that date by the Spanish government of Antonio Cánovas del Castillo was to treat all Cubans as rebels. In 1896 Cánovas sent general Weyler to Cuba, and by the end of 1897 he had stopped the advances of the insurrectionists, but the forced removal of the rural population into urban settlements that he decreed in order to prevent their assistance to the insurgents, led to thousands of deaths by hunger and disease, and in the United States public opinion began to clamor for intervention in Cuba to expel Spain, and this was advised by people like the Consul General in Havana, Fitzhugh Lee. The war begun in 1895 for the independence of Cuba had as consecuences the war of the United States with Spain in 1898 and its transformation into a world power with the colonies that it took from Spain in Asia and America.El 24 de febrero de 1895 la mayor parte de los habitantes de Cuba no deseaba una guerra de independencia, porque se acababa de votar en el parlamento de Madrid por reformas liberalizantes para la isla. La reacción del gobierno de Antonio Cánovas del Castillo a la insurrección iniciada en Cuba en esa fecha fue no implementar las reformas y tratar a todos los cubanos como insurrectos. En 1896 Cánovas envió al general Weyler a Cuba, quien logró frenar el avance de los insurrectos, pero la reconcentración de los campesinos en centros urbanos que este decretó para privar de su apoyo a los insurrectos causó miles de muertes por hambre y enfermedad y en los Estados Unidos la opinión pública comenzó a favorecer la intervención en Cuba, acción aconsejada por expansionistas como el Cónsul General de los Estados Unidos en La Habana, Fitzhugh Lee. La guerra comenzada en 1895 para la independencia de Cuba tuvo como consecuencias la guerra de

  13. Captura de tiburones en la región noroccidental de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo Aguilar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Los tiburones han sido una importante fuente de alimento e ingresos en Cuba. A pesar de esto, es muy escasa la información sobre este grupo y, en las últimas décadas, no han sido objeto de una investigación organizada. De octubre 2009 a junio 2011 se recolectaron datos biológicos (229 tiburones examinados y pesqueros en cuatro sitios de desembarque de la región noroccidental de Cuba. En esta región, los tiburones son capturados en pesquerías comerciales multiespecíficas en la plataforma insular y de manera incidental en pesquerías deportivas de corto radio de acción durante la captura de grandes especies pelágicas de mar abierto. Se registró un total de 17 especies; seis en pesca comercial, dominada por Carcharhinus perezii, Sphyrna mokarran y Carcharhinus leucas, y 14 en pesca deportiva (artesanal de pequeña escala, no propiamente recreacional, dominada por Isurus oxyrinchus, Isurus paucus, Carcharhinus longimanus, Carcharhinus falciformis, Galeocerdo cuvier y Prionace glauca. La CPUE mensual en las pesquerías deportivas, varió de 0,43 a 4,44 tiburones capturados por diez viajes de pesca. La mayoría de los tiburones oceánicos capturados en las pesquerías deportivas son especies altamente migratorias y sus poblaciones muestran gran conectividad ecológica en el Golfo de México y aguas adyacentes. Este hecho y la presencia de una gran proporción de individuos de C. longimanus y C. falciformis por debajo de la longitud de madurez, son resultados que deben ser considerados en los planes regionales de conservación y uso racional de los tiburones.

  14. Geological interpretation of Eastern Cuba Laterites from an airborne magnetic and radioactive isotope survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, J.A; Blanco, J [Departamento de Geologia, Instituto Superior Minero Metalurgico de Moa, (Cuba); Perez-Flores, M.A [Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y Educacion Superior de Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico)

    2008-04-15

    In eastern Cuba area several geophysical techniques have been applied to distinguish the main geological characteristics of the laterites which are of economical importance for the extraction of iron, nickel and chrome. The geophysical measurements include an aeromagnetic survey and thorium (eTh), potassium (K) and uranium (eU) isotope measurements. The results of gamma spectrometer measurements make a distinction between laterite reservoirs. The application of the magnetic and isotope methods allowed the determination of the distribution and development of the laterite crust, as well as the determination of hydrothermal alterations affecting the laterites, which is very useful for mining exploration and exploitation. Such alterations indicate the presence of silicates, which have negative effects on the metallurgic process. It is known that laterite crust has a high content of eU and eTh. [Spanish] Se han utilizado varias tecnicas geofisicas en la region oriental de Cuba para distinguir las principales caracteristicas geologicas de las lateritas, que poseen importancia economica para la extraccion de hierro, niquel y cobalto. Las mediciones geofisicas incluyen un estudio aeromagnetico y mediciones de isotopos de torio (eTh), potasio (K) y uranio (eU). Los resultados de las mediciones espectrometricas establecen diferencias entre los yacimientos de lateritas. De la aplicacion del metodo magnetico e isotopico se determino la distribucion y desarrollo de las cortezas lateriticas, asi como la ubicacion de alteraciones hidrotermales que afectan a las lateritas, lo cual es muy util durante la exploracion y explotacion minera. Esas alteraciones indican la presencia de silicatos, que tienen un efecto negativo en el proceso metalurgico. Se conoce que las cortezas lateriticas tienen altos contenidos de eU y eTh. De los contenidos de eU y eTh se infiere que las lateritas de la region de Moa se formaron antes que las de Mayari. De estas mediciones fue posible inferir el

  15. Reemergence of dengue in Cuba: a 1997 epidemic in Santiago de Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourí, G; Guzmán, M G; Valdés, L; Carbonel, I; del Rosario, D; Vazquez, S; Laferté, J; Delgado, J; Cabrera, M V

    1998-01-01

    After 15 years of absence, dengue reemerged in the municipality of Santiago de Cuba because of increasing migration to the area by people from disease-endemic regions, a high level of vector infestation, and the breakdown of eradication measures. The 1997 epidemic was detected early through an active surveillance system. Of 2,946 laboratory-confirmed cases, 205 were dengue hemorrhagic fever, and 12 were fatal. No deaths were reported in persons under 16 years of age. Now the epidemic is fully controlled.

  16. El movimiento obrero cubano durante la Guerra de los Diez Años (1868-1878

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casanovas Codina, Joan

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Not available.

    El presente ensayo analiza un tema poco estudiado: las luchas de los trabajadores urbanos en Cuba durante la Guerra de los Diez Años (1868-1878. Varios autores —Aguirre, Hidalgo, Plasencia— dan a entender que no existió un vínculo entre los orígenes del movimiento obrero cubano en la década de 1860 y las importantes movilizaciones obreras de la década de 1880. Sin embargo, un estudio detallado del período de la guerra muestra que el artesanado de la isla consiguió seguir luchando colectivamente en defensa de sus intereses, lo cual es fundamental para comprender el espectacular crecimiento del movimiento obrero al finalizar la Guerra de los Diez Años en 1878.

  17. EL PROCESO DE ORDENAMIENTO AMBIENTAL EN CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obllurys Cárdenas López

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La necesaria interacción entre el ordenamiento territorial y ordenamiento ambiental fue promulgada en la Ley 81 y en las Estrategias Ambientales Nacionales (EAN desde 1997, en Cuba. Varias situaciones frenaron su cumplimentación, la falta de procedimientos metodológicos que guiaran el proceso, fue una de ellas por lo que la EAN de 2011-2015 y los Lineamientos del PCC lo ratifican como objetivo. En el abordaje de este problema y en la inclusión de los resultados de los estudios de peligro, vulnerabilidad y riesgo y de los escenarios de cambio climático radica la actualidad de la presente investigación. Teniendo como hipótesis que: el empleo de procedimientos metodológicos integradores y participativos facilitará la elaboración de modelos de ordenamiento ambiental (MOA que aporten regulaciones, lineamientos y normas ambientales al proceso de ordenamiento territorial; se persigue como objetivo principal: proponer los procedimientos metodológicos para la elaboración de los MOA y realizar su validación a nivel nacional y municipal. Son empleados métodos teóricos y empíricos combinados en la elaboración de los procedimientos y en su validación a diferentes escalas. Se obtienen como resultado los procedimientos metodológicos, con cinco fases de trabajo y su validación con la elaboración del MOA para el territorio emergido de Cuba, para los sectores agrícola y pecuario y del MOA para el municipio de Yagüajay, para los sectores agrícola, pecuario, forestal, hídrico, turismo y conservación. Se concluyó en la pertinencia de utilizar los procedimientos propuestos para la elaboración de los MOA, teniendo como base el enfoque participativo y a las unidades de paisaje, como unidad de análisis.

  18. Floración del germoplasma de malanga isleña (Colocasia esculenta (L. Schott en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadelys Figueroa Águila

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Con el objetivo de evaluar la emisión de inflorescencias en el germoplasma de malanga isleña (104 accesiones en las condiciones climáticas de Cuba, se desarrolló una investigación en el Instituto de Investigaciones de Viandas Tropicales (INIVIT. Durante los años 2013-2014 se realizaron muestreos cada 7 días para evaluar emisión de inflorescencias, se caracterizaron las accesiones de acuerdo con los descriptores relacionados con las inflorescencias. Los resultados apuntan a la floración natural del de 26 accesiones (25 %, de ellas 18 (69,2% florecen precozmente en los meses de julio hasta octubre, en los que hay un incremento de temperatura y la humedad relativa período a partir del cual se reduce la emisión de inflorescencias hasta noviembre cuando culmina el proceso de floración. Flowering of Malanga isleña germplasm (Colocasia esculenta (L. Schoot in Cuba ABSTRACT In order to evaluate the emission of inflorescences in the Malanga isleña germplasm (104 accessions in the climatic conditions of Cuba, an investigation was conducted in the Research Institute of Tropical Root and Tubers Crops (INIVIT. During the years 2013-2014, were sampled every 7 days to evaluate emission of inflorescences, accessions were characterized according to the descriptors related to the inflorescences. The results point to the natural flowering of 26 accessions (25%, of which 18 (69.2% bloom early in the months of July to October, in which occurs an increase in temperature and relative humidity, period from which the inflorescences emission is reduced until November when the flowering process ends.

  19. Cholera with severe renal failure in an Italian tourist returning from Cuba, July 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarello, M; Deiana, M L; Maurel, C; Lucarelli, C; Luzzi, I; Luzzati, R

    2013-08-29

    In July 2013, an Italian tourist returning from Cuba was hospitalised in Trieste, Italy, for cholera caused by Vibrio cholerae O1 serotype Ogawa with severe renal failure. An outbreak of cholera was reported in Cuba in January 2013. Physicians should consider the diagnosis of cholera in travellers returning from Cuba presenting with acute watery diarrhoea.

  20. 76 FR 5058 - Airports of Entry or Departure for Flights to and From Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... or Departure for Flights to and From Cuba AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, DHS. ACTION... United States and Cuba must arrive at or depart from one of three named U.S. airports: John F. Kennedy... the United States and Cuba. These amendments are in accordance with the President's recent...

  1. 31 CFR 515.561 - Persons visiting close relatives in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Cuba. 515.561 Section 515.561 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... Cuba. (a) General license. (1) Persons subject to the jurisdiction of the United States and persons... close relative, as defined in § 515.339 of this part, who is a national of Cuba, as defined in §...

  2. 31 CFR 515.415 - Travel to Cuba; transportation of certain Cuban nationals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Travel to Cuba; transportation of... CONTROL REGULATIONS Interpretations § 515.415 Travel to Cuba; transportation of certain Cuban nationals... or a returning resident of the United States, from Cuba to the United States, unless...

  3. 31 CFR 515.207 - Entry of vessels engaged in trade with Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... with Cuba. 515.207 Section 515.207 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 515.207 Entry of vessels engaged in trade with Cuba. Except as specifically... place in Cuba to engage in the trade of goods or the purchase or provision of services, may enter a...

  4. 77 FR 55183 - Effectiveness of Licensing Procedures for Agricultural Commodities to Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-07

    ... Cuba AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and Security, Commerce. ACTION: Request for comments. SUMMARY: The... Cuba. BIS will include a description of these comments in its biennial report to the Congress, as... 772 of the Export Administration Regulations (EAR), to Cuba. Requirements and procedures...

  5. 31 CFR 515.337 - Prohibited officials of the Government of Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Government of Cuba. 515.337 Section 515.337 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 515.337 Prohibited officials of the Government of Cuba. For purposes of this part, the term prohibited officials of the Government of Cuba means Ministers and...

  6. 31 CFR 515.553 - Bank accounts of official representatives in Cuba of foreign governments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representatives in Cuba of foreign governments. 515.553 Section 515.553 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Bank accounts of official representatives in Cuba of foreign governments. Specific licenses are issued authorizing payments from accounts of official representatives in Cuba of foreign governments for...

  7. 75 FR 54594 - Effectiveness of Licensing Procedures for Agricultural Commodities to Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... Cuba AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and Security, Commerce. ACTION: Request for comments. SUMMARY: The... Cuba. BIS will include a description of these comments in its biennial report to the Congress, as... of the Export Administration Regulations (EAR), to Cuba. Requirements and procedures associated...

  8. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency Relating to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating to the Regulation of the Anchorage and Movement of Vessels... Emergency Relating to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating to the Regulation of the Anchorage and... north of Cuba. In July 1996 and on subsequent occasions, the Cuban government stated its intent to...

  9. 31 CFR 515.548 - Services rendered by Cuba to United States aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Services rendered by Cuba to United... REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.548 Services rendered by Cuba to United States aircraft. Specific licenses are issued for payment to Cuba of charges for services...

  10. Unconventional Gas, Status and Perspectives for Its Exploration in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orelvis Delgado López

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this paper, is to define the unconventional gas types that can be found in Cuba andelaborate premises of perspectives areas for its exploration in Cuba. For this reason, a bibliographicrevision was done over the internet, because of the absent of textbooks and experiences of this topicin Cuba. For the enunciation of perspectives areas for unconventional gas exploration in Cuba, bothgas exploration reports in national territory and theoretical aspects elucidated over the internet wereused. Through this method of research it was possible to understand the theoretical aspect ofunconventional gas, the definition of the unconventional gas types that can be present in Cuba andthe most perspectives areas in order to begin its exploration. From these results it is possible toconclude that: The term unconventional gas is used because of the unconventional technical used formake the production of natural gas profitable from low quality reservoirs, and not because it is ahydrocarbon with different characteristics. The main unconventional gas types, which are beingdeveloped nowadays worldwide, are: Tight gas, shale gas y coal bed methane. Preliminarily, in Cubaonly exist conditions for tight and shale gas development.

  11. Revolution on the mind: Cuba, between fact and fable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Stubbs

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] To make a world safe for revolution: Cuba's foreign policy. JORGE I. DOMÏNGUEZ. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 1989. viii + 365 pp. (Cloth US$ 35.00 U.S. - Cuba relations in the 1990s. JORGE I. DoMfNGUEZ & RAFAEL HERNANDEZ (eds.. Boulder CO: Westview, 1989. ix + 324 pp. (Cloth US$ 42.00, Paper US$ 15.95 Transformation and struggle: Cuba faces the 1990s. SANDOR HALEBSKY & JOHN M. KIRK (eds.. with the assistance of Rafael Hernéndez. New York: Praeger, 1990. xxvi + 291 pp. (Cloth US$ 45.00, Paper US$ 17.95 "A masterpiece of political intrigue" was one description of Jorge Dominguez' earlier book, Cuba: order and revolution; and it is a fitting comment for its sequel foreign policy volume. Dominguez himself opens with: "This is not a book of fiction, yet much of the story seems a fantasy." The story is how, from 1959 to 1988, Cuban leaders sought "to make a world safe for revolution" and, in the process, that small country Cuba came to have "the foreign policy of a big power." In his thorough, methodical fashion, Dominguez marshalls a wealth of documentary evidence from varied and conflicting sources, backed with extensive interview material, to paint a "behind the scènes" story of policymakers and their policy.

  12. Far beyond the Line: Corsairs, Privateers, Buccaneers, and Invading Settlers in Cuba and the Caribbean (1529-1670

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Fernández, Luis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay connects the course of war and peace in Europe with a variety of forms of European incursion in the Caribbean during the 1500s and 1600s. With special attention to Cuba, it traces the emergence and evolution of piracy and privateering as well as European colonial expansion by settlers and buccaneers. This essay also provides a systematic analysis of how belligerence in the Old World impacted the Caribbean. Lastly, it explores Spain’s efforts to protect its colonies through fortifications, fleet systems, and increased military presence.Este ensayo estudia la interconexión entre las guerras en Europa y una variedad de formas de incursión en el Caribe durante el siglo XVI y XVII. Con atención espacial a sucesos en la isla de Cuba este estudio recorre la evolución de actividades piraticas y la creación y desarrollo de colonias no-españolas y el establecimiento de enclaves bucaneros. Este también provee un análisis sistemático sobre el impacto de los conflictos europeos en la cuenca del Caribe. Por último, aquí se exploran los mecanismos defensivos españoles, tales como la militarización, construcción de fortificaciones y el establecimiento del sistema de flotas.

  13. Evolución histórica de las farmacias en Santiago de Cuba en la primera mitad del siglo XX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Aurora Zúñiga Moro

    Full Text Available Se expone la evolución de las farmacias en Santiago de Cuba durante la primera mitad del siglo XX, con sus características, auge y desarrollo; la organización del Colegio de Farmacéuticos de la ciudad; así como la participación en la vida social y política de los farmacéuticos en el territorio. Se mencionan las farmacias que prestaban servicio de guardia en caso de urgencias y se ofrece información sobre algunas dirigidas por graduadas de la especialidad en ese período, durante el cual la actividad farmacéutica en Santiago evolucionó, desde las farmacias iniciales al estilo colonial, hasta alcanzar un desarrollo superior vinculado con servicios de dispensario, patentes de medicamentos, atención a domicilio y horario de guardias nocturnas.

  14. Música popular y nacionalismo en los campamentos insurgentes. Cuba (1895-1898) /Popular Music and Nationalism in Insurgent Camps. Cuba (1895-1898)/Música popular e nacionalismo nos acampamentos insurgentes. Cuba (1895-1898)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jaddiel Díaz Frene

    2015-01-01

    ...? Palabras clave: música, Cuba, nacionalismo, cultura popular, raza, género, décimas. Popular Music and Nationalism in Insurgent Camps. Cuba (1895-1898) Abstract: This article reconstructs the social uses of the décimas (ten-line stanzas) sung in the insurgent camps during the war for independence that began in Cuba in 1895. Through a review of persona...

  15. Ethnicity, education, and blood pressure in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordunez, Pedro; Munoz, Jose Luis Bernal; Espinosa-Brito, Alfredo; Silva, Luis Carlos; Cooper, Richard S

    2005-07-01

    The causes of variation in hypertension risk by ethnicity and educational level are not well understood. To gain further insight into this issue in a nonindustrialized country, a population-based sample of 1,667 persons aged 15-74 years was recruited in Cienfuegos, Cuba. In this 2001-2002 study, interviewers classified 29% of participants as Black or mulatto and 71% as White. Educational attainment was stratified at the median number of school years. Compared with White women, non-White women had higher blood pressures (3.0/1.7, systolic blood pressure/diastolic blood pressure) and a higher prevalence of hypertension (24%, 95% confidence interval: 20, 28 vs. 15%, 95% confidence interval: 12, 18). Among men, no differences in blood pressure were observed by ethnicity. Men with a lower level of education had a 14% lower risk of hypertension compared with men above the median. However, women with a lower level of education had a 24% increase in risk. The effect of education was equally strong among Whites alone and when occupation was used for stratification. No variation was observed for body mass index or self-reported health behaviors by ethnicity or education. The narrower ethnic gradient in hypertension prevalence than seen in North America and the gender-specific social status effect, in the context of relatively equal living conditions, suggest that the influence of psychosocial stressors may be specific to cultural contexts.

  16. Saharan dust events measured at Camaguey, Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antuna, J.; Estevan, R.; Barja, B.

    2012-12-01

    Using AERONET level 2.0 dataset from Camagüey, Cuba, Saharan Dust events have been measured from 2009 to the present. The sunphotometer, operated by GOAC in cooperation with RIMA (Red Iberica de Medicion de Aerosoles) has been also contributing to AERONET. Five Saharan dust events AOD measured in July 2009 have been compared with Spatio-temporal coincident MODIS (both from Aqua and Terra instruments) measurements of AOD. Also the SKIRON model AOD forecasts for the same period over Camagüey were compared with local measurements. The daily average values of the sunphotometer measured AOD and modeled forecasted AOD show a better agreement than the rest of the combinations of AOD selection criteria tested, but still notable differences are present. The lack of background aerosols AOD in the forecast produces additional differences in the absence of Saharan dust. In the case of the long range transport of Saharan aerosols the forecasted AOD values are higher than the measured ones. The differences daily mean sunphotometer AOD and the daily mean areal MODIS (both Terra and Aqua) AOD are lower than the differences between the daily maximum sunphotometer AOD and the daily areal maximum MODIS (both from Terra and Aqua) AOD. The mean areal AOD MODIS values (both for Terra and Aqua) underestimates the high aerosols concentrations and overestimates the lower ones, measured by the sunphotometer. New research is underway, covering the 2009 and 2010 Saharan dust events. Preliminary results are shown.

  17. Utilization of hybrid systems in Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Mercedes Menendez; Figueredo, Conrado Moreno [Renewable Energy Technologies Study Center (CETER), Marianao (Cuba)

    1996-12-31

    This work deals with the possibility of the wind-photovoltaic hybrid system uses for the electricity generation in Cuba. A design of energy installation is made to satisfy the tourism facilities demands located in Cayo Sabinal, in the north of the province Camaguey. The design is based on the data base of the available wind and solar resources. A group of existing wind-generators in the market is analyzed and the best is selected taking into account a set of energy parameters, the monthly energy supply is function of the turbines numbers and the quantity of necessary solar energy to guarantee the system requirements. An economical evaluation is carried out in order to select the best wind-solar combination and a comparison with other forms of electricity generation (Diesel Plant and a stand alone wind system). In the work is showed the best combination in the critical month is when a 62% of energy is supplied by wind energy and 38% of solar energy. Otherwise in the work is showed hybrid system is more economical than a stand alone wind system and a Diesel Plant. (Author)

  18. Las actuales transformaciones en Cuba y sus efectos en las relaciones Cuba-CARICOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Laguardia Martínez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En 2011 Cuba aprobó una nueva política económica con el objetivo de relanzar su economía sin comprometer los principales logros sociales asociados a su modelo socialista. La apuesta es lo suficientemente ambiciosa como para generar dudas sobre la posibilidad real de instrumentar con éxito una transformación socioeconómica de tales dimensiones. Lo cierto es que, a pesar de los temores y resistencias a la “actualización” del modelo económico cubano, los cambios internos son obligatorios con el fin de construir un socialismo “próspero y sostenible”, idea que el presidente Raúl Castro ha promovido como objetivo central de los cambios. El artículo analiza las relaciones de Cuba y los países del CARICOM en el contexto de la cambiante realidad cubana actual y examina las posibles modificaciones que esta relación podría experimentar en un futuro próximo como consecuencia de la actualización económica cubana.

  19. Cuba: el advenimiento de la República en el periódico La Lucha, 1902

    OpenAIRE

    María del Rosario Rodríguez Díaz

    2014-01-01

    El establecimiento de la primera república de cuba, en mayo de 1902, ha sido un tema escasamente abordado en la historiografía cubana contemporánea. Por ello, en el pre- sente artículo nos proponemos analizar esta coyuntura histórica a través del discurso periodístico del diario la lucha, órgano dirigido a un público bilingüe, acorde a las exigencias del nuevo poder foráneo. Pretendemos estudiar la problemática existente durante el periodo de transi- ción y el inicio de la era republicana en ...

  20. Apuntes para la historia de la estomatología en Camagüey, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dadonim Vila Morales

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available La historia de la estomatología en cada región del país debe ser rescatada. Para ello se realizó esta investigación en la provincia de Camagüey, Cuba, en el periodo histórico del siglo XIX. Esta investigación fue realizada desde mayo de 1993 a junio de 1994 y revisada y cotejada durante el año 2010. La fuente primaria de investigación fueron documentos históricos del siglo XIX consultados, en la Biblioteca Provincial de Camagüey, como las Actas capitulares del ayuntamiento de Puerto Príncipe, así como los periódicos: La gaceta de Puerto Príncipe, La gaceta, El pueblo, El Camagüey y libros de historia que recogen la etapa objeto de estudio. Se demostró documentalmente el progreso que tuvo la Estomatología durante el siglo XIX en dicha provincia, que transitó desde el empirismo multioficio del barbero-flebotomista-dentista, hasta el surgimiento de la profesión del cirujano dentista. Resultó significativa la participación de los dentistas camagüeyanos en la Guerra de los diez años, de los que surgieron un general, un coronel y un capitán del Ejército libertador, que junto a otros patriotas camagüeyanos dentistas, sufrieron prisiones, y regaron con su sangre la llanura camagüeyana. La formación de los primeros dentistas camagüeyanos ocurrió en los colegios dentales de los Estados Unidos, hasta que se comenzó la docencia de esta disciplina en Cuba, después de la guerra de los diez años. A finales del siglo XIX ya se consolidaban las bases para la fundación del Colegio Dental de Camagüey, que surgiría en 1907.

  1. COMPORTAMIENTO DE LAS REACCIONES ADVERSAS A MEDICAMENTOS EN CUBA. AÑO 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Chao Cardeso

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. La farmacovigilancia es una actividad de salud pública destinada a la identificación, evaluación y prevención de los riesgos asociados a los medicamentos una vez comercializados. En Cuba existe un sistema de Farmacovigilancia con una tasa elevada de reporte de efectos adversos por medicamentos (7000 a 10 000 casos anuales. Desarrollo. Se realizó un estudio farmacovigilancia, descriptivo, transversal y retrospectivo, que utilizo la Metodología y Procedimientos de Trabajo de la Unidad Coordinadora Nacional de Farmacovigilancia, donde se analizaron todos los reportes de RAM llegados a la unidad durante el 2007 procedentes de todo el país. Resultados: Se analizaron 6928 notificaciones de reacciones adversas medicamentosas (RAM, notificándose 12963 RAM a razón de 1.9 RAM por notificación, de ellas 4251 fueron reacciones importantes (61.3% según criterios establecidos por la unidad coordinadora nacional de farmacovigilancia de Cuba. Los sistemas de órganos más afectados durante el año fueron piel y anejos (1774, 25.6% seguido del tracto gastrointestinal (1438, 20.7%. Entre los fármacos con mayor numero de reportes se encontró captopril (418/6.03%, el ibuprofeno 289 / 4.2% y ciprofloxacina 259/3.7%. Predominaron las RAM probables (68.7% y moderadas 47.1% y las más frecuentes fueron erupción cutánea, vómitos y fiebre. Entre las asociaciones fármaco - RAM muy importantes y con baja frecuencia de aparición se reportaron en total unas 2953 (35.9% en el año, de ellas el 9.1% fueron reacciones no descritas en la literatura revisada. Conclusiones: se detectaron entre una o dos reacciones adversas a medicamentos por cada notificación realizada. Dejando claro la importancia en la selección de los medicamentos y su uso racional. Los fármacos más asociados a las reacciones adversas notificadas fueron captopril, ciprofloxacina e ibuprofeno, la piel y el sistema digestivo fueron los sistemas más afectados y las reacciones

  2. Uso de medicamentos durante el embarazo en diferentes áreas de salud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Vergel Rivera

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Para describir los motivos de prescripción, los prescriptores y la exposición a medicamentos durante el embarazo se realizó un estudio observacional, prospectivo en 8 áreas de salud (5 de Ciudad de La Habana y 3 de Santiago de Cuba. Se incluyeron las gestantes captadas (347, del 1ro. de octubre al 31 de diciembre de 1995. El Médico de Familia recogió la información. Los motivos de prescripción más frecuentes fueron: suplementación vitamineral, anemia, profilaxis del tétanos y preeclampsia, cefalea, náuseas y/o vómitos, sepsis urinaria y vaginal con variaciones en frecuencia, según trimestre del embarazo. La exposición a 2 o menos medicamentos y a 4 principios activos fue lo más frecuente. El médico de atención primaria fue el principal prescriptor. Llama la atención, la posible exposición a elevadas concentraciones de vitamina A, en todas las áreas y el uso frecuente de ácido acetilsalicílico para la profilaxis de la preeclampsia en las áreas de Santiago de Cuba. Cualquier intervención, para mejorar la prescripción en la embarazada, debe ser dirigida al médico de atención primariaAn observational and descriptive study was conducted in 8 health areas (5 from Havana City and 3 from Santiago de Cuba in order to describe the reasons for prescribing drugs, the prescribers and the exposure to drugs during pregnancy. 347 pregnant women who were recruited from October lst, to December 31st, 1995, were included. The family physician was in charge of collecting the information. The commonest reasons for prescribing were: vitamin supplementation, anemia, tetanus and preeclampsia prophylaxis, headache, nauseas and/or vomits, and urinary and vaginal sepsis with varying frequency, according to the trimester of pregnancy. The exposure to 2 or less drugs and to 4 active principles was the most frequent. The possible exposure to elevated concentrations of vitamin A in all the areas and the usual administration of acetylsalicylic acid

  3. Efecto de la fertilización orgánica e inorgánica sobre el comportamiento del fitoplancton en la estación acuícola de Boca Ambuila (Cuba) - (The effect of organic and inorganic fertilization on phytoplanktonic production in Boca Ambuila aquaculture station (Cuba).

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Con el objetivo de optimizar el empleo de fertilizantes en la preparación de los estanques de tierra de la Estación de Boca Ambuila, Cienfuegos, Cuba y garantizar un crecimiento adecuado de la productividad natural, se desarrolló un diseño experimental completamente aleatorizado, con 4 tratamientos y tres repeticiones, durante 6 días para evaluar el efecto de diferentes fertilizantes y dosis sobre el desarrollo del fitoplancton. Las mayores concentraciones de células de fitoplancton y ...

  4. 31 CFR 515.559 - Certain transactions by U.S.-owned or controlled foreign firms with Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... controlled foreign firms with Cuba. 515.559 Section 515.559 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating... transactions by U.S.-owned or controlled foreign firms with Cuba. (a) Effective October 23, 1992, no specific... controlled firms in third countries and Cuba for the exportation to Cuba of commodities produced in...

  5. The Debate in Cuba's Scientific Community on Sudden Cardiac Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilches, Ernesto; Ochoa, Luis A; Ramos, Lianne

    2015-10-01

    Sudden cardiac death poses a challenge to modern medicine because of its high incidence, the unexpected and dramatic nature of the event, and years of potential life lost. What's more, despite modest decreases in global mortality attributed to cardiovascular diseases, incidence of sudden cardiac death has not declined. Cuba, like most of the Americas, suffers from knowledge gaps that hamper adequate strategies to address sudden cardiac death as a population health problem. We suggest that a generally accepted operational definition of sudden cardiac death be agreed upon, and a national registry developed that recognizes this cause of death on death certificates. These two actions will enable Cuba's public health authorities to assess the extent of the problem and to design intervention strategies for the population with intermediate and lower cardiovascular risk, the group in which most cases occur. KEYWORDS Sudden cardiac death, cardiovascular disease, sudden death, sudden cardiac arrest, risk reduction, prevention and control, Cuba.

  6. Doblemente sometidas: las «mujeres de color» en la república de Cuba (1902-1959

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramírez Chicharro, Manuel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the development of afro-descendant women during the Republic of Cuba (1902-1959. First of all, works dedicated to Cuban women as a gender are assessed on one hand and to Afro culture on the other in order to show the extent to which Afro-Cuban women have been neglected by historiography. Then black and mixed-race women are studied in relation to the entire male population and white women. The text is divided into three parts: educational areas, vocational integration and political mobility. The data enables us to affirm that Afro-Cuban women were doubly subjugated throughout the Republican period, because of their gender against men, and because of race against white women.El estudio analiza la trayectoria de las mujeres afrodescendientes durante la República de Cuba (1902-1959. En primer lugar, se realiza una valoración de las obras dedicadas a las mujeres cubanas como género, por un lado, y a la cultura afro, por otro, para demostrar hasta qué punto las mujeres afrocubanas han sido desatendidas por la historiografía. Después se pasa a examinar a las mujeres negras y mestizas en relación con la población masculina total y las mujeres blancas. El texto se divide en tres apartados: campo educativo, inserción laboral y movilidad política. Los datos permiten afirmar que las mujeres afrocubanas estuvieron doblemente sometidas durante todo el período republicano, por género frente a los hombres negros, por «raza» frente a las mujeres blancas.

  7. Intelectualidad criolla y nación en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel GARCÍA MORA

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En este artículo se analizan las interacciones entre las posiciones intelectuales de los autonomistas cubanos y su idea de la nacionalidad, y la utilización que de la "raza" hicieron los científicos criollos. En una primera parte, se estudian los debates en torno a los pobladores "ideales" con los que constituir una nación moderna y "civilizada", que alejara de Cuba el fantasma de la "africanización". La segunda parte del trabajo se centra en el análisis de la publicación cultural más importante del momento, como fue la Revista de Cuba (1877-1884. Una publicación al servicio de una ciencia criolla, en la que se expuso el concepto de nacionalidad y el proyecto político de los autonomistas, compartido por la mayoría de los científicos cubanos. Palabras Clave: Cuba, ciencia criolla, autonomismo, intelectuales, nacionalidad. ABSTRACT: This article analyzes the interactions between the Cuban Autonomists, their intellectual positions and their ideas about "nationality", and the use of the concept of "race" made by the Criollo scientists. The first part studies debates on the "ideal" settlers for the forming of a modern and "civilized" nation, which would remove the spectre of "Africanization" from Cuba. The second part of this work is focused on the analysis of the most important cultural review of the time, the Revista de Cuba (1877-1884. It was in this publi- cation —which acted as the voice of Criollo science— that the concept of nationality and the political project of the Autonomists, which was shared by most of the Cuban scientists, was expressed. Key words: Cuba, Criollo Science, Autonomism, Intellectuals, Nationality.

  8. The Politics of Revolutionary Development: Civil-Military Relations in Cuba, 1959-1976,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    34 Cuba Socialista, No. 47 (July 1965), 51-67; Paul Castro, " Problemas del faicimandento del Partido en las FAR," Cuba Socialista, No. 55 (March 1966...34 Cuba Socialista, No. 47 (July 1965, 51-67; and iFail Castro, " Problemas del ffncionamiento del Partido en las FAR," Cuba Socialists, No. 55 (March...mtica del Partido Comnista de Cuba: Tesis5 Resolucion La Habana: Departamentod Orienacin volucianaria del Ccmite Central del PCC, 1976), pp. 114-116. 64

  9. Posible origen catastrófico de las secuencias asociadas al límite K/T en Cuba Oriental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Quintas-Caballero

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available En la porción oriental de Cuba se localizan facies terrígenas y carbonatadas, acumuladas en aguas profundas de cuencas a cuestas y de antepaís, caracterizadas por la presencia de macrobrechas de calizas, flysch arcilloso-arenoso vulcanomíctico, flysch serpentino-clástico y olistostromas con alto componente ofiolítico. Algunas de esas facies, presentes en las Formaciones Mícara y La Jíquima, se correlacionan con otras de la Formación Beloc en Haití, y de las Formaciones Peñalver y Amaro localizadas en Cuba centro-occidental, donde se ha verificado la existencia de una alta anomalía de iridio, vidrio de impacto, así como turbiditas y megabrechas relacionadas con tsunamis resultantes del impacto meteórico en Chicxulub, en Yucatán. Durante el Maastrichtiano, La Española (isla de Santo Domingo, la península de Yucatán (México y la porción oriental de Cuba se encontraban en un entorno inmediatamente cercano, por lo que las Formaciones Beloc, Mícara, La Jíquima y otras equivalentes se acumularon en condiciones paleogeográficas y medioambientales similares. Las facies de olistostromas, megaturbiditas terrígenas y de macrobrechas de calizas, localizadas en lo que se considera el límite K/T en la porción oriental de Cuba, posiblemente se acumularon como consecuencia de tsunamis formados por el impacto del meteorito que dio origen al cráter de Chicxulub.

  10. Aportación española a la farmacia cubana decimonónica Spain's contribution to pharmacy in 19th century Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel González de la Peña Puerta

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available La llegada de los españoles a Cuba supuso una organización que fue un reflejo de la establecida en la metrópoli. En materia farmacéutica, se intentó regularizar el ejercicio de la misma y formar profesionales. Con este objetivo, entre otros, se constituyó en 1711 el Real Tribunal del Protomedicato de La Habana, sustituido en 1833 por las Reales Juntas Superiores Gubernativas de Medicina y Cirugía y de Farmacia hasta 1842, cuando quedaron en manos de la Universidad de La Habana sus competencias en lo relativo a la enseñanza. Durante este tiempo, la Facultad de Farmacia en Cuba permaneció unida a la de medicina, hasta 1863. No podemos dejar sin mencionar la Real Academia de Ciencias Médicas, Físicas y Naturales de La Habana y las publicaciones científicas sobre farmacia de mediados de siglo.With the arrival of the Spanish in Cuba, society was organized along the lines of what already existed in the metropolis. In the area of pharmacy, this meant standardizing the practice of pharmacy and training professionals. It was with this and other purposes in mind that the Real Tribunal del Protomedicato de La Haban was established in 1711. In 1833 it was replaced by the Reales Juntas Superiores Gubernativas de Medicina y Cirugía y de Farmacia until 1842, when educational responsibilities were transferred to the Universidad de La Habana. Throughout this period, the Facultad de Farmacia in Cuba kept its links with the Facultad de Medicina, until 1863. Another contribution are the Real Academia de Ciencias Médicas, Físicas y Naturales de La Habana and the scientific publications on pharmacy in the midle the century.

  11. A New Approach to Health Services and Pharmacy in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Alina M

    2015-12-01

    In December 17, 2014, U.S. President Barack Obama surprised the world by announcing his intention to enter into negotiations aimed at reestablishing diplomatic relations with Cuba. Since then, expectations and interest regarding the health system of that country have increased. This report focuses on the Cuban health and pharmacy systems from a practical and educational standpoint. Pharmaceutical services, strengths, opportunities, and challenges are described. Cuba's new trends toward patient-centered care are analyzed to provide insights for developing pharmaceutical care practice and implementing policies suitable for practice in all health care settings. © 2015 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  12. Recent trends in Cuba's mining and petroleum industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacaster, Susan; Baker, Michael S.; Soto-Viruet, Yadira; Textoris, Steven D.

    2015-01-01

    In response to recent diplomatic developments between Cuba and the United States, the National Minerals Information Center compiled available information on the mineral industries of Cuba. This fact sheet highlights a new map and table that identify mines, mineral processing facilities, and petroleum facilities as well as information on location, operational status, and ownership. It also addresses the current status of known mineral industry projects, historical developments, and trends of the Cuban economy with an emphasis on mineral industries, and the supply and demand for Cuba’s mineral resources.

  13. Pay Inequality in Cuba: the Special Period and After

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the evolution of pay inequality in Cuba from the early 1990s through 2004, during what was known as the “Special Period in Times of Peace” and after. We measure pay inequality across sectors and regions, using the between-groups component of Theil’s T statistic, and we map the changing components of that statistic in order to provide a compact summary of structural change in Cuba. This method helps us to observe the transition of the Cuban economy from one based fundamenta...

  14. El V Congreso del Partido Comunista de Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe RUÍZ ALONSO

    1998-01-01

    RESUMEN: El artículo describe de forma prolija el desarrollo y resultados del V Congreso del Partido Comunista de Cuba celebrado en La Habana eri octubre de 1997. Por el papel hegemónico del Partido Comunista Cubano en el sistema político cubano, las conclusiones del citado congreso pueden ser interpretadas como elementos claves de reflexión en el marco de la situación económica y política de Cuba.ABSTRACT: This article describes in a detailed manner the development and results of the V Congr...

  15. A POLÍTICA AFRICANA DE CUBA: IDEALISMO OU PRAGMATISMO?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analúcia Danilevicz Pereira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As relações cubano-africanas são marcadas por traços de excepcionalidade. A Revolução Cubana coincide, temporalmente, com o aprofundamento do processo descolonizatório na África. Desde os primeiros anos da Revolução, Cuba definiu sua linha de atuação no continente africano, marcada pela cooperação militar e civil. A política africana de Cuba, foi, assim, definida pela autopreservação e zelo revolucionário.

  16. Cuba, Canarias y la prensa, en el contexto del 98

    OpenAIRE

    Lic. Ileana Medina Hernández

    1998-01-01

    1898 es para España el año del Desastre, con mayúscula; 1898 es para Cuba el año de la independencia, quizá con minúscula. Canarias es la puerta de salida de Europa; Cuba es puerta la entrada de América. La migración canario - cubana ha sido un factor histórico decisivo en la formación de ambas nacionalidades. La prensa de masas naciente a fines del siglo XIX jugó un papel determinante en la guerra hispano-norteamericana y su desenlace. Conjugando esas cuatro sentencias aplastantes y archicon...

  17. Factibilidad económico-ambiental para el cultivo sostenible de ostión de mangle Crassostrea rhizophorae (Güilding, 1828, en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Betanzos-Vega

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron dos variantes en la producción de ostión de mangle Crassostrea rhizophorae en Cuba: 1 extracción pesquera tradicional (EP en bancos naturales, apoyada en menor grado con acuicultura artesanal por agregación de colectores de mangle suspendidos en el manglar, y 2 cultivo artesanal (CA, obteniendo semillas del medio natural en colectores de "concha madre", con engorde y cosecha en el mismo colector y en canastas o cajas ostrícolas. Se determinó la factibilidad económico-ambiental de ambas variantes proyectadas a cinco años, a partir del análisis de costo-beneficio económico basado en datos de operación pesquera y se incluyeron costos estimados por daño ambiental. La variante extractiva (EP mostró una rentabilidad negativa durante el periodo proyectado (US$-1.388,39 en el quinto año, con impacto negativo sobre el ecosistema de manglar. La variante productiva (CA mostró ganancias a partir del tercer año y una rentabilidad positiva durante el periodo proyectado (US$731,78 al quinto año, con reducción de daños al ecosistema de manglar. De acuerdo a estos resultados, se recomienda desarrollar el cultivo y manejo sustentable de la ostra nativa C. rhizophorae en Cuba.

  18. Seismic image of the petroleum structures in Cuba; Imagen sismica de las estructuras para petroleo en Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sora Monroy, America; Socorro Trujillo, Rafael [Empresa de Geofisica, La Habana (Cuba)

    1999-07-01

    The main oil trap in Cuba are associated with structural highs. These structures are ;located within different types of rocks (ophiolitics, volcanics sedimentary rocks). During the compressive stage (Late Cretacic - Early Tertiary) have produced the Cuban fold and thurst belt. By the Campanian, the volcanic arc and associated oceanic basement were obducted onto the Continental Crust, consequently sedimentary cover was folded to form many oil structures, for example: ramp anticline structures, fold system duplex. In postorogenic period, tectonic stress is still active, is in this moment a lot of traps has been recognized by floowers structures, and as a result, pull apart basin of 4-6 km thick sediments were mostly in the south of Cuba. This paper illustrates the characteristics of seismic images of oil traps in Cuba. (author)

  19. [Eugenic abortion could explain the lower infant mortality in Cuba compared to that in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoso S, Enrique; Carvajal C, Jorge A

    2012-08-01

    Cuba and Chile have the lower infant mortality rates of Latin America. Infant mortality rate in Cuba is similar to that of developed countries. Chilean infant mortality rate is slightly higher than that of Cuba. To investigate if the lower infant mortality rate in Cuba, compared to Chile, could be explained by eugenic abortion, considering that abortion is legal in Cuba but not in Chile. We compared total and congenital abnormalities related infant mortality in Cuba and Chile during 2008, based on vital statistics of both countries. In 2008, infant mortality rates in Chile were significantly higher than those of Cuba (7.8 vs. 4.7 per 1,000 live born respectively, odds ratio (OR) 1.67; 95% confidence intervals (Cl) 1.52-1.83). Congenital abnormalities accounted for 33.8 and 19.2% of infant deaths in Chile and Cuba, respectively. Discarding infant deaths related to congenital abnormalities, infant mortality rate continued to be higher in Chile than in Cuba (5.19 vs. 3.82 per 1000 live born respectively, OR 1.36; 95%CI 1.221.52). Considering that antenatal diagnosis is widely available in both countries, but abortion is legal in Cuba but not in Chile, we conclude that eugenic abortion may partially explain the lower infant mortality rate observed in Cuba compared to that observed in Chile.

  20. Smoking prevalence in Cienfuegos City, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benet, Mikhail; Espinosa, Alfredo; Morejón, Alain; Diez, Emiliano; Landrove, Orlando; Ordúñez, Pedro O

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Over the last 40 years, high smoking prevalence has been reported throughout Cuba, including in Cienfuegos city in the central part of the island. OBJECTIVES Determine smoking prevalence and potential associated risk factors in Cienfuegos city for 2010-2011. METHODS A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in Cienfuegos city in the context of CARMEN (Collaborative Action for Risk Factor Prevention & Effective Management of Non-communicable Diseases), a PAHO multi-country initiative for a multidimensional approach to chronic non-communicable diseases. Participants totaled 2193 (aged 15-74 years), randomly selected through complex probabilistic three-stage sampling. Variables examined in relation to smoking included age, sex, skin color, civil status and educational level. RESULTS Approximately 25% of those surveyed were smokers (30.3% of men and 21.0% of women). For men, prevalence was highest in the groups aged 25-34 and 55-64 years; for women, in the group aged 45-54 years. Concerning skin color, smoking rates were higher among black and mestizo persons (29.5%); and concerning civil status, higher among those who were separated, widowed or divorced (30.0%). Smoking prevalence fell with higher educational level; in keeping with that trend, the university-educated group had the lowest prevalence (16.2%). CONCLUSIONS Although one in four Cienfuegos residents aged ≥15 years smoked in 2010-2011, prevalence there is lower than in previous surveys. Knowledge of differences observed in age, sex, skin color, civil status and educational level can be useful for planning future smoking prevention and control actions.

  1. La Isla sobre el papel The Island on Paper: two monumental maps of Cuba in the nineteenth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Venegas Fornias

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Las empresas cartográficas son productos de grandes y extensos esfuerzos humanos movilizados por iniciativas de hombres e instituciones que suelen pasar al olvido. Propongo redactar un ensayo sobre la realización de dos mapas de Cuba: el mapa de 1831 o de Vives y el de 1875 del agrimensor Esteban Pichardo. En ambos casos los mapas se editan en condiciones sociales significativas de dependencia colonial y representan hitos para el conocimiento y la identidad del país; el tema del ensayo sería el análisis de las motivaciones que encierran estas representaciones en diferentes niveles y del contexto cultural que las hizo posible. Se trata también de recuperar la memoria de estos mapas como hechos históricos, la organización de las tareas, la preparación profesional de los autores, la utilización de las fuentes,  y otras. Los dos mapas se consideran los mejores de Cuba durante el siglo XIX y se acompañaron de planos de ciudades como era habitual.Cartographic work represents the product of large and ample human effort triggered by initiatives of men and institutions which most often become forgotten. In this paper I propose to develop an essay on the elaboration of two maps of Cuba: the 1831 or Vives map, and the 1875 map by the surveyor Esteban Pichardo. Both maps are edited under significant social conditions of colonial dependence, and represent keystones for the country’s knowledge and identity. The essay focuses on the analysis of the motivations involved in these representations at different levels, as well as of the cultural framework that made them possible. It also attempts to bring back to memory these maps as historical facts, representing the organization of tasks, the authors’ professional preparation, the use of sources, and others. The two maps are regarded as the best ones of Cuba during the nineteenth century, and included city maps, as was usual at that time.

  2. Mortalidad infantil en Cuba 1959-1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Riverón Corteguera

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available De 1959 a 1999, con los datos estadísticos disponibles, la mortalidad infantil en Cuba disminuyó en 81,3 %, la mortalidad neonatal precoz se redujo el 73,4 %, la mortalidad neonatal tardía el 83,6 % y la posneonatal en 86,0 %. Las reducciones obtenidas en el período se distribuyeron uniformemente entre todas las provincias, aunque la mayor disminución se produjo en las provincias centrales y occidentales. Los rubros que más disminuyeron sus tasas fueron: enteritis y otras enfermedades diarreicas, infecciones respiratorias agudas, afecciones perinatales en general y las meningitis, aunque todas las causas reducen la mortalidad en el período. La natalidad descendió el 51,3 %, la fecundidad lo hizo en 30 %, el crecimiento demográfico bruto de la población disminuyó el 59,8 %, el parto institucional aumentó en 65,9 %, el bajo peso al nacer descendió el 36,9 %, la mortalidad perinatal se redujo el 67,2 %, los nacidos vivos disminuyeron el 21,1 % y la supervivencia infantil a los 5 años aumentó el 3,8 %. Esto ha sido posible debido principalmente a la decisión política de priorizar el sector de la salud y muy especialmente la salud maternoinfantil adoptada por nuestro Estado a principios de la década de los 60, lo que permitió alcanzar avances en la organización, calidad de la atención y una amplia cobertura de los servicios de salud. También fueron elementos importantes, el mejoramiento del nivel de vida y de la educación alcanzados por la población, las mejoras logradas en la situación sanitaria y epidemiológica, la distribución equitativa de los alimentos que prioriza a la madre y al niño. Un elemento fundamental en la última década ha sido el desarrollo del "médico de la familia" en la atención primaria y el mejoramiento de la atención hospitalaria. Por otra parte han contribuido de manera notable el establecimiento del Programa Nacional de Atención Maternoinfantil, que abarca las inmunizaciones, el control de las

  3. Cuba. Escenarios demográficos hacia 2030 Cuba. Demographic scenarios towards 2030

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Albizu-Campos Espiñeira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo es un ensayo de construcción de escenarios demográficos para Cuba hacia 2030, introduciendo los elementos fundamentales del cambio de la población a partir de las tendencias recientes observadas en las variables que determinan su dinámica, se debaten los elementos que se consideran claves para modelar su posible evolución, dado que en un contexto como el actual, pronosticar el comportamiento futuro de la población, por lo menos hasta un mediano plazo y con la mayor precisión posible, se convierte en un instrumento esencial para ofrecer criterios cada vez más refinados para la conformación de las políticas orientadas al alcance de las mejores condiciones posibles en el proceso de desarrollo económico del país.

  4. DIVERSIDAD DEL MICROFITOPLANCTON EN LAS AGUAS OCEÁNICAS ALREDEDOR DE CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Loza Álvarez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Se evalúa la diversidad de la comunidad microfitoplanctónica en las aguas oceánicas alrededor de Cuba durante cuatro cruceros (febrero-marzo de 1999, julio-agosto del 2003, marzo del 2005 y agosto del 2005. Las muestras se recolectaron con botellas Nansen de 10 L de capacidad, a nivel subsuperficial y se concentraron mediante filtración invertida, a través de una malla de 20 mm de diámetro de poro. El volumen de agua filtrado por estaciones osciló entre 5 y 10 L.  Se reportan un total de 181 especies de microalgas ubicadas en las diferentes categorías taxonómicas. El microfitoplancton estuvo dominado en cuanto al número de especies por diatomeas 85 y dinoflagelados 47, seguidas por cianobacterias con 23 especies y las dictiocofita y primnesiofitas con 23 especies (mayormente cocolitofóridos. De las diatomeas, las familias Bacillariaceae, Chaetoceraceae y Rhizosoleniaceae aportan el mayor número de especies con los géneros Nitzschia, Chaetoceros y Rhizosolenia. En los dinoflagelados se distinguen las familias Ceratiaceae, Protoperidiniaceae y Oxytosaceae y los géneros Ceratium, Protoperidinium y Oxytoxum. Las aguas oceánicas al norte de Cuba presentan mayor diversidad de especies (136 con respecto a las del sur (103, como lo demuestra el índice de riqueza (R1 que en el norte fue de 48.35, mientras en el sur fue de 28.19.   The structure of the microphytoplankton community was evaluated in oceanic waters around Cuba during four cruises (February-March 1999, July-August 2003, March 2005 and August 2005. Samples were collected with 10 L Nasen bottles sub-surface level and were concentrated by inverse filtration through a 20 mm mesh-size net. The volume of filtered water per station ranged from 5-10 L. A total of 181 species of microalgae belonging to different taxonomic categories are reported. The microphytoplankton community, in terms of number of species, was dominated by diatoms (85 and dinoflagellates (47. Cianobacteria

  5. Estrategias para reducir la mortalidad infantil, Cuba 1959-1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl L. Riverón Corteguera

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Se describen las estrategias utilizadas por el Ministerio de Salud Pública en las diferentes etapas del Programa de Atención Maternoinfantil, para reducir la mortalidad infantil en Cuba de 1959 a 1999. Este período se dividió para su comprensión en 4 decenios. Se hace referencia a las diferentes medidas utilizadas, desde la creación del Sistema Nacional de Salud, la formación de recursos humanos; el desarrollo de la Educación Médica, la edificación de Facultades de Ciencias Médicas y la capacitación del posgraduado, el incremento de hospitales y el aumento de las camas hasta los programas de inmunización, de lucha contra la gastroenteritis y para disminuir el bajo peso al nacer, el uso racional de los antimicrobianos; la presencia de la madre acompañante; la implantación del uso de las sales de rehidratación oral (SRO para prevenir y tratar la deshidratación por enfermedades diarreicas; el desarrollo de la Atención Primaria de Salud; los programas de tecnología avanzada para la detección de anomalías congénitas; la promoción de la lactancia materna exclusiva (LME; la categorización, por UNICEF, de los hospitales "Amigos de la Madres y el Niño", el desarrollo de investigaciones que sirvieron de base al Programa de Atención Maternoinfantil; la edificación de hospitales; la construcción de las unidades de terapia intensiva con equipamiento moderno tanto en pediatría como en neonatología y otros muchos elementos puestos en prácticas durante estos 40 años. Esto ha contribuido a que la mortalidad infantil, a pesar de haberse incrementado en el primer decenio (1959-1969 en el 25,5 %, a partir del 2do. decenio (1970-1979 iniciara un descenso mantenido en el 50 %; en el 3er. decenio (1980-1989 del 43,4 % y en el 4to. decenio (1990-1999 del 40,2 %. Se concluye exponiendo las principales estrategias que contribuyeron a reducir la mortalidad infantil en los últimos años de este siglo.The strategies used by the Ministry of

  6. La protesta rural y los mecanismos para su represión por parte del Gobierno del Capitán General Camilo García de Polavieja en Cuba: (1890-1892

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Joaquín Gallego Jiménez

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo describe las causas socio-políticas que generaron la protesta rural y sus diversas manifestaciones, en especial el bandolerismo, durante el gobierno del Capitán General Camilo García de Polavieja en Cuba, así como la represión puesta en marcha para sofocar la inestabilidad imperante y los resultados obtenidos. --------------------------------------------------------------------- This article describes the socio-political causes that generated the rural protest and its various manifestations, including banditry, during the government of Captain General Camilo García de Polavieja in Cuba, and the repression launched to suppress the instability and obtained results.

  7. Ascensão e queda do pacto populista em Cuba, 1934-1959

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian McGillivray

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O regime que pôs fim aos "100 dias de reforma" em Cuba é rotulado com frequência como "contrarrevolução" quando, na verdade, a expressão mais apropriada seria a de "populismo autoritário". O novo regime não reverteu a Revolução de 1933; muito pelo contrário, suas lideranças valeram-se da violência combinada com reformas revolucionárias como forma de incorporar, de maneira compulsória, um número cada vez maior de pessoas em um novo e ampliado sistema estatal de liderança. Fulgencio Batista recebeu o apoio de parte da classe trabalhadora ao longo do período democrático que vigorou durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial, mas o anticomunismo da Guerra Fria desestabilizou seu regime, esvaziando o populismo cubano de grande parte da sua substância.

  8. Cuba y Brasil: el negro en la intersección de los conceptos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Cabrera

    2008-01-01

    ayudar a romper con la visión de esencialidad que se le otorga a los conceptos en Brasil. Tanto en Cuba como en Brasil, durante los últimos años del siglo xix y los primeros del siglo xx, el desarrollo de los estudios sociológicos y antropológicos reveló las profundas contradicciones y la complejidad de sus sociedades. En ellas, apenas unos años antes, se había mantenido el predominio de la esclavitud. El binomio nación/raza presidió las construcciones identitarias en el siglo xix y aún en los primeros años del siglo xx. En ambos países. El debate conceptual unido al análisis de los acontecimientos del periodo puede contribuir a la revelación de la historia oscurecida por la preeminencia de los enfoques subordinados a las teorías jerárquicas occidentales que se acomodaron a las construcciones identitarias de las élites blancas.

  9. Courting the future: cancer and genetics in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Describing this double issue of MEDICC Review could be an exercise for a first-year philosophy course in logic. It's not about "cancer and genetics" in Cuba. It's about cancer in Cuba and about genetics in Cuba, not about exploring relationships between them. Nevertheless, while the marriage of the two themes was fortuitous, in that the two had long been scheduled for the journal in 2014, there is a certain felicity to their sharing an issue. To date, the outstanding accomplishments of genetics have been most helpful for conditions occurring at the beginning of life and cancer is largely (though not exclusively) a disease related to aging. But the two are intrinsically connected: Although only a few of the more than 100 different diseases grouped under the term cancer are known to be hereditary, every cancer begins with a mutation in one or more genes, whether the mutation is inherited, due to an exposure, or is simply a random error in the millions of cell divisions that are part and parcel of cellular reproduction. Our cover image, a stained-glass window by Cuban artist Rosa María de la Terga at Cuba's National Medical Genetics Center, illustrates the elegance of the DNA molecule, the intricate key to life.

  10. Socialism and Education in Cuba and Soviet Uzbekistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charon-Cardona, Euridice

    2013-01-01

    During the Cold War over half a million Asians, Africans and Latin Americans studied and graduated in the Soviet Union's universities and technical schools as part of this country's educational aid policies. Cuba was an intermediary player in the Cold War geopolitical contest between the United States and the Soviet Union, fuelled by the…

  11. Disaster management and multihazard risk assessment in Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castellanos Abella, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    The success, statistically proved, of the civil defense system in Cuba have been justified differently worldwide. While some experts relate this fact to the social welfare others debate about the forced evacuation. Beside, the long term development of disaster reduction in the country is commonly fo

  12. Fifty years of Cuba's medical diplomacy: from idealism to pragmatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinsilver, Julie M

    2010-01-01

    Medical diplomacy, the collaboration between countries to simultaneously produce health benefits and improve relations, has been a cornerstone of Cuban foreign policy since the outset of the revolution fifty years ago. It has helped Cuba garner symbolic capital (goodwill, influence, and prestige) well beyond what would have been possible for a small, developing country, and it has contributed to making Cuba a player on the world stage. In recent years, medical diplomacy has been instrumental in providing considerable material capital (aid, credit, and trade), as the oil-for-doctors deals with Venezuela demonstrates. This has helped keep the revolution afloat in trying economic times. What began as the implementation of the one of the core values of the revolution, namely health as a basic human right for all peoples, has continued as both an idealistic and a pragmatic pursuit. This article examines the factors that enabled Cuba to conduct medical diplomacy over the past fifty years, the rationale behind the conduct of this type of soft power politics, the results of that effort, and the mix of idealism and pragmatism that has characterized the experience. Moreover, it presents a typology of medical diplomacy that Cuba has used over the past fifty years.

  13. Medicinal plants sold at the El Rio Market, Camaguey, Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godinez-Caraballo, D.; Volpato, G.

    2008-01-01

    Information regarding medicinal plants sold in the El Rio Market, Camaguey, Cuba, revealed 184 species belonging to 69 vascular plant families. The most important family was Fabaceae s.l. with 13 species, followed by Lamiaceae with 12, and Asteraceae with 8. More than 90 general medicinal indication

  14. Medicinal plants sold at the El Rio Market, Camaguey, Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godinez-Caraballo, D.; Volpato, G.

    2008-01-01

    Information regarding medicinal plants sold in the El Rio Market, Camaguey, Cuba, revealed 184 species belonging to 69 vascular plant families. The most important family was Fabaceae s.l. with 13 species, followed by Lamiaceae with 12, and Asteraceae with 8. More than 90 general medicinal

  15. Some Interesting Data About Women Physicists in Cuba (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fuentes, Olimpia Arias

    2009-04-01

    Although the number of women physicists in Cuba, as in the entire world, is less than men physicists, their presence in the academic leadership is strong, unlike the limited women's role in many other countries. Some interesting numeral data are presented to demonstrate this affirmation. This fact emphasizes the advantages reached by women and the increasing prestige obtained by women physicists in our country.

  16. Multi-scale landslide risk assessment in Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castellanos Abella, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    Landslides cause a considerable amount of damage in the mountainous regions of Cuba, which cover about 25% of the territory. Until now, only a limited amount of research has been carried out in the field of landslide risk assessment in the country. This research presents a methodology and its implem

  17. Cyathura specus, a new cave Isopod from Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bowman, Thomas E.

    1965-01-01

    During the years 1958-1960, several shipments of specimens collected in the Caguanes Caves of Cuba were sent to the United States National Museum by GILBERTO SILVA TABOADA. Mr. SILVA'S collections included 3 specimens of a blind anthurid isopod, which I determined to be a species of Cyathura, simila

  18. U.S. Embargo Against Cuba: Should it Be Continued

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-23

    disgraced, no one was safe."ś I agree with Schulz when he says that a golpe de estado is unlikely in Cuba in the near future." Fidel Castro has...Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, and Uruguay .94 Taking this into consideration, the best course of action for the United States would seem to

  19. Disaster management and multihazard risk assessment in Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castellanos Abella, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    The success, statistically proved, of the civil defense system in Cuba have been justified differently worldwide. While some experts relate this fact to the social welfare others debate about the forced evacuation. Beside, the long term development of disaster reduction in the country is commonly fo

  20. Theological Higher Education in Cuba: Part 3--The Cuban Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esqueda, Octavio J.

    2007-01-01

    This article provides a summary of the Cuban Revolution and its implications and consequences for Christian higher education in Cuba. Christian institutions experienced the same oppression from the communist revolution as the rest of the evangelical denominations during the sixties and seventies. The worst period for Protestantism began in 1965…

  1. Socialism and Education in Cuba and Soviet Uzbekistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charon-Cardona, Euridice

    2013-01-01

    During the Cold War over half a million Asians, Africans and Latin Americans studied and graduated in the Soviet Union's universities and technical schools as part of this country's educational aid policies. Cuba was an intermediary player in the Cold War geopolitical contest between the United States and the Soviet Union, fuelled by the…

  2. Reflexions on multidisciplinarity and geologic risk management in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galbán Rodríguez Liber

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Geological risk management has special relevance in construction and the creation of new infrastructure in Cuba. The aim of this work was to focus on making some reflections about the multidisciplinarity analysis of geological risk management in the country from a critical perspective

  3. Poliomyelitis and its elimination in Cuba: an historical overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldarraín, Enrique

    2013-04-01

    Polio was first detected in Cuba in the late 19th century among residents of the US community on the Isla de Pinos (Isle of Pines, now Isle of Youth), apparently introduced through migration from the USA. The first outbreak was reported in 1906 on the Isle, with the first epidemic reported in the former province of Las Villas in 1909. The epidemics subsequently intensified, by 1934 becoming periodic every four to five years, and accompanied by high morbidity, mortality and crippling sequelae, primarily among children. To review and analyze the history of polio and its control in Cuba, from the disease's first appearance in 1898 until WHO/PAHO certification of elimination in 1994. The historiological method was used; archival documents, medical records, and available polio morbidity and mortality statistics from the Ministry of Public Health's National Statistics Division before 1959 and from 1959 through 2000 were reviewed. Crude morbidity and mortality rates were calculated using population estimates at mid-period. Reports and scientific publications describing polio vaccination campaigns and their results were also reviewed, and key informants were interviewed. After initial introduction of polio in Cuba, five major epidemics occurred between 1932 and 1958: in 1934 (434 cases, 82 deaths); 1942 (494 cases, 58 deaths); 1946 (239 cases, 33 deaths), 1952 (492 cases, 15 deaths) and 1955 (267 cases, 8 deaths). Between 1957 and 1961 the disease's endemicity reached epidemic levels, with the last outbreak occurring in 1961, with 342 cases, 30% of them in children aged >4 years. In 1962, Cuba launched a nationwide polio vaccination campaign, the first of annual campaigns thereafter carried out in the framework of a coherent national program aimed at polio elimination. Using the Sabin oral vaccine and targeting the entire pediatric population in a single time period, five million doses were administered in the first campaign, reaching 87.5% of the target population aged 1

  4. Antenatal cytogenetic testing in Havana, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Rosado, Luis A; Quiñones, Olga; Molina, Odalys; González, Nereida; del Sol, Marylin; Maceiras, Luanda; Bravo, Yomisleidy

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Antenatal cytogenetic testing was started in Havana in 1984, as a diagnostic option for fetal chromosome complement. The techniques applied are amniocyte culture, chorionic villus sampling, cordocentesis and fluorescence in situ hybridization in interphase cells. OBJECTIVE Describe the results of antenatal cytogenetic testing in the cytogenetic laboratory of the Cuba's National Medical Genetics Center in Havana, from 1984 through 2012. METHODS A retrospective descriptive study was carried out of the 22,928 pregnant women who had antenatal testing with conclusive results during the period 1984-2012. Information was obtained from laboratory databases for four antenatal diagnostic techniques. Variables studied were: antenatal diagnostic method, indications for genetic testing, type of chromosomal abnormality detected and couple's decision concerning pregnancy continuation if hereditary disease was diagnosed. Results were reported in absolute numbers and percentages. RESULTS Overall positivity was 2.8% (641 cases). Of the total, 20,565 samples were from amniocyte culture (558 positive cases, 2.7%); 1785 chorionic villus sampling (38 positive, 2.1%); 407 cord blood culture (28 positive, 6.9%); and 171 fluorescence in situ hybridization in interphase cells (17 positive, 9.9%). Advanced maternal age was the predominant indication for amniocyte culture and chorionic villus sampling. Positivity was higher for the two less frequently used methods, cordocentesis (6.9% positivity) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (9.9%). The predominant chromosomal abnormality was Down syndrome, with 45.4% of cases detected (291/641; 279 pure lines and 12 mosaic trisomies), followed by Edward syndrome with 12% (77/641, 71 pure lines and 6 mosaics) and Patau syndrome 4.7% (30/641, 27 pure lines and 3 mosaics). Sexual aneuploidy with pure lines affected 6.9% of cases (44/641) and with mosaicism 4.7% (30/641). Structural chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 22.5% of cases

  5. Pesticide use, alternatives and workers' health in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, R; Anderson, P K

    1984-01-01

    Cuba provides a unique example of a country that is actively implementing a program to reduce its dependence on pesticides. This paper addresses Cuba's current efforts to develop and implement alternatives to pesticides and legislation to limit exposure and protect workers in the interim. In 1980 Cuba embarked on a national program to utilize alternatives to chemical pest control. This three-part program includes expansion of knowledge of Cuban agro-ecology in order to implement cultural control practices; research and implementation on biological control of pests; and research on plant resistance and development of resistant crop varieties. To date, the program has enabled Cuba to reduce pesticide usage in sugar cane, citrus, tobacco, corn, and vegetable crops, among others. While alternatives to chemical pest control are being developed, the Cubans are paying special attention to regulating pesticide use and the safety of workers and members of the public exposed to toxic chemicals. In addition to the Resolution on Health and Safety (1967) and the Safety and Health Law (1978) which cover all workers, including Cuba's 250,000 agricultural workers, the Ministry of Public Health promulgated Resolution 335 in 1967. This resolution addresses requirements and administration of structural pest control, production, importation, transport and storage of pesticides, as well as requirements for worker contact with pesticides, pesticides for domestic use, aerial application of pesticides, and violations of the regulations. The paper concludes with a description of how the system works on the provincial level, as exemplified by Villa Clara, and the steps that have been taken to eliminate worker exposure to pesticides, to utilize pesticides which pose less of a hazard to workers, and to assure early detection of ill effects.

  6. Uso de hipoglicemiantes orales durante la lactancia

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Antecedentes: Los hipoglicemiantes orales son una alternativa emergente en el tratamiento de la diabetes mellitus gestacional (DMG), pero existe poca información acerca de su uso durante la lactancia. Objetivo: Revisar la evidencia respecto a la seguridad del uso de los hipoglicemiantes orales durante la lactancia. Resultados: Encontramos 3 trabajos que evaluaron el paso de metformina a la leche materna: hubo traspaso de metformina a leche materna en todos los casos. La concentración de metfo...

  7. Los prácticos de Farmacia en Cuba hasta 1912 Practitioners related to Pharmacy in Cuba up to 1912

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caridad Sedeño Argilagos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available La Universidad de La Habana dio forma académica a los estudios de Farmacia en 1842. El 15 de julio de 1863 se estableció por Real Decreto un nuevo plan de estudios en esa institución, que incluyó enseñanzas agregadas de practicantes o flebotomianos, dentistas y comadronas. Desde entonces quedó allí oficializada la formación de los prácticos de Farmacia. En la primera mitad del siglo XX la farmacia cubana dejó de ser un centro de salud para convertirse en un centro comercial y la profesión farmacéutica pasó a ser exclusividad de la élite de la sociedad que podía costear los estudios universitarios. De otro lado, se produjo la formación de los prácticos de Farmacia, los cuales mediante el estudio independiente de contenidos teórico-prácticos, previo abono de la matrícula correspondiente podían rendir los exámenes pertinentes. Lógicamente el acceso a estos tipos de estudios predominó en jóvenes provenientes de la clase media. Es importante destacar el mérito que tuvieron estos técnicos medios de la profesión conocidos como prácticos de Farmacia. A pesar de que en la actividad farmacéutica en esa época predominaba el criterio comercial, este personal se convirtió en "médico de los pobres" por su contribución al alivio de las dolencias menores de salud de los más desposeídos. Durante los primeros años del siglo XX, las autoridades estadounidenses interventoras en la isla, intentaron en 1908 oficializar académicamente el ejercicio profesional de los prácticos de Farmacia, acción a la que se opusieron graduados farmacéuticos y representantes de la Universidad. Ello favoreció la elaboración de una nueva Ley de Farmacia, que fue publicada por primera vez en la Gaceta Oficial el 29 de febrero de 1912.In 1842, University of Havana formed the academy of Pharmacy studies. By royal decree, in July 15, 1863 was established a new syllabus in that institution, including aggregate teachings of practitioners or phlebotomy

  8. La tuberculosis pulmonar, enfermedad reemergente en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita González Tapia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sr. Editor: La tuberculosis es una de las enfermedades remergentes en Cuba; por ello en todas las provincias cubanas se trabaja con mucha fuerza, dedicación y profesionalidad con respecto a esta problemática. En este contexto, resulta muy acertada la publicación del artículo “Algunas variables clínico-epidemiológicas de la tuberculosis pulmonar. Puerto Padre, 2008-2012”, que salió en el Vol.38 No.6.01 del mes de junio de 2013 de la Revista Electrónica Dr. Zoilo E. Marinello Vidaurreta; tanto por el significado social que reviste la divulgación de este tema, como por el propio resultado de la investigación realizada. La historia de la tuberculosis es un tema apasionante. En pocas enfermedades es posible documentar su estrecha relación con la historia de la propia humanidad como en la que nos ocupa. Existen evidencias paleológicas de tuberculosis vertebral en momias egipcias que datan aproximadamente del año 2400 a.C. La tuberculosis se ha conocido a través de la historia, con los nombres de: tisis, consunción, escrófula, mal de Pott, plaga blanca y mal del rey.1 En el artículo se plantea como conclusión que la tendencia de la tuberculosis en el quinquenio de estudio es estacionaria, pero en los últimos cuatro años tiende al ascenso. En los casos diagnosticados de tuberculosis en este quinquenio más de dos tercios correspondieron al sexo masculino y mayores de 45 años, las ocupaciones que más prevalecieron fueron recluso, desocupado, ama de casa y jubilado. Los factores de riesgo que más se relacionaron fueron el albergamiento prolongado en instituciones cerradas, el alcoholismo, y la edad mayor de 65 años; la forma clínica de mayor incidencia en casi la totalidad de los pacientes fue la pulmonar y, dentro de ella, los casos con baciloscopia positiva. Hubo fallas en el diagnóstico, ya que alrededor de la mitad de los casos se diagnosticaron en la atención secundaria y con un tiempo de demora de más de dos meses de

  9. LABOR URBANÍSTICA Y DESARROLLO LOCAL DE LOS INGENIEROS MILITARES EN LA HABANA, CUBA. SIGLO XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Victoria Zardoya Loureda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La evolución arquitectónica y urbana de La Habana durante sus primeras centurias de existencia, estuvo condicionada en gran medida por la signifi cación de su puerto dentro de la táctica defensiva de carácter intercontinental que desplegó la corona española en sus dominios americanos. Desde fi nales del siglo XVIII y sobre todo, cuando Cuba y Puerto Rico quedaron como únicas colonias hispanas en América, el trabajo de los ingenieros militares se volcó hacia el interior del país, dirigido a una defensa de carácter diferente, destinada a aplacar las ansias independentistas criollas. Su quehacer entonces combinó los objetivos militares con acciones civiles que tuvieron una gran trascendencia urbana. El presente trabajo se centra en la labor de los ingenieros militares durante el siglo XIX, relacionada con el importante cambio de escala e imagen que transformó a la capital cubana a lo largo de esos años.

  10. Los estudios de farmacia en Cuba desde 1833 hasta 1863 Synercidâ: a combination of streptogramins A and B for the treatment of grampositive multiresistant pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Marchante Castellanos

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Se exponen los aspectos esenciales sobre la enseñanza de la Farmacia que asumió y puso en práctica en Cuba la Real Junta Superior Gubernativa de la Facultad de Farmacia en la etapa comprendida entre la desaparición del Real Tribunal del Protomedicato, en 1833, hasta la incorporación de los estudios de esa especialidad en el Plan Estudios de la Real Universidad de La Habana, en 1842. Los conceptos aplicados en la enseñanza de la Farmacia durante esta etapa pueden considerarse como precursores de lo que constituyó el primer plan de estudios de la carrera de Farmacia en Cuba. Se presenta este primer plan, así como los requisitos para la obtención de los diferentes grados universitarios de la especialidad y los datos de algunas tesis presentadas en opción del grado de Doctor en Farmacia. Aunque formando parte de la Facultad de Medicina, y bajo la dirección del mismo decano, la carrera de Farmacia estuvo asociada con el nombre de Facultad y dirigida por un Consiliario hasta la reforma general de la enseñanza que tuvo lugar en la Isla en 1863, mediante la cual nace con identidad propia la Facultad de Farmacia en la Real Universidad de La Habana.The essential aspects about Pharmacy teaching, adopted and implemented by the Royal Higher Board of Directors of the Faculty of Pharmacy in Cuba since the Royal Board of the Protomedicate disappeared in 1833, until the studies of this specialty were included in the Curriculum of the Royal University of Havana, in 1842, are exposed. The concepts about the teaching of Pharmacy applied during this stage could be considered as predecessors of the first curriculum of Pharmacy in Cuba. This first curriculum, as well as the requirements to obtain the various university degrees of this specialty and the data on some theses submitted to obtain the Doctor in Pharmacy degree, are presented. As part of the Faculty of Medicine, and under the direction of the same Dean, the Pharmacy course was associated with the

  11. 1898, la incierta victoria de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navarro García, Luis

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Not available.

    La última guerra hispano-cubana comenzó en 1895 mostrando la superioridad del ejército mambí, como lo acredita la “invasión” de las provincias occidentales de la isla por Gómez y Maceo. Sin embargo, el curso de la contienda experimentó, aunque lentamente, un giro favorable a las tropas españolas, dirigidas por el general Weyler durante los dos años siguientes, restableciéndose el dominio español en casi todo el territorio al oeste de la “trocha”. El cambio de gobierno a raíz del asesinato de Cánovas trajo como consecuencia un cambio de política —la concesión de la autonomía por Sagasta— y la sustitución de Weyler, víctima de una campaña de desprestigio en la misma España, por el general Blanco. Esto acarreó una demora en el inicio de la campaña de 1897-1898 y un cambio en el plan de operaciones, pero Blanco y su segundo Pando reanudaron la ofensiva, ahora sobre todo en Oriente y Camagüey, preparando una ya próxima victoria final. Esa victoria, sin embargo, les fue arrebatada a los generales españoles por la intervención norteamericana.

  12. Radium-226 on drinking water of Camaguey, Cuba; Radio-226 en agua potable de Camaguey, Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montalvan Estrada, Adelmo; Brigido Flores, Osvaldo; Barrera Caballero, Aldo [Centro de Atencion a la Actividad Nuclear, Camaguey (Cuba)]. E-mail: sean@caonao.cmw.inf.cu; Escalante, Alexander [Centro Provincial de Higiene y Epidemiologia, Camaguey (Cuba)

    2001-07-01

    The specific activity of Ra-226 in drinking water of Camaguey city, Cuba, was measured using the emanometric method. The specific activity of Ra-226 in drinking water ranged from 15 {+-} 5 mBq.l{sup -1} to 39 {+-}12 mBq.l{sup -1}. The mean specific activity of Ra-226 was found to be 27 {+-} 8 mBq.l{sup -1}. No seasonal variation was found. Water samples were collected from the two main sources of drinking water: private wells and governmental water supply system, being the mean specific activities of Ra-226: 25 {+-} 7 mBq.l{sup -1} and 31 {+-} 9 mBq.l{sup -1} , respectively. Based upon measured concentrations the age-dependent associated effective doses due to the ingestion of Ra-226, as a consequence of direct consumption of drinking water, have been calculated. For the age interval 1 year to 5 years, the average effective dose was 6,2 {mu}Sv.y{sup -1}, and for adults the average effective dose was 5,2 {mu}Sv.y{sup -1}. (author)

  13. Speciose opportunistic nectar-feeding avifauna in Cuba and its association to hummingbird island biogeography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Bo; Baquero, Andrea C.; Rahbek, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Island organisms often have wider feeding niches than mainland organisms, and migratory birds breeding on continents often widen their niches when overwintering on islands. Cuba's low hummingbird richness has puzzled ornithologists for decades. Here, we show that the Cuban hummingbird fauna is less...... rich than expected based on Cuba's elevation, when compared to the rest of the West Indian islands. Thereafter, we report nectar-feeding behaviour by 26 non-Trochilidae bird species in Cuba, encompassing pigeons/doves, woodpeckers and passerines, and endemic, resident and migratory species. We discuss...... if Cuba's speciose non-Trochilidae nectar-feeding avifauna may be associated with its depauperate hummingbird fauna....

  14. Relict Oceanic Lithosphere in Cuba: Types and Emplacement Ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    CobiellaReguera, J. L.

    2001-12-01

    According to their composition and tectonic position, three different types of relict oceanic lithosphere are present in Cuba: (1) the northern ophiolitic belt, a complex melange that extents more than 1000 km along the island, (2) the basement of the Cretaceous volcanic arc terrane: high temperature/low pressure amphibolites with some serpentinites and, (3) tectonic slices of serpentinite melanges (with eclogites and blueschists) and high pressure amphibolites, in the metamorphic Escambray massif (tectonostratigraphic terrane, microcontinent?) of southcentral Cuba. Available age constrains (paleontological and geochronological) indicate that relicts of oceanic lithosphere in Cuba are upper Mesozoic in age. Geochemical, petrological, and regional geology data suggest that such oceanic relicts probably originated in two different tectonic environments in the Proto-Caribbean basin; (1) a small oceanic basin of Upper Jurassic- Neocomian age, related to drift between North America and a southern continental mass and (2) a suprasubduction marginal basin, between the southeastern North American passive margin and an Aptian-Albian volcanic arc. Tectonic emplacement of the Cuban relict oceanic Proto-Caribbean lithosphere was likely related to several tectonic events and processes. Serpentinite melange slices and the high pressure amphibolites in the Jurassic and Cretaceous passive margin sequences of Escambray massif, characterized by low to moderate temperature and high pressure metamorphism, probably were emplaced from subduction and closure of the small oceanic depression located to the south (present geographic coordinates) of the volcanic arc in the Albian. The basement amphibolites of the volcanic arc terrane were derived from the Upper Jurassic-Neocomian oceanic crust, metamorphosed by the high temperatures and hot solutions related to the development on this crust of an Aptian-Albian volcanic arc with a north dipping subduction zone. These amphibolites were

  15. [A battle won: the elimination of poliomyelitis in Cuba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaple, Enrique Beldarraín

    2015-01-01

    Poliomyelitis was introduced in Cuba in the late nineteenth century by American residents in Isla de Pinos. The first epidemics occurred in 1906 and 1909 and increased in intensity between 1930 and 1958. The scope of the paper is to reconstruct the history of the disease and its epidemics in Cuba prior to 1961, the first National Polio Vaccination Campaign (1962) and its results, as well as analyze the ongoing annual vaccination campaigns through to certified elimination of the disease (1994). The logical historical method was used and archival documents and statistics from the Ministry of Health on morbidity and mortality through 2000 were reviewed. Gross morbidity and mortality rates were calculated and interviews with key figures were conducted.

  16. Comparison of family planning in Cuba and Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Suzie; Stronge, Shirley

    2015-08-26

    Family planning gives individuals and couples control and choice over the number of children they have and the timing of their births. Developments in reproductive health have resulted in major changes in the options for family planning, providing more choice and control over fertility. This article explores reproductive health in the Republic of Cuba and the Republic of Ireland, with a focus on contraceptive use and termination of pregnancy as methods of family planning. The predominant religion in both countries is Catholicism, which promotes the right to life of the unborn child. The two countries have adopted different approaches to the availability of both contraception and termination of pregnancy. Cuba has offered free access to contraception and termination of pregnancy since the 1960s to reduce maternal mortality. In Ireland, contraception was not widely available until 1995 and termination of pregnancy is available only in extremely limited circumstances.

  17. Origin of invasive Florida frogs traced to Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinicke, Matthew P.; Diaz, Luis M.; Hedges, S. Blair

    2011-01-01

    Two of the earliest examples of successful invasive amphibians are the greenhouse frog (Eleutherodactylus planirostris) and the Cuban treefrog (Osteopilus septentrionalis) in Florida. Although both are generally assumed to be recent introductions, they are widespread on Caribbean islands and also have been proposed as natural colonizers. We obtained nucleotide sequence data for both species and their closest relatives in their native and introduced ranges. Phylogenetic analyses trace the origin of E. planirostris to a small area in western Cuba, while O. septentrionalis is derived from at least two Cuban sources, one probably a remote peninsula in western Cuba. The tropical-to-temperate invasion began with colonization of the Florida Keys followed by human-mediated dispersal within peninsular Florida. The subtropical Keys may have served as an adaptive stepping stone for the successful invasion of the North American continent. PMID:21270024

  18. La postemancipación y trabajo en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Zeuske

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza los procesos de transculturación y fecundación mutua entre los espacios de trabajo en la postemancipación. El caso de Cuba es complejo, pues se dio en una época de desestructuración progresiva de la esclavitud, jalonada por guerras anticoloniales y una modernización tecnológica ininterrumpida. Se argumenta que aunque las condiciones de trabajo no mejoraron en lo sustancial, sí lo hizo la división sexual del trabajo, los patrones de movilidad, y el acceso a la propiedad informal de la tierra. La modernización de Cuba como productor azucarero introdujo fuerzas de inmenso calado en las luchas sociales del período.

  19. Europa y Estados Unidos ante los Derechos Humanos en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Gratius

    2008-01-01

    de la UE no han sido estrategias eficaces para promover los derechos humanos en la isla. Al ser diferentes, las políticas de la UE y EEUU incluso han contribuido a mantener el régimen castrista en el poder: la UE por su reconocimiento diplomático y la cooperación económica; EEUU, al proporcionar una imagen de enemigo externo. Por ello, y ante el nuevo panorama que ofrece el cambio de gobierno en Cuba, la próxima revisión de la Posición Común de la UE y las elecciones presidenciales en EEUU, es necesario replantearse los objetivos y estrategias políticas para incentivar los derechos humanos en Cuba.

  20. Two decades of re-aligning mundane entrepreneurship in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph L. Scarpaci

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo examina cómo los pequeños empresarios en Cuba perciben sus entornos internos y externos en un país que regula fuertemente la emergencia de una clase empresarial. Partimos del concepto de intercambios cotidianos o emprendimiento mundano que fue desarrollado originalmente en la ex Unión Soviética, como un lente para comprender el comportamiento de los actores no estatales tanto en Cuba como en la ex Unión Soviética. Nuestro estudio de caso se enmarca en un contexto social e identifica cómo los empresarios cubanos se sostienen fuera del mercado. El resultado es un reajuste en el cual el emprendimiento cubano muestra varias características similares al sistema soviético llamado blat; al mismo tiempo que revela atributos que le son únicos.

  1. Modelling the uv/x-ray cosmic background with CUBA

    CERN Document Server

    Haardt, F; Haardt, Francesco; Madau, Piero

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, I will describe the features of the numerical code CUBA, aimed at the solution of the radiative transfer equation in a cosmological context. CUBA will be soon available for public use at the URL http://pitto.mib.infn.it/~haardt/, allowing for several user-supplied input parameters, such as favourite cosmology, luminosity functions, Type II object evolution, stellar spectra, and many others. I will also present some new results of the UV/X-ray cosmic background as produced by the observed populations of QSOs and star forming galaxies, updating and extending our previous works. The background evolution is complemented with a number of derived quantities such as the ionization and thermal state of the IGM, the HeII opacity, the HI and HeII ionization rates, and the HI, HeII and Compton heating rates.

  2. Los impactos ambientales de la minería del cobre durante el Momento de Swansea en el siglo XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Morrisey

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo analiza los impactos ambientales de la minería de cobre del siglo XIX durante el "Momento de Swansea", la diáspora industrial global centrada en la tecnología de fundición de Gales y el capital británico, entre finales de 1820 y la década de 1870. Basándose en la perspectiva de la historia ambiental, ejemplos provenientes desde Chile, Cuba y Australia, y la historiografía reciente, se plantean preguntas sobre los cambios ecológicos, sociales y culturales en los paisajes mineros y de más allá, a nivel local, regional y mundial.  Se aboga por la necesidad de considerar las interconexiones de los cambios ambientales materiales y mentales en la evaluación de la amplia gama de las relaciones hombre-naturaleza

  3. Phylodynamics of the HIV-1 epidemic in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delatorre, Edson; Bello, Gonzalo

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the HIV-1 epidemic in Cuba displayed a complex molecular epidemiologic profile with circulation of several subtypes and circulating recombinant forms (CRF); but the evolutionary and population history of those viral variants remains unknown. HIV-1 pol sequences of the most prevalent Cuban lineages (subtypes B, C and G, CRF18_cpx, CRF19_cpx, and CRFs20/23/24_BG) isolated between 1999 and 2011 were analyzed. Maximum-likelihood analyses revealed multiple introductions of subtype B (n≥66), subtype C (n≥10), subtype G (n≥8) and CRF18_cpx (n≥2) viruses in Cuba. The bulk of HIV-1 infections in this country, however, was caused by dissemination of a few founder strains probably introduced from North America/Europe (clades B(CU-I) and B(CU-II)), east Africa (clade C(CU-I)) and central Africa (clades G(CU), CRF18(CU) and CRF19(CU)), or locally generated (clades CRFs20/23/24_BG). Bayesian-coalescent analyses show that the major HIV-1 founder strains were introduced into Cuba during 1985-1995; whereas the CRFs_BG strains emerged in the second half of the 1990s. Most HIV-1 Cuban clades appear to have experienced an initial period of fast exponential spread during the 1990s and early 2000s, followed by a more recent decline in growth rate. The median initial growth rate of HIV-1 Cuban clades ranged from 0.4 year⁻¹ to 1.6 year⁻¹. Thus, the HIV-1 epidemic in Cuba has been a result of the successful introduction of a few viral strains that began to circulate at a rather late time of the AIDS pandemic, but then were rapidly disseminated through local transmission networks.

  4. CuBA - a CUDA implementation of BAMPS

    CERN Document Server

    Cardoso, Nuno; Eilhauer, Ulrike; Bouras, Ioanni

    2012-01-01

    Using CUDA as programming language, we create a code named CuBA which is based on the CPU code "Boltzmann Approach for Many Parton Scattering (BAMPS)" developed in Frankfurt in order to study a system of many colliding particles resulting from heavy ion collisions. Furthermore, we benchmark our code with the Riemann Problem and compare the results with BAMPS. They demonstrate an improvement of the computational runtime, by one order of magitude.

  5. Hotel management in Cuba and the transfer of best practices

    OpenAIRE

    Cerviño, Julio; Bonache, Jaime

    2005-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to analyse the management challenges faced by international hotel operators when applying universally accepted management principles to the Cuban hospitality market. The authors use both secondary and primary research sources based on fieldwork carried out in Cuba during the first semester of 2003 and a later visit during the months of December 2003 and January 2004. Eight in depth interviews were conducted with senior executives of Cuban, Span...

  6. Pharmacovigilance in children in Camagüey Province, Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Bárzaga Arencibia, Z.; López Leyva, A.; Mejías Peña, Y.; González Reyes, A.R.; Fernández Manzano, E.; Choonara, Imti

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Our aim was to describe the adverse drug reactions (ADRs) detected following increased education about pharmacovigilance and drug toxicity in children in Camagüey Province, Cuba. Methods: Over a period of 24 months (January 2009 to December 2010), all reports of suspected ADRs in children to the Provincial Pharmacovigilance Centre in Camagüey Province were analysed. ADRs were classified in relation to causality and severity. Results: There were 533 reports involvi...

  7. Counter-Insurgency in Cuba: Why Did Batista Fail

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-03

    Servicio de Inteligencia Militar (SIM), an element that was feared throughout Cuba and effective until the end of the Batista regime. 40 Though formidable...measures increased. The police under Col. Ventura and the Servicio de Inteligencia Militar (SIM) played major roles in suppressing the opposition...rarely bearing the evidence of central coordination. The Servicio de Inteligencia Militar (SIM) and the Buro Represivo de Actividades Comunistas (BRAC

  8. Coastal scenic assessment and tourism management in western Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Anfuso, G; Williams, AT; Cabrera Carrillo, Juan Antonio; Pranzini, E.

    2014-01-01

    Coastal scenic assessments via checklist tables (18 natural, 8 human related parameters), can provide benchmark measures regarding desirable/non-desirable beach conditions and also classify sites. The scenic value for 43 sites in western Cuba was investigated, with the aim of helping managers improve bathing areas, especially for tourism purposes. Sites were categorised from Class 1, (top grade scenery), between La Habana and Matanzas, as extremely attractive, with white sand, tur...

  9. Joint Task Force -Guantanamo Bay, Cuba: Open or Close?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    December 1903, the treaty was finalized, and signed in Havana . Another treaty reaffirmed the lease in 1934; it granted Cuba and her trading partners...windward side. Ferry services provide transportation across the bay. The primary mission of this facility is to serve as a strategic logistics base for...the cost of transporting them securely to new facilities? Why spend this amount of money again, rather than keep the current 15 facilities in

  10. Phylodynamics of the HIV-1 epidemic in Cuba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Delatorre

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that the HIV-1 epidemic in Cuba displayed a complex molecular epidemiologic profile with circulation of several subtypes and circulating recombinant forms (CRF; but the evolutionary and population history of those viral variants remains unknown. HIV-1 pol sequences of the most prevalent Cuban lineages (subtypes B, C and G, CRF18_cpx, CRF19_cpx, and CRFs20/23/24_BG isolated between 1999 and 2011 were analyzed. Maximum-likelihood analyses revealed multiple introductions of subtype B (n≥66, subtype C (n≥10, subtype G (n≥8 and CRF18_cpx (n≥2 viruses in Cuba. The bulk of HIV-1 infections in this country, however, was caused by dissemination of a few founder strains probably introduced from North America/Europe (clades B(CU-I and B(CU-II, east Africa (clade C(CU-I and central Africa (clades G(CU, CRF18(CU and CRF19(CU, or locally generated (clades CRFs20/23/24_BG. Bayesian-coalescent analyses show that the major HIV-1 founder strains were introduced into Cuba during 1985-1995; whereas the CRFs_BG strains emerged in the second half of the 1990s. Most HIV-1 Cuban clades appear to have experienced an initial period of fast exponential spread during the 1990s and early 2000s, followed by a more recent decline in growth rate. The median initial growth rate of HIV-1 Cuban clades ranged from 0.4 year⁻¹ to 1.6 year⁻¹. Thus, the HIV-1 epidemic in Cuba has been a result of the successful introduction of a few viral strains that began to circulate at a rather late time of the AIDS pandemic, but then were rapidly disseminated through local transmission networks.

  11. Hotel management in Cuba and the transfer of best practices

    OpenAIRE

    Cerviño, Julio; Bonache, Jaime

    2005-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to analyse the management challenges faced by international hotel operators when applying universally accepted management principles to the Cuban hospitality market. The authors use both secondary and primary research sources based on fieldwork carried out in Cuba during the first semester of 2003 and a later visit during the months of December 2003 and January 2004. Eight in depth interviews were conducted with senior executives of Cuban, Span...

  12. Diversifying the picture: indigenous responses to European arrival in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Martinón-Torres

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in cultural contact between indigenous peoples and Europeans following their arrival in the New World. In this article the authors explore local responses to European arrival in Cuba, through analysis of metalwork found in indigenous graves. These studies demonstrate that the local communities valued particular metals quite differently from the Europeans, as the imported materials were incorporated into pre-existing symbolic systems relating to sacred power.

  13. The Current State of Physics in Cuba: A Personal Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Marcelo

    After 40 years of absence I returned twice to Cuba, in January and December of 2000, to participate as a guest lecturer in two international scientific meetings. The first dealt with physics education, and the second with current issues related to quantum mechanics. In addition to a few participants from Europe, the US and Latin America, the two meetings were well attended by Cuban physicists.

  14. Tricontinental Routes of Solidarity: Stokely Carmichael in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Seidman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Stokely Carmichael’s visit to Cuba for three weeks in the summer of 1967 illustrates a convergence in the transnational routes of the African American freedom struggle and the Cuban Revolution. African American activists saw Cuba as a model for resisting US power, eradicating racism, and enacting societal change, while the Cuban government considered African Americans allies against US imperialism and advocates of Cuba’s antiracist stance. Amidst racial violence in the United States and Cuba’s efforts to inspire revolution, Carmichael’s presence at the Organization of Latin American Solidarity conference in Havana—and in particular his interactions with Fidel Castro—caused ripples worldwide. A shared “tricontinental” vision that promoted unity in the Global South against imperialism, capitalism, and racism facilitated Carmichael’s solidarity with Castro. Yet divergent views on the role of race in fighting oppression limited their solidarity. Carmichael and Castro’s spectacular alliance demonstrated their personal affinity and ideological commonalities but did not result in an institutional alliance between the black liberation movement and the Cuban state. Instead Carmichael’s connection with the Cuban Revolution left an underexplored legacy. Examining Carmichael’s visit to Cuba illustrates the possibilities and pitfalls of transnational solidarity and furthers our understanding of postwar struggles for change.

  15. The mechanisms of direct democracy in Cuba: design and reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    (Teodoro Yan Guzman Hernández

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In Cuba the 1940 Constitution regulated different mechanisms of direct democracy (mdd that were not implemented; while the 1976 Constitution in force, although committed from the norm with the direct participation and popular sovereignty, was unambitious in regulating these mechanisms. After the Revolution, direct participation has had different expressions that have been nominated wrongly as some of the mdd, that political theory today recognizes on the ba­sis of certain assumptions. This article examines the mdd in Cuba from 1940 until the present. For this purpose it makes a critical analysis of its regulation, based on the criteria that political theory and constitutional law have offered for the configuration of these mechanisms, and tak­ing into account the particularities and results of the implementation in the Cuban context. The main conclusion of this work is that Cuba regulates forms of participation that directly involve the citizenry, but require changes in its design, so that they become real mechanisms of direct democracy that contribute to the political empowerment of citizens.

  16. Recent trends in Cuba's mining and petroleum industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacaster, Susan; Baker, Michael S.; Soto-Viruet, Yadira; Textoris, Steven D.

    2015-01-01

    The Report is Temporarily UnavailableIn response to recent diplomatic developments between Cuba and the United States, the National Minerals Information Center compiled available information on the mineral industries of Cuba. This fact sheet highlights a new map and table that identify mines, mineral processing facilities, and petroleum facilities as well as information on location, operational status, and ownership. It also addresses the current status of known mineral industry projects, historical developments, and trends of the Cuban economy with an emphasis on mineral industries, and the supply and demand for Cuba’s mineral resources.In 2013, Cuba was estimated to be among the world’s top ten producers of cobalt and nickel, which are the country’s leading exports. Cuba’s current crude oil and associated natural gas production from onshore and shallow water coastal reservoirs is approximately 50,000 barrels per day of liquids and about 20,000 barrels per day oil equivalent of natural gas. In 2013, the value of mining and quarrying activities accounted for 0.6 percent of Cuba’s gross domestic product (GDP), compared with 1.4 percent in 2000. The value of production from Cuba’s industrial manufacturing sector increased by 88 percent between 1993 and 2013 whereas the sector’s share in the GDP decreased by about 3 percent during the same time period reflecting economic growth in other sectors of the economy.

  17. In Defense of Clinical Autopsy and Its Practice in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Brito, Alfredo D; de Mendoza-Amat, José Hurtado

    2017-01-01

    There has been a notable decrease in the global practice of clinical autopsy; the rate has fallen to below 10%, even in high-income countries. This is attributed to several causes, including increased costs, overreliance on modern diagnostic techniques, cultural and religious factors, the emergence of new infectious diseases and negative attitudes on the part of doctors, even pathologists. Alternative methods to autopsy in postmortem studies have been developed based on imaging, endoscopy and biopsy (all quite expensive). These methods have been used in developed countries but never as effectively as the classic autopsy for identifying cause of death and potential medical errors. Although Cuba has also seen a decrease in its autopsy rates, they remain comparatively high. Between 1996 and 2015, there were 687,689 hospital deaths in Cuba and 381,193 autopsies, 55.4% of the total. These autopsies have positively affected medical care, training, research, innovation, management and society as a whole. Autopsies are an important tool in the National Health System's quest for safe, quality patient care based on the lessons learned from studying the deceased. KEYWORDS Autopsy, postmortem examination, postmortem diagnosis, quality of care, patient safety, medical error, Cuba.

  18. Risk factors for wheezing in infants born in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venero-Fernández, S J; Suárez-Medina, R; Mora-Faife, E C; García-García, G; Valle-Infante, I; Gómez-Marrero, L; Abreu-Suárez, G; González-Valdez, J; Fabró-Ortiz, D Dania; Fundora-Hernández, H; Venn, A; Britton, J; Fogarty, A W

    2013-11-01

    Cuba is a unique country, and despite limited economic development, has an excellent health system. However, the prevalence of asthma symptoms in children in Havana, Cuba, is unusually high. As early life exposures are critical to the aetiology of asthma, we have studied environmental influences on the risk of wheezing in Cuban infants. Cross-sectional study. A random sample of 2032 children aged 12-15 months living in Havana was selected for inclusion in the cohort. Data were collected using questionnaires administered by researchers. Of 2032 infants invited to participate, 1956 (96%) infants provided data. The prevalence of any wheeze was 45%, severe wheeze requiring use of emergency services was 30% and recurrent wheeze on three or more occasions was 20%. The largest adjusted risk factors for any wheeze were presence of eczema [odds ratio (OR) 2.09; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.48-2.94], family history of asthma (OR 2.05; 95% CI 1.60-2.62), poor ventilation in the house (OR 1.99; 95% CI 1.48-2.67), attendance at nursery (OR 1.78; 95% CI 1.24-2.57), male sex (OR1.52; 95% CI 1.19-1.96) and the number of smokers in the house (P Cuba. As the prevalence of smoking in the house is high (51%), intervention studies are required to determine effective strategies to improve infant health.

  19. Mathematics and Physics in Cuba Before 1959: A Personal Recollection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altshuler, José

    On the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the formal inauguration of the Republic of Cuba (May 20, 1902), the then Historian of the City of Havana, Emilio Roig de Leuchsenring, decided to publish a memorial volume which would include various special studies on the progress made in the country during the preceding half century with regard to specific aspects of national collective life. The volume, entitled Facetas de la vida de Cuba republicana, 1902-1952 (Facets of Life in Republican Cuba, 1902-1952) appeared in print in 1954. Its publication was delayed—as Roig explained in his prologue, somewhat cryptically—"due to causes beyond our control or of that of the Cuban writers to whom we entrusted the preparation of the said studies." Needless to say, the causes referred to were none other than those derived from the atmosphere of political unrest in the country after the military coup staged in March 1952 by former strongman, General Batista.

  20. Zero in on postpartum hemorrhage to reduce Cuba's maternal mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Águila, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is the most frequent cause of severe maternal morbidity (SMM) and the first direct cause of maternal death in most countries. In Africa and Asia, it accounts for about one third of all maternal deaths. Put more graphically: worldwide, one woman dies every minute from PPH. Defined as blood loss of ≥500 mL after vaginal birth or ≥1000 mL after cesarean delivery, PPH can be fatal in just two hours. In Cuba, between 2000 and 2012, maternal deaths directly related to obstetric causes totaled 410, 24.1% of which occurred postpartum, with PPH the leading cause.[1] While Cuba is among the Latin American countries with lowest maternal mortality, the decline has been slow over the last 20 years: in 1998, direct maternal mortality was 26.5 per 100,000 live births and in 2012, the rate was 21.5. This is troubling and deserves careful study, especially given that Cuba has a single, unified health system supported by significant political will-determining factors in important advances made in maternal-child health on par with wealthier countries.

  1. Epidemiología de la encefalopatía neonatal en un hospital de tercer nivel en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Rogelio Robaina Castellanos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: los factores de riesgo asociados a la ocurrencia de encefalopatía neonatal han sido poco tratados en países del tercer mundo. De igual forma, se desconoce la incidencia de esta entidad en la mayoría de los centros de atención perinatal en Cuba. Objetivo: determinar la incidencia y factores de riesgo de encefalopatía neonatal en un hospital de tercer nivel de atención perinatal en Cuba. Métodos: se realizó un estudio analítico retrospectivo que incluyó los 35 neonatos con encefalopatía neonatal, provenientes de una cohorte de 19 577 neonatos nacidos vivos en el Hospital Provincial Ginecobstétrico Docente de Matanzas, en el período de 2005-2011. Para la determinación de factores de riesgo se realizó un estudio de caso-control, mediante análisis bivariado, con una relación caso-control de 1:3. Resultados: la incidencia de encefalopatía neonatal fue de 1,78 por 1 000 nacidos vivos. La encefalopatía neonatal posasfixia se presentó en 48,5 % de los casos. La hipertensión arterial materna durante el embarazo, el antecedente materno de hipertensión arterial crónica, la procedencia materna rural y el sexo masculino, constituyeron factores de riesgo antenatales. Los factores de riesgo intranatales encontrados fueron: la presencia de depresión severa al nacer, circulares apretadas al cuello, rotura prematura de membranas, corioamnionitis clínica, placenta previa, estado fetal no tranquilizante y líquido amniótico meconial. Conclusiones: en la población estudiada los factores de riesgo perinatales y algunos antenatales tienen importancia epidemiológica.

  2. De la periferia al centro. (Cuba, Puerto Rico y Filipinas en la crisis del Imperio español

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fradera, Josep M.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The break up of the Spanish Empire was completed at the beginning of the third decade of the XIXth century. Out of its ruins, Spain managed to keep three important possessions, two in the Caribbean (Cuba and Puerto Rico one in the China sea (Philippines. This paper examines the transformation of the colonial nexus that made possible for Spain to keep those insular enclaves under control. The policies developed as a response to the military impact due to the takeover of Habana and Manila during the Seven Year’s War are evaluated. They are analysed in the context of a general transformation process that went beyond the colonial framework of those specific possessions.

    El Imperio español quebró por completo a principios de la tercera década del siglo XIX. De su ruina, España conservó tres importantes posesiones, dos en el Caribe (Cuba y Puerto Rico y una en el Mar de China, Filipinas. El artículo estudia la transformación del nexo colonial que hizo posible que aquellos enclaves insulares se mantuviesen bajo control español. Se estudian las políticas que allí se desarrollaron en respuesta al impacto militar que significaron las tomas de La Habana y Manila durante la guerra de los Siete Años y de qué manera éstas deben comprenderse como parte de un proceso general de transformación que superaba ampliamente el marco colonial en el que aquellas posesiones se encontraban insertas.

  3. Epiphytic dinoflagellates associated with ciguatera in the northwestern coast of Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilma Delgado

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The spatial and temporal abundance of epiphytic dinoflagellates associated with ciguatera was studied over two annual cycles (March 1999 to March 2000 and March 2001 to March 2002 in the northwestern coast of Cuba. From 14 species of macroalgae (Phaeophyta, Chlorophyta, and Rhodophyta, 1340 samples were obtained identifying seven species as potentially noxious; five of them are new reports for Cuba’s phytobenthos: Prorocentrum belizeanum Faust, P. concavum Fukuyo, P. mexicanum Tafall, Coolia monotis Meunier, and Ostreopsis lenticularis Fukuyo. ANOVA/MANOVA analysis showed significant spatial differences: lower cell abundance near the shoreline adjacent to a river inlet and higher cell abundance in the deepest area. Prorocentrum lima (Ehrenberg Dodge 1975 was found mainly on Phaeophyta followed by Chlorophyta and Rhodophyta. Gambierdiscus toxicus was found mainly on Phaeophyta followed by Rhodophyta and Chlorophyta. All the species reported in the study area were mainly on Padina spp. (Phaeophyta. Acanthophora spicifera (Rhodophyta did not host dinoflagellate species. Environmental conditions in summer (higher temperature, more nutrients, greater water transparency, and low wind intensity are suitable for macroalgae development, which serves as a substrate for potentially harmful dinoflagellates, and possibly the main vector for spreading ciguatera along the coast of Cuba. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54(2: 299-310. Epub 2006 Jun 01.Se estudió la abundancia espacial y temporal de dinoflagelados epífitos asociados a la ciguatera durante dos ciclos anuales (marzo 1999 a marzo 2000, y marzo 2001 a marzo 2002 en la costa del noroeste de Cuba. Recolectamos 14 especies de macroalgas (Phaeophyta, Chlorophyta y Rhodophyta y obtuvimos 1340 muestras. Identificamos siete especies de dinoflagelados potencialmente nocivas, cinco de ellas nuevos registros para el fitobentos cubano: Prorocentrum belizeanum Faust, P. concavum Fukuyo, P. mexicanum Tafall, Coolia monotis

  4. Cuba in Transition: Communism vs Charisma "Who Will Emerge as Cuba’s Next Leader"

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    38 Olivo Verde, Defense of the Socialist Homeland, 6 March 1986. 26 MajGen Frias LtGen Espinosa MajGen Sola Cuban forces.39 The FAR is...comprised of three separate branches: the Army (Ejercito 150,000 troops strong), the Navy [Marina de Guerra Revolucionaria (MG) 5,000 troops strong] and...Cintro Frias , and is headquartered in Havana. The Eastern Army Corps, is led by General Ramon Espinosa Martin, and is headquartered in Santiago de Cuba

  5. Alimentación de la ascidia Ecteinascidia turbinata (Ascidiacea: Perophoridae en dos áreas de manglar de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Hernández-Zanuy

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron los contenidos estomacales de 88 zooides de Ecteinascidia turbinata Herdman 1880 y la composición cualitativa y cuantitativa del fitoplancton en la columna de agua en Santa Fe (Litoral Norte de la Habana y Punta del Este (SW de Cuba. En el contenido estomacal de la ascidia se identificaron 59 especies de microalgas y cuatro tintínidos. El tamaño de las células varió entre 75 y 165 µm de largo y de 2 a 105 µm de ancho. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en la diversidad de especies de microalgas en la columna de agua de las dos localidades. Las diatomeas tuvieron la mayor cantidad de especies y el mayor número de individuos, tanto en los estómagos como en la columna de agua en ambas localidades. La biomasa de dinoflagelados en Santa Fe fue mayor en agua y estómagos. En Punta del Este el aporte de cada grupo al contenido estomacal es similar al encontrado en la columna de agua. Esta especie filtra de forma constante e irregular durante las 24 horas del día, independientemente de la disponibilidad de alimento.Diet of the ascidian Ecteinascidia turbinata (Ascidiacea: Perophoridae in two mangrove areas of Cuba. Stomach contents of 88 zooids of Ecteinascidia turbinata Herdman 1880 and the qualitative and quantitative composition of phytoplankton in the water column were studied in Santa Fe (North Coast of Havana and Punta del Este (SW of Cuba. We identified 59 microalgal species and four tintinnids in the stomachs. Cell size was 75-165 µm in length and 2-105 µm in width. There were not significant differences in microalgal diversity in the water column in the two locations. In both locations, the diatoms had the largest number of species and individuals in stomachs and water. In Santa Fe, dinoflagellate biomass was larger in water and stomach contents, while in Punta del Este the contribution of each group to the stomach content was similar to that of the water column. This species filters in a constant and

  6. Acute myocardial infarction mortality in Cuba, 1999-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Nurys B; Ortega, Yanela Y; de la Noval, Reinaldo; Suárez, Ramón; Llerena, Lorenzo; Dueñas, Alfredo F

    2012-10-01

    Acute myocardial infarction is one of the leading causes of death in the world. This is also true in Cuba, where no national-level epidemiologic studies of related mortality have been published in recent years. Describe acute myocardial infarction mortality in Cuba from 1999 through 2008. A descriptive study was conducted of persons aged ≥25 years with a diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction from 1999 through 2008. Data were obtained from the Ministry of Public Health's National Statistics Division database for variables: age; sex; site (out of hospital, in hospital or in hospital emergency room) and location (jurisdiction) of death. Proportions, age- and sex-specific rates and age-standardized overall rates per 100,000 population were calculated and compared over time, using the two five-year time frames within the study period. A total of 145,808 persons who had suffered acute myocardial infarction were recorded, 75,512 of whom died, for a case-fatality rate of 51.8% (55.1% in 1999-2003 and 49.7% in 2004-2008). In the first five-year period, mortality was 98.9 per 100,000 population, falling to 81.8 per 100,000 in the second; most affected were people aged ≥75 years and men. Of Cuba's 14 provinces and special municipality, Havana, Havana City and Camagüey provinces, and the Isle of Youth Special Municipality showed the highest mortality; Holguín, Ciego de Ávila and Granma provinces the lowest. Out-of-hospital deaths accounted for the greatest proportion of deaths in both five-year periods (54.8% and 59.2% in 1999-2003 and 2004-2008, respectively). Although risk of death from acute myocardial infarction decreased through the study period, it remains a major health problem in Cuba. A national acute myocardial infarction case registry is needed. Also required is further research to help elucidate possible causes of Cuba's high acute myocardial infarction mortality: cardiovascular risk studies, studies of out-of-hospital mortality and quality of care

  7. 78 FR 13207 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... Emergency With Respect to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating to the Regulation of the Anchorage... ] Notice of February 22, 2013 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Cuba and of the....-registered civilian aircraft in international airspace north of Cuba. On February 26, 2004, by Proclamation...

  8. 77 FR 11377 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... With Respect to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating to the Regulation of the Anchorage and..., 2012 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority....-registered civilian aircraft in international airspace north of Cuba. On February 26, 2004, by Proclamation...

  9. 76 FR 11071 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-28

    ... Emergency With Respect to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating to the Regulation of the Anchorage... ] Notice of February 24, 2011 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Cuba and of the....-registered civilian aircraft in international airspace north of Cuba. On February 26, 2004, by Proclamation...

  10. 75 FR 8791 - Continuation of the National Emergency Relating to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... Notice of February 23, 2010--Continuation of the National Emergency Relating to Cuba and of the Emergency... Emergency Relating to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating to the Regulation of the Anchorage and... north of Cuba. On February 26, 2004, by Proclamation 7757, the national emergency was extended and its...

  11. APROXIMACIÓN TAFONÓMICA EN LOS DEPÓSITOS HUMANOS DEL SITIO ARQUEOLÓGICO CANÍMAR ABAJO, MATANZAS, CUBA (Taphonomic approach on the human deposits of the Canímar Abajo archaeological site, Matanzas, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Díaz-Franco

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se destaca la importancia de la interpretación tafonómica en el sitio Canímar Abajo, Matanzas, Cuba; mediante el análisis de las causas de la preservación diferencial de los depósitos humanos exhumados durante las campañas realizadas entre los años 2004 al 2007. Se identifican tres grandes momentos de utilización del sitio, observables en la estratigrafía, de los cuales dos son etapas sepulcrales y la otra de procesamiento de alimentos. Atendiendo al efecto macroscópico de los procesos diagenéticos pre y posenterramiento, durante la etapa bioestratinómica y fosildiagenética, se identifican los principales mecanismos de alteración tafonómica en las entidades y elementos registrados en dichos momentos como son: la biodegradación, relleno sedimentario, bioerosión, disolución, distorsión tafonómica, cremación, desarticulación y dispersión. Se explica en qué consiste cada uno mostrando la acción de los factores intrínsecos y extrínsecos (naturales y/o antrópicos sobre los enterramientos.We offer information about the importance of the taphonomic analysis in the "Canímar Abajo" site, Matanzas, Cuba; by analyzing the causes of differential preservation of human deposits exhumed during the campaigns from 2004 to 2007. Three main moments of use of the site were identified, observable in the stratigraphy, two of wich are stages of burial and other food processing. The diagenetic post and pre-burial processes were identified through the macroscopic effects on the entities and elements recovered. The main taphonomic alteration mechanisms were identified like biodegradation, sediment filling, bioerosion, sedimentary refilling, taphonomic distortion, cremation, disarticulation and dispersal. It explains what each showing the action of intrinsic and extrinsic factors (natural and/or human on the burials.

  12. 77 FR 23598 - Technical Amendment to Cuba Airport List: Addition of Recently Approved Airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection 19 CFR Part 122 Technical Amendment to Cuba Airport List... from Cuba. DATES: Effective: April 20, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Arthur A.E. Pitts, Sr., U... to all aircraft (except public aircraft) entering or departing the United States to or from...

  13. Higher Education in Cuba in the 2000s: Past and Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabina, Elvira Martin

    This paper reviews the development of higher education in Cuba and its current status. Current educational development in Cuba is the result of more than four decades of sustained social and political endeavor. Three main features of this development have been identified. The first is the absolute commitment of the state to the educational…

  14. Theological Higher Education in Cuba: Part 2--Origins and Ministry of Protestant Seminaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esqueda, Octavio J.

    2007-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the main Protestant theological seminaries in Cuba: Western Cuba Baptist Seminary, Cedars of Lebanon Seminary, The New Pines Evangelical Seminary, Evangelical Theological Seminary, Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial Center, Nazarene Theological Seminary and International School of Theology. The history and…

  15. Evolución y perspectivas del registro de medicamentos en Cuba

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Celeste A Sánchez González; Rodrigo Omar Pérez Massipe

    2002-01-01

    ... la comercialización de medicamentos en Cuba desde 1959 hasta el 2001 y de su nivel de subordinación. Se describió la evolución de los documentos normativos y legales que dan la base al Registro de Medicamentos en Cuba y a su...

  16. NUEVOS AISLADOS DE Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus EN CULTIVOS DE IMPORTANCIA ECONÓMICA PARA CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Dibut

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años, un llamado importante para los microbiólogos del suelo ha sido el estudio de microorganismos endófitos que se asocian con plantas superiores, con el consiguiente beneficio sobre los cultivos. En este trabajo, se ofrecen los resultados sobre el aislamiento y la distribución de Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus en cultivos de importancia económica para Cuba. La bacteria se aisló a partir de filtrados y secciones de diferentes órganos del vegetal dispuestos sobre medios de cultivo LGI-P, donde se comprobó el crecimiento característico a las 96 h de incubación a 320C de temperatura, obteniéndose finalmente 22 aislados a partir de diez especies cultivables. Experimentos de dinámica poblacional desarrollados en condiciones de invernadero mediante diseño completamente aleatorizado permitieron cuantificar el microorganismo en hojas, tallos y raíces de maíz, boniato, yuca, malanga y caña de azúcar, con poblaciones que oscilan entre 1.8 x 102-2.3 x 107 células por gramo de tejido fresco. Las poblaciones celulares más altas se detectaron en las hojas, seguido de los tallos y por último las raíces o tubérculos. La respuesta favorable de ocho cultivos a la inoculación de la bacteria, esta vez crecida en medio de cultivo SG e incubada a 320C durante 72 h, permite plantear la potencialidad que este microorganismo presenta como biofertilizante. Se informa por primera vez la presencia de la Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus en cinco especies de plantas pertenecientes cada una a diferentes familias botánicas.

  17. Los depósitos cuaternarios del territorio marino de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Cabrera-Castellanos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Se sintetizan los resultados investigativos de más de tres décadas acerca de los depósitos cuaternarios del territorio marino de Cuba; estos estudios han revelado la existencia de unidades litoestratigráficas cuaternarias exclusivas del territorio marino (Alegrías, Cayo Romano y Cayo Guillermo, importantes para perfeccionar la estratigrafía del Cuaternario cubano. Algunas unidades litoestratigráficas de origen marino expuestas en tierra firme están ausentes, pues sus depósitos debieron ser removidos durante las transgresiones y regresiones marinas. En los casi 5000 cayos de las plataformas marinas existen depósitos holocénicos innominados de ambientes palustre y marino. El fondo de las plataformas marinas está cubierto parcialmente por depósitos holocénicos innominados, con diferentes granulosidad y composición, que sobreyacen principalmente a la Fm. Jaimanitas. En la zona morfogenética exterior de las plataformas marinas la sedimentación es calcárea, con escasas acumulaciones de arenas y un vigoroso desarrollo de arrecifes coralinos. En la zona morfogenética interior predominan los limos y arcilla calcáreos y calcáreo-terrígenos. En los sectores sin plataforma marina predominan los afloramientos de la Fm. Jaimanitas y brechas bioclásticas del Holoceno. Solo en las desembocaduras de ríos y en las bahías existen acumulaciones de sedimentos marinos y terrígenos de granulometría variada. En general, los depósitos son de poco espesor y tienen una distribución compleja respecto a su granulosidad y composición, lo cual guarda relación con su génesis, el pobre aporte de sedimentos y la variación de la actividad hidrodinámica.

  18. ALGUNOS RESULTADOS SOBRE LAS PÉRDIDAS DE CARBONO EN ECOSISTEMAS CON SUELOS FERRALÍTICOS ROJOS LIXIVIADOS EN CLIMA TROPICAL SUBHÚMEDO DE CUBA

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Se determinan las reservas de carbono en dos ecosistemas de suelos Ferralíticos Rojos Lixiviados de Cuba (Ferrálicos Nitisoles Ródicos), en la llanura roja formada de roca caliza en la región de San José de las Lajas, La Habana, y en las Alturas de Pizarras de la región de La Palma, Pinar del Río. En ambos casos, se hacen los cálculos con patrones comparativos desde suelos con vegetación conservada y suelos cultivados durante muchos años. Para la región de San José de las Lajas, se estudiaron...

  19. Two decades of re-aligning mundane entrepreneurship in Cuba/ Dos décadas de realineación del emprendimiento cotidiano en Cuba

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Joseph L Scarpaci; Ted A Henken; Archibald R M Ritter

    2016-01-01

    .... We build on the concept of everyday exchange or mundane entrepreneurship, originally developed as a lens to understand non-state actions in the former USSR, and apply it to contemporary Cuba in the post-Soviet era...

  20. MARÍA ZAMBRANO: SUS RELACIONES PERSONALES Y SU APORTACIÓN A CUBA/MARÍA ZAMBRANO: HER PERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS AND CONTRIBUTIONS TO CUBA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Juana Sánchez-Gey Venegas

    2011-01-01

      This paper collects the most significant moments of María Zambrano's stay in America, especially, her stay in the island of Cuba, where she had contact with philosophers and writers such as José...

  1. Cuatro aspectos del sector construcción, en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salas, Julián

    1983-09-01

    Full Text Available Under the common title of «Four Aspects of the Construction Sector in Cuba», we gather some other works, to a certain extent different in theme and focus, but which globally may help to outline both the present level of the technical development of the construction sector and its potential installed. There is described in the «Technical Center of Construction and Materials», which is a basic institution and one which promotes the technological development of the sector. In another work are reviewed the construction systems employed in Cuba, both autochthonous and foreign, as these systems are the basis and support of Cuban construction. In the third place there is reproduced a punctual aspect of the research work being carried out in ICIDCA (Research Center of the élite of Cuba; it deals with the employment of megasse in the production of agglomerates for use in construction. The panorama finalizes with a brief, schematical resume of the construction of industrial buildings of one storey, by means of prefabricated elements or of industrial origin, which respond to some strict conditions and which are carried out following rigorous rules of the project. We understand that the ensemble of these four facets constitutes a significant sample of that plural prism and ensemble which Is the construction sector of any country.Bajo el título común de «Cuatro Aspectos del Sector Construcción, en Cuba», recogemos otros tantos trabajos, en cierto modo dispares de temática y enfoque, pero que globalmente pueden ayudar a perfilar tanto el nivel actual del desarrollo técnico del sector construcción, como su potencial instalado. Se describe el «Centro Técnico de la Construcción y los Materiales» a modo de institución básica e impulsora del desarrollo tecnológico sectorial. Se pasa revista, en otro trabajo, a los sistemas constructivos empleados en Cuba, tanto autóctonos como foráneos, por ser estos sistemas la base y soporte real del

  2. Tuberculosis mortality trends in cuba, 1998 to 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Edilberto; Risco, Grisel E; Borroto, Susana; Perna, Abel; Armas, Luisa

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Tuberculosis (TB) is a major cause of illness and death throughout the world. The World Health Organization's Global Plan to Stop TB 2006-2015 proposes that countries cut TB mortality by half compared to 1990 rates. In Cuba, TB mortality declined steadily throughout the 20th century, particularly after 1960. Objective Describe TB mortality distribution and trends in Cuba from January 1998 to December 2007 by infection site, sex, age and province, and determine progress towards the WHO's 2015 target for TB mortality reduction. Methods A time series ecological study was conducted. Death certificates stating TB as cause of death were obtained from the Ministry of Public Health's National Statistics Division, and population data by age group, sex, and province were obtained from the National Statistics Bureau. Crude and specific death rate trends and variation were analyzed. Results TB mortality declined from 0.4 per 100,000 population in 1998 to 0.2 (under half the 1990 rate) in 2007. Clinical forms of the disease, both pulmonary and extrapulmonary, also declined. The highest mortality rates were found in males and in the group aged ≥ 65 years. Rates were also highest in the capital, Havana, with extreme values of 0.73 and 0.39 per 100,000 population at the beginning and end of the period, respectively. Conclusions Deaths from TB declined steadily compared to total deaths and deaths caused by infectious diseases. The Global Plan to Stop TB target was met well ahead of 2015. If this trend continues, TB is likely to become an exceptional cause of death in Cuba.

  3. Alternative interpretation for the active zones of Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Mario Octavio Cotilla

    2014-11-01

    An alternative explanation to the seismoactivity of Cuban faults is presented. The model is a consequence of the interaction between Caribbean and North American plates. It is made with 12 geodynamic cells form by a set of 13 active faults and their 14 areas of intersection. These cells are recognized morpho-structural blocks. The area between Eastern Matanzas and Western Cauto-Nipe is excluded because of the low level of seismic information. Cuba has two types of seismogenetic structures: faults and intersection of faults.

  4. Epidemiology of Suicide in Cuba, 1987-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona-Miranda, Beatriz; Hernández-Sánchez, Mariela; Lomba-Acevedo, Paula

    2016-07-01

    INTRODUCTION Suicide is a health problem influenced by biological, genetic, psychological, social and economic factors. It is responsible for 50% of violent deaths in the male population, worldwide, and 71% in the female. In the Americas, 65,000 deaths by suicide occur every year. It is the ninth most frequent cause of death in Cuba, and third among people aged 10-19. OBJECTIVE Characterize the epidemiology of suicide in Cuba from 1987 to 2014. METHODS A retrospective descriptive study was conducted. The information comprised all records of death by suicide from January 1, 1987 to December 31, 2014, in the Cuban Ministry of Public Health's National Statistics Division database. The variables were sex, age, skin color, employment status/occupation, marital status, and method of suicide. Crude and age-standardized mortality rates and age-sex specific mortality rates were calculated, all per 100,000 population, as well as the sex ratio. Relative change over the series was calculated as a percentage. Distribution of suicides by variable was calculated and proportions expressed as percentages. RESULTS A total of 51,113 deaths by suicide were reported (annual average 1825), of which 34,671 (67.8%) were among men. The sex ratio was 2.1:1 for the entire study period, and 3.9:1 for 2011-2014. Over the course of the period studied, age-standardized suicide rates decreased from 23.9 to 10.8 per 100,000 population (54.8% reduction). The group aged ≥60 years had the highest average age-standardized rate, 44.6 per 100,000 population. The highest suicide burden by age was in the group aged 20-59 years (60.5%). By skin color, the highest burden was in those recorded as white, 68.9%. By marital status, the highest burden was in persons with a stable partner (46.7%), and by employment status/occupation, in retired (25.9%). The most commonly used method was hanging (59.4%). CONCLUSIONS Over the course of about three decades, suicide mortality rates have declined by almost half and

  5. Ciência em Cuba: uma aposta pela soberania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orfilio Peláez Mendoza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available No dia 15 de janeiro de 1960, o então primeiro-ministro do Governo Revolucionário, Fidel Castro Ruz, disse que o futuro de Cuba teria que ser necessariamente um futuro de homens de ciência, um futuro de homens de pensamento. Meio século depois de pronunciada tão profética frase, a ilha caribenha é um país de pesquisadores, especialistas e operários altamente qualificados, que dispõe de uma das indústrias biotecnológicas mais importantes do mundo, com resultados comparáveis aos atingidos pelas nações líderes nessa área do conhecimento, e na qual a atividade científica está a caminho de se converter numa potente força produtiva, geradora de significativo ingresso de divisas e de um bem-estar maior para a sociedade.El 15 de enero de 1960 el entonces primer ministro del Gobierno Revolucionario, Fidel Castro Ruz, dijo que el futuro de Cuba tendría que ser necesariamente un futuro de hombres de ciencia, un futuro de hombres de pensamiento. Medio siglo después de pronunciada tan profética frase, la Isla caribeña es un país de investigadores, especialistas y obreros altamente calificados, que dispone de una de las industrias biotecnológicas más pujantes del mundo, con resultados comparables a los alcanzados por las naciones líderes en esta esfera del conocimiento, y donde la actividad científica va en camino de convertirse en una potente fuerza productiva, generadora de significativos ingresos en divisas y de un mayor bienestar para la sociedad.On January 15, 1960, Fidel Castro Ruz, then prime minister of the Revolutionary Government, said that Cuba's future would necessarily have to be a future of men of science, a future of men of thought. Half a century after this prophetic announcement, the Caribbean island is a country of researchers, specialists and highly skilled workers, boasting one of the world's most important biotechnological industries, with achievements comparable to those of leading nations in this field of

  6. The Spanish Language textbook in Chile and Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Marcelo Ayzum Echeverría

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a description and analysis of the content of textbook of Language and Communication (Spanish in Cuba considering the indispensable tasks for fostering a developmental learning. A comparative analysis of fourth year Cuban and Chilean textbook contents was carried following certain criteria that normally promote good learning practices. Once the textbooks were compared, the findings suggest that school textbooks should be selected on the basis of the criteria taken as reference, in the meantime, such criteria may lead teacher to design complementary tasks.

  7. Modelo de velocidades sísmicas de Cuba Oriental

    OpenAIRE

    Palau Clares, Raúl; Moreno Toirán, Bladimir; Ángel Blanco Rodríguez, Miguel

    2006-01-01

    El presente estudio determina un modelo unidimensional de velocidades de ondas sísmicas muy útil en la rutina diaria de análisis de datos para la localización geográfica de los eventos sísmicos y como modelo inicial para los estudios de tomografía sísmica 3D. Para determinar el modelo de velocidades se utilizó el catálogo cubano de terremotos desde 1998 hasta el 2004. La zona escogida para el estudio se encuentra ubicada en la parte oriental de la isla de Cuba, específicamente entre los 19,80...

  8. Environmental Radioactivity Study in Surface Sediments of Guacanayabo Gulf (Cuba)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, H.; López-Pino, N.; Rizo, O. Díaz; Bernal, J. L.; D'Alessandro, K.; Padilla, F.; Corrales, Y.; Casanova, O. A.; Gelen, A.; Martínez, Y.; Aguilar, J.; Arado, J. O.; Maidana, N. L.

    2009-06-01

    Sediment samples have been collected in the Guacanayabo gulf located in the southeast Cuba, to determinate the radioactivity levels of 210Pb, 234Th, 214Pb, 137Cs, 232Th and 40K using Low-Background Gamma Spectrometry and to evaluate its impact in the habitat of important marine species for fishery industry. The obtained results show the lowest radioactivity levels determined in Cuban marine environments. The species capture declination in the last years is not originated by radioactive pollution of the zone.

  9. Deposition of Atmospheric Nitrogen Compounds in Humid Tropical Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Cuesta-Santos

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Acid deposition, a direct effect of gaseous air pollutants, is causing widespread damage to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Further, these pollutants are responsible for the corrosion of building materials and cultural objects, as well as having an impact on human health. In Cuba, main atmospheric deposition of nitrogen compounds varies from approximately 12.0 to 65.0 kg N ha�1 year�1 in rural areas. Ammonia and ammonium are the most important elements in Cuba�s tropical conditions.

  10. Narraciones de la esclavitud en Cuba y los Estados Unidos

    OpenAIRE

    Schulman, Ivan A.

    2014-01-01

    Para mostrar la construcción del imaginario social inserta en las narraciones cubanas de la esclavitud, el artículo formula algunas de las complejas estrategias y direcciones discursivas de obras literarias de Estados Unidos y Cuba. Al enfocar las correspondencias y asimetrías de poder que condicionan la producción de estos textos, que crean sus separados universos ideológicos, se cuestiona la noción tradicional de que las narrativas cubanas sobre la esclavitud eran «abolicionistas», se escri...

  11. EL NÍQUEL EN SUELOS Y PLANTAS DE CUBA

    OpenAIRE

    Olegario Muñiz Ugarte; Mirelys Rodríguez Alfaro; Alfredo Montero Álvarez; Juan Estévez Álvarez; Adriana M. de Aguiar Accioly; Clístenes W. Araujo Do Nascimento

    2015-01-01

    El contenido de Níquel (Ni) en el suelo es muydependiente del material parental que le dio origen. Por otraparte, el Ni existente en su superficie, puede ser tambiénun reflejo de su contaminación. La literatura internacionalseñala valores de Ni total en los suelos del mundo entre0,2 y 450 mg kg-1. Se conoce en la actualidad, que aunqueel Ni es esencial para las plantas superiores, su exceso enforma disponible puede ser tóxico, por lo que se consideraun Metal Pesado. En Cuba las encuestas real...

  12. Europa y Estados Unidos ante los Derechos Humanos en Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Susanne Gratius

    2008-01-01

    El caso cubano señala el alto grado de politización del tema de los derechos humanos en las relaciones internacionales, puesto que el debate se centra en la falta de derechos civiles y políticos o de las libertades democráticas en el único régimen autoritario de las Américas. Cuba demuestra, al mismo tiempo, que tanto las sanciones impuestas por Washington como el compromiso condicionado de la UE no han sido estrategias eficaces para promover los derechos humanos en la isla. Al ser diferen...

  13. L’insegnamento della lingua e letteratura italiane a Cuba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayerìn Bello Valdés

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} Nel suo articolo l’autrice ricostruisce la storia dell’insegnamento delle lingua e della letteratura italiane a Cuba dal Novecento ai giorni nostri, e fornisce una ricca documentazione sui corsi di italiano, sugli studi e  sulle opere più importanti pubblicate a Cuba sulla nostra letteratura e sulle manifestazioni realizzate per la diffusione della cultura italiana nel paese. In particolare riferisce dell’importante ruolo svolto dalla rivista “Cuadernos de italianística cubana” – e dalle istituzioni accademiche e culturali che ad essa fanno riferimento – nel campo della ricerca linguistica, della glottodidattica, dello studio della cultura italiana nelle sue diverse manifestazioni, tra cui la musica e l’opera lirica, e nella diffusione dell’italiano attraverso specifici programmi televisivi.  Normal 0 14 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} In her article the author reconstructs the history of Italian language and literature teaching in Cuba from the Nineteen Hundreds up to the present and provides a wealth of documentation on the Italian courses, studies and the most important works published in Cuba on our literature, as well as on events organized to spread Italian culture throughout the country.  In particular

  14. Policy Objective and Options under a Leverage Strategy Toward Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    Councils of Min.* & S:ate (c) Pedro Hiret (Hem.) M-26-6:Fg PCC Secretariat (c) Sergio del Valle (Hem.) M-26-7:Fg Min. ol Public Health; Member... Abelardo Colome M-26-7:Rg 1st V.Mia., MINFAR; 1st Substitute (Div. General) Minister of the FAR, respon.for Cuba’s overseas forces Senen Casas M-26-7:Rg...Order: Orisins[l of Functional Resp0onsibility (c) Fidel Castro M-26-7:Fg First Secretary (c) Raul Castro M-26-7:Rg Second Secretary (c) Pedro Miret (Hem

  15. Medical genetics in Cuba and its social impact.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith María Beltrán Molina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Genetics it is the science that studies the genes of the individuals, their operation, their transmission, their alterations, their relationships with other genes and their interaction with the environment. The present article approaches aspects of great interest corresponding to this science, in the same one he/she appears reflected a summary of examples that you/they evidence the advances of the medical genetics in Cuba as well as achievements in favor of the health and the well-being of the children and the Cuban family in general that they register among the noblest ideals and it reflects the humanist and solidary character of the Cuban Revolution.

  16. Sobre la presencia de Cneorum (Cneoraceae en Cuba: ¿ejemplo de disyunción biogeográfica Mediterráneo-Caribe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brull, Gabriel

    2009-06-01

    the presence of Cneorum in Cuba. Hence, we conclude that Cneorum can no longer be used as an example of biogeographical disjunction between the floras of the Mediterranean and the Caribbean.El objetivo del presente estudio es esclarecer la, hasta ahora, enigmática distribución mundial de la familia Cneoraceae y confirmar la existencia de un posible taxon de esta familia en Cuba, el cual es frecuentemente usado como ejemplo de conexión entre la floras del Mediterráneo y el Caribe. Para ello, durante los últimos cinco años, se han realizado intensas prospecciones de campo en aquellas áreas donde previamente se había documentado la presencia de una especie de Cneorum (identificada inicialmente como C. trimerum y como C. tricoccon posteriormente en Sierra Maestra, Cuba. Además, se ha revisado material de herbario y bibliografía diversa. La presencia de antiguos asentamientos de cafeteros franceses en las localidades donde se colectó esta especie, junto con el hecho de presentar propiedades medicinales (en hojas y frutos, hace posible que fuera introducida intencionadamente en Cuba desde el sur de Francia por los propios colonos a mediados del siglo XIX. Concluimos que esta especie no se encuentra ya en Cuba, y creemos que nunca llegó a establecerse y naturalizarse en la isla. Además, debido a un sutil parecido en las hojas, y a identificaciones realizadas a partir de materiales de herbarios, se ha estado confundiendo, hasta muy recientemente, C. tricoccon con Schoepfia stenophylla Urb. (Olacaceae, un endemismo amenazado y sobre el que ya hay actualmente un plan de conservación in situ. Dicha confusión de especies ha contribuido a mantener y transmitir diferentes errores a lo largo de la historia taxonómica sobre la supuesta presencia de Cneorum en Cuba, y por tanto, de una aparente conexión de las floras mediterráneas y caribeñas en relación a Cneoraceae.

  17. Nursing work in Spain and Cuba: an exchange experience. Labor de Enfermería en España y Cuba: Un intercambio de experiencia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Cabrera Rodríguez

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A descriptive study was performed in 5 students from Granada that were in their working practices in Cienfuegos; mainly in policlinics, maternity homes, family doctors offices etc. as part of the agreement between Granada university and Cienfuegos Medicine School. Our experience has been very positive both, in the professional and personal field. The interchange between paramedical staff of both countries developed solidarity and humanism. This exchange allows knowing the high degree of transmissible diseases due to immigrants' arrival, lack of epidemiological control and waste of material and money. We can assure that the main achievement of this experience was encounter of these visitors with other Spanish students and teachers in the University of Granada. This activity was different from the traditional university lecture. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo con 5 estudiantes de Granada que durante el mes de agosto del 2004 realizaron una pasantía por los diferentes centros de salud de nuestra provincia, enfatizando en los consultorios médicos, hogares maternos, Policlínico Principal de Urgencias, entre otros, como fruto del convenio efectuado entre la Universidad de Granada y la Facultad de Ciencias Médicas de Cienfuegos. Nuestra experiencia fue muy positiva tanto en el plano profesional como en el personal, predominó el intercambio entre el personal paramédico de ambos países; dejando frutos como la solidaridad y el humanismo. Este intercambio permitió conocer que existe alto grado de enfermedades transmisibles debido a la entrada de inmigrantes, deficiente control epidemiológico, así como derroche de material y dinero por su sistema de salud. Podemos señalar que la expresión máxima que manifestó esta experiencia de intercambio entre nuestras instituciones y las motivaciones que sobre la misma se abren al futuro, fue el encuentro desarrollado entre las estudiantes que visitaron Cuba con otros estudiantes y profesores espa

  18. Las relaciones Unión Europea-Cuba. Evolución y perspectivas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelio Díaz Lezcano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Las relaciones entre la Unión Europea y Cuba han sido oscilantes y precarias desde que fueron establecidas en 1988. A pesar del importante papel de Europa en la actividad económica de Cuba, ésta es el único país de América Latina y uno de los pocos del mundo que no tiene un convenio de colaboración con la Unión Europea. Ello se debe, en lo fundamental, a la supeditación de la U.E a la política de los Estados Unidos.Siguiendo los dictados de Washington, las relaciones de la U.E con Cuba se rigen, desde 1996, por la llamada Posición Común, que condiciona el mejoramiento de los vínculos a un cambio radical en el sistema político prevaleciente en la Isla. De mantenerse esta situación, como todo parece indicar, no se debe esperar un cambio notable a corto y mediano plazo.Palabras Clave: Cuba como caso especial; Posición Común de la U.E.; Triángulo U.E - EE.UU.-Cuba; Transición a la Democracia en Cuba; Crisis del 2003. The relations European Union-Cuba. Evolution and perspective.AbstractThe relations between the European Union and Cuba have been oscillating and precarious since they were established in 1988. In spite of the important paper of Europe in the economic activity of Cuba, this one is the only country of Latin America and one of the few of the world that does not have an agreement of collaboration with the European Union. It must, in the fundamental thing, to the supeditation of the U.E to the policy of the United States.Following the dictations of Washington, the relations of the U.E with Cuba govern, from 1996, by the call Common Position, that it conditions the improvement of the bonds to a radical change in the prevaleciente political system in the Island. to stay this situation, as everything seems to indicate, a remarkable change to and medium term is not due to hope short.Keywords: Cuba as special case; Common Position of the U.E.; Triangle U.E - EE.UU. - Cuba; Transition to the Democracy in Cuba; Crisis of the

  19. Influencia de los principales parámetros tecnológicos y de explotación de las cosechadoras de arroz New Holland, en el tiempo de turno durante la cosecha en el Complejo Agroindustrial Arrocero...

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Miranda Caballero; Ciro Iglesias Coronel; Luzardo Falcón; Riudy Rivero Figueroa

    2005-01-01

    El arroz es el cultivo más mecanizado actualmente en Cuba, alcanzando un nivel de un 97 %, y su importancia económica radica en la demanda de este cereal para el consumo de nuestra población. Las propiedades tecnológicas de las máquinas cosechadoras de arroz caracterizan la calidad del cumplimiento de los procesos tecnológicos durante la realización de la cosecha. Por lo que se debe incrementar los rendimientos agrícolas, mejorar el aprovechamiento y aumentar la efectividad de la maq...

  20. DE ESPAÑOLES, YUCATECOS E INDIOS: LA VENTA DE MAYAS A CUBA Y LA CONSTRUCCIÓN IMAGINADA DE UNA NACIÓN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izaskun Álvarez Cuartero

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo analizará brevemente la situación social, económica y política de los mayas en el desarrollo colonial peninsular y posteriormente en la construcción independiente de Yucatán hasta el estallido de la Guerra de Castas (1847. El análisis central de la investigación pretende mostrar que durante el período anteriormente mencionado se pueden establecer una serie de parámetros para enunciar y diseñar la nación maya yucateca. Me centraré en explicar el establecimiento de las relaciones entre la población maya y los españoles y su desarrollo durante la génesis del estado-nación mexicano y estado-nación yucateco. Dentro de este discurso es para mi fundamental analizar cómo durante los primeros años de la Guerra de Castas el gobierno yucateco participó en la venta a Cuba de indios mayas apresados durante el conflicto, este tráfico escondía un intento de hacer desaparecer del territorio a todos aquellos indios que pudieran impedir el diseño de un Yucatán blanco y próspero, donde no tenían cabida los elementos sociales que dificultaban ese proyecto. También examinaré la producción de textos racistas en Yucatán a través de varios documentos con especial atención en los aspectos biopolíticos que se perciben en los mismos.

  1. Cuba's oil crisis spells trouble for Castro; Opportunity for foreign petroleum investment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-06

    This paper reports on Cuba's oil crisis which presents long term woes for the government of Fidel Castro but new opportunities for foreign petroleum investment. That's the main thesis of a study by East-West Center (EWC), Honolulu. Since the cutoff of subsidized oil supplies from the former Soviet Union at the first of the year, Cuba has endured a crippling loss of export revenues and draconian energy rationing measures at home. The Soviets had reduced oil supplies to Cuba since 1989 after decades of providing the Castro government with subsidized oil supplies. Former Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev exempted Cuba from paying market prices for Soviet oil in 1991 while requiring that of Soviet trading partners in eastern Europe. With the collapse of Communism in the former U.S.S.R., however, oil supplies from that region are available to Cuba only at market prices and for hard currency. That has triggered a crisis in the Western Hemisphere's sole Communist regime as Cuba's gross special product - equivalent to GNP - fell by 5% in 1990 and a further 20% in 1991. The foreign exchange loss of $1.6 billion stemming from the loss of Soviet subsidized oil supplies exceeds that of total foreign exchange earnings from all other sources. If Cuba imports oil in 1989 volumes at current prices, its oil import tab alone will be $1.3 billion, EWC projects.

  2. La United Fruit Company en Cuba: Organización del trabajo y resistencia obrera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Zanetti Lecuona Lecuona

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En Cuba la United Fruit actuó como una empresa azucarera, situación hasta cierto punto excepcional dentro de la especialización bananera que trazó el perfil de esa empresa a escala continental. El estudio que aquí se propone sobre las prácticas de la Compañía en Cuba, en particular respecto a su manejo de la fuerza de trabajo y las relaciones laborales, contribuye a esclarecer algunas constantes de la conducta empresarial de la United en sus diferentes ámbitos de operación.Palabras Clave: Cuba; United Fruit Company; trabajadores; condiciones de trabajo; relaciones laborales. The United Fruit Company in Cuba: Work organization and labor resistanceAbstractIn Cuba, the United Fruit Company was a sugar company, a situation to some extent exceptional in the banana profile of this company. The analysis of the practices of the United Fruit in Cuba, in particular with regard to its handling of the labor force and of labor relations, will contribute to a better knowledge of the entrepreneurial behavior of this company in its different areas of operations.Keywords: Cuba; United Fruit Company; workers; labor conditions; labor relations.

  3. Molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis in Havana, Cuba, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Díaz, Alexander; Battaglioli, Tullia; Díaz Rodríguez, Raúl; Goza Valdés, Roxana; González Ochoa, Edilberto; Van der Stuyft, Patrick

    2015-11-01

    To estimate the proportion of tuberculosis cases attributable to recent transmission and the risk factors possibly associated with tuberculosis clustering. Population-based study combining information from epidemiological investigation of tuberculosis cases notified to the National Tuberculosis Control Program in Havana, Cuba, in 2009 with the results of genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates with variable number tandem repeat of mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units (MIRU-VNTR) typing. Of 186 cases, 61 were genotyped: 33 patterns and five clusters with 19, 7, 3, 2 and 2 cases were found. The proportion of cases due to recent transmission was 45% (95% confidence interval 33-58%). Routine contact investigation failed to identify a substantial number of epidemiological links. A history of living in a closed setting was strongly associated with clustering. The proportion of cases due to recent transmission in Havana in 2009 is high. The existing control measures in closed settings should be strengthened. A study on a larger number of cases and for a longer time period should be carried out to obtain more precise estimates. Further studies on the utility and cost-effectiveness of the addition of molecular epidemiology techniques to support the progress towards tuberculosis elimination in Cuba, a low-incidence resource-limited setting, are also needed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. United Vietnam and Cuba will overcome all obstacles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This article presents the speech of the President of the Viet Nam Women's Union, given on April 15, 1998, at a world women's solidarity meeting held in Cuba. The President gave the Cuban Women's Federation US$50,000 for women's and children's programs. The President indicated that the Vietnamese people wanted to help alleviate the hardships of the Cuban people and show solidarity with Cuba and Comrade Fidel Castro. The money was collected in a nationwide campaign in an effort to express Viet Nam's sympathy for Cubans who face difficult living conditions due to the US embargo. The President thanked the Cuban people for standing up to a superpower for all the world to see and for being confident and optimistic despite hardships. The Vietnamese are ready to defend revolutionary achievements, independence, and socialism. The Vietnamese will be celebrating the 35th year of the founding of the Cuban Committee for Solidarity with Viet Nam, Laos, and Cambodia. The Vietnamese delegation offered warm greetings to the Cuban Party and State and the Cuban women and children under the leadership of Comrade Fidel Castro.

  5. Vietnamese women at solidarity meeting of world women in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This article summarizes experiences of a Vietnamese delegation at a solidarity meeting of world women during April 13-16, 1998, in Cuba. The President of the Viet Nam Women's Union headed the delegation. The advisor was the vice-chairperson of the Vietnamese National Assembly. The delegation participated in 6 forums: women and sustainable economic development; women, health, education, and social security; women, communication and the mass media; women in politics and decision-making; women, violence and discrimination; and national independence, sovereignty, peace, and women. The delegation also participated in sessions on women's issues; implementation issues; women parliamentarians; and migrant and displaced women. The delegation met with delegates from other countries and participated in a world meeting and an Asian-Pacific meeting to support Cuban women. The entire delegation presented a stage show of songs, which was well received by the 3000 participants. The delegation met with Cuban delegates to discuss the formation of women's groups and to build better relations between the women of both countries. The delegation visited a training center of women cadres and the center for gender education. Participants adopted the Havana Declaration, which states the intention of world women to eradicate poverty and war and to promote peace, progress, and happiness in all countries. The Havana Declaration condemned the US embargo against Cuba. Fidel Castro spoke and expressed gratitude for the strong support from world women, especially Vietnamese women.

  6. Implementation of tissue microarrays technique for cancer research in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Lahera-Sánchez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The tissue microarray (TMA technique is based on making cylindrical cores from paraffin donor blocks and transfer to a single recipient block. The TMA has revolutionized the field of pathology for the possibility to evaluate multiple samples in one slide. There is no precedent of this subject in Cuba, so the objective of this research was to implement the TMA technique. The concordance of the results obtained by complete section and the TMA were evaluated for this purpose, in the evaluation of the estrogen receptors (ER, progesterone (PR and epidermal growth factor type 2 (HER2 in samples of breast cancer. Forty-five paraffin-embedded samples from women diagnosed with breast cancer at the Institute of Oncology in 2012 were studied. Two TMA blocks were constructed, and subsequently the expression of markers ER, PR and HER2 was determined by immunohistochemistry, in the complete section of tissue and in the TMA. Kappa index was used for concordance analysis. A good concordance was obtained for all three markers (ER k=0.8272; PR k=0.793 and HER2 k=0.716. This study constitutes the first report on the TMA technique in Cuba and shows that it is a valuable tool, suggesting its potential use in translational research and clinical trials on vaccines.

  7. Cuba, Canarias y la prensa, en el contexto del 98

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Ileana Medina Hernández

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available 1898 es para España el año del Desastre, con mayúscula; 1898 es para Cuba el año de la independencia, quizá con minúscula. Canarias es la puerta de salida de Europa; Cuba es puerta la entrada de América. La migración canario - cubana ha sido un factor histórico decisivo en la formación de ambas nacionalidades. La prensa de masas naciente a fines del siglo XIX jugó un papel determinante en la guerra hispano-norteamericana y su desenlace. Conjugando esas cuatro sentencias aplastantes y archiconocidas, la investigación del reflejo del proceso independentista cubano en la prensa de canaria aporta sustanciosos elementos al conocimiento del papel de los procesos de comunicación en la historia y en la cultura de ambos archipiélagos, en el importante contexto del fin de siglo XIX.

  8. Virtual Tour Environment of Cuba's National School of Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitano, R. K.; Douglas, I. P.; Garlock, M. E.; Glisic, B.

    2017-08-01

    Innovative technologies have enabled new opportunities for collecting, analyzing, and sharing information about cultural heritage sites. Through a combination of two of these technologies, spherical imaging and virtual tour environment, we preliminarily documented one of Cuba's National Schools of Art, the National Ballet School.The Ballet School is one of the five National Art Schools built in Havana, Cuba after the revolution. Due to changes in the political climate, construction was halted on the schools before completion. The Ballet School in particular was partially completed but never used for the intended purpose. Over the years, the surrounding vegetation and environment have started to overtake the buildings; damages such as missing bricks, corroded rebar, and broken tie bars can be seen. We created a virtual tour through the Ballet School which highlights key satellite classrooms and the main domed performance spaces. Scenes of the virtual tour were captured utilizing the Ricoh Theta S spherical imaging camera and processed with Kolor Panotour virtual environment software. Different forms of data can be included in this environment in order to provide a user with pertinent information. Image galleries, hyperlinks to websites, videos, PDFs, and links to databases can be embedded within the scene and interacted with by a user. By including this information within the virtual tour, a user can better understand how the site was constructed as well as the existing types of damage. The results of this work are recommendations for how a site can be preliminarily documented and information can be initially organized and shared.

  9. Cuba: Time to Expand Health in All Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castell-Florit Serrate, Pastor; Más-Bermejo, Pedro

    2016-10-01

    The Adelaide Statement on Health in All Policies (2010), lays out equity-based principles designed to guide policymakers on incorporating health and well-being components into the development, implementation and evaluation of policy and practice while moving towards shared governance at all levels-local, regional, national and international. Special emphasis is placed on cross-sector coordination to achieve policy goals, while improving health and well-being for all.[1] In Cuba's case, experience in disaster preparedness, particularly for hurricanes, has shown good cross-sector coordination.[2] Zika serves as another recent example. First identified in Uganda in 1947, Zika, an emerging disease with outbreaks in Africa, Asia, the Pacific and the Americas and linked to neurological disorders in newborns, was declared a global health emergency by WHO on February 1, 2016.[3] In response, Cuba further stepped up measures for surveillance, prevention and control it had already announced in December 2015. Building on decades of experience fighting dengue, intensified efforts to stamp out Aedes aegypti and albopictus, the mosquitoes that transmit Zika (as well as dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever), and issued a national 11-point Zika Action Plan to prevent, detect and respond to these arboviral infections.

  10. Las finanzas de Cuba en el ocaso colonial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iglesias García, Fe

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses the repercussions of the War of Independence on the Cuban economy as a Whole. The data provided include costs per sector, their effects on exports, customs figures and collection of taxes. In addition, the author's analysis on property imposts provides the reader with information on Cuba´s financial situation and that of the landowners at the time when the reconstruction of the country began.

    En este artículo se estudian las repercusiones provocadas por la Guerra de Independencia en el conjunto de la economía cubana, así mismo se aporta información del costo por sectores, su repercusión sobre las exportaciones, los ingresos aduaneros y el cobro de impuestos, y se traza en líneas generales la situación financiera de Cuba y de los propietarios al momento de iniciarse la reconstrucción del país, a partir del estudio de los gravámenes que afectaban la propiedad.

  11. The role of popular energy education and diffusion in Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montesinos Larrosa, A. [Sociedad Cubana para la Promocion de las Energias Renovables (Cuba); Moreno Figueredo, C. [Centro de Estudio de Tecnologias Energeticas Renovables (Cuba)

    2008-07-01

    Cuba's Energy Revolution is a national program for developing renewable energy sources to conserve energy, promote sustainable development and address environmental concerns. It includes the Energy Saving Program by the Ministry of Education (PAEME), the Electricity Saving Program in Cuba (PAEC) by the Ministry of Basic Industry (MINBAS) and the National Program for Energy Sustainable Culture developed by CUBASOLAR. The most important programs related to the use of renewable energy sources have been carried out in the field of biomass, hydropower, wind energy, water supply and solar photovoltaic energy in rural areas. This paper presented the Cuban experiences on education, diffusion and publication of energy themes. Mass communication including television, radio and magazines has been used to explain the rationale of using renewable energy, its efficiency and social impact. The positive results thus far indicate that these measures can be applied in other developing countries such as Latin America and Caribbean, and could also serve as a guide for other areas, including developed countries.

  12. Innovative Tuberculosis Symposium held during Cuba Salud 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Helena J; Armas Pérez, Luisa

    2016-12-01

    The fourth Tuberculosis (TB) Symposium, held during the Cuba Salud 2015 International Convention, highlighted advancements in research on TB and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) by interdisciplinary teams from academic and federal institutions in Cuba, Colombia, Mexico, and the Dominican Republic. Delegates focused on the targets presented in the World Health Organization End TB Strategy for 2016-2035 and elaborated on four primary themes: 1) attention to vulnerable populations such as immunocompromised individuals, health care workers, and residents of long-term institutions such as prisons and nursing homes; 2) identification of active and latent TB cases through contact investigations; 3) spread and control of drug-resistant Mtb strains; and 4) advancements in the development of novel vaccines or "booster" immunizations. This international TB forum served as a platform for experts in diverse disciplines in these Latin American countries to discuss challenges faced by TB research and control programs, proposing novel research initiatives and promoting collaborative teamwork strategies for TB elimination. In solidarity, collaborative efforts in TB control require identification of symptomatic individuals, rapid diagnostic testing for TB, drug susceptibility assays on Mtb strains, and management that provide universal and gratuitous access to directly observed short-course therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Fracture fixation of the Odontoid process of the axis through an osseous-axis pin in Cuba. A case report. Fijación de la fractura del proceso odontoides del axis mediante tornillo transaxial en Cuba: reporte de un caso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ramón Tejera del Valle

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The fractures of the odontoid process of the Axis has been a polemic topic for many years. The alternative technique of placing a fixation screw directly across the fracture site, reattaching the odontoid to the body of C2 had been gained defensors in the actuality in the world. The topic was reviewed, and the seventh case knowned was been operated in Cuba by this technique was presented. This intervention was realized in the Department of Neurosurgery of Cienfuegos. Current considerations are emitted.

    Las fracturas del proceso odontoides del axis han sido un tema polémico durante muchos años. La alternativa técnica de colocar una fijación con tornillo directamente a través del sitio de la fractura, reatando la odontoides y el cuerpo de C2, ha ido ganando defensores en la actualidad mundialmente. Se revisa el tema y se reporta el séptimo caso conocido operado en Cuba mediante esta técnica, realizado en el Servicio de Neurocirugía de Cienfuegos. Se emiten consideraciones al respecto.

  14. Análisis paleoambiental de sedimentos lateríticos del depósito Camarioca, Moa, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Martínez-Vargas

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available En el yacimiento niquelífero Camarioca, Cuba Oriental, hay sedimentos lateríticos bien documentados, que contienen un registro paleontológico espacialmente distribuido. Tomando como base las entidades taxoregistráticas en el área, se hizo la reconstrucción paleoambiental del sistema deposicional. Se realizó el análisis de la diversidad de las asociaciones registradas, el estudio de las variaciones de los factores de estrés, las reconstrucciones paleobatimétrica y paleoecológica y la correlación taxonómica. La combinación de técnicas cuantitativas y cualitativas de análisis de datos paleontológicos, arrojó resultados que evidencian el establecimiento en la región, durante el Mioceno–Plioceno, de un sistema deposicional de plataforma interna protegida con mayor energía de deposición hacia el sur, y profundidades que se incrementaron de 0-30 m al sur hasta los 100 m al norte.

  15. Neoclasicismo, cementerios e Ilustración en Cuba en las primeras décadas del siglo XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Elizabeth Laguna Enrique

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available La historia de la arquitectura funeraria en La Habana, comenzó con laconstrucción del Cementerio General (1806, auspiciado por el obispo vasco Juan José Díaz de Espada, primer campo santo que se construyó en Hispanoamérica, como consecuencia de la Real Cédula de Carlos III, fechada el tres de abril de 1787, que obligó a todos los ayuntamientosa erigir necrópolis municipales en lugares apartados de los núcleos urbanos y que acabó con la costumbre de enterrar en las iglesias y conventos.Ese recinto funerario inicial, ya desaparecido, fue realizado por el arquitecto francés Étienne-Sulpice Hallet, figura poco estudiada en el contexto cubano y que introdujo el neoclasicismo dentro de la arquitectura habanera. La presente comunicación plantea un acercamiento al tema del desarrollo de las ideas ilustradas en Cuba y la difusión del neoclasicismo como estilo dominante en la arquitectura funeraria de la isla, durante las primeras décadasdel siglo XIX.

  16. ¿Eran ciudadanos los afrodescendientes libres en las sociedades esclavistas? Cuba, Brasil y Estados Unidos en el siglo XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Kemner

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza el tema del estatus de los afrodescendientes libres en las sociedades esclavistas más pobladas de América, desde el punto de vista de los derechos políticos y sociales de súbditos y ciudadanos. Con la carta de libertad, los antiguos esclavos y sus descendientes libres adquirieron teóricamente los mismos derechos y obligaciones que la población blanca eurodescendiente. Sin embargo, por razones de “seguridad pública” y de “mantención del orden establecido”, en la práctica, se establecieron restricciones y privilegios para mantener la distancia social entre blancos y afrodescendientes. Desde una perspectiva comparada se estudian Brasil, Cuba y los Estados Unidos, las tres sociedades esclavistas más notorias en América durante el siglo XIX, y se examina este proceso tomando como objetos de análisis los derechos de libre movimiento, el acceso a la enseñanza superior, el sufragio y la propiedad.

  17. Caracterización bromatológica de seis especies forrajeras en el Valle del Cauto, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danis M. Verdecia Acosta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizaron seis experimentos simultáneos para determinar la composición bromatológica de leguminosas forrajeras en las condiciones edafoclimáticas del Valle del Cauto, Cuba. Se empleó un diseño en bloques al azar con seis réplicas y los tratamientos fueron las edades de rebrote de 60, 120 y 180 días para los árboles y arbustos ( Leucaena leucocephala, Tithonia diversifolia, Gliricidia sepium y Eritrina varie - gata y de 30, 45, 60, 75 y 90 días para las leguminosas rastreras ( Neonotonia wightii y Te - ramnus labialis , en los periodos lluvioso y poco lluvioso. Se determinaron MS, PB, Ca, P, Mg, Si, FND, FAD, LAD, celulosa, hemicelulosa, contenido celular, ceniza, MO, DIVMS, DV, DISMS, DMO, DFND, DFAD y DPB. Se realizaron análisis de conglomerados para agrupar las especies con características simila - res. Durante el periodo lluvioso se encontraron seis grupos y en el poco lluvioso siete grupos; con los mejores resultados, de forma integral, para la Neonotonia wightii, Teramnus labialis, Gliricidia sepium y Tithonia diversifolia , en el periodo lluvioso; y en el poco lluvioso, para Tithonia diversifolia, Gliricidia sepium y Erythri - na variegata a edades tempranas. Se concluye que la edad presentó un marcado efecto en la composición bromatológica al disminuir la calidad en la medida que la madurez avanza.

  18. Rafael María de Labra ante la cuestión de Cuba, 1898

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo Acebrón, M. Dolores

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Not available.

    Rafael María de Labra fue uno de los intelectuales del siglo XIX más sensibilizados por el problema colonial y principalmente por la cuestión de Cuba. La lucha infatigable de Labra por conseguir reformas políticas para las dos últimas colonias, Cuba y Puerto Rico, su defensa del sistema político autonomista y el respeto y tolerancia hacia los revolucionarios cubanos le valdría incluso, después de la independencia de Cuba en 1898, el reconocimiento moral de la nueva nación.

  19. Efecto de la fertilización orgánica e inorgánica sobre el comportamiento del fitoplancton en la estación acuícola de Boca Ambuila (Cuba - (The effect of organic and inorganic fertilization on phytoplanktonic production in Boca Ambuila aquaculture station (Cuba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime-Ceballos, Barbarito

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de optimizar el empleo de fertilizantes en la preparación de los estanques de tierra de la Estación de Boca Ambuila, Cienfuegos, Cuba y garantizar un crecimiento adecuado de la productividad natural, se desarrolló un diseño experimental completamente aleatorizado, con 4 tratamientos y tres repeticiones, durante 6 días para evaluar el efecto de diferentes fertilizantes y dosis sobre el desarrollo del fitoplancton. Las mayores concentraciones de células de fitoplancton y los mejores valores de los índices poblacionales evaluados, se alcanzaron cuando se utilizaron Nutrilake (26 mg/L y Vacasa (10 mg/L. Es necesario realizar ensayos en otras épocas y evaluar otros fertilizantes en la Estación de Boca Ambuila.

  20. LA CASA MORELIANA DURANTE EL PORFIRIATO

    OpenAIRE

    Servín Orduño, Gabriela

    2012-01-01

    El estudio de las ciudades va más allá de un simple análisis urbanístico, arquitectónico o social; todo aquel que pretenda acercarse a ella, palparla y olerla, tendrá que estudiarla como un todo, poniendo atención a todos sus elementos para poder concebirla. El periodo porfiriano a pesar de ser por muchos intelectuales estudiado presenta nuevos retos, sobre todo en lo que refiere al estudio de su arquitectura por ser durante este periodo cuando se gestaron una gran variedad de ...

  1. FARMACOTERAPIA ESTOMATOLOGICA DURANTE LA GESTACION Y LACTANCIA

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrejos Alvarez, José A.; Profesor del Servicio de Cirugía Bucal y Máxilo-Facial, Fac. De Odontología, Universidad de San Marcos. Miembro Fundador de la Asociación peruana de Cirugía Máxilo-Facial y medicina Estomatológica. Profesor de POST-GRADO, Area de farmacología, sociedad Peruana de Endodoncia. Consultor de Farmacología del Colegio odontológico de Lima, años '96 Y 97'.

    2014-01-01

    Desde hace varias décadas atrás,la administración de fármacos en gestante ha estado rodeada de un halo de misterio combinado con el miedo por parte del profesional médico ú odontólogo. Es cierto que lo ideal es no administrar ningún tipo de medicamento durante el embarazo, pero tambien es cierto, que muchas veces es imposible cumplir con ésto. desde una óptica estomatológica, existen varias circunstancias en las que es necesario, por no decir obligatorio administrar fármacos en una gestante. ...

  2. FARMACOTERAPIA ESTOMATOLOGICA DURANTE LA GESTACION Y LACTANCIA

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrejos Alvarez, José A.; Profesor del Servicio de Cirugía Bucal y Máxilo-Facial, Fac. De Odontología, Universidad de San Marcos. Miembro Fundador de la Asociación peruana de Cirugía Máxilo-Facial y medicina Estomatológica. Profesor de POST-GRADO, Area de farmacología, sociedad Peruana de Endodoncia. Consultor de Farmacología del Colegio odontológico de Lima, años '96 Y 97'.

    2014-01-01

    Desde hace varias décadas atrás,la administración de fármacos en gestante ha estado rodeada de un halo de misterio combinado con el miedo por parte del profesional médico ú odontólogo. Es cierto que lo ideal es no administrar ningún tipo de medicamento durante el embarazo, pero tambien es cierto, que muchas veces es imposible cumplir con ésto. desde una óptica estomatológica, existen varias circunstancias en las que es necesario, por no decir obligatorio administrar fármacos en una gestante. ...

  3. Radiological control of the junk exports in Cuba; Control radiologico de las exportaciones de chatarra en Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez L, O.; Capote F, E.; Carrazana G, J.A.; Zerquera, J.T.; Ramos V, O.; Alonso A, D.; Fernandez, I.M.; Caveda R, C.A.; Madrazo M, S.; Barroso P, I. [CPHR, Calle 20 No. 4113 e/41 y 47, Playa, C.P. 11300, A.P. 6195, C.P. 10600 La Habana (Cuba)]. e-mail: orlando@cphr.edu.cu

    2006-07-01

    Even when in Cuba a strict control exists on the radiation sources that enter to the country to be used in the different applications, it can be given the case that sources or contaminated materials that never were under this control due fundamentally to that entered to the country before the same one existed, appear in the junk that is marketed. In our country it is effective the Combined Resolution CITMA-MINCEX dated on April, 2002 that settles down the necessity and obligation that has all that manipulates, imports, exports or process junk of carrying out it a radiological control. From April, 2002 making use of a minimum of resources, an own methodology, a properly qualified personnel and the support of a credited laboratory by the ISO 17025 standard, the radioactivity measurement service in junk belonging to the Center of Protection and Hygiene of the Radiations (CPHR), it has reduced the risks that sources or contaminated materials are found in the junk that is exported in the main exporter companies of this line in Cuba avoiding possible radiological emergency situations that affect the population and the environment. (Author)

  4. Prevalencia, decomisos de hígado y pérdidas económicas por Fasciola hepatica en mataderos bovinos de tres provincias de la región central de Cuba .Prevalence, liver confiscation and economic losses by Fasciola hepatica in bovine slaughterhouses of three provinces of the central region of Cuba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández Barreto, Miguel A

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available ResumenSe realizó un estudio retrospectivo basado en los registros existentes sobre los hallazgos de fasciolosis en los mataderos bovinos de tres provincias de la región central de Cuba (Cienfuegos, Villa Clara y Sancti Spíritus durante 5 años (2000-2004. Se sacrificaron 273 460 animales, de los cuales el 35,5% estaba parasitado por F. hepatica. Se decomisaron 49 173 hígados (18,0% delos animales sacrificados, siendo la provincia de Sancti Spíritus la de peores resultados. Las afectaciones por año fueron variables sobre todo en Cienfuegos y Villa Clara. Las pérdidas económicas fueron cuantiosas, calculándose, sólo por concepto de hígados decomisados en $ 436 656 (USD durante el período estudiado.SummaryA retrospective study was carried out based on the existent registrations of fasciolosis discoveries in the bovine slaughterhouses of three provinces of the central region of Cuba (Cienfuegos, Villa Clara and Sancti Spíritus during 5 years (2000-2004. 273 460 animals were sacrificed and the 35.5% of themwas infested with F. hepatica. 49 173 livers were confiscated (18.0% of the sacrificed animals, being the province of Sancti Spíritus the one with worse results. The affectations per year were variable mainly in Cienfuegos and Villa Clara. The economic losses were considerable, being calculated, only by concept of confiscated livers in $ 436 656 (USD during the studied period.

  5. Evaluación del impacto ambiental de la elaboración de dos productos alimenticios en Cuba usando la herramienta Análisis de Ciclo de Vida (ACV - Environmental assessment of the production of two alimentary products in Cuba, by using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA as a tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz-Núñez, Giselle

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl Análisis del Ciclo de Vida (ACV es un método para analizar yevaluar los efectos y cargas ambientales causados por un producto, proceso o actividad durante su ciclo de vida completo “de la cuna a la tumba”, constituye una herramienta integral orientada hacia el producto y analiza las consecuencias potenciales que el mismo pueda causar para el medio ambiente a lo largo de su ciclo de vida. En el trabajo se realiza el ACV a dos productos elaborados a partir de la Langosta espinosa Panulirus argus en Cuba: LEPC (Langosta Entera Precocinada Congelada y LCCC (Langosta Cola Cruda Congelada mediante la metodología sugerida por la SETAC (Society ofEnvironmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 1991. Se realiza un análisis de costo/beneficio durante el ciclo de vida de ambos productos. Se determinan los volúmenes de desechos y subproductos generados y se proponen nuevas alternativas de reutilización para los mismos.SummaryThe Life Cycle Assessment (LCA is a method to analyze andassess the impact and environmental burdens caused by a product, process or activity during their whole life cycle "from cradle to grave". It is an integral tool oriented to the product and analyzes the potential consequences it might cause to the environment throughout their life cycle. The work includes the LCA of two products made from the Cuban spiny lobster Panulirus argus inCuba: WFPL (Whole Frozen Pre-cooked Lobster and RFLT (Raw FrozenLobster Tail through the methodology suggested by the SETAC (Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 1991. A cost / benefit analysis is carried out during the life cycle of both products. The volumes of waste and by-products generated were determined and new alternatives for reuse them are suggested.

  6. Predicción de la resistencia del suelo durante la labranza mediante los modelos de presiones pasivas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Herrera Suárez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Para la explicación de los mecanismos que originan la falla del suelo cuando es interactuado por una herramienta de labranza y la predicción de esfuerzos, se han desarrollado más de cincuenta modelos analíticos, alcanzando la mayor aceptación los que se basan en la teoría de las presiones pasivas del suelo. Por tal motivo, el presente trabajo tiene como objetivo determinar la exactitud de cuatro modelos que se basan en la ecuación universal del movimiento de tierra, durante la labranza de un Rhodic Ferralsol del occidente de Cuba. Para lo cual se determinó experimentalmente la resistencia del suelo durante la labranza en las condiciones controladas del canal de suelos CS-CEMA-25, y se programaron las secuencias de cálculo de los modelos Godwin & Spoor; McKyes & Ali; Grisso et al, en el software Mathcad 15. Los principales resultados mostraron las limitaciones de estos modelos para predecir con exactitud los esfuerzos que surgen durante la labranza en suelos altamente cohesivos, así como para herramientas que difieran de la geometría para los cuales originalmente fueron desarrollados. Se demostró además que existe una alta correlación (r=0,90 a 0,98 entre los valores predichos por estos modelos, evidenciando la semejanza en los criterios teóricos que los fundamentan. Por otra parte observó que la velocidad de avance del órgano de trabajo tiene muy poca incidencia en la exactitud de las predicciones de los modelos investigados.

  7. Cuba: los entornos cambiantes de la partcipación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroldo DILLA ALFONSO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: La participación popular ha sido una permanente invocación del discurso político revolucionario cubano, particularmente en las instancias comunitarias. Este ensayo trata de analizar la evolución de los diseños, instituciones y realidades participativas a partir de su relación con las situaciones políticas y los modelos de reproducción económicos. Por su relevancia, se presta especial atención al sistema municipal cubano. Este fue creado en 1976 y ha experimentado diversas modificaciones, las más importantes de las cuales tuvieron lugar en 1992. Los cambios económicos y sociales que han tenido lugar en Cuba en los últimos diez años imponen a la participación nuevos retos, entre ellos la necesidad de una concepción más autónoma y pluralista del accionar popular en la esfera pública, lo que de alguna manera ya se expresa en algunos esfuerzos oficiales por adecuar los patrones de participación existentes (esencialmente una participación paternalista-clientelista y en la emergencia de movimientos comunitarios que intentan controlar y transformar las vidas cotidianas en los vecindarios.ABSTRACT: Popular participation has been a permanent slogan in the political discourse of revolutionary Cuba, particularly at the community level. This article deals with the design and evolution of institutions and participatory realities starting with its relation with the political situation and economic models of reproduction. Special attention is given to the municipal system created in 1976 and modified severa! times from which the most important modification was the one in 1992. The social and economic changes of Cuba during the last ten years have posed new challenges to participation such as the need for a more autonomous and pluralistic conception of "popular praxis" in the public sphere. This is present in the official efforts to adequate existing participatory norms (particularly the paternalistic-clientelistic participation and

  8. Burden of Self-reported Acute Gastrointestinal Illness in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Pablo Aguiar; Finley, Rita L.; Guerin, Michele T.; Isaacs, Sandy; Domínguez, Arnaldo Castro; Marie, Gisele Coutín; Perez, Enrique

    2009-01-01

    Acute gastrointestinal illness is an important public-health issue worldwide. Burden-of-illness studies have not previously been conducted in Cuba. The objective of the study was to determine the magnitude, distribution, and burden of self-reported acute gastrointestinal illness in Cuba. A retrospective, cross-sectional survey was conducted in three sentinel sites during June-July 2005 (rainy season) and during November 2005–January 2006 (dry season). Households were randomly selected from a list maintained by the medical offices in each site. One individual per household was selected to complete a questionnaire in a face-to-face interview. The case definition was three or more bouts of loose stools in a 24-hour period within the last 30 days. In total, 97.3% of 6,576 interviews were completed. The overall prevalence of acute gastrointestinal illness was 10.6%. The risk of acute gastrointestinal illness was higher during the rainy season (odds ratio [OR]=3.85, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.18-4.66) in children (OR=3.12, 95% CI 2.24-4.36) and teens (OR=2.27, 95% CI 1.51-3.41) compared to people aged 25-54 years, in males (OR=1.24, 95% CI 1.04-1.47), and in the municipality of Santiago de Cuba (OR=1.33, 95% CI 1.11-1.61). Of 680 cases, 17.1-38.1% visited a physician, depending on sentinel site. Of the cases who visited a physician, 33.3-53.9% were requested to submit a stool sample, and of those, 72.7-100.0% complied. Of the cases who sought medical care, 16.7- 61.5% and 0-31.6% were treated with antidiarrhoeals and antibiotics respectively. Acute gastrointestinal illness represented a substantial burden of health compared to developed countries. Targeting the identified risk factors when allocating resources for education, food safety, and infrastructure might lower the morbidity associated with acute gastrointestinal illness. PMID:19507750

  9. El turismo como estrategia de desarrollo en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    del Risco Yera, Yoel

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Tourism has become an economic activity which is becoming more and more important, socially, economically and environmentally. This fact is especially relevant in the case of Cuba. The tourist activity is seen as a form of stabilising the balance of payments, a source of income and employment. However, in this times of economic and political uncertainty, the dangers of substituting the basic commodity of sugar for something else (tourism is very big and it may be necessary to revise the use of tourism as a way of future development.

    [es] El turismo se ha convertido en una actividad económica que, cada vez tiene mayor importancia en el desarrollo económico, social y medio ambiental. Este hecho adquiere una especial relevancia en el caso de Cuba. La actividad turística es vista como una forma de equilibrar la balanza de pagos, una fuente de divisas y de empleo. Sin embargo, en momentos de incertidumbre económica y política como son los actuales, los peligros de sustituir un monocultivo (del azúcar por otro (el turismo son muy grandes y se hace necesario revisar su utilización como vía para el desarrollo. [fr] Le tourisme est devenu une activité économique de plus en plus importante du point de vue économique, social et environnemental. Il s'agit là d'un fait tout particulièrement essentiel dans le cas de Cuba. L'activité touristique est abordée comme un moyen permettant d'équilibrer la balance des paiements, ainsi qu'une source de devises et d'emploi. Cependant, considérant la conjoncture actuelle d'incertitude économique et politique qui accroît les risques de remplacer une monoculture (celle du sucre par une autre (le tourisme, il est donc nécessaire de réétudier l'utilisation du tourisme en tant que voie de développement.

  10. Baseline research for action: adolescent alcohol consumption in Los Palacios Municipality, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Yolanda; Espinosa, Yairelis

    2013-04-01

    In Cuba, alcohol is an important contributor to morbidity, mortality and social problems. The foundation of Cuba's universal primary health care coverage, family doctor-and-nurse offices play a critical role in prevention, early detection and treatment of alcohol abuse. Los Palacios Municipality of the westernmost province of Pinar del Río, Cuba, is a socially complex, periurban area where alcohol abuse and alcoholism have been identified as important health problems. Adolescents constitute a population at high risk for alcohol abuse because of their receptivity to social influences, but the precise extent of the problem is unknown. This paper reports baseline findings from a survey and direct observation of alcohol consumption in the catchment area of a primary care center, conducted to inform planning for an educational intervention. KEYWORDS Alcohol, alcoholism, alcohol abuse, alcohol dependence, adolescence, primary health care, Cuba.

  11. Farming like we're here to stay : the mixed farming alternative for Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Funes Monzote, F.R.

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: Crop-livestock, agro-diversity, mixed farming, dairy production, agro-ecological indicators, sustainability, energy efficiency, local development, Cuba Specialization, as opposed to diversification, and export orientation have been historically the basis for patterns of dependence on

  12. Farming like we're here to stay : the mixed farming alternative for Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Funes Monzote, F.R.

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: Crop-livestock, agro-diversity, mixed farming, dairy production, agro-ecological indicators, sustainability, energy efficiency, local development, Cuba Specialization, as opposed to diversification, and export orientation have been historically the basis for patterns of dependence on ext

  13. First report of a Florida Manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Aleman, Anmari; Beck, Cathy A.; Powell, James A.

    2010-01-01

    Manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) in Florida utilize intake and effluent canals of power plants as resting and thermoregulatory habitat. We report the use of a power plant canal in Cuba by a known Florida manatee, the first documented case of movement by a manatee between Florida and Cuba. In January, February, and April 2007, two manatees (mother and calf) were reported entering a power plant canal in north Havana, Cuba. The larger manatee had several distinctive scars which were photographed. Digital images were matched to a previously known Florida manatee (CR131) with a sighting history dating from December 1979 to July 2006. Exchanges of individuals between Florida and Cuba may have important genetic implications, particularly since there appears to be little genetic exchange between the Florida manatee subspecies with populations of the Antillean manatee subspecies (T. m. manatus) in Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic.

  14. Uso tradicional de plantas medicinales con accion diuretica en el Municipio de Quemado de Guines, Cuba

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perez Machin, Maykel; Sueiro, Mario L; de la Cruz, Ania; Boffill, Maria A; Moron, Francisco; Mendez, Orestes R; Cardenas, Jaqueline

    2011-01-01

    La flora de Cuba es muy rica en plantas medicinales, de las cuales se reportan aproximadamente 179 especies que la poblacion utiliza para fines diureticos, sin embargo, un gran numero de ellas carece...

  15. Estudio de la fecha del paso de la temperatura media del aire por encima y por debajo de 25°C en la zona occidental de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa M. Zayas Valdés

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Las evidencias observacionales indican que durante las últimas décadas el clima de Cuba se ha hecho más cálido, se ha observado un incremento de los totales de precipitación en el período poco lluvioso y un cierto decrecimiento en el período lluvioso, y la frecuencia de sequías se ha incrementado significativamente desde 1960. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar, en las marchas anuales de la temperatura del aire de cada estación meteorológica en la zona más occidental de Cuba, las fechas del paso de la temperatura media del aire por encima y por debajo de 25°C y la duración de esos períodos, enmarcar los períodos lluvioso y poco lluvioso, y obtener su relación con la fecha del paso de la temperatura media del aire por el umbral señalado. Se comprobó que las regularidades encontradas en las relaciones "paso de la temperatura por encima de 25°C - inicio del período lluvioso" y "paso de la temperatura por debajo de 25°C - inicio del período poco lluvioso" durante el período de referencia 1950-1975 ya no constituyen regularidades en el período de referencia 1976-2005, principalmente en el período en que la temperatura media del aire pasa por debajo de los 25°C, donde los desaciertos alcanzaron las mayores desviaciones. La duración media del período con temperaturas superiores a 25°C muestra una tendencia al aumento, obteniéndose una longitud mayor durante este período que la observada en el período con temperaturas inferiores a 25°C.

  16. Función anterior durante el movimiento de propulsión Prior-during function in propulsion movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel Montero Parrilla

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo transversal en una muestra de 36 estudiantes de tercer año de la Facultad de Estomatología de Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba, en el periodo comprendido entre enero de 2006 y junio de 2009. Tuvo como objetivo determinar, durante el movimiento de propulsión, cuáles son las relaciones dentarias funcionales (función anterior que se establecen y predominan en la población, y cuáles son las que permiten un mejor funcionamiento del sistema estomatognático (SE. Para analizar la oclusión, los modelos de las arcadas dentarias fueron relacionados en un articulador semiajustable marca Dentatus. El 83,3 % de los estudiantes presentó una función anterior guiada por el grupo incisivo. Al disminuir la relación incisivo-canino fue mayor la participación de los caninos en el logro de la desoclusión posterior, por lo que pudieron influir en el tipo de función anterior que presentaba el paciente.A cross-sectional, descriptive and observational study was conducted in 36 third year students of the Stomatology Faculty of La Habana, Cuba from January, 2006 to June, 2009. The aim of present study was to determine during the propulsion movement which were the functional dental function (prior function established and prevailed in the population and which are those allowing a better funcioning of Stomatognatic System (SS. To analyze the occlusion the models of the dental arcades were related using a semiadjusted articulator type Dentatus. The 83.3 % of students had a prior function guided by the incisives. With decrease, the incisive-canine relationship the participation of the canines was greater to achieve the posterior non-occlusion with a potential influence in the type of prior funcion present in patient.

  17. United States - Cuba Relations: Does the War on Terrorism Change Our Stance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-04-09

    embargo. The United States’ North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) partners, Canada and Mexico , are also two of Cuba’s largest trading partners...getting through the lean "Special Period" by way of subsistence farming. Dr. Fernando Funes-Aguilar of the Havana-based Grupo de Agricultura Organica...www.sustainabletimes.ca/articles/cubanfarms.htm>. Internet. Accessed 19 October 2001. Baklanoff, Eric N. Expropriation of U.S. Investments in Cuba, Mexico

  18. Cuba and Economic Sanctions: A Cold War Strategy in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-31

    Democratic ( Libertad ) Act enacting 7 penalties for: foreign companies doing business with Cuba; permitting U.S. citizens to sue foreign investors who...U.S. resident were killed.27 The U.S. responded in March of 1996 by drafting the Cuba Liberty and Democratic Solidarity Act ( Libertad Act) or the Helms...settlements of provisions in the Libertad Act would call for political suicide for the Revolution and Castro would avoid this at all costs. TOTAL ENGAGEMENT

  19. The U.S. Embargo on Cuba: A time for Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-06

    jeopardize their lives for “ libertad ”--freedom. In 1966, the United States enacts the “Cuban Refugees-Status” law. The law grants Cuban refugees...Economic Cooperation (Pages 2000) as of January, 2002. The primary foreign investors in Cuba are Canada, Mexico, Argentina , Venezuela, England, Spain...to the farming community total $1 billion. Cuba currently imports between $700 million and $1 billion in food products primarily from Argentina

  20. The Cuba-United States Thaw: Building Bridges Through Science and Global Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bausch, Daniel G; Kouri, Vivian; Resik, Sonia; Acosta, Belsy; Guillen, Gerardo; Goraleski, Karen; Espinal, Marcos; Guzman, Maria G

    2017-06-01

    AbstractBeginning in 2014, there has been significant progress in normalization of relations between Cuba and the United States. Herein, we discuss the history and recent progress in scientific collaboration between the two countries as well as the continued challenges. Science and global health diplomacy can be key tools in reestablishing a trusting and productive relationship of mutual and global benefit, bringing about better and healthier lives for people in both Cuba and the United States.

  1. Rivulus berovidesi, a new killifish species (Teleostei: Rivulidae) from western Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rodet Rodriguez

    2015-04-24

    Rivulus berovidesi, a new killifish species, is described from a small stream in Sierra de Cajalbana, northwestern Cuba. It is readily distinguished from Rivulus cylindraceus Poey by the combination of an exclusive color pattern and meristic characters such as a d-type frontal scalation pattern (versus e-type pattern in Rivulus cylindraceus). The current diagnosis of Rivulus berovidesi based on chromatic, morphological and meristic characters is consistent with a recent molecular analysis of this genus in Cuba.

  2. Assessment of Human Health Vulnerability to Climate Variability and Change in Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Bultó, Paulo Lázaro Ortíz; Rodríguez,Antonio Pérez; Valencia, Alina Rivero; Vega, Nicolás León; Gonzalez, Manuel Díaz; Carrera, Alina Pérez

    2006-01-01

    In this study we assessed the potential effects of climate variability and change on population health in Cuba. We describe the climate of Cuba as well as the patterns of climate-sensitive diseases of primary concern, particularly dengue fever. Analyses of the associations between climatic anomalies and disease patterns highlight current vulnerability to climate variability. We describe current adaptations, including the application of climate predictions to prevent disease outbreaks. Finally...

  3. Equinodermos (Echinodermata) del occidente del Archipiélago Sabana-Camagüey, Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Valle García, R. del; M. Abreu Pérez; Rodríguez, R.; Solís-Marín, F. A.; A. Laguarda-Figueras; Durán González, A. de la L.

    2016-01-01

    Echinoderms (Echinodermata) from western Archipelago Sabana-Camagüey, Cuba. The Sabana-Camagüey Archipelago, central north region of Cuba, has been submitted to a significant tourist development, with the corresponding increase of hotel infrastructure and highways. We sampled 20 stations considering biotope variation in the macrolagoon and the external areas. The samplings were carried out in March - April and October - November, 2001 (20 days per sampling). Towards the external area - where ...

  4. Adenitis tuberculosa infantil en Cuba (1995 a 2005 Infantile tuberculous adenitis in Cuba (1995-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Abreu Suárez

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de contribuir a perfeccionar la localización y el diagnóstico de la tuberculosis infantil en nuestro país, que se propone eliminarla como problema de salud, revisamos retrospectivamente los casos reportados de adenitis tuberculosa en niños menores de 15 años durante un período de 11 años (1995 a 2005, según datos epidemiol��gicos, clínicos y estudios complementarios realizados con fines diagnósticos. Encontramos 28 casos de adenitis (11,1 % del total, de los cuales se estudian los 26 que tenían completas las encuestas. Predominó ligeramente el sexo masculino y los niños ≥ 5 años. Solo se precisó la fuente de infección en 10 y en los 16 restantes, sin estudios microbiológicos, la prueba de Mantoux apoyó el diagnóstico en 6 y en el resto el criterio diagnóstico se estableció por la clínica y la presencia de granulomas en la biopsia. La prueba de Mantoux en general fue de ≥10 mm en el 54 % de los pacientes. La localización más frecuente fue la cervicofacial (76 %. Los síntomas generales fueron más frecuentes en los niños cuya enfermedad era de larga evolución. La radiología de tórax fue normal en todos los pacientes. Se detectaron errores en el tratamiento de 25 de los 26 pacientes. Se concluyó que es necesario garantizar el estudio de todos los niños en contacto con enfermos y administrar la quimioprofilaxis de forma supervisada y de acuerdo a lo establecido en el Programa de Control. Es igualmente importante elevar el índice de sospecha de tuberculosis en niños con linfadenopatías, estudiar microbiológicamente todos los ganglios biopsiados y determinar otras causas de linfadenitis granulomatosa.

  5. The Training of Physics Teachers in Cuba: A Historical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesús Alamino Ortega, Diego

    The regular, systematic training of physics teachers in Cuba is quite recent when compared to the long history of physics itself. However, its development may serve to illustrate some interesting solutions to a long-standing question: How should a physics teacher be trained in agreement with a certain society at a given moment? In the Cuban context the answer to this question involves quite an original sequence of continuities and breaks, following perhaps the thoughts of Bolívar's teacher, Simón Rodríguez, who wrote in the nineteenth century: "Beware! The mania of slavishly imitating the enlightened nations may well make America in its infancy play the role of an old lady."

  6. Making Travel to Cuba Work for Health and Sustainable Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorry, Conner

    2017-01-01

    In 2015, a record-breaking 3.5 million visitors-1 million from Canada alone-traveled to Cuba to explore its history, culture, natural splendor, and visit family. That same year, US President Barack Obama relaxed travel restrictions, giving general authorization for a dozen categories of legal travel by US citizens and residents. As a result, US visitors to the island ballooned by 80% between January 2015 and June 2016. And the numbers keep growing: the latest data show that foreign arrivals reached 4 million in 2016.[1] The surge in visitors highlights the potential negative impact of tourism on a developing country's infrastructure, environment, cultural patrimony and local economy-all considered important social determinants of health.

  7. First molecular evidence of Coxiella burnetii infecting ticks in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Angel A; Rodríguez, Islay; Miranda, Jorge; Contreras, Verónica; Mattar, Salim

    2016-02-01

    Coxiella burnetii is the causative agent of Q fever. In order to explore the occurrence of C. burnetii in ticks, samples were collected from horses, dogs and humans living in a Cuban occidental community. The species most commonly recovered were Amblyomma mixtum (67%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l. (27%) and Dermacentor nitens (6%). Specific IS1111 PCR and amplicon sequencing allowed the identification of C. burnetii DNA in A. mixtum collected from a domestic horse. These findings, for first time in Cuba, indicate the need for an in-depth assessment of the C. burnetii occurrence in hosts and humans at risk of infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Inventory of land snails from Boquerones, Ciego de Avila, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Jonathan Pereira-Miller

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A census of mollusks in Boquerones, Ciego de Avila, Cuba was carried out. Biodiversity index were studied by vegetal formation, which are: Evergreen Forest, Semideciduous Forest and Mogote Vegetation Complex. The families best represented were Helicinidae, Annularidae, Urocoptidae and Subulinidae, taking the 97.6% of the species some degree of national endemism and being the 45.24% of these local endemic. The most widely distributed species was Farcimen camaguayanum Torre & Bartsch 1941 and the rarest was Euclastaria euclasta Shuttleworth 1852. The highest biodiversity values were observed in the Mogote Vegetation Complex being of 2,856 according to Shannon-Wiener (H´ index. So far species extinction events are not seen but not discarded for the future due to a decline in local rainfall during the last 15 years as well as human activities such as agriculture and local tourism.

  9. TRINIDAD, PRODUCTO TURÍSTICO INTEGRAL Y SOSTENIBLE EN CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorio Canales Martínez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el desmantelamiento de la Unión Soviética, Cuba apostó claramente por el desarrollo del sector turístico. Trinidad, debido a su histórico conjunto urbano propio de la ciudad colonial y su enclave geográfico entre la montaña y el litoral, se ha convertido en un importante destino que aúna el turismo de playa con el de naturaleza y el cultural. En el presente artículo se analizarán los factores que hacen de Trinidad un referente internacional, así como la repercusión que esta actividad ejerce tanto en la economía familiar como en la recuperación del patrimonio local y su entorno ambiental; por ello ha sido declarado Patrimonio de la Humanidad.

  10. [Laryngeal cancer in Camaguey (Cuba). Study of 168 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronda Marisy, H; Pila Pérez, R; Castillo Toledo, L; Pila Peláez, R

    1994-01-01

    A recent study of cancer of the larynx made at the Manuel Ascunce Domenech Provincial Hospital in Camagüey, Cuba, from 1985 to 1992 is presented. In this period 168 patients were diagnosed as having this illness. Male patients of 51-70 years age were predominant and smoking was an important factor in 76% of all patients and alcohol consumption in 20.2% of patients. The most common site was the glotis (39.2%) and the epidermoid variety was the most frequent type (95.5%). The tumors classified as T1a No Mo were the most representative of the group (32.1%). We encountered metastasis in only 11.3% of our patients. The terapeutic regimen used was radiotherapy.

  11. Cuba y la cuestión racial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velia Cecilia Bobes

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes race relations in Cuba within the context of her different historical conjunctures, and aims to demonstrate the existence of a racial cleavage in the present, within the dominant idea of the Nation as a supraracial and homogenous body. The paper demonstrates that the question of race has been present in all political movements in Cuba’s history, since it has always permeated the way in which Cubans perceive both themselves and others. Finally, the problem is analyzed within the framework of the revolutionary transformations from 1959 on, with special attention to the tensions implicit in the disjunction of equality before de low vs. the survival of racial prejudice.

  12. Los intereses sectoriales de la vivienda social en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Rabinovich

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Dans les premières années qui ont suivi la révolution cubaine, l’Etat embrassa la responsabilité totale dans le domaine du logement social. Cette contribution analyse les modalités de prise en compte des tensions entre critères technocratiques et ceux du « design » ainsi que le rôle attribué à la population dans les politiques et programmes d’habitations collectives depuis 1959. Elle met en lumière le modèle étatique sectoriel lequel a progressivement priorisé la quantité et défini la qualité par des critères de productivité à bas coûts. L’exemple de l’ONG Habitat-Cuba illustre également la fragilité des expériences innovantes des années 1990 qui ont tenté de réconcilier les aspects technocratiques avec les attributs esthétiques, spatiaux et fonctionnels de l’habitat par des approches dites participatives.In the first few years following the Cuban revolution, the State assumed full responsibility for public housing. The present contribution analyzes modalities for dealing with the tensions between technological and design-related criteria, as well as the role set aside for the public in collective housing policies and programmes since 1949. It sheds light on the statist model that has gradually given priority to quantity while defining quality via criteria for low-cost productivity. The example of the NGO Habitat-Cuba also illustrates the fragile nature of the innovative experiments of the 1990s, which attempted to reconcile technocratic aspects with the aesthetic, spatial and functional attributes of housing by means of so-called participatory approaches.

  13. A magnetic survey of mineral resources in northeastern Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista Rodriguez, Jose Alberto [Instituto Superior Minero Metalurgico de Moa (Cuba)

    2006-01-15

    Interpretation of the aeromagnetic survey of northeastern Cuba at scale 1 50 000 is presented. Mainly ophiolitic rocks are characterized by a high magnetic response. The aeromagnetic data was reduced to the pole and the horizontal and vertical gradients, as well as the upward continuation were calculated. To define areas of serpentinized ultrabasic rocks at surface and depth, the magnetic field transformations were interpreted. We discuss lateral extension of outcrops, thickness variation of the ophiolitic rocks, basement extension and fault zones. Hydrothermal alterations indicate associated precious metal secondary mineralization. Operations are planned to limit damage to mining by siliceous material in Fe+Ni laterites. [Spanish] Cuba, en la cual afloran fundamentalmente rocas ofioliticas caracterizadas por un alto grado de magnetizacion. Los datos aeromagneticos fueron reducidos al polo y luego se realizaron los calculos de gradientes horizontales y verticales y la continuacion analitica ascendente. A partir de los resultados de estas transformaciones se delimitaron zonas donde predominan las rocas ultrabasicas serpentinizadas tanto en superficie como en profundidad, definiendose la extension lateral de estas rocas por debajo de las rocas que afloran en superficie. Tambien se estimaron las variaciones de los espesores de las rocas ofioliticas, el basamento de las rocas que afloran, la presencia de estructuras disyuntivas, y se proponen nuevas estructuras de este tipo. Por ultimo se delimitan las zonas de alteracion hidrotermal, lo cual posee gran importancia, ya que con las mismas se pueden vincular mineralizaciones de metales preciosos. Ademas, su delimitacion en depositos lateriticos permite orientar los trabajos de explotacion minera, teniendo en cuenta el dano que causa al proceso metalurgico la presencia de material silicio en las lateritas Fe+Ni.

  14. Isolation and identification of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus from sugarcane varieties in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Rojas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is one of the most important commercial crops in Cuba and other countries in the world. The worldwide occurrence of G. diazotrophicus in sugarcane and other plants suggest a beneficial association between this species and grass species. The potentialities of endophytes in the agricultural biotechnology are very high, that is why the detec-tion of this bacterium inside of sugarcane is so important. The aim of this work was to detect the occurrence of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus in 18 varieties of sugarcane growing in Cuba. This species was isolated in 13 varieties on the basis of micromorphological and colonies characteristics. For the first time it was isolated G. diazotrophi-cusfrom varieties Cuba 1616-75, Cuba 751-75, Campos Brasil 44-52 and SP701143 cultivated in Cuba. The 46 isolates from the varieties Jaronú 60-5, Cuba 323-68 and Media Luna 318 were identified as G. diazotrophicusby morphological and biochemical test.

  15. DESARROLLO Y PERSPECTIVAS DE LA GESTIÓN EMPRESARIAL EN CUBA. EL EJEMPLO DE LA CORPORACIÓN CIMEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M García Rodríguez

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available

    A nivel internacional las transformaciones de las concepciones gerenciales empresariales han provocado un debate muy intenso y de gran amplitud, no solamente en los marcos de la academia, sino también en la propia vida empresarial. Sin embargo, durante muchos años en nuestro país ese debate no estuvo presente. En el artículo se aborda la gestación en el mundo y en Cuba de una nueva empresa denominada Emergente, consecuencia del entorno de los negocios, caracterizados fundamentalmente por la globalización e internacionalización del mercado. Se explica y es de mucha actualidad, la evolución de las normativas cubanas para fortalecer el sistema hasta las de más reciente emisión, es decir, el Decreto Ley 252 del 7 de agosto del 2007 "Sobre la continuidad y el fortalecimiento del sistema de Dirección y Gestión Empresarial Cubano", emitido por el Consejo de Estado de la República de Cuba; y el Decreto 281 "Reglamento para la implantación y consolidación del Sistema de Dirección y Gestión Empresarial Estatal", emitido por el Comité Ejecutivo del Consejo de Ministros el pasado 16 de agosto del 2007.  El artículo aborda también la evolución de la empresa cubana hasta nuestros días y su desenvolvimiento en el marco de estas normativas del Perfeccionamiento Empresarial, divulgándose regulaciones de mucha importancia que aparecen en esta documentación orientadora. Se analiza finalmente cuál es la situación de este proceso de perfeccionamiento en el Grupo Empresarial CIMEX S.A., explicándose la perspectiva para los próximos años. Finalmente el artículo concluye desarrollando importantes reflexiones sobre el lugar y el papel del Sistema de Perfeccionamiento Empresarial para el impulso de la recuperación económica de nuestro país.

  16. Caracterización pedagógica de los estudiantes de Enfermería de Cuba y Angola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Suárez Lezcano

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: la calidad de la formación de los recursos humanos en salud es un proceso que se vincula a los cambios que se han generado en el mundo, donde el desarrollo social, de la ciencia, la técnica y la investigación han obligado a aplicar, en la práctica efectiva, los conceptos de eficiencia y calidad en los procesos educativos que se realizan en las universidades. Conocedor de la calidad lograda por Cuba en la formación de profesionales, el gobierno de Angola establece con nuestro país un importante acuerdo para que profesores cubanos trabajen en el referido país en la formación y desarrollo de sus recursos humanos en la esfera de la Enfermería. Objetivo: caracterizar pedagógicamente a los estudiantes angolanos de Enfermería de tercer y cuarto años, curso 2013-2014 para trabajadores, del Instituto Superior Politécnico (ISP, provincia de Malanje, comparando con los estudiantes homólogos en Las Tunas, Cuba. Métodos: se utilizó la observación como método empírico y fue central el uso de los métodos dialéctico, sistémico y analítico sintético para poder llegar a las conclusiones. Las variables utilizadas fueron: edad, sexo, estudios previos, estatus socio-familiar, entre otras. Resultados: la edad promedio de los estudiantes angolanos es de 39 años, superior a la de los estudiantes cubanos, cuya media se encuentra en los 24 años; tanto en el ISP de Malanje como en la FCM de Las Tunas hubo un predominio similar del sexo femenino; al ISP de Malanje sólo ingresó provenientes del nivel medio de Enfermería el 55,43% de los estudiantes; los estudiantes angolanos, como promedio, estuvieron fuera de las aulas durante 18 años; el 95,65% de los estudiantes angolanos son casados y el 92,39% tienen entre 2 y más de cuatro hijos. Conclusiones: la edad, el tiempo promedio fuera de las aulas entre la enseñanza precedente y la universitaria y el estatus socio-familiar marcan la gran diferencia entre los estudiantes de Enfermer

  17. Success and failures of inward-looking development in Cuba (1990-2008): opportunities and problems for small farmers

    OpenAIRE

    Botella Rodríguez, Elisa

    2014-01-01

    While the rest of Latin America followed outward-looking policies of agrarian development during the 1990s and early 2000s, Cuba implemented an inward-looking model during this period. In the midst of the most severe crisis in its history, the Special Period, Cuba dramatically shifted from export dependency to inward-looking development. Cuba is a unique case in terms of agricultural development. Cuba’s agricultural development model provoked important transformations in the country’s agricul...

  18. El Sistema de Control Interno para el Perfeccionamiento de la Gestión Empresarial en Cuba (Internal Control System for the Improvement of Corporate Governance in Cuba)

    OpenAIRE

    Dinaidys Gómez Selemeneva; Blanca Blanco Camping; Juan R. Conde Camilo

    2013-01-01

    Spanish abstract. En el presente trabajo se realiza un estudio sobre los antecedentes del control interno empresarial, caracterizando el mismo en Cuba y exponiendo los principales postulados para la gestión del cambio empresarial y su aplicación. Así mismo se describe el proceso de cambio para la implementación del control interno en una organización. English abstract. In this study we examine the history of corporate internal control in order to characterize it in Cuba and to expose the main...

  19. Política, ethos social e identidad en la cuba contemporánea Politics, social ethos and identity in contemporary Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    La persistencia del modelo político cubano es paradójica al analizarla sobre e! transfondo de extrema penuria económica, pérdida de apoyo internacional y presiones en aumento de parte de los Estados Unidos y la oposición anticastrista fuera de Cuba. No obstante las circunstancias internacionales adversas que debió enfrentar Cuba tras la caída de la Unión Soviética -su principal fuente de apoyo económico- el gobierno revolucionario logró mantenerse en e! poder. Los autores analizan las condici...

  20. Política, ethos social e identidad en la cuba contemporánea Politics, social ethos and identity in contemporary Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Roniger, Luis; Sznajder, Mario

    2010-01-01

    La persistencia del modelo político cubano es paradójica al analizarla sobre e! transfondo de extrema penuria económica, pérdida de apoyo internacional y presiones en aumento de parte de los Estados Unidos y la oposición anticastrista fuera de Cuba. No obstante las circunstancias internacionales adversas que debió enfrentar Cuba tras la caída de la Unión Soviética -su principal fuente de apoyo económico- el gobierno revolucionario logró mantenerse en e! poder. Los autores analizan las condici...

  1. Determining of Crop Coefficients for Horticultural Crops in Cuba through Field Experiments and Water Balance Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoima Chaterlán Durruthy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Un manejo adecuado del riego proporciona un balance hídrico óptimo. Con este objetivo se simuló el balance hídrico con el modelo ISAREG el cuál fue calibrado y validado con las observaciones de campo obtenidas en la Estación de Riego de Alquilar al sur de la Habana en los cultivos pimiento, ajo cebolla, col y zanahoria utilizando riego localizado (microaspersión. La calibración y validación del modelo fue obtenida, usando dos series de datos independientes para cada cultivo. La calibración obtenida es referida a los coeficientes de cultivo (Kc, fracción de agotamiento del suelo (p y propiedades hidráulicas del suelo en suelos Ferralíticos Rojos compactados. El procedimiento empleado consistió en ajustar primeramente las propiedades del suelo siguiendo un procedimiento interactivo para determinar valores de Kc y p que minimizaran las diferencias en el contenido de agua en el suelo, entre los valores observados y simulados durante el ciclo del cultivo. Los siguientes indicadores de ajuste y eficiencia de la validación fueron empleados para asegurar la calibración y validación del modelo: coeficiente de regresión forzado del original (b, coeficiente de determinación (R², error cuadrático medio (RMSE y error absoluto medio (AAE. Los resultados muestran un buen ajuste entre los valores observados en observaciones de campo y las predicciones del modelo, con valores de b cercanos a 1,0; R² en el rango de 0,84-0,95 para la calibración y 0,78-0,90 para la validación en todos los cultivos. El RMSE y AAE son pequeños, con valores de RMSE en el rango entre 0,97-2,08 mm para la calibración y 1,07-2,82 mm para la validación. Los valores de Kc y p en el rango sugeridos en el FAO 56. Dichos resultados permiten utilizar el modelo ISAREG como alternativa viable en la programación de riego y con esto incrementar la productividad del agua en Cuba.

  2. Density and reproduction of the Queen Conch Eustrombus gigas (Mesogastropoda: Strombidae at Cabo Cruz, Desembarco del Granma National Park, Cuba Densidad y reproducción de la concha reina Eustrombus gigas (Mesogastropoda: Strombidae en Cabo Cruz, Parque Nacional Desembarco del Granma, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuself R. Cala

    2013-06-01

    y frentes fríos en tres zonas: Farito, Guafe y Laguna. La mayor densidad de adultos se observó en frentes fríos (468.5ind./ha y la menor en seca (268.5ind./ ha. Por zonas, la mayor densidad de adultos se reportó en Laguna (520.4ind./ha y la menor en Farito (290.9ind./ha. Se observaron 158 evidencias reproductivas. La mayor frecuencia se reportó en lluvias (36%. La temperatura se relacionó con la frecuencia de desove y cantidad de masas de huevos, y el fotoperiodo con la cantidad de agregaciones y frecuencia de cópula. Se observó actividad reproductiva intensa durante todo el año, lo que sugiere una importante reserva de la especie en la región sur-oriental de Cuba y una aparente autosuficiencia de la población para el reclutamiento. La explotación sostenible de la población es viable y Laguna debe ser protegida como zona de reproducción.

  3. Una literatura sin residencia fija. Insularidad, historia y dinámica sociocultural en la Cuba del siglo XX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ette, Ottmar

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available From its very beginnings, Cuban literature has been a literature with no fixed abode: written between Cuba and Mexico (Jose María Heredia, Cuba and Spain (Gertrudis Gómez de Avellaneda, Cuba and the U.S. (Cirilo Villaverde, or between Cuba, Europe and the Americas (Jose Martí, but to mention the outstanding figures in Cuba's 19th Century. This article tries to unfold and develop the consequences of this new perspective by insisting on the specific «frictional» character of Cuban literature and culture today.

    Desde sus inicios, la literatura cubana se ha constituido como literatura sin residencia fija: entre Cuba y México (José María Heredia, entre Cuba y España (Gertrudis Gómez de Avellaneda, entre Cuba y Estados Unidos (Cirilo Villaverde o entre Cuba, Europa y las Américas (Jose Martí, para solo mencionar las grandes figuras del siglo XIX. Partiendo de este análisis, el presente artículo trata de sacar las consecuencias de este hecho desarrollando una nueva visión de la cultura y de las letras cubanas insistiendo, además, en su carácter especificamente «friccional».

  4. Aspecto de interés sobre la ciguatera en Cuba (Aspects of interest on the ciguatera in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arencibia Carballo, Gustavo

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLos pescadores caribeños alardean de poder descubrir cuando un pez esciguato (contaminado con las toxinas del ciguatera usando métodospropios, como llevar a cabo bioensayos como dar un pedazo del pez a ungato, verificando si las escamas se le caen a un peces recién capturado o sisus ojos son voluminosos o con poco brillo y que los pescadores creenvehementemente son pruebas apropiadas. Los archivos epidemiológicosen la muestra de Cuba recogen dos brotes de ciguatera por consumo depeces en la misma región del país asociada con la ingestión de este especie de pez, entonces mal identificado de Caranx fallax. Hay una necesidad urgente de identificar técnicas económicas para detectar diferentes complejos de toxinas del Ciguatera incluida palytoxinas y toxinas de diarreicas en el pez contaminado.SummaryCaribbean fishermen boast of being able to detect when a fish is “ciguato” (contaminated with ciguatera toxins by using folk methods, such as carrying out their own “bioassay” by feeding a piece of the fish to a cat,checking if the scales fall off a freshly caught fish, or if its eyes are bulky, that they vehemently claim to be appropriate tests. Epidemiological records in Cuba show there were in the past two Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP outbreaks in the same region of the country associated with the ingestion of the same kind of fish, then misidentified as Caranx fallax.There is an urgent need for economic techniques to detect different toxins of the CFP complex (which includes palytoxins and DSP toxins in the sameblack box in contaminated fish.

  5. Increased sex ratio in Russia and Cuba after Chernobyl: a radiological hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherb, Hagen; Kusmierz, Ralf; Voigt, Kristina

    2013-08-15

    The ratio of male to female offspring at birth may be a simple and non-invasive way to monitor the reproductive health of a population. Except in societies where selective abortion skews the sex ratio, approximately 105 boys are born for every 100 girls. Generally, the human sex ratio at birth is remarkably constant in large populations. After the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in April 1986, a long lasting significant elevation in the sex ratio has been found in Russia, i.e. more boys or fewer girls compared to expectation were born. Recently, also for Cuba an escalated sex ratio from 1987 onward has been documented and discussed in the scientific literature. By the end of the eighties of the last century in Cuba as much as about 60% of the food imports were provided by the former Soviet Union. Due to its difficult economic situation, Cuba had neither the necessary insight nor the political strength to circumvent the detrimental genetic effects of imported radioactively contaminated foodstuffs after Chernobyl. We propose that the long term stable sex ratio increase in Cuba is essentially due to ionizing radiation. A synoptic trend analysis of Russian and Cuban annual sex ratios discloses upward jumps in 1987. The estimated jump height from 1986 to 1987 in Russia measures 0.51% with a 95% confidence interval (0.28, 0.75), p value Cuba the estimated jump height measures 2.99% (2.39, 3.60), p value Cuba and by radiological analyses of remains in Cuba for Cs-137 and Sr-90. If the evidence for the hypothesis is strengthened, there is potential to learn about genetic radiation risks and to prevent similar effects in present and future exposure situations.

  6. Dormancia en semillas de papaya cv Maradol Roja durante el almacenamiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruchi Alonso-Esquivel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar el efecto de la humedad de la semilla cultivar Maradol Roja y la temperatura durante el almacenamiento, en la dormancia de la papaya. Este trabajo fue desarrollado en el Laboratorio Nacional de Semillas de la Empresa Productora y Comercializadora de Semillas, provincia La Habana, Cuba, en el período noviembre 2006 a enero 2008. Fueron extraídas las semillas de frutos de papaya cv Maradol Roja, y se secaron a tres contenidos de humedad (12%, 10,56% y 9,26%, y acondicionadas en bolsas de polietileno y almacenadas a 15ºC y 4ºC. El porcentaje de germinación, altura y peso fresco de la planta fueron realizadas al inicio y después de tres, seis, nueve y doce meses de almacenamiento. Hubo tendencia a la disminución de la germinación en los primeros seis mess del almacenamiento, alcanzándose los valores más bajos del porcentaje de germinación (55,6%. A partir de los nueve y doce meses fue detectado un aumento signifi cativo en la germinación, independiente del contenido de humedad de la semilla. El ambiente de 15ºC favoreció mayor germinación en períodos mayores de almacenamiento en relació a las mantenidas a 4ºC, que exhibieron mejores porcentajes de germinación en un período menor (tres meses de almacenamiento. La dormancia fi nalizó en los periodos de almacenamiento a los nueve y doce meses, independientemente del contenido de humedad.

  7. Intimate Encounters: Affective Economies in Cuba and the Dominican Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia L. Cabezas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on research in Cuba and the Dominican Republic this paper explores the uses of intimacy in both the corporate sector and in romantic relationships. I use research with hotel workers and with people involved in sexual-affective exchanges connected to tourism to link intimacy to the political economic structures of transnational tourism. These are new spaces of analysis that present practices of transnational corporategenerated intimacy that combine love – or the exploitation of worker’s emotions − and labour. The central aim is to intertwine the intimate with the global, from the formal customer service policies of transnational hotels with the informal, on-the-ground, intimate encounters between tourists and hospitality workers. The commercialization of intimacy, including sexual-affective relations in the delivery of hospitality services, is linked to political and economic processes that are part of transnational tourism practices. This paper challenges the notion that sex tourism and sex work are individualistic practices that exist outside of the spaces of corporate global profit. It further posits that relationships where money is exchanged are not necessarily devoid of care and intimacy.Resumen: Encuentros íntimos: economías afectivas en Cuba y República Dominicana A partir de investigaciones en Cuba y la República Dominicana, este trabajo explora los usos de la intimidad, tanto en el sector empresarial como en las relaciones románticas. Se hicieron investigaciones entre trabajadores de hostelería y personas involucradas en el intercambio afectivosexual relacionado con el turismo con el fin de vincular la intimidad de las estructuras políticoeconómicas del turismo transnacional. Estos son nuevos espacios de análisis que las prácticas de las empresas transnacionales generan por el uso de la intimidad que combinan el amor – o la explotación de las emociones del trabajador – y la mano de obra. El objetivo central

  8. Evangelizacion Indigena en Cuba (1512-1550): Estrategia y Razones de su Fracaso (Evangelization of Indigenous People in Cuba (1512-1550): Strategies and Reasons for its Failure).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentes, Roberto Valdes; Reyes, Francisco Barroso

    2000-01-01

    Presents the different moments and contents of the strategies of the evangelization process practiced by the Spanish during the conquest and colonization of Cuba, as well as possible reasons for its failure. States that the Indians were enslaved and directed through evangelism toward acculturation. (BT)

  9. Evangelizacion Indigena en Cuba (1512-1550): Estrategia y Razones de su Fracaso (Evangelization of Indigenous People in Cuba (1512-1550): Strategies and Reasons for its Failure).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentes, Roberto Valdes; Reyes, Francisco Barroso

    2000-01-01

    Presents the different moments and contents of the strategies of the evangelization process practiced by the Spanish during the conquest and colonization of Cuba, as well as possible reasons for its failure. States that the Indians were enslaved and directed through evangelism toward acculturation. (BT)

  10. Fundadores de la Primera Escuela de Veterinaria de Cuba: Síntesis Biográfica (Founders of the First School of Veterinary Science in Cuba: Biographical synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silveira Prado, Enrique A

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl 10 de abril de 1907 se fundó en La Habana la Escuela Libre de Veterinaria, primera institución para la enseñanza formal de la veterinaria en Cuba, gracias al esfuerzo personal de varios veterinarios graduados en universidades extranjeras, uno de ellos natural de España. En el presente trabajo se presenta un esbozo biográfico de los fundadores, los que además de ser protagonistas de este hecho histórico para la veterinaria cubana que recientemente cumplió su centenario, se convirtieron posteriormente en relevantes figuras de la profesión en Cuba y gozaron del merecido prestigio y reconocimiento. AbstractOn April 10, 1907 was founded in Havana the School of Veterinary Science, first institution for the formal teaching of the veterinary science in Cuba, thanks to the personal effort of several veterinarians graduated in foreign universities, one of them born in Spain. In this work is presented a biographical sketch of the founders who besides being main characters of this historical fact for the Cuban veterinary science that recently completed its centennial, they became outstanding figures of the profession later on in Cuba and they enjoyed the deserved prestige and recognition.

  11. Risk Factor to Chronic Disease no Transmitted In Cienfuegos, Cuba 2010. Preliminaries results of CARMEN II Factores de Riesgo para Enfermedades Crónicas en Cienfuegos, Cuba 2010. Resultados preliminares de CARMEN II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Ovidio Orduñez García

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic diseases are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in Cuba, the monitoring of them is an important element to alert health care system on its evolution. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of four of the most important risk factors for these diseases during the preliminary data of the second survey of Cienfuegos CARMEN project, with emphasis on the differences with the first survey results. Method: Preliminary results of the second CARMEN survey are presented, corresponding to the first (847 cases measured integrally from a probabilitic and representative sample of the adult population of Cienfuegos City. Studied variables included: hypertension; obesity, measured by the body mass index, smoking and diabetes mellitus. Results: 33.7% of interviewed persons were smokers, slightly lower than the first measurement, obesity BMI> = 30 kg/m2 was 18.8%, almost 8% higher than the baseline survey, the arterial hypertension to 35.5% and diabetes mellitus to 6.8%, both well above the measurement of 2001-2002. Conclusions: the risk factors discussed show that the problem after improving over the past 10 years, and generally worsens the values are much higher than those observed during the first measurement CARMEN.Las enfermedades crónicas constituyen la primera causa de morbilidad y también de mortalidad en Cuba, la vigilancia de ellas constituye un elemento importante para alertar al sistema de salud sobre su evolución. El objetivo de esta comunicación breve es describir la prevalencia de cuatro de los más importante factores de riesgo de estas enfermedades durante el primer corte que se hace de la segunda medición del proyecto CARMEN Cienfuegos, mostrándose también las diferencias con los resultados de la primera medición. Método: Se presenta un corte de la segunda medición de la iniciativa CARMEN en Cienfuegos

  12. Antenatal testing for cystic fibrosis in Cuba, 1988-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collazo, Teresa; López, Ixchel; Clark, Yulia; Piloto, Yaixa; González, Laura; Gómez, Manuel; García, Marileivis; Reyes, Lidice; Rodríguez, Fidel

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Cystic fibrosis is a multisystem autosomal recessive disease with wide variability in clinical severity. It is incurable and characterized by elevated and premature mortality, as well as poor quality of life. Its frequency, lethality and devastating impact on both the physical and psychological wellbeing of patients and their families, make it a serious health problem. Its frequency in Cuba is 1 in 9862 live births, where marked molecular heterogeneity of the CFTR gene makes molecular diagnosis difficult. Six mutations have been identified that together enable molecular characterization of only 55.5% of cystic fibrosis chromosomes. This paper presents national results of antenatal diagnostic testing, using direct and indirect methods, for detection of cystic fibrosis. OBJECTIVE Characterize the Cuban public health system's experience with antenatal molecular testing for cystic fibrosis from 1988 through 2011. METHODS A retrospective descriptive study was conducted with results of antenatal diagnostic testing of amniotic fluid, performed nationwide from 1988 through 2011, for 108 fetuses of couples with some risk of having children affected by cystic fibrosis, who requested testing. Polymerase chain reaction detected mutations p.F508del, p.G542X, p.R1162X, p.R334W, p.R553X and c.3120+1G>A, and markers XV2C and KM19. Data were analyzed using absolute frequencies and percentages, and presented in tables. RESULTS For 93 cases (86.1%), testing for cystic fibrosis was done using direct analysis of mutations p.F508del, p.G542X, p.R1162X, p.R334W, p.R553X and c.3120+1G>A; five cases (4.6%) were tested indirectly using markers XV2C/Taq I and KM19/Pst I; and 10 (9.3%) were tested using a combination of the two methods. A total of 72 diagnoses (66.7% of studies done) were concluded, of which there were 20 healthy fetuses, 16 affected, 27 carrier, and 9 who were either healthy or carriers of an unknown mutation. CONCLUSIONS Direct or indirect molecular study was

  13. Microorganismos indicadores de la calidad del agua potable en cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlen Robert Pullés

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Los agentes patógenos transmitidos por el agua constituyen un problema mundial que demanda un urgente control. Las bacterias, virus y parásitos causan enfermedades que varían en severidad. La determinación de microorganismos en el agua de consumo y su concentración proporcionan herramientas de control, indispensables para la toma de decisiones. Los controles rutinarios de todos los microorganismos, potencialmente riesgosos para la salud, resultan difíciles de llevar a cabo, debido a que ello representa, varios días de análisis y costos elevados. Para hacer una evaluación sencilla, económica y fiable de la presencia de patógenos, la vigilancia de la calidad del agua se efectúa mediante indicadores de contaminación, aplicando diferentes enfoques técnicos, cada uno con sus cualidades, defectos y limitaciones. El objetivo de esta revisión fue analizar el enfoque actual existente a nivel nacional e internacional, en relación con los indicadores microbiológicos empleados para la evaluación del agua potable, como elementos clave, y a partir de estos, proponer un esquema de monitoreo en Cuba. Los resultados reflejaron, la alternativa de considerar, la aplicación de un esquema para monitoreo complementario en Cuba, que incluya como indicadores de contaminación del agua potable además de las bacterias, algunos agentes biológicos no considerados en la norma, como los virus y los parásitos. Asimismo indicaron la necesidad de establecer un valor de referencia y definir los microorganismos a emplear en los monitoreos de validación, operativo o verificación. Esta propuesta aportaría importante información para la actualización de la norma cubana sobre la base del conocimiento de los estándares internacionales más reconocidos.

  14. 31 CFR 515.549 - Bank accounts and other property of non-Cuban citizens who were in Cuba on or after July 8, 1963.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... non-Cuban citizens who were in Cuba on or after July 8, 1963. 515.549 Section 515.549 Money and... Licensing Policy § 515.549 Bank accounts and other property of non-Cuban citizens who were in Cuba on or... accounts and other property of non-Cuban citizens who have left Cuba, provided that they submit...

  15. 31 CFR 515.560 - Travel-related transactions to, from, and within Cuba by persons subject to U.S. jurisdiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., and within Cuba by persons subject to U.S. jurisdiction. 515.560 Section 515.560 Money and Finance... Licensing Policy § 515.560 Travel-related transactions to, from, and within Cuba by persons subject to U.S... guidelines with respect to Cuba or engaged in by U.S.-owned or -controlled foreign firms (general and...

  16. Chemical composition and insecticidal activity of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil from Cuba and Brazil against housefly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeneida Teixeira Pinto

    Full Text Available Essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus collected from Brazil and Cuba was tested to a chemical characterization and then was tested on the post-embryonic development of Musca domestica. The chemical composition analysis by GC-MS of the oils from Brazil/Cuba allowed the identification of 13 and 12 major constituents respectively; nine of them common to both. In the both oils, the main components were the isomers geranial and neral, which together form the compound citral. This corresponds to a total of 97.92%/Brazil and 97.69%/Cuba of the compounds identified. The monoterpene myrcene, observed only in the sample of Cuba, presented a large relative abundance (6.52%. The essential oil of C. citratus (Brazil/Cuba was dissolved in DMSO and tested at concentrations of 5, 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100% and citral was prepared by mixing 16.8 mg with 960 µL DMSO. Both essential oils and monoterpene citral were applied topically to newly-hatched larvae (1µL/larva. The results showed a lethal concentration (LC50 of 4.25 and 3.24% for the Brazilian and Cuban essential oils, respectively. Mortalities of larval and newly-hatched larvae to adult periods were dose-dependent for the two both oils as for monoterpene citral, reaching 90%. Both essential oils and citral caused morphological changes in adult specimens.

  17. En el reino de la ambivalencia. La Cuba de Alejandro de Humboldt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Lubrich

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Article in Spanish, Abstracts in English and German.In the Realm of Ambivalence.The Question of Cuba in Alexander von Humboldt’s American TravelogueCuba has a special role in Alexander von Humboldt’s American travel narrative: Humboldt’s experience of colonial slave economy drives his optimistic philosophy, inspired by European Enlightenment, into a crisis, and brings to surface the inherent contradictions of his discourse. This phenomenon is particularly interesting from the perspective of literary criticism: Alexander von Humboldt conceives Cuba as a poetic space, where contradictions and ambivalences coexist. Already on the boat to the island from Venezuela he creates destablizing effects of sensual perceptions. He stages his landing in Havana as a moment of oppositional impressions. Within the symbolic topography of his geographic fantasy, Cuba functions as an imaginary in-between space. And Humboldt’s philosophical and aesthetic terminology undergoes a semantic recoding in Cuba: what was once used in a philosophical and aesthetic sense, now has become charged with an economic and political meaning.

  18. Chemical composition and insecticidal activity of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil from Cuba and Brazil against housefly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Zeneida Teixeira; Sánchez, Félix Fernández; dos Santos, Arith Ramos; Amaral, Ana Claudia Fernandes; Ferreira, José Luiz Pinto; Escalona-Arranz, Julio César; Queiroz, Margareth Maria de Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus collected from Brazil and Cuba was tested to a chemical characterization and then was tested on the post-embryonic development of Musca domestica. The chemical composition analysis by GC-MS of the oils from Brazil/Cuba allowed the identification of 13 and 12 major constituents respectively; nine of them common to both. In the both oils, the main components were the isomers geranial and neral, which together form the compound citral. This corresponds to a total of 97.92%/Brazil and 97.69%/Cuba of the compounds identified. The monoterpene myrcene, observed only in the sample of Cuba, presented a large relative abundance (6.52%). The essential oil of C. citratus (Brazil/Cuba) was dissolved in DMSO and tested at concentrations of 5, 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100% and citral was prepared by mixing 16.8 mg with 960 µL DMSO. Both essential oils and monoterpene citral were applied topically to newly-hatched larvae (1µL/larva). The results showed a lethal concentration (LC50) of 4.25 and 3.24% for the Brazilian and Cuban essential oils, respectively. Mortalities of larval and newly-hatched larvae to adult periods were dose-dependent for the two both oils as for monoterpene citral, reaching 90%. Both essential oils and citral caused morphological changes in adult specimens.

  19. Anemia in children under five years old in Eastern Cuba, 2005-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pita, Gisela M; Jiménez, Santa; Basabe, Beatriz; García, René G; Macías, Consuelo; Selva, Lisette; Hernández, Clarisa; Cruz, Margarita; Herrera, Roxana; O'Farrill, Regla; Calderius, Isabel; Paulí, Karelia; Leyva, Moraima; Arocha, Caridad; Herrera, Dania

    2014-01-01

    Anemia is the main nutritional problem in Cuban preschool children, prompting several interventions to prevent and control it. An enhanced national strategy was established in 2008, and particular attention paid to the eastern provinces, the region with greatest challenges in social determinants of health. Determine anemia prevalence in children aged 6-59 months in Cuba's five eastern provinces in three separate years within a decade, as well as association of anemia with epidemiological and nutritional factors, to assess impact of Cuba's Comprehensive Plan for Prevention and Control of Iron-Deficiency Anemia in Cuba. Cross-sectional studies of children aged 6-59 months (completed) were conducted in 2005, 2008 and 2011. Hemoglobin levels were measured to diagnose anemia (hemoglobin Cuba and anemia prevention and control measures should be maintained and strengthened: interventions for women of childbearing age, fostering exclusive breastfeeding of infants through their sixth month, and encouraging compliance with recommendations on complementary feeding per Cuba's nutritional guidelines for children aged <2 years. Further evaluation is needed to identify the causes of anemia in the population of preschool children.

  20. Studies in neotropical paleobotany. XIV. A palynoflora from the middle Eocene Saramaguacan formation of Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, A.; Cozadd, D.; Areces-Mallea, A.; Frederiksen, N.O.

    2000-01-01

    An assemblage of 46 fossil pollen and spore types is described from a core drilled through the middle Eocene Saramaguacan Formation, Camaguey Province, eastern Cuba. Many of the specimens represent unidentified or extinct taxa but several can be identified to family (Palmae, Bombacaceae, Gramineae, Moraceae, Myrtaceae) and some to genus (Pteris, Crudia, Lymingtonia?). The paleo-climate was warm-temperate to subtropical which is consistent with other floras in the region of comparable age and with the global paleotemperature curve. Older plate tectonic models show a variety of locations for proto-Cuba during Late Cretaceous and later times, including along the norther coast of South America. More recent models depict western and central Cuba as two separate parts until the Eocene, and eastern Cuba (joined to northern Hispaniola) docking to central Cuba also in the Eocene. All fragments are part of the North American Plate and none were directly connected with northern South America in late Mesozoic or Cenozoic time. The Saramaguacan flora supports this model because the assemblage is distinctly North American in affinities, with only one type (Retimonocolpites type 1) found elsewhere only in South America.

  1. Diversidad haplotípica en el manatí Trichechus manatus en Cuba: resultados preliminares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Martinez, Damir; Alvarez-Aleman, Anmari; Bonde, Robert K.; Powell, James A.; Garcia-Machado, Erik

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this analysis was to obtain information regarding the mtDNA haplotype composition of the manatee (T. manatus) occupying the Cuban archipelago. A fragment of 410 bp of the non-coding region was analyzed for 12 individual manatees from Cuba and one from Florida, USA. Only two haplotypes were identified. Haplotype A1, found exclusively in Florida (including in the sample analyzed here) but also found in Mexico, the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico, was the most frequent haplotype (11 of the 12 samples from Cuba) and widely distributed. The second haplotype A3, previously referred to as endemic from Belize, was identified from an individual stranded in Isabela de Sagua, north of Cuba. These preliminary results provide information about three major aspects of manatee biology: (1) the mtDNA genetic diversity of T. manatus in Cuba seems low as compared to other regions of the Caribbean; (2) the Cuban population likely belongs to the group comprising Florida and the portions of the Greater Antilles; and (3) the territories of Belize and Cuba have exchanged individuals at present or in a relatively recent past.

  2. “La posición de la Gran Logia de la Isla de Cuba ante la crisis de 1929 a 1933: su reflejo en la revista La Gran Logia”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haens Beltrán Alonso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La Gran Logia de la Isla de Cuba, principal organismo simbólico de la masonería cubana sufrió durante los años 1929-1933 la grave crisis que afectó a la sociedad cubana. El presente trabajo aborda el posicionamiento de este gobierno masónico ante la situación política, utilizando como fuente fundamental los planteamientos vertidos en su órgano de prensa oficial la revista La Gran Logia. Se parte de la premisa de que la masonería no es una institución política, pero que su funcionamiento la obliga a adoptar una posición ante los problemas que la afectan. ¿Cuál fue la posición de la Gran Logia de la Isla de Cuba sobre la crisis imperante? ¿Cómo expresó su posición sin violar los preceptos masónicos de no discutir sobre política? Estas son las preguntas que en este trabajo se pretenden responder.

  3. Una literatura sin residencia fija. Insularidad, historia y dinámica sociocultural en la Cuba del siglo XX

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ette, Ottmar

    2005-01-01

    ...» character of Cuban literature and culture today. Desde sus inicios, la literatura cubana se ha constituido como literatura sin residencia fija: entre Cuba y México (José María Heredia), entre Cuba y España (Gertrudis Gómez de Avellaneda...

  4. Miconia bullotricha and M. hirtistyla, two new species of Miconia sect. Lima (Miconieae, Melastomataceae) from eastern Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majure, Lucas C.; Bécquer, Eldis R.; Judd, Walter S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We describe two new species in Miconia sect. Lima, Miconia bullotricha Bécquer & Majure and Miconia hirtistyla Majure & Judd, from eastern, Cuba. We also provide illustrations and distribution maps for the two species, as well as a key to members of the Lima clade on Cuba. PMID:24526849

  5. A PARTIAL-EQUILIBRIUM SIMULATION OF INCREASING THE U.S. TARIFF-RATE SUGAR QUOTA FOR CUBA AND MEXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Petrolia, Daniel R.; Kennedy, P. Lynn

    2002-01-01

    A model consisting of Cuba, Mexico, the U.S., and an aggregated "Rest of the World" was developed to simulate increases in U.S. sugar imports from Cuba and Mexico. Results indicate that increased imports would generate up to $505 million in U.S. net gains, and that world prices increase only minimally.

  6. Conferencia caracterización y normalización de materiales de construcción cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Proaño Cadena, Gaston Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    II JORNADAS IBEROAMERICANAS SOBRE “CARACTERIZACIÒN Y NORMALIZACIÓN DE MATERIALES DE CONSTRUCCIÓN” Ciudad de la Habana – Cuba (2002) II JORNADAS IBEROAMERICANAS SOBRE “CARACTERIZACIÒN Y NORMALIZACIÓN DE MATERIALES DE CONSTRUCCIÓN” Ciudad de la Habana – Cuba (2002)

  7. Thirty-four identifiable airborne fungal spores in Havana, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Almaguer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The airborne fungal spore content in Havana, Cuba, collected by means a non-viable volumetric methodology, was studied from November 2010 – October 2011. The study, from a qualitative point of view, allowed the characterization of 29 genera and 5 fungal types, described following the Saccardo´s morphotypes, as well as their morphobiometrical characteristics. In the amerospores morphotype, the conidia of 7 genera (with ascospores, basidiospores and uredospores and 5 fungal types were included. Among phragmospores morphotype, the ascospores and conidia of 12 different genera were identified. The dictyospores morphotype only included conidial forms from 6 genera. Finally, the less frequent morphotypes were staurospores, didymospores and distosepted spores. In general, the main worldwide spread mitosporic fungi also predominated in the Havana atmosphere, accompanied by some ascospores and basidiospores. [i]Cladosporium[/i] cladosporioides type was the most abundant with a total of 148,717 spores, followed by [i]Leptosphaeria, Coprinus[/i] and the [i]Aspergillus-Penicillium [/i]type spores, all of them with total values ranging from 20,591 – 16,392 spores. The higher monthly concentrations were registered in January (31,663 spores and the lowest in December (7,314 spores. Generally, the average quantity of spores recorded during the months of the dry season (20,599 spores was higher compared with that observed during the rainy season (17,460 spores.

  8. Thirty-four identifiable airborne fungal spores in Havana, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Almaguer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The airborne fungal spore content in Havana, Cuba, collected by means a non-viable volumetric methodology, was studied from November 2010 – October 2011. The study, from a qualitative point of view, allowed the characterization of 29 genera and 5 fungal types, described following the Saccardo´s morphotypes, as well as their morphobiometrical characteristics. In the amerospores morphotype, the conidia of 7 genera (with ascospores, basidiospores and uredospores and 5 fungal types were included. Among phragmospores morphotype, the ascospores and conidia of 12 different genera were identified. The dictyospores morphotype only included conidial forms from 6 genera. Finally, the less frequent morphotypes were staurospores, didymospores and distosepted spores. In general, the main worldwide spread mitosporic fungi also predominated in the Havana atmosphere, accompanied by some ascospores and basidiospores. Cladosporium cladosporioides type was the most abundant with a total of 148,717 spores, followed by Leptosphaeria, Coprinus and the Aspergillus-Penicillium type spores, all of them with total values ranging from 20,591 – 16,392 spores. The higher monthly concentrations were registered in January (31,663 spores and the lowest in December (7,314 spores. Generally, the average quantity of spores recorded during the months of the dry season (20,599 spores was higher compared with that observed during the rainy season (17,460 spores.

  9. Thirty-four identifiable airborne fungal spores in Havana, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaguer, Michel; Aira, María-Jesús; Rodríguez-Rajo, F Javier; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Maria; Rojas-Flores, Teresa I

    2015-01-01

    The airborne fungal spore content in Havana, Cuba, collected by means a non-viable volumetric methodology, was studied from November 2010 - October 2011. The study, from a qualitative point of view, allowed the characterization of 29 genera and 5 fungal types, described following the Saccardo´s morphotypes, as well as their morphobiometrical characteristics. In the amerospores morphotype, the conidia of 7 genera (with ascospores, basidiospores and uredospores) and 5 fungal types were included. Among phragmospores morphotype, the ascospores and conidia of 12 different genera were identified. The dictyospores morphotype only included conidial forms from 6 genera. Finally, the less frequent morphotypes were staurospores, didymospores and distosepted spores. In general, the main worldwide spread mitosporic fungi also predominated in the Havana atmosphere, accompanied by some ascospores and basidiospores. Cladosporium cladosporioides type was the most abundant with a total of 148,717 spores, followed by Leptosphaeria, Coprinus and the Aspergillus-Penicillium type spores, all of them with total values ranging from 20,591 - 16,392 spores. The higher monthly concentrations were registered in January (31,663 spores) and the lowest in December (7,314 spores). Generally, the average quantity of spores recorded during the months of the dry season (20,599 spores) was higher compared with that observed during the rainy season (17,460 spores).

  10. Cuba. La fecundidad, el PIB y el salario medio real

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Albizu-Campos Espiñeira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available La reducción de la fecundidad en Cuba, de naturaleza secular y acelerada, y la consecuente contracción de la capacidad multiplicativa de la población, se han convertido hoy en un objeto de atención de los diferentes actores sociales y de política, incluyendo sin duda a los propios demógrafos cubanos, que habían estado advirtiendo sobre ello desde hace ya más de tres décadas. Lo que más resalta del proceso de transición de la fecundidad en el país es, sin duda, lo abrupto de su inicio, la velocidad con que transcurrió, así como la ausencia de desarrollo económico que la acompañó. De ahí que el debate hoy se centre en la instrumentalidad de los diferentes determinantes que condujeron esa transición, y sobre todo, en el papel que jugaron los factores económicos en las diversas etapas, sobre todo en aquellas coyunturas en las que la población debió realizar las actividades de su vida en condiciones de acentuada vulnerabilidad debido a las crisis. Así, de lo que se trata es de aportar elementos que contribuyan a completar el conocimiento sobre el estado de la relación fecundidad-desarrollo en el contexto actual.

  11. Communicative intercultural competence in Medical Postgraduate Education in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Hernández Díaz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the results of the investigation “Developing Communicative Intercultural Competence in Medical Postgraduate Education in Cuba through English”, a master´s degree thesis whose aim was to design a postgraduate course of English for Specific Purposes which would focus on the development of the communicative competence of doctors going to health missions in English-speaking countries or where English is spoken as a lingua franca.This course is based on Developmental Pedagogy, the Communicative Approach and Task-Based Learning. It emphasizes cultural and important intercultural issues to be kept in mind during doctor-patient interviews, doctor-doctor relationships and doctor-family exchanges in a professional context so as to make it possible to establish cultural differences and similarities between the students´ culture and the foreign country´s culture.This is an exploratory investigation with a fundamentally quantitative focus using resources of the qualitative one. This design is a curricular document with all its didactic components, aimed at the development of intercultural communicative competence that responds to the current needs of the participants. 

  12. común manejada por campesinos en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Miranda-Lorigados

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La variación genética de 27 accesiones locales de frijol común colectadas en la comunidad de El Tejar - La Jocuma, provincia Pinar del Río, Cuba, se evaluó utilizando marcadores moleculares RAPD (Polimorfismos de ADN Amplificados al Azar y caracteres morfológicos y agronómicos. En total se emplearon 15 cebadores RAPD que generaron 31 fragmentos polimórficos de ADN (un promedio de 2,03 fragmentos por cebador. Las distancias genéticas fueron calculadas utilizando el coeficiente de similitud de Sorensen-Dice, y representadas mediante un dendograma (método UPGMA. Se evaluaron una serie de caracteres morfológicos y agronómicos con los que se realizaron análisis multivariados que generaron un clúster (distancias euclidianas y un análisis de componentes principales. El análisis generado a partir de los marcadores RAPD y de los caracteres morfo agronómicos, reveló que las accesiones estudiadas generaron dos grupos principales que corresponden presumiblemente a los acervos Mesoamericano y Andino, considerando las distancias genéticas entre grupos y las diferencias en determinados caracteres morfológicos y agronómicos

  13. EL NÍQUEL EN SUELOS Y PLANTAS DE CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olegario Muñiz Ugarte

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El contenido de Níquel (Ni en el suelo es muydependiente del material parental que le dio origen. Por otraparte, el Ni existente en su superficie, puede ser tambiénun reflejo de su contaminación. La literatura internacionalseñala valores de Ni total en los suelos del mundo entre0,2 y 450 mg kg-1. Se conoce en la actualidad, que aunqueel Ni es esencial para las plantas superiores, su exceso enforma disponible puede ser tóxico, por lo que se consideraun Metal Pesado. En Cuba las encuestas realizadas reflejanun contenido medio de 122,3 mg kg-1de Ni total, muysuperior al señalado por la literatura internacional y valoresextremos de hasta 2850,0 mg kg-1en suelos desarrolladossobre rocas ultrabásicas (serpentinita. Sin embargo, noexisten reportes de valores elevados (tóxicos del elementoen los cultivos. En el trabajo se discute el origen y formasen que se encuentra el Ni en los suelos cubanos; así comosu posible efecto tóxico para las plantas y animales que sealimentan de ellas. Finalmente, se concluyó planteando lanecesidad de establecer Límites Permisibles de Ni en elsuelo, diferenciados de acuerdo al tipo de suelo y su uso.

  14. Las publicaciones en Cuba tras las Independencias Hispanoamericanas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José SÁNCHEZ BAENA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo tiene una doble vertiente, por un lado dar a conocer las consecuencias que tuvo para la cultura impresa en Cuba el final del trienio liberal y del dominio español en la América continental, y por otro analizar cómo se muestran, a través de los contenidos de las publicaciones periódicas más importantes, los aspectos más destacados que inciden en la sociedad cubana. El extraordinario desarrollo económico y comercial, que tuvo como máximo exponente al grupo de la sacarocracia, hizo imparable la evolución de la imprenta y sus productos, pese a las fuertes medidas de control y censura impuestas ante el miedo al contagio independentista. Aparecieron entonces algunas publicaciones seriadas con cierto nivel en sus contenidos, como la Revista Bimestre Cubana, y comenzó lentamente la expansión de la imprenta por nuevas poblaciones de la Isla.

  15. Promoting health in response to global tourism expansion in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, J M; Gonzalez, M; Cabrera, G J; Catasus, S; Vidal, C; Yassi, A

    2008-03-01

    The ability of communities to respond to the pressures of globalization is an important determinant of community health. Tourism is a rapidly growing industry and there is an increasing concern about its health impact on local communities. Nonetheless, little research has been conducted to identify potential mitigating measures. We therefore took advantage of the 'natural experiment' provided by the expansion of tourism in Cuba, and conducted four focus groups and key informants interviews in each of two coastal communities. Participants expressed concerns about psycho-social impacts as well as occupational and environmental concerns, and both infectious and chronic diseases. A wide array of programs that had been developed to mitigate potential negative were described. Some of the programs were national in scope and others were locally developed. The programs particularly targeted youth as the most vulnerable population at risk of addictions and sexually transmitted infections. Occupational health concerns for workers in the tourism sector were also addressed, with many of the measures implemented protecting tourists as well. The health promotion and various other participatory action initiatives implemented showed a strong commitment to address the impacts of tourism and also contributed to building capacity in the two communities. Although longitudinal studies are needed to assess the sustainability of these programs and to evaluate their long-term impact in protecting health, other communities can learn from the initiatives taken.

  16. COMPORTAMIENTO DE DIFERENTES ESPECIES DE PLANTAS PARA SER UTILIZADAS COMO ABONOS VERDES EN LAS CONDICIONES DE CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita García

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante el período 1992-1994 se llevaron a cabo dos experimentos de campo sobre un suelo Ferralítico Rojo compactado. Se evaluó una colección compuesta por 19 espe- cies de plantas sembradas en dos épocas: lluviosa (mayo-ju- lio y poco lluviosa (octubre-diciembre de 1992-1993. La dis- tribución de los tratamientos en el campo se realizó de acuer- do a un diseño de bloques al azar con tres réplicas. Los resul- tados mostraron que la mayor parte de las especies se adapta- ron mejor a las condiciones del período lluvioso de Cuba en comparación con las del no lluvioso. Las especies con mejor comportamiento para ser utilizadas como abonos verdes en el periodo lluvioso del país fueron: Crotalaria juncea, Sorghum vulgare, Sesbania rostrata, Canavalia ensiformis y Mucuna aterrimum, realizando en este altas acumulaciones de fitomasa y nutrientes, las que oscilaron de 10-67 t.ha-1 de fitomasa verde, de 3.0 -11.0 t.ha-1 de fitomasa seca y de 150-255 kg.ha-1 de N. Las plantas en el período poco lluvioso tuvieron acumu- lados de dos a seis veces inferiores, sobresaliendo por su comportamiento las siguientes especies: Phaseolus helvolus, Canavalia ensiformis, Vigna radiata y Crotalaria juncea .Las plantas tuvieron su mejor desarrollo cuando se sembraron en el período mayo-julio; las siembras realizadas en los meses de octubre-diciembre fueron las de peor comportamiento en el año.

  17. ERCP during pregnancy CPRE durante el embarazo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús García-Cano

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: ERCP during pregnancy is always challenging for the entire team performing the endoscopic intervention. In this study techniques and different interventional aspects used at several centres about the clinical experience on ERCP in pregnant women are analyzed. Patients and methods: the practice on ERCP in pregnant women in six centers during a period of ten years is reported. Results: eleven patients were included in the study. Mean age was 30.6 years. Indication for ERCP was always symptomatic common bile duct stone (CBDS disease. Before the procedure abdominal ultrasound was performed at all times and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography in four occasions. Conscious sedation by means of midazolam and fentanyl or meperidine was applied. Sphincterotomes and guidewires were used for bilary cannulation. Sometimes, rapid exchange platforms with short-length guidewires controlled by the same endoscopist were employed. Biliary cannulation was confirmed in 9 occasions by bile aspiration. In five procedures, a mean of 30 seconds of fluoroscopy was used, both to verify cannulation and to corroborate complete CBDS clearance. These patients had the pelvic zone protected with a lead shield and radiation dose was measured. Ten biliary sphincterotomies were performed followed by CBDS extraction. Two plastic stents were inserted. Relief of biliary obstruction was attained in all circumstances. Only one patient had hyperamylasemia after ERCP. All pregnant women had healthy foetuses with normal deliveries. Conclusions: with experience, ERCP appears to be a safe technique during pregnancy. With simple measures fluoroscopic time can be diminished or even abolished. It seems that ERCP during pregnancy is underused in our working areas, although it has shown to be a useful technique for relieving biliary obstruction.Antecedentes y objetivos: la CPRE realizada durante el embarazo constituye siempre un reto para todo el equipo que participa

  18. A review of the genus Berosus Leach of Cuba (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deler-Hernández, Albert; Fikáček, Martin; Cala-Riquelme, Franklyn

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The Cuban fauna of the genus Berosus Leach, 1817 is reviewed based on newly collected material as well as historical and type specimens. Nine species are recognized, including three recorded from Cuba for the first time: Berosus infuscatus LeConte, 1855, Berosus interstitialis Knisch, 1924 (= Berosus stribalus Orchymont, 1946 syn. n.) and Berosus metalliceps Sharp, 1882. Only one of the nine Cuban species, Berosus chevrolati, remains endemic to Cuba, as two other species previously considered as endemic to Cuba are recorded from elsewhere: Berosus quadridens from Mexico and Central America and Berosus trilobus from the Dominican Republic. Notes on biology and Cuban distribution are provided for all nine species. Berosus quadridens Chevrolat, 1863, stat. restit. is removed from synonym with Berosus truncatipennis and considered a valid species. PMID:23794806

  19. A review of the genus Berosus Leach of Cuba (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Deler-Hernandez

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The Cuban fauna of the genus Berosus Leach, 1817 is reviewed based on newly collected material as well as historical and type specimens. Nine species are recognized, including three recorded from Cuba for the first time: B. infuscatus LeConte, 1855, B. interstitialis Knisch, 1924 (= B. stribalus Orchymont, 1946 syn.n. and B. metalliceps Sharp, 1882. Only one of the nine Cuban species, B. chevrolati, remains endemic to Cuba, as two other species previously considered as endemic to Cuba are recorded from elsewhere: B. quadridens from Mexico and Central America and B. trilobus from the Dominican Republic. Notes on biology and Cuban distribution are provided for all nine species. Berosus quadridens Chevrolat, 1863, stat. restit. is removed from synonym with B. truncatipennis and considered a valid species.

  20. Cuba: the strategic choice of advanced scientific development, 1959-2014

    CERN Document Server

    Baracca, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Cuba is continuing attracting the attention of the international scientific community for some important and unexpected achievements in applied science such as health biotechnology. They represent outcomes of the 1959 decision of Cuba to develop an advanced scientific system in order to address the most urgent problems for the development of the country and to overcome the condition of subalternity. This ambitious objective was tackled in a very original way, making a broad and wide-ranging recourse to every effective support and collaboration, with Soviet but also Western scientists and institutions, in addition to a peculiar Cuban inventiveness. Indeed, immediately after the revolution, Cuba developed an advanced and articulated scientific system, and achieved a level of excellence in leading scientific fields, like biotechnology, quite independently from the Soviet Union, which was behind in this field. Even the collapse of the Soviet Union in the early 1990s, that could have put the achievements of the Re...

  1. Especies nuevas de abejas de Cuba y La Española (Hymenoptera: Colletidae, Megachilidae, Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio A. Genaro

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describen e ilustran cinco especies nuevas de abejas antillanas: Collectes granpiedrensis n. sp. (Cuba (Colletidae; Osmia (Diceratosmia stangei n. sp. (República Dominicana; Coelioxys (Cyrtocoelioxys alayoi n. sp. (Cuba; C. (Boreocoelioxys sannicolarensis n. sp. (Cuba (Megachilidae y Triepeolus nisibonensis n. sp. (República Dominicana (ApidaeFive new species of Antillean bees are described and illustrated: Colletes granpiedrensis n. sp. (Cuba (Colletidae is charaterized as follows: Head and mesosoma black, legs and metasoma brown. Dense brown hairs on head and mesosoma; white on frons and metasomal terga. Clypeus, frons and mesosoma with large punctures, lesser on vertex and metasoma. Malar space more wide than long. Male and female slightly similar, except in the apical margin of clypeus, supraclipeal area, and color of the pubescence on legs and sterna; Osmia (Diceratosmia stangei n. sp. (Dominican Republic (Megachilidae is charaterized as follows: Dark metallic green, metasoma black with metallic green reflections. Pubescence light; body with large, closed punctures. Female with violet reflections in tergum III and mandible tridentate; Coelioxys (Cyrtocoelioxys alayoi n. sp. (Cuba (Megachilidae is charaterized as follows: Female black, except basal area of mandibles, tegula, legs, lateral area of tergum I and sterna, reddish brown. Posterior margin of scutellum rounded. Apex of tergum VI with spine curved up. Sternum VI fringed with short, closed setae, and the apex with short spine; Coelioxys (Boreocoelioxys sannicolarensis n. sp. (Cuba (Megachilidae is charaterized as follows: Black, except antenna and tegula brown; legs and sterna reddish brown. Clypeal margin straight in profile. Gradular grooves on metasomal terga II and III distinct medially. Fovea on metasomal tergum II of male deep and short, and Triepeolus nisibonensis n. sp. (Dominican Republic (Apidae is charaterized as follows: Dorsal pubescence (short and dense on mesosoma

  2. Masculinities studies in eastern Cuba: imaginaries significations. Estudios de masculinidades en la región oriental de Cuba: develando imaginarios. Estudios de masculinidades en la región oriental de Cuba: develando imaginarios.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Regina Quaresma da Silva

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we approached a study about masculinities imaginaries significations in eastern Cuba. Firstly, we rescued relevant moments of the masculinities studies in the country and some theoretical contributions to understand the social production of the masculinities. Besides, we show the qualitative results from the groups with men.En este artículo abordamos un estudio sobre significaciones imaginarias en torno a las masculinidades en la región oriental de Cuba. Primeramente, rescatamos momentos relevantes del desarrollo de los estudios de masculinidades en el país y algunas contribuciones teóricos que consideramos necesarias para comprender la producción de las masculinidades. Presentamos, además, los resultados cualitativos que emergieron de grupos de discusión realizados con hombres.En este artículo abordamos un estudio sobre significaciones imaginarias en torno a las masculinidades en la región oriental de Cuba. Primeramente, rescatamos momentos relevantes del desarrollo de los estudios de masculinidades en el país y algunas contribuciones teóricos que consideramos necesarias para comprender la producción de las masculinidades. Presentamos, además, los resultados cualitativos que emergieron de grupos de discusión realizados con hombres.

  3. Monitoring Voeding 2001-2004. Een voorstel voor een meerjarenprogramma uit te voeren door het RIVM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ocke MC; Liem AKD; Pieters MN; LOC; CZE; CSR

    2002-01-01

    The National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) collects information within its research programme 'Food Monitoring' on exposure of the Dutch population to food components. This information is of use to Dutch food policy-making and dietary promotion activities. The current report

  4. CRED Cumulative Map of Percent Scleractinian Coral Cover at Lisianski Island, 2001-2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This map displays optical validation observation locations and percent coverage of scleractinian coral overlaid on bathymetry.

  5. Connecting NSF funding to patent innovation in nanotechnology (2001-2004)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Zan [Pennsylvania State University, Department of Supply Chain and Information Systems, Smeal College of Business (United States)], E-mail: zanhuang@psu.edu; Chen Hsinchun; Li Xin [University of Arizona, Artificial Intelligence Lab, Department of Management Information Systems, Eller College of Management (United States); Roco, Mihail C. [National Science Foundation (United States)

    2006-12-15

    Nanotechnology research has experienced growth rapid in knowledge and innovations; it also attracted significant public funding in recent years. Several countries have recognized nanotechnology as a critical research domain that promises to revolutionize a wide range of fields of applications. In this paper, we present an analysis of the funding for nanoscale science and engineering (NSE) at the National Science Foundation (NSF) and its implications on technological innovation (number of patents) in this field from 2001 to 2004. Using a combination of basic bibliometric analysis and content visualization tools, we identify growth trends, research topic distribution, and the evolution in NSF funding and commercial patenting activities recorded at the United States Patent Office (USPTO). The patent citations are used to compare the impact of the NSF-funded research on nanotechnology development with research supported by other sources in the United States and abroad. The analysis shows that the NSF-funded researchers and patents authored by them have significantly higher impact based on patent citation measures in the four-year period than other comparison groups. The NSF-authored patent impact is growing faster with the lifetime of a patent, indicating the long-term importance of fundamental research.

  6. Diferencias sociales y regionales en el ingreso laboral de las principales ciudades colombianas, 2001-2004.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Romero

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se estudian las diferencias en el ingreso laboral desde una perspectiva regional. El análisis responde a tres preguntas ¿Existen diferencias en el ingreso laboral de las principales ciudades colombianas?, ¿Que porcentaje de la desigualdad social en el ingreso laboral se puede atribuir a las diferencias regionales? y ¿Cuál es el costo social de tener un mercado laboral segmentado? A la primera pregunta el articulo responde que si existen, aunque menores a las observadas cuando se controla por educación, características laborales y costo de vida. En cuanto a la segunda pregunta, una descomposición de la desigualdad en el ingreso laboral sugiere que el efecto regional es nulo. Con respecto a la última pregunta se muestra que el costo social se traduce en bajas tasas de retorno al capital humano y menor tasa de ocupación.

  7. National Status and Trends: Bioeffects Assessment Program, St Lucie Estuary Summary Database (2001-2004)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The foundation of this study was based on a sediment quality triad (SQT) approach with a probabilistic sampling design, which characterized the estuary in terms of...

  8. Role of Caffeine Intake on Erectile Dysfunction in US Men: Results from NHANES 2001-2004.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S Lopez

    Full Text Available Caffeine is consumed by more than 85% of adults and little is known about its role on erectile dysfunction (ED in population-based studies. We investigated the association of caffeine intake and caffeinated beverages with ED, and whether these associations vary among comorbidities for ED.Data were analyzed for 3724 men (≥20 years old who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES. ED was assessed by a single question during a self-paced, computer-assisted self-interview. We analyzed 24-h dietary recall data to estimate caffeine intake (mg/day. Multivariable logistic regression analyses using appropriate sampling weights were conducted.We found that men in the 3rd (85-170 mg/day and 4th (171-303 mg/day quintiles of caffeine intake were less likely to report ED compared to men in the lowest 1st quintile (0-7 mg/day [OR: 0.58; 95% CI, 0.37-0.89; and OR: 0.61; 95% CI, 0.38-0.97, respectively], but no evidence for a trend. Similarly, among overweight/obese and hypertensive men, there was an inverse association between higher quintiles of caffeine intake and ED compared to men in the lowest 1st quintile, P≤0.05 for each quintile. However, only among men without diabetes we found a similar inverse association (Ptrend = 0.01.Caffeine intake reduced the odds of prevalent ED, especially an intake equivalent to approximately 2-3 daily cups of coffee (170-375 mg/day. This reduction was also observed among overweight/obese and hypertensive, but not among diabetic men. Yet, these associations are warranted to be investigated in prospective studies.

  9. The forest health monitoring national technical reports: examples of analyses and results from 2001-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark J. Ambrose; Barbara L. Conkling; Kurt H. Riitters; John W. Coulston

    2008-01-01

    This brochure presents examples of analyses included in the first four Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) national technical reports. Its purpose is to introduce the reader to the kinds of information available in these and subsequent FHM national technical reports. Indicators presented here include drought, air pollution, forest fragmentation, and tree mortality. These...

  10. AFSC/ABL: Lynn Canal Echo-Integrated Trawl Surveys, 2001-2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The acoustic trawl database for Lynn Canals echo-trawl survey was conducted from 2001 to 2004 throughout southern Lynn Canal in southeast Alaska. Acoustic surveys...

  11. "Time-Based Paintings": Jeremy Blakes Winchester Trilogy (2001-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teine, Sonja

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarah Winchester, heiress of the rifle fortune, felt that she was cursed by the spirits of the ones who had been killed by the Winchester rifles. She sought out spiritualists who told her to move west and build a house: The sounds of construction should ward off the ghosts. Thus in 1884 she moved to San Jose, purchased a farm house and immediately began spending her $20 million inheritance on renovating the house, with work continuing 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, 365 days a year for the next 38 years. Construction only stopped on the Winchester Mystery House upon her death in 1922, when the workers immediately stopped building. It is now a Disney-like tourist attraction with guided tours through the oddities of the 160-chamber-mansion built in victorian style.Jeremy Blake, a young american artist living in Los Angeles, was fascinated by this story and used it as the basis of one of his latest art works called The Winchester Trilogy. The essay shows how Blake created a multimedia video-sound-installation, which equally enthralls and repells its audience with amazing colors and disturbing pictures. Blake dispensed with plot, instead he put emphasis on our visual memory, which is influenced by the many cowboy-, horror- and wild west Hollywood-movies. Thus the Winchester Trilogy not only is an amazing piece of contemporary art but it is also a statement about the american myth of freedom, which has to be protected by the power of weapons.

  12. CRED Cumulative Map of Percent Scleractinian Coral Cover at Maro Reef, 2001-2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This map displays optical validation observation locations and percent coverage of scleractinian coral overlaid on bathymetry.

  13. Predictors of favorable results in pulmonary tuberculosis treatment (Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil, 2001-2004).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassaki, Cinthia Midori; Scatena, Lucia Marina; Gonzales, Roxana Isabel Cardozo; Ruffino-Netto, Antonio; Hinos, Paula; Villa, Tereza Cristina Scatena

    2010-06-01

    Based on data available in the Information System for Notifiable Diseases, predictive factors of favorable results were identified in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis, diagnosed between 2001 and 2004 and living in Recife-PE, Brazil. Uni- and multivariate logistic regression methods were used. In multivariate analysis, the following factors remained: Age (years), 0 to 9 (OR = 4.27; p = 0.001) and 10 to 19 (OR = 1.78; p = 0.011), greater chance of cure than over 60; Education (years), 8 to 11 (OR = 1.52; p = 0.049), greater chance of cure than no education; Type of entry, ne wcase s (OR = 3.31; p abandonment; Time (months) 2, 5--6 (OR = 9.15; p < 0.001); 6--9 (OR = 27.28; p < 0.001) and More than 9 (OR = 24.78; p < 0.001), greater chances of cure than less than 5; Health Unit District, DSII (OR = 1.60; p = 0.018) and DSIIV (OR = 2.87; p < 0.001), greater chance sof cure than DS II.

  14. Raptor Necropsy Data from the Moon Lake Electric Company Service Area (Utah and Colorado), 2001 - 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The data are the results of clinical necropsies of raptors and ravens done in cooperation with pathologists at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital and Diagnostics...

  15. Teenage smoking in pregnancy and birthweight: a population study, 2001-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Denise L; Sullivan, Elizabeth A

    2008-04-07

    To determine the association between smoking in pregnant teenagers and baby birthweight. A retrospective population-based study of women aged teenage smokers was 9.9%, compared with 6.0% in babies born to teenage non-smokers (odds ratio [OR], 1.72 [95% CI, 1.57-1.90]). On average, babies born to teenage smokers were 179.8 g lower in birthweight than babies born to teenage non-smokers (95% CI, 165.5 -194.1 g; t = 24.6, P 1.3; P Teenagers smoking > 10 cigarettes a day had babies with lower birthweight that those who smoked relationship. The babies of teenage smokers who stopped smoking before 20 weeks' gestation had birthweights similar to those of babies born to teenage non-smokers. One in 15 teenage smokers stopped smoking during pregnancy. Babies whose mothers smoked during pregnancy were more likely to have LBW than babies whose mothers did not smoke. Mothers who continue to smoke in the second half of pregnancy increase their baby's risk of LBW. There is significant scope to improve the quitting rate, and health professionals need to target smoking cessation at all contacts with pregnant women who continue to smoke.

  16. Especies nuevas del género Gibberula (Mollusca: Cystiscidae de Cuba y Venezuela New species of the genus Gibberula (Mollusca: Cystiscidae from Cuba and Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Espinosa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Se describen 3 especies nuevas de moluscos marinos: Gibberula palmasola sp. n., recolectada en la vegetación asociada a rocas rodeadas de sedimentos blandos en una laguna costera cercada por mangle en la península de Guanahacabibes, Cuba, y caracterizada por presentar, el animal vivo, la cabeza negra y una distribución típica de bandas negras y pardas con lunares anaranjados en el manto bajo la concha; Gibberula dosmosquises sp. n., recolectada en fondos rocosos del Caribe insular de Venezuela, se caracteriza por una discreta coloración del manto y un patrón de manchas en el pie, y Gibberula thetisae sp. n, proveniente de los pastos marinos del golfo de Batabanó, Cuba, con 3 pliegues en la columela, el último muy débil, y un labio externo casi cortante, caracteres que permiten separarla de todas las demás especies conocidas en el área antillana, aunque se desconozca la anatomía del animal. Se discute la lista de especies válidas del género para Cuba y Venezuela, y se hacen adiciones y consideraciones al complejo de especies en torno a Gibberula ubitaensis Espinosa y Ortea, 2000.Three new species of marine molluscs are described. Gibberula palmasola new species, collected in vegetation associated with rocks surrounded by soft sediments in a coastal lagoon surrounded by mangroves in Guanahacabibes Peninsula, Cuba, and characterized by a black head and typical distribution of black and brown bands and orange spots in the mantle. Gibberula dosmosquises new species, collected in rocky bottoms of a Caribbean island from Venezuela, characterized by a simple staining in the mantle and a pattern of spots on the foot, and Gibberula thetisae new species, from sea grass in the gulf of Batabano, Cuba, with shell having 3 columellar folds, the last very weak, and a sharp outer lip; although, its anatomy is not known, these conchological characters separate it from all other known species in the Antilles. Aditionally, the list of valid species

  17. Drilling horizontal wells from the coast to reach offshore heavy oil pool, Puerto Escondido field, Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puentes, G.E.; Alvarez, R.R. [Cubapetroleo, Havana, (Cuba); Marrero, F.M. [Ministry of Basic Industry, Havana, (Cuba)

    1999-11-01

    A series of vertical oil wells were drilled in the Puerto Escondido field in Cuba as part of an oil exploration program in the 1970s. The drilling of well PE-3 in 1992 revealed that the field contained one of the most significant oil finds in the western region of Cuba. Due to the fractured nature of the reservoir, it was determined that future wells should be drilled using horizontal drilling technology to increase hydrocarbon recoveries, and to maintain high production rates. The first horizontal well was successfully drilled in April, 1997. Four other wells were drilled by September 1998. This paper briefly described the drilling techniques used.

  18. [Relationship between antophyte foliar morphology and abiotic factors in the main rainforests of Eastern Cuba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada, Eddy Martínez

    2009-01-01

    Relationship between antophyte foliar morphology and abiotic factors in the main rainforests of Eastern Cuba. The foliar morphology of representative antophytes in four rainforest types of Eastern Cuba was studied in relation to the main abiotic factors. Although there are several leaf types in these forests, the microphyll type is the most important among endemic species in the ophiolites complex and the Montane rainforest. At the Lowland rainforest (metamorphic complex) the mesophyll leaf was the most important. Most foliar epidermis had structures normally found in mesomorphic plants, but xeromorphic and higromorphic morphologies were also present.

  19. The genus Loxosceles Heineken & Lowe (Araneae: Sicariidae) in Cuba and Hispaniola, West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Alexander Sánchez; Brescovit, Antonio D

    2013-10-30

    The three known species of the genus Loxosceles Heineken & Lowe from Cuba and Hispaniola are revised and two new species, Loxosceles maisi sp. nov. and Loxosceles mogote sp. nov., are described from the eastern region of Cuba. These new species are included in the reclusa group, and are considered close to Loxosceles taino Gertsch & Ennik as they have a greatly thickened male palpal tibia, a projecting cymbium, and large receptacles in the female genitalia. The distribution ranges of the known Cuban and Hispaniolan species are extended.

  20. Reading the Revolution: Where Has the Literature Taken Us in Understanding Cuba?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Kapcia

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available – Cuba. A New History, by Richard Gott. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2004. – The Cuban Revolution. Past, Present and Future Perspectives, by Geraldine  Lievesley. Houndmills, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004. – People’s Power. Cuba’s Experience with Representative Government, by Peter  Roman. (Updated edition Lanham, Boulder, New York, Toronto, Oxford:  Rowman & Littlefield Publishers Inc.  – Cuba. A Revolution in Motion, by Isaac Saney. Black Point, Nova Scotia: Fernwood Books; London: Zed Books, 2003.

  1. Felicidades en el Día de la Veterinaria en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Chan

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available El 24 de marzo de 1961 fue escogido para homenajear a los veterinarios en Cuba en recordación de la firma de la Resolución 254 del Consejo de Ministros de la República de Cuba , la que unificó todos los servicios veterinarios del país en los Servicios Veterinarios Revolucionarios, primera organización estatal dedicada a la atención gratuita de animales de cría y mascotas

  2. Científicos españoles exiliados en Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Alted Vigil, Alicia; González Martell, Roger

    2002-01-01

    The first part of this article studies the internal situation in Cuba in the 1930's as well as the links between Spanish exiles and the Cuban cultural and academical institutions. It goes on with a review of the exiled scientists that used the island as a temporary residence. The last part offers an analysis of the professional life and main scientific contributions of those scientists who chose to remain in Cuba: Gustavo Pittaluga, Luis Amado-Blanco, Pedro Domingo Sanjuan, Javier Fernández d...

  3. Una batalla ganada: la eliminación de la poliomielitis en Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Enrique Beldarraín Chaple

    2015-01-01

    La poliomielitis fue introducida en Cuba a finales del siglo XIX por norteamericanos residentes en Isla de Pinos. Las primeras epidemias ocurrieron en 1906 y 1909, aumentaron en intensidad entre 1930-1958. El objetivo del artículo es reconstruir la historia de la enfermedad y sus epidemias en Cuba hasta 1961, de la primera Campaña Nacional de Vacunación Antipolio (1962) y de sus resultados, bien como analizar la continuidad de las campañas anuales de vacunación hasta la certificación de su el...

  4. The Hydraenidae of Cuba (Insecta: Coleoptera) III. Description of two new hygropetric species of Hydraena Kugelann.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deler-Hernández, Albert; Fikáček, Martin; Delgado, Juan A

    2017-04-07

    Two new species of the genus Hydraena Kugelann, 1794 collected from hygropetric habitats in eastern Cuba are described: Hydraena (Hydraenopsis) blancae sp. nov. from the Nipe-Sagua-Baracoa mountain range, and Hydraena (Hydraenopsis) matthiasi sp. nov. from the Sierra Maestra mountain range. Both species, especially the latter, are closely related to Hydraena (Hydraenopsis) franklyni Deler-Hernández & Delgado, 2012. Diagnostic characters for both new species are provided and illustrated; habitat information and distributional data are also included. An updated key to Cuban species of Hydraena is provided. With this study, the number of species of Hydraena known from Cuba raises to six.

  5. Política, ethos social e identidad en la cuba contemporánea

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    La persistencia del modelo político cubano es paradójica al analizarla sobre e! transfondo de extrema penuria económica, pérdida de apoyo internacional y presiones en aumento de parte de los Estados Unidos y la oposición anticastrista fuera de Cuba. No obstante las circunstancias internacionales adversas que debió enfrentar Cuba tras la caída de la Unión Soviética -su principal fuente de apoyo económico- el gobierno revolucionario logró mantenerse en e! poder. Los autores analizan las condici...

  6. Cuba y la revolución en el siglo XXI

    OpenAIRE

    Robles Rivera, Francisco; Saxe-Fernández, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    El presente ensayo intenta explorar los procesos económicos, políticos y sociales ocurridos en la década de mil novecientos noventa en Cuba. El análisis de estos procesos intenta explicar la victoria de la Revolución cubana sobre los procesos de globalización neoliberal, impuestos en América Latina. Se abordan, también, las temáticas en torno al papel de Cuba en los nuevos procesos políticos latinoamericanos, la salida de Fidel Castro del gobierno y el papel de la gente joven en la consolidac...

  7. Política, ethos social e identidad en la cuba contemporánea

    OpenAIRE

    Sznajder, Mario; Roniger, Luis

    2010-01-01

    La persistencia del modelo político cubano es paradójica al analizarla sobre e! transfondo de extrema penuria económica, pérdida de apoyo internacional y presiones en aumento de parte de los Estados Unidos y la oposición anticastrista fuera de Cuba. No obstante las circunstancias internacionales adversas que debió enfrentar Cuba tras la caída de la Unión Soviética -su principal fuente de apoyo económico- el gobierno revolucionario logró mantenerse en e! poder. Los autores analizan las condici...

  8. Cuba: transición, sucesión, estabilidad, seguridad

    OpenAIRE

    Joaquín ROY

    2009-01-01

    Este análisis trata de la relación entre la estabilidad del presente gobierno cubano y la necesidad de seguridad en su territorio y en la zona circundante. Este vínculo se produce en un momento político de Cuba, entre un primer paso de la sucesión de Fidel Castro a Raúl, sin que se den señales claras de una transición hacia otro tipo de sistema político. Mientras tanto, el gobierno de Estados Unidos ha declarado que su prioridad estriba en el reestablecimiento de la democracia en Cuba, tanto ...

  9. Hotel and tourism development in Cuba : opportunities, management challenges and future trends

    OpenAIRE

    Cerviño, Julio; Cubillo Pinilla, José María

    2005-01-01

    In the past ten years, Cuba has recorded the highest rate of growth in tourism arrivals of all Caribbean countries to become the third most popular tourism destination in the Caribbean region and the second destination in the region for Europeans. In the process, tourism has become Cuba’s most lucrative sector. Based on in-depth interviews with senior executives of Cuban and foreign international hotel chains operating on the island and desk research in and outside Cuba, it appears that the b...

  10. Diseño y desarrollo de un sistema de información geográfica para la gestión de la información geológica y geofísica de Cuba nororiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Rodríguez-Infante

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available La información geológica y geofísica generada por el Departamento de Geología durante más de 25 años se encontraba dispersa en formato analógico, en diversos informes de investigación, tesis doctorales, de maestría y de diploma, fundamentalmente. Esta situación hacía muy trabajoso el manejo y utilización de esta información durante el desarrollo de las investigaciones que se llevan a cabo en el territorio nororiental de Cuba. En este trabajo se exponen los resultados del diseño y desarrollo de un SIG en la región nororiental de Cuba, en el cual se almacenan los principales datos geológicos y geofísicos de esta región. Con el mismo se logra generalizar e interpretar dicha información, obteniéndose nuevas regularidades geológicas, que enriquecen el conocimiento geológico 

  11. Diseño por simulación de un sistema híbrido eólico fotovoltaico para una vaquería en Cuba//Design by simulation of a PV Wind hybrid system for an isolated dairy farm in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Werner-de Dios-Ortega

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se diseñó por simulación un sistema híbrido eólico-fotovoltaico de producción de energía eléctrica, para una vaquería aislada de la red eléctrica en Cuba. Las variables meteorológicas usadas fueron medidas durante un año. Estas son el punto de partida para la simulación usando el software HOMER (Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable. Como resultado de la simulación HOMER muestra en una tabla de resultados con la combinación de todas las posibles variantes, ordenadas usando el capital inicial (Initial Capital. Combinando criterios técnico-económicos como el costo de la energía y la demanda insatisfecha se seleccionó la variante que mejor se ajusta a las necesidades de la vaquería.Palabras claves: sistema híbrido eólico-fotovoltaico, simulación, electrificación rural, HOMER._______________________________________________________________________________AbstractIn this article a design by simulation of a wind-photovoltaic hybrid system for an off-grid dairy in Cuba was made. The meteorological variables used were measured during one year. These are the starting point for the simulation using the software HOMER (Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable. As a result of the simulation HOMER displays a table of results with the combination of all possible variants, sorted using the initial capital (Initial Capital. Combining technical and economic criteria as the cost of energy and the unmet load a variant was selected that best fits to the dairy needs.Key words: hybrid wind-photovoltaic, simulation, rural electrification, HOMER.

  12. Guerra y violencia durante la revolucion de independencia de Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Antonio Landavazo, Marco

    2008-01-01

    .... El proposito de este trabajo es entonces realizar una primera aproximacion al tema de la violencia colectiva durante la guerra de independencia de Mexico, a partir de una propuesta de caracterizacion...

  13. Diez consejos para prevenir infecciones durante el embarazo

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-12-14

    Este podcast ofrece 10 consejos para prevenir infecciones durante el embarazo.  Created: 12/14/2007 by National Center for Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 2/27/2008.

  14. Stroke incidence and risk factors in Havana and Matanzas, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llibre-Guerra, J C; Valhuerdi Cepero, A; Fernández Concepción, O; Llibre-Guerra, J J; Gutiérrez, R F; Llibre-Rodriguez, J J

    2015-10-01

    Cerebrovascular disease is the third-leading cause of death and the second-leading cause of disability and dementia. Determine stroke incidence and risk factors in a population of adults aged 65 and over in Cuba (Havana and Matanzas). This prospective longitudinal study, completed between April 2008 and Abril 2011, re-evaluated 2916 elderly adults with an average follow-up time of 4 years. Cases included 2316 living subjects and 600 verbal autopsies. Study variables were age, sex, educational level, self-reported health, and description of chronic diseases and substance abuse. Laboratory tests included genotyping APOE. Stroke was diagnosed based on the World Health Organization definition. We calculated the global incidence rate for stroke, broken down by sex, age group, and risk factors for incident stroke. Stroke incidence was 786.2 in 100000 persons/year (95% CI: 672.3-906.4). History of alcohol consumption (HR: 3.5; 95% CI: 3.3-3.7), dementia (HR: 3.0; 95% CI, 1.6-5.5) and male sex (HR: 1.8; 95% CI, 1.2-2.8) were shown to be risk factors for incident stroke. Stroke incidence was similar to rates reported in developed countries and lower than that in low- to middle-income countries. Given that diabetes mellitus, heart disease, arterial hypertension, smoking, APOE4, etc. are associated with higher mortality rates, they will require separate analysis in a study of stroke risk factors. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Graham Greene and Cuba: Our man in Havana?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hulme

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Graham Greene’s novel Our Man in Havana was published on October 6, 1958. Seven days later Greene arrived in Havana with Carol Reed to arrange for the filming of the script of the novel, on which they had both been working. Meanwhile, after his defeat of the summer offensive mounted by the Cuban dictator, Fulgencio Batista, in the mountains of eastern Cuba, just south of Bayamo, Fidel Castro had recently taken the military initiative: the day after Greene and Reed’s arrival on the island, Che Guevara reached Las Villas, moving westwards towards Havana. Six weeks later, on January 1, 1959, after Batista had fled the island, Castro and his Cuban Revolution took power. In April 1959 Greene and Reed were back in Havana with a film crew to film Our Man in Havana. The film was released in January 1960. A note at the beginning of the film says that it is “set before the recent revolution.” In terms of timing, Our Man in Havana could therefore hardly be more closely associated with the triumph of the Cuban Revolution. But is that association merely accidental, or does it involve any deeper implications? On the fiftieth anniversary of novel, film, and Revolution, that seems a question worth investigating, not with a view to turning Our Man in Havana into a serious political novel, but rather to exploring the complexities of the genre of comedy thriller and to bringing back into view some of the local contexts which might be less visible now than they were when the novel was published and the film released.

  16. ¿Dominio público en Cuba?.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerbys Hernández Dorta

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available La construcción doctrinal del Dominio Público como categoría jurídica nació con la finalidad de articular un sistema de protección de las necesidades colectivas que satisfacían determinados bienes. Esta función de protección se le atribuyó al Estado, su titular. La titularidad de éste sobre los bienes de Dominio Público no podía ir acompañada de las facultades de disposición propias del derecho de propiedad. Sin embargo, la existencia dentro del Dominio Público de bienes creados por el hombre y bienes provenientes de la naturaleza dio lugar a la distinción entre el “Dominio público natural”, integrado por los recursos naturales destinados al uso común de todos, y el “Dominio público artificial”, formado por bienes de uso público construidos para dar respuesta a las necesidades del hombre. Por ello se cuestiona si constituye el Dominio Público un mecanismo de gestión ambiental en Cuba. Pudiendo determinarse que no existe una nominación de dominio público en el país y por consiguiente no se utiliza esta institución como mecanismo de protección ambiental, recomendando prestar una especial atención a este novedoso mecanismo de protección con la finalidad de su aplicación en el territorio nacional.

  17. Curvas de lactancia individuales en vacas Siboney de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Palacios Espinosa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue estudiar y modelar las curvas de lactancia individuales en vacas Siboney, comparando cuatro modelos matemáticos. En total, 31,631 registros de producción de leche del día de control (PDC de 3,697 lactancias (1 a 5 provenientes de 2,632 vacas Siboney de Cuba (5/8 Holstein 3/8 Cebú Cubano registrados mensualmente entre 1994 y 2003 se ajustaron mediante las funciones de Wood, Wilmink, Ali-Schaeffer y Polinomios de Legendre. Los parámetros se estimaron usando regresiones no lineales y la bondad de ajuste se midió mediante el coeficiente de determinación ajustado (R2A. Se obtuvieron valores de R2A > 0.75 en 23, 24, 28 y 36 % de las lactancias para los modelos de Wood, Wilmink, Ali-Schaeffer y Polinomios de Legendre, respectivamente. Los modelos de Wood y Wilmink describieron cuatro tipos de curvas; y los modelos de Ali-Schaeffer y los Polinomios de Legendre 17 y 20, de los 32 grupos teóricos posibles. Las correlaciones entre los parámetros para la función de Ali-Schaeffer fueron superiores a las estimadas para los polinomios de Legendre. Las funciones propuestas representaron las diferentes formas entre curvas de lactancia y en especial, los modelos de cinco parámetros detectaron mayor diversidad que el resto de las funciones. Esto apunta que, aunque formas adicionales pueden considerarse como derivaciones de los dos grupos clásicos de curvas típicas o atípicas, esta práctica podría comprometer la variabilidad entre curvas de lactancia en un hato, por lo que serán necesarios más estudios.

  18. Interrelationship of the terranes in western and central Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowska, Krystyna

    1993-03-01

    Present-day Cuba is a complex of terranes. In the western and central parts of the island the Sierra de los Organos and the Escambray terranes, which are genetically related, and the volcanosedimentary Cretaceous sequences of the Greater Antilles arc are distinguished. The Escambray and Sierra de los Organos massifs are terranes that were detached from their source areas near the Yucatan. A rift separating the Yucatan from the Florida-Bahama plate was involved. Separation of the Escambray sequence from that of the Sierra de los Organos took place in the Early Cretaceous along a NE-SW-trending transform fault. The Escambray sequence was transported together with the Greater Antilles island arc in front of the Farallon plate. About 80 Ma ago the volcanosedimentary Cretaceous sequence of the Greater Antilles island arc was thrust over the ophiolitic association. In this way the Zaza zone was formed. At that time some overthrusting and metamorphism took place in the Escambray massif, which was then overthrust and pressed into the Zaza zone. At about 45-50 Ma ago detachment and nappe overthrusting took place in the Sierra de los Organos and overthrust units reached the margin of the margin of the Florida-Bahama plate. Various structures are involved in the Zaza zone, including: (1) the volcanosedimentary Cretaceous sequences of the Greater Antilles arc (which is a tectonized and overthrust terrane); and (2) the ophiolitic association (the Greater Antilles arc terrane is thrust over this association). Both of these tectonic units were folded together. The Sierra de los Organos and the Escambray terranes were thrust onto the Zaza zone and then deformed together with it during later phases.

  19. Cuba and origins of the US sugar quota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dye, Alan D.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available In the history of Cuban sugar industry, the most significant institutional factor after 1930 was the export quota gained in the 1934 United States market, which has been regarded in a positive perspective. This is here re-examined in the light of later events which prove that the quota system was detrimental to the island economy, particularly in the fifties. The analysis is based on the examination of sugar companies’ stock prices which are a useful indicator of investment expectations. Finally, it is concluded that the 1934 North American quota system issued from the conviction that the tariff system applied until then was not enough to protect the domestic sugar beet production.

    El factor institucional más importante en la historia de la industria del azúcar en Cuba después de 1930 fue la cuota de exportación que obtuvo en el mercado de los Estados Unidos en 1934. Este artículo revisa las tesis que consideran ese hecho como relativamente positivo y lo hace a la luz de los acontecimientos posteriores, que muestran que dicho sistema de cuotas perjudicó a la economía insular, sobre todo en la década de 1950, y examinando los stock prices de las empresas del sector, un buen indicador de las expectativas de retorno de las inversiones. Como conclusión afirma que el reparto del consumo azucarero norteamericano entre diferentes abastecedores fue fruto de la convicción de que el instrumento arancelario usado hasta entonces para proteger a la producción remolachera interna ya no era eficaz.

  20. Risk factors for Giardia infection among hospitalized children in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, J; Núñez, F A; González, O M; Fernández, R; Almirall, P; Escobedo, A A

    2011-01-01

    The risk factors associated with Giardia infection, in children hospitalized in Havana, Cuba, were recently explored. Children aged ≥5 years were more likely to be positive for Giardia infection than the younger children, with an odds ratio (OR) of 3·41 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1·36-9·69]. The risk factors found to be associated with Giardia infection in univariate analyses were rural residence (OR = 3·01; CI = 1·23-7·35), belonging to a household that did not receive water from an aqueduct (OR = 3·27; CI = 1·21-8·91), drinking unboiled water (OR = 3·64; CI = 2·14-6·26), nail biting (OR = 3·47; CI = 1·97-6·08), eating unwashed vegetables raw (OR = 4·84; CI = 2·33-10·14), and a personal (OR = 3·23; CI = 1·58-6·59) or family history (OR = 3·96; CI = 1·53-10·47) of previous parasitic infection. In multivariate analyses, however, only two (modifiable) risk factors were found to be independently and significantly associated with Giardia infection: nail biting and eating unwashed vegetables raw. It therefore seems that, at least at the individual level, giardiasis-prevention activities in Havana should be focussed on health education to improve personal hygiene and food-related practices. If appropriately managed, the surveillance of drinking water and foodstuffs, for Giardia and other parasites, might also help to reduce the hospitalization of Cuban children.

  1. The Dimension of Sustainability in Engineering Education in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Díaz Duque

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The human species crosses one of the most complex and dangerous stages in its development. The disordered growth of the production of goods and services, the irrational and unequal consumption, as well as the inequitable distribution, without keeping in mind the limits that impose the natural resources, has placed it in the vortex of an existence crisis. Numerous they have been the contributions of the scientific and technological knowledge, but at the same time they have provoked negative enormous impacts in the natural systems. The engineering have contributed to the human development, but not in a sustainable way. The main objectives of the present work consist in to identify the sustainability demands for the engineering and to specify the key aspects in the formation of the engineers to contribute to the sustainable development of the society. In consequence, it is proposed the Decalogue of the sustainability for the engineering and it is presented an outline for the implementation of the sustainability dimension in engineering education. Finally the Cuban situation is analyzed in this respect and it is proposed the step to a new cycle of improvement of the plans and study programs, with the transformation of the professional’s model based on the sustainability problems.How to reference this articleDíaz Duque, J. A. (2015. La Dimensión de la Sostenibilidad en la Enseñanza de las Ingenierías en Cuba. Foro de Educación, 13(19, 241-262. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.14516/fde.2015.013.019.011

  2. Jurassic-Cretaceous Composite Total Petroleum System and Geologic Assessment of Oil and Gas Resources of the North Cuba Basin, Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) World Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geologically based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the world. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed an assessment of the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the North Cuba Basin. The assessment is based on the geologic elements of the total petroleum system (TPS) defined in the province, including petroleum source rocks (source-rock maturation, generation, and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and petroleum traps (Trap formation and timing). Using this geologic framework, the USGS defined a Jurassic-Cretaceous Total Petroleum System in the North Cuba Basin Province. Within this TPS, three assessment units were defined and assessed for undiscovered oil and gas resources.

  3. El Sistema de Control Interno para el Perfeccionamiento de la Gestión Empresarial en Cuba (Internal Control System for the Improvement of Corporate Governance in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinaidys Gómez-Selemeneva

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Resumen En el presente trabajo se realiza un estudio sobre los antecedentes del control interno empresarial, caracterizando el mismo en Cuba y exponiendo los principales postulados para la gestión del cambio empresarial y su aplicación. Así mismo se describe el proceso de cambio para la implementación del control interno en una organización. Abstract In this study we examine the history of corporate internal control in order to characterize it in Cuba and to expose the main tenets for business change management and implementation. It also describes the process of change for the implementation of internal control in an organization.

  4. Clave de identificación para larvas del orden Ephemeroptera presentes en Cuba Key for the identification of larvae of Ephemeroptera from Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dany D. González-Lazo

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Por primera vez se ofrece una clave para la identificación taxonómica de las especies de Ephemeroptera registradas en Cuba. La clave permite la identificación de las 6 familias, los 12 géneros y 32 de las 34 especies que habitan en la Isla. La presente clave constituirá una herramienta sistemática para los estudios de biodiversidad de las efímeras en el archipiélago cubano.A dichotomous key is given for the first time for the taxonomical identification of the species of Ephemeroptera recorded from Cuba. The key allows the identification of the 6 families, 12 genera and 32 of the 34 species that inhabit this country. The present key will constitute an important systematic tool for the study of biodiversity of mayflies in the Cuban archipelago.

  5. Atención estomatológica a niños y adolescentes durante el año 1999 en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amado Rodríguez Calzadilla

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un análisis descriptivo de los datos estadísticos al nivel nacional sobre los resultados de la atención estomatológica a niños y a adolescentes de 0 a 18 años de edad. Se enfatizó acerca de las actividades de promoción, prevención, diagnóstico precoz y tratamiento oportuno. Se estableció una clasificación para valorar el grado de salud bucal alcanzado en la población beneficiaria que se divide en niños y adolescentes saludables, moderadamente saludables y no saludables. Se describe un método sencillo y fácil de manejar, lo cual permite establecer una valoración cuantitativa del estado de salud de esta población y medir el efecto que tiene sobre esta el Programa Nacional de Atención Estomatológica Integral a la población.A descriptive analysis of the statistical data on the results of dental care to children and adolescents aged 0-18 at the national level is made. Emphasis is given to the activities of promotion, prevention, early diagnosis and timely treatment. A classification is established to assess the oral health degree achieved by population the receiving the benefits from this service. It is divided into healthy, moderately healthy and unhealthy children and adolescents. A simple and easy to manage method is described that allows to establish a quantitative assessment of the health status of the population and to determine the effect the National Program of Comprehensive Dental Care has on the population.

  6. Marcadores epidemiológicos de cepas de Neisseria meningitidis aisladas en Cuba durante el período 1985 a 1992.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Martínez

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Genotypic markers, that give a more complete information on the epidemiology of meningococcal disease (MD and complement the characterization obtained with the other traditional markers, are used to study the genetic variability and population structure of Neissseria meningitidis strains isolated in outbursts and epidemics. The epidemiological follow-up of the disease is an important task carried out by Finlay Institute. For this purpose 91 epidemic strains isolated from 1985 to 1992 were studied. The identification by genus, species and serogroups was carried out by conventional techniques and, for the classification in sero/subtypes, a whole-cell ELISA with monoclonal antibodies (AcMs was used. Sensitivity and resistance against penicillin, chloramphenicol, sodium sulphadiazine, ciproflaxin, rifampin and ceftriaxone and the study of 14 enzymes obtained from strain lysates was carried out for the first time in our country. Among the Cuban strains 26 electrophoretic types (ETs were found with complexes ET-5 (67,0% and A4 (3,3% prevailing. Only serogroup B was detected with predominance of serotypes 4 (67,0% and 15 (27,5%, together with subtypes P1.15, P1.10 and P1.16. Moderate. susceptibility (MS to penicillin and resistance (R to sodium sulphadiazine were respectively of 80,0 and 42,8%. All strains were sensitive to the rest of the drugs.

  7. La deforestación de la Isla de Cuba durante la dominación española : (1492-1898)

    OpenAIRE

    Jordán Reyes, Miguel

    2006-01-01

    Las nuevas tendencias historiográficas abren un camino hacia la llamada Historia Ambiental; esta toma como centro la interdependencia del ser humano con el medio natural y se distancia de las visiones antropocéntricas de la Historia. La Historia Ambiental nace como una rama de la Historia Económica, aunque sus relaciones entre Historia y Naturaleza la hace específica y diferenciada de los procesos económicos normales que evalúan principalmente los procesos productivos agrícolas, la evoluc...

  8. La Sanidad en la Isla de Cuba durante la Colonización Española. Periodo: 1700-1850.

    OpenAIRE

    Salvador y Vázquez, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    La infraestructura sanitaria de La Habana y del resto de las ciudades cubanas fue desastrosa en el siglo XVIII. Las calles de la capital estaban polvorientas en épocas de seca y enlodadas continuamente en tiempos de lluvia. Para evitar estos perjuicios se volcaban sobre las vías más transitadas carretones de cascajos que pronto eran removidos a causa de la humedad subyacente y el tráfico de carros pesados procedentes del muelle o del matadero. Por si esto fuera p...

  9. La Sanidad en la Isla de Cuba durante la Colonización Española. Periodo: 1700-1850.

    OpenAIRE

    Salvador y Vázquez, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    La infraestructura sanitaria de La Habana y del resto de las ciudades cubanas fue desastrosa en el siglo XVIII. Las calles de la capital estaban polvorientas en épocas de seca y enlodadas continuamente en tiempos de lluvia. Para evitar estos perjuicios se volcaban sobre las vías más transitadas carretones de cascajos que pronto eran removidos a causa de la humedad subyacente y el tráfico de carros pesados procedentes del muelle o del matadero. Por si esto fuera p...

  10. Management, treatment and advantage of municipal wastes in CUBA; Modelo para la gestion, tratamiento y aprovechamiento de residuos urbanos en Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, E.; Lopez, M.; Rovirosa, N.; Travieso, L. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas CNIC. Cuba (Cuba); Garcia-Morales, J. L. [Universidad de Cadiz (Spain)

    1999-07-01

    This release proposes, in base to the accumulated technological experience, a procedure that facilitates a maximum advantage of the urban waste (solid urban waste and residual urban waters) in Cuba. The procedure is based, in first term, in organizing people in order to promote a selective system of picking up of the urban waste in two fractions; Biodegradable wastes and Residuals not Biodegradable. (Author) 9 refs.

  11. Politics, social ethos and identity in contemporary Cuba Política, ethos social e identidad en la cuba contemporánea

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The resilience of the Cuban political model appears paradoxical against the backdrop of extreme economic hardship, loss o foreign support and increasing pressure by the United States and the anti-Castro opposition. Notwithstanding adverse global circumstances following the demise of the Soviet Union -its main source of economic support- the Cuban revolutionary government has managed to hold onto power. In this paper the authors analyze the conditions under which Cuba has remained committee to...

  12. Politics, social ethos and identity in contemporary Cuba Política, ethos social e identidad en la cuba contemporánea

    OpenAIRE

    Sznajder, Mario; Roniger, Luis

    2010-01-01

    The resilience of the Cuban political model appears paradoxical against the backdrop of extreme economic hardship, loss o foreign support and increasing pressure by the United States and the anti-Castro opposition. Notwithstanding adverse global circumstances following the demise of the Soviet Union -its main source of economic support- the Cuban revolutionary government has managed to hold onto power. In this paper the authors analyze the conditions under which Cuba has remained committee to...

  13. Insectos asociados con flores de malezas del Jardín Botánico de Santiago de Cuba, con énfasis en Hymenoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. Fernández T.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron los insectos visitantes en flores de nueve especies de malezas del Jardín Botánico de Santiago de Cuba, Cuba Oriental, durante 1993 (marzo a junio, en primavera y 1994 (enero a marzo, final del invierno y comienzo de la primavera. Se contabilizaron unas 50 horas de recolecta en tres horarios diferentes (0900-0930 hr en 1993; 0900-0930 hr, 1200-1230 hr y 1500-1530 hr en 1994. Se identificaron más de 140 especies y por lo menos 37 familias; Hymenoptera fue el orden mejor representado (con más de la mitad de los individuos rerecolectados, seguido de Diptera, Coleoptera y Lepidoptera. Dentro de Hymenoptera las abejas (Apoidea fueron mayoritarias, especialmente Apis mellifera L.; seguidas de avispas (Vespidae, Pompilidae, Sphecidae e icneumónidos (Ichneumonidae; los microhimenópteros no se recolectaron. Se comparó la himenopterofauna en cuanto a diversidad, similitud, especies dominantes y subdominantes, preferencia de horarios, eficiencia de los muestreos, etc. Cada especie de planta sustentó una fauna característica. Casi un tercio de los himenópteros visitantes fueron controles biológicos de plagas agrícolas, y la mayoría pueden considerarse polinizadores. Especies afines filogenéticamente presentaron patrones de actividad diaria semejante. El horario 0900 -0930 hr fue el de mayor biodiversidad en cuanto a número de especies visitantes. Al analizar el número de especies con relación al número de especímenes rerecolectados, así como el total de especies y número de muestreos realizados, las funciones de mejor ajuste fueron polinomiales de segundo grado (r² = 0.9734 y r² = 0.9573 respectivamente, p The insect visitors of flowers in nine weeds species were studied in the Botanical Garden of Santiago de Cuba, Eastern Cuba, during 1993 (March - June, spring season and 1994 (January - March, end of winter and beginning of spring season. About 50 hours of collecting efforts were made at three times (0900-0930 hr in

  14. Análisis estructural de la zona de Yaguanabo, macizo Escambray, Cuba Central, aplicando criterios macro y microtectónicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dámaso Cáceres-Govea

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Criterios macro y microestructurales han sido combinados en el estudio estructural de la zona de Yaguanabo en la cúpula de Trinidad, macizo Escambray, Cuba Central, para el análisis de las deformaciones ocurridas en el mismo y su orden cronológico. Se mapearon foliaciones, fallas, ejes de pliegues, lineaciones minerales y grietas, y se estudiaron indicadores cinemáticos y oliaciones, en secciones delgadas orientadas. Se muestra la existencia de los napes: Monforte, con rocas metamorfizadas en alta presión, La Sierrita y Yaguanabo, con un metamorfismo en la facie de esquistos verdes. Se han revelado tres foliaciones de carácter dúctil S1, S2 y S3 y un clivaje de fractura más tardío, S4. Afectaron el área cuatro fases de deformación con plegamiento (D1-4 y una fase D5 donde predominan las estructuras disyuntivas. Las fases D1-2 se asocian a un proceso de subducción que generó el metamorfismo del nape Monforte. La Sierrita y Yaguanabo penetraron a menores profundidades en la zona de subducción y se metamorfizaron en la facie de esquistos verdes. Durante la fase D3 se produce la superposición de napes en un régimen de colisión-exhumación. Se forma además, un pliegue kilométrico con vergencia noreste, coincidente con los movimientos tectónicos revelados por otros indicadores. La fase D4 se caracteriza por pliegues abiertos de plano axial vertical, en una etapa más avanzada de la exhumación, donde además se forman las cúpulas. Durante D5 se forman fallas transcurrentes diestras y fallas normales que afectan a todos los napes del área.

  15. CUBA Y LA TRANSICIÓN POLÍTICA: TAN CERCA Y... TAN LEJOS. REFLEXIONES 2009 SOBRE EL FUTURO POLÍTICO EN CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Manuel RODRÍGUEZ ARECHAVALETA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Partiendo de una revisión teórica de autores fundamentales sobre democratizaciones en la tercera ola, el artículo intenta analizar los escenarios del poder actual en Cuba, tanto formales como informales, la singularidad institucional y los posibles reacomodos en la nueva élite política cubana. Asumimos la premisa de que la sociedad civil y la presión exterior no han logrado impactos relevantes en estos años; por tanto, nuestra unidad de observación será la composición de la élite política a partir de la estructura del régimen, las reglas electorales y el diseño institucional, y la definición de actores cuyas decisiones e interacciones puedan afectar los resultados políticos futuros; por tanto, intentamos formalizar las interacciones estratégicas de Raúl y la oposición moderada para valorar el potencial de negociación de una transición política en Cuba. Entonces, ¿es posible una alianza entre reformistas moderados en el gobierno y una oposición moderada en Cuba que permita una transición política?

  16. Cuba y la transición política: tan cerca y... tan lejos. Reflexiones 2009 sobre el futuro político en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Manuel RODRÍGUEZ ARECHAVALETA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Partiendo de una revisión teórica de autores fundamentales sobre democratizaciones en la tercera ola, el artículo intenta analizar los escenarios del poder actual en Cuba, tanto formales como informales, la singularidad institucional y los posibles reacomodos en la nueva élite política cubana. Asumimos la premisa de que la sociedad civil y la presión exterior no han logrado impactos relevantes en estos años; por tanto, nuestra unidad de observación será la composición de la élite política a partir de la estructura del régimen, las reglas electorales y el diseño institucional, y la definición de actores cuyas decisiones e interacciones puedan afectar los resultados políticos futuros; por tanto, intentamos formalizar las interacciones estratégicas de Raúl y la oposición moderada para valorar el potencial de negociación de una transición política en Cuba. Entonces, ¿es posible una alianza entre reformistas moderados en el gobierno y una oposición moderada en Cuba que permita una transición política?

  17. Gestión Integral en Puentes de carretera en la República de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis R. González Arestuche

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El logro de la seguridad en la circulación automotora es el problema básico a resolver en el proceso de conservación de la red de carreteras, partiendo de los aspectos que se vinculan con su explotación. Durante los diferentes movimientos de los vehículos, cada conductor precisa contar con las posibilidades técnicas de su equipo en cuanto a velocidad y capacidad de carga, tratando de realizar las operaciones con un gasto mínimo de tiempo, medios materiales y financieros, y con las mejores condiciones de confort y seguridad. El confort y seguridad del sistema de redes estará en función del estado técnico de la carretera en estudio y del sistema de gestión para su conservación. La premisa fundamental para la organización del servicio de mantenimiento, reparación y/o reconstrucción del sistema de carreteras, incluyendo sus puentes, se determinará atendiendo a los datos extraídos del inventario de toda la red vial existente en el territorio nacional. Para disponer de una Base de Datos confiable, que recoja con fiabilidad el estado técnico de la red vial y los puentes de carretera, se precisa de la combinación de las técnicas de inspección, levantamiento de patologías y diagnóstico del estado técnico de dicha red y sus puentes, unido a las técnicas de modelación e instrumentación que permitan realizar una correcta evaluación y un diagnóstico eficaz, además de contar con un excelente sistema de gestión de conservación en función del grado de deterioro de la red vial y de todos sus elementos componentes, incluyendo sus puentes. Este tipo de estudio y enfoque permite validar, con mayor grado de efectividad, las causas que propician el estado técnico del sistema vial y de los puentes de las carreteras, y a su vez posibilita realizar proyectos de rehabilitación, fiables y eficientes desde el punto de vista técnico. La República de Cuba en la actualidad sigue enfrentando la escasez de recursos materiales y financieros

  18. Cristian-Vanessa un cultivar de aguacate tardío para las condiciones de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Jiménez Villasuso

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN El trabajo se llevó acabo en la Unidad Científico Tecnológica de Base (UCTB Alquízar, adscripta al Instituto de Investigaciones en Fruticultura Tropical (IIFT, ubicada en la provincia de Artemisa, situada a los 22°77'45'' de latitud Norte y a los 82°56'28'' de longitud Oeste y a 6.80 m. s. n. m. Se realizó un estudio sobre 100 árboles de aguacate de diferentes grupos ecológicos propagados por semillas durante 7 años, teniendo en cuenta como variables principales: porte del árbol, tamaño de los frutos, época de cosecha y nivel de producción, plantados sobre un suelo Ferrasol Rhodic. Con los resultados de esta evaluación se seleccionó este cultivar, posteriormente se injertó sobre árboles a los que se le realizó el cambio de copas en el Banco de Yemas de UCTB y luego evaluar su comportamiento, mediante el descriptor IPGRI para el cultivo del aguacate, evaluándose 20 variables cuantitativas y 30 cualitativas de los frutos, además se determinó el crecimiento y la producción en kg/árbol en tres años de cosecha. Con los resultados obtenidos, se establecieron 25 árboles en el 2010 en la práctica productiva, en tres localidades del país: Güines, Pinar del Río y Jagüey Grande para determinar su comportamiento. El objetivo de este trabajo consistió en caracterizar y proponer un cultivar tardío de aguacate, para suplir los meses de enero-febrero, con lo cual se alargaría el período de cosecha de este frutal en el país y que al mismo tiempo reúna las exigencias de consumo nacional y para la exportación. Cristian-Vanessa a cultivar of late avocado for the Cuba conditions ABSTRACT The work was carry out in the Scientific Technological of Base Unit (UCTB Alquízar, of the Research Institute of Investigations in Tropical Fruit (IIFT, located in the province of Artemisa, put to the 22°77 " 45 "" of north latitude and to the 82°56 " 28 "" of west longitude and to 6.80 m. s. n. m. It carried out to him a study on 100

  19. Elementos a considerar en la proyección de sistemas de riego en suelos con tendencia al sobrehumedecimiento y la salinización en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greco Cid Lazo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En Cuba las áreas bajo riego abarcan casi todo el espectro de suelos presentes en el país, incluyendo áreas considerables de suelos con arcillas deformables (SAD que tienen la tendencia al sobre humedecimiento y la salinización debido al lento movimiento del agua que los caracteriza por la presencia de arcillas del tipo 2:1, este tipo de arcillas son las responsables de los procesos de contracción-dilatación y los signos de hidromorfía que en ellos aparecen. Los SAD se localizan en su mayoría en zonas con balance hídrico deficitario durante algunos meses del año, lo que hace que para el desarrollo de una agricultura estable en la misma sea necesario el riego, esto a su vez implica, dado las dificultades para el movimiento del agua que imponen las características antes citadas, un cuidadoso manejo del riego. En el trabajo se exponen algunos criterios que deben ser considerados en el manejo del riego y el drenaje en los SAD, así como algunas prácticas agrícolas asociadas.

  20. Estrés psicosocial laboral en embarazadas del sector de la salud de Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba 2005-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de Lourdes Marrero

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Evaluar el nivel el nivel de estrés psicosocial laboral según los modelos demanda-control de la tensión laboral y desbalance esfuerzo-recompensa; y determinar asociaciones entre el estrés psicosocial laboral y trastornos del embarazo. Materiales y métodos. Estudio de cohorte prospectivo con 78 trabajadoras embarazadas del sector de la salud, en un municipio de la ciudad de La Habana, Cuba, en el periodo 2005-2006. Las encuestadas respondieron una versión al español del Job Content Questionnaire y del Effort Reward Imbalance Questionnaire. Resultados. Las trabajadoras embarazadas refirieron alta tensión laboral y reconocieron que su trabajo les generaba altas demandas psicológicas, así mismo consideran su trabajo como de alto esfuerzo extrínseco y baja recompensa, que es la razón de una mayor probabilidad de generar estrés laboral según este modelo. La amenaza de parto pretérmino, de aborto y el tiempo de trabajo durante el embarazo están relacionados con un mayor estrés laboral. Conclusiones. Existe un elevado nivel de estrés laboral en las trabajadoras del sector salud de ciudad de La Habana.