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  1. Intimate Encounters: Affective Economies in Cuba and the Dominican Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia L. Cabezas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on research in Cuba and the Dominican Republic this paper explores the uses of intimacy in both the corporate sector and in romantic relationships. I use research with hotel workers and with people involved in sexual-affective exchanges connected to tourism to link intimacy to the political economic structures of transnational tourism. These are new spaces of analysis that present practices of transnational corporategenerated intimacy that combine love – or the exploitation of worker’s emotions − and labour. The central aim is to intertwine the intimate with the global, from the formal customer service policies of transnational hotels with the informal, on-the-ground, intimate encounters between tourists and hospitality workers. The commercialization of intimacy, including sexual-affective relations in the delivery of hospitality services, is linked to political and economic processes that are part of transnational tourism practices. This paper challenges the notion that sex tourism and sex work are individualistic practices that exist outside of the spaces of corporate global profit. It further posits that relationships where money is exchanged are not necessarily devoid of care and intimacy.Resumen: Encuentros íntimos: economías afectivas en Cuba y República Dominicana A partir de investigaciones en Cuba y la República Dominicana, este trabajo explora los usos de la intimidad, tanto en el sector empresarial como en las relaciones románticas. Se hicieron investigaciones entre trabajadores de hostelería y personas involucradas en el intercambio afectivosexual relacionado con el turismo con el fin de vincular la intimidad de las estructuras políticoeconómicas del turismo transnacional. Estos son nuevos espacios de análisis que las prácticas de las empresas transnacionales generan por el uso de la intimidad que combinan el amor – o la explotación de las emociones del trabajador – y la mano de obra. El objetivo central

  2. Differential Vulnerability to Hurricanes in Cuba, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic: The Contribution of Education

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    Adelheid Pichler

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The possible impacts of the level of formal education on different aspects of disaster management, prevention, alarm, emergency, or postdisaster activities, were studied in a comparative perspective for three countries with a comparable exposure to hurricane hazards but different capacities for preventing harm. The study focused on the role of formal education in reducing vulnerability operating through a long-term learning process and put particular emphasis on the education of women. The comparative statistical analysis of the three countries was complemented through qualitative studies in Cuba and the Dominican Republic collected in 2010-2011. We also analyzed to what degree targeted efforts to reduce vulnerability were interconnected with other policy domains, including education and science, health, national defense, regional development, and cultural factors. We found that better education in the population had clear short-term effects on reducing vulnerability through awareness about crucial information, faster and more efficient responses to alerts, and better postdisaster recuperation. However, there were also important longer term effects of educational efforts to reduce social vulnerability through the empowerment of women, its effect on the quality of institutions and social networks for mutual assistance creating a general culture of safety and preparedness. Not surprisingly, on all three accounts Cuba clearly did the best; whereas Haiti was worst, and the Dominican Republic took an intermediate position.

  3. Intensity and patterns redistributive effect of internal migration in Cuba and the Dominican Republic. According DAM and DAME. 2000 and 2010 census rounds

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    Arelis Rosalén Mora Pérez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aware of the differences and similarities in the socioeconomic and demographic contexts that characterize Cuba and the Dominican Republic, is made from the information collected in the Census of Population and Housing of the two countries in the rounds 2000 and 2010, a study on migration internal. A summary of the management of census questions regarding the recruitment of absolute internal migration of lifetime and recent migration fixed date five years ago. The research is conducted in order to identify how has been the evolution of the intensity, the redistributive effect and profile of internal migration in Cuba and the Dominican Republic as Administrative Divisions Major and Minor (DAM and DAME. Different migration indicators: net migration, proportion of non-migrants, net migration rate (TMN, overall intensity (rate of internal mobility, immigration effectiveness index (IEM, and aggregate net migration rate (TAMN are used to explain behavior. Migrant profile analysis are performed by age, sex and educational level and regularities are articulated in the redistributive and intensity of internal migration effect generating attractive specialization of these administrative units. Generally, it can be seen in Cuba, the migration intensity between the two census moments remained constant level DAM, while among DAME a decrease of this intensity is appreciated. In the case of the Dominican Republica, reduction stands.

  4. Dominican Republic; Statistical Appendix

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, statistical data for the Dominican Republic were presented as real, public, financial, and external sectors. In real sector, GDP by sector at constant prices, savings, investment, consumer price index, petroleum statistics, and so on, were outlined. The public sector summarizes operations of the consolidated public sector, central government, and revenues. A summary of the banking system, claims, interest rates, financial indicators, and reserve requirements were described in t...

  5. Dominican Republic; Statistical Appendix

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, statistical data for the Dominican Republic were presented as real, public, financial, and external sectors. In real sector, GDP by sector at constant prices, savings, investment, consumer price index, petroleum statistics, and so on, were outlined. The public sector summarizes operations of the consolidated public sector, central government, and revenues. A summary of the banking system, claims, interest rates, financial indicators, and reserve requirements were described in t...

  6. Race and nation in the Dominican Republic

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    Michiel Baud

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Coloring the Nation: Race and Ethnicity in the Dominican Republic. DAVID HOWARD. Oxford: Signal; Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 2001. x + 227 pp. (Paper US$ 19.95 Race and Politics in the Dominican Republic. ERNESTO SAGAS. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2000. xii + 161 pp. (Cloth US$ 49.95, Paper US$ 24.95 Peasants and Religion: A Socioeconomic Study of Dios Olivorio and the Palma Sola Movement in the Dominican Republic. JAN LUNDIUS & MATS LUNDAHL. London: Routledge, 2000. xxvi + 774 pp. (Cloth US$ 135.00 The social and political relations between the Dominican Republic and Haiti, and especially their racial and ethnic contents, are extremely difficult to approach in an even- handed and unbiased way. Much ink has been spilled over the conflictive relations between these two countries, and on race relations in the Dominican Republic. Much of what has been said must be considered unfounded or biased, not to mention sensationalist. The books under review try to pro vide new insights into the issue and at the same time to steer clear of these problems.

  7. Area Handbook Series: Dominican Republic and Haiti: Country Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Republic, Oficina Nacional de Estadistica , La Reptblica Dominicana en Cigfar, 1987, 14, Santo Domingo, 1987, 49, 51. Figure 3. Dominican Republic...information from Dominican Republic, Oficina Nacional de Estadistica . La Reptiblica Dominicana en Cifras, 1987, 14, Santo Domingo, 1987. Table 3. Dominican...Oficina Nacional de Estadistica . Repziblica Dominicana en Cifras 1987, 14. Santo Domingo: 1987. ____. Secretarfa de Estado de Salud P6blica y Asistencia

  8. Intellectuals and Dictators in the Dominican Republic

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    Michiel Baud

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available – Nation and Citizen in the Dominican Republic, 1880-1916, by Teresita MartínezVergne. Chapel Hill, NC, University of North Carolina Press, 2005. – Los desvaríos de Ti Noel. Ensayos sobre la producción del saber en el Caribe,by Pedro San Miguel. San Juan, PR, Vertigo, 2004. – The Imagined Island. History, Identity, and Utopia in Hispaniola, by Pedro San Miguel. Translated by Jane Ramírez. Chapel Hill, NC, University of North Carolina Press 2005. – Foundations of Despotism. Peasants, the Trujillo Regime, and Modernity in Dominican History, by Richard Lee Turits. Stanford, CA, Stanford University Press, 2003.

  9. Renewable energy projects in the Dominican Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viani, B.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes a US/Dominican Republic program to develop renewable energy projects in the country. The objective is to demonstrate the commercial viability of renewable energy generation projects, primarily small-scale wind and hydropower. Preliminary studies are completed for three micro-hydro projects with a total capacity of 262 kWe, and two small wind power projects for water pumping. In addition wind resource assessment is ongoing, and professional training and technical assistance to potential investors is ongoing. Projects goals include not less than ten small firms actively involved in installation of such systems by September 1998.

  10. National politics and ethnic identity in the Dominican Republic

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    Edward Paulino

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] The Struggle of Democratie Politics in the Dominican Republic. JONATHAN HARTLYN. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998. xxi + 371 pp. (Cloth US$ 49.95, Paper US$ 17.95 Holocaust in the Caribbean: The Slaughter of 25,000 Haitians by Trujillo in One Week. MIGUEL AQUINO. Waterbury CT: Emancipation Press, 1997. xxii +184 pp. (Paper n.p. Race and Politics in the Dominican Republic. ERNESTO SAGAS. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2000. xii +161 pp. (Cloth US$ 49.95 Azücar, Arabes, cocolos y haitianos. ORLANDO INOA. Santo Domingo: Ed. Cole and FLACSO, 1999. 219 pp. (Paper n.p. Over the last few years there has been an increase in the publication of books about the Dominican Republic and Dominicans in the United States. This can be partly attributed to the increase of Dominican communities.1 Moreover, Dominican and Dominican-American writers who underscore the trials and tribulations of the immigrant experience are becoming more visible in the mainstream print.2

  11. Association between embB mutations and ethambutol resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from Cuba and the Dominican Republic: reproducible patterns and problems Asociación entre las mutaciones en embB y la resistencia a etambutol en aislamientos de Mycobacterium tuberculosis de Cuba y República Dominicana: patrones y problemas reproducibles

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    Elba Guerrero

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The relation of ethambutol resistance to embB mutations remains unclear, and there are no reports on ethambutol resistance from the Caribbean. We examined the sequence of embB in 57 distinct Multi-Drug Resistant (MDR and non-MDR strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, mostly from Cuba and the Dominican Republic. embB306 codon mutations were found exclusively in MDR-TB, but in both ethambutol sensitive and resistant strains. Valine substitutions predominated in ethambutol resistant strains, while isoleucine replacements were more common in sensitive strains. Three ethambutol resistant MDR strains without embB306 substitutions had replacements in embB406 or embB497, but these were also found in ethambutol sensitive MDR strains. The results confirm previous findings that amino acid substitutions in EmbB306, EmbB406 and EmbB497 are found only in MDR-TB strains but in both phenotypically resistant and sensitive strains. One ethambutol resistant non-MDR strain did not have any embB mutation suggesting that other undefined mutations can also confer ethambutol resistance.La relación entre resistencia a etambutol y mutaciones en embB no se ha establecido claramente y no existen comunicaciones sobre la resistencia a etambutol en cepas provenientes de países Caribeños. Se evaluó la secuencia del gen embB en 57 cepas de Mycobacterium tuberculosis multi-drogo resistentes (MDR y no-MDR, la mayoría aislada en Cuba y República Dominicana. Se encontraron mutaciones en el codón embB306 exclusivamente en cepas MDR, tanto en cepas sensibles como resistentes a etambutol. Tres cepas MDR resistentes a etambutol, sin sustituciones en embB306, tenían mutaciones en los codones embB406 o embB497, pero estos cambios se encontraron también en cepas sensibles. Los resultados confirman otros estudios, mostrando que sustituciones aminoacídicas en EmbB306, EmbB406 y EmbB497 se encuentran exclusivamente en cepas MDR, tanto resistentes como sensibles a etambutol

  12. Dominican Republic - Environmental Priorities and Strategic Options : Country Environmental Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    This report discusses the affects of rapid economic growth and increased urbanization on the environmental quality of the Dominican Republic's natural resource base (e.g., water resources management--water quality, quantity and watershed management and solid waste collection and disposal have become major environmental concerns). It notes that the lack of systematic data limits an accurat...

  13. Job Satisfaction among Fishers in the Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Victor

    2012-01-01

    This paper reflects on the results of a job satisfaction study of small-scale fishers in the Dominican Republic. The survey results suggest that, although fishers are generally satisfied with their occupations, they also have serious concerns. These concerns include anxieties about the level of earnings, the condition of marine resources and the…

  14. The Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Jaragua National Park, Dominican Republic

    OpenAIRE

    David Lubertazzi; Gary D. Alpert

    2014-01-01

    This study examined ant species richness in Jaragua National Park (Pedernales Province, Dominican Republic). Ants were sampled at 15 sites during late March and early April, 2012. Habitats sampled included dry forest, beach scrub, lakeside acacia scrub, and thorn woodland. Sixty-four species from 23 genera were collected. Species richness was higher than expected, considering only 125 species had previously been reported for all of Hispaniola. Jaragua National Park is part of the Jaragua-Baho...

  15. 1946 Dominican Republic Tsunami: Field Survey based on Eyewitness Interviews

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    Fritz, Hermann M.; Martinez, Claudio; Salado, Juan; Rivera, Wagner; Duarte, Leoncio

    2017-04-01

    On 4 August 1946 an Mw 8.1 earthquake struck off the north-eastern shore of Hispaniola Island resulting in a destructive tsunami with order one hundred fatalities in the Dominican Republic and observed runup in Puerto Rico. In the far field, tsunami waves were recorded on some tide gauges on the Atlantic coast of the United States of America. The earthquake devastated the Dominican Republic, extended into Haiti, and shook many other islands. This was one of the strongest earthquakes reported in the Caribbean since colonial times. The immediate earthquake reconnaissance surveys focused on earthquake damage and were conducted in September 1946 (Lynch and Bodle, 1948; Small, 1948). The 1946 Dominican Republic tsunami eyewitness based field survey took place in three phases from 18 to 21 March 2014, 1 to 3 September 2014 and 9 to 11 May 2016. The International Tsunami Survey Team (ITST) covered more than 400 km of coastline along the northern Dominican Republic from the eastern most tip at Punta Cana to La Isabela some 70 km from the border with Haiti. The survey team documented tsunami runup, flow depth, inundation distances, sea-level drawdown, coastal erosion and co-seismic land level changes based on eyewitnesses interviewed on site using established protocols. The early afternoon earthquake resulted in detailed survival stories with excellent eyewitness observations recounted almost 70 years later with lucidity. The Dominican Republic survey data includes 29 runup and tsunami height measurements at 21 locations. The tsunami impacts peaked with maximum tsunami heights exceeding 5 m at a cluster of locations between Cabrera and El Limon. A maximum tsunami height of 8 m likely associated with splash up was measured in Playa Boca Nueva. Tsunami inundation distances of 600 m or more were measured at Las Terrenas and Playa Rincon on the Samana Peninsula. Some locations were surveyed twice in 2014 and 2016, which allowed to identify current coastal erosion rates. Field

  16. Capacity-Building Programs Under the Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States signed the Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR) in August 2004 with five Central American countries (Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua) and the Dominican Republic.

  17. Exporting a Canadian parenting education program to the Dominican Republic.

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    McLennan, John D; Leon, Tina; Haffey, Sue; Barker, Leslie A S

    2009-01-01

    The framework of a Canadian-developed parent education program, Nobody's Perfect, was used in the development of a new parent education program offered to parents attending a child nutrition rehabilitation program in the Dominican Republic. While key teaching elements of the original program were retained (e.g., encouraging active participation, emphasizing facilitation over didactic teaching, using experiential learning), locally relevant content was inserted (e.g., diarrhea prevention and treatment strategies). A Canadian team trained a group of Dominicans to deliver the new program to parents of children recovering from malnutrition. This paper describes the development, implementation, and resulting parenting program from this effort. This 8-week program may find use in other settings. In addition, the experience gained from this exportation endeavor may be useful for others undertaking similar initiatives.

  18. A Comprehensive Approach to Countersurgency: The U.S. Military Occupation of the Dominican Republic, 1916-1924

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Mexico , Haiti, Cuba, and the Dominican Republic. Furthermore, by 1915 it was clear that the 1907...8217· ~ ’’" ")Higiiey ’It \\\\ .._.’ -’.-... .._.. -.. -’, ? rl ...,\\ I 1. ’-~ -,_..7. 1/ \\C"-\\ i )’) V l.~ t’" ’-~ ~. .....", • 1 . . ’..--.... .~,\\,v-J Guerra :(5.AN ’~i...ofSmall Wars Doctrine, 1915 -1940. Boulder: Westview, 2001. Boot, Max. The Savage Wars ofPeace: Small Wars and the Rise ofAmerican Power. New York:

  19. The Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae of Jaragua National Park, Dominican Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lubertazzi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined ant species richness in Jaragua National Park (Pedernales Province, Dominican Republic. Ants were sampled at 15 sites during late March and early April, 2012. Habitats sampled included dry forest, beach scrub, lakeside acacia scrub, and thorn woodland. Sixty-four species from 23 genera were collected. Species richness was higher than expected, considering only 125 species had previously been reported for all of Hispaniola. Jaragua National Park is part of the Jaragua-Bahoruco-Enriquillo Biosphere Reserve. The ant species richness observed in this study suggests that the park, along with larger reserve, is successful in preserving important habitat for insects.

  20. Upholding Birth Right Citizenship in the Dominican Republic

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    Bridget Wooding

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A fines de 2006, la estudiosa legal Van Waas hizo la importante pregunta sobre un estado permanente de ilegalidad siendo inevitable o no en República Dominicana, dado los desafíos prevalecientes para una aplicación no discriminatoria del Registro Civil, notablemente en cuanto a personas nacidas en el país a padres haitianos. A pesar de jurisprudencia regional (2005 afirmando el derecho a la nacionalidad dominicana para los hijos/as de inmigrantes haitianos, existen obstáculos bien documentados. Se han respondido a inmigrantes haitianos exigiendo sus derechos y ocupando espacios públicos mediante una exclusión codificada legalmente. El fallo sorpresivamente abarcador del Tribunal Constitucional de septiembre de 2013, dando cabida al despojo masivo de la nacionalidad de personas de ascendencia haitiana nacidas en RD requiriera respuestas llevadas a escala de parte de las personas afectadas y defensores de sus derechos. Las autoridades dominicanas sostienen que la llamada "Ley de Naturalización" aprobada en mayo de 2014 es la panacea pero las organizaciones de la sociedad civil tienen un posicionamiento encontrado. Este artículo plantea que "la cultura de desconfianza" que prevalece en cuanto al cumplimiento de los derechos de inmigrantes haitianos y sus descendientes de parte de los propios portadores de derechos y de los garantes de derechos actúa en contra del arribo a soluciones sostenibles. English: In late 2006, legal scholar van Waas raised the important question as to whether permanent illegality was inevitable in the Dominican Republic, given the prevailing challenges for a non-discriminatory application of the Dominican Civil Registry, notably for persons born of Haitian parentage in the country. Despite regional jurisprudence (2005, affirming the right to Dominican nationality for the children of Haitian migrants, amply documented obstacles persist. Haitian migrants and their descendants claiming rights and occupying public

  1. Telecommunication Policy in the Caribbean: A Comparison of Telecommunications in the Dominican Republic and Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    estudios /documentos- trabajo/pdf/dtbc292.pdf. Central Intelligence Agency. (2011, March 12). The world factbook: Dominican Republic. Retrieved...Publishers. Morrison, H. (2009). Las telecomunicaciones en republica Dominicana: Origen, evolucion e impacto en el desarrollo economico . Santo Domingo

  2. Civil society and political power in the Dominican Republic

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    Rosario ESPINAL

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the Latin American context, the Dominican Republic displays high levels of civic engagement and political activism, yet they have not translated into a civil society that is able to exercise considerable influence in reforming the political system or enhancing democracy. Building on this observation, this article explores two questions. The first is if there is tendency toward dual participation in civic and political organizations, which reduces civil society’s ability to pressure political parties and the State. The second refers to the nature of the connections that civil society participants have with the State and with political parties. The analysis demonstrates that an important segment of the population that participates in civic associations also participates in political parties and in clientelist networks.

  3. Contextualising the Last Survivors: Population Structure of Marine Turtles in the Dominican Republic.

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    Carlos Carreras

    Full Text Available Nesting by three species of marine turtles persists in the Dominican Republic, despite historic threats and long-term population decline. We conducted a genetic survey of marine turtles in the Dominican Republic in order to link them with other rookeries around the Caribbean. We sequenced a 740bp fragment of the control region of the mitochondrial DNA of 92 samples from three marine turtle species [hawksbill (n = 48, green (n = 2 and leatherback (n = 42], and incorporated published data from other nesting populations and foraging grounds. The leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea in the Dominican Republic appeared to be isolated from Awala-Yalimapo, Cayenne, Trinidad and St. Croix but connected with other Caribbean populations. Two distinct nesting populations of hawksbill turtles (Eremochelys imbricata were detected in the Dominican Republic and exhibited interesting patterns of connectivity with other nesting sites and juvenile and adult male foraging aggregations. The green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas has almost been extirpated from the Dominican Republic and limited inference could be made from our samples. Finally, results were compared with Lagrangian drifting buoys and published Lagrangian virtual particles that travelled through the Dominican Republic and Caribbean waters. Conservation implications of sink-source effects or genetic isolation derived from these complex inter-connections are discussed for each species and population.

  4. Visiting the Republic of Cuba: An Experience to Remember.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Geraldine

    2015-01-01

    A few years ago, I was privileged to visit the Republic of Cuba as a summer vacation. Officially, this Spanish island is the largest island in the Caribbean, with more than 12 million people. It is only second as being most populous after Hispaniola with its people, culture and customs. Havana is the capital and Cuba's largest city. The United States lies to the immediate north only about 95 miles away, and the Bahamas and Mexico to the west, the Cayman Islands and Jamaica are on the southern end, and Haiti and the Dominion Republic are in the southeastern area. The history of this island is truly amazing. I was able to vist a hospital, and ride public transportation (bus). The trip was made at the time when Cuba was not open to travelers coming direct from the United States. I traveled to Montreal, Canada to board Cabana Arlines to Havana, Cuba.

  5. Protecting paradise: tourism and AIDS in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, S; Hasbún, J; Butler de Lister, M

    1998-09-01

    This study summarizes results from six data collection instruments administered to tourists, hotel workers, and commercial sex workers (CSWs) in the Dominican Republic (D.R.). The objective of this study was to assess: 1. how HIV/AIDS may affect tourism; 2. how tourists are likely to react to prevention campaigns; and 3. how tourism may affect the spread of HIV/AIDS. It was found that an overwhelming proportion of tourists did not consider the prevalence of HIV to be a factor when making their travel plans, and that most did not consider themselves at greater risk of becoming infected while on holiday than when they were at home. This study determined that the spread of HIV/AIDS was unlikely to affect the demand for tourism services in the D.R. The study also found that most tourists would respond positively to an HIV/AIDS prevention campaign and would not be discouraged from visiting the D.R. because of such campaigns. Those most receptive to prevention efforts were also those who felt they were at highest risk, according to study data. Finally, it was determined that while most tourists probably do not engage in high risk activities, there were some male and female tourists who do engage in sexual encounters with multiple Dominican CSWs and hotel employees. These encounters represent a risk to the health and economic development of the D.R., as well as to tourists and their other sexual partners. Based on these findings, it is recommended that in order to minimize the potential social and economic impact of HIV/AIDS in the D.R., prevention messages need to reach a number of groups which have not yet been adequately targeted. These groups include tourists, with a special emphasis on 'sex tourists', and hotel employees, with a special emphasis on entertainment staff.

  6. 75 FR 50695 - Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... customs-related provisions of the Dominican Republic--Central America--United States Free Trade Agreement...--Central America--United States Free Trade Agreement (``CAFTA-DR'' or ``Agreement''). The provisions of the... Republic-- Central America--United States Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act (the ``Act''), Public Law...

  7. First skull of Antillothrix bernensis, an extinct relict monkey from the Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberger, Alfred L.; Cooke, Siobhán B.; Rímoli, Renato; Ni, Xijun; Cardoso, Luis

    2011-01-01

    The nearly pristine remains of Antillothrix bernensis, a capuchin-sized (Cebus) extinct platyrrhine from the Dominican Republic, have been found submerged in an underwater cave. This represents the first specimen of an extinct Caribbean primate with diagnostic craniodental and skeletal parts in association, only the second example of a skull from the region, and one of the most complete specimens of a fossil platyrrhine cranium yet discovered. Cranially, it closely resembles living cebines but is more conservative. Dentally, it is less bunodont and more primitive than Cebus, with crowns resembling Saimiri (squirrel monkeys) and one of the oldest definitive cebines, the late Early Miocene Killikaike blakei from Argentina. The tricuspid second molar also resembles the enigmatic marmosets and tamarins, whose origins continue to present a major gap in knowledge of primate evolution. While the femur is oddly short and stout, the ulna, though more robust, compares well with Cebus. As a member of the cebid clade, Antillothrix demonstrates that insular Caribbean monkeys are not monophyletically related and may not be the product of a single colonizing event. Antillothrix bernensis is an intriguing mosaic whose primitive characters are consistent with an early origin, possibly antedating the assembly of the modern primate fauna in greater Amazonia during the La Venta horizon. While most Greater Antillean primate specimens are quite young geologically, this vanished radiation, known from Cuba (Paralouatta) and Jamaica (Xenothrix) as well as Hispaniola, appears to be composed of long-lived lineages like several other mainland clades. PMID:20659936

  8. The Dominican Republic conjoined twins: ischiopagus, tetrapus, omphalophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, H K; Spackman, T J; Chait, A

    1978-05-01

    Alta and Clara, the Dominican Republic conjoined twins (ischiopagus, omphalopagus, tetrapus) were evaluated prior to separation with plain films, vaginograms, arteriograms, intravenous pyelogram, barium enema, and upper gastrointestinal series with small bowel follow-through. The clear demonstration of their internal anatomy allowed the surgeons to plan the operative approach and to make a reasonable judgment regarding viability of each baby. Each twin had a semicircular pelvis which joined the other to form a complete ring. There were a few hepatic arterial twigs from Alta which crossed the midline, proving at surgery to be a small bridge of tissue connecting the two livers. Clara's superior mesenteric arteries supplied the majority of the small bowel. Portal venous drainage was separate for each twin. Each baby had two kidneys in normal position with the bladders laterally placed. Each bladder received one ureter from each twin. Two separate small bowels joined proximal to the single colon which terminated in an anus related to Clara's pelvic structures. Following separation, each baby did well. Their postoperative anatomy is described.

  9. The HIV/AIDS Epidemic in the Dominican Republic: Key Contributing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Patria; Malow, Robert; Ruffin, Beverly; Rothe, Eugenio M; Rosenberg, Rhonda

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews HIV/AIDS epidemiological data and recent research conducted in the Dominican Republic, with a focus on explaining the variability in estimated seroincidence and prevalence within the country. HIV seroprevalence estimates range from 1.0% (in the general population) to 11.0% among men who have sex with men (MSM). Some have indicated that the highest HIV seroprevalence occurs in Haitian enclaves called bateyes (US Agency for International Development [USAID], 2008), which are migrant worker shantytowns primarily serving the sugar industry in the Dominican Republic. Others report higher or comparable rates to the bateyes in areas related to the tourism and sex industries. As in other Caribbean and Latin American countries, reported HIV transmission in the Dominican Republic is predominantly due to unprotected heterosexual sex and the infection rate has been increasing disproportionally among women. The Dominican Republic represents two thirds of the Hispaniola island; the western one third is occupied by Haiti, the nation with the highest HIV prevalence in the western hemisphere. Although data is limited, it shows important differences in seroprevalence and incidence between these two countries, but commonalities such as poverty, gender inequalities, and stigma appear to be pivotal factors driving the epidemic. This article will discuss these and other factors that may contribute to the HIV epidemic in the Dominican Republic, as well as highlight the gaps in the literature and provide recommendations to guide further work in this area, particularly in the role of governance in sustainable HIV prevention.

  10. 77 FR 15397 - Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement; Notice of Determination...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... of the Secretary Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement; Notice of... Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR). Father Christopher Hartley.... Department of Labor. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Office of Trade and Labor Affairs (OTLA) gives notice that...

  11. 77 FR 30329 - Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement; Notice of Determination...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... of the Secretary Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement; Notice of....4.3 of the Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR). On... U.S. free trade agreement. The Procedural Guidelines specify that OTLA shall consider six factors...

  12. The New Policy on Higher Education of the Government of the Dominican Republic: Some Descriptive and Evaluative Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escala, Miguel Jose

    The purpose of this report is to analyze a new higher education policy adoped by the Dominican Republic in Decree 1255 of 1983, "Regulations for Private Higher Education." Geographical, historical, and political characteristics of the Dominican Republic are described, and theoretical and methodological considerations in the study of public policy…

  13. A Pilot Study to Examine the Disparities in Water Quality between Predominantly Haitian Neighborhoods and Dominican Neighborhoods in Two Cities in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers-Brown, Jessica; Johnson, Ryan; Smith, Dominique; Ramsey-White, Kim

    2015-12-22

    Worldwide, diarrheal disease is a leading cause of death affecting over 1.7 million individuals annually. Much of this can be attributed to lack of clean water, sanitation and hygiene. Nearly all of these deaths occur in countries with developing economies. This public health problem is apparent in the island of Hispaniola; the island that is shared by Haiti and the Dominican Republic. Significant gaps in income between the countries have resulted in Haitians migrating into the Dominican Republic. While there has been increased migration into the Dominican Republic, many of the neighborhoods remain segregated. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted at 49 sites in the Dominican Republic. Samples were classified as being from a Haitian neighborhood or Dominican neighborhood and analyzed for microbial contamination. Overall, Haitian neighborhoods were found to have statistically significantly higher levels of contamination of both coliform and E. coli. The odds of having E. coli contaminated water in Haitian neighborhoods are 4.25 times as high as Dominican neighborhoods. The odds of having coliform contaminated water in Haitian neighborhoods are 4.78 times as high as Dominican neighborhoods. This study provides evidence of the disparity in access to clean drinking water for Haitian immigrants and highlights the need for further investigation.

  14. A Pilot Study to Examine the Disparities in Water Quality between Predominantly Haitian Neighborhoods and Dominican Neighborhoods in Two Cities in the Dominican Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Rogers-Brown

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, diarrheal disease is a leading cause of death affecting over 1.7 million individuals annually. Much of this can be attributed to lack of clean water, sanitation and hygiene. Nearly all of these deaths occur in countries with developing economies. This public health problem is apparent in the island of Hispaniola; the island that is shared by Haiti and the Dominican Republic. Significant gaps in income between the countries have resulted in Haitians migrating into the Dominican Republic. While there has been increased migration into the Dominican Republic, many of the neighborhoods remain segregated. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted at 49 sites in the Dominican Republic. Samples were classified as being from a Haitian neighborhood or Dominican neighborhood and analyzed for microbial contamination. Overall, Haitian neighborhoods were found to have statistically significantly higher levels of contamination of both coliform and E. coli. The odds of having E. coli contaminated water in Haitian neighborhoods are 4.25 times as high as Dominican neighborhoods. The odds of having coliform contaminated water in Haitian neighborhoods are 4.78 times as high as Dominican neighborhoods. This study provides evidence of the disparity in access to clean drinking water for Haitian immigrants and highlights the need for further investigation.

  15. Some Economic Determinants of Haitian Migration to the Dominican Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Lundahl

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Este ensayo identifica algunos de los principales factores económicos tras la migración de trabajadores rurales haitianos a la República Dominicana. Sobre el trasfondo de las deplorables condiciones de vida y de trabajo enfrentadas por los trabajadores a su llegada, algunas teorías económicas sobre la decisión de migrar son esbozadas y las características de los trabajadores haitianos, de acuerdo a estudios de campo, son presentadas. Después de esto se resume la información más importante en relación con la pobreza rural en Haití y se presenta una explicación basada en la interacción entre crecimiento poblacional y erosión de la tierra, haciendo énfasis en los aspectos de la pobreza relacionados con el ciclo de vida. El ensayo concluye con una aplicación del modelo de migración de Harris-Todaro sobre los datos empíricos. English: The essay identifies some key economic factors behind the migration of Haitian agricultural workers to the Dominican Republic. Against the background of the deplorable working and living conditions facing the workers on their arrival, some economic theories of the migration decision are sketched and the characteristics of the Haitian workers, as they emerge from field studies, are presented. Thereafter the most important information with respect to rural poverty in Haiti is summarized and an explanation that runs in terms of the interaction between population growth and soil erosion is presented and the life-cycle aspects of poverty are highlighted. The essay concludes with an application of the Harris-Todaro model of migration to the empirical data.

  16. From recipes to recetas: health beliefs and health care encounters in the rural Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babington, L M; Kelley, B R; Patsdaughter, C A; Soderberg, R M; Kelley, J E

    1999-01-01

    With the growing influx of immigrants from the Dominican Republic entering the U.S. yearly, it is important for nurses to become familiar with their traditional health beliefs and health care experiences. The purpose of this study was: (a) to identify health beliefs of rural Dominicans and (b) to describe health care encounters between rural Dominicans and a visiting team of U.S. nurses. The data on health beliefs were collected in six focus groups and were analyzed using content analysis techniques. Health encounter data were collected from 693 Dominicans as they presented to mobile clinics for care. Findings from the focus group interviews suggested that health beliefs fall into two major categories: physical and spiritual/mystical. The most frequently occurring health problems, summaries of medications dispensed, treatments provided, referrals made, and health teaching information are presented.

  17. Sexual Risk Behavior Among Military Personnel Stationed at Border-Crossing Zones in the Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    military personnel, Dominican Republic Original research 1. Consejo Presidencial del SIDA (DR). Primera Encuesta de Vigilancia de Comportamiento con...del 2009, se aplicaron encuestas sobre com- portamiento a 498 miembros del personal militar que estaba en servicio activo en las tres zonas principales

  18. New species of Rhagoletotrypeta (Diptera: Tephritidae) from the Dominican Republic and southern Brazil and Paraguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhagoletotrypeta chapecensis Norrbom & Savaris, new species, and R. gelabertae Norrbom & Savaris, new species, are described and illustrated from specimens from southern Brazil (Paraná, Santa Catarina) and Paraguay, and from the Dominican Republic, respectively. The larvae of R. chapecensis develop ...

  19. An Island Drifting Apart. Why Haiti is mired in poverty while the Dominican Republic forges ahead

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frankema, E.H.P.; Masé, A.

    2014-01-01

    The 2010 earthquake in Haiti has exposed the extreme vulnerability of a society where the state and the economy simultaneously fail to deliver. The Dominican Republic has witnessed several phases of rapid economic growth since the 1870s and, from the 1970s onwards, a sustained process of political e

  20. An Island Drifting Apart : Why Haiti mires in poverty while the Dominican Republic forges ahead

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frankema, E.H.P.; Masé, A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The 2010 earthquake in Haiti has exposed the extreme vulnerability of a people living in a country where the state and the economy simultaneously fail to deliver. Haiti’s neighbor, the Dominican Republic, has witnessed several phases of strong economic growth since the 1870s and an encourag

  1. Tuberculosis patients in the Dominican Republic face severe direct and indirect costs and need social protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mauch, V.M.C.; Melgen, R.; Marcelino, B.; Acosta, I.; Klinkenberg, E.; Suarez, P.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine direct and indirect costs incurred by new, retreatment, and multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) patients in the Dominican Republic before and during diagnosis, and during treatment, to generate an evidence base and formulate recommendations. METHODS: The "Tool to Estima

  2. Severe leptospirosis in a Dutch traveller returning from the Dominican Republic, October 2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.S. Arcilla (Maris); P.J. Wismans (Pieter); Y. van Beek-Nieuwland (Yvonne); P.J.J. van Genderen (Perry)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIn October 2011, a case of leptospirosis was identified in a Dutch traveller returning from the Dominican Republic to the Netherlands. The 51-year-old man had aspired muddy water in the Chavón river on 29 September. Twenty days later he presented with fever, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea,

  3. Severe leptospirosis in a Dutch traveller returning from the Dominican Republic, October 2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.S. Arcilla (Maris); P.J. Wismans (Pieter); Y. van Beek-Nieuwland (Yvonne); P.J.J. van Genderen (Perry)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIn October 2011, a case of leptospirosis was identified in a Dutch traveller returning from the Dominican Republic to the Netherlands. The 51-year-old man had aspired muddy water in the Chavón river on 29 September. Twenty days later he presented with fever, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea,

  4. Fiction and history in the Dominican Republic: tensions of Trujillian literature in contemporary literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Aparecida de Figueiredo Fiuza

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article briefly examines four works considered fundamental for the understanding of the trujillate's novel in Hispanic America, a literary phenomenon that arises from the historical occurrence of the dictatorship of Rafael Leónidas Trujillo in the Dominican Republic. These narratives are based on the fictionalization of the historical period, revealing the problems imposed by the trujillian dictatorship.

  5. An Island Drifting Apart : Why Haiti mires in poverty while the Dominican Republic forges ahead

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frankema, E.H.P.; Masé, A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The 2010 earthquake in Haiti has exposed the extreme vulnerability of a people living in a country where the state and the economy simultaneously fail to deliver. Haiti’s neighbor, the Dominican Republic, has witnessed several phases of strong economic growth since the 1870s and an encourag

  6. An Island Drifting Apart. Why Haiti is mired in poverty while the Dominican Republic forges ahead

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frankema, E.H.P.; Masé, A.

    2014-01-01

    The 2010 earthquake in Haiti has exposed the extreme vulnerability of a society where the state and the economy simultaneously fail to deliver. The Dominican Republic has witnessed several phases of rapid economic growth since the 1870s and, from the 1970s onwards, a sustained process of political e

  7. Tuberculosis patients in the Dominican Republic face severe direct and indirect costs and need social protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mauch, V.M.C.; Melgen, R.; Marcelino, B.; Acosta, I.; Klinkenberg, E.; Suarez, P.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine direct and indirect costs incurred by new, retreatment, and multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) patients in the Dominican Republic before and during diagnosis, and during treatment, to generate an evidence base and formulate recommendations. METHODS: The "Tool to

  8. Tuberculosis patients in the Dominican Republic face severe direct and indirect costs and need social protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mauch, V.M.C.; Melgen, R.; Marcelino, B.; Acosta, I.; Klinkenberg, E.; Suarez, P.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine direct and indirect costs incurred by new, retreatment, and multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) patients in the Dominican Republic before and during diagnosis, and during treatment, to generate an evidence base and formulate recommendations. METHODS: The "Tool to Estima

  9. High depth, whole-genome sequencing of cholera isolates from Haiti and the Dominican Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sealfon Rachel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whole-genome sequencing is an important tool for understanding microbial evolution and identifying the emergence of functionally important variants over the course of epidemics. In October 2010, a severe cholera epidemic began in Haiti, with additional cases identified in the neighboring Dominican Republic. We used whole-genome approaches to sequence four Vibrio cholerae isolates from Haiti and the Dominican Republic and three additional V. cholerae isolates to a high depth of coverage (>2000x; four of the seven isolates were previously sequenced. Results Using these sequence data, we examined the effect of depth of coverage and sequencing platform on genome assembly and identification of sequence variants. We found that 50x coverage is sufficient to construct a whole-genome assembly and to accurately call most variants from 100 base pair paired-end sequencing reads. Phylogenetic analysis between the newly sequenced and thirty-three previously sequenced V. cholerae isolates indicates that the Haitian and Dominican Republic isolates are closest to strains from South Asia. The Haitian and Dominican Republic isolates form a tight cluster, with only four variants unique to individual isolates. These variants are located in the CTX region, the SXT region, and the core genome. Of the 126 mutations identified that separate the Haiti-Dominican Republic cluster from the V. cholerae reference strain (N16961, 73 are non-synonymous changes, and a number of these changes cluster in specific genes and pathways. Conclusions Sequence variant analyses of V. cholerae isolates, including multiple isolates from the Haitian outbreak, identify coverage-specific and technology-specific effects on variant detection, and provide insight into genomic change and functional evolution during an epidemic.

  10. [Management policy and utilization of botanical resources in the Dominican Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, R; Roersch, C

    1996-04-01

    The Dominican Republic has an extension of 48 442 km2. It occupies the eastern portion of the island of Hispaniola and is the second in size within the Greater Antilles. The floral resources of the Island have been extensively exploited without an adequate management policy. This has led to the destruction of about 90% of the forested lands of the country. The Dominican Republic has about 5600 species of vascular plants, of which 36% are endemic, many of which are in danger of extinction, due to overexploitation and/or destruction of the habitats. In order to protect the biodiversity of the Dominican Republic, 22 nature preserves were created, representing about 13.3% of the national territory. The primary institutions charged with the management and protection of the flora are the General Directorate of Forests, National Directorate of Parks, the National Botanical Garden, and the Department of Wild Life under the State Secretary of Agriculture (SEA). Numerous laws, resolutions and decrees have been promulgated, governing forest resources. As to the wildlife, emphasis is given to the protection of the fauna. At present, there is a technical body, which is structuring a Forest Code. Export of products of the wild flora is regulated by the Wildlife Department under the State Secretary of Agriculture (SEA). This Department also administers regulations for CITES. The Department of Plant Sanitation of the SEA and the Dominican Centre of Export Promotion (CEDOPEX) are also involved in the control of the export of biological materials.

  11. Citizen or Subordinate: Permutations of Belonging in the United States and the Dominican Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaina Aber

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Dominican Republic and the United States have both experienced tensions arising from migratory flows from poorer, less stable neighbors. Until recently, both countries had constitutions which conferred citizenship by birth with very limited exceptions. Despite these similarities, their respective discourses around jus soli citizenship, particularly for the children of unauthorized migrants from the poorer neighboring countries, have manifested in different ways. The identity of the United States as a nation of immigrants has limited the success of campaigns to revoke jus soli citizenship for the children of unauthorized immigrants, but the persistent articulation of this idea as a response to illegal migration has shifted the parameters of the immigration debate. In the Dominican Republic, the historical construction of national identity and anti-Haitian discourse has led to an evolution in Dominican law which codifies already established practices that deny citizenship to children of Haitian migrants. In both cases, movements that support more inclusive understandings of societal belonging, like the DREAMers in the United States and youth movements in the Dominican Republic, may offer the most effective way of protecting universal jus soli citizenship regimes. 

  12. The New Roles of the Dominican Armed Forces in the Dominican Republic National Security Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-15

    1844, and in contrast with the Army, the Dominican Navy or “Marina de Guerra ” has followed a more traditional pattern in its development. From its...Nacional de Quilmes, 2004. Salazar, Ana Maria. Seguridad Nacional Hoy: El reto de las Democracias. México: Editora Aguilar, August 2002. . Las Guerras ...que vienen: Riesgo Para Las Democracias Ante Nuevos Conflictos Mundiales . México: Editora Aguilar, October 2003 Sandoval, Freddy. La Seguridad

  13. Social stressors, social support, and mental health among Haitian migrants in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Bonnie N; Keys, Hunter M; Foster, Jennifer; Kohrt, Brandon A

    2015-08-01

    This mixed-method study explored the social world of Haitian migrants, examining forms of social support and social stress, as well as their relationship to mental health. Among six Haitian migrant communities in the Cibao Valley of the Dominican Republic, a community-based survey (n = 127) was conducted to assess migration experiences, current stressors, mental health, and functioning. In addition, to explore perceptions and experiences of migration, social interactions, and mental health, the study drew upon in-depth interviews and free-listing activities among Haitian migrants, as well as cognitive interviews with select survey participants. Depressive, anxiety, and mental distress survey scores were associated with 1) negative social interactions (including interrogation or deportation, perceived mistreatment by Dominicans, and overcrowding) and 2) lack of social support, including migrating alone. Mental distress scores were higher among women, and being married was associated with higher anxiety scores, potentially reflecting unmet social expectations. In qualitative data, participants emphasized a lack of social support, often referred to as tèt ansanm (literally meaning "heads together" in Haitian Creole or Kreyòl and roughly defined as solidarity or reciprocal social collaboration). The authors of the study propose that the practice of tèt ansanm-also termed konbit, and, in the Dominican Republic, convite-could be used as a means of facilitating positive-contact events among Haitians and Dominicans. These interactions could help counteract social stress and build social capital in settings similar to those of the study.

  14. HIV Risk Behavior among Youth in the Dominican Republic: The Role of Alcohol and Other Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Jaccard, James; Lushin, Viktor; Martinez, Roberto; Gonzalez, Bernardo; McCarthy, Katharine

    2011-01-01

    Existing literature related to HIV in the Dominican Republic has tended to neglect the unique role of tourism areas as distinct ecologies facilitative of sexual risk behavior, particularly HIV vulnerability and transmission. Furthermore, limited attention has focused on Dominican adolescents living in close proximity to tourism areas who have become increasingly exposed to alcohol due to the expanding tourism industry in the Dominican Republic. While most previous analyses of the effects of alcohol on adolescent sexual risk behavior have focused on the transient effects of alcohol on judgment and decision making, the effects of chronic alcohol use on sexual behavior has been a neglected area of research. Our study explores the relationship between chronic alcohol use, the parent-adolescent relationship, affective factors such as self-esteem, and intentions to engage in sex. We examine the above factors within the context of tourism areas which represent a unique ecology of alcohol availability and consumption and HIV risk. We discuss implications for developing applied family-based programs to target Dominican adolescent alcohol use and sexual risk behavior in tourism areas of high alcohol exposure.

  15. Severe leptospirosis in a Dutch traveller returning from the Dominican Republic, October 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcilla, Ms; Wismans, P J; van Beek-Nieuwland, Y; van Genderen, P J

    2012-01-01

    In October 2011, a case of leptospirosis was identified in a Dutch traveller returning from the Dominican Republic to the Netherlands. The 51-year-old man had aspired muddy water in the Chavón river on 29 September. Twenty days later he presented with fever, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, arthralgia, headache, conjunctival suffusion and icterus. Leptospira serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae or Australis infection was confirmed ten days later by laboratory testing.

  16. Field survey of the 1946 Dominican Republic tsunami based on eyewitness interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, H. M.; Martinez, C.; Salado, J.; Rivera, W.

    2016-12-01

    On 4 August 1946 an Mw 8.1 earthquake struck off the northeastern shore of Hispaniola resulting in a destructive tsunami with order one hundred fatalities in the Dominican Republic and observed runup in Puerto Rico. In the far field the tsunami was recorded on some tide gauges on the Atlantic coast of the United States. The earthquake devastated the Dominican Republic, extended into Haiti, and shook many other islands. This was one of the strongest earthquakes ever reported in the Caribbean. The immediate earthquake reconnaissance surveys focused on earthquake damage and were conducted in September 1946 (Lynch and Bodle, 1948; Small, 1948). The 1946 Dominican Republic tsunami eyewitness based field survey took place in three phases from 18 to 21 March 2014, 1 to 3 September 2014 and 9 to 11 May 2016. The International Tsunami Survey Team (ITST) covered more than 400 km of coastline along the northern Dominican Republic from La Isabela to Punta Cana. The survey team documented tsunami runup, flow depth, inundation distances, coastal erosion and co-seismic land level changes based on eyewitnesses interviewed on site using established protocols. The early afternoon earthquake resulted in detailed survival stories with excellent eyewitness observations recounted almost 70 years later with lucidity. The Dominican Republic survey data includes 29 runup and tsunami height measurements at 21 locations. The tsunami impacts peaked with maximum tsunami heights exceeding 5 m at a cluster of locations between Cabrera and El Limon. A maximum tsunami height of 8 m likely associated with splash up was measured in Playa Boca Nueva. Tsunami inundation distances of 600 m or more were measured at Las Terrenas and Playa Rincon on the Samana Peninsula. Some locations were surveyed twice in 2014 and 2016, which allowed to identify current coastal erosion rates. Field data points measured in 2014 and 2016 were corrected for predicted astronomical tide levels at the time of tsunami arrival

  17. 77 FR 51828 - Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement; Notice of Extension of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... of the Secretary Dominican Republic--Central America--United States Free Trade Agreement; Notice of... Republic--Central America--United States Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR). On December 22, 2011, OTLA... International Labor Affairs, U.S. Department of Labor. ACTION: Notice. The Office of Trade and Labor Affairs...

  18. Tsunamis in Cuba?; Tsunamis en Cuba?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotilla Rodriguez, M. O.

    2011-07-01

    Cuba as neo tectonics structure in the southern of the North American plate had three tsunamis. One of them [local] occurred in the Central-Northern region [1931.10.01, Nortecubana fault], the other was a tele tsunami [1755.11.01, in the SW of the Iberian Peninsula] that hit the Bay of Santiago de Cuba, and the third took place at 1867.11.18, by the regional source of Virgin Islands, which produced waves in the Eastern Cuban region. This tsunami originated to the NE of Puerto Rico in 1918.10.11, with another earthquake of equal magnitude and at similar coordinates, produced a tsunami that did not affect Cuba. Information on the influence of regional tsunami in 1946.08.08 of the NE of the Dominican Republic [Matanzas] in Northwestern Cuba [beaches Guanabo-Baracoa] is contrary to expectations with the waves propagation. The local event of 1939.08.15 attributed to Central- Northern Cuba [Cayo Frances with M = 8.1] does not correspond at all with the maximum magnitude of earthquakes in this region and the potential of the Nortecubana fault. Tsunamis attributed to events such as 1766.06.11 and 1932.02.03 in the Santiago de Cuba Bay are not reflected in the original documents from experts and eyewitnesses. Tsunamis from Jamaica have not affected the coasts of Cuba, despite its proximity. There is no influence in Cuba of tsunamigenic sources of the southern and western parts of the Caribbean, or the Gulf of Mexico. Set out the doubts as to the influence of tsunamis from Haiti and Dominican Republic at Guantanamo Bay which is closer to and on the same latitude, and spatial orientation than the counterpart of Santiago de Cuba, that had impact. The number of fatalities by authors in the Caribbean is different and contradictory. (Author) 76 refs.

  19. Globalizing Occupational Therapy: Bridging Gaps in the Pediatric Care of the Dominican Republic, through Education in School-Based Occupational Therapy Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croussett, Yaritza Esthela

    2016-01-01

    In the past, many measures have been taken in the Dominican Republic to address the functional outcomes of a school-aged child with a disability. However, none of these measures have explored or addressed function within context. Under the current paradigm used in the Dominican Republic, similar to the medical model, provision of therapy services…

  20. Multistate US Outbreak of Rapidly Growing Mycobacterial Infections Associated with Medical Tourism to the Dominican Republic, 2013-2014(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnabel, David; Esposito, Douglas H; Gaines, Joanna; Ridpath, Alison; Barry, M Anita; Feldman, Katherine A; Mullins, Jocelyn; Burns, Rachel; Ahmad, Nina; Nyangoma, Edith N; Nguyen, Duc B; Perz, Joseph F; Moulton-Meissner, Heather A; Jensen, Bette J; Lin, Ying; Posivak-Khouly, Leah; Jani, Nisha; Morgan, Oliver W; Brunette, Gary W; Pritchard, P Scott; Greenbaum, Adena H; Rhee, Susan M; Blythe, David; Sotir, Mark

    2016-08-01

    During 2013, the Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene in Baltimore, MD, USA, received report of 2 Maryland residents whose surgical sites were infected with rapidly growing mycobacteria after cosmetic procedures at a clinic (clinic A) in the Dominican Republic. A multistate investigation was initiated; a probable case was defined as a surgical site infection unresponsive to therapy in a patient who had undergone cosmetic surgery in the Dominican Republic. We identified 21 case-patients in 6 states who had surgery in 1 of 5 Dominican Republic clinics; 13 (62%) had surgery at clinic A. Isolates from 12 (92%) of those patients were culture-positive for Mycobacterium abscessus complex. Of 9 clinic A case-patients with available data, all required therapeutic surgical intervention, 8 (92%) were hospitalized, and 7 (78%) required ≥3 months of antibacterial drug therapy. Healthcare providers should consider infection with rapidly growing mycobacteria in patients who have surgical site infections unresponsive to standard treatment.

  1. Detection of quinolones in poultry meat obtained from retail centers in Santiago Province, the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silfrany, R O; Caba, R E; Solís de Los Santos, F; Hanning, I

    2013-02-01

    In the Dominican Republic, poultry consumption per capita is greater than 34 kg of poultry meat per year. However, antibiotics, specifically the quinolone group, may be overused and can result in residues in the poultry meat. These residues are of concern because consumers may have allergies to antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant bacteria can develop from overuse of antibiotics in production. Little is known concerning this issue specifically for Santiago Province in the Dominican Republic. Thus, the main purpose of this research was to evaluate the incidence of residual quinolones in poultry meat and determine whether any residues detected were higher than the residue maximum limits (100 μg/kg) established by food industry authorities, including the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and European Food Safety Authority. A total of 135 samples of chicken breast were taken from different retail meat centers in the nine municipalities of Santiago Province (Santiago, Tamboril, Sabana Iglesia, Villa Bisonó, Puñal, Villa González, Licey, Jánico, and San José De Las Matas) and were analyzed using the Equinox test (Immunotec, Swanton, VT). Of the 135 samples analyzed, 50% from Sabana Iglesia, 20% from Licey, 20% from San Jose De Las Matas, and 6.25% from Santiago contained residues of quinolones higher than the residue maximum limits. No quinolone residues were detected in samples obtained from Janico, Punal, Tamboril, Villa Bisono, or Villa Gonzalez. The results of this investigation suggest that some poultry meat sold for human consumption in Santiago Province of the Dominican Republic contains quinolone residues and may represent a health risk to some consumers.

  2. Acceptability of male circumcision for the prevention of HIV/AIDS in the Dominican Republic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximo O Brito

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Male circumcision (MC is an effective strategy to prevent HIV infection in heterosexual men. To our knowledge, there are no studies of the acceptability of this procedure in the Dominican Republic (DR. The main objective of this study was to assess the acceptability of MC to prevent HIV transmission among men ages 18 to 50 years in the Altagracia Province in the Dominican Republic. Because differences in culture and beliefs between Haitians and Dominicans could potentially influence their acceptability of MC, we conducted a comparative analysis based on national origin. METHODS: A survey was administered to a convenience sample of 368 men. The questionnaire was divided in 3 sections: 1 Background demographics (including national origin, 2 Male circumcision and 3 Sexual health. Stratified and logistic multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with the acceptability of MC. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 238 (65% Dominicans and 130 (35% Haitian immigrants. Almost all participants were uncircumcised (95% and about half (52% were single. The overall acceptability of MC was 29%. The number of men willing to be circumcised increased to 67% after an information session explaining the benefits of the procedure. 74% of men reported that they would be willing to circumcise their sons after hearing that information. In multivariate analysis, Haitian nationality (OR=1.86, 95% CI 1.01-3.41, knowing that circumcision improves hygiene (OR=2.78, 95% CI 1.29-6.0 and not believing that circumcision decreases sexual pleasure (OR=2.18, 95% CI 1.20-3.94 were associated with a higher acceptability of the procedure. Although age was not significantly associated with the willingness to be circumcised in the multivariate analysis, stratified analysis based on national origin suggested that younger Dominicans (<30 years of age are more likely to accept the procedure when compared to their older counterparts (OR=2.17, 95

  3. A mixed methods evaluation of an international service learning program in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Alicia J; Martins, Diane C; Schwartz-Barcott, Donna

    2015-01-01

    To examine the impact of an international service learning experience (ISL) using a quantitative and qualitative approach. A descriptive study was used to explore the impact of an ISL experience on global awareness, professional and personal growth with 11 baccalaureate nursing students in the Dominican Republic. Students participated in a three credit ISL program in the Dominican Republic which included pre- and postexperience seminars and a 2-week, on-site immersion experience. The International Education Survey (IES) was used as the quantitative measure. Content analysis of Critical Reflective Inquiry (CRI) narratives was used as the qualitative method. Students reported a high overall impact (M = 5.9) using the IES with high means for the Professional Student Nurse Role (M = 6.10, SD: 0.74), Personal Development (M = 6.08, SD: 0.76), International Perspectives (M = 6.03, SD: 0.71), and a lower mean for Intellectual Development (M = 5.40, SD: 0.69). CRI narratives revealed specific areas of impact, for example, increased empathy and ability to communicate effectively with patients from life situations very different from their own. Further exploration of the usefulness of various evaluation tools and methodological designs is warranted to understand this type of pedagogy and its' impact on student learning outcomes short- and long-term. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Perceived discrimination, humiliation, and mental health: a mixed-methods study among Haitian migrants in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keys, Hunter M; Kaiser, Bonnie N; Foster, Jennifer W; Burgos Minaya, Rosa Y; Kohrt, Brandon A

    2015-01-01

    Many Haitian migrants live and work as undocumented laborers in the Dominican Republic. This study examines the legacy of anti-Haitian discrimination in the Dominican Republic and association of discrimination with mental health among Haitian migrants. This study used mixed methods to generate hypotheses for associations between discrimination and mental health of Haitian migrants in the Dominican Republic. In-depth interviews were conducted with 21 Haitian and 18 Dominican community members and clinicians. One hundred and twenty-seven Haitian migrants participated in a pilot cross-sectional community survey. Instruments included culturally adapted Kreyòl versions of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and a locally developed function impairment scale. Haitian migrants described humiliation (imilyasyon) as a reason for mental distress and barrier to health care. Dominicans reported that discrimination (discriminación) was not a current social problem and attributed negative social interactions to sociocultural, behavioral, and biological differences between Dominicans and Haitians. These qualitative findings were supported in the quantitative analyses. Perceived discrimination was significantly associated with depression severity and functional impairment. Perceived mistreatment by Dominicans was associated with a 6.6-point increase in BDI score (90% confidence interval [CI]: 3.29, 9.9). Knowing someone who was interrogated or deported was associated with a 3.4-point increase in BAI score (90% CI: 0.22, 6.64). Both qualitative and quantitative methods suggest that perceived discrimination and the experience of humiliation contribute to Haitian migrant mental ill-health and limit access to health care. Future research should evaluate these associations and identify intervention pathways for both improved treatment access and reduction of discrimination-related health risk factors.

  5. Jehaia stocki n.g., n. sp., a new interstitial janiroid isopod from the Dominican Republic, Hispaniola (Crustacea; Isopoda; Janiroidea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, H.P.

    1990-01-01

    A new genus and species of interstitial janiroid isopod is described from the Barahona Province in the Dominican Republic (Hispaniola). It is not clear whether it belongs to the Janiridae or Microparasellidae, although it is provisionally supposed to belong to former family until a thorough revision

  6. A qualitative study of tobacco use in eight economically disadvantaged Dominican Republic communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Nancy; Dozier, Ann; Quinones, Zahira; Diaz, Sergio; Weber, Emily; Almonte, Hector; Bautista, Arisleyda; Raman, Kiran; McIntosh, Scott; Ossip, Deborah

    2016-06-28

    Understanding social conditions prior to intervention design can enhance tobacco control interventions. This paper describes formative research conducted in 2010 about tobacco use in eight economically disadvantaged Dominican Republic communities, four of which participated in a previous intervention study (2003-2008). A combined US-Dominican team used a rapid assessment process to collect qualitative social and cultural data on tobacco use, knowledge and attitudes; plus observations about social and policy factors, such as exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS), tobacco regulations, pregnancy, health care provider (HCP) practices and sustainability of the 2003-2008 intervention. This assessment found that tobacco use varied by age. While all ages typically used cigarettes, older adults used relatively more unprocessed tobacco, which is seen as less harmful and less addictive. Middle-aged smokers typically used commercial cigarettes, which are viewed as dangerous, addictive, expensive and offensive. Young adults reported avoiding smoking, but using relatively more smokeless tobacco. Smoking during pregnancy has reportedly decreased. SHS was viewed as harmful, although smoke-free homes were uncommon. HCPs discussed tobacco issues mostly for patients with tobacco-related conditions. Sustainability of the 2003-2008 intervention appeared to be linked to active Community Technology Centers with strong leadership, and community social capital. This information could be used to design better targeted interventions in these communities. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Sistema de salud de República Dominicana The health system of Dominican Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Rathe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se describen las condiciones de salud de la República Dominicana y, con mayor detalle, el sistema de salud dominicano, incluyendo su estructura y cobertura, sus fuentes de financiamiento, el gasto en salud, los recursos físicos, materiales y humanos de los que dispone, las tareas de rectoría que desarrolla el Ministerio de Salud Pública y la generación de información. También se discuten la participación de los usuarios en la operación y evaluación del sistema de salud y las más recientes innovaciones implementadas, dentro de las que destacan la nueva Ley General de Salud, la nueva Ley de Seguridad Social y el Plan Decenal de Salud.This paper describes the health conditions in Dominican Republic and the characteristics of the Dominican health system, including its structure and coverage, its financial sources, the health expenditure, the physical, material and human resources available, the stewardship functions developed by the Ministry of Public Health and the generation of health information. The participation of health care users in the operation and evaluation of the system and the most recent policy innovations, including the new General Health Law, the new Social Security Law and the Decennial Health Plan are also discussed.

  8. Isolation of infectious Zika virus from saliva and prolonged viral RNA shedding in a traveller returning from the Dominican Republic to Italy, January 2016

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barzon, Luisa; Pacenti, Monia; Berto, Alessandro; Sinigaglia, Alessandro; Franchin, Elisa; Lavezzo, Enrico; Brugnaro, Pierluigi; Palù, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    We report the isolation of infectious Zika virus (ZIKV) in cell culture from the saliva of a patient who developed a febrile illness after returning from the Dominican Republic to Italy, in January 2016...

  9. Bibliotecas públicas dominicanas Public libraries in the Dominican Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumarys Alt. Polanco-Almonte

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo es una compilación sobre el estado del tema bibliotecas públicas dominicanas. Se exponen aquí los principales acontecimientos que han marcado el desarrollo de estas importantes unidades de información. La documentación recopilada sirvió para describir parcialmente el estado de las bibliotecas públicas y utilizar esta información para presentar algunas recomendaciones.This paper provides a historical overview and description of the current state of public libraries in the Dominican Republic. The events central to their development are also described. The documentation gathered has served to create a profile of the current state of public libraries and make some recommendations.

  10. Characterizing HIV epidemiology in stable couples in Cambodia, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, and India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemaitelly, H; Abu-Raddad, L J

    2016-01-01

    Using a set of statistical methods and HIV mathematical models applied on nationally representative Demographic and Health Survey data, we characterized HIV serodiscordancy patterns and HIV transmission dynamics in stable couples (SCs) in four countries: Cambodia, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, and India. The majority of SCs affected by HIV were serodiscordant, and about a third of HIV-infected persons had uninfected partners. Overall, nearly two-thirds of HIV infections occurred in individuals in SCs, but only about half of these infections were due to transmissions within serodiscordant couples. The majority of HIV incidence in the population occurred through extra-partner encounters in SCs. There is similarity in HIV epidemiology in SCs between these countries and countries in sub-Saharan Africa, despite the difference in scale of epidemics. It appears that HIV epidemiology in SCs may share similar patterns globally, possibly because it is a natural 'spillover' effect of HIV dynamics in high-risk populations.

  11. A consumer intercept study of oral contraceptive users in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, E C

    1988-01-01

    Purchasers of a low-cost oral contraceptive were intercepted and interviewed in a sample of Santo Domingo pharmacies that represented the highest sales of the product, yet also reflected the socioeconomic profile of the city's entire population. Users of the contraceptive were later interviewed in greater depth in their homes. The survey of users showed that the Dominican Republic's social marketing program, implemented by PROFAMILIA, was reaching an appropriate target market--that is, younger, lower-middle-class women of low parity. The program was, in addition, successful in attracting first-time adopters, and it was also expanding the overall commercial market for all contraceptives. The marketing campaign was successful in part because a mass audience was reached, through brief television spots. Program impact on contraceptive prevalence can be assessed from sales data.

  12. Diphtheria in the Dominican Republic: reduction of cases following a large outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garib, Zacarías; Danovaro-Holliday, M Carolina; Tavarez, Yira; Leal, Irene; Pedreira, Cristina

    2015-10-01

    To describe the most recent outbreak of diphtheria in the Dominican Republic and the disease's occurrence and vaccination coverage in 2004-2013. Clinical data of diphtheria cases that occurred in 2004 and that met the study's case definition were reviewed along with socioeconomic and epidemiological information from the cases' families. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess risk factors for fatal diphtheria. Routine surveillance and vaccination coverage data are presented. From January 2004-April 2005, a total of 145 diphtheria cases were reported; 80 (66%) of the 122 cases reported in 2004 met the case definition; 26 were fatal (case-fatality rate: 32.5%). Incidence was highest in the group 1-4 years of age at 5.3 per 100 000; 62.5% were male. Of the 80 cases, 61 (76%) where hospitalized in Hospital A, 17 in Hospital B, and 2 in two other hospitals. Earlier onset (first half of 2004), birth order, and tracheotomy were associated with fatal diphtheria (P diphtheria incidence was 4.91 cases/1 million people in 2000-2003, climbed to 8.8 cases per million in 2004-2005, and dropped to 0.38 in 2006-2014; no diphtheria cases have been reported since 2011. DTP3 vaccination coverage ranged from 72%-81% in 2000-2004 and from 81%-89% in 2005-2013. The 2004-2005 diphtheria outbreak in the Dominican Republic resulted in important and avoidable morbidity and mortality. Annual cases declined and no cases have been reported in recent years. Maintaining high vaccination coverage and diligent surveillance are crucial to preventing diphtheria outbreaks and controlling the disease.

  13. Empathic orientation among medical students from three universities in Barranquilla, Colombia and one university in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Narváez, Víctor Patricio; Alonso Palacio, Luz Marina; Caro, Sara Elvira; Silva, María Guadalupe; Castillo, Joel Arboleda; Bilbao, Jorge Luis; Acosta, Jesús Iglesias

    2014-02-01

    To compare empathic orientation among medical students from three schools of medicine in Colombia and one in the Dominican Republic. Empathic orientation of medical students was measured using the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (JSPE), Spanish version for students (the "S" version) validated in Mexico and Chile, and culturally adapted to Colombia and the Dominican Republic. Data were compared using a three-factor analysis of variance (model III) and a discriminant analysis. No differences in empathic orientation were observed among courses and between sexes, but differences were found in schools of medicine considered as a unit in each studied country. Empathic orientation levels tend to reduce as courses advance. This was observed in both male and female students and in all schools analyzed.

  14. Utilization of a mobile medical van for delivering pediatric care in the bateys of the Dominican Republic

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Background Bateys are impoverished areas of housing for migrant Haitian sugar cane workers in the Dominican Republic (DR). In these regions, preventative health care is almost non-existent, public service accessibility is limited, and geographic isolation prevents utilization of care even by those families with resources. Consequently, the development of a viable mobile system is vital to the delivery of acute and preventative health care in this region. Aims This study evaluated an existing ...

  15. Molecular Virologic and Clinical Characteristics of a Chikungunya Fever Outbreak in La Romana, Dominican Republic, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautz, Tiffany F.; Auguste, Albert J.; Erasmus, Jesse H.; Kiaty-Figueroa, Liddy; Gerhardt, Renessa; Lin, David; Hari, Kumar L.; Jain, Ravi; Ruiz, Nicolas; Muruato, Antonio E.; Silfa, Jael; Bido, Franklin

    2016-01-01

    Since emerging in Saint Martin in 2013, chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an alphavirus transmitted by the Aedes aegypti mosquito, has infected approximately two million individuals in the Americas, with over 500,000 reported cases in the Dominican Republic (DR). CHIKV-infected patients typically present with a febrile syndrome including polyarthritis/polyarthralgia, and a macropapular rash, similar to those infected with dengue and Zika viruses, and malaria. Nevertheless, many Dominican cases are unconfirmed due to the unavailability and high cost of laboratory testing and the absence of specific treatment for CHIKV infection. To obtain a more accurate representation of chikungunya fever (CHIKF) clinical signs and symptoms, and confirm the viral lineage responsible for the DR CHIKV outbreak, we tested 194 serum samples for CHIKV RNA and IgM antibodies from patients seen in a hospital in La Romana, DR using quantitative RT-PCR and IgM capture ELISA, and performed retrospective chart reviews. RNA and antibodies were detected in 49% and 24.7% of participants, respectively. Sequencing revealed that the CHIKV strain responsible for the La Romana outbreak belonged to the Asian/American lineage and grouped phylogenetically with recent Mexican and Trinidadian isolates. Our study shows that, while CHIKV-infected individuals were infrequently diagnosed with CHIKF, uninfected patients were never falsely diagnosed with CHIKF. Participants testing positive for CHIKV RNA were more likely to present with arthralgia, although it was reported in just 20.0% of CHIKF+ individuals. High percentages of respiratory (19.6%) signs and symptoms, especially among children, were noted, though it was not possible to determine whether individuals infected with CHIKV were co-infected with other pathogens. These results suggest that CHIKV may have been underdiagnosed during this outbreak, and that CHIKF should be included in differential diagnoses of diverse undifferentiated febrile syndromes in the

  16. Molecular Virologic and Clinical Characteristics of a Chikungunya Fever Outbreak in La Romana, Dominican Republic, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langsjoen, Rose M; Rubinstein, Rebecca J; Kautz, Tiffany F; Auguste, Albert J; Erasmus, Jesse H; Kiaty-Figueroa, Liddy; Gerhardt, Renessa; Lin, David; Hari, Kumar L; Jain, Ravi; Ruiz, Nicolas; Muruato, Antonio E; Silfa, Jael; Bido, Franklin; Dacso, Matthew; Weaver, Scott C

    2016-12-01

    Since emerging in Saint Martin in 2013, chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an alphavirus transmitted by the Aedes aegypti mosquito, has infected approximately two million individuals in the Americas, with over 500,000 reported cases in the Dominican Republic (DR). CHIKV-infected patients typically present with a febrile syndrome including polyarthritis/polyarthralgia, and a macropapular rash, similar to those infected with dengue and Zika viruses, and malaria. Nevertheless, many Dominican cases are unconfirmed due to the unavailability and high cost of laboratory testing and the absence of specific treatment for CHIKV infection. To obtain a more accurate representation of chikungunya fever (CHIKF) clinical signs and symptoms, and confirm the viral lineage responsible for the DR CHIKV outbreak, we tested 194 serum samples for CHIKV RNA and IgM antibodies from patients seen in a hospital in La Romana, DR using quantitative RT-PCR and IgM capture ELISA, and performed retrospective chart reviews. RNA and antibodies were detected in 49% and 24.7% of participants, respectively. Sequencing revealed that the CHIKV strain responsible for the La Romana outbreak belonged to the Asian/American lineage and grouped phylogenetically with recent Mexican and Trinidadian isolates. Our study shows that, while CHIKV-infected individuals were infrequently diagnosed with CHIKF, uninfected patients were never falsely diagnosed with CHIKF. Participants testing positive for CHIKV RNA were more likely to present with arthralgia, although it was reported in just 20.0% of CHIKF+ individuals. High percentages of respiratory (19.6%) signs and symptoms, especially among children, were noted, though it was not possible to determine whether individuals infected with CHIKV were co-infected with other pathogens. These results suggest that CHIKV may have been underdiagnosed during this outbreak, and that CHIKF should be included in differential diagnoses of diverse undifferentiated febrile syndromes in the

  17. Differences in interleukin 8 expression in Helicobacter pylori-infected gastric mucosa tissues from patients in Bhutan and the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, Hiroyuki; Iwatani, Shun; Cruz, Modesto; Jiménez Abreu, José A; Tronilo, Lourdes; Rodríguez, Eduardo; Disla, Mildre; Terao, Hideo; Uchida, Tomohisa; Mahachai, Varocha; Vilaichone, Ratha-Korn; Tshering, Lotay; Mitsui, Takahiro; Shiota, Seiji; Graham, David Y; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    The outcomes of Helicobacter pylori infection vary geographically. H pylori strains, disease presentation, and environments differ markedly in Bhutan and Dominican Republic. The aims were to compare the strains, histology, and expression of interleukin (IL) 8 and IL-10 from gastric mucosa from the 2 countries. H pylori status was assessed by the combination of rapid urease test, culture, and histology. Histology was evaluated using the updated Sydney System, and cytokines in gastric biopsies were measured using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). There were 138 subjects from Bhutan and 155 from Dominican Republic. The prevalence of H pylori infection was 65% and 59%, respectively. The genotype of cagA was predominantly East Asian type in Bhutan versus Western type in Dominican Republic. Gastritis severity was significantly higher in H pylori-infected subjects from Bhutan than those from Dominican Republic. IL-8 expression by H pylori infection was 5.5-fold increased in Bhutan versus 3-fold in Dominican Republic (P < .001); IL-10 expression was similar. IL-8 expression levels among H pylori-infected cases tended to be positively correlated with polymorphonuclear leucocyte and monocyte infiltration scores in both countries. IL-8 expression among those with grade 2 and 3 polymorphonuclear leucocyte and monocyte infiltration was significantly higher in Bhutan than in Dominican Republic. The difference in IL-8 expression in the 2 countries is reflected in the different disease pattern between them. Whether the dominant factor is differences in H pylori virulence, in host-H pylori-environmental interactions, genetic factors or all remains unclear. However, severity of inflammation appears to be a critical factor in disease pathogenesis. We compared IL-8 messenger RNA levels between the high gastric cancer risk country, Bhutan (mainly East Asian-type H pylori), and the lower gastric cancer risk country, Dominican Republic (mainly Western-type H pylori).

  18. Factors Related to Pregnancy Among Female Sex Workers Living with HIV in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernigliaro, Dana; Barrington, Clare; Perez, Martha; Donastorg, Yeycy; Kerrigan, Deanna

    2016-10-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) living with HIV are a vulnerable population for multiple health concerns and have been vastly understudied in public health literature. This study analyzes factors related to pregnancy among 268 FSWs living with HIV in the Dominican Republic. Results indicate that 34 % of participants had been pregnant since HIV diagnosis. Multivariate analysis revealed significant associations between pregnancy after HIV diagnosis and ART interruption (AOR 2.41; 95 % CI 1.19, 4.94), knowledge of mother-to-child transmission (AOR 2.12; 95 % CI 0.99, 4.55), serostatus disclosure to a sex partner (AOR 2.46; 95 % CI 1.31, 4.62), older age (AOR 0.91; 95 % CI 0.87, 0.95) and a more negative perception of their health provider (AOR 0.56; 95 % CI 0.34, 0.93). Results indicate noteworthy associations between having been pregnant and the health provider experience and ART interruption, indicating a significant need for further research on this population to ensure both maternal and child health.

  19. Health Care Workers’ Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices on Tobacco Use in Economically Disadvantaged Dominican Republic Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G. Prucha

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco use is increasing globally, particularly in low and middle-income countries like the Dominican Republic (DR where data have been lacking. Health care worker (HCW interventions improve quit rates; asking patients about tobacco use at each visit is an evidence-based first step. This study provides the first quantitative examination of knowledge, attitudes and practices of DR HCWs regarding tobacco use. All HCWs (N = 153 in 7 economically disadvantaged DR communities were targeted with anonymous surveys. Approximately 70% (N = 107 completed the primary outcome item, asking about tobacco use at each encounter. Despite >85% strongly agreeing that they should ask about tobacco use at each encounter, only 48.6% reported doing so. While most (94.39% strongly agreed that smoking is harmful, knowledge of specific health consequences varied from 98.13% for lung cancer to 41.12% for otitis media. Few received training in tobacco intervention (38.32%. Exploratory analyses revealed that always asking even if patients are healthy, strongly agreeing that tobacco causes cardiac disease, and always advising smoke-free homes were associated with always asking. Overall, results demonstrate a disconnect between HCW belief and practice. Though most agreed that always asking about tobacco was important, fewer than half did so. Gaps in HCW knowledge and practices suggest a need for education and policy/infrastructure support. To our knowledge, this is the first reported survey of DR HCWs regarding tobacco, and provides a foundation for future tobacco control in the DR.

  20. HIV risk behaviors: a comparison of U.S. Hispanic and Dominican Republic youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westhoff, W W; McDermott, R J; Holcomb, D R

    1996-04-01

    Sexual behaviors of adolescents place them at a high risk for HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases. International comparisons of sexual risk-taking among youth employing a common set of survey items are rare. Moreover, such studies can assist in explaining observed differences in disease rates, or predicting future trends in transmission, and identifying health educational needs unique to a particular population or setting. To assess variations in risk-taking patterns, a comparison of HIV behavioral risk factors was made between U.S. Hispanic and Dominican Republic (D.R.) youth. The Spanish version of the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance (YRBS) survey was administered to 1,175 D.R. high school students. Responses were compared to those in the U.S. from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's 1990 YRBS data tape for 2285 Hispanic youth. Frequency and cross-tabulation data were compared by country and gender. There were significant differences in AIDS education at school, discussions about AIDS conducted in the home, age of first sexual experience, condom use, and past experience with STDs. Results show that adolescents in both countries are at risk, but with different mediating factors. Inadequate condom use and early initiation of sex place the D.R. youth at risk, while more U.S. youth are engaging in sexual intercourse and using alcohol or other drugs in conjunction with sexual episodes. Some implications for prevention education are discussed.

  1. Displacement of Biomfhalaria glabrata by thiara granifera under natural conditions in the Dominican Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Gomez Perez

    1991-09-01

    Full Text Available After a study of the population dynamics of Biomphalaria glabrata snails in several breeding places in the Dominican Republic, the snail Thiara granifera was introduced in some B. glabrata habitats. T. granifera became established in one point in one habitat in the townof Quisqueya, in the east of the country. Around this point of establishment 6 points were selected in order to observe the population dynamics of both species of snails and the chemical and biological characteristics at each point. Four of these points already harbored B. glabrata. One control point was selected also harboring B. glabrata. After 14 months of observations, the results showed that T. granifera was competing with and displacing B. glabrata. This competition does not seem to be competition for food or vital space. Rather, B. glabrata avoids the presence of T. granifera and moves away to new areas, and this is possibly due to a chemical substance(s secreted by T. granifera or by physical contact with the large number of individuals of T. granifera.

  2. Methods of mapping ethnographic data on migration, tourism labor, and health risk in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Karina; Padilla, Mark; Scott, Derrick; Colón-Burgos, José Félix; Reyes, Armando Matiz; Varas-Díaz, Nelson

    This paper focuses on a mixed-method approach to quantifying qualitative data from the results of an ongoing NIDA-funded ethnographic study entitled "Migration, Tourism, and the HIV/Drug-Use Syndemic in the Dominican Republic". This project represents the first large-scale mixed method study to identify social, structural, environmental, and demographic factors that may contribute to ecologies of health vulnerability within the Caribbean tourism zones. Our research has identified deportation history as a critical factor contributing to vulnerability to HIV, drugs, mental health problems, and other health conditions. Therefore, understanding the movements of our participants became a vital aspect of this research. This paper describes how we went about translating 37 interviews into visual geographic representations. These methods help develop possible strategies for confronting HIV/AIDS and problematic substance use by examining the ways that these epidemics are shaped by the realities of people's labor migration and the spaces they inhabit. Our methods for mapping this qualitative data contribute to the ongoing, broadening capabilities of using GIS in social science research. A key contribution of this work is its integration of different methodologies from various disciplines to help better understand complex social problems.

  3. La vida normal: living with HIV in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrington, Clare; Kerrigan, Deanna; Ureña, Francisco I Cáceres; Brudney, Karen

    2017-05-18

    In this study, we explore how individuals living with HIV in the Dominican Republic strive to live a 'normal' life and the consequences of this pursuit of normalcy. We conducted qualitative in-depth interviews with men (n = 20) and women (n = 20) living with HIV and receiving care at two urban clinics in Santo Domingo. We analysed the data using a combination of narrative analysis and thematic coding. We aimed to identify how fears and/or lived experiences with social rejection and HIV-related stigma and discrimination shaped participants' abilities to maintain social relationships, be economically productive and manage HIV within the context of sexual relationships. Participants used the discourse of una vida normal (a normal life) to frame their response to HIV. This pursuit of normality was driven by the social and economic pressures of living with a chronic condition in a context of HIV-related stigma; trying to keep things 'normal' further added to these pressures. We argue that the normal life discourse fails to recognise the dynamic and complex nature of negotiating this condition and may also create additional burdens for individuals living with HIV that could impact their wellbeing and preventive behaviours.

  4. Transmission risk of two chikungunya lineages by invasive mosquito vectors from Florida and the Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Keenan; Eastmond, Bradley; Velez, Daniel; Lounibos, L. Philip; Lord, Cynthia C.

    2017-01-01

    Between 2014 and 2016 more than 3,800 imported human cases of chikungunya fever in Florida highlight the high risk for local transmission. To examine the potential for sustained local transmission of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in Florida we tested whether local populations of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus show differences in susceptibility to infection and transmission to two emergent lineages of CHIKV, Indian Ocean (IOC) and Asian genotypes (AC) in laboratory experiments. All examined populations of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes displayed susceptibility to infection, rapid viral dissemination into the hemocoel, and transmission for both emergent lineages of CHIKV. Aedes albopictus had higher disseminated infection and transmission of IOC sooner after ingesting CHIKV infected blood than Ae. aegypti. Aedes aegypti had higher disseminated infection and transmission later during infection with AC than Ae. albopictus. Viral dissemination and transmission of AC declined during the extrinsic incubation period, suggesting that transmission risk declines with length of infection. Interestingly, the reduction in transmission of AC was less in Ae. aegypti than Ae. albopictus, suggesting that older Ae. aegypti females are relatively more competent vectors than similar aged Ae. albopictus females. Aedes aegypti originating from the Dominican Republic had viral dissemination and transmission rates for IOC and AC strains that were lower than for Florida vectors. We identified small-scale geographic variation in vector competence among Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus that may contribute to regional differences in risk of CHIKV transmission in Florida. PMID:28749964

  5. Illicit drug use and HIV risk in the Dominican Republic: tourism areas create drug use opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Lee, Jane J; Ruiz, Yumary; Hagan, Holly; Delva, Marlyn; Quiñones, Zahira; Kamler, Alexandra; Robles, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    While the Caribbean has the second highest global human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence, insufficient attention has been paid to contributing factors of the region's elevated risk. Largely neglected is the potential role of drugs in shaping the Caribbean HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome epidemic. Caribbean studies have almost exclusively focused on drug transportation and seldom acknowledged local user economies and drug-related health and social welfare consequences. While tourism is consistently implicated within the Caribbean HIV epidemic, less is known about the intersection of drugs and tourism. Tourism areas represent distinct ecologies of risk often characterised by sex work, alcohol consumption and population mixing between lower and higher risk groups. Limited understanding of availability and usage of drugs in countries such as the Dominican Republic (DR), the Caribbean country with the greatest tourist rates, presents barriers to HIV prevention. This study addresses this gap by conducting in-depth interviews with 30 drug users in Sosúa, a major sex tourism destination of the DR. A two-step qualitative data analysis process was utilised and interview transcripts were systematically coded using a well-defined thematic codebook. Results suggest three themes: (1) local demand shifts drug routes to tourism areas, (2) drugs shape local economies and (3) drug use facilitates HIV risk behaviours in tourism areas.

  6. Forest baseline and deforestation map of the Dominican Republic through the analysis of time series of MODIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangermano, Florencia; Bol, Leslie; Galvis, Pedro; Gullison, Raymond E; Hardner, Jared; Ross, Gail S.

    2015-01-01

    Deforestation is one of the major threats to habitats in the Dominican Republic. In this work we present a forest baseline for the year 2000 and a deforestation map for the year 2011. Maps were derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Radiometer (MODIS) products at 250 m resolution. The vegetation continuous fields product (MOD44B) for the year 2000 was used to produce the forest baseline, while the vegetation indices product (MOD13Q1) was used to detect change between 2000 and 2011. Major findings based on the data presented here are reported in the manuscript “Habitat suitability and protection status of four species of amphibians in the Dominican Republic” (Sangermano et al., Appl. Geogr.,) [7].63, 2015, 55–65 PMID:26217817

  7. Forest baseline and deforestation map of the Dominican Republic through the analysis of time series of MODIS data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia Sangermano

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Deforestation is one of the major threats to habitats in the Dominican Republic. In this work we present a forest baseline for the year 2000 and a deforestation map for the year 2011. Maps were derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Radiometer (MODIS products at 250 m resolution. The vegetation continuous fields product (MOD44B for the year 2000 was used to produce the forest baseline, while the vegetation indices product (MOD13Q1 was used to detect change between 2000 and 2011. Major findings based on the data presented here are reported in the manuscript “Habitat suitability and protection status of four species of amphibians in the Dominican Republic” (Sangermano et al., Appl. Geogr., [7].63, 2015, 55–65

  8. Horizontal accountability and presidential dominance: a difficult combination. The case of the Dominican Republic, 1967-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leiv MARSTEINTREDET

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article studies horizontal accountability in the Dominican Republic. First it analyses the rules regulating the system of checks and balances. Although important, institutional rules cannot explain the variation in the levels of accountability across time found in the Dominican case. Therefore, the article focuses on the execution of national budgets and the financial situation of the accountability institutions. The article suggests using an index of budgetary disproportionality based on a comparison of the congressionally approved budget and the executed budget to measure the level of horizontal accountability. A multivariate time-series regression analysis shows that budgetary disproportionality increases with presidential dominance. The article concludes that for the period 1967-2009, it is presidential behaviour more than any other factor that has prevented an effective system of checks and balances. Therefore the case confirms O’Donnell’s hypothesis of Delegative Democracies.

  9. Etiology of pediatric pneumonia with effusion in the Dominican Republic and potential impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Feris-Iglesias

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pleural effusion is a serious complication of pneumonia, and Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause. We describe the aetiology of pneumonia with effusion among children in the Dominican Republic before the introduction of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV in 2013 and the performance characteristics of a rapid immunochromatographic test (ICT for detecting S. pneumoniae in pleural fluid. From July 2009 to June 2011, we enrolled children <15 years old admitted with pneumonia and pleural effusion to Robert Reid Cabral Children’s Hospital, Dominican Republic. Pleural fluid was tested by culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR for bacterial (S. pyogenes, S. pneumoniae and viral (respiratory syncytial virus and human rhinovirus pathogens, and by ICT for S. pneumoniae. We calculated the performance of ICT and culture compared with PCR. Among 121 cases, the median age was 31 months (range 1 week to 14 years. Pleural fluid culture (n = 121 and PCR testing (n = 112 identified an aetiology in 85 (70.2% cases, including 62 S. pneumoniae (51.2% and 19 Staphylococcus aureus (15.7%. The viruses tested were not detected. The most prevalent pneumococcal serotypes were 14 (n = 20, 1 (n = 13, and 3 (n = 12. Serotype coverage of the 10- and 13-valent PCVs would be 70.5% and 95.1%, respectively. The sensitivity of point-of-care ICT was 100% (95% confidence interval [CI] 94.1% - 100%, while specificity was 86.3% (95% CI 73.7% - 94.3%. S. pneumoniae caused more than half of paediatric pneumonia with effusion cases; introduction of PCV in the Dominican Republic could reduce the burden by 36-49%. ICT is a practical, valid diagnostic tool for clinical care and surveillance in settings with limited laboratory capacity

  10. Survival of captive-reared Hispaniolan Parrots released in Parque Nacional del Este, Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collazo, J.A.; White, T.H.; Vilella, F.J.; Guerrero, S.A.

    2003-01-01

    We report first-year survival rates of 49 captive-reared Hispaniolan Parrots (Amazona ventralis) released in Parque Nacional del Este, Dominican Republic. Our goal was to learn about factors affecting postrelease survival. Specifically, we tested if survival was related to movements and whether modifying prerelease protocols influenced survival rates. We also estimated survival in the aftermath of Hurricane Georges (22 September 1998). Twenty-four parrots, fitted with radio-transmitters, were released between 14 September and 12 December 1997. Twenty-five more were released between 29 June and 16 September 1998. First-year survival rates were 30% in 1997 and 29% in 1998. Survival probability was related to bird mobility. In contrast to birds released in 1997, none of the 25 parrots released in 1998 suffered early postrelease mortality (i.e., 3-5 days after release). Two adjustments to prerelease protocols (increased exercise and reduced blood sampling) made in 1998 may have contributed to differences in mobility and survival between years. The reduction of early postrelease mortality in 1998 was encouraging, as was the prospect for higher first-year survival (e.g., 30% to 65%). Only one death was attributed to the immediate impact of the hurricane. Loss of foraging resources was likely a major contributor to ensuing mortality. Birds increased their mobility, presumably in search of food. Survival rates dropped 23% in only eight weeks posthurricane. This study underscores the value of standardized prerelease protocols, and of estimating survival and testing for factors that might influence it. Inferences from such tests will provide the best basis to make adjustments to a release program.

  11. Sharing medicine: the candidacy of medicines and other household items for sharing, Dominican Republic.

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    Michael N Dohn

    Full Text Available People share medicines and problems can result from this behavior. Successful interventions to change sharing behavior will require understanding people's motives and purposes for sharing medicines. Better information about how medicines fit into the gifting and reciprocity system could be useful in designing interventions to modify medicine sharing behavior. However, it is uncertain how people situate medicines among other items that might be shared. This investigation is a descriptive study of how people sort medicines and other shareable items.This study in the Dominican Republic examined how a convenience sample (31 people sorted medicines and rated their shareability in relation to other common household items. We used non-metric multidimensional scaling to produce association maps in which the distances between items offer a visual representation of the collective opinion of the participants regarding the relationships among the items. In addition, from a pile sort constrained by four categories of whether sharing or loaning the item was acceptable (on a scale from not shareable to very shareable, we assessed the degree to which the participants rated the medicines as shareable compared to other items. Participants consistently grouped medicines together in all pile sort activities; yet, medicines were mixed with other items when rated by their candidacy to be shared. Compared to the other items, participants had more variability of opinion as to whether medicines should be shared.People think of medicines as a distinct group, suggesting that interventions might be designed to apply to medicines as a group. People's differing opinions as to whether it was appropriate to share medicines imply a degree of uncertainty or ambiguity that health promotion interventions might exploit to alter attitudes and behaviors. These findings have implications for the design of health promotion interventions to impact medicine sharing behavior.

  12. Sharing medicine: the candidacy of medicines and other household items for sharing, Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohn, Michael N; Pilkington, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    People share medicines and problems can result from this behavior. Successful interventions to change sharing behavior will require understanding people's motives and purposes for sharing medicines. Better information about how medicines fit into the gifting and reciprocity system could be useful in designing interventions to modify medicine sharing behavior. However, it is uncertain how people situate medicines among other items that might be shared. This investigation is a descriptive study of how people sort medicines and other shareable items. This study in the Dominican Republic examined how a convenience sample (31 people) sorted medicines and rated their shareability in relation to other common household items. We used non-metric multidimensional scaling to produce association maps in which the distances between items offer a visual representation of the collective opinion of the participants regarding the relationships among the items. In addition, from a pile sort constrained by four categories of whether sharing or loaning the item was acceptable (on a scale from not shareable to very shareable), we assessed the degree to which the participants rated the medicines as shareable compared to other items. Participants consistently grouped medicines together in all pile sort activities; yet, medicines were mixed with other items when rated by their candidacy to be shared. Compared to the other items, participants had more variability of opinion as to whether medicines should be shared. People think of medicines as a distinct group, suggesting that interventions might be designed to apply to medicines as a group. People's differing opinions as to whether it was appropriate to share medicines imply a degree of uncertainty or ambiguity that health promotion interventions might exploit to alter attitudes and behaviors. These findings have implications for the design of health promotion interventions to impact medicine sharing behavior.

  13. Understanding internalized HIV/AIDS-related stigmas in the Dominican Republic: a short report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rael, Christine Tagliaferri; Hampanda, Karen

    2016-01-01

    HIV/AIDS-related stigmas can become internalized, resulting in declines in physical and mental health. Pathways to internalized HIV-related stigma (IS), characterized by persistently negative, self-abasing thoughts, are not well established among women living with HIV/AIDS (WLWHA) in the Dominican Republic (DR). Identifying factors involved in self-directed shaming and blaming is important, given the high HIV prevalence in the DR's most vulnerable populations. The present study sheds light on factors involved in negative and self-abasing thoughts in WLWHA in the DR by examining the relationship between depression, perceived HIV-related stigma from the community (PSC), perceived HIV-related stigma from family (PSF), and IS. The Internalized AIDS-Related Stigma Scale (IA-RSS), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale (CES-D 10), and an instrument designed to measure perceived HIV-related stigma from the community and family was administered to 233 WLWHA in Puerto Plata, DR. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and ordered multiple logistic regression. Results showed that depression (OR = 1.60; p < .05), PSC (OR = 3.68; p < .001), and PSF (OR = 1.60; p < .01) were positively associated with IS. These findings indicate that IS-reducing interventions should address HIV-related depression. Additionally, HIV-related treatment and care services should work with WLWHA to adopt healthier attitudes about how community members view people living with HIV/AIDS in the DR.

  14. The Dominican Republic-Central American Free Trade Agreement (DR-CAFTA): Understanding the Reasons Why the Dominican Republic (DR) Joined the CAFTA Negotiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Tania Polanco , “EEUU rechaza impuesto de Republica Dominicana a bebidas edulcoradas,” El Nuevo Día, December 6, 2004. 13 John McCarthy, “Dominican...205 Tania Polanco , “EEUU rechaza impuesto de Republica Dominicana a bebidas edulcoradas,” El Nuevo Día, December 6, 2004. 75 sweetened beverages is...impasse caused significant worries 206 Polanco , “EEUU rechaza impuesto.” 207 Anonymous

  15. International Migration from the Dominican Republic: Findings from a National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugalde, Antonio; And Others

    1979-01-01

    A profile of international Dominican migrants, most of whom come to the United States, is provided. Reasons for migration by age, sex, and social status are discussed and return migration patterns are examined. (Author/MC)

  16. A syndemic analysis of alcohol use and sexual risk behavior among tourism employees in Sosúa, Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Mark B; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Godbole, Ramona

    2012-01-01

    The Dominican Republic has high rates of HIV infection and alcohol consumption. Unfortunately, little research has been focused on the broader sources of the synergy between these two health outcomes. We draw on syndemic theory to argue that alcohol consumption and sexual risk behavior are best analyzed within the context of culture and economy in Caribbean tourism spaces, which produce a synergy between apparently independent outcomes. We sampled 32 men and women working in the tourism industry at alcohol-serving establishments in Sosúa, Dominican Republic. Interviewees described alcohol consumption as an implicit requirement of tourism work, tourism industry business practices that foster alcohol consumption, and an intertwining relationship between alcohol and sexual commerce. The need to establish relationships with tourists, combined with the overconsumption of alcohol, contributed to a perceived loss of sexual control, which participants felt could impede condom use. Interventions should incorporate knowledge of the social context of tourism areas to mitigate the contextual factors that contribute to HIV infection and alcohol consumption among locals.

  17. Description of a new species, Pintomyia dissimilis nov. sp., a phlebotomine fossil from Dominican Republic amber (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae

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    Sanguinette Cristiani

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phlebotomine sandflies are the vectors of etiological agents of leishmaniases in several areas of the world. In the Neotropical Region, the biodiversity of these insects is more than other regions, probably due the long evolutionary period of this group. Miocene amber from Dominican Republic, currently, has a record of 14 extinct species of Phlebotomine sandflies. Results This paper describes a new fossil species of phlebotomine sandfly from amber found in Dominican Republic. This new species is based on morphological characters of a male such as 5° palpomere longer than 3° + 4°, three well-developed spines in the gonostyle, lateral lobe longer than gonocoxite and permit inclusion of the new species in the genus Pintomyia, series serrana. The paramere, with a curvature in the ventral margin, of the middle of the structure, separates the new species from the others fossils or extant species. Conclusion The new species described in the present study named Pintomyia dissimilis nov. sp. is well differenciated from all known species in this genus.

  18. Zika virus infection in 18 travellers returning from Surinam and the Dominican Republic, The Netherlands, November 2015–March 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. Duijster (Janneke W.); A. Goorhuis (Abraham); P.J.J. van Genderen (Perry); L.G. Visser (Leo); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion); J.H.J. Reimerink (Johan); M.P. Grobusch (Martin P.); A.A. Eijck (Annemiek); J.H.C.T. van Den Kerkhof (Johannes H. C. T.); C.B.E.M. Reusken (Chantal); S.J. Hahné (Susan); The Dutch Zikv Study Team

    2016-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: We report 18 cases of confirmed Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in travellers returning to the Netherlands from Surinam (South America, bordering northern Brazil) and the Dominican Republic. Methods: In a multi-centre study, we collected epidemiological, virological and clinical

  19. Efficacy Beliefs, Job Satisfaction, Stress and Their Influence on the Occupational Commitment of English-Medium Content Teachers in the Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barouch Gilbert, Rachel; Adesope, Olusola O.; Schroeder, Noah Lee

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of efficacy, job satisfaction, job stress and their influence on the occupational commitment of English-medium content teachers. A total of 109 practicing English-medium and Spanish-medium content teachers from the Dominican Republic volunteered to participate in the study. Findings…

  20. Zika virus infection in 18 travellers returning from Surinam and the Dominican Republic, The Netherlands, November 2015–March 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. Duijster (Janneke W.); A. Goorhuis (Abraham); P.J.J. van Genderen (Perry); L.G. Visser; M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion); J.H.J. Reimerink (Johan); M.P. Grobusch (Martin P.); A.A. Eijck (Annemiek); J.H.C.T. van Den Kerkhof (Johannes H. C. T.); C.B.E.M. Reusken (Chantal); S.J. Hahné (Susan); The Dutch Zikv Study Team

    2016-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: We report 18 cases of confirmed Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in travellers returning to the Netherlands from Surinam (South America, bordering northern Brazil) and the Dominican Republic. Methods: In a multi-centre study, we collected epidemiological, virological and clinical cha

  1. Zika virus infection in 18 travellers returning from Surinam and the Dominican Republic, The Netherlands, November 2015–March 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. Duijster (Janneke W.); A. Goorhuis (Abraham); P.J.J. van Genderen (Perry); L.G. Visser; M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion); J.H.J. Reimerink (Johan); M.P. Grobusch (Martin P.); A.A. Eijck (Annemiek); J.H.C.T. van Den Kerkhof (Johannes H. C. T.); C.B.E.M. Reusken (Chantal); S.J. Hahné (Susan); The Dutch Zikv Study Team

    2016-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: We report 18 cases of confirmed Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in travellers returning to the Netherlands from Surinam (South America, bordering northern Brazil) and the Dominican Republic. Methods: In a multi-centre study, we collected epidemiological, virological and clinical cha

  2. Use of Bennett's Hierarchical Model in the Evaluation of the Extension Education Program for Cacao Farmers in the Northeast Region of the Dominican Republic. Summary of Research 54.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De los Santos, Saturnino; Norland, Emmalou Van Tilburg

    A study evaluated the cacao farmer training program in the Dominican Republic by testing hypothesized relationships among reactions, knowledge and skills, attitudes, aspirations, and some selected demographic characteristics of farmers who attended programs. Bennett's hierarchical model of program evaluation was used as the framework of the study.…

  3. Efficacy Beliefs, Job Satisfaction, Stress and Their Influence on the Occupational Commitment of English-Medium Content Teachers in the Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barouch Gilbert, Rachel; Adesope, Olusola O.; Schroeder, Noah Lee

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of efficacy, job satisfaction, job stress and their influence on the occupational commitment of English-medium content teachers. A total of 109 practicing English-medium and Spanish-medium content teachers from the Dominican Republic volunteered to participate in the study. Findings…

  4. Adept at adapting. Contributions of sociology to agricultural research for small farmers in developing countries: the case of rice in the Dominican Republic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorman, F.

    1991-01-01

    This book discusses possible contributions of sociology and anthropology to agricultural research. It is based on investigations carried out from 1981 to 1985 in the Dominican Republic in the Adaptive Agricultural Research (AAR) project, a cooperative effort between the Agricultural University of Wa

  5. Renewing the house : trajectories of social life in the yucayeque (community) of El Cabo, Higüey, Dominican Republic, AD 800 to 1504

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samson, Alice Victoria Maud

    2010-01-01

    What was the pre-Columbian house like? The aim of the PhD research was to come to an archaeological vision of precolonial domestic life in Hispaniola (Dominican Republic and Haiti), rather than rely on Spanish colonial descriptions from the 15th and 16th centuries. The dissertation presents archaeol

  6. Measuring Water Level Fluctuations of two Connected Wetlands in the Dominican Republic Using InSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichardo Marcano, M. D.; Liu, L.; Zebker, H. A.

    2012-12-01

    Wetlands are ecosystems of high endemism and great biodiversity. Using the double-reflected radar waves off the water surface and trunks of inundated vegetation, Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) is capable of measuring water level fluctuations from space at a cm-level accuracy in these ecosystems with emergent vegetation. InSAR can provide a high spatial resolution over a large area that the more traditional terrestrial-based methods lack. In this study, we applied InSAR to study the seasonal variations in water level of the wetlands near two lakes in the southwest of the Dominican Republic: Lake Enriquillo, a highly saline lake designated as a Wetland of International Importance under the Ramsar Convention in 2002, and Laguna del Limon. Both lake-wetland systems are located in the Jaragua-Bahoruco-Enriquillo Biosphere Reserve. Since 2003 the water level of Lake Enriquillo has increased drastically and caused the evacuation of many farmers from nearby villages. Lake level changes also affected the habitats of several native and migratory species. We used the data acquired by the Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) sensor on board of the Japanese Advanced Land Observation Satellite (ALOS) from October 2008 to January 2011. For the smaller lake, Laguna del Limon, we found a seasonal variation of 10-15 centimeters. This result was confirmed using two different satellite paths. For Lake Enriquillo we found a net decrease of about 20 centimeters in the water level from September 2009 to January 2011. This result agrees with an independent estimation based on lake hydrodynamics model predictions. In addition, our InSAR-based time series of lake level fluctuations revealed distinct behaviors of the two wetlands. For the Lake Enriquillo we found a continuous decrease in the water level throughout 2010 with a brief increase of the water level during the summer months, while for Laguna del Limon during the summer months the water level

  7. Modeling stem increment in individual Pinus occidentalis Sw. trees in La Sierra, Dominican Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bueno, S.; Bevilacqua, E.

    2010-07-01

    One of the most common and important tree characteristics used in forest management decision-making is tree diameter-at-breast height (DBH). This paper presents results on an evaluation of two growth functions developed to model stem diameter increases in individual Pinus occidentalis Sw. trees in La Sierra, Dominican Republic. The first model was developed in order to predict future DBH (FDM) at different intervals of time and the other for predicting growth, that is, periodic annual diameter increment (PADIM). Each model employed two statistical techniques for fitting model parameters: stepwise ordinary least squares (OLS) regression, and mixed models. The two statistical approaches varied in how they accounted for the repeated measurements on individual trees over time, affecting standard error estimates and statistical inference of model parameters. Each approach was evaluated based on six goodness of- fit statistics, using both calibration and validation data sets. The objectives were 1) to determine the best model for predicting future tree DBH; 2) to determine the best model for predicting periodic annual diameter increment, both models using tree size, age, site index and different indices of competitive status; and 3) compare which of these two modeling approaches predicts better the future DBH. OLS provided a better fit for both of the growth functions, especially in regards to bias. Both models showed advantages and disadvantages when they were used to predict growth and future diameter. For the prediction of future diameter with FDM, accuracy of predictions were within one centimeter for a five-year projection interval. The PADIM presented negligible bias in estimating future diameter, although there was a small increase in bias as time of prediction increased. As expected, each model was the best in estimating the response variable it was developed for.. However, a closer examination of the distribution of errors showed a slight advantage of the FDM

  8. A new dune-dwelling lizard of the genus Leiocephalus (Iguania, Leiocephalidae) from the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Gunther; Bobadilla, Marcos J Rodríguez; Hedges, S Blair

    2016-06-13

    We describe a new species of Leiocephalus from the coastal dunes of Bahía de las Calderas in the southwestern Dominican Republic. In external morphology, Leiocephalus sixtoi sp. nov. is most similar to L. schreibersii and L. inaguae. Leiocephalus sixtoi differs from L. inaguae in having a U-shaped bony parietal table (vs. V-shaped in L. inaguae), 3 or 4 enlarged postcloacal scales in males (vs. 2 in L. inaguae), most scales on snout posterior to internasal scales rugose to keeled scales (vs. smooth in L. inaguae), and a patternless throat in males, spots on the throat in females (vs. throat with dark streaks and bars in males and females of L. inaguae). Leiocephalus sixtoi differs from L. schreibersii in having the scales of the lateral fold only slightly smaller than adjacent scales (vs. scales of lateral fold distinctly smaller than adjacent scales), having prominent caudal crest scales in adult males (vs. caudal crest scales of moderate size, even in very large males in L. schreibersii), a pattern of dark gray bars on a grayish brown background in the region above the lateral body fold (vs. dense turquoise blue mottling with heavy suffusion of red pigment in L. schreibersii), a darker dorsal ground color (vs. paler in L. schreibersii), and a red iris in adult males (vs. pale grayish blue in adult male L. schreibersii). Leiocephalus sixtoi differs further from L. schreibersii in several osteological characters as follows: in L. sixtoi the nasal process of the premaxilla reaches to mid-level of the bony external nares (vs. to level of posterior margin of the bony external nares in L. schreibersii), lacking a constriction at the base of the nasal process of the premaxilla (vs. such a constriction present in L. schreibersii), and having a reduced nasal-prefrontal contact leaving the nasal processes of the frontal bone exposed (vs. nasal and prefrontal bones contact one another, thereby obscuring the nasal processes of the frontal bone in L. schreibersii). We

  9. Carbon stocks of intact mangroves and carbon emissions arising from their conversion in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, J Boone; Heider, Chris; Norfolk, Jennifer; Payton, Frederick

    2014-04-01

    Mangroves are recognized to possess a variety of ecosystem services including high rates of carbon sequestration and storage. Deforestation and conversion of these ecosystems continue to be high and have been predicted to result in significant carbon emissions to the atmosphere. Yet few studies have quantified the carbon stocks or losses associated with conversion of these ecosystems. In this study we quantified the ecosystem carbon stocks of three common mangrove types of the Caribbean as well as those of abandoned shrimp ponds in areas formerly occupied by mangrove-a common land-use conversion of mangroves throughout the world. In the mangroves of the Montecristi Province in Northwest Dominican Republic we found C stocks ranged from 706 to 1131 Mg/ha. The medium-statured mangroves (3-10 m in height) had the highest C stocks while the tall (> 10 m) mangroves had the lowest ecosystem carbon storage. Carbon stocks of the low mangrove (shrub) type (mangroves. Using a stock-change approach, the potential emissions from the conversion of mangroves to shrimp ponds ranged from 2244 to 3799 Mg CO2e/ha (CO2 equivalents). This is among the largest measured C emissions from land use in the tropics. The 6260 ha of mangroves and converted mangroves in the Montecristi Province are estimated to contain 3,841,490 Mg of C. Mangroves represented 76% of this area but currently store 97% of the carbon in this coastal wetland (3,696,722 Mg C). Converted lands store only 4% of the total ecosystem C (144,778 Mg C) while they comprised 24% of the area. By these metrics the replacement of mangroves with shrimp and salt ponds has resulted in estimated emissions from this region totaling 3.8 million Mg CO2e or approximately 21% of the total C prior to conversion. Given the high C stocks of mangroves, the high emissions from their conversion, and the other important functions and services they provide, their inclusion in climate-change mitigation strategies is warranted.

  10. Airborne Radar Observations of Hurricane Georges during Landfall over the Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerts, B.; Heymsfield, G.; Tian, L.

    1999-01-01

    On 22 September 1998 hurricane Georges made landfall on the Dominican Republic (DR). Georges cost the DR at least 500 lives, made more than 155,000 people homeless and caused extensive damage to the country's main industries, tourism and agriculture. There was considerable wind damage, with wind gusts up to 58 m/s in Santa Domingo on the south coast, but most of the damage and deaths resulted from mudslides and the flooding of rivers. While this may have been the worst natural disaster to strike the DR, the sustained rapid storm movement saved the island from worse damage. Georges had previously affected several islands in the Lesser Antilles and Puerto Rico, but it had retained much of its circulation strength. Forty raingauge stations across the DR measured rainfall totals from Georges between 0.7 and 41 cm, the latter at the capital Santo Domingo, located on the south coast. At Herrera the maximum 1 h rainfall rate was 72 mm/h. It is suspected that much higher rain rates occurred in DR's mountainous interior. Before landfall the eye was clearly evident in satellite imagery. When the eye moved over southeastern DR, it filled rapidly, and the cloud top height decreased in all storm sectors except in the southern inflow sector, where a long-lived MCS, with a diameter larger than that of the eyewall, slowly became enwrapped in the hurricane circulation. The eye closure was most rapid between 16-18 UTC, when the eyewall circulation felt the mountainous terrain of the Cordillera Central, which rises up to 3,093 m. The estimated central pressure increased from 962 hPa at 15 UTC to 986 hPa at 03Z on 23 Sept, and the maximum sustained surface wind speed decreased from 54 to 36 in s-1 during the same period. The island of Hispaniola has a cross-track width of about 250 km, much wider than the diameter of the eyewall anvil (about 100 km before landfall). So the event can truly be considered to be a landfalling case, even though Georges recovered after crossing Hispaniola

  11. Between Corporatism and Socialism: Navigating the Waters of International Education in the Dominican Republic and Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolivras, Korine N.; Scarpaci, Joseph L.

    2009-01-01

    The Caribbean has long afforded U.S. and Canadian geographers with a rich venue of study-abroad opportunities. Physical and human geography classes are particularly well-suited to the myriad political, social, and environmental landscapes of the region. This article summarizes a few key experiences that have emerged in forging study-abroad venues…

  12. Between Corporatism and Socialism: Navigating the Waters of International Education in the Dominican Republic and Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolivras, Korine N.; Scarpaci, Joseph L.

    2009-01-01

    The Caribbean has long afforded U.S. and Canadian geographers with a rich venue of study-abroad opportunities. Physical and human geography classes are particularly well-suited to the myriad political, social, and environmental landscapes of the region. This article summarizes a few key experiences that have emerged in forging study-abroad venues…

  13. Endogenous liberalism and the First Dependent Republic in Cuba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sira Delia Varona Vega

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Enrique Jose Varona had an important role on the history of social Cuban thought and he is one of the referent to the national patriotic ideals, his contribution to the national culture who is far to appreciate it in his just measure, in which the study about his reach on the divers field that he developed his fructiferous labor as founder of a sitting national conscience of autochthonous values. His ideals can contribute to the integral formation of the new Cuban’s generations and from the university classroom. The present work is an effort which exposes the results of an investigation that is being developed at the university since a couple of years, fundamentally by the main author, it is also emphasized the Verona’s ideals as a national liberal thought, he got in crisis in the called FIRST CUBAN REPUBLIC, but he reached a patriotic, consequent and advantage vision in his epoch. The investigation was fundamentally developed by the study of the different sources and documentaries.

  14. Inequities in Receipt of Iron and Vitamin A Supplements, and Anthelmintic Medications by Young Children in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aman, Devin D; McLennan, John D

    2015-11-01

    Gaps in the receipt of micronutrients and anthelmintic medications by children in low-and middle-income countries undermine efforts to reduce the burden of vitamin A and iron deficiencies, and soil transmitted helminthiases. This study aimed to identify the extent of equitable receipt of these interventions in the Dominican Republic (DR) using indices of need and socioeconomic status with data derived from the DR 2007 Demographic and Health Survey. Receipt of anthelmintic medication, iron, and vitamin A were reported for 55.0% (last six months), 30.3% (last seven days), and 24.0% (last six months) of young children, respectively. No relationships were found between indices of need and receipt of any of the interventions using bivariate and multivariate analysis. However, receipt of each intervention was related to higher maternal education, and iron was additionally related to greater family wealth. Systematic efforts to improve equitability of receipt of these core child health interventions are needed.

  15. The epidemiology of dependency among urban-dwelling older people in the Dominican Republic; a cross-sectional survey

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    Ferri Cleusa P

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Demographic ageing, and the health transition will soon lead to large increases in the number of dependent older people in low and middle income countries. Despite its importance, this topic has not previously been studied. Methods A cross sectional catchment area one-phase survey of health conditions, dependency, care arrangements and caregiver strain among 2011 people aged 65 years and over in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic Results 7.1% of participants required much care and a further 4.7% required at least some care. The prevalence of dependency increased sharply with increasing age. Dependent older people were less likely than others to have a pension and much less likely to have paid work, but no more likely to benefit from financial support from their family. Needing much care was strongly associated with comorbidity between cognitive, psychological and physical health problems. However, dementia made the strongest independent contribution. Among those needing care, those with dementia stood out as being more disabled, as needing more care (particularly support with core activities of daily living, and as being more likely to have paid caregivers. Dementia caregivers experienced more strain than caregivers of those with other health conditions, an effect mediated by behavioural and psychological symptoms. Conclusion Dependency among older people is nearly as prevalent in Dominican Republic as in developed western settings. Non-communicable diseases, particularly dementia are the main contributing factors. Attention needs to be directed towards the development of age-appropriate healthcare, a long-term care policy, and mechanisms for ensuring the social protection of older persons.

  16. Understanding sociodemographic and sociocultural factors that characterize tobacco use and cessation during pregnancy among women in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Essie T; Guido, Joseph; de Monegro, Zahira Quiñones; Diaz, Sergio; Dozier, Ann M; McInstosh, Scott; Ossip, Deborah J

    2014-12-01

    Tobacco use and exposure are serious public health problems that threaten to undermine improvements in maternal and child health, and add to already existing poor pregnancy outcomes in many low- and middle-income countries. The purpose of this study is to explore factors that characterize tobacco use and cessation during pregnancy among women in the Dominican Republic. This study was part of a larger trial and includes a sample of women who participated in baseline surveillance and community assessments (n = 613). Descriptive, bivariate, and multivariable analyses were conducted. Overall, 93.31 % (n = 572) of women experienced a past/current pregnancy and 22.44 % (n = 127) smoked during a past or current pregnancy. Among women who had smoked, 34.13 % (n = 43) stopped smoking due to a pregnancy, and 46.03 % (n = 58) were advised by a health care provider to quit smoking because of pregnancy. Women who were older, Catholic, and had a mother who used tobacco were three times more likely to smoke during a past or current pregnancy. Inability to read or write was also significantly associated with smoking during pregnancy. Women who were able to read and write and were from a tobacco growing community were three times more likely to quit smoking during pregnancy. This study provides a preliminary understanding of factors influencing tobacco use and cessation among pregnant women in the Dominican Republic. It also informs a critical area for public health research and intervention, indicating opportunities to engage the health care provider community in intervening with pregnant women and their families.

  17. Improving maternity care in the Dominican Republic: a pilot study of a community-based participatory research action plan by an international healthcare team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Jennifer; Gossett, Sarah; Burgos, Rosa; Cáceres, Ramona; Tejada, Carmen; Dominguez García, Luis; Ambrosio Rosario, Angel; Almonte, Asela; Perez, Lydia J

    2015-05-01

    This article is a report of the process and results of a feasibility pilot study to improve the quality of maternity care in a sample of 31 women and their newborns delivering in a public, tertiary hospital in the Dominican Republic. The pilot study was the first "action step" taken as a result of a formative, community-based participatory research (CBPR) study conducted between 2008 and 2010 by an interdisciplinary, international partnership of U.S. academic researchers, Dominican medical/nursing personnel, and Dominican community health workers. Health personnel and community health workers separately identified indicators most important to measure quality of antepartum maternity care: laboratory and diagnostic studies and respectful, interpersonal communication. At the midpoint and the completion of data collection, the CBPR team evaluated the change in quality indicators to assess improvement in care. The pilot study supports the idea that joint engagement of community health workers, health personnel, and academic researchers with data creation and patient monitoring is motivating for all to continue to improve services in the cultural context of the Dominican Republic. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Identifying Strategies to Cope with HIV-Related Stigma in a Group of Women Living with HIV/AIDS in the Dominican Republic: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rael, Christine Tagliaferri; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Norton, Rachel; Thorley, Eryka; Giguere, Rebecca; Sheinfil, Alan; Rios, Javier López

    2016-12-20

    Internalized HIV-related stigma negatively impacts the mental and physical health of women living with HIV/AIDS (WLWHA). Yet, some women can successfully confront stigma. The present work uses qualitative methods to investigate the successful stigma coping strategies displayed by 19 WLWHA who reported the least internalized stigma possible on the Internalized AIDS-Related Stigma Scale out of a larger pool of 233 WLWHA in San Felipe de Puerto Plata, Dominican Republic. Such strategies included, HIV disclosure control; preemptive disclosure of HIV-status; educating oneself/others about HIV; viewing HIV as a manageable condition; and looking to family, friends and partners for support. Our findings add to current knowledge about how WLWHA successfully manage internalized stigma, particularly in the context of the Dominican Republic. Clinicians should work closely with WLWHA to counsel them about the stigma coping strategies that best fit their life context.

  19. Isolation of infectious Zika virus from saliva and prolonged viral RNA shedding in a traveller returning from the Dominican Republic to Italy, January 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzon, Luisa; Pacenti, Monia; Berto, Alessandro; Sinigaglia, Alessandro; Franchin, Elisa; Lavezzo, Enrico; Brugnaro, Pierluigi; Palù, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    We report the isolation of infectious Zika virus (ZIKV) in cell culture from the saliva of a patient who developed a febrile illness after returning from the Dominican Republic to Italy, in January 2016. The patient had prolonged shedding of viral RNA in saliva and urine, at higher load than in blood, for up to 29 days after symptom onset. Sequencing of ZIKV genome showed relatedness with strains from Latin America.

  20. Measuring Coverage in MNCH: Validating Women’s Self-Report of Emergency Cesarean Sections in Ghana and the Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunçalp, Özge; Stanton, Cynthia; Castro, Arachu; Adanu, Richard; Heymann, Marilyn; Adu-Bonsaffoh, Kwame; Lattof, Samantha R.; Blanc, Ann; Langer, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Background Cesarean section is the only surgery for which we have nearly global population-based data. However, few surveys provide additional data related to cesarean sections. Given weaknesses in many health information systems, health planners in developing countries will likely rely on nationally representative surveys for the foreseeable future. The objective is to validate self-reported data on the emergency status of cesarean sections among women delivering in teaching hospitals in the capitals of two contrasting countries: Accra, Ghana and Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic (DR). Methods and Findings This study compares hospital-based data, considered the reference standard, against women’s self-report for two definitions of emergency cesarean section based on the timing of the decision to operate and the timing of the cesarean section relative to onset of labor. Hospital data were abstracted from individual medical records, and hospital discharge interviews were conducted with women who had undergone cesarean section in two hospitals. The study assessed sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of responses to questions regarding emergency versus non-emergency cesarean section and estimated the percent of emergency cesarean sections that would be obtained from a survey, given the observed prevalence, sensitivity, and specificity from this study. Hospital data were matched with exit interviews for 659 women delivered via cesarean section for Ghana and 1,531 for the Dominican Republic. In Ghana and the Dominican Republic, sensitivity and specificity for emergency cesarean section defined by decision time were 79% and 82%, and 50% and 80%, respectively. The validity of emergency cesarean defined by operation time showed less favorable results than decision time in Ghana and slightly more favorable results in the Dominican Republic. Conclusions Questions used in this study to identify emergency cesarean section are promising but insufficient to

  1. [Population, food production and nutrition in the Dominican Republic. Current situation and projections for 1985-2000].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatis, A; Gomez De Santana, C

    1983-01-01

    This report, based on recent studies of family budgets, agricultural development plans, health status and planning, and nutritional status in the Dominican Republic, examines the causes and correlates of widespread malnutrition in the country and the likely evolution of food and nutrition through the year 2000 if no changes are made. Among the sociodemographic aspects of the food and nutrition problem is the rate of population growth, which increased in the Dominican Republic to its maximum in 1965 and dropped to 2.6% in 1980. At the same time, the urban component increased to 52% of the population in 1981 from 24% in 1950. Extreme class differentiation in the rural sector, with 70% of the population receiving 45% of the income, is another factor. Agricultural production is growing at one of the lowest rates in Latin America, and much of the crop is still exported, to the detriment of domestic consumption. 14 nutrition surveys between 1962-80 showed rates of malnutrition in children under 6 varying from 30.4% to 75.4%. Per capita food consumption in 1980 was 519.0 kg/year, less than the 579.0 kg/year of 1964. Food consumption is negatively affected by the lack of an overall government policy to confront malnutrition, the dependence of food consumption on employment and income distribution, the health problems of the population which prevent full biological assimilation of food, and inappropriate food beliefs and prejudices. A comparison of the balance between projected food production for the internal market and projected food requirements to meet the nutritional needs of the population through 2000 shows deficits in the majority of foodstuffs. For cereals, only rice and maize production will exceed demand, while wheat is not domestically produced. Large deficits of tubers and roots, legumes, bananas, oils, and milk are expected. By the year 2000, the country may however be able to satisfy 88% of its overall food needs, but there may be no improvement in

  2. Standardization and validation of the Inventory of Situations and Responses of Anxiety (ISRA to Dominican Republic population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoilo Emilio Garcia Batista

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present research was the standardization and validation of the Inventory of Situations and Responses of Anxiety ISRA (Miguel - Tobal & Cano -Vindel, 2002 in the population of the Dominican Republic. Additionally, to verify if the ISRA distinguish between healthy individuals and patients diagnosed with bronchial asthma was a key objective too. The total sample of 1074 subjects aged 18 to 69 years was composed by 986 healthy subjects (students and the general population and 88 individuals with bronchial asthma, to whom we applied the Inventory of Situations and Responses of Anxiety (ISRA; Miguel - Tobal & Cano -Vindel, 2002, and the Spanish version of the State-Trait Inventory (STAI, Spielberger, Edwards, Lushene, Montuori & Platzek, 1970. The data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA, showing significant differences between anxiety levels of the groups assessed. APEs confirm the existence of three sets of responses (cognitive, physiological and motor and 3 situational areas (assessment, interpersonal, phobic and everyday life. High reliability was evidenced by Cronbach’s alpha and test-retest. Significant positive correlations between the ISRA and the STAI for concurrent validity were obtained. These results show that ISRA is a reliable and valid instrument to assess anxiety.

  3. Decision-Making for Risk Management in Sustainable Renewable Energy Facilities: A Case Study in the Dominican Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido C. Guerrero-Liquet

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Today, Renewable Energy Sources (RES are a key pillar to achieving sustainable development, which is the main reason why energy projects are being carried out not only in developed countries but also in many emerging countries. Since the technical and financial risk remains a major barrier to financing renewable energy projects, several mechanisms are available to reduce risks on investment into clean energy projects. This paper discusses risk management tools in solar photovoltaic facilities based on the guide to the Project Management (PMBOK Guide. To do this, a combination of different decision-making methodologies will be carried out. These methodologies enable to not only extract the knowledge by experts but also to know the causes and effects that help to make the best decision. In order to do so, techniques to seek information (Delphi and Checklist as well as diagram techniques such as cause and effect diagrams or Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities and Threats (SWOT are applied. The categorization and prioritization of risks will be carried out through the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. Finally, a sensitivity analysis will allow for providing consistency to the obtained results. A real case in the Dominican Republic will also be presented as case study.

  4. Studying common-pool resources over time: A longitudinal case study of the Buen Hombre fishery in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Margaret; Pavlowich, Tyler; Cox, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Like many small-scale fishing communities around the world, the community of Buen Hombre in the Dominican Republic is dealing with a set of challenges to reconcile its fishing activities with the ecology on which it depends. Also like many such communities, this case has been examined at a particular period in time by a group of social scientists, but not over substantial lengths of time in order to examine the longitudinal validity of the conclusions made during this period. In this paper we combine data from previous anthropological work with our own primary social and ecological data to conduct a longitudinal case study of the Buen Hombre fishery. Our over-time comparison focuses on a suite of mostly social and institutional variables to explain what we find to be a continued degradation of the fishery, and we conclude the analysis by presenting a causal-loop diagram, summarizing our inferences regarding the complex interactions among these variables. We find that a mix of factors, notably changes in gear and fishing sites used, the number of fishermen and their livelihood diversity, as well as an increased connectivity between Buen Hombre and its external environment, have contributed to the decline of the condition of Buen Hombre coral reef fishery. We conclude with a discussion of what may lie ahead for this particular case and others like it.

  5. Did point-of-use drinking water strategies for children change in the Dominican Republic during a cholera epidemic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, J D

    2016-09-01

    Point-of-use (POU) strategies to improve drinking water, particularly chlorination, are promoted within cholera epidemics when centrally delivered safe drinking water is lacking. Most studies examining POU practices during cholera epidemics have relied on single cross-sectional studies which are limited for assessing behavioural changes. This study examined POU practices in a community over time during a cholera outbreak. Secondary data analysis of existing dataset. During attendance at well-baby clinics serving a low-income peri-urban community in the Dominican Republic, mothers had been routinely asked, using a structured questionnaire, about POU strategies used for drinking water for their children. Frequency distribution of reported practices was determined over a 21 month period during the cholera outbreak on the island of Hispaniola. An estimated 27.8% of children were reported to have had some exposure to untreated tap water. Unsustained reductions in exposure to untreated tap water were noted early in the epidemic. POU chlorination was infrequent and showed no significant or sustained increases over the study time period. High reliance on bottled water, consistent with national household patterns prior to the cholera outbreak, may have reduced the perceived need for POU chlorination. Examination of the safety of relying on bottled water during cholera outbreaks is needed. Additionally, further inquiries are needed to understand variation in POU practices both during and beyond cholera outbreaks. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Severe, Disfiguring, Pityriasis Rubra Pilaris in a Woman in the Dominican Republic: Histopathologic Diagnosis and Response to Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerebours-Nadal, Leonel; Beck-Sague, Consuelo M; Parker, Douglas; Gosman, Amanda; Saavedra, Arturo; Engel, Kristy; Dean, Andrew G

    2016-01-01

    Pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP) is a poorly understood dermatologic condition usually accompanied by keratoderma and intense erythroderma with islands of unaffected skin. The PRP categories include HIV-associated PRP VI. A 23-year-old HIV-infected, dark-skinned woman in the Dominican Republic developed an extremely severe, disfiguring process characterized first by a dry scaly rash involving her face, trunk, and extremities with hyperpigmentation and islands of spared skin and minimal erythroderma, followed by alopecia and development of a thick horny layer on the scalp and face. The condition, histologically proven to be PRP, was accompanied by fever, wasting, and decline in CD4 count. Initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) was followed by rapid and sustained resolution of PRP. Nine years after ART initiation, she remains well, with viral suppression and immune recovery, without PRP recurrence but with sparse hair regrowth and facial scarring. In some dark-skinned patients, severe PRP may not feature characteristic erythroderma but will respond to combination ART. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Caribbean Reef Response to Plio-Pleistocene Climate Change: Results of the Dominican Republic Drilling Project (DRDP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, J.; McNeill, D. F.; Diaz, V.; Swart, P. K.; Pourmand, A.

    2014-12-01

    Caribbean reefs changed profoundly in taxonomic composition, diversity, and dominance structure during late Pliocene and Pleistocene climatic change. These changes coincide with protracted climatic deterioration and cooling between 2.0 to 0.8 Ma, and the onset of high amplitude sea-level fluctuations ~400 ka. The Dominican Republic Drilling Project (DRDP) was initiated to determine how climate change and global high-amplitude sea level changes influenced depositional patterns in Pliocene to Recent reef systems of the Caribbean. A transect of 7 core borings (~700 m total depth) were collected along the southern coast of the DR. New age constraints based on U/Th geochronometry and radiogenic Sr isotopes, combined with depositional lithofacies, faunal indicators, and stable isotope profiles have allowed us to correlate between wells and define the internal anatomy and stratal geometry of the individual reef sigmoids and sigmoid sets. Faunal records suggest most extinction occurred prior to ~1 Ma. Following this extinction, fringing reef margins of the Caribbean display a characteristic zonation in which Acropora palmata dominates shallow high-energy reef crests and Acropora cervicornis calmer fore-reef slopes and backreef lagoons. The dominance of acroporids across this zonation has been attributed to growth rates 5-100 times faster than other corals.

  8. Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-01

    Cuba is a country of 110,860 sq.km with 10.8 million inhabitants, of whom 99% are literate. Independence was gained on May 20, 1902. The terrain consists of flat or gently rolling plains, hills, and mountains up to 2000 meters in the Southeast, with a climate which is tropical, yet moderated by trade winds. Spanish is spoken by the Spanish-African mixed population. Life expectancy ranges over 74-77 years. Gross social product is $21 billion, declining at a rate of -20%. Per capita income is $1500. The country's natural resources include nickel, cobalt, iron ore, copper, manganese, salt, and timber. Sugar, fruits, tobacco, coffee, rice, beans, meat, vegetables, food processing, oil refining, cement, electric power, light consumer, and industrial products are areas of economic production. Capital goods, industrial raw materials, food, petroleum, and consumer goods are imported, and sugar and its by-products, petroleum, nickel, seafood, citrus, tobacco products and rum are exported. Indepth information is also given on the people and history, government and principal officials, political conditions, the economy, defense, foreign relations, relations with the U.S., and names of principal U.S. officials in the country.

  9. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in children from Verón, a rural city of the Dominican Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geers Childers KA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Kristin A Geers Childers, James R Palmieri, Mindy Sampson, Danielle Brunet Department of Microbiology, Infectious and Emerging Diseases, Edward Via College of Osteopathic Medicine, Blacksburg, VA, USA Abstract: Gastrointestinal infections impose a great and often silent burden of morbidity and mortality on poor populations in developing countries. The Dominican Republic (DR is a nation on the island of Hispaniola in the Caribbean Sea. Verón is located in La Alta Grácia province in the southeastern corner of the DR. Dominican and Haitian migrant workers come to Verón to work in Punta Cana, a tourist resort area. Few definitive or comprehensive studies of the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasitic infections have been published in the DR. Historically, most of the definitive studies of water-borne or soil-transmitted parasites in the DR were published more than 30 years ago. Presently, there is a high prevalence of gastrointestinal parasitic infections throughout the poorest areas of the DR and Haiti. In this study we report the prevalence of gastrointestinal protozoan and helminth parasites from children recruited from the Clínica Rural de Verón during 2008 through 2011. Each participant was asked to provide a fecal sample which was promptly examined microscopically for protozoan and helminth parasites using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC fecal flotation technique to concentrate and isolate helminth ova and protozoan cysts. Of the 128 fecal samples examined, 127 were positive for one or more parasites. The age of the infected children ranged from 2–15 years; 61 were males and 66 were females. The only uninfected child was a 9 year old female. Percent infection rates were 43.8% for Ascaris lumbricoides, 8.5% for Enterobius vermicularis, 21.1% for Entamoeba histolytica, and 22.7% for Giardia duodenalis. Of the children examined, 7.8% had double infections. Any plan of action to reduce gastrointestinal parasites in

  10. Garnet-bearing ultramafic rocks from the Dominican Republic: Fossil mantle plume fragments in an ultra high pressure oceanic complex?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazel, Esteban; Abbott, Richard N.; Draper, Grenville

    2011-07-01

    Ultra high pressure (UHP) garnet-bearing ultramafic rocks from the Dominican Republic may represent the only known example where such rocks were exhumed at an ocean-ocean convergent plate boundary, and where the protolith crystallized from a UHP magma (> 3.2 GPa, > 1500 °C). This study focuses on the petrology and geochemistry of one of the ultramafic lithologies, the pegmatitic garnet-clinopyroxenite (garnet + clinopyroxene + spinel + corundum + hornblende). Three distinct types of garnet were recognized: Type-1 garnet (low Ca, high Mg) is interpreted as near magmatic (P > 3.2 GPa, > 1500 °C). Type-1‧ garnet (high Ca, low Mg) is interpreted as having formed approximately isochemically from magmatic high-Al clinopyroxene. Type-2 garnet (intermediate Ca, high Mg, and low Fe + Mn) formed together with hornblende as a result of late, low-pressure retrograde hydration. Clinopyroxene is close to diopside-hedenbergite (Mg# ~ 88) and metasomatized by arc-related fluids. Spinel and corundum occur as microinclusions in type-1 and type-1‧ garnets in the only reported natural occurrence of coexisting garnet + spinel + corundum, indicative of very high pressure. Chondrite-normalized REEs (rare earth elements) of the garnets show humped or weakly sinusoidal patterns, typically associated with garnet inclusions in diamond and garnet in kimberlite that crystallized at UHP conditions. These humped to weakly sinusoidal REE patterns developed as the result of interaction with a light REE-enriched metasomatic fluid. Partitioning of REEs between type-1‧ and type-1 garnets is consistent with the former having inherited its REEs from a high-Al clinopyroxene predecessor. The partitioning preserves a record of near-solidus temperatures (~ 1475 °C). Petrology and phase relationships independently suggest near-solidus conditions > 1500 °C (the highest temperature conditions reported in a UHP orogenic setting), providing evidence for an origin in a mantle plume. Therefore, the

  11. A Conflict Transformation Perspective on Efforts to Protect Human Rights of Haitian Migrants and their Descendants in the Dominican Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingvild Skeie

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo trata el largo debate en los ámbitos académico y profesional, sobre la relación entre la protección de los derechos humanos y la transformación de conflictos. Son dos enfoques que frecuentemente se han presentado como dos opuestos, representando respectivamente los principios y el pragmatismo. Sin embargo, durante los últimos años, se ha notado una tendencia de considerar cómo ambos campos pueden beneficiarse de las herramientas y las ideas del otro. El artículo utiliza la situación de la República Dominicana como un estudio de caso, observando los esfuerzos de la sociedad civil para promover y proteger los derechos de inmigrantes haitianos y sus descendientes, enfocándose particularmente en el papel de las organizaciones no gubernamentales internacionales (‘INGOs’, por sus siglas en inglés. El artículo argumenta la utilidad de la aplicación del análisis de transformación de conflicto, y específicamente intenta mostrar la relevancia de usar un análisis sistémico de conflicto, analizando y entendiendo los abusos contra los derechos humanos dentro de en una perspectiva más amplia de las relaciones dominico-haitianas. El artículo muestra cómo las intervenciones de las INGO afecta las dinámicas del conflicto tanto positivamente como negativamente, y discute las implicaciones para futuras estrategias para los participantes de la sociedad civil. English: This paper addresses the long-standing debate within academic and practitioner circles about the relationship between human rights protection and conflict transformation. While the two approaches have often been pitted against each other, as representing principles vs. pragmatism respectively, there has over the last years been an increasing tendency to consider how the two camps can benefit from each other's tools and lines of thoughts. The article takes the situation in the Dominican Republic as a case, looking into civil society actors' efforts to promote

  12. Modeling Hydrological Services in Shade Grown Coffee Systems: Case Study of the Pico Duarte Region of the Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, J. D.; Gross, L.; Agosto Filion, N.; Bagstad, K.; Voigt, B. G.; Johnson, G.

    2010-12-01

    The modification of hydrologic systems in coffee-dominated landscapes varies widely according to the degree of shade trees incorporated in coffee farms. Compared to mono-cropping systems, shade coffee can produce both on- and off-farm benefits in the form of soil retention, moderation of sediment transport, and lower hydropower generating costs. The Pico Duarte Coffee Region and surrounding Madres de Las Aguas (Mother of Waters) Conservation Area in the Dominican Republic is emblematic of the challenges and opportunities of ecosystem service management in coffee landscapes. Shade coffee poly-cultures in the region play an essential role in ensuring ecosystem function to conserve water resources, as well as provide habitat for birds, sequester carbon, and provide consumptive resources to households. To model the provision, use, and flow of ecosystem services from coffee farms in the region, an application of the Artificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services (ARIES) model was developed with particular focus on sediment regulation. ARIES incorporates an array of techniques from data mining, image analysis, neural networks, Bayesian statistics, information theory, and expert systems to model the production, delivery, and demand for ecosystem services. Geospatial data on slope, soils, and vegetation cover is combined with on-farm data collection of coffee production, tree diversity, and intercropping of household food. Given hydropower production and river recreation in the region, the management of sedimentation through on-farm practices has substantial, currently uncompensated value that has received recent attention as the foundation for a payment for ecosystem services system. Scenario analysis of the implications of agro-forestry management choices on farmer livelihoods and the multiple beneficiaries of farm-provided hydrological services provide a foundation for ongoing discussions in the region between local, national, and international interests.

  13. Severe food insecurity is associated with overweight and increased body fat among people living with HIV in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derose, Kathryn P; Ríos-Castillo, Israel; Fulcar, María Altagracia; Payán, Denise D; Palar, Kartika; Escala, Lisbeth; Farías, Hugo; Martínez, Homero

    2017-07-06

    Food insecurity is an important risk factor for overweight and obesity among low-income populations in high income countries, but has not been well-studied among people living with HIV (PLHIV), particularly in resource-poor settings. To explore the association between food insecurity and overweight and obesity among PLHIV in the Dominican Republic, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 160 HIV-infected adults between March-December 2012 in four geographically-dispersed health centers (Santo Domingo, Puerto Plata, San Juan, and Higuey). We collected information on household food insecurity, anthropometric measurements, and socio-demographic data and ran descriptive and multivariate analyses, controlling for fixed effects of clinics and using robust standard errors. Mean age ± SD of participants was 39.9 ± 10.5 years; 68% were women, and 78% were on antiretroviral therapy (ART). A total of 58% reported severe household food insecurity. After controlling for age, gender, income, having children at home, education, and ART status, severe food insecurity was associated with increased body mass index (BMI) (β = 1.891, p = 0.023) and body fat (β = 4.004, p = 0.007). Age and female gender were also associated with increased body fat (β = 0.259, p food insecurity was associated with an increased odds of 3.060 (p = 0.013); no other covariates were independently associated with overweight. The association of severe food insecurity with increased BMI, body fat, and overweight among PLHIV has important implications for clinical care as well as food security and nutrition interventions in resource-poor settings. Integrated programs that combine nutrition education or counseling with sustainable approaches to addressing food insecurity among PLHIV are needed to improve long-term health outcomes of this vulnerable population.

  14. Late Holocene liquefaction features in the Dominican Republic: A powerful tool for earthquake hazard assessment in the northeastern Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, M.P.; Prentice, C.S.; Dyer-Williams, K.; Pena, L.R.; Burr, G.

    2003-01-01

    Several generations of sand blows and sand dikes, indicative of significant and recurrent liquefaction, are preserved in the late Holocene alluvial deposits of the Cibao Valley in northern Dominican Republic. The Cibao Valley is structurally controlled by the Septentrional fault, an onshore section of the North American-Caribbean strike-slip plate boundary. The Septentrional fault was previously studied in the central part of the valley, where it sinistrally offsets Holocene terrace risers and soil horizons. In the eastern and western parts of the valley, the Septentrional fault is buried by Holocene alluvial deposits, making direct study of the structure difficult. Liquefaction features that formed in these Holocene deposits as a result of strong ground shaking provide a record of earthquakes in these areas. Liquefaction features in the eastern Cibao Valley indicate that at least one historic earthquake, probably the moment magnitude, M 8, 4 August 1946 event, and two to four prehistoric earthquakes of M 7 to 8 struck this area during the past 1100 yr. The prehistoric earthquakes appear to cluster in time and could have resulted from rupture of the central and eastern sections of the Septentrional fault circa A.D. 1200. Liquefaction features in the western Cibao Valley indicate that one historic earthquake, probably the M 8, 7 May 1842 event, and two prehistoric earthquakes of M 7-8 struck this area during the past 1600 yr. Our findings suggest that rupture of the Septentrional fault circa A.D. 1200 may have extended beyond the central Cibao Valley and generated an earthquake of M 8. Additional information regarding the age and size distribution of liquefaction features is needed to reconstruct the prehistoric earthquake history of Hispaniola and to define the long-term behavior and earthquake potential of faults associated with the North American-Caribbean plate boundary.

  15. Effects of Hurricane Georges on habitat use by captive-reared Hispaniolan Parrots (Amazona ventralis) released in the Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, T.H.; Collazo, J.A.; Vilella, F.J.; Guerrero, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    We radio-tagged and released 49 captive-reared Hispaniolan Parrots (Amazona ventralis) in Parque Nacional del Este (PNE), Dominican Republic, during 1997 and 1998. Our primary objective was to develop a restoration program centered on using aviary-reared birds to further the recovery of the critically endangered Puerto Rican Parrot (A. vittata). Hurricane Georges made landfall over the release area on 22 September 1998 with sustained winds of 224 km/h, providing us with a unique opportunity to quantify responses of parrots to such disturbances. Quantitative data on such responses by any avian species are scarce, particularly for Amazona species, many of which are in peril and occur in hurricane-prone areas throughout the Caribbean. Mean home ranges of 18 parrots monitored both before and after the hurricane increased (P = 0.08) from 864 ha (CI = 689-1039 ha) pre-hurricane to 1690 ha (CI = 1003-2377 ha) post-hurricane. The total area traversed by all parrots increased > 300%, from 4884 ha pre-hurricane to 15,490 ha post-hurricane. Before Hurricane Georges, parrot activity was concentrated in coastal scrub, tall broadleaf forest, and abandoned agriculture (conucos). After the hurricane, parrots concentrated their activities in areas of tall broadleaf forest and abandoned conucos. Topographic relief, primarily in the form of large sinkholes, resulted in "resource refugia" where parrots and other frugivores foraged after the hurricane. Habitat use and movement patterns exhibited by released birds highlight the importance of carefully considering effects of season, topography, and overall size of release areas when planning psittacine restorations in hurricane-prone areas. ?? The Neotropical Ornithological Society.

  16. Detection of quinolones in commercial eggs obtained from farms in the Espaíllat Province in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscoso, S; de los Santos, F Solís; Andino, A G; Diaz-Sanchez, Sandra; Hanning, I

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we reported the use of quinolones in broiler chickens resulted in residues in retail poultry meat obtained from nine districts in the Santiago Province of the Dominican Republic. Residues in poultry products are a concern due to consumer allergies and the potential to develop antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Given the use of quinolones in poultry production and our previous findings in poultry meat, the objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of quinolone residues in eggs. Samples were collected from 48 different farms located in three of the four municipalities (Moca, Cayetano Germosén, and Jamao) of the Espaíllat Province. Each farm was sampled three times between July and September for a total of 144 samples. Samples were evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively for quinolone residues using the Equinox test. Operation systems (cage or floor), seasonality, and location were considered along with egg-producer sizes that were defined as small scale, 60,000 eggs per day. From small-, medium-, and large-scale producers, 69, 50, and 40% of samples were positive for quinolone residues, respectively. A greater number of samples were positive (61%) in floor-laying hen producers compared with those using cages (40%). In the Jamao municipality, 67% of the samples were positive compared with Moca and Cayetano Germosén, where 56 and 25% of samples were positive, respectively. Sampling time had an effect on percent positives: samples collected in July, August, and September were 71, 19, and 63% positive, respectively. Overall, 51% of the samples obtained from eggs produced in the province of Espaíllat were positive for quinolone residues at levels higher than the maximum limits for edible tissue established by the regulatory agencies, including the European Union and U.S. Department of Agriculture. The results obtained from this research confirmed the presence of quinolone residue in eggs, which may present a health risk to some consumers.

  17. Factors contributing to food insecurity among women living with HIV in the Dominican Republic: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derose, Kathryn P; Payán, Denise D; Fulcar, María Altagracia; Terrero, Sergio; Acevedo, Ramón; Farías, Hugo; Palar, Kartika

    2017-01-01

    Food insecurity contributes to poor health outcomes among people living with HIV. In Latin America and the Caribbean, structural factors such as poverty, stigma, and inequality disproportionately affect women and may fuel both the HIV epidemic and food insecurity. We examined factors contributing to food insecurity among women living with HIV (WLHIV) in the Dominican Republic (DR). Data collection included in-depth, semi-structured interviews in 2013 with 30 WLHIV with indications of food insecurity who resided in urban or peri-urban areas and were recruited from local HIV clinics. In-person interviews were conducted in Spanish. Transcripts were coded using content analysis methods and an inductive approach to identify principal and emergent themes. Respondents identified economic instability as the primary driver of food insecurity, precipitated by enacted stigma in the labor and social domains. Women described experiences of HIV-related labor discrimination in formal and informal sectors. Women commonly reported illegal HIV testing by employers, and subsequent dismissal if HIV-positive, especially in tourism and free trade zones. Enacted stigma in the social domain manifested as gossip and rejection by family, friends, and neighbors and physical, verbal, and sexual abuse by intimate partners, distancing women from sources of economic and food support. These experiences with discrimination and abuse contributed to internalized stigma among respondents who, as a result, were fearful and hesitant to disclose their HIV status; some participants reported leaving spouses and/or families, resulting in further isolation from economic resources, food and other support. A minority of participants described social support by friends, spouses, families and support groups, which helped to ameliorate food insecurity and emotional distress. Addressing food insecurity among WLHIV requires policy and programmatic interventions to enforce existing laws designed to protect the

  18. Environmental–Structural Interventions to Reduce HIV/STI Risk Among Female Sex Workers in the Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerrigan, Deanna; Moreno, Luis; Rosario, Santo; Gomez, Bayardo; Jerez, Hector; Barrington, Clare; Weiss, Ellen; Sweat, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the effectiveness of 2 environmental–structural interventions in reducing risks of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among female sex workers in the Dominican Republic. Methods. Two intervention models were implemented over a 1-year period: community solidarity in Santo Domingo and solidarity combined with government policy in Puerto Plata. Both were evaluated via preintervention–postintervention cross-sectional behavioral surveys, STI testing and participant observations, and serial cross-sectional STI screenings. Results. Significant increases in condom use with new clients (75.3%–93.8%; odds ratio [OR]=4.21; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.55, 11.43) were documented in Santo Domingo. In Puerto Plata, significant increases in condom use with regular partners (13.0%–28.8%; OR=2.97; 95% CI=1.33, 6.66) and reductions in STI prevalence (28.8%–16.3%; OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.32, 0.78) were documented, as were significant increases in sex workers’ verbal rejections of unsafe sex (50.0%–79.4%; OR=3.86; 95% CI=1.96, 7.58) and participating sex establishments’ ability to achieve the goal of no STIs in routine monthly screenings of sex workers (OR=1.17; 95% CI=1.12, 1.22). Conclusions. Interventions that combine community solidarity and government policy show positive initial effects on HIV and STI risk reduction among female sex workers. PMID:16317215

  19. Fibrous Platinum-Group Minerals in “Floating Chromitites” from the Loma Larga Ni-Laterite Deposit, Dominican Republic

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    Thomas Aiglsperger

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This contribution reports on the observation of enigmatic fibrous platinum-group minerals (PGM found within a chromitite body included in limonite (“floating chromitite” from Ni-laterites in the Dominican Republic. Fibrous PGM have a Ru-Os-Ir-Fe dominated composition and are characterized by fibrous textures explained by grain-forming fibers which are significantly longer (1–5 µm than they are wide (~100 nm. Back-scattered electron (BSE images suggest that these nanofibers are platinum-group elements (PGE-bearing and form <5 µm thick layers of bundles which are oriented orthogonal to grains’ surfaces. Trace amounts of Si are most likely associated with PGE-bearing nanofibers. One characteristic fibrous PGM was studied in detail: XRD analyses point to ruthenian hexaferrum. However, the unpolished fibrous PGM shows numerous complex textures on its surface which are suggestive for neoformation processes: (i features suggesting growth of PGE-bearing nanofibers; (ii occurrence of PGM nanoparticles within film material (biofilm? associated with PGE-bearing nanofibers; (iii a Si-rich and crater-like texture hosting PGM nanoparticles and an Ir-rich accumulation of irregular shape; (iv complex PGM nanoparticles with ragged morphologies, resembling sponge spicules and (v oval forms (<1 µm in diameter with included PGM nanoparticles, similar to those observed in experiments with PGE-reducing bacteria. Fibrous PGM found in the limonite may have formed due to supergene (bio-weathering of fibrous Mg-silicates which were incorporated into desulphurized laurite during stages of serpentinization.

  20. The Changing Face of Plio-Pleistocene Reef Margins: Results of the Dominican Republic Drilling Project (DRDP)

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    Klaus, J.; McNeill, D. F.; Díaz, V.; Swart, P. K.; Pourmand, A.; Grasmueck, M.; Eberli, G. P.

    2013-12-01

    Fringing reef margins of the Caribbean display a characteristic zonation in which Acropora palmata dominates shallow high-energy reef crests and Acropora cervicornis calmer fore-reef slopes and backreef lagoons. The dominance of acroporids across this zonation has been attributed to growth rates 5-100 times faster than other corals. However, the dominance and high accretion potential of acroporid reefs has a relatively recent geologic origin. Caribbean reefs changed profoundly in taxonomic composition, diversity, and dominance structure during late Pliocene and Pleistocene climatic change. These changes coincide with protracted climatic deterioration and cooling between 2.0 to 0.8 Ma, and the onset of high amplitude sea-level fluctuations ~400 ka. The Dominican Republic Drilling Project (DRDP) was initiated to determine how climate change and global high-amplitude sea level changes influenced depositional patterns in Pliocene to Recent reef systems of the Caribbean. A transect of 7 core borings (~700 m total depth) were collected along a transect of the southern coast of the DR in conjunction with over 20 km of ground penetrating radar (GPR) lines. New age constraints based on U/Th geochronometry and radiogenic Sr isotopes, combined with depositional lithofacies, faunal indicators, stable isotope profiles and GPR data have allowed us to correlate between wells and define the internal anatomy and stratal geometry of the individual reef sigmoids and sigmoid sets. The stacking of these sigmoid-shaped reefs produce lateral progradation of approximately 15 km with geometries that generally follow the highstand systems tract model of Pomar and Ward (1994). Based on existing age models eccentricity (high amplitude 100 kyr) sigmoids display increased aggradation and progradation potential compared to reef cycles driven by obliquity (41 kyr).

  1. Implications of the Central America-Dominican Republic-Free Trade Agreement for the nutrition transition in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Corinna; Thow, Anne Marie

    2008-11-01

    To identify potential impacts of the Central America-Dominican Republic-Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR) on food consumption patterns associated with the nutrition transition, obesity, and diet-related chronic diseases. Examination of CAFTA-DR agreement to identify measures that have the potential to affect food availability and retail prices. CAFTA-DR includes agreements on tariffs, tariff-rate quotas (TRQs), and sanitary and phytosanitary regulations with direct implications for the availability and prices of various foods. Agreements on investment, services, and intellectual property rights (IPR) are also relevant because they create a business climate more conducive to long-term investment by the transnational food industry. Trade liberalization under CAFTA-DR is likely to increase availability and lower relative prices of two food groups associated with the nutrition transition: meat and processed foods. These outcomes are expected to occur as the direct result of increased imports from the United States and increased production by U.S. companies based in Central America, and the indirect result of increased domestic meat production (due to increased availability of cheaper animal feed) and increased production of processed foods by domestic companies (due to a more competitive market environment). CAFTA-DR is likely to further the nutrition transition in Central America by increasing the consumption of meat; highly processed foods; and new, non-traditional foods. The public health community should be more aware of the implications of trade agreements for dietary health. Governments and related stakeholders should assess the coherence between changes fostered by specific trade agreements with national policies on diet and nutrition.

  2. [Characterization of air mycobiota in two repositories of the National Archives of the Republic of Cuba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego Alonso, Sofía; Perdomo Amistad, Ivette

    2014-01-01

    The high relative humidity and temperatures in tropical countries create favorable conditions for development of fungi that are not only a risk to human health but they can also colonize documentary support. To study the concentration of the airborne fungi in two repositories of the National Archives of the Republic of Cuba, the mycobiota deposited on different photographic supports and maps preserved in these repositories, and to determine the taxonomic characterization of the fungi isolated. The air sampling was performed using a sedimentation method, and the supports (6 pictures and 7 maps) were analyzed using moistened sterile swabs. The Cladosporium genus was predominant, followed by Aspergillus and Penicillium genera. Filamentous fungi were isolated in all the photos and maps, and yeasts were only isolated from a photographic supports and a map. We identified several species of Aspergillus and Penicillium genera, but Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus predominated. Candida and Rhodotorula were the yeast genera isolated. The fungal concentration of the air demonstrated that the environments were not contaminated. From the 26 species of filamentous fungi isolated only 5 were detected in the indoor air of the repositories and on one or more of the document supports analyzed (representing a 19.3%). This shows that there is a low ecological relationship between the fungi detected in the indoor air and those that were isolated from the supports studied. Copyright © 2012 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. HIV, hepatitis B/C and syphilis prevalence and risk behaviors among gay, transsexuals and men who have sex with men, Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, L G; Vaillant, T C; Dolores, Y; Vales, H M

    2013-04-01

    This study investigated HIV, hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) and syphilis prevalence and associated behavioural correlates to HIV infection among gay, transsexuals and men who have sex with men (GTMSM) in the Dominican Republic using respondent-driven sampling. Eligible men were aged ≥15 years, reported engaging in anal/oral sex with another man within the past six months and living in one of the four cities sampled. GTMSM were recruited in Santo Domingo (n = 510), Barahona (n = 281), La Altagracia (n = 270) and Santiago (n = 327). HIV seroprevalence ranged from 5.1% to 7.6%. HBV ranged from 0.6% to 3.5%, HCV from 0.8% to 6.9% and syphilis from 3.5% to 6.9%. GTM practice numerous risky sexual behaviours including having multiple sex partners and practising inconsistent condom use with male and female, including transactional, sex partners. Although we found lower HIV prevalence compared with previous studies, the high level of extremely risky sexual behaviours practised by GTM in the Dominican Republic will most likely result in increases in HIV and other infections if action is not taken to scale-up effective prevention programmes for this population.

  4. Community Health Workers and Use of mHealth: Improving Identification of Pregnancy Complications and Access to Care in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnell, Susan; Griggs, Anne; Avila, Gloria; Mack, Jonathan; Bush, Ruth A; Vignato, Julie; Connelly, Cynthia D

    2017-06-01

    This article presents the feasibility and acceptability of using mobile health technology by community health workers (CHWs) in San Juan Province, Dominican Republic, to improve identification of pregnancy complications and access to care for pregnant women. Although most women in the Dominican Republic receive four antenatal care visits, poor women and adolescents in remote areas are more likely to have only one initial prenatal visit to verify the pregnancy. This community-based research began when community leaders raised concern about the numbers of their mothers who died in childbirth annually; San Juan's maternal mortality rate is 144/100,000 compared to the Caribbean rate of 85/100,000. Eight CHWs in three communities were taught to provide third-trimester antenatal assessment, upload the data on a mobile phone application, send the data to the local physician who monitored data for "red flags," and call directly if a mother had an urgent problem. Fifty-two pregnant women enrolled, 38 were followed to delivery, 95 antenatal care postintake were provided, 2 urgent complications required CHW home management of mothers, and there were 0 deaths. Stakeholders endorsed acceptability of intervention. Preliminary data suggest CHWs using mobile health technology is feasible, linking underserved and formal health care systems with provision of primary care in mothers' homes.

  5. Short-term global health education programs abroad: disease patterns observed in Haitian migrant worker communities around La Romana, Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Brian J; Townsley, Elizabeth; MacKay, Christopher R; Lin, Henry C; Loh, Lawrence C

    2014-11-01

    The possibility of encountering rare tropical disease presentations is commonly described as a benefit derived by developed world medical trainees participating in clinical service-oriented short-term global health experiences in the developing world. This study describes the health status of a population served by a short-term experience conducted by a North American institute, and the results of a retrospective review are used to identify commonly encountered diseases and discuss their potential educational value. Descriptive analysis was conducted on 1,024 encounter records collected over four unique 1-week-long trips by a North American institution serving Haitian migrant workers in La Romana, Dominican Republic. The top five diagnoses seen in the clinic were gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), hypertension (HTN), upper respiratory infections, otitis media, and fungal skin infection. On occasion, diagnoses unique to an indigent tropical population were encountered (e.g., dehydration, malnutrition, parasites, and infections.). These findings suggest a similarity between frequently encountered diagnoses on a short-term clinical service trip in Dominican Republic and primary care presentations in developed world settings, which challenges the assumption that short-term service experiences provide exposure to rare tropical disease presentations. These findings also represent additional data that can be used to better understand the health and healthcare planning among this vulnerable population of Haitian migrant workers.

  6. Validity of measures of pain and symptoms in HIV/AIDS infected households in resources poor settings: results from the Dominican Republic and Cambodia

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    Morineau Guy

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV/AIDS treatment programs are currently being mounted in many developing nations that include palliative care services. While measures of palliative care have been developed and validated for resource rich settings, very little work exists to support an understanding of measurement for Africa, Latin America or Asia. Methods This study investigates the construct validity of measures of reported pain, pain control, symptoms and symptom control in areas with high HIV-infected prevalence in Dominican Republic and Cambodia Measures were adapted from the POS (Palliative Outcome Scale. Households were selected through purposive sampling from networks of people living with HIV/AIDS. Consistencies in patterns in the data were tested used Chi Square and Mantel Haenszel tests. Results The sample persons who reported chronic illness were much more likely to report pain and symptoms compared to those not chronically ill. When controlling for the degrees of pain, pain control did not differ between the chronically ill and non-chronically ill using a Mantel Haenszel test in both countries. Similar results were found for reported symptoms and symptom control for the Dominican Republic. These findings broadly support the construct validity of an adapted version of the POS in these two less developed countries. Conclusion The results of the study suggest that the selected measures can usefully be incorporated into population-based surveys and evaluation tools needed to monitor palliative care and used in settings with high HIV/AIDS prevalence.

  7. First report of a Florida Manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Aleman, Anmari; Beck, Cathy A.; Powell, James A.

    2010-01-01

    Manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) in Florida utilize intake and effluent canals of power plants as resting and thermoregulatory habitat. We report the use of a power plant canal in Cuba by a known Florida manatee, the first documented case of movement by a manatee between Florida and Cuba. In January, February, and April 2007, two manatees (mother and calf) were reported entering a power plant canal in north Havana, Cuba. The larger manatee had several distinctive scars which were photographed. Digital images were matched to a previously known Florida manatee (CR131) with a sighting history dating from December 1979 to July 2006. Exchanges of individuals between Florida and Cuba may have important genetic implications, particularly since there appears to be little genetic exchange between the Florida manatee subspecies with populations of the Antillean manatee subspecies (T. m. manatus) in Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic.

  8. Subduction of shallowly formed arc cumulates: Evidence from clinopyroxene compositions of garnet peridotites in the Rio San Juan Complex, northern Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, K.; Tubrett, M.; Saumur, B.-M.; Guillot, S.

    2009-04-01

    Garnet peridotites are very rare in oceanic subduction complexes, with only two reported occurrences. One is in the Sambagawa metamorphic belt in Shikoku, Japan, and the other example is in the southern part of the Rio Juan Complex, northern Dominican Republic. In both locations, garnet peridotite occurs in close association with eclogites in high metamorphic grade of the terranes. The Rio Juan Complex represents rocks formed during the southwestern subduction of the Proto-Caribbean oceanic plate below the Carribean Plate during late Cretaceous to early Eocene. Garnet peridotites (clinopyroxene[Cpx]-bearing dunite, wehrlite, olivine clinopyroxenite) occur as large (garnet formation under high pressures. The geochemical data suggest that Cpx-rich cumulates formed at a relatively shallow level in the mantle wedge, and subsequently drug towards the subduction plane by mantle flow, followed by metamorphism that formed garnet in the subduction channel

  9. 'We talk, we do not have shame': addressing stigma by reconstructing identity through enhancing social cohesion among female sex workers living with HIV in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Maria Augusta; Barrington, Clare; Kennedy, Caitlin; Perez, Martha; Donastorg, Yeycy; Kerrigan, Deanna

    2016-10-20

    This study explores social cohesion as a strategy used by female sex workers to address layered HIV and sex work-related stigma. Data derive from a thematic analysis of 23 in-depth interviews and 2 focus groups with female sex workers living with HIV enrolled in a multi-level HIV/STI prevention, treatment and care intervention in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. Drawing on Foucault's conceptualisation of modern power, discipline and resistance, we argue that social cohesion provides the psychosocial space (of trust, solidarity and mutual aid) to subvert oppressive societal norms, enabling the reconstruction of identity. Among study participants, identity reconstruction happened through the production, repetition and performance of new de-stigmatised narratives that emerged and were solidified through collective interaction. Findings highlight that enabling the collective reconstruction of identity through social cohesion - rather than solely attempting to change individual beliefs - is a successful approach to addressing stigma.

  10. The accumulation of Ni in serpentines and garnierites from the Falcondo Ni-laterite deposit (Dominican Republic) elucidated by means of μXAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roqué-Rosell, Josep; Villanova-de-Benavent, Cristina; Proenza, Joaquín A.

    2017-02-01

    Ni-bearing serpentines and garnierites (Ni-bearing Mg-phyllosilicates) are the main Ni ores in the Falcondo Ni-laterite deposit (Dominican Republic). In the present paper a set of garnierite samples and the associated Ni-bearing serpentines with characteristic mineral compositions and textures, from the saprolite horizon, were studied by EMPA, μXRF and μXAS. The ultimate goal is to elucidate, for the first time, the Fe speciation and the Ni local environment of saprolite ores from Ni-laterites of the Dominican Republic. The chemical composition of the minerals has been obtained by means of EMPA and the Ni, Fe and Cr elemental maps obtained by μXRF allowed distinguishing the saprolite fragments containing Ni-bearing serpentines and Fe oxyhydroxides from the garnierite veins. The Fe K-edge μXANES demonstrated that Fe in the Ni-poor primary serpentine is mostly in the Fe2+ form, whereas in the Ni-bearing serpentine constituting the bulk of the saprolite and in the Fe-bearing garnierite Type I Fe was in the form of Fe3+. In parallel, the local environment of Ni determined by means of Ni K-edge μEXAFS confirmed that in Ni-poor primary serpentines Ni formed a homogeneous Ni-Mg solid solution, in garnierites formed Ni-Ni clusters, and in Ni-bearing secondary serpentines Ni was found in Ni-Mg and Ni-Ni mixed sites. This paper explains the accumulation of Ni, the speciation of Fe in garnierites with various mineral compositions and in Ni-bearing serpentines from the saprolite horizon in Ni-laterite deposits.

  11. Comparative Policy Brief: Status of Intellectual Disabilities in the Republic of Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice, Alejandro E.

    2008-01-01

    It is estimated that 3.2% of Cuba's population of 11.4 million persons has a severe disability of some kind. Recent economic difficulties have, it may be assumed, had a negative impact on health service provision--which is free to all--and thus, on population health outcomes and nutritional levels. There is a traditional culture of family care for…

  12. Comparative Policy Brief: Status of Intellectual Disabilities in the Republic of Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice, Alejandro E.

    2008-01-01

    It is estimated that 3.2% of Cuba's population of 11.4 million persons has a severe disability of some kind. Recent economic difficulties have, it may be assumed, had a negative impact on health service provision--which is free to all--and thus, on population health outcomes and nutritional levels. There is a traditional culture of family care for…

  13. Plant mites of the Dominican Republic, with a description of a new species of Petrobia (Tetranychina) Wainstein, 1960 (Acari, Prostigmata, Tetranychidae) and a key to the species of this subgenus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Leocadia Sánchez; Flechtmann, Carlos H W; De Moraes, Gilberto J

    2014-08-05

    Fourteen mite species of plant-associated mites of the suborder Prostigmata are reported from the Dominican Republic. Four of these refer to new findings for the country, including Petrobia (Tetranychina) hispaniola n. sp. Sánchez & Flechtmann, described from specimens collected from leaves of Citrus sp. (Rutaceae) and Rosa sp. (Rosaceae). A key for the separation of the world species of Petrobia (Tetranychina) is presented. 

  14. Ethical challenges for international collaborative research partnerships in the context of the Zika outbreak in the Dominican Republic: a qualitative case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canario Guzmán, Julio Arturo; Espinal, Roberto; Báez, Jeannette; Melgen, Ricardo Elias; Rosario, Patricia Antonia Pérez; Mendoza, Eddys Rafael

    2017-09-25

    The establishment of international collaborative research partnerships in times of infectious disease outbreaks of international importance has been considered an ethical imperative. Frail health research systems in low- and middle-income countries can be an obstacle to achieve the goal of knowledge generation and the search for health equity before, during and after infectious disease outbreaks. A qualitative case study was conducted to identify the challenges and opportunities facing the Dominican Republic with regards to developing international collaborative research partnerships in the context of the Zika outbreak and its ethical implications. Researchers conducted 34 interviews (n = 30 individual; n = 4 group) with 39 participants (n = 23 males; n = 16 females) representing the government, universities, international donor agencies, non-governmental organisations, community-based organisations and medical societies, in two metropolitan cities. Five international collaborative research projects related to the Zika virus were identified. Major ethical challenges were linked to the governance of health research, training of human resources, the institutionalisation of scientific activity, access to research funds and cultural aspects. Capacity-building was not necessarily a component of some partnership agreements. With few exceptions, local researchers were merely participating in data collection and less on defining the problem. Opportunities for collaborative work included the possibility of participation in international research consortiums through calls for proposals. The Dominican government and research stakeholders can contribute to the international response to the Zika virus through active participation in international collaborative research partnerships; however, public recognition of the need to embrace health research as part of public policy efforts is warranted. A working group led by the government and formed by national and

  15. A review of the genus Berosus Leach of Cuba (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deler-Hernández, Albert; Fikáček, Martin; Cala-Riquelme, Franklyn

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The Cuban fauna of the genus Berosus Leach, 1817 is reviewed based on newly collected material as well as historical and type specimens. Nine species are recognized, including three recorded from Cuba for the first time: Berosus infuscatus LeConte, 1855, Berosus interstitialis Knisch, 1924 (= Berosus stribalus Orchymont, 1946 syn. n.) and Berosus metalliceps Sharp, 1882. Only one of the nine Cuban species, Berosus chevrolati, remains endemic to Cuba, as two other species previously considered as endemic to Cuba are recorded from elsewhere: Berosus quadridens from Mexico and Central America and Berosus trilobus from the Dominican Republic. Notes on biology and Cuban distribution are provided for all nine species. Berosus quadridens Chevrolat, 1863, stat. restit. is removed from synonym with Berosus truncatipennis and considered a valid species. PMID:23794806

  16. A review of the genus Berosus Leach of Cuba (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae

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    Albert Deler-Hernandez

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The Cuban fauna of the genus Berosus Leach, 1817 is reviewed based on newly collected material as well as historical and type specimens. Nine species are recognized, including three recorded from Cuba for the first time: B. infuscatus LeConte, 1855, B. interstitialis Knisch, 1924 (= B. stribalus Orchymont, 1946 syn.n. and B. metalliceps Sharp, 1882. Only one of the nine Cuban species, B. chevrolati, remains endemic to Cuba, as two other species previously considered as endemic to Cuba are recorded from elsewhere: B. quadridens from Mexico and Central America and B. trilobus from the Dominican Republic. Notes on biology and Cuban distribution are provided for all nine species. Berosus quadridens Chevrolat, 1863, stat. restit. is removed from synonym with B. truncatipennis and considered a valid species.

  17. Map pattern and paleostress analysis of extensional faults deforming the Quaternary coral-reef deposits of the southeastern Dominican Republic: Implications for earthquake hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Senz, J.; Escuder-Viruete, J.; Perez-Estaun, A.

    2012-12-01

    In this study, we document a fault system in southeastern Dominican Republic that constitutes the onland continuation of the Mona Passage fault array. Fault-slip analysis has been carried out on 60 stations and paleostress ellipsoids were computed from striae orientations on faults using inverse methods. The CMT-catalog was also consulted to compare the moment tensor solution of earthquakes with the obtained results. Faults cut the 65-90 m raised coral-reef platform (Pliocene?-Pleistocene) that form the bulk of the Caribbean coastal plain, the 27-30 m reef terrace (247.2+26.3-20.05 ka, Middle Pleistocene), and the 6-7 m reef terrace (~125ka, Middle-Late Pleistocene boundary). Cumulative fault activity in the 65-90 m reef produced half-grabens with north polarity that controls the tributary water drainage. Their bounding faults attain 10-20 km wide and are segmented with transverse ramps developed at relay areas. The maximum throw calculated from fault scarps is about 75m. When represented in a length vs strike diagram, line scarps oriented in a prominent WNW set and a subordinate ENE set, in good agreement with field measurements of 540 fractures, that group into WNW, NNE and ENE sets. Paleostress analyses in tensional and hybrid fractures that affect the lower reef terraces indicate a SW-NE trend of subhorizontal extension. In the 65-90 m reef platform, the fault analysis establishes a stress ellipsoid characterized by a near-subvertical σ1 axis and a near-subhorizontal SSW to SW-trending σ3 axis. Therefore, the resulting type of brittle deformation in the Pleistocene ranges from (near) pure normal to normal strike-slip. In contrast, focal mechanisms solutions of generally deep (>65 km) earthquakes are characteristic of reverse, reverse oblique and strike-slip faulting, though shallow normal mechanisms also occur. The main stress axes determined by right-dihedra diagrams reveal a dominant N-trending subhorizontal compression and a subvertical extension. Assuming

  18. Especies nuevas de abejas de Cuba y La Española (Hymenoptera: Colletidae, Megachilidae, Apidae

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    Julio A. Genaro

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describen e ilustran cinco especies nuevas de abejas antillanas: Collectes granpiedrensis n. sp. (Cuba (Colletidae; Osmia (Diceratosmia stangei n. sp. (República Dominicana; Coelioxys (Cyrtocoelioxys alayoi n. sp. (Cuba; C. (Boreocoelioxys sannicolarensis n. sp. (Cuba (Megachilidae y Triepeolus nisibonensis n. sp. (República Dominicana (ApidaeFive new species of Antillean bees are described and illustrated: Colletes granpiedrensis n. sp. (Cuba (Colletidae is charaterized as follows: Head and mesosoma black, legs and metasoma brown. Dense brown hairs on head and mesosoma; white on frons and metasomal terga. Clypeus, frons and mesosoma with large punctures, lesser on vertex and metasoma. Malar space more wide than long. Male and female slightly similar, except in the apical margin of clypeus, supraclipeal area, and color of the pubescence on legs and sterna; Osmia (Diceratosmia stangei n. sp. (Dominican Republic (Megachilidae is charaterized as follows: Dark metallic green, metasoma black with metallic green reflections. Pubescence light; body with large, closed punctures. Female with violet reflections in tergum III and mandible tridentate; Coelioxys (Cyrtocoelioxys alayoi n. sp. (Cuba (Megachilidae is charaterized as follows: Female black, except basal area of mandibles, tegula, legs, lateral area of tergum I and sterna, reddish brown. Posterior margin of scutellum rounded. Apex of tergum VI with spine curved up. Sternum VI fringed with short, closed setae, and the apex with short spine; Coelioxys (Boreocoelioxys sannicolarensis n. sp. (Cuba (Megachilidae is charaterized as follows: Black, except antenna and tegula brown; legs and sterna reddish brown. Clypeal margin straight in profile. Gradular grooves on metasomal terga II and III distinct medially. Fovea on metasomal tergum II of male deep and short, and Triepeolus nisibonensis n. sp. (Dominican Republic (Apidae is charaterized as follows: Dorsal pubescence (short and dense on mesosoma

  19. Impact of a private sector living wage intervention on depressive symptoms among apparel workers in the Dominican Republic: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmaster, Katharine B; Landefeld, John C; Rehkopf, David H; Lahiff, Maureen; Sokal-Gutierrez, Karen; Adler-Milstein, Sarah; Fernald, Lia C H

    2015-08-03

    Poverty reduction interventions through cash transfers and microcredit have had mixed effects on mental health. In this quasi-experimental study, we evaluate the effect of a living wage intervention on depressive symptoms of apparel factory workers in the Dominican Republic. Two apparel factories in the Dominican Republic. The final sample consisted of 204 hourly wage workers from the intervention (99) and comparison (105) factories. In 2010, an apparel factory began a living wage intervention including a 350% wage increase and significant workplace improvements. The wage increase was plausibly exogenous because workers were not aware of the living wage when applying for jobs and expected to be paid the usual minimum wage. These individuals were compared with workers at a similar local factory paying minimum wage, 15-16 months postintervention. Workers' depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D). Ordinary least squares and Poisson regressions were used to evaluate treatment effect of the intervention, adjusted for covariates. Intervention factory workers had fewer depressive symptoms than comparison factory workers (unadjusted mean CES-D scores: 10.6 ± 9.3 vs 14.7 ± 11.6, p = 0.007). These results were sustained when controlling for covariates (β = -5.4, 95% CI -8.5 to -2.3, p = 0.001). In adjusted analyses using the standard CES-D clinical cut-off of 16, workers at the intervention factory had a 47% reduced risk of clinically significant levels of depressive symptoms compared with workers at the comparison factory (23% vs 40%). Policymakers have long grappled with how best to improve mental health among populations in low-income and middle-income countries. We find that providing a living wage and workplace improvements to improve income and well-being in a disadvantaged population is associated with reduced depressive symptoms. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where

  20. Local Site Characterization Using HVSR, ReMi, and SPAC, Study Case: Soccer Field At Autonomous University of Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upegui Botero, F. M.; Rojas Mercedes, N.; Huerta-Lopez, C.; Martinez-Cruzado, J. A.; Suárez, L.; Lopez, A. M.; Huerfano Moreno, V.

    2013-12-01

    Earthquake effects are frequently quantified by the energy liberated at the source, and the degree of damage produced in urban areas. The damage of historic events such as the Mw=8.3, September 19, 1985 Mexico City Earthquake was dominated by the amplification of seismic waves due to local site conditions. The assessment of local site effects can be carried out with site response analyses in order to determine the properties of the subsoil such as the dominant period, and the Vs30. The evaluation of the aforementioned properties is through the analysis of ground motion. However, in locations with low seismicity, the most convenient method to assess the site effect is the analysis of ambient vibration measurements. The Spatial Auto Correlation method (SPAC) can be used to determine a Vs30 model from ambient vibration measurements using a triangular array of sensors. Refraction Microtremor (ReMi) considers the phase velocity of the Rayleigh waves can be separated of apparent velocities; the aim of the ReMI method is to obtain the Vs30 model. The HVSR technique or Nakamura's method has been adopted to obtain the resonant frequency of the site from the calculation of ratio between the Fourier amplitude spectra or PSD spectrum of the horizontal and vertical components of ambient vibration. The aim of this work is to compare the results using different techniques to assess local site conditions in the urban area of Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. The data used was collected during the Pan-American Advance Studies Institute (PASI), Workshop held in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic from July 14 to 25, 2013. The PASI was sponsored by IRIS Consortium, NSF and DOE. Results obtained using SPAC, and ReMi, show a comparable model of surface waves velocities. In addition to the above, the HVSR method is combined with the stiffness matrices method for layered soils to calculate a model of velocities and the predominant period on the site. As part of this work a comparison with

  1. HIV-associated dementia in the Dominican Republic: a consequence of stigma, domestic abuse and limited health literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoso, Laura Frances; Erkkinen, Emily E; Deb, Anindita; Adon, Carlos

    2016-04-20

    A 38-year-old Dominican woman presented at an infectious disease clinic in Santo Domingo, with subacute dementia and psychomotor slowing. Based on physical findings and laboratory results, she was diagnosed with AIDS and HIV-associated dementia (HAD). She subsequently began combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). Psychiatric complications later emerged: the patient developed suicidal ideation and her partner expressed homicidal thoughts. After extensive interviewing, it was revealed that the patient had known her HIV-positive serostatus for years. However, several factors, including HIV stigma, mental illness stigma, domestic abuse and limited health literacy, had prevented her from seeking treatment and from disclosing her status to her partner. This patient's HIV was unmanaged as a consequence of social and educational circumstance, which resulted in severe sequelae, namely HAD. Compounded barriers to care can lead to the presentation of disease complications that are rarely seen today in countries with widespread access to antiretroviral therapy.

  2. La República Dominicana 2007: buscando la institucionalidad The Dominican Republic 2007: In Search of Institutionality

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    CHRISTOPHER MITCHELL

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se examinan aspectos económicos y sociales de los eventos dominicanos de 2007, enfatizando la continuación de un manejo neoliberal de los asuntos macroeconómicos. Los resultados han incluido un incremento en la estabilidad política, junto con un descontento social apreciable. Los preparativos para los comicios presidenciales del año 2008 reciben atención, y se sugiere que el sistema político puede evolucionarse hacia un sistema bipartidista. Se discuten varias políticas públicas específicas, entre ellas la seguridad ciudadana, la educación, el manejo de desastres naturales (especialmente tormentas tropicales, la corrupción, y la construcción de un Metro en Santo Domingo. Se analiza el anhelo bastante difundido de una institucionalidad política mayor, junto con los obstáculos que impiden la realización de esa aspiración.Economic and social aspects of Dominican affairs in 2007 are examined, stressing continued neo-liberal, macro-economic management. The result has been political stability along with considerable social discontent have resulted. Political parties’ preparations for the 2008 presidential elections are outlined, and it is noted that the Dominican polity may be evolving from a three-party to a two-party system. Public policy issues are analyzed, including: citizens’ security, education, natural disaster (storm management, corruption, and the building of a metro for Santo Domingo. A commonly-perceived need for greater political institutionality is described, together with obstacles to its achievement.

  3. Chlorophyll and suspended sediment mapping to the Caribbean Sea from rivers in the capital city of the Dominican Republic using ALOS AVNIR-2 data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuno, Yuji; Miño, Esteban R; Nakai, Satoshi; Mutsuda, Hidemi; Okuda, Tetsuji; Nishijima, Wataru; Castro, Rolando; García, Amarillis; Peña, Rosanna; Rodríguez, Marcos; Depratt, G Conrado

    2014-07-01

    This study aims to study the distribution of contaminants in rivers that flow into the Caribbean Sea using chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and suspended sediment (SS) as markers and ALOS AVNIR-2 satellite sensor data. The Haina River (HN) and Ozama and Isabela Rivers (OZ-IS) that flow through the city of Santo Domingo, the capital of the Dominican Republic, were chosen. First, in situ spectral reflectance/Chl-a and SS datasets obtained from these rivers were acquired in March 2011 (case A: with no rain influence) and June 2011 (case B: with rain influence), and the estimation algorithm of Chl-a and SS using AVNIR-2 data was developed from the datasets. Moreover, the developed algorithm was applied to AVNIR-2 data in November 2010 for case A and August 2010 for case B. Results revealed that for Chl-a and SS estimations under cases A and B conditions, the reflectance ratio of AVNIR-2 band 4 and band 3 (AV4/AV3) and the reflectance of AVNIR-2 band 4 (AV4) were effective. The Chl-a and SS mapping results obtained using AVNIR-2 data corresponded with the field survey results. Finally, an outline of the distribution of contaminants at the mouth of the river that flows into the Caribbean Sea was obtained for both rivers in cases A and B.

  4. Health and Social Needs in Three Migrant Worker Communities around La Romana, Dominican Republic, and the Role of Volunteers: A Thematic Analysis and Evaluation

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    Aaron S. Miller

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. For decades, Haitian migrant workers living in bateyes around La Romana, Dominican Republic, have been the focus of short-term volunteer medical groups from North America. To assist these efforts, this study aimed to characterize various health and social needs that could be addressed by volunteer groups. Design. Needs were assessed using semistructured interviews of community and professional informants, using a questionnaire based on a social determinants of health framework, and responses were qualitatively analysed for common themes. Results. Key themes in community responses included significant access limitations to basic necessities and healthcare, including limited access to regular electricity and potable water, lack of health insurance, high out-of-pocket costs, and discrimination. Healthcare providers identified the expansion of a community health promoter program and mobile medical teams as potential solutions. English and French language training, health promotion, and medical skills development were identified as additional strategies by which teams could support community development. Conclusion. Visiting volunteer groups could work in partnership with community organizations to address these barriers by providing short-term access to services, while developing local capacity in education, healthcare, and health promotion in the long-term. Future work should also carefully evaluate the impacts and contributions of such volunteer efforts.

  5. Health and Social Needs in Three Migrant Worker Communities around La Romana, Dominican Republic, and the Role of Volunteers: A Thematic Analysis and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Aaron S; Lin, Henry C; Kang, Chang-Berm; Loh, Lawrence C

    2016-01-01

    Objective. For decades, Haitian migrant workers living in bateyes around La Romana, Dominican Republic, have been the focus of short-term volunteer medical groups from North America. To assist these efforts, this study aimed to characterize various health and social needs that could be addressed by volunteer groups. Design. Needs were assessed using semistructured interviews of community and professional informants, using a questionnaire based on a social determinants of health framework, and responses were qualitatively analysed for common themes. Results. Key themes in community responses included significant access limitations to basic necessities and healthcare, including limited access to regular electricity and potable water, lack of health insurance, high out-of-pocket costs, and discrimination. Healthcare providers identified the expansion of a community health promoter program and mobile medical teams as potential solutions. English and French language training, health promotion, and medical skills development were identified as additional strategies by which teams could support community development. Conclusion. Visiting volunteer groups could work in partnership with community organizations to address these barriers by providing short-term access to services, while developing local capacity in education, healthcare, and health promotion in the long-term. Future work should also carefully evaluate the impacts and contributions of such volunteer efforts.

  6. Glowing seashells: diversity of fossilized coloration patterns on coral reef-associated cone snail (Gastropoda: Conidae shells from the Neogene of the Dominican Republic.

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    Jonathan R Hendricks

    Full Text Available The biology of modern Conidae (cone snails--which includes the hyperdiverse genus Conus--has been intensively studied, but the fossil record of the clade remains poorly understood, particularly within an evolutionary framework. Here, ultraviolet light is used to reveal and characterize the original shell coloration patterns of 28 species of cone snails from three Neogene coral reef-associated deposits from the Cibao Valley, northern Dominican Republic. These fossils come from the upper Miocene Cercado Fm. and lower Pliocene Gurabo Fm., and range in age from about 6.6-4.8 Ma. Comparison of the revealed coloration patterns with those of extant species allow the taxa to be assigned to three genera of cone snails (Profundiconus, Conasprella, and Conus and at least nine subgenera. Thirteen members of these phylogenetically diverse reef faunas are described as new species. These include: Profundiconus? hennigi, Conasprella (Ximeniconus ageri, Conus anningae, Conus lyelli, Conus (Atlanticonus? franklinae, Conus (Stephanoconus gouldi, Conus (Stephanoconus bellacoensis, Conus (Ductoconus cashi, Conus (Dauciconus garrisoni, Conus (Dauciconus? zambaensis, Conus (Spuriconus? kaesleri, Conus (Spuriconus? lombardii, and Conus (Lautoconus? carlottae. Each of the three reef deposits contain a minimum of 14-16 cone snail species, levels of diversity that are similar to modern Indo-Pacific reef systems. Finally, most of the 28 species can be assigned to modern clades and thus have important implications for understanding the biogeographic and temporal histories of these clades in tropical America.

  7. Examining the policy climate for HIV prevention in the Caribbean tourism sector: a qualitative study of policy makers in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Mark B; Reyes, Armando Matiz; Connolly, Maureen; Natsui, Shaw; Puello, Adrian; Chapman, Helena

    2012-05-01

    The Caribbean has the highest prevalence rates of HIV/AIDS outside sub-Saharan Africa, and a broad literature suggests an ecological association between tourism areas and sexual vulnerability. Tourism employees have been shown to engage in high rates of sexual risk behaviours. Nevertheless, no large-scale or sustained HIV prevention interventions have been conducted within the tourism industry. Policy barriers and resources are under-studied. In order to identify the policy barriers and resources for HIV prevention in the tourism sector, our research used a participatory approach involving a multisectoral coalition of representatives from the tourism industry, government, public health and civil society in the Dominican Republic. We conducted 39 in-depth semi-structured interviews with policy makers throughout the country focusing on: prior experiences with HIV prevention policies and programmes in the tourism sector; barriers and resources for such policies and programmes; and future priorities and recommendations. Findings suggest perceptions among policy makers of barriers related to the mobile nature of tourism employees; the lack of centralized funding; fear of the 'image problem' associated with HIV; and the lack of multisectoral policy dialogue and collaboration. Nevertheless, prior short-term experiences and changing attitudes among some private sector tourism representatives suggest emerging opportunities for policy change. We argue that the time is ripe for dialogue across the public-private divide in order to develop regulatory mechanisms, joint responsibilities and centralized funding sources to ensure a sustainable response to the HIV-tourism linkage. Policy priorities should focus on incorporating HIV prevention as a component of occupational health; reinforcing workers' health care rights as guaranteed by existing law; using private sector tourism representatives who support HIV prevention as positive role models for national campaigns; and

  8. Talking the talk, walking the walk: social network norms, communication patterns, and condom use among the male partners of female sex workers in La Romana, Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrington, Clare; Latkin, Carl; Sweat, Michael D; Moreno, Luis; Ellen, Jonathan; Kerrigan, Deanna

    2009-06-01

    Male partners of female sex workers are rarely targeted by HIV prevention interventions in the commercial sex industry, despite recognition of their central role and power in condom use negotiation. Social networks offer a naturally existing social structure to increase male participation in preventing HIV. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between social network norms and condom use among male partners of female sex workers in La Romana, Dominican Republic. Male partners (N =318) were recruited from 36 sex establishments to participate in a personal network survey. Measures of social network norms included 1) perceived condom use by male social network members and 2) encouragement to use condoms from social network members. Other social network characteristics included composition, density, social support, and communication. The primary behavioral outcome was consistent condom use by male partners with their most recent female sex worker partner during the last 3 months. In general, men reported small, dense networks with high levels of communication about condoms and consistent condom use. Multivariate logistic regression revealed consistent condom use was significantly more likely among male partners who perceived that some or all of their male social network members used condoms consistently. Perceived condom use was, in turn, significantly associated with dense networks, expressing dislike for condoms, and encouragement to use condoms from social network members. Findings suggest that the tight social networks of male partners may help to explain the high level of condom use and could provide an entry point for HIV prevention efforts with men. Such efforts should tap into existing social dynamics and patterns of communication to promote pro-condom norms and reduce HIV-related vulnerability among men and their sexual partners.

  9. The association between a living wage and subjective social status and self-rated health: a quasi-experimental study in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landefeld, John C; Burmaster, Katharine B; Rehkopf, David H; Syme, S Leonard; Lahiff, Maureen; Adler-Milstein, Sarah; Fernald, Lia C H

    2014-11-01

    Poverty, both absolute and relative, is associated with poorer health. This is of particular concern in middle- and low-income countries facing a significant and growing burden of disease. There has been limited research specifically on whether interventions that increase income may foster better health outcomes. The establishment of a "living wage" apparel factory in the Dominican Republic provided a minimum income standard for factory workers, thus creating a natural experiment through which to study the effects of increased income on health indicators. The primary component of the intervention was a 350% wage increase, but apparel workers in the intervention factory also received education and professional development and were exposed to an enhanced occupational health and safety program. Workers at the intervention factory (n = 99) were compared with workers at a matched apparel factory (n = 105). Data were collected via in-person interviews in July and August of 2011, which was 15-16 months after workers were initially hired at the intervention site. Primary analyses used employment at the intervention factory as the independent variable and examined associations with two dependent variables: subjective social status and self-rated health. Results showed that receiving a 350% higher wage was associated with substantially higher subjective social status scores, as well as higher global and comparative self-rated health scores; effects were strongest in women. Subjective social status and self-rated health are associated with future health outcomes, so these results indicate that income increases for apparel workers may have positive long-term health outcomes, particularly for women.

  10. Civil society and political power in the Dominican Republic Sociedad civil y poder político en República Dominicana

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    Jana MORGAN

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the Latin American context, the Dominican Republic displays high levels of civic engagement and political activism, yet they have not translated into a civil society that is able to exercise considerable influence in reforming the political system or enhancing democracy. Building on this observation, this article explores two questions. The first is if there is tendency toward dual participation in civic and political organizations, which reduces civil society’s ability to pressure political parties and the State. The second refers to the nature of the connections that civil society participants have with the State and with political parties. The analysis demonstrates that an important segment of the population that participates in civic associations also participates in political parties and in clientelist networks.República Dominicana registra un alto nivel de asociacionismo social y activismo político en el contexto latinoamericano. Esto, sin embargo, no se ha traducido en mayor capacidad de la sociedad civil dominicana para reformar el sistema político y mejorar la democracia. Con este planteamiento de fondo, se exploran dos preguntas. La primera es si existe una tendencia a la coparticipación en las organizaciones sociales y políticas que reduce la capacidad de presión de la sociedad civil sobre los partidos y el Estado. La segunda refiere a la naturaleza del vínculo de los participantes en organizaciones de la sociedad civil con el Estado y los partidos. El análisis muestra el involucramiento de un segmento de participantes en actividades cívicas, también en actividades partidarias y en redes clientelares.

  11. A Clinical Trial to Introduce Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention in Areas of High Prevalence in the Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Maximo O.; Lerebours, Leonel; Volquez, Claudio; Basora, Emmanuel; Khosla, Shaveta; Lantigua, Flavia; Flete, Roberto; Rosario, Riqui; Rodriguez, Luis A.; Fernandez, Mathius; Donastorg, Yeycy; Bailey, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision (VMMC) is an effective strategy to reduce the risk of HIV infection. Studies conducted in the Dominican Republic (DR) suggest that acceptability of VMMC among men may be as high as 67%. The goal of this clinical trial was to assess the acceptability, uptake and safety for VMMC services in two areas of high HIV prevalence in the country. Methods This was a single-arm, non-randomized, pragmatic clinical trial. Study personnel received background information about the risks and benefits of VMMC and practical training on the surgical technique. A native speaking research assistant administered a questionnaire of demographics, sexual practices and knowledge about VMMC. One week after the surgery, participants returned for wound inspection and to answer questions about their post-surgical experience. Results 539 men consented for the study. Fifty seven were excluded from participation for medical or anatomical reasons and 28 decided not to have the procedure after providing consent. A total of 454 men were circumcised using the Forceps Guided Method Under Local Anesthesia. The rate of adverse events (AE) was 4.4% (20% moderate, 80% mild). There were no serious AEs and all complications resolved promptly with treatment. Eighty eight percent of clients reported being “very satisfied” and 12% were “somewhat satisfied” with the outcome at the one-week postoperative visit. Conclusions Recruitment and uptake were satisfactory. Client satisfaction with VMMC was high and the rate of AEs was low. Roll out of VMMC in targeted areas of the DR is feasible and should be considered. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02337179 PMID:26367187

  12. Pliocene-Lower Pleistocene shallow-water mixed siliciclastics and carbonates (Yanigua and Los Haitises formations) in eastern Hispaniola (Dominican Republic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Juan C.; Díaz de Neira, Alberto; Lasseur, Eric; Mediato, José; Aguirre, Julio; Abad, Manuel; Hernaiz-Huerta, Pedro P.; Monthel, Jacques; Pérez-Valera, Fernando; Lopera, Eusebio

    2012-07-01

    The virtually unfolded sedimentary cover of the Cordilleras Central and Oriental in the eastern Dominican Republic (eastern Hispaniola, tropical North Atlantic) largely consists of Pliocene to Early Pleistocene mixed siliciclastics and carbonates. These deposits have been grouped into two laterally interfingering mapping units, the Yanigua and Los Haitises formations. The former (mainly siliciclastics) comprises marl, marly limestone, and minor conglomerate, sandstone, lignite, and carbonaceous clay and crops out closest to the basement. The Los Haitises Formation mainly consists of limestone and intercalating beds of marly limestone and marl. Lithological mapping at the 1:50,000 scale and facies analysis of twelve measured sections and of additional fourteen outcrops suggest that these deposits mainly formed on a shallow-water marine platform fringing the precursor reliefs of the Cordillera Oriental and the southeastern end of the Cordillera Central. Only a limited proportion of sediment formed in floodplains and marshes. Marl and marly limestone dominated the inner platform sediments. Terrigenous mud decreased away from the emergent basement and carbonate sedimentation dominated the more external platform. Corals, molluscs, echinoids, foraminifers, bryozoans, coralline algae, and Halimeda are the main components with varying amounts of carbonate mud. The platform was generally a low-energy environment with seagrass patches. In the inner platform, corals grew as isolated colonies or as small patch reefs dominated by Porites in marly and bioclastic substrates. Branching corals (Stylophora and Acropora) grew in extensive carpets in more distal areas. At least in the last stage of its development (Early Pleistocene), the platform was rimmed by a reef barrier similar to the Holocene Caribbean barrier reefs, with Acropora gr. palmata, A. cervicornis, Porites, Montastrea, Siderastrea, and Diploria as the main reef builders.

  13. Diversidad haplotípica en el manatí Trichechus manatus en Cuba: resultados preliminares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Martinez, Damir; Alvarez-Aleman, Anmari; Bonde, Robert K.; Powell, James A.; Garcia-Machado, Erik

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this analysis was to obtain information regarding the mtDNA haplotype composition of the manatee (T. manatus) occupying the Cuban archipelago. A fragment of 410 bp of the non-coding region was analyzed for 12 individual manatees from Cuba and one from Florida, USA. Only two haplotypes were identified. Haplotype A1, found exclusively in Florida (including in the sample analyzed here) but also found in Mexico, the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico, was the most frequent haplotype (11 of the 12 samples from Cuba) and widely distributed. The second haplotype A3, previously referred to as endemic from Belize, was identified from an individual stranded in Isabela de Sagua, north of Cuba. These preliminary results provide information about three major aspects of manatee biology: (1) the mtDNA genetic diversity of T. manatus in Cuba seems low as compared to other regions of the Caribbean; (2) the Cuban population likely belongs to the group comprising Florida and the portions of the Greater Antilles; and (3) the territories of Belize and Cuba have exchanged individuals at present or in a relatively recent past.

  14. Abriendo Puertas: baseline findings from an integrated intervention to promote prevention, treatment and care among FSW living with HIV in the Dominican Republic.

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    Yeycy Donastorg

    Full Text Available Female sex workers (FSW are often the focus of primary HIV prevention efforts. However, little attention has been paid to the prevention, treatment, and care needs of FSW living with HIV. Based on formative research, we developed an integrated model to promote prevention and care for FSW living with HIV in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, including (1 individual counseling and education; (2 peer navigation; (3 clinical provider training; and (4 community mobilization. We enrolled 268 FSW living with HIV into the intervention and conducted socio-behavioral surveys, sexually transmitted infection (STI testing, and viral load (VL assessments. We used multivariate logistic regression to identify behavioral and socio-demographic factors associated with detectable VL (>50 copies/mL and STI prevalence. Over half of all participants (51.9% had a detectable VL, even though most received HIV-related care in the last 6 months (85.1% and were currently on anti-retroviral treatment (ART (72.4%. Factors positively associated with a detectable VL included being 18-35 years of age (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] 2.46, 95% CI 1.31-4.60, having ever used drugs (AOR 2.34, 95% CI 1.14-4.79, and having ever interrupted ART (AOR 3.09, 95% CI 1.44-6.59. Factors protective against having a detectable VL included being single (AOR 0.45, 95% 0.20-0.98 and being currently on ART (AOR 0.17, 95% CI 0.07-0.41. Nearly one-quarter (23.1% had an STI, which was associated with being single (AOR 3.21, 95% CI 1.27-8.11 and using drugs in the last 6 months (AOR 3.54, 95% CI 1.32-9.45. Being on ART was protective against STI (AOR 0.51, 95% CI 0.26-1.00. Baseline findings indicate significant barriers to VL suppression and STI prevention among FSW living with HIV and highlight gaps in the continuum of HIV care and treatment. These findings have important implications for both the individual health of FSW and population-level HIV transmission dynamics.

  15. Could the canopy structure of bryophytes serve as an indicator of microbial biodiversity? A test for testate amoebae and microcrustaceans from a subtropical cloud forest in Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Mercado, D; Cancel-Morales, N; Chinea, J D; Santos-Flores, C J; De Jesús, I Sastre

    2012-07-01

    The mechanisms that ultimately regulate the diversity of microbial eukaryotic communities in bryophyte ecosystems remain a contentious topic in microbial ecology. Although there is robust consensus that abiotic factors, such as water chemistry of the bryophyte and pH, explain a significant proportion of protist and microcrustacean diversity, there is no systematic assessment of the role of bryophyte habitat complexity on such prominent microbial groups. Water-holding capacity is correlated with bryophyte morphology and canopy structure. Similarly, canopy structure explains biodiversity dynamics of the macrobiota suggesting that canopy structure may also be a potential parameter for understanding microbial diversity. Canopy roughness of the dominant bryophyte species within the Bahoruco Cloud Forest, Cachote, Dominican Republic, concomitant with their associated diversity of testate amoebae and microcrustaceans was estimated to determine whether canopy structure could be added to the list of factors explaining microbial biodiversity in bryophytes. We hypothesized that smooth (with high moisture content) canopies will have higher species richness, density, and biomass of testate amoebae and higher richness and density of microcrustaceans than rough (desiccation-prone) canopies. For testate amoebae, we found 83 morphospecies with relative low abundances. Species richness and density differed among bryophytes with different bryophyte canopy structures and based on non-metric multidimensional scaling, canopy roughness explained 25% of the variation in species composition although not as predicted. Acroporium pungens (low roughness, LR) had the lowest species richness (2 ± 0.61 SD per gram dry weight bryophyte), and density (2.1 ± 0.61 SD individual per gram of dry weight bryophyte); whereas Thuidium urceolatum (high roughness) had the highest richness (24 ± 10.82 SD) and density (94 ± 64.30 SD). The fact that the bryophyte with the highest roughness had the highest

  16. Dominican Chant and Dominican Identity

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    Innocent Smith

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Order of Preachers possesses a venerable chant tradition that dates back to the thirteenth century. This essay describes Dominican chant, showing how it developed as a consequence of the attitudes to the liturgy expressed in the Ancient Constitutions of the Order of Preachers. These constitutions stressed that the liturgy was to be performed with careful attention to bodily posture, with a succinctness and brevity that would allow time for study and preaching, and with gradations of solemnity that would express the inner hierarchy of parts of the liturgy and of the liturgical year. After the initial development of the repertoire, Dominican chant has gone through periods of decline and revival, which are briefly traced in this article together with a consideration of the place of the chant in the contemporary practice of the Order. Throughout the last eight centuries, the chant of the Order of Preachers has played an important role in the inculcation and preservation of Dominican identity within the Order and in the lives of individual friars and sisters.

  17. A pilot study of the sensitivity and specificity analysis of the standard-Spanish version of the Culture-Fair Assessment of Neurocognitive Abilities and the Examen Cognoscitivo Mini-Mental in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krigbaum, Genomary; Amin, Kiran; Virden, Thomas B; Baca, Louise; Uribe, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    This pilot study purports to address the need for culturally validated, evidence-based assessments and to serve as a springboard for future culturally sensitive research. This study was conducted in the Dominican Republic. It entailed counterbalanced administration of a standard Spanish translation of the Culture-Fair Assessment of Neurocognitive Abilities (S-S CANA) and the standard Spanish translation of the Mini-Mental State Examination (Examen Cognoscitivo Mini-Mental; ECM-M). The sample was composed of 30 Spanish-speaking Dominican adults who met the inclusion criteria for the normative and clinical groups. In an effort to initiate the validation process for the S-S CANA, as well as norm it to the given population, the efficacy of the S-S CANA in determining neuropathology was then compared to that of the ECM-M. Analyses of variance and covariance and t-tests were conducted, and a receiver-operating characteristic curve was computed. Results indicated significantly greater sensitivity and specificity of the S-S CANA relative to the ECM-M.

  18. Alliances, party-switching and pork-barrel politics: the Dominican Republic 2010 legislative elections Aliados, tránsfugas y barrilitos: las elecciones legislativas de 2010 en República Dominicana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Belén BENITO SÁNCHEZ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the explanatory factors of the outcome of the legislative and municipal elections of 2010 in Dominican Republic and the recent transformation experienced by the Dominican party system from a tripartism to a plural bipartism.. The leadership of President Fernández, its image, popularity, and pragmatism, are the key factors in the electoral success of the PLD, favored by endemic factionalism into the PRD and the progressive collapse of the PRSC as well. In this context, the PLD consolidated its electoral dominance thanks to the support of minority parties and will control the Legislative branch for the next six years.Este artículo analiza las claves explicativas de los resultados de las elecciones legislativas y municipales de 2010 en República Dominicana así como de la reciente transformación que ha experimentado el sistema de partidos dominicano, del tripartidismo al bipartidismo plural. El liderazgo del presidente Leonel Fernández, su imagen, popularidad y pragmatismo son la clave del éxito electoral del PLD, favorecido también por el faccionalismo endémico del PRD y la descomposición progresiva del PRSC. En esta contienda, el PLD consolida su dominio electoral gracias al apoyo de los partidos minoritarios y se asegura el control del Legislativo durante los próximos seis años.

  19. Reply to Comment on “Garnet-bearing ultramafic rocks from the Dominican Republic: Fossil mantle plume fragments in an ultra high pressure oceanic complex?” by Jan C.M. De Hoog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazel, Esteban; Abbott, Richard N.; Draper, Grenville

    2012-03-01

    Two competing hypotheses have been proposed for garnet-bearing ultramafic rocks in the Dominican Republic: (1) The ultrahigh pressure (UHP) - ultrahigh temperature (UHT) hypothesis involves a magmatic protolith of mantle origin, which was then delivered to, and incorporated into deep-subducted oceanic crust (eclogite) at UHP conditions (Abbott et al., 2005, 2006, 2007; Abbott and Draper, 2010; Gazel et al., 2011). (2) The low-pressure (LP) hypothesis involves a plagioclase-bearing, arc-related protolith of crustal origin, which was then subducted to UHP conditions (De Hoog, 2011; Hattori et al., 2010a,b). In both hypotheses, the rocks were uplifted to the surface by an as yet poorly understood mechanism. Here we respond to concerns regarding the integrity of REE analyses, Cpx-Grt REE partitioning, other matters related to the interpretation of the trace element data, and Grt-Spl major-element thermometry. We show that none of the concerns precludes a UHP magmatic origin.

  20. Determination of several elements in sediment samples from Nizao River basin, Dominican Republic by instrumental neutron activation analysis; Determinacao de diversos elementos em amostras de sedimento da bacia do Rio Nizao da Republica Dominicana por ativacao neutronica instrumental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastner, Geraldo Frederico; Vilhena Schayer Sabino, Claudia de [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    1995-12-31

    The Neutron Activation Laboratory at CDTN (Nuclear Technology Development Institute, Brazilian) (CNEN) has been acquiring through the years experience to determine several elements answering to analytical requests, including regional, national and international projects. Through neutron activation instrumental, gamma spectrometry and fission delayed neutron technique were analysed 50 samples of sediment from basin of Nizao River, Dominican Republic: Al, Fe, Mn, Na, Cr, Co, La, Sc, U and V with the objective to determine the concentration in both different parts: argil and sand. It was necessary to improve the irradiation conditions, delay time, counting, geometry and others proceedings due parameters like neutron flux, half life time of the radionuclide, gamma energies, all interfering in the procedures. The irradiations were carried about at IPR R1 TRIGA MARK I reactor. (author). 5 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Petrogenesis of meta-volcanic rocks from the Maimón Formation (Dominican Republic): Geochemical record of the nascent Greater Antilles paleo-arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torró, Lisard; Proenza, Joaquín A.; Marchesi, Claudio; Garcia-Casco, Antonio; Lewis, John F.

    2017-05-01

    Metamorphosed basalts, basaltic andesites, andesites and plagiorhyolites of the Early Cretaceous, probably pre-Albian, Maimón Formation, located in the Cordillera Central of the Dominican Republic, are some of the earliest products of the Greater Antilles arc magmatism. In this article, new whole-rock element and Nd-Pb radiogenic isotope data are used to give new insights into the petrogenesis of the Maimón meta-volcanic rocks and constrain the early evolution of the Greater Antilles paleo-arc system. Three different groups of mafic volcanic rocks are recognized on the basis of their immobile element contents. Group 1 comprises basalts with compositions similar to low-Ti island arc tholeiites (IAT), which are depleted in light rare earth elements (LREE) and resemble the forearc basalts (FAB) and transitional FAB-boninitic basalts of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana forearc. Group 2 rocks have boninite-like compositions relatively rich in Cr and poor in TiO2. Group 3 comprises low-Ti island arc tholeiitic basalts with near-flat chondrite-normalized REE patterns. Plagiorhyolites and rare andesites present near-flat to subtly LREE-depleted chondrite normalized patterns typical of tholeiitic affinity. Nd and Pb isotopic ratios of plagiorhyolites, which are similar to those of Groups 1 and 3 basalts, support that these felsic lavas formed by anatexis of the arc lower crust. Geochemical modelling points that the parental basic magmas of the Maimón meta-volcanic rocks formed by hydrous melting of a heterogeneous spinel-facies mantle source, similar to depleted MORB mantle (DMM) or depleted DMM (D-DMM), fluxed by fluids from subducted oceanic crust and Atlantic Cretaceous pelagic sediments. Variations of subduction-sensitive element concentrations and ratios from Group 1 to the younger rocks of Groups 2 and 3 generally match the geochemical progression from FAB-like to boninite and IAT lavas described in subduction-initiation ophiolites. Group 1 basalts likely formed at magmatic

  2. Hybotinae (Diptera, Empidoidea, Hybotidae from the Dominican Republic: new records and description of new species Hybotinae (Diptera, Empidoidea, Hybotidae da República Dominicana: novos registros e descrição de novas espécies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosaly Ale-Rocha

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Hybotinae is being recorded for the first time to Dominican Republic where the subfamily becomes represented by the genera Euhybus Coquillett, 1895, Neohybos Ale-Rocha & Carvalho, 2003 and Syneches Walker, 1852. Euhybus and Neohybos occur exclusively in the Americas, and Syneches is cosmopolitan. Six new species are described and illustrated: Euhybus martiniensis sp. nov., Neohybos cinereus sp. nov., N. longicornis sp. nov., N. pruinosus sp. nov., N. setosus sp. nov. and Syneches dominicanus sp. nov.. Identification keys are provided for the species of the three hybotine genera registered in West Indies. The following species are recorded for the first time from the Dominican Republic: Syneches inversus Curran, 1928, S. pallidus Wilder, 1974 and S. vineus Wilder, 1974. The previously unknown female of S. inversus is described.Hybotinae está sendo registrada pela primeira vez para a República Dominicana onde passa a ser representada pelos gêneros Euhybus Coquillett, 1895, Neohybos Ale-Rocha & Carvalho, 2003 e Syneches Walker, 1852. Euhybus e Neohybos ocorrem exclusivamente nas Américas e Syneches é comopolita. Seis espécies novas são descritas e ilustradas: Euhybus martiniensis sp. nov., Neohybos cinereus sp. nov., N. longicornis sp. nov., N. pruinosus sp. nov., N. setosus sp. nov. e Syneches dominicanus sp. nov.. Chaves de identificação são fornecidas para as espécies desses três gêneros registradas nas Antilhas. As seguintes espécies são registradas pela primeira vez para a República Dominicana: Syneches inversus Curran, 1928, S. pallidus Wilder, 1974 e S. vineus Wilder, 1974. A fêmea de S. inversus é descrita pela primeira vez.

  3. Innovative Tuberculosis Symposium held during Cuba Salud 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Helena J; Armas Pérez, Luisa

    2016-12-01

    The fourth Tuberculosis (TB) Symposium, held during the Cuba Salud 2015 International Convention, highlighted advancements in research on TB and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) by interdisciplinary teams from academic and federal institutions in Cuba, Colombia, Mexico, and the Dominican Republic. Delegates focused on the targets presented in the World Health Organization End TB Strategy for 2016-2035 and elaborated on four primary themes: 1) attention to vulnerable populations such as immunocompromised individuals, health care workers, and residents of long-term institutions such as prisons and nursing homes; 2) identification of active and latent TB cases through contact investigations; 3) spread and control of drug-resistant Mtb strains; and 4) advancements in the development of novel vaccines or "booster" immunizations. This international TB forum served as a platform for experts in diverse disciplines in these Latin American countries to discuss challenges faced by TB research and control programs, proposing novel research initiatives and promoting collaborative teamwork strategies for TB elimination. In solidarity, collaborative efforts in TB control require identification of symptomatic individuals, rapid diagnostic testing for TB, drug susceptibility assays on Mtb strains, and management that provide universal and gratuitous access to directly observed short-course therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Biofouling and biodeterioration in materials stored at the Historical Archive of the Museum of La Plata, Argentine and at the National Archive of the Republic of Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiamet, Patricia; Borrego, Sofía; Lavin, Paola; Perdomo, Ivette; de Saravia, Sandra Gómez

    2011-07-01

    The aims of this paper were to study the biofouling and biodeterioration of photos and maps stored at Historical Archive of the Museum of La Plata (HAMP), Argentine, and two repositories of the National Archive of Cuba Republic (NARC) and to carry out the physiological characterization of the isolated fungi and bacteria. The role of the environmental microbiota in the biofouling formation was also studied. Microbial assemblages in the air were sampled by sedimentation technique while those on documents were sampled by swabbering. Biofilm formation and biofouling were monitored by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Large microbial assemblages were found at NARC archives with the prevalence of genera Aspergillus, Cladosporium and Penicillium, whereas at HAMP these values were lower, Penicillium was the only fungal genus detected. Most of the fungi degraded cellulose and produced pigments and acids, and all of the isolated bacteria had proteolytic and/or cellulolytic activity. In all cases, a higher concentration of viable bacteria than of fungi was isolated from documents. These results correlated with bacterial values detected in air at NARC repositories. However, this correlation cannot be observed at HAMP where Aspergillus, Penicillium and Talaromyces helicus (teleomorph of Penicillium) were isolated. It is the first time that the last genus is reported in documents.

  5. Hydropower scene: boost for Dominican power supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-12-01

    When it is completed in 1991, the 150 MW Jiguey-Aguacate multi-purpose hydropower scheme will be the largest hydro project in the Dominican Republic. Construction of the scheme was recommended as a result of various studies carried out by the Instituto Nacional de Recursos Hidraulicos (INDHRI), which examined the hydropower potential of the Niazo river. Work is now in progress on site, with commissioning of the first unit expected in 1990.

  6. Impact of acid mine drainage from mining exploitations on the Margajita River basin and the Hatillo reservoir (Dominican Republic); Impacto del drenaje acido de explotaciones mineras en la cuenca del Rio Margajita y Embalse de Hatillo (Republica Dominicana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandia, F.; Salas, J.; Arcos, D.; Archambault, A.; Cottard, F.

    2009-07-01

    Mining of the Pueblo Viejo high-sulphidation epithermal deposit (Dominican Republic) leads to environmental impact due to the formation of acid mine drainage associated with the oxidative dissolution of sulphides and sulpho salts. In addition to the very low pH, the acid waters are capable of transporting away from the mining areas high concentrations of metals and metalloids in solution. In the present work, a geochemical study of sediments deposited in the Hatillo reservoir is carried out. This reservoir is fed by the Margajita and Yuna streams which transport leachates from the Pueblo Viejo and Falcondo-Bonao (Cr-Ni) mining areas, respectively. The results show that these sediments have very high concentrations of Fe, Al and sulphate, along with significant amounts of As, Zn and Te, which are of especial environmental concern. The main contributor to this metal discharge into the reservoir is the Margajita stream, whereas the Yuna stream does not transport significant amounts of metals in solution due to its neutral pH, although it is likely that metals such as Mn, Cr, Ni and Co can be mobilised as a particulate. (Author) 5 refs.

  7. Inherited igneous zircons in jadeitite predate high-pressure metamorphism and jadeitite formation in the Jagua Clara serpentinite mélange of the Rio San Juan Complex (Dominican Republic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertwig, Andreas; McClelland, William C.; Kitajima, Kouki; Schertl, Hans-Peter; Maresch, Walter V.; Stanek, Klaus; Valley, John W.; Sergeev, Sergey A.

    2016-05-01

    This study utilizes zircon SIMS U-Pb dating, REE and trace-element analysis as well as oxygen isotope ratios of zircon to distinguish jadeite-rich rocks that formed by direct crystallization from a hydrous fluid from those that represent products of a metasomatic replacement process. Zircon was separated from a concordant jadeitite layer and its blueschist host, as well as from loose blocks of albite-jadeite rock and jadeitite that were all collected from the Jagua Clara serpentinite-matrix mélange in the northern Dominican Republic. In the concordant jadeitite layer, three groups of zircon domains were distinguished based on both age as well as geochemical and oxygen isotope values: age groups old (117.1 ± 0.9 Ma), intermediate (three dates: 90.6, 97.3, 106.0 Ma) and young (77.6 ± 1.3 Ma). Zircon populations from the blueschist host as well as the other three jadeite-rich samples generally match zircon domains of the old age group in age as well as geochemistry and oxygen isotope ratios. Moreover, these older zircon populations are indistinguishable from zircon typical of igneous oceanic crust and hence are probably inherited from igneous protoliths of the jadeite-rich rocks. Therefore, the results suggest that all investigated jadeite-rich rocks were formed by a metasomatic replacement process. The younger domains might signal actual ages of jadeitite formation, but there is no unequivocal proof for coeval zircon-jadeite growth.

  8. Geochemistry of jadeitites and jadeite-lawsonite rocks in a serpentinite mélange (Rio San Juan Complex, northern Dominican Republic): Constraints on fluid composition in a subduction channel environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baese, Rauno; Maresch, Walter V.; Schenk, Volker; Schertl, Hans-Peter

    2010-05-01

    Jadeitites are excellent rock types for obtaining information on fluid composition in subduction zones. Recent studies indicate that many jadeitites appear to have formed by direct precipitation from a fluid [1]. In almost all localities worldwide (see e.g. Harlow and Sorensen, 2005) jadeitites are found either as allochthonous blocks or as veins and lenses directly within the serpentinite country rock of serpentinite mélanges. In the Rio San Juan Complex on the other hand jadeitite also frequently occurs as veins (cm to some dm in thickness) within lawsonite-blueschist blocks [2,3,4] entrained in the serpentinite mélange. The mélange of the Rio San Juan Complex also contains blocks (m to 10m scale) of different metamorphic grade and lithology (eclogites, blueschists, orthogneisses and very low grade rocks) showing contrasting but interrelated P-T-t paths. The consistency of such interrelated P-T-t paths with those obtained by numerical models led Krebs et al. [5] to interpret the mélange of the Rio San Juan Complex as a former subduction channel. So far, two types of jadeitite have been found in the blueschist blocks: either as discordant veins cutting the foliation, or as concordant layers. In some cases the jadeitites contain large amounts of lawsonite and should then better be called jadeite-lawsonite rocks. The latter rock type may form a network of thin (nephrite and jadeitite) and serpentinite: Metasomatic connections. International Geology Review 47:113-146. 2) Schertl, H.-P., Maresch, W.V., Krebs, M., Draper, G. (2007) The Rio San Juan serpentinite complex and its jadeitites (Dominican Republic). In: Martens U., García-Casco A. (eds) High-pressure belts of Central Guatemala: the Motagua suture and the Chuacús Complex. IGCP 546 Special Contribution, 1. 3) Schertl, H.-P., Krebs, M., Maresch, W.V., Draper, G. (2007) Jadeitite from Hispaniola: a link between Guatemala and Antigua? 20th Colloquium on Latin American Earth Sciences, Kiel, Germany, Abstract

  9. AVIAN RESOURCE USE IN DOMINICAN SHADE COFFEE PLANTATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    JOSEPH M. WUNDERLE. JR; STEVEN C. LATTAA

    1998-01-01

    We quantified foraging behavior of 19 bird species in shade coffee plantations in the Dominican Republic to document and evaluate their use of food resources in the shade overstory relative to the coffee understory. All species were observed foraging in the Znga “era overstory, and 18 of the 19 species had median foraging heights significantly above the median maximum...

  10. Cuba precolombina

    OpenAIRE

    Pilarek, Rafał

    2015-01-01

    The article is devoted to ethongenesis issues of native inhabitants of America with focus on the Great Antilles region. The author presents the history of further migratory movement to reach Cuba during Pre-Columbian era. The material contains basic facts about the history and achievement of material culture, spiritual and social of native inhabitants of Cuba: Indian Guanahatabeyes Ciboneys and Tainos.

  11. Energy in the Dominican Republic. A few historical considerations of the problems and integration of renewable energies; L’énergie en République Dominicaine. Quelques considérations historiques du problème et de l’impulsion des énergies renouvelables.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priam, Judith

    2015-01-15

    Energy production on islands is based, as on continents, on fossil fuels. In the Dominican Republic, the production has been insufficient, a recognized fact since 1897. In 1998, the opening to privatization of energy services was impelled by the Comisión para la Reforma de la Empresa Pública (CREP). Then the promulgation of the Ley General de Electricidad in July 2001 by decree #125 is a first step for renewable energy integration in the electric system. We present a historical approach to the energy problem using documents of 1897, 1946, 1989 and 2001(point 1). Then we present the components of energy production in the Dominican Republic by 2000 (point 2). The demand reached for that year 2000 MW, with only 1600 MW installed capacity. Some elements of the first institutional and legislative impulses to integrate renewable energy in the system are included (point 3). Finally, we underline the last 2013 crisis and show how only fossil energy allows to respond rapidly (point 4). In fact, renewable energies require a long term for planning and execution.

  12. Areas of Active Tectonic Uplift Are Sensitive to Small Changes in Fold Orientations within a Broad Zone of Left-lateral Transpression and Shearing, Dominican Republic and Haiti (Hispaniola)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosius, I.; Mann, P.

    2014-12-01

    Previous GPS studies have shown that the island of Hispaniola is a 250 km-wide zone of active, east-west, left-lateral shearing along two major strike-slip zones: the Septentrional-Oriente fault zone through the northern part of the island and the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault zone (EPGFZ) through the southern part of the island. The total interplate rate distributed on both faults is 21 mm/yr. Using a high-resolution DEM, we constructed fluvial channel profiles across transpression-related folds of late Miocene to recent age in the area of central and southern Dominican Republic and Haiti to determine controls of areas of relatively high, moderate, and slow uplift inferred from fluvial channel profiles. Fold axes in this area extend for 50-150 km and exhibit two different trends: 1) folds that occupy the area of the Sierra de Neiba-Chaine des Matheux north of the Enriquillo-Cul-de-Sac Valley and EPGFZ and folds that occupy the area of the Sierra de Bahoruco-Massif de la Selle all exhibit more east-west fold axes trending 110; 2) folds that occupy the area northwest of the EPGFZ in the western Chaine des Matheux and Sierra de Neiba all exhibit fold axes with more northwest trends of 125. River channel profiles show that the second group of more northwesterly-trending fold axes show relatively higher rates of tectonic uplift based on their convex-upward river profiles. Our interpretation for regional variations in river profiles and inferred uplift is that uplift is more pronounced on fold axes trending 15 degrees more to the northwest because their axes are more oblique to the interplate direction of east-west shearing. Longterm uplift rates previously measured from a stairstep of late Quaternary coral terraces at the plunging nose of the westernmost Chaine des Matheux have been previously shown to be occurring at a rate of 0.19 mm/yr. Onland exposures of Holocene corals are found only on one locality within the southern area of folds 30 km west of the epicenter

  13. Dominican NGOs move from competition to collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, H

    1995-07-01

    In 1992, the seven nongovernmental organizations (NGO) working to prevent HIV/AIDS in the Dominican Republic received most of their funding and technical assistance from the US Agency for International Development (USAID). In September 1992, however, USAID's AIDSTECH project asked the AIDS Control and Prevention (AIDSCAP) Project to prepare the NGOs for the time when USAID would no longer be their main source of support. To that end, AIDSCAP worked with NGO staff to assess their technical, managerial, and administrative needs, and identified a lack of administrative and managerial experience among many NGO staff. AIDSCAP therefore developed an institutional strengthening plan, including a series of capacity building workshops, in 1993. Many NGOs, however, foreseeing the impending need to compete with other NGOs for limited funds, were not interested in sharing ideas and working together. This article describes how Coordinadora de Animacion Socio-Cultural (CASCO) and the Instituto Dominicano de Desarrollo Integral (IDDI) competed in the context of uncertainty over continued donor funding, but now meet regularly to coordinate HIV/AIDS prevention projects for youth in the Dominican Republic.

  14. Genotype characterization of the Haematobia Irritans (diptera: muscidae from Brazil, Dominican Republic and Colombia based on randomly amplified polymorphic dna (rapd analysis Caracterização genotípica de Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae procedentes do Brasil, República Dominicana e Colômbia baseada na análise do DNA polimórfico amplificado ao acaso (RAPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Gatto Brito

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Blood-sucking flies are important parasites in animal production systems, especially regarding confinement conditions. Haematobia irritans, the horn fly, is one of the most troublesome species within bovine production systems, due to the intense stress imposed to the animals. H. irritans is one of the parasites of cattle that cause significant economic losses in many parts of the world, including South America. In the present work, Brazilian, Colombian and Dominican Republic populations of this species were studied by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD to assess basically genetic variability between populations. Fifteen different decamer random primers were employed in the genomic DNA amplification, yielding 196 fragments in the three H. irritans populations. Among H. irritans samples, that from Colombia produced the smallest numbers of polymorphic bands. This high genetic homogeneity may be ascribed to its geographic origin, which causes high isolation, low gene flow, unlike the other American populations, from Brazil and Dominican Republic. Molecular marker fragments, which its produced exclusive bands, detected in every sample enabled the population origin to be characterized, but they are also potentially useful for further approaches such as the putative origin of Brazilian, Colombian and Dominican Republic populations of horn fly from South America. Similarity indices produced by chemo metric analysis showed the closest relationships between flies from Brazil and Dominican Republic, while flies from Colombia showed the greatest genotypic differentiation relative to the others populations.Moscas hematófagas são importantes parasitas em sistemas de produção animal, especialmente em condições confinamento. Haematobia irritans, a mosca-dos-chifres, é uma das espécies que mais causam problemas em sistemas de produção de bovinos, devido ao intenso estresse que impõe aos animais. H. irritans é um dos parasitas de bovinos que

  15. REPÚBLICA DOMINICANA: CRECIMIENTO MACROECONÓMICO Y ESTABILIDAD POLÍTICA VERSUS DESIGUALDAD SOCIAL E INSATISFACCIÓN POPULAR Dominican Republic: Macro-Economic Growth and Political Stability Versus Social Inequality and Popular Dissatisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JACQUELINE JIMÉNEZ POLANCO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza la situación política, económica y social de la República Dominicana en el 2009 en el marco de la crisis económica global del capitalismo y la dependencia económica del país caribeño de los Estados Unidos. Se observan los efectos del crecimiento macroeconómico y la escasa redistribución de los recursos en un aumento de la pobreza y la marginalidad como resultado de las inequidades producidas por una estructura gubernamental neoliberal que opera para satisfacer las demandas de las organizaciones crediticias mediante el aumento del producto interno bruto, las inversiones foráneas y la amortización de la deuda externa al margen de las demandas sociales. Asimismo, se remarcan las críticas de sectores de la opinión pública hacia el rampante crecimiento de la corrupción pública y el narcotráfico que permean impunemente las diferentes esferas de la administración de Leonel Fernández. El análisis de estudios cuantitativos y cualitativos da cuenta de crecientes niveles de insatisfacción de la población hacia el gobierno, los partidos políticos dominantes y el Congreso, y el reclamo de políticas públicas coherentes con la situación socioeconómica y política de la nación. En ese contexto se examina la formación de organizaciones cívicas y grupos políticos no partidistas, así como el alto nivel de abstención en las elecciones congresuales y municipales de mayo de 2010.This article analyzes the political, economic and social situation of the Dominican Republic in 2009 in the context of the capitalist global economic crisis and the Caribbean country's economic dependence on the United States. It observes the effects of the macroeconomic growth and the scarce distribution of wealth in increasing poverty and marginality because of the inequities generated by a neoliberal governmental structure that operates to fulfill the demands of capitalist financial institutions towards increasing the GNP, the

  16. Concurrent Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, T.

    2016-10-01

    The parallel version of the multidimensional numerical integration package Cuba is presented and achievable speed-ups discussed. The parallelization is based on the fork/wait POSIX functions, needs no extra software installed, imposes almost no constraints on the integrand function, and works largely automatically.

  17. Preliminary results of the national program of audit of quality in radiotherapy services in the Republic of Cuba; Resultados preliminares del programa nacional de auditoria de calidad en servicios de radioterapia en la Republica de Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez Hung, Lourdes; Larrinaga Cortina, Eduardo F. [Centro de Control Estatal de Equipos Medicos, La Habana (Cuba); Morales Lopez, Jorge L.; Garcia Yip, Fernando [Instituto Nacional de Oncologia y Radiobiologia, La Habana (Cuba); Campa Menendez, Raudel [Centro de Proteccion y Higiene de las Radiaciones, La Habana (Cuba)

    2001-07-01

    The current state of the radiotherapy in Cuba has allowed to pass to a superior stage, the establishment of a National Quality Audit Program (PNAC). The National Control Center for Medical Devices as national regulator entity for the control and supervision of the medical devices of the National Health System is the responsible for it implementation. This paper presents the preliminary results of the execution of the PNAC in teletherapy services with isotopic units of {sup 60} Co. The audits were carried out according to the methodology settled down in the normalized procedure of operation of the PNAC. The physical aspects related with the treatment were audit, such as: the installation and unit's security, treatment unit's mechanical and dosimetric aspects and organizational aspects of the institution quality assurance program. Also were carried out, in the clinical aspect, verifications of cases type planned by the qualified personnel of the service. The results corresponding to the determination of the reference dose for each institution were compared with those obtained in a postal audit with the International Atomic Energy Agency. These first audits allowed to evaluate the performance of the institution's program of quality assurance and a feedback for the setting about to the PNAC. (author)

  18. AVIAN DISTRIBUTION IN DOMINICAN SHADE COFFEE PLANTATIONS: AREA AND HABITAT RELATIONSHIPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    JOSEPH M . WUNDERLE JR

    1999-01-01

    Residentsa nd wintering Nearctic migrantsw ere sampledb y point countsi n 40 smallt o medium-sized(0 .07-8.65 ha) shadec offeep lantationsw ith an overstoryo f Inga vera in the Cordillera Central, Dominican Republic. The purpose of the study was to determine the relative importance of plantation area, isolation, and habitat structure to avian distribution and abundance...

  19. The masking of history : popular images of the nation on a Dominican sugar plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Martínez

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Examines how popular, oppositional historical consciousness is formed and expressed among poor and marginalized rural proletarians of Haitian descent living in the Dominican Republic. Author addresses the incomplete and contested nature of hegemony in the Caribbean and raises questions about the relationship between 'vernacular' and 'official' knowledge about the past, whether they always oppose each other or whether there is overlap.

  20. La política del poder: Alianzas e interacciones partidistas estratégicas en República Dominicana The Politics of the Power: Alliances and Strategic Party Interactions in Dominican Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA BELÉN BENITO SÁNCHEZ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se argumenta que en la llamada "tercera transición dominicana" -la de la consolidación democrática- se afianza en el país un tipo característico de presidencialismo pluralista en el que el trueque y la cooperación interpartidista han sido elementos clave para la estabilidad y gobernabilidad democrática. Para ello, se presentan las prácticas de compromiso (formales e informales de la elite política dominicana, así como los determinantes institucionales y estímulos partidistas que las sustentan.The objective of this paper is to suggest that in the "third Dominican transition" (the one of the democratic consolidation, emerges a specific type of plural Presidentialism characterized by the exchange and inter-party cooperation. These practices have been responsible for stability and democratic governability. This article presents the commitments (formal and informal of the Dominican political elite and the institutional/partisan variables that support them.

  1. Physics in Cuba from the Perspective of Bibliometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Werner; Cardona, Manuel

    We present a bibliometric analysis of the development of the physical sciences in Cuba since the revolution of 1959. We analyze, using available databases (Web of Science, Essential Science Indicators, INSPEC), the development of the output (number of publications of authors based in Cuba) and of their impact (number of citations) from 1959 until now. We discuss the productivity of Cuba in comparison to the Latin American sister republics and the collaborative efforts between Cuba and highly developed countries. The most important areas of scientific activity within the field of physics, the preferred journals and the leading affiliations are identified. The most frequently cited Cuban physics publications are given. Finally, the overall scientific ranking of Cuba among the world nations is investigated.

  2. Multi-Sector Participation In The National Response To Prevent And Address The Hiv/Aids Epidemic In The Republic Of Cuba, 2007-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isora Ramos Valle

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of a strong national response involving multiple sectors—including civil society—is an essential aspect of the social management of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The goals of this response are to control the epidemic and improve the quality of life for people living with HIV/AIDS; this includes combating stigma and discrimination, as well as ensuring due compliance with the law. Cuba has a national program to prevent and control HIV/AIDS. Since 2003 Cuba’s national program has received material and financial support from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Program evaluation is carried out by an independent team at ENSAP (National School of Public Health. This paper reports on results of one part of that evaluation: an assessment of the agencies and sectors who made up the organized social and national response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The evaluation primarily used qualitative analyses of the activities and tasks proposed by sectors in their 2006-2008 work plans. Visits were made to the provinces of Ciudad de la Habana, Matanzas, and Holguín. Qualitative techniques included in-depth interviews, semi-structured interviews, observation, and review of documentary evidence of all kinds (videos, reports, minutes, protocols, results of social research, and radio broadcast messages and varied depending on the particular features of each sector. We noted improvements in multi-sector participation in the prevention and response to the national HIV/AIDS epidemic. Conscious of their role, sectors generally carried out their programmed activities and had improved their organization, planning, and systematization; integration among the sectors was also better. These local initiatives provided evidence of a multi-sector response characterized by autonomy, emotional involvement, and an identification with the goals of the project; this went beyond simply meeting targets. Cross-sector work showed a marked increase and a

  3. Cuba, Are Sanctions Working?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    1993), 870. 50 Ló pez, 4; quoted in Claudia Ma´rguez Linares, Encuesta informal sobre la atención mé dica primaria en Cuba, (CubaNet, 23 March...University Press, 2002. 4. Quoted in Claudia Ma´rguez Linares, Encuesta informal sobre la atencio´n me´dica primaria en Cuba. CubaNet, 23 March 2001

  4. Horizontal accountability and presidential dominance: a difficult combination. The case of the Dominican Republic, 1967-2009 Rendición de cuentas horizontal y preponderancia presidencial: una combinación difícil. El caso de República Dominicana, 1967-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leiv MARSTEINTREDET

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article studies horizontal accountability in the Dominican Republic. First it analyses the rules regulating the system of checks and balances. Although important, institutional rules cannot explain the variation in the levels of accountability across time found in the Dominican case. Therefore, the article focuses on the execution of national budgets and the financial situation of the accountability institutions. The article suggests using an index of budgetary disproportionality based on a comparison of the congressionally approved budget and the executed budget to measure the level of horizontal accountability. A multivariate time-series regression analysis shows that budgetary disproportionality increases with presidential dominance. The article concludes that for the period 1967-2009, it is presidential behaviour more than any other factor that has prevented an effective system of checks and balances. Therefore the case confirms O’Donnell’s hypothesis of Delegative Democracies.Este artículo estudia la rendición de cuentas horizontal en República Dominicana. Primero se estudian las normas constitucionales que regulan el sistema de pesos y contrapesos. Aunque importantes, estas no explican la gran variación en niveles de rendición de cuentas observada en el caso dominicano. Por lo tanto, el trabajo se enfoca en el ejercicio de los gastos de los presupuestos nacionales y la situación financiera de las instituciones de control. El artículo sugiere analizar la situación presupuestaria de las instituciones fiscalizadoras y propone utilizar la desproporcionalidad entre el presupuesto aprobado y el ejecutado como un indicador del nivel de rendición de cuentas en un país. Un análisis multivariado de regresión de series de tiempo demuestra que la desproporcionalidad presupuestal aumenta con la preponderancia presidencial. Se concluye que, para el caso dominicano en el período 1967-2009, el comportamiento de varios presidentes m

  5. para Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Eloy García de la Figal Costales

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Sobre la base del análisis de la aplicación del plan de estudio «C Perfeccionado» (cuarta versión de Mecanización Agropecuaria, desde 1999 se determina como objetivo el diseño del plan de estudio de la nueva carrera de Ingeniería Agrícola para Cuba, mediante la precisión del encargo social en las nuevas condiciones, la preparación profesional existente en el ámbito mundial y nacional y las tendencias mundiales en el desarrollo de la ciencia y la técnica, empleando la metodología del diseño curricular por objetivos. Se determinaron: el objeto de estudio y de la profesión; principales problemas a resolver; campos de acción; modo de actuación; esferas de actuación y el Modelo del Profesional, siendo su objetivo más general: explotar los sistemas de ingeniería agrícola para los procesos tecnológicos y biotecnológicos de la producción agropecuaria sostenible. El plan posee como currículo básico el 79,62 % y el 40,04 % de práctica laboral e investigativa, ambos respecto al total de horas de 5 594.

  6. Perceived social support, self esteem, and pregnancy status among Dominican adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babington, Lynn M; Malone, Linda; Kelley, Barbara R

    2015-05-01

    Adolescent pregnancy is a major health concern among Dominicans in the U.S. and in the Dominican Republic (DR). Twenty three percent of adolescents age 15-19 have experienced pregnancy and this trend is rising. The purpose of this study was to explore and compare social support, self-esteem and pregnancy between Dominican adolescents in the DR with those who have immigrated to the U.S. This study used an exploratory, descriptive design including study samples from both the U.S. and DR. Findings showed that young women with stronger social support and higher self esteem experienced lower pregnancy rates in both the DR and U.S. Neither self esteem nor social support was found to be predictors of pregnancy. Important findings from this study will inform the development of interventions aimed at preventing pregnancy in adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Description of Pintomyia (Pifanomyia falcaorum sp. n. (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae, a Fossil Sand Fly from Dominican Amber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo Peçanha Brazil

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of sand fly, Pintomyia (Pifanomyia falcaorum is described from an amber originated from the northern mountain range of Dominican Republic. The male sand fly specimen is well preserved and most features used in Phlebotominae taxonomy are seen with remarkable clarity.

  8. The Socioeconomic Status of Dominican New Yorkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Ramona; And Others

    1996-01-01

    In recent years the Dominican population has been the fastest growing ethnic population in New York City, now comprising the second largest Hispanic group. This study reviewed 1980 and 1990 U.S. Census of Population statistics to present a picture of the economic lives of Dominicans and suggest ways to improve their status. The income of…

  9. The Güira de Jauco amphibolite complex (eastern Cuba). A record of early Campanian collision in the Caribbean plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázaro, C.; Blanco-Quintero, I. F.; García-Casco, A.; Rojas--Agramonte, Y.; Corsini, M.; Núñez-Cambra, K.

    2012-04-01

    Petrological, geochemical and regional geological arguments suggest that the Güira de Jauco amphibolite complex (eastern Cuba) constitutes the metamorphic sole of the huge Cretaceous back-arc related Mayarí-Baracoa ophiolite belt and, hence, this complex is of major interest for deciphering the deficiently known intra-oceanic orogenic history of the Caribbean belt. The amphibolites have subalkaline low- to medium-K basaltic compositions. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns, ranging from flat LREE-depleted to slightly LREE-enriched patterns, and discrimination geochemical diagrams suggest N- to E-MORB protoliths. The peak mineral assemblages are formed by plagioclase (Xab=0.50-0.80), calcic amphibole (pargasite-edenite), titanite, ±epidote, ±quartz, ±diposide, ±garnet (Xalm = 0.45-0.48, Xgrs = 0.41-0.47), typical of epidote amphibolite facies. Retrograde albite, actinolite, clinozoisite, and chlorite record greenschist facies overprint. Peak P-T estimations are 650-750 °C and 7-10 kbar, corresponding to an apparent geothermal gradient of 25°C/km. 40Ar/39Ar step-heating dating of hornblende from three samples yielded ages of 76.6±2 Ma, 78.4±2 Ma and 80.7±7.5 Ma. These arguments, the strong syn-metamorphic deformation of the complex, and stratigraphic data of the eastern Cuba volcanic arc indicating lack of activity at (roughly) Mid-Campanian age indicate onset of collision and ophiolite obduction towards the NE in the back-arc environment of the region shortly before 80 Ma (early Campanian), i.e., more than 10 Myr before subduction/collision/accretion of platform- and arc-derived high-pressure metamorphic units took place in the leading edge of the Caribbean plate (Guatemala, Cuba and Dominican Republic) in response to arc-continent collision (from 70 Ma to Eocene). Such early Campanian age of onset of oceanic tectonic shortening can hardly be related to subduction/collision of the thick oceanic Caribbean lithosphere with the Caribbean arc, for no

  10. Passion Plays: The Dominican Diaspora in Waddys Jáquez’s P.A.R.G.O.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Horn

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes how the play P.A.R.G.O. (2001, written, directed, and performed by the Dominican Waddys Jáquez represents the contemporary experience of the Dominican diaspora. Jaquéz himself forms part of a new generation of diasporic artists who frequently return “home,” to the Dominican Republic, and who, unlike the previous generation of diasporic artists and writers, continue to find their most valuable audience there. This tendency towards an increasing interconnectivity between diaspora and homeland is represented and a/effectively reinforced in P.A.R.G.O. The play brings the experience of the diaspora close to home for the audience, not by compelling them to identify with the characters’ particular identities, but rather by placing center stage their ongoing negotiations and “making do” with personal and economic difficulties that define their lives both at home and abroad.

  11. 'Western Union daddies' and their quest for authenticity: an ethnographic study of the Dominican gay sex tourism industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Mark B

    2007-01-01

    This article draws on ethnographic research among two categories of male sex workers in the Dominican Republic in order to describe the relationships between gay male tourists and the Dominican men they hire on their trips to the Caribbean. Drawing on both qualitative interview data and quantitative surveys, the discussion examines the usefulness of theories of 'authenticity,' as they have been applied in the analysis of tourist practices more generally, in accounting for the behaviors and practices of male sex workers and their foreign gay clients. While the flow of international remittances from 'Western Union daddies' to their Dominican 'boys' creates a continuous reminder of the utilitarian nature of the exchange, both sex workers and clients are motivated to camouflage this instrumentality in their construction of a more 'authentic,' fulfilling relationship. The article examines the consequences of this ambivalent negotiation for the emotional and economic organization of gay male sex tourism in the Caribbean.

  12. CPAFFC Delegation in Cuba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>Invited by the Cuban Institute of Friendship with the Peoples and the Cuba-China Friendship Association,a CPAFFC delegation headed by Zhang Enxiang,vice chairman of the Standing Committee of the Jilin Provincial People’s Congress and honorary president of the Jilin Provincial People’s Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries,paid a friendly visit to Cuba from May 29 to June 3,during which it participated in the celebrations of the 160th anniversary of the Chinese arrival in Cuba.

  13. How Cuba Fought Illiteracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozol, Jonathan

    1977-01-01

    This article describes the successful effort to reduce illiteracy in Cuba by sending young student teachers into the rural areas to teach reading to workers in isolated spots throughout the country. (JD)

  14. Cuba: Clearing Perilous Waters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    democratization was on permanent hold. Interviewed by Tele- mundo , a Spanish-language TV network in the United States, the Cuban president was...states in Eastern Europe and Asia is the same as that with Cuba. But Cuba is a sui generis case in which analogies drawn from other countries do...United States and the West would not necessarily abate the regime’s authoritarian character. As Latin America, China, and Southeast Asia have demon

  15. Las Mayacaceae de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urquiola Cruz, Armando J.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The problems of the genus Mayaca Aublet in Cuba are discussed. M. aubletii is confirmed as a distinct species, and a key, illustrations and distribution maps of M. aubletii and M. fluviatilis are included.Se discute la problemática del género Mayaca Aublet en Cuba. Se revalida Mayaca aubletii Michaux, y se ofrecen una clave, ilustraciones y mapa de distribución de M. aubletii y M. fluviatilis.

  16. An Island Called Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Stubbs

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Review of: An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba. Ruth Behar, photographs by Humberto Mayol. New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2007. xiii + 297 pp. (Cloth US$ 29.95 Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography. Fidel Castro & Ignacio Ramonet. New York: Scribner/Simon & Schuster, 2008. vii + 724 pp. (Paper US$ 22.00, e-book US$ 14.99 Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know. Julia E. Sweig. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. xiv + 279 pp. (Paper US$ 16.95 [First paragraph] These three ostensibly very different books tell a compelling story of each author’s approach, as much as the subject matter itself. Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography is based on a series of long interviews granted by the then-president of Cuba, Fidel Castro, to Spanish-Franco journalist Ignacio Ramonet. Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know, by U.S. political analyst Julia Sweig, is one of a set country series, and, like Ramonet’s, presented in question/answer format. An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba, with a narrative by Cuban-American anthropologist Ruth Behar and photographs by Cuban photographer Humberto Mayol, is a retrospective/introspective account of the Jewish presence in Cuba. While from Ramonet and Sweig we learn much about the revolutionary project, Behar and Mayol convey the lived experience of the small Jewish community against that backdrop.

  17. Uneven exchange and urban binational complexes in Dominican Republic’s border with Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroldo Dilla Alfonso

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Dominican/Haitian border is signed by profound asymmetries and the predominance of a relation of uneven exchange in benefit of Dominican Republic. Transborder relations summary this contradictory relation, but at the same time constitute the only form of survival for more than half million of Haitians that inhabit the region. This article discusses the history of this relation and its present tendencies, including the formation of economic regions and urban binational systems. The weakness of regulatory public policies and the aggressive action of the market generate a very contradictory setting that could lead to conflicts by the use of shared natural resources, the exploitation of the Haitian labour force, and the agitation of nationalist positions.

  18. Cuba: Background to a Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Fuente, Alejandro

    2000-01-01

    Provides historical information on Cuba. Addresses early colonization, the advent of plantation agriculture, the role and presence of the United States in the Caribbean and Cuba, and the social and economic developments in Cuba after the revolution in 1959 led by Fidel Castro. (CMK)

  19. Comparison of family planning in Cuba and Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Suzie; Stronge, Shirley

    2015-08-26

    Family planning gives individuals and couples control and choice over the number of children they have and the timing of their births. Developments in reproductive health have resulted in major changes in the options for family planning, providing more choice and control over fertility. This article explores reproductive health in the Republic of Cuba and the Republic of Ireland, with a focus on contraceptive use and termination of pregnancy as methods of family planning. The predominant religion in both countries is Catholicism, which promotes the right to life of the unborn child. The two countries have adopted different approaches to the availability of both contraception and termination of pregnancy. Cuba has offered free access to contraception and termination of pregnancy since the 1960s to reduce maternal mortality. In Ireland, contraception was not widely available until 1995 and termination of pregnancy is available only in extremely limited circumstances.

  20. Interest rate pass-through in the Dominican Republic

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grigoli, Francesco; Mota, José M

    2017-01-01

    ... rates, to eventually influence aggregate demand and inflation. This paper estimates the interest rate pass-through of the monetary policy rate to retail rates and explores asymmetries in the adjustment...

  1. The organizational learning in Dominican Republic and Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Alfonso Garzón Castrillon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo comprende una investigación desarrollada sobre el aprendizaje de organización en la línea de investigación Gestión del conocimiento. Requirió el diseño un modelo teórico, el instrumento se aplicó a 180 ejecutivos, de grandes medianas y pequeñas empresas de República Dominicana, y 103 de Brasil. El objetivo general del estudio es caracterizar el aprendizaje de organización y determinar cómo influye en los resultados de organizaciones. Se observaron los niveles de la significación para cada de las variables concluyendo que todas las hipótesis supuestas H1, H2, H3, H4 se aceptan; se encontró que la capacidad de la organización para aprender está influenciada directamente por las fuentes, las condiciones y la cultura para el aprendizaje organizacional, teniendo como sujetos los individuos, los equipos, las organizaciones y el aprendizaje inter-organizacional.

  2. Dominican Republic: Analysis of the Clients of FondoMicro

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Gonzalez-Vega; Mark Schreiner

    2001-01-01

    This report provides a preliminary quantitative analysis of the financial results of five organizations which are clients of FondoMicro. It also includes a qualitative assessment of the long-run vision held by these institutions' managers and of the organizations' ability to allow a transformation into self-sustainable institutions, whose financial contracts are useful to small and micro entrepreneurs.

  3. American Actions in the Dominican Republic and Grenada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    platform, organized strikes, 3Anthony P. Maingot , The United States in the Caribbean, Tad Szulc, New Jersey, Prentice Hall, 1971, p. 53-66. 54Jiiri Valenta...Harvard University Press, 1972. Maingot , Anthony P., The United States in the Caribbean, Tad Szulc, New Jersey, Prentice Hall, 1971. Meeting Notes, 4/30-5

  4. Integrating protection into disaster risk preparedness in the Dominican Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Verdeja

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Addressing protection as a key element of community-based disaster risk reduction and preparedness efforts is essential to safeguarding human rights in disaster and emergency settings.

  5. Storm Warnings for Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    which market-type re- forms must be introduced in the economy to find a way out of Cuba’s callej6n sin salida (cul-de-sac). At issue, also, is whether...in northern Mexico. See Wayne A. Cornelius and Ann L. Craig, The Mexican Political System in Transition, San Diego: University of California , Center...special circumstances whereby his salida (exit) rebounds to Cuba’s advantage and his greater glory. For Endgame IV to start unfolding without violence

  6. Las Najadaceae de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urquiola Cruz, Armando J.

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a study of the family Najadaceae in Cuba. The presence of Najas marina, N. guadalupensis f. floridana and N. arguta var. arguta is confirmed, and the area of distribution of N. guadalupensis f. guadalupensis and N. wrightiana is extended. A general key, illustrations and distribution maps are included.Estudio de la familia Najadaceae en Cuba. Se confirma la presencia de Najas marina, N. guadalupensis f.floridana y N. arguta var. arguta, y se amplía la distribución de N. guadalupensis f. guadalupensis y N. wrightiana. Se presenta una clave general, ilustraciones y mapas de distribución.

  7. In the Time of the Butterflies: Rewriting Dominican History through the Demythologization of the Mirabal Sisters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vansan Gonçalves

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to investigate the narration of historical facts under new perspectives through the novel In the Time of the Butterflies, from the Dominican-American writer Julia Alvarez. The choice of the mentioned novel is due to the fact that it enables the observation of the manners the concepts of identity, memory and representation interact to portray new representations of a determined people by the interpretation of historical facts. Throughout the article it will be analyzed the strategies Alvarez employs to narrate new versions of facts related to the period regarded as the “Trujillo era”, a totalitarian dictatorship which took place in the Dominican Republic between 1930 and 1961. It will be studied the process used by the author to promote the demythologization of the Mirabal sisters, martyrs of the struggle against the regime who, when launched to mythic status, were historically distanced from Dominicans. Post-colonial and postmodern concepts, as presented by theorists bell hooks, Priyamvada Gopal and Stuart Hall will be applied to the analysis of historical representation through the perspective of traditionally silenced groups. Linda Hutcheon’s definitions of “facts” and “events” will also be approached to observe the way the novel provides new readings of historical facts.

  8. Co-operation Agreement between the Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment of the Republic of Cuba (CITMA) and CERN concerning The Further Development of Scientific and Technical Co-operation

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    In the framework of the CERN collaboration with Latin America, co-operation agreements have been established with Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Chile, Mexico and Peru. They have made possible a growing participation by Latin American particle physicists in the CERN programme, which has important potential for the future. The Cuban particle physics community is highly motivated and relatively advanced, both scientifically and technologically, since many of its members have been trained in installations of the former Soviet Union, many of which now participate in CERN's cooperation with Russia. In addition, Cuba has a good number of experienced computer scientists. A group from the Cuban Institute CEADEN (Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnológicas y Desarollo Nuclear) has recently been accepted unanimously into the ALICE collaboration, with agreed contributions to off-line software and Grid middlewave. Additional Cuban contributions to show controls, data acquisition and testing electronics for the Silicon drift decte...

  9. Havanna city seawall: The Malecón in Havana, Cuba (workplan)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, E.; Versmissen, K.; Meijer, M.; Muilwijk, M.; Groenendaal, E.

    2003-01-01

    Havana City is situated on the north coast of the Republic of Cuba, the largest island in the Caribbean Sea. Because of Spanish and African influences Havana is one of the most picturesque cities of the western hemisphere. In the 18* and 19* century a part of the city that lies adjacent to the sea,

  10. Havanna city seawall: The Malecón in Havana, Cuba (workplan)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, E.; Versmissen, K.; Meijer, M.; Muilwijk, M.; Groenendaal, E.

    2003-01-01

    Havana City is situated on the north coast of the Republic of Cuba, the largest island in the Caribbean Sea. Because of Spanish and African influences Havana is one of the most picturesque cities of the western hemisphere. In the 18* and 19* century a part of the city that lies adjacent to the sea,

  11. Cuba, cultures contemporaines

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Les principaux thèmes de ce numéro consacré à Cuba portent sur la culture insulaire contemporaine appréhendée dans une double perspective : depuis Cuba et également depuis l’exil. Pour le volet cubain, le dossier comprend : une étude des carnets de l’universitaire française Wanda Lekszycka rédigés pendant la période spéciale en temps de paix ; une approche de la revue culturelle et patrimoniale Opus Habana, actuellement produite et éditée par la Oficina del Historiador de la Ciudad de La Haba...

  12. Cuba confronts climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Gisela; Clark, Ismael

    2015-04-01

    Among environmental problems, climate change presents the greatest challenges to developing countries, especially island nations. Changes in climate and the resulting effects on human health call for examination of the interactions between environmental and social factors. Important in Cuba's case are soil conditions, food availability, disease burden, ecological changes, extreme weather events, water quality and rising sea levels, all in conjunction with a range of social, cultural, economic and demographic conditions.

  13. The embodiment of tourism among bisexually-behaving Dominican male sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Mark B

    2008-10-01

    While theories of "structure" and social inequality have increasingly informed global health efforts for HIV prevention--with growing recognition of the linkages between large-scale political and economic factors in the distribution and impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic--there is still little theorization of precisely how structural factors shape the very bodies and sexualities of specific populations and groups. In order to extend the theoretical understanding of these macro-micro linkages, this article examines how the growth of the tourism industry in the Dominican Republic has produced sexual practices and identities that reflect both the influence of large-scale structural processes and the resistant responses of local individuals. Drawing on social science theories of political economy, embodiment, and authenticity, I argue that an understanding of patterns of sexuality and HIV risk in the region requires analysis of how political-economic transformations related to tourism intersect with the individual experiences and practices of sexuality on the ground. The analysis draws on long-term ethnographic research with bisexually behaving male sex workers in two cities in the Dominican Republic, including participant observation, in-depth interviews, focus groups, and surveys. By examining the global and local values placed on these men's bodies and the ways sex workers use their bodies to broker tourists' pleasure, we may better understand how the large-scale structures of the tourism industry are linked to the specific meanings and practices of sexuality.

  14. Cuba on our minds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Rutheiser

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Conversatons with Cuba. C. PETER RIPLEY. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1999. xxvi + 243 pp. (Cloth US$ 24.95 Real Life in Castro's Cuba. CATHERINE MOSES. Wilmington DE: Scholarly Resources, 2000. xi + 184 pp. (Paper US$ 18.95 The Cuban Way: Capitalism, Communism, and Confrontation. ANA JULIA JATAR-HAUSMANN. West Hartford CT: Kumarian Press, 1999. xvii + 161 pp. (Paper US$21.95 Castro and the Cuban Revolution. THOMAS M. LEONARD. Westport CT: Greenwood Press, 1999. xxv + 188 pp. (Cloth US$ 45.00 Cuba has attracted a great deal of attention from both scholarly and popular authors since 1959. The literature that they have produced has generated much heat, but has shed a considerably smaller amount of light. Most accounts have been situated at the polar extremes of ideology, either condemning or celebrating the island's revolutionary experiment and its maximum leader (for the former is often virtually totally collapsed into the personage of Fidel Castro with the same degrees of vociferous, simplistic certitude. However, neither the fulminating diatribes of the anti-Castro Right nor the fulsome paeans of the Euro-American Left have done much justice to making sense of the complex, confounding, and contradictory realities of Cuban society before, during, and after the Revolution. Indeed, contemporary developments have only magnified the distortions rendered by the astigmatic lenses of cold war intellectualism.

  15. Capacidad de uso de las tierras en la microcuenca El Limón, complejo de cuencas Sabana Yegua, República Dominicana Land use capacity in the mini watershed El Limón, Sabana Yegua Watershed Complex, Dominican Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maldané Cuello Espinoza

    2013-03-01

    recomendadas son las de labranza mínima, rotación de cultivos, uso de barreras muertas con residuos de cosecha, barreras vivas con el uso de material biológico de la zona y terrazas individuales en sistemas agroforestales. Estas prácticas son alternativas para que los productores continúen desarrollando los sistemas de producción que tradicionalmente utilizan, con un criterio técnico de manejo.This study conduced the biophysical analysis of El Limón micro watershed within the high land Sabana Yegua watershed, Dominican Republic. The objective of the research was directed to determine its land capacity use, taking into account limitations of soils, climate and geomorphology. It proposes a series of management practices as options to reduce erosion, improve soil and roads conditions, in order to get better conditions for a rational system management. In this way, for reaching such objective for the first time some basic elements could be established and integrated to deal with the accelerated degradation problem affecting the area under study. For getting this purpose fundamental parameters were established, such as factors related to erosion, soil, drainage and climate, in function of the methodology MAG/ FAO/UNED (1996 used in Costa Rica to determine land capacity use, which has been adapted to the area under study. This methodology has been used as the basic tool in this essay, integrating land classes from class I to class VIII in acordance with the frecuency and level limitations identified. For its application in the Limón micro watershed, we included other physical parameters that were not observed in this methodology, such as soil apparent density and the climatic parameters, such as rain and temperature daily registers, the last two in order to determine the life zone. The research established that the land classes in El Limón micro watershed include land from class III to VIII. All land classes are able for protection, forestry systems and agroforestry. In

  16. Immunogenicity and safety of three aluminium hydroxide adjuvanted vaccines with reduced doses of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV-Al) compared with standard IPV in young infants in the Dominican Republic: a phase 2, non-inferiority, observer-blinded, randomised, and controlled dose investigation trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Luis; Pedersen, Rasmus S; Peña, Lourdes; Olsen, Klaus J; Andreasen, Lars V; Kromann, Ingrid; Nielsen, Pernille I; Sørensen, Charlotte; Dietrich, Jes; Bandyopadhyay, Ananda S; Thierry-Carstensen, Birgit

    2017-07-01

    Cost and supply constraints are key challenges in the use of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV). Dose reduction through adsorption to aluminium hydroxide (Al) is a promising option, and establishing its effectiveness in the target population is a crucial milestone in developing IPV-Al. The aim of this clinical trial was to show the non-inferiority of three IPV-Al vaccines to standard IPV. In this phase 2, non-inferiority, observer-blinded, randomised, controlled, single-centre trial in the Dominican Republic, healthy infants aged 6 weeks, not previously polio vaccinated, were allocated after computer-generated randomisation by block-size of four, to receive one of four IPV formulations (three-times reduced dose [1/3 IPV-Al], five-times reduced dose [1/5 IPV-Al], ten-times reduced dose [1/10 IPV-Al], or IPV) intramuscularly in the thigh at 6, 10, and 14 weeks of age. The primary outcome was seroconversion for poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3 with titres more than or equal to four-fold higher than the estimated maternal antibody titre and more than or equal to 8 after three vaccinations. Non-inferiority was concluded if the lower two-sided 90% CI of the seroconversion rate difference between IPV-Al and IPV was greater than -10%. The safety analyses were based on the safety analysis set (randomly assigned participants who received at least one trial vaccination) and the immunogenicity analyses were based on the per-protocol population. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov registration, number NCT02347423. Between Feb 2, 2015, and Sept 26, 2015, we recruited 824 infants. The per-protocol population included 820 infants; 205 were randomly assigned to receive 1/3 IPV-Al, 205 to receive 1/5 IPV-Al, 204 to receive 1/10 IPV-Al, and 206 to receive IPV. The proportion of individuals meeting the primary endpoint of seroconversion for poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3 was already high for the three IPV-Al vaccines after two vaccinations, but was higher after three vaccinations

  17. [Use of sugar cane harvest residues in cattle fattening in the Republic of Cuba. 1. The physical and chemical composition of the residues and the effect of NaOH treatment on their in vitro and in vivo digestibility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanke, R; Legel, S; Martin, P C

    1985-12-01

    The harvesting remains of sugar cane (crowns, leaves, sheaths, parts of stalks), which are rich in crude fibre, were investigated. The content of crude nutrients, their digestibility and the energy concentration of the harvesting remains largely correspond to the values of cereal straw. After the treatment with growing amounts of NaOH (0, 4, 6, 8, 10 g/ 100 g DM) a significantly increasing digestibility of the dry matter (31.9, 47.0, 56.1, 61.9, 67.6%) was ascertained in in-vitro experiments. In digestibility experiments with wethers an increased digestibility of the dry matter from 36.6 to 57.6% and of the energy from 39.3 to 56.2% after the treatment with 4 g NaOH/100 g DM could be ascertained in comparison with untreated harvesting remains. Energy concentration increased from 324 to 445 EFU cattle/kg DM and thus approached that of the hay of Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon), one of the most important fodder grasses of Cuba. After the feeding of harvesting remains treated with NaOH significant changes in the water and mineral metabolism could be ascertained.

  18. Tourism, Sexuality and Power in the Spanish Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivke Jaffe

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available – Economies of Desire: Sex and Tourism in Cuba and the Dominican Republic, by Amalia L. Cabezas. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2009. – The Devil behind the Mirror: Globalization and Politics in the Dominican Republic, by Steven Gregory. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2007. – Caribbean Pleasure Industry: Tourism, Sexuality and AIDS in the Dominican Republic, by Mark Padilla. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007.

  19. "What We Have Seen…": Higher Education in the Dominican Tradition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    A thesis: Dominican colleges and universities should be schools of ophthalmology. To develop this thesis, this essay begins with a brief reflection on 1 Jn 1:1-4, and then considers contemplation as a journey into vision. Following that are focal points from the tradition that might help name what is or should be distinctive about Dominican higher…

  20. Contratados peninsulares para Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iglesias García, Fe

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Not available.

    Ante las presiones británicas, la metrópoli española y los ideólogos de los hacendados cubanos tuvieron que dar, desde la tercera década del siglo XIX, una respuesta a la previsible escasez de mano de obra esclava. El artículo estudia los sistemas de contrata implantados en la isla para abastecer de mano de obra blanca y barata a Cuba, deteniéndose particularmente la autora en el estudio de las condiciones de semiesclavitud que se escondían en las mencionadas contratas y en el perfil de los inmigrantes (profesiones, sexo, edad, procedencia....

  1. Cuba's kidney transplantation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mármol, Alexander; Pérez, Alexis; Pérez de Prado, Juan C; Fernández-Vega, Silvia; Gutiérrez, Francisco; Arce, Sergio

    2010-10-01

    The first kidney transplant in Cuba was performed on 24 February 1970, using a cadaveric donor. In 1979, living donor kidney transplantation began between first-degree relatives. A total of 2775 patients are enrolled in renal replacement therapy in 47 hospitals across the country, 1440 of whom are awaiting kidney transplantation. Organs for the kidney program are procured in 63 accredited hospitals equipped for multidisciplinary management of brain death. Accordingly, over 90% of transplanted kidneys are from cadaveric donors. Identification of potential recipients is carried out through a national, computerized program that affords all patients the same opportunity regardless of distance from a transplant center, and selection of the most suitable candidate is based primarily on HLA compatibility. KEYWORDS Chronic renal failure, kidney transplantation.

  2. Mathematics and Physics in Cuba Before 1959: A Personal Recollection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altshuler, José

    On the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the formal inauguration of the Republic of Cuba (May 20, 1902), the then Historian of the City of Havana, Emilio Roig de Leuchsenring, decided to publish a memorial volume which would include various special studies on the progress made in the country during the preceding half century with regard to specific aspects of national collective life. The volume, entitled Facetas de la vida de Cuba republicana, 1902-1952 (Facets of Life in Republican Cuba, 1902-1952) appeared in print in 1954. Its publication was delayed—as Roig explained in his prologue, somewhat cryptically—"due to causes beyond our control or of that of the Cuban writers to whom we entrusted the preparation of the said studies." Needless to say, the causes referred to were none other than those derived from the atmosphere of political unrest in the country after the military coup staged in March 1952 by former strongman, General Batista.

  3. HIV Sexual Risk Behavior and Family Dynamics in a Dominican Tourism Town

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Padilla, Mark; Cedar, Anna Lindberg; Lee, Jane; Robles, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Expansion of the tourism industry in the Dominican Republic has had far-reaching health consequences for the local population. Research suggests families with one or more members living in tourism areas experience heightened vulnerability to HIV/STIs due to exposure to tourism environments, which can promote behaviors such as commercial and transactional sex and elevated alcohol use. Nevertheless, little is known about how tourism contexts influence family dynamics, which, in turn, shape HIV risk. This qualitative study examined family relationships through in-depth interviews with 32 adults residing in Sosúa, an internationally known destination for sex tourism. Interviewees situated HIV risk within a context of limited employment opportunities, high rates of migration, heavy alcohol use, and separation from family. This study has implications for effective design of health interventions that make use of the role of the family to prevent HIV transmission in tourism environments. PMID:23436038

  4. HIV sexual risk behavior and family dynamics in a Dominican tourism town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Padilla, Mark; Cedar, Anna Lindberg; Lee, Jane; Robles, Gabriel

    2013-10-01

    Expansion of the tourism industry in the Dominican Republic has had far-reaching health consequences for the local population. Research suggests families with one or more members living in tourism areas experience heightened vulnerability to HIV/STIs due to exposure to tourism environments, which can promote behaviors such as commercial and transactional sex and elevated alcohol use. Nevertheless, little is known about how tourism contexts influence family dynamics, which, in turn, shape HIV risk. This qualitative study examined family relationships through in-depth interviews with 32 adults residing in Sosúa, an internationally known destination for sex tourism. Interviewees situated HIV risk within a context of limited employment opportunities, high rates of migration, heavy alcohol use, and separation from family. This study has implications for effective design of health interventions that make use of the role of the family to prevent HIV transmission in tourism environments.

  5. 15 CFR 746.2 - Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cuba. 746.2 Section 746.2 Commerce and... § 746.2 Cuba. (a) License requirements. As authorized by section 6 of the Export Administration Act of... subject to the EAR) to Cuba, except as follows. (1) License Exceptions. You may export or reexport...

  6. Río, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. García-Quintana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo se realizó como estudio de caso en el ambiente de Viñales, Pinar del Río, Cuba con el objetivo de seleccionar material genético de especial valor para la conservación y mejoramiento de la especie; a partir de nueve procedencias, encontrando diferencias significativas entre procedencias para las variables altura, diámetro y ramificación. Se clasificaron las procedencias en grupos de calidad A, B, C y D, recomendando los grupos A y B para el desarrollo de la especie en estos sitios de baja fertilidad. El coeficiente de variación cambió 29.5 y 44.8 %, siendo los parámetros altura y diámetro los de mayor variabilidad, así la selección debe tener estas características, seleccionando como procedencias superiores Marbajita, Cajálbana, El Burén, Los Palacios, La Jagua, La Güira y Juan Manuel.

  7. General literacy and health literacy in Dominicans with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aponte, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Dominicans are one of the fastest growing Hispanic subgroups in the United States, and they are greatly affected by type 2 diabetes. Health literacy and general literacy are critical components in diabetes self-management given that type 2 diabetes is a disease that relies heavily on a person having the skills needed to actively participate in their diabetes care. Three PubMed searches were conducted using search words Dominicans, Hispanics, diabetes, type 2 diabetes, diabetes education, health literacy, and literacy. These searches were based on published articles completed from January 2000 to May 2012. There were 14 articles reviewed. Eight articles were eliminated from the 3 literature searches. These findings show a lack of data and research on Dominicans with diabetes and on health literacy and general literacy among this Hispanic subgroup. Qualitative and quantitative studies are urgently needed to examine diabetes in Dominicans and the impact health literacy and general literacy have on diabetes health outcomes in this Hispanic subgroup.

  8. Culture, ideology, and dwelling in two Dominican villages

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manuel Vargas

    1996-01-01

    Study of the contrasting response to modernization in 2 Dominican villages. Author demonstrates that this contrast is caused by the intentional use of 2 culturally specific ideologies aimed at achieving and maintaining existential security...

  9. A New Look at U.S. Foreign Policy toward Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    program. La Habana Servicio Internacional , on 10 February 1991, reported on an agreement between Cuba, Mexico, 50 and the Peoples Republic of Korea...Poder Popular, Defensa, La Habana, Editorial Jose Marti, 1991. rliba, Asamblea Nacional del Poder Popular, Li Biotechnologla: un Derecho Conquistado por...Latin America, No. 90-248, 26 December 1990, p. 21. 60. Habana Servicio Internacional , Nuclear Agreement Signed with Mexico, DPRK, 10 february 1991

  10. Comités de ética de investigación en República Dominicana: Un análisis desde las pautas éticas internacionales para la investigación biomédica con seres humanos Comitês de ética em pesquisa na República Dominicana: Uma análise a partir das pautas éticas internacionais para a pesquisa biomédica com seres humanos Scientific ethical review committees in Dominican Republic: An analysis based on international ethical guidelines for biomedical research involving human beings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Arturo Canario Guzmán

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio es describir la situación de los comités de ética de investigación (CEI de República Dominicana, en términos tanto de su organización, composición, actividades y necesidades de capacitación, como del nivel en que siguen las recomendaciones ofrecidas por las Pautas Éticas Internacionales para la Investigación Biomédica en Seres Humanos (2002. Se incluyeron los siete CEI que reportaron actividades durante 2007. Se utilizó un cuestionario estructurado elaborado a partir de las Guías Complementarias para Encuestar y Evaluar Prácticas de Evaluación Ética, desarrolladas por la Organización Mundial de la Salud (2002. Los hallazgos revelan la complejidad de la situación actual de los CEI en República Dominicana y la necesidad de aunar esfuerzos para lograr un mayor cumplimiento con las recomendaciones de las Pautas CIOMS.O objetivo deste estudo é descrever a situação dos comitês de ética em pesquisa (CEI da República Dominicana, em termos tanto de sua organização, composição, atividades e necessidades de capacitação, como do nível em que seguem as recomendações oferecidas pelas Pautas Éticas Internacionais para a Pesquisa Biomédica em Seres Humanos (2002. Foram incluidas os sete CEI que informaram atividades durante 2007. Foi utilizado um questionário estruturado elaborado a partir das "Guias Complementares para Questionar e Avaliar Práticas de Avaliação Ética", desenvolvidas pela Organização Mundial de Saúde (2002. Os achados revelam a complexidade da situação atual dos CEI na República Dominicana e a necessidade de juntar esforços para obter um maior cumprimento das recomendações das Pautas CIOMS.The aim of this study is to describe the situation of scientific ethical review committees in Dominican Republic, in terms both their organization, composition, activities and training needs, and the level of following recommendations offered by International Ethical Guidelines for

  11. CONOCIMIENTO DE LA LEY GENERAL DE SALUD RESPECTO DE LAS TRANSFUSIONES SANGUÍNEAS EN MÉDICOS Y PACIENTES TESTIGOS DE JEHOVÁ DEL HOSPITAL DR. DARÍO CONTRERAS DE REPÚBLICA DOMINICANA CONHECIMENTO DA LEI GERAL DE SAÚDE - RESPEITO ÀS TRANSFUSÕES SANGUÍNEAS EM MÉDICOS E PACIENTES TESTEMUNHAS DE JEOVÁ DO HOSPITAL DR. DARÍO CONTRERAS DA REPÚBLICA DOMINICANA KNOWLEDGE OF GENERAL HEALTH LAW WITH RESPECT TO BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS BY PHYSICIANS AND PATIENTS JEHOVAH WITNESSES IN HOSPITAL DR. DARIO CONTRERAS OF DOMINICAN REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Díaz Santana

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio evalúa hasta qué grado el cuerpo médico del Hospital Dr. Darío Contreras de República Dominicana conoce, respeta, informa y aplica la Ley General de Salud, con relación al derecho del paciente Testigo de Jehová de negarse a ser transfundido (respeto a su autonomía. También si los Testigos de Jehová conocen la Ley General de Salud y hasta qué grado se han beneficiado con la puesta en marcha de la misma. El estudio reveló que ni médicos ni Testigos de Jehová conocen suficientemente dicha ley.Este estudo avalia quanto o corpo médico do Hospital Dr. Darío Contreras de República Dominicana conhece, respeita, informa e aplica a Lei Geral de Saúde em relação aos direitos do paciente Testemunha de Jeová de negar-se a ser transfundido (respeito a sua autonomia; também se os Testemunhas de Jeová conhecem a Lei Geral de Saúde e até que ponto têm se beneficiado diante dessa proposição. O estudo revelou que nem médicos, nem Testemunhas de Jeová conhecem de fato essa lei.This study evaluates up to which degree physicians of Hospital Dr. Dario Contreras of Dominican Republic know, respect, inform and apply the General Health Law in relation to the right of Jehovah witness patients to refuse being blood transfused (respect to their autonomy. It also evaluates whether Jehovah witnesses know General Health Law and in which degree they have been benefited by putting it into practice. The study reveals that Jehovah Witnesses do not know the law.

  12. [The management of tuberculosis in the Republic of Cuba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas Pérez, L; González Ochoa, E

    1998-01-01

    The essential aspects for the management of tuberculosis surveillance and control are described to propitiate their divulgation among to health professionals. Since 1970 there is an integrated program under way within the health services based on the localization of cases by the bacilloscopic examination and the sputum culture in symptomatic respiratory patients, the ambulatory controlled treatment, the investigation of the contacts of the notified cases, including the chemoprophylaxis with isoniacide, and the BCG vaccination to newborns. In 1995, the percentage of symptomatic patients detected at the general medicine offices was of 0.7%, whereas the percentage of the first bacilloscopy performed among the symptomatic individuals was of 78.6%, 99.5% of the detected contacts were investigated. 37.9% of the new cases were diagnosed at the primary health care level. After a decreasing trend maintained from 1979 to 1991, mortality has increased from 50 deaths (0.5 x 10(5)) in 1991 to 157 (1.4 x 10(5)) in 1995, and the incidence rose from 503 (4.7 x 10(5)) in 1991 to 1,574 (14.3 x 10(5)) in 1994, and to 1,553 (14.0 x 10(5)) in 1995, which suggests that the increase observed during the last 6 years begins to stop. The primary resistance to tuberculostatics was of 3.5% in 1992-1995, and of 11.5% in 1996. A priority integrated program of surveillance and control adjusted to the present socioeconomic conditions of the country is still going on.

  13. The Intersection of Dominican Values and Women's and Gender Studies Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Tara M.

    2016-01-01

    The missions of Women's and Gender Studies programs coincide directly with Dominican values in their commitments to fostering compassion and justice. Just as Dominican clergy during the civil rights movement challenged false notions of biological, cultural, and social difference that contributed to racist practices, Dominican educators today…

  14. Celebrating a Jubilee of Compassion and Engagement in Dominican Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heille, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    In 2016, as the Catholic Church celebrates an Extraordinary Jubilee of Mercy, the Dominican friars celebrate their 800th Jubilee year. Recent meetings of the Biennial Colloquium of Dominican Colleges and Universities have discussed the virtue of mercy as it pertains to its educational mission. If the Dominican Movement can be characterized by the…

  15. Salida, voz y hostilidad en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep M. COLOMER

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Utilizando las categorías analíticas de Hirschman de "salida", "voz" y "lealtad", se realiza un análisis de los flujos migratorios de Cuba hacia Estados Unidos durante el régimen revolucionario y del desarrollo de la oposición anticastrista en la isla. En particular, se discute el esquema de Hirschman y su utilidad para analizar las interacciones entre los gobiernos de Estados Unidos y de Cuba y para interpretar las sucesivas oleadas de "salida" desde Cuba hacia Estados Unidos.ABSTRACT: This article analyzes emigration from Cuba to the United States after the the 1959 revolution by using Hirschman's concepts of "exit", "voice" and "loyalty." It also analyzes the development of the anti-Castro opposition within Cuba. In particular, this article uses Hirschman's key concepts in order to interprete the relationships between Cuban and the Unisted States and to examine emigration from Cuba to United States.

  16. Salida, voz y hostilidad en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep M. COLOMER

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Utilizando las categorías analíticas de Hirschman de "salida", "voz" y "lealtad", se realiza un análisis de los flujos migratorios de Cuba hacia Estados Unidos durante el régimen revolucionario y del desarrollo de la oposición anticastrista en la isla. En particular, se discute el esquema de Hirschman y su utilidad para analizar las interacciones entre los gobiernos de Estados Unidos y de Cuba y para interpretar las sucesivas oleadas de "salida" desde Cuba hacia Estados Unidos.ABSTRACT: This article analyzes emigration from Cuba to the United States after the the 1959 revolution by using Hirschman's concepts of "exit", "voice" and "loyalty." It also analyzes the development of the anti-Castro opposition within Cuba. In particular, this article uses Hirschman's key concepts in order to interprete the relationships between Cuban and the Unisted States and to examine emigration from Cuba to United States.

  17. 48 Human Rights in and around Cuba

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The article takes point of department in the current reform process in Cuba and its perspectives regarding human rights. To understand the background of the fundamental human rights' problems in Cuba, an analysis of the 'constituting dichotomy' is included and discussed in relation to its represe...... representation in the film, 'Strawberry and Chocolate'. The further perspectives for human rights in Cuba in relation to other Developments in Latin America constitutes the last part....

  18. Playing Business "Ball" with Cuba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wei; Gong Liming

    2007-01-01

    @@ If you were lucky enough to have seen the World Volleyball Tournament,you must have seen the Cuban Women's volleyball team take on China in the championship game,a game of which Cuba has become the world champion for 10 times.The great determination and strong tenacity of these young Cuban girls' has been an encouragement to everyone that watches them play.

  19. Cuba: Multidimensional numerical integration library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    The Cuba library offers four independent routines for multidimensional numerical integration: Vegas, Suave, Divonne, and Cuhre. The four algorithms work by very different methods, and can integrate vector integrands and have very similar Fortran, C/C++, and Mathematica interfaces. Their invocation is very similar, making it easy to cross-check by substituting one method by another. For further safeguarding, the output is supplemented by a chi-square probability which quantifies the reliability of the error estimate.

  20. El envejecimiento poblacional en Cuba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Bernal Sánchez

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available En todo el mundo las poblaciones de los distintos países están envejeciendo, por tanto, la gente vive más tiempo y el número de personas adultas es cada vez mayor. Esto requiere de la toma de medidas con el fin de lograr mantener a estas personas vinculadas a la sociedad. Cuba teniendo en cuenta esta realidad se ha enfrascado en una serie de programas al respecto en lo cual Sancti Spíritus no se ha quedado detrás, llegando a cada rincón del país. Este trabajo presenta la investigación llevada a cabo de un estudio referativo sobre el envejecimiento poblacional en Cuba, cuyos objetivos son, profundizar en las diferentes aristas del tema así como valorar las dimensiones del mismo, para lo cual se emplearon métodos del nivel teórico y empírico. Entre los resultados obtenidos se encuentra diseño de un trabajo referativo que abarca doce dimensiones del envejecimiento poblacional en Cuba. La realización de este documento facilita el estudio del tema ya que permite profundizar en el contenido sobre Adulto Mayor visto como un sistema desde múltiples aristas.

  1. "Because we missed the way that we eat at the middle of the day:" Dietary acculturation and food routines among Dominican women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisberg-Shapiro, Pamela; Devine, Carol M

    2015-12-01

    Better understanding of dietary change mechanisms among growing immigrant populations is needed in light of increased risk for diet-related chronic health conditions and inconsistent associations between acculturation and diet. This grounded theory research aimed to understand the lived experiences of interactions between food culture and social, economic, and physical environments in an immigrating population, Dominican women living in the Dominican Republic and New York City. Twenty-nine Dominican women participated in qualitative interviews about food and eating behaviors, life course experiences, and environments. Daily food and eating routines, framed by shopping for, preparation of, and consumption of 'la comida' or the main meal, emerged as dominant themes reflecting differences in women's economic, social, and physical environments. Routines were shaped by employment, household characteristics, and the food environment. Participating women attributed weight gain to changes in their food routines following immigration. The construction, disruption, and reconstruction of food and eating routines in response to differing economic, social, and physical environments in the sending and the receiving cultures provided new insights into the relationship between structural and cultural contexts of food and eating in an immigrant population. A food routines framework provides new insights into behavioral and weight changes with immigration.

  2. Time for a New Cuba Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    government took over leadership of the island. The newly elected leader of Cuba, Estrada Palma , was forced by the United States Congress to rule under...providing oil on preferential terms, and it currently supplies about 100,000 barrels per day of petroleum products. Cuba has been paying for the oil

  3. Surgidero de Batabanó Harbor, Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopmans, R.; Van Kessel, L.; Lendering, K.; Oud, M.; Tromp, R.

    2011-01-01

    The harbor of Surgidero de Batabano is a harbor that lies in the Gulf of Batabano in the South-Western part of Cuba. It serves as a connection between the main land of Cuba and the islands 'Isla de la Juventud' and Cayo Largo. The Batabano harbor suffers from sediment accretion. The accretion of sed

  4. Surgidero de Batabanó Harbor, Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopmans, R.; Van Kessel, L.; Lendering, K.; Oud, M.; Tromp, R.

    2011-01-01

    The harbor of Surgidero de Batabano is a harbor that lies in the Gulf of Batabano in the South-Western part of Cuba. It serves as a connection between the main land of Cuba and the islands 'Isla de la Juventud' and Cayo Largo. The Batabano harbor suffers from sediment accretion. The accretion of

  5. Psychology and Health Care in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Averasturi, Lourdes

    1980-01-01

    Describes the orientation and development of professional psychological services in Cuba since the 1959 revolution. Discusses the integration of psychological services with educational and primary health services. Also describes research trends and the relationship between psychology and psychiatry in Cuba. (GC)

  6. Discrimination and Acculturative Stress among First-Generation Dominicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Beverly Araujo; Panchanadeswaran, Subadra

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between discriminatory experiences and acculturative stress levels among a sample of 283 Dominican immigrants. Findings from a linear regression analysis revealed that experiences of daily racial discrimination and major racist events were significant predictors of acculturative stress after controlling…

  7. Discrimination, Stress, and Acculturation among Dominican Immigrant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Beverly Araujo

    2009-01-01

    Researchers have well established the association between discriminatory experiences, life chances, and mental health outcomes among Latino/as, especially among Mexican Americans. However, few studies have focused on the impact of stress or the moderating effects of low acculturation levels among recent immigrants, such as Dominicans. Using the…

  8. Culture, ideology, and dwelling in two Dominican villages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Vargas

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of the contrasting response to modernization in 2 Dominican villages. Author demonstrates that this contrast is caused by the intentional use of 2 culturally specific ideologies aimed at achieving and maintaining existential security. He also shows that the constitution of the 2 ideologies was conditioned by the ideosyncratic constitution of cultural-ethnic identity, nationalism, and peasant consciousness.

  9. Estudio de la fertilidad y de los metales pesados en suelos de agroecosistemas tropicales de una zona transfronteriza de la República Dominicana-Haití Fertility and heavy metal contents of soils in the tropical agroecosys­tems of the Dominican Republic-Haiti frontier zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Pastor

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se exponen los datos referidos a la cuanti­ficación de la fertilidad, MO. y metales pe­sados en la capa superficial de los suelos de 30 agroecosistemas tropicales en tres tipos de bosques (nublado, latifoliado y seco, co­rrespondientes a un territorio de marcada pobreza (suroeste de la República Domini­cana-Haití. El desarrollo de una agricultura sostenible en la zona requiere evaluar la fer­tilidad de los suelos; problema fundamental debido al cambio que sufren sus caracterís­ticas físicas y químicas cuando se talan y queman los bosques y luego se cultivan. La información respecto a los suelos del territo­rio es prácticamente nula, por lo que este trabajo constituye una aportación, especial­mente para la cuenca hidrográfica transfron­teriza del río Pedernales. Los agroecosistemas estudiados se en­cuentran mayoritariamente comprendidos entre los 1200 m de altitud y el nivel del mar y constituyen las fuentes esenciales pa­ra la alimentación humana y animal: pastos y cultivos de habichuela, maíz, sorgo, café, plátano-guineo, frutales y tubérculos.This paper reports fertility, organic matter and heavy metal data obtained in topsoil samples from 30 tropical agroecosystems in three types of forest (rain, latifoliated and dry in an area of extreme poverty (SE Do­minican Republic-Haiti. For sustainable ag­ricultural practice in this zone, soil fertility needs to be first assessed since this factor has been severely compromised by changes in the physical and chemical properties of the soil induced by the felling and burning of trees to make way for crops. Information on the soils of the region is practically null. This study focuses mainly on the transfrontier basin of the Pedernales River. The agroecosystems examined occur from an altitude of 1200 m to sea level and are the main food sources for human and animal consumption: bean, corn, sorghum, coffee, Guinea banana, fruit trees and tu­bers.

  10. Through the looking glass on Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Stubbs

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] State Resistance to Globalisation in Cuba. Antonio Carmona Báez. Sterling VA: Pluto Press, 2004. vii + 264 pp. (Paper US$ 29.95 La Lucha for Cuba: Religion and Politics on the Streets of Miami. Miguel A. de la Torre. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003. xi + 181 pp. (Paper US$ 21.95 By Heart/De Memoria: Cuban Women’s Journeys in and out of Exile. María de los Angeles Torres (ed.. Philadelphia PA: Temple University Press, 2003. vii + 192 pp. (Paper US$ 19.95 Looking at Cuba: Essays on Culture and Civil Society. Rafael Hernández. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2003. vii + 145 pp. (Cloth US$ 24.95 In the politically charged world of scholarship on Cuba, it is salutary to comment in one review essay on four quite different volumes, each complementing the others. Three are single-authored, two on island Cuba (by Antonio Carmona Báez and Rafael Hernández and one on Miami (by Miguel A. de la Torre. All three draw on theory and concepts and are male-authored and place-centric (Cuba/Miami. The fourth (by María de los Angeles Torres is an edited collection of the personal testimonies of women seeking a place in between the hardened politics of Cuba and Miami.

  11. Arqueofauna del Nororiente de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Pérez Iglesias

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available La región nororiental de Cuba, que abarca el norte de los territorios de las provincias Las Tunas, Holguín y Guantánamo, posee un potencial arqueológico de alrededor de 220 sitios, de ellos se posee información zooarqueológica de 35 localidades. Esta información se ha reunido en un sistema de información geográfica(SIG denominado Arqueofauna del Nororiente de Cuba, que permite el manejo de los datos a través de entradas como: nombre del sitio, coordenadas, provincia, municipio, categoría, filiación, lista de taxones presentes (Moluscos, Crustáceos, Peces, Reptiles, Aves, Mamíferos, número de especies respectiva a cada taxón, fechado del sitio, persona y fecha en que fue trabajado. Este levantamiento zooarqueológico ofrece además, una aproximación del uso de los recursos faunísticos por parte de las comunidades aborígenes, en esta área geográfica, así como datos sobre el uso de especies extintas, variaciones en la distribución de especies en el pasado, cuestión tratada en el presente trabajo.

  12. Dominican Children with HIV Not Receiving Antiretrovirals: Massage Therapy Influences their Behavior and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Hernandez-Reif

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty-eight children (M age = 4.8 years infected with HIV/AIDS and living in the Dominican Republic were randomly assigned to a massage therapy or a play session control group. The children in the massage therapy group received two weekly 20-min massages for 12 weeks; the children in the control group participated in a play session (coloring, playing with blocks for the same duration and length as the massage therapy group. Overall, the children in the massage therapy group improved in self-help abilities and communication, suggesting that massage therapy may enhance daily functioning for children with HIV/AIDS. Moreover, the HIV infected children who were six or older also showed a decrease in internalizing behaviors; specifically depressive/anxious behaviors and negative thoughts were reduced. Additionally, baseline assessments revealed IQ equivalence below normal functioning for 70% of the HIV infected children and very high incidences of mood problems (depression, withdrawn for 40% of the children and anxiety problems for 20% of the children, suggesting the need for better monitoring and alternative interventions in countries with limited resources to improve cognition and the mental health status of children infected with HIV/AIDS.

  13. Sistema de salud de Cuba The health system of Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Domínguez-Alonso

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se describen las condiciones de salud de Cuba y el sistema cubano de salud, incluyendo su estructura y cobertura, sus fuentes de financiamiento, su gasto en salud, los recursos físicos, materiales y humanos de los que dispone, y las actividades de rectoría e investigación que desarrolla. También se discute la importancia de sus instituciones de investigación y se describe el papel de los usuarios de los servicios en la operación y evaluación del sistema, así como las actividades que en este sentido desarrollan la Federación de Mujeres Cubanas y los Comités de Defensa de la Revolución. La parte final de este trabajo se dedica a discutir las innovaciones más recientes dentro de las que destacan las redes de cardiología, la Misión Milagro y la Batalla de Ideas.This paper describes the health conditions in Cuba and the general characteristics of the Cuban health system, including its structure and coverage, its financial sources, its health expenditure, its physical, material and human resources, and its stewardship functions. It also discusses the increasing importance of its research institutions and the role played by its users in the operation and evaluation of the system. Salient among the social actors involved in the health sector are the Cuban Women Federation and the Committees for the Defense of the Revolution. The paper concludes with the discussion of the most recent innovations implemented in the Cuban health system, including the cardiology networks, the Miracle Mission (Misión Milagro and the Battle of Ideas (Batalla de Ideas.

  14. The Beginning of Semiconductor Research in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltfort, Theodore

    I was invited to Cuba in 1962 to initiate some efforts in semiconductor development. I had been a physicist and senior research engineer with various electronic companies of the "Silicon Valley" of California, south of San Francisco. I had heard of the efforts made by the new revolutionary government of Cuba to advance the level of science and technology, and I was anxious to see what I could do to help.

  15. Cuba: A Short Critical Bibliographic Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basosi, Duccio

    An island with a population of approximately eleven million citizens, Cuba has been the topic of a huge amount of books and articles by scholars, politicians, artists, tourists and—why not?—foreign undercover agents. A random search in a well-known on-line bookshop gives some 118,000 results for the island's name. In brief, to present a selection of basic works on Cuba is a very harsh task that necessarily leads to difficult choices.

  16. The Curious Case of Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Gail A.

    2012-01-01

    As health professionals in the United States consider how to focus health care and coverage to ensure better, more equitable patient and population health outcomes, the experience of Cuba’s National Health System over the last 5 decades may provide useful insights. Although mutual awareness has been limited by long-term political hostilities between the United States and Cuban governments, the history and details of the Cuban health system indicate that their health system merits attention as an example of a national integrated approach resulting in improved health status. More extensive analysis of the principles, practices, and outcomes in Cuba is warranted to inform health system transformation in the United States, despite differences in political-social systems and available resources. PMID:22698011

  17. PULPA CUBA MILL ENERGY ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pedro Hernández Touset

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available An energy study was performed at Pulpa Cuba Paper Mill, located in Sancti Spiritus, where an energy management system was applied according to NC: ISO 50001, in order to assess the energy system by applying energy management systems for energy and water reduction in the paper mill, in which the current steam generation, distribution and consumption system is diagnosed. The proposal of a modified energy scheme with 1 MW Backpressure Steam Turbine Generator and rehabilitation of the original boiler or installing a lower capacity boiler contributes to save financial resources by the concept of water, fuel and electricity. The implementation of four projects will save 3,095,574 CUC / y and an average payback period of about 1 year is expected.

  18. Becoming a Chemist in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taft, Hessy L.

    2003-08-01

    Education in Cuba is a national priority. Overall, the population is skilled and motivated to use all available resources; furthermore teachers are dedicated and focused on their mission. This paper reports on information obtained as a result of visits to several secondary schools and three premier institutions of higher learning: the University of Havana, the Higher Polytechnic Institute "Jose Antonio Echevaria", and an Institute for Pedagogy. University tuition is free for all Cubans: students can not work for a salary during the typical five-year program of post-secondary study and instead serve as interns in government, industry, or schools. Experience working abroad is encouraged upon graduation. An overview of Cuban university admissions criteria, some specific programs of study, and placement of students in career jobs upon graduation is presented.

  19. Pediatric Gastroenterology in Cuba: Evolution and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda-Guillot, Carlos

    2016-10-01

    INTRODUCTION The professional practice of pediatric gastroenterology arose in Cuba as an expression of the specialty's development internationally and Cuba's new strategies in public health, and in response to national needs for health care expertise in digestive diseases of infants, older children and adolescents. OBJECTIVES Describe the history of pediatric gastroenterology's development in Cuba since its inception at the National Gastroenterology Institute in the early 1970s, its contributions, and efforts to extend it to pediatric hospitals throughout Cuba. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION This is a historical review based on document analysis. Institutional sources from the National Gastroenterology Institute and Ministry of Public Health were reviewed, as well as international and national literature on the history of pediatric gastroenterology and unpublished texts since its emergence in 1972. DEVELOPMENT Although pediatric gastroenterology has not been formally recognized as a medical specialty in Cuba, there have been important achievements in establishing a network of specialized health care services for digestive diseases of children and adolescents. Gastrointestinal endoscopy and other auxiliary diagnostic modalities have been introduced for children and play a major role in clinical trials and research. This article describes the international context that promoted the specialty's development in Cuba. Reference is made to specialized training from its initial stages in 1972, its consolidation as an emerging discipline in Cuban medicine, and its diffusion in Latin American and Caribbean countries. Professional development and specialized training to meet health human resource needs in pediatric hospitals are described, as well as Cuban participation in the Latin American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition. National and international milestones, publications, awards and recognitions that indicate advances despite difficulties are also

  20. HISTORICAL ECOTOXICOLOGICALASSESSMENT OF SAN JUAN ECOSYSTEM, SANTIAGO DE CUBA, CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argota, George

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the environmental decision-making related to watershed preservation is oriented under the precepts of an historical environmental assessment. The objective of this research was to conduct a historical ecotoxicological assessment of the San Juan de Santiago de Cuba ecosystem. This was considered a systematic environmental monitoring which ran from 2010 to 2013, made q?uarterly. Physicochemical parameters such as electrical conductivity, total alkalinity, total hardness, pH, total solids, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand were determined. All parameters of environmental risk prediction were performed using the GECOTOX program. The concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd on three target organs (brain, gills and liver in the biomonitor adult Gambusia punctata (Poecilidae were analyzed. In this species, the effect of total protein and enzymatic activity of acetylcholinesterase as biomarkers were evaluated. In general, the parameters were outside the values set used by the Cuban quality standards. The GECOTOX program said that the waters of the San Juan ecosystem presented a high rate of risk. The highest concentrations of metals were determined in the gills, liver and brain, respectively. Biomarker values w? ere high, being higher for females. Finally, it was concluded that from one year to another all responses were ascending; thus, the San Juan ecosystem presented ecotoxicological effects in time.

  1. Fictions of Sex, Fear and Loathing in the Caribbean: Revisiting the Haitian/Dominican Borderland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James, Conrad Michael

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Haitian-Dominican border narratives invariably draw attention to debates concerning the Dominican Republic’s (historical hysterical drives to maintain an untainted “Raza dominicana” and simultaneously point to the threat posed to this ideal by their othered ethnic neighbours, the Haitians. What is less prevalent is an exploration of the sexual history of the border. Equally sparse are critical explorations of the fictional narratives of this border which privilege sex and the erotic as principal investigative prisms. Yet the literary architecture of the border is unsustainable without its sexual elements. This essay revisits key moments in the narrative construction of the border and investigates a few border texts that participate in the discussion on race and nationhood in the Dominican Republic. The aim here is straightforward; I intend to highlight the tenacious presence of sex and fear in narratives which record, interrogate, denounce or celebrate the border. The putative “problem” of the border, the essay reveals, is as much a problem of gender as it is of race. Accordingly, the fear of black masculinity on one hand and the celebration of new world erotics on the other become key components in unravelling the meanings of border identity.Las narraciones de la frontera haitiano-dominicana invariablemente centran su atención en debates relacionados con los (históricos histéricos esfuerzos que se han hecho para mantener una inmaculada “Raza dominicana” y, simultáneamente, apuntan hacia la amenaza que para este ideal significan sus alterizados vecinos étnicos, los haitianos. Menos frecuente es, sin embargo, la exploración de la historia sexual de la frontera e igualmente escasas son las exploraciones críticas de las ficciones narrativas de esta frontera que den preferencia al sexo y a lo erótico como principales prismas de investigación. Pero lo cierto es que la arquitectura de la frontera carece de fundamento sin sus

  2. Unconventional Gas, Status and Perspectives for Its Exploration in Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Orelvis Delgado López; Osvaldo López Corzo; Rafael Tenreyro Pérez; Juan Guillermo López Rivera

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this paper, is to define the unconventional gas types that can be found in Cuba andelaborate premises of perspectives areas for its exploration in Cuba. For this reason, a bibliographicrevision was done over the internet, because of the absent of textbooks and experiences of this topicin Cuba. For the enunciation of perspectives areas for unconventional gas exploration in Cuba, bothgas exploration reports in national territory and theoretical aspects elucidated over the intern...

  3. 75 FR 17289 - Citrus Seed Imports; Citrus Greening and Citrus Variegated Chlorosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... and Independence Avenue SW., Washington, DC. Normal reading room hours are 8 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., Monday... Republic, Ethiopia, Eritrea, India, Indonesia, Jamaica, Japan, Kenya, Laos, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaysia..., Comoros, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Ethiopia, Eritrea, India, Indonesia, Jamaica, Japan, Kenya,...

  4. Waterfowl in Cuba: Current status and distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco Rodríquez, Pedro; Vilella, Francisco; Sánchez Oria, Bárbara

    2014-01-01

    Cuba and its satellite islands represent the largest landmass in the Caribbean archipelago and a major repository of the region’s biodiversity. Approximately 13.4% of the Cuban territory is covered by wetlands, encompassing approximately 1.48 million ha which includes mangroves, flooded savannas, peatlands, freshwater swamp forests and various types of managed wetlands. Here, we synthesise information on the distribution and abundance of waterfowl on the main island of Cuba, excluding the numerous surrounding cays and the Isla de la Juventud (Isle of Youth), and report on band recoveries from wintering waterfowl harvested in Cuba by species and location. Twenty-nine species of waterfowl occur in Cuba, 24 of which are North American migrants. Of the five resident Anatid species, three are of conservation concern: the West Indian Whistling-duck Dendrocygna arborea (globally vulnerable), White-cheeked Pintail Anas bahamensis (regional concern) and Masked Duck Nomonyx dominicus(regional concern). The most abundant species of waterfowl wintering in Cuba include Blue-winged Teal A. discors, Northern Pintail A. acuta, and Northern Shoveler A. clypeata. Waterfowl banded in Canada and the United States and recovered in Cuba included predominantly Blue-winged Teal, American Wigeon and Northern Pintail. Banding sites of recovered birds suggest that most of the waterfowl moving through and wintering in Cuba are from the Atlantic and Mississippi flyways. Threats to wetlands and waterfowl in Cuba include: 1) egg poaching of resident species, 2) illegal hunting of migratory and protected resident species, 3) mangrove deforestation, 4) reservoirs for irrigation, 5) periods of pronounced droughts, and 6) hurricanes. Wetland and waterfowl conservation efforts continue across Cuba’s extensive system of protected areas. Expanding collaborations with international conservation organisations, researchers and governments in North America will enhance protection

  5. 31 CFR 515.570 - Remittances to Nationals of Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Remittances to Nationals of Cuba. 515..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.570 Remittances to Nationals of Cuba. (a) Family... older are authorized to make remittances to nationals of Cuba who are close relatives, as defined...

  6. 31 CFR 515.563 - Journalistic activities in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Journalistic activities in Cuba. 515..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.563 Journalistic activities in Cuba. (a) General license... directly incident to journalistic activities in Cuba by persons regularly employed as journalists by a...

  7. 31 CFR 515.420 - Travel to Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Travel to Cuba. 515.420 Section 515....420 Travel to Cuba. The prohibition on dealing in property in which Cuba or a Cuban national has an interest set forth in § 515.201(b)(1) includes a prohibition on the receipt of goods or services in...

  8. 31 CFR 515.566 - Religious activities in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Religious activities in Cuba. 515.566..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.566 Religious activities in Cuba. (a) Specific license... involving transactions (including travel-related transactions) in which Cuba or a Cuban national has...

  9. 14 CFR 91.709 - Operations to Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operations to Cuba. 91.709 Section 91.709... Board Such Aircraft § 91.709 Operations to Cuba. No person may operate a civil aircraft from the United States to Cuba unless— (a) Departure is from an international airport of entry designated in § 6.13...

  10. Joint Ventures in Cuba: Opportunities for Direct Foreign Investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tancer, Robert S.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a brief history of direct foreign investment in Cuba since 1982. This investment currently plays an important role in Cuba as a replacement to Soviet aid and as a means to earn foreign exchange. Tourism and mining are the preferred area for foreign investment because both of these sectors offer hard currency returns for Cuba. (20…

  11. Herbal mixtures in the traditional medicine of Eastern Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernández, J.; Volpato, G.

    2004-01-01

    Herbal mixtures in the traditional medicine of Eastern Cuba. Traditional herbal mixtures in Eastern Cuba are investigated through interviews with 130 knowledgeable people and traditional healers of the provinces of Santiago de Cuba and Guantanamo. One hundred seventy plant species and other products

  12. PROSPECTIVE ELEMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ALGAL BIOMASS ACUMULATED AT THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC SHORES DURING 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Fernández

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The massive accumulation and decomposition of the Sargassum natans and Sargassum fluitans brown seaweeds on the Antillean shores has become a major problem in Central America and the Caribbean, seriously affecting tourism. However, the value of the algal biomass should not be underestimated, since it contains bioactive compounds with industrial application or in a more traditional use as fertilizers. On the other hand, seaweeds have the ability to bioaccumulate toxic metals such as Hg, Pb, Cd, Ni and Cr, among others. In order to ensure the safety of this biological material in its possible applications, it has been carried out a prospective study of the content in different transition metals and rare earths. Slightly elevated mercury levels were detected, which could limit the use of biomass. The content in Sc (scandium, Y (yttrium and 14 lanthanides (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb and Lu, collectively known as rare earths, was also determined, being higher than in the ocean levels. This is consistent with the hypothesis that places the origin of these algae to more southern latitudes, where they proliferate in the shelter of the mouth of large rivers.

  13. Inbreeding among Caribbean Hispanics from the Dominican Republic and its effects on risk of Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardarajan, Badri N; Schaid, Daniel J; Reitz, Christiane; Lantigua, Rafael; Medrano, Martin; Jiménez-Velázquez, Ivonne Z; Lee, Joseph H; Ghani, Mahdi; Rogaeva, Ekaterina; St George-Hyslop, Peter; Mayeux, Richard P

    2015-08-01

    Inbreeding can be associated with a modification of disease risk due to excess homozygosity of recessive alleles affecting a wide range of phenotypes. We estimated the inbreeding coefficient in Caribbean Hispanics and examined its effects on risk of late-onset Alzheimer disease. The inbreeding coefficient was calculated in 3,392 subjects (1,451 late-onset Alzheimer disease patients and 1,941 age-matched healthy controls) of Caribbean Hispanic ancestry using 177,997 nearly independent single-nucleotide polymorphisms from genome-wide array. The inbreeding coefficient was estimated using the excess homozygosity method with and without adjusting for admixture. The average inbreeding coefficient in Caribbean Hispanics without accounting for admixture was F = 0.018 (±0.048), suggesting a mating equivalent to that of second cousins or second cousins once removed. Adjusting for admixture from three parent populations, the average inbreeding coefficient was found to be 0.0034 (±0.019) or close to third-cousin mating. Inbreeding coefficient was a significant predictor of Alzheimer disease when age, sex, and APOE genotype were used as adjusting covariates (P = 0.03). The average inbreeding coefficient of this population is significantly higher than that of the general Caucasian populations in North America. The high rate of inbreeding resulting in increased frequency of recessive variants is advantageous for the identification of rare variants associated with late-onset Alzheimer disease.Genet Med 17 8, 639-643.

  14. United States Army Unilateral and Coalition Operations in the 1965 Dominican Republic Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-11-01

    American Library, 1968), p. 131. 3. Ibid., p. 153. 4. Luis Iturralde Chinel, La O.E.A. y la Revolucion Dominicana (Washington, D.C.: Union Panamericana ...eyewitness, told them that he did riot intend ". . . to sit here with my hands tied and let Castro take that island .... I know what the editorials ...newspapers reflected these sentiments, and anti-American articles and editorials outnumbered pro-American ten to one. 2 7 Although supporting 3ohnson’s

  15. High Depth, Whole-Genome Sequencing of Cholera Isolates from Haiti and the Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    cholerae [21] and is a homolog of TagA, which has mucinase function [22]. Sequencing of additional isolates from this outbreak over time is likely to...eliminate paralogs , we required the next best hit to be less than 0.8 times as similar as the best hit. We constructed a multiple sequence alignment for

  16. Optic neuritis in a traveler returning from Dominican Republic to Spain with dengue virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, José M; Tello, Antonio; Alzamora, Antonio; Ramón, María Luisa

    2015-01-01

    A search of medical literature will show that dengue infection is rarely linked to optic neuritis. Here we report the development of loss of vision in a female traveler who returned to Spain from the Caribbean after acquiring a dengue infection. © 2014 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  17. Strategic Anslysis of Two Joint Contingency Operations: Lebanon 1958 and Dominican Republic 1965

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Bosch regime and could see tremendous opportunity in reinstating Bosch. 7 The coup began on 24 April when Reid sent Army General Marcos A. Rivera Cuesta ...to dismiss four junior officers that Cuesta had reported were plotting against the government. Instead, Cuesta unarmed, was arrested, and the...Defense. New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1968. Dominguez, Jorge , I. U.S. Interests and Policies in the Caribbean and Central America. Washington, 0. C

  18. Military Intervention in Latin America: Analysis of the 1965 Crisis in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-03

    revolted subsequently reinstalling Spanish rule. By 1821 a declining economy and general governmental in- competence (the Espana Boba’ Period) caused...8217Lowenthal, p. 131. * 102Gleijeses, p. 261. A lO3NExercito Brasileiro -Instrumento De Paz Na America Cen- tral, Historia Do Exercito Brasileiro Vol. 3...of the Army. FM 100-20: Low IntensitX Con- flict. Baltimore: U.S. Amy Adjutant General Publications reRter, 1981. Estado-Maior do Exercito. Historia do

  19. Three-Dimensional Model Test Study of Xbloc Armoured Breakwaters at Punta Catalina, Dominican Republic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røge, Mads Sønderstrup; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    The present report presents results from a three-dimensional model test study carried out at Aalborg University in the period June 2015 – August 2015. The objectives of the model tests were to study the stability of the Xbloc armoured breakwaters at Punta Catalina under short-crested wave attack...

  20. Lessons learned during public health response to cholera epidemic in Haiti and the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappero, Jordan W; Tauxe, Robert V

    2011-11-01

    After epidemic cholera emerged in Haiti in October 2010, the disease spread rapidly in a country devastated by an earthquake earlier that year, in a population with a high proportion of infant deaths, poor nutrition, and frequent infectious diseases such as HIV infection, tuberculosis, and malaria. Many nations, multinational agencies, and nongovernmental organizations rapidly mobilized to assist Haiti. The US government provided emergency response through the Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance of the US Agency for International Development and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. This report summarizes the participation by the Centers and its partners. The efforts needed to reduce the spread of the epidemic and prevent deaths highlight the need for safe drinking water and basic medical care in such difficult circumstances and the need for rebuilding water, sanitation, and public health systems to prevent future epidemics.

  1. Lessons learned during public health response to cholera epidemic in Haiti and the Dominican Republic

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tappero, Jordan W; Tauxe, Robert V

    2011-01-01

    After epidemic cholera emerged in Haiti in October 2010, the disease spread rapidly in a country devastated by an earthquake earlier that year, in a population with a high proportion of infant deaths...

  2. Four new coccidia (Apicomplexia: Eimeriidae) from anoles (Lacertilia: Polychrotidae) in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisper, G L; Huntington, C; Smith, D D; Powell, R; Parmerlee, J S; Lathrop, A

    1995-04-01

    Fecal samples from 25 Anolis armouri, 2 Anolis bahorucoensis, 48 Anolis cybotes, and 21 Anolis olssoni (Lacertilia: Polychrotidae) from southern Hispaniola were examined for coccidian oocysts. Two eimerians and 2 isosporans are herein described as new species. Sporulated oocysts of Eimeria schwartzi n. sp. from A. armouri are ellipsoidal, 22.7 (20.8-25.0) x 15.7 (14.6-17.7) microns, with spherical to subspherical sporocysts, 7.9 (6.2-9.4) x 7.4 (6.2-8.3) microns. Sporulated oocysts of Isospora reui n. sp. from A. bahorucoensis are spherical to subspherical, 18.2 (15.6-20.0) x 17.8 (15.6-19.8) microns, with ovoid sporocysts, 11.9 (10.4-12.7) x 8.5 (7.5-9.4) microns. Sporulated oocysts of Isospora hendersoni n. sp. from A. armouri and A. cybotes are spherical to subspherical, 23.2 (20.8-26.0) x 21.1 (18.4-23.9) microns, with ellipsoidal sporocysts, 14.7 (12.5-15.6) x 10.0 (9.2-11.4) microns. Sporulated oocysts of Eimeria avilae n. sp. from A. olssoni are cylindrical, 29.3 (26.0-33.3) x 15.9 (13.5-18.9) microns, with ellipsoidal sporocysts 10.2 (9.4-11.4) x 6.8 (5.2-8.0) microns.

  3. Elite Settlements and Democracy in Latin America: The Dominican Republic and Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-01

    Center for Superior Military Studies), that had been created in 1950. The intellectual studies of ’Ibid, pg. 76.18Jane S. Jaguette, "The Politics of...de Trabajadores de la Educacion del Peru (SUTEP, or Sole Syndicate of Workers of Peruvian Education,) controlled by the PC del P, began a strike that

  4. Science and Technology Diplomacy with Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon, Frances

    President Obama's announcement of U. S. policy change toward Cuba and increased freedom of interaction with the Cuban people opens unprecedented and long-awaited opportunities for the scientific and engineering communities in the U. S. and in Cuba to establish and expand collaborative efforts that will greatly advance U.S. and Cuba science and technology agendas. New rules for export of donated-only items for scientific use will bring researchers closer to the level of their professional peers around the world. Increasing Cubans' access to information will result in greater interactions between scientific communities and enable the sharing of ideas and discoveries that can fuel entrepreneurship on the island. The scientific community has expressed an extraordinary level of interest in the wide range of scientific opportunities that the new policy presents, in collaborating with their Cuban counterparts, and in supporting the development of scientific capacity in Cuba. In response to numerous expressions of interest and inquiries from the scientific community, the Office of the Science and Technology Adviser to the Secretary of State (STAS) has engaged in public outreach to inform the U.S. science and technology community of the implications of the new policy for collaborative research, emerging scientific opportunities, and the standing limitations for engagement with the people of Cuba.

  5. HBV genotypic variability in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, Carmen L; Aguilar, Julio C; Aguiar, Jorge; Muzio, Verena; Pentón, Eduardo; Garcia, Daymir; Guillen, Gerardo; Pujol, Flor H

    2015-01-01

    The genetic diversity of HBV in human population is often a reflection of its genetic admixture. The aim of this study was to explore the genotypic diversity of HBV in Cuba. The S genomic region of Cuban HBV isolates was sequenced and for selected isolates the complete genome or precore-core sequence was analyzed. The most frequent genotype was A (167/250, 67%), mainly A2 (149, 60%) but also A1 and one A4. A total of 77 isolates were classified as genotype D (31%), with co-circulation of several subgenotypes (56 D4, 2 D1, 5 D2, 7 D3/6 and 7 D7). Three isolates belonged to genotype E, two to H and one to B3. Complete genome sequence analysis of selected isolates confirmed the phylogenetic analysis performed with the S region. Mutations or polymorphisms in precore region were more common among genotype D compared to genotype A isolates. The HBV genotypic distribution in this Caribbean island correlates with the Y lineage genetic background of the population, where a European and African origin prevails. HBV genotypes E, B3 and H isolates might represent more recent introductions.

  6. HBV Genotypic Variability in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, Carmen L.; Aguilar, Julio C.; Aguiar, Jorge; Muzio, Verena; Pentón, Eduardo; Garcia, Daymir; Guillen, Gerardo; Pujol, Flor H.

    2015-01-01

    The genetic diversity of HBV in human population is often a reflection of its genetic admixture. The aim of this study was to explore the genotypic diversity of HBV in Cuba. The S genomic region of Cuban HBV isolates was sequenced and for selected isolates the complete genome or precore-core sequence was analyzed. The most frequent genotype was A (167/250, 67%), mainly A2 (149, 60%) but also A1 and one A4. A total of 77 isolates were classified as genotype D (31%), with co-circulation of several subgenotypes (56 D4, 2 D1, 5 D2, 7 D3/6 and 7 D7). Three isolates belonged to genotype E, two to H and one to B3. Complete genome sequence analysis of selected isolates confirmed the phylogenetic analysis performed with the S region. Mutations or polymorphisms in precore region were more common among genotype D compared to genotype A isolates. The HBV genotypic distribution in this Caribbean island correlates with the Y lineage genetic background of the population, where a European and African origin prevails. HBV genotypes E, B3 and H isolates might represent more recent introductions. PMID:25742179

  7. Astronomy TV outreach, CUBA experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Oscar

    2015-08-01

    As professional astronomer and science communicator, I want to share my personal experience communicating Astronomy and general science principles in maybe, the most popular science outreach devoted TV program in Cuba. It is broadcasted nationwide in a prime time schedule every Sunday. The Science Popularization on TV, is in a Third World Country hard to do if you want to produce attractive materials for a broad audience. Budgets constraints in most of the cases and lack of the technical equipment required to produce first class visual materials conspire, against motivation and creativity of local scientists and media professionals. A way to show the advance of the national scientific community in Science fields and connecting them in a friendly relation with a broad majority of the people, is to combine the wisdom and knowledge of the local scientists together with the most spectacular TV production of the first world countries. Commenting, analyzing and conveying the hard science into the public debate of the common citizens. Here is shown a way to convey cutting edge science to the general public, using limited resources to produce imaginative television productions, highlighting the development, knowledge and wisdom of the local scientists.

  8. Soil and Terrain Database for Cuba, primary data (version 1.0) - scale 1:1 million (SOTER_Cuba)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkshoorn, J.A.; Huting, J.R.M.

    2014-01-01

    The Soil and Terrain database for Cuba primary data (version 1.0), at scale 1:1 million (SOTER_Cuba), was compiled of enhanced soil informtion within the framework of the FAO's program Land Degradation Assessment in Drylands (LADA). Primary soil and terrain data for Cuba were obtained from the SOTER

  9. Cuba vs H1N1 Influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail Reed

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available El Comité Editorial de MediSur agradece a Gail Reed, editora de Medicc Review la autorización expresa, para reproducir el artículo titulado “Cuba vs H1N1 Influenza”. Este trabajo resume el esfuerzo realizado por todos los organismos en Cuba y en especial el Ministerio de Salud Pública en la lucha para disminuir los efectos de la influenza H1N1 en la población. El artículo original se puede encontrar en: Reed G. Faceoff: Cuba vs H1N1 Influenza. MEDICC Review. 2010; 12(1:6-12. Disponible en: http://www.medicc.org/mediccreview/index.php?issue=11

  10. A Perspective on Physics in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handy, Carlos R.

    The author is Cuban by birth: the son of an Afro-Cuban mother and an Afro-American father. He spent the first 8 years of his life attending schools in Havana and New York City. He left Cuba in 1958 so as to gain a more uninterrupted educational experience. This led to his PhD in theoretical physics from Columbia University in 1978, followed by a post-doctoral appointment at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico. He returned to Cuba in 1980 as a member of an academic tour organized by the University of New Mexico in Albuquerque. This provided an introduction to various government-run scientific facilities in Havana and the easternmost city of "Santiago de Cuba" in the province of Oriente.

  11. Scientific Cooperation Between the German Academy of Sciences in Berlin (DAW) and Cuba in the 1960s and 1970s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Helge

    After the ratification of its constitution in 1959, the young Cuban Republic sought new cooperation partners in a number of different fields. One of these fields was scientific cooperation. It seems the Cubans quickly found partners in the academies of science of the USSR, Czechoslovakia and China, whereas the German Academy of Sciences in Berlin (DAW) was reluctant to engage in long-term cooperative projects. In the early 1960s, the universities of East Germany (GDR) began to send docents and scientists to Cuba where they participated in the summer schools, taught for one semester or more in one of the universities and undertook research that would be useful for their home institutions. However, the DAW carefully observed the reestablishment of Cuba's own academy of science before becoming involved in common projects with Cuban partners.

  12. Reconnaissance paleomagnetic results from western Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazhenov, Mikhail L.; Pszczolkowski, Andrzej; Shipunov, Stanislav V.

    1996-03-01

    A paleomagnetic study of Mesozoic rocks from the Sierra de Los Organos and Sierra del Rosario fold belts of western Cuba revealed postfolding magnetisation in diabases of the Late Jurassic El Sábalo Formation and carbonates of the middle Cretaceous Pons and the Late Cretaceous Carmita and Moreno formations. Steep components with inclinations of about 70° were isolated from all three formations; at the same time, postfolding shallow components were also found in a few samples of the Pons limestones. We rule out a possibility to account for these results by either horizontal movements or non-dipole field anomaly. Neither very appealing is a hypothesis of a post-remagnetization tilt of the entire region. All the components appear to be confined to a plane perpendicular to the main structural trends; we hypothesize that the remanences might have been distorted or re-aligned during deformation; this assumption, however, is far from being proven. In contrast, well-defined characteristic components were isolated from basalts of the Aptian-Albian Encrucijada ( {D}/{I} = {247°}/{23°}, K = 14, a95 = 9.0°) and the Late Cretaceous Orozco ( {D}/{I} = {228°}/{22°}, K = 110, a95 = 4.7) formations from the Bahia Honda zone in the north of western Cuba; the remanence in the Encrucijada Formation is shown to predate deformation. Mean inclinations in both formations match those in Cretaceous volcanics from central Cuba, and all the results show lower latitudes than expected from the reference data for the North American plate thus implying that volcanic domains of Cuba were displaced northward by about 1000 km prior to the Middle Eocene. Cretaceous declinations in western and central Cuba differ by about the same amount as the major structural trends of these two areas suggesting oroclinal bending of Cuba. At the same time, both areas are rotated counterclockwise with respect to North America thus implying movements on a broader scale.

  13. Spain and Cuba: A very Special Relationship?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Roy

    1995-11-01

    Full Text Available In spite of political changes than include the rise and fall of the Franco regime, the triumph of the Cuban Revolution, and the restoration of democracy in Spain, historical links have had and still have an influence on the continuation of a very specialrelationship between Spain and Cuba since the Spanish Civil War.Spain not only did not brake its diplomatic relation Cuba, but during the harshest periods of international isolation and ideological confrontation Madrid still became the primary economic partner of Havana in the capitalist world. Under the PSOE leadership, Spain's role in the pre-transition in Cuba, via aid and cooperation programs,impressive trade figures, and investment, has produced polemical debates with the opposition including threats of termination of aid in the event of a PP victory in the coming elections of March 1996.Spain's foreign policy toward Latin America has experienced an evolution from a policy of substitution and legitimation, to one of pressure. In the case of Cuba, justification for increased trade, aid, and political agreements seems to based on a more traditionalhistorical obligation, plus the added feature of doing fast business. However, the absence of clear accomplishments in the political arena have created a climate of frustration in Spanish diplomatic circles, which has resulted in leaks to the press and resignations.This added to the frequent verbal confrontations and discussions on the U.S. economic embargo, has converted the Cuban topic from a foreign issue to an "internal matter" of Spain. Finally, in spite of the active pressure that Spanish government has applied in Brussels during the second semester of 1995 as president of the European Union,the project of an agreement with Cuba received a delay when political liberalization did not meet European expectations.Only when the final stage of true political and economic transition takes place in Cuba, will the proper evaluation of Spain's role in

  14. de la República de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ponce de León Lima

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un esbozo de las estrategias a seguir para la inserción de la información edafológica en la Infraestructura de Datos Espaciales de la República de Cuba, a partir de un análisis del estado actual de desarrollo de la cartografía digital edafológica de Cuba y del desarrollo de bases de datos de la información de perfiles de suelo asociada. Se proponen una serie de tareas para lograr estos fines

  15. Cuba: Issues for the 111th Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-18

    April 21, 2008, ten members of the Ladies in White were 12 Comision Cubana de Derechos Humanos y...Fidel, “Health Changes within the Council of Ministers,” from CubaDebate as translated by Granma International, March 3, 2009. 8 Wildredo Cancio Isla ...Reconciliacion Nacional, “Cuba en el año 2009: la situacíon de derechos civiles, políticos y económicos,” February 2, 2009. 13 Anita Snow, “Cuban

  16. 论《沉溺》中多米尼加流散者的生存困境%On the Living Predicaments of Dominican Diasporas in Junot D íaz's Drown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳霞; 李保杰

    2015-01-01

    Dominican-American writer Junot Díaz's novel Drown depicts the living predicaments of Dominican -American diasporas. By alternating past and present with juxtaposing“absence”and“reappearance”of some characters,the novel delicately portrays immigrants' poor suffering living circumstances both in Dominican Republic and in America. Meanwhile,it reveals their“otherness”of“not here,not there”,considering that they have a hard time struggling into the upper position of the main-stream society. Centering on the living predicaments of Dominican diasporas,this paper analyzes their diasporic experiences and marginalized“otherness”identity,and explores the fundamental causes for this frustrating situation.%多米尼加裔美国作家朱诺·迪亚斯的短篇集《沉溺》描绘了多米尼加裔群体流散的生存窘况。小说中过去与现在交替、人物的“缺失”与“再现”并存,不仅生动细腻地刻画了移民者在多米尼加共和国以及在美国贫困潦倒的生存困境,更揭示了他们难以跻身美国主流社会而成为“非此非彼”的他者。文章从多米尼加流散者的生存困境着手,着重分析移民者颠沛流离的流散经历以及被主流文化边缘化的他者身份,探讨造成流散者生存困境的根本原因。

  17. Palo Monte, um rito Congo em Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José da Silva Ribeiro

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Juntaram-se em Cuba a partir do século XVI africanos provenientes de toda a costa ocidental africana pertencentes a muitos grupos étnicos. Estes em contacto com as culturas em presença (autóctone, espanhola, portuguesa, africanas desenvolveram diversos sistemas de crença, rituais e práticas mágico-religiosas. No Século XIX o dia de Reis construía o momento mais alto da afirmação da cultura africana em Cuba. Estas manifestações eram acompanhadas da coroação de reis e rainhas Congo, figuras principais da festa e da vida social africana.Africans coming from all West Africa coasts from a large variety of ethnic groups gathered in Cuba since XVIth century. These, in contact with other cultures (native, Spanish, Portuguese, Africans developed some belief systems, rituals and magical-religious practices. On XIXth century the King’s day was the highest moment of affirmation of African culture in Cuba. These experiences were accompanied of king and queen’s crowning, principal figures of African festival and social life.

  18. Reflections on Educational Reform in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Ronald A.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews Cuban educational reforms, highlighting 1959, 1976, and 1980s initiatives. Compares Cuba's progress with John Kotter's eight-step process based on establishing a sense of urgency, creating a guiding coalition, developing and communicating the change vision, empowering broad-based action, generating short-term wins, consolidating gains, and…

  19. Teaching American Diplomacy Using Primary Sources: Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Michael; Anderson, David J.; Starbird, Caroline; Ertenberg, Samantha

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to allow high school students to examine the relationship between Cuba and the United States by studying a rich collection of primary materials and classroom-ready lessons which incorporate those materials. This book contains materials from 27 primary sources, including texts of speeches before the House and Senate,…

  20. Cuba Adrift in a Postcommunist World

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    1989 when Castro changed Cuba’s traditional revolutionary slogan from "Patria o Muerte ." (Fatherland or Death!) to "Socialismo o Muerte !" (Socialism...8217 prestigious government-affiliated publishing house, Fondo de Cultura Economics (FCE), has just been allowed to open an office in Havana. pretigou goermen

  1. Cuba shows jump in HIV positives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuba experienced a substantial increase in the number of HIV cases in 1996 due primarily to a growth of foreign tourism and an increase in prostitution, health officials said. The Juventud Rebelde newspaper said that since HIV/AIDS testing began in 1985, government-run hospitals and clinics have detected 1609 HIV-positive cases. In 1995 the total was reported at 1196, meaning that 413 new cases were detected in 1996. This compared with only 97 new cases reported during 1995. HIV infection among the island's 11 million inhabitants has remained relatively low due to a massive testing program and a public health infrastructure that provides universal and free medical treatment. Cuba was a pioneer in the use of interferon on those testing HIV-positive. Cuba produces its own interferon, which prolongs the life expectancy of patients, and also reagents for AIDS testing. There are special sanitariums for AIDS patients in most of Cuba's 12 provinces. Cuban adults who test HIV-positive are required to enter the sanitarium in a policy reminiscent of the way tuberculosis patients were tested in the US earlier in this century. Officials said the isolation of patients in sanitariums has been somewhat relaxed over past years by introducing greater flexibility in allowing persons who are considered reliable to live at home or make prolonged visits.

  2. The history of physics in Cuba

    CERN Document Server

    Renn, Jürgen; Wendt, Helge

    2014-01-01

    This book brings together a broad spectrum of authors, both from inside and from outside Cuba, who describe the development of Cuba's scientific system from the colonial period to the present. It is a unique documentation of the self-organizing power of a local scientific community engaged in scientific research on an international level. The first part includes several contributions that reconstruct the different stages of the history of physics in Cuba, from its beginnings in the late colonial era to the present. The second part comprises testimonies of Cuban physicists, who offer lively insights from the perspective of the actors themselves. The third part presents a series of testimonies by foreign physicists, some of whom were directly involved in developing Cuban physics, in particular in the development of teaching and research activities in the early years of the Escuela de Física. The fourth part of the volume deals with some of the issues surrounding the publishing of scientific research in Cuba. C...

  3. Cuba: Issues for 111th Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-14

    Humanos y Reconciliacion Nacional, “Cuba en el año 2009: la situacíon de derechos civiles, políticos y económicos,” February 2, 2009. 13 Anita Snow...park. On April 21, 2008, ten members of the Ladies in White were 12 Comision Cubana de Derechos

  4. El movimiento del Software Libre en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Rodríguez Figueredo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el movimiento de Software Libre y estándares abiertos de software en Cuba, su surgimiento y evolución hasta la fecha. Se analiza además la necesidad de incorporarlo en el proceso de informatización de la sociedad cubana y lo que ha venido haciéndose en ese sentido.

  5. Caribic EEG. A new regulation speeds up the solar power market in the Dominical Republic; Karibik-EEG. Eine neue Richtlinie belebt den Solarstrommarkt in der Dominikanischen Republik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosell, Alejandro Diego

    2011-09-15

    In spite of its sunny weather conditions, the Dominican Republic so far has only solar systems with a total of 500 kW. But a new law came into force that permits backward current meters. Those who generate more power than they consume will even get a reimbursement. With additional tax exemptions, the payback period of solar systems will be only a few years.

  6. Historical Overview of Leprosy Control in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldarraín-Chaple, Enrique

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Leprosy, an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, affects the nervous system, skin, internal organs, extremities and mucous membranes. Biological, social and environmental factors influence its occurrence and transmission. The first effective treatments appeared in 1930 with the development of dapsone, a sulfone. The main components of a control and elimination strategy are early case detection and timely administration of multidrug therapy. OBJECTIVES Review the history of leprosy control in Cuba, emphasizing particularly results of the National Leprosy Control Program, its modifications and influence on leprosy control. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION The historiological method was applied using document review, complemented by interviews with experts on leprosy and its control. Archived documents, medical records, disease prevalence censuses conducted since 1942, and incidence and prevalence statistics for 1960-2015 from the Ministry of Public Health's National Statistics Division were reviewed. Reports and scientific literature published on the Program and the history of leprosy in Cuba were also reviewed. DEVELOPMENT Leprosy has been documented in Cuba since 1613. In 1938, the Leprosy Foundation was created with ten dispensaries nationwide for diagnosis and treatment. The first National Leprosy Control Program was established in 1962, implemented in 1963 and revised five times. In 1972, leper colonies were closed and treatment became ambulatory. In 1977, rifampicin was introduced. In 1988, the Program instituted controlled, decentralized, community-based multidrug treatment and established the criteria for considering a patient cured. In 2003, it included actions aimed at early diagnosis and prophylactic treatment of contacts. Since 2008, it prioritizes actions directed toward the population at risk, maintaining five-year followup with dermatological and neurological examination. Primary health care carries out diagnostic and treatment

  7. 31 CFR 515.564 - Professional research and professional meetings in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... tourism in Cuba or other commercial activities involving Cuba that are inconsistent with this part; and... a professional who plans to travel to Cuba. Example 1 to paragraph (e): A professor of history...

  8. Geologic Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the North Cuba Basin, Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Petroleum generation in the North Cuba Basin is primarily the result of thrust loading of Jurassic and Cretaceous source rocks during formation of the North Cuba fold and thrust belt in the Late Cretaceous to Paleogene. The fold and thrust belt formed as Cuban arc-forearc rocks along the leading edge of the Caribbean plate translated northward during the opening of the Yucatan Basin and collided with the passive margin of southern North America in the Paleogene. Petroleum fluids generated during thrust loading migrated vertically into complex structures in the fold and thrust belt, into structures in the foreland basin, and possibly into carbonate reservoirs along the margins of the Yucatan and Bahama carbonate platforms. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) defined a Jurassic-Cretaceous Composite Total Petroleum System (TPS) and three assessment units (AU)-North Cuba Fold and Thrust Belt AU, North Cuba Foreland Basin AU, and the North Cuba Platform Margin Carbonate AU-within this TPS based mainly on structure and reservoir type (fig. 1). There is considerable geologic uncertainty as to the extent of petroleum migration that might have occurred within this TPS to form potential petroleum accumulations. Taking this geologic uncertainty into account, especially in the offshore area, the mean volumes of undiscovered resources in the composite TPS of the North Cuba Basin are estimated at (1) 4.6 billion barrels of oil (BBO), with means ranging from an F95 probability of 1 BBO to an F5 probability of 9 BBO; and (2) 8.6 trillion cubic feet of of gas (TCFG), of which 8.6 TCFG is associated with oil fields, and about 1.2 TCFG is in nonassociated gas fields in the North Cuba Foreland Basin AU.

  9. Fatalism or Destiny? A Qualitative Study and Interpretative Framework on Dominican Women’s Breast Cancer Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flórez, Karen R.; Aguirre, Alejandra N.; Viladrich, Anahí; Céspedes, Amarilis; De La Cruz, Ana Alicia

    2008-01-01

    Background A growing literature on Latino’s beliefs about cancer focuses on the concept of fatalismo (fatalism), despite numerous conceptual ambiguities concerning its meaning, definition, and measurement. This study explored Latina women’s views on breast cancer and screening within a cultural framework of destino (“destiny”), or the notion that both personal agency and external forces can influence health and life events Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 25 Latinas from the Dominican Republic aged 40 or over. Results Respondents reported complex notions of health locus of control that encompassed both internal (e.g., individual action) and external (e.g., the will of God) forces shaping breast cancer prevention efforts. Furthermore, women actively participated in screening because they believed that cancer could become a death sentence if diagnosed late or left untreated. Discussion In contrast to simplistic notions of “fatalism”, our analysis suggests complex strategies and beliefs regarding breast cancer and cancer screening that speak of resiliency rather than hopelessness. PMID:18253833

  10. Mobilisation against International Human Rights: Re-domesticating the Dominican Citizenship Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leiv Marsteintredet

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza la movilización doméstica en contra de la implementación de los derechos humanos internacionales en el ámbito del régimen de la nacionalidad en la República Dominicana. Mientras que los promotores de derechos humanos ganaron todas las batallas legales en el Sistema Interamericano de Derechos Humanos, los grupos que movilizaron en contra de los derechos humanos en la República Dominicana movilizaron más eficientemente a nivel doméstico, y ganaron la guerra en las instituciones dominicanas. El artículo demuestra que la movilización en contra de los derechos humanos fue una respuesta consciente a la Corte Interamericana de Derechos Humanos y el caso de 'Yean 'y 'Bosico'. La movilización unió a todos los actores políticos dominantes en el Congreso y en las cortes en acciones legales y políticas para redefinir y re-domesticar el control sobre el régimen de nacionalidad dominicano en base de una definición más restrictiva del 'ius soli. 'Esta movilización culminó con la salida de la República Dominicana de la Corte Interamericana de Derechos Humanos en 2014. El caso dominicano demuestra que una reacción negativa ("backlash" a derechos humanos puede demostrarse inicialmente de maneras muy sutiles y que para mejorar el cumplimiento a derechos humanos internacionales es imprescindible movilizar no sólo a nivel internacional sino también dentro de las instituciones domésticas. English: This article traces and analyses the domestic mobilisation against the implementation of international human rights with respect to the citizenship regime in the Dominican Republic. Whereas the human rights promoters won every legal battle on the right to citizenship in the Inter-American System of Human Rights, groups mobilising against human rights, the pro-violation constituency, were more effective domestically and won the war in all domestic institutions. As a response to the Inter-American Court of Human Rights and the

  11. An educator's perspective on the emerging Cuba and multiculturalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Carla D

    2006-01-01

    Plagued by many years of frequent leadership changes, and influences from power brokers whose policies and politics were oftentimes detrimental to Cuba's emerging as an industrialized and diverse economy nation, Cuba is now attempting to move beyond the survival mode. After the symbiotic relationship between the Soviet Union was dismantled in the 90s, Cuba is now undergoing metamorphoses of growth and change, socially, politically and culturally, while still remaining a mixture of worlds both rural and urban. This narrative article describes the multicultural experiences that an American university professor recently experienced while visiting Cuba.

  12. Cuba's National eHealth Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Ariel; Gorry, Conner

    2008-01-01

    Cuba has been building a national strategy using information and communication technologies (ICTs) for health since the establishment of the National Medical Sciences Information Center (CNICM) in 1965. Back then, vital statistics and health data - considered a cornerstone of the country's new universal health system - were transmitted by hand or over the phone. As technology grew more sophisticated over the next 30 years, microprocessors and computers were integrated into the process. In 1992, reeling from economic crisis, Cuba founded the national health telematics network known as INFOMED (www.sld.cu), betting on the strategy that ICTs could be used to improve population health at low cost. From these initial efforts until today, the country has followed a policy to build and strengthen a virtual health information infrastructure.[1].

  13. Cuba - a library for multidimensional numerical integration

    CERN Document Server

    Hahn, T

    2004-01-01

    The Cuba library provides new implementations of four general-purpose multidimensional integration algorithms: Vegas, Suave, Divonne, and Cuhre. Suave is a new algorithm, Divonne is a known algorithm to which important details have been added, and Vegas and Cuhre are new implementations of existing algorithms with only few improvements over the original versions. All four algorithms can integrate vector integrands and have very similar Fortran, C/C++, and Mathematica interfaces.

  14. Four decades of kidney transplantation in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonzo, Jorge P

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the background, beginnings, development, evolution and outcomes of kidney transplantation in Cuba. Nephrology as a medical specialty in Cuba began in 1962 and was formalized in 1966. Conditions were created to implement renal replacement therapy (including transplants), bring nephrology care to the entire country and train human resources who would assume this responsibility, making Cuba one of the first countries with a comprehensive program for renal patient care. After three unsuccessful cadaveric-donor kidney transplantations in 1968-69, the ensuing history of kidney transplantation can be summarized in the following three stages. 1970-1975: In January 1970, cadaveric-donor kidney transplantation began at the Nephrology Institute. That year, 17 kidney transplantations were performed; four of these patients lived with functional kidneys for 15-25 years; 10-year graft survival was 23.5% (Kaplan-Meier survival curve); HLA typing began in 1974. By December 1975, 170 grafts had been done in three hospitals. 1976-1985: Seven transplantation centers performed 893 grafts during this period. HLA-DR typing was introduced in 1976 and the National Histocompatibility Laboratory Network was founded in 1978. The first related living-donor kidney transplantation was done in 1979. 1986-2011: The National Kidney Transplantation Coordinating Center and the National Kidney Transplantation Program were created in 1986; the first combined kidney-pancreas transplantation was performed the same year. In 1990, cyclosporine and the Cuban monoclonal antibody IOR-T3 were introduced for immunosuppression to prevent rejection, as were other Cuban products (hepatitis B vaccine and recombinant human erythropoietin) for transplant patients. By December 2011, the cumulative number of transplants was 4636 (384 from related living donors). With over 40 years of experience, kidney transplantation is now well established in Cuba; it is free and universally accessible, on the

  15. Cuba: Issues for the 111th Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    Congress Congressional Research Service 7 only a small and tightly regulated private sector, no independent labor movement, and no unified political...75 democracy activists, including independent journalists and librarians and leaders of independent labor unions and opposition parties. At present...Comisión Cubana de Derechos Humanos y Reconciliacion Nacional, “Cuba a Inicios del 2010: Continúa empeorando la situación de derechos humanos,” January 19

  16. Florida, Bahamas, Cuba and Gulf Stream, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This unique photo offers a view of the Florida peninsula, western Bahamas, north central Cuba and the deep blue waters of the Gulf Stream, that hugs the east coast of Florida (27.0N, 82.0W). In addition to being an excellent photograph for showing the geographical relationships between the variety of landforms in this scene, the typical effect of the land-sea breeze is very much in evidence as few clouds over water, cumulus build up over landmass.

  17. Cuba y la OEA: cambio y continuidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo LÓPEZ LEVY

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La Carta de la OEA proclamó la norma de gobernabilidad democrática que validó la importancia de la democracia representativa como central a la paz y estabilidad del hemisferio occidental. Aunque ese compromiso normativo tuvo sentido en la era de la política del buen vecino, el multilateralismo y la no intervención, el abandono por Estados Unidos de esos principios desde la administración Eisenhower debilitó la norma y creó una crisis de legitimidad en la OEA a raíz de los casos de Guatemala en 1954 y Cuba en 1962. La aprobación de la Resolución VI en la reunión de cancilleres de 1962, excluyendo a Cuba de la OEA debido a la ideología marxista de su gobierno fue un caso de institucionalización contraproducente de la norma de gobernabilidad democrática. Este artículo explora el ciclo de retroceso y renovación de la norma de gobernabilidad democrática a través del examen del tratamiento de Cuba en la OEA desde 1962 hasta la Asamblea General n.° 39 de la OEA en San Pedro Sula en junio de 2009.

  18. Toxocariasis in Cuba: a literature review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idalia Sariego

    Full Text Available Human toxocariasis (HT is a zoonotic disease caused by infection with the larval stage of Toxocara canis, the intestinal roundworm of dogs. Infection can be associated with a wide clinical spectrum varying from asymptomatic to severe organ injury. While the incidence of symptomatic human toxocariasis appears to be low, infection of the human population is widespread. In Cuba, a clear overview on the status of the disease is lacking. Here, we review the available information on toxocariasis in Cuba as a first step to estimate the importance of the disease in the country. Findings are discussed and put in a broader perspective. Data gaps are identified and suggestions on how to address these are presented. The available country data suggest that Toxocara infection of the definitive dog host and environmental contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs is substantial, but information on HT is less conclusive. The availability of adequate diagnostic tools in the country should be guaranteed. Dedicated studies are needed for a reliable assessment of the impact of toxocariasis in Cuba and the design of prevention or control strategies.

  19. Toxocariasis in Cuba: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sariego, Idalia; Kanobana, Kirezi; Rojas, Lázara; Speybroeck, Niko; Polman, Katja; Núñez, Fidel A

    2012-01-01

    Human toxocariasis (HT) is a zoonotic disease caused by infection with the larval stage of Toxocara canis, the intestinal roundworm of dogs. Infection can be associated with a wide clinical spectrum varying from asymptomatic to severe organ injury. While the incidence of symptomatic human toxocariasis appears to be low, infection of the human population is widespread. In Cuba, a clear overview on the status of the disease is lacking. Here, we review the available information on toxocariasis in Cuba as a first step to estimate the importance of the disease in the country. Findings are discussed and put in a broader perspective. Data gaps are identified and suggestions on how to address these are presented. The available country data suggest that Toxocara infection of the definitive dog host and environmental contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs is substantial, but information on HT is less conclusive. The availability of adequate diagnostic tools in the country should be guaranteed. Dedicated studies are needed for a reliable assessment of the impact of toxocariasis in Cuba and the design of prevention or control strategies.

  20. Toxocariasis in Cuba: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sariego, Idalia; Kanobana, Kirezi; Rojas, Lázara; Speybroeck, Niko; Polman, Katja; Núñez, Fidel A.

    2012-01-01

    Human toxocariasis (HT) is a zoonotic disease caused by infection with the larval stage of Toxocara canis, the intestinal roundworm of dogs. Infection can be associated with a wide clinical spectrum varying from asymptomatic to severe organ injury. While the incidence of symptomatic human toxocariasis appears to be low, infection of the human population is widespread. In Cuba, a clear overview on the status of the disease is lacking. Here, we review the available information on toxocariasis in Cuba as a first step to estimate the importance of the disease in the country. Findings are discussed and put in a broader perspective. Data gaps are identified and suggestions on how to address these are presented. The available country data suggest that Toxocara infection of the definitive dog host and environmental contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs is substantial, but information on HT is less conclusive. The availability of adequate diagnostic tools in the country should be guaranteed. Dedicated studies are needed for a reliable assessment of the impact of toxocariasis in Cuba and the design of prevention or control strategies. PMID:22389726

  1. CUBA Y LA OEA: CAMBIO Y CONTINUIDAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo LÓPEZ LEVY

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La Carta de la OEA proclamó la norma de gobernabilidad democrática que validó la importancia de la democracia representativa como central a la paz y estabilidad del hemisferiooccidental. Aunque ese compromiso normativo tuvo sentido en la era de la política del buen vecino, el multilateralismo y la no intervención, el abandono por Estados Unidos de esos principios desde la administración Eisenhower debilitó la norma y creó una crisis de legitimidad en la OEA a raíz de los casos de Guatemala en 1954 y Cuba en 1962. La aprobación de la Resolución VI en la reunión de cancilleres de 1962, excluyendo a Cuba de la OEA debido a la ideología marxista de su gobierno fue un caso de institucionalización contraproducente de la norma de gobernabilidad democrática. Este artículo explora el ciclo de retroceso y renovación de la norma de gobernabilidad democrática a través del examen del tratamiento de Cuba en la OEA desde 1962 hasta la Asamblea General n.° 39 de la OEA en San Pedro Sula en junio de 2009.

  2. Airborne microorganisms cultivable on naturally ventilated document repositories of the National Archive of Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, Sofía; Perdomo, Ivette

    2016-02-01

    The quality of the indoor air can provide very useful information for the artwork conservation. The aim of the study was to evaluate the microbial concentration inside six document repositories of the National Archive of the Republic of Cuba in two months of 1 year. The repositories are large, high, and have a natural cross-ventilation system. The microbial sampling was done in July 2010 (summer or rainy month) and February 2011 (winter or dry month) using the SAS Super 100 biocollector at 100 L/min. An appropriate selective culture media were used to isolate fungi and bacteria. A high total microbial concentration on the north side of the building in two studied months was observed. The fungal concentrations were significantly higher in July 2010 in all repositories, while the bacterial concentrations were significantly higher mostly in February 2011 only in repositories located on the first and second floor of the building. Eight fungal genera in the indoor air of all environments were isolated. Regardless of the side of the analyzed building, Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Cladosporium were the predominant genera. Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger were the species isolated in almost all of the analyzed repositories in the studied months. Gram-positive bacteria prevailed among bacterial groups isolated from indoor air repositories, and some percentages corresponded to the genera Bacillus and Streptomyces. In Cuba, the temperature and relative humidity are high during the whole year but the natural ventilation plays an important role in retarding microbial growth on materials.

  3. Perspectivas para la lexicografía especializada en Cuba

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Sven

    1995-01-01

    En diskussion af muligheder for at udvikle et fagleksikografisk arbejde på Cuba og i det øvrige Latinamerika......En diskussion af muligheder for at udvikle et fagleksikografisk arbejde på Cuba og i det øvrige Latinamerika...

  4. Development of a system for landslide risk assessment for Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castellanos Abella, E.A.; Westen, C.J. van

    2005-01-01

    In many developing countries, such as Cuba, landslide-affected areas are not systematically mapped in a national inventory and no “regional to local” approach for landslide hazard and risk assessment has been carried out so far. Most of the conventional landslide studies in Cuba are qualitative in n

  5. Development of a system for landslide risk assessment for Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castellanos Abella, E.A.; Westen, C.J. van

    2005-01-01

    In many developing countries, such as Cuba, landslide-affected areas are not systematically mapped in a national inventory and no “regional to local” approach for landslide hazard and risk assessment has been carried out so far. Most of the conventional landslide studies in Cuba are qualitative in

  6. Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Remittances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-31

    Cierran en Miami otra agencia de viajes a Cuba,” El Nuevo Herald, June 6, 2006; U.S. Department of the Treasury, Office of Foreign Assets Control, List...23 Wilfredo Cancio Isla, “Aprietan las restricciones para los viajes a Cuba,” El Nuevo Herald (Miami), April 28, 2006, and

  7. USA300 Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hopman Joost

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is an increasing problem in the Caribbean. We investigated the molecular epidemiology of MRSA isolates on Cuba. Findings The predominant clone was of the spa type t149, followed by community-associated MRSA USA300. Conclusions We report the first molecular typing results of MRSA isolates from Cuba.

  8. New geochronological ages (U-Pb/Lu-Hf) from high-pressure rocks of the Escambray terrane and Santa Clara serpentinite mélange, central Cuba. Regional correlations and geodynamic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Agramonte, Y.; García-Casco, A.; Kröner, A.; Herwartz, D.; Ibis Despaigne, A.; Wilde, S.

    2012-04-01

    Petrological and geochronological data of high pressure (HP) rocks from Cuba and Dominican Republic indicate continuous subduction in the northern edge of the Caribbean since ca. 120 Ma. However, expected correlation of the associated subduction zone towards the west in Guatemala is uncertain, for similar HP rocks in this region have metamorphic ages as old as 150 Ma. In this contribution we present new geochemical and U-Pb/Lu-Hf ages of HP rocks from the Escambray terrane and the central Cuba serpentinite mélange that allow geodynamic correlations between the Greater Antilles and Guatemala during the early and late Cretaceous. The Escambray composite terrane constitutes a metamorphic accretionary complex containing oceanic and platform-derived metasedimentary and metaigneous rocks that were tectonically assembled in the Caribbean subduction environment during the latest Cretaceous. The complex crops out as two domes, named Trinidad to the west and Sancti Spiritus to the east, forming a tectonic window below the arc-related Mabujina amphibolite complex and the allochthonous Cretaceous volcanic arc terrane. The latter overrides the central Cuba mélange, which contains low-pressure ophiolitic blocks and HP blocks of eclogite, garnet amphibolite and blueschist facies rocks within a serpentinitic matrix. This serpentinite mélange and similar melange bodies within the Escambray complex have been interpreted as fragments of the Caribbean subduction channel. The studied HP samples are of basaltic composition, poor in K2O (<0.34 wt %) and Rb (< 3.05 ppm), relatively rich in Ta (0.07-0.77 ppm) and Hf (0.74-4.17 ppm), and rich in Nb (0.68- 13.53 ppm). Most samples show a REE chondrite-normalised patterns characterized by a subtle LREE depletion, except a few samples which are characterized by slight enrichment in LREE. Based on their distinctive trace-element contents, most of the basaltic protholiths of the samples are identified as E- to N-MORB signature. Some samples

  9. Cuba a la Deriva en un Mundo Postcommunista (Cuba Adrift in a Postcommunist World)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    oxporimontados pot ]a mayor parto do los paisos on los cualos sucumbi6 ol sistoma comunista. 6 Una confwotseift con Eatada UnIdo. a la G~tterdlmuanwig Aunque en...y las fuorzas armadas do Cuba, asi como gran part. do Arn~rica Latina, so pasarfan a ou bando, asegur~ndole mu lugar en Is historia . Estados Unidos

  10. Theological Higher Education in Cuba. Part 4: The Historical Roots and Milestones of the Eastern Cuba Baptist Theological Seminary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esqueda, Octavio J.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the Eastern Cuba Baptist Theological Seminary. The seminary was founded in the city of Santiago de Cuba, on October 10, 1949, by the Eastern Baptist Convention. The seminary exists to provide training for pastors in the Eastern Baptist Convention. The school offers a four-year program leading to a bachelor in…

  11. Nanotechnologies in Cuba: Popularization and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Castellanos, Carlos

    In Cuba, as in other countries, activities in the field of nanotechnology emerged from the converging development of research in materials physics and chemistry, microelectronics, supramolecular physics, microbiology and molecular biology. During the 1990s, theoretical and experimental work on semiconductor nanostructures gained in importance. Cuban physicists organized the Red CYTED (Network CYTED) to "study fabrication and characterization of semiconductor nanostructures for micro and optoelectronics" which functioned between 1998 and 2003 with the participation of eight Spanish-American countries. The network organized various courses and scientific meetings, edited a book and supported the scientific collaboration among the participant institutions.

  12. The Physics of Complex Systems in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotolongo-Costa, Oscar

    In relating the circumstances that led to the birth and development of the physics of complex systems in Cuba, it is difficult to avoid being anecdotal—particularly because of the difficult times during which this research started. Cuban eclecticism, whose spectrum extends from religious syncretism to world-class medicine, seems quite coherent with the field of complex systems, characterized by the synergy of diverse fields. Such a combination, however, in the beginning seemed to be quite removed from the physicists' standard research dogmas.

  13. Cuba. Section 23. Weather and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    1959-05-01

    CACO I SAN ANiONIO i MM] 0 I 120327 AWfi ■MOMMm 84 c r L /■ o i M i: \\ i co HAM^ *** ^ Esperanza • Bahla Honda San Cristobal, \\JSLS...C»BO PEPE Jaguey Grande Aguada de Pasajeros i ii-- i \\i;tii\\t CUBA STATION LOCATIONS • METEOROLOGICAL STATION Locations aw shown...40 60 80 100 m&m r 1 A’ / H />’ E A s GRAND CAYMAN H R(» CIENfg CEIv N I 84 83 82 81 oMCLASSIflEO ^ Jf IB ’■ CAYO

  14. Cuba: Issues for the 109th Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-19

    years, and Omar Rodríguez Saludes , sentenced to 27 years. Other sentenced democracy activists included economist Marta Beatriz Roque (who had been...Convertible Peso ’ No Longer Linked to U.S. Dollar,” CubaNews, April 2005, p. 3. Beginning in 1993, Cubans were allowed to own and use U.S. dollars and to...exchange their dollars for “convertible pesos ,” with a 10% surcharge for the exchange. Cubans could exchange their dollars or deposit them in banks with

  15. Disparities and barriers encountered by immigrant Dominican mothers accessing prenatal care services in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón-Burgos, J F; Colón-Jordan, H M; Reyes-Ortiz, V E; Marin-Centeno, H A; Rios-Mota, R

    2014-08-01

    Inadequate access to prenatal services has been associated with higher rates of mother and child mortality and premature births in the general population. Thus, this paper aims to compare the utilization and adequacy of prenatal care services of Dominican immigrant mothers with that of Puerto Rican mothers. Data was extracted from birth certificates using a cohort from 1998 to 2002 (n = 252, 919). The Kotelchuck index for adequate prenatal care was used for comparison with socio-demographic characteristics of the population. Less than half of Dominican mothers (48.5 %) received adequate prenatal care compared to more than two-thirds (69.1 %) of Puerto Rican mothers (p care of Dominican mothers was 0.7 that of Puerto Rican mothers (p prenatal care services among migrant women and native Puerto Ricans.

  16. Decapod crustaceans from the Neogene of the Caribbean: diversity, distribution and prospectus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collins, J.S.H.; Portell, R.W.; Donovan, S.K.

    2009-01-01

    The Neogene decapod crustaceans are reviewed from Aruba, Bonaire and Curaçao, Anguilla, Barbados, Carriacou, Costa Rica, Cuba, Florida, Hispaniola (Haiti and Dominican Republic), Jamaica, Mexico, Panama, Puerto Rico, St. Kitts, Tintamare Island, Trinidad and Venezuela. The most widely distributed ta

  17. Growing the Peace: Military Civic Action in the Third World

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-01

    Nicaragua in 1979, which overthrew the U.S.-backed Samoza dynasty, unexpectedly turned communist. Like the shock of Cuba turning communist in 1,359, the...has played a significant role, are Anastasio Samoza in Nicaragua and Rafael Trujillo in the Dominican Republic. During the U.S. occupation of these

  18. Decapod crustaceans from the Neogene of the Caribbean: diversity, distribution and prospectus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collins, J.S.H.; Portell, R.W.; Donovan, S.K.

    2009-01-01

    The Neogene decapod crustaceans are reviewed from Aruba, Bonaire and Curaçao, Anguilla, Barbados, Carriacou, Costa Rica, Cuba, Florida, Hispaniola (Haiti and Dominican Republic), Jamaica, Mexico, Panama, Puerto Rico, St. Kitts, Tintamare Island, Trinidad and Venezuela. The most widely distributed

  19. International Data Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    TRANSPORTATION S TRANSPORTATION NE TRAVEL BETWEEN TW TREATIES SIGNED, TREATIES, PIALATE TREATIES, CO««0NI TREATIES, CULTURA TREATIES...approximate a factor cost valuation. The conversion factors used for Argentina, Brazil, Chile , Colombia, Indonesia, Peru, and Uruguay are werage annual free...712 840 COUNTRY NAME Argentina Bolivia Brazil Chile Colombia Costa Rica Cuba Dominican Republic Ecuador El Salvador Guatemala Guyana

  20. Education in Latin America: A Selected Bibliography (1986-1995).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aedo-Richmond, Ruth

    1996-01-01

    Presents a selected bibliography of books, theses, articles, and dissertations concerning education in Latin America. Includes separate sections on Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela. All selections are in…

  1. Cuba’s Education System: A Beacon of Light in Latin America Facing an Uncertain Future

    OpenAIRE

    Johnstone, Brian

    2008-01-01

    While the international community, through the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), is promoting a global policy of Education for All (EFA), Cuba stands out as a beacon to other developing countries that have so far been unable to achieve their EFA goals. This paper presents a regional quantitative comparison of eleven Latin American and Caribbean countries—Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Honduras, Mexico, Paraguay, Dominican Republic, ...

  2. An overview of genetic counseling in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Araceli Lantigua

    2013-12-01

    This brief report provides an overview of the history and current status of genetic services in Cuba. In 1971, the University of Medical Sciences of Havana began to train doctors in medical genetics according to the medicine development plan in Cuba. With the aim of introducing genetic services to the population, two main issues were identified: the impact of neural tube defects as a cause of infantile mortality, and a founder effect resulting in a high frequency of sickle cell anemia, which increased the mortality rate and impacted the quality of peoples' lives. The impact of consanguinity is variable; it depends on the isolation of the population, with rates of 1 to 11% in different regions for first and second cousin marriages. From 1981, the services of medical genetics began to expand to the entire country, according to a government directive, and the need to design a program for the specialty became evident. From 1995 to 2000, two Masters-level programs were designed by professors of the Department of Medical Genetics, University of Medical Sciences of Havana, and authorized by the Ministry of Higher Education. One program in medical genetics was designed for physicians with other specialties, and the second program was designed to train professionals to become genetic counselors. The majority of graduates from the latter program are working at the primary level of healthcare.

  3. Empresarios asturianos en Cuba (1840-1920

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collazo Pérez, Enrique

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available This article studies a representative group of emigrants from Asturias who settled in Cuba from the second half of the 19th Century up to 1920, as well as their entreprenurial activities in some key economical sectors such as commerce, Bank, agriculture and sugar industry. It is also analysed the role played and the historical place taken by these businessmen as regards the economical growth of the Island during the said period. Finally, four case studies are made on so many firms of merchants-bankers of Asturian ascendancy.

    En este estudio se examina a un grupo representativo de emigrados asturianos afincados en Cuba desde la segunda mitad del siglo XIX hasta 1920 y la actividad empresarial desplegada por ellos en algunos sectores económicos claves como el comercio, la banca, la agricultura y la industria azucarera. Asimismo se analiza el papel desempeñado y el lugar histórico ocupado por estos empresarios en el crecimiento económico ocurrido en la Isla en el período histórico aludido. En relación con los empresarios dedicados al negocio de banca se realiza un estudio de caso sobre cuatro firmas de comerciantes-banqueros de ascendencia asturiana.

  4. THE CUBA COMPANY AND EASTERN CUBA’S ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT, 1900-1959

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Santamarina

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This artide evaluates the Cuba Company’s impact on eastern Cuban economic development. It argues that the Cuba Company’s railroads, together with its development plans and strategies, helped stimulate the extraordinary economic growth of eastern Cuba between 1900 and 1959, especially in the production of sugar. Sugar was king in Cuba before 1900 but only inwestern Cuba; eastern Cuba produced only a minuscule fraction of total Cuban sugar production. Moreover, the Cuban Independence War of 1895-1898 had destroyed the industry. Due to the Cuba Company’s strategy, however, by the 1920s Cuba was once again the largest producer of sugar in the world and eastern Cuba represented over 50% of total Cuban sugarproduction.

  5. Central Asian Republic Info

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — CAR Info is designed and managed by the Central Asian Republic Mission to fill in the knowledge and reporting gaps in existing agency systems for that Mission. It...

  6. Situacion de la gestion de inventarios en Cuba

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lopes-Martinez, Igor; Gomez-Acosta, Martha Ines; Acevedo-Suarez, Jose Antonio

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo del presente articulo es analizar la situacion de la gestion de inventarios en Cuba, a partir de las experiencias obtenidas durante mas de 10 anos en entidades de los sectores de servicios...

  7. Physics and Women: A Challenge Being Successfully Met in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias de Fuentes, Olimpia

    The history of physics in Cuba, like all the country's educational and scientific development, cannot be understood without taking into account its close relationship with the social changes that took place in Cuba during the five decades elapsed since 1959. This should include due consideration to the role played by women in this process, all the more since the link between science and gender is now generally regarded as a subject of growing special interest

  8. Cuba y las fronteras de la utopía

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Artiklen indeholder nogle generelle overvejelser om den sociale utopi som fænomen samt en række empiriske observationer og del analyser af dette fænomen i ft det revolutionære Cuba.......Artiklen indeholder nogle generelle overvejelser om den sociale utopi som fænomen samt en række empiriske observationer og del analyser af dette fænomen i ft det revolutionære Cuba....

  9. Burden of Self-reported Acute Gastrointestinal Illness in Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Prieto, Pablo Aguiar; Finley, Rita L; Muchaal, P.K.; Guerin, Michele T; Isaacs, Sandy; Domínguez, Arnaldo Castro; Marie, Gisele Coutín; Perez, Enrique

    2009-01-01

    Acute gastrointestinal illness is an important public-health issue worldwide. Burden-of-illness studies have not previously been conducted in Cuba. The objective of the study was to determine the magnitude, distribution, and burden of self-reported acute gastrointestinal illness in Cuba. A retrospective, cross-sectional survey was conducted in three sentinel sites during June-July 2005 (rainy season) and during November 2005–January 2006 (dry season). Households were randomly selected from a ...

  10. Dominican and Puerto Rican Mother-Adolescent Communication: Maternal Self-Disclosure and Youth Risk Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent

    2010-01-01

    A communication framework was developed to examine the influence of maternal use of self-disclosure on adolescent intentions to smoke cigarettes and to engage in sexual intercourse. Data were collected from 516 Dominican and Puerto Rican mother-adolescent dyads. Statistical analyses were conducted in AMOS using structural equation modeling.…

  11. Racial Identity Attitudes and Ego Identity Statuses in Dominican and Puerto Rican College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Delida

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the relation between racial identity attitudes and ego identity statuses in 94 Dominican and Puerto Rican Latino college students in an urban public college setting. Simultaneous regression analyses were conducted to test the relation between racial identity attitudes and ego identity statuses, and findings indicated that…

  12. International Medical Collaboration: Lessons from Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Castelló González

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Over 50,000 Cuban health professionals are currently working overseas in 67 different countries. They work in conjunction with local health professionals. The majority work in primary care in deprived areas. The aim is to reduce morbidity and mortality but also improve health in the long term by training local health professionals, and building both institutions and a structure to deliver health care alongside educating the local population. Cuba is a small, middle-income country. It has, however, made a significant international contribution in relation to medical collaboration. Cuba’s international collaboration is based on the principles of social justice and equity for all. It has set an example for other countries to emulate.

  13. International Medical Collaboration: Lessons from Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelló González, Mauro; Pons Vásquez, Reinaldo; Rodriguez Bencomo, David; Choonara, Imti

    2016-01-01

    Over 50,000 Cuban health professionals are currently working overseas in 67 different countries. They work in conjunction with local health professionals. The majority work in primary care in deprived areas. The aim is to reduce morbidity and mortality but also improve health in the long term by training local health professionals, and building both institutions and a structure to deliver health care alongside educating the local population. Cuba is a small, middle-income country. It has, however, made a significant international contribution in relation to medical collaboration. Cuba’s international collaboration is based on the principles of social justice and equity for all. It has set an example for other countries to emulate. PMID:27763571

  14. Cuba, desarrollo, dependencia y heterogeneidad estructural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edel J. Fresneda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo reexamina la estrategia de desarrollo prevaleciente en Cuba, observando las variables de dependencia y heterogeneidad estructural. Busca distinguir cómo, a pesar de haber existido una desconexión política en la isla, su estrategia de desarrollo socialista enfrenta retos significativos que están determinados por el grado de heterogeneidad de su economía y por la profundidad de su dependencia al sistema de intercambio mundial. Como desafíos más importantes para la estrategia de desarrollo prevaleciente, se denotan: a evaluar los efectos de la incorporación de actores supranacionales en los marcos de una heterogeneidad estructural, por la insuficiencia de financiamientos y capital; y b proponer un desarrollo endógeno a partir de la incorporación del capital humano logrado en la isla.

  15. La obra de Mariano Benlliure en Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Laguna Enrique, Martha Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Este artículo aborda el estudio de la obra escultórica de Mariano Benlliure Gil en Cuba. Justamente los dos trabajos de mayor envergadura del maestro valenciano en la isla caribeña son el panteón de la familia Falla Bonet, ubicado en el Cementerio de Colón, y el grupo escultórico de tema taurino El coleo. No obstante, existen otras piezas de mediano y pequeño formato de las que también nos hacemos eco en este artículo. Este valioso conjunto de obras procede de la afición al coleccionismo de a...

  16. Virtual Visit - Cuba/March 30 2016

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Visitor Centre

    2016-01-01

    No próximo dia 30/03/2016, o Centro de Promoción Cultural Comunitário KCHO ESTUDIO ROMERILLO (http://www.kchoestudio.com/proyecto/Kcho%20Estudio%20Romerillo,%20Laboratorio%20para%20el%20Arte/) realizará uma Visita Virtual ao Experimento ATLAS, no Centro Europeu de Pesquisa Nuclear, o CERN, na Suíça. Em CUBA, a visita será coordenada pelos professores Amadeu Albino Junior (IFRN - BRASIL), Anderson Guimarães Guedes (UFRN – Brasil). Na Suíça, o detector será apresentado por Denis Oliveira Damazio (BNL/CERN). Após uma curta apresentação sobre o LHC e o Detector ATLAS, os participantes poderão fazer perguntas sobre a experiência.

  17. ENERGY AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debrayan Bravo Hidalgo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Employment and enhancing the use of renewable energy sources could be considered as the beginning of a third ¨Industrial Revolution¨. The transition to a low carbon dioxide emission permits to a momentous turning point in the fight against climate change, improve energy security, and last but not least, significantly reduce the geopolitical intentions of this. The increase in renewable sources constitutes a guideline for energy policy in Cuba. Thus, programs for the construction of small hydropower plants, plant cells and photovoltaic panels, solar thermal energy systems for various services are developed; and the use of other primary sources such as wind and biomass. This work shows the implementation of these practices in the nation, the present results and future aspirations facing the demands of sustainable and steady development of generation and power consumption.

  18. MEDIO SIGLO DE VIVIENDA SOCIAL EN CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dania González Couret

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El próximo año 2010 cumple un siglo el primer barrio obrero proyectado y construido en Cuba. Después de 1959 la vivienda cubana se ha caracterizado por un estándar general y uniforme correspondiente al modelo de la vivienda social masiva nacida en Europa a inicios del siglo XX, y a diferencia de lo que sucede en otros países en desarrollo, continúa siendo una responsabilidad del Estado. El artículo ofrece una panorámica de la evolución y tendencias de la vivienda social en Cuba durante la segunda mitad del siglo XX. Los inicios en los anos '60s se caracterizaron por la búsqueda de tecnologías apropiadas y nuevas formas de expresión para la vivienda social masiva de un país en desarrollo y en Revolución, intentando "erradicar" las condiciones habitacionales precarias, y las diferencias entre la ciudad y el campo. A partir de los 70s la vivienda cubana se vio comprometida con los sistemas de prefabricación de alta tecnología, como vía para dar solución a la demanda masiva. En los '80s cobró fuerza la conservación de los centros urbanos tradicionales y la crisis de los '90s obligó a abandonar definitivamente la industrialización pesada y buscar soluciones "alternativas". El trabajo concluye con el debate actual.

  19. Quantitative physical and chemical variables used to assess erosion and fertility loss in tropical Dominican and Haitian soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, J.; Alexis, S.; Vizcayno, C.; Hernández, A. J.

    2009-04-01

    The Pedernales province (Dominican Republic) has the main part of the only Biosphere Reserve in that Caribbean Island, including the Bahoruco and Jaragua National Parks. In these Parks is possible to find almost the totality of tropical forest ecosystems (evergreen rain forest, latifoliated forest, dry forest and mangrove forest on mainland), as well as the most frequent soil uses in the Dominican country. The consulted bibliography about the soils is very scarce and it does not give any information relating to this natural resource, which is basic for a sustainable development management in this territory. When Christopher Columbus reached the island, its plant cover constituted 95% of the land. This was largely because the limited, rudimentary tools used by the Indians to exploit the soil, allowed them to maintain a well-balanced ecological system. The initial type of agriculture practised by the indigenous inhabitants was scarcely destructive and based on vegetatively reproducing crops propagated through cuttings, but later forest burning was an especially significant management practice aimed at releasing nutrients into the soil, in an environment in which under natural conditions, particularly those of the rainforest, these were mostly locked within plant structures. The colonial system, on the contrary, brought with it more elaborate methods and utensils enabling them to cultivate cereals (somewhat unknown to the native Indians) and to rear livestock (cows, goats) yet contributed to the growth of deforestation. Agricultural activities were not confined to the plains; even the virgin woods of the mountains were exploited. The monocrops grown across vast expanses rapidly rid the soil of its productive capacity. Cutting down and burning forest for agricultural uses, and also industrial exploitation of bauxite and limestone produced also important alterations in the soil processes. Agricultural activities were not confined to the plains; even the virgin woods of

  20. Evaluation of radiation packages type A from the center of isotopes in Cuba; Evaluacion radiologica de los bultos tipo A del centro de isotopos de Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balbona, Zayda Amador; Pijuan, Saul Perez, E-mail: zabalbona@centis.edu.cu [Centro de Isotopos (CENTIS), Mayabeque (Cuba); Gual, Maritza Rodriguez, E-mail: mrgual@instec.cu [Instituto Superior de Tecnologias y Ciencias Aplicadas (InSTEC), la Habana (Cuba)

    2013-07-01

    The Isotope Center (CENTIS) of the Republic of Cuba makes the transportation of its products mainly in packaged type A. To undertake the design of packages, packaging components from 6 producing firms (including those found Amersham, CISBIO and IZOTOP) are studied. From the applicable regulations, security features and requirements are established as well as the technical characteristics of the packaging components. This study evaluated according each radioisotope, product and specific activity, high activity that can be included in a Type A package with the limitation that the dose rate on their surfaces is less than or equal to 2 mSv/h. In addition, each package is characterized taking into account the value of the maximum dose rate at maximum contact and the transport index for the day of transport. For this, the Microshield code using version 5.0.3. The dose rate in contact with the package of {sup 90}Y is calculated using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX version 2.6.0. The maximum possible activity values are obtained for each shielding transport radionuclides CENTIS produced, namely {sup 131}I, {sup 125}I, {sup 32}P, {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc, {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 188}Re and {sup 90}Y and 69 radioactive packages type A are evaluated.

  1. La guerra de 1895 en Cuba y sus consecuencias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarragó, Rafael E.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available On 24 February 1895 most people in Cuba did not want a war of independence, because reforms for the island had been approved by the Madrid parliament. The reaction to the insurrection begun in Cuba on that date by the Spanish government of Antonio Cánovas del Castillo was to treat all Cubans as rebels. In 1896 Cánovas sent general Weyler to Cuba, and by the end of 1897 he had stopped the advances of the insurrectionists, but the forced removal of the rural population into urban settlements that he decreed in order to prevent their assistance to the insurgents, led to thousands of deaths by hunger and disease, and in the United States public opinion began to clamor for intervention in Cuba to expel Spain, and this was advised by people like the Consul General in Havana, Fitzhugh Lee. The war begun in 1895 for the independence of Cuba had as consecuences the war of the United States with Spain in 1898 and its transformation into a world power with the colonies that it took from Spain in Asia and America.El 24 de febrero de 1895 la mayor parte de los habitantes de Cuba no deseaba una guerra de independencia, porque se acababa de votar en el parlamento de Madrid por reformas liberalizantes para la isla. La reacción del gobierno de Antonio Cánovas del Castillo a la insurrección iniciada en Cuba en esa fecha fue no implementar las reformas y tratar a todos los cubanos como insurrectos. En 1896 Cánovas envió al general Weyler a Cuba, quien logró frenar el avance de los insurrectos, pero la reconcentración de los campesinos en centros urbanos que este decretó para privar de su apoyo a los insurrectos causó miles de muertes por hambre y enfermedad y en los Estados Unidos la opinión pública comenzó a favorecer la intervención en Cuba, acción aconsejada por expansionistas como el Cónsul General de los Estados Unidos en La Habana, Fitzhugh Lee. La guerra comenzada en 1895 para la independencia de Cuba tuvo como consecuencias la guerra de

  2. Lowering infant mortality in Cuba: Fernando Domínguez MD PhD. Neonatologist, Ramón González Coro University Maternity Hospital, Havana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Fernando; Gorry, Conner

    2015-01-01

    Neonatologist Dr Fernando Domínguez served two years in a remote municipality of Cuba's Guantánamo Province upon graduation from medical school in 1973. Continuing his commitment to vulnerable populations, he joined the Cuban team in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, serving as a family doctor attending neonates and children. After returning to Cuba, he completed his pediatric residency and later became head of the neurodevelopment department at Havana's Ramón González Coro University Maternity Hospital, where he has worked for over three decades. Dr Domínguez holds a doctorate in medical sciences, and since 1995 has served on the board of the Cuban Society of Pediatrics, where he was President from 2005-2011. He is also a member of the Ministry of Public Health's National Bioethics Commission; President of the Scientific Council of the Manuel Fajardo Medical School; on the Executive Board of the Latin American Association of Pediatrics; and a member of the Permanent Commission of the International Pediatric Association (IPA). Since 2010, he has served on IPA's Commission for Child Environmental Health and is the Editor-in-Chief of the pediatric section of Infomed, Cuba's national health portal.

  3. Application of the Czech Methodology of Biogeographical Landscape Differentiation in Geobiocoenological Concept – Examples from Cuba, Tasmania and Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buček Antonín

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the area of Central Europe, and especially in the Czech Republic (and former Czechoslovakia, geobiocoenological landscape differentiation has been applied for more than 40 years to create a spatial model of the natural (potential condition of geobiocoenoses in the landscape. Because long-term objective of geobiocoenology is to contribute to the creation of harmonic cultural landscape by gradual development of a comprehensive system of groundworks for sustainable landscape use, and as Mendel University experts work in various countries, adaptions of geobiocoenology were used also outside Europe, in tropical areas. Examples of such a work could be shown on islands such as Socotra (belonging politically to Yemen, Tasmania, and Cuba.

  4. Desigualdad y racismo. Demografía y sociedad en Cuba a fines de la época colonial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tornero, Pablo

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses the demographic structure and nature of Cuban society in the late 19th-century on the basis of the census of 1899. He argues that the strongly marked social differentiation in Cuba at the time, the duality in its social order of whites v. blacks, was grounded in the prevailing economic structure of the island and ultimately in the plantation economy. This situation conditioned the integration of the black population in Cuba's civil society in the first years of the new republic.

    Estudio de la estructura demográfica y caracterización de la sociedad cubana de finales del siglo XIX, a partir del censo de 1899. En él se trata de demostrar que la fuerte desigualdad social de la sociedad cubana de fines de la época colonial, la dualidad de su entramado social, blancos y negros, es consecuencia de la estructura económica de la isla que tenía su base en la plantación. Este proceso condicionó la integración de la población de color en la sociedad civil cubana, en los primeros años de la república.

  5. El krausismo en la formación del movimiento reformista y liberal en Cuba (siglo XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sappez, Delphine

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article offers a revision of the interpretations tending to minimize the influence of Krausism in Cuba, by extending the usual field of the Cuban history of ideas to the analysis of legal and political ideas during the second half of the nineteenth century. This approach reveals the strong impact Krausism had on 1860s reformists and 1880s autonomists, and consequently on the regenerative political culture that was to affect the Cuban Republic.El presente texto propone una revisión de las interpretaciones tendentes a minimizar la influencia del krausismo en Cuba, ampliando el campo habitual de la historia de las ideas cubana al análisis de las ideas jurídicas y políticas de la segunda mitad del siglo XIX. Este enfoque permite detectar un fuerte impacto del krausismo tanto en los reformistas de los años 1860 como en los autonomistas de los años 1880, y por ende en la cultura política regeneradora que más tarde se proyecta en la República.

  6. Reemergence of dengue in Cuba: a 1997 epidemic in Santiago de Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourí, G; Guzmán, M G; Valdés, L; Carbonel, I; del Rosario, D; Vazquez, S; Laferté, J; Delgado, J; Cabrera, M V

    1998-01-01

    After 15 years of absence, dengue reemerged in the municipality of Santiago de Cuba because of increasing migration to the area by people from disease-endemic regions, a high level of vector infestation, and the breakdown of eradication measures. The 1997 epidemic was detected early through an active surveillance system. Of 2,946 laboratory-confirmed cases, 205 were dengue hemorrhagic fever, and 12 were fatal. No deaths were reported in persons under 16 years of age. Now the epidemic is fully controlled.

  7. EL PROCESO DE ORDENAMIENTO AMBIENTAL EN CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obllurys Cárdenas López

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La necesaria interacción entre el ordenamiento territorial y ordenamiento ambiental fue promulgada en la Ley 81 y en las Estrategias Ambientales Nacionales (EAN desde 1997, en Cuba. Varias situaciones frenaron su cumplimentación, la falta de procedimientos metodológicos que guiaran el proceso, fue una de ellas por lo que la EAN de 2011-2015 y los Lineamientos del PCC lo ratifican como objetivo. En el abordaje de este problema y en la inclusión de los resultados de los estudios de peligro, vulnerabilidad y riesgo y de los escenarios de cambio climático radica la actualidad de la presente investigación. Teniendo como hipótesis que: el empleo de procedimientos metodológicos integradores y participativos facilitará la elaboración de modelos de ordenamiento ambiental (MOA que aporten regulaciones, lineamientos y normas ambientales al proceso de ordenamiento territorial; se persigue como objetivo principal: proponer los procedimientos metodológicos para la elaboración de los MOA y realizar su validación a nivel nacional y municipal. Son empleados métodos teóricos y empíricos combinados en la elaboración de los procedimientos y en su validación a diferentes escalas. Se obtienen como resultado los procedimientos metodológicos, con cinco fases de trabajo y su validación con la elaboración del MOA para el territorio emergido de Cuba, para los sectores agrícola y pecuario y del MOA para el municipio de Yagüajay, para los sectores agrícola, pecuario, forestal, hídrico, turismo y conservación. Se concluyó en la pertinencia de utilizar los procedimientos propuestos para la elaboración de los MOA, teniendo como base el enfoque participativo y a las unidades de paisaje, como unidad de análisis.

  8. 77 FR 66870 - Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement; Notice of Extension of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ...' commitments under the Labor Chapter. OTLA accepted the Submission for review on May 14, 2012 (77 FR 30329 (2012)), in accordance with its published Procedural Guidelines (71 FR 76694 (2006)). Acceptance...

  9. Sweet drinks are made of this: Conservation genetics of an endemic palm species from the Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pseudophoenix ekmanii is a threatened palm species restricted to the Parque Nacional of Jaragua in the southernmost region of Hispaniola. Sap from individual trees is commonly extracted to make a local drink; once they are tapped the plant usually dies. Additionally, adult plants are harvested for...

  10. Cement, concrete, construction and quality discussed by lETCC scientists in Venezuela and the Dominican Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calleja, José

    1975-12-01

    Full Text Available Not availableLa Asociación Venezolana de Ingeniería de Inspección, Dirección y Supervisión de Obras (AVIDISO, como parte del Colegio de Ingenieros de Venezuela, organizó, para celebrar en los días 1 al 6 de septiembre de 1975, un ''Curso sobre Tecnología y Control de Calidad en la Construcción de Obras de Concreto".

  11. 77 FR 36578 - Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement; Notice of Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ..., child labor, forced labor, the right to bargain collectively, and acceptable conditions of work. The... enforcement of the GODR's laws related to freedom of association, the right to organize, child labor, forced... association, the right to organize, child labor, forced labor, the right to bargain collectively,...

  12. South-South Migration and Education: The Case of People of Haitian Descent Born in the Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Lesley

    2012-01-01

    The world is witnessing an era of unprecedented human mobility and much of this movement entails migration between countries in the global south. This article contributes to the development of an important new line of inquiry within the field of comparative and international education: South-South migration and education. In the first section, I…

  13. Everyday Expertise in Self-Management of Diabetes in the Dominican Republic: Implications for Learning and Performance Support Systems Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes Paulino, Lisette G.

    2012-01-01

    An epidemic such as diabetes is an extremely complex public health, economic and social problem that is difficult to solve through medical expertise alone. Evidence-based models for improving healthcare delivery systems advocate educating patients to become more active participants in their own care. This shift demands preparing chronically ill…

  14. Power Pack: U.S. Intervention in the Dominican Republic, 1965-1966 (Leavenworth Papers, Number 15)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-01

    dictatorship. As these groups made clear, the regime could not be toppled unless the dictator himself were assassinated. "If you recall Dracula ," one...Rabe, Eisenhower, 157. 14. The " Dracula " statement is quoted in Harold Molineu, U.S. Policy Toward Latin America: From Regionalism to Globalism (Boulder

  15. Establishment of the west indian fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) parasitoid Doryctobracon areolatus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)in the Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    The West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), infests numerous fruit species, particularly Anacardiaceae and most importantly mango (Mangifera indica L.). Widespread in the Neotropics, it was first reported in Hispaniola nearly 70 years ago. Continental populations are attacked by the op...

  16. Responsive Approaches in Small Wars: The Army and Marine Corps in the Philippines, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    diplomatic influence across the globe. Through the policies of Presidents Theodore Roosevelt, William Taft, and Woodrow Wilson , the American military...David Healy’s book, Gunboat Diplomacy in the Wilson Era, reviews President Wilson’s foreign policy in the occupation of Haiti. Keith Bickle’s book, Mars...2001); David Healy, Gunboat Diplomacy in the Wilson Era: The U.S. Navy in Haiti 1915-1916 (Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, 1976); Hans

  17. Social Perception of Risk and Protection Factors for the Children of Emigrant Mothers: A Study in the Dominican Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan de Dios Uriarte Arciniega

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La feminización de la migración laboral altera los roles y relaciones familiares e impacta en el desarrollo de los niños que quedan en el lugar de origen. El objetivo del estudio es mostrar los factores de riesgo y de protección percibidos en la sociedad dominicana para los hijos cuando emigra la madre. Como factores de riesgo destacan: la falta de comunicaciones entre madre e hijo; ser exigente en las relaciones; y el ambiente familiar sustituto anómalo. En cambio, son factores de protección: la comunicación frecuente con la madre y las relaciones afectuosas entre la tutora y el hijo. Cuando ésta es un familiar muy cercano a la madre, fomenta valores como el ahorro, el esfuerzo y el sacrificio. Los resultados de la percepción social coinciden con la literatura existente, pero se discute si los factores percibidos son los que más afectan el desarrollo psicosocial de los niños que quedan atrás por la migración.

  18. Cholera with severe renal failure in an Italian tourist returning from Cuba, July 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarello, M; Deiana, M L; Maurel, C; Lucarelli, C; Luzzi, I; Luzzati, R

    2013-08-29

    In July 2013, an Italian tourist returning from Cuba was hospitalised in Trieste, Italy, for cholera caused by Vibrio cholerae O1 serotype Ogawa with severe renal failure. An outbreak of cholera was reported in Cuba in January 2013. Physicians should consider the diagnosis of cholera in travellers returning from Cuba presenting with acute watery diarrhoea.

  19. 76 FR 5058 - Airports of Entry or Departure for Flights to and From Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... or Departure for Flights to and From Cuba AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, DHS. ACTION... United States and Cuba must arrive at or depart from one of three named U.S. airports: John F. Kennedy... the United States and Cuba. These amendments are in accordance with the President's recent...

  20. 31 CFR 515.561 - Persons visiting close relatives in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Cuba. 515.561 Section 515.561 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... Cuba. (a) General license. (1) Persons subject to the jurisdiction of the United States and persons... close relative, as defined in § 515.339 of this part, who is a national of Cuba, as defined in §...

  1. 31 CFR 515.415 - Travel to Cuba; transportation of certain Cuban nationals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Travel to Cuba; transportation of... CONTROL REGULATIONS Interpretations § 515.415 Travel to Cuba; transportation of certain Cuban nationals... or a returning resident of the United States, from Cuba to the United States, unless...

  2. 31 CFR 515.207 - Entry of vessels engaged in trade with Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... with Cuba. 515.207 Section 515.207 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 515.207 Entry of vessels engaged in trade with Cuba. Except as specifically... place in Cuba to engage in the trade of goods or the purchase or provision of services, may enter a...

  3. 77 FR 55183 - Effectiveness of Licensing Procedures for Agricultural Commodities to Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-07

    ... Cuba AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and Security, Commerce. ACTION: Request for comments. SUMMARY: The... Cuba. BIS will include a description of these comments in its biennial report to the Congress, as... 772 of the Export Administration Regulations (EAR), to Cuba. Requirements and procedures...

  4. 31 CFR 515.337 - Prohibited officials of the Government of Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Government of Cuba. 515.337 Section 515.337 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 515.337 Prohibited officials of the Government of Cuba. For purposes of this part, the term prohibited officials of the Government of Cuba means Ministers and...

  5. 31 CFR 515.553 - Bank accounts of official representatives in Cuba of foreign governments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representatives in Cuba of foreign governments. 515.553 Section 515.553 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Bank accounts of official representatives in Cuba of foreign governments. Specific licenses are issued authorizing payments from accounts of official representatives in Cuba of foreign governments for...

  6. 75 FR 54594 - Effectiveness of Licensing Procedures for Agricultural Commodities to Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... Cuba AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and Security, Commerce. ACTION: Request for comments. SUMMARY: The... Cuba. BIS will include a description of these comments in its biennial report to the Congress, as... of the Export Administration Regulations (EAR), to Cuba. Requirements and procedures associated...

  7. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency Relating to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating to the Regulation of the Anchorage and Movement of Vessels... Emergency Relating to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating to the Regulation of the Anchorage and... north of Cuba. In July 1996 and on subsequent occasions, the Cuban government stated its intent to...

  8. 31 CFR 515.548 - Services rendered by Cuba to United States aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Services rendered by Cuba to United... REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.548 Services rendered by Cuba to United States aircraft. Specific licenses are issued for payment to Cuba of charges for services...

  9. Unconventional Gas, Status and Perspectives for Its Exploration in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orelvis Delgado López

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this paper, is to define the unconventional gas types that can be found in Cuba andelaborate premises of perspectives areas for its exploration in Cuba. For this reason, a bibliographicrevision was done over the internet, because of the absent of textbooks and experiences of this topicin Cuba. For the enunciation of perspectives areas for unconventional gas exploration in Cuba, bothgas exploration reports in national territory and theoretical aspects elucidated over the internet wereused. Through this method of research it was possible to understand the theoretical aspect ofunconventional gas, the definition of the unconventional gas types that can be present in Cuba andthe most perspectives areas in order to begin its exploration. From these results it is possible toconclude that: The term unconventional gas is used because of the unconventional technical used formake the production of natural gas profitable from low quality reservoirs, and not because it is ahydrocarbon with different characteristics. The main unconventional gas types, which are beingdeveloped nowadays worldwide, are: Tight gas, shale gas y coal bed methane. Preliminarily, in Cubaonly exist conditions for tight and shale gas development.

  10. Revolution on the mind: Cuba, between fact and fable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Stubbs

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] To make a world safe for revolution: Cuba's foreign policy. JORGE I. DOMÏNGUEZ. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 1989. viii + 365 pp. (Cloth US$ 35.00 U.S. - Cuba relations in the 1990s. JORGE I. DoMfNGUEZ & RAFAEL HERNANDEZ (eds.. Boulder CO: Westview, 1989. ix + 324 pp. (Cloth US$ 42.00, Paper US$ 15.95 Transformation and struggle: Cuba faces the 1990s. SANDOR HALEBSKY & JOHN M. KIRK (eds.. with the assistance of Rafael Hernéndez. New York: Praeger, 1990. xxvi + 291 pp. (Cloth US$ 45.00, Paper US$ 17.95 "A masterpiece of political intrigue" was one description of Jorge Dominguez' earlier book, Cuba: order and revolution; and it is a fitting comment for its sequel foreign policy volume. Dominguez himself opens with: "This is not a book of fiction, yet much of the story seems a fantasy." The story is how, from 1959 to 1988, Cuban leaders sought "to make a world safe for revolution" and, in the process, that small country Cuba came to have "the foreign policy of a big power." In his thorough, methodical fashion, Dominguez marshalls a wealth of documentary evidence from varied and conflicting sources, backed with extensive interview material, to paint a "behind the scènes" story of policymakers and their policy.

  11. Música popular y nacionalismo en los campamentos insurgentes. Cuba (1895-1898) /Popular Music and Nationalism in Insurgent Camps. Cuba (1895-1898)/Música popular e nacionalismo nos acampamentos insurgentes. Cuba (1895-1898)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jaddiel Díaz Frene

    2015-01-01

    ...? Palabras clave: música, Cuba, nacionalismo, cultura popular, raza, género, décimas. Popular Music and Nationalism in Insurgent Camps. Cuba (1895-1898) Abstract: This article reconstructs the social uses of the décimas (ten-line stanzas) sung in the insurgent camps during the war for independence that began in Cuba in 1895. Through a review of persona...

  12. Ethnicity, education, and blood pressure in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordunez, Pedro; Munoz, Jose Luis Bernal; Espinosa-Brito, Alfredo; Silva, Luis Carlos; Cooper, Richard S

    2005-07-01

    The causes of variation in hypertension risk by ethnicity and educational level are not well understood. To gain further insight into this issue in a nonindustrialized country, a population-based sample of 1,667 persons aged 15-74 years was recruited in Cienfuegos, Cuba. In this 2001-2002 study, interviewers classified 29% of participants as Black or mulatto and 71% as White. Educational attainment was stratified at the median number of school years. Compared with White women, non-White women had higher blood pressures (3.0/1.7, systolic blood pressure/diastolic blood pressure) and a higher prevalence of hypertension (24%, 95% confidence interval: 20, 28 vs. 15%, 95% confidence interval: 12, 18). Among men, no differences in blood pressure were observed by ethnicity. Men with a lower level of education had a 14% lower risk of hypertension compared with men above the median. However, women with a lower level of education had a 24% increase in risk. The effect of education was equally strong among Whites alone and when occupation was used for stratification. No variation was observed for body mass index or self-reported health behaviors by ethnicity or education. The narrower ethnic gradient in hypertension prevalence than seen in North America and the gender-specific social status effect, in the context of relatively equal living conditions, suggest that the influence of psychosocial stressors may be specific to cultural contexts.

  13. Saharan dust events measured at Camaguey, Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antuna, J.; Estevan, R.; Barja, B.

    2012-12-01

    Using AERONET level 2.0 dataset from Camagüey, Cuba, Saharan Dust events have been measured from 2009 to the present. The sunphotometer, operated by GOAC in cooperation with RIMA (Red Iberica de Medicion de Aerosoles) has been also contributing to AERONET. Five Saharan dust events AOD measured in July 2009 have been compared with Spatio-temporal coincident MODIS (both from Aqua and Terra instruments) measurements of AOD. Also the SKIRON model AOD forecasts for the same period over Camagüey were compared with local measurements. The daily average values of the sunphotometer measured AOD and modeled forecasted AOD show a better agreement than the rest of the combinations of AOD selection criteria tested, but still notable differences are present. The lack of background aerosols AOD in the forecast produces additional differences in the absence of Saharan dust. In the case of the long range transport of Saharan aerosols the forecasted AOD values are higher than the measured ones. The differences daily mean sunphotometer AOD and the daily mean areal MODIS (both Terra and Aqua) AOD are lower than the differences between the daily maximum sunphotometer AOD and the daily areal maximum MODIS (both from Terra and Aqua) AOD. The mean areal AOD MODIS values (both for Terra and Aqua) underestimates the high aerosols concentrations and overestimates the lower ones, measured by the sunphotometer. New research is underway, covering the 2009 and 2010 Saharan dust events. Preliminary results are shown.

  14. Utilization of hybrid systems in Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Mercedes Menendez; Figueredo, Conrado Moreno [Renewable Energy Technologies Study Center (CETER), Marianao (Cuba)

    1996-12-31

    This work deals with the possibility of the wind-photovoltaic hybrid system uses for the electricity generation in Cuba. A design of energy installation is made to satisfy the tourism facilities demands located in Cayo Sabinal, in the north of the province Camaguey. The design is based on the data base of the available wind and solar resources. A group of existing wind-generators in the market is analyzed and the best is selected taking into account a set of energy parameters, the monthly energy supply is function of the turbines numbers and the quantity of necessary solar energy to guarantee the system requirements. An economical evaluation is carried out in order to select the best wind-solar combination and a comparison with other forms of electricity generation (Diesel Plant and a stand alone wind system). In the work is showed the best combination in the critical month is when a 62% of energy is supplied by wind energy and 38% of solar energy. Otherwise in the work is showed hybrid system is more economical than a stand alone wind system and a Diesel Plant. (Author)

  15. Las actuales transformaciones en Cuba y sus efectos en las relaciones Cuba-CARICOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Laguardia Martínez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En 2011 Cuba aprobó una nueva política económica con el objetivo de relanzar su economía sin comprometer los principales logros sociales asociados a su modelo socialista. La apuesta es lo suficientemente ambiciosa como para generar dudas sobre la posibilidad real de instrumentar con éxito una transformación socioeconómica de tales dimensiones. Lo cierto es que, a pesar de los temores y resistencias a la “actualización” del modelo económico cubano, los cambios internos son obligatorios con el fin de construir un socialismo “próspero y sostenible”, idea que el presidente Raúl Castro ha promovido como objetivo central de los cambios. El artículo analiza las relaciones de Cuba y los países del CARICOM en el contexto de la cambiante realidad cubana actual y examina las posibles modificaciones que esta relación podría experimentar en un futuro próximo como consecuencia de la actualización económica cubana.

  16. 31 CFR 515.559 - Certain transactions by U.S.-owned or controlled foreign firms with Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... controlled foreign firms with Cuba. 515.559 Section 515.559 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating... transactions by U.S.-owned or controlled foreign firms with Cuba. (a) Effective October 23, 1992, no specific... controlled firms in third countries and Cuba for the exportation to Cuba of commodities produced in...

  17. The Debate in Cuba's Scientific Community on Sudden Cardiac Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilches, Ernesto; Ochoa, Luis A; Ramos, Lianne

    2015-10-01

    Sudden cardiac death poses a challenge to modern medicine because of its high incidence, the unexpected and dramatic nature of the event, and years of potential life lost. What's more, despite modest decreases in global mortality attributed to cardiovascular diseases, incidence of sudden cardiac death has not declined. Cuba, like most of the Americas, suffers from knowledge gaps that hamper adequate strategies to address sudden cardiac death as a population health problem. We suggest that a generally accepted operational definition of sudden cardiac death be agreed upon, and a national registry developed that recognizes this cause of death on death certificates. These two actions will enable Cuba's public health authorities to assess the extent of the problem and to design intervention strategies for the population with intermediate and lower cardiovascular risk, the group in which most cases occur. KEYWORDS Sudden cardiac death, cardiovascular disease, sudden death, sudden cardiac arrest, risk reduction, prevention and control, Cuba.

  18. Intelectualidad criolla y nación en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel GARCÍA MORA

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En este artículo se analizan las interacciones entre las posiciones intelectuales de los autonomistas cubanos y su idea de la nacionalidad, y la utilización que de la "raza" hicieron los científicos criollos. En una primera parte, se estudian los debates en torno a los pobladores "ideales" con los que constituir una nación moderna y "civilizada", que alejara de Cuba el fantasma de la "africanización". La segunda parte del trabajo se centra en el análisis de la publicación cultural más importante del momento, como fue la Revista de Cuba (1877-1884. Una publicación al servicio de una ciencia criolla, en la que se expuso el concepto de nacionalidad y el proyecto político de los autonomistas, compartido por la mayoría de los científicos cubanos. Palabras Clave: Cuba, ciencia criolla, autonomismo, intelectuales, nacionalidad. ABSTRACT: This article analyzes the interactions between the Cuban Autonomists, their intellectual positions and their ideas about "nationality", and the use of the concept of "race" made by the Criollo scientists. The first part studies debates on the "ideal" settlers for the forming of a modern and "civilized" nation, which would remove the spectre of "Africanization" from Cuba. The second part of this work is focused on the analysis of the most important cultural review of the time, the Revista de Cuba (1877-1884. It was in this publi- cation —which acted as the voice of Criollo science— that the concept of nationality and the political project of the Autonomists, which was shared by most of the Cuban scientists, was expressed. Key words: Cuba, Criollo Science, Autonomism, Intellectuals, Nationality.

  19. The Politics of Revolutionary Development: Civil-Military Relations in Cuba, 1959-1976,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    34 Cuba Socialista, No. 47 (July 1965), 51-67; Paul Castro, " Problemas del faicimandento del Partido en las FAR," Cuba Socialista, No. 55 (March 1966...34 Cuba Socialista, No. 47 (July 1965, 51-67; and iFail Castro, " Problemas del ffncionamiento del Partido en las FAR," Cuba Socialists, No. 55 (March...mtica del Partido Comnista de Cuba: Tesis5 Resolucion La Habana: Departamentod Orienacin volucianaria del Ccmite Central del PCC, 1976), pp. 114-116. 64

  20. A New Approach to Health Services and Pharmacy in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Alina M

    2015-12-01

    In December 17, 2014, U.S. President Barack Obama surprised the world by announcing his intention to enter into negotiations aimed at reestablishing diplomatic relations with Cuba. Since then, expectations and interest regarding the health system of that country have increased. This report focuses on the Cuban health and pharmacy systems from a practical and educational standpoint. Pharmaceutical services, strengths, opportunities, and challenges are described. Cuba's new trends toward patient-centered care are analyzed to provide insights for developing pharmaceutical care practice and implementing policies suitable for practice in all health care settings. © 2015 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  1. Recent trends in Cuba's mining and petroleum industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacaster, Susan; Baker, Michael S.; Soto-Viruet, Yadira; Textoris, Steven D.

    2015-01-01

    In response to recent diplomatic developments between Cuba and the United States, the National Minerals Information Center compiled available information on the mineral industries of Cuba. This fact sheet highlights a new map and table that identify mines, mineral processing facilities, and petroleum facilities as well as information on location, operational status, and ownership. It also addresses the current status of known mineral industry projects, historical developments, and trends of the Cuban economy with an emphasis on mineral industries, and the supply and demand for Cuba’s mineral resources.

  2. Pay Inequality in Cuba: the Special Period and After

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the evolution of pay inequality in Cuba from the early 1990s through 2004, during what was known as the “Special Period in Times of Peace” and after. We measure pay inequality across sectors and regions, using the between-groups component of Theil’s T statistic, and we map the changing components of that statistic in order to provide a compact summary of structural change in Cuba. This method helps us to observe the transition of the Cuban economy from one based fundamenta...

  3. El V Congreso del Partido Comunista de Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe RUÍZ ALONSO

    1998-01-01

    RESUMEN: El artículo describe de forma prolija el desarrollo y resultados del V Congreso del Partido Comunista de Cuba celebrado en La Habana eri octubre de 1997. Por el papel hegemónico del Partido Comunista Cubano en el sistema político cubano, las conclusiones del citado congreso pueden ser interpretadas como elementos claves de reflexión en el marco de la situación económica y política de Cuba.ABSTRACT: This article describes in a detailed manner the development and results of the V Congr...

  4. A POLÍTICA AFRICANA DE CUBA: IDEALISMO OU PRAGMATISMO?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analúcia Danilevicz Pereira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As relações cubano-africanas são marcadas por traços de excepcionalidade. A Revolução Cubana coincide, temporalmente, com o aprofundamento do processo descolonizatório na África. Desde os primeiros anos da Revolução, Cuba definiu sua linha de atuação no continente africano, marcada pela cooperação militar e civil. A política africana de Cuba, foi, assim, definida pela autopreservação e zelo revolucionário.

  5. Cuba, Canarias y la prensa, en el contexto del 98

    OpenAIRE

    Lic. Ileana Medina Hernández

    1998-01-01

    1898 es para España el año del Desastre, con mayúscula; 1898 es para Cuba el año de la independencia, quizá con minúscula. Canarias es la puerta de salida de Europa; Cuba es puerta la entrada de América. La migración canario - cubana ha sido un factor histórico decisivo en la formación de ambas nacionalidades. La prensa de masas naciente a fines del siglo XIX jugó un papel determinante en la guerra hispano-norteamericana y su desenlace. Conjugando esas cuatro sentencias aplastantes y archicon...

  6. Hidden markers, open secrets: on naming, race-marking, and race-making in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Zeuske

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Focuses on how in Cuba race-marking was interrelated with surname-giving, also after the abolition of slavery. Through researching life histories on the local level in the Cienfuegos region, the author examines names of former slaves, finding that these were after abolition in notarial records often marked with the adjectives s.o.a., or "sin otro apellido" (without other surname, taking into account the Iberian double surname tradition. This, according to him, points to a stigmatization of these black citizens and related to their former status as possession, and is thus a racial marker, only more hidden than the open racial assignations during slavery. He relates these postemancipation surnames of former slaves to the dotation of surnames during slavery, whereby most surnames of slaves were those of the last owner of the slaves. He also discusses differences in name-giving between the notarial records and everyday life. He further indicates that a new racism developed in the Cuban society of the late 19th c. and early 20th c., which was voiced more openly in the realm of culture, and regarding events as incarceration and death, and more hidden within the civil and judicial spheres, where the fiction of a race-blind republic was maintained.

  7. Seismic image of the petroleum structures in Cuba; Imagen sismica de las estructuras para petroleo en Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sora Monroy, America; Socorro Trujillo, Rafael [Empresa de Geofisica, La Habana (Cuba)

    1999-07-01

    The main oil trap in Cuba are associated with structural highs. These structures are ;located within different types of rocks (ophiolitics, volcanics sedimentary rocks). During the compressive stage (Late Cretacic - Early Tertiary) have produced the Cuban fold and thurst belt. By the Campanian, the volcanic arc and associated oceanic basement were obducted onto the Continental Crust, consequently sedimentary cover was folded to form many oil structures, for example: ramp anticline structures, fold system duplex. In postorogenic period, tectonic stress is still active, is in this moment a lot of traps has been recognized by floowers structures, and as a result, pull apart basin of 4-6 km thick sediments were mostly in the south of Cuba. This paper illustrates the characteristics of seismic images of oil traps in Cuba. (author)

  8. [Eugenic abortion could explain the lower infant mortality in Cuba compared to that in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoso S, Enrique; Carvajal C, Jorge A

    2012-08-01

    Cuba and Chile have the lower infant mortality rates of Latin America. Infant mortality rate in Cuba is similar to that of developed countries. Chilean infant mortality rate is slightly higher than that of Cuba. To investigate if the lower infant mortality rate in Cuba, compared to Chile, could be explained by eugenic abortion, considering that abortion is legal in Cuba but not in Chile. We compared total and congenital abnormalities related infant mortality in Cuba and Chile during 2008, based on vital statistics of both countries. In 2008, infant mortality rates in Chile were significantly higher than those of Cuba (7.8 vs. 4.7 per 1,000 live born respectively, odds ratio (OR) 1.67; 95% confidence intervals (Cl) 1.52-1.83). Congenital abnormalities accounted for 33.8 and 19.2% of infant deaths in Chile and Cuba, respectively. Discarding infant deaths related to congenital abnormalities, infant mortality rate continued to be higher in Chile than in Cuba (5.19 vs. 3.82 per 1000 live born respectively, OR 1.36; 95%CI 1.221.52). Considering that antenatal diagnosis is widely available in both countries, but abortion is legal in Cuba but not in Chile, we conclude that eugenic abortion may partially explain the lower infant mortality rate observed in Cuba compared to that observed in Chile.

  9. Smoking prevalence in Cienfuegos City, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benet, Mikhail; Espinosa, Alfredo; Morejón, Alain; Diez, Emiliano; Landrove, Orlando; Ordúñez, Pedro O

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Over the last 40 years, high smoking prevalence has been reported throughout Cuba, including in Cienfuegos city in the central part of the island. OBJECTIVES Determine smoking prevalence and potential associated risk factors in Cienfuegos city for 2010-2011. METHODS A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in Cienfuegos city in the context of CARMEN (Collaborative Action for Risk Factor Prevention & Effective Management of Non-communicable Diseases), a PAHO multi-country initiative for a multidimensional approach to chronic non-communicable diseases. Participants totaled 2193 (aged 15-74 years), randomly selected through complex probabilistic three-stage sampling. Variables examined in relation to smoking included age, sex, skin color, civil status and educational level. RESULTS Approximately 25% of those surveyed were smokers (30.3% of men and 21.0% of women). For men, prevalence was highest in the groups aged 25-34 and 55-64 years; for women, in the group aged 45-54 years. Concerning skin color, smoking rates were higher among black and mestizo persons (29.5%); and concerning civil status, higher among those who were separated, widowed or divorced (30.0%). Smoking prevalence fell with higher educational level; in keeping with that trend, the university-educated group had the lowest prevalence (16.2%). CONCLUSIONS Although one in four Cienfuegos residents aged ≥15 years smoked in 2010-2011, prevalence there is lower than in previous surveys. Knowledge of differences observed in age, sex, skin color, civil status and educational level can be useful for planning future smoking prevention and control actions.

  10. Central African Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    Focus in this discussion of the Central African Republic is on: geography; the people; history and political conditions; government; the economy; foreign relations; and relations with the US. The population of the Central African Republic totaled 2.7 million in 1985 with an annual growth rate of 2.8%. The infant mortality rate is 134/1000 with life expectancy at 49 years. The Central African Republic is at almost the precise center of Africa, about 640 km from the nearest ocean. More than 70% of the population live in rural areas. There are more than 80 ethnic groups, each with its own language. The precolonial history of the area was marked by successive waves of migration, of which little is known. These migrations are responsible for the complex ethnic and linguistic patterns today. United with Chad in 1906, it formed the Oubangui-Chari-Chad colony. In 1910, it became 1 of the 4 territories of the Federation of French Equatorial Africa, along with Chad, Congo, and Gabon. After World War II, the French Constitution of 1946 inaugurated the first of a series of reforms that led eventually to complete independence for all French territories in western and equatorial Africa. The nation became an autonomous republic within the newly established French Community on December 1, 1958, and acceded to complete independence as the Central Africa Republic on August 13, 1960. The government is made up of the executive and the judicial branches. The constitution and legislature remain suspended. All executive and legislative powers, as well as judicial oversight, are vested in the chief of state. The Central African Republic is 1 of the world's least developed countries, with an annual per capita income of $310. 85% of the population is engaged in subsistence farming. Diamonds account for nearly 1/3 of export earnings; the industrial sector is limited. The US terminated bilateral assistance programs in 1979, due to the human rights violations of the Bokassa regime, but modest

  11. Mortalidad infantil en Cuba 1959-1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Riverón Corteguera

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available De 1959 a 1999, con los datos estadísticos disponibles, la mortalidad infantil en Cuba disminuyó en 81,3 %, la mortalidad neonatal precoz se redujo el 73,4 %, la mortalidad neonatal tardía el 83,6 % y la posneonatal en 86,0 %. Las reducciones obtenidas en el período se distribuyeron uniformemente entre todas las provincias, aunque la mayor disminución se produjo en las provincias centrales y occidentales. Los rubros que más disminuyeron sus tasas fueron: enteritis y otras enfermedades diarreicas, infecciones respiratorias agudas, afecciones perinatales en general y las meningitis, aunque todas las causas reducen la mortalidad en el período. La natalidad descendió el 51,3 %, la fecundidad lo hizo en 30 %, el crecimiento demográfico bruto de la población disminuyó el 59,8 %, el parto institucional aumentó en 65,9 %, el bajo peso al nacer descendió el 36,9 %, la mortalidad perinatal se redujo el 67,2 %, los nacidos vivos disminuyeron el 21,1 % y la supervivencia infantil a los 5 años aumentó el 3,8 %. Esto ha sido posible debido principalmente a la decisión política de priorizar el sector de la salud y muy especialmente la salud maternoinfantil adoptada por nuestro Estado a principios de la década de los 60, lo que permitió alcanzar avances en la organización, calidad de la atención y una amplia cobertura de los servicios de salud. También fueron elementos importantes, el mejoramiento del nivel de vida y de la educación alcanzados por la población, las mejoras logradas en la situación sanitaria y epidemiológica, la distribución equitativa de los alimentos que prioriza a la madre y al niño. Un elemento fundamental en la última década ha sido el desarrollo del "médico de la familia" en la atención primaria y el mejoramiento de la atención hospitalaria. Por otra parte han contribuido de manera notable el establecimiento del Programa Nacional de Atención Maternoinfantil, que abarca las inmunizaciones, el control de las

  12. Cuba. Escenarios demográficos hacia 2030 Cuba. Demographic scenarios towards 2030

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Albizu-Campos Espiñeira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo es un ensayo de construcción de escenarios demográficos para Cuba hacia 2030, introduciendo los elementos fundamentales del cambio de la población a partir de las tendencias recientes observadas en las variables que determinan su dinámica, se debaten los elementos que se consideran claves para modelar su posible evolución, dado que en un contexto como el actual, pronosticar el comportamiento futuro de la población, por lo menos hasta un mediano plazo y con la mayor precisión posible, se convierte en un instrumento esencial para ofrecer criterios cada vez más refinados para la conformación de las políticas orientadas al alcance de las mejores condiciones posibles en el proceso de desarrollo económico del país.

  13. Courting the future: cancer and genetics in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Describing this double issue of MEDICC Review could be an exercise for a first-year philosophy course in logic. It's not about "cancer and genetics" in Cuba. It's about cancer in Cuba and about genetics in Cuba, not about exploring relationships between them. Nevertheless, while the marriage of the two themes was fortuitous, in that the two had long been scheduled for the journal in 2014, there is a certain felicity to their sharing an issue. To date, the outstanding accomplishments of genetics have been most helpful for conditions occurring at the beginning of life and cancer is largely (though not exclusively) a disease related to aging. But the two are intrinsically connected: Although only a few of the more than 100 different diseases grouped under the term cancer are known to be hereditary, every cancer begins with a mutation in one or more genes, whether the mutation is inherited, due to an exposure, or is simply a random error in the millions of cell divisions that are part and parcel of cellular reproduction. Our cover image, a stained-glass window by Cuban artist Rosa María de la Terga at Cuba's National Medical Genetics Center, illustrates the elegance of the DNA molecule, the intricate key to life.

  14. Socialism and Education in Cuba and Soviet Uzbekistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charon-Cardona, Euridice

    2013-01-01

    During the Cold War over half a million Asians, Africans and Latin Americans studied and graduated in the Soviet Union's universities and technical schools as part of this country's educational aid policies. Cuba was an intermediary player in the Cold War geopolitical contest between the United States and the Soviet Union, fuelled by the…

  15. Disaster management and multihazard risk assessment in Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castellanos Abella, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    The success, statistically proved, of the civil defense system in Cuba have been justified differently worldwide. While some experts relate this fact to the social welfare others debate about the forced evacuation. Beside, the long term development of disaster reduction in the country is commonly fo

  16. Fifty years of Cuba's medical diplomacy: from idealism to pragmatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinsilver, Julie M

    2010-01-01

    Medical diplomacy, the collaboration between countries to simultaneously produce health benefits and improve relations, has been a cornerstone of Cuban foreign policy since the outset of the revolution fifty years ago. It has helped Cuba garner symbolic capital (goodwill, influence, and prestige) well beyond what would have been possible for a small, developing country, and it has contributed to making Cuba a player on the world stage. In recent years, medical diplomacy has been instrumental in providing considerable material capital (aid, credit, and trade), as the oil-for-doctors deals with Venezuela demonstrates. This has helped keep the revolution afloat in trying economic times. What began as the implementation of the one of the core values of the revolution, namely health as a basic human right for all peoples, has continued as both an idealistic and a pragmatic pursuit. This article examines the factors that enabled Cuba to conduct medical diplomacy over the past fifty years, the rationale behind the conduct of this type of soft power politics, the results of that effort, and the mix of idealism and pragmatism that has characterized the experience. Moreover, it presents a typology of medical diplomacy that Cuba has used over the past fifty years.

  17. Ciencia y coleccionismo en Cuba en el siglo XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valero González, Mercedes

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article a panoramic is exposed about museums and cabinets which existed in Cuba during the nineteenth century, describing functions and characteristics as well as the causes that made some of them disappear. It is also shown the continuity, asumed by the scientific collection over since major nationalized-institute in the nineteenth century. It is likewise intended to give a general and complete chronology about the development of museum in Cuba, taking into account the lasting-long or not of such institute. The authors regret the work shortege that considers the subject and total absence from the comparative standpoint.

    En este artículo se brinda una panorámica de los museos y gabinetes que existieron en Cuba durante el siglo XIX, describiéndose las características y funciones, así como las causas que hicieron desaparecer a algunos de ellos. También se destaca la continuidad asumida por el coleccionismo científico desde el siglo XVIII y su mayor institucionalización en el XIX. Asimismo se intenta dar una cronología muy general sobre el desarrollo de los museos en Cuba, teniéndose en cuenta la perdurabilidad o no de dicha institucionalización. Los autores lamentan la escasez de trabajos que traten el tema y la ausencia total desde el punto de vista comparativo.

  18. Medicinal plants sold at the El Rio Market, Camaguey, Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godinez-Caraballo, D.; Volpato, G.

    2008-01-01

    Information regarding medicinal plants sold in the El Rio Market, Camaguey, Cuba, revealed 184 species belonging to 69 vascular plant families. The most important family was Fabaceae s.l. with 13 species, followed by Lamiaceae with 12, and Asteraceae with 8. More than 90 general medicinal indication

  19. Medicinal plants sold at the El Rio Market, Camaguey, Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godinez-Caraballo, D.; Volpato, G.

    2008-01-01

    Information regarding medicinal plants sold in the El Rio Market, Camaguey, Cuba, revealed 184 species belonging to 69 vascular plant families. The most important family was Fabaceae s.l. with 13 species, followed by Lamiaceae with 12, and Asteraceae with 8. More than 90 general medicinal

  20. Some Interesting Data About Women Physicists in Cuba (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fuentes, Olimpia Arias

    2009-04-01

    Although the number of women physicists in Cuba, as in the entire world, is less than men physicists, their presence in the academic leadership is strong, unlike the limited women's role in many other countries. Some interesting numeral data are presented to demonstrate this affirmation. This fact emphasizes the advantages reached by women and the increasing prestige obtained by women physicists in our country.

  1. Multi-scale landslide risk assessment in Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castellanos Abella, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    Landslides cause a considerable amount of damage in the mountainous regions of Cuba, which cover about 25% of the territory. Until now, only a limited amount of research has been carried out in the field of landslide risk assessment in the country. This research presents a methodology and its implem

  2. Cyathura specus, a new cave Isopod from Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bowman, Thomas E.

    1965-01-01

    During the years 1958-1960, several shipments of specimens collected in the Caguanes Caves of Cuba were sent to the United States National Museum by GILBERTO SILVA TABOADA. Mr. SILVA'S collections included 3 specimens of a blind anthurid isopod, which I determined to be a species of Cyathura, simila

  3. U.S. Embargo Against Cuba: Should it Be Continued

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-23

    disgraced, no one was safe."ś I agree with Schulz when he says that a golpe de estado is unlikely in Cuba in the near future." Fidel Castro has...Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, and Uruguay .94 Taking this into consideration, the best course of action for the United States would seem to

  4. Disaster management and multihazard risk assessment in Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castellanos Abella, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    The success, statistically proved, of the civil defense system in Cuba have been justified differently worldwide. While some experts relate this fact to the social welfare others debate about the forced evacuation. Beside, the long term development of disaster reduction in the country is commonly fo

  5. Theological Higher Education in Cuba: Part 3--The Cuban Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esqueda, Octavio J.

    2007-01-01

    This article provides a summary of the Cuban Revolution and its implications and consequences for Christian higher education in Cuba. Christian institutions experienced the same oppression from the communist revolution as the rest of the evangelical denominations during the sixties and seventies. The worst period for Protestantism began in 1965…

  6. Socialism and Education in Cuba and Soviet Uzbekistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charon-Cardona, Euridice

    2013-01-01

    During the Cold War over half a million Asians, Africans and Latin Americans studied and graduated in the Soviet Union's universities and technical schools as part of this country's educational aid policies. Cuba was an intermediary player in the Cold War geopolitical contest between the United States and the Soviet Union, fuelled by the…

  7. Reflexions on multidisciplinarity and geologic risk management in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galbán Rodríguez Liber

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Geological risk management has special relevance in construction and the creation of new infrastructure in Cuba. The aim of this work was to focus on making some reflections about the multidisciplinarity analysis of geological risk management in the country from a critical perspective

  8. Poliomyelitis and its elimination in Cuba: an historical overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldarraín, Enrique

    2013-04-01

    Polio was first detected in Cuba in the late 19th century among residents of the US community on the Isla de Pinos (Isle of Pines, now Isle of Youth), apparently introduced through migration from the USA. The first outbreak was reported in 1906 on the Isle, with the first epidemic reported in the former province of Las Villas in 1909. The epidemics subsequently intensified, by 1934 becoming periodic every four to five years, and accompanied by high morbidity, mortality and crippling sequelae, primarily among children. To review and analyze the history of polio and its control in Cuba, from the disease's first appearance in 1898 until WHO/PAHO certification of elimination in 1994. The historiological method was used; archival documents, medical records, and available polio morbidity and mortality statistics from the Ministry of Public Health's National Statistics Division before 1959 and from 1959 through 2000 were reviewed. Crude morbidity and mortality rates were calculated using population estimates at mid-period. Reports and scientific publications describing polio vaccination campaigns and their results were also reviewed, and key informants were interviewed. After initial introduction of polio in Cuba, five major epidemics occurred between 1932 and 1958: in 1934 (434 cases, 82 deaths); 1942 (494 cases, 58 deaths); 1946 (239 cases, 33 deaths), 1952 (492 cases, 15 deaths) and 1955 (267 cases, 8 deaths). Between 1957 and 1961 the disease's endemicity reached epidemic levels, with the last outbreak occurring in 1961, with 342 cases, 30% of them in children aged >4 years. In 1962, Cuba launched a nationwide polio vaccination campaign, the first of annual campaigns thereafter carried out in the framework of a coherent national program aimed at polio elimination. Using the Sabin oral vaccine and targeting the entire pediatric population in a single time period, five million doses were administered in the first campaign, reaching 87.5% of the target population aged 1

  9. Antenatal cytogenetic testing in Havana, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Rosado, Luis A; Quiñones, Olga; Molina, Odalys; González, Nereida; del Sol, Marylin; Maceiras, Luanda; Bravo, Yomisleidy

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Antenatal cytogenetic testing was started in Havana in 1984, as a diagnostic option for fetal chromosome complement. The techniques applied are amniocyte culture, chorionic villus sampling, cordocentesis and fluorescence in situ hybridization in interphase cells. OBJECTIVE Describe the results of antenatal cytogenetic testing in the cytogenetic laboratory of the Cuba's National Medical Genetics Center in Havana, from 1984 through 2012. METHODS A retrospective descriptive study was carried out of the 22,928 pregnant women who had antenatal testing with conclusive results during the period 1984-2012. Information was obtained from laboratory databases for four antenatal diagnostic techniques. Variables studied were: antenatal diagnostic method, indications for genetic testing, type of chromosomal abnormality detected and couple's decision concerning pregnancy continuation if hereditary disease was diagnosed. Results were reported in absolute numbers and percentages. RESULTS Overall positivity was 2.8% (641 cases). Of the total, 20,565 samples were from amniocyte culture (558 positive cases, 2.7%); 1785 chorionic villus sampling (38 positive, 2.1%); 407 cord blood culture (28 positive, 6.9%); and 171 fluorescence in situ hybridization in interphase cells (17 positive, 9.9%). Advanced maternal age was the predominant indication for amniocyte culture and chorionic villus sampling. Positivity was higher for the two less frequently used methods, cordocentesis (6.9% positivity) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (9.9%). The predominant chromosomal abnormality was Down syndrome, with 45.4% of cases detected (291/641; 279 pure lines and 12 mosaic trisomies), followed by Edward syndrome with 12% (77/641, 71 pure lines and 6 mosaics) and Patau syndrome 4.7% (30/641, 27 pure lines and 3 mosaics). Sexual aneuploidy with pure lines affected 6.9% of cases (44/641) and with mosaicism 4.7% (30/641). Structural chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 22.5% of cases

  10. Pesticide use, alternatives and workers' health in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, R; Anderson, P K

    1984-01-01

    Cuba provides a unique example of a country that is actively implementing a program to reduce its dependence on pesticides. This paper addresses Cuba's current efforts to develop and implement alternatives to pesticides and legislation to limit exposure and protect workers in the interim. In 1980 Cuba embarked on a national program to utilize alternatives to chemical pest control. This three-part program includes expansion of knowledge of Cuban agro-ecology in order to implement cultural control practices; research and implementation on biological control of pests; and research on plant resistance and development of resistant crop varieties. To date, the program has enabled Cuba to reduce pesticide usage in sugar cane, citrus, tobacco, corn, and vegetable crops, among others. While alternatives to chemical pest control are being developed, the Cubans are paying special attention to regulating pesticide use and the safety of workers and members of the public exposed to toxic chemicals. In addition to the Resolution on Health and Safety (1967) and the Safety and Health Law (1978) which cover all workers, including Cuba's 250,000 agricultural workers, the Ministry of Public Health promulgated Resolution 335 in 1967. This resolution addresses requirements and administration of structural pest control, production, importation, transport and storage of pesticides, as well as requirements for worker contact with pesticides, pesticides for domestic use, aerial application of pesticides, and violations of the regulations. The paper concludes with a description of how the system works on the provincial level, as exemplified by Villa Clara, and the steps that have been taken to eliminate worker exposure to pesticides, to utilize pesticides which pose less of a hazard to workers, and to assure early detection of ill effects.

  11. Early Childhood Internalizing Problems in Mexican- and Dominican-Origin Children: The Role of Cultural Socialization and Parenting Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzada, Esther; Barajas-Gonzalez, R. Gabriela; Huang, Keng-Yen; Brotman, Laurie

    2015-01-01

    This study examined mother- and teacher-rated internalizing behaviors (i.e., anxiety, depression and somatization symptoms) among young children using longitudinal data from a community sample of 661 Mexican and Dominican families, and tested a conceptual model in which parenting (mother’s socialization messages and parenting practices) predicted child internalizing problems 12 months later. Children evidenced elevated levels of mother-rated anxiety at both time points. Findings also supported the validity of the proposed parenting model for both Mexican and Dominican families. Though there were different pathways to child anxiety, depression and somatization among Mexican and Dominican children, socialization messages and authoritarian parenting were positively associated with internalizing symptoms for both groups. PMID:26042610

  12. La tuberculosis pulmonar, enfermedad reemergente en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita González Tapia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sr. Editor: La tuberculosis es una de las enfermedades remergentes en Cuba; por ello en todas las provincias cubanas se trabaja con mucha fuerza, dedicación y profesionalidad con respecto a esta problemática. En este contexto, resulta muy acertada la publicación del artículo “Algunas variables clínico-epidemiológicas de la tuberculosis pulmonar. Puerto Padre, 2008-2012”, que salió en el Vol.38 No.6.01 del mes de junio de 2013 de la Revista Electrónica Dr. Zoilo E. Marinello Vidaurreta; tanto por el significado social que reviste la divulgación de este tema, como por el propio resultado de la investigación realizada. La historia de la tuberculosis es un tema apasionante. En pocas enfermedades es posible documentar su estrecha relación con la historia de la propia humanidad como en la que nos ocupa. Existen evidencias paleológicas de tuberculosis vertebral en momias egipcias que datan aproximadamente del año 2400 a.C. La tuberculosis se ha conocido a través de la historia, con los nombres de: tisis, consunción, escrófula, mal de Pott, plaga blanca y mal del rey.1 En el artículo se plantea como conclusión que la tendencia de la tuberculosis en el quinquenio de estudio es estacionaria, pero en los últimos cuatro años tiende al ascenso. En los casos diagnosticados de tuberculosis en este quinquenio más de dos tercios correspondieron al sexo masculino y mayores de 45 años, las ocupaciones que más prevalecieron fueron recluso, desocupado, ama de casa y jubilado. Los factores de riesgo que más se relacionaron fueron el albergamiento prolongado en instituciones cerradas, el alcoholismo, y la edad mayor de 65 años; la forma clínica de mayor incidencia en casi la totalidad de los pacientes fue la pulmonar y, dentro de ella, los casos con baciloscopia positiva. Hubo fallas en el diagnóstico, ya que alrededor de la mitad de los casos se diagnosticaron en la atención secundaria y con un tiempo de demora de más de dos meses de

  13. La Educacion de los Jesuitas en Cuba durante el Siglo XVI (1566-1574) (Jesuit Education in Cuba during the 16th Century (1566-1574).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentes, Roberto Valdes

    2000-01-01

    Explains the relationship between Spanish colonialism in Cuba, evangelization of the Indians, and the origins of Cuban culture, as well as the role the Jesuits played in this process of transculturation. Analyzes the first phase in the history of the educational work of the Jesuits in Cuba (1566-1574). (BT)

  14. Czech Republic : Accounting and Auditing

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    Financial reporting and auditing requirements in the Czech Republic are currently in transition from complying with national standards to complying with International Accounting Standards (IAS), International Standards on Auditing (ISA), and the European Union (EU) Directives. By law, the Czech Republic seeks to attain maximum compliance with the EU Fourth and Seventh Directives and the E...

  15. Revival and Identification of Bacterial Spores in 25- to 40-Million-Year-Old Dominican Amber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Raul J.; Borucki, Monica K.

    1995-05-01

    A bacterial spore was revived, cultured, and identified from the abdominal contents of extinct bees preserved for 25 to 40 million years in buried Dominican amber. Rigorous surface decontamination of the amber and aseptic procedures were used during the recovery of the bacterium. Several lines of evidence indicated that the isolated bacterium was of ancient origin and not an extant contaminant. The characteristic enzymatic, biochemical, and 16S ribosomal DNA profiles indicated that the ancient bacterium is most closely related to extant Bacillus sphaericus.

  16. Doblemente sometidas: las «mujeres de color» en la república de Cuba (1902-1959

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramírez Chicharro, Manuel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the development of afro-descendant women during the Republic of Cuba (1902-1959. First of all, works dedicated to Cuban women as a gender are assessed on one hand and to Afro culture on the other in order to show the extent to which Afro-Cuban women have been neglected by historiography. Then black and mixed-race women are studied in relation to the entire male population and white women. The text is divided into three parts: educational areas, vocational integration and political mobility. The data enables us to affirm that Afro-Cuban women were doubly subjugated throughout the Republican period, because of their gender against men, and because of race against white women.El estudio analiza la trayectoria de las mujeres afrodescendientes durante la República de Cuba (1902-1959. En primer lugar, se realiza una valoración de las obras dedicadas a las mujeres cubanas como género, por un lado, y a la cultura afro, por otro, para demostrar hasta qué punto las mujeres afrocubanas han sido desatendidas por la historiografía. Después se pasa a examinar a las mujeres negras y mestizas en relación con la población masculina total y las mujeres blancas. El texto se divide en tres apartados: campo educativo, inserción laboral y movilidad política. Los datos permiten afirmar que las mujeres afrocubanas estuvieron doblemente sometidas durante todo el período republicano, por género frente a los hombres negros, por «raza» frente a las mujeres blancas.

  17. Radium-226 on drinking water of Camaguey, Cuba; Radio-226 en agua potable de Camaguey, Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montalvan Estrada, Adelmo; Brigido Flores, Osvaldo; Barrera Caballero, Aldo [Centro de Atencion a la Actividad Nuclear, Camaguey (Cuba)]. E-mail: sean@caonao.cmw.inf.cu; Escalante, Alexander [Centro Provincial de Higiene y Epidemiologia, Camaguey (Cuba)

    2001-07-01

    The specific activity of Ra-226 in drinking water of Camaguey city, Cuba, was measured using the emanometric method. The specific activity of Ra-226 in drinking water ranged from 15 {+-} 5 mBq.l{sup -1} to 39 {+-}12 mBq.l{sup -1}. The mean specific activity of Ra-226 was found to be 27 {+-} 8 mBq.l{sup -1}. No seasonal variation was found. Water samples were collected from the two main sources of drinking water: private wells and governmental water supply system, being the mean specific activities of Ra-226: 25 {+-} 7 mBq.l{sup -1} and 31 {+-} 9 mBq.l{sup -1} , respectively. Based upon measured concentrations the age-dependent associated effective doses due to the ingestion of Ra-226, as a consequence of direct consumption of drinking water, have been calculated. For the age interval 1 year to 5 years, the average effective dose was 6,2 {mu}Sv.y{sup -1}, and for adults the average effective dose was 5,2 {mu}Sv.y{sup -1}. (author)

  18. Speciose opportunistic nectar-feeding avifauna in Cuba and its association to hummingbird island biogeography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Bo; Baquero, Andrea C.; Rahbek, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Island organisms often have wider feeding niches than mainland organisms, and migratory birds breeding on continents often widen their niches when overwintering on islands. Cuba's low hummingbird richness has puzzled ornithologists for decades. Here, we show that the Cuban hummingbird fauna is less...... rich than expected based on Cuba's elevation, when compared to the rest of the West Indian islands. Thereafter, we report nectar-feeding behaviour by 26 non-Trochilidae bird species in Cuba, encompassing pigeons/doves, woodpeckers and passerines, and endemic, resident and migratory species. We discuss...... if Cuba's speciose non-Trochilidae nectar-feeding avifauna may be associated with its depauperate hummingbird fauna....

  19. Relict Oceanic Lithosphere in Cuba: Types and Emplacement Ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    CobiellaReguera, J. L.

    2001-12-01

    According to their composition and tectonic position, three different types of relict oceanic lithosphere are present in Cuba: (1) the northern ophiolitic belt, a complex melange that extents more than 1000 km along the island, (2) the basement of the Cretaceous volcanic arc terrane: high temperature/low pressure amphibolites with some serpentinites and, (3) tectonic slices of serpentinite melanges (with eclogites and blueschists) and high pressure amphibolites, in the metamorphic Escambray massif (tectonostratigraphic terrane, microcontinent?) of southcentral Cuba. Available age constrains (paleontological and geochronological) indicate that relicts of oceanic lithosphere in Cuba are upper Mesozoic in age. Geochemical, petrological, and regional geology data suggest that such oceanic relicts probably originated in two different tectonic environments in the Proto-Caribbean basin; (1) a small oceanic basin of Upper Jurassic- Neocomian age, related to drift between North America and a southern continental mass and (2) a suprasubduction marginal basin, between the southeastern North American passive margin and an Aptian-Albian volcanic arc. Tectonic emplacement of the Cuban relict oceanic Proto-Caribbean lithosphere was likely related to several tectonic events and processes. Serpentinite melange slices and the high pressure amphibolites in the Jurassic and Cretaceous passive margin sequences of Escambray massif, characterized by low to moderate temperature and high pressure metamorphism, probably were emplaced from subduction and closure of the small oceanic depression located to the south (present geographic coordinates) of the volcanic arc in the Albian. The basement amphibolites of the volcanic arc terrane were derived from the Upper Jurassic-Neocomian oceanic crust, metamorphosed by the high temperatures and hot solutions related to the development on this crust of an Aptian-Albian volcanic arc with a north dipping subduction zone. These amphibolites were

  20. [A battle won: the elimination of poliomyelitis in Cuba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaple, Enrique Beldarraín

    2015-01-01

    Poliomyelitis was introduced in Cuba in the late nineteenth century by American residents in Isla de Pinos. The first epidemics occurred in 1906 and 1909 and increased in intensity between 1930 and 1958. The scope of the paper is to reconstruct the history of the disease and its epidemics in Cuba prior to 1961, the first National Polio Vaccination Campaign (1962) and its results, as well as analyze the ongoing annual vaccination campaigns through to certified elimination of the disease (1994). The logical historical method was used and archival documents and statistics from the Ministry of Health on morbidity and mortality through 2000 were reviewed. Gross morbidity and mortality rates were calculated and interviews with key figures were conducted.

  1. Origin of invasive Florida frogs traced to Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinicke, Matthew P.; Diaz, Luis M.; Hedges, S. Blair

    2011-01-01

    Two of the earliest examples of successful invasive amphibians are the greenhouse frog (Eleutherodactylus planirostris) and the Cuban treefrog (Osteopilus septentrionalis) in Florida. Although both are generally assumed to be recent introductions, they are widespread on Caribbean islands and also have been proposed as natural colonizers. We obtained nucleotide sequence data for both species and their closest relatives in their native and introduced ranges. Phylogenetic analyses trace the origin of E. planirostris to a small area in western Cuba, while O. septentrionalis is derived from at least two Cuban sources, one probably a remote peninsula in western Cuba. The tropical-to-temperate invasion began with colonization of the Florida Keys followed by human-mediated dispersal within peninsular Florida. The subtropical Keys may have served as an adaptive stepping stone for the successful invasion of the North American continent. PMID:21270024

  2. La postemancipación y trabajo en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Zeuske

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza los procesos de transculturación y fecundación mutua entre los espacios de trabajo en la postemancipación. El caso de Cuba es complejo, pues se dio en una época de desestructuración progresiva de la esclavitud, jalonada por guerras anticoloniales y una modernización tecnológica ininterrumpida. Se argumenta que aunque las condiciones de trabajo no mejoraron en lo sustancial, sí lo hizo la división sexual del trabajo, los patrones de movilidad, y el acceso a la propiedad informal de la tierra. La modernización de Cuba como productor azucarero introdujo fuerzas de inmenso calado en las luchas sociales del período.

  3. Europa y Estados Unidos ante los Derechos Humanos en Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Gratius

    2008-01-01

    de la UE no han sido estrategias eficaces para promover los derechos humanos en la isla. Al ser diferentes, las políticas de la UE y EEUU incluso han contribuido a mantener el régimen castrista en el poder: la UE por su reconocimiento diplomático y la cooperación económica; EEUU, al proporcionar una imagen de enemigo externo. Por ello, y ante el nuevo panorama que ofrece el cambio de gobierno en Cuba, la próxima revisión de la Posición Común de la UE y las elecciones presidenciales en EEUU, es necesario replantearse los objetivos y estrategias políticas para incentivar los derechos humanos en Cuba.

  4. Two decades of re-aligning mundane entrepreneurship in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph L. Scarpaci

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo examina cómo los pequeños empresarios en Cuba perciben sus entornos internos y externos en un país que regula fuertemente la emergencia de una clase empresarial. Partimos del concepto de intercambios cotidianos o emprendimiento mundano que fue desarrollado originalmente en la ex Unión Soviética, como un lente para comprender el comportamiento de los actores no estatales tanto en Cuba como en la ex Unión Soviética. Nuestro estudio de caso se enmarca en un contexto social e identifica cómo los empresarios cubanos se sostienen fuera del mercado. El resultado es un reajuste en el cual el emprendimiento cubano muestra varias características similares al sistema soviético llamado blat; al mismo tiempo que revela atributos que le son únicos.

  5. Modelling the uv/x-ray cosmic background with CUBA

    CERN Document Server

    Haardt, F; Haardt, Francesco; Madau, Piero

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, I will describe the features of the numerical code CUBA, aimed at the solution of the radiative transfer equation in a cosmological context. CUBA will be soon available for public use at the URL http://pitto.mib.infn.it/~haardt/, allowing for several user-supplied input parameters, such as favourite cosmology, luminosity functions, Type II object evolution, stellar spectra, and many others. I will also present some new results of the UV/X-ray cosmic background as produced by the observed populations of QSOs and star forming galaxies, updating and extending our previous works. The background evolution is complemented with a number of derived quantities such as the ionization and thermal state of the IGM, the HeII opacity, the HI and HeII ionization rates, and the HI, HeII and Compton heating rates.

  6. Phylodynamics of the HIV-1 epidemic in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delatorre, Edson; Bello, Gonzalo

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the HIV-1 epidemic in Cuba displayed a complex molecular epidemiologic profile with circulation of several subtypes and circulating recombinant forms (CRF); but the evolutionary and population history of those viral variants remains unknown. HIV-1 pol sequences of the most prevalent Cuban lineages (subtypes B, C and G, CRF18_cpx, CRF19_cpx, and CRFs20/23/24_BG) isolated between 1999 and 2011 were analyzed. Maximum-likelihood analyses revealed multiple introductions of subtype B (n≥66), subtype C (n≥10), subtype G (n≥8) and CRF18_cpx (n≥2) viruses in Cuba. The bulk of HIV-1 infections in this country, however, was caused by dissemination of a few founder strains probably introduced from North America/Europe (clades B(CU-I) and B(CU-II)), east Africa (clade C(CU-I)) and central Africa (clades G(CU), CRF18(CU) and CRF19(CU)), or locally generated (clades CRFs20/23/24_BG). Bayesian-coalescent analyses show that the major HIV-1 founder strains were introduced into Cuba during 1985-1995; whereas the CRFs_BG strains emerged in the second half of the 1990s. Most HIV-1 Cuban clades appear to have experienced an initial period of fast exponential spread during the 1990s and early 2000s, followed by a more recent decline in growth rate. The median initial growth rate of HIV-1 Cuban clades ranged from 0.4 year⁻¹ to 1.6 year⁻¹. Thus, the HIV-1 epidemic in Cuba has been a result of the successful introduction of a few viral strains that began to circulate at a rather late time of the AIDS pandemic, but then were rapidly disseminated through local transmission networks.

  7. CuBA - a CUDA implementation of BAMPS

    CERN Document Server

    Cardoso, Nuno; Eilhauer, Ulrike; Bouras, Ioanni

    2012-01-01

    Using CUDA as programming language, we create a code named CuBA which is based on the CPU code "Boltzmann Approach for Many Parton Scattering (BAMPS)" developed in Frankfurt in order to study a system of many colliding particles resulting from heavy ion collisions. Furthermore, we benchmark our code with the Riemann Problem and compare the results with BAMPS. They demonstrate an improvement of the computational runtime, by one order of magitude.

  8. Hotel management in Cuba and the transfer of best practices

    OpenAIRE

    Cerviño, Julio; Bonache, Jaime

    2005-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to analyse the management challenges faced by international hotel operators when applying universally accepted management principles to the Cuban hospitality market. The authors use both secondary and primary research sources based on fieldwork carried out in Cuba during the first semester of 2003 and a later visit during the months of December 2003 and January 2004. Eight in depth interviews were conducted with senior executives of Cuban, Span...

  9. Pharmacovigilance in children in Camagüey Province, Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Bárzaga Arencibia, Z.; López Leyva, A.; Mejías Peña, Y.; González Reyes, A.R.; Fernández Manzano, E.; Choonara, Imti

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Our aim was to describe the adverse drug reactions (ADRs) detected following increased education about pharmacovigilance and drug toxicity in children in Camagüey Province, Cuba. Methods: Over a period of 24 months (January 2009 to December 2010), all reports of suspected ADRs in children to the Provincial Pharmacovigilance Centre in Camagüey Province were analysed. ADRs were classified in relation to causality and severity. Results: There were 533 reports involvi...

  10. Counter-Insurgency in Cuba: Why Did Batista Fail

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-03

    Servicio de Inteligencia Militar (SIM), an element that was feared throughout Cuba and effective until the end of the Batista regime. 40 Though formidable...measures increased. The police under Col. Ventura and the Servicio de Inteligencia Militar (SIM) played major roles in suppressing the opposition...rarely bearing the evidence of central coordination. The Servicio de Inteligencia Militar (SIM) and the Buro Represivo de Actividades Comunistas (BRAC

  11. Coastal scenic assessment and tourism management in western Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Anfuso, G; Williams, AT; Cabrera Carrillo, Juan Antonio; Pranzini, E.

    2014-01-01

    Coastal scenic assessments via checklist tables (18 natural, 8 human related parameters), can provide benchmark measures regarding desirable/non-desirable beach conditions and also classify sites. The scenic value for 43 sites in western Cuba was investigated, with the aim of helping managers improve bathing areas, especially for tourism purposes. Sites were categorised from Class 1, (top grade scenery), between La Habana and Matanzas, as extremely attractive, with white sand, tur...

  12. Joint Task Force -Guantanamo Bay, Cuba: Open or Close?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    December 1903, the treaty was finalized, and signed in Havana . Another treaty reaffirmed the lease in 1934; it granted Cuba and her trading partners...windward side. Ferry services provide transportation across the bay. The primary mission of this facility is to serve as a strategic logistics base for...the cost of transporting them securely to new facilities? Why spend this amount of money again, rather than keep the current 15 facilities in

  13. EL LARGO COMPROMISO DE CANADÁ CON CUBA: PARADOJAS Y POSIBILIDADES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas LEGLER

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Tanto la Unión Europea como América Latina, e incluso Estados Unidos, han iniciado distintos procesos de diálogo con Cuba. ¿Cuáles lecciones relevantes se pueden extraer de la larga historia canadiense de compromiso con la Revolución Cubana? Este artículo documenta la evolución de las relaciones entre Canadá y Cuba desde la década de 1940, centrándose en sus altibajos desde que se lanzó, a mediados de la década de 1990, una política de «compromiso constructivo ». Se argumenta que este acercamiento (en sus diversas formas no ha tenido mayor influencia en la liberalización de la política cubana. Además, la poca influencia que Canadá pudo haber tenido durante el «Periodo Especial» ha disminuido con la recuperación económica y diversificación de las relaciones exteriores de Cuba en la última década. En ese sentido, los autores concluyen que la estrategia más apropiada para Canadá y otros actores es llevar a cabo un acercamiento coordinado y de largo plazo que brinde apoyo a una variedad de procesos endógenos de cambio en Cuba. Una estrategia realista debería incluir diálogo de bajo perfil con el régimen actual, cooperación con un amplio espectro de posibles reformadores dentro y fuera del Estado y apoyo para la realización de cambios sociales más extensos a través del comercio, la inversión extranjera, el turismo así como los intercambios académicos y culturales.

  14. Phylodynamics of the HIV-1 epidemic in Cuba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Delatorre

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that the HIV-1 epidemic in Cuba displayed a complex molecular epidemiologic profile with circulation of several subtypes and circulating recombinant forms (CRF; but the evolutionary and population history of those viral variants remains unknown. HIV-1 pol sequences of the most prevalent Cuban lineages (subtypes B, C and G, CRF18_cpx, CRF19_cpx, and CRFs20/23/24_BG isolated between 1999 and 2011 were analyzed. Maximum-likelihood analyses revealed multiple introductions of subtype B (n≥66, subtype C (n≥10, subtype G (n≥8 and CRF18_cpx (n≥2 viruses in Cuba. The bulk of HIV-1 infections in this country, however, was caused by dissemination of a few founder strains probably introduced from North America/Europe (clades B(CU-I and B(CU-II, east Africa (clade C(CU-I and central Africa (clades G(CU, CRF18(CU and CRF19(CU, or locally generated (clades CRFs20/23/24_BG. Bayesian-coalescent analyses show that the major HIV-1 founder strains were introduced into Cuba during 1985-1995; whereas the CRFs_BG strains emerged in the second half of the 1990s. Most HIV-1 Cuban clades appear to have experienced an initial period of fast exponential spread during the 1990s and early 2000s, followed by a more recent decline in growth rate. The median initial growth rate of HIV-1 Cuban clades ranged from 0.4 year⁻¹ to 1.6 year⁻¹. Thus, the HIV-1 epidemic in Cuba has been a result of the successful introduction of a few viral strains that began to circulate at a rather late time of the AIDS pandemic, but then were rapidly disseminated through local transmission networks.

  15. Hotel management in Cuba and the transfer of best practices

    OpenAIRE

    Cerviño, Julio; Bonache, Jaime

    2005-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to analyse the management challenges faced by international hotel operators when applying universally accepted management principles to the Cuban hospitality market. The authors use both secondary and primary research sources based on fieldwork carried out in Cuba during the first semester of 2003 and a later visit during the months of December 2003 and January 2004. Eight in depth interviews were conducted with senior executives of Cuban, Span...

  16. Diversifying the picture: indigenous responses to European arrival in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Martinón-Torres

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in cultural contact between indigenous peoples and Europeans following their arrival in the New World. In this article the authors explore local responses to European arrival in Cuba, through analysis of metalwork found in indigenous graves. These studies demonstrate that the local communities valued particular metals quite differently from the Europeans, as the imported materials were incorporated into pre-existing symbolic systems relating to sacred power.

  17. The Current State of Physics in Cuba: A Personal Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Marcelo

    After 40 years of absence I returned twice to Cuba, in January and December of 2000, to participate as a guest lecturer in two international scientific meetings. The first dealt with physics education, and the second with current issues related to quantum mechanics. In addition to a few participants from Europe, the US and Latin America, the two meetings were well attended by Cuban physicists.

  18. Maternal Familismo and early childhood functioning in Mexican and Dominican immigrant families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzada, Esther J; Huang, Keng-Yen; Linares-Torres, Heliana; Singh, S Diana; Brotman, Laurie

    2014-08-01

    A large theoretical and empirical literature documents the central role of familismo (i.e., a strong emphasis on family) in the functioning of Latino youth. Few studies, however, have examined its association with early childhood functioning. The present study explored the potential risk and protective effects of maternal familismo on the adaptive and mental health functioning of 4 - 5 year old Latino children. A sample of 205 Mexican and 147 Dominican immigrant families was recruited from New York City. Mothers reported on their level of familismo, and acculturative status. Mothers and teachers rated child adaptive behavior and internalizing and externalizing problems. Findings suggest that maternal familismo is not uniformly associated with positive or negative early developmental outcomes but that its effects are moderated by child gender, family poverty and cultural (e.g., maternal ethnic and US American identity) characteristics. In addition, different mechanisms were identified for each ethnic group. Familismo was associated both positively (for boys) and negatively (for poor children) with adaptive behavior in the Mexican American sample. In the Dominican American sample, familismo showed a wide range of positive, albeit moderated, effects. Prevention efforts that help parents critically evaluate the impact of familismo on family processes, and preserve those manifestations of familismo that are protective, may best promote Latino child well-being.

  19. How discrimination and stress affects self-esteem among Dominican immigrant women: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchanadeswaran, Subadra; Dawson, Beverly Araujo

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the factors that contribute to the health disparities among racial and ethnic minorities in the United States is very important given the growing Latina population. Although researchers have investigated the health and mental health status among Latinas, the relationship between mental health and self-esteem has not been given a lot of attention. Given that self-esteem is a proxy for mental health status, investigations exploring the factors that can negatively affect self-esteem are needed. Therefore, the current study examined the influence of discrimination and stress on self-esteem among Dominican immigrant women. A cross-sectional study was undertaken among 235 immigrant Dominican women in New York City. Women (age 18-49 years) and in the United States for fewer than 20 years were more likely to report experiencing discrimination compared to women older than age 50 years and in the United States for more than 20 years. After controlling for age, time in the United States, educational level, and income, high levels of discrimination (-0.09, p stress (-0.69, p self-esteem. Interventions with Latino/a populations, especially women, need to acknowledge their individual evaluations of the discriminatory and stressful experiences that negatively influence their self-esteem and subsequently their mental health status.

  20. Tricontinental Routes of Solidarity: Stokely Carmichael in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Seidman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Stokely Carmichael’s visit to Cuba for three weeks in the summer of 1967 illustrates a convergence in the transnational routes of the African American freedom struggle and the Cuban Revolution. African American activists saw Cuba as a model for resisting US power, eradicating racism, and enacting societal change, while the Cuban government considered African Americans allies against US imperialism and advocates of Cuba’s antiracist stance. Amidst racial violence in the United States and Cuba’s efforts to inspire revolution, Carmichael’s presence at the Organization of Latin American Solidarity conference in Havana—and in particular his interactions with Fidel Castro—caused ripples worldwide. A shared “tricontinental” vision that promoted unity in the Global South against imperialism, capitalism, and racism facilitated Carmichael’s solidarity with Castro. Yet divergent views on the role of race in fighting oppression limited their solidarity. Carmichael and Castro’s spectacular alliance demonstrated their personal affinity and ideological commonalities but did not result in an institutional alliance between the black liberation movement and the Cuban state. Instead Carmichael’s connection with the Cuban Revolution left an underexplored legacy. Examining Carmichael’s visit to Cuba illustrates the possibilities and pitfalls of transnational solidarity and furthers our understanding of postwar struggles for change.

  1. CUBA: TRANSICIÓN, SUCESIÓN, ESTABILIDAD, SEGURIDAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín ROY

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este análisis trata de la relación entre la estabilidad del presente gobierno cubano y la necesidad de seguridad en su territorio y en la zona circundante. Este vínculo se produce en un momento político de Cuba, entre un primer paso de la sucesión de Fidel Castro a Raúl, sin que se den señales claras de una transición hacia otro tipo de sistema político. Mientras tanto, el gobierno de Estados Unidos ha declarado que su prioridad estriba en el reestablecimiento de la democracia en Cuba, tanto durante el último periodo de la administración de George W. Bush como con Barack Obama ya asentado en la Casa Blanca. Sin embargo, las delicadas circunstancias de Cuba (precariedad económica, desastres naturales, dependencia alimentaria y energética, etc. señalan que la prioridad de los intereses nacionales de Estados Unidos se centran primero en la estabilidad del escenario. Incluso al precio del retraso de la evolución del régimen, un cierto grado de seguridad es necesario para enfrentarse a los riesgos de una emigración incontrolada y las hipotéticas tensiones internas que provoquen confrontaciones.

  2. The mechanisms of direct democracy in Cuba: design and reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    (Teodoro Yan Guzman Hernández

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In Cuba the 1940 Constitution regulated different mechanisms of direct democracy (mdd that were not implemented; while the 1976 Constitution in force, although committed from the norm with the direct participation and popular sovereignty, was unambitious in regulating these mechanisms. After the Revolution, direct participation has had different expressions that have been nominated wrongly as some of the mdd, that political theory today recognizes on the ba­sis of certain assumptions. This article examines the mdd in Cuba from 1940 until the present. For this purpose it makes a critical analysis of its regulation, based on the criteria that political theory and constitutional law have offered for the configuration of these mechanisms, and tak­ing into account the particularities and results of the implementation in the Cuban context. The main conclusion of this work is that Cuba regulates forms of participation that directly involve the citizenry, but require changes in its design, so that they become real mechanisms of direct democracy that contribute to the political empowerment of citizens.

  3. Recent trends in Cuba's mining and petroleum industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacaster, Susan; Baker, Michael S.; Soto-Viruet, Yadira; Textoris, Steven D.

    2015-01-01

    The Report is Temporarily UnavailableIn response to recent diplomatic developments between Cuba and the United States, the National Minerals Information Center compiled available information on the mineral industries of Cuba. This fact sheet highlights a new map and table that identify mines, mineral processing facilities, and petroleum facilities as well as information on location, operational status, and ownership. It also addresses the current status of known mineral industry projects, historical developments, and trends of the Cuban economy with an emphasis on mineral industries, and the supply and demand for Cuba’s mineral resources.In 2013, Cuba was estimated to be among the world’s top ten producers of cobalt and nickel, which are the country’s leading exports. Cuba’s current crude oil and associated natural gas production from onshore and shallow water coastal reservoirs is approximately 50,000 barrels per day of liquids and about 20,000 barrels per day oil equivalent of natural gas. In 2013, the value of mining and quarrying activities accounted for 0.6 percent of Cuba’s gross domestic product (GDP), compared with 1.4 percent in 2000. The value of production from Cuba’s industrial manufacturing sector increased by 88 percent between 1993 and 2013 whereas the sector’s share in the GDP decreased by about 3 percent during the same time period reflecting economic growth in other sectors of the economy.

  4. In Defense of Clinical Autopsy and Its Practice in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Brito, Alfredo D; de Mendoza-Amat, José Hurtado

    2017-01-01

    There has been a notable decrease in the global practice of clinical autopsy; the rate has fallen to below 10%, even in high-income countries. This is attributed to several causes, including increased costs, overreliance on modern diagnostic techniques, cultural and religious factors, the emergence of new infectious diseases and negative attitudes on the part of doctors, even pathologists. Alternative methods to autopsy in postmortem studies have been developed based on imaging, endoscopy and biopsy (all quite expensive). These methods have been used in developed countries but never as effectively as the classic autopsy for identifying cause of death and potential medical errors. Although Cuba has also seen a decrease in its autopsy rates, they remain comparatively high. Between 1996 and 2015, there were 687,689 hospital deaths in Cuba and 381,193 autopsies, 55.4% of the total. These autopsies have positively affected medical care, training, research, innovation, management and society as a whole. Autopsies are an important tool in the National Health System's quest for safe, quality patient care based on the lessons learned from studying the deceased. KEYWORDS Autopsy, postmortem examination, postmortem diagnosis, quality of care, patient safety, medical error, Cuba.

  5. Risk factors for wheezing in infants born in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venero-Fernández, S J; Suárez-Medina, R; Mora-Faife, E C; García-García, G; Valle-Infante, I; Gómez-Marrero, L; Abreu-Suárez, G; González-Valdez, J; Fabró-Ortiz, D Dania; Fundora-Hernández, H; Venn, A; Britton, J; Fogarty, A W

    2013-11-01

    Cuba is a unique country, and despite limited economic development, has an excellent health system. However, the prevalence of asthma symptoms in children in Havana, Cuba, is unusually high. As early life exposures are critical to the aetiology of asthma, we have studied environmental influences on the risk of wheezing in Cuban infants. Cross-sectional study. A random sample of 2032 children aged 12-15 months living in Havana was selected for inclusion in the cohort. Data were collected using questionnaires administered by researchers. Of 2032 infants invited to participate, 1956 (96%) infants provided data. The prevalence of any wheeze was 45%, severe wheeze requiring use of emergency services was 30% and recurrent wheeze on three or more occasions was 20%. The largest adjusted risk factors for any wheeze were presence of eczema [odds ratio (OR) 2.09; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.48-2.94], family history of asthma (OR 2.05; 95% CI 1.60-2.62), poor ventilation in the house (OR 1.99; 95% CI 1.48-2.67), attendance at nursery (OR 1.78; 95% CI 1.24-2.57), male sex (OR1.52; 95% CI 1.19-1.96) and the number of smokers in the house (P Cuba. As the prevalence of smoking in the house is high (51%), intervention studies are required to determine effective strategies to improve infant health.

  6. Zero in on postpartum hemorrhage to reduce Cuba's maternal mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Águila, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is the most frequent cause of severe maternal morbidity (SMM) and the first direct cause of maternal death in most countries. In Africa and Asia, it accounts for about one third of all maternal deaths. Put more graphically: worldwide, one woman dies every minute from PPH. Defined as blood loss of ≥500 mL after vaginal birth or ≥1000 mL after cesarean delivery, PPH can be fatal in just two hours. In Cuba, between 2000 and 2012, maternal deaths directly related to obstetric causes totaled 410, 24.1% of which occurred postpartum, with PPH the leading cause.[1] While Cuba is among the Latin American countries with lowest maternal mortality, the decline has been slow over the last 20 years: in 1998, direct maternal mortality was 26.5 per 100,000 live births and in 2012, the rate was 21.5. This is troubling and deserves careful study, especially given that Cuba has a single, unified health system supported by significant political will-determining factors in important advances made in maternal-child health on par with wealthier countries.

  7. The Liturgical Use of the Organ in the Sixteenth Century: the Judgments of Cajetan and the Dominican Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael O'Connor

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the liturgical use of the organ in the sixteenth century according to the judgments of Tommaso de Vio, Cajetan (1469–1534 and the Dominicans. In particular, it asks the question: In worship, is solo organ music capable of conveying a specific meaning or a particular text (as seemed to be expected in alternatim practice? The Dominican sources show an increasingly skeptical attitude, with a consequent tendency to limit the organ’s role in worship. The implication of this study is that organ alternatim did not fall out of favor (with the Dominicans at least because it failed to carry out the job it was given in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, but because it could not do the new job is was given in the sixteenth century. Organ alternatim made sense in a gothic worldview, but less so under the influence of renaissance humanism. While these Dominicans accepted the use of the organ, they did so with great concern at the potential influx of secular music into worship, since secular melodies and rhythms, even without their original words, bring multiple inappropriate associations. To remedy this, various strategies were used to harness instrumental music to text.

  8. Cuba in Transition: Communism vs Charisma "Who Will Emerge as Cuba’s Next Leader"

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    38 Olivo Verde, Defense of the Socialist Homeland, 6 March 1986. 26 MajGen Frias LtGen Espinosa MajGen Sola Cuban forces.39 The FAR is...comprised of three separate branches: the Army (Ejercito 150,000 troops strong), the Navy [Marina de Guerra Revolucionaria (MG) 5,000 troops strong] and...Cintro Frias , and is headquartered in Havana. The Eastern Army Corps, is led by General Ramon Espinosa Martin, and is headquartered in Santiago de Cuba

  9. National bank of occupational Doses of the Cuba Republic: main results and experiences; Banco Nacional de Dosis ocupacionales de la Republica de Cuba: principales resultados y experiencias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdes Ramos, M.; Prendes Alonso, M.; Tomas Zerquera, J.; Molina Perez, D.; Soler Castro, A., E-mail: zury@cphr.edu.cu [Agencia de Energia Nuclear y Tecnologias de Avanzada (CPHR/AENTA), La Habana (Cuba). Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones; De la Fuentes Puch, A. [Centro Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear (CNSN), La Habana (Cuba)

    2013-11-01

    The general objective of the development of the National Bank of Dose was to contribute for improving security monitoring in applications, by providing Cuban Regulatory Authority an effective tool to comply with the requirements that the records of individual occupational doses of Cuban workers are retained and available for competent authorities and individuals.

  10. Acute myocardial infarction mortality in Cuba, 1999-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Nurys B; Ortega, Yanela Y; de la Noval, Reinaldo; Suárez, Ramón; Llerena, Lorenzo; Dueñas, Alfredo F

    2012-10-01

    Acute myocardial infarction is one of the leading causes of death in the world. This is also true in Cuba, where no national-level epidemiologic studies of related mortality have been published in recent years. Describe acute myocardial infarction mortality in Cuba from 1999 through 2008. A descriptive study was conducted of persons aged ≥25 years with a diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction from 1999 through 2008. Data were obtained from the Ministry of Public Health's National Statistics Division database for variables: age; sex; site (out of hospital, in hospital or in hospital emergency room) and location (jurisdiction) of death. Proportions, age- and sex-specific rates and age-standardized overall rates per 100,000 population were calculated and compared over time, using the two five-year time frames within the study period. A total of 145,808 persons who had suffered acute myocardial infarction were recorded, 75,512 of whom died, for a case-fatality rate of 51.8% (55.1% in 1999-2003 and 49.7% in 2004-2008). In the first five-year period, mortality was 98.9 per 100,000 population, falling to 81.8 per 100,000 in the second; most affected were people aged ≥75 years and men. Of Cuba's 14 provinces and special municipality, Havana, Havana City and Camagüey provinces, and the Isle of Youth Special Municipality showed the highest mortality; Holguín, Ciego de Ávila and Granma provinces the lowest. Out-of-hospital deaths accounted for the greatest proportion of deaths in both five-year periods (54.8% and 59.2% in 1999-2003 and 2004-2008, respectively). Although risk of death from acute myocardial infarction decreased through the study period, it remains a major health problem in Cuba. A national acute myocardial infarction case registry is needed. Also required is further research to help elucidate possible causes of Cuba's high acute myocardial infarction mortality: cardiovascular risk studies, studies of out-of-hospital mortality and quality of care

  11. 78 FR 13207 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... Emergency With Respect to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating to the Regulation of the Anchorage... ] Notice of February 22, 2013 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Cuba and of the....-registered civilian aircraft in international airspace north of Cuba. On February 26, 2004, by Proclamation...

  12. 77 FR 11377 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... With Respect to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating to the Regulation of the Anchorage and..., 2012 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority....-registered civilian aircraft in international airspace north of Cuba. On February 26, 2004, by Proclamation...

  13. 76 FR 11071 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-28

    ... Emergency With Respect to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating to the Regulation of the Anchorage... ] Notice of February 24, 2011 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Cuba and of the....-registered civilian aircraft in international airspace north of Cuba. On February 26, 2004, by Proclamation...

  14. 75 FR 8791 - Continuation of the National Emergency Relating to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... Notice of February 23, 2010--Continuation of the National Emergency Relating to Cuba and of the Emergency... Emergency Relating to Cuba and of the Emergency Authority Relating to the Regulation of the Anchorage and... north of Cuba. On February 26, 2004, by Proclamation 7757, the national emergency was extended and its...

  15. First record of the family Pseudochiridiidae (Arachnida, Pseudoscorpiones) from continental South America--a Pseudochiridium from a Brazilian cave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Schimonsky, Diego Monteiro; Bichuette, Maria Elina; Mahnert, Volker

    2014-12-02

    The small pseudoscorpion family Pseudochiridiidae Chamberlin, 1923 comprises two genera and 12 extant species recorded from Asia (Burma, Christmas Island, Indonesia, India, Nepal, Malaysia, New Guinea, Philippines, Nicobars and Sumba), eastern, central and southern Africa (Chad, D.R. Congo, Kenya, South Africa, Tanzania), Madagascar, Seychelles (Aldabra), North America (Florida) and the Caribbean Islands of Dominican Republic and Cuba (Harvey 2013, Barba & Barroso 2013); one unidentified species is mentioned for the fauna of Mexico (Ceballos 2004). A fossil species has been described from Dominican amber by Judson (2007), who predicted the presence of this family in South America. 

  16. 77 FR 23598 - Technical Amendment to Cuba Airport List: Addition of Recently Approved Airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection 19 CFR Part 122 Technical Amendment to Cuba Airport List... from Cuba. DATES: Effective: April 20, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Arthur A.E. Pitts, Sr., U... to all aircraft (except public aircraft) entering or departing the United States to or from...

  17. Higher Education in Cuba in the 2000s: Past and Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabina, Elvira Martin

    This paper reviews the development of higher education in Cuba and its current status. Current educational development in Cuba is the result of more than four decades of sustained social and political endeavor. Three main features of this development have been identified. The first is the absolute commitment of the state to the educational…

  18. Theological Higher Education in Cuba: Part 2--Origins and Ministry of Protestant Seminaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esqueda, Octavio J.

    2007-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the main Protestant theological seminaries in Cuba: Western Cuba Baptist Seminary, Cedars of Lebanon Seminary, The New Pines Evangelical Seminary, Evangelical Theological Seminary, Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial Center, Nazarene Theological Seminary and International School of Theology. The history and…

  19. Evolución y perspectivas del registro de medicamentos en Cuba

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Celeste A Sánchez González; Rodrigo Omar Pérez Massipe

    2002-01-01

    ... la comercialización de medicamentos en Cuba desde 1959 hasta el 2001 y de su nivel de subordinación. Se describió la evolución de los documentos normativos y legales que dan la base al Registro de Medicamentos en Cuba y a su...

  20. Two decades of re-aligning mundane entrepreneurship in Cuba/ Dos décadas de realineación del emprendimiento cotidiano en Cuba

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Joseph L Scarpaci; Ted A Henken; Archibald R M Ritter

    2016-01-01

    .... We build on the concept of everyday exchange or mundane entrepreneurship, originally developed as a lens to understand non-state actions in the former USSR, and apply it to contemporary Cuba in the post-Soviet era...