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Sample records for cuba dominican republic

  1. Intimate Encounters: Affective Economies in Cuba and the Dominican Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia L. Cabezas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on research in Cuba and the Dominican Republic this paper explores the uses of intimacy in both the corporate sector and in romantic relationships. I use research with hotel workers and with people involved in sexual-affective exchanges connected to tourism to link intimacy to the political economic structures of transnational tourism. These are new spaces of analysis that present practices of transnational corporategenerated intimacy that combine love – or the exploitation of worker’s emotions − and labour. The central aim is to intertwine the intimate with the global, from the formal customer service policies of transnational hotels with the informal, on-the-ground, intimate encounters between tourists and hospitality workers. The commercialization of intimacy, including sexual-affective relations in the delivery of hospitality services, is linked to political and economic processes that are part of transnational tourism practices. This paper challenges the notion that sex tourism and sex work are individualistic practices that exist outside of the spaces of corporate global profit. It further posits that relationships where money is exchanged are not necessarily devoid of care and intimacy.Resumen: Encuentros íntimos: economías afectivas en Cuba y República Dominicana A partir de investigaciones en Cuba y la República Dominicana, este trabajo explora los usos de la intimidad, tanto en el sector empresarial como en las relaciones románticas. Se hicieron investigaciones entre trabajadores de hostelería y personas involucradas en el intercambio afectivosexual relacionado con el turismo con el fin de vincular la intimidad de las estructuras políticoeconómicas del turismo transnacional. Estos son nuevos espacios de análisis que las prácticas de las empresas transnacionales generan por el uso de la intimidad que combinan el amor – o la explotación de las emociones del trabajador – y la mano de obra. El objetivo central

  2. Critical metals (REE, Sc, PGE) in Ni laterites from Cuba and the Dominican Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aiglsperger, T.; Proenza, J. A.; Lewis, J. F.; Labrador, M.; Svojtka, Martin; Rojas-Purón, A.; Longo, F.; Ďurišová, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 73, March 01 (2016), s. 127-147 ISSN 0169-1368 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Caribbean * Cuba * Dominican Republic * Falcondo mining area * Moa Bay mining area * Ni laterite * Platinum Group Elements * Rare Earth Elements * Scandium Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 3.095, year: 2016

  3. Differential Vulnerability to Hurricanes in Cuba, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic: The Contribution of Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelheid Pichler

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The possible impacts of the level of formal education on different aspects of disaster management, prevention, alarm, emergency, or postdisaster activities, were studied in a comparative perspective for three countries with a comparable exposure to hurricane hazards but different capacities for preventing harm. The study focused on the role of formal education in reducing vulnerability operating through a long-term learning process and put particular emphasis on the education of women. The comparative statistical analysis of the three countries was complemented through qualitative studies in Cuba and the Dominican Republic collected in 2010-2011. We also analyzed to what degree targeted efforts to reduce vulnerability were interconnected with other policy domains, including education and science, health, national defense, regional development, and cultural factors. We found that better education in the population had clear short-term effects on reducing vulnerability through awareness about crucial information, faster and more efficient responses to alerts, and better postdisaster recuperation. However, there were also important longer term effects of educational efforts to reduce social vulnerability through the empowerment of women, its effect on the quality of institutions and social networks for mutual assistance creating a general culture of safety and preparedness. Not surprisingly, on all three accounts Cuba clearly did the best; whereas Haiti was worst, and the Dominican Republic took an intermediate position.

  4. Race and nation in the Dominican Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel Baud

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Coloring the Nation: Race and Ethnicity in the Dominican Republic. DAVID HOWARD. Oxford: Signal; Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 2001. x + 227 pp. (Paper US$ 19.95 Race and Politics in the Dominican Republic. ERNESTO SAGAS. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2000. xii + 161 pp. (Cloth US$ 49.95, Paper US$ 24.95 Peasants and Religion: A Socioeconomic Study of Dios Olivorio and the Palma Sola Movement in the Dominican Republic. JAN LUNDIUS & MATS LUNDAHL. London: Routledge, 2000. xxvi + 774 pp. (Cloth US$ 135.00 The social and political relations between the Dominican Republic and Haiti, and especially their racial and ethnic contents, are extremely difficult to approach in an even- handed and unbiased way. Much ink has been spilled over the conflictive relations between these two countries, and on race relations in the Dominican Republic. Much of what has been said must be considered unfounded or biased, not to mention sensationalist. The books under review try to pro vide new insights into the issue and at the same time to steer clear of these problems.

  5. TAX EXPENDITURES IN THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC

    OpenAIRE

    Glenn Jenkins; Chun-Yan Kuo

    2004-01-01

    This paper takes a broad approach in the sense that only the fundamental structure elements of each tax system are considered as part of the benchmark tax system. Moreover, this paper will go beyond the traditional tax expenditure reporting by taking into account an ideal tax system with minor distortions as part of the benchmark. Because of having an ideal tax system as a norm, the report makes some judgments about the appropriateness of the ideal tax structure in the Dominican Republic and ...

  6. Renewable energy projects in the Dominican Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viani, B.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes a US/Dominican Republic program to develop renewable energy projects in the country. The objective is to demonstrate the commercial viability of renewable energy generation projects, primarily small-scale wind and hydropower. Preliminary studies are completed for three micro-hydro projects with a total capacity of 262 kWe, and two small wind power projects for water pumping. In addition wind resource assessment is ongoing, and professional training and technical assistance to potential investors is ongoing. Projects goals include not less than ten small firms actively involved in installation of such systems by September 1998.

  7. Culture care meanings, beliefs, and practices in Rural Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Gretchen

    2010-04-01

    This ethnonursing study explored the meanings, beliefs, and practices of care for rural Dominicans in the Dominican Republic. Leininger's culture care diversity and universality theory, ethnonursing, and four-phase analysis method guided the study. Interviews were conducted with 19 general and 10 key informants. Analysis of interviews revealed three main themes: (a) family presence is essential for meaningful care experiences and care practices, (b) respect and attention are central to the meaning of care and care practices, and (c) rural Dominicans value and use both generic (folk) and professional care practices. Implications and recommendations for nursing practice, education, and research are described.

  8. Area Handbook Series: Dominican Republic and Haiti: Country Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    state) gover- nors appointed by president; municipalities (counties) governed by elected mayors and municipal councils. Politics: Following...Bibliography.) 73 Chapter 3. Dominican Republic: The Economy yj The Plaza del Mercado , Puerto P/a,, ca. 18(73 LONG DEPENDENT ON SUGAR, the Dominican...tribunal and courts of appeal. Justices of the peace exist in each municipality and in the National District. The Constitu- tion also mandates a court

  9. Association between embB mutations and ethambutol resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from Cuba and the Dominican Republic: reproducible patterns and problems Asociación entre las mutaciones en embB y la resistencia a etambutol en aislamientos de Mycobacterium tuberculosis de Cuba y República Dominicana: patrones y problemas reproducibles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elba Guerrero

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The relation of ethambutol resistance to embB mutations remains unclear, and there are no reports on ethambutol resistance from the Caribbean. We examined the sequence of embB in 57 distinct Multi-Drug Resistant (MDR and non-MDR strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, mostly from Cuba and the Dominican Republic. embB306 codon mutations were found exclusively in MDR-TB, but in both ethambutol sensitive and resistant strains. Valine substitutions predominated in ethambutol resistant strains, while isoleucine replacements were more common in sensitive strains. Three ethambutol resistant MDR strains without embB306 substitutions had replacements in embB406 or embB497, but these were also found in ethambutol sensitive MDR strains. The results confirm previous findings that amino acid substitutions in EmbB306, EmbB406 and EmbB497 are found only in MDR-TB strains but in both phenotypically resistant and sensitive strains. One ethambutol resistant non-MDR strain did not have any embB mutation suggesting that other undefined mutations can also confer ethambutol resistance.La relación entre resistencia a etambutol y mutaciones en embB no se ha establecido claramente y no existen comunicaciones sobre la resistencia a etambutol en cepas provenientes de países Caribeños. Se evaluó la secuencia del gen embB en 57 cepas de Mycobacterium tuberculosis multi-drogo resistentes (MDR y no-MDR, la mayoría aislada en Cuba y República Dominicana. Se encontraron mutaciones en el codón embB306 exclusivamente en cepas MDR, tanto en cepas sensibles como resistentes a etambutol. Tres cepas MDR resistentes a etambutol, sin sustituciones en embB306, tenían mutaciones en los codones embB406 o embB497, pero estos cambios se encontraron también en cepas sensibles. Los resultados confirman otros estudios, mostrando que sustituciones aminoacídicas en EmbB306, EmbB406 y EmbB497 se encuentran exclusivamente en cepas MDR, tanto resistentes como sensibles a etambutol

  10. Wave Analysis Study for the Punta Catalina Jetty, Dominican Republic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røge, Mads Sønderstrup; Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Burcharth, Hans Falk

    This report deals with a two-dimensional test study to identify the largest significant wave height, the maximum wave height and the largest crest level along the Punta Catalina jetty in the Dominican Republic. The scale used for the model tests was 1:50. Unless otherwise specified all values given...

  11. Mycena sect. Hygrocyboideae in the mountains of the Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Jean Lodge; B.A. Perry; D.E. Desjardin

    2004-01-01

    A collection of Mycena epipterygia from montane cloud forest in the Dominican Republic was found to have one-fourth to one-half monosporous basidia mixed with bisporous basidia. It is described as a new variety, M. epipterygia var. domingensis Lodge, differing from M. epipterygia var. epipterygioides and other two-spored varieties in having smaller dimensions of spores...

  12. Radiopharmaceutical therapy in Dominican Republic. Present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johny Osvaldo de los Santos

    2005-01-01

    Full text: In this paper we present experience in Dominican Republic on Radiopharmaceutical Therapy. In our country, there are 8 Center with Nuclear Medicine Department. Only, 7 centers are working with Radiopharmaceutical Therapy. Radioiodine treatment with I-131 in Thyroid diseases(Thyroid Cancer and Hyperthyroidism). This is only Nuclear Medicine therapy available in Dominican Republic. The objectives of this paper are to analyze and assess the difficulties and facilities for the development of Radiopharmaceutical Therapy in Dominican Republic. We made surveys with the help of Nuclear Medicine Physicians of different Nuclear Medicine departments. 8 Nuclear Physicians accepted the interview. Two of these Nuclear Medicine Centers are Department of a Cancer Center and they have many patients for therapies. In the majority opinion of Physicians, Cost of Radiopharmaceuticals is principal problem to use Therapy in Dominican Republic. In addition the following problems were identified: Lack of awareness about new therapy in Nuclear Medicine among Physicians of other specialties, lack of adequate training in the current trends of radionuclide therapy and finally lack of basic infrastructure, equipment and finances to buy radiopharmaceuticals and introduce radionuclide therapy. For this reason, Nuclear Medicine Centers prefer to work with only I-131 Therapy and they do not have new programs to start other therapies. In the near future, our department of Nuclear Medicine will work with I-131, pain palliation, treatment of metastatic disease and Treatment of benign diseases. We have interest in offering other therapies in the department and we hope that other departments with more resources, have the same interest, to enhance practice of radionuclide therapy in our country. (author)

  13. Rayleigh wave group-velocity across the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico from ambient noise tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiros, D.; Pulliam, J.; Polanco Rivera, E.; Huerfano Moreno, V. A.

    2017-12-01

    The eastern North America-Caribbean (NA-CAR) plate boundary near the islands of Hispaniola (which is comprised of the Dominican Republic and Haiti) and Puerto Rico is a complex transition zone in which strain is accommodated by two transform fault systems and oblique subduction. In 2013, scientists from Baylor University, the Autonomous University of Santo Domingo, and the Puerto Rico Seismic Network deployed 16 broadband stations on the Dominican Republic to expand the local permanent network. The goal of the Greater Antilles Seismic Program (GrASP) is to combine its data with that from permanent networks in Puerto Rico, Haiti, Cuba, the Cayman Islands, and Jamaica to develop a better understanding of the crust and upper mantle structure in the Northeastern Caribbean (Greater Antilles). One important goal of GrASP is to develop robust velocity models that can be used to improve earthquake location and seismic hazard efforts. In this study, we focus on obtaining Rayleigh wave group velocity maps from ambient noise tomography. By cross-correlating ambient seismic noise recorded at 53 stations between 2010 to present, we obtain Green's functions between 1165 pairs of stations. From these, we obtain dispersion curves by the application of FTAN methods with phase-matched filtering. Selection criteria depend on the signal-to-noise ratio and seasonal variability, with further filtering done by rejecting velocities incompatible with maps produced from overdamped tomographic inversions. Preliminary dispersion maps show strong correlations with large-scale geological and tectonic features for periods between 5 - 20 s, such as the Cordillera Central in both the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico, the Mona Passage, and the NA-CAR subduction zone. Ongoing efforts focus on including shorter periods in Puerto Rico as its denser station distribution could allow us to retrieve higher resolution group velocity maps.

  14. Capacity-Building Programs Under the Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States signed the Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR) in August 2004 with five Central American countries (Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua) and the Dominican Republic.

  15. Evolution and classification of Elaphoglossum and Asplenium ferns on Cuba, and discovery of a Miocene Elaphoglossum in Dominican amber

    OpenAIRE

    Lóriga Piñero, Josmaily

    2018-01-01

    This dissertation deals with the systematics and evolution of Neotropical ferns of the genera Elaphoglossum and Asplenium, with particular focus on the species of Cuba and the West Indies. It also includes an analysis and description of an Elaphoglossum frond fragment preserved in Miocene Dominican amber. The worldwide genera Elaphoglossum with 600 species and Asplenium with 685 species are the most species-rich groups of leptosporangiate ferns. On Cuba, Elaphoglossum has 34 species and Asple...

  16. Decontamination gives an brachytherapy installation in the Oncological Institute Dr. Heriberto Pieter, Sacred Domingo, Republic Of the Dominican Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valconi, G.; Sbriz, L.; Prendes, M.; Jova, L.

    1998-01-01

    The work refers of the process carried out by the Cuban and Dominican experts for the decontamination process in the local located destined to the brachytherapy applications in the Oncological Hospital Dr. Heriberto Pieter in Santo Domingo, of the Dominican Republic

  17. Protecting paradise: tourism and AIDS in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, S; Hasbún, J; Butler de Lister, M

    1998-09-01

    This study summarizes results from six data collection instruments administered to tourists, hotel workers, and commercial sex workers (CSWs) in the Dominican Republic (D.R.). The objective of this study was to assess: 1. how HIV/AIDS may affect tourism; 2. how tourists are likely to react to prevention campaigns; and 3. how tourism may affect the spread of HIV/AIDS. It was found that an overwhelming proportion of tourists did not consider the prevalence of HIV to be a factor when making their travel plans, and that most did not consider themselves at greater risk of becoming infected while on holiday than when they were at home. This study determined that the spread of HIV/AIDS was unlikely to affect the demand for tourism services in the D.R. The study also found that most tourists would respond positively to an HIV/AIDS prevention campaign and would not be discouraged from visiting the D.R. because of such campaigns. Those most receptive to prevention efforts were also those who felt they were at highest risk, according to study data. Finally, it was determined that while most tourists probably do not engage in high risk activities, there were some male and female tourists who do engage in sexual encounters with multiple Dominican CSWs and hotel employees. These encounters represent a risk to the health and economic development of the D.R., as well as to tourists and their other sexual partners. Based on these findings, it is recommended that in order to minimize the potential social and economic impact of HIV/AIDS in the D.R., prevention messages need to reach a number of groups which have not yet been adequately targeted. These groups include tourists, with a special emphasis on 'sex tourists', and hotel employees, with a special emphasis on entertainment staff.

  18. Follow-up measles campaign in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-01

    The Dominican Republic conducted a national follow-up measles vaccination campaign 6 weeks after sustaining heavy damage from Hurricane Georges, on November 6-12, targeting 830,517 children aged 9 months to 5 years in 29 provinces and the capital city. This campaign was the first mass vaccination effort in the country, following the beginning of the decentralized delivery of health services. Priority was given to vaccinating against diphtheria, whooping cough, and tetanus, especially in refugee camps. More than 500,000 vaccines were given to different age groups, with almost 100,000 of those immunized under 5 years old. Children aged 9 months to 5 years were targeted for immunization regardless of their vaccination status. At the same time, children aged 2 months through 2 years were immunized against poliomyelitis. Vaccination activities were continued until the entire target population was reached and no important side effects have thus far been reported. The government of Mexico donated 300,000 doses of measles vaccine, while other vaccines for the campaign were acquired through the PAHO Revolving Fund for Vaccine Procurement. The decentralized implementation of this campaign allowed the population to actively participate and the resulting high vaccination coverage rates.

  19. The HIV/AIDS Epidemic in the Dominican Republic: Key Contributing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Patria; Malow, Robert; Ruffin, Beverly; Rothe, Eugenio M; Rosenberg, Rhonda

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews HIV/AIDS epidemiological data and recent research conducted in the Dominican Republic, with a focus on explaining the variability in estimated seroincidence and prevalence within the country. HIV seroprevalence estimates range from 1.0% (in the general population) to 11.0% among men who have sex with men (MSM). Some have indicated that the highest HIV seroprevalence occurs in Haitian enclaves called bateyes (US Agency for International Development [USAID], 2008), which are migrant worker shantytowns primarily serving the sugar industry in the Dominican Republic. Others report higher or comparable rates to the bateyes in areas related to the tourism and sex industries. As in other Caribbean and Latin American countries, reported HIV transmission in the Dominican Republic is predominantly due to unprotected heterosexual sex and the infection rate has been increasing disproportionally among women. The Dominican Republic represents two thirds of the Hispaniola island; the western one third is occupied by Haiti, the nation with the highest HIV prevalence in the western hemisphere. Although data is limited, it shows important differences in seroprevalence and incidence between these two countries, but commonalities such as poverty, gender inequalities, and stigma appear to be pivotal factors driving the epidemic. This article will discuss these and other factors that may contribute to the HIV epidemic in the Dominican Republic, as well as highlight the gaps in the literature and provide recommendations to guide further work in this area, particularly in the role of governance in sustainable HIV prevention.

  20. The New Roles of the Dominican Armed Forces in the Dominican Republic National Security Plan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arias, Jose D

    2007-01-01

    ... in the 2005 National Security Plan. The resulting analysis provides a basis for determining what the new roles of the Dominican Armed Forces and the National Police should be for the 21st century...

  1. Visiting the Republic of Cuba: An Experience to Remember.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Geraldine

    2015-01-01

    A few years ago, I was privileged to visit the Republic of Cuba as a summer vacation. Officially, this Spanish island is the largest island in the Caribbean, with more than 12 million people. It is only second as being most populous after Hispaniola with its people, culture and customs. Havana is the capital and Cuba's largest city. The United States lies to the immediate north only about 95 miles away, and the Bahamas and Mexico to the west, the Cayman Islands and Jamaica are on the southern end, and Haiti and the Dominion Republic are in the southeastern area. The history of this island is truly amazing. I was able to vist a hospital, and ride public transportation (bus). The trip was made at the time when Cuba was not open to travelers coming direct from the United States. I traveled to Montreal, Canada to board Cabana Arlines to Havana, Cuba.

  2. 77 FR 15397 - Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement; Notice of Determination...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... lack thereof denied workers their rights under the laws of the Dominican Republic relating to freedom of association, the right to organize, child labor, forced labor, the right to bargain collectively... (``submissions'') regarding labor law matters in Central America and the Dominican Republic. A Federal Register...

  3. The New Policy on Higher Education of the Government of the Dominican Republic: Some Descriptive and Evaluative Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escala, Miguel Jose

    The purpose of this report is to analyze a new higher education policy adoped by the Dominican Republic in Decree 1255 of 1983, "Regulations for Private Higher Education." Geographical, historical, and political characteristics of the Dominican Republic are described, and theoretical and methodological considerations in the study of…

  4. 76 FR 41857 - Petition Under Section 302 on Alleged Expropriations by the Dominican Republic; Decision Not To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... Expropriations by the Dominican Republic; Decision Not To Initiate Investigation AGENCY: Office of the United... (``Section 301'') with respect to alleged expropriations without adequate compensation by the Government of... expropriations without adequate compensation by the Government of the Dominican Republic. The petition states...

  5. Some Economic Determinants of Haitian Migration to the Dominican Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Lundahl

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Este ensayo identifica algunos de los principales factores económicos tras la migración de trabajadores rurales haitianos a la República Dominicana. Sobre el trasfondo de las deplorables condiciones de vida y de trabajo enfrentadas por los trabajadores a su llegada, algunas teorías económicas sobre la decisión de migrar son esbozadas y las características de los trabajadores haitianos, de acuerdo a estudios de campo, son presentadas. Después de esto se resume la información más importante en relación con la pobreza rural en Haití y se presenta una explicación basada en la interacción entre crecimiento poblacional y erosión de la tierra, haciendo énfasis en los aspectos de la pobreza relacionados con el ciclo de vida. El ensayo concluye con una aplicación del modelo de migración de Harris-Todaro sobre los datos empíricos. English: The essay identifies some key economic factors behind the migration of Haitian agricultural workers to the Dominican Republic. Against the background of the deplorable working and living conditions facing the workers on their arrival, some economic theories of the migration decision are sketched and the characteristics of the Haitian workers, as they emerge from field studies, are presented. Thereafter the most important information with respect to rural poverty in Haiti is summarized and an explanation that runs in terms of the interaction between population growth and soil erosion is presented and the life-cycle aspects of poverty are highlighted. The essay concludes with an application of the Harris-Todaro model of migration to the empirical data.

  6. Tobacco use in the Dominican Republic: understanding the culture first.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozier, A M; Ossip-Klein, D J; Diaz, S; Chin, N P; Sierra, E; Quiñones, Z; Dye, T D; McIntosh, S; Armstrong, L

    2006-06-01

    To conduct formative research on the landscape of tobacco use to guide survey and subsequent intervention development in the Dominican Republic (DR). Rapid Assessment Procedures, systematic qualitative methods (participant-observations, in-depth interviewing, focus groups) using bilingual mixed age and gendered teams from the United States and DR. Over 160 adults (men and women), ages 18 to 90 years, current, former and never smokers, community members and leaders from six underserved, economically disadvantaged DR communities. Key domains: tobacco use patterns and attitudes; factors affecting smoking initiation, continuation, quitting; perceived risks/benefits/effects of smoking; and awareness/effects of advertising/regulations. Perceptions of prevalence varied widely. While "everybody" smokes, smokers or ex-smokers were sometimes difficult to find. Knowledge of health risks was limited to the newly mandated statement "Fumar es prejudicial para la salud" [Smoking is harmful to your health]. Smokers started due to parents, peers, learned lifestyle, fashion or as something to do. Smoking served as an escape, relaxation or diversion. Quit attempts relied on personal will, primarily for religious or medical reasons. Social smoking (custom or habit) (lifestyle choice rather than a vice or addiction. Out of respect, smokers selected where they smoked and around whom. Health care providers typically were reactive relative to tobacco cessation, focusing on individuals with smoking related conditions. Tobacco advertising was virtually ubiquitous. Anti-tobacco messages were effectively absent. Cultures of smoking and not smoking coexisted absent a culture of quitting. Systematic qualitative methods provided pertinent information about tobacco attitudes and use to guide subsequent project steps. Integrating qualitative then quantitative research can be replicated in similar countries that lack empirical data on the cultural dimensions of tobacco use.

  7. African Journals Online: Syrian Arab Republic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic, Congo, Republic, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Curaçao, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Arab Rep.

  8. An Island Drifting Apart. Why Haiti is mired in poverty while the Dominican Republic forges ahead

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frankema, E.H.P.; Masé, A.

    2014-01-01

    The 2010 earthquake in Haiti has exposed the extreme vulnerability of a society where the state and the economy simultaneously fail to deliver. The Dominican Republic has witnessed several phases of rapid economic growth since the 1870s and, from the 1970s onwards, a sustained process of political

  9. An Island Drifting Apart. Why Haiti is mired in poverty while the Dominican Republic forges ahead

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frankema, E.H.P.; Masé, A.

    The 2010 earthquake in Haiti has exposed the extreme vulnerability of a society where the state and the economy simultaneously fail to deliver. The Dominican Republic has witnessed several phases of rapid economic growth since the 1870s and, from the 1970s onwards, a sustained process of political

  10. An Island Drifting Apart : Why Haiti mires in poverty while the Dominican Republic forges ahead

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frankema, E.H.P.; Masé, A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The 2010 earthquake in Haiti has exposed the extreme vulnerability of a people living in a country where the state and the economy simultaneously fail to deliver. Haiti’s neighbor, the Dominican Republic, has witnessed several phases of strong economic growth since the 1870s and an

  11. Tuberculosis patients in the Dominican Republic face severe direct and indirect costs and need social protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mauch, V.M.C.; Melgen, R.; Marcelino, B.; Acosta, I.; Klinkenberg, E.; Suarez, P.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine direct and indirect costs incurred by new, retreatment, and multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) patients in the Dominican Republic before and during diagnosis, and during treatment, to generate an evidence base and formulate recommendations. METHODS: The "Tool to

  12. Paradise in the dark: Dominican Republic, holiday island; Paradies im Dunkeln: Ferieninsel Dominikanische Republik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, J.

    2004-05-01

    The contribution describes travels through the Dominican Republic, where electric power is often failing and renewables are hard to spot. (orig.) [German] 'All inclusive' ist das Motto der Ferieninsel Dominikanische Republik. Nicht immer inklusive ist allerdings Strom und schon gar nicht aus erneuerbaren Energiequellen. Tagebuch einer Reise durch ein Land, in dem es an Energie fehlt. (orig.)

  13. Medical mission to dominican republic: one dermatology group?s experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Atif; Peine, Steven

    2013-01-01

    The intents of this article are to share our experiences during a medical mission in the Dominican Republic and to provide the reader with a cross-sectional view of conditions seen and an overview of interesting and challenging cases encountered. We also discuss treatments and techniques used and share lessons learned. 2013.

  14. International petroleum agreements : Republic of Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Foreign investment in the oil and gas sector has had a profound impact on the development of crude oil production in Cuba. In 1982, in order to encourage economic development, the Cuban government adopted a form of Production Sharing Contract (PSC) for international petroleum agreements. In 1990, the first PSC was negotiated with a consortium of European companies. This was followed in 1992 through 1994 with companies from Canada, Europe and Latin America. Then in 1995, a more comprehensive foreign investment law was enacted to further encourage foreign investment in Cuba. Onshore and shallow water regions of Cuba were divided into 45 blocks, 19 of which were under licence in 2001. In addition, in 1999 the government of Cuba offered 53 blocks in the deep water zones of the Cuban sector of the Gulf of Mexico to foreign investment, of which 6 are already under licence. Most exploration for oil and gas since 1991 has been carried out by foreign companies. Crude oil production in 1991 totalled 11,000 bopd of heavy oil production from the north coast of Cuba. By 2001, domestic crude oil production increased to more than 50,000 bopd, mostly due to foreign investment in exploration and development. This paper described the model form for Cuban Production Sharing Contracts with reference to parties, rights granted, terms, relinquishments, minimum exploration commitments, discovery of hydrocarbons and recovery of petroleum operation expenses. The paper also discussed gross production, cost recovery for contractors, and sharing of profits with contractors and the state oil company, CubaPetroleo. 1 fig

  15. High depth, whole-genome sequencing of cholera isolates from Haiti and the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sealfon, Rachel; Gire, Stephen; Ellis, Crystal; Calderwood, Stephen; Qadri, Firdausi; Hensley, Lisa; Kellis, Manolis; Ryan, Edward T; LaRocque, Regina C; Harris, Jason B; Sabeti, Pardis C

    2012-09-11

    Whole-genome sequencing is an important tool for understanding microbial evolution and identifying the emergence of functionally important variants over the course of epidemics. In October 2010, a severe cholera epidemic began in Haiti, with additional cases identified in the neighboring Dominican Republic. We used whole-genome approaches to sequence four Vibrio cholerae isolates from Haiti and the Dominican Republic and three additional V. cholerae isolates to a high depth of coverage (>2000x); four of the seven isolates were previously sequenced. Using these sequence data, we examined the effect of depth of coverage and sequencing platform on genome assembly and identification of sequence variants. We found that 50x coverage is sufficient to construct a whole-genome assembly and to accurately call most variants from 100 base pair paired-end sequencing reads. Phylogenetic analysis between the newly sequenced and thirty-three previously sequenced V. cholerae isolates indicates that the Haitian and Dominican Republic isolates are closest to strains from South Asia. The Haitian and Dominican Republic isolates form a tight cluster, with only four variants unique to individual isolates. These variants are located in the CTX region, the SXT region, and the core genome. Of the 126 mutations identified that separate the Haiti-Dominican Republic cluster from the V. cholerae reference strain (N16961), 73 are non-synonymous changes, and a number of these changes cluster in specific genes and pathways. Sequence variant analyses of V. cholerae isolates, including multiple isolates from the Haitian outbreak, identify coverage-specific and technology-specific effects on variant detection, and provide insight into genomic change and functional evolution during an epidemic.

  16. High depth, whole-genome sequencing of cholera isolates from Haiti and the Dominican Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sealfon Rachel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whole-genome sequencing is an important tool for understanding microbial evolution and identifying the emergence of functionally important variants over the course of epidemics. In October 2010, a severe cholera epidemic began in Haiti, with additional cases identified in the neighboring Dominican Republic. We used whole-genome approaches to sequence four Vibrio cholerae isolates from Haiti and the Dominican Republic and three additional V. cholerae isolates to a high depth of coverage (>2000x; four of the seven isolates were previously sequenced. Results Using these sequence data, we examined the effect of depth of coverage and sequencing platform on genome assembly and identification of sequence variants. We found that 50x coverage is sufficient to construct a whole-genome assembly and to accurately call most variants from 100 base pair paired-end sequencing reads. Phylogenetic analysis between the newly sequenced and thirty-three previously sequenced V. cholerae isolates indicates that the Haitian and Dominican Republic isolates are closest to strains from South Asia. The Haitian and Dominican Republic isolates form a tight cluster, with only four variants unique to individual isolates. These variants are located in the CTX region, the SXT region, and the core genome. Of the 126 mutations identified that separate the Haiti-Dominican Republic cluster from the V. cholerae reference strain (N16961, 73 are non-synonymous changes, and a number of these changes cluster in specific genes and pathways. Conclusions Sequence variant analyses of V. cholerae isolates, including multiple isolates from the Haitian outbreak, identify coverage-specific and technology-specific effects on variant detection, and provide insight into genomic change and functional evolution during an epidemic.

  17. 77 FR 36578 - Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement; Notice of Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ... enforcement of the GODR's laws related to freedom of association, the right to organize, child labor, forced... containing allegations of labor rights violations should specify: (a) which Dominican labor law related to... in the sugar sector their rights under the laws of the Dominican Republic relating to freedom of...

  18. Citizen or Subordinate: Permutations of Belonging in the United States and the Dominican Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaina Aber

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Dominican Republic and the United States have both experienced tensions arising from migratory flows from poorer, less stable neighbors. Until recently, both countries had constitutions which conferred citizenship by birth with very limited exceptions. Despite these similarities, their respective discourses around jus soli citizenship, particularly for the children of unauthorized migrants from the poorer neighboring countries, have manifested in different ways. The identity of the United States as a nation of immigrants has limited the success of campaigns to revoke jus soli citizenship for the children of unauthorized immigrants, but the persistent articulation of this idea as a response to illegal migration has shifted the parameters of the immigration debate. In the Dominican Republic, the historical construction of national identity and anti-Haitian discourse has led to an evolution in Dominican law which codifies already established practices that deny citizenship to children of Haitian migrants. In both cases, movements that support more inclusive understandings of societal belonging, like the DREAMers in the United States and youth movements in the Dominican Republic, may offer the most effective way of protecting universal jus soli citizenship regimes. 

  19. HIV Risk Behavior among Youth in the Dominican Republic: The Role of Alcohol and Other Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Jaccard, James; Lushin, Viktor; Martinez, Roberto; Gonzalez, Bernardo; McCarthy, Katharine

    2011-01-01

    Existing literature related to HIV in the Dominican Republic has tended to neglect the unique role of tourism areas as distinct ecologies facilitative of sexual risk behavior, particularly HIV vulnerability and transmission. Furthermore, limited attention has focused on Dominican adolescents living in close proximity to tourism areas who have become increasingly exposed to alcohol due to the expanding tourism industry in the Dominican Republic. While most previous analyses of the effects of alcohol on adolescent sexual risk behavior have focused on the transient effects of alcohol on judgment and decision making, the effects of chronic alcohol use on sexual behavior has been a neglected area of research. Our study explores the relationship between chronic alcohol use, the parent-adolescent relationship, affective factors such as self-esteem, and intentions to engage in sex. We examine the above factors within the context of tourism areas which represent a unique ecology of alcohol availability and consumption and HIV risk. We discuss implications for developing applied family-based programs to target Dominican adolescent alcohol use and sexual risk behavior in tourism areas of high alcohol exposure.

  20. Tourism Labor, Embodied Suffering, and the Deportation Regime in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Mark; Colón-Burgos, José Félix; Varas-Díaz, Nelson; Matiz-Reyes, Armando; Parker, Caroline Mary

    2018-04-17

    In this article, we use syndemic theory to examine socio-structural factors that result in heightened vulnerability to HIV infection and drug addiction among Dominican deportees who survive post-deportation through informal tourism labor. Through an ongoing NIDA-funded ethnographic study of the syndemic of HIV and problematic drug use among men involved in tourism labor in the Dominican Republic, we argue that the legal and political-economic context of the global deportation regime contributes to structural vulnerabilities among deportees in the Dominican Republic, most of whom are men with histories of incarceration in the United States and/or Puerto Rico. While Dominican laws and institutional practices work conjointly with foreign policies to reconfigure non-criminal deportees as hardened criminals unworthy of full citizenship rights, the informal tourism economy provides one of the few absorption points for male deportee labor, linking the deportation regime directly to the Caribbean tourism industry. © 2018 by the American Anthropological Association.

  1. Determinants of primary school enrollment in Haiti and the Dominican Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Gönsch, Iris

    2011-01-01

    Education is considered an important means of alleviating poverty and of improving an individual's job and earnings prospects. Nevertheless, in Haiti and the Dominican Republic school enrollment is far from complete and shows notable regional variation. This paper analyzes determinants of primary school enrollment and investigates to what extent differences in schooling are due to individual factors compared to family or community influences. Using data from the Demographic and Health Surveys...

  2. [Some aspects of the relationship between population and ecology in the Dominican Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado Billini, B A

    1974-01-01

    This article discusses problems of environmental contamination and natural resource availability and conservation in the Dominican Republic. The major environmental problem at present is fecal contamination of the soil and water as a consequence of lack of sanitary facilities and poor hygiene in the rural areas and marginal neighborhoods of cities. A variety of parasites, amoebas, and pathologic bacteria thrive in this environment and are a particular threat in densely populated urban areas. Contamination of soil and water by organic and inorganic wastes, of which Santo Domingo alone produces 1,200,000 pounds daily, is another problem that has not been resolved in the Dominican Republic or in many developed countries. Contamination of soil by fertilizers and of the coastal waters by oil and petroleum products and raw sewage are growing problems. Air pollution in the capital has increased with the number of cars and the growth of industry, adding to the seriousness of respiratory and industrial health problems. It is common to hear in discussions of the population problem of the Dominican Republic that yet unexploited resources will support a larger future population. However, the sea is becoming contaminated, the exact amounts of mineral resources are unknown, and it is unclear whether the fruits of present exploitation are being wisely invested to support future development. Vast despoliation of the mountainous forests has occurred in mining zones, threatening the rivers that flow from these areas, and deforestation caused by population pressure is another serious problem. The Dominican Republic has 318 persons/sq km compared to 47 in Latin America as a whole. It is estimated that 100% of the cultivable land will be utilized by 1985. Despite serious efforts, agricultural production has not kept pace with population growth.

  3. Perception of beekeepers about the melliferous plants from the Dry Forest of the Northwest (Dominican Republic).

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas May; Sesar Rodríguez

    2012-01-01

    The melliferous flora honey and its flowering in the subtropical dry forest area of the Northwest, of the Dominican Republic were studied. A survey of 30 local beekeepers as well as four semi-structured interviews on important plants for beekeeping were applied. Plants were scored according to their importance by observation is confirmed in the field visits bees species observed and consulted information secondary on flowering dates and features honey, secondary data, and applied the index Ja...

  4. Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Bronchial Asthma in Children in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejias, Stephanie G; Ramphul, Kamleshun

    2018-02-20

    Background Bronchial asthma is an important health problem worldwide. There is insufficient data on the prevalence of bronchial asthma among school children in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. Objective The objective of this study is to assess the prevalence of asthma and its related risk factors among school children in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. Materials and methods A cross-sectional study using a modified questionnaire was conducted in Santo Domingo among 600 children aged three to 11 eleven years. The prevalence of asthma and its associated risk factors such as birth order, family history of asthma, family history of allergy, exposure to pets at home, exposure to tobacco smoke, and source of fuel used at home were collected. The relevant data collected was analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 24.0. (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY) software. Results The prevalence of asthma was found to be 22.0%. Age, family history of asthma, family history of allergy, exposure to tobacco smoke, and birth order showed statistical significance. The source of fuel used at home, gender, and exposure to pets were not statistically significant to be considered as risk factors associated with asthma in the population studied. Conclusion With an asthma prevalence of 22.0% in the pediatric population, the Dominican Republic has one of the highest national rates of asthma in the pediatric population in Latin America. Proper education, screening, and prevention can help lower the burden of this disease economically and socially.

  5. Clinical Progress in the Management of Tetralogy of Fallot in the Dominican Republic: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, María T; Vázquez, Marietta; Canarie, Michael F; Toribio, Janet; León-Wyss, Juan

    2017-09-01

    Definitive surgical interventions for Dominican children with congenital heart disease, like those of other low- and middle-income countries, have been historically limited. We undertook review of a case series focusing on the surgical correction of complex forms of tetralogy of Fallot at a single center, CEDIMAT Centro Cardiovascular, in the Dominican Republic, over a 30-month period. According to our criteria, 43 cases were determined to be complex tetralogy of Fallot repairs from the two-year period. Besides tetralogy of Fallot, the cohort had an additional 55 anatomic anomalies that had to be addressed at the time of surgery. Median age at the time of surgery was notably 30 months, and an average of 42 months elapsed from the time of diagnosis to the time of surgery for this group. Only 33% of the cases reviewed had no hypercyanotic crises before repair. Median time to extubation for this group of patients was one day, with a three-day median length of stay in the intensive care setting. Our study importantly captures the present experience of a surgical congenital heart program that has recently transitioned from a traditional "mission model" to a now self-sustaining local practice. Both the number and the complexity of the lesions corrected in this caseload represent an advance from the level of care previously provided to children in the Dominican Republic.

  6. Social stressors, social support, and mental health among Haitian migrants in the Dominican Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie N. Kaiser

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This mixed-method study explored the social world of Haitian migrants, examining forms of social support and social stress, as well as their relationship to mental health. Among six Haitian migrant communities in the Cibao Valley of the Dominican Republic, a community-based survey (n = 127 was conducted to assess migration experiences, current stressors, mental health, and functioning. In addition, to explore perceptions and experiences of migration, social interactions, and mental health, the study drew upon in-depth interviews and free-listing activities among Haitian migrants, as well as cognitive interviews with select survey participants. Depressive, anxiety, and mental distress survey scores were associated with 1 negative social interactions (including interrogation or deportation, perceived mistreatment by Dominicans, and overcrowding and 2 lack of social support, including migrating alone. Mental distress scores were higher among women, and being married was associated with higher anxiety scores, potentially reflecting unmet social expectations. In qualitative data, participants emphasized a lack of social support, often referred to as tèt ansanm (literally meaning "heads together" in Haitian Creole or Kreyòl and roughly defined as solidarity or reciprocal social collaboration. The authors of the study propose that the practice of tèt ansanm-also termed konbit, and, in the Dominican Republic, convite-could be used as a means of facilitating positive-contact events among Haitians and Dominicans. These interactions could help counteract social stress and build social capital in settings similar to those of the study.

  7. Globalizing Occupational Therapy: Bridging Gaps in the Pediatric Care of the Dominican Republic, through Education in School-Based Occupational Therapy Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croussett, Yaritza Esthela

    2016-01-01

    In the past, many measures have been taken in the Dominican Republic to address the functional outcomes of a school-aged child with a disability. However, none of these measures have explored or addressed function within context. Under the current paradigm used in the Dominican Republic, similar to the medical model, provision of therapy services…

  8. The Agency's technical co-operation programme with Dominican Republic 1983-1993 country programme summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report contains a review of the Agency's technical co-operation activities in Dominican Republic carried out during 1983-1993. In terms of coverage and analytical depth, country programmes summaries stand somewhere midway between in-depth country programme evaluations and individual project evaluations. They attempt to provide a comprehensive, descriptive picture of the Agency's co-operation with a Member State in a manner that will be particularly useful for programming decisions. The attempt is very much to describe - largely through statistical data - not to provide independent analysis and evaluation

  9. G6PD Deficiency in an HIV Clinic Setting in the Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Julia Z.; Francis, Richard O.; Lerebours Nadal, Leonel E.; Shirazi, Maryam; Jobanputra, Vaidehi; Hod, Eldad A.; Jhang, Jeffrey S.; Stotler, Brie A.; Spitalnik, Steven L.; Nicholas, Stephen W.

    2015-01-01

    Because human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients receive prophylaxis with oxidative drugs, those with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency may experience hemolysis. However, G6PD deficiency has not been studied in the Dominican Republic, where many individuals have African ancestry. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of G6PD deficiency in Dominican HIV-infected patients and to attempt to develop a cost-effective algorithm for identifying such individuals. To this end, histories, chart reviews, and G6PD testing were performed for 238 consecutive HIV-infected adult clinic patients. The overall prevalence of G6PD deficiency (8.8%) was similar in males (9.3%) and females (8.5%), and higher in Haitians (18%) than Dominicans (6.4%; P = 0.01). By logistic regression, three clinical variables predicted G6PD status: maternal country of birth (P = 0.01) and a history of hemolysis (P = 0.01) or severe anemia (P = 0.03). Using these criteria, an algorithm was developed, in which a patient subset was identified that would benefit most from G6PD screening, yielding a sensitivity of 94.7% and a specificity of 97.2%, increasing the pretest probability (8.8–15.1%), and halving the number of patients needing testing. This algorithm may provide a cost-effective strategy for improving care in resource-limited settings. PMID:26240158

  10. A study of the dry forest communities in the Dominican Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio García-Fuentes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a floristic and phytosociological study of the dry forest communities of the Dominican Republic. A total of 69 relevés in dry forest biotopes were carried out. The samples were subsequently subjected to Detrended Correspondence Analysis for the determination and study of possible groupings. The study does not cover tree formations growing on serpentines, nor the so-called semideciduous forests, peculiar to areas with higher rainfall. A total of nine phytocoenoses were identified. The most significant results led to the description of six new phytosociological associations: Simaroubetum berteroani(thorny dry forest on coastal dunes, Phyllostylo rhamnoidis-Prosopidetum juliflorae (southern Dominican disturbed dry forest, Consoleo moniliformis-Camerarietum linearifoliae(dry forest on hard limestones, Lemaireocereo hystricis-Prosopidetum juliflorae(northern Dominican disturbed dry forest, Lycio americani-Prosopidetum juliflorae (disturbed dry forest on saline soils and Guettardo ellipticae-Guapiretum discoloris (dry forest on flat-topped hillocks in Montecristi. This is an important step forward in the phytosociological and floristic studies of the Caribbean territories.

  11. A study of the dry forest communities in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Fuentes, Antonio; Torres-Cordero, Juan A; Ruiz-Valenzuela, Luis; Lendínez-Barriga, María Lucía; Quesada-Rincón, Juan; Valle-Tendero, Francisco; Veloz, Alberto; León, Yolanda M; Salazar-Mendías, Carlos

    2015-03-01

    This paper is a floristic and phytosociological study of the dry forest communities of the Dominican Republic. A total of 69 relevés in dry forest biotopes were carried out. The samples were subsequently subjected to Detrended Correspondence Analysis for the determination and study of possible groupings. The study does not cover tree formations growing on serpentines, nor the so-called semideciduous forests, peculiar to areas with higher rainfall. A total of nine phytocoenoses were identified. The most significant results led to the description of six new phytosociological associations: Simaroubetum berteroani (thorny dry forest on coastal dunes), Phyllostylo rhamnoidis-Prosopidetum juliflorae (southern Dominican disturbed dry forest), Consoleo moniliformis-Camerarietum linearifoliae (dry forest on hard limestones), Lemaireocereo hystricis-Prosopidetum juliflorae (northern Dominican disturbed dry forest), Lycio americani-Prosopidetum juliflorae (disturbed dry forest on saline soils) and Guettardo ellipticae-Guapiretum discoloris (dry forest on flat-topped hillocks in Montecristi). This is an important step forward in the phytosociological and floristic studies of the Caribbean territories.

  12. [Elements of a better understanding and evaluation of population policy in the Dominican Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, M M

    1974-01-01

    This work has 3 objectives: to clarify the concept of population policy, to examine different theoretical approaches to the analysis of a national population policy, and to describe the origin, development, and present characteristics of the population policy of the Dominican Republic. The concept of population policy is often confused with the related concepts of responsible parenthood, family planning, and birth or population control. Population policy may be defined as a coherent group of declarations, decisions, and actions following a rational strategy which, as part of a national development plan, is formulated and implemented by the state and additional social institutions in accordance with national needs. Its final goal is the protection and development of human resources through influencing population characteristics. Although recent attempts to apply the methods of political analysis to the area of population policy all suffer from limitations, 4 frameworks which respectively look at the 3 levels of population policy (the philosophic-ideologic, the scientific, and the practical); at the division of population policy into declarations, decisions, programs, and results; at criteria for evaluating the probability of success of a population policy; and at the stages of development of population policies in dependent countries can be of assistance in understanding and evaluating the population policy of the Dominican Republic. Until 1961, the end of the Trujillo era, a pronatalist attitude predominated in the Dominican Republic, prompted in part by fears of an aggressive and densely populated Haiti sharing the same island. From 1962-66, a gradual change in attitudes began in the private sector as various groups began quiet efforts at family planning and the Dominican Association for Family Welfare was formed and became an affiliate of the International Planned Parenthood Federation. During this stage the government remained neutral or offered quiet support

  13. User's perception of the contraceptive vaginal ring: a field study in Brazil and the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, E E; Reyes, Q; Gomez, F; Portes-Carrasco, R; Faúndes, A

    1983-11-01

    The basis for this report is home interviews of users of the contraceptive vaginal ring and the pill from urban and rural clinics in 2 provinces in the Dominican Republic and clinics from 2 towns and a large city in Brazil. Dominican ring users were significantly more likely to be older than pill users, to have more schooling, and have partners with more education. 6% were illiterate and 75% had only elementary education. 1/10 of the ring users reported having had problems with insertion of the ring and 1/5 had problems removing it. It may be worthwhile to try a narrower, more flexible model that may be easier to insert and remove. 1 out of every 6 users reported vaginal odor, 1 out of 8 reported having felt the ring move in their vagina, and 1/3 were aware of the ring at some time. About 1/2 the women in each country said the ring had changed color during use, and about 1/2 of those who reported the change did not like it. It became light gray and looked dirty. Correction may improve acceptance. 10% reported having expelled the ring. Twice as many ring users reported having menstrual problems. Ring and pill users both reported headaches, vaginal discharge, menstrual pain, and increased libido. A large proportion of ring and pill users experienced decreased duration and amount of menstrual bleeding, which was seen more as a beneficial than a negative effect. The same can be said for weight gain, which was "linked" by 89% of the women in the Dominican Republic. 64% of ring users and 67% of pill users described thier respective method as good or very good. Detailed instructions should accompany the final model. They should say that it is alright for the ring to be any place within tha vagina for it to be effective.

  14. Perceived discrimination, humiliation, and mental health: a mixed-methods study among Haitian migrants in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keys, Hunter M; Kaiser, Bonnie N; Foster, Jennifer W; Burgos Minaya, Rosa Y; Kohrt, Brandon A

    2015-01-01

    Many Haitian migrants live and work as undocumented laborers in the Dominican Republic. This study examines the legacy of anti-Haitian discrimination in the Dominican Republic and association of discrimination with mental health among Haitian migrants. This study used mixed methods to generate hypotheses for associations between discrimination and mental health of Haitian migrants in the Dominican Republic. In-depth interviews were conducted with 21 Haitian and 18 Dominican community members and clinicians. One hundred and twenty-seven Haitian migrants participated in a pilot cross-sectional community survey. Instruments included culturally adapted Kreyòl versions of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and a locally developed function impairment scale. Haitian migrants described humiliation (imilyasyon) as a reason for mental distress and barrier to health care. Dominicans reported that discrimination (discriminación) was not a current social problem and attributed negative social interactions to sociocultural, behavioral, and biological differences between Dominicans and Haitians. These qualitative findings were supported in the quantitative analyses. Perceived discrimination was significantly associated with depression severity and functional impairment. Perceived mistreatment by Dominicans was associated with a 6.6-point increase in BDI score (90% confidence interval [CI]: 3.29, 9.9). Knowing someone who was interrogated or deported was associated with a 3.4-point increase in BAI score (90% CI: 0.22, 6.64). Both qualitative and quantitative methods suggest that perceived discrimination and the experience of humiliation contribute to Haitian migrant mental ill-health and limit access to health care. Future research should evaluate these associations and identify intervention pathways for both improved treatment access and reduction of discrimination-related health risk factors.

  15. Numerical tool for tsunami risk assessment in the southern coast of Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias Sanchez, J.; Llorente Isidro, M.; Ortega, S.; Gonzalez Vida, J. M., Sr.; Castro, M. J.

    2016-12-01

    The southern coast of Dominican Republic is a very populated region, with several important cities including Santo Domingo, its capital. Important activities are rooted in the southern coast including tourism, industry, commercial ports, and, energy facilities, among others. According to historical reports, it has been impacted by big earthquakes accompanied by tsunamis as in Azua in 1751 and recently Pedernales in 2010, but their sources are not clearly identified. The aim of the present work is to develop a numerical tool to simulate the impact in the southern coast of the Dominican Republic of tsunamis generated in the Caribbean Sea. This tool, based on the Tsunami-HySEA model from EDANYA group (University of Malaga, Spain), could be used in the framework of a Tsunami Early Warning Systems due the very short computing times when only propagation is computed or it could be used to assess inundation impact, computing inundation with a initial 5 meter resolution. Numerical results corresponding to three theoretical sources are used to test the numerical tool.

  16. Traumatic Experience and Somatoform Dissociation Among Spirit Possession Practitioners in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffler, Yvonne; Cardeña, Etzel; Reijman, Sophie; Haluza, Daniela

    2016-03-01

    Recent studies in African contexts have revealed a strong association between spirit possession and severe trauma, with inclusion into a possession cult serving at times a therapeutic function. Research on spirit possession in the Dominican Republic has so far not included quantitative studies of trauma and dissociation. This study evaluated demographic variables, somatoform dissociative symptoms, and potentially traumatizing events in the Dominican Republic with a group of Vodou practitioners that either do or do not experience spirit possession. Inter-group comparisons revealed that in contrast to non-possessed participants (n = 38), those experiencing spirit possession (n = 47) reported greater somatoform dissociation, more problems with sleep, and previous exposure to mortal danger such as assaults, accidents, or diseases. The two groups did not differ significantly in other types of trauma. The best predictor variable for group classification was somatoform dissociation, although those items could also reflect the experience of followers during a possession episode. A factor analysis across variables resulted in three factors: having to take responsibility early on in life and taking on a professional spiritual role; traumatic events and pain; and distress/dissociation. In comparison with the non-possessed individuals, the possessed ones did not seem to overall have a remarkably more severe story of trauma and seemed to derive economic gains from possession practice.

  17. Zika virus infection in 18 travellers returning from Surinam and the Dominican Republic, The Netherlands, November 2015-March 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijster, Janneke W.; Goorhuis, Abraham; van Genderen, Perry J. J.; Visser, Leo G.; Koopmans, Marion P.; Reimerink, Johan H.; Grobusch, Martin P.; van der Eijk, Annemiek A.; van den Kerkhof, Johannes H. C. T.; Reusken, Chantal B.; Hahné, Susan J. M.

    2016-01-01

    We report 18 cases of confirmed Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in travellers returning to the Netherlands from Surinam (South America, bordering northern Brazil) and the Dominican Republic. In a multi-centre study, we collected epidemiological, virological and clinical characteristics, as well as data

  18. Cooperative of second degree. A necessity for the development of the agricultural cooperativismo of the Dominican Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Luis Alfonso Alemán

    2015-06-01

    The same one was been of an investigation carried out with the purpose of elaborating a basic text for the program of cooperative formation that is executed in the mark of the consultantship work that is developed to the Agricultural Cooperative Project of Sustainable Development, “Toward a new Agrarian Reformation” that lidera and it coordinates the Agrarian Institute of the Dominican Republic.

  19. The genus Agaricus in the Caribbean. Nine new taxa mostly based on collections from the Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis A. ​Parra; Claudio Angelini; Beatriz Ortiz-Santana; Gerardo Mata; Christophe Billette; Carlos Rojo; Jie Chen; Philippe. Callac

    2018-01-01

    Field collections of Agaricus were collected in the Dominican Republic from 2009–2016 with the intent to evaluate the diversity in this genus, which was quasi-unknown in this country. In the same period, studies on tropical Agaricus revealed tropical clades that remained unclassified. A new taxonomic system of classification...

  20. Agreement between the Dominican Republic and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. An agreement by Exchange of Letters with the Dominican Republic to amend the Protocol to the Safeguards Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Agreement between the Dominican Republic and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. An agreement by Exchange of Letters with the Dominican Republic to amend the Protocol to the Safeguards Agreement

  1. Sistema de salud de República Dominicana The health system of Dominican Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Rathe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se describen las condiciones de salud de la República Dominicana y, con mayor detalle, el sistema de salud dominicano, incluyendo su estructura y cobertura, sus fuentes de financiamiento, el gasto en salud, los recursos físicos, materiales y humanos de los que dispone, las tareas de rectoría que desarrolla el Ministerio de Salud Pública y la generación de información. También se discuten la participación de los usuarios en la operación y evaluación del sistema de salud y las más recientes innovaciones implementadas, dentro de las que destacan la nueva Ley General de Salud, la nueva Ley de Seguridad Social y el Plan Decenal de Salud.This paper describes the health conditions in Dominican Republic and the characteristics of the Dominican health system, including its structure and coverage, its financial sources, the health expenditure, the physical, material and human resources available, the stewardship functions developed by the Ministry of Public Health and the generation of health information. The participation of health care users in the operation and evaluation of the system and the most recent policy innovations, including the new General Health Law, the new Social Security Law and the Decennial Health Plan are also discussed.

  2. Quality of housing and allergy to cockroaches in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, K C; Brenner, R J

    1996-01-01

    Fifty-one atopic asthmatic and/or allergic rhinitic children and 23 nonatopic control from Santo Domingo, the Dominican Republic, were skin tested with an extract mix of three cockroach species (Blattella germanica, Blatta orientalis, and Periplaneta americana). Sixteen percent of the atopics and none of the nonatopics demonstrated positive immediate skin reactions to the cockroach mix (chi 2 = 4.05, p = 0.04). Hypersensitivity was correlated with the quality of the homes; 22% (8/36) of the atopics who lived in a concrete home were skin test positive to the cockroach mix, while none (0/15) of the atopics who lived in a wood home were skin test positive (chi 2 = 4.86, p = 0.03). Although the incidence of cockroach allergy in this study is lower than that found elsewhere, these data support the notion that, in this tropical environment, sensitization to cockroaches is associated with housing quality.

  3. Characterizing HIV epidemiology in stable couples in Cambodia, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, and India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemaitelly, H; Abu-Raddad, L J

    2016-01-01

    Using a set of statistical methods and HIV mathematical models applied on nationally representative Demographic and Health Survey data, we characterized HIV serodiscordancy patterns and HIV transmission dynamics in stable couples (SCs) in four countries: Cambodia, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, and India. The majority of SCs affected by HIV were serodiscordant, and about a third of HIV-infected persons had uninfected partners. Overall, nearly two-thirds of HIV infections occurred in individuals in SCs, but only about half of these infections were due to transmissions within serodiscordant couples. The majority of HIV incidence in the population occurred through extra-partner encounters in SCs. There is similarity in HIV epidemiology in SCs between these countries and countries in sub-Saharan Africa, despite the difference in scale of epidemics. It appears that HIV epidemiology in SCs may share similar patterns globally, possibly because it is a natural 'spillover' effect of HIV dynamics in high-risk populations.

  4. International service learning in the Dominican Republic: An asynchronous pilot in interprofessional education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Jennifer; Pullen, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Despite the logistical barriers of asynchronous academic calendars, university students in nursing and physical therapy in one academic health centre piloted an international, interprofessional, service learning project in the Dominican Republic. Although the nursing students and physical therapy students were not able to be in-country at the same time, they provided care to a common caseload of traumatic injury patients and those with chronic, debilitating conditions. Interprofessional communication occurred with the development of SBAR (Situation, Background, Assessment, Recommendation) reports from the Team Training curriculum of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Students learned the depth of physical therapy and the breadth of nursing. The pilot led to a more refined design to pair nursing and PT students, requiring them to communicate via mobile phone regarding results of examinations, and suggestions for follow-up by the nursing students, to ensure continuity of care and a more comprehensive approach to services.

  5. Diplosmittia caribensis, a new Orthocladiinae (Diptera: Chironomidae) from the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedenbrug, Sofia; Silva, Fabio Laurindo Da

    2016-04-11

    The genus Diplosmittia was erected by Sæther (1981) based on Diplosmittia harrisoni from St. Lucia and St. Vincent in the British West Indies. Prior to the present study the genus comprised nine species, all except D. carinata Sæther were known only from Neotropical Region (Ashe & O'Connor, 2012). During sampling in the surroundings of a highly organic polluted river, in the National Botanical Garden in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, the present second author collected several imagines of Diplosmittia that did not fit any taxon treated in the recent review of the genus (Pinho et al. 2009). In the present paper, the male of this new species is described and illustrated.

  6. Breeding-season food habits of burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) in southwestern Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, J.W.

    1998-01-01

    Diet data from 20 Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia) nests were collected in southwestern Dominican Republic in 1976, 1982, and 1996. Invertebrates (53.3%) comprised the most numerous prey items (N = 396) delivered to nests by adult owls, but vertebrates (46.7%) were much better represented than in other studies of Burrowing Owl diet. Among vertebrates, birds (28.3% of all items) and reptiles (14.9%) were most important, whereas mammals (1.0%) and amphibians (2.5%) were less commonly delivered to nests. Vertebrates, however, comprised more than twice (69.2%) of the total biomass as invertebrates (30.8%), with birds (50.4%) and reptiles (12.8%) the most important of the vertebrate prey classes. A positive relationship was observed between bird species abundance and number of individuals taken as prey by Burrowing Owls.

  7. Implementation of ICT in the Dominican Republic. Approach to Teachers Perception

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    Wiselis-Rosanna SENA-RIVAS

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research is to investigate teachers’ perception of the EDPJA program in the Dominican Republic, as well as their opinion on ICT training. Likewise, it analyzes, the possibilities that represent the means of technology of the information and communication; in addition, it develops an analysis on the role of ICT in the work rooms, in the same way that influences the teaching-learning processes and the possible technical difficulties that can be generated. From a quantitative study with a non-experimental-transverse exploratory type design. With a probabilistic sample of 100 teachers to whom a survey was applied. The results reveal data that need special attention, given the nature of the context in which the study is developed. In this sense, a high index of teachers recognizes ICT as a fundamental instrument of educational innovation and facilitators of learning; however, they admit that they do not have basic training for their implementation.

  8. Culture and drug susceptibility testing among previously treated tuberculosis patients in the Dominican Republic, 2014

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    Katia J. Romero Mercado

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB is a major public health concern that threatens global progress toward effective TB control. The risk of MDR-TB is increased in patients who have received previous TB treatment. This article describes the performance of culture and drug susceptibility testing (DST in patients registered as previously treated TB patients in the Dominican Republic in 2014, based on operational research that followed a retrospective cohort design and used routine program data. Under the current system of TB culturing and DST, the majority of patients with previously treated TB do not undergo DST, and those who do often experience considerable delay in obtaining their results. The lack of DST and delay in receiving DST results leads to underestimation of the number of MDR-TB cases and hinders the timely initiation of MDR-TB treatment.

  9. Diphtheria in the Dominican Republic: reduction of cases following a large outbreak

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    Zacarías Garib

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the most recent outbreak of diphtheria in the Dominican Republic and the disease's occurrence and vaccination coverage in 2004-2013. METHODS: Clinical data of diphtheria cases that occurred in 2004 and that met the study's case definition were reviewed along with socioeconomic and epidemiological information from the cases' families. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess risk factors for fatal diphtheria. Routine surveillance and vaccination coverage data are presented. RESULTS: From January 2004-April 2005, a total of 145 diphtheria cases were reported; 80 (66% of the 122 cases reported in 2004 met the case definition; 26 were fatal (case-fatality rate: 32.5%. Incidence was highest in the group 1-4 years of age at 5.3 per 100 000; 62.5% were male. Of the 80 cases, 61 (76% where hospitalized in Hospital A, 17 in Hospital B, and 2 in two other hospitals. Earlier onset (first half of 2004, birth order, and tracheotomy were associated with fatal diphtheria (P < 0.05; cases in Hospital A were also more likely to be fatal (P = 0.066. The average annual diphtheria incidence was 4.91 cases/1 million people in 2000-2003, climbed to 8.8 cases per million in 2004-2005, and dropped to 0.38 in 2006-2014; no diphtheria cases have been reported since 2011. DTP3 vaccination coverage ranged from 72%-81% in 2000-2004 and from 81%-89% in 2005-2013. CONCLUSIONS: The 2004-2005 diphtheria outbreak in the Dominican Republic resulted in important and avoidable morbidity and mortality. Annual cases declined and no cases have been reported in recent years. Maintaining high vaccination coverage and diligent surveillance are crucial to preventing diphtheria outbreaks and controlling the disease.

  10. Diphtheria in the Dominican Republic: reduction of cases following a large outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garib, Zacarías; Danovaro-Holliday, M Carolina; Tavarez, Yira; Leal, Irene; Pedreira, Cristina

    2015-10-01

    To describe the most recent outbreak of diphtheria in the Dominican Republic and the disease's occurrence and vaccination coverage in 2004-2013. Clinical data of diphtheria cases that occurred in 2004 and that met the study's case definition were reviewed along with socioeconomic and epidemiological information from the cases' families. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess risk factors for fatal diphtheria. Routine surveillance and vaccination coverage data are presented. From January 2004-April 2005, a total of 145 diphtheria cases were reported; 80 (66%) of the 122 cases reported in 2004 met the case definition; 26 were fatal (case-fatality rate: 32.5%). Incidence was highest in the group 1-4 years of age at 5.3 per 100 000; 62.5% were male. Of the 80 cases, 61 (76%) where hospitalized in Hospital A, 17 in Hospital B, and 2 in two other hospitals. Earlier onset (first half of 2004), birth order, and tracheotomy were associated with fatal diphtheria (P diphtheria incidence was 4.91 cases/1 million people in 2000-2003, climbed to 8.8 cases per million in 2004-2005, and dropped to 0.38 in 2006-2014; no diphtheria cases have been reported since 2011. DTP3 vaccination coverage ranged from 72%-81% in 2000-2004 and from 81%-89% in 2005-2013. The 2004-2005 diphtheria outbreak in the Dominican Republic resulted in important and avoidable morbidity and mortality. Annual cases declined and no cases have been reported in recent years. Maintaining high vaccination coverage and diligent surveillance are crucial to preventing diphtheria outbreaks and controlling the disease.

  11. Empathic orientation among medical students from three universities in Barranquilla, Colombia and one university in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Narváez, Víctor Patricio; Alonso Palacio, Luz Marina; Caro, Sara Elvira; Silva, María Guadalupe; Castillo, Joel Arboleda; Bilbao, Jorge Luis; Acosta, Jesús Iglesias

    2014-02-01

    To compare empathic orientation among medical students from three schools of medicine in Colombia and one in the Dominican Republic. Empathic orientation of medical students was measured using the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (JSPE), Spanish version for students (the "S" version) validated in Mexico and Chile, and culturally adapted to Colombia and the Dominican Republic. Data were compared using a three-factor analysis of variance (model III) and a discriminant analysis. No differences in empathic orientation were observed among courses and between sexes, but differences were found in schools of medicine considered as a unit in each studied country. Empathic orientation levels tend to reduce as courses advance. This was observed in both male and female students and in all schools analyzed.

  12. Ethnogeological Cultural Model of Karst Derived from Traditional Knowledge in Puerto Rico and Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, A.; Semken, S. C.; Brandt, E.

    2017-12-01

    Ethnogeology is the scientific study of human relationships with and knowledge of the Earth system, and is typically investigated within the context of a specific culture. Many indigenous and local systems of environmental and place knowledge incorporate empirical observations and culturally framed interpretations of geological features and processes. Ethnogeological interpretations may differ from those of conventional mainstream geoscience, but they are validated by their direct relevance to long-term cultural and environmental resilience and sustainability, typically in challenging environments. Ethnogeologic findings can enrich geoscientific knowledge bases for further research, and inform place-based geoscience education that has been shown to engage and enrich students from diverse underrepresented minority backgrounds. Ethnogeological research blends methods from field geology with methods from field ethnography: such as participant observation, free listing, participatory mapping, and cultural consensus analysis among other methods from rapid participatory assessment. We report here on an ongoing field study in Puerto Rico (PR) and the Dominican Republic (DR) on ethnogeological knowledge of karst topography, geology, and hydrogeology among local cultural indigenous communities such as the Boricua jíbaro and the Dominican campesino. Applied focused ethnographic fieldwork results suggest a good fit for the cultural consensus model about geological processes among culturally expert consultants in DR (4.604) and PR (4.669), as well as competence average with values of 0.552 and 0.628 respectively. This suggests the existence of a regional cultural model for the domain of karst that is shared between PR and DR populations that reside in or near karst terrain. Additional data in support of the cultural model include stories, analogies, and family history using participant observation, and participatory mapping.

  13. Long-term impacts of tropical storms and earthquakes on human population growth in Haiti and the Dominican Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Christian D. Klose; Christian Webersik

    2011-01-01

    Since the 18th century, Haiti and the Dominican Republic have experienced similar natural forces, including earthquakes and tropical storms. These countries are two of the most prone of all Latin American and Caribbean countries to natural hazards events, while Haiti seems to be more vulnerable to natural forces. This article discusses to what extent geohazards have shaped both nation's demographic developments. The data show that neither atmospheric nor seismic forces that directly hit ...

  14. Long-term impacts of tropical storms and earthquakes on human population growth in Haiti and Dominican Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Christian D. Klose; Christian Webersik

    2010-01-01

    The two Caribbean states, Haiti and the Dominican Republic, have experienced similar natural forces since the 18th century, including hurricanes and earthquakes. Although, both countries seem to be two of the most prone of all Latin American and Caribbean countries to natural hazard events, historically, Haiti tends to be more vulnerable to natural forces. The purpose of this article is to understand to what extent geohazards shape demographic changes. Research findings of this study show tha...

  15. Measuring coverage in MNCH: validating women's self-report of emergency cesarean sections in Ghana and the Dominican Republic.

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    Ozge Tunçalp

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cesarean section is the only surgery for which we have nearly global population-based data. However, few surveys provide additional data related to cesarean sections. Given weaknesses in many health information systems, health planners in developing countries will likely rely on nationally representative surveys for the foreseeable future. The objective is to validate self-reported data on the emergency status of cesarean sections among women delivering in teaching hospitals in the capitals of two contrasting countries: Accra, Ghana and Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic (DR. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This study compares hospital-based data, considered the reference standard, against women's self-report for two definitions of emergency cesarean section based on the timing of the decision to operate and the timing of the cesarean section relative to onset of labor. Hospital data were abstracted from individual medical records, and hospital discharge interviews were conducted with women who had undergone cesarean section in two hospitals. The study assessed sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of responses to questions regarding emergency versus non-emergency cesarean section and estimated the percent of emergency cesarean sections that would be obtained from a survey, given the observed prevalence, sensitivity, and specificity from this study. Hospital data were matched with exit interviews for 659 women delivered via cesarean section for Ghana and 1,531 for the Dominican Republic. In Ghana and the Dominican Republic, sensitivity and specificity for emergency cesarean section defined by decision time were 79% and 82%, and 50% and 80%, respectively. The validity of emergency cesarean defined by operation time showed less favorable results than decision time in Ghana and slightly more favorable results in the Dominican Republic. CONCLUSIONS: Questions used in this study to identify emergency cesarean section are promising

  16. Responsive Approaches in Small Wars: The Army and Marine Corps in the Philippines, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    It was the Marines flexibility which allowed them to better understand the sources of instability and the environment to stabilize Haiti. By the time...American security and used diplomatic, economic , and military pressure to encourage stability in the Dominican Republic. The US State Department... instability in the Caribbean as a threat to American economic and security interests. Elihu Root, US Secretary of War, argued in 1902 for military and

  17. Transgender female sex workers’ HIV knowledge, experienced stigma, and condom use in the Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasbun, Julia; Charow, Rebecca; Rosario, Santo; Tillotson, Louise; McGlaughlin, Elaine; Waters, John

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Not only do transgender female sex workers have some of the highest rates of sexually transmitted infections (STI), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and experienced stigma, they also have higher likelihood of early sexual debut and some of the lowest levels of educational attainment compared to other stigmatized populations. Some of the most common interventions designed to reduce transmission of HIV and STIs seek to educate high-risk groups on sexual health and encourage condom use across all partner types; however, reaching stigmatized populations, particularly those in resource-limited settings, is particularly challenging. Considering the importance of condom use in stopping the spread of HIV, the aim of this study was two-fold; first to characterize this hard-to-reach population of transgender female sex workers in the Dominican Republic, and second, to assess associations between their HIV knowledge, experienced stigma, and condom use across three partner types. Methods We analyzed self-reported data from the Questionnaire for Transgender Sex Workers (N = 78). Respondents were interviewed at their workplaces. Univariate and bivariate analyses were employed. Fisher Chi-square tests assessed differences in HIV knowledge and experienced stigma by condom use across partner types. Results HIV knowledge was alarmingly low, condom use varied across partner type, and the respondents in our sample had high levels of experienced stigma. Average age of first sexual experience was 13.12 years with a youngest age reported of 7. Dominican Republic statutory rape laws indicate 18 years is the age of consent; thus, many of these transgender women’s first sexual encounters would be considered forcible (rape) and constitute a prosecutable crime. On average, respondents reported 8.45 sexual partners in the prior month, with a maximum of 49 partners. Approximately two thirds of respondents used a condom the last time they had sex with a regular partner. This

  18. Transgender female sex workers' HIV knowledge, experienced stigma, and condom use in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budhwani, Henna; Hearld, Kristine R; Hasbun, Julia; Charow, Rebecca; Rosario, Santo; Tillotson, Louise; McGlaughlin, Elaine; Waters, John

    2017-01-01

    Not only do transgender female sex workers have some of the highest rates of sexually transmitted infections (STI), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and experienced stigma, they also have higher likelihood of early sexual debut and some of the lowest levels of educational attainment compared to other stigmatized populations. Some of the most common interventions designed to reduce transmission of HIV and STIs seek to educate high-risk groups on sexual health and encourage condom use across all partner types; however, reaching stigmatized populations, particularly those in resource-limited settings, is particularly challenging. Considering the importance of condom use in stopping the spread of HIV, the aim of this study was two-fold; first to characterize this hard-to-reach population of transgender female sex workers in the Dominican Republic, and second, to assess associations between their HIV knowledge, experienced stigma, and condom use across three partner types. We analyzed self-reported data from the Questionnaire for Transgender Sex Workers (N = 78). Respondents were interviewed at their workplaces. Univariate and bivariate analyses were employed. Fisher Chi-square tests assessed differences in HIV knowledge and experienced stigma by condom use across partner types. HIV knowledge was alarmingly low, condom use varied across partner type, and the respondents in our sample had high levels of experienced stigma. Average age of first sexual experience was 13.12 years with a youngest age reported of 7. Dominican Republic statutory rape laws indicate 18 years is the age of consent; thus, many of these transgender women's first sexual encounters would be considered forcible (rape) and constitute a prosecutable crime. On average, respondents reported 8.45 sexual partners in the prior month, with a maximum of 49 partners. Approximately two thirds of respondents used a condom the last time they had sex with a regular partner. This was considerably lower than

  19. Illicit drug use and HIV risk in the Dominican Republic: tourism areas create drug use opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Lee, Jane J; Ruiz, Yumary; Hagan, Holly; Delva, Marlyn; Quiñones, Zahira; Kamler, Alexandra; Robles, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    While the Caribbean has the second highest global human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence, insufficient attention has been paid to contributing factors of the region's elevated risk. Largely neglected is the potential role of drugs in shaping the Caribbean HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome epidemic. Caribbean studies have almost exclusively focused on drug transportation and seldom acknowledged local user economies and drug-related health and social welfare consequences. While tourism is consistently implicated within the Caribbean HIV epidemic, less is known about the intersection of drugs and tourism. Tourism areas represent distinct ecologies of risk often characterised by sex work, alcohol consumption and population mixing between lower and higher risk groups. Limited understanding of availability and usage of drugs in countries such as the Dominican Republic (DR), the Caribbean country with the greatest tourist rates, presents barriers to HIV prevention. This study addresses this gap by conducting in-depth interviews with 30 drug users in Sosúa, a major sex tourism destination of the DR. A two-step qualitative data analysis process was utilised and interview transcripts were systematically coded using a well-defined thematic codebook. Results suggest three themes: (1) local demand shifts drug routes to tourism areas, (2) drugs shape local economies and (3) drug use facilitates HIV risk behaviours in tourism areas.

  20. Methods of mapping ethnographic data on migration, tourism labor, and health risk in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Karina; Padilla, Mark; Scott, Derrick; Colón-Burgos, José Félix; Reyes, Armando Matiz; Varas-Díaz, Nelson

    This paper focuses on a mixed-method approach to quantifying qualitative data from the results of an ongoing NIDA-funded ethnographic study entitled "Migration, Tourism, and the HIV/Drug-Use Syndemic in the Dominican Republic". This project represents the first large-scale mixed method study to identify social, structural, environmental, and demographic factors that may contribute to ecologies of health vulnerability within the Caribbean tourism zones. Our research has identified deportation history as a critical factor contributing to vulnerability to HIV, drugs, mental health problems, and other health conditions. Therefore, understanding the movements of our participants became a vital aspect of this research. This paper describes how we went about translating 37 interviews into visual geographic representations. These methods help develop possible strategies for confronting HIV/AIDS and problematic substance use by examining the ways that these epidemics are shaped by the realities of people's labor migration and the spaces they inhabit. Our methods for mapping this qualitative data contribute to the ongoing, broadening capabilities of using GIS in social science research. A key contribution of this work is its integration of different methodologies from various disciplines to help better understand complex social problems.

  1. Factors Related to Pregnancy Among Female Sex Workers Living with HIV in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernigliaro, Dana; Barrington, Clare; Perez, Martha; Donastorg, Yeycy; Kerrigan, Deanna

    2016-10-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) living with HIV are a vulnerable population for multiple health concerns and have been vastly understudied in public health literature. This study analyzes factors related to pregnancy among 268 FSWs living with HIV in the Dominican Republic. Results indicate that 34 % of participants had been pregnant since HIV diagnosis. Multivariate analysis revealed significant associations between pregnancy after HIV diagnosis and ART interruption (AOR 2.41; 95 % CI 1.19, 4.94), knowledge of mother-to-child transmission (AOR 2.12; 95 % CI 0.99, 4.55), serostatus disclosure to a sex partner (AOR 2.46; 95 % CI 1.31, 4.62), older age (AOR 0.91; 95 % CI 0.87, 0.95) and a more negative perception of their health provider (AOR 0.56; 95 % CI 0.34, 0.93). Results indicate noteworthy associations between having been pregnant and the health provider experience and ART interruption, indicating a significant need for further research on this population to ensure both maternal and child health.

  2. Horizontal accountability and presidential dominance: a difficult combination. The case of the Dominican Republic, 1967-2009

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    Leiv MARSTEINTREDET

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article studies horizontal accountability in the Dominican Republic. First it analyses the rules regulating the system of checks and balances. Although important, institutional rules cannot explain the variation in the levels of accountability across time found in the Dominican case. Therefore, the article focuses on the execution of national budgets and the financial situation of the accountability institutions. The article suggests using an index of budgetary disproportionality based on a comparison of the congressionally approved budget and the executed budget to measure the level of horizontal accountability. A multivariate time-series regression analysis shows that budgetary disproportionality increases with presidential dominance. The article concludes that for the period 1967-2009, it is presidential behaviour more than any other factor that has prevented an effective system of checks and balances. Therefore the case confirms O’Donnell’s hypothesis of Delegative Democracies.

  3. Forest baseline and deforestation map of the Dominican Republic through the analysis of time series of MODIS data

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    Florencia Sangermano

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Deforestation is one of the major threats to habitats in the Dominican Republic. In this work we present a forest baseline for the year 2000 and a deforestation map for the year 2011. Maps were derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Radiometer (MODIS products at 250 m resolution. The vegetation continuous fields product (MOD44B for the year 2000 was used to produce the forest baseline, while the vegetation indices product (MOD13Q1 was used to detect change between 2000 and 2011. Major findings based on the data presented here are reported in the manuscript “Habitat suitability and protection status of four species of amphibians in the Dominican Republic” (Sangermano et al., Appl. Geogr., [7].63, 2015, 55–65

  4. Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    Cuba's population characteristics, geography, history, government, political conditions, and foreign relations were briefly described. Cuba, the largest island in the East Indies, has a tropical climate and is made up of a large area of rolling plains and a smaller mountainous region. Cuba's current population of 9.946 million (1983) is 70% urban and 30% rural. The annual population growth rate is 1.1%. The literacy rate among those aged 10-49 years is 96%, and school is compulsory for 6 years. The infant mortality rate is 21/1000 live births, and life expectancy is 74.7 years. 47% of the work force is engaged in industry and commerce, 28% in services and government, and 25% in agriculture. Since the revolution, Cuba has had a centrally planned, nonmarket economy. Large state enterprises run all segments of the economy, and economic policy is formulated by a central planning board. Farmers are allowed to privately market some of their produce. The government provide a wide range of social services. Most of the services are free, but some entail a minimal fee. Cuba's economy is depressed and overly dependent on the production of sugar. Since the revolution, Cuba's sugar production has increased by only 1.1% annually. In addition to sugar production, the country is engaged in some food processing and other light forms of industry. Cuba has a large reserve of nickle. Cuba's economic indicators are calculated differently than those used in market countries and are not comparable to those used in market countries. In 1983, disposable national income was US$15.8 billion, and per capita income was US$2,590. Cuba's imports exceed her exports. In 1983 exports totalled US$6.5 billion and imports amounted to US$7.2 billion. Cuba's foreign debt is increasing annually, and Cuba is highly dependent on economic assistance from Russia. Between 1961-83, the USSR provided Cuba with US$30 billion in economic aid and US$10 billion in military aid. The country's serious economic

  5. Survival of captive-reared Hispaniolan Parrots released in Parque Nacional del Este, Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collazo, J.A.; White, T.H.; Vilella, F.J.; Guerrero, S.A.

    2003-01-01

    We report first-year survival rates of 49 captive-reared Hispaniolan Parrots (Amazona ventralis) released in Parque Nacional del Este, Dominican Republic. Our goal was to learn about factors affecting postrelease survival. Specifically, we tested if survival was related to movements and whether modifying prerelease protocols influenced survival rates. We also estimated survival in the aftermath of Hurricane Georges (22 September 1998). Twenty-four parrots, fitted with radio-transmitters, were released between 14 September and 12 December 1997. Twenty-five more were released between 29 June and 16 September 1998. First-year survival rates were 30% in 1997 and 29% in 1998. Survival probability was related to bird mobility. In contrast to birds released in 1997, none of the 25 parrots released in 1998 suffered early postrelease mortality (i.e., 3-5 days after release). Two adjustments to prerelease protocols (increased exercise and reduced blood sampling) made in 1998 may have contributed to differences in mobility and survival between years. The reduction of early postrelease mortality in 1998 was encouraging, as was the prospect for higher first-year survival (e.g., 30% to 65%). Only one death was attributed to the immediate impact of the hurricane. Loss of foraging resources was likely a major contributor to ensuing mortality. Birds increased their mobility, presumably in search of food. Survival rates dropped 23% in only eight weeks posthurricane. This study underscores the value of standardized prerelease protocols, and of estimating survival and testing for factors that might influence it. Inferences from such tests will provide the best basis to make adjustments to a release program.

  6. Social Vulnerability to Natural Hazards in Urban Systems. An Application in Santo Domingo (Dominican Republic

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    Eleonora Giovene di Girasole

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The concept of risk has become increasingly complex, and has been used not only in relation to the natural features of a region, but also to its socio-economic context. In this conceptualization, the latter directly influences the capacity of a community to cope with, recover from, and adapt to natural hazards. Conceiving vulnerability as a measure of a socio-ecological system’s resilience, and at the same time, as a multidimensional variable that changes in space and time, makes the study of the different ways in which natural hazards impact on society all the more urgent. This is particularly true for developing countries, where risk related to natural hazards affects populations and areas that must deal with stress conditions, such as humanitarian, social and military emergencies. This article presents a methodology for the analysis of social vulnerability, defined and experimented in the context of the international cooperation project “Estudio de la amenaza sísmica y vulnerabilidad física del Gran Santo Domingo”. The methodology, implemented through the employment of a Geographic Information System, led to the elaboration of a “Social Vulnerability Index” and a “Social Vulnerability Map”. These seek to describe the current condition of vulnerability of the city of Santo Domingo de Guzmán (Distrito Nacional in the Dominican Republic (DR, and are used to define context-related vulnerability scenarios, as well as to indicate the adequate set of mitigation objectives and actions. The results highlight the importance of using social vulnerability study as the point of departure for defining seismic-risk mitigation policies, emergency management, and territorial planning in order to reduce the impacts of disasters.

  7. Sharing medicine: the candidacy of medicines and other household items for sharing, Dominican Republic.

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    Michael N Dohn

    Full Text Available People share medicines and problems can result from this behavior. Successful interventions to change sharing behavior will require understanding people's motives and purposes for sharing medicines. Better information about how medicines fit into the gifting and reciprocity system could be useful in designing interventions to modify medicine sharing behavior. However, it is uncertain how people situate medicines among other items that might be shared. This investigation is a descriptive study of how people sort medicines and other shareable items.This study in the Dominican Republic examined how a convenience sample (31 people sorted medicines and rated their shareability in relation to other common household items. We used non-metric multidimensional scaling to produce association maps in which the distances between items offer a visual representation of the collective opinion of the participants regarding the relationships among the items. In addition, from a pile sort constrained by four categories of whether sharing or loaning the item was acceptable (on a scale from not shareable to very shareable, we assessed the degree to which the participants rated the medicines as shareable compared to other items. Participants consistently grouped medicines together in all pile sort activities; yet, medicines were mixed with other items when rated by their candidacy to be shared. Compared to the other items, participants had more variability of opinion as to whether medicines should be shared.People think of medicines as a distinct group, suggesting that interventions might be designed to apply to medicines as a group. People's differing opinions as to whether it was appropriate to share medicines imply a degree of uncertainty or ambiguity that health promotion interventions might exploit to alter attitudes and behaviors. These findings have implications for the design of health promotion interventions to impact medicine sharing behavior.

  8. Tracing halogen and B cycling in subduction zones based on obducted, subducted and forearc serpentinites of the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagé, Lilianne; Hattori, Keiko

    2017-12-19

    Serpentinites are important reservoirs of fluid-mobile elements in subduction zones, contributing to volatiles in arc magmas and their transport into the Earth's mantle. This paper reports halogen (F, Cl, Br, I) and B abundances of serpentinites from the Dominican Republic, including obducted and subducted abyssal serpentinites and forearc mantle serpentinites. Abyssal serpentinite compositions indicate the incorporation of these elements from seawater and sediments during serpentinization on the seafloor and at slab bending. During their subduction and subsequent lizardite-antigorite transition, F and B are retained in serpentinites, whilst Cl, Br and I are expelled. Forearc mantle serpentinite compositions suggest their hydration by fluids released from subducting altered oceanic crust and abyssal serpentinites, with only minor sediment contribution. This finding is consistent with the minimal subduction of sediments in the Dominican Republic. Forearc mantle serpentinites have F/Cl and B/Cl ratios similar to arc magmas, suggesting the importance of serpentinite dehydration in the generation of arc magmatism in the mantle wedge.

  9. A Syndemic Analysis of Alcohol Use and Sexual Risk Behavior Among Tourism Employees in Sosúa, Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Mark B.; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Godbole, Ramona

    2012-01-01

    The Dominican Republic has high rates of HIV infection and alcohol consumption. Unfortunately, little research has been focused on the broader sources of the synergy between these two health outcomes. We draw on syndemic theory to argue that alcohol consumption and sexual risk behavior are best analyzed within the context of culture and economy in Caribbean tourism spaces, which produce a synergy between apparently independent outcomes. We sampled 32 men and women working in the tourism industry at alcohol-serving establishments in Sosúa, Dominican Republic. Interviewees described alcohol consumption as an implicit requirement of tourism work, tourism industry business practices that foster alcohol consumption, and an intertwining relationship between alcohol and sexual commerce. The need to establish relationships with tourists, combined with the overconsumption of alcohol, contributed to a perceived loss of sexual control, which participants felt could impede condom use. Interventions should incorporate knowledge of the social context of tourism areas to mitigate the contextual factors that contribute to HIV infection and alcohol consumption among locals. PMID:21859907

  10. A syndemic analysis of alcohol use and sexual risk behavior among tourism employees in Sosúa, Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Mark B; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Godbole, Ramona

    2012-01-01

    The Dominican Republic has high rates of HIV infection and alcohol consumption. Unfortunately, little research has been focused on the broader sources of the synergy between these two health outcomes. We draw on syndemic theory to argue that alcohol consumption and sexual risk behavior are best analyzed within the context of culture and economy in Caribbean tourism spaces, which produce a synergy between apparently independent outcomes. We sampled 32 men and women working in the tourism industry at alcohol-serving establishments in Sosúa, Dominican Republic. Interviewees described alcohol consumption as an implicit requirement of tourism work, tourism industry business practices that foster alcohol consumption, and an intertwining relationship between alcohol and sexual commerce. The need to establish relationships with tourists, combined with the overconsumption of alcohol, contributed to a perceived loss of sexual control, which participants felt could impede condom use. Interventions should incorporate knowledge of the social context of tourism areas to mitigate the contextual factors that contribute to HIV infection and alcohol consumption among locals.

  11. The Influences of Health Insurance and Access to Information on Prostate Cancer Screening among Men in Dominican Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kangmennaang, J.; Luginaah, I.

    2016-01-01

    Although research demonstrates the public health burden of prostate cancer among men in the Caribbean, relatively little is known about the factors that underlie the low levels of testing for the disease among this population. Study Design. A cross-sectional study of prostate cancer testing behaviours among men aged 40-60 years in Dominican Republic using the Demographic and Health Survey (2013). Methods. We use hierarchical binary logit regression models and average treatment effects combined with propensity score matching to explore the determinants of prostate screening as well as the average effect of health insurance coverage on screening. The use of hierarchical binary logit regression enabled us to control for the effect of unobserved heterogeneity at the cluster level that may affect prostate cancer testing behaviours. Results. Screening varied significantly with health insurance coverage, knowledge of cholesterol level, education, and wealth. Insured men were more likely to test for prostate cancer (OR=1.65, P=0.01) compared to the uninsured. Conclusions. The expansion and restructuring of Dominican Republic universal health insurance scheme to ensure equity in access may improve health access that would potentially impact positively on prostate cancer screening among men.

  12. Depression and key associated factors in female sex workers and women living with HIV/AIDS in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rael, Christine T; Davis, Alissa

    2017-04-01

    Little is known about the mental health of female sex workers and women living with HIV/AIDS in the Dominican Republic, which impedes HIV prevention, testing, and treatment. This project estimates the prevalence of depression and identifies key contributing factors to this outcome in female sex workers, women living with HIV/AIDS, and a comparison group. Participants were female sex workers (N = 349), women living with HIV/AIDS (N = 213), and a comparison group of HIV-negative women who were not sex workers (N = 314) from the Dominican Republic. Participants completed questionnaires assessing demographic characteristics and depression. Female sex workers and women living with HIV/AIDS completed additional questionnaires ascertaining HIV or sex work-related internalized stigma. Depression was prevalent among female sex workers (70.2%), women living with HIV/AIDS (81.1%), and the comparison group (52.2%). Adjusted logistic regressions showed that internalized stigma was associated with depression for female sex workers (OR = 2.73; 95% CI = 1.95-3.84) and women living with HIV/AIDS (OR = 3.06; 95% CI = 1.86-5.05). Permanent income was associated with this outcome for female sex workers (OR = 0.08; 95% CI = 0.01-0.80) and the comparison group (OR = 0.04; 95% CI = 0.00-0.45).

  13. Description of a new species, Pintomyia dissimilis nov. sp., a phlebotomine fossil from Dominican Republic amber (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanguinette Cristiani

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phlebotomine sandflies are the vectors of etiological agents of leishmaniases in several areas of the world. In the Neotropical Region, the biodiversity of these insects is more than other regions, probably due the long evolutionary period of this group. Miocene amber from Dominican Republic, currently, has a record of 14 extinct species of Phlebotomine sandflies. Results This paper describes a new fossil species of phlebotomine sandfly from amber found in Dominican Republic. This new species is based on morphological characters of a male such as 5° palpomere longer than 3° + 4°, three well-developed spines in the gonostyle, lateral lobe longer than gonocoxite and permit inclusion of the new species in the genus Pintomyia, series serrana. The paramere, with a curvature in the ventral margin, of the middle of the structure, separates the new species from the others fossils or extant species. Conclusion The new species described in the present study named Pintomyia dissimilis nov. sp. is well differenciated from all known species in this genus.

  14. Report on the activities carried out by 'Sonrisas' to promote oral health: the experience of a Canadian dental hygienist in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsman, Elina

    2007-08-01

    Smiles Foundation is a non-profitable organization established in Canada as a sister foundation to the Dominican Fundacion para la Prevencion y la Salud Bucal de los Ninos "Sonrisas" the Dominican Republic, which provides free dental treatment and oral health education to underprivileged children. Its founder Elina Katsman, a Canadian dental hygienist embarked on this project in 1986, and started giving lectures in the small community of Samana along with two local nurses that she trained in the principles of oral hygiene and related primary health care. Today, the foundation runs eight dental clinics and five mobile units that serve remote areas and has benefited 1,723,119 people in total. The aim of this article was to report on the growth that Smiles Foundation has experienced to promote oral health among children and adults in the Dominican Republic including its activities and the results it has achieved up until 2005.

  15. Cohort study of smoke-free homes in economically disadvantaged communities in the Dominican Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann M. Dozier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze household smoking-ban prevalence over time and predictors among communities in the Dominican Republic, historically a significant tobacco-growing country with few tobacco control regulations. METHODS: Baseline (2004 and follow-up surveillance surveys (2006, 2007 (each n > 1 000 randomly selected households conducted in six economically disadvantaged communities (three tobacco-growing and two each urban, peri-urban, and rural assessed household members’ demographics, health status, and household characteristics, including smoking restrictions. RESULTS: Between 2004 and 2007, household smoking-ban prevalence increased in all communities, with overall rates increasing from 23.9% (2004 to 45.3% (2007. Households with smokers adopted smoking bans at lower rates (6%-17% versus those without smokers (which had an adoption rate of 35%-58%. Logistic regression models demonstrated that the associations between allowing smoking in households with no members who smoked and being located in a tobacco-growing community, being a Catholic household, and having a member with a cardiovascular problem were statistically significant. The association between having a child under age 5 or a member with a respiratory condition and prohibiting smoking in the home was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of households banning smoking increased in all communities but remained well below rates in industrialized countries. For low- and middle-income countries or those in early stages of tobacco control, basic awareness-raising measures (including surveillance activities may lead to statistically significant increases in household smoking-ban adoption, particularly among households with no smokers. An increase in household smoking-ban prevalence may result in changes in community norms that can lead to a further increase in the adoption of smoking bans. Having household members who smoke and being in a tobacco-growing community may

  16. Carbon stocks of intact mangroves and carbon emissions arising from their conversion in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, J Boone; Heider, Chris; Norfolk, Jennifer; Payton, Frederick

    2014-04-01

    Mangroves are recognized to possess a variety of ecosystem services including high rates of carbon sequestration and storage. Deforestation and conversion of these ecosystems continue to be high and have been predicted to result in significant carbon emissions to the atmosphere. Yet few studies have quantified the carbon stocks or losses associated with conversion of these ecosystems. In this study we quantified the ecosystem carbon stocks of three common mangrove types of the Caribbean as well as those of abandoned shrimp ponds in areas formerly occupied by mangrove-a common land-use conversion of mangroves throughout the world. In the mangroves of the Montecristi Province in Northwest Dominican Republic we found C stocks ranged from 706 to 1131 Mg/ha. The medium-statured mangroves (3-10 m in height) had the highest C stocks while the tall (> 10 m) mangroves had the lowest ecosystem carbon storage. Carbon stocks of the low mangrove (shrub) type (carbon-rich soils as deep as 2 m. Carbon stocks of abandoned shrimp ponds were 95 Mg/ha or approximately 11% that of the mangroves. Using a stock-change approach, the potential emissions from the conversion of mangroves to shrimp ponds ranged from 2244 to 3799 Mg CO2e/ha (CO2 equivalents). This is among the largest measured C emissions from land use in the tropics. The 6260 ha of mangroves and converted mangroves in the Montecristi Province are estimated to contain 3,841,490 Mg of C. Mangroves represented 76% of this area but currently store 97% of the carbon in this coastal wetland (3,696,722 Mg C). Converted lands store only 4% of the total ecosystem C (144,778 Mg C) while they comprised 24% of the area. By these metrics the replacement of mangroves with shrimp and salt ponds has resulted in estimated emissions from this region totaling 3.8 million Mg CO2e or approximately 21% of the total C prior to conversion. Given the high C stocks of mangroves, the high emissions from their conversion, and the other important

  17. Parenting Practices and Associations with Development Delays among Young Children in Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwemedimo, Omolara Thomas; Howlader, Afrin; Pierret, Giselina

    According to the World Health Organization, >200 million children in low- and middle-income countries experience developmental delays. However, household structure and parenting practices have been minimally explored as potential correlates of developmental delay in low- and middle-income countries, despite potential as areas for intervention. The objective of the study was to examine associations of developmental delays with use of World Health Organization-recommended parenting practices among a clinic-based cohort of children aged 6-60 months attending in La Romana, Dominican Republic. This study was conducted among 74 caregiver-child pairs attending the growth-monitoring clinic at Hospital Francisco Gonzalvo in June 2015. The Malawi Developmental Assessment Tool was adapted and performed on each child to assess socioadaptive, fine motor, gross motor, and language development. The IMCI Household Level Survey Questionnaire was used to assess parenting practices. Fisher's exact test was used to determine associations significant at P children had a delay in at least 1 developmental domain. Most caregivers used scolding (43.2%) or spanking (44%) for child discipline. Children who were disciplined by spanking and scolding were more likely to have language delay (P = .007) and socioadaptive delay (P = .077), respectively. On regression analysis, children with younger primary caregivers had 7 times higher odds of language delay (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 7.35, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.52-35.61) and 4 times greater odds of any delay (AOR: 4.72, 95% CI: 1.01-22.22). In addition, children punished by spanking had 5 times higher odds of having language delay (AOR: 5.04, 95% CI: 1.13-22.39). Parenting practices such as harsh punishment and lack of positive parental reinforcement were found to have strong associations with language and socioadaptive delays. Likewise, delays were also more common among children with younger caregivers. Copyright © 2017 Icahn

  18. Changes in health indicators related to health promotion and microcredit programs in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohn, Anita L; Chávez, Andrea; Dohn, Michael N; Saturria, Luis; Pimentel, Carlos

    2004-03-01

    To assess the impact of health promotion programs and microcredit programs on three communities in the Dominican Republic. One community had only the health promotion program, one community had only the microcredit program, and one community had both a health promotion program and a microcredit program. This pilot project examined the hypothesis that the largest changes in 11 health indicators that were studied would be in the community with both a health promotion program and a microcredit program, that there would be intermediate changes in the community with only a health promotion program, and that the smallest changes would be in the community with only a microcredit program. The health promotion programs used community volunteers to address two major concerns: (1) the prevalent causes of mortality among children under 5 years of age and (2) women's health (specifically breast and cervical cancer screening). The microcredit program made small loans to individuals to start or expand small businesses. Outcome measures were based on comparisons for 11 health indicators from baseline community surveys (27 households surveyed in each of the three communities, done in December 2000 and January 2001) and from follow-up surveys (also 27 households surveyed in each of the three communities, in June and July 2002, after the health promotion program had been operating for about 13 months). Households were randomly chosen during both the baseline and follow-up surveys, without regard to their involvement in the microcredit or health promotion programs. The health indicators improved in all three communities. However, the degree of change was different among the communities (P microcredit and health promotion programs had the largest changes for 10 of the 11 health indicators. Multisector development is known to be important on a macroeconomic scale. The results of this pilot project support the view that multisector development is also important on a microeconomic level

  19. Modeling stem increment in individual Pinus occidentalis Sw. trees in La Sierra, Dominican Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bueno, S.; Bevilacqua, E.

    2010-07-01

    One of the most common and important tree characteristics used in forest management decision-making is tree diameter-at-breast height (DBH). This paper presents results on an evaluation of two growth functions developed to model stem diameter increases in individual Pinus occidentalis Sw. trees in La Sierra, Dominican Republic. The first model was developed in order to predict future DBH (FDM) at different intervals of time and the other for predicting growth, that is, periodic annual diameter increment (PADIM). Each model employed two statistical techniques for fitting model parameters: stepwise ordinary least squares (OLS) regression, and mixed models. The two statistical approaches varied in how they accounted for the repeated measurements on individual trees over time, affecting standard error estimates and statistical inference of model parameters. Each approach was evaluated based on six goodness of- fit statistics, using both calibration and validation data sets. The objectives were 1) to determine the best model for predicting future tree DBH; 2) to determine the best model for predicting periodic annual diameter increment, both models using tree size, age, site index and different indices of competitive status; and 3) compare which of these two modeling approaches predicts better the future DBH. OLS provided a better fit for both of the growth functions, especially in regards to bias. Both models showed advantages and disadvantages when they were used to predict growth and future diameter. For the prediction of future diameter with FDM, accuracy of predictions were within one centimeter for a five-year projection interval. The PADIM presented negligible bias in estimating future diameter, although there was a small increase in bias as time of prediction increased. As expected, each model was the best in estimating the response variable it was developed for.. However, a closer examination of the distribution of errors showed a slight advantage of the FDM

  20. Use of Bennett's Hierarchical Model in the Evaluation of the Extension Education Program for Cacao Farmers in the Northeast Region of the Dominican Republic. Summary of Research 54.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De los Santos, Saturnino; Norland, Emmalou Van Tilburg

    A study evaluated the cacao farmer training program in the Dominican Republic by testing hypothesized relationships among reactions, knowledge and skills, attitudes, aspirations, and some selected demographic characteristics of farmers who attended programs. Bennett's hierarchical model of program evaluation was used as the framework of the study.…

  1. Zika virus infection in 18 travellers returning from Surinam and the Dominican Republic, The Netherlands, November 2015–March 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. Duijster (Janneke W.); A. Goorhuis (Abraham); P.J.J. van Genderen (Perry); L.G. Visser (Leo); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion); J.H.J. Reimerink (Johan); M.P. Grobusch (Martin P.); A.A. Eijck (Annemiek); J.H.C.T. van Den Kerkhof (Johannes H. C. T.); C.B.E.M. Reusken (Chantal); S.J. Hahné (Susan); The Dutch Zikv Study Team

    2016-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: We report 18 cases of confirmed Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in travellers returning to the Netherlands from Surinam (South America, bordering northern Brazil) and the Dominican Republic. Methods: In a multi-centre study, we collected epidemiological, virological and clinical

  2. Pandemic influenza A(H1N1) outbreak among a group of medical students who traveled to the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilella, Anna; Serrano, Beatriz; Marcos, Maria A; Serradesanferm, Anna; Mensa, Josep; Hayes, Edward; Anton, Andres; Rios, Jose; Pumarola, Tomas; Trilla, Antoni

    2012-01-01

    From the beginning of the influenza pandemic until the time the outbreak described here was detected, 77,201 cases of pandemic influenza A(H1N1) with 332 deaths had been reported worldwide, mostly in the United States and Mexico. All of the cases reported in Spain until then had a recent history of travel to Mexico, the Dominican Republic, or Chile. We describe an outbreak of influenza among medical students who traveled from Spain to the Dominican Republic in June 2009. We collected diagnostic samples and clinical histories from consenting medical students who had traveled to the Dominican Republic and from their household contacts after their return to Spain. Of 113 students on the trip, 62 (55%) developed symptoms; 39 (45%) of 86 students tested had laboratory evidence of influenza A(H1N1) infection. Most students developed symptoms either just before departure from the Dominican Republic or within days of returning to Spain. The estimated secondary attack rate of influenza-like illness among residential contacts of ill students after return to Spain was 2.1%. The attack rate of influenza A(H1N1) can vary widely depending on the circumstances of exposure. We report a high attack rate among a group of traveling medical students but a much lower secondary attack rate among their contacts after return from the trip. These findings may aid the development of recommendations to prevent influenza. © 2011 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  3. Adept at adapting : contributions of sociology to agricultural research for small farmers in developing countries : in case of rice in the Dominican Republic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorman, F.

    1991-01-01

    This book discusses possible contributions of sociology and anthropology to agricultural research. It is based on investigations carried out from 1981 to 1985 in the Dominican Republic in the Adaptive Agricultural Research (AAR) project, a cooperative effort between the Agricultural

  4. Renewing the house : trajectories of social life in the yucayeque (community) of El Cabo, Higüey, Dominican Republic, AD 800 to 1504

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samson, Alice Victoria Maud

    2010-01-01

    What was the pre-Columbian house like? The aim of the PhD research was to come to an archaeological vision of precolonial domestic life in Hispaniola (Dominican Republic and Haiti), rather than rely on Spanish colonial descriptions from the 15th and 16th centuries. The dissertation presents

  5. Efficacy Beliefs, Job Satisfaction, Stress and Their Influence on the Occupational Commitment of English-Medium Content Teachers in the Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barouch Gilbert, Rachel; Adesope, Olusola O.; Schroeder, Noah Lee

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of efficacy, job satisfaction, job stress and their influence on the occupational commitment of English-medium content teachers. A total of 109 practicing English-medium and Spanish-medium content teachers from the Dominican Republic volunteered to participate in the study. Findings…

  6. Between Corporatism and Socialism: Navigating the Waters of International Education in the Dominican Republic and Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolivras, Korine N.; Scarpaci, Joseph L.

    2009-01-01

    The Caribbean has long afforded U.S. and Canadian geographers with a rich venue of study-abroad opportunities. Physical and human geography classes are particularly well-suited to the myriad political, social, and environmental landscapes of the region. This article summarizes a few key experiences that have emerged in forging study-abroad venues…

  7. Perceived Barriers to Adherence to Tuberculosis Infection Control Measures among Health Care Workers in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Helena J; Veras-Estévez, Bienvenido A; Pomeranz, Jamie L; Pérez-Then, Eddy N; Marcelino, Belkys; Lauzardo, Michael

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Health care workers have an increased risk of infection due to occupational Mycobacterium tuberculosis exposure, including multidrug-resistant strains. Health care workers' risk of developing tuberculosis is greater than that of the general population, whether in low-, intermediate- or high-incidence countries. Adherence to infection control measures (administrative controls, environmental controls, and personal respiratory protection) is essential to reduce risk of disease transmission between suspected tuberculosis patients and health care workers, but for different reasons, both objective and subjective, adherence is low. Identifying the causes of low adherence is a prerequisite to effective programming to reduce risk. OBJECTIVE Identify perceived barriers to adherence to tuberculosis infection control measures among health care workers in the Dominican Republic. METHODS During August 2014, a qualitative study was conducted in two tertiary-level hospitals in different regions of the Dominican Republic. A semi-structured interview guide of nine questions was developed, based on the scientific literature and with consensus of clinical experts. Nine semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of seven physicians (five men, two women) and two baccalaureate nurses (both women) working in the emergency medicine, internal medicine or nursing departments of those institutions. Question topics included clinical experience of M. tuberculosis infection and disease; knowledge of disease transmission and preventive practices; clinical management strategies; and perceptions of effectiveness of directly observed treatment, short-course, and disease coping strategies. RESULTS Perceived barriers were described as: 1) sense of invincibility of health care workers; 2) personal beliefs of health care workers related to direct patient communication; 3) low provider-to-patient ratios in hospitals; 4) absence of tuberculosis isolation units for

  8. Factors Associated with Health Information Seeking, Processing, and Use Among HIV Positive Adults in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonbraker, Samantha; Befus, Montina; Lerebours Nadal, Leonel; Halpern, Mina; Larson, Elaine

    2017-06-01

    Effective treatment and management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) depend on patients' ability to locate, comprehend, and apply health information. This study's purpose was to identify characteristics associated with these skills among HIV positive adults in the Dominican Republic. An information behavior survey was administered to 107 participants then three logistic regressions were conducted to identify characteristics associated with information seeking, processing, and use. Never having cared for someone who was sick was significantly associated with less information seeking, processing, and use. Males were more likely to be active information seekers and those who had attended the clinic for six or fewer years were less likely to actively seek information. Younger individuals had increased odds of higher information processing and those without comorbidities had increased odds of more information use. Results may inform researchers, organizations, and providers about how patients interact with health information in limited resource settings.

  9. Associations of HIV Testing, Sexual Risk and Access to Prevention Among Female Sex Workers in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Lisa G; Bonilla, Luis; Caballero, Tessie; Rodriguez, Martha; Dolores, Yordana; de la Rosa, Miguel Angel; Malla, Annie; Burnett, Janet; Terrero, Víctor; Martinez, Sam; Morgan, Oliver

    2017-08-01

    The Caribbean region has one of the highest proportions of HIV in the general female population attributable to sex work. In 2008 (n = 1256) and 2012 (n = 1525) in the Dominican Republic, HIV biological and behavioral surveys were conducted among female sex workers (FSW) in four provinces using respondent driven sampling. Participants were ≥15 years who engaged in intercourse in exchange for money in the past 6 months and living/working in the study province. There were no statistically significant changes in HIV and other infections prevalence from 2008 to 2012, despite ongoing risky sexual practices. HIV testing and receiving results was low in all provinces. FSW in 2012 were more likely to receive HIV testing and results if they participated in HIV related information and education and had regular checkups at health centers. Further investigation is needed to understand barriers to HIV testing and access to prevention services.

  10. The epidemiology of dependency among urban-dwelling older people in the Dominican Republic; a cross-sectional survey

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    Ferri Cleusa P

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Demographic ageing, and the health transition will soon lead to large increases in the number of dependent older people in low and middle income countries. Despite its importance, this topic has not previously been studied. Methods A cross sectional catchment area one-phase survey of health conditions, dependency, care arrangements and caregiver strain among 2011 people aged 65 years and over in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic Results 7.1% of participants required much care and a further 4.7% required at least some care. The prevalence of dependency increased sharply with increasing age. Dependent older people were less likely than others to have a pension and much less likely to have paid work, but no more likely to benefit from financial support from their family. Needing much care was strongly associated with comorbidity between cognitive, psychological and physical health problems. However, dementia made the strongest independent contribution. Among those needing care, those with dementia stood out as being more disabled, as needing more care (particularly support with core activities of daily living, and as being more likely to have paid caregivers. Dementia caregivers experienced more strain than caregivers of those with other health conditions, an effect mediated by behavioural and psychological symptoms. Conclusion Dependency among older people is nearly as prevalent in Dominican Republic as in developed western settings. Non-communicable diseases, particularly dementia are the main contributing factors. Attention needs to be directed towards the development of age-appropriate healthcare, a long-term care policy, and mechanisms for ensuring the social protection of older persons.

  11. Weaving Futures. Family Transnationalism in the migration from Dominican Republic and Brazil to Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Pedone

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article explores forms of migrant families’ reorganization within a (new global economic crisis and the hardening of migration control in Europe; based on the cases of Dominican and Brazilian migration to Spain.Our goal is not to characterize the wholeness of strategies from these collectives, instead visualize its heterogeneity. Displacement of Dominican and Brazilian population to Spain shares the role of women as the first link of migration chains. In both cases women are the economic support of transnational families and they lead reunification's processes. Nevertheless, differences in the time spent in the destination country, migratory status, origin (rural-urban, level of education, class and labor insertion in destination country, affect differently, the planning and start up of migration projects, the organization of care and family reunification strategies. These findings question the predominant place granted to national origin in the study of international migration.

  12. Communication of 27 March 1995 received from the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Cuba to the International Atomic Energy Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-05

    The Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency has received a letter of 27 March 1995 from the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Cuba informing the Agency that the Government of the Republic of Cuba signed the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (Tlatelolco Treaty) on 25 March 1995.

  13. Communication of 27 March 1995 received from the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Cuba to the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency has received a letter of 27 March 1995 from the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Cuba informing the Agency that the Government of the Republic of Cuba signed the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (Tlatelolco Treaty) on 25 March 1995

  14. Improving maternity care in the Dominican Republic: a pilot study of a community-based participatory research action plan by an international healthcare team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Jennifer; Gossett, Sarah; Burgos, Rosa; Cáceres, Ramona; Tejada, Carmen; Dominguez García, Luis; Ambrosio Rosario, Angel; Almonte, Asela; Perez, Lydia J

    2015-05-01

    This article is a report of the process and results of a feasibility pilot study to improve the quality of maternity care in a sample of 31 women and their newborns delivering in a public, tertiary hospital in the Dominican Republic. The pilot study was the first "action step" taken as a result of a formative, community-based participatory research (CBPR) study conducted between 2008 and 2010 by an interdisciplinary, international partnership of U.S. academic researchers, Dominican medical/nursing personnel, and Dominican community health workers. Health personnel and community health workers separately identified indicators most important to measure quality of antepartum maternity care: laboratory and diagnostic studies and respectful, interpersonal communication. At the midpoint and the completion of data collection, the CBPR team evaluated the change in quality indicators to assess improvement in care. The pilot study supports the idea that joint engagement of community health workers, health personnel, and academic researchers with data creation and patient monitoring is motivating for all to continue to improve services in the cultural context of the Dominican Republic. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Measuring Coverage in MNCH: Validating Women’s Self-Report of Emergency Cesarean Sections in Ghana and the Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunçalp, Özge; Stanton, Cynthia; Castro, Arachu; Adanu, Richard; Heymann, Marilyn; Adu-Bonsaffoh, Kwame; Lattof, Samantha R.; Blanc, Ann; Langer, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Background Cesarean section is the only surgery for which we have nearly global population-based data. However, few surveys provide additional data related to cesarean sections. Given weaknesses in many health information systems, health planners in developing countries will likely rely on nationally representative surveys for the foreseeable future. The objective is to validate self-reported data on the emergency status of cesarean sections among women delivering in teaching hospitals in the capitals of two contrasting countries: Accra, Ghana and Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic (DR). Methods and Findings This study compares hospital-based data, considered the reference standard, against women’s self-report for two definitions of emergency cesarean section based on the timing of the decision to operate and the timing of the cesarean section relative to onset of labor. Hospital data were abstracted from individual medical records, and hospital discharge interviews were conducted with women who had undergone cesarean section in two hospitals. The study assessed sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of responses to questions regarding emergency versus non-emergency cesarean section and estimated the percent of emergency cesarean sections that would be obtained from a survey, given the observed prevalence, sensitivity, and specificity from this study. Hospital data were matched with exit interviews for 659 women delivered via cesarean section for Ghana and 1,531 for the Dominican Republic. In Ghana and the Dominican Republic, sensitivity and specificity for emergency cesarean section defined by decision time were 79% and 82%, and 50% and 80%, respectively. The validity of emergency cesarean defined by operation time showed less favorable results than decision time in Ghana and slightly more favorable results in the Dominican Republic. Conclusions Questions used in this study to identify emergency cesarean section are promising but insufficient to

  16. Situation Report--Dominican Republic, Ethiopia, Gilbert and Ellice Islands, Laos, Liberia, Republic of Vietnam, Seychelles, Tahiti (French Polynesia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in eight foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Dominical Republic, Ethiopia, Gilbert and Ellice Islands, Laos, Liberia, Republic of Vietnam, Seychelles, and Tahiti (French Polynesia). Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two…

  17. Heterosexual transmission of HIV in the Dominican Republic: gendered indicators are associated with disparities in condom use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Michelle M; Andrade, Flavia C D; Raffaelli, Marcela; Iwelunmor, Juliet

    2015-11-23

    Gendered dynamics in heterosexual relationships compromise women's self-efficacy and increase their vulnerability to acquiring HIV. This study examines the impact of socioeconomic determinants, media exposure, and sexual expectations on sexual behaviors of men and women in the Dominican Republic (DR). We analyzed cross-sectional data from 51,018 adults in the Dominican Republic age 15 to 45 years collected by the Demographics and Health Survey (DHS) in 2007. Measures included demographic and socioeconomic indicators, social exposures, sexual expectations and sexual behaviors. Logistic regression models explored gender differences in condom use. Study findings indicated that women were less likely to use a condom at last intercourse than men (odds ratio [OR] = 0.29; 95 % CI = 0.27, 0.31). Among men, secondary (OR = 1.43; 95 % CI = 1.16, 1.76) and higher education (OR = 1.58; 95 % CI = 1.25, 2.00), being in the richest quintile (OR = 1.25; 95 % CI = 1.07, 1.47), and living in a female-headed household (OR = 1.13; 95 % CI 1.03, 1.23) increased the likelihood of condom use. Compared to never married men, currently and formerly married men were less likely to use condoms (OR = 0.03; 95 % CI = 0.03, 0.04 and OR = 0.67; 95 % CI = 0.60, 0.75, respectively). The odds of condom use increased for young women 15-19 years old in comparison with women age 30-34 years, but decreased as they grew older. For women, being in the richer quintile (OR = 1.28; 95 % CI = 1.06, 1.54), living in a female-headed household (OR = 1.26; 1.12, 1.41), and having good access to media (OR = 1.24; 95 % CI = 1.12, 1.42) increased the likelihood of condom use. Being currently married or formerly married and living in rural areas decreased such likelihood among women. Study findings provide evidence that, in the DHS, socioeconomic and cultural differences between men and women affects condom use. Efforts to reduce HIV transmission

  18. Paleomagnetic and Rock Magnetic Study of Oligocene-Holocene Sedimentary Rocks from Northern Dominican Republic: Evidence of Vertical Axis Rotations

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    Anson Sanchez, M.; Kodama, K. P.; Pueyo, E. L.; Soto, R.; Garcia-Senz, J.; Escuder-Viruete, J.; Pastor-Galan, D.

    2017-12-01

    A paleomagnetic and rock magnetic study was conducted in the northern Dominican Republic to detect vertical axis rotations in an active left-lateral, strike slip fault zone. 191 samples from 21 sites were collected from a variety of lithologies including limestones, conglomerates, calcarenites and marls that ranged in age from the Oligocene to the Holocene. The rock magnetic portion of the study focused on the identification of magnetic minerals using coercivity, and Curie temperature (c vs temperature) measurement, modeling of IRM acquisition curves, and thermal demagnetization of IRMs (Lowrie, 19901). In the paleomagnetic portion of the study characteristic remanences (ChRMs) were isolated using thermal demagnetization (19 steps up to 680ºC) and alternating field (AF) demagnetization (17 steps up to 100 mT). In most cases the characteristic remanence is carried by magnetite, with peak unblocking temperatures of 575ºC. This interpretation was supported by c vs. T results that yielded Curie temperatures of 580˚C. In only a few cases (7 samples) higher unblocking temperatures suggested hematite as the magnetic carrier. The modeling of IRM acquisition curves, that shows two coercivity components, further supports the presence of magnetite. 75% of the IRM is carried by the low-coercivity component (100-300 mT, magnetite). 25% of the IRM is carried by the high-coercivity component (1.2-1.6T) characteristic of hematite. The IRM acquisition data was collected from 24 samples (3-4 from each of the lithologies sampled). IRMs were acquired in fields from 4mT to 1T in 23 steps. The paleomagnetic results show a grouping by tectonic blocks with one group having westerly ChRM declinations (268˚-295˚) and a second group having northerly ChRM declinations (357˚-035˚). In most cases, inclinations are intermediate ( 35˚), in agreement with the 24˚-31˚ expected inclinations for Dominican Republic in the period Oligocene to Holocene. The rotation of the tectonic blocks, as

  19. Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-01

    Cuba is a country of 110,860 sq.km with 10.8 million inhabitants, of whom 99% are literate. Independence was gained on May 20, 1902. The terrain consists of flat or gently rolling plains, hills, and mountains up to 2000 meters in the Southeast, with a climate which is tropical, yet moderated by trade winds. Spanish is spoken by the Spanish-African mixed population. Life expectancy ranges over 74-77 years. Gross social product is $21 billion, declining at a rate of -20%. Per capita income is $1500. The country's natural resources include nickel, cobalt, iron ore, copper, manganese, salt, and timber. Sugar, fruits, tobacco, coffee, rice, beans, meat, vegetables, food processing, oil refining, cement, electric power, light consumer, and industrial products are areas of economic production. Capital goods, industrial raw materials, food, petroleum, and consumer goods are imported, and sugar and its by-products, petroleum, nickel, seafood, citrus, tobacco products and rum are exported. Indepth information is also given on the people and history, government and principal officials, political conditions, the economy, defense, foreign relations, relations with the U.S., and names of principal U.S. officials in the country.

  20. Decision-Making for Risk Management in Sustainable Renewable Energy Facilities: A Case Study in the Dominican Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido C. Guerrero-Liquet

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Today, Renewable Energy Sources (RES are a key pillar to achieving sustainable development, which is the main reason why energy projects are being carried out not only in developed countries but also in many emerging countries. Since the technical and financial risk remains a major barrier to financing renewable energy projects, several mechanisms are available to reduce risks on investment into clean energy projects. This paper discusses risk management tools in solar photovoltaic facilities based on the guide to the Project Management (PMBOK Guide. To do this, a combination of different decision-making methodologies will be carried out. These methodologies enable to not only extract the knowledge by experts but also to know the causes and effects that help to make the best decision. In order to do so, techniques to seek information (Delphi and Checklist as well as diagram techniques such as cause and effect diagrams or Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities and Threats (SWOT are applied. The categorization and prioritization of risks will be carried out through the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. Finally, a sensitivity analysis will allow for providing consistency to the obtained results. A real case in the Dominican Republic will also be presented as case study.

  1. Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae Isolated from Vegetables Imported from the Dominican Republic, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurfluh, Katrin; Nüesch-Inderbinen, Magdalena; Morach, Marina; Zihler Berner, Annina; Hächler, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    To examine to what extent fresh vegetables imported into Switzerland represent carriers of extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae, 169 samples of different types of fresh vegetables imported into Switzerland from the Dominican Republic, India, Thailand, and Vietnam were analyzed. Overall, 25.4% of the vegetable samples yielded one or more ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae, 78.3% of which were multidrug resistant. Sixty isolates were obtained: Escherichia coli, 26; Klebsiella pneumoniae, 26; Enterobacter cloacae, 6; Enterobacter aerogenes, 1; and Cronobacter sakazakii, 1. We found 29 isolates producing CTX-M-15, 8 producing CTX-M-14, 7 producing CTX-M-55, 3 producing CTX-M-65, 1 each producing CTX-M-1, CTX-M-3, CTX-M-27, and CTX-M-63, 5 producing SHV-2, 3 producing SHV-12, and 1 producing SHV-2a. Four of the E. coli isolates belonged to epidemiologically important clones: CTX-M-15-producing B2:ST131 (1 isolate), D:ST405 (1 isolate), and D:ST38 (2 isolates). One of the D:ST38 isolates belonged to the extraintestinal enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) D:ST38 lineage. Two of the K. pneumoniae isolates belonged to the epidemic clones sequence type 15 (ST15) and ST147. The occurrence of antibiotic-resistant pathogenic and commensal Enterobacteriaceae in imported agricultural foodstuffs constitutes a source of ESBL genes and a concern for food safety. PMID:25724954

  2. Impact of acid mine drainage from mining exploitations on the Margajita River basin and the Hatillo reservoir (Dominican Republic)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandia, F.; Salas, J.; Arcos, D.; Archambault, A.; Cottard, F.

    2009-01-01

    Mining of the Pueblo Viejo high-sulphidation epithermal deposit (Dominican Republic) leads to environmental impact due to the formation of acid mine drainage associated with the oxidative dissolution of sulphides and sulpho salts. In addition to the very low pH, the acid waters are capable of transporting away from the mining areas high concentrations of metals and metalloids in solution. In the present work, a geochemical study of sediments deposited in the Hatillo reservoir is carried out. This reservoir is fed by the Margajita and Yuna streams which transport leachates from the Pueblo Viejo and Falcondo-Bonao (Cr-Ni) mining areas, respectively. The results show that these sediments have very high concentrations of Fe, Al and sulphate, along with significant amounts of As, Zn and Te, which are of especial environmental concern. The main contributor to this metal discharge into the reservoir is the Margajita stream, whereas the Yuna stream does not transport significant amounts of metals in solution due to its neutral pH, although it is likely that metals such as Mn, Cr, Ni and Co can be mobilised as a particulate. (Author) 5 refs.

  3. Caribbean Reef Response to Plio-Pleistocene Climate Change: Results of the Dominican Republic Drilling Project (DRDP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, J.; McNeill, D. F.; Diaz, V.; Swart, P. K.; Pourmand, A.

    2014-12-01

    Caribbean reefs changed profoundly in taxonomic composition, diversity, and dominance structure during late Pliocene and Pleistocene climatic change. These changes coincide with protracted climatic deterioration and cooling between 2.0 to 0.8 Ma, and the onset of high amplitude sea-level fluctuations ~400 ka. The Dominican Republic Drilling Project (DRDP) was initiated to determine how climate change and global high-amplitude sea level changes influenced depositional patterns in Pliocene to Recent reef systems of the Caribbean. A transect of 7 core borings (~700 m total depth) were collected along the southern coast of the DR. New age constraints based on U/Th geochronometry and radiogenic Sr isotopes, combined with depositional lithofacies, faunal indicators, and stable isotope profiles have allowed us to correlate between wells and define the internal anatomy and stratal geometry of the individual reef sigmoids and sigmoid sets. Faunal records suggest most extinction occurred prior to ~1 Ma. Following this extinction, fringing reef margins of the Caribbean display a characteristic zonation in which Acropora palmata dominates shallow high-energy reef crests and Acropora cervicornis calmer fore-reef slopes and backreef lagoons. The dominance of acroporids across this zonation has been attributed to growth rates 5-100 times faster than other corals.

  4. Progress towards Elimination of HIV Mother-to-Child Transmission in the Dominican Republic from 1999 to 2011

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    Osvaldo Lorenzo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1999, prevention of mother-to-child transmission (pMTCT using antiretrovirals was introduced in the Dominican Republic (DR. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART was introduced for immunosuppressed persons in 2004 and for pMTCT in 2008. To assess progress towards MTCT elimination, data from requisitions for HIV nucleic acid amplification tests for diagnosis of HIV infection in perinatally exposed infants born in the DR from 1999 to 2011 were analyzed. The MTCT rate was 142/1,274 (11.1% in 1999–2008 and 12/302 (4.0% in 2009–2011 (P<.001, with a rate of 154/1,576 (9.8% for both periods combined. This decline was associated with significant increases in the proportions of women who received prenatal HAART (from 12.3% to 67.9% and infants who received exclusive formula feeding (from 76.3% to 86.1% and declines in proportions of women who received no prenatal antiretrovirals (from 31.9% to 12.2% or received only single-dose nevirapine (from 39.5% to 19.5%. In 2007, over 95% of DR pregnant women received prenatal care, HIV testing, and professionally attended delivery. However, only 58% of women in underserved sugarcane plantation communities (2007 and 76% in HIV sentinel surveillance hospitals (2003–2005 received their HIV test results. HIV-MTCT elimination is feasible but persistent lack of access to critical pMTCT measures must be addressed.

  5. Associations between health literacy, HIV-related knowledge, and information behavior among persons living with HIV in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonbraker, Samantha; Smaldone, Arlene; Luft, Heidi; Cushman, Linda F; Lerebours Nadal, Leonel; Halpern, Mina; Larson, Elaine

    2018-05-01

    To determine the health literacy levels of persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (PLWH) at a health clinic in the Dominican Republic (DR) and assess associations between health literacy, HIV-related knowledge, and health information behavior (how patients need, seek, receive, and use information). Cross-sectional, descriptive. Participants were 107 PLWH attending the Clinic. A theoretically based, 64-item survey assessing information behavior and HIV-related knowledge was administered in Spanish through individual interviews. Health literacy was assessed using the Short Assessment of Health Literacy-Spanish and English. On average, participants were 40.8 years old and had lived with HIV for 7.7 years. The majority (69.2%) had low health literacy. HIV-related knowledge and information behavior varied by health literacy level and uncertainty regarding a main indicator of disease progression, viral load, was demonstrated regardless of health literacy level. Participants with low health literacy were less likely to answer questions or answer questions correctly and many participants (39.2%) indicated viral transmission can occur through supernatural means. Findings demonstrate unmet information need and that information received may not always be understood. Methods to improve health education are needed to ensure patients receive health information in an understandable way. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Methods of mapping ethnographic data on migration, tourism labor, and health risk in the Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Karina; Padilla, Mark; Scott, Derrick; Colón-Burgos, José Félix; Reyes, Armando Matiz; Varas-Díaz, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on a mixed-method approach to quantifying qualitative data from the results of an ongoing NIDA-funded ethnographic study entitled “Migration, Tourism, and the HIV/Drug-Use Syndemic in the Dominican Republic”. This project represents the first large-scale mixed method study to identify social, structural, environmental, and demographic factors that may contribute to ecologies of health vulnerability within the Caribbean tourism zones. Our research has identified deportation history as a critical factor contributing to vulnerability to HIV, drugs, mental health problems, and other health conditions. Therefore, understanding the movements of our participants became a vital aspect of this research. This paper describes how we went about translating 37 interviews into visual geographic representations. These methods help develop possible strategies for confronting HIV/AIDS and problematic substance use by examining the ways that these epidemics are shaped by the realities of people’s labor migration and the spaces they inhabit. Our methods for mapping this qualitative data contribute to the ongoing, broadening capabilities of using GIS in social science research. A key contribution of this work is its integration of different methodologies from various disciplines to help better understand complex social problems. PMID:27656039

  7. Alcohol Use and HIV Risk Within Social Networks of MSM Sex Workers in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Diane; Holloway, Ian W; Gildner, Jennifer; Jauregui, Juan C; Garcia Alvarez, Rafael; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent

    2017-11-01

    To examine how alcohol-related HIV risk behaviors within MSM sex workers' social networks (SN) may be associated with individual risk behaviors, respondent-driven and venue-based sampling were used to collect demographic, behavioral and SN characteristics among MSM sex workers in Santo Domingo and Boca Chica (N = 220). The majority of participants reported problem drinking (71.0%) or alcohol use at their last sexual encounter (71.4%). Self-reported problem drinking was associated with SN characteristics (at least one member who recently got drunk aOR = 7.5, no religious/spiritual adviser aOR = 3.0, non-sexual network density aOR = 0.9), while self-reported alcohol use at last sex was associated with individual (drug use at last sex aOR = 4.4) and SN characteristics (at least one member with previous HIV/STI testing aOR = 4.7). Dominican MSM sex workers reported high alcohol use, which may increase their risk for HIV. A better understanding of SN factors associated with individual risk behaviors can help guide appropriate intervention development.

  8. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in children from Verón, a rural city of the Dominican Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geers Childers KA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Kristin A Geers Childers, James R Palmieri, Mindy Sampson, Danielle Brunet Department of Microbiology, Infectious and Emerging Diseases, Edward Via College of Osteopathic Medicine, Blacksburg, VA, USA Abstract: Gastrointestinal infections impose a great and often silent burden of morbidity and mortality on poor populations in developing countries. The Dominican Republic (DR is a nation on the island of Hispaniola in the Caribbean Sea. Verón is located in La Alta Grácia province in the southeastern corner of the DR. Dominican and Haitian migrant workers come to Verón to work in Punta Cana, a tourist resort area. Few definitive or comprehensive studies of the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasitic infections have been published in the DR. Historically, most of the definitive studies of water-borne or soil-transmitted parasites in the DR were published more than 30 years ago. Presently, there is a high prevalence of gastrointestinal parasitic infections throughout the poorest areas of the DR and Haiti. In this study we report the prevalence of gastrointestinal protozoan and helminth parasites from children recruited from the Clínica Rural de Verón during 2008 through 2011. Each participant was asked to provide a fecal sample which was promptly examined microscopically for protozoan and helminth parasites using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC fecal flotation technique to concentrate and isolate helminth ova and protozoan cysts. Of the 128 fecal samples examined, 127 were positive for one or more parasites. The age of the infected children ranged from 2–15 years; 61 were males and 66 were females. The only uninfected child was a 9 year old female. Percent infection rates were 43.8% for Ascaris lumbricoides, 8.5% for Enterobius vermicularis, 21.1% for Entamoeba histolytica, and 22.7% for Giardia duodenalis. Of the children examined, 7.8% had double infections. Any plan of action to reduce gastrointestinal parasites in

  9. Study of environmental conditions in the repositories of the National Archive of the Republic of Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isbel Vivar González

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to study the behavior of the temperature (T, relative humidity (RH and illuminance (I in the repositories of the National Archive of the Republic of Cuba. The values of T and RH were measured twice daily for four consecutive years. I was measured in sunny and cloudy days. The result sallow us to affirm that the environmental conditions (T, RH of these repositories are favorable for the conservation of paper documents. In cloudy days, I of the repositories located in lower-ground floor does not exceed the allowed 50 lux; but in sunny days, due to the incidence of sunlight, in all repositories I exceeds 50 lux. Artificial light caused an increase in I in all repositories, but this is not significant because the light bulbs are kept turned off most of the time.

  10. The innovation and the improvement of business performance in the provinces of the Republic of Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Manuel Somohano Rodríguez

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The economic development success of a country is closely related to its National Innovation System (N.I.S. (Nelson, 2013. Our research question is about the today’s situation of innovation in the Republic of Cuba, because it could be the seed of a hypothetical S.I.N. So, our aim is to analyze the existence of statistically significant differences in Cuban small businesses performance by regions for the period 2011-2014 taking into account innovations and rationalizations implemented during the period 2006-2009. We also study whether the environment favors innovation. The results show that provinces with an index of innovations and rationalizations above average, get higher performance. In addition, we observe how those provinces that are in less complex environments, have a lower propensity to perform innovations.

  11. Disclosure of their HIV status to perinatally infected youth using the adapted Blasini disclosure model in Haiti and the Dominican Republic: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck-Sagué, Consuelo M.; Dévieux, Jessy; Pinzón-Iregui, Maria Claudia; Lerebours-Nadal, Leonel; Abreu-Pérez, Rosa; Bertrand, Rachel; Rouzier, Vanessa; Gaston, Stephanie; Ibanez, Gladys; Halpern, Mina; Pape, Jean W.; Dorceus, Patricia; Preston, Sharice M.; Dean, Andrew G.; Nicholas, Stephen W.; Blasini, Ileana

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the safety, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of a culturally-adapted disclosure intervention for perinatally HIV-infected combined antiretroviral therapy patients in Haiti and the Dominican Republic. Design A quasi-experimental trial was conducted comparing caregiver–youth pairs who completed the intervention [adapted Blasini disclosure model (aBDM)] to pairs who discontinued aBDM participation before disclosure. aBDM consists of five components: structured healthcare worker training; one-on one pre-disclosure intervention/education sessions for youth (describing pediatric chronic diseases including cancer, diabetes and HIV) and for caregivers (strengthening capacity for disclosure); a scheduled supportive disclosure session; and one-on-one postdisclosure support for caregivers and youth. Methods Caregivers of nondisclosed combined antiretroviral therapy patients aged 10.0–17.8 years were invited to participate. Data were collected by separate one-on-one face-to-face interviews of caregivers and youth by study staff and medical record review by pediatricians at enrollment and 3 months after disclosure or after intervention discontinuation. Results To date, 65 Dominican Republic and 27 Haiti caregiver–youth pairs have enrolled. At enrollment, only 46.4% of youth had viral suppression and 43.4% of caregivers had clinically significant depressive symptomatology. To date, two serious study-related adverse events have occurred. Seven of the 92 (7.6%, 6 in the Dominican Republic) enrolled pairs discontinued participation before disclosure and 39 had completed postdisclosure participation. Median plasma HIV-RNA concentration was lower in youth who completed aBDM than in youth who discontinued participation before aBDM disclosure (<40 versus 8673 copies/ml; P = 0.027). Completers expressed considerable satisfaction with aBDM. Conclusion Preliminary results suggest safety, acceptability, and possible effectiveness of the aBDM. PMID:26049543

  12. A Conflict Transformation Perspective on Efforts to Protect Human Rights of Haitian Migrants and their Descendants in the Dominican Republic

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    Ingvild Skeie

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo trata el largo debate en los ámbitos académico y profesional, sobre la relación entre la protección de los derechos humanos y la transformación de conflictos. Son dos enfoques que frecuentemente se han presentado como dos opuestos, representando respectivamente los principios y el pragmatismo. Sin embargo, durante los últimos años, se ha notado una tendencia de considerar cómo ambos campos pueden beneficiarse de las herramientas y las ideas del otro. El artículo utiliza la situación de la República Dominicana como un estudio de caso, observando los esfuerzos de la sociedad civil para promover y proteger los derechos de inmigrantes haitianos y sus descendientes, enfocándose particularmente en el papel de las organizaciones no gubernamentales internacionales (‘INGOs’, por sus siglas en inglés. El artículo argumenta la utilidad de la aplicación del análisis de transformación de conflicto, y específicamente intenta mostrar la relevancia de usar un análisis sistémico de conflicto, analizando y entendiendo los abusos contra los derechos humanos dentro de en una perspectiva más amplia de las relaciones dominico-haitianas. El artículo muestra cómo las intervenciones de las INGO afecta las dinámicas del conflicto tanto positivamente como negativamente, y discute las implicaciones para futuras estrategias para los participantes de la sociedad civil. English: This paper addresses the long-standing debate within academic and practitioner circles about the relationship between human rights protection and conflict transformation. While the two approaches have often been pitted against each other, as representing principles vs. pragmatism respectively, there has over the last years been an increasing tendency to consider how the two camps can benefit from each other's tools and lines of thoughts. The article takes the situation in the Dominican Republic as a case, looking into civil society actors' efforts to promote

  13. Fibrous Platinum-Group Minerals in “Floating Chromitites” from the Loma Larga Ni-Laterite Deposit, Dominican Republic

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    Thomas Aiglsperger

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This contribution reports on the observation of enigmatic fibrous platinum-group minerals (PGM found within a chromitite body included in limonite (“floating chromitite” from Ni-laterites in the Dominican Republic. Fibrous PGM have a Ru-Os-Ir-Fe dominated composition and are characterized by fibrous textures explained by grain-forming fibers which are significantly longer (1–5 µm than they are wide (~100 nm. Back-scattered electron (BSE images suggest that these nanofibers are platinum-group elements (PGE-bearing and form <5 µm thick layers of bundles which are oriented orthogonal to grains’ surfaces. Trace amounts of Si are most likely associated with PGE-bearing nanofibers. One characteristic fibrous PGM was studied in detail: XRD analyses point to ruthenian hexaferrum. However, the unpolished fibrous PGM shows numerous complex textures on its surface which are suggestive for neoformation processes: (i features suggesting growth of PGE-bearing nanofibers; (ii occurrence of PGM nanoparticles within film material (biofilm? associated with PGE-bearing nanofibers; (iii a Si-rich and crater-like texture hosting PGM nanoparticles and an Ir-rich accumulation of irregular shape; (iv complex PGM nanoparticles with ragged morphologies, resembling sponge spicules and (v oval forms (<1 µm in diameter with included PGM nanoparticles, similar to those observed in experiments with PGE-reducing bacteria. Fibrous PGM found in the limonite may have formed due to supergene (bio-weathering of fibrous Mg-silicates which were incorporated into desulphurized laurite during stages of serpentinization.

  14. Factors contributing to food insecurity among women living with HIV in the Dominican Republic: A qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payán, Denise D.; Fulcar, María Altagracia; Terrero, Sergio; Acevedo, Ramón; Farías, Hugo; Palar, Kartika

    2017-01-01

    Background Food insecurity contributes to poor health outcomes among people living with HIV. In Latin America and the Caribbean, structural factors such as poverty, stigma, and inequality disproportionately affect women and may fuel both the HIV epidemic and food insecurity. Methods We examined factors contributing to food insecurity among women living with HIV (WLHIV) in the Dominican Republic (DR). Data collection included in-depth, semi-structured interviews in 2013 with 30 WLHIV with indications of food insecurity who resided in urban or peri-urban areas and were recruited from local HIV clinics. In-person interviews were conducted in Spanish. Transcripts were coded using content analysis methods and an inductive approach to identify principal and emergent themes. Results Respondents identified economic instability as the primary driver of food insecurity, precipitated by enacted stigma in the labor and social domains. Women described experiences of HIV-related labor discrimination in formal and informal sectors. Women commonly reported illegal HIV testing by employers, and subsequent dismissal if HIV-positive, especially in tourism and free trade zones. Enacted stigma in the social domain manifested as gossip and rejection by family, friends, and neighbors and physical, verbal, and sexual abuse by intimate partners, distancing women from sources of economic and food support. These experiences with discrimination and abuse contributed to internalized stigma among respondents who, as a result, were fearful and hesitant to disclose their HIV status; some participants reported leaving spouses and/or families, resulting in further isolation from economic resources, food and other support. A minority of participants described social support by friends, spouses, families and support groups, which helped to ameliorate food insecurity and emotional distress. Conclusions Addressing food insecurity among WLHIV requires policy and programmatic interventions to enforce

  15. Severe food insecurity is associated with overweight and increased body fat among people living with HIV in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derose, Kathryn P; Ríos-Castillo, Israel; Fulcar, María Altagracia; Payán, Denise D; Palar, Kartika; Escala, Lisbeth; Farías, Hugo; Martínez, Homero

    2018-02-01

    Food insecurity is an important risk factor for overweight and obesity among low-income populations in high income countries, but has not been well-studied among people living with HIV (PLHIV), particularly in resource-poor settings. To explore the association between food insecurity and overweight and obesity among PLHIV in the Dominican Republic, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 160 HIV-infected adults between March-December 2012 in four geographically-dispersed health centers (Santo Domingo, Puerto Plata, San Juan, and Higuey). We collected information on household food insecurity, anthropometric measurements, and socio-demographic data and ran descriptive and multivariate analyses, controlling for fixed effects of clinics and using robust standard errors. Mean age ± SD of participants was 39.9 ± 10.5 years; 68% were women, and 78% were on antiretroviral therapy (ART). A total of 58% reported severe household food insecurity. After controlling for age, gender, income, having children at home, education, and ART status, severe food insecurity was associated with increased body mass index (BMI) (β = 1.891, p = 0.023) and body fat (β = 4.004, p = 0.007). Age and female gender were also associated with increased body fat (β = 0.259, p insecurity was associated with an increased odds of 3.060 (p = 0.013); no other covariates were independently associated with overweight. The association of severe food insecurity with increased BMI, body fat, and overweight among PLHIV has important implications for clinical care as well as food security and nutrition interventions in resource-poor settings. Integrated programs that combine nutrition education or counseling with sustainable approaches to addressing food insecurity among PLHIV are needed to improve long-term health outcomes of this vulnerable population.

  16. Effects of Hurricane Georges on habitat use by captive-reared Hispaniolan Parrots (Amazona ventralis) released in the Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, T.H.; Collazo, J.A.; Vilella, F.J.; Guerrero, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    We radio-tagged and released 49 captive-reared Hispaniolan Parrots (Amazona ventralis) in Parque Nacional del Este (PNE), Dominican Republic, during 1997 and 1998. Our primary objective was to develop a restoration program centered on using aviary-reared birds to further the recovery of the critically endangered Puerto Rican Parrot (A. vittata). Hurricane Georges made landfall over the release area on 22 September 1998 with sustained winds of 224 km/h, providing us with a unique opportunity to quantify responses of parrots to such disturbances. Quantitative data on such responses by any avian species are scarce, particularly for Amazona species, many of which are in peril and occur in hurricane-prone areas throughout the Caribbean. Mean home ranges of 18 parrots monitored both before and after the hurricane increased (P = 0.08) from 864 ha (CI = 689-1039 ha) pre-hurricane to 1690 ha (CI = 1003-2377 ha) post-hurricane. The total area traversed by all parrots increased > 300%, from 4884 ha pre-hurricane to 15,490 ha post-hurricane. Before Hurricane Georges, parrot activity was concentrated in coastal scrub, tall broadleaf forest, and abandoned agriculture (conucos). After the hurricane, parrots concentrated their activities in areas of tall broadleaf forest and abandoned conucos. Topographic relief, primarily in the form of large sinkholes, resulted in "resource refugia" where parrots and other frugivores foraged after the hurricane. Habitat use and movement patterns exhibited by released birds highlight the importance of carefully considering effects of season, topography, and overall size of release areas when planning psittacine restorations in hurricane-prone areas. ?? The Neotropical Ornithological Society.

  17. [Breast feeding practice and activities for its promotion in Central America, Panamá and Dominican Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, B; Delgado, H L; Valverde, V; Townsend, J; Fischer, M; Praun, A

    1985-06-01

    This paper summarizes the data presented by the representatives of Central America, Panama and the Dominican Republic at the II Regional Seminar on the Promotion of Breast-Feeding, held in Isla Contadora, Panama, April 25-29, 1983. The representatives of Costa Rica, Honduras and Panama provided up-to-date, representative data in regard to the breast-feeding practice. The average weaning age in the urban and rural areas of Costa Rica is 6 and 4 months, respectively. In Honduras and Panama, 43 and 17% of the infants from urban areas, and 21 and 37% of the babies from rural areas, respectively, were weaned before they reached four months of age. The need for availability of permanent systems to collect information on the breast-feeding practice in the different countries is pointed out. With regard to promotion actions, the absence of a national policy in favor of breast-feeding is evident. Moreover, in the national education systems, little importance is given to the subject. On the other hand, the advances achieved by some hospitals in favoring breast-feeding are mentioned. These include rooming in, the feeding of colostrum to newborns, and the establishment of human milk banks to feed premature babies whose mothers are unable to breast-feed them. Another acknowledged fact is that in the rural areas the agricultural home educators do not reinforce the breast-feeding practice. Also, there is a lack of information on the fulfillment of laws instituted for the protection of pregnant and lactating mothers, as far as pre and postnatal rest is concerned.

  18. Environmental–Structural Interventions to Reduce HIV/STI Risk Among Female Sex Workers in the Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerrigan, Deanna; Moreno, Luis; Rosario, Santo; Gomez, Bayardo; Jerez, Hector; Barrington, Clare; Weiss, Ellen; Sweat, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the effectiveness of 2 environmental–structural interventions in reducing risks of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among female sex workers in the Dominican Republic. Methods. Two intervention models were implemented over a 1-year period: community solidarity in Santo Domingo and solidarity combined with government policy in Puerto Plata. Both were evaluated via preintervention–postintervention cross-sectional behavioral surveys, STI testing and participant observations, and serial cross-sectional STI screenings. Results. Significant increases in condom use with new clients (75.3%–93.8%; odds ratio [OR]=4.21; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.55, 11.43) were documented in Santo Domingo. In Puerto Plata, significant increases in condom use with regular partners (13.0%–28.8%; OR=2.97; 95% CI=1.33, 6.66) and reductions in STI prevalence (28.8%–16.3%; OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.32, 0.78) were documented, as were significant increases in sex workers’ verbal rejections of unsafe sex (50.0%–79.4%; OR=3.86; 95% CI=1.96, 7.58) and participating sex establishments’ ability to achieve the goal of no STIs in routine monthly screenings of sex workers (OR=1.17; 95% CI=1.12, 1.22). Conclusions. Interventions that combine community solidarity and government policy show positive initial effects on HIV and STI risk reduction among female sex workers. PMID:16317215

  19. Factors contributing to food insecurity among women living with HIV in the Dominican Republic: A qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn P Derose

    Full Text Available Food insecurity contributes to poor health outcomes among people living with HIV. In Latin America and the Caribbean, structural factors such as poverty, stigma, and inequality disproportionately affect women and may fuel both the HIV epidemic and food insecurity.We examined factors contributing to food insecurity among women living with HIV (WLHIV in the Dominican Republic (DR. Data collection included in-depth, semi-structured interviews in 2013 with 30 WLHIV with indications of food insecurity who resided in urban or peri-urban areas and were recruited from local HIV clinics. In-person interviews were conducted in Spanish. Transcripts were coded using content analysis methods and an inductive approach to identify principal and emergent themes.Respondents identified economic instability as the primary driver of food insecurity, precipitated by enacted stigma in the labor and social domains. Women described experiences of HIV-related labor discrimination in formal and informal sectors. Women commonly reported illegal HIV testing by employers, and subsequent dismissal if HIV-positive, especially in tourism and free trade zones. Enacted stigma in the social domain manifested as gossip and rejection by family, friends, and neighbors and physical, verbal, and sexual abuse by intimate partners, distancing women from sources of economic and food support. These experiences with discrimination and abuse contributed to internalized stigma among respondents who, as a result, were fearful and hesitant to disclose their HIV status; some participants reported leaving spouses and/or families, resulting in further isolation from economic resources, food and other support. A minority of participants described social support by friends, spouses, families and support groups, which helped to ameliorate food insecurity and emotional distress.Addressing food insecurity among WLHIV requires policy and programmatic interventions to enforce existing laws designed to

  20. The Association Between Men's Concern About Demonstrating Masculine Characteristics and Their Sexual Risk Behaviors: Findings from the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Paul J; Barrington, Clare; Powell, Wizdom; Gottert, Ann; Lerebours, Leonel; Donastorg, Yeycy; Brito, Maximo O

    2018-02-01

    Quantitative analyses exploring the relationship between masculinities and men's sexual risk behaviors have most commonly used one dimension of masculinities: men's gender ideology. Examining other dimensions may enhance our understanding of and ability to intervene upon this relationship. In this article, we examined the association between gender role conflict/stress (GRC/S)-men's concern about demonstrating masculine characteristics-and three different sexual risk behaviors (having two or more sex partners in the last 30 days; never/inconsistent condom use with non-steady partners; and drinking alcohol at last sex) among a sample of heterosexual men in the Dominican Republic who were participating in an HIV prevention intervention (n = 293). The GRC/S Scale we used was adapted for this specific cultural context and has 17 items (α = 0.75). We used logistic regression to assess the relationship between GRC/S and each sexual behavior, controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. In adjusted models, a higher GRC/S score was significantly associated with increased odds of having two or more sex partners in the past 30 days (AOR 1.33, 95 % CI 1.01-1.74), never/inconsistent condom use with non-steady partners (AOR 1.45, 95 % CI 1.04-2.01), and drinking alcohol at last sex (AOR 1.56, 95 % CI 1.13-2.17). These results highlight the importance of expanding beyond gender ideology to understanding the influence of GRC/S on men's sexual risk behaviors. Interventions should address men's concern about demonstrating masculine characteristics to reduce the social and internalized pressure men feel to engage in sexual risk behaviors.

  1. The Changing Face of Plio-Pleistocene Reef Margins: Results of the Dominican Republic Drilling Project (DRDP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, J.; McNeill, D. F.; Díaz, V.; Swart, P. K.; Pourmand, A.; Grasmueck, M.; Eberli, G. P.

    2013-12-01

    Fringing reef margins of the Caribbean display a characteristic zonation in which Acropora palmata dominates shallow high-energy reef crests and Acropora cervicornis calmer fore-reef slopes and backreef lagoons. The dominance of acroporids across this zonation has been attributed to growth rates 5-100 times faster than other corals. However, the dominance and high accretion potential of acroporid reefs has a relatively recent geologic origin. Caribbean reefs changed profoundly in taxonomic composition, diversity, and dominance structure during late Pliocene and Pleistocene climatic change. These changes coincide with protracted climatic deterioration and cooling between 2.0 to 0.8 Ma, and the onset of high amplitude sea-level fluctuations ~400 ka. The Dominican Republic Drilling Project (DRDP) was initiated to determine how climate change and global high-amplitude sea level changes influenced depositional patterns in Pliocene to Recent reef systems of the Caribbean. A transect of 7 core borings (~700 m total depth) were collected along a transect of the southern coast of the DR in conjunction with over 20 km of ground penetrating radar (GPR) lines. New age constraints based on U/Th geochronometry and radiogenic Sr isotopes, combined with depositional lithofacies, faunal indicators, stable isotope profiles and GPR data have allowed us to correlate between wells and define the internal anatomy and stratal geometry of the individual reef sigmoids and sigmoid sets. The stacking of these sigmoid-shaped reefs produce lateral progradation of approximately 15 km with geometries that generally follow the highstand systems tract model of Pomar and Ward (1994). Based on existing age models eccentricity (high amplitude 100 kyr) sigmoids display increased aggradation and progradation potential compared to reef cycles driven by obliquity (41 kyr).

  2. Modeling Hydrological Services in Shade Grown Coffee Systems: Case Study of the Pico Duarte Region of the Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, J. D.; Gross, L.; Agosto Filion, N.; Bagstad, K.; Voigt, B. G.; Johnson, G.

    2010-12-01

    The modification of hydrologic systems in coffee-dominated landscapes varies widely according to the degree of shade trees incorporated in coffee farms. Compared to mono-cropping systems, shade coffee can produce both on- and off-farm benefits in the form of soil retention, moderation of sediment transport, and lower hydropower generating costs. The Pico Duarte Coffee Region and surrounding Madres de Las Aguas (Mother of Waters) Conservation Area in the Dominican Republic is emblematic of the challenges and opportunities of ecosystem service management in coffee landscapes. Shade coffee poly-cultures in the region play an essential role in ensuring ecosystem function to conserve water resources, as well as provide habitat for birds, sequester carbon, and provide consumptive resources to households. To model the provision, use, and flow of ecosystem services from coffee farms in the region, an application of the Artificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services (ARIES) model was developed with particular focus on sediment regulation. ARIES incorporates an array of techniques from data mining, image analysis, neural networks, Bayesian statistics, information theory, and expert systems to model the production, delivery, and demand for ecosystem services. Geospatial data on slope, soils, and vegetation cover is combined with on-farm data collection of coffee production, tree diversity, and intercropping of household food. Given hydropower production and river recreation in the region, the management of sedimentation through on-farm practices has substantial, currently uncompensated value that has received recent attention as the foundation for a payment for ecosystem services system. Scenario analysis of the implications of agro-forestry management choices on farmer livelihoods and the multiple beneficiaries of farm-provided hydrological services provide a foundation for ongoing discussions in the region between local, national, and international interests.

  3. Factors contributing to food insecurity among women living with HIV in the Dominican Republic: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derose, Kathryn P; Payán, Denise D; Fulcar, María Altagracia; Terrero, Sergio; Acevedo, Ramón; Farías, Hugo; Palar, Kartika

    2017-01-01

    Food insecurity contributes to poor health outcomes among people living with HIV. In Latin America and the Caribbean, structural factors such as poverty, stigma, and inequality disproportionately affect women and may fuel both the HIV epidemic and food insecurity. We examined factors contributing to food insecurity among women living with HIV (WLHIV) in the Dominican Republic (DR). Data collection included in-depth, semi-structured interviews in 2013 with 30 WLHIV with indications of food insecurity who resided in urban or peri-urban areas and were recruited from local HIV clinics. In-person interviews were conducted in Spanish. Transcripts were coded using content analysis methods and an inductive approach to identify principal and emergent themes. Respondents identified economic instability as the primary driver of food insecurity, precipitated by enacted stigma in the labor and social domains. Women described experiences of HIV-related labor discrimination in formal and informal sectors. Women commonly reported illegal HIV testing by employers, and subsequent dismissal if HIV-positive, especially in tourism and free trade zones. Enacted stigma in the social domain manifested as gossip and rejection by family, friends, and neighbors and physical, verbal, and sexual abuse by intimate partners, distancing women from sources of economic and food support. These experiences with discrimination and abuse contributed to internalized stigma among respondents who, as a result, were fearful and hesitant to disclose their HIV status; some participants reported leaving spouses and/or families, resulting in further isolation from economic resources, food and other support. A minority of participants described social support by friends, spouses, families and support groups, which helped to ameliorate food insecurity and emotional distress. Addressing food insecurity among WLHIV requires policy and programmatic interventions to enforce existing laws designed to protect the

  4. Implications of the Central America-Dominican Republic-Free Trade Agreement for the nutrition transition in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Corinna; Thow, Anne Marie

    2008-11-01

    To identify potential impacts of the Central America-Dominican Republic-Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR) on food consumption patterns associated with the nutrition transition, obesity, and diet-related chronic diseases. Examination of CAFTA-DR agreement to identify measures that have the potential to affect food availability and retail prices. CAFTA-DR includes agreements on tariffs, tariff-rate quotas (TRQs), and sanitary and phytosanitary regulations with direct implications for the availability and prices of various foods. Agreements on investment, services, and intellectual property rights (IPR) are also relevant because they create a business climate more conducive to long-term investment by the transnational food industry. Trade liberalization under CAFTA-DR is likely to increase availability and lower relative prices of two food groups associated with the nutrition transition: meat and processed foods. These outcomes are expected to occur as the direct result of increased imports from the United States and increased production by U.S. companies based in Central America, and the indirect result of increased domestic meat production (due to increased availability of cheaper animal feed) and increased production of processed foods by domestic companies (due to a more competitive market environment). CAFTA-DR is likely to further the nutrition transition in Central America by increasing the consumption of meat; highly processed foods; and new, non-traditional foods. The public health community should be more aware of the implications of trade agreements for dietary health. Governments and related stakeholders should assess the coherence between changes fostered by specific trade agreements with national policies on diet and nutrition.

  5. Community Health Workers and Use of mHealth: Improving Identification of Pregnancy Complications and Access to Care in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnell, Susan; Griggs, Anne; Avila, Gloria; Mack, Jonathan; Bush, Ruth A; Vignato, Julie; Connelly, Cynthia D

    2018-05-01

    This article presents the feasibility and acceptability of using mobile health technology by community health workers (CHWs) in San Juan Province, Dominican Republic, to improve identification of pregnancy complications and access to care for pregnant women. Although most women in the Dominican Republic receive four antenatal care visits, poor women and adolescents in remote areas are more likely to have only one initial prenatal visit to verify the pregnancy. This community-based research began when community leaders raised concern about the numbers of their mothers who died in childbirth annually; San Juan's maternal mortality rate is 144/100,000 compared to the Caribbean rate of 85/100,000. Eight CHWs in three communities were taught to provide third-trimester antenatal assessment, upload the data on a mobile phone application, send the data to the local physician who monitored data for "red flags," and call directly if a mother had an urgent problem. Fifty-two pregnant women enrolled, 38 were followed to delivery, 95 antenatal care postintake were provided, 2 urgent complications required CHW home management of mothers, and there were 0 deaths. Stakeholders endorsed acceptability of intervention. Preliminary data suggest CHWs using mobile health technology is feasible, linking underserved and formal health care systems with provision of primary care in mothers' homes.

  6. [Diagnosis of capacity to perform essential public health functions in the Central American countries, the Dominican Republic, and the Mexican states of Chiapas and Quintana Roo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Block, Miguel Ángel; González Robledo, Luz María; Cuadra Hernández, Silvia Magali

    2013-04-01

    Characterize the capacity of public and private institutions in the Central American countries, the Dominican Republic, and the Mexican states of Chiapas and Quintana Roo to perform essential public health functions (EPHFs). An online survey of 83 organizations in Belize, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, and the Mexican states of Chiapas and Quintana Roo was conducted to learn about their capacity to perform each of the 11 EPHFs. The results were validated in a workshop with representatives of the ministries of health from the seven countries and the two participating Mexican states. High levels of performance capacity were found most often for EPHF 1 (monitoring, evaluation, and analysis of health status of the population), EPHF 2.1.1 (surveillance, research, and control of risks and threats to public health from infectious diseases), and EPHF 5 (policy development and health planning). The greatest weakness was found in EPHF 2.1.2 (surveillance, research, and monitoring of noninfectious diseases). Asymmetries in EPHF performance within each country mainly revealed weaknesses in the laboratory and public health research functions. In the countries and territories analyzed, there is a need to improve strategic performance in most of the EPHFs, as well as to strengthen infrastructure, upgrade equipment, and further develop human resources at both the strategic and the tactical levels. A regional approach should be used to take advantage of the different levels of capacity, with a view to greater strengthening and enhanced technical support and cooperation.

  7. Validity of measures of pain and symptoms in HIV/AIDS infected households in resources poor settings: results from the Dominican Republic and Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morineau Guy

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV/AIDS treatment programs are currently being mounted in many developing nations that include palliative care services. While measures of palliative care have been developed and validated for resource rich settings, very little work exists to support an understanding of measurement for Africa, Latin America or Asia. Methods This study investigates the construct validity of measures of reported pain, pain control, symptoms and symptom control in areas with high HIV-infected prevalence in Dominican Republic and Cambodia Measures were adapted from the POS (Palliative Outcome Scale. Households were selected through purposive sampling from networks of people living with HIV/AIDS. Consistencies in patterns in the data were tested used Chi Square and Mantel Haenszel tests. Results The sample persons who reported chronic illness were much more likely to report pain and symptoms compared to those not chronically ill. When controlling for the degrees of pain, pain control did not differ between the chronically ill and non-chronically ill using a Mantel Haenszel test in both countries. Similar results were found for reported symptoms and symptom control for the Dominican Republic. These findings broadly support the construct validity of an adapted version of the POS in these two less developed countries. Conclusion The results of the study suggest that the selected measures can usefully be incorporated into population-based surveys and evaluation tools needed to monitor palliative care and used in settings with high HIV/AIDS prevalence.

  8. Detection of quinolones in commercial eggs obtained from farms in the Espaíllat Province in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscoso, S; de los Santos, F Solís; Andino, A G; Diaz-Sanchez, Sandra; Hanning, I

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we reported the use of quinolones in broiler chickens resulted in residues in retail poultry meat obtained from nine districts in the Santiago Province of the Dominican Republic. Residues in poultry products are a concern due to consumer allergies and the potential to develop antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Given the use of quinolones in poultry production and our previous findings in poultry meat, the objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of quinolone residues in eggs. Samples were collected from 48 different farms located in three of the four municipalities (Moca, Cayetano Germosén, and Jamao) of the Espaíllat Province. Each farm was sampled three times between July and September for a total of 144 samples. Samples were evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively for quinolone residues using the Equinox test. Operation systems (cage or floor), seasonality, and location were considered along with egg-producer sizes that were defined as small scale, eggs per day; medium scale, 30,000 to 60,000 eggs per day; or large scale, >60,000 eggs per day. From small-, medium-, and large-scale producers, 69, 50, and 40% of samples were positive for quinolone residues, respectively. A greater number of samples were positive (61%) in floor-laying hen producers compared with those using cages (40%). In the Jamao municipality, 67% of the samples were positive compared with Moca and Cayetano Germosén, where 56 and 25% of samples were positive, respectively. Sampling time had an effect on percent positives: samples collected in July, August, and September were 71, 19, and 63% positive, respectively. Overall, 51% of the samples obtained from eggs produced in the province of Espaíllat were positive for quinolone residues at levels higher than the maximum limits for edible tissue established by the regulatory agencies, including the European Union and U.S. Department of Agriculture. The results obtained from this research confirmed the presence of quinolone

  9. First report of a Florida Manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Aleman, Anmari; Beck, Cathy A.; Powell, James A.

    2010-01-01

    Manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) in Florida utilize intake and effluent canals of power plants as resting and thermoregulatory habitat. We report the use of a power plant canal in Cuba by a known Florida manatee, the first documented case of movement by a manatee between Florida and Cuba. In January, February, and April 2007, two manatees (mother and calf) were reported entering a power plant canal in north Havana, Cuba. The larger manatee had several distinctive scars which were photographed. Digital images were matched to a previously known Florida manatee (CR131) with a sighting history dating from December 1979 to July 2006. Exchanges of individuals between Florida and Cuba may have important genetic implications, particularly since there appears to be little genetic exchange between the Florida manatee subspecies with populations of the Antillean manatee subspecies (T. m. manatus) in Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic.

  10. [Characterization of air mycobiota in two repositories of the National Archives of the Republic of Cuba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego Alonso, Sofía; Perdomo Amistad, Ivette

    2014-01-01

    The high relative humidity and temperatures in tropical countries create favorable conditions for development of fungi that are not only a risk to human health but they can also colonize documentary support. To study the concentration of the airborne fungi in two repositories of the National Archives of the Republic of Cuba, the mycobiota deposited on different photographic supports and maps preserved in these repositories, and to determine the taxonomic characterization of the fungi isolated. The air sampling was performed using a sedimentation method, and the supports (6 pictures and 7 maps) were analyzed using moistened sterile swabs. The Cladosporium genus was predominant, followed by Aspergillus and Penicillium genera. Filamentous fungi were isolated in all the photos and maps, and yeasts were only isolated from a photographic supports and a map. We identified several species of Aspergillus and Penicillium genera, but Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus predominated. Candida and Rhodotorula were the yeast genera isolated. The fungal concentration of the air demonstrated that the environments were not contaminated. From the 26 species of filamentous fungi isolated only 5 were detected in the indoor air of the repositories and on one or more of the document supports analyzed (representing a 19.3%). This shows that there is a low ecological relationship between the fungi detected in the indoor air and those that were isolated from the supports studied. Copyright © 2012 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Ixodid ticks and tick-borne infections in the republic of Cuba – literature review and rationale for risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khasnatinov M.A.

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Cuba is a popular destination for Russian tourists and about 30-50 thousands of Russian citizens visit Cuba annually. However, the recreational activity is often associated with the risk of Ixodid ticks bites and infection with tick-borne pathogens. According to published literature, the fauna of the hard tick in Cuba is represented by nine species including Ixodes capromydis, Amblyomma albopictum, A. cajennense, A. dissimile, A. quadricavum, A. torrei, Dermacentor nitens, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and R. (Boophilus microplus. Five of these species, i.e. A. cajennense, A. dissimile, D. nitens, R. sanguineus and R. (Boophilus microplus, were reported as human parasites. Ticks are spread over the most part of the island territory. Several tick-borne pathogens should be considered as a potential threat for the bitten humans in Cuba, including Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Rickettsia sp., Anaplasma sp., Ehrlichia sp., Coxiella sp., thogotovirus and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus. Implications for the epidemiology of tick-borne infections in the Russian Federation are discussed.

  12. Analysis for the Curricular Design of Tourism Studies in the Dominican Republic: Competences and Professional Profiles to Enable the Prospective Development of the Tourism

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    David Peguero Manzanares

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a research project launched by the Ministry of Higher Education, Science and Technology of the Dominican Republic in 2011 with the aim of drawing up a formal and methodological basis that is used as a guideline to redefine the Bachelor’s Degree in Tourism. The main strategic lines of action derived from two essential requirements: the need to cater for a wider range of professional profiles and the need for curricular touristification. On the one hand, the focus was on the development of the graduates’ competences in all the cognitive areas involved in tourism to enable them to set up and manage tourist companies, products and destinations. This would generate innovative options of economic revitalization, decentralizing the current focus on the hospitality industry and incorporating new professional contexts with growth potential in the Dominican tourism sector. On the other hand, tourism-related subjects were reinforced and close cooperation with professionals on active service was highly recommended. Given the heterogeneity of current and potential local tourist destinations, the idiosyncrasy of each regional educational setting was taken into account to encourage entrepreneurship by empowering future managers of small and medium sized companies to make the most of their resources.

  13. 'We talk, we do not have shame': addressing stigma by reconstructing identity through enhancing social cohesion among female sex workers living with HIV in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Maria Augusta; Barrington, Clare; Kennedy, Caitlin; Perez, Martha; Donastorg, Yeycy; Kerrigan, Deanna

    2017-05-01

    This study explores social cohesion as a strategy used by female sex workers to address layered HIV and sex work-related stigma. Data derive from a thematic analysis of 23 in-depth interviews and 2 focus groups with female sex workers living with HIV enrolled in a multi-level HIV/STI prevention, treatment and care intervention in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. Drawing on Foucault's conceptualisation of modern power, discipline and resistance, we argue that social cohesion provides the psychosocial space (of trust, solidarity and mutual aid) to subvert oppressive societal norms, enabling the reconstruction of identity. Among study participants, identity reconstruction happened through the production, repetition and performance of new de-stigmatised narratives that emerged and were solidified through collective interaction. Findings highlight that enabling the collective reconstruction of identity through social cohesion - rather than solely attempting to change individual beliefs - is a successful approach to addressing stigma.

  14. Abriendo Puertas: Feasibility and Effectiveness a Multi-Level Intervention to Improve HIV Outcomes Among Female Sex Workers Living with HIV in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerrigan, Deanna; Barrington, Clare; Donastorg, Yeycy; Perez, Martha; Galai, Noya

    2016-09-01

    Female sex workers (FSW) are disproportionately affected by HIV. Yet, few interventions address the needs of FSW living with HIV. We developed a multi-level intervention, Abriendo Puertas (Opening Doors), and assessed its feasibility and effectiveness among a cohort of 250 FSW living with HIV in the Dominican Republic. We conducted socio-behavioral surveys and sexually transmitted infection and viral load testing at baseline and 10-month follow-up. We assessed changes in protected sex and adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) with logistic regression using generalized estimating equations. Significant pre-post intervention changes were documented for adherence (72-89 %; p sex (71-81 %; p sex (AOR 1.76; 95 % CI 1.09-2.84). Illicit drug use was negatively associated with both ART adherence and protected sex. Abriendo Puertas is feasible and effective in improving behavioral HIV outcomes in FSW living with HIV.

  15. Ethical challenges for international collaborative research partnerships in the context of the Zika outbreak in the Dominican Republic: a qualitative case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canario Guzmán, Julio Arturo; Espinal, Roberto; Báez, Jeannette; Melgen, Ricardo Elias; Rosario, Patricia Antonia Pérez; Mendoza, Eddys Rafael

    2017-09-25

    The establishment of international collaborative research partnerships in times of infectious disease outbreaks of international importance has been considered an ethical imperative. Frail health research systems in low- and middle-income countries can be an obstacle to achieve the goal of knowledge generation and the search for health equity before, during and after infectious disease outbreaks. A qualitative case study was conducted to identify the challenges and opportunities facing the Dominican Republic with regards to developing international collaborative research partnerships in the context of the Zika outbreak and its ethical implications. Researchers conducted 34 interviews (n = 30 individual; n = 4 group) with 39 participants (n = 23 males; n = 16 females) representing the government, universities, international donor agencies, non-governmental organisations, community-based organisations and medical societies, in two metropolitan cities. Five international collaborative research projects related to the Zika virus were identified. Major ethical challenges were linked to the governance of health research, training of human resources, the institutionalisation of scientific activity, access to research funds and cultural aspects. Capacity-building was not necessarily a component of some partnership agreements. With few exceptions, local researchers were merely participating in data collection and less on defining the problem. Opportunities for collaborative work included the possibility of participation in international research consortiums through calls for proposals. The Dominican government and research stakeholders can contribute to the international response to the Zika virus through active participation in international collaborative research partnerships; however, public recognition of the need to embrace health research as part of public policy efforts is warranted. A working group led by the government and formed by national and

  16. A review of the genus Berosus Leach of Cuba (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deler-Hernández, Albert; Fikáček, Martin; Cala-Riquelme, Franklyn

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The Cuban fauna of the genus Berosus Leach, 1817 is reviewed based on newly collected material as well as historical and type specimens. Nine species are recognized, including three recorded from Cuba for the first time: Berosus infuscatus LeConte, 1855, Berosus interstitialis Knisch, 1924 (= Berosus stribalus Orchymont, 1946 syn. n.) and Berosus metalliceps Sharp, 1882. Only one of the nine Cuban species, Berosus chevrolati, remains endemic to Cuba, as two other species previously considered as endemic to Cuba are recorded from elsewhere: Berosus quadridens from Mexico and Central America and Berosus trilobus from the Dominican Republic. Notes on biology and Cuban distribution are provided for all nine species. Berosus quadridens Chevrolat, 1863, stat. restit. is removed from synonym with Berosus truncatipennis and considered a valid species. PMID:23794806

  17. Especies nuevas de abejas de Cuba y La Española (Hymenoptera: Colletidae, Megachilidae, Apidae

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    Julio A. Genaro

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describen e ilustran cinco especies nuevas de abejas antillanas: Collectes granpiedrensis n. sp. (Cuba (Colletidae; Osmia (Diceratosmia stangei n. sp. (República Dominicana; Coelioxys (Cyrtocoelioxys alayoi n. sp. (Cuba; C. (Boreocoelioxys sannicolarensis n. sp. (Cuba (Megachilidae y Triepeolus nisibonensis n. sp. (República Dominicana (ApidaeFive new species of Antillean bees are described and illustrated: Colletes granpiedrensis n. sp. (Cuba (Colletidae is charaterized as follows: Head and mesosoma black, legs and metasoma brown. Dense brown hairs on head and mesosoma; white on frons and metasomal terga. Clypeus, frons and mesosoma with large punctures, lesser on vertex and metasoma. Malar space more wide than long. Male and female slightly similar, except in the apical margin of clypeus, supraclipeal area, and color of the pubescence on legs and sterna; Osmia (Diceratosmia stangei n. sp. (Dominican Republic (Megachilidae is charaterized as follows: Dark metallic green, metasoma black with metallic green reflections. Pubescence light; body with large, closed punctures. Female with violet reflections in tergum III and mandible tridentate; Coelioxys (Cyrtocoelioxys alayoi n. sp. (Cuba (Megachilidae is charaterized as follows: Female black, except basal area of mandibles, tegula, legs, lateral area of tergum I and sterna, reddish brown. Posterior margin of scutellum rounded. Apex of tergum VI with spine curved up. Sternum VI fringed with short, closed setae, and the apex with short spine; Coelioxys (Boreocoelioxys sannicolarensis n. sp. (Cuba (Megachilidae is charaterized as follows: Black, except antenna and tegula brown; legs and sterna reddish brown. Clypeal margin straight in profile. Gradular grooves on metasomal terga II and III distinct medially. Fovea on metasomal tergum II of male deep and short, and Triepeolus nisibonensis n. sp. (Dominican Republic (Apidae is charaterized as follows: Dorsal pubescence (short and dense on mesosoma

  18. Local Site Characterization Using HVSR, ReMi, and SPAC, Study Case: Soccer Field At Autonomous University of Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upegui Botero, F. M.; Rojas Mercedes, N.; Huerta-Lopez, C.; Martinez-Cruzado, J. A.; Suárez, L.; Lopez, A. M.; Huerfano Moreno, V.

    2013-12-01

    Earthquake effects are frequently quantified by the energy liberated at the source, and the degree of damage produced in urban areas. The damage of historic events such as the Mw=8.3, September 19, 1985 Mexico City Earthquake was dominated by the amplification of seismic waves due to local site conditions. The assessment of local site effects can be carried out with site response analyses in order to determine the properties of the subsoil such as the dominant period, and the Vs30. The evaluation of the aforementioned properties is through the analysis of ground motion. However, in locations with low seismicity, the most convenient method to assess the site effect is the analysis of ambient vibration measurements. The Spatial Auto Correlation method (SPAC) can be used to determine a Vs30 model from ambient vibration measurements using a triangular array of sensors. Refraction Microtremor (ReMi) considers the phase velocity of the Rayleigh waves can be separated of apparent velocities; the aim of the ReMI method is to obtain the Vs30 model. The HVSR technique or Nakamura's method has been adopted to obtain the resonant frequency of the site from the calculation of ratio between the Fourier amplitude spectra or PSD spectrum of the horizontal and vertical components of ambient vibration. The aim of this work is to compare the results using different techniques to assess local site conditions in the urban area of Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. The data used was collected during the Pan-American Advance Studies Institute (PASI), Workshop held in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic from July 14 to 25, 2013. The PASI was sponsored by IRIS Consortium, NSF and DOE. Results obtained using SPAC, and ReMi, show a comparable model of surface waves velocities. In addition to the above, the HVSR method is combined with the stiffness matrices method for layered soils to calculate a model of velocities and the predominant period on the site. As part of this work a comparison with

  19. Impact of a private sector living wage intervention on depressive symptoms among apparel workers in the Dominican Republic: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmaster, Katharine B; Landefeld, John C; Rehkopf, David H; Lahiff, Maureen; Sokal-Gutierrez, Karen; Adler-Milstein, Sarah; Fernald, Lia C H

    2015-08-03

    Poverty reduction interventions through cash transfers and microcredit have had mixed effects on mental health. In this quasi-experimental study, we evaluate the effect of a living wage intervention on depressive symptoms of apparel factory workers in the Dominican Republic. Two apparel factories in the Dominican Republic. The final sample consisted of 204 hourly wage workers from the intervention (99) and comparison (105) factories. In 2010, an apparel factory began a living wage intervention including a 350% wage increase and significant workplace improvements. The wage increase was plausibly exogenous because workers were not aware of the living wage when applying for jobs and expected to be paid the usual minimum wage. These individuals were compared with workers at a similar local factory paying minimum wage, 15-16 months postintervention. Workers' depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D). Ordinary least squares and Poisson regressions were used to evaluate treatment effect of the intervention, adjusted for covariates. Intervention factory workers had fewer depressive symptoms than comparison factory workers (unadjusted mean CES-D scores: 10.6 ± 9.3 vs 14.7 ± 11.6, p = 0.007). These results were sustained when controlling for covariates (β = -5.4, 95% CI -8.5 to -2.3, p = 0.001). In adjusted analyses using the standard CES-D clinical cut-off of 16, workers at the intervention factory had a 47% reduced risk of clinically significant levels of depressive symptoms compared with workers at the comparison factory (23% vs 40%). Policymakers have long grappled with how best to improve mental health among populations in low-income and middle-income countries. We find that providing a living wage and workplace improvements to improve income and well-being in a disadvantaged population is associated with reduced depressive symptoms. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where

  20. Chlorophyll and suspended sediment mapping to the Caribbean Sea from rivers in the capital city of the Dominican Republic using ALOS AVNIR-2 data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuno, Yuji; Miño, Esteban R; Nakai, Satoshi; Mutsuda, Hidemi; Okuda, Tetsuji; Nishijima, Wataru; Castro, Rolando; García, Amarillis; Peña, Rosanna; Rodríguez, Marcos; Depratt, G Conrado

    2014-07-01

    This study aims to study the distribution of contaminants in rivers that flow into the Caribbean Sea using chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and suspended sediment (SS) as markers and ALOS AVNIR-2 satellite sensor data. The Haina River (HN) and Ozama and Isabela Rivers (OZ-IS) that flow through the city of Santo Domingo, the capital of the Dominican Republic, were chosen. First, in situ spectral reflectance/Chl-a and SS datasets obtained from these rivers were acquired in March 2011 (case A: with no rain influence) and June 2011 (case B: with rain influence), and the estimation algorithm of Chl-a and SS using AVNIR-2 data was developed from the datasets. Moreover, the developed algorithm was applied to AVNIR-2 data in November 2010 for case A and August 2010 for case B. Results revealed that for Chl-a and SS estimations under cases A and B conditions, the reflectance ratio of AVNIR-2 band 4 and band 3 (AV4/AV3) and the reflectance of AVNIR-2 band 4 (AV4) were effective. The Chl-a and SS mapping results obtained using AVNIR-2 data corresponded with the field survey results. Finally, an outline of the distribution of contaminants at the mouth of the river that flows into the Caribbean Sea was obtained for both rivers in cases A and B.

  1. Vitamin D status of wild Ricord's iguanas (Cyclura ricordii) and captive and wild rhinoceros iguanas (Cyclura cornuta cornuta) in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramer, Jan C; Maria, Roberto; Reichard, Tim; Tolson, Peter J; Chen, Tai C; Holick, Michael F

    2005-06-01

    Calcidiol (25-hydroxyvitamin D) values are reported for 22 wild Ricord's iguanas (Cyclura ricordii) and seven wild rhinoceros iguanas (Cyclura cornuta cornuta). Calcitriol (1,25-hydroxyvitamin D) values are reported for 12 wild Ricord's iguanas and seven wild rhinoceros iguanas. These animals were captured as part of a larger health assessment study being conducted on Ricord's iguanas in Isla Cabritos National Park, Dominican Republic. A total of 13 captive rhinoceros iguanas held outdoors at Parque Zoológico Nacional were also sampled for comparison. Mean concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D were 554 nmol/L (222 ng/ml) with a range of 250-1,118 nmol/L (100-448 ng/ml) for wild Ricord's iguanas, 332 nmol/L (133 ng/ml) with a range of 260-369 nmol/L (104-148 ng/ml) for wild rhinoceros iguanas, and 317 nmol/L (127 ng/ml) with a range of 220-519 nmol/L (88-208 ng/ml) for captive rhinoceros iguanas. On the basis of these results, serum concentrations of at least 325 nmol/L (130 ng/ml) for 25-hydroxyvitamin D should be considered normal for healthy Ricord's and rhinoceros iguanas.

  2. HIV Stigma Mediates the Association Between Social Cohesion and Consistent Condom Use Among Female Sex Workers Living with HIV in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Maria Augusta; Nguyen, Trang Q; Barrington, Clare; Perez, Martha; Donastorg, Yeycy; Kerrigan, Deanna

    2018-07-01

    Evidence indicates that social cohesion is a successful strategy to improve consistent condom use (CCU) among female sex workers. However, the individual and layered or combined effect that various types of overlapping stigmas may have on CCU between female sex workers living with HIV and their clients and steady partners has not been analyzed. Drawing on the Abriendo Puertas cohort of female sex workers living with HIV in the Dominican Republic, we used structural equation modeling to test the hypothesis that both HIV stigma and sex work stigma mediate the association between social cohesion and CCU and that they have a layered effect. The results indicated that HIV stigma mediated the association between social cohesion and CCU with clients and partners, while sex work-related stigma did not. There was no evidence of a layered HIV stigma and sex work stigma effect, which may be due to methodological limitations to handle highly correlated latent variables. Findings highlight the need to address internalized HIV stigma within the context of community-based approaches to enhance their HIV prevention impact. This will help to reduce the risk of HIV re-infection with a new distinct HIV viral strain, STI infection, and onward HIV transmission among female sex workers living with HIV.

  3. Glowing seashells: diversity of fossilized coloration patterns on coral reef-associated cone snail (Gastropoda: Conidae shells from the Neogene of the Dominican Republic.

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    Jonathan R Hendricks

    Full Text Available The biology of modern Conidae (cone snails--which includes the hyperdiverse genus Conus--has been intensively studied, but the fossil record of the clade remains poorly understood, particularly within an evolutionary framework. Here, ultraviolet light is used to reveal and characterize the original shell coloration patterns of 28 species of cone snails from three Neogene coral reef-associated deposits from the Cibao Valley, northern Dominican Republic. These fossils come from the upper Miocene Cercado Fm. and lower Pliocene Gurabo Fm., and range in age from about 6.6-4.8 Ma. Comparison of the revealed coloration patterns with those of extant species allow the taxa to be assigned to three genera of cone snails (Profundiconus, Conasprella, and Conus and at least nine subgenera. Thirteen members of these phylogenetically diverse reef faunas are described as new species. These include: Profundiconus? hennigi, Conasprella (Ximeniconus ageri, Conus anningae, Conus lyelli, Conus (Atlanticonus? franklinae, Conus (Stephanoconus gouldi, Conus (Stephanoconus bellacoensis, Conus (Ductoconus cashi, Conus (Dauciconus garrisoni, Conus (Dauciconus? zambaensis, Conus (Spuriconus? kaesleri, Conus (Spuriconus? lombardii, and Conus (Lautoconus? carlottae. Each of the three reef deposits contain a minimum of 14-16 cone snail species, levels of diversity that are similar to modern Indo-Pacific reef systems. Finally, most of the 28 species can be assigned to modern clades and thus have important implications for understanding the biogeographic and temporal histories of these clades in tropical America.

  4. The text of the Agreement of 7 October 1983 between Cuba and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the supply of a zero-power nuclear reactor from the Hungarian People's Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The full text of the agreement of 7 October 1983 between Cuba and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the supply of a zero-power nuclear reactor from the Hungarian People's Republic and to the nuclear material to be used therein to be supplied by the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is presented

  5. Examining the policy climate for HIV prevention in the Caribbean tourism sector: a qualitative study of policy makers in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Mark B; Reyes, Armando Matiz; Connolly, Maureen; Natsui, Shaw; Puello, Adrian; Chapman, Helena

    2012-05-01

    The Caribbean has the highest prevalence rates of HIV/AIDS outside sub-Saharan Africa, and a broad literature suggests an ecological association between tourism areas and sexual vulnerability. Tourism employees have been shown to engage in high rates of sexual risk behaviours. Nevertheless, no large-scale or sustained HIV prevention interventions have been conducted within the tourism industry. Policy barriers and resources are under-studied. In order to identify the policy barriers and resources for HIV prevention in the tourism sector, our research used a participatory approach involving a multisectoral coalition of representatives from the tourism industry, government, public health and civil society in the Dominican Republic. We conducted 39 in-depth semi-structured interviews with policy makers throughout the country focusing on: prior experiences with HIV prevention policies and programmes in the tourism sector; barriers and resources for such policies and programmes; and future priorities and recommendations. Findings suggest perceptions among policy makers of barriers related to the mobile nature of tourism employees; the lack of centralized funding; fear of the 'image problem' associated with HIV; and the lack of multisectoral policy dialogue and collaboration. Nevertheless, prior short-term experiences and changing attitudes among some private sector tourism representatives suggest emerging opportunities for policy change. We argue that the time is ripe for dialogue across the public-private divide in order to develop regulatory mechanisms, joint responsibilities and centralized funding sources to ensure a sustainable response to the HIV-tourism linkage. Policy priorities should focus on incorporating HIV prevention as a component of occupational health; reinforcing workers' health care rights as guaranteed by existing law; using private sector tourism representatives who support HIV prevention as positive role models for national campaigns; and

  6. A Clinical Trial to Introduce Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention in Areas of High Prevalence in the Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Maximo O.; Lerebours, Leonel; Volquez, Claudio; Basora, Emmanuel; Khosla, Shaveta; Lantigua, Flavia; Flete, Roberto; Rosario, Riqui; Rodriguez, Luis A.; Fernandez, Mathius; Donastorg, Yeycy; Bailey, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision (VMMC) is an effective strategy to reduce the risk of HIV infection. Studies conducted in the Dominican Republic (DR) suggest that acceptability of VMMC among men may be as high as 67%. The goal of this clinical trial was to assess the acceptability, uptake and safety for VMMC services in two areas of high HIV prevalence in the country. Methods This was a single-arm, non-randomized, pragmatic clinical trial. Study personnel received background information about the risks and benefits of VMMC and practical training on the surgical technique. A native speaking research assistant administered a questionnaire of demographics, sexual practices and knowledge about VMMC. One week after the surgery, participants returned for wound inspection and to answer questions about their post-surgical experience. Results 539 men consented for the study. Fifty seven were excluded from participation for medical or anatomical reasons and 28 decided not to have the procedure after providing consent. A total of 454 men were circumcised using the Forceps Guided Method Under Local Anesthesia. The rate of adverse events (AE) was 4.4% (20% moderate, 80% mild). There were no serious AEs and all complications resolved promptly with treatment. Eighty eight percent of clients reported being “very satisfied” and 12% were “somewhat satisfied” with the outcome at the one-week postoperative visit. Conclusions Recruitment and uptake were satisfactory. Client satisfaction with VMMC was high and the rate of AEs was low. Roll out of VMMC in targeted areas of the DR is feasible and should be considered. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02337179 PMID:26367187

  7. Pliocene-Lower Pleistocene shallow-water mixed siliciclastics and carbonates (Yanigua and Los Haitises formations) in eastern Hispaniola (Dominican Republic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Juan C.; Díaz de Neira, Alberto; Lasseur, Eric; Mediato, José; Aguirre, Julio; Abad, Manuel; Hernaiz-Huerta, Pedro P.; Monthel, Jacques; Pérez-Valera, Fernando; Lopera, Eusebio

    2012-07-01

    The virtually unfolded sedimentary cover of the Cordilleras Central and Oriental in the eastern Dominican Republic (eastern Hispaniola, tropical North Atlantic) largely consists of Pliocene to Early Pleistocene mixed siliciclastics and carbonates. These deposits have been grouped into two laterally interfingering mapping units, the Yanigua and Los Haitises formations. The former (mainly siliciclastics) comprises marl, marly limestone, and minor conglomerate, sandstone, lignite, and carbonaceous clay and crops out closest to the basement. The Los Haitises Formation mainly consists of limestone and intercalating beds of marly limestone and marl. Lithological mapping at the 1:50,000 scale and facies analysis of twelve measured sections and of additional fourteen outcrops suggest that these deposits mainly formed on a shallow-water marine platform fringing the precursor reliefs of the Cordillera Oriental and the southeastern end of the Cordillera Central. Only a limited proportion of sediment formed in floodplains and marshes. Marl and marly limestone dominated the inner platform sediments. Terrigenous mud decreased away from the emergent basement and carbonate sedimentation dominated the more external platform. Corals, molluscs, echinoids, foraminifers, bryozoans, coralline algae, and Halimeda are the main components with varying amounts of carbonate mud. The platform was generally a low-energy environment with seagrass patches. In the inner platform, corals grew as isolated colonies or as small patch reefs dominated by Porites in marly and bioclastic substrates. Branching corals (Stylophora and Acropora) grew in extensive carpets in more distal areas. At least in the last stage of its development (Early Pleistocene), the platform was rimmed by a reef barrier similar to the Holocene Caribbean barrier reefs, with Acropora gr. palmata, A. cervicornis, Porites, Montastrea, Siderastrea, and Diploria as the main reef builders.

  8. Civil society and political power in the Dominican Republic Sociedad civil y poder político en República Dominicana

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    Jana MORGAN

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the Latin American context, the Dominican Republic displays high levels of civic engagement and political activism, yet they have not translated into a civil society that is able to exercise considerable influence in reforming the political system or enhancing democracy. Building on this observation, this article explores two questions. The first is if there is tendency toward dual participation in civic and political organizations, which reduces civil society’s ability to pressure political parties and the State. The second refers to the nature of the connections that civil society participants have with the State and with political parties. The analysis demonstrates that an important segment of the population that participates in civic associations also participates in political parties and in clientelist networks.República Dominicana registra un alto nivel de asociacionismo social y activismo político en el contexto latinoamericano. Esto, sin embargo, no se ha traducido en mayor capacidad de la sociedad civil dominicana para reformar el sistema político y mejorar la democracia. Con este planteamiento de fondo, se exploran dos preguntas. La primera es si existe una tendencia a la coparticipación en las organizaciones sociales y políticas que reduce la capacidad de presión de la sociedad civil sobre los partidos y el Estado. La segunda refiere a la naturaleza del vínculo de los participantes en organizaciones de la sociedad civil con el Estado y los partidos. El análisis muestra el involucramiento de un segmento de participantes en actividades cívicas, también en actividades partidarias y en redes clientelares.

  9. Medical students' perceptions about the added educational value of student-run HIV/AIDS educational campaigns in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Helena J; Bottentuit-Rocha, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    This purpose of this report was to examine the perceptions of medical students about the strengths, limitations, and recommendations for improvement of the first known student-run HIV/AIDS educational campaigns in the Dominican Republic (DR), as they relate to the added value applied to their educational training. A retrospective review was conducted on evaluation reports completed by five medical students who coordinated the implementation of three annual HIV/AIDS educational campaigns in five DR communities, between 2012 and 2014. Thematic analysis was used to identify emerging themes related to perceived strengths, limitations, and recommendations for improvement and develop an acronym related to program strengths as value added to medical education. Students highlighted that program strengths were the use of social media technology to facilitate communication and culture-based creativity to capture the attention of target audiences; and limitations were inadequate financial support and HIV-related cultural stigma, due to lack of disease knowledge and awareness or perceived contrasts between the federal system and faith-based community. Recommendations for program improvement, such as comprehensive event preparation and knowing the target audience, were described as key to maximizing the delivery of health messages. Our results highlighted that medical students gained expertise in the effective use of social media technology, culture-based creativity, and team synergy to disseminate HIV/AIDS health information across five DR communities. Students participated in these extracurricular community health campaigns, strengthening skills in communication, health advocacy, and leadership for their medical training. They served as human resources for health and can pave the way as future clinicians and indispensable health educators in local and national health collaborations.

  10. Diversidad haplotípica en el manatí Trichechus manatus en Cuba: resultados preliminares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Martinez, Damir; Alvarez-Aleman, Anmari; Bonde, Robert K.; Powell, James A.; Garcia-Machado, Erik

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this analysis was to obtain information regarding the mtDNA haplotype composition of the manatee (T. manatus) occupying the Cuban archipelago. A fragment of 410 bp of the non-coding region was analyzed for 12 individual manatees from Cuba and one from Florida, USA. Only two haplotypes were identified. Haplotype A1, found exclusively in Florida (including in the sample analyzed here) but also found in Mexico, the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico, was the most frequent haplotype (11 of the 12 samples from Cuba) and widely distributed. The second haplotype A3, previously referred to as endemic from Belize, was identified from an individual stranded in Isabela de Sagua, north of Cuba. These preliminary results provide information about three major aspects of manatee biology: (1) the mtDNA genetic diversity of T. manatus in Cuba seems low as compared to other regions of the Caribbean; (2) the Cuban population likely belongs to the group comprising Florida and the portions of the Greater Antilles; and (3) the territories of Belize and Cuba have exchanged individuals at present or in a relatively recent past.

  11. Abriendo Puertas: baseline findings from an integrated intervention to promote prevention, treatment and care among FSW living with HIV in the Dominican Republic.

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    Yeycy Donastorg

    Full Text Available Female sex workers (FSW are often the focus of primary HIV prevention efforts. However, little attention has been paid to the prevention, treatment, and care needs of FSW living with HIV. Based on formative research, we developed an integrated model to promote prevention and care for FSW living with HIV in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, including (1 individual counseling and education; (2 peer navigation; (3 clinical provider training; and (4 community mobilization. We enrolled 268 FSW living with HIV into the intervention and conducted socio-behavioral surveys, sexually transmitted infection (STI testing, and viral load (VL assessments. We used multivariate logistic regression to identify behavioral and socio-demographic factors associated with detectable VL (>50 copies/mL and STI prevalence. Over half of all participants (51.9% had a detectable VL, even though most received HIV-related care in the last 6 months (85.1% and were currently on anti-retroviral treatment (ART (72.4%. Factors positively associated with a detectable VL included being 18-35 years of age (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] 2.46, 95% CI 1.31-4.60, having ever used drugs (AOR 2.34, 95% CI 1.14-4.79, and having ever interrupted ART (AOR 3.09, 95% CI 1.44-6.59. Factors protective against having a detectable VL included being single (AOR 0.45, 95% 0.20-0.98 and being currently on ART (AOR 0.17, 95% CI 0.07-0.41. Nearly one-quarter (23.1% had an STI, which was associated with being single (AOR 3.21, 95% CI 1.27-8.11 and using drugs in the last 6 months (AOR 3.54, 95% CI 1.32-9.45. Being on ART was protective against STI (AOR 0.51, 95% CI 0.26-1.00. Baseline findings indicate significant barriers to VL suppression and STI prevention among FSW living with HIV and highlight gaps in the continuum of HIV care and treatment. These findings have important implications for both the individual health of FSW and population-level HIV transmission dynamics.

  12. Cost-effectiveness of environmental-structural communication interventions for HIV prevention in the female sex industry in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweat, Michael; Kerrigan, Deanna; Moreno, Luis; Rosario, Santo; Gomez, Bayardo; Jerez, Hector; Weiss, Ellen; Barrington, Clare

    2006-01-01

    Behavior change communication often focuses on individual-level variables such as knowledge, perceived risk, self-efficacy, and behavior. A growing body of evidence suggests, however, that structural interventions to change the policy environment and environmental interventions designed to modify the physical and social environment further bolster impact. Little is known about the cost-effectiveness of such comprehensive intervention programs. In this study we use standard cost analysis methods to examine the incremental cost-effectiveness of two such interventions conducted in the Dominican Republic in sex establishments. In Santo Domingo the intervention was environmental; in Puerto Plata it was both environmental and structural (levying financial sanctions on sex establishment owners who failed to follow the intervention). The interventions in both sites included elements found in more conventional behavior change communication (BCC) programs (e.g., community mobilization, peer education, educational materials, promotional stickers). One key aim was to examine whether the addition of policy regulation was cost-effective. Data for the analysis were gleaned from structured behavioral questionnaires administered to female sex workers and their male regular paying partners in 41 sex establishments conducted pre- and post-intervention (1 year follow-up); data from HIV sentinel surveillance, STI screening results conducted for the intervention; and detailed cost data we collected. We estimated the number of HIV infections averted from each of the two intervention models and converted these estimates to the number of disability life years saved as compared with no intervention. One-way, two-way, three-way, and multivariate sensitivity analysis were conducted on model parameters. We examine a discount rate of 0%, 3% (base case), and 6% for future costs and benefits. The intervention conducted in Santo Domingo (community mobilization, promotional media, and interpersonal

  13. How accurate is our misinformation? A randomized comparison of four survey interview methods to measure risk behavior among young adults in the Dominican Republic

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    Sigrid Vivo

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the most effective survey interview method for measuring risk behavior among young adults in the Dominican Republic. Methods: 1200 young adults were randomized to one of four different survey interview methods: two interviewer-assisted methods [face-to-face interview (FTFI, and computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI], and two self-administered methods [self-administered interview (SAI, and audio computer-assisted, self-administered interview (ACASI]. Youth were asked about a wide range of youth-specific risk behaviors, including violence, substance use, as well as sexual and reproductive health. Quality of data collected was examined by looking at how the survey was administered, including identifying two sources of errors that typically threaten data quality11 This study assumes that bias does not change with sample size. In order to increase the sample size, the data collection period was extended, leaving everything else unchanged. It is, therefore, assumed that the decreasing effects of the learning curve are negligible.: (i errors at the individual level with regards to survey methodology performance and cognitive difficulties [measured with the Response Consistency Index (RCI]; and (ii errors at the aggregate level (how desirability bias, interviewer gender, and interview privacy settings affect responses. Results: No statistically significant differences in participant non-response rates were found at the individual level across all survey interview methods. At the individual question level, self-completion methods generated higher non-response and error rates than assisted methods. The SAI method showed the poorest performance of all four methods in terms of non-response rate (1.6%22 Percentage of data with non-response values at the question level. and RCI (83.0%.At the aggregate level, the prevalence of several key risk indicators was statistically significant between methods. Using means-adjustment for

  14. Alliances, party-switching and pork-barrel politics: the Dominican Republic 2010 legislative elections Aliados, tránsfugas y barrilitos: las elecciones legislativas de 2010 en República Dominicana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Belén BENITO SÁNCHEZ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the explanatory factors of the outcome of the legislative and municipal elections of 2010 in Dominican Republic and the recent transformation experienced by the Dominican party system from a tripartism to a plural bipartism.. The leadership of President Fernández, its image, popularity, and pragmatism, are the key factors in the electoral success of the PLD, favored by endemic factionalism into the PRD and the progressive collapse of the PRSC as well. In this context, the PLD consolidated its electoral dominance thanks to the support of minority parties and will control the Legislative branch for the next six years.Este artículo analiza las claves explicativas de los resultados de las elecciones legislativas y municipales de 2010 en República Dominicana así como de la reciente transformación que ha experimentado el sistema de partidos dominicano, del tripartidismo al bipartidismo plural. El liderazgo del presidente Leonel Fernández, su imagen, popularidad y pragmatismo son la clave del éxito electoral del PLD, favorecido también por el faccionalismo endémico del PRD y la descomposición progresiva del PRSC. En esta contienda, el PLD consolida su dominio electoral gracias al apoyo de los partidos minoritarios y se asegura el control del Legislativo durante los próximos seis años.

  15. Duration of maternal breast-feeding in the Dominican Republic Duración de la lactancia materna en la República Dominicana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonelo E. Bautista

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available The study reported here explored the influence of maternal, health care, pregnancy, and child-related factors upon the duration of total breast-feeding (DTBF in the Dominican Republic. The data for the study, which included 1984 mother-child pairs representative of the Dominican population, came from the National Health Survey of 1991. The child in each of the mother-child pairs was the mother's last-born child who had been breast-fed and was less than 3 years of age at the time of the survey. Interviews with the mothers were used to collect information about the duration of breast-feeding and the factors studied (including maternal age, urban/rural residence, parity, mother's socioeconomic status, maternal education, maternal employment, mother's desire for pregnancy, type of delivery, place of delivery, the type of health worker attending the delivery, the child's sex, the child's birth weight, the time elapsed between delivery and initiation of breast-feeding, the child's age at complete weaning, and the child's age at the time of the survey. The child's risk of complete weaning at different ages was calculated using the life table method, and the independent effect of each of the study variables was estimated using Cox's regression model. The median DTBF was 7 months. The risk that a child would be completely weaned (the relative rate of complete weaning, or RRCW was found to be higher among children who received foods other than breast milk and water while still breast-feeding (RRCW = 8.56; 95% CI = 4.25-17.20, whose mothers had some university education (RRCW = 1.48; 95% CI = 1.24-1.77, who began breast-feeding a day or more after delivery (RRCW = 1.25; 95% CI = 1.11-1.40, who were born in either public health institutions (RRCW = 1.62; 95% CI = 1.24-2.11 or private health institutions (RRCW = 2.19; 95% CI = 1.65-2.91, and who were the first-born of mothers with low socioeconomic status (RRCW = 1.80; 95% CI = 1.45-2.24. According to the

  16. Abordaje didáctico de la comprensión de los problemas algebraicos en el nivel secundario de la República Dominicana / A didactic approach to algebraic problems understanding at public junior high scools of Dominican Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Altagracia Castro Araujo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper describes partial results of a research on the understanding of algebraic problems in the secondary level of the Dominican Republic, where the current state of this problem is characterized in public schools in the country with the objective of offering a didactic approach. The research was carried out with the use of methods of the theoretical level, in particular, the analysis-synthesis and the documentary revision, as well as empirical methods. For the characterization, the indicators of teaching planning dimensions, execution of teaching-learning the process of the understanding of algebraic problems and analysis of the performance of the students in the understanding of algebraic problems are established. From this characterization, a methodological strategy was designed as a solution to the problem described. Keywords: problem-solving, abstract thinking, instructional design, teaching method.

  17. A Cross-National Comparison of Suicide Attempts, Drug Use, and Depressed Mood Among Dominican Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Juan B; Masyn, Katherine E; Thorpe, Lorna E; Peña, Stephanie M; Caine, Eric D

    2016-06-01

    We compared suicide attempts, depressed mood, and drug use of 1,710 Dominican public high school students in New York City (NYC) and 9,573 in the Dominican Republic (DR) in 2009. Compared to DR Dominicans, NYC Dominicans were more likely to have reported lifetime marijuana use (27.6% vs. 1.5%), lifetime inhalant use (11.0% vs. 7.6%), lifetime other drug use (9.9% vs. 3.0%), depressed mood (31.3% vs. 27.2%), and suicide attempt (13.8% vs. 8.8%). The results of this study supported the hypothesis that substantial increases in illicit drug use, especially cocaine, heroin, ecstasy, and methamphetamines, among NYC Dominican youth account for their increased risk for suicide attempts compared to their DR Dominican counterparts. It also identified suicide attempts as a public health problem among NYC Dominicans, the largest NYC Latino immigrant population. © 2015 The American Association of Suicidology.

  18. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Dominican Republic and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Dominican Republic and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Additional Protocol on 23 November 2006. It was signed in Vienna on 20 September 2007

  19. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Dominican Republic and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Dominican Republic and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Additional Protocol on 23 November 2006. It was signed in Vienna on 20 September 2007 [es

  20. Hydropower scene: boost for Dominican power supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-12-01

    When it is completed in 1991, the 150 MW Jiguey-Aguacate multi-purpose hydropower scheme will be the largest hydro project in the Dominican Republic. Construction of the scheme was recommended as a result of various studies carried out by the Instituto Nacional de Recursos Hidraulicos (INDHRI), which examined the hydropower potential of the Niazo river. Work is now in progress on site, with commissioning of the first unit expected in 1990.

  1. Innovative Tuberculosis Symposium held during Cuba Salud 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Helena J; Armas Pérez, Luisa

    2016-12-01

    The fourth Tuberculosis (TB) Symposium, held during the Cuba Salud 2015 International Convention, highlighted advancements in research on TB and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) by interdisciplinary teams from academic and federal institutions in Cuba, Colombia, Mexico, and the Dominican Republic. Delegates focused on the targets presented in the World Health Organization End TB Strategy for 2016-2035 and elaborated on four primary themes: 1) attention to vulnerable populations such as immunocompromised individuals, health care workers, and residents of long-term institutions such as prisons and nursing homes; 2) identification of active and latent TB cases through contact investigations; 3) spread and control of drug-resistant Mtb strains; and 4) advancements in the development of novel vaccines or "booster" immunizations. This international TB forum served as a platform for experts in diverse disciplines in these Latin American countries to discuss challenges faced by TB research and control programs, proposing novel research initiatives and promoting collaborative teamwork strategies for TB elimination. In solidarity, collaborative efforts in TB control require identification of symptomatic individuals, rapid diagnostic testing for TB, drug susceptibility assays on Mtb strains, and management that provide universal and gratuitous access to directly observed short-course therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. From Quisqueya: In Search of New Horizons. Dominican Cultural Heritage Resource Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcantara, Anibal; Aquino, Jaime; Lantigua, Juan A.; Rodriguez, Digna; Soto, Alejandro

    This cultural heritage resource guide has been prepared as a tool for teachers to help them understand the cultural heritage of Dominican students and their communities. The Dominican Republic, which occupies two-thirds of the island of Hispaniola, has a long history dominated by the struggle for independence. In their efforts to create a better…

  3. The fertility transition in Cuba and the Federal Republic of Korea: the impact of organised family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, J; Potts, M

    1996-04-01

    South Korea and Cuba are dissimilar in religion, economy, culture and attitudes toward premarital sexual relations. In 1960, Korea instituted a national family planning programme to combat rapid population growth. Cuba explicitly rejected Malthusian policies, but made family planning universally available in 1974 in response to health needs. Both countries have undergone rapid fertility declines and today have less than replacement level fertility. Both countries have also used a similar mixture of methods, including a high prevalence of female sterilisation. Abortion has played a major role in the fertility decline of both countries, rising in the first half of the fertility transition and then falling, although remaining a significant variable in the second half. It is concluded that access to contraception, voluntary sterilisation, and safe abortion has a direct impact on fertility and has been associated with a rapid fall in family size in two very different countries.

  4. Agreement between the Dominican Republic and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. An agreement by Exchange of Letters with the Dominican Republic to amend the Protocol to the Safeguards Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The text of the Exchange of Letters, constituting an agreement to amend the Protocol to the Agreement between the Dominican Government and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, is reproduced in this document for the information of all Member States of the Agency [es

  5. Discovery of Ni-smectite-rich saprolite at Loma Ortega, Falcondo mining district (Dominican Republic): geochemistry and mineralogy of an unusual case of "hybrid hydrous Mg silicate - clay silicate" type Ni-laterite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauler, Esperança; Lewis, John F.; Villanova-de-Benavent, Cristina; Aiglsperger, Thomas; Proenza, Joaquín A.; Domènech, Cristina; Gallardo, Tamara; Longo, Francisco; Galí, Salvador

    2017-10-01

    Hydrous Mg silicate-type Ni-laterite deposits, like those in the Falcondo district, Dominican Republic, are dominated by Ni-enriched serpentine and garnierite. Recently, abundant Ni-smectite in the saprolite zone have been discovered in Loma Ortega, one of the nine Ni-laterite deposits in Falcondo. A first detailed study on these Ni-smectites has been performed (μXRD, SEM, EPMA), in addition to a geochemical and mineralogical characterisation of the Loma Ortega profile (XRF, ICP-MS, XRD). Unlike other smectite occurrences in laterite profiles worldwide, the Loma Ortega smectites are trioctahedral and exhibit high Ni contents never reported before. These Ni-smectites may be formed from weathering of pyroxene and olivine, and their composition can be explained by the mineralogy and the composition of the Al-depleted, olivine-rich parent ultramafic rock. Our study shows that Ni-laterites are mineralogically complex, and that a hydrous Mg silicate ore and a clay silicate ore can be confined to the same horizon in the weathering profile, which has significant implications from a recovery perspective. In accordance, the classification of "hybrid hydrous Mg silicate - clay silicate" type Ni-laterite deposit for Loma Ortega would be more appropriate.

  6. Physical activity and experience of total knee replacement in patients one to four years postsurgery in the dominican republic: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenquist, Derek S; Elman, Scott A; Davis, Aileen M; Bogart, Laura M; Brownlee, Sarah A; Sanchez, Edward S; Santiago, Adianez; Ghazinouri, Roya; Katz, Jeffrey N

    2015-01-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders are the second leading cause of years lived with disability globally. Total knee replacement (TKR) offers patients with advanced arthritis relief from pain and the opportunity to return to physical activity. We investigated the impact of TKR on physical activity for patients in a developing nation. As part of the Operation Walk Boston surgical mission program, we interviewed 18 Dominican patients (78% women) who received TKR about their level of physical activity after surgery. Qualitative interviews were conducted in Spanish, and English transcripts were analyzed using content analysis. Most patients found that TKR increased their participation in physical activities in several life domains, such as occupational or social pursuits. Some patients limited their own physical activities due to uncertainty about medically appropriate levels of joint use and postoperative physical activity. Many patients noted positive effects of TKR on mood and mental health. For most patients in the study, religion offered a framework for understanding their receipt of and experience with TKR. Our findings underscore the potential of TKR to permit patients in the developing world to return to physical activities. This research also demonstrates the influence of patients' education, culture, and religion on patients' return to physical activity. As the global burden of musculoskeletal disease increases, it is important to characterize the impact of activity limitation on patients' lives in diverse settings and the potential for surgical intervention to ease the burden of chronic arthritis. Copyright © 2015 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  7. National survey of potential scenarios for occupational and public exposure to naturally occurring radioactive materials in the Republic of Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Gomez, Isis Maria

    2012-01-01

    The naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) unchanged in its natural state has been considered that can pose a problem from the radiological point of view; however, that are monitored by regulators has been rare. Furthermore, exposures to NORMs that have been altered during the exploitation of natural resources can in principle be regulated. The NORMs have found in some waste generated in various industries, e.g. metal scrap, sludge, slag and fluids. These materials, by-products and the end products of processing, can increase the exposure of both workers and members of the public. Besides, can have a significant environmental damage. Two important situations of exploitation of natural resources which may be present NORMs relevant in relation to the potential effects of these materials on human health and the environment, are: (1) when NORMs concentrations have risen above their natural levels in a product, byproduct or waste, (2) when the release of NORMs to the biosphere may increase due to physicochemical changes or the method by which the wastes are managed. This problem is considered and in Cuba has done a survey of all those potential scenarios of occupational and public exposure to naturally occurring radioactive materials. Documents and ongoing work carried out by the European Union and the International Atomic Energy Agency, have been taken as reference, to identify potential scenarios for occupational and public exposure to naturally occurring radioactive materials in Cuba. The availability of information is taken into account, and the level of care that has received this problem within the community of nations. Recommendatory criteria are developed for countries that can serve as an excellent reference for a study of this type. This issue is still in development in other regions, its relevance and importance from the point of view of radiation safety. The handling, storage, transport and use of equipment or contaminated waste with NORMs

  8. Preliminary results of the national program of audit of quality in radiotherapy services in the Republic of Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez Hung, Lourdes; Larrinaga Cortina, Eduardo F.; Morales Lopez, Jorge L.; Garcia Yip, Fernando; Campa Menendez, Raudel

    2001-01-01

    The current state of the radiotherapy in Cuba has allowed to pass to a superior stage, the establishment of a National Quality Audit Program (PNAC). The National Control Center for Medical Devices as national regulator entity for the control and supervision of the medical devices of the National Health System is the responsible for it implementation. This paper presents the preliminary results of the execution of the PNAC in teletherapy services with isotopic units of 60 Co. The audits were carried out according to the methodology settled down in the normalized procedure of operation of the PNAC. The physical aspects related with the treatment were audit, such as: the installation and unit's security, treatment unit's mechanical and dosimetric aspects and organizational aspects of the institution quality assurance program. Also were carried out, in the clinical aspect, verifications of cases type planned by the qualified personnel of the service. The results corresponding to the determination of the reference dose for each institution were compared with those obtained in a postal audit with the International Atomic Energy Agency. These first audits allowed to evaluate the performance of the institution's program of quality assurance and a feedback for the setting about to the PNAC. (author)

  9. The Text of the Agreement between the Dominican Republic and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1974-02-21

    The text of the Agreement, and of the Protocol thereto, between the Dominican Republic and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement entered into force on 11 October 1973, pursuant to Article 24. Protocol entered into force on the same date, pursuant to Article II thereof.

  10. The Text of the Agreement between the Dominican Republic and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The text of the Agreement, and of the Protocol thereto, between the Dominican Republic and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement entered into force on 11 October 1973, pursuant to Article 24. Protocol entered into force on the same date, pursuant to Article II thereof.

  11. Communication dated 1 November 2006 received from the Permanent Mission of Cuba to the Agency regarding the statement by the Coordinating Bureau of the Non-Aligned Movement on the Nuclear Test Conducted by the Democratic People's Republic of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Agency has received a letter to the Director General dated 1 November 2006 from the Resident Representative of Cuba, H.E. Ms. Norma M. Goicochea Estenoz, in her capacity as the Chair of the Vienna Chapter of the Non-Aligned Movement, enclosing a copy of the 'Statement by the Coordinating Bureau of the Non-Aligned Movement on the Nuclear Test Conducted by the Democratic People's Republic of Korea'. The letter and, as requested by the Resident Representative, its enclosure, are reproduced herewith for the information of Member States

  12. Energy in the Dominican Republic. A few historical considerations of the problems and integration of renewable energies; L’énergie en République Dominicaine. Quelques considérations historiques du problème et de l’impulsion des énergies renouvelables.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priam, Judith

    2015-01-15

    Energy production on islands is based, as on continents, on fossil fuels. In the Dominican Republic, the production has been insufficient, a recognized fact since 1897. In 1998, the opening to privatization of energy services was impelled by the Comisión para la Reforma de la Empresa Pública (CREP). Then the promulgation of the Ley General de Electricidad in July 2001 by decree #125 is a first step for renewable energy integration in the electric system. We present a historical approach to the energy problem using documents of 1897, 1946, 1989 and 2001(point 1). Then we present the components of energy production in the Dominican Republic by 2000 (point 2). The demand reached for that year 2000 MW, with only 1600 MW installed capacity. Some elements of the first institutional and legislative impulses to integrate renewable energy in the system are included (point 3). Finally, we underline the last 2013 crisis and show how only fossil energy allows to respond rapidly (point 4). In fact, renewable energies require a long term for planning and execution.

  13. Dominican NGOs move from competition to collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, H

    1995-07-01

    In 1992, the seven nongovernmental organizations (NGO) working to prevent HIV/AIDS in the Dominican Republic received most of their funding and technical assistance from the US Agency for International Development (USAID). In September 1992, however, USAID's AIDSTECH project asked the AIDS Control and Prevention (AIDSCAP) Project to prepare the NGOs for the time when USAID would no longer be their main source of support. To that end, AIDSCAP worked with NGO staff to assess their technical, managerial, and administrative needs, and identified a lack of administrative and managerial experience among many NGO staff. AIDSCAP therefore developed an institutional strengthening plan, including a series of capacity building workshops, in 1993. Many NGOs, however, foreseeing the impending need to compete with other NGOs for limited funds, were not interested in sharing ideas and working together. This article describes how Coordinadora de Animacion Socio-Cultural (CASCO) and the Instituto Dominicano de Desarrollo Integral (IDDI) competed in the context of uncertainty over continued donor funding, but now meet regularly to coordinate HIV/AIDS prevention projects for youth in the Dominican Republic.

  14. Impact of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine on bacterial meningitis in the Dominican Republic Impacto de la vacuna conjugada contra Haemophilus influenzae tipo b sobre la meningitis bacteriana en la República Dominicana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen H. Lee

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Widespread use of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib vaccines has dramatically reduced the burden of Hib disease throughout the Americas. Few studies have evaluated the impact of Hib vaccination on non-culture-confirmed disease. This study analyzed trends in probable bacterial meningitis before and after the introduction of Hib vaccine in the Dominican Republic and estimated vaccine effectiveness against Hib meningitis. METHODS: Meningitis cases among children OBJETIVOS: El uso generalizado de la vacuna contra Haemophilus influenzae tipo b (Hib ha permitido reducir radicalmente la carga de enfermedad por Hib en las Américas. Pocos estudios han evaluado el impacto de la vacunación contra Hib sobre los casos no confirmados mediante cultivo. En este estudio se analizaron las tendencias en el número de casos probables de meningitis bacteriana antes y después de la introducción de la vacuna contra Hib en la República Dominicana y se estimó la eficacia de la vacuna contra la meningitis. MÉTODOS: Se identificaron los casos de meningitis en niños menores de 5 años a partir de los registros de ingreso del principal hospital pediátrico de Santo Domingo entre 1998 y 2004. Los casos de meningitis con probable etiología bacteriana se clasificaron según criterios de laboratorio; los casos confirmados contaban con cultivo bacteriano positivo o detección de antígenos específicos en el líquido cefalorraquídeo. Se calcularon las tasas de incidencia acumulada de casos confirmados y probables de meningitis en los niños que vivían en el Distrito Nacional. Los casos confirmados de meningitis por Hib se incorporaron a un estudio de casos y controles -pareados según la edad y el barrio de residencia- para calcular la eficacia de la vacuna. RESULTADOS: Antes de la introducción de la vacuna, la tasa anual de meningitis de posible etiología bacteriana era de 49 casos por 100 000 niños menores de 5 años; de los casos confirmados de

  15. Tuberculosis patients in the Dominican Republic face severe direct and indirect costs and need social protection Los pacientes con tuberculosis en la República Dominicana afrontan altos costos directos e indirectos, y necesitan protección social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Mauch

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine direct and indirect costs incurred by new, retreatment, and multidrug-resistant (MDR tuberculosis (TB patients in the Dominican Republic before and during diagnosis, and during treatment, to generate an evidence base and formulate recommendations. METHODS: The "Tool to Estimate Patients' Costs" was adapted to the local setting, translated into Spanish, and pretested. Patients attending 32 randomly selected health facilities in six chosen study areas on the study days were interviewed. Responses from patients 18-65 years old who had received treatment for at least one month and provided signed informed consent were collected, entered into a database, and analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 200 patients were interviewed. For most respondents, direct and indirect costs increased while income decreased. Total costs amounted to a median of US$ 908 for new patients, US$ 432 for retreatment patients, and US$ 3 557 for MDR-TB patients. The proportion of patients without a regular income increased from 1% to 54% because of falling ill with TB. Following its review of the study results the Ministry of Health has made efforts to allocate public funds for food supplements and to include in- and outpatient TB services in the national health insurance schemes. CONCLUSIONS: Free TB diagnosis and treatment are not enough to alleviate the financial constraints experienced by vulnerable groups as a result of the illness. Health insurance covering TB in- and outpatient costs is critical to prevent TB-related financial hardship.OBJETIVO: Examinar los costos directos e indirectos afrontados por los pacientes con tuberculosis en la República Dominicana, ya sea por un tratamiento nuevo, por retratamiento, o por una tuberculosis multirresistente (MR, antes y a lo largo del proceso diagnóstico y durante el tratamiento, con objeto de generar una base de datos probatorios y formular recomendaciones. MÉTODOS: El "Instrumento de cálculo de los costos

  16. The PACARDO research project: youthful drug involvement in Central America and the Dominican Republic Proyecto de investigación PACARDO: el consumo de drogas entre la juventud en Centroamérica y la República Dominicana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M. Dormitzer

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the occurrence and school-level clustering of drug involvement among school-attending adolescent youths in each of seven countries in Latin America, drawing upon evidence from the PACARDO research project, a multinational collaborative epidemiological research study. METHODS: During 1999-2000, anonymous self-administered questionnaires on drug involvement and related behaviors were administered to a cross-sectional, nationally representative sample that included a total of 12 797 students in the following seven countries: Costa Rica (n= 1 702, the Dominican Republic (n= 2 023, El Salvador (n= 1 628, Guatemala (n= 2 530, Honduras (n= 1 752, Nicaragua (n= 1 419, and Panama (n= 1 743. (The PACARDO name concatenates PA for Panamá,CA for Centroamérica,and RDO for República Dominicana. Estimates for exposure opportunity and actual use of alcohol, tobacco, inhalants, marijuana, cocaine (crack/coca paste, amphetamines and methamphetamines, tranquilizers, ecstasy, and heroin were assessed via responses about questions on age of first chance to try each drug, and first use. Logistic regression models accounting for the complex survey design were used to estimate the associations of interest. RESULTS: Cumulative occurrence estimates for alcohol, tobacco, inhalants, marijuana, and illegal drug use for the overall sample were, respectively: 52%, 29%, 5%, 4%, and 5%. In comparison to females, males were more likely to use alcohol, tobacco, inhalants, marijuana, and illegal drugs; the odds ratio estimates were 1.3, 2.1, 1.6, 4.1, and 3.2, respectively. School-level clustering was noted in all countries for alcohol and tobacco use; it was also noted in Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, and Panama for illegal drug use. CONCLUSIONS: This report sheds new light on adolescent drug experiences in Panama, the five Spanish-heritage countries of Central America, and the Dominican Republic, and presents the first estimates of school

  17. Concurrent Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, T.

    2016-10-01

    The parallel version of the multidimensional numerical integration package Cuba is presented and achievable speed-ups discussed. The parallelization is based on the fork/wait POSIX functions, needs no extra software installed, imposes almost no constraints on the integrand function, and works largely automatically.

  18. Scleroderma in the Caribbean: characteristics in a Dominican case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschalk, Paola; Vásquez, Ricardo; López, Persio David; Then, Jossiell; Tineo, Carmen; Loyo, Esthela

    2014-01-01

    Scleroderma is a rare disease with limited data in Latin America. Preliminary genetic studies suggest a strong African ascendance in the Dominican Republic, which could modulate the expression of the disease. The objective of this study is to describe the clinical and demographic characteristics of scleroderma in a series of 26 Dominican patients. Patients who fulfilled the EULAR/ACR criteria for scleroderma were selected from the Rheumatology Department of a tertiary health center; systemic sclerosis subtypes were defined according to the EULAR classification. Clinical and demographic information was obtained retrospectively from clinical records. Mean age at time of onset was 32.6±15 years; 68% of patients had 40 years of age or less. 73% of patients was feminine, with a female:male ratio of 2.7:1. The most affected systems were pulmonary and gastrointestinal; renal affection was scarce. Anti-Scl-70 antibodies were positive in 64% of patients, sometimes in coexistence with anti-centromere antibodies. The prevalence of systemic sclerosis is lower in the Dominican population than the reported elsewhere. The age of onset of the disease seems to be lower in the Dominican population than that reported in literature. A different pattern of autoantibodies is observed in this population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Cuba and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-08-18

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Cuba and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in the Annex to this document for the information of all Members. The Additional Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 9 September 2003. It was signed on 18 September 2003. Pursuant to Article 17 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on 3 June 2004, the date on which the Agency received from Cuba written notification that Cuba's statutory and/or constitutional requirements for entry into force had been met.

  20. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Cuba and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Cuba and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in the Annex to this document for the information of all Members. The Additional Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 9 September 2003. It was signed on 18 September 2003. Pursuant to Article 17 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on 3 June 2004, the date on which the Agency received from Cuba written notification that Cuba's statutory and/or constitutional requirements for entry into force had been met

  1. Agreement between the Republic of Cuba and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The text of the Agreement between the Republic of Cuba and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in the Annex to this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Board of Governors on 9 September 2003. It was signed on 18 September 2003. Pursuant to Article 25 of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 3 June 2004, the date on which the Agency received from Cuba written notification that Cuba's statutory and/or constitutional requirements for entry into force had been met

  2. Radiological characterization and dose assessment in different scenarios of occupational and public exposure to naturally occurring radioactive materials in the Republic of Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Gomez, Isis Maria

    2012-01-01

    Cuba has identified situations where there working environments with the presence of natural radioactivity. Dose estimates in these environments could exceed the measured values for occupationally exposed workers, without there existed so far, with regulatory requirements for programs of radiation protection. In light of these situations, it has been necessary to assess the potential impact on these working groups of radiational load that they are subjected and establish regulatory criteria for protection in cases that require it. (author) [es

  3. Behavioral problems and tobacco use among adolescents in Central America and the Dominican Republic Problemas conductuales y consumo de tabaco en adolescentes de Centroamérica y la República Dominicana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Vittetoe

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between behavioral problems and tobacco use among adolescent students in six countries of Central America and in the Dominican Republic. Methods. Data were drawn from a multinational collaborative study that included questionnaire surveys of between 451 and 1 170 school-attending adolescents in each of the seven countries studied. Assessments were based on an adapted, Spanish-language version of the Drug Use Screening Inventory (DUSI. The conditional form of logistic regression was employed for analysis, matching students on type of school and area, with further statistical adjustments for sex, age, and selected risk factors. Results. Occurrence of tobacco use was observed to vary dramatically from country to country. Nonetheless, for the combined group of countries, the estimated odds of tobacco use in youths at the highest levels of behavioral problems was more than five times that for youths at the lowest levels, after controlling for sex, age, lack of participation in recreational activities, level of irritability, and levels of problems with school, family, and mental health. Country- specific analyses show that youths at the highest levels of behavioral problems have a consistently greater occurrence of tobacco use as compared to youths at the lowest levels of behavioral problems. Conclusions. These findings are concordant with prior studies on tobacco use among adolescents with behavioral problems. Although the magnitude of observed associations varied according to the country of residence, the strength of these associations and their significance by conventional standards were observed in nearly all the countries sampled. This is the first study in these seven countries on potentially causal relationships such as these. More research is needed to augment our knowledge regarding the observed cross-country differences and ultimately to develop, implement, and evaluate

  4. Preliminary results of the national program of audit of quality in radiotherapy services in the Republic of Cuba; Resultados preliminares del programa nacional de auditoria de calidad en servicios de radioterapia en la Republica de Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez Hung, Lourdes; Larrinaga Cortina, Eduardo F. [Centro de Control Estatal de Equipos Medicos, La Habana (Cuba); Morales Lopez, Jorge L.; Garcia Yip, Fernando [Instituto Nacional de Oncologia y Radiobiologia, La Habana (Cuba); Campa Menendez, Raudel [Centro de Proteccion y Higiene de las Radiaciones, La Habana (Cuba)

    2001-07-01

    The current state of the radiotherapy in Cuba has allowed to pass to a superior stage, the establishment of a National Quality Audit Program (PNAC). The National Control Center for Medical Devices as national regulator entity for the control and supervision of the medical devices of the National Health System is the responsible for it implementation. This paper presents the preliminary results of the execution of the PNAC in teletherapy services with isotopic units of {sup 60} Co. The audits were carried out according to the methodology settled down in the normalized procedure of operation of the PNAC. The physical aspects related with the treatment were audit, such as: the installation and unit's security, treatment unit's mechanical and dosimetric aspects and organizational aspects of the institution quality assurance program. Also were carried out, in the clinical aspect, verifications of cases type planned by the qualified personnel of the service. The results corresponding to the determination of the reference dose for each institution were compared with those obtained in a postal audit with the International Atomic Energy Agency. These first audits allowed to evaluate the performance of the institution's program of quality assurance and a feedback for the setting about to the PNAC. (author)

  5. Perceived social support, self esteem, and pregnancy status among Dominican adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babington, Lynn M; Malone, Linda; Kelley, Barbara R

    2015-05-01

    Adolescent pregnancy is a major health concern among Dominicans in the U.S. and in the Dominican Republic (DR). Twenty three percent of adolescents age 15-19 have experienced pregnancy and this trend is rising. The purpose of this study was to explore and compare social support, self-esteem and pregnancy between Dominican adolescents in the DR with those who have immigrated to the U.S. This study used an exploratory, descriptive design including study samples from both the U.S. and DR. Findings showed that young women with stronger social support and higher self esteem experienced lower pregnancy rates in both the DR and U.S. Neither self esteem nor social support was found to be predictors of pregnancy. Important findings from this study will inform the development of interventions aimed at preventing pregnancy in adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Horizontal accountability and presidential dominance: a difficult combination. The case of the Dominican Republic, 1967-2009 Rendición de cuentas horizontal y preponderancia presidencial: una combinación difícil. El caso de República Dominicana, 1967-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leiv MARSTEINTREDET

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article studies horizontal accountability in the Dominican Republic. First it analyses the rules regulating the system of checks and balances. Although important, institutional rules cannot explain the variation in the levels of accountability across time found in the Dominican case. Therefore, the article focuses on the execution of national budgets and the financial situation of the accountability institutions. The article suggests using an index of budgetary disproportionality based on a comparison of the congressionally approved budget and the executed budget to measure the level of horizontal accountability. A multivariate time-series regression analysis shows that budgetary disproportionality increases with presidential dominance. The article concludes that for the period 1967-2009, it is presidential behaviour more than any other factor that has prevented an effective system of checks and balances. Therefore the case confirms O’Donnell’s hypothesis of Delegative Democracies.Este artículo estudia la rendición de cuentas horizontal en República Dominicana. Primero se estudian las normas constitucionales que regulan el sistema de pesos y contrapesos. Aunque importantes, estas no explican la gran variación en niveles de rendición de cuentas observada en el caso dominicano. Por lo tanto, el trabajo se enfoca en el ejercicio de los gastos de los presupuestos nacionales y la situación financiera de las instituciones de control. El artículo sugiere analizar la situación presupuestaria de las instituciones fiscalizadoras y propone utilizar la desproporcionalidad entre el presupuesto aprobado y el ejecutado como un indicador del nivel de rendición de cuentas en un país. Un análisis multivariado de regresión de series de tiempo demuestra que la desproporcionalidad presupuestal aumenta con la preponderancia presidencial. Se concluye que, para el caso dominicano en el período 1967-2009, el comportamiento de varios presidentes m

  7. Description of Pintomyia (Pifanomyia falcaorum sp. n. (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae, a Fossil Sand Fly from Dominican Amber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo Peçanha Brazil

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of sand fly, Pintomyia (Pifanomyia falcaorum is described from an amber originated from the northern mountain range of Dominican Republic. The male sand fly specimen is well preserved and most features used in Phlebotominae taxonomy are seen with remarkable clarity.

  8. Multi-Sector Participation In The National Response To Prevent And Address The Hiv/Aids Epidemic In The Republic Of Cuba, 2007-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isora Ramos Valle

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of a strong national response involving multiple sectors—including civil society—is an essential aspect of the social management of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The goals of this response are to control the epidemic and improve the quality of life for people living with HIV/AIDS; this includes combating stigma and discrimination, as well as ensuring due compliance with the law. Cuba has a national program to prevent and control HIV/AIDS. Since 2003 Cuba’s national program has received material and financial support from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Program evaluation is carried out by an independent team at ENSAP (National School of Public Health. This paper reports on results of one part of that evaluation: an assessment of the agencies and sectors who made up the organized social and national response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The evaluation primarily used qualitative analyses of the activities and tasks proposed by sectors in their 2006-2008 work plans. Visits were made to the provinces of Ciudad de la Habana, Matanzas, and Holguín. Qualitative techniques included in-depth interviews, semi-structured interviews, observation, and review of documentary evidence of all kinds (videos, reports, minutes, protocols, results of social research, and radio broadcast messages and varied depending on the particular features of each sector. We noted improvements in multi-sector participation in the prevention and response to the national HIV/AIDS epidemic. Conscious of their role, sectors generally carried out their programmed activities and had improved their organization, planning, and systematization; integration among the sectors was also better. These local initiatives provided evidence of a multi-sector response characterized by autonomy, emotional involvement, and an identification with the goals of the project; this went beyond simply meeting targets. Cross-sector work showed a marked increase and a

  9. The text of the Agreement of 25 September 1980 between Cuba and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the supply of a nuclear research reactor from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-08-01

    The full text of the agreement between Cuba and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the supply of a nuclear research reactor from the USSR is presented

  10. 'Western Union daddies' and their quest for authenticity: an ethnographic study of the Dominican gay sex tourism industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Mark B

    2007-01-01

    This article draws on ethnographic research among two categories of male sex workers in the Dominican Republic in order to describe the relationships between gay male tourists and the Dominican men they hire on their trips to the Caribbean. Drawing on both qualitative interview data and quantitative surveys, the discussion examines the usefulness of theories of 'authenticity,' as they have been applied in the analysis of tourist practices more generally, in accounting for the behaviors and practices of male sex workers and their foreign gay clients. While the flow of international remittances from 'Western Union daddies' to their Dominican 'boys' creates a continuous reminder of the utilitarian nature of the exchange, both sex workers and clients are motivated to camouflage this instrumentality in their construction of a more 'authentic,' fulfilling relationship. The article examines the consequences of this ambivalent negotiation for the emotional and economic organization of gay male sex tourism in the Caribbean.

  11. Passion Plays: The Dominican Diaspora in Waddys Jáquez’s P.A.R.G.O.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Horn

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes how the play P.A.R.G.O. (2001, written, directed, and performed by the Dominican Waddys Jáquez represents the contemporary experience of the Dominican diaspora. Jaquéz himself forms part of a new generation of diasporic artists who frequently return “home,” to the Dominican Republic, and who, unlike the previous generation of diasporic artists and writers, continue to find their most valuable audience there. This tendency towards an increasing interconnectivity between diaspora and homeland is represented and a/effectively reinforced in P.A.R.G.O. The play brings the experience of the diaspora close to home for the audience, not by compelling them to identify with the characters’ particular identities, but rather by placing center stage their ongoing negotiations and “making do” with personal and economic difficulties that define their lives both at home and abroad.

  12. Uneven exchange and urban binational complexes in Dominican Republic’s border with Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroldo Dilla Alfonso

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Dominican/Haitian border is signed by profound asymmetries and the predominance of a relation of uneven exchange in benefit of Dominican Republic. Transborder relations summary this contradictory relation, but at the same time constitute the only form of survival for more than half million of Haitians that inhabit the region. This article discusses the history of this relation and its present tendencies, including the formation of economic regions and urban binational systems. The weakness of regulatory public policies and the aggressive action of the market generate a very contradictory setting that could lead to conflicts by the use of shared natural resources, the exploitation of the Haitian labour force, and the agitation of nationalist positions.

  13. Las Haloragaceae de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betancourt Gandul, Martha

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A study of the Haloragaceae in Cuba is presented. The presence of Proserpinaca palustris, P. pectinata. Myriophyllum laxum and M. pinnatum is confirmed, and the possible extinction of M. sparsiflorum is suggestedEstudio de la familia Haloragaceae en Cuba. Se confirma la existencia de Proserpinaca palustris, P. pectinata. Myriophyllum laxum y M, pinnatum, y se plantea la posible extinción de M. sparsiflorum.

  14. An Island Called Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Stubbs

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Review of: An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba. Ruth Behar, photographs by Humberto Mayol. New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2007. xiii + 297 pp. (Cloth US$ 29.95 Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography. Fidel Castro & Ignacio Ramonet. New York: Scribner/Simon & Schuster, 2008. vii + 724 pp. (Paper US$ 22.00, e-book US$ 14.99 Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know. Julia E. Sweig. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. xiv + 279 pp. (Paper US$ 16.95 [First paragraph] These three ostensibly very different books tell a compelling story of each author’s approach, as much as the subject matter itself. Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography is based on a series of long interviews granted by the then-president of Cuba, Fidel Castro, to Spanish-Franco journalist Ignacio Ramonet. Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know, by U.S. political analyst Julia Sweig, is one of a set country series, and, like Ramonet’s, presented in question/answer format. An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba, with a narrative by Cuban-American anthropologist Ruth Behar and photographs by Cuban photographer Humberto Mayol, is a retrospective/introspective account of the Jewish presence in Cuba. While from Ramonet and Sweig we learn much about the revolutionary project, Behar and Mayol convey the lived experience of the small Jewish community against that backdrop.

  15. The relationship between nutritional and sociodemographic factors and the likelihood of children in the Dominican Republic having a BCG scar Relación entre los factores nutricionales y sociodemográficos y la probabilidad de que los niños de la República Dominicana tengan cicatriz de BCG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddy Pérez-Then

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To critically assess the prevalence among schoolchildren 6 to 9 years of age throughout the Dominican Republic of a bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG vaccination scar, and to examine the relationship between nutritional and sociodemographic factors and the likelihood of having a BCG scar. METHODS: This correlational study used the database of the Second National Census on Height and Weight of Elementary School First Grade Students, which was conducted in the Dominican Republic August 2001-May 2002, to provide a critical assessment of BCG coverage nationwide. The Census information for the children included the presence of BCG scar, their nutritional status, and basic demographic data. We developed a new sociodemographic indicator, the "Rosa Index," to examine the potential influence of poverty and other environmental characteristics on scar presence. We used logistic regression models to predict the presence of a BCG scar. RESULTS: An overall BCG scar prevalence of 55.3% (85 644/154 887 was found. Malnourished children were less likely to have a BCG scar than were children with adequate nutritional status (odds ratio = 0.91; 95% confidence interval: 0.87, 0.95, P OBJETIVOS: Evaluar críticamente la prevalencia de cicatrices por la vacunación con el bacilo de Calmette-Guérin (BCG en niños de 6 a 9 años de la República Dominicana y examinar la relación entre los factores nutricionales y socioeconómicos y la probabilidad de tener cicatriz de BCG. MÉTODOS: Para este estudio correlacional se empleó la base de datos del II Censo Nacional de Talla y Peso en Escolares de Primer Grado de Básica, realizado en la República Dominicana entre agosto de 2001 y mayo de 2002, para evaluar críticamente el nivel de cobertura nacional de la vacunación con BCG. Entre la información censal de los niños estaban si tenían cicatriz de BCG, su estado nutricional y sus datos demográficos básicos. Se desarrolló un nuevo indicador sociodemogr

  16. Not Haitian: Exploring the Roots of Dominican Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Lamb

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A literature review supplemented by interview data from a small sample of Haitian and Dominican immigrants living in Miami, Florida elucidates the complexities of Afrolatino-Dominican identity. The data include Dominican recollections of childhood warnings about threats posed by Haitians allegedly willing to cast spells and act as agents of punishment for misbehaving Dominican children. These data are consistent with antihaitianismo and the tendency for Dominicans to deny their African heritage in favor of their European Hispanic roots. The paper also explains how Dominicans’ ethnic flexibility in navigating “racialized” social space in the US is relevant to future census measurement of race and ethnicity.

  17. The New Roles of the Dominican Armed Forces in the Dominican Republic National Security Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Defensa e Identidad Nacional (Santo Domingo: Editora Corripio, Julio 2006), 312. 3Ibid., 312. 4Leo Reyez, “Presidente visita la Academia Militar...14Pared, Seguridad, Defensa e Identidad Nacional, 221. 20 CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research Concept This chapter addresses research methodology...capacity that the military have to dissuade external and internal threats. Vice Admiral Pared Perez, in his book Seguridad, Defensa e Identidad

  18. Phylogenetic placement of the Dominican Republic endemic genus Sarcopilea (Urticaceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jestrow, B.; Valdés, James J.; Rodríguez, F. J.; Francisco-Ortega, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 3 (2012), s. 592-600 ISSN 0040-0262 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : CAM * Caribbean Islands * cystoliths * epistomatic * hyperstomatic * hydathodes * phylogenetics * Pilea * Sarcopilea * succulent * Urticaceae Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.782, year: 2012

  19. Review: The birds of Hispaniola: Haiti and the Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne J. Arendt

    2005-01-01

    The following critiques express the opinions of the individual evaluators regarding the strengths, weaknesses, and value of the books they review. As such, the appraisals are subjective assessments and do not necessarily refl ect the opinions of the editors or any offi cial policy of the American Ornithologists’ Union.

  20. Comparison of family planning in Cuba and Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Suzie; Stronge, Shirley

    2015-08-26

    Family planning gives individuals and couples control and choice over the number of children they have and the timing of their births. Developments in reproductive health have resulted in major changes in the options for family planning, providing more choice and control over fertility. This article explores reproductive health in the Republic of Cuba and the Republic of Ireland, with a focus on contraceptive use and termination of pregnancy as methods of family planning. The predominant religion in both countries is Catholicism, which promotes the right to life of the unborn child. The two countries have adopted different approaches to the availability of both contraception and termination of pregnancy. Cuba has offered free access to contraception and termination of pregnancy since the 1960s to reduce maternal mortality. In Ireland, contraception was not widely available until 1995 and termination of pregnancy is available only in extremely limited circumstances.

  1. Where Does Cuba Stand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-14

    number of foreign tourists visiting the island, which has resulted in the virtual exclusion of the criollos from the choice spots in the littoral, and has...Anallsis Infurmativo de la Realidad ," paper delivered at the Annual Congress of the Partido Democrat. Cristlano de Cuba, Miami, June 4, 1993, pp. 19-23. 25

  2. Diagnóstico de la capacidad para el ejercicio de las funciones esenciales de salud pública en países de Mesoamérica, los estados mexicanos de Chiapas y Quintana Roo y la República Dominicana Diagnosis of capacity to perform essential public health functions in the Central American countries, the Dominican Republic, and the Mexican states of Chiapas and Quintana Roo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel González Block

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Caracterizar la capacidad para el desempeño de las funciones esenciales de la salud pública (FESP de las instituciones públicas y privadas en países de Mesoamérica, los estados mexicanos de Chiapas y Quintana Roo y la República Dominicana. MÉTODOS: Se aplicó una encuesta en línea a 83 organizaciones de Belice, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panamá, la República Dominicana y los estados mexicanos de Chiapas y Quintana Roo sobre la capacidad de cumplir cada una de las 11 FESP. Los resultados se validaron en un taller con representantes de los ministerios de salud de los siete países y los dos estados mexicanos participantes. RESULTADOS: La mayor capacidad para el desempeño se identificó en la FESP 1 (monitoreo, evaluación y análisis del estado de salud de la población, la FESP 2.1.1 (vigilancia, investigación y control de riesgos y amenazas a la salud pública para enfermedades infecciosas y la FESP 5 (desarrollo de políticas y planificación en salud. La mayor debilidad se encontró en la FESP 2.1.2 (vigilancia, investigación y monitoreo de las enfermedades no infecciosas. Las asimetrías en el desempeño de las FESP al interior de cada país indican debilidades en las funciones de los laboratorios y de la investigación en salud pública. CONCLUSIONES: Se requiere mejorar el desempeño estratégico en la mayor parte de las FESP en los países y territorios analizados y reforzar la infraestructura, el equipamiento y los recursos humanos, tanto a nivel estratégico como táctico. Se debe aplicar un enfoque regional para aprovechar la capacidad diferencial con vistas al fortalecimiento y el apoyo técnico cooperativo.OBJECTIVE: Characterize the capacity of public and private institutions in the Central American countries, the Dominican Republic, and the Mexican states of Chiapas and Quintana Roo to perform essential public health functions (EPHFs. METHODS: An online survey of 83 organizations

  3. The embodiment of tourism among bisexually-behaving Dominican male sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Mark B

    2008-10-01

    While theories of "structure" and social inequality have increasingly informed global health efforts for HIV prevention--with growing recognition of the linkages between large-scale political and economic factors in the distribution and impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic--there is still little theorization of precisely how structural factors shape the very bodies and sexualities of specific populations and groups. In order to extend the theoretical understanding of these macro-micro linkages, this article examines how the growth of the tourism industry in the Dominican Republic has produced sexual practices and identities that reflect both the influence of large-scale structural processes and the resistant responses of local individuals. Drawing on social science theories of political economy, embodiment, and authenticity, I argue that an understanding of patterns of sexuality and HIV risk in the region requires analysis of how political-economic transformations related to tourism intersect with the individual experiences and practices of sexuality on the ground. The analysis draws on long-term ethnographic research with bisexually behaving male sex workers in two cities in the Dominican Republic, including participant observation, in-depth interviews, focus groups, and surveys. By examining the global and local values placed on these men's bodies and the ways sex workers use their bodies to broker tourists' pleasure, we may better understand how the large-scale structures of the tourism industry are linked to the specific meanings and practices of sexuality.

  4. CASE STUDY: Cuba — Farmers and Researchers Reshape Cuba's ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-05

    Jan 5, 2011 ... But working together with groups of farmers, a team of young plant breeders is turning things around. ... English · Français ... CASE STUDY: Cuba — Farmers and Researchers Reshape Cuba's Agriculture ... One method the researchers used to introduce farmers to new or unknown varieties or lines was the ...

  5. Capacidad de uso de las tierras en la microcuenca El Limón, complejo de cuencas Sabana Yegua, República Dominicana Land use capacity in the mini watershed El Limón, Sabana Yegua Watershed Complex, Dominican Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maldané Cuello Espinoza

    2013-03-01

    recomendadas son las de labranza mínima, rotación de cultivos, uso de barreras muertas con residuos de cosecha, barreras vivas con el uso de material biológico de la zona y terrazas individuales en sistemas agroforestales. Estas prácticas son alternativas para que los productores continúen desarrollando los sistemas de producción que tradicionalmente utilizan, con un criterio técnico de manejo.This study conduced the biophysical analysis of El Limón micro watershed within the high land Sabana Yegua watershed, Dominican Republic. The objective of the research was directed to determine its land capacity use, taking into account limitations of soils, climate and geomorphology. It proposes a series of management practices as options to reduce erosion, improve soil and roads conditions, in order to get better conditions for a rational system management. In this way, for reaching such objective for the first time some basic elements could be established and integrated to deal with the accelerated degradation problem affecting the area under study. For getting this purpose fundamental parameters were established, such as factors related to erosion, soil, drainage and climate, in function of the methodology MAG/ FAO/UNED (1996 used in Costa Rica to determine land capacity use, which has been adapted to the area under study. This methodology has been used as the basic tool in this essay, integrating land classes from class I to class VIII in acordance with the frecuency and level limitations identified. For its application in the Limón micro watershed, we included other physical parameters that were not observed in this methodology, such as soil apparent density and the climatic parameters, such as rain and temperature daily registers, the last two in order to determine the life zone. The research established that the land classes in El Limón micro watershed include land from class III to VIII. All land classes are able for protection, forestry systems and agroforestry. In

  6. Immunogenicity and safety of three aluminium hydroxide adjuvanted vaccines with reduced doses of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV-Al) compared with standard IPV in young infants in the Dominican Republic: a phase 2, non-inferiority, observer-blinded, randomised, and controlled dose investigation trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Luis; Pedersen, Rasmus S; Peña, Lourdes; Olsen, Klaus J; Andreasen, Lars V; Kromann, Ingrid; Nielsen, Pernille I; Sørensen, Charlotte; Dietrich, Jes; Bandyopadhyay, Ananda S; Thierry-Carstensen, Birgit

    2017-07-01

    Cost and supply constraints are key challenges in the use of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV). Dose reduction through adsorption to aluminium hydroxide (Al) is a promising option, and establishing its effectiveness in the target population is a crucial milestone in developing IPV-Al. The aim of this clinical trial was to show the non-inferiority of three IPV-Al vaccines to standard IPV. In this phase 2, non-inferiority, observer-blinded, randomised, controlled, single-centre trial in the Dominican Republic, healthy infants aged 6 weeks, not previously polio vaccinated, were allocated after computer-generated randomisation by block-size of four, to receive one of four IPV formulations (three-times reduced dose [1/3 IPV-Al], five-times reduced dose [1/5 IPV-Al], ten-times reduced dose [1/10 IPV-Al], or IPV) intramuscularly in the thigh at 6, 10, and 14 weeks of age. The primary outcome was seroconversion for poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3 with titres more than or equal to four-fold higher than the estimated maternal antibody titre and more than or equal to 8 after three vaccinations. Non-inferiority was concluded if the lower two-sided 90% CI of the seroconversion rate difference between IPV-Al and IPV was greater than -10%. The safety analyses were based on the safety analysis set (randomly assigned participants who received at least one trial vaccination) and the immunogenicity analyses were based on the per-protocol population. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov registration, number NCT02347423. Between Feb 2, 2015, and Sept 26, 2015, we recruited 824 infants. The per-protocol population included 820 infants; 205 were randomly assigned to receive 1/3 IPV-Al, 205 to receive 1/5 IPV-Al, 204 to receive 1/10 IPV-Al, and 206 to receive IPV. The proportion of individuals meeting the primary endpoint of seroconversion for poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3 was already high for the three IPV-Al vaccines after two vaccinations, but was higher after three vaccinations

  7. Changes in health indicators related to health promotion and microcredit programs in the Dominican Republic Cambios en los indicadores de salud relacionados con programas de promoción de la salud y de microcréditos en la República Dominicana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita L. Dohn

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of health promotion programs and microcredit programs on three communities in the Dominican Republic. One community had only the health promotion program, one community had only the microcredit program, and one community had both a health promotion program and a microcredit program. This pilot project examined the hypothesis that the largest changes in 11 health indicators that were studied would be in the community with both a health promotion program and a microcredit program, that there would be intermediate changes in the community with only a health promotion program, and that the smallest changes would be in the community with only a microcredit program. METHODS: The health promotion programs used community volunteers to address two major concerns: (1 the prevalent causes of mortality among children under 5 years of age and (2 women's health (specifically breast and cervical cancer screening. The microcredit program made small loans to individuals to start or expand small businesses. Outcome measures were based on comparisons for 11 health indicators from baseline community surveys (27 households surveyed in each of the three communities, done in December 2000 and January 2001 and from follow-up surveys (also 27 households surveyed in each of the three communities, in June and July 2002, after the health promotion program had been operating for about 13 months. Households were randomly chosen during both the baseline and follow-up surveys, without regard to their involvement in the microcredit or health promotion programs. RESULTS: The health indicators improved in all three communities. However, the degree of change was different among the communities (P RESUMEN OBJETIVO: Evaluar el impacto de programas de promoción de la salud y de microcréditos en tres comunidades de la República Dominicana. Una comunidad tenía solo un programa de promoción de la salud, otra contaba solo con un programa de microcr

  8. Implications of the Central America-Dominican Republic-Free Trade Agreement for the nutrition transition in Central America Implicaciones del Tratado de Libre Comercio entre Centroamérica y República Dominicana sobre la transición alimentaria en Centroamérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna Hawkes

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To identify potential impacts of the Central America-Dominican Republic-Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR on food consumption patterns associated with the nutrition transition, obesity, and diet-related chronic diseases. METHODS: Examination of CAFTA-DR agreement to identify measures that have the potential to affect food availability and retail prices. RESULTS: CAFTA-DR includes agreements on tariffs, tariff-rate quotas (TRQs, and sanitary and phytosanitary regulations with direct implications for the availability and prices of various foods. Agreements on investment, services, and intellectual property rights (IPR are also relevant because they create a business climate more conducive to long-term investment by the transnational food industry. Trade liberalization under CAFTA-DR is likely to increase availability and lower relative prices of two food groups associated with the nutrition transition: meat and processed foods. These outcomes are expected to occur as the direct result of increased imports from the United States and increased production by U.S. companies based in Central America, and the indirect result of increased domestic meat production (due to increased availability of cheaper animal feed and increased production of processed foods by domestic companies (due to a more competitive market environment. CONCLUSIONS: CAFTA-DR is likely to further the nutrition transition in Central America by increasing the consumption of meat; highly processed foods; and new, non-traditional foods. The public health community should be more aware of the implications of trade agreements for dietary health. Governments and related stakeholders should assess the coherence between changes fostered by specific trade agreements with national policies on diet and nutrition.OBJETIVOS: Identificar el posible impacto del Tratado de Libre Comercio entre Centroamérica y República Dominicana (TLCCA-RD sobre el patrón de consumo de alimentos

  9. Co-operation Agreement between the Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment of the Republic of Cuba (CITMA) and CERN concerning The Further Development of Scientific and Technical Co-operation

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    In the framework of the CERN collaboration with Latin America, co-operation agreements have been established with Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Chile, Mexico and Peru. They have made possible a growing participation by Latin American particle physicists in the CERN programme, which has important potential for the future. The Cuban particle physics community is highly motivated and relatively advanced, both scientifically and technologically, since many of its members have been trained in installations of the former Soviet Union, many of which now participate in CERN's cooperation with Russia. In addition, Cuba has a good number of experienced computer scientists. A group from the Cuban Institute CEADEN (Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnológicas y Desarollo Nuclear) has recently been accepted unanimously into the ALICE collaboration, with agreed contributions to off-line software and Grid middlewave. Additional Cuban contributions to show controls, data acquisition and testing electronics for the Silicon drift decte...

  10. A democracia em Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Guanche Zaldívar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O triunfo revolucionário de 1959 consagrou em Cuba um novo conceito de democracia, com o intuito de garantir o acesso à vida política ativa de grandes setores da população, antes excluídos. Para isso, foi desenvolvida uma política de inclusão social com caráter universal. A prática política popular deixou as riquezas do país em mãos da população carente e gerou uma grande mobilidade social, fato que foi central para o aumento da participação popular. O contexto de agressão imperialista e o próprio desenvolvimento do processo produziram a consolidação de noções que limitaram a participação popular: o apogeu da burocracia, a compreensão da unidade como unanimidade e o seguimento, em certa medida, de correntes do marxismo soviético. Os desafios atuais para aprofundar a democracia em Cuba se apresentam em três planos: socializar o poder, promover a sociodiversidade e desenvolver a ideologia revolucionária.El triunfo revolucionario de 1959 consagró en Cuba un nuevo concepto de democracia, basado en garantizar acceso a la vida política activa a grandes sectores poblacionales, antes excluidos de ella. Para ello desarrolló una política de inclusión social con carácter universal. La práctica política popular puso las riquezas del país en manos de los desposeídos y generó gran movilidad social, hecho que resultó clave para el aumento de la participación popular. El contexto de agresión imperialista y el propio desarrollo del proceso produjo el afianzamiento de nociones que limitaron la participación popular: el auge de la burocracia, la comprensión de la unidad como unanimidad y el seguimiento, en parte, de corrientes del marxismo soviético. Los desafíos actuales se presentan en tres planos para profundizar la democracia en Cuba: socializar el poder, promover la sociodiversidad y desarrollar la ideología revolucionaria.The revolutionary triumph of 1959 established in Cuba a new concept of democracy, one that

  11. Storm Warnings for Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Services: Telephone: (310) 451-7002; Fax: (310) 451-6915; Internet : order@rand.org. al Accesion For "Ni %&’ Storm WarningsDTI’ TAB E03 --- - - -for...reaction leading to an uncontrol- lable burgeoning of private entrepreneurial activity. As one observer 14See Acuerdo del Buro Politico , "Para llevar a...34 10Comisi6n de Relaciones Internacionales, Asamblea Nacional del Poder Popular, Datos, Reflexiones y Argumentos Sobre la Actual Situaci6n de Cuba, n.p

  12. Tourism, Sexuality and Power in the Spanish Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivke Jaffe

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available – Economies of Desire: Sex and Tourism in Cuba and the Dominican Republic, by Amalia L. Cabezas. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2009. – The Devil behind the Mirror: Globalization and Politics in the Dominican Republic, by Steven Gregory. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2007. – Caribbean Pleasure Industry: Tourism, Sexuality and AIDS in the Dominican Republic, by Mark Padilla. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007.

  13. Historical an insight into the teaching of philosophy in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lidia Beltrán-Marín

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The teaching of philosophy in Cuba has been related to events in economic and political life, which leads to the boundaries between the various stages of its teaching are linked to the transformations of its general historical evolution. This work aims to contribute to the training of educational professional’s specialties of history and marxism, and to expand cuban philosophical historiography. Among other methods, analysis and synthesis and logical history were used, complemented by an in-depth document analysis. We present the results of a project of the University of Sancti Spiritus which has led to the present approach to the history of the teaching of philosophy in Cuba which runs through the synthesis stages of colonial, republic and revolution; As well as the predominant philosophical currents at each stage: scholasticism, reformism, modernity, positivism, electivism, existentialism, marxism.

  14. A democracia em Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Zaldívar, Julio César Guanche

    2011-01-01

    O triunfo revolucionário de 1959 consagrou em Cuba um novo conceito de democracia, com o intuito de garantir o acesso à vida política ativa de grandes setores da população, antes excluídos. Para isso, foi desenvolvida uma política de inclusão social com caráter universal. A prática política popular deixou as riquezas do país em mãos da população carente e gerou uma grande mobilidade social, fato que foi central para o aumento da participação popular. O contexto de agressão imperialista e o pr...

  15. Knowledge, perceptions, and experiences of Dominicans with diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Aponte, Judith; Boutin-Foster, Carla; Alcantara, Robinson

    2012-01-01

    Dominicans, one of the fastest growing Hispanic subgroups in New York City (NYC), have a high rate of diabetes. A qualitative study exploring Dominicans’ knowledge, perceptions, and experiences in managing their diabetes was conducted. There were a total of 40 participants who were Spanish speaking Dominicans, 40 to 74 years of age, diagnosed with diabetes and NYC residents. Four focus groups were conducted in Spanish, which were recorded and then transcribed into English. Content analysis wa...

  16. HIV sexual risk behavior and family dynamics in a Dominican tourism town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Padilla, Mark; Cedar, Anna Lindberg; Lee, Jane; Robles, Gabriel

    2013-10-01

    Expansion of the tourism industry in the Dominican Republic has had far-reaching health consequences for the local population. Research suggests families with one or more members living in tourism areas experience heightened vulnerability to HIV/STIs due to exposure to tourism environments, which can promote behaviors such as commercial and transactional sex and elevated alcohol use. Nevertheless, little is known about how tourism contexts influence family dynamics, which, in turn, shape HIV risk. This qualitative study examined family relationships through in-depth interviews with 32 adults residing in Sosúa, an internationally known destination for sex tourism. Interviewees situated HIV risk within a context of limited employment opportunities, high rates of migration, heavy alcohol use, and separation from family. This study has implications for effective design of health interventions that make use of the role of the family to prevent HIV transmission in tourism environments.

  17. HIV Sexual Risk Behavior and Family Dynamics in a Dominican Tourism Town

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Padilla, Mark; Cedar, Anna Lindberg; Lee, Jane; Robles, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Expansion of the tourism industry in the Dominican Republic has had far-reaching health consequences for the local population. Research suggests families with one or more members living in tourism areas experience heightened vulnerability to HIV/STIs due to exposure to tourism environments, which can promote behaviors such as commercial and transactional sex and elevated alcohol use. Nevertheless, little is known about how tourism contexts influence family dynamics, which, in turn, shape HIV risk. This qualitative study examined family relationships through in-depth interviews with 32 adults residing in Sosúa, an internationally known destination for sex tourism. Interviewees situated HIV risk within a context of limited employment opportunities, high rates of migration, heavy alcohol use, and separation from family. This study has implications for effective design of health interventions that make use of the role of the family to prevent HIV transmission in tourism environments. PMID:23436038

  18. African Journals Online: Portugal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic, Congo, Republic, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Curaçao, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Arab Rep.

  19. African Journals Online: Tuvalu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic, Congo, Republic, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Curaçao, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Arab Rep.

  20. African Journals Online: El Salvador

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic, Congo, Republic, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Curaçao, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Arab Rep.

  1. African Journals Online: Romania

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic, Congo, Republic, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Curaçao, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Arab Rep.

  2. African Journals Online: Costa Rica

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic, Congo, Republic, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Curaçao, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Arab Rep.

  3. African Journals Online: Curaçao

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic, Congo, Republic, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Curaçao, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Arab Rep.

  4. African Journals Online: Austria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic, Congo, Republic, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Curaçao, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Arab Rep.

  5. African Journals Online: Palau

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic, Congo, Republic, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Curaçao, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Arab Rep.

  6. African Journals Online: Comoros

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic, Congo, Republic, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Curaçao, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Arab Rep.

  7. African Journals Online: Saint Bartelemey

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic, Congo, Republic, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Curaçao, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Arab Rep.

  8. African Journals Online: Myanmar

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic, Congo, Republic, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Curaçao, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Arab Rep.

  9. African Journals Online: Lesotho

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic, Congo, Republic, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Curaçao, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Arab Rep.

  10. African Journals Online: Latvia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic, Congo, Republic, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Curaçao, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Arab Rep.

  11. African Journals Online: Bhutan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic, Congo, Republic, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Curaçao, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Arab Rep.

  12. Cuba: The Next Unanticipated Anticipated Strategic Crisis?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gorrell, Tim

    2005-01-01

    ...; and the current Bush administration with the global war on terrorism (GWOT). Cuba, specifically post-Castro Cuba, could very well trigger the next unanticipated crisis even though the writing is on the...

  13. Cuba: Issues for the 109th Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-19

    from Cuban nationals outside of the United States. CRS-4 On January 23, 2006, OFAC suspended a South Florida travel agency, La Estrella de Cuba...one of the largest licensed travel service providers in Florida, La Estrella de Cuba, from booking travel to Cuba. Another three agencies had their

  14. Peat resources in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casanova Casanova, E.

    1996-01-01

    During the last few years the drastic cut in oil supply provoked a critical situation in Cuba. The shortage of domestic oil production and the absence of alternative energy sources, such as wide rivers and coal deposits, drove us to decide that the most promising option was to develop our huge peat deposits. However, there are problems concerning skills and finance. This report reviews the potential for peat development to date in the Cuban territory. The figures and characteristics are partly taken from the surveys done by the Russian and Cuban specialists during the 60's. There is some new data compiled from the work done more recently in some of the Cuban peat deposits. The conditions for draining and harvesting are very challenging and difficult if the peat deposits are to be developed without doing any unnecessary damage to the fragile environment of Cuban wetlands. However, if the required financing and skills are available, the work can be carried out and significant risks avoided

  15. Río, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. García-Quintana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo se realizó como estudio de caso en el ambiente de Viñales, Pinar del Río, Cuba con el objetivo de seleccionar material genético de especial valor para la conservación y mejoramiento de la especie; a partir de nueve procedencias, encontrando diferencias significativas entre procedencias para las variables altura, diámetro y ramificación. Se clasificaron las procedencias en grupos de calidad A, B, C y D, recomendando los grupos A y B para el desarrollo de la especie en estos sitios de baja fertilidad. El coeficiente de variación cambió 29.5 y 44.8 %, siendo los parámetros altura y diámetro los de mayor variabilidad, así la selección debe tener estas características, seleccionando como procedencias superiores Marbajita, Cajálbana, El Burén, Los Palacios, La Jagua, La Güira y Juan Manuel.

  16. The Intersection of Dominican Values and Women's and Gender Studies Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Tara M.

    2016-01-01

    The missions of Women's and Gender Studies programs coincide directly with Dominican values in their commitments to fostering compassion and justice. Just as Dominican clergy during the civil rights movement challenged false notions of biological, cultural, and social difference that contributed to racist practices, Dominican educators today…

  17. Turkey vulture surveys in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotzkow, C.; Wiley, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura), were surveyed monthly in Cuba from March 1982-January 1983. A total of 25371 vultures were tallied in 7186 km (3.5 vultures/transect km) of roadside counting along main highways leading from the city of La Habana (northwestern Cuba) to the city of Las Tunas (southeast). Numbers of vultures counted declined substantially beyond 200 m from the transect road. Density of vultures observed within 200 m of the road along the transect route was 0.06/ha. Highest counts were obtained in March, April and June. Turkey Vulture flying activity was greatest during the periods 0900-1200 H and 1400-1700 H.

  18. HIV infection and prevention of mother-to-child transmission in childbearing women: La Romana, Dominican Republic, 2002-2006 Infección por el VIH en parturientas y prevención de la transmisión madre-hijo en La Romana, República Dominicana, 2002-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Román-Poueriet

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To strengthen prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (pMTCT program implementation in La Romana (LR province, by estimating HIV prevalence and identifying characteristics associated with HIV infection in parturients. METHODS: Umbilical cord blood samples were collected at seven obstetrical sites where over 95% of LR's deliveries occur during four phases (pilot, expanded pilot, full study, and pMTCT program monitoring from 2 August 2002 to 30 September 2006. Results were linked to data abstracted from delivery records. RESULTS: HIV seroprevalence was 2.6% (263/10 040 overall; 114/4 452, full-study phase (95% confidence interval = 2.1%-3.1%. Most HIV-infected parturients were Dominican (68.9% and urban (64.0%. However, prevalence was higher among Haitians (3.7% than Dominicans (2.3% (p OBJETIVOS: Fortalecer el programa de prevención de la transmisión de la infección por el VIH madre-hijo (PPTIMH en la provincia de La Romana (LR, mediante la estimación de la prevalencia y la identificación de las características asociadas con esta infección en las mujeres parturientas. MÉTODOS: Se tomaron muestras de sangre del cordón umbilical en siete puntos de atención obstétrica, que concentran más de 95% de los partos de LR, durante las cuatro fases de estudio (piloto, piloto extendido, estudio completo y monitoreo del PPTIMH entre el 2 de agosto de 2002 y el 30 de septiembre de 2006. Los resultados se enlazaron con los datos extraídos de los registros de parto. RESULTADOS: La seroprevalencia al VIH fue de 2,6% (263/10 040 general; 114/4 452 en la fase de estudio completo; intervalo de confianza de 95%: 2,1% a 3,1%. La mayoría de las parturientas infectadas eran dominicanas (68,9% y de zonas urbanas (64,0%. No obstante, la prevalencia fue mayor en las haitianas (3,7% que en las dominicanas (2,3%; P < 0,001 - especialmente en las de 21 a 25 años (5,2% frente a 2,3%; P < 0,001- y de bateyes y zonas rurales y periurbanas con

  19. CASE STUDY: Cuba — Farmers and Researchers Reshape Cuba's ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Faced with a unique economic crisis, Cuba's national agriculture system was near ... But working together with groups of farmers, a team of young plant breeders is turning ... "Sometimes when we plant and we expect good results, we actually get poor results. .... "For me, when I think about varieties, they are like people.

  20. CONOCIMIENTO DE LA LEY GENERAL DE SALUD RESPECTO DE LAS TRANSFUSIONES SANGUÍNEAS EN MÉDICOS Y PACIENTES TESTIGOS DE JEHOVÁ DEL HOSPITAL DR. DARÍO CONTRERAS DE REPÚBLICA DOMINICANA CONHECIMENTO DA LEI GERAL DE SAÚDE - RESPEITO ÀS TRANSFUSÕES SANGUÍNEAS EM MÉDICOS E PACIENTES TESTEMUNHAS DE JEOVÁ DO HOSPITAL DR. DARÍO CONTRERAS DA REPÚBLICA DOMINICANA KNOWLEDGE OF GENERAL HEALTH LAW WITH RESPECT TO BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS BY PHYSICIANS AND PATIENTS JEHOVAH WITNESSES IN HOSPITAL DR. DARIO CONTRERAS OF DOMINICAN REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Díaz Santana

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio evalúa hasta qué grado el cuerpo médico del Hospital Dr. Darío Contreras de República Dominicana conoce, respeta, informa y aplica la Ley General de Salud, con relación al derecho del paciente Testigo de Jehová de negarse a ser transfundido (respeto a su autonomía. También si los Testigos de Jehová conocen la Ley General de Salud y hasta qué grado se han beneficiado con la puesta en marcha de la misma. El estudio reveló que ni médicos ni Testigos de Jehová conocen suficientemente dicha ley.Este estudo avalia quanto o corpo médico do Hospital Dr. Darío Contreras de República Dominicana conhece, respeita, informa e aplica a Lei Geral de Saúde em relação aos direitos do paciente Testemunha de Jeová de negar-se a ser transfundido (respeito a sua autonomia; também se os Testemunhas de Jeová conhecem a Lei Geral de Saúde e até que ponto têm se beneficiado diante dessa proposição. O estudo revelou que nem médicos, nem Testemunhas de Jeová conhecem de fato essa lei.This study evaluates up to which degree physicians of Hospital Dr. Dario Contreras of Dominican Republic know, respect, inform and apply the General Health Law in relation to the right of Jehovah witness patients to refuse being blood transfused (respect to their autonomy. It also evaluates whether Jehovah witnesses know General Health Law and in which degree they have been benefited by putting it into practice. The study reveals that Jehovah Witnesses do not know the law.

  1. Discrimination and Acculturative Stress among First-Generation Dominicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Beverly Araujo; Panchanadeswaran, Subadra

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between discriminatory experiences and acculturative stress levels among a sample of 283 Dominican immigrants. Findings from a linear regression analysis revealed that experiences of daily racial discrimination and major racist events were significant predictors of acculturative stress after controlling…

  2. Discrimination, Stress, and Acculturation among Dominican Immigrant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Beverly Araujo

    2009-01-01

    Researchers have well established the association between discriminatory experiences, life chances, and mental health outcomes among Latino/as, especially among Mexican Americans. However, few studies have focused on the impact of stress or the moderating effects of low acculturation levels among recent immigrants, such as Dominicans. Using the…

  3. Case Study of a Gifted and Talented Catholic Dominican Nun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavin, Angela

    2017-01-01

    The case of a gifted and talented Catholic Dominican nun is described and analysed in the context of Renzulli's Three-Ring Conception of Giftedness and Gagne's Differentiated Model of Giftedness and Talent. Using qualitative methods, semi-structured interviews of relevant individuals were conducted and analysed. Based on the conclusions of this…

  4. Area Handbook Series: Cuba; a Country Study,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    xix Chapter 1. Historical Setting. ...................................... Elizabeth de Lima ...Guane Rio Santo L F AntonClarao -22 % Fei ienfuegos Moron kNulvo Gerona Playa Sancti 11-,Giron Spirntu Jhoi ~~ ~Trinidad Cg a Tunas de Zaza * National...schol- arly literature. xi Country Profile 0 0l Country _ Formal Name: Cuba (Rep6blica de Cuba). Short Form: Cuba. Term for Citizens: Cubans. Capital

  5. 48 Human Rights in and around Cuba

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The article takes point of department in the current reform process in Cuba and its perspectives regarding human rights. To understand the background of the fundamental human rights' problems in Cuba, an analysis of the 'constituting dichotomy' is included and discussed in relation to its represe...... representation in the film, 'Strawberry and Chocolate'. The further perspectives for human rights in Cuba in relation to other Developments in Latin America constitutes the last part....

  6. Cuba: Multidimensional numerical integration library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    The Cuba library offers four independent routines for multidimensional numerical integration: Vegas, Suave, Divonne, and Cuhre. The four algorithms work by very different methods, and can integrate vector integrands and have very similar Fortran, C/C++, and Mathematica interfaces. Their invocation is very similar, making it easy to cross-check by substituting one method by another. For further safeguarding, the output is supplemented by a chi-square probability which quantifies the reliability of the error estimate.

  7. El envejecimiento poblacional en Cuba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Bernal Sánchez

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available En todo el mundo las poblaciones de los distintos países están envejeciendo, por tanto, la gente vive más tiempo y el número de personas adultas es cada vez mayor. Esto requiere de la toma de medidas con el fin de lograr mantener a estas personas vinculadas a la sociedad. Cuba teniendo en cuenta esta realidad se ha enfrascado en una serie de programas al respecto en lo cual Sancti Spíritus no se ha quedado detrás, llegando a cada rincón del país. Este trabajo presenta la investigación llevada a cabo de un estudio referativo sobre el envejecimiento poblacional en Cuba, cuyos objetivos son, profundizar en las diferentes aristas del tema así como valorar las dimensiones del mismo, para lo cual se emplearon métodos del nivel teórico y empírico. Entre los resultados obtenidos se encuentra diseño de un trabajo referativo que abarca doce dimensiones del envejecimiento poblacional en Cuba. La realización de este documento facilita el estudio del tema ya que permite profundizar en el contenido sobre Adulto Mayor visto como un sistema desde múltiples aristas.

  8. Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Remittances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-31

    office. In January 2006, OFAC suspended a South Florida travel agency, La Estrella de Cuba, from booking travel to Cuba. The agency reportedly was one...plans to conduct 25 on-site audits in 2006 at agencies that do business with Cuba.22 In addition to La Estrella de Cuba, OFAC suspended the service

  9. The Dominican Republic-Central American Free Trade Agreement (DR-CAFTA): Understanding the Reasons Why the Dominican Republic (DR) Joined the CAFTA Negotiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Consultor ve país requiere de estrategia desarrollo ante TLC,” Listín Diario, August 31, 2007, http://www.listin.com.do/app/article.aspx?id=26672... estrategia desarrollo ante TLC.” Listín Diario, August 31, 2007, http://www.listin.com.do/app/article.aspx?id=26672 (accessed June 3, 2009). Acosta

  10. Dominican Children with HIV Not Receiving Antiretrovirals: Massage Therapy Influences their Behavior and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Hernandez-Reif

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty-eight children (M age = 4.8 years infected with HIV/AIDS and living in the Dominican Republic were randomly assigned to a massage therapy or a play session control group. The children in the massage therapy group received two weekly 20-min massages for 12 weeks; the children in the control group participated in a play session (coloring, playing with blocks for the same duration and length as the massage therapy group. Overall, the children in the massage therapy group improved in self-help abilities and communication, suggesting that massage therapy may enhance daily functioning for children with HIV/AIDS. Moreover, the HIV infected children who were six or older also showed a decrease in internalizing behaviors; specifically depressive/anxious behaviors and negative thoughts were reduced. Additionally, baseline assessments revealed IQ equivalence below normal functioning for 70% of the HIV infected children and very high incidences of mood problems (depression, withdrawn for 40% of the children and anxiety problems for 20% of the children, suggesting the need for better monitoring and alternative interventions in countries with limited resources to improve cognition and the mental health status of children infected with HIV/AIDS.

  11. Cuba's oil crisis spells trouble for Castro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on Cuba's oil crisis which presents long term woes for the government of Fidel Castro but new opportunities for foreign petroleum investment. That's the main thesis of a study by East-West Center (EWC), Honolulu. Since the cutoff of subsidized oil supplies from the former Soviet Union at the first of the year, Cuba has endured a crippling loss of export revenues and draconian energy rationing measures at home. The Soviets had reduced oil supplies to Cuba since 1989 after decades of providing the Castro government with subsidized oil supplies. Former Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev exempted Cuba from paying market prices for Soviet oil in 1991 while requiring that of Soviet trading partners in eastern Europe. With the collapse of Communism in the former U.S.S.R., however, oil supplies from that region are available to Cuba only at market prices and for hard currency. That has triggered a crisis in the Western Hemisphere's sole Communist regime as Cuba's gross special product - equivalent to GNP - fell by 5% in 1990 and a further 20% in 1991. The foreign exchange loss of $1.6 billion stemming from the loss of Soviet subsidized oil supplies exceeds that of total foreign exchange earnings from all other sources. If Cuba imports oil in 1989 volumes at current prices, its oil import tab alone will be $1.3 billion, EWC projects

  12. Through the looking glass on Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Stubbs

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] State Resistance to Globalisation in Cuba. Antonio Carmona Báez. Sterling VA: Pluto Press, 2004. vii + 264 pp. (Paper US$ 29.95 La Lucha for Cuba: Religion and Politics on the Streets of Miami. Miguel A. de la Torre. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003. xi + 181 pp. (Paper US$ 21.95 By Heart/De Memoria: Cuban Women’s Journeys in and out of Exile. María de los Angeles Torres (ed.. Philadelphia PA: Temple University Press, 2003. vii + 192 pp. (Paper US$ 19.95 Looking at Cuba: Essays on Culture and Civil Society. Rafael Hernández. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2003. vii + 145 pp. (Cloth US$ 24.95 In the politically charged world of scholarship on Cuba, it is salutary to comment in one review essay on four quite different volumes, each complementing the others. Three are single-authored, two on island Cuba (by Antonio Carmona Báez and Rafael Hernández and one on Miami (by Miguel A. de la Torre. All three draw on theory and concepts and are male-authored and place-centric (Cuba/Miami. The fourth (by María de los Angeles Torres is an edited collection of the personal testimonies of women seeking a place in between the hardened politics of Cuba and Miami.

  13. Arqueofauna del Nororiente de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Pérez Iglesias

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available La región nororiental de Cuba, que abarca el norte de los territorios de las provincias Las Tunas, Holguín y Guantánamo, posee un potencial arqueológico de alrededor de 220 sitios, de ellos se posee información zooarqueológica de 35 localidades. Esta información se ha reunido en un sistema de información geográfica(SIG denominado Arqueofauna del Nororiente de Cuba, que permite el manejo de los datos a través de entradas como: nombre del sitio, coordenadas, provincia, municipio, categoría, filiación, lista de taxones presentes (Moluscos, Crustáceos, Peces, Reptiles, Aves, Mamíferos, número de especies respectiva a cada taxón, fechado del sitio, persona y fecha en que fue trabajado. Este levantamiento zooarqueológico ofrece además, una aproximación del uso de los recursos faunísticos por parte de las comunidades aborígenes, en esta área geográfica, así como datos sobre el uso de especies extintas, variaciones en la distribución de especies en el pasado, cuestión tratada en el presente trabajo.

  14. Sistema de salud de Cuba The health system of Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Domínguez-Alonso

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se describen las condiciones de salud de Cuba y el sistema cubano de salud, incluyendo su estructura y cobertura, sus fuentes de financiamiento, su gasto en salud, los recursos físicos, materiales y humanos de los que dispone, y las actividades de rectoría e investigación que desarrolla. También se discute la importancia de sus instituciones de investigación y se describe el papel de los usuarios de los servicios en la operación y evaluación del sistema, así como las actividades que en este sentido desarrollan la Federación de Mujeres Cubanas y los Comités de Defensa de la Revolución. La parte final de este trabajo se dedica a discutir las innovaciones más recientes dentro de las que destacan las redes de cardiología, la Misión Milagro y la Batalla de Ideas.This paper describes the health conditions in Cuba and the general characteristics of the Cuban health system, including its structure and coverage, its financial sources, its health expenditure, its physical, material and human resources, and its stewardship functions. It also discusses the increasing importance of its research institutions and the role played by its users in the operation and evaluation of the system. Salient among the social actors involved in the health sector are the Cuban Women Federation and the Committees for the Defense of the Revolution. The paper concludes with the discussion of the most recent innovations implemented in the Cuban health system, including the cardiology networks, the Miracle Mission (Misión Milagro and the Battle of Ideas (Batalla de Ideas.

  15. Cuba After Castro: Implications of Change

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bullington, Johnny R

    2005-01-01

    .... In addition, the biological aging of Fidel Castro, as well as the downward spiral of the Cuban economy and well-being of Cuban citizens point to what may be a ripening chance for democracy in Cuba...

  16. Cuba: Issues for the 109th Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sullivan, Mark P

    2006-01-01

    Since the early 1960s, U.S. policy toward Cuba under Fidel Castro has consisted largely of isolating the communist nation through comprehensive economic sanctions, which have been significantly tightened by the Bush Administration...

  17. PULPA CUBA MILL ENERGY ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pedro Hernández Touset

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available An energy study was performed at Pulpa Cuba Paper Mill, located in Sancti Spiritus, where an energy management system was applied according to NC: ISO 50001, in order to assess the energy system by applying energy management systems for energy and water reduction in the paper mill, in which the current steam generation, distribution and consumption system is diagnosed. The proposal of a modified energy scheme with 1 MW Backpressure Steam Turbine Generator and rehabilitation of the original boiler or installing a lower capacity boiler contributes to save financial resources by the concept of water, fuel and electricity. The implementation of four projects will save 3,095,574 CUC / y and an average payback period of about 1 year is expected.

  18. The Curious Case of Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Gail A.

    2012-01-01

    As health professionals in the United States consider how to focus health care and coverage to ensure better, more equitable patient and population health outcomes, the experience of Cuba’s National Health System over the last 5 decades may provide useful insights. Although mutual awareness has been limited by long-term political hostilities between the United States and Cuban governments, the history and details of the Cuban health system indicate that their health system merits attention as an example of a national integrated approach resulting in improved health status. More extensive analysis of the principles, practices, and outcomes in Cuba is warranted to inform health system transformation in the United States, despite differences in political-social systems and available resources. PMID:22698011

  19. Cuba: Issues for the 111th Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    Comisión Cubana de Derechos Humanos y Reconciliacion Nacional, “Cuba a Inicios del 2010: Continúa empeorando la situación de derechos humanos,” January 19...market-based economy. The report also outlined a series of preparatory steps in the areas of government organization, electoral preparation, and...Policy During the electoral campaign, President Obama had pledged to lift restrictions on family travel to Cuba as well as restrictions on Cuban

  20. Pediatric Gastroenterology in Cuba: Evolution and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda-Guillot, Carlos

    2016-10-01

    INTRODUCTION The professional practice of pediatric gastroenterology arose in Cuba as an expression of the specialty's development internationally and Cuba's new strategies in public health, and in response to national needs for health care expertise in digestive diseases of infants, older children and adolescents. OBJECTIVES Describe the history of pediatric gastroenterology's development in Cuba since its inception at the National Gastroenterology Institute in the early 1970s, its contributions, and efforts to extend it to pediatric hospitals throughout Cuba. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION This is a historical review based on document analysis. Institutional sources from the National Gastroenterology Institute and Ministry of Public Health were reviewed, as well as international and national literature on the history of pediatric gastroenterology and unpublished texts since its emergence in 1972. DEVELOPMENT Although pediatric gastroenterology has not been formally recognized as a medical specialty in Cuba, there have been important achievements in establishing a network of specialized health care services for digestive diseases of children and adolescents. Gastrointestinal endoscopy and other auxiliary diagnostic modalities have been introduced for children and play a major role in clinical trials and research. This article describes the international context that promoted the specialty's development in Cuba. Reference is made to specialized training from its initial stages in 1972, its consolidation as an emerging discipline in Cuban medicine, and its diffusion in Latin American and Caribbean countries. Professional development and specialized training to meet health human resource needs in pediatric hospitals are described, as well as Cuban participation in the Latin American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition. National and international milestones, publications, awards and recognitions that indicate advances despite difficulties are also

  1. Occupational exposure in the production of radiopharmaceuticals in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amador, Z. H.; Soria, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show the experiences in controlling occupational exposure production of radiopharmaceuticals in the Isotope Center (CENTIS) of the Republic of Cuba. data corresponding period 1996-2014 to 896 records are processed. The percentage distributions of the annual effective dose (E), the equivalent dose in the hands (Hp (0.07)) and the equivalent dose in crystalline (Hp (3)), are presented. The annual performance of the average values ​​of these dose quantities is plotted. The results of the internal dosimetry are processed. Annual activities manipulated radioisotopes greater contribution and its relation to the distribution of the collective dose directly linked S of staff, they are evaluated. The ALARA principle is implemented and maintained, based on qualitative and quantitative analysis, as appropriate. The (63-98)% of workers are monitored to E and the (80-100)% for Hp (0.07) and Hp (3), receives less than 10% of annual exposure limits. Groups of workers Radiopharmacy and Inspection and Testing are the greatest contribution to the collective dose, whose S to E equal to or greater than 2 mSv is the (9-62)% of total annual S. The maximum value of S is 98.3 mSv recorded man-1 and this occurs in 2011, however the highest value of 99Mo activity is handled in 2012 and a later year for 131I. They are identified as the most effective means for optimizing radiation safety the use of electronic dosimeters, internal shields process in hot cells and glove boxes and shields for collection of radioactive waste. a reduction in personnel exposure between (10-27)% is obtained. It is shown that exposure of workers in the production of radiopharmaceuticals in Cuba is acceptably low. (author)

  2. National Program of Quality Assurance in Radiotherapy in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso Samper, J. L.; Dominguez Hung, L.; Morales Lopez, J. L.; Alfonso Laguardia, R.; Garcia Yip, F.

    2001-01-01

    It tries on the establishment of a Quality Assurance Nacional System, a Quality Assurance Committee implemented in Cuba, and a Quality Auditory National Program implemented in Cuba to control and assure radiotherapy quality

  3. The Myth of the Male Breadwinner: Women and Industrialization in the Caribbean by Helen I. Safa

    OpenAIRE

    Maurer, WM

    1996-01-01

    What are the implications of women's entry into the industrial workforce for their empowerment at the level of the household, workplace, and political arena? Helen Safa's book compares the experiences of women in Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic, and Cuba to provide an insightful commentary on the gendered dimensions of the international division of labor. She documents changes in women's status as Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic moved from import-substitution to e...

  4. 31 CFR 515.420 - Travel to Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Travel to Cuba. 515.420 Section 515....420 Travel to Cuba. The prohibition on dealing in property in which Cuba or a Cuban national has an interest set forth in § 515.201(b)(1) includes a prohibition on the receipt of goods or services in Cuba...

  5. Waterfowl in Cuba: Current status and distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco Rodríquez, Pedro; Vilella, Francisco; Sánchez Oria, Bárbara

    2014-01-01

    Cuba and its satellite islands represent the largest landmass in the Caribbean archipelago and a major repository of the region’s biodiversity. Approximately 13.4% of the Cuban territory is covered by wetlands, encompassing approximately 1.48 million ha which includes mangroves, flooded savannas, peatlands, freshwater swamp forests and various types of managed wetlands. Here, we synthesise information on the distribution and abundance of waterfowl on the main island of Cuba, excluding the numerous surrounding cays and the Isla de la Juventud (Isle of Youth), and report on band recoveries from wintering waterfowl harvested in Cuba by species and location. Twenty-nine species of waterfowl occur in Cuba, 24 of which are North American migrants. Of the five resident Anatid species, three are of conservation concern: the West Indian Whistling-duck Dendrocygna arborea (globally vulnerable), White-cheeked Pintail Anas bahamensis (regional concern) and Masked Duck Nomonyx dominicus(regional concern). The most abundant species of waterfowl wintering in Cuba include Blue-winged Teal A. discors, Northern Pintail A. acuta, and Northern Shoveler A. clypeata. Waterfowl banded in Canada and the United States and recovered in Cuba included predominantly Blue-winged Teal, American Wigeon and Northern Pintail. Banding sites of recovered birds suggest that most of the waterfowl moving through and wintering in Cuba are from the Atlantic and Mississippi flyways. Threats to wetlands and waterfowl in Cuba include: 1) egg poaching of resident species, 2) illegal hunting of migratory and protected resident species, 3) mangrove deforestation, 4) reservoirs for irrigation, 5) periods of pronounced droughts, and 6) hurricanes. Wetland and waterfowl conservation efforts continue across Cuba’s extensive system of protected areas. Expanding collaborations with international conservation organisations, researchers and governments in North America will enhance protection

  6. Herbal mixtures in the traditional medicine of Eastern Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernández, J.; Volpato, G.

    2004-01-01

    Herbal mixtures in the traditional medicine of Eastern Cuba. Traditional herbal mixtures in Eastern Cuba are investigated through interviews with 130 knowledgeable people and traditional healers of the provinces of Santiago de Cuba and Guantanamo. One hundred seventy plant species and other products

  7. Joint Ventures in Cuba: Opportunities for Direct Foreign Investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tancer, Robert S.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a brief history of direct foreign investment in Cuba since 1982. This investment currently plays an important role in Cuba as a replacement to Soviet aid and as a means to earn foreign exchange. Tourism and mining are the preferred area for foreign investment because both of these sectors offer hard currency returns for Cuba. (20…

  8. 31 CFR 515.570 - Remittances to Nationals of Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Remittances to Nationals of Cuba. 515..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.570 Remittances to Nationals of Cuba. (a) Family... older are authorized to make remittances to nationals of Cuba who are close relatives, as defined in...

  9. 31 CFR 515.566 - Religious activities in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Religious activities in Cuba. 515.566..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.566 Religious activities in Cuba. (a) Specific license... involving transactions (including travel-related transactions) in which Cuba or a Cuban national has an...

  10. 14 CFR 91.709 - Operations to Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operations to Cuba. 91.709 Section 91.709... Board Such Aircraft § 91.709 Operations to Cuba. No person may operate a civil aircraft from the United States to Cuba unless— (a) Departure is from an international airport of entry designated in § 6.13 of...

  11. Science and Technology Diplomacy with Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon, Frances

    President Obama's announcement of U. S. policy change toward Cuba and increased freedom of interaction with the Cuban people opens unprecedented and long-awaited opportunities for the scientific and engineering communities in the U. S. and in Cuba to establish and expand collaborative efforts that will greatly advance U.S. and Cuba science and technology agendas. New rules for export of donated-only items for scientific use will bring researchers closer to the level of their professional peers around the world. Increasing Cubans' access to information will result in greater interactions between scientific communities and enable the sharing of ideas and discoveries that can fuel entrepreneurship on the island. The scientific community has expressed an extraordinary level of interest in the wide range of scientific opportunities that the new policy presents, in collaborating with their Cuban counterparts, and in supporting the development of scientific capacity in Cuba. In response to numerous expressions of interest and inquiries from the scientific community, the Office of the Science and Technology Adviser to the Secretary of State (STAS) has engaged in public outreach to inform the U.S. science and technology community of the implications of the new policy for collaborative research, emerging scientific opportunities, and the standing limitations for engagement with the people of Cuba.

  12. HBV genotypic variability in Cuba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen L Loureiro

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity of HBV in human population is often a reflection of its genetic admixture. The aim of this study was to explore the genotypic diversity of HBV in Cuba. The S genomic region of Cuban HBV isolates was sequenced and for selected isolates the complete genome or precore-core sequence was analyzed. The most frequent genotype was A (167/250, 67%, mainly A2 (149, 60% but also A1 and one A4. A total of 77 isolates were classified as genotype D (31%, with co-circulation of several subgenotypes (56 D4, 2 D1, 5 D2, 7 D3/6 and 7 D7. Three isolates belonged to genotype E, two to H and one to B3. Complete genome sequence analysis of selected isolates confirmed the phylogenetic analysis performed with the S region. Mutations or polymorphisms in precore region were more common among genotype D compared to genotype A isolates. The HBV genotypic distribution in this Caribbean island correlates with the Y lineage genetic background of the population, where a European and African origin prevails. HBV genotypes E, B3 and H isolates might represent more recent introductions.

  13. Astronomy TV outreach, CUBA experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Oscar

    2015-08-01

    As professional astronomer and science communicator, I want to share my personal experience communicating Astronomy and general science principles in maybe, the most popular science outreach devoted TV program in Cuba. It is broadcasted nationwide in a prime time schedule every Sunday. The Science Popularization on TV, is in a Third World Country hard to do if you want to produce attractive materials for a broad audience. Budgets constraints in most of the cases and lack of the technical equipment required to produce first class visual materials conspire, against motivation and creativity of local scientists and media professionals. A way to show the advance of the national scientific community in Science fields and connecting them in a friendly relation with a broad majority of the people, is to combine the wisdom and knowledge of the local scientists together with the most spectacular TV production of the first world countries. Commenting, analyzing and conveying the hard science into the public debate of the common citizens. Here is shown a way to convey cutting edge science to the general public, using limited resources to produce imaginative television productions, highlighting the development, knowledge and wisdom of the local scientists.

  14. HBV Genotypic Variability in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, Carmen L.; Aguilar, Julio C.; Aguiar, Jorge; Muzio, Verena; Pentón, Eduardo; Garcia, Daymir; Guillen, Gerardo; Pujol, Flor H.

    2015-01-01

    The genetic diversity of HBV in human population is often a reflection of its genetic admixture. The aim of this study was to explore the genotypic diversity of HBV in Cuba. The S genomic region of Cuban HBV isolates was sequenced and for selected isolates the complete genome or precore-core sequence was analyzed. The most frequent genotype was A (167/250, 67%), mainly A2 (149, 60%) but also A1 and one A4. A total of 77 isolates were classified as genotype D (31%), with co-circulation of several subgenotypes (56 D4, 2 D1, 5 D2, 7 D3/6 and 7 D7). Three isolates belonged to genotype E, two to H and one to B3. Complete genome sequence analysis of selected isolates confirmed the phylogenetic analysis performed with the S region. Mutations or polymorphisms in precore region were more common among genotype D compared to genotype A isolates. The HBV genotypic distribution in this Caribbean island correlates with the Y lineage genetic background of the population, where a European and African origin prevails. HBV genotypes E, B3 and H isolates might represent more recent introductions. PMID:25742179

  15. Biological characterization of venom peptides from the neotropical social waps Polistes major major (Dominican Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slaninová, Jiřina; Fučík, Vladimír; Borovičková, Lenka; Čeřovský, Václav

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 151, S1 (2007), s. 87-89 ISSN 1213-8118. [Pharmacological Days. Czech and Slovak Pharmacological Meeting /57./. Olomouc, 12.09.2007-14.09.2007] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : venom peptides * Polistes major major Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  16. Digital Reading and Reading Competence: The Influence in the Z Generation from the Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiama-Espaillat, Cristina; Mayor-Ruiz, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Most Latin American countries are focused upon improving learning quality by providing schools with technological resources, as if their sole presence was enough to develop 21st Century skills. Digital reading is not an end in itself; it is a tool that a user selects, depending on the desired purpose and uses it in specific contexts. Adolescents…

  17. Development of a Career Path for Non Commissioned Officers in the Army of the Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-23

    obtenidas para el uso de imágenes, mapas, gráficos y cualesquiera otros materiales incorporados en el manuscrito. El autor puede estar sujeto a más...proponer un plan de desarrollo para la carrera de suboficiales, a fin de que el Ejército pueda incorporarla eficientemente, logrando así un nuevo talento...eficientemente, logrando así un nuevo talento humano cimentado en un liderazgo competente y en valores que puedan ser multiplicados en todos los niveles de

  18. Sexual Risk Behavior Among Military Personnel Stationed at Border-Crossing Zones in the Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    members of the FFAA and were ≥ 18 years of age. Measures The questionnaire was similar to a knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) survey and...1175. 9. Choi YJ, Lee WH, Rha KH, Xin ZC, Choi YD, Choi HK. Masturbation and its relationship to sexual activities of young males in Korean mil- itary...Casey SE, Tommy J, Saldinger M. Changes in HIV/ AIDS/STI knowledge, attitudes and practices among commercial sex workers and military forces in Port Loko

  19. Telecommunication Policy in the Caribbean: A Comparison of Telecommunications in the Dominican Republic and Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Mexico and South America. By 1625, French buccaneers had established a settlement on the island of Tortuga and survived by pirating English and Spanish...smaller islands in its territory; these are: Ile de la Gonave, Ile de la Tortue ( Tortuga Island), Grande Cayemite, and Ile de la Vache. The island

  20. Military Intervention in Latin America: Analysis of the 1965 Crisis in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-03

    8217Lowenthal, p. 131. * 102Gleijeses, p. 261. A lO3NExercito Brasileiro -Instrumento De Paz Na America Cen- tral, Historia Do Exercito Brasileiro Vol. 3...a) Military strategies must be governed by political objec- tives; (b) the U.S. would not be responsible for an "American Budapest " * in Santo...re- membered for putting down the revolt in a fashion reminiscent of the USSR in Budapest . Bloodshed would have to be minimized at all costs if the

  1. Prospective elemental analysis of algal biomass accumulated at the dominican republic Shores during 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández, Fernando; Boluda, Carlos José; Olivera, Jesús; Gómez, Luis Alberto Guillermo Bolivar; Gómez, Enmanuel Echavarría Aris Mendis

    2017-01-01

    The massive accumulation and decomposition of the Sargassum natans and Sargassum fluitans brown seaweeds on the Antillean shores has become a major problem in Central America and the Caribbean, seriously affecting tourism. However, the value of the algal biomass should not be underestimated, since it contains bioactive compounds with industrial application or in a more traditional use as fertilizers. On the other hand, seaweeds have the ability to bioaccumulate toxic metals such as Hg, Pb, Cd, Ni and Cr, among others. In order to ensure the safety of this biological material in its possible applications, it has been carried out a prospective study of the content in different transition metals and rare earths. Slightly elevated mercury levels were detected, which could limit the use of biomass. The content in Sc (scandium), Y (yttrium) and 14 lanthanides (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb and Lu), collectively known as rare earths, was also determined, being higher than in the ocean levels. This is consistent with the hypothesis that places the origin of these algae to more southern latitudes, where they proliferate in the shelter of the mouth of large rivers. (author)

  2. 75 FR 50695 - Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... revised to capitalize the first letter in each of the words ``generally accepted accounting principles... ``generally accepted accounting principles'', consistent with the manner in which those words are used... ``generally accepted accounting principles'' and adding, in their place, the words ``Generally Accepted...

  3. Three-Dimensional Model Test Study of Xbloc Armoured Breakwaters at Punta Catalina, Dominican Republic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røge, Mads Sønderstrup; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    The present report presents results from a three-dimensional model test study carried out at Aalborg University in the period June 2015 – August 2015. The objectives of the model tests were to study the stability of the Xbloc armoured breakwaters at Punta Catalina under short-crested wave attack...

  4. Studies in neotropical polypores. 11, Antrodia aurantia, a new species from the Dominican Republic, Greater Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Jean Lodge; Leif Ryvarden; Omar Paino Perdomo-Sanchez

    2001-01-01

    Antrodia aurantia Lodge, Ryvarden & Perdomo-Sanchez is described as new. It has bright orange resupinate basidiomes that lack rhizomorphs and has pores that are deep, soft, large, and angular to sinuous; it is associated with a brown rot on Pinus occidentalis. A key to all American Antrodia and Diplomitoporus species is provided.

  5. Social vulnerability to natural hazards in urban systems : An application in Santo Domingo (Dominican Republic)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    di Girasole, Eleonora Giovene; Cannatella, D.

    2017-01-01

    The concept of risk has become increasingly complex, and has been used not only in relation to the natural features of a region, but also to its socio-economic context. In this conceptualization, the latter directly influences the capacity of a community to cope with, recover from, and adapt to

  6. Elite Settlements and Democracy in Latin America: The Dominican Republic and Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-01

    Social Indicators, volume 2, 3d edition, (New Haven: Yale Wuiversity Press, 1983), pg. 48. UOn a scale from one to seven, one being the greatest...Handbook of Political and Social Indicators, volume 1, 3d edition, (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1983), pg. 209. 107 (12% in 1977) was organized.53...Westview Press, 1988. Si. Lima: Impresora La Republica S.A. Smith, Michael. Political correspondent for Lima Times during Constituent Assembly. Lima, Peru

  7. PROSPECTIVE ELEMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ALGAL BIOMASS ACUMULATED AT THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC SHORES DURING 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Fernández

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The massive accumulation and decomposition of the Sargassum natans and Sargassum fluitans brown seaweeds on the Antillean shores has become a major problem in Central America and the Caribbean, seriously affecting tourism. However, the value of the algal biomass should not be underestimated, since it contains bioactive compounds with industrial application or in a more traditional use as fertilizers. On the other hand, seaweeds have the ability to bioaccumulate toxic metals such as Hg, Pb, Cd, Ni and Cr, among others. In order to ensure the safety of this biological material in its possible applications, it has been carried out a prospective study of the content in different transition metals and rare earths. Slightly elevated mercury levels were detected, which could limit the use of biomass. The content in Sc (scandium, Y (yttrium and 14 lanthanides (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb and Lu, collectively known as rare earths, was also determined, being higher than in the ocean levels. This is consistent with the hypothesis that places the origin of these algae to more southern latitudes, where they proliferate in the shelter of the mouth of large rivers.

  8. Soil and Terrain Database for Cuba, primary data (version 1.0) - scale 1:1 million (SOTER_Cuba)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkshoorn, J.A.; Huting, J.R.M.

    2014-01-01

    The Soil and Terrain database for Cuba primary data (version 1.0), at scale 1:1 million (SOTER_Cuba), was compiled of enhanced soil informtion within the framework of the FAO's program Land Degradation Assessment in Drylands (LADA). Primary soil and terrain data for Cuba were obtained from the

  9. Fascioliasis: can Cuba conquer this emerging parasitosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Lázara; Vazquez, Antonio; Domenech, Ingrid; Robertson, Lucy J

    2010-01-01

    Fascioliasis, an emerging parasitic infection, impacts significantly on both veterinary and human health worldwide. Endemic foci are not limited only to areas of extensive livestock farming, but owing to the parasite's abilities to colonise new intermediate hosts and adapt to new environments, also occur in other places, including Cuba. In Cuba, despite a high prevalence of fascioliasis in livestock, and the widespread occurrence of two potential intermediate hosts, human infection has decreased steadily over the past 10 years. In other parts of the world, human fascioliasis is apparently becoming more frequent. Problems in counteracting the spread of fascioliasis, and approaches used in Cuba to limit zoonotic transmission are discussed, with emphasis on diagnostic and treatment problems, malacological initiatives, and the importance of an integrated control programme. Such programmes may be of benefit in other countries where the prevalence of human fascioliasis is increasing, and lessons may perhaps be learned from the Cuban approach. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cuba's 100-year plan for climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Richard

    2018-01-01

    On its deadly run through the Caribbean last September, Hurricane Irma lashed northern Cuba, inundating coastal settlements and scouring away vegetation. Irma lent new urgency to a Cuban national plan, called Tarea Vida, or Project Life, that bans construction of new homes in threatened coastal areas, mandates relocating people from communities doomed by rising sea levels, calls for an overhaul of the country's agricultural system to shift crop production away from saltwater-contaminated areas, and spells out the need to shore up coastal defenses, including by restoring degraded habitat. Project Life stands out for taking a long view: It intends to prepare Cuba for climatological impacts over the next century. Much of the initial funding could come from a $100 million proposal that Cuba plans to submit soon to the Global Climate Fund.

  11. Two new fossil species of Cryptocephalus Geoffroy (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) from Baltic and Dominican Amber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two new species of Cryptocephalus Geoffroy (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) are described and illustrated from fossil resin: Cryptocephalus groehni sp. nov (Baltic amber) and Cryptocephalus kheelorum sp. nov. (Dominican amber). These are the first described species of Cryptocephalinae from fossil resin. ...

  12. CASE STUDY: Cuba — Housing and human capital in Cuba | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-10

    Jan 10, 2011 ... Less than half the population had access to safe drinking water. ... talking about Cuba's recent efforts to restore its collapsing urban environment. ... by a team of international researchers, working directly with neighbourhood ...

  13. Cuba in Transition: Communism vs Charisma "Who Will Emerge as Cuba's Next Leader"

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Colmenares, Antonio

    2001-01-01

    .... The beliefs of communism has shaped the hearts and minds of thousands of cubans. This paper provides a future perspective on Cuba's transition as well as identifies potential actors who will emerge as potential leaders once Fidel Castro is gone...

  14. Risk behaviours and prevalence of sexually transmitted infections and HIV in a group of Dominican gay men, other men who have sex with men and transgender women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Maximo O; Hodge, David; Donastorg, Yeycy; Khosla, Shaveta; Lerebours, Leonel; Pope, Zachary

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were to estimate the point prevalence of sexually transmitted infection (STI) and to investigate the sexual practices and behaviours associated with STIs in a group of gay men, other men who have sex with men and transgender women (GMT) in the province of La Romana, Dominican Republic. Design A cross-sectional study of a convenience sample of GMT persons. Setting The study was conducted in the province of La Romana, Dominican Republic, in June–July 2013. Participants Out of 117 GMT persons screened, a total of 100 completed the study. Participants had to be at least 18 years of age, reside in La Romana and have had sex with another man in the preceding 12 months. All participants were interviewed and tested for STI. Primary outcome measure The main outcome of interest was the detection of any STI (HIV, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), syphilis, hepatitis B or C) by serology. Results Among 100 participants, the median age was 22 years (range 18–65). One-third had consumed illicit drugs the preceding year and only 43% consistently used condoms. Prevalence was 38% for HSV-2, 5% for HIV and 13% for syphilis. There were no cases of hepatitis B or C. Factors associated with the odds of a STI were age >22 years (OR=11.1, 95% CI 3.6 to 34.5), receptive anal intercourse (OR=4.2, 95% CI 1.3 to 13.6) and having ≥2 male sexual partners during the preceding month (OR=4, 95% CI 1.3 to 12.5). Conclusions In this group of GMT persons, seroprevalence of STI was high, and a number of risk behaviours were associated with STI. These preliminary data will help inform policy and programmes to prevent HIV/STI in GMT persons in the region. PMID:25926151

  15. ÉTUDE DE CAS — Cuba : Le logement et le capital humain à Cuba ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    10 janv. 2011 ... ÉTUDE DE CAS — Cuba : Le logement et le capital humain à Cuba ... Centre de recherches pour le développement international (CRDI) du Canada révèle ... Les ressources déjà limitées sont devenues encore plus rares. ... de l'Institut national pour l'hygiène, l'épidémiologie et la microbiologie (INHEM), ...

  16. Seven years of individual monitoring service in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz Suarez, R.; Diaz Bernal, E.D.; Lopez Bejerano, G.M.; Jova Sed, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    The Center for Radiation Protection and Hygiene (CPHR) has been carrying out from 1987 the individual monitoring of workers occupationally exposed to the ionizing radiations in the Republic of Cuba, excepting those that employ X-rays in diagnostic radiology. In this paper the results of the individual monitoring services during the period 1987-1993 are discussed. For all occupational practices the current system of dose limitation established in the country with 50 mSv as limit of annual dose is satisfied. The distribution in all occupational practices other than nuclear medicine and gamma-therapy is characterized by having more than 95% of the controlled personnel with an effective dose lower than 5 mSv. In the case of nuclear medicine and gamma-therapy more than 80% of the workers were below that dose value. For the practices evaluated in this paper the possibility of assuming the system of dose limitation recommended by ICRP is evident. The evaluations carried out for the introduction of operational quantities H p (0.07) and H p (10) in dose assessment procedure are presented. The expressions obtained during the characterization of the film badge dosemeter, in terms of operational quantities guarantees a deviation of response of the dosemeter with depending upon energies, lower than 20 %. (author)

  17. Protecting the Marine Environment in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorisek, Alexandra Sasa

    2013-01-01

    The Cienfuegos Environmental Studies Centre (CEAC) in Cuba is a marine environmental research centre with expertise in nuclear and isotopic technologies. Cuba’s food security, transportation and tourism depend upon a healthy marine environment. CEAC scientists master resource challenges to produce the validated data needed for better environmental management

  18. Forest nursery pest management in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rene Alberto Lopez Castilla; Angela Duarte Casanova; Celia Guerra Rivero; Haylett Cruz Escoto; Natividad Triguero Issasi

    2002-01-01

    A systematic survey of methods to detect pests in forest nurseries before they damage plants was done. These surveys recorded the most important forest nursery pests during 18 years (from 1980 to 1998) and their geographical and temporal distribution in the principal enterprises in Cuba. Approximately a dozen insect species and three fungi species responsible for the...

  19. Cuba: Issues for 111th Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-14

    Humanos y Reconciliacion Nacional, “Cuba en el año 2009: la situacíon de derechos civiles, políticos y económicos,” February 2, 2009. 13 Anita Snow...park. On April 21, 2008, ten members of the Ladies in White were 12 Comision Cubana de Derechos

  20. The history of physics in Cuba

    CERN Document Server

    Renn, Jürgen; Wendt, Helge

    2014-01-01

    This book brings together a broad spectrum of authors, both from inside and from outside Cuba, who describe the development of Cuba's scientific system from the colonial period to the present. It is a unique documentation of the self-organizing power of a local scientific community engaged in scientific research on an international level. The first part includes several contributions that reconstruct the different stages of the history of physics in Cuba, from its beginnings in the late colonial era to the present. The second part comprises testimonies of Cuban physicists, who offer lively insights from the perspective of the actors themselves. The third part presents a series of testimonies by foreign physicists, some of whom were directly involved in developing Cuban physics, in particular in the development of teaching and research activities in the early years of the Escuela de Física. The fourth part of the volume deals with some of the issues surrounding the publishing of scientific research in Cuba. C...

  1. Historical Overview of Leprosy Control in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldarraín-Chaple, Enrique

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Leprosy, an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, affects the nervous system, skin, internal organs, extremities and mucous membranes. Biological, social and environmental factors influence its occurrence and transmission. The first effective treatments appeared in 1930 with the development of dapsone, a sulfone. The main components of a control and elimination strategy are early case detection and timely administration of multidrug therapy. OBJECTIVES Review the history of leprosy control in Cuba, emphasizing particularly results of the National Leprosy Control Program, its modifications and influence on leprosy control. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION The historiological method was applied using document review, complemented by interviews with experts on leprosy and its control. Archived documents, medical records, disease prevalence censuses conducted since 1942, and incidence and prevalence statistics for 1960-2015 from the Ministry of Public Health's National Statistics Division were reviewed. Reports and scientific literature published on the Program and the history of leprosy in Cuba were also reviewed. DEVELOPMENT Leprosy has been documented in Cuba since 1613. In 1938, the Leprosy Foundation was created with ten dispensaries nationwide for diagnosis and treatment. The first National Leprosy Control Program was established in 1962, implemented in 1963 and revised five times. In 1972, leper colonies were closed and treatment became ambulatory. In 1977, rifampicin was introduced. In 1988, the Program instituted controlled, decentralized, community-based multidrug treatment and established the criteria for considering a patient cured. In 2003, it included actions aimed at early diagnosis and prophylactic treatment of contacts. Since 2008, it prioritizes actions directed toward the population at risk, maintaining five-year followup with dermatological and neurological examination. Primary health care carries out diagnostic and treatment

  2. Role of a Semiotics-Based Curriculum in Empathy Enhancement: A Longitudinal Study in Three Dominican Medical Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San-Martín, Montserrat; Delgado-Bolton, Roberto; Vivanco, Luis

    2017-01-01

    Background: Empathy in the context of patient care is defined as a predominantly cognitive attribute that involves an understanding of the patient's experiences, concerns, and perspectives, combined with a capacity to communicate this understanding and an intention to help. In medical education, it is recognized that empathy can be improved by interventional approaches. In this sense, a semiotic-based curriculum could be an important didactic tool for improving medical empathy. The main purpose of this study was to determine if in medical schools where a semiotic-based curriculum is offered, the empathetic orientation of medical students improves as a consequence of the acquisition and development of students' communication skills that are required in clinician-patient encounters. Design: This quasi-experimental study was conducted in three medical schools of the Dominican Republic that offer three different medical curricula: (i) a theoretical and practical semiotic-based curriculum; (ii) a theoretical semiotic-based curriculum; and (iii) a curriculum without semiotic courses. The Jefferson scale of empathy was administered in two different moments to students enrolled in pre-clinical cycles of those institutions. Data was subjected to comparative statistical analysis and logistic regression analysis. Results: The study included 165 students (55 male and 110 female). Comparison analysis showed statistically significant differences in the development of empathy among groups ( p semiotic-based curriculum contributed toward the enhancement of empathy. Conclusion: These findings demonstrate the importance of medical semiotics as a didactic teaching method for improving beginners' empathetic orientation in patients' care.

  3. Fatalism or Destiny? A Qualitative Study and Interpretative Framework on Dominican Women’s Breast Cancer Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flórez, Karen R.; Aguirre, Alejandra N.; Viladrich, Anahí; Céspedes, Amarilis; De La Cruz, Ana Alicia

    2008-01-01

    Background A growing literature on Latino’s beliefs about cancer focuses on the concept of fatalismo (fatalism), despite numerous conceptual ambiguities concerning its meaning, definition, and measurement. This study explored Latina women’s views on breast cancer and screening within a cultural framework of destino (“destiny”), or the notion that both personal agency and external forces can influence health and life events Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 25 Latinas from the Dominican Republic aged 40 or over. Results Respondents reported complex notions of health locus of control that encompassed both internal (e.g., individual action) and external (e.g., the will of God) forces shaping breast cancer prevention efforts. Furthermore, women actively participated in screening because they believed that cancer could become a death sentence if diagnosed late or left untreated. Discussion In contrast to simplistic notions of “fatalism”, our analysis suggests complex strategies and beliefs regarding breast cancer and cancer screening that speak of resiliency rather than hopelessness. PMID:18253833

  4. Geologic Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the North Cuba Basin, Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Petroleum generation in the North Cuba Basin is primarily the result of thrust loading of Jurassic and Cretaceous source rocks during formation of the North Cuba fold and thrust belt in the Late Cretaceous to Paleogene. The fold and thrust belt formed as Cuban arc-forearc rocks along the leading edge of the Caribbean plate translated northward during the opening of the Yucatan Basin and collided with the passive margin of southern North America in the Paleogene. Petroleum fluids generated during thrust loading migrated vertically into complex structures in the fold and thrust belt, into structures in the foreland basin, and possibly into carbonate reservoirs along the margins of the Yucatan and Bahama carbonate platforms. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) defined a Jurassic-Cretaceous Composite Total Petroleum System (TPS) and three assessment units (AU)-North Cuba Fold and Thrust Belt AU, North Cuba Foreland Basin AU, and the North Cuba Platform Margin Carbonate AU-within this TPS based mainly on structure and reservoir type (fig. 1). There is considerable geologic uncertainty as to the extent of petroleum migration that might have occurred within this TPS to form potential petroleum accumulations. Taking this geologic uncertainty into account, especially in the offshore area, the mean volumes of undiscovered resources in the composite TPS of the North Cuba Basin are estimated at (1) 4.6 billion barrels of oil (BBO), with means ranging from an F95 probability of 1 BBO to an F5 probability of 9 BBO; and (2) 8.6 trillion cubic feet of of gas (TCFG), of which 8.6 TCFG is associated with oil fields, and about 1.2 TCFG is in nonassociated gas fields in the North Cuba Foreland Basin AU.

  5. Parenting practices among Dominican and Puerto Rican mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Dittus, Patricia; Jaccard, James; Johansson, Margaret; Bouris, Alida; Acosta, Neifi

    2007-01-01

    This study presents descriptive qualitative data about Latino parenting practices in an urban context. Focus groups were conducted with Dominican and Puerto Rican mother-adolescent pairs in the Bronx borough of NewYork City. When parenting style typologies are integrated with the Latino cultural components familismo, respeto, personalismo, and simpatía, Latino parenting practices and their underlying styles are better understood. Content analysis of parents' focus groups revealed five essential Latino parenting practices: (1) ensuring close monitoring of adolescents; (2) maintaining warm and supportive relationships characterized by high levels of parent-adolescent interaction and sharing; (3) explaining parental decisions and actions; (4) making an effort to build and improve relationships; and (5) differential parenting practices based on adolescents' gender. Mothers reported concerns related to the risks associated with living in an urban area, exposure to different cultural values, and opportunities for engaging in risky behaviors. Adolescents' recommendations for effective parenting strategies were similar to the practices reported by their mothers. The study has important applied implications for culturally competent social work practice with Latino adolescents and their families.

  6. An educator's perspective on the emerging Cuba and multiculturalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Carla D

    2006-01-01

    Plagued by many years of frequent leadership changes, and influences from power brokers whose policies and politics were oftentimes detrimental to Cuba's emerging as an industrialized and diverse economy nation, Cuba is now attempting to move beyond the survival mode. After the symbiotic relationship between the Soviet Union was dismantled in the 90s, Cuba is now undergoing metamorphoses of growth and change, socially, politically and culturally, while still remaining a mixture of worlds both rural and urban. This narrative article describes the multicultural experiences that an American university professor recently experienced while visiting Cuba.

  7. Four decades of kidney transplantation in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonzo, Jorge P

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the background, beginnings, development, evolution and outcomes of kidney transplantation in Cuba. Nephrology as a medical specialty in Cuba began in 1962 and was formalized in 1966. Conditions were created to implement renal replacement therapy (including transplants), bring nephrology care to the entire country and train human resources who would assume this responsibility, making Cuba one of the first countries with a comprehensive program for renal patient care. After three unsuccessful cadaveric-donor kidney transplantations in 1968-69, the ensuing history of kidney transplantation can be summarized in the following three stages. 1970-1975: In January 1970, cadaveric-donor kidney transplantation began at the Nephrology Institute. That year, 17 kidney transplantations were performed; four of these patients lived with functional kidneys for 15-25 years; 10-year graft survival was 23.5% (Kaplan-Meier survival curve); HLA typing began in 1974. By December 1975, 170 grafts had been done in three hospitals. 1976-1985: Seven transplantation centers performed 893 grafts during this period. HLA-DR typing was introduced in 1976 and the National Histocompatibility Laboratory Network was founded in 1978. The first related living-donor kidney transplantation was done in 1979. 1986-2011: The National Kidney Transplantation Coordinating Center and the National Kidney Transplantation Program were created in 1986; the first combined kidney-pancreas transplantation was performed the same year. In 1990, cyclosporine and the Cuban monoclonal antibody IOR-T3 were introduced for immunosuppression to prevent rejection, as were other Cuban products (hepatitis B vaccine and recombinant human erythropoietin) for transplant patients. By December 2011, the cumulative number of transplants was 4636 (384 from related living donors). With over 40 years of experience, kidney transplantation is now well established in Cuba; it is free and universally accessible, on the

  8. Nuclear cardiology in Cuba present and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peix González, Amalia

    2016-01-01

    Heart Diseases represent the first cause of death worldwide (WHO, 2011); 80% of these deaths in developing countries (WHO, 2011); Coronary Heart Disease is responsible of 69% of all cardiovascular deaths. In Cuba, National programs have been developed to control the most important associated coronary risk factors; Research projects have been also carried out as part of the Ministry of Public Health’s program on non-transmissible chronic diseases; Strengthening of Nuclear Cardiology in Cuba, as well as its adequate integration in a diagnosis algorithm, focusing on improving the quality of medical care, in accordance with the principles of evidence-based medicine. Recommendations: Extend Nuclear Cardiology throughout the country; Conduct cost-effectiveness studies comparing different imaging techniques in cardiology; Develop coronary flow and metabolic studies with PET; Introducing studying adrenergic innervation; Develop hybrid imaging in cardiology; Set up committees of experts to analyze the value of different imaging techniques in cardiology in accordance with the possibilities and resources of Cuba, aimed at the implementation of a medicine individualized for patients. (author)

  9. Drinking water in Cuba and seawater desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneses-Ruiz, E.; Turtos-Carbonell, L.M.; Oviedo-Rivero, I.

    2004-01-01

    The lack of drinking water has become a problem at world level because, in many places, supplies are very limited and, in other places, their reserves have been drained. At the present time there are estimated to be around two thousand million people that don't have drinking water for several reasons, such as drought, contamination and the presence of saline waters not suitable for human consumption. Because of the human need for water, they have always taken residence in areas where the supply was guaranteed, sometimes impeding the exploitation of other areas that can be economically very interesting. However, this resource is usually very close and in abundance in the form of seawater but its salinity makes it unusable for many basic requirements. Humanity has been forced, therefore, to take into consideration the possibilities of the economic treatment of seawater. Cuba has regions where the supplies of drinking water are scarce and others where the lack of this resource limits economic exploitation. The present work is approached with regard to the situation of hydro resources in Cuba, it includes: a description of the main hydrographic basins of the country; the contamination levels of the waters and the measures for mitigation; analysis of the supplies and demand for drinking water and its quality; regulatory aspects. The state of seawater desalination in Cuba is also included and the possibility of its realisation using nuclear energy and the advantages that this would bring is evaluated. (author)

  10. Invasive Meningococcal Disease. Cuba, 1983- 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio E. Pérez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Invasive Meningococcal Disease (IMD is a worldwide health problem. In Cuba, vaccination against meningococcal B-C has been carried out since 1989. The study aimed at describing the epidemiology of IMD in Cuba from 1983 to 2006 and at contributing to the immunization strategy. A descriptive and analytical study was carried out. Epidemiological data was obtained from the National Surveillance System at the Institute "Pedro Kourí". More than 1 000 cases were reported in 1986 and the overall incidence was above 10/100 000 inhabitants. Since 1989 a remarkable and continuous decline in the incidence was observed. In the last nine years a strong association of IMD to boarding school students (OR=9.4; confidence interval 95%: 5.1-17.4, recluses (OR=5.9; CI 95%: 1.5 -24.3 and day students (OR=3.9; CI 95%: 2.8-5.6 was observed. Housewife (OR=4.9; CI 95%: 1.9-12.4 and pensioned (OR=4.5; CI 95%: 1.2-16.8 showed association with mortality. Previous vaccination was a protective factor against morbidity (OR=0.6; CI 95%: 0.4-1.0 and mortality (OR=0.4; CI 95%: 0.2-0.9 by IMD. Neisseria meningitidis B4:P1.15 was the main circulating strain. Incidence of IMD declined markedly in Cuba by using group BC strain-specific meningococcal vaccine.

  11. Toxocariasis in Cuba: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sariego, Idalia; Kanobana, Kirezi; Rojas, Lázara; Speybroeck, Niko; Polman, Katja; Núñez, Fidel A.

    2012-01-01

    Human toxocariasis (HT) is a zoonotic disease caused by infection with the larval stage of Toxocara canis, the intestinal roundworm of dogs. Infection can be associated with a wide clinical spectrum varying from asymptomatic to severe organ injury. While the incidence of symptomatic human toxocariasis appears to be low, infection of the human population is widespread. In Cuba, a clear overview on the status of the disease is lacking. Here, we review the available information on toxocariasis in Cuba as a first step to estimate the importance of the disease in the country. Findings are discussed and put in a broader perspective. Data gaps are identified and suggestions on how to address these are presented. The available country data suggest that Toxocara infection of the definitive dog host and environmental contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs is substantial, but information on HT is less conclusive. The availability of adequate diagnostic tools in the country should be guaranteed. Dedicated studies are needed for a reliable assessment of the impact of toxocariasis in Cuba and the design of prevention or control strategies. PMID:22389726

  12. Caribic EEG. A new regulation speeds up the solar power market in the Dominical Republic; Karibik-EEG. Eine neue Richtlinie belebt den Solarstrommarkt in der Dominikanischen Republik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosell, Alejandro Diego

    2011-09-15

    In spite of its sunny weather conditions, the Dominican Republic so far has only solar systems with a total of 500 kW. But a new law came into force that permits backward current meters. Those who generate more power than they consume will even get a reimbursement. With additional tax exemptions, the payback period of solar systems will be only a few years.

  13. Analysis of Preference of Incentives to Innovation of Dominican Manufacturing and Service Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Gómez-Valenzuela

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is analyzed  the structure of preference of incentives to innovation of Dominican manufacturing and services firms.  The analysis of preference was  carried out using a Conjoint Analysis. In  total  326 firms were surveyed across the country.   According to the main findings,   Dominican firms prefer combinations of incentives to minimize tax liabilities but also to reduce uncertainty related to innovation activities.   In terms of preference, no statistically significant differences between manufacturing and service firms were found.

  14. Airborne microorganisms cultivable on naturally ventilated document repositories of the National Archive of Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, Sofía; Perdomo, Ivette

    2016-02-01

    The quality of the indoor air can provide very useful information for the artwork conservation. The aim of the study was to evaluate the microbial concentration inside six document repositories of the National Archive of the Republic of Cuba in two months of 1 year. The repositories are large, high, and have a natural cross-ventilation system. The microbial sampling was done in July 2010 (summer or rainy month) and February 2011 (winter or dry month) using the SAS Super 100 biocollector at 100 L/min. An appropriate selective culture media were used to isolate fungi and bacteria. A high total microbial concentration on the north side of the building in two studied months was observed. The fungal concentrations were significantly higher in July 2010 in all repositories, while the bacterial concentrations were significantly higher mostly in February 2011 only in repositories located on the first and second floor of the building. Eight fungal genera in the indoor air of all environments were isolated. Regardless of the side of the analyzed building, Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Cladosporium were the predominant genera. Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger were the species isolated in almost all of the analyzed repositories in the studied months. Gram-positive bacteria prevailed among bacterial groups isolated from indoor air repositories, and some percentages corresponded to the genera Bacillus and Streptomyces. In Cuba, the temperature and relative humidity are high during the whole year but the natural ventilation plays an important role in retarding microbial growth on materials.

  15. Diccionario del español de Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Werner, Reinhold

    2000-01-01

    Diccionario del español de Cuba : español de Cuba - español de España / Günther Haensch ; Reinhold Werner. - Madrid : Gredos, 2000. - LVIII, 606 S. - (Diccionarios contrastivos del español de América)

  16. Perspectivas para la lexicografía especializada en Cuba

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Sven

    1995-01-01

    En diskussion af muligheder for at udvikle et fagleksikografisk arbejde på Cuba og i det øvrige Latinamerika......En diskussion af muligheder for at udvikle et fagleksikografisk arbejde på Cuba og i det øvrige Latinamerika...

  17. Look at the industrial heritage of Cuba: Protection, conservation and refunctionalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilka Pell-Delgado

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The industrial heritage in Cuba is a source for knowledge of the country's socio-economic and cultural development. The emergence and perfection of various industrial productions, in the colonial, republic and revolutionary stages, generated the creation of a valuable material patrimony that, due to its importance, deserves to be preserved as a accumulated wealth of centuries, which culturally reaffirms patriotic values and The historical memory of the nation. The research addresses the development of Cuban industrial heritage, reflected through its different stages and economic branches, which are more than sugar, coffee and tobacco. The information is organized by epigraphs, in which it is explained that it is understood by industrial heritage, its evolution and the actions of protection, conservation and refunctionalization at the moment. The work constitutes a different approach to the theme for the necessary contribution to the preservation and dissemination of our cultural heritage in society.

  18. ÉTUDE DE CAS — Cuba : L'innovation agricole à Cuba | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    5 janv. 2011 ... La recherche de solutions de rechange viables. ... Ces observations résument bien une nouvelle approche et une nouvelle attitude à l'égard de la recherche agricole à Cuba, .... principal au CRDI, et Bob Stanley, rédacteur scientifique. ... voir le site de l'Institut international des ressources phytogénétiques ...

  19. Dominican and Puerto Rican Mother-Adolescent Communication: Maternal Self-Disclosure and Youth Risk Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent

    2010-01-01

    A communication framework was developed to examine the influence of maternal use of self-disclosure on adolescent intentions to smoke cigarettes and to engage in sexual intercourse. Data were collected from 516 Dominican and Puerto Rican mother-adolescent dyads. Statistical analyses were conducted in AMOS using structural equation modeling.…

  20. Racial Identity Attitudes and Ego Identity Statuses in Dominican and Puerto Rican College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Delida

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the relation between racial identity attitudes and ego identity statuses in 94 Dominican and Puerto Rican Latino college students in an urban public college setting. Simultaneous regression analyses were conducted to test the relation between racial identity attitudes and ego identity statuses, and findings indicated that…

  1. Dominican Family Networks and United States Immigration Policy: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Vivian; Weiss, Carol I.

    1979-01-01

    This analysis of the acculturative process of one immigrant Dominican family shows that United States immigration policy forces the separation of families. Immigration regulations do not recognize the cooperating kin groups as "family," and thus necessitate extra-legal strategies to reunify these extended families. (MC)

  2. Self-reported parenting practices in Dominican and Puerto Rican mothers of young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzada, Esther J; Eyberg, Sheila M

    2002-09-01

    Explored self-reported parenting in a Hispanic sample of mothers living in the mainland United States using a cultural framework. Participants were 130 immigrant or first-generation Dominican and Puerto Rican mothers with a child between the ages of 2 and 6 years. Mothers completed questionnaires related to their parenting behavior and also filled out a detailed demographic form and a measure of acculturation. Results suggested that both Dominican and Puerto Rican mothers engage in high levels of praise and physical affection and low levels of harsh, inconsistent, and punitive parenting behaviors. Dominican and Puerto Rican parenting was similar on measures of authoritarian and permissive parenting, but differences emerged on a measure of authoritative parenting and when parenting was considered at the more detailed level of individual behaviors. Parenting was related to several demographic characteristics, including father's education level and child age; more specifically, higher paternal education and younger age of the child were related to higher levels of authoritative parenting by mothers. Parenting and acculturation were generally not related. Discussion focused on a culturally sensitive interpretation of normative parenting among Dominican and Puerto Rican mothers.

  3. Radurization of spices by irradiation in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez Gil, M.; Rodriguez, M.; Prieto, E.; Pino, J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the research results that prove the technical feasibility according to the hygiene conditions existing in Cuba for irradiating different spices. The results show both the possibility and and the benefit of using a one irradiation application to these products. One global average doses of 5 KGy was enough for decontaminating black pepper, paprika, cumin, must meg and oregano without affecting either their chemical components or the quality of their taste. Sausages manufactured with irradiated spices did not irradiating spices is much higher that of fumigation, et has many important social and economic advantages

  4. Implementation of QUANUM in Cuba. Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Barreto, M.; Varela Corona, C.; Lopez Bejerano, G. M.; Lopez Diaz, A.; Torres Arocha, L.; Coca Perez, M. A.; Fernandez Herrera, A. O.

    2011-01-01

    Setting up quality management systems in nuclear medicine in Cuba has been an aim for medical physicists. In the last decade, we have walked with steady steps towards that direction, by setting up national standards and regulations, and carrying out research projects in order to ensure the improvement of quality assurance and management programs. In 2010 the IAEA's QUANUM document has been applied, as a methodology for quality management audits in nuclear medicine. Five audits have shown that most of class A regulatory items are guaranteed at nuclear medicine services. However, quality management system performing is still inappropriate. (Author) 13 refs.

  5. Nuclear law in Cuba. Utopia or reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso Gonzalez, Ivonne

    2009-01-01

    The present article is a summary review of the legal basis for the use of nuclear energy in Cuba. Background, historical evolution and the current concept of the Cuban legislation are approached by illustrating the reader on a topic that is practically unknown, in spite of its daily presence in places such as hospitals, factories or airports. The awareness, perception and acceptance of nuclear energy applications consequently should have an impact on the ignorance of their legal edges, the issue we approached presenting a group of weighing elements, in pursue of the answer. Utopia or Reality

  6. Role of a Semiotics-Based Curriculum in Empathy Enhancement: A Longitudinal Study in Three Dominican Medical Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat San-Martín

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Empathy in the context of patient care is defined as a predominantly cognitive attribute that involves an understanding of the patient’s experiences, concerns, and perspectives, combined with a capacity to communicate this understanding and an intention to help. In medical education, it is recognized that empathy can be improved by interventional approaches. In this sense, a semiotic-based curriculum could be an important didactic tool for improving medical empathy. The main purpose of this study was to determine if in medical schools where a semiotic-based curriculum is offered, the empathetic orientation of medical students improves as a consequence of the acquisition and development of students’ communication skills that are required in clinician–patient encounters.Design: This quasi-experimental study was conducted in three medical schools of the Dominican Republic that offer three different medical curricula: (i a theoretical and practical semiotic-based curriculum; (ii a theoretical semiotic-based curriculum; and (iii a curriculum without semiotic courses. The Jefferson scale of empathy was administered in two different moments to students enrolled in pre-clinical cycles of those institutions. Data was subjected to comparative statistical analysis and logistic regression analysis.Results: The study included 165 students (55 male and 110 female. Comparison analysis showed statistically significant differences in the development of empathy among groups (p < 0.001. Logistic regression confirmed that gender, age, and a semiotic-based curriculum contributed toward the enhancement of empathy.Conclusion: These findings demonstrate the importance of medical semiotics as a didactic teaching method for improving beginners’ empathetic orientation in patients’ care.

  7. Sector profile: Petroleum sector in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-02-01

    The Cuban oil industry started in 1860 when an oil well was drilled in Matanzas province. About 200 wells were drilled up until 1959. In the past 30 years, the oil industry has become a priority sector; in 1985-1990, about US$500 million were invested in the industry, with increases in exploration and well drilling activity. Recently completed works include pipelines and a supertanker terminal. About 10 million tons of oil are imported annually and local production averages about 800,000 metric tons per year. Most of the oil found in Cuba so far is of the heavy type, as found in western Canada. There are about 10 small and medium-sized oil deposits, mainly located in the north. The most promising oil field is at Varadero, whose characteristics are similar to the Cold Lake field in Alberta. Cuban oil refining capacity is over 7.6 million metric tons per year, and additional capacity is being constructed. All imports of oil industry equipment are conducted via state trading agencies. Export opportunities of interest to Canadian companies are outlined, along with monetary constraints affecting imports to Cuba, financing and export insurance programs available to Canadian companies, and recommendations to Canadian exporters. A list of industry/government contacts is included

  8. Biothechnology conferences held in Cuba. Cuba no biotechnology gakkai ni sankashite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, M. (Ajinomoto Co. Inc., Tokyo, (Japan))

    1990-04-25

    Three biotechnology conferences including Cuba International Interferon Conference were held at Havana in April 1989, and the author participated in them. The number of participants was about 3,000. Most of them were from the Middle and the Central America, but there were also those from Europe, the USSR and the USA. The three conferences were composed of 16 symposiums and they covered a wide range of field such as medical science, agriculture and industry. High leveled reports were read in the conferences: on the application of interferons to medical treatments, curing effects of infections caused by herpes virus and B type hepatitis virus, anti-tumor effects, and anti-virus effects against AIDS virus; on the production of protein and vaccini by gene engineering, large quantity production of interleukin and epithelium cell multiplication genes. Especially impressing were the efforts the whole nation of Cuba makes to promote biotechnology and its modern facilities. 3 figs.

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL TAX IN CUBA, CONTROL YOUR FUND IN SANTIAGO DE CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira Vázquez-Díaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available By issuing the Law 73 of the Tax System in 1994, the taxation on the usage and exploitation of natural resources began to be applied to promote a rational usage of these resources on the protection of the environment. This article refers to the application of this tax in Cuba based on records of imprinted and digital bibliography containing considerations of environmental economists about the subject on a legal approach. It also offers the reader a general view of the application of this tax in the province of Santiago de Cuba as well as information for the specialists incharge of collecting its income which is used to encourage the protection of the environment. 

  10. Quantitative physical and chemical variables used to assess erosion and fertility loss in tropical Dominican and Haitian soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, J.; Alexis, S.; Vizcayno, C.; Hernández, A. J.

    2009-04-01

    The Pedernales province (Dominican Republic) has the main part of the only Biosphere Reserve in that Caribbean Island, including the Bahoruco and Jaragua National Parks. In these Parks is possible to find almost the totality of tropical forest ecosystems (evergreen rain forest, latifoliated forest, dry forest and mangrove forest on mainland), as well as the most frequent soil uses in the Dominican country. The consulted bibliography about the soils is very scarce and it does not give any information relating to this natural resource, which is basic for a sustainable development management in this territory. When Christopher Columbus reached the island, its plant cover constituted 95% of the land. This was largely because the limited, rudimentary tools used by the Indians to exploit the soil, allowed them to maintain a well-balanced ecological system. The initial type of agriculture practised by the indigenous inhabitants was scarcely destructive and based on vegetatively reproducing crops propagated through cuttings, but later forest burning was an especially significant management practice aimed at releasing nutrients into the soil, in an environment in which under natural conditions, particularly those of the rainforest, these were mostly locked within plant structures. The colonial system, on the contrary, brought with it more elaborate methods and utensils enabling them to cultivate cereals (somewhat unknown to the native Indians) and to rear livestock (cows, goats) yet contributed to the growth of deforestation. Agricultural activities were not confined to the plains; even the virgin woods of the mountains were exploited. The monocrops grown across vast expanses rapidly rid the soil of its productive capacity. Cutting down and burning forest for agricultural uses, and also industrial exploitation of bauxite and limestone produced also important alterations in the soil processes. Agricultural activities were not confined to the plains; even the virgin woods of

  11. Cuba in Transition: Communism vs Charisma Who Will Emerge as Cuba’s Next Leader

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-04-04

    38 Olivo Verde, Defense of the Socialist Homeland, 6 March 1986. 26 MajGen Frias LtGen Espinosa MajGen Sola Cuban forces.39 The FAR is...comprised of three separate branches: the Army (Ejercito 150,000 troops strong), the Navy [Marina de Guerra Revolucionaria (MG) 5,000 troops strong] and...Cintro Frias , and is headquartered in Havana. The Eastern Army Corps, is led by General Ramon Espinosa Martin, and is headquartered in Santiago de Cuba

  12. Powering Cuba: A Possible Action Plan For Creating Cuba's Sustainable Energy Future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, Brandon; Hess, Matt; Sloane, Taylor; Harris, Zach

    2017-01-01

    While Cuba enjoys a high rate of electrification, 82% of its electricity today is generated from oil with an overall estimated levelized cost of energy (LCOE) of $0.27 per kWh. Moreover, Cuba is experiencing increased electricity demand driven by a burgeoning tourism industry and an emerging small-medium size business sector. If the current power mix persists until 2040, power generation costs and carbon emissions would nearly double to US$9.8B and 24M MT CO2 per year respectively. This paper presents an overall strategy for Cuba to ensure its energy security and provide the Cuban people with clean, affordable and reliable access to electricity. With a total estimated cost of $14.1B, our proposal aims to reduce the overall cost of electricity generation to $0.14 per kWh by 2040. We recommend: Implementing a comprehensive renewable energy strategy that includes an energy mix of: (1) community-solar for small cooperative business (8.5%); (2) long-term investments for utility-scale solar IPPs (8.5%); (3) development of wind farms by IPPs (17.5%); and (4) maintaining supplementary biomass generation (6%); Installing complementary reliable sources of grid power from natural gas combined cycle plants (NGCC) via domestic production and LNG imports from a floating storage regasification unit (FSRU), accounting for 35% of Cuba’s energy; Attracting $700 million in infrastructure investment necessary to decrease transmission and distribution (T&D) losses; and Enacting reforms that increase regulatory certainty, investor protection, and the ease of doing business in Cuba for foreign investors. (author)

  13. From Coercion to Brute Force: Exploring the Evolution and Consequences of the Responsibility to Protect

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    Belgium-Bolivia-Brazil­ Canada-Chile-China- Colombia -Costa Rica-Cuba-Czechoslovakia-Denmark-Dominican Republic-Ecuador-Egypt-El Salvador-Ethiopia-France...request. They wanted no military forces on Libyan soil .112 While the UN and other nations considered this request, France took it one-step further, and...Charter of the United Nations with Argentina, Australia, Belarus, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia , Costa Rica, Cuba

  14. Targeting U. S. Technologies: A Trend Analysis of Cleared Industry Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    conducted a scientic analysis that traced a particular disease outbreak to one specic London well, and demonstrated that cholera befell only those...Islands Chile Colombia Costa Rica Cuba Curacao Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador El Salvador Grenada Guatemala Guyana Haiti Honduras Jamaica Mexico

  15. Decapod crustaceans from the Neogene of the Caribbean: diversity, distribution and prospectus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collins, J.S.H.; Portell, R.W.; Donovan, S.K.

    2009-01-01

    The Neogene decapod crustaceans are reviewed from Aruba, Bonaire and Curaçao, Anguilla, Barbados, Carriacou, Costa Rica, Cuba, Florida, Hispaniola (Haiti and Dominican Republic), Jamaica, Mexico, Panama, Puerto Rico, St. Kitts, Tintamare Island, Trinidad and Venezuela. The most widely distributed

  16. Caribbean Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Kris

    1991-01-01

    The Caribbean is a rich breeding ground for African-derived music. A synopsis is given of the music of the following countries and styles: (1) Jamaica; (2) Trinidad and Tobago; (3) Calypso; (4) steel pan; (5) Haiti; (6) Dominican Republic; (7) Cuba; (8) Puerto Rico; and (9) other islands. (SLD)

  17. Library and Archival Resources for Social Science Research in the Spanish, French, Dutch Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Thomas G.

    The working paper describes how a social scientist might go about locating resources for any particular study. Researchers are directed to non-Caribbean based material in European Archives as well as collections in the United States. Caribbean resources are analyzed by county. The countries include Cuba, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico,…

  18. The DISAM Journal of International Security Assistance Management. Volume 26, Number 1, Fall 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    contribution to international peace and stability. Current Members of the Hall of Fame General Lojas Fodor, Commander, Hungarian Defense Forces and Chief of...Belize Bermuda Bolivia Brazil British Virgin Islands Cayman Islands Chile Colombia Costa Rica Cuba Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador El

  19. Latin America Today: An Atlas of Reproducible Pages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Eagle, Inc., Wellesley, MA.

    A profile of Latin America (defined as consisting of the countries of Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Columbia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela) emerges from this collection of black and white illustrative maps, tables, and…

  20. El Programa de Medicina Transfusional de Cuba The Transfusion Medicine Program in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Ballester Santovenia

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Cuba's Transfusion Medicine Program (TMP is a subsystem of the country's National Health System. The TMP's objective is to ensure hemotherapy with blood that is safe and sufficient for all the individuals who need it. The TMP subsystem is made up of the National Commission on Transfusion Medicine, the Institute of Hematology and Immunology, 37 clinical services, 44 blood banks, 120 collection centers, 19 mobile units, and 37 blood certification laboratories. Additional facilities include a laboratory for plasma separation, a laboratory that produces leukocyte interferon and transfer factor, and two laboratories that produce reagents for blood classification and blood diagnosis systems. In Cuba, blood donation is voluntary. Since 1997 approximately 5% of the population per year has donated blood, thus meeting the goal recommended by the Pan American Health Organization of one voluntary blood donation annually for every 20 persons. During 2002, 563 204 blood donations were received, and there were 445 898 transfusions of blood or blood components. All donations are individually screened for HIV 1 and 2, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and syphilis, thus meeting the country's current regulations. In 2002 these screening measures led to discarding, respectively, 0.12%, 0.60%, 0.71%, and 1.8% of the blood donations. Although the prevalence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus I and II in Cuba is very low, this test will soon be added to the screening process.

  1. Epidemic optic neuropathy in Cuba. Eye findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadun, A A; Martone, J F; Muci-Mendoza, R; Reyes, L; DuBois, L; Silva, J C; Roman, G; Caballero, B

    1994-05-01

    To characterize and establish a clinical definition of the optic neuropathy that appeared in epidemic form in Cuba in 1992 and 1993. At the invitation of the Cuban Ministry of Health, Havana, members of ORBIS International and the Pan American Health Organization, assembled teams that traveled to Cuba in May 1993. We were initially briefed by Cuban national experts in the areas of virology, nutrition, toxicology, ophthalmology, neurology, and public health. We then examined 20 patients on our own. Thirteen of these patients underwent a comprehensive neuro-ophthalmologic examination, including neurologic examination, ophthalmologic examination, visual fields, optic nerve function studies, contrast sensitivity studies, and funduscopy. We returned 4 months later to perform an additional 12 comprehensive neuro-ophthalmologic and follow-up examinations. Only seven of the 13 patients who were alleged to have the optic form of the epidemic and who were rigorously and systematically examined on the first visit demonstrated a bilateral optic neuropathy. These seven patients had several features that included decreased visual acuity, poor color vision, central scotomas, decreased contrast sensitivity, saccadic eye movements, and most prominent and distinctive of all, nerve fiber layer wedge defects of the papillomacular bundle. Our clinical definition was then implemented by the Cuban ophthalmologists and epidemiologists. On returning 4 months later, we found that all newly presented patients were correctly diagnosed to have the epidemic disease. With the new case definition and the application of a few simple psychophysical tests, the false-positive rate of diagnosis became much lower. After vitamin therapy, we reexamined the patients seen on our initial visit, and all showed marked improvement. The Cuban epidemic was characterized by an optic neuropathy with features that were similar to those of tobacco/alcohol amblyopia and Leber's optic atrophy. Recent political

  2. THE CUBA COMPANY AND EASTERN CUBA’S ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT, 1900-1959

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Santamarina

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This artide evaluates the Cuba Company’s impact on eastern Cuban economic development. It argues that the Cuba Company’s railroads, together with its development plans and strategies, helped stimulate the extraordinary economic growth of eastern Cuba between 1900 and 1959, especially in the production of sugar. Sugar was king in Cuba before 1900 but only inwestern Cuba; eastern Cuba produced only a minuscule fraction of total Cuban sugar production. Moreover, the Cuban Independence War of 1895-1898 had destroyed the industry. Due to the Cuba Company’s strategy, however, by the 1920s Cuba was once again the largest producer of sugar in the world and eastern Cuba represented over 50% of total Cuban sugarproduction.

  3. Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Legislative Initiatives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sullivan, Mark P

    2003-01-01

    .... In March 2003, the Administration eased restrictions on those visiting close family members in Cuba, while at the same time it eliminated travel for people-to-people educational exchanges unrelated...

  4. ENERGY AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debrayan Bravo Hidalgo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Employment and enhancing the use of renewable energy sources could be considered as the beginning of a third ¨Industrial Revolution¨. The transition to a low carbon dioxide emission permits to a momentous turning point in the fight against climate change, improve energy security, and last but not least, significantly reduce the geopolitical intentions of this. The increase in renewable sources constitutes a guideline for energy policy in Cuba. Thus, programs for the construction of small hydropower plants, plant cells and photovoltaic panels, solar thermal energy systems for various services are developed; and the use of other primary sources such as wind and biomass. This work shows the implementation of these practices in the nation, the present results and future aspirations facing the demands of sustainable and steady development of generation and power consumption.

  5. Radiological monitoring of food in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerez V, S.F.

    1996-01-01

    The appearing of the problem for protecting the environment from radioactive contamination is not an accidental matter. The introduction into the earth crust of radioactive material coming from nuclear weapons, accidents, wastes, etc, has caused, as a consequence, the contamination of the biosphere. The extensive trade of food in our country has made necessary the establishment of radiological monitoring in food, which was organized by the Department of Public Health. The structure, functions, characteristics and aspects related to radiological monitoring of food in Cuba are shown in the present paper. The organization and resources for performing the monitoring program, both for normal conditions and for nuclear and/or radiological emergency cases, are detailed. (author). 12 refs., 2 figs

  6. El final del Trotskismo organizado en Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Arriba, Rafael Acosta de

    2018-01-01

    I El tema del trotskismo en Cuba es una de las asignaturas pendientes en nuestra historiografía. Cada día que transcurre se presenta como una injustificable omisión para las ciencias sociales del país. El carácter de tabú que cubrió al tema de Trotski y el trotskismo a partir de los setenta del pasado siglo, con la adscripción indócil pero definitiva de la Revolución Cubana al sistema del socialismo real, tuvo una muy larga duración. Por casi cinco décadas no se habló de este en las publicaci...

  7. Conditioning of Radium-226 sources in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benitez Navarro, Juan Carlos; Salgado Mojena, Mercedes; Gonzalez Rodriguez, Niurka; Castillo Gomez, Rafael; Berdellans Escobar, Ania; Otero Cabrera, Lazaro

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The production and use of Ra-226 sealed sources was internationally recommended to be halted for health and safety reasons. Consequently, all Ra-226 sources in Cuba were collected, characterized and conditioned. The paper describes the safety and operational aspects related to the Ra-226 conditioning. For this, a Special Permission was granted by the Regulatory Body, as required. A radiological assessment, a safety report as well as an emergency plan were prepared and approved before the operations. The work was accomplished with due reliability following an established comprehensive Quality Management System. As a result of these operations, 188.5 GBq of Ra-226, contained in different types of radiation sources (brachytherapy needles and tubes, standard sources for calibration, etc.) were encapsulated and conditioned. The capsules with the sources were conditioned in a retrievable form within fi ve waste packages intended for long term storage.(author)

  8. Energy and sustainable development in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bravo Hidalgo, Debrayan

    2015-01-01

    Employment and enhancing the use of renewable energy sources could be considered as the beginning of a third ¨Industrial Revolution¨. The transition to a low carbon dioxide emission permits to a momentous turning point in the fight against climate change, improve energy security, and last but not least, significantly reduce the geopolitical intentions of this.The increase in renewable sources constitutes a guideline for energy policy in Cuba. Thus, programs for the construction of small hydropower plants, plant cells and photovoltaic panels, solar thermal energy systems for various services are developed; and the use of other primary sources such as wind and biomass.This work shows the implementation of these practices in the nation, the present results and future aspirations facing the demands of sustainable and steady development of generation and power consumption. (author)

  9. Communicating astronomy with the public in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, O.

    2008-06-01

    Communicating astronomy with the public to produce attractive materials for a broad audience on TV is a difficult job in a third world country. One way of developing effective communication in fields like astronomy, astrophysics, and cosmology whilst connecting the professional astronomer with a majority of the people is to combine the knowledge of the scientist with the most spectacular TV production methods of first world countries: integrating, through commentary and analysis, astronomy and science into the public debate of lay citizens. Here I present my ten years of experience of presenting a TV programme devoted to general science outreach. I also comment on the progress of the construction of the new planetarium, a cultural centre for science and technology, to be opened as part of the commemoration activities for the 2009 International Year of Astronomy. It is hoped to guide the interest of the people of Cuba towards basic science and astronomy in the most populated and frequented area of the country.

  10. International Medical Collaboration: Lessons from Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelló González, Mauro; Pons Vásquez, Reinaldo; Rodriguez Bencomo, David; Choonara, Imti

    2016-01-01

    Over 50,000 Cuban health professionals are currently working overseas in 67 different countries. They work in conjunction with local health professionals. The majority work in primary care in deprived areas. The aim is to reduce morbidity and mortality but also improve health in the long term by training local health professionals, and building both institutions and a structure to deliver health care alongside educating the local population. Cuba is a small, middle-income country. It has, however, made a significant international contribution in relation to medical collaboration. Cuba’s international collaboration is based on the principles of social justice and equity for all. It has set an example for other countries to emulate. PMID:27763571

  11. International Medical Collaboration: Lessons from Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Castelló González

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Over 50,000 Cuban health professionals are currently working overseas in 67 different countries. They work in conjunction with local health professionals. The majority work in primary care in deprived areas. The aim is to reduce morbidity and mortality but also improve health in the long term by training local health professionals, and building both institutions and a structure to deliver health care alongside educating the local population. Cuba is a small, middle-income country. It has, however, made a significant international contribution in relation to medical collaboration. Cuba’s international collaboration is based on the principles of social justice and equity for all. It has set an example for other countries to emulate.

  12. Oncology nursing in Cuba: report of the delegation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Lisa Kennedy; Leonard, Kathleen; Gross, Anne; Hartnett, Erin; Poage, Ellen; Squires, Jennifer; Ullemeyer, Vicki; Schueller, Mary; Stary, Susan; Miller, Mary Alice

    2012-08-01

    In December 2011, the first delegation of oncology nurses from the United States visited Havana, Cuba. The delegation included oncology nurses, educators, and leaders from across America and provided opportunities to learn about the healthcare system, cancer, and oncology nursing in Cuba. Delegation members attended lectures, toured facilities, and enjoyed Cuban culture. This exchange highlighted the similarities in cancer care and oncology nursing between countries and opened doors for future collaborations.

  13. The United States and Cuba: Past, Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-04-01

    Cooperativas Independenties: Medio Ambiente , Ecologia, y Su Impacto al Campesino Cubano, CubaNet, [article on- line accessed 4 May 2000], available from http...Independientes: Medio Ambiente , Ecologia y Su Impacto al Campesino Cubano.” CubaNet News. Available at http://www.cubanet.org/cooperativa...after his release. While in Mexico , Castro met Che Guevara with whom he collaborated in organizing the July 26 Movement named in commemoration of

  14. Birth planning in Cuba: a basic human right.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, J M

    1981-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of birth planning in Cuba and strategies that are relevant to nurses in the communities of Cuba. Cuba reduced its crude birth rate by 40% from 1964-75 without formal family planning programs and resources. By 1975, Cuba had achieved the lowest birth rate in Latin America (21/1000) except Barbados (19/1000). By 1978, Cuba's crude birth rate declined to a low of 15.3/1000. The demographic transition in Cuba has been a process of equalization by: 1) community participation to ensure basic human rights for everyone, 2) increasing the status of women while providing child care centers, 3) providing equal availability of health care services including contraceptive services, sterilization, and abortion, and 4) focusing on individual birth choice, not on limiting population growth. Emphasis in Cuba for reducing fertility has been put on literacy, education, and infant mortality. The illiteracy rate in 1961 decreased from 20% to 4%. Infant mortality decreased from 38.8/1000 live births in 1970 to 22.3/1000 in 1978. 1/3 of Cuban women were participating fully in the labor force in 1978. Polyclinics have been established as preventive care medical centers throughout Cuba and health care is free. Family planning options are integrated into routine primary health care at polyclinics and assure equal access to the total Cuban population. Abortion is freely available and increased to 61/1000 in 1976. The implications for nursing are that: 1) the traditional work of nurses places them in a key position to help extend basic human rights beyond current levels, 2) nurses can initiate discussions of birth planning with women and men in a variety of settings, and 3) nurses can increase case-finding related to birth planning needs both in health care classes or within established groups in the community.

  15. Physics and Women: A Challenge Being Successfully Met in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias de Fuentes, Olimpia

    The history of physics in Cuba, like all the country's educational and scientific development, cannot be understood without taking into account its close relationship with the social changes that took place in Cuba during the five decades elapsed since 1959. This should include due consideration to the role played by women in this process, all the more since the link between science and gender is now generally regarded as a subject of growing special interest

  16. Lonely planet: affect and authenticity in guidebooks of Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Ogden, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Record numbers of international visitors to Cuba in recent years amidst dramatic political and economic shifts have reinforced the island's reputation as a destination to visit urgently, ‘before it changes’. In foregrounding a normalised framework of affect and authenticity and directing tourists towards intimate experiences and encounters, bestselling English-language guidebooks contribute towards a selective interpretation of Cuba and of Cubans. However, their recommendations obscure the wo...

  17. Cuba y las fronteras de la utopía

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Artiklen indeholder nogle generelle overvejelser om den sociale utopi som fænomen samt en række empiriske observationer og del analyser af dette fænomen i ft det revolutionære Cuba.......Artiklen indeholder nogle generelle overvejelser om den sociale utopi som fænomen samt en række empiriske observationer og del analyser af dette fænomen i ft det revolutionære Cuba....

  18. Qualitative needs assessment of HIV services among Dominican, Mexican and Central American immigrant populations living in the New York City area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shedlin, M G; Shulman, L

    2004-05-01

    This paper reports on research designed to assess access to care by Latino immigrant populations in the New York area. A qualitative approach and methods were employed, involving focus groups with PLWAs (persons living with AIDS) and affected men and women from Mexico, the Dominican Republic and Central America to explore the perceptions, beliefs, experiences and knowledge of HIV care issues. A total of 57 men and women participated, ranging in age from 19-61. Results included detailed information on cultural meanings of HIV/AIDS; experience of stigma and rejection; gendered health-seeking behaviour; testing issues; and satisfaction with services. Data support the conclusion that to be effective in reaching and providing services to these immigrant groups, it is crucial to understand the environment from which they come and the impact of immigration. Poverty, repressive governments, lack of education/literacy, ethnicity, class, colour-based stigma and cultural norms are crucial factors in determining their attitudes, motivations, decisions and behaviour. AIDS agencies were seen to play a crucial role in connecting PLWAs to services and resources. The key elements for the provision of services to this population appear to be those that build on cultural norms and network human and institutional resources.

  19. Dominican and Haitian Neighbors: Making Moral Attitudes and Working Relationships in the Banana Bateyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Wynne

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo responde a la necesidad de explorar cómo el acto de equilibrio del estado Dominicano, sujeto a la demanda económica de mano de obra inmigrante, por un lado, y a la presión política que exige la exclusión de los haitianos de la sociedad dominicana, por el otro, es negociado localmente. Con base en investigación etnográfica en comunidades bananeras llamadas bateyes, este artículo presenta un análisis de las respuestas locales a los cambios causados por la llegada de un creciente número de inmigrantes haitianos. Aun cuando los inmigrantes haitianos son considerados necesarios para la producción bananera, el coexistir con ellos genera incertidumbres sobre violencia e identidad entre los dominicanos. Este artículo argumenta que los residentes dominicanos hacen frente a estos sentimientos de incertidumbre mediante la cultivación de una aparente superioridad moral sobre sus vecinos haitianos. Finalmente, este artículo sugiere que las prácticas de los dominicanos, quienes luchan por ganarse la vida a la par de sus vecinos haitianos, revelan una relación complicada no sólo por la existencia de una ideología anti-haitiana, pero por una vida precaria, históricamente construida, que marginaliza a los residentes de los bateyes en su conjunto. English: This article addresses the need to explore how the Dominican state’s ongoing balancing act between the economic demand for migrant workers and the political pressure to exclude Haitians from Dominican society is negotiated locally. Based on ethnographic research conducted in banana-growing communities called 'bateyes', this article provides an analysis of local responses to changes occurring with the arrival of increasingly more Haitian residents. While Haitian migrants are regarded as necessary for banana production, living among them triggers insecurities about violence and identity among Dominicans. The article argues that Dominican residents cope with these feelings of

  20. Baculovirus potential for agricultural pests management in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis Ayala Sifontes

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cuba has an international reputation for implementing widespread biological control of pests, and microbial biocontrol is an integral component of most pest management programs. One class of microbial pesticides however, has not been developed in Cuba, bio-insecticides based on the Baculoviridae. This class of safe and environmentally protective microbial pesticides is used ever more commonly worldwide as an alternative to chemical pesticides. The characteristics of the viruses of this family, particularly their high host specificity, safety to non-target organisms, capacity to persist in nature and create epizootics, and the economy with which they can be produced "in vivo", all make them attractive for incorporation into pest management programs along with other pesticides developed in Cuba. The mass production technology is well understood in Cuba and biofactories already exist for a number of microbial biocontrol products. In the province of Sancti Spíritus, the Plant Protection Laboratory of the Ministry of Agriculture, with the cooperation of the Institute for Sustainable Horticulture, Kwantlen Polytechnic University, are resuming the work which began in the 90´s to develop baculovirus products in support of sustainable agriculture in Cuba. This work is being carried out with the participation of young Canadian and Cuban students and professionals. The program includes research with the multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis viruses of Spodoptera frugiperda (SfMNPV and S. exigua (SeMNPV and the search for native isolates of Baculovirus in Plutella xylostella, three priority pests in Cuba. In other jurisdictions they are well controlled by baculoviruses, and the expectation is that this same result is possible in Cuba.

  1. Implementation of QUANUM in Cuba. Preliminary results; Resultados preliminares de la implementacion del QUANUM en Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Barreto, M.; Varela Corona, C.; Lopez Bejerano, G. M.; Lopez Diaz, A.; Torres Arocha, L.; Coca Perez, M. A.; Fernandez Herrera, A. O.

    2011-07-01

    Setting up quality management systems in nuclear medicine in Cuba has been an aim for medical physicists. In the last decade, we have walked with steady steps towards that direction, by setting up national standards and regulations, and carrying out research projects in order to ensure the improvement of quality assurance and management programs. In 2010 the IAEA's QUANUM document has been applied, as a methodology for quality management audits in nuclear medicine. Five audits have shown that most of class A regulatory items are guaranteed at nuclear medicine services. However, quality management system performing is still inappropriate. (Author) 13 refs.

  2. ÉTUDE DE CAS — Cuba : Le logement et le capital humain à Cuba ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    10 janv. 2011 ... Colin Campbell. Des projets communautaires améliorent la santé du cœur de La Havane. La vie en plein centre-ville peut mettre à rude épreuve la résistance des gens. Lorsque les quartiers périclitent, le dépérissement de la santé humaine suit de près. Un projet mené à Cuba avec l'appui du Centre de ...

  3. Evaluation of radiation packages type A from the center of isotopes in Cuba; Evaluacion radiologica de los bultos tipo A del centro de isotopos de Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balbona, Zayda Amador; Pijuan, Saul Perez, E-mail: zabalbona@centis.edu.cu [Centro de Isotopos (CENTIS), Mayabeque (Cuba); Gual, Maritza Rodriguez, E-mail: mrgual@instec.cu [Instituto Superior de Tecnologias y Ciencias Aplicadas (InSTEC), la Habana (Cuba)

    2013-07-01

    The Isotope Center (CENTIS) of the Republic of Cuba makes the transportation of its products mainly in packaged type A. To undertake the design of packages, packaging components from 6 producing firms (including those found Amersham, CISBIO and IZOTOP) are studied. From the applicable regulations, security features and requirements are established as well as the technical characteristics of the packaging components. This study evaluated according each radioisotope, product and specific activity, high activity that can be included in a Type A package with the limitation that the dose rate on their surfaces is less than or equal to 2 mSv/h. In addition, each package is characterized taking into account the value of the maximum dose rate at maximum contact and the transport index for the day of transport. For this, the Microshield code using version 5.0.3. The dose rate in contact with the package of {sup 90}Y is calculated using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX version 2.6.0. The maximum possible activity values are obtained for each shielding transport radionuclides CENTIS produced, namely {sup 131}I, {sup 125}I, {sup 32}P, {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc, {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 188}Re and {sup 90}Y and 69 radioactive packages type A are evaluated.

  4. Nuclear safety. Concerns about the nuclear power reactors in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, Jim; Aloise, Gene; Flaherty, Thomas J.; Fitzgerald, Duane; Zavala, Mario; Hayward, Mary Alice

    1992-09-01

    In 1976, the Soviet Union and Cuba concluded an agreement to construct two 440-megawatt nuclear power reactors near Cienfuegos on the south central coast of Cuba, about 180 miles south of Key West, Florida. The construction of these reactors, which began around 1983, was a high priority for Cuba because of its heavy dependence on imported oil. Cuba is estimated to need an electrical generation capacity of 3,000 megawatts by the end of the decade. When completed, the first reactor unit would provide a significant percentage (estimated at over 15 percent) of Cuba's need for electricity. It is uncertain when Cuba's nuclear power reactors will become operational. On September 5, 1992, Fidel Castro announced the suspension of construction at both of Cuba's reactors because Cuba could not meet the financial terms set by the Russian government to complete the reactors. Cuban officials had initially planned to start up the first of the two nuclear reactors by the end of 1993. However, before the September 5 announcement, it was estimated that this reactor would not be operational until late 1995 or early 1996. The civil construction (such as floors and walls) of the first reactor is currently estimated to be about 90 percent to 97 percent complete, but only about 37 percent of the reactor equipment (such as pipes, pumps, and motors) has been installed. The civil construction of the second reactor is about 20 percent to 30 percent complete. No information was available about the status of equipment for the second reactor. According to former Cuban nuclear power and electrical engineers and a technician, all of whom worked at the reactor site and have recently emigrated from Cuba, Cuba's nuclear power program suffers from poor construction practices and inadequate training for future reactor operators. One former official has alleged, for example, that the first reactor containment structure, which is designed to prevent the accidental release of radioactive material into

  5. Historia de la Puericultura en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Román Lafont

    Full Text Available En la Edad Media los niños eran tratados como adultos pequeños. A partir del Renacimiento surge mayor interés en la infancia. En 1722 aparece el término Pediatría en la Europa Central, y en 1865, por primera vez, es acuñado el término Puericultura por Alfred Pierre Caron, profesor en la Universidad de París. Realizar consultas de Puericultura en la primera mitad del siglo XX en Cuba era prácticamente un lujo. Con el sistema único de salud y cobertura total de la atención primaria a partir de 1959, se lograron establecer consultas de Pediatría (1960 y Puericultura (1963 en los policlínicos. El nuevo enfoque de la práctica médica preventivo-curativa influyó en el desarrollo de la Puericultura, con programas como: Atención integral al niño y la mujer, la normación de las especialidades, la reducción de la mortalidad infantil, la medición de indicadores de salud en la población cubana de 0 a 19 años, la dispensarización de niños y adolescentes, Puericultura prenatal, así como la evaluación de "Hospitales y policlínicos Amigos de la madre y el niño". En 2004 fue creado un grupo multidisciplinario para el rescate de la calidad de las consultas de Puericultura, y se inauguró el Centro de Referencia Nacional de Puericultura en el año 2007, con funciones docentes, de investigación, asistenciales-metodológicas y administrativas. Sorprende la búsqueda de cómo se introdujo en Cuba la Puericultura, a través de Infomed e Internet, visitas a bibliotecas especializadas y la Oficina del Historiador del Ministerio de Salud Pública.

  6. Preparing for Post-Embargo Cuba: Effects on Businesses and Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Nina M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Discusses a brief history of U.S. trade with Cuba, the current status of Cuba's role in world trade, and the effects the U.S. embargo has on American businesses and U.S. and Cuban citizens. The article presents suggestions on how U.S. businesses can prepare for an open Cuba and argues for the lifting of the U.S. embargo against Cuba. (84…

  7. Differences in Attitudes Toward Living Kidney Donation Among Dominican Immigrants Living in Spain and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, A; López-Navas, A I; Sánchez, Á; Flores-Medina, J; Ayala, M A; Garrido, G; Sebastián, M J; Martínez-Alarcón, L; Ramis, G; Hernández, A M; Ramírez, P; Parrilla, P

    2018-03-01

    The Dominican population has a double-emigration pathway: one is to the USA, by proximity, and the other is to Spain, by sociocultural identification. Our aim was to determine attitudes toward living organ donation among Dominicans residing in Florida (USA) and Spain. All study participants were at least 15 years old and living in either Florida (USA) or Spain, and stratified by gender and age. A questionnaire on attitudes toward living kidney donation ("PCID-LKD Ríos") was used. The support of immigrant associations in Florida and Spain was required to advise on survey locations. Data obtained were anonymized and self-administered. The study questionnaire was completed by 123 Dominicans, 68% of whom were in favor of living related kidney donation. There were differences (P = .004) according to the country of residence. Eighty-one percent of Spain's Dominican residents were in favor, compared with 56% of Florida's residents. Factors associated with attitude toward donation were level of education (P donation (P = .006), attitude toward cadaveric organ donation (P donation (P = .046). Attitudes toward living kidney donation among immigrant Dominicans varies between Spain and the USA, with the former showing a more positive view. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Lowering infant mortality in Cuba: Fernando Domínguez MD PhD. Neonatologist, Ramón González Coro University Maternity Hospital, Havana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Fernando; Gorry, Conner

    2015-01-01

    Neonatologist Dr Fernando Domínguez served two years in a remote municipality of Cuba's Guantánamo Province upon graduation from medical school in 1973. Continuing his commitment to vulnerable populations, he joined the Cuban team in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, serving as a family doctor attending neonates and children. After returning to Cuba, he completed his pediatric residency and later became head of the neurodevelopment department at Havana's Ramón González Coro University Maternity Hospital, where he has worked for over three decades. Dr Domínguez holds a doctorate in medical sciences, and since 1995 has served on the board of the Cuban Society of Pediatrics, where he was President from 2005-2011. He is also a member of the Ministry of Public Health's National Bioethics Commission; President of the Scientific Council of the Manuel Fajardo Medical School; on the Executive Board of the Latin American Association of Pediatrics; and a member of the Permanent Commission of the International Pediatric Association (IPA). Since 2010, he has served on IPA's Commission for Child Environmental Health and is the Editor-in-Chief of the pediatric section of Infomed, Cuba's national health portal.

  9. Potential Transportation Impacts of Expanded U.S.-Cuba Trade, Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-02

    Before 1960, the United States and Cuba were major trading partners. At that time, Cuba was the seventh largest export market for U.S. products. In the years since then, U.S. trade with Cuba has been highly regulated. Exports have been mostly prohibi...

  10. 31 CFR 515.553 - Bank accounts of official representatives in Cuba of foreign governments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representatives in Cuba of foreign governments. 515.553 Section 515.553 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Bank accounts of official representatives in Cuba of foreign governments. Specific licenses are issued authorizing payments from accounts of official representatives in Cuba of foreign governments for transactions...

  11. 31 CFR 515.207 - Entry of vessels engaged in trade with Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... with Cuba. 515.207 Section 515.207 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 515.207 Entry of vessels engaged in trade with Cuba. Except as specifically... place in Cuba to engage in the trade of goods or the purchase or provision of services, may enter a U.S...

  12. 31 CFR 515.548 - Services rendered by Cuba to United States aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Services rendered by Cuba to United... REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.548 Services rendered by Cuba to United States aircraft. Specific licenses are issued for payment to Cuba of charges for services...

  13. 31 CFR 515.337 - Prohibited officials of the Government of Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Government of Cuba. 515.337 Section 515.337 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 515.337 Prohibited officials of the Government of Cuba. For purposes of this part, the term prohibited officials of the Government of Cuba means Ministers and Vice-ministers...

  14. 77 FR 55183 - Effectiveness of Licensing Procedures for Agricultural Commodities to Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-07

    ...] Effectiveness of Licensing Procedures for Agricultural Commodities to Cuba AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and... Administration Regulations for the export of agricultural commodities to Cuba. BIS will include a description of...), to Cuba. Requirements and procedures associated with such authorization are set forth in Sec. 740.18...

  15. 75 FR 54594 - Effectiveness of Licensing Procedures for Agricultural Commodities to Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ...] Effectiveness of Licensing Procedures for Agricultural Commodities to Cuba AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and... Administration Regulations for the export of agricultural commodities to Cuba. BIS will include a description of...), to Cuba. Requirements and procedures associated with such authorization are set forth in section 740...

  16. 76 FR 5058 - Airports of Entry or Departure for Flights to and From Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... [CBP Dec 11-05] RIN 1651-AA86 Airports of Entry or Departure for Flights to and From Cuba AGENCY: U.S... (DHS) regulations, direct flights between the United States and Cuba must arrive at or depart from one... Border Protection (CBP) to process authorized flights between the United States and Cuba. These...

  17. 31 CFR 515.561 - Persons visiting close relatives in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Cuba. 515.561 Section 515.561 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... Cuba. (a) General license. (1) Persons subject to the jurisdiction of the United States and persons... close relative, as defined in § 515.339 of this part, who is a national of Cuba, as defined in § 515.302...

  18. 31 CFR 515.415 - Travel to Cuba; transportation of certain Cuban nationals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Travel to Cuba; transportation of... CONTROL REGULATIONS Interpretations § 515.415 Travel to Cuba; transportation of certain Cuban nationals... or a returning resident of the United States, from Cuba to the United States, unless otherwise...

  19. Mortalidad infantil en Cuba 1959-1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Riverón Corteguera

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available De 1959 a 1999, con los datos estadísticos disponibles, la mortalidad infantil en Cuba disminuyó en 81,3 %, la mortalidad neonatal precoz se redujo el 73,4 %, la mortalidad neonatal tardía el 83,6 % y la posneonatal en 86,0 %. Las reducciones obtenidas en el período se distribuyeron uniformemente entre todas las provincias, aunque la mayor disminución se produjo en las provincias centrales y occidentales. Los rubros que más disminuyeron sus tasas fueron: enteritis y otras enfermedades diarreicas, infecciones respiratorias agudas, afecciones perinatales en general y las meningitis, aunque todas las causas reducen la mortalidad en el período. La natalidad descendió el 51,3 %, la fecundidad lo hizo en 30 %, el crecimiento demográfico bruto de la población disminuyó el 59,8 %, el parto institucional aumentó en 65,9 %, el bajo peso al nacer descendió el 36,9 %, la mortalidad perinatal se redujo el 67,2 %, los nacidos vivos disminuyeron el 21,1 % y la supervivencia infantil a los 5 años aumentó el 3,8 %. Esto ha sido posible debido principalmente a la decisión política de priorizar el sector de la salud y muy especialmente la salud maternoinfantil adoptada por nuestro Estado a principios de la década de los 60, lo que permitió alcanzar avances en la organización, calidad de la atención y una amplia cobertura de los servicios de salud. También fueron elementos importantes, el mejoramiento del nivel de vida y de la educación alcanzados por la población, las mejoras logradas en la situación sanitaria y epidemiológica, la distribución equitativa de los alimentos que prioriza a la madre y al niño. Un elemento fundamental en la última década ha sido el desarrollo del "médico de la familia" en la atención primaria y el mejoramiento de la atención hospitalaria. Por otra parte han contribuido de manera notable el establecimiento del Programa Nacional de Atención Maternoinfantil, que abarca las inmunizaciones, el control de las

  20. Cement, concrete, construction and quality discussed by lETCC scientists in Venezuela and the Dominican Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calleja, José

    1975-12-01

    Full Text Available Not availableLa Asociación Venezolana de Ingeniería de Inspección, Dirección y Supervisión de Obras (AVIDISO, como parte del Colegio de Ingenieros de Venezuela, organizó, para celebrar en los días 1 al 6 de septiembre de 1975, un ''Curso sobre Tecnología y Control de Calidad en la Construcción de Obras de Concreto".

  1. Establishment of the west indian fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) parasitoid Doryctobracon areolatus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)in the Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    The West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), infests numerous fruit species, particularly Anacardiaceae and most importantly mango (Mangifera indica L.). Widespread in the Neotropics, it was first reported in Hispaniola nearly 70 years ago. Continental populations are attacked by the op...

  2. Parenting Values and Parenting Stress among Impoverished Village and Middle-Class Small City Mothers in the Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucault, Darlene C.; Schneider, Barry H.

    2009-01-01

    Poverty is known to influence parenting values, parenting stress, psychological adjustment, and social support according to North American research. The purpose of this study was to determine whether poverty might work in similar ways in a collectivistic Latin culture. The participants were primary caregivers in two distinct communities in the…

  3. Social Perception of Risk and Protection Factors for the Children of Emigrant Mothers: A Study in the Dominican Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan de Dios Uriarte Arciniega

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La feminización de la migración laboral altera los roles y relaciones familiares e impacta en el desarrollo de los niños que quedan en el lugar de origen. El objetivo del estudio es mostrar los factores de riesgo y de protección percibidos en la sociedad dominicana para los hijos cuando emigra la madre. Como factores de riesgo destacan: la falta de comunicaciones entre madre e hijo; ser exigente en las relaciones; y el ambiente familiar sustituto anómalo. En cambio, son factores de protección: la comunicación frecuente con la madre y las relaciones afectuosas entre la tutora y el hijo. Cuando ésta es un familiar muy cercano a la madre, fomenta valores como el ahorro, el esfuerzo y el sacrificio. Los resultados de la percepción social coinciden con la literatura existente, pero se discute si los factores percibidos son los que más afectan el desarrollo psicosocial de los niños que quedan atrás por la migración.

  4. 77 FR 30329 - Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement; Notice of Determination...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... rights under Honduran labor law relating to freedom of association, the right to organize, the right to.... Submission 2012-01 alleges that the GOH's actions or lack thereof denied workers their rights under the laws... the enforcement of labor laws, failure of STSS officials to grant union recognition or verify mandated...

  5. Everyday Expertise in Self-Management of Diabetes in the Dominican Republic: Implications for Learning and Performance Support Systems Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes Paulino, Lisette G.

    2012-01-01

    An epidemic such as diabetes is an extremely complex public health, economic and social problem that is difficult to solve through medical expertise alone. Evidence-based models for improving healthcare delivery systems advocate educating patients to become more active participants in their own care. This shift demands preparing chronically ill…

  6. Power Pack: U.S. Intervention in the Dominican Republic, 1965-1966 (Leavenworth Papers, Number 15)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-01

    Center (Centro de Entrenamiento de las Fuerzas 22 Elias Wessin y Wessin Armadas, or CEFA), an elite group of nearly 2,000 specially trained infan- try...battalion combat team battalion landing team Centro de Entrenamiento de las Fuerzas Armadas (Armed Forces Training Cen- ter) Central Intelligence...operations. As with Lebanon in 1958, the Domin- ican intervention was a joint operation. In general terms, many of the de - ficiencies revealed in joint

  7. El krausismo en la formación del movimiento reformista y liberal en Cuba (siglo XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sappez, Delphine

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article offers a revision of the interpretations tending to minimize the influence of Krausism in Cuba, by extending the usual field of the Cuban history of ideas to the analysis of legal and political ideas during the second half of the nineteenth century. This approach reveals the strong impact Krausism had on 1860s reformists and 1880s autonomists, and consequently on the regenerative political culture that was to affect the Cuban Republic.El presente texto propone una revisión de las interpretaciones tendentes a minimizar la influencia del krausismo en Cuba, ampliando el campo habitual de la historia de las ideas cubana al análisis de las ideas jurídicas y políticas de la segunda mitad del siglo XIX. Este enfoque permite detectar un fuerte impacto del krausismo tanto en los reformistas de los años 1860 como en los autonomistas de los años 1880, y por ende en la cultura política regeneradora que más tarde se proyecta en la República.

  8. Desigualdad y racismo. Demografía y sociedad en Cuba a fines de la época colonial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tornero, Pablo

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses the demographic structure and nature of Cuban society in the late 19th-century on the basis of the census of 1899. He argues that the strongly marked social differentiation in Cuba at the time, the duality in its social order of whites v. blacks, was grounded in the prevailing economic structure of the island and ultimately in the plantation economy. This situation conditioned the integration of the black population in Cuba's civil society in the first years of the new republic.

    Estudio de la estructura demográfica y caracterización de la sociedad cubana de finales del siglo XIX, a partir del censo de 1899. En él se trata de demostrar que la fuerte desigualdad social de la sociedad cubana de fines de la época colonial, la dualidad de su entramado social, blancos y negros, es consecuencia de la estructura económica de la isla que tenía su base en la plantación. Este proceso condicionó la integración de la población de color en la sociedad civil cubana, en los primeros años de la república.

  9. Las actuales transformaciones en Cuba y sus efectos en las relaciones Cuba-CARICOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Laguardia Martínez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En 2011 Cuba aprobó una nueva política económica con el objetivo de relanzar su economía sin comprometer los principales logros sociales asociados a su modelo socialista. La apuesta es lo suficientemente ambiciosa como para generar dudas sobre la posibilidad real de instrumentar con éxito una transformación socioeconómica de tales dimensiones. Lo cierto es que, a pesar de los temores y resistencias a la “actualización” del modelo económico cubano, los cambios internos son obligatorios con el fin de construir un socialismo “próspero y sostenible”, idea que el presidente Raúl Castro ha promovido como objetivo central de los cambios. El artículo analiza las relaciones de Cuba y los países del CARICOM en el contexto de la cambiante realidad cubana actual y examina las posibles modificaciones que esta relación podría experimentar en un futuro próximo como consecuencia de la actualización económica cubana.

  10. Early Childhood Internalizing Problems in Mexican- and Dominican-Origin Children: The Role of Cultural Socialization and Parenting Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzada, Esther; Barajas-Gonzalez, R. Gabriela; Huang, Keng-Yen; Brotman, Laurie

    2015-01-01

    This study examined mother- and teacher-rated internalizing behaviors (i.e., anxiety, depression and somatization symptoms) among young children using longitudinal data from a community sample of 661 Mexican and Dominican families, and tested a conceptual model in which parenting (mother’s socialization messages and parenting practices) predicted child internalizing problems 12 months later. Children evidenced elevated levels of mother-rated anxiety at both time points. Findings also supported the validity of the proposed parenting model for both Mexican and Dominican families. Though there were different pathways to child anxiety, depression and somatization among Mexican and Dominican children, socialization messages and authoritarian parenting were positively associated with internalizing symptoms for both groups. PMID:26042610

  11. Early Childhood Internalizing Problems in Mexican- and Dominican-Origin Children: The Role of Cultural Socialization and Parenting Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzada, Esther; Barajas-Gonzalez, R Gabriela; Huang, Keng-Yen; Brotman, Laurie

    2017-01-01

    This study examined mother- and teacher-rated internalizing behaviors (i.e., anxiety, depression, and somatization symptoms) among young children using longitudinal data from a community sample of 661 Mexican and Dominican families and tested a conceptual model in which parenting (mother's socialization messages and parenting practices) predicted child internalizing problems 12 months later. Children evidenced elevated levels of mother-rated anxiety at both time points. Findings also supported the validity of the proposed parenting model for both Mexican and Dominican families. Although there were different pathways to child anxiety, depression, and somatization among Mexican and Dominican children, socialization messages and authoritarian parenting were positively associated with internalizing symptoms for both groups.

  12. Intelectualidad criolla y nación en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel GARCÍA MORA

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En este artículo se analizan las interacciones entre las posiciones intelectuales de los autonomistas cubanos y su idea de la nacionalidad, y la utilización que de la "raza" hicieron los científicos criollos. En una primera parte, se estudian los debates en torno a los pobladores "ideales" con los que constituir una nación moderna y "civilizada", que alejara de Cuba el fantasma de la "africanización". La segunda parte del trabajo se centra en el análisis de la publicación cultural más importante del momento, como fue la Revista de Cuba (1877-1884. Una publicación al servicio de una ciencia criolla, en la que se expuso el concepto de nacionalidad y el proyecto político de los autonomistas, compartido por la mayoría de los científicos cubanos. Palabras Clave: Cuba, ciencia criolla, autonomismo, intelectuales, nacionalidad. ABSTRACT: This article analyzes the interactions between the Cuban Autonomists, their intellectual positions and their ideas about "nationality", and the use of the concept of "race" made by the Criollo scientists. The first part studies debates on the "ideal" settlers for the forming of a modern and "civilized" nation, which would remove the spectre of "Africanization" from Cuba. The second part of this work is focused on the analysis of the most important cultural review of the time, the Revista de Cuba (1877-1884. It was in this publi- cation —which acted as the voice of Criollo science— that the concept of nationality and the political project of the Autonomists, which was shared by most of the Cuban scientists, was expressed. Key words: Cuba, Criollo Science, Autonomism, Intellectuals, Nationality.

  13. A New Approach to Health Services and Pharmacy in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Alina M

    2015-12-01

    In December 17, 2014, U.S. President Barack Obama surprised the world by announcing his intention to enter into negotiations aimed at reestablishing diplomatic relations with Cuba. Since then, expectations and interest regarding the health system of that country have increased. This report focuses on the Cuban health and pharmacy systems from a practical and educational standpoint. Pharmaceutical services, strengths, opportunities, and challenges are described. Cuba's new trends toward patient-centered care are analyzed to provide insights for developing pharmaceutical care practice and implementing policies suitable for practice in all health care settings. © 2015 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  14. Revival and Identification of Bacterial Spores in 25- to 40-Million-Year-Old Dominican Amber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Raul J.; Borucki, Monica K.

    1995-05-01

    A bacterial spore was revived, cultured, and identified from the abdominal contents of extinct bees preserved for 25 to 40 million years in buried Dominican amber. Rigorous surface decontamination of the amber and aseptic procedures were used during the recovery of the bacterium. Several lines of evidence indicated that the isolated bacterium was of ancient origin and not an extant contaminant. The characteristic enzymatic, biochemical, and 16S ribosomal DNA profiles indicated that the ancient bacterium is most closely related to extant Bacillus sphaericus.

  15. Cuba y el Socialismo del siglo XXI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Porfirio Santos Víctores

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo trata acerca de cómo, después de la desaparición  del socialismo en la URSS y en Europa del Este, el llamado Socialismo del siglo XXI representa el desafío actual de reinventar o renovar el socialismo; tomando en cuenta las experiencias de los socialismos que se vivieron, aunque partiendo siempre de las condiciones y la realidad concreta y particular de cada país. Cuando se habla de Socialismo del Siglo XXI no se trata sobre algo definitivamente acabado, conceptualizado, sino precisamente sobre un constructo en desarrollo, el cual es la expresión actual de un abordaje renovado de la construcción del socialismo. Cuba, que inició su proceso revolucionario a mediados del siglo pasado, constituye, con su proyecto de actualización del socialismo, un ejemplo paradigmático donde, con sus características y particularidades históricas, encontramos lo que podríamos llamar una transición del socialismo clásico alternativo sui generis del siglo XX al  socialismo del siglo XXI, con la adopción de políticas públicas que estimulen la sostenibilidad del desarrollo económico y social del país mediante la consolidación de un socialismo próspero y sostenible, comprometido con los valores fundacionales  históricos del proyecto social cubano.

  16. [Eugenic abortion could explain the lower infant mortality in Cuba compared to that in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoso S, Enrique; Carvajal C, Jorge A

    2012-08-01

    Cuba and Chile have the lower infant mortality rates of Latin America. Infant mortality rate in Cuba is similar to that of developed countries. Chilean infant mortality rate is slightly higher than that of Cuba. To investigate if the lower infant mortality rate in Cuba, compared to Chile, could be explained by eugenic abortion, considering that abortion is legal in Cuba but not in Chile. We compared total and congenital abnormalities related infant mortality in Cuba and Chile during 2008, based on vital statistics of both countries. In 2008, infant mortality rates in Chile were significantly higher than those of Cuba (7.8 vs. 4.7 per 1,000 live born respectively, odds ratio (OR) 1.67; 95% confidence intervals (Cl) 1.52-1.83). Congenital abnormalities accounted for 33.8 and 19.2% of infant deaths in Chile and Cuba, respectively. Discarding infant deaths related to congenital abnormalities, infant mortality rate continued to be higher in Chile than in Cuba (5.19 vs. 3.82 per 1000 live born respectively, OR 1.36; 95%CI 1.221.52). Considering that antenatal diagnosis is widely available in both countries, but abortion is legal in Cuba but not in Chile, we conclude that eugenic abortion may partially explain the lower infant mortality rate observed in Cuba compared to that observed in Chile.

  17. Hidden markers, open secrets: on naming, race-marking, and race-making in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Zeuske

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Focuses on how in Cuba race-marking was interrelated with surname-giving, also after the abolition of slavery. Through researching life histories on the local level in the Cienfuegos region, the author examines names of former slaves, finding that these were after abolition in notarial records often marked with the adjectives s.o.a., or "sin otro apellido" (without other surname, taking into account the Iberian double surname tradition. This, according to him, points to a stigmatization of these black citizens and related to their former status as possession, and is thus a racial marker, only more hidden than the open racial assignations during slavery. He relates these postemancipation surnames of former slaves to the dotation of surnames during slavery, whereby most surnames of slaves were those of the last owner of the slaves. He also discusses differences in name-giving between the notarial records and everyday life. He further indicates that a new racism developed in the Cuban society of the late 19th c. and early 20th c., which was voiced more openly in the realm of culture, and regarding events as incarceration and death, and more hidden within the civil and judicial spheres, where the fiction of a race-blind republic was maintained.

  18. Evaluation of radiation packages type A from the center of isotopes in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balbona, Zayda Amador; Pijuan, Saul Perez; Gual, Maritza Rodriguez

    2013-01-01

    The Isotope Center (CENTIS) of the Republic of Cuba makes the transportation of its products mainly in packaged type A. To undertake the design of packages, packaging components from 6 producing firms (including those found Amersham, CISBIO and IZOTOP) are studied. From the applicable regulations, security features and requirements are established as well as the technical characteristics of the packaging components. This study evaluated according each radioisotope, product and specific activity, high activity that can be included in a Type A package with the limitation that the dose rate on their surfaces is less than or equal to 2 mSv/h. In addition, each package is characterized taking into account the value of the maximum dose rate at maximum contact and the transport index for the day of transport. For this, the Microshield code using version 5.0.3. The dose rate in contact with the package of 90 Y is calculated using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX version 2.6.0. The maximum possible activity values are obtained for each shielding transport radionuclides CENTIS produced, namely 131 I, 125 I, 32 P, 99 Mo/ 99m Tc, 99m Tc, 188 Re and 90 Y and 69 radioactive packages type A are evaluated

  19. Experiences in the transport of radiopharmaceuticals and labelled compounds in the last decade in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amador B, Z.H.; Perez P, S.; Ayra P, F.E.; Torres B, M.B.

    2006-01-01

    The Center of Isotopes (CENTIS) it is the main transport entity of radioactive materials of the Republic of Cuba in whose activity almost accumulates a decade. Its are executed the design, the production, the maintenance and/or repair of the packings, as well as the preparation, remission, charges, transporting (including the in traffic storage), it discharges and reception in the final destination, of the remittances. Presently work the results of the implementation of the radiological safety and quality assurance programs developed for the safe transport of radioactive bulks and the experiences in the design and essay of bulks type A are shown. The postulated radiological events are evaluated. Three courses of 10 school hours each one, they are imparted, with theoretical and practical exams. The maximum, minimum and average values of the annual effective doses of the workers and the collective doses per year are reported, for the period 1996-2005. It is guaranteed the administrative control and the traceability of the bundles. (Author)

  20. Publications in Cuba after Latin American Independences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José SÁNCHEZ BAENA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article has a double objective. On the one hand, it aims to offer a vision of the consequences of the liberal Triennium, and the end of Spanish domain in continental America, on the Cuban printing culture. On the other hand, it analyses the main aspects that influenced Cuban society through the most important periodical contents. The extraordinary economic and commercial development, whose most influential agent was the economic group denominated «sacarocracia», made the printing evolution unstoppable, despite the strong control and censorship imposed by the Spanish government fearing the independence of near Republics. Some new serial publications with good content appeared, such as Revista Bimestre Cubana, and the expansion of printing slowly began in new Cuban populations.

  1. Medicinal plants sold at the El Rio Market, Camaguey, Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godinez-Caraballo, D.; Volpato, G.

    2008-01-01

    Information regarding medicinal plants sold in the El Rio Market, Camaguey, Cuba, revealed 184 species belonging to 69 vascular plant families. The most important family was Fabaceae s.l. with 13 species, followed by Lamiaceae with 12, and Asteraceae with 8. More than 90 general medicinal

  2. Cuba's Strategy for Alzheimer Disease and Dementia Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch-Bayard, Rodolfo I; Llibre-Rodríguez, Juan J; Fernández-Seco, Alberto; Borrego-Calzadilla, Carmen; Carrasco-García, Mayra R; Zayas-Llerena, Tania; Moreno-Carbonell, Carmen R; Reymond-Vasconcelos, Ana G

    2016-10-01

    Dementia is a great challenge to public health in Cuba due to its impact on society and families. Cuba's National Intervention Strategy for Alzheimer Disease and Dementia Syndromes is designed to address this challenge. The Strategy includes working guidelines for primary and secondary care, education about rights of people with cognitive impairment, professional development, research, and health promotion and dementia prevention. An associated action plan, focused on primary care, includes proposals for creation of memory clinics, day centers and comprehensive rehabilitation services for cognitive stimulation. Short-term measures proposed include increasing early detection; creating a dementia morbidity and mortality registry; promoting professional training; providing support for families; and promoting basic and clinical research on dementia. Medium-term proposals aim to reduce dementia incidence and mortality by controlling risk factors and promoting healthy lifestyles, offering new treatment options and optimizing early detection. A set of indicators has been developed to evaluate strategy implementation. With this strategy, Cuba joins the small number of developing countries that have responded to WHO's call to improve care for patients with dementia and alleviate its impact on society and families. KEYWORDS Dementia, Alzheimer disease, aging, national health programs, social stigma, primary prevention, health promotion, civil rights, Cuba.

  3. The formation of means of agricultural family in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Eugenio León Hernández

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presen ts a historical outline about the formation of technical means in the Specialty Agriculture in Cuba , and shows how these characteristics are present in Pinar del Río province. It also make s an analysis of the current strategies of the formation of this personnel at international level.

  4. Fifty years of Cuba's medical diplomacy: from idealism to pragmatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinsilver, Julie M

    2010-01-01

    Medical diplomacy, the collaboration between countries to simultaneously produce health benefits and improve relations, has been a cornerstone of Cuban foreign policy since the outset of the revolution fifty years ago. It has helped Cuba garner symbolic capital (goodwill, influence, and prestige) well beyond what would have been possible for a small, developing country, and it has contributed to making Cuba a player on the world stage. In recent years, medical diplomacy has been instrumental in providing considerable material capital (aid, credit, and trade), as the oil-for-doctors deals with Venezuela demonstrates. This has helped keep the revolution afloat in trying economic times. What began as the implementation of the one of the core values of the revolution, namely health as a basic human right for all peoples, has continued as both an idealistic and a pragmatic pursuit. This article examines the factors that enabled Cuba to conduct medical diplomacy over the past fifty years, the rationale behind the conduct of this type of soft power politics, the results of that effort, and the mix of idealism and pragmatism that has characterized the experience. Moreover, it presents a typology of medical diplomacy that Cuba has used over the past fifty years.

  5. 31 CFR 515.563 - Journalistic activities in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Journalistic activities in Cuba. 515.563 Section 515.563 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued... the research constitutes a full work schedule that could not be accomplished in a shorter period of...

  6. Multi-scale landslide risk assessment in Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castellanos Abella, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    Landslides cause a considerable amount of damage in the mountainous regions of Cuba, which cover about 25% of the territory. Until now, only a limited amount of research has been carried out in the field of landslide risk assessment in the country. This research presents a methodology and its

  7. Socialism and Education in Cuba and Soviet Uzbekistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charon-Cardona, Euridice

    2013-01-01

    During the Cold War over half a million Asians, Africans and Latin Americans studied and graduated in the Soviet Union's universities and technical schools as part of this country's educational aid policies. Cuba was an intermediary player in the Cold War geopolitical contest between the United States and the Soviet Union, fuelled by the…

  8. Courting the future: cancer and genetics in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Describing this double issue of MEDICC Review could be an exercise for a first-year philosophy course in logic. It's not about "cancer and genetics" in Cuba. It's about cancer in Cuba and about genetics in Cuba, not about exploring relationships between them. Nevertheless, while the marriage of the two themes was fortuitous, in that the two had long been scheduled for the journal in 2014, there is a certain felicity to their sharing an issue. To date, the outstanding accomplishments of genetics have been most helpful for conditions occurring at the beginning of life and cancer is largely (though not exclusively) a disease related to aging. But the two are intrinsically connected: Although only a few of the more than 100 different diseases grouped under the term cancer are known to be hereditary, every cancer begins with a mutation in one or more genes, whether the mutation is inherited, due to an exposure, or is simply a random error in the millions of cell divisions that are part and parcel of cellular reproduction. Our cover image, a stained-glass window by Cuban artist Rosa María de la Terga at Cuba's National Medical Genetics Center, illustrates the elegance of the DNA molecule, the intricate key to life.

  9. Disaster management and multihazard risk assessment in Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castellanos Abella, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    The success, statistically proved, of the civil defense system in Cuba have been justified differently worldwide. While some experts relate this fact to the social welfare others debate about the forced evacuation. Beside, the long term development of disaster reduction in the country is commonly

  10. National bank of occupational Doses of the Cuba Republic: main results and experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdes Ramos, M.; Prendes Alonso, M.; Tomas Zerquera, J.; Molina Perez, D.; Soler Castro, A.

    2013-01-01

    The general objective of the development of the National Bank of Dose was to contribute for improving security monitoring in applications, by providing Cuban Regulatory Authority an effective tool to comply with the requirements that the records of individual occupational doses of Cuban workers are retained and available for competent authorities and individuals

  11. Actions to achieve competence in radiation protection practices in the Republic of Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prendes Alonso, M.; Tomas Zerquera, J.; Valdes Ramos, M.; Guillen Campos, A.; Santana Nunez, J.F.

    2013-01-01

    The article addresses the goals of a national project created with the purpose of systematize all actions of the country in this area, including the definition of the responsibilities of the participating institutions and the actions to ensure consistency with the guidelines of the IAEA in this field.The experiences of projects currently being developed in other countries, as it is the case of the European project ENETRAP, were taken into account in the conception of the project and its contents. The work also describes other actions that this field is developing in the country

  12. Optimization of radiological surveillance of occupationally-exposed workers in the Republic of Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This works analyzes the results of the dosimetric control to occupationally-exposed workers. during the 1987-1990 period. It states a criterium for knowing when it will be necessary to give or not an individual dosimeter to occupationally-exposed workers. It also proposes to take the dosimeter away to a number of workers as a result of such criterium

  13. Program of individual monitoring of the internal contamination and their implementation in the Republic the Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Bejerano, Gladys M.; Capote Ferrera, Eduardo; Fernandez Gomez, Isis M.; Acosta Rodriguez, Nancy; Carrazana Gonzalez, Jorge A.; Cruz Suarez, Rodolfo

    2008-01-01

    Full text: In different Cuban institutions linked fundamentally to the medical practice of nuclear medicine and the investigations, it is worked with sources open of ionizing radiations, that which makes indispensable the existence of a system of radiological surveillance that includes the control radiological individual of the received doses as a result of the occupational, such exhibition that is guaranteed that the exhibition of the Hard-working Exposed Occupationally, stay inside the recommended limits, in the International Basic Norms of Protection against the Ionizing radiations and safe-deposit of the Sources of Radiation (NBIS) and in turn adopted in the Norma Cuban. From the year 1986 in the Center of Protection and Hygiene of the Radiations is carried out in way centralized this control; but with the inconvenience of not being able to carry out the same one to workers from the domestic interior when not being feasible the transfer of these toward its headquarters, reason why the doses were ignored received in an important number of these. In and of itself the Laboratory of Internal Contamination of this institution in these years has developed managed works to define firstly, for each institution, the program of monitoring of the internal contamination of its workers using for it the methodology recommended by the OIEA where the potential doses are evaluated that for incorporation these they receive and whose results suggested the introduction of a program of individual monitoring as behavior to continue in most of the institutions. In correspondence with it was designed and established a program that included the study of feasibility of the existent equipment in the institutions to carry out the monitoring of the internal contamination using technical of measuring in vivo and in vitro, as it corresponds, their calibration, the establishment of procedures that respond to the requirements of a System of Quality for the Norma ISO/IEC 17025 and methodological guides to carry out the measuring, the personnel's training in charge of the same ones and the later evaluation of the doses. In the work the obtained results are presented with the installation of this program, which has facilitated so much to the hospital institutions as to the organ National Regulatory to have a tool for the evaluation of the requirements of Radiological Protection settled down in the country and to have the results of the same one at one time briefer, being favored this way the adoption of having measured should the need arise. (author)

  14. How discrimination and stress affects self-esteem among Dominican immigrant women: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchanadeswaran, Subadra; Dawson, Beverly Araujo

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the factors that contribute to the health disparities among racial and ethnic minorities in the United States is very important given the growing Latina population. Although researchers have investigated the health and mental health status among Latinas, the relationship between mental health and self-esteem has not been given a lot of attention. Given that self-esteem is a proxy for mental health status, investigations exploring the factors that can negatively affect self-esteem are needed. Therefore, the current study examined the influence of discrimination and stress on self-esteem among Dominican immigrant women. A cross-sectional study was undertaken among 235 immigrant Dominican women in New York City. Women (age 18-49 years) and in the United States for fewer than 20 years were more likely to report experiencing discrimination compared to women older than age 50 years and in the United States for more than 20 years. After controlling for age, time in the United States, educational level, and income, high levels of discrimination (-0.09, p < 0.01) and stress (-0.69, p < 0.001) were significantly associated with reduced self-esteem. Interventions with Latino/a populations, especially women, need to acknowledge their individual evaluations of the discriminatory and stressful experiences that negatively influence their self-esteem and subsequently their mental health status.

  15. Poliomyelitis and its elimination in Cuba: an historical overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldarraín, Enrique

    2013-04-01

    Polio was first detected in Cuba in the late 19th century among residents of the US community on the Isla de Pinos (Isle of Pines, now Isle of Youth), apparently introduced through migration from the USA. The first outbreak was reported in 1906 on the Isle, with the first epidemic reported in the former province of Las Villas in 1909. The epidemics subsequently intensified, by 1934 becoming periodic every four to five years, and accompanied by high morbidity, mortality and crippling sequelae, primarily among children. To review and analyze the history of polio and its control in Cuba, from the disease's first appearance in 1898 until WHO/PAHO certification of elimination in 1994. The historiological method was used; archival documents, medical records, and available polio morbidity and mortality statistics from the Ministry of Public Health's National Statistics Division before 1959 and from 1959 through 2000 were reviewed. Crude morbidity and mortality rates were calculated using population estimates at mid-period. Reports and scientific publications describing polio vaccination campaigns and their results were also reviewed, and key informants were interviewed. After initial introduction of polio in Cuba, five major epidemics occurred between 1932 and 1958: in 1934 (434 cases, 82 deaths); 1942 (494 cases, 58 deaths); 1946 (239 cases, 33 deaths), 1952 (492 cases, 15 deaths) and 1955 (267 cases, 8 deaths). Between 1957 and 1961 the disease's endemicity reached epidemic levels, with the last outbreak occurring in 1961, with 342 cases, 30% of them in children aged >4 years. In 1962, Cuba launched a nationwide polio vaccination campaign, the first of annual campaigns thereafter carried out in the framework of a coherent national program aimed at polio elimination. Using the Sabin oral vaccine and targeting the entire pediatric population in a single time period, five million doses were administered in the first campaign, reaching 87.5% of the target population aged 1

  16. Analogia ad legendum. Semantic, practical and compositional function of two pulpits in the Dominican church in Lublin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Kluz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Dominican church in Lublin contains an unusual example of two pulpits in a sacred interior, which are situated vis-à-vis at the rood arch. They were sculpted by Sebastian Zeisl, who, with the aid of his workshop, made the rococo furnishing of the church in the years 1756–1761. The sculptural decoration of the pulpits makes references to their preaching function, as well as to Dominican spirituality. The solution formally seems to have been inspired by the compositional model of two pulpits on either side of the altar, an elaboration of the symmetrical (stage-like organization of the sacred interior. The fact that the contractor was familiar with such layout could stem from the impact exerted by local inspiration (e.g. St. Anne’s church in Lubartów or the artist’s earlier Central European experience, probably including his education among Viennese artists. However, the construction of two Dominican pulpits, both of which were used (none of them is apparent may indicate that their roles could go beyond merely compositional ones. It seems that their emergence was influenced by individual needs of the Lublin Dominican monastery, especially their preaching practices. The knowledge gained so far allows us to suspect that the construction of the two pulpits is related to their role in the liturgy, namely the polemical sermons practised by the Order of Preachers in Lublin.

  17. Belonging, Place, and Identity: The Role of Social Trust in Developing the Civic Capacities of Transnational Dominican Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, Patrick Joseph

    2017-01-01

    In the context of transnational migration, schools are reimagining their role in preparing students to become democratic citizens. The qualitative research study described in this article explores the places where five Dominican transnational youth attending a New York City public high school for late-arriving migrants enacted their civic…

  18. La tuberculosis pulmonar, enfermedad reemergente en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita González Tapia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sr. Editor: La tuberculosis es una de las enfermedades remergentes en Cuba; por ello en todas las provincias cubanas se trabaja con mucha fuerza, dedicación y profesionalidad con respecto a esta problemática. En este contexto, resulta muy acertada la publicación del artículo “Algunas variables clínico-epidemiológicas de la tuberculosis pulmonar. Puerto Padre, 2008-2012”, que salió en el Vol.38 No.6.01 del mes de junio de 2013 de la Revista Electrónica Dr. Zoilo E. Marinello Vidaurreta; tanto por el significado social que reviste la divulgación de este tema, como por el propio resultado de la investigación realizada. La historia de la tuberculosis es un tema apasionante. En pocas enfermedades es posible documentar su estrecha relación con la historia de la propia humanidad como en la que nos ocupa. Existen evidencias paleológicas de tuberculosis vertebral en momias egipcias que datan aproximadamente del año 2400 a.C. La tuberculosis se ha conocido a través de la historia, con los nombres de: tisis, consunción, escrófula, mal de Pott, plaga blanca y mal del rey.1 En el artículo se plantea como conclusión que la tendencia de la tuberculosis en el quinquenio de estudio es estacionaria, pero en los últimos cuatro años tiende al ascenso. En los casos diagnosticados de tuberculosis en este quinquenio más de dos tercios correspondieron al sexo masculino y mayores de 45 años, las ocupaciones que más prevalecieron fueron recluso, desocupado, ama de casa y jubilado. Los factores de riesgo que más se relacionaron fueron el albergamiento prolongado en instituciones cerradas, el alcoholismo, y la edad mayor de 65 años; la forma clínica de mayor incidencia en casi la totalidad de los pacientes fue la pulmonar y, dentro de ella, los casos con baciloscopia positiva. Hubo fallas en el diagnóstico, ya que alrededor de la mitad de los casos se diagnosticaron en la atención secundaria y con un tiempo de demora de más de dos meses de

  19. Central Asian Republic Info

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — CAR Info is designed and managed by the Central Asian Republic Mission to fill in the knowledge and reporting gaps in existing agency systems for that Mission. It...

  20. Kyrgyz Republic; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2013-01-01

    Performance of the banking sector during the crisis and challenges are discussed. The impact of the political crisis on the banking sector is outlined. The Kyrgyz Republic is one of the most open economies in the world. Gross international reserves (GIR) in the Kyrgyz Republic have increased more than sixfold in the last decade. Gold exports, remittances, and official development assistance have become important sources of reserve accumulation. The current level of reserves in the Kyrgyz Repu...

  1. Radium-226 on drinking water of Camaguey, Cuba; Radio-226 en agua potable de Camaguey, Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montalvan Estrada, Adelmo; Brigido Flores, Osvaldo; Barrera Caballero, Aldo [Centro de Atencion a la Actividad Nuclear, Camaguey (Cuba)]. E-mail: sean@caonao.cmw.inf.cu; Escalante, Alexander [Centro Provincial de Higiene y Epidemiologia, Camaguey (Cuba)

    2001-07-01

    The specific activity of Ra-226 in drinking water of Camaguey city, Cuba, was measured using the emanometric method. The specific activity of Ra-226 in drinking water ranged from 15 {+-} 5 mBq.l{sup -1} to 39 {+-}12 mBq.l{sup -1}. The mean specific activity of Ra-226 was found to be 27 {+-} 8 mBq.l{sup -1}. No seasonal variation was found. Water samples were collected from the two main sources of drinking water: private wells and governmental water supply system, being the mean specific activities of Ra-226: 25 {+-} 7 mBq.l{sup -1} and 31 {+-} 9 mBq.l{sup -1} , respectively. Based upon measured concentrations the age-dependent associated effective doses due to the ingestion of Ra-226, as a consequence of direct consumption of drinking water, have been calculated. For the age interval 1 year to 5 years, the average effective dose was 6,2 {mu}Sv.y{sup -1}, and for adults the average effective dose was 5,2 {mu}Sv.y{sup -1}. (author)

  2. Perspectives of colorectal cancer risk and screening among Dominicans and Puerto Ricans: stigma and misperceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Roberta E; Diaz, Joseph A; Kim, Ivone

    2009-11-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second most common cancer among Latinos, but a lower percentage of Latinos are screened than Whites and Blacks. Along with recognized economic barriers, differences in knowledge and perceptions might impede colorectal screening among Latinos. We conducted 147 individual, qualitative interviews with Dominicans and Puerto Ricans in the northeastern United States to explore their explanatory models for colorectal cancer and screening barriers. Many participants had not previously heard of colorectal cancer. The most commonly mentioned cause of colorectal cancer was anal sex. Also considered risks were "bad food," digestion leading to constipation, and strained bowel movements. Screening barriers included stigma, misperceptions, embarrassment, and machismo. Progress toward increasing colorectal cancer screening requires normalization of this screening among Latinos. Higher patient familiarity, along with improved physician counseling and referral, might contribute to reducing stigma and other barriers, and to enhancing knowledge and Latino community support of colorectal cancer screening.

  3. Cuba's transition to market-based energy prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Lopez, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    Since 1960 the Soviet Union has been, for all practical purposes, Cuba's exclusive supplier of energy products. For certain time periods, Soviet sales of oil and oil products to Cuba were made at concessional prices; prior to 1991, they were priced using transferable rubles and were essentially bartered for Cuban goods, especially sugar. Effective January 1, 1991, the Soviet Union shifted to world market prices and convertible currency payments for all traded commodities, including energy products. The shift to market prices and convertible currencies in Cuban-Soviet energy trade has already brought - or is likely to bring - a number of adjustments in four areas: (1) the trade balance; (2) the ability to reexport oil and oil products; (3) energy consumption patterns; (4) and the structure of energy supplies. 33 refs., 8 tabs

  4. China, Global Governance and the Future of Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian H. Hearn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available China’s deepening engagement with Latin America has been accompanied by concerns about the Chinese government’s regard for international conventions of economic governance. Critics claim that across Latin America and the Caribbean, Chinese aid and trade are characterised by excessive state intervention. This article argues that, for two reasons, the rationale for these misgivings is dissipating. First, since the onset of the global financial crisis, China has gained influence in multilateral institutions, prompting them toward greater acceptance of public spending in developing countries. Second, recent developments in Cuba show that China is actively encouraging the Western hemisphere’s only communist country to liberalise its economy. China sits at the crossroads of these local and global developments, prompting Cuba toward rapprochement with international norms even as it works to reform them.

  5. Development and current state of dosimetry in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto Miranda, E.F.; Cuesta Fuente, G.; Chavez Ardanza, A.

    1999-01-01

    In Cuba, the application of the radiation technologies has been growing in the last years, and at present there are several dosimetry systems with different ranges of absorbed dose. Diverse researches were carried out on high dose dosimetry with the following dosimetry systems: Fricke, ceric-cerous sulfate, ethanol-chlorobenzene, cupric sulfate and Perspex (Red 4034 AE and Clear HX). In this paper the development achieved during the last 15 years in the high dose dosimetry for radiation processing in Cuba is presented, as well as, the current state of different dosimetry systems employed for standardization and for process control. The paper also reports the results of dosimetry intercomparison studies that were performed with the Ezeiza Atomic Center of Argentine and the International Dose Assurance Service (IDAS) of IAEA. (author)

  6. Anglicism in the press of Santiago de Cuba city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusnel Tabares-Tabares

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The preliminary findings from an unfinished investigation having a synchronic approach are presented. The objective of this study is to analyze the English loanwords that appear in the press of Santiago de Cuba city at the beginning of the XX century. This analysis will allow to draw significant conclusions concerning the presence of anglicisms in the Spanish spoken in Cuba. The methodology is based on a random revision of “El Cubano Libre” newspaper, at the time it is counted some aspects, namely: how many anglicisms were found, their typology, grammatical category, their frequency of appearance, and the year they were published in the dictionary of the Spanish Royal Academy.  Among the outstanding results is remarkable that few English loanwords were registered in the dictionary of the Spanish Royal Academy, the topics more profitable to search were those of politics and sport, and the sort of anglicisms more frequent belong to the category of patent loanword.

  7. Calibration of F-18 activity for PET applications in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    León, Yecenia Moreno; Verdecia, Pilar Oropesa; Rodríguez, Lourdes García; Águila, Rolando A. Serra; Magaña, Yoel Jénez; Hechavarría, Ailec Bell; Pérez, Nayla; Cacero, Maray Dubalón; Ruiz, Javier Mas

    2016-01-01

    In the paper we present the results of the calibration of the concentration of F-18 dissolution activity in Cuba. Methods of measurement in a calibrated well ionization chamber, traceable to the UK national standard and gamma spectrometry yielded equivalent results within the limit of the associated uncertainties, respectively. The measurement uncertainties of the F-18 activity of the secondary standard activity activator, CAPINTEC CRCTM 15R, obtained from calibration of the instrument with the calibrated solutions of radionuclide, are also shown for the measurement of samples in the geometries of interest in Nuclear Medicine: glass jars and plastic syringes. The results presented in this paper constitute the necessary metrological support for the use of F-18 radiopharmaceuticals and the new PET and PET / CT technologies in medical practice in Cuba.

  8. La postemancipación y trabajo en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Zeuske

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza los procesos de transculturación y fecundación mutua entre los espacios de trabajo en la postemancipación. El caso de Cuba es complejo, pues se dio en una época de desestructuración progresiva de la esclavitud, jalonada por guerras anticoloniales y una modernización tecnológica ininterrumpida. Se argumenta que aunque las condiciones de trabajo no mejoraron en lo sustancial, sí lo hizo la división sexual del trabajo, los patrones de movilidad, y el acceso a la propiedad informal de la tierra. La modernización de Cuba como productor azucarero introdujo fuerzas de inmenso calado en las luchas sociales del período.

  9. Origin of invasive Florida frogs traced to Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinicke, Matthew P.; Diaz, Luis M.; Hedges, S. Blair

    2011-01-01

    Two of the earliest examples of successful invasive amphibians are the greenhouse frog (Eleutherodactylus planirostris) and the Cuban treefrog (Osteopilus septentrionalis) in Florida. Although both are generally assumed to be recent introductions, they are widespread on Caribbean islands and also have been proposed as natural colonizers. We obtained nucleotide sequence data for both species and their closest relatives in their native and introduced ranges. Phylogenetic analyses trace the origin of E. planirostris to a small area in western Cuba, while O. septentrionalis is derived from at least two Cuban sources, one probably a remote peninsula in western Cuba. The tropical-to-temperate invasion began with colonization of the Florida Keys followed by human-mediated dispersal within peninsular Florida. The subtropical Keys may have served as an adaptive stepping stone for the successful invasion of the North American continent. PMID:21270024

  10. [A battle won: the elimination of poliomyelitis in Cuba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaple, Enrique Beldarraín

    2015-01-01

    Poliomyelitis was introduced in Cuba in the late nineteenth century by American residents in Isla de Pinos. The first epidemics occurred in 1906 and 1909 and increased in intensity between 1930 and 1958. The scope of the paper is to reconstruct the history of the disease and its epidemics in Cuba prior to 1961, the first National Polio Vaccination Campaign (1962) and its results, as well as analyze the ongoing annual vaccination campaigns through to certified elimination of the disease (1994). The logical historical method was used and archival documents and statistics from the Ministry of Health on morbidity and mortality through 2000 were reviewed. Gross morbidity and mortality rates were calculated and interviews with key figures were conducted.

  11. Europa y Estados Unidos ante los Derechos Humanos en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Gratius

    2008-01-01

    de la UE no han sido estrategias eficaces para promover los derechos humanos en la isla. Al ser diferentes, las políticas de la UE y EEUU incluso han contribuido a mantener el régimen castrista en el poder: la UE por su reconocimiento diplomático y la cooperación económica; EEUU, al proporcionar una imagen de enemigo externo. Por ello, y ante el nuevo panorama que ofrece el cambio de gobierno en Cuba, la próxima revisión de la Posición Común de la UE y las elecciones presidenciales en EEUU, es necesario replantearse los objetivos y estrategias políticas para incentivar los derechos humanos en Cuba.

  12. Historical an insight into the teaching of philosophy in Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Lidia Beltrán-Marín; Greten Lauren Blanco-Montesino; Lesly León-Montesino

    2018-01-01

    The teaching of philosophy in Cuba has been related to events in economic and political life, which leads to the boundaries between the various stages of its teaching are linked to the transformations of its general historical evolution. This work aims to contribute to the training of educational professional’s specialties of history and marxism, and to expand cuban philosophical historiography. Among other methods, analysis and synthesis and logical history were used, complemented by an in-d...

  13. An overview of sugarcane brown rust in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María La O

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Multiple pathogens affect sugarcane, among them Puccinia melanocephala, the causal agent of brown rust. This disease was first reported in Cuba in 1979 when it was responsible for a severe attack on the main sugarcane variety B4362. The aims of the present study were to give an overview of sugarcane brown rust in Cuba and show the current disease situation in the country. A retrospective analysis regard to sugarcane cultivar composition resistant to brown rust in Cuba was carried out. In addition 154 genotypes, including the most used progenitors in the breeding program and commercial varieties were evaluated under natural infection conditions. The identity of P. melanocephala was verified by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR and by sequencing the ITS1 region. After the introduction of P. melanocephala into Cuba, the susceptible variety, B4362, was replaced by Ja60-5 which remained resistant until 1998. Since 2002, a varietal policy supported by a governmental resolution establishing that any single cultivar cannot occupy more than 20 % of the production area for each production company, local area and province, has been applied. Out of the genotypes evaluated, 49 showed resistance to the disease and 35 intermediate behavior, while 39 were susceptible and 31, highly susceptible. P. melanocephala was detected by PCR in all symptomatic samples and its identify confirmed by sequencing the ITS1 region. The adopted measurement together with permanent phytosanitary monitoring and commercial release of resistant or intermediate cultivars succeeded in avoiding any new epidemic. Inoculum pressure was reduced, even on susceptible and highly susceptible varieties since, by resolution, they cannot occupy more than 10 % of the planted area.

  14. Phylodynamics of the HIV-1 epidemic in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delatorre, Edson; Bello, Gonzalo

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the HIV-1 epidemic in Cuba displayed a complex molecular epidemiologic profile with circulation of several subtypes and circulating recombinant forms (CRF); but the evolutionary and population history of those viral variants remains unknown. HIV-1 pol sequences of the most prevalent Cuban lineages (subtypes B, C and G, CRF18_cpx, CRF19_cpx, and CRFs20/23/24_BG) isolated between 1999 and 2011 were analyzed. Maximum-likelihood analyses revealed multiple introductions of subtype B (n≥66), subtype C (n≥10), subtype G (n≥8) and CRF18_cpx (n≥2) viruses in Cuba. The bulk of HIV-1 infections in this country, however, was caused by dissemination of a few founder strains probably introduced from North America/Europe (clades B(CU-I) and B(CU-II)), east Africa (clade C(CU-I)) and central Africa (clades G(CU), CRF18(CU) and CRF19(CU)), or locally generated (clades CRFs20/23/24_BG). Bayesian-coalescent analyses show that the major HIV-1 founder strains were introduced into Cuba during 1985-1995; whereas the CRFs_BG strains emerged in the second half of the 1990s. Most HIV-1 Cuban clades appear to have experienced an initial period of fast exponential spread during the 1990s and early 2000s, followed by a more recent decline in growth rate. The median initial growth rate of HIV-1 Cuban clades ranged from 0.4 year⁻¹ to 1.6 year⁻¹. Thus, the HIV-1 epidemic in Cuba has been a result of the successful introduction of a few viral strains that began to circulate at a rather late time of the AIDS pandemic, but then were rapidly disseminated through local transmission networks.

  15. EL LARGO COMPROMISO DE CANADÁ CON CUBA: PARADOJAS Y POSIBILIDADES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas LEGLER

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Tanto la Unión Europea como América Latina, e incluso Estados Unidos, han iniciado distintos procesos de diálogo con Cuba. ¿Cuáles lecciones relevantes se pueden extraer de la larga historia canadiense de compromiso con la Revolución Cubana? Este artículo documenta la evolución de las relaciones entre Canadá y Cuba desde la década de 1940, centrándose en sus altibajos desde que se lanzó, a mediados de la década de 1990, una política de «compromiso constructivo ». Se argumenta que este acercamiento (en sus diversas formas no ha tenido mayor influencia en la liberalización de la política cubana. Además, la poca influencia que Canadá pudo haber tenido durante el «Periodo Especial» ha disminuido con la recuperación económica y diversificación de las relaciones exteriores de Cuba en la última década. En ese sentido, los autores concluyen que la estrategia más apropiada para Canadá y otros actores es llevar a cabo un acercamiento coordinado y de largo plazo que brinde apoyo a una variedad de procesos endógenos de cambio en Cuba. Una estrategia realista debería incluir diálogo de bajo perfil con el régimen actual, cooperación con un amplio espectro de posibles reformadores dentro y fuera del Estado y apoyo para la realización de cambios sociales más extensos a través del comercio, la inversión extranjera, el turismo así como los intercambios académicos y culturales.

  16. Nuclear instrumentation in Cuba and for osseous densitometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrero, M.; Lopez, B.; Bolanos, L.; Fernandez, J.L.; Cabal, A.; Medina, D.; Laria, J.; Alonso, D.

    1997-01-01

    The present job describes the technical characteristics and operation of two clinical equipment designed in Cuba, for the determination in vivo of the osseous mineral content in forearm, based on the of gamma absorption technique of a single photon. The development of these equipment and the measurements done with one of them are the first intents carried out in the country to diagnose osseous illnesses by means of this method. (author) [es

  17. CUBA: TRANSICIÓN, SUCESIÓN, ESTABILIDAD, SEGURIDAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín ROY

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este análisis trata de la relación entre la estabilidad del presente gobierno cubano y la necesidad de seguridad en su territorio y en la zona circundante. Este vínculo se produce en un momento político de Cuba, entre un primer paso de la sucesión de Fidel Castro a Raúl, sin que se den señales claras de una transición hacia otro tipo de sistema político. Mientras tanto, el gobierno de Estados Unidos ha declarado que su prioridad estriba en el reestablecimiento de la democracia en Cuba, tanto durante el último periodo de la administración de George W. Bush como con Barack Obama ya asentado en la Casa Blanca. Sin embargo, las delicadas circunstancias de Cuba (precariedad económica, desastres naturales, dependencia alimentaria y energética, etc. señalan que la prioridad de los intereses nacionales de Estados Unidos se centran primero en la estabilidad del escenario. Incluso al precio del retraso de la evolución del régimen, un cierto grado de seguridad es necesario para enfrentarse a los riesgos de una emigración incontrolada y las hipotéticas tensiones internas que provoquen confrontaciones.

  18. Tricontinental Routes of Solidarity: Stokely Carmichael in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Seidman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Stokely Carmichael’s visit to Cuba for three weeks in the summer of 1967 illustrates a convergence in the transnational routes of the African American freedom struggle and the Cuban Revolution. African American activists saw Cuba as a model for resisting US power, eradicating racism, and enacting societal change, while the Cuban government considered African Americans allies against US imperialism and advocates of Cuba’s antiracist stance. Amidst racial violence in the United States and Cuba’s efforts to inspire revolution, Carmichael’s presence at the Organization of Latin American Solidarity conference in Havana—and in particular his interactions with Fidel Castro—caused ripples worldwide. A shared “tricontinental” vision that promoted unity in the Global South against imperialism, capitalism, and racism facilitated Carmichael’s solidarity with Castro. Yet divergent views on the role of race in fighting oppression limited their solidarity. Carmichael and Castro’s spectacular alliance demonstrated their personal affinity and ideological commonalities but did not result in an institutional alliance between the black liberation movement and the Cuban state. Instead Carmichael’s connection with the Cuban Revolution left an underexplored legacy. Examining Carmichael’s visit to Cuba illustrates the possibilities and pitfalls of transnational solidarity and furthers our understanding of postwar struggles for change.

  19. Risk factors for wheezing in infants born in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venero-Fernández, S J; Suárez-Medina, R; Mora-Faife, E C; García-García, G; Valle-Infante, I; Gómez-Marrero, L; Abreu-Suárez, G; González-Valdez, J; Fabró-Ortiz, D Dania; Fundora-Hernández, H; Venn, A; Britton, J; Fogarty, A W

    2013-11-01

    Cuba is a unique country, and despite limited economic development, has an excellent health system. However, the prevalence of asthma symptoms in children in Havana, Cuba, is unusually high. As early life exposures are critical to the aetiology of asthma, we have studied environmental influences on the risk of wheezing in Cuban infants. Cross-sectional study. A random sample of 2032 children aged 12-15 months living in Havana was selected for inclusion in the cohort. Data were collected using questionnaires administered by researchers. Of 2032 infants invited to participate, 1956 (96%) infants provided data. The prevalence of any wheeze was 45%, severe wheeze requiring use of emergency services was 30% and recurrent wheeze on three or more occasions was 20%. The largest adjusted risk factors for any wheeze were presence of eczema [odds ratio (OR) 2.09; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.48-2.94], family history of asthma (OR 2.05; 95% CI 1.60-2.62), poor ventilation in the house (OR 1.99; 95% CI 1.48-2.67), attendance at nursery (OR 1.78; 95% CI 1.24-2.57), male sex (OR1.52; 95% CI 1.19-1.96) and the number of smokers in the house (P Cuba. As the prevalence of smoking in the house is high (51%), intervention studies are required to determine effective strategies to improve infant health.

  20. In Defense of Clinical Autopsy and Its Practice in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Brito, Alfredo D; de Mendoza-Amat, José Hurtado

    2017-01-01

    There has been a notable decrease in the global practice of clinical autopsy; the rate has fallen to below 10%, even in high-income countries. This is attributed to several causes, including increased costs, overreliance on modern diagnostic techniques, cultural and religious factors, the emergence of new infectious diseases and negative attitudes on the part of doctors, even pathologists. Alternative methods to autopsy in postmortem studies have been developed based on imaging, endoscopy and biopsy (all quite expensive). These methods have been used in developed countries but never as effectively as the classic autopsy for identifying cause of death and potential medical errors. Although Cuba has also seen a decrease in its autopsy rates, they remain comparatively high. Between 1996 and 2015, there were 687,689 hospital deaths in Cuba and 381,193 autopsies, 55.4% of the total. These autopsies have positively affected medical care, training, research, innovation, management and society as a whole. Autopsies are an important tool in the National Health System's quest for safe, quality patient care based on the lessons learned from studying the deceased. KEYWORDS Autopsy, postmortem examination, postmortem diagnosis, quality of care, patient safety, medical error, Cuba.

  1. La drepanocitosis en Cuba. Estudio en niños: Study in children Drepanocytosis in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Svarch

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available La drepanocitosis es la anemia hemolítica determinada genéticamente más frecuente en el mundo. En Cuba, la frecuencia del estado de portador es del 3,08 % en la población general. La fisiopatología de la oclusión vascular es muy compleja; involucra la polimerización de la Hb S, las alteraciones de la membrana del hematíe, las moléculas de adhesión, las citocinas inflamatorias, los factores de la coagulación y lesiones del endotelio vascular. Las manifestaciones clínicas más frecuentes son: las crisis vasooclusivas dolorosas, el síndrome torácico agudo, la crisis de secuestro esplénico, la crisis aplástica, la necrosis aséptica de la cabeza del fémur y la úlcera maleolar. El cuadro clínico es muy variable: desde niños que mueren temprano en la vida hasta pacientes que alcanzan la sexta década de la vida. En el Instituto de Hematología e Inmunología existe un Programa de Atención Integral que incluye: seguimiento sistemático desde temprano en la vida en una consulta especializada, la administración de ácido fólico de forma permanente y de penicilina oral profiláctica los primeros 5 años de la vida; así como la educación del niño y de sus padres. Desde 1986 se realiza esplenectomía parcial en la crisis de secuestro esplénico con excelentes resultados. Entre 2004-2008 fallecieron solamente 16 enfermos en todo el país y en 397 adultos la sobrevida fue de 53 años en la anemia drepanocítica y de 58 en la hemoglobinopatía SC. Como resultado de este programa, en los últimos años la sobrevida ha aumentado, la calidad de vida del paciente ha mejorado y han disminuido los costos invertidos en el tratamiento de las complicaciones.Drepanocytosis is the hemolytic anemia more frequent genetically determined in the world. In Cuba, the frequency of carrier status is of 3,08% in general population. The pathophysiology of vascular occlusion is very complex; includes the polymerization of the Hb S, the alterations of red

  2. MÚSICA CAMPESINA Y CULTURA POPULAR EN CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radisbel Galán Rizo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen La música campesina en Cuba constituye la base fundamental para el estudio de la cultura del país. En ella confluye junto a escasos elementos de la población aborigen las culturas de diferentes etnias que conformaron el amplio mosaico cultural de la Isla siendo la música campesina síntesis inequívoca de este proceso. A través de un análisis crítico, se tomaron en consideración ideas planteadas por varios autores, lo que permite enriquecer los términos y la comprensión del tema. El estudio de la realidad posibilitó analizar la presencia de la música campesina en el contexto nacional a través de sus componentes étnicos, motivaciones, características, rasgos originales, evolución histórica y social como parte indisoluble en la conformación de la nación y su salvaguarda como reafirmación de identidad. De esta forma, el presente texto responde a la insuficiencia de información acerca de los esfuerzos para la salvaguarda y rescate de la tradición musical campesina en Cuba. PALABRAS CLAVE: Música campesina; cultura popular; identidad. THE CONTRY MUSIC AND POPULAR CULTURE IN CUBA ABSTRACT The country music in Cuba is the fundamental for the study of the country's culture base. It converges with few elements of Aboriginal people from different ethnic cultures that shaped the broad cultural mosaic of the island country music being unequivocal synthesis of this process. Through critical analysis, were taken into consideration ideas raised by several authors, allowing enrich the terms and understanding of the subject. The study of reality allowed analyze the presence of country music in the national context through its ethnic components, motivations, characteristics, original features, historical and social evolution as an indissoluble part in shaping the nation and its protection as a reaffirmation of identity. Thus, this text responds to insufficient information on efforts to safeguard and rescue of peasant musical

  3. Acute myocardial infarction mortality in Cuba, 1999-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Nurys B; Ortega, Yanela Y; de la Noval, Reinaldo; Suárez, Ramón; Llerena, Lorenzo; Dueñas, Alfredo F

    2012-10-01

    Acute myocardial infarction is one of the leading causes of death in the world. This is also true in Cuba, where no national-level epidemiologic studies of related mortality have been published in recent years. Describe acute myocardial infarction mortality in Cuba from 1999 through 2008. A descriptive study was conducted of persons aged ≥25 years with a diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction from 1999 through 2008. Data were obtained from the Ministry of Public Health's National Statistics Division database for variables: age; sex; site (out of hospital, in hospital or in hospital emergency room) and location (jurisdiction) of death. Proportions, age- and sex-specific rates and age-standardized overall rates per 100,000 population were calculated and compared over time, using the two five-year time frames within the study period. A total of 145,808 persons who had suffered acute myocardial infarction were recorded, 75,512 of whom died, for a case-fatality rate of 51.8% (55.1% in 1999-2003 and 49.7% in 2004-2008). In the first five-year period, mortality was 98.9 per 100,000 population, falling to 81.8 per 100,000 in the second; most affected were people aged ≥75 years and men. Of Cuba's 14 provinces and special municipality, Havana, Havana City and Camagüey provinces, and the Isle of Youth Special Municipality showed the highest mortality; Holguín, Ciego de Ávila and Granma provinces the lowest. Out-of-hospital deaths accounted for the greatest proportion of deaths in both five-year periods (54.8% and 59.2% in 1999-2003 and 2004-2008, respectively). Although risk of death from acute myocardial infarction decreased through the study period, it remains a major health problem in Cuba. A national acute myocardial infarction case registry is needed. Also required is further research to help elucidate possible causes of Cuba's high acute myocardial infarction mortality: cardiovascular risk studies, studies of out-of-hospital mortality and quality of care

  4. 75 FR 8791 - Continuation of the National Emergency Relating to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating to the Regulation of the Anchorage and Movement of... February 23, 2010 Continuation of the National Emergency Relating to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority....-registered civilian aircraft in international airspace north of Cuba. On February 26, 2004, by Proclamation...

  5. 76 FR 11071 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-28

    ...--Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating to the... Respect to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating to the Regulation of the Anchorage and Movement of... north of Cuba. On February 26, 2004, by Proclamation 7757, the national emergency was extended and its...

  6. 78 FR 13207 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ...--Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating to the... Respect to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating to the Regulation of the Anchorage and Movement of... north of Cuba. On February 26, 2004, by Proclamation 7757, the national emergency was extended and its...

  7. First results of the radiological surveillance of RIT trial for high grade astrocytomas in Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amador Balbona, Z.H.; Pardo Ayra, F.E.; Torres Berdeguez, M.B. [Isotope Centre, Havana (Cuba). Radiation Protection Dept.

    2004-07-01

    The first phase of the clinical trial using the humanized monoclonal antibody h-R3 labeled with {sup 188} Re, for radioimmunotherapy (RIT) of brain tumors began in the Republic of Cuba in 2002. This monoclonal antibody was obtained in the country and it is required to evaluate its toxicity, biodistribution and internal radiation dosimetry. Five groups of three patients of each one with an administered activity from 0.37 GBq to 1.1 GBq, are considered. The aim of this work is to assess workers doses and public doses for this research and to compare projected doses with the first results related to the radiological surveillance. The contribution to the total effective dose and equivalent dose in extremities are calculated with the code Microshield version 4.0 by each activity level, operation and total quantity of patients. We take into account radioactive decay of {sup 188} Re and consider that only a person made all of the operations during this study. It is demonstrated that individual doses are acceptable and lower than world average effective annual dose of natural radiation background (2.4 mSv), because for the operations of more risk are used individual protection means. Nevertheless, it is identified that nurses are the most exposed. The projected maximum equivalent dose to hands is about 4 mSv and it belongs to the neurosurgeon. Radiological surveillance is performed to verify our calculations. Five workers and public (four individuals) are monitoring for each patient with direct reading dosimeters DOSICARD and TLD for extremities. For the first seven patients results are obtained. The conservative assumptions in the dose assessment and the compliance with established safety procedures determine that the registered doses are lower than those were projected. RIT with 188 Re for high-grade astrocytomas is a safety practice from radiation protection point of view. There is not a reference of a similar study in Latin America. (author)

  8. First results of the radiological surveillance of RIT trial for high grade astrocytomas in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amador Balbona, Z.H.; Pardo Ayra, F.E.; Torres Berdeguez, M.B.

    2004-01-01

    The first phase of the clinical trial using the humanized monoclonal antibody h-R3 labeled with 188 Re, for radioimmunotherapy (RIT) of brain tumors began in the Republic of Cuba in 2002. This monoclonal antibody was obtained in the country and it is required to evaluate its toxicity, biodistribution and internal radiation dosimetry. Five groups of three patients of each one with an administered activity from 0.37 GBq to 1.1 GBq, are considered. The aim of this work is to assess workers doses and public doses for this research and to compare projected doses with the first results related to the radiological surveillance. The contribution to the total effective dose and equivalent dose in extremities are calculated with the code Microshield version 4.0 by each activity level, operation and total quantity of patients. We take into account radioactive decay of 188 Re and consider that only a person made all of the operations during this study. It is demonstrated that individual doses are acceptable and lower than world average effective annual dose of natural radiation background (2.4 mSv), because for the operations of more risk are used individual protection means. Nevertheless, it is identified that nurses are the most exposed. The projected maximum equivalent dose to hands is about 4 mSv and it belongs to the neurosurgeon. Radiological surveillance is performed to verify our calculations. Five workers and public (four individuals) are monitoring for each patient with direct reading dosimeters DOSICARD and TLD for extremities. For the first seven patients results are obtained. The conservative assumptions in the dose assessment and the compliance with established safety procedures determine that the registered doses are lower than those were projected. RIT with 188 Re for high-grade astrocytomas is a safety practice from radiation protection point of view. There is not a reference of a similar study in Latin America. (author)

  9. Methodology applied in Cuba for siting, designing, and building a radioactive waste repository under safety conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orbera, L.; Peralta, J.L.; Franklin, R.; Gil, R.; Chales, G.; Rodriguez, A.

    1993-01-01

    The work presents the methodology used in Cuba for siting, designing, and building a radioactive waste repository safely. This methodology covers both the technical and socio-economic factors, as well as those of design and construction so as to have a safe siting for this kind of repository under Cuba especial condition. Applying this methodology will results in a safe repository

  10. Technical project of a solar water heating system for Hostal FRATERNIDAD, Santiago de Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arzuaga Machado, Yusnel; Torres Ten, Alonso; Fonseca Fonseca, Susana; Fuetes lombá, Osmanys; Massipe Hernández, J. Raúl; Gonzalez, Wagner Roberto

    2017-01-01

    It is presented the technical project of a solar water heating system for Hostal FRATERNIDAD, Santiago de Cuba, Cuba, 20 Cabannas type tourism and a one of 2 square meter flat solar collector will be used, with a storage tank of 200 liters capacity, that is to say one system per cabin. (author)

  11. Leguminosas naturalizadas en el Valle del Cauto, Cuba Naturalized legumes in the Cauto Valley, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gómez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar la dinámica de crecimiento de 24 accesiones del género Brachiaria spp., se desarrolló la presente investigación en la región de Barrancabermeja, Santander, Colombia. Se utilizó un diseño experimental completamente aleatorizado, en 72 parcelas de 21 m2 cada una y tres réplicas (parcelas para cada tratamiento. Las accesiones fueron agrupadas según los hábitos de crecimiento en: estoloníferas, decumbentes y erectas, y se determinó la tasa de crecimiento en función de la altura del pasto. Las accesiones con mejor crecimiento durante la investigación fueron: de las estoloníferas, B. dictyoneura CIAT-6133; de las de hábito decumbente, B. decumbens CIAT-606; y de las de crecimiento erecto, B. brizantha CIAT-16113, CIAT-26110, CIAT-26318 y CIAT-16322. Algunas accesiones no tuvieron un buen comportamiento, al parecer por las condiciones edafoclimáticas a las que fueron sometidas. Entre ellas se encuentran B. dictyoneura CIAT-16871, B. ruziziensis CIAT-26180 y B. brizantha CIAT-16212, 26124 y 26427.With the objective of prospect and collect the naturalized legumes for livestock production usage in the Cauto Valley, Cuba, two searches were made in representative zones of the region. The first search was conducted in the territory located west of Bayamo city, where there are different soils and rainfall regimes, and the second one on soils affected by salinity. In prospection number 1 the presence of 17 genera was determined and within them a total of 22 species, among which the following prevailed: Galactia spiciformis, Centrosema molle, Desmodium triflorum and Teramnus uncinatum; the existence of an important number of species was also known on vertisol soils with deficient drainage, which edaphic grouping constitutes the most extended in the region, and on the other hand, the associability degree of each legume with other species of the spontaneous vegetation present in the search areas, was characterized. In

  12. Guardians of the Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    them reason to make use of it to the best advantage of life and convenience." John Locke, An Essay Concerning the True Original Extent and End of Civil...a contextual conception of justice early in the Republic, when the young character Polemarchus offers and adopts the opinion of the lyric poet

  13. Czech Republic [2016

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kudrnáč, Aleš; Petrúšek, Ivan; Linek, Lukáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 1 (2016), s. 69-75 ISSN 2047-8852 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-29032S Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : Czech politics * political parties * Czech Republic Subject RIV: AD - Politology ; Political Sciences http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/2047-8852.12130/full

  14. Tuberculosis mortality trends in cuba, 1998 to 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Edilberto; Risco, Grisel E; Borroto, Susana; Perna, Abel; Armas, Luisa

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Tuberculosis (TB) is a major cause of illness and death throughout the world. The World Health Organization's Global Plan to Stop TB 2006-2015 proposes that countries cut TB mortality by half compared to 1990 rates. In Cuba, TB mortality declined steadily throughout the 20th century, particularly after 1960. Objective Describe TB mortality distribution and trends in Cuba from January 1998 to December 2007 by infection site, sex, age and province, and determine progress towards the WHO's 2015 target for TB mortality reduction. Methods A time series ecological study was conducted. Death certificates stating TB as cause of death were obtained from the Ministry of Public Health's National Statistics Division, and population data by age group, sex, and province were obtained from the National Statistics Bureau. Crude and specific death rate trends and variation were analyzed. Results TB mortality declined from 0.4 per 100,000 population in 1998 to 0.2 (under half the 1990 rate) in 2007. Clinical forms of the disease, both pulmonary and extrapulmonary, also declined. The highest mortality rates were found in males and in the group aged ≥ 65 years. Rates were also highest in the capital, Havana, with extreme values of 0.73 and 0.39 per 100,000 population at the beginning and end of the period, respectively. Conclusions Deaths from TB declined steadily compared to total deaths and deaths caused by infectious diseases. The Global Plan to Stop TB target was met well ahead of 2015. If this trend continues, TB is likely to become an exceptional cause of death in Cuba.

  15. Cuba-guatemala cooperation: building viable models for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorry, Conner

    2009-07-01

    The intertwined history of Cuba and Guatemala goes back almost five centuries. In 1536, Friar Bartolom� de las Casas sailed from Cuba to Guatemala with material for his book, A Brief Account of the Destruction of the Indies, seared upon his conscience. Documenting atrocities against Cuba's indigenous populations, the book persuaded Guatemala's colonial powers to rewrite abusive labor laws that were killing the Maya; the book also earned De las Casas the nickname 'apostle of the Indians.' Over 300 years later, the apostle of Cuban independence, Jos� Mart�, cut his journalistic teeth in Guatemala, while Cuban poet Jos� Joaqu�n Palma authored Guatemala's national anthem. More recently, in the 1950s, Dr Ernesto ('Che') Guevara's time in the country solidified his belief in the need for radical social change a few years before he would join Fidel Castro's Rebel Army. And in 1998, Guatemala, like Cuba so many times before and since, was struck by a fierce, fatal hurricane, opening in its wake a new chapter in the countries' shared history. Hurricane Mitch took over 30,000 lives in Central America and is widely considered the deadliest hurricane to hit the Western Hemisphere in 200 years. The storm made landfall in Guatemala on October 26, 1998 killing 268 people and displacing 106,000. Losses were estimated at US$750 million, with 6,000 homes completely destroyed and another 20,000 damaged. Seven health centers and 48 rural health stations serving 50,000 people were affected.[1] Within days, a team of 19 Cuban doctors landed in Puerto San Jos� in the southern department of Escuintla to provide medical assistance. Working alongside Spanish, US, and Guatemalan relief workers, the Cuban contingent set broken bones, treated some 900 cases of cholera[2] and 14,000 of malaria,[3] evacuated pregnant women, and delivered babies. Implementing vector control, safeguarding food supplies, and providing potable water were other measures taken by the Cuban volunteers, who

  16. The right to health care for transsexual people in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Alberto; Rodríguez, R Mayra

    2012-04-01

    Gender identity is a sociocultural construct based (in nearly every society) on a binary norm: female and male. Transsexual individuals suffer from intense family and social discrimination because they express a dissident sexuality incongruent with this norm. They assert they feel trapped in a body that does not belong to them, so they seek help from health professionals to modify their bodies, to "adapt their bodies to their minds." This essay discusses health care for transsexual persons in Cuba from a human rights perspective that does not pathologize their gender identification.

  17. L’insegnamento della lingua e letteratura italiane a Cuba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayerìn Bello Valdés

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} Nel suo articolo l’autrice ricostruisce la storia dell’insegnamento delle lingua e della letteratura italiane a Cuba dal Novecento ai giorni nostri, e fornisce una ricca documentazione sui corsi di italiano, sugli studi e  sulle opere più importanti pubblicate a Cuba sulla nostra letteratura e sulle manifestazioni realizzate per la diffusione della cultura italiana nel paese. In particolare riferisce dell’importante ruolo svolto dalla rivista “Cuadernos de italianística cubana” – e dalle istituzioni accademiche e culturali che ad essa fanno riferimento – nel campo della ricerca linguistica, della glottodidattica, dello studio della cultura italiana nelle sue diverse manifestazioni, tra cui la musica e l’opera lirica, e nella diffusione dell’italiano attraverso specifici programmi televisivi.  Normal 0 14 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} In her article the author reconstructs the history of Italian language and literature teaching in Cuba from the Nineteen Hundreds up to the present and provides a wealth of documentation on the Italian courses, studies and the most important works published in Cuba on our literature, as well as on events organized to spread Italian culture throughout the country.  In particular

  18. Training of professional interpreters in Cuba: Its main historic backgrounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Oliveros-Domínguez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The formation of interpreters in Cuba has as its main goal to train a professional who is able to mediate among Spanish speakers and not-Spanish speakers in our historic situation. This research article aims to analyze the main backgrounds of interpretation teaching at Universidad de Oriente, taking into account its dynamics and the didactic treatment of the cognitive factors involved in the interpretation process. This enables to deepen into the main characteristics of the process, through a study of short-term memory training and the didactic devices used for its improvement; and establish three main stages in the evolution.

  19. Uranium mineralization in the central region of Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdez, M.G.; Olivera, J.; Fernandez, P.

    1995-01-01

    The present work shows different geological and geophysical index for uranium mineralization found at Loma Alta iron ore deposit, located in the central region of Cuba. In this deposit was carried out pull work of iron ore. The tunnels were radiometrically documented in the wall and the floor observing some anomalies of the gamma ray intensity (up to 1700 c.p.s.) associated with the poor iron ore. In those points were collected solid sample. The obtained results were very important (uranium concentrations values up to 3500 ppm)

  20. Flowering of taro germplasm (Colocasia esculenta (L. Schott in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadelys Figueroa Águila

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Research was done at the Center for Tropical Crop Research (INIVIT, to evaluate inflorescence of taro germplasm (104 accessions in Cuba´s climatic conditions. Sampling was made every 7 days in the 2013-2014 period to evaluate inflorescence; accessions were characterized according to flowering parameters. The results showed that natural flowering by the 26-accession sample (25%, was observed to early blossom from July to October in 18 accessions (69.2%. Increased temperature and relative humidity lasted until November, when inflorescence ends.

  1. General overview and perspectives of risk analysis in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, A.; Rodriguez, J.M.; Vilaragut, J.J.; Valhuerdi, C.

    1995-01-01

    This papers shows a general overview of the application of risk analysis techniques in some potentially dangerous industries in Cuba. This paper summarizes the experiences of these sectors in the risk analysis with different specification levels and different approaches. Some experiences in the application of these analyses in the nuclear and aeronautical industries are shown. Some analyses of consequences in cases of accidents in the chemical industries in order to work due and improve emergency plans for responding to accident situations are presented in a more succinct manner. Also the perspectives to develop some of these tendencies and cooperation forms between them are summarized

  2. Gr-50 values for vegetables useful in agriculture in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Talavera, S.; Labrada, A.

    1988-01-01

    For more than 15 years we have tried to use in Cuba ionizing radiations for the genetic improvement of plants without any encouraging results. This is so mainly because the dose values to be used were taken from reports which appeared in specialized literature most of it from countries in cold or temperature zones. Two Cuban researchers proved that cuban varieties are more resistant to radiations than the ones reported in literature, thus the need to make a radiosensitivity table which would allow improvers to use successfully the radio mutational method in cuban agriculture

  3. Isotopic hydrodynamic of the aquifer systems Jaruco and Aguacate, Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moleiro Leon, L.F.; Guerra Oliva, M.G.; Maloszewski, P.; Arellano Acosta, D.M.

    2002-01-01

    An isotopic dispersive model is applied to the Jaruco and Aguacate karstic groundwater basins of Western Cuba. The best fit of the model was validated with stable ( 18 O and 2 H ) and radioactive ( 3 H) isotopes. Modeling showed an aquifer stratification in two basic levels with turnover times of three month to upper level and close to 100 years to the lower level. The last one mainly supplies the base flow of the Ojo de agua and Bello springs and therefore, controls the dry season exploitation yields of the aqueducts of El Gato and Bello. Model results introduces an important constraint in the exploitation of groundwater resource of both aquifer systems

  4. EL NÍQUEL EN SUELOS Y PLANTAS DE CUBA

    OpenAIRE

    Olegario Muñiz Ugarte; Mirelys Rodríguez Alfaro; Alfredo Montero Álvarez; Juan Estévez Álvarez; Adriana M. de Aguiar Accioly; Clístenes W. Araujo Do Nascimento

    2015-01-01

    El contenido de Níquel (Ni) en el suelo es muydependiente del material parental que le dio origen. Por otraparte, el Ni existente en su superficie, puede ser tambiénun reflejo de su contaminación. La literatura internacionalseñala valores de Ni total en los suelos del mundo entre0,2 y 450 mg kg-1. Se conoce en la actualidad, que aunqueel Ni es esencial para las plantas superiores, su exceso enforma disponible puede ser tóxico, por lo que se consideraun Metal Pesado. En Cuba las encuestas real...

  5. Homosexualidad y homosexuales en Cuba: la verdad oculta

    OpenAIRE

    Robledo Díaz, Luis

    1998-01-01

    La homofobia en Cuba se ha venido construyendo sobre esta base y ha hecho suponer que el homosexual es inevitablemente un vicioso, inmoral y pervertidor de niños. El homosexual es extirpado del concepto de nación y luego de 1959 ya no solamente se llega a considerar como tal sino que bajo el juego de identidades de nación/patria/revolución/socialismo se le suma el de ser antipatriota, contrarrevolucionario y desviado política e ideológicamente. Al enlazarse la entereza física con una eticidad...

  6. Epidemiology of Suicide in Cuba, 1987-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona-Miranda, Beatriz; Hernández-Sánchez, Mariela; Lomba-Acevedo, Paula

    2016-07-01

    INTRODUCTION Suicide is a health problem influenced by biological, genetic, psychological, social and economic factors. It is responsible for 50% of violent deaths in the male population, worldwide, and 71% in the female. In the Americas, 65,000 deaths by suicide occur every year. It is the ninth most frequent cause of death in Cuba, and third among people aged 10-19. OBJECTIVE Characterize the epidemiology of suicide in Cuba from 1987 to 2014. METHODS A retrospective descriptive study was conducted. The information comprised all records of death by suicide from January 1, 1987 to December 31, 2014, in the Cuban Ministry of Public Health's National Statistics Division database. The variables were sex, age, skin color, employment status/occupation, marital status, and method of suicide. Crude and age-standardized mortality rates and age-sex specific mortality rates were calculated, all per 100,000 population, as well as the sex ratio. Relative change over the series was calculated as a percentage. Distribution of suicides by variable was calculated and proportions expressed as percentages. RESULTS A total of 51,113 deaths by suicide were reported (annual average 1825), of which 34,671 (67.8%) were among men. The sex ratio was 2.1:1 for the entire study period, and 3.9:1 for 2011-2014. Over the course of the period studied, age-standardized suicide rates decreased from 23.9 to 10.8 per 100,000 population (54.8% reduction). The group aged ≥60 years had the highest average age-standardized rate, 44.6 per 100,000 population. The highest suicide burden by age was in the group aged 20-59 years (60.5%). By skin color, the highest burden was in those recorded as white, 68.9%. By marital status, the highest burden was in persons with a stable partner (46.7%), and by employment status/occupation, in retired (25.9%). The most commonly used method was hanging (59.4%). CONCLUSIONS Over the course of about three decades, suicide mortality rates have declined by almost half and

  7. Anatomic pathology in Cuba before 1959: a personal recollection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buesa, René J

    2016-04-01

    Reminiscing when reaching life's twilight is a human condition and hopefully leads to an objective self-evaluation of the past years. I have just done that with this recollection and now I can conclude that, in spite of the outcome of my professional life in Cuba, I remain convinced that one should not complete a journey just because it was started, that everything we learn in life will be sued in due time, and that we should always pursue our dreams because we become our best in the process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Spanish Language textbook in Chile and Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Marcelo Ayzum Echeverría

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a description and analysis of the content of textbook of Language and Communication (Spanish in Cuba considering the indispensable tasks for fostering a developmental learning. A comparative analysis of fourth year Cuban and Chilean textbook contents was carried following certain criteria that normally promote good learning practices. Once the textbooks were compared, the findings suggest that school textbooks should be selected on the basis of the criteria taken as reference, in the meantime, such criteria may lead teacher to design complementary tasks.

  9. National bank of occupational Doses of the Cuba Republic: main results and experiences; Banco Nacional de Dosis ocupacionales de la Republica de Cuba: principales resultados y experiencias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdes Ramos, M.; Prendes Alonso, M.; Tomas Zerquera, J.; Molina Perez, D.; Soler Castro, A., E-mail: zury@cphr.edu.cu [Agencia de Energia Nuclear y Tecnologias de Avanzada (CPHR/AENTA), La Habana (Cuba). Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones; De la Fuentes Puch, A. [Centro Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear (CNSN), La Habana (Cuba)

    2013-11-01

    The general objective of the development of the National Bank of Dose was to contribute for improving security monitoring in applications, by providing Cuban Regulatory Authority an effective tool to comply with the requirements that the records of individual occupational doses of Cuban workers are retained and available for competent authorities and individuals.

  10. Relevance of Riverine Capability for Today’s Portuguese Navy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Crespo, 537-550. 21 Cann, Brown Waters ofAfrica, 46. 22 Jose Alberto Lopes Carvalheira, "Acyao da Marinha em Aguas Interiores (1961-1971)" [Naval...Lopes Carvalheira, Jose Alberto. "Acyao da Marinha em Aguas Interiores (1961-1971)." [Naval Operations in Inland Waters (1961-1971)]. In the...Americas Country Antigua and Barbados Argentina Aruba Barbados Bermuda Bolivia Brazil Canada Chile Colombia Cuba Dominica Dominican Republic Equator Grenada

  11. Winning the War and Winning the Peace: Reconciling Occupation Law and the Small Wars Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-22

    human rights law, principles of democratization, and economic incentives to promote domestic security.54 Recognizing these challenges, the Security...from Marine expeditions to places such as the Philippines, Cuba, Haiti, Nicaragua, and the Dominican Republic. While many of the principles contained...and the Pacific. Moreover, an occupier’s legal obligations were enumerated in several treaties and principles of international law. According to

  12. Cooperation from Strength: The United States, China and the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    powers, such as Brazil and India) maintains that coastal rights can restrict foreign military activities within the EEZ, even though most other...Argentina, Austro-Hungary, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil , Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador...address this challenge, Vietnam is trying to save the coastal mangrove forests that offer natural protection from coastal storm surges – something

  13. Starting Point: A Proposed Framework for Unconventional Warfare Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    level Regime Change? Communist Forces Gov’t 1958 Anti Communist Rebels Pathet Lao 1958– 1960 M M H H H M Y Anti Communist Rebels Iraqi...1979 Cambodia 1980 North Korea 1951 Guatemala 1954 Indonesia 1956 Laos 1958 Dominican Republic 1961 Cuba 1962 Vietnam 1963 Chile 1970...leader of China and the Chinese Nationalist Party, had joined forces with the communist insurgency inside his country, led by Mao Tse - Tung, to defeat

  14. Area Handbook Series: Vietnam: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    cough, measles, poliomyelitis, chicken pox , typhoid fever, acute encepha- litis, and acute meningitis. Hanoi claimed in 1970 that alcoholic cirrhosis...Country Study the people of Van Lang grew other grains and beans and raised stock, mainly buffaloes, chickens , and pigs. Pottery-making and bamboo...152 Cuba 550-45 Malaysia 550-22 Cyprus 550-161 Mauritania 550-158 Czechoslovakia 550-79 Mexico 550-36 Dominican Republic/Haiti 550-76 Mongolia 550-52

  15. International franchising decision-making: a model for country choice

    OpenAIRE

    Baena Graciá, Verónica; Cerviño Fernández, Julio

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines how a number of market conditions may drive diffusion of franchising. It considers a sample of 63 Spanish franchisors operating through 2321 franchisee outlets across 20 different Latin American countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Uruguay, and Venezuela in January 2011. Results conclude that geographical and cultu...

  16. Searching for Stability: The U.S. Development of Constabulary Forces in Latin America and the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Receiverships in Haiti and the Dominican Republic.3 The Navy ran the Virgin Islands until 1931, Guam until 1950, and Ameri- can Samoa until 1951...in Puerto Rico, at both ends of the Canal Zone in Panama, at Guantanamo Bay in Cuba, and in the Virgin Islands. In addition, interest was...Panamanian holiday island of Taboga. Panama quickly followed the US lead in declaring war on the Central Powers, but its major role was harassing resident

  17. El ingreso en el hogar y su costo directo en Cuba The direct costs of home care in Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Isabel M. Barroso Utra; Anai García Fariñas; Armando Rodríguez Salvá; Pol de Vos; Mariano Bonet Gorbea; Patrick Van Der Stuyft

    2007-01-01

    OBJETIVOS: Analizar el tiempo de estadía en ingreso en el hogar (IH) y su costo diario y por paciente en Cuba, según el diagnóstico al ingreso y la zona donde se brinda el servicio. MÉTODOS: Se analizó la información de los 837 pacientes en IH entre julio de 2001 y junio de 2002 en un área del municipio Playa, en Ciudad de La Habana (zona urbana metropolitana), una del municipio Cruces, en Cienfuegos (zona urbana no metropolitana), otra del Municipio Unión de Reyes, en Matanzas (zona rural) y...

  18. Validation of the implementation of the basic standards of national radiological safety in radioactive facilities of the east Cuba; Valoracion de la implementacion de las normas basicas de seguridad radiologica nacionales en instalaciones radiactivas del oriente de Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez G, F.; Fornet R, O.M. [Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnologia y Medio Ambiente. Delegacion Territorial Holguin, Peralta No.16. Rpto Peralta, C.P. 80400 Holguin (Cuba)]. e-mail: ornuc@citmahlg.holguin.inf.cu

    2006-07-01

    Since with it publication in the Official Gazette of the Republic of Cuba began to govern the Basic Standards of Radiological Safety (NBSR) its have lapsed five years. In it practical implementation, by part of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN), several resources have been applied among those that its find the identification of the nonfulfillment of the requirements of the NBSR in the inspections, the establishment of validity conditions of the authorizations that are granted, emission and the publication of specific Safety Guides by practice. In the work it is carried out a detailed and integral analysis of the execution of those settled down requirements by the Standards in a representative group of radioactive medical and industrial facilities in the east of the country, by means of the valuation of the deficiencies and requirements pointed out in the inspections carried out during those years 2004 and 2005. As a result of the work the particularities of the level of proven implementation of this body are exposed from the point of view of the ARN that one keeps in mind for it later performance and can being of interest for others regulatory authorities. (Author)

  19. Experiences in the transport of radiopharmaceuticals and labelled compounds in the last decade in Cuba; Experiencias en el transporte de radiofarmacos y compuestos marcados en el ultimo decenio en Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amador B, Z.H.; Perez P, S.; Ayra P, F.E.; Torres B, M.B. [Centro de Isotopos, Ave. Monumental y Carretera La Rada, Km 3, Guanabacoa, Apartado 3415, Ciudad de La Habana, (Cuba)]. e-mail: dsr@centis.edu.cu

    2006-07-01

    The Center of Isotopes (CENTIS) it is the main transport entity of radioactive materials of the Republic of Cuba in whose activity almost accumulates a decade. Its are executed the design, the production, the maintenance and/or repair of the packings, as well as the preparation, remission, charges, transporting (including the in traffic storage), it discharges and reception in the final destination, of the remittances. Presently work the results of the implementation of the radiological safety and quality assurance programs developed for the safe transport of radioactive bulks and the experiences in the design and essay of bulks type A are shown. The postulated radiological events are evaluated. Three courses of 10 school hours each one, they are imparted, with theoretical and practical exams. The maximum, minimum and average values of the annual effective doses of the workers and the collective doses per year are reported, for the period 1996-2005. It is guaranteed the administrative control and the traceability of the bundles. (Author)

  20. The role of popular energy education and diffusion in Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montesinos Larrosa, A. [Sociedad Cubana para la Promocion de las Energias Renovables (Cuba); Moreno Figueredo, C. [Centro de Estudio de Tecnologias Energeticas Renovables (Cuba)

    2008-07-01

    Cuba's Energy Revolution is a national program for developing renewable energy sources to conserve energy, promote sustainable development and address environmental concerns. It includes the Energy Saving Program by the Ministry of Education (PAEME), the Electricity Saving Program in Cuba (PAEC) by the Ministry of Basic Industry (MINBAS) and the National Program for Energy Sustainable Culture developed by CUBASOLAR. The most important programs related to the use of renewable energy sources have been carried out in the field of biomass, hydropower, wind energy, water supply and solar photovoltaic energy in rural areas. This paper presented the Cuban experiences on education, diffusion and publication of energy themes. Mass communication including television, radio and magazines has been used to explain the rationale of using renewable energy, its efficiency and social impact. The positive results thus far indicate that these measures can be applied in other developing countries such as Latin America and Caribbean, and could also serve as a guide for other areas, including developed countries.