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Sample records for cu-polyimide flex circuit

  1. Application of Cu-polyimide flex circuit and Al-on-glass pitch adapter for the ATLAS SCT barrel hybrid

    CERN Document Server

    Unno, Y; Ikegami, Y; Iwata, Y; Kohriki, T; Kondo, T; Nakano, I; Ohsugi, T; Takashima, R; Tanaka, R; Terada, S; Ujiie, N

    2005-01-01

    We applied the surface build-up Cu-polyimide flex-circuit technology with laser vias to the ATLAS SCT barrel hybrid to be made in one piece from the connector to the electronics sections including cables. The hybrids, reinforced with carbon-carbon substrates, provide mechanical strength, thermal conductivity, low-radiation length, and stability in application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) operation. By following the design rules, we experienced little trouble in breaking the traces. The pitch adapter between the sensor and the ASICs was made of aluminum traces on glass substrate. We identified that the generation of whiskers around the wire-bonding feet was correlated with the hardness of metallized aluminum. The appropriate hardness has been achieved by keeping the temperature of the glasses as low as room temperature during the metallization. The argon plasma cleaning procedure cleaned the contamination on the gold pads of the hybrids for successful wire bonding, although it was unsuccessful in the alu...

  2. Self-shielding flex-circuit drift tube, drift tube assembly and method of making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, David Alexander

    2016-04-26

    The present disclosure is directed to an ion mobility drift tube fabricated using flex-circuit technology in which every other drift electrode is on a different layer of the flex-circuit and each drift electrode partially overlaps the adjacent electrodes on the other layer. This results in a self-shielding effect where the drift electrodes themselves shield the interior of the drift tube from unwanted electro-magnetic noise. In addition, this drift tube can be manufactured with an integral flex-heater for temperature control. This design will significantly improve the noise immunity, size, weight, and power requirements of hand-held ion mobility systems such as those used for explosive detection.

  3. [PhysioFlex: a target-controlled self-regulating closed-circuit inhalation anesthesia regulator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, N; Sperandio, M; Erdmann, W; Westerkamp, B; Van Dijk, G; Scherpereel, P; Feiss, P

    1997-01-01

    Physi Flex is the first commercially available apparatus capable for quantitative, or self-regulating target controlled inhalational anaesthesia, with a totally closed circuit, in adults and children. The fresh gas supply to the circuit is intermittent, automatically regulated by continuous monitoring of the volume and composition of the gas mixture in the breathing circuit. The circle system includes, instead of the two conventional one way valves, a blower creating a continuous unidirectional flow at 70 L.min-1. In addition to the CO2-absorber it contains an absorber with carbon, absorbing the anaesthetic vapour when switched into the circuit. The ventilator consists of four ventilating chambers, each one with a membrane separating the patient and the motor compartments. The displacement of the membranes generates and measures the tidal volume. Automatic ventilation is achieved by electric valves and motor gas, and manual ventilation using a bag. Spontaneous ventilation is also possible. The machine is operated via a computer with selects the number of ventilating chambers (one, two or four), and the tidal volume between 50 and 2,000 mL, depending on age, gender and weight of the patient. The computer maintains the gas volume and the gas and vapour concentrations at their preset values. The O2-flow and consumption, the N2O flow and uptake, FICO2 and FETCO2, FI and FET of the volatile anaesthetic, all other important data are displayed in a numerical and graphical form on a color screen and registered for a delayed analysis. The end tidal concentration of the volatile anaesthetic drives a stepmotor with a syringe containing the selected volatile anaesthetic agent with is directly injected into the breathing circuit where it is vaporized. Therefore the concentration of the anaesthetic vapour can be instantaneously increased with this injector at induction and lowered at end of anaesthesia with the carbon absorber, and the fresh gas consumption is significantly

  4. Nonlinear electromagnetic energy harvesters fabricated by rigid-flex printed circuit board technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yi; Hong, Hao-Chiao; Hsu, Wei-Hung

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, a wideband electromagnetic energy harvester designed and fabricated by commercial rigid-flex PCB technology is demonstrated. The rigid FR-4 boards are used for mechanical frames and coil winding whereas the flexible polyimide film is used for mechanical springs and mass platforms. The total dimension of the device is 20 × 20 × 2 mm3. The internal coil resistance is 15 Ω. In vibration tests, nonlinearity can be observed even at 0.1 g vibration level due to the spring hardening effect. The peak frequency was increased as the vibration level increased. The effective bandwidth was increased from 6 Hz at 0.1 g to 21 Hz at 0.5 g and 27 Hz at 1 g, respectivel, due to the hysteresis effect. For a matched load and 1 g vibration at 240 Hz, the maximum output power is 24.5 nW, corresponding to a power density of 31 nW/cm3.

  5. Wideband vibrational electromagnetic energy harvesters with nonlinear polyimide springs based on rigid-flex printed circuit boards technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yi; Hong, Hao-Chiao; Hsu, Wei-Hung

    2016-12-01

    A wideband vibrational electromagnetic energy harvester employing nonlinear spring effects is proposed and demonstrated. The harvesters were designed and fabricated by commercial rigid-flex printed circuit boards technology. Rigid FR-4 boards were used for mechanical support and coil winding, whereas flexible polyimide films were patterned for mechanical springs and mass platforms. Two sets of coils were patterned and fabricated in the harvester with an internal coil resistance of about 16 Ω each. Two rare-earth magnets were attached to the central platform as shuttle mass. The total dimension of the harvester was 20 × 20 × 4 mm3. In vibration tests, nonlinearity could be observed even at 0.1 grms vibration level due to the spring hardening effect. The frequency for peak induced voltage increased from 187 Hz at low vibration to 382 Hz at 5 grms vibration. The effective half-power bandwidth increased from 8 Hz at 0.1 grms to 32 Hz at 1 grms and 52 Hz at 5 grms due to the hysteresis in frequency response. For a matched load and 1 grms vibration at 250 Hz, the maximum output power was 160 nW, corresponding to a power density of 100 nW cm-3.

  6. A miniature rigid/flex salinity measurement device fabricated using printed circuit processing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, H. A.; Ketterl, T. P.; Reid, C. S.

    2010-08-01

    The design, fabrication and initial performance of a single substrate, miniature, low-cost conductivity, temperature, depth (CTD) sensor board with interconnects are presented. In combination these sensors measure ocean salinity. The miniature CTD device board was designed and fabricated as the main component of a 50 mm × 25 mm × 25 mm animal-attached biologger. The board was fabricated using printed circuit processes and consists of two distinct regions on a continuous single liquid crystal polymer substrate: an 18 mm × 28 mm rigid multi-metal sensor section and a 72 mm long flexible interconnect section. The 95% confidence intervals for the conductivity, temperature and pressure sensors were demonstrated to be ±0.083 mS cm-1, 0.01 °C, and ±0.135 dbar, respectively.

  7. Flex & Bison

    CERN Document Server

    Levine, John

    2009-01-01

    If you need to parse or process text data in Linux or Unix, this useful book explains how to use flex and bison to solve your problems quickly. flex & bison is the long-awaited sequel to the classic O'Reilly book, lex & yacc. In the nearly two decades since the original book was published, the flex and bison utilities have proven to be more reliable and more powerful than the original Unix tools. flex & bison covers the same core functionality vital to Linux and Unix program development, along with several important new topics. You'll find revised tutorials for novices and references for ad

  8. Effects of chemical etching and functionalization times on the properties of Cu/polyimide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Kisoo; Hwang, Soomin; Lee, Changmin; Kim, Won; Lee, Seungmuk; Park, Geunchul; Jung, Seungboo; Joo, Jinho [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Junhyung [Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2010-12-15

    We fabricated flexible Cu/Polyimide (PI) films by electroless- and electro-Cu plating on surface modified PI via chemical etching and functionalization, and investigated the effects of the modification time on the contact angle, surface energy and morphology, Pd catalyst amount on PI, and resultant peel strength between Cu/PI layers. Chemical etching and successive functionalization were performed on PI surfaces for 0 - 10 min, followed by electroless- and electro-Cu plating. Chemical etching effectively modified the PI surface from a hydrophobic to a hydrophilic state. In addition, chemical functionalization significantly increased the amount of Pd absorption on PI, which consequently enhanced the peel strength between Cu/PI. The peel strength of the resulting Cu/PI film processed by both chemical etching and functionalization for 5 min increased to 5.08 N/cm, which was 4.2 and 2.8 times higher than films processed with functionalization and etching alone, respectively. The highest strength that was achieved was a result of the combined effects of the increased work of adhesion and the increased Pd amount for both treatments; however, the amount of Pd was likely to be the more critical factor for the high level of adhesion between Cu/PI, rather than the work of adhesion.

  9. UniFlex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Ole; Helbo, Jan; Knudsen, Morten

    2003-01-01

    , a web site named UniFlex (University Flexible learning) has been developed and brought into use. The site is a comprehensive set of bookmarks including course taking, upload/download, and - of special significance - collaborative on-line project work. UniFlex has been developed to meet the requirement...

  10. UniFlex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Ole; Helbo, Jan; Knudsen, Morten

    2004-01-01

    , a web site named UniFlex (University Flexible learning) has been developed and brought into use. The site is a comprehensive set of bookmarks including course taking, upload/download, and - of special significance - collaborative on-line project work. UniFlex has been developed to meet the requirement...

  11. Flex: RSRE's capability computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, J. M.

    The Flex capability based computer architecture is described. It supports a multilanguage environment, and compilers for ALGOL 168 and PASCAL exist; an Ada compiler is being completed. The idea of capabilities is used on backing store as well as main store, so that all kinds of structured object which can be held in main store can also be held on any of the packing stores with the same degree of protection. Capabilities are used across a network of Flex computers, so that capabilities for data in one machine may be passed to and held in another. Flex uses true procedure values in the sense of Landin (1964).

  12. UniFlex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Ole; Helbo, Jan; Knudsen, Morten

    2004-01-01

    Increasing demands for remote on-line education are changing the way teaching and learning is performed. New behavior in using pedagogy and supporting technology is needed to drive the learning process. To facilitate the use of services for selected activities to participants in on-line education......, a web site named UniFlex (University Flexible learning) has been developed and brought into use. The site is a comprehensive set of bookmarks including course taking, upload/download, and - of special significance - collaborative on-line project work. UniFlex has been developed to meet the requirement...... for a simple and cheap personalized interactive site, supporting problem oriented and project organized study form, which has characterized Aalborg University for more than 25 years. UniFlex supports a virtual group room for collaborative work as a key facility. UniFlex has downloadable templates, which...

  13. FLEX: fluorescence explorer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoll, M.Ph.; Court, A.J.; Smorenburg, C.; Visser, H.; Crocco, L.; Heilimo, J.; Honig, A.

    1999-01-01

    FLEX is a scientifically driven space mission to provide demonstration/validation of the instrumentation and technique for measuring the natural fluorescence of vegetation in the Fraunhofer lines. The payload consists of high spectral resolution (0.1-0.3 nm) CCD imaging grating spectrometer with two

  14. AdvancED Flex 4

    CERN Document Server

    Tiwari, Shashank; Schulze, Charlie

    2010-01-01

    AdvancED Flex 4 makes advanced Flex 4 concepts and techniques easy. Ajax, RIA, Web 2.0, mashups, mobile applications, the most sophisticated web tools, and the coolest interactive web applications are all covered with practical, visually oriented recipes. * Completely updated for the new tools in Flex 4* Demonstrates how to use Flex 4 to create robust and scalable enterprise-grade Rich Internet Applications.* Teaches you to build high-performance web applications with interactivity that really engages your users.* What you'll learn Practiced beginners and intermediate users of Flex, especially

  15. FLEX: fluorescence explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Marc-Ph.; Court, Andrew; Smorenburg, Kees; Visser, Huib; Crocco, Luiggi; Heilimo, Jyro; Honig, Andre

    1999-12-01

    FLEX is a scientifically driven space mission to provide demonstration/validation of the instrumentation and technique for measuring the natural fluorescence of vegetation in the Fraunhofer lines. The payload consists of high spectral resolution (0.1 - 0.3 nm) CCD imaging grating spectrometer with two channels: one in the red (648 - 664 nm) and one in the blue (391 - 438 nm) for working with several Fraunhofer lines. The across track FOV is 8.4 degrees; ground spatial resolution is better than 0.5 X 0.5 km2. To increase the S/N ratio a steering mirror will be used, if necessary, to 'freeze' the image and also to provide plus or minus 4 degrees across track depointing. Calibration is made by viewing the sun via a diffuser plate switched into the telescope field of view. A separate CCD camera will allow cloud detection and scene identification. A TIR radiometer will provide simultaneous surface temperature measurements. The spacecraft, overall mass estimated at 200 kg, is derived from the ASI-MITA bus which provides all the necessary subsystems and stabilized platform. By use of on-board storage, ground requirements for satellite control and data link are minimized; the possibility of local stations for real time reception/distribution is also envisaged. Provisional orbit characteristics are: LEO sun synchronous, 500 - 900 km altitude. Priority will be given to highest revisit frequency on a sufficient number of selected test sites.

  16. RadFlexPro Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Our proposed multilayered, flexible, graded Z radiation shielding, RadFlexPro, provides radiation protection for astronauts in EVA for NASA's future space missions....

  17. Resistive flex sensors: a survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saggio, Giovanni; Riillo, Francesco; Sbernini, Laura; Quitadamo, Lucia Rita

    2016-01-01

    Resistive flex sensors can be used to measure bending or flexing with relatively little effort and a relatively low budget. Their lightness, compactness, robustness, measurement effectiveness and low power consumption make these sensors useful for manifold applications in diverse fields. Here, we provide a comprehensive survey of resistive flex sensors, taking into account their working principles, manufacturing aspects, electrical characteristics and equivalent models, useful front-end conditioning circuitry, and physic-bio-chemical aspects. Particular effort is devoted to reporting on and analyzing several applications of resistive flex sensors, related to the measurement of body position and motion, and to the implementation of artificial devices. In relation to the human body, we consider the utilization of resistive flex sensors for the measurement of physical activity and for the development of interaction/interface devices driven by human gestures. Concerning artificial devices, we deal with applications related to the automotive field, robots, orthosis and prosthesis, musical instruments and measuring tools. The presented literature is collected from different sources, including bibliographic databases, company press releases, patents, master’s theses and PhD theses.

  18. Spatial heterodyne spectrometer for FLEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Alan; Zheng, Sheng-Hai; Brown, Stephen; Bell, Andrew

    2007-10-01

    A spatial heterodyne spectrometer (SHS) has significant advantages for high spectral resolution imaging over narrow pre-selected bands compared to traditional solutions. Given comparable optical étendue at R~6500, a field-widened SHS will have a throughput-resolution product ~170 x larger than an air-spaced etalon spectrometer, and ~1000 x larger than a standard grating spectrometer. The monolithic glass Michelson design and lack of moving parts allows maximum stability of spectral calibration over the mission life. For these reasons, SHS offers considerable advantages for the core spectrometer instrument in the European Space Agency's (ESA) Fluorescence Explorer (FLEX) mission.

  19. Emprego flexível em Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovács Ilona

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo, baseado nalguns dos resultados de um projecto de investigação em curso, tem por objectivo analisar a difusão do emprego flexível em Portugal e mostrar a sua diversidade. A difusão de formas flexíveis de emprego insere-se nos processos de reestruturação produtiva e flexibilização do mercado de trabalho no contexto da intensificação da concorrência na economia global. Recorrendo a dados estatísticos procede-se a uma análise da difusão e da evolução de algumas das formas mais relevantes de emprego flexível em Portugal, tais como o trabalho com contratos de duração determinada, o trabalho temporário, o trabalho independente e o trabalho a tempo parcial. Os trabalhadores com emprego flexível têm níveis de satisfação bastante inferiores aos dos trabalhadores com emprego estável. No entanto, o emprego flexível não abrange situações de emprego homogéneas, mas situações muito diversificadas que são apresentadas através de uma tipologia de situações de emprego flexível e uma tipologia de trajectórias profissionais.

  20. FLEX: The Acronym and the Entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasheim, Lorraine A.

    1982-01-01

    Explains FLEX, foreign language exploratory program, a self-contained presequence course which usually involves a multilanguage contrastive approach and which is given in the grade immediately before year in which students may enroll in first year of standard sequence of second language courses. (Author/BK)

  1. 12 CFR 742.4 - RegFlex Relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false RegFlex Relief. 742.4 Section 742.4 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS REGULATORY FLEXIBILITY PROGRAM § 742.4 RegFlex Relief. (a) Exemptions. RegFlex credit unions are exempt from the following...

  2. Flex-gear electrical power transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranish, John; Peritt, Jonathan

    1993-01-01

    This study was conducted to develop an alternative way of transferring electricity across a continuously rotating joint, with little wear and the potential for low electrical noise. The problems with wires, slip rings, electromagnetic couplings, and recently invented roll-rings are discussed. Flex-gears, an improvement of roll-rings, are described. An entire class of flexgear devices is developed. Finally, the preferred flex-gear device is optimized for maximum electrical contact and analyzed for average mechanical power loss and maximum stress. For a device diameter of six inches, the preferred device is predicted to have a total electrical contact area of 0.066 square inches. In the preferred device, a small amount of internal sliding produces a 0.003 inch-pound torque that resists the motion of the device.

  3. Programming Flex 2 The Comprehensive Guide to Creating Rich Media Applications with Adobe Flex

    CERN Document Server

    Kazoun, Chafic

    2008-01-01

    Programming Flex 2 discusses the Flex framework in context. The authors introduce features with practical and useful examples that tell the reader not only how, but also the reasons why to use a particular feature, when to use it, and when not to. This book is written for development professionals. While the book does not assume the audience has worked with Flash technologies previously, readers will benefit from the book most if they have previously built web-based, n-tiered applications. This book is part of the official Adobe Developer Library series.

  4. Deployment of FlexCHP System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cygan, David [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The Gas Technology Institute (GTI), along with its partner Integrated CHP Systems Corporation, has developed and demonstrated an Ultra-Low-Nitrogen Oxide (ULN) Flexible Combined Heat and Power (FlexCHP) system that packages a state-of-the-art Capstone C65 gas microturbine and Johnston PFXX100 boiler with an innovative natural gas-fired supplemental burner. Supplemental burners add heat as needed in response to facility demand, which increases energy efficiency, but typically raises exhaust NOx levels, degrading local air quality unless a costly and complicated catalytic treatment system is added. The FlexCHP system increases energy efficiency and achieves the 2007 California Air Resource Board (CARB) distributed generation emissions standards for Nitrogen oxides (NOx), Carbon Monoxide (CO), and Total Hydrocarbons (THC) without catalytic exhaust gas treatment. The key to this breakthrough performance is a simple and reliable burner design which utilizes staged combustion with engineered internal recirculation. This ULN burner system successfully uses turbine exhaust as an oxidizer, while achieving high efficiencies and low emissions. In tests at its laboratory facilities in Des Plaines, Illinois, GTI validated the ability of the system to achieve emissions of NOx, CO, and THC below the CARB criteria of 0.07, 0.10, and 0.02 lb/MW-h respectively. The FlexCHP system was installed at the field demonstration site, Inland Empire Foods, in Riverside, California to verify performance of the technology in an applied environment. The resulting Combined Heat and Power (CHP) package promises to make CHP implementation more attractive, mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, and improve the reliability of electricity supply.

  5. FlexSnap: Flexible Non-sequential Protein Structure Alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bystroff Chris

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteins have evolved subject to energetic selection pressure for stability and flexibility. Structural similarity between proteins that have gone through conformational changes can be captured effectively if flexibility is considered. Topologically unrelated proteins that preserve secondary structure packing interactions can be detected if both flexibility and Sequential permutations are considered. We propose the FlexSnap algorithm for flexible non-topological protein structural alignment. Results The effectiveness of FlexSnap is demonstrated by measuring the agreement of its alignments with manually curated non-sequential structural alignments. FlexSnap showed competitive results against state-of-the-art algorithms, like DALI, SARF2, MultiProt, FlexProt, and FATCAT. Moreover on the DynDom dataset, FlexSnap reported longer alignments with smaller rmsd. Conclusions We have introduced FlexSnap, a greedy chaining algorithm that reports both sequential and non-sequential alignments and allows twists (hinges. We assessed the quality of the FlexSnap alignments by measuring its agreements with manually curated non-sequential alignments. On the FlexProt dataset, FlexSnap was competitive to state-of-the-art flexible alignment methods. Moreover, we demonstrated the benefits of introducing hinges by showing significant improvements in the alignments reported by FlexSnap for the structure pairs for which rigid alignment methods reported alignments with either low coverage or large rmsd. Availability An implementation of the FlexSnap algorithm will be made available online at http://www.cs.rpi.edu/~zaki/software/flexsnap.

  6. Design of Missile Launch Control System Based on FlexRay Bus%基于FlexRay总线的导弹发射控制系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕崇伟; 黄志勇; 齐强

    2009-01-01

    It is introduced that FlexRay bus technology has strong points of high data transmission speed,high reliability and supporting distributed control system. Based on HCS12 SCM, basic architecture of missile launch control system is presented. The hardware and software of interface circuit are designed by using MFR4200 as controler. The hardware components of interface adapter are studied. Because missile-borne equipment is getting complicate increasingly, missile launch control system is designed on the base of FlexRay bus technology to improve its reliability in real-time.%介绍了FlexRay总线技术具有数据传输速率高、可靠性高及支持分布式控制等优点.以HCS12单片机为核心, 提出了导弹发射控制系统的基本结构.以MFR4200为控制器, 设计了接口电路的硬件和软件.研究了接口适配器的硬件构成.随着弹上设备的日趋复杂, 设计了基于FlexRay总线技术的导弹发射控制系统, 可改善发射控制系统的可靠性, 提高对导弹发射控制的实时性.

  7. Enterprise Development with Flex Best Practices for RIA Developers

    CERN Document Server

    Fain, Yakov; Tartakovsky, Anatole

    2010-01-01

    If you want to use Adobe Flex to build production-quality Rich Internet Applications for the enterprise, this groundbreaking book shows you exactly what's required. You'll learn efficient techniques and best practices, and compare several frameworks and tools available for RIA development -- well beyond anything you'll find in Flex tutorials and product documentation. Through many practical examples, the authors impart their considerable experience to help you overcome challenges during your project's life cycle. Enterprise Development with Flex also suggests proper tools and methodologies,

  8. Flex fuel polygeneration: Integrating renewable natural gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, Matthew

    Flex Fuel Polygeneration (FFPG) is the use of multiple primary energy sources for the production of multiple energy carriers to achieve increased market opportunities. FFPG allows for adjustments in energy supply to meet market fluctuations and increase resiliency to contingencies such as weather disruptions, technological changes, and variations in supply of energy resources. In this study a FFPG plant is examined that uses a combination of the primary energy sources natural gas and renewable natural gas (RNG) derived from MSW and livestock manure and converts them into energy carriers of electricity and fuels through anaerobic digestion (AD), Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS), and gas turbine cycles. Previous techno-economic analyses of conventional energy production plants are combined to obtain equipment and operating costs, and then the 20-year NPVs of the FFPG plant designs are evaluated by static and stochastic simulations. The effects of changing operating parameters are investigated, as well as the number of anaerobic digestion plants on the 20-year NPV of the FTS and FFPG systems.

  9. Evaluation of Flex-Grid architecture for NREN optical networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turus, Ioan; Kleist, Josva; Fagertun, Anna Manolova

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents an in-depth and structured evaluation of the impact that Flex-Grid technology reveals within current NRENs’ core optical networks. The evaluation is based on simulations performed with OPNET Modeler tool and considers NORDUnet as well as a normalized GEANT core optical network...... as reference topologies. Flex-Grid technology is suggested as a solution to cope with the different challenges in NREN transport networks such as traffic increase and introduction of novel physical layer services. Flex-Grid refers to narrow channel spacing values and requires a control plane which would enable...... all benefits given by the flexible spectrum allocation. GMPLS is considered in our implementation and the simulated scenarios follow the goal of answering the question: Do NRENs benefit from the introduction of Flex-Grid architecture?...

  10. The V-Flex, Triangle Orientation, and Catalan Numbers in Hexaflexagons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacob, Ionut E.; McLean, T. Bruce; Wang, Hua

    2012-01-01

    Regular hexaflexagons mysteriously change faces as you pinch flex them. This paper describes a different flex, the V-flex, which allows the hexahexaflexagon (with only 9 faces under the pinch flex) to have 3420 faces. The article goes on to explain the classification of triangle orientations in a hexaflexagon and gives an example of the…

  11. 76 FR 14995 - Comment Request for Information Collection for Work-Flex Plan Submission and Reporting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ... Request for Information Collection for Work-Flex Plan Submission and Reporting Requirements; Extension... data about the Work Flex Plan Submission and Reporting Requirements. A copy of the proposed information... five years pursuant to a Work-Flex Plan submitted by a state. Under Work-Flex, governors are...

  12. Foundation Flex for developers data-driven applications with PHP, ASP.NET, ColdFusion

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobs, Sas

    2008-01-01

    Jacobs explores in detail how to create professional data-centric Flex 2 and Flex 3 applications. This work is for Flex developers who know the basics of building Flex UIs, and want to learn how to connect their applications to data sources.

  13. Reliability evaluation of CIF (chip-in-flex) and COF (chip-on-flex) packages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jae-Won; Suk, Kyoung-Lim; Paik, Kyung-Wook; Lee, Soon-Bok

    2010-03-01

    CIF (chip-in-flex) and COF (chip-on-flex) packages have the advantages of fine pitch capability, and flexibility. Anisotropic conductive films (ACFs) are used for the interconnection between chip and substrate. Display, mobile device, and semiconductor industry require for smaller and more integrated packages. Both CIF and COF packages are an alternative for the demands. However, there are some reliability problems of interconnection between the chip and substrate because the packages are subjected to various loading conditions. These may degrade the functionality of the packages. Therefore, reliability assessment of both packages is necessary. In this study, experimental tests were performed to evaluate the reliability of interconnection between the chip and substrate of CIF and COF packages. Thermal cycling tests were performed to evaluate the resistance against thermal fatigue. The shape and warpage of the chip of CIF and COF packages were observed using optical methods (e.g., shadow Moiré and Twyman/Green interferometry). These optical Moiré techniques are widely used for measuring small deformations in microelectronic packages. The stress distribution around the chip was evaluated through FEA (finite element analysis). In addition, we suggested modifying design parameter of CIF packages for the reliability enhancement.

  14. Attachment method for stacked integrated circuit (IC) chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernhardt, Anthony F. (Berkeley, CA); Malba, Vincent (Livermore, CA)

    1999-01-01

    An attachment method for stacked integrated circuit (IC) chips. The method involves connecting stacked chips, such as DRAM memory chips, to each other and/or to a circuit board. Pads on the individual chips are rerouted to form pads on the side of the chip, after which the chips are stacked on top of each other whereby desired interconnections to other chips or a circuit board can be accomplished via the side-located pads. The pads on the side of a chip are connected to metal lines on a flexible plastic tape (flex) by anisotropically conductive adhesive (ACA). Metal lines on the flex are likewise connected to other pads on chips and/or to pads on a circuit board. In the case of a stack of DRAM chips, pads to corresponding address lines on the various chips may be connected to the same metal line on the flex to form an address bus. This method has the advantage of reducing the number of connections required to be made to the circuit board due to bussing; the flex can accommodate dimensional variation in the alignment of chips in the stack; bonding of the ACA is accomplished at low temperature and is otherwise simpler and less expensive than solder bonding; chips can be bonded to the ACA all at once if the sides of the chips are substantially coplanar, as in the case for stacks of identical chips, such as DRAM.

  15. Attachment method for stacked integrated circuit (IC) chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernhardt, A.F.; Malba, V.

    1999-08-03

    An attachment method for stacked integrated circuit (IC) chips is disclosed. The method involves connecting stacked chips, such as DRAM memory chips, to each other and/or to a circuit board. Pads on the individual chips are rerouted to form pads on the side of the chip, after which the chips are stacked on top of each other whereby desired interconnections to other chips or a circuit board can be accomplished via the side-located pads. The pads on the side of a chip are connected to metal lines on a flexible plastic tape (flex) by anisotropically conductive adhesive (ACA). Metal lines on the flex are likewise connected to other pads on chips and/or to pads on a circuit board. In the case of a stack of DRAM chips, pads to corresponding address lines on the various chips may be connected to the same metal line on the flex to form an address bus. This method has the advantage of reducing the number of connections required to be made to the circuit board due to bussing; the flex can accommodate dimensional variation in the alignment of chips in the stack; bonding of the ACA is accomplished at low temperature and is otherwise simpler and less expensive than solder bonding; chips can be bonded to the ACA all at once if the sides of the chips are substantially coplanar, as in the case for stacks of identical chips, such as DRAM. 12 figs.

  16. Timing Analysis of the FlexRay Communication Protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Traian; Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru;

    2006-01-01

    FlexRay will very likely become the de-facto standard for in-vehicle communications. However, before it can be successfully used for safety-critical applications that require predictability, timing analysis techniques are necessary for providing bounds for the message communication times. In this......FlexRay will very likely become the de-facto standard for in-vehicle communications. However, before it can be successfully used for safety-critical applications that require predictability, timing analysis techniques are necessary for providing bounds for the message communication times....... In this paper, we propose techniques for determining the timing properties of messages transmitted in both the static (ST) and the dynamic (DYN) segments of a FlexRay communication cycle. The analysis techniques for messages are integrated in the context of a holistic schedulability analysis that computes...

  17. A Flex-market Design for Flexibility Services through DERs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chunyu; Ding, Yi; Østergaard, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    in this paper. With the brand new notion of Flexibility Clearing House (FLECH), the proposed Flex-market has the ability to promote small scale DERs (up to 5MW) to participate in flexibility services trading. Accordingly, efforts to relieve the congestions in local grid areas, the contractual flexibility...... services of DERs are stipulated accommodating the various requirements of DSOs. The trading setups and processes are illustrated in details as well. Additionally, the demonstration diagram of Flex-market is also introduced in this paper. The diagram is utilized to test the feasibility and robustness......The high penetration of distributed energy resources (DERs) will significantly challenge the power system operation due to their intermittent characteristic. In order to utilize the DERs as economically efficient as possible in the distribution grid, an Aggregator-based Flex-market is proposed...

  18. Flex Fatigue Property and Fractography of High Performance Fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hua-peng; LIU Xiao-yan; SHI Mei-wu; ZHANG Jian-chun; LAI Kan; WANG Shan-yuan

    2002-01-01

    The effects of pre-stress and bending angle on the flex fatigue lifetimes of para- aramds have been studied choosing the Twaron 2000 high performance filament as the studying subject by use of the self-developed flex fatigue apparatus. The fractography of the fatiguebreaking end of the single filaments has been obtained and the fatigue-breaking mechanisms have been analyzed using the LM and SEM. The differences of the fatigue properties and fractography of a variety of high performance fibers such as Kevlar 129, Kevlar 29 and UHMW PE have been discussed.

  19. Design of Experiments to Determine Causes of Flex Cable Solder Wicking, Discoloration and Hole Location Defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, Larry

    2009-04-22

    Design of Experiments (DoE) were developed and performed in an effort to discover and resolve the causes of three different manufacturing issues; large panel voids after Hot Air Solder Leveling (HASL), cable hole locations out of tolerance after lamination and delamination/solder wicking around flat flex cable circuit lands after HASL. Results from a first DoE indicated large panel voids could be eliminated by removing the pre-HASL cleaning. It also revealed eliminating the pre-HASL bake would not be detrimental when using a hard press pad lamination stackup. A second DoE indicated a reduction in hard press pad stackup lamination pressure reduced panel stretch in the y axis approximately 70%. A third DoE illustrated increasing the pre-HASL bake temperature could reduce delamination/solder wicking when using a soft press pad lamination stackup.

  20. High Aspect Ratio Microstructures in Flexible Printed Circuit Boards : Process and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Yousef, Hanna

    2008-01-01

    Flexible printed circuit boards (flex PCBs) are used in a wide range of electronic devices today due to their light weight, bendability, extensive wiring possibilities, and low-cost manufacturing techniques. The general trend in the flex PCB industry is further miniaturization alongside increasing functionality per device and reduced costs. To meet these demands, a new generation of low cost manufacturing technologies is being developed to enable structures with smaller lateral dimensions and...

  1. Algebraic circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Lloris Ruiz, Antonio; Parrilla Roure, Luis; García Ríos, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a complete and accurate study of algebraic circuits, digital circuits whose performance can be associated with any algebraic structure. The authors distinguish between basic algebraic circuits, such as Linear Feedback Shift Registers (LFSRs) and cellular automata, and algebraic circuits, such as finite fields or Galois fields. The book includes a comprehensive review of representation systems, of arithmetic circuits implementing basic and more complex operations, and of the residue number systems (RNS). It presents a study of basic algebraic circuits such as LFSRs and cellular automata as well as a study of circuits related to Galois fields, including two real cryptographic applications of Galois fields.

  2. Experimental Charging Behavior of Orion UltraFlex Array Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golofaro, Joel T.; Vayner, Boris V.; Hillard, Grover B.

    2010-01-01

    The present ground based investigations give the first definitive look describing the charging behavior of Orion UltraFlex arrays in both the Low Earth Orbital (LEO) and geosynchronous (GEO) environments. Note the LEO charging environment also applies to the International Space Station (ISS). The GEO charging environment includes the bounding case for all lunar mission environments. The UltraFlex photovoltaic array technology is targeted to become the sole power system for life support and on-orbit power for the manned Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). The purpose of the experimental tests is to gain an understanding of the complex charging behavior to answer some of the basic performance and survivability issues to ascertain if a single UltraFlex array design will be able to cope with the projected worst case LEO and GEO charging environments. Stage 1 LEO plasma testing revealed that all four arrays successfully passed arc threshold bias tests down to -240 V. Stage 2 GEO electron gun charging tests revealed that only the front side area of indium tin oxide coated array designs successfully passed the arc frequency tests

  3. An aerodynamic study on flexed blades for VAWT applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micallef, Daniel; Farrugia, Russell; Sant, Tonio; Mollicone, Pierluigi

    2014-12-01

    There is renewed interest in aerodynamics research of VAWT rotors. Lift type, Darrieus designs sometimes use flexed blades to have an 'egg-beater shape' with an optimum Troposkien geometry to minimize the structural stress on the blades. While straight bladed VAWTs have been investigated in depth through both measurements and numerical modelling, the aerodynamics of flexed blades has not been researched with the same level of detail. Two major effects may have a substantial impact on blade performance. First, flexing at the equator causes relatively strong trailing vorticity to be released. Secondly, the blade performance at each station along the blade is influenced by self-induced velocities due to bound vorticity. The latter is not present in a straight bladed configuration. The aim of this research is to investigate these effects in relation to an innovative 4kW wind turbine concept being developed in collaboration with industry known as a self-adjusting VAWT (or SATVAWT). The approach used in this study is based on experimental and numerical work. A lifting line free-wake vortex model was developed. Wind tunnel power and hot-wire velocity measurements were performed on a scaled down, 60cm high, three bladed model in a closed wind tunnel. Results show a substantial axial wake induction at the equator resulting in a lower power generation at this position. This induction increases with increasing degree of flexure. The self-induced velocities caused by blade bound vorticity at a particular station was found to be relatively small.

  4. Flex-prints for the Mu3e experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dittmeier, Sebastian [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); Collaboration: Mu3e-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    Mu3e is a novel experiment dedicated to the search for the charged lepton flavor violating decay μ{sup +} → e{sup +}e{sup -}e{sup +} with a targeted sensitivity of a branching ratio (BR) down to 10{sup -16}. Within the standard model of particle physics this process is extremely suppressed to BR<10{sup -54}. Thus, any observation would be a clear sign for new physics beyond the standard model. The Mu3e detector consists of a silicon pixel tracking detector using the novel HV-MAPS (High Voltage Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor) technology to measure the momentum of the decay products, and scintillating fibres and tiles for precise timing. The pixel sensors are thinned to 50 μ m to achieve a material budget of about 0.1% radiation length per tracking layer. The pixel sensors are powered and connected to readout frontend boards using custom designed flex-prints, which are low material interconnects with a high signal density. We present studies of high speed data transmission up to 3.2 Gb/s over flex-print prototypes produced in-house. The design of the flex-prints for the Mu3e detector will be discussed. A 3-layer design including power, ground and slow control distribution, as well as 9 1.25 Gb/s data transmission lines for the readout of the pixel sensors is foreseen.

  5. Energetic evaluation of a mechanical dryer (flex) to familiar agriculture; Avaliacao energetica de um secador mecanico (FLEX) para cafeicultura familiar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donzeles, Sergio M.L. [Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuaria de Minas Gerais (CTZM/EPAMIG), Vicosa, MG (Brazil). Centro Tecnologico da Zona da Mata], E-mail: slopes@ufv.br; Silva, Juarez S.; Martin, Samuel; Nogueira, R.M.; Silva, Jadir N.; Zanata, Fabio L. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (DEA/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], Emails: juarez@ufv.br, jadir@ufv.br, samuel.martin@ufv.br

    2009-07-01

    Actually, the coffee is one of the most important exportation crops of the country. The utilization of obsolete or unsuitable processes, specifically related to the coffee drying, it can to damage the final quality of the product, besides to result in a low profitability of the coffee growing. In this work a mechanical drier (flex) was built, for the familiar coffee growing, being subsequently evaluated, to the drying of peeled cherry coffee, by the realization of two tests: one with heating of the air using vegetable coal and other combining the use of solar heater with vegetable coal. Basing on the results, it was possible to conclude that the drying of coffee in the mechanical drier Flex can be carried out using vegetable coal as fuel as well as associating the use of the vegetable coal with the solar collector, to save energy. (author)

  6. Rigid-Flex Printed Circuit Manufacturing process. A Project of the Manufacturing Technology Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-06-30

    2 cable. This type of defect was considered to be cosmetic only. The de- fect occurred as a result of a severe reaming operation in which a 3/16-in...on or before 31 January 1979. The hardware will be legibly identified with a waterproof epoxy type ink per MIL-STD-129 and packaged using a

  7. The History of GalaFLEX P4HB Scaffold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Simon F.; Martin, David P.; Moses, Arikha C.

    2016-01-01

    The GalaFLEX Scaffold (Galatea Surgical, Inc., Lexington, MA) for plastic and reconstructive surgery belongs to a new generation of products for soft tissue reinforcement made from poly-4-hydroxybutyrate (P4HB). Other members of this new family of products include MonoMax Suture (Aesculap AG, Tuttlingen, Germany) for soft tissue approximation, BioFiber Scaffold (Tornier, Inc., Edina, MN) for tendon repair, and Phasix Mesh (C.R. Bard, Inc., Murray Hill, NJ) for hernia repair. Each of these fully resorbable products provides prolonged strength retention, typically 50% to 70% strength retention at 12 weeks, and facilitates remodeling in vivo to provide a strong, lasting repair. P4HB belongs to a naturally occurring class of biopolymers and fibers made from it are uniquely strong, flexible, and biocompatible. GalaFLEX Scaffold is comprised of high-strength, resorbable P4HB monofilament fibers. It is a knitted macroporous scaffold intended to elevate, reinforce, and repair soft tissue. The scaffold acts as a lattice for new tissue growth, which is rapidly vascularized and becomes fully integrated with adjacent tissue as the fibers resorb. In this review, we describe the development of P4HB, its production, properties, safety, and biocompatibility of devices made from P4HB. Early clinical results and current clinical applications of products made from P4HB are also discussed. The results of post-market clinical studies evaluating the GalaFLEX Scaffold in rhytidectomy and cosmetic breast surgery demonstrate that the scaffold can reinforce lifted soft tissue, resulting in persistent surgical results in the face and neck at one year, and provide lower pole stability after breast lift at one year. PMID:27697885

  8. The History of GalaFLEX P4HB Scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Simon F; Martin, David P; Moses, Arikha C

    2016-11-01

    The GalaFLEX Scaffold (Galatea Surgical, Inc., Lexington, MA) for plastic and reconstructive surgery belongs to a new generation of products for soft tissue reinforcement made from poly-4-hydroxybutyrate (P4HB). Other members of this new family of products include MonoMax Suture (Aesculap AG, Tuttlingen, Germany) for soft tissue approximation, BioFiber Scaffold (Tornier, Inc., Edina, MN) for tendon repair, and Phasix Mesh (C.R. Bard, Inc., Murray Hill, NJ) for hernia repair. Each of these fully resorbable products provides prolonged strength retention, typically 50% to 70% strength retention at 12 weeks, and facilitates remodeling in vivo to provide a strong, lasting repair. P4HB belongs to a naturally occurring class of biopolymers and fibers made from it are uniquely strong, flexible, and biocompatible. GalaFLEX Scaffold is comprised of high-strength, resorbable P4HB monofilament fibers. It is a knitted macroporous scaffold intended to elevate, reinforce, and repair soft tissue. The scaffold acts as a lattice for new tissue growth, which is rapidly vascularized and becomes fully integrated with adjacent tissue as the fibers resorb. In this review, we describe the development of P4HB, its production, properties, safety, and biocompatibility of devices made from P4HB. Early clinical results and current clinical applications of products made from P4HB are also discussed. The results of post-market clinical studies evaluating the GalaFLEX Scaffold in rhytidectomy and cosmetic breast surgery demonstrate that the scaffold can reinforce lifted soft tissue, resulting in persistent surgical results in the face and neck at one year, and provide lower pole stability after breast lift at one year. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc.

  9. Experience in using FlexCtrl SCADA for accelerator automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikiforov, A.; Aleinikov, V.; Sychev, A.; Borina, I.; Rukavishnikov, A.

    2012-07-01

    The programmed component of the automatic control of accelerators on the basis of licensed software packages (FlexCtrl SCADA, Photon Application Builder, and Cogent DataHub) and an additionally developed library of classes (related to visual programming with regard to functional capabilities and which all together represent an integrated media for producing the automation system) is described in the article. The number of features of the media components and the number of the components themselves can be increased since the developed media is characterized as open.

  10. The History of GalaFLEX P4HB Scaffold

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Simon F.; Martin, David P; Moses, Arikha C.

    2016-01-01

    The GalaFLEX Scaffold (Galatea Surgical, Inc., Lexington, MA) for plastic and reconstructive surgery belongs to a new generation of products for soft tissue reinforcement made from poly-4-hydroxybutyrate (P4HB). Other members of this new family of products include MonoMax Suture (Aesculap AG, Tuttlingen, Germany) for soft tissue approximation, BioFiber Scaffold (Tornier, Inc., Edina, MN) for tendon repair, and Phasix Mesh (C.R. Bard, Inc., Murray Hill, NJ) for hernia repair. Each of these ful...

  11. Learning Flex 3 Getting up to Speed with Rich Internet Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Cole, Alaric

    2008-01-01

    How soon can you learn Adobe Flex 3? With this book's unique hands-on approach, you will be able to tinker with examples right away, and create your own Rich Internet Applications with Flex within the first few chapters. Learning Flex 3 offers step-by-step instructions that are clear and concise that teach you how to build a layout, add interactivity, work with data, and deploy your applications to either the Web or the desktop.

  12. Flex 4 Cookbook Real-world recipes for developing Rich Internet Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Noble, Joshua; Braithwaite, Garth; Casario, Marco; Tretola, Rich

    2010-01-01

    With this collection of proven recipes, you have the ideal problem-solving guide for developing interactive Rich Internet Applications on the Adobe Flash Platform. You'll find answers to hundreds of common problems you may encounter when using Adobe Flex, Flex 4 Framework, or Flash Builder, Adobe's GUI-based development tool. Flex 4 Cookbook has hands-on recipes for everything from Flex basics to solutions for working with visual components and data access, as well as tips on application development, unit testing, and Adobe AIR. Each recipe provides an explanation of how and why it works, an

  13. Atlantis FLEX (BAY 22010 H – a new herbicide in cereals with efficacy against grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerlen, Dirk

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Atlantis FLEX (Mesosulfuron-methyl; Propoxycarbazone-sodium; Mefenpyr-diethyl is a new cereal herbicide to control blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides, ryegrass (Lolium spec., brome grass (Bromus spec., wild oat (Avena fatua, loose silky-bentgrass (Apera spica-venti L, annual meadow-grass (Poa annua L. and dicot weeds. Atlantis FLEX can be used in winter wheat, winter triticale, winter rye, winter durum wheat and spelt. The publication is based on efficacy trials from two years of spring application with Atlantis FLEX. It will be shown, that Atlantis FLEX generates a good to excellent efficacy against grass-weeds.

  14. Low-Temperature Miscibility of Ethanol-Gasoline-Water Blends in Flex Fuel Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, T.; Schramm, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    The miscibility of blends of gasoline and hydrous ethanol was investigated experimentally at - 25 degrees C and - 2 degrees C. Furthermore, the maximum water content was found for ethanol in flex fuel blends. The results strongly indicate that blends containing ethanol with a water content above...... that of the ethanol/water azeotrope (4.4% water by mass) can be used as Flex Fuel blends together with gasoline at ambient temperatures of 25 degrees C and 2 degrees C, without phase separation occurring. Additionally, it was shown that the ethanol purity requirement of ethanol-rich flex fuel blends falls...... with increasing ethanol content in the gasoline-rich flex fuel blend....

  15. A stack-based flex-compressive piezoelectric energy harvesting cell for large quasi-static loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianfeng; Shi, Zhifei; Wang, Jianjun; Xiang, Hongjun

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a flex-compressive piezoelectric energy harvesting cell (F-C PEHC) is proposed. This cell has a large load capacity and adjustable force transmission coefficient assembled from replaceable individual components. A statically indeterminate mechanical model for the cell is established and the theoretical force transmission coefficient is derived based on structural mechanics. An inverse correlation between the force transmission coefficient and the relative stiffness of Element 1’s limbs is found. An experimental study is also conducted to verify the theoretical results. Both weakened and enhanced modes are achieved for this experiment. The maximum power output approaches 4.5 mW at 120 kΩ resistive load under a 4 Hz harmonic excitation with 600 N amplitude for the weakened mode, whereas the maximum power output approaches 17.8 mW at 120 kΩ under corresponding load for the enhanced mode. The experimental measurements of output voltages are compared with the theoretical ones in both weakened and enhanced modes. The experimental measurements of open-circuit voltages are slightly smaller for harmonic excitations with amplitudes that vary from 400 N to 800 N and the errors are within 14%. During the experiment, the maximum load approaches 2.8 kN which is quite large but not the ultimate bearing capacity of the present device. The mechanical model and theoretical transmission coefficient can be used in other flex-compressive mode energy transducers.

  16. FlexRay总线在电池储能系统中的应用%Application of FlexRay Bus in Battery Energy Storage System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马建业; 黄梅; 王占国; 刘彪; 盛大双

    2014-01-01

    当前大规模储能电池管理系统内部通信总线普遍采用CAN总线,使用FlexRay总线作为其内部总线替代传统的CAN总线,能较好地满足大规模电池储能系统( BESS)内部通信的要求。分析CAN总线用于大规模储能电池管理系统存在的不足以及FlexRay总线的优势。在BESS通信架构的基础上,介绍储能电池管理系统的通信架构,讨论FlexRay总线在大规模储能电池管理系统中的应用及主要方案。运用Network Designer与CANoe. FlexRay仿真验证FlexRay通信系统在大规模储能电池管理系统中应用的可行性,结果表明,与CAN总线相比,FlexRay总线用于储能电池管理系统中可以取得更好的效果。%CAN bus is normally used as internal bus in the large-scale Battery Energy Storage System ( BESS ) at present. FlexRay used as internal bus replacing CAN bus can well meet the requirements of internal communications in the large-scale battery energy storage system. The shortage of CAN bus which is used in the large-scale battery energy storage system and the superiority of FlexRay bus are analysed. Based on the simple introduction of the communication architecture of battery energy storage system, the communication architecture of energy storage battery management system is introduced by focus, and the feasibility of the application and major scheme of the FlexRay communication protocol in large-scale energy storage battery management system are discussed. Network Designer and CANoe. FlexRay are used to simulate the feasibility of FlexRay communication system used in the large-scale battery energy storage system. Simulation results prove that FlexRay bus used in energy storage battery management system can achieve good effects compared with CAN bus.

  17. HelixFlex: bioinspired maneuverable instrument for skull base surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerboni, Giada; Henselmans, Paul W J; Arkenbout, Ewout A; van Furth, Wouter R; Breedveld, Paul

    2015-12-01

    Endoscopic endonasal surgery is currently regarded as the 'gold standard' for operating on pituitary gland tumors, and is becoming more and more accepted for treatment of other skull base lesions. However, endoscopic surgical treatment of most skull base pathologies, including certain pituitary tumors, is severely impaired by current instruments lack of maneuverability. Especially, gaining access to, and visibility of, difficult-to-reach anatomical corners without interference with surrounding neurovascular structures or other instruments, is a challenge. In this context there is the need for instruments that are able to provide a stable shaft position, while both the orientation and the position of the end-effector can be independently controlled. Current instruments that allow for this level of maneuverability are usually mechanically complex, and hence less suitable for mass production. This study therefore focuses on the development of a new actuation technique that allows for the required maneuverability while reducing the construction complexity. This actuation technique, referred to as multi-actuation, integrates multiple cable routings into a single steerable structure. Multi-actuation has been successfully integrated and tested in a handheld prototype instrument called HelixFlex. HelixFlex contains a 4 degrees of freedom maneuverable 5.8 mm (diameter) tip and shows promising results concerning its maneuverability and potential rigidity.

  18. Novel Approaches for Robotic Control Using Flex Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeetha.P

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the project is to develop the Prosthetic robotic hand using flex sensor for amputees. The main aim of the project is to develop the robotic hand that performs pick and place activities. Here we are using flex sensors to sense the signals from artificial hand signal is transmitted and that signal is used to drive the mechanical hand. Stroke is the third leading cause of the death. Nearly 7, 00,000 people suffered from stroke last year and 2/3 rd of them survived but were left with many number of disabilities; one such disability is upper extremity hemiplegia. If the hand and the arm do not have therapy immediately after stroke, it will lose its power and muscle control, resulting in a claw like appearance and loss of function. Activities of the patient, daily living activities will be significantly affected.Prosthetic hand must resemble human hand in size and shape and must perform like human hand.

  19. Survey of Flex Fuel in 2014. CRC Project E-85-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alleman, Teresa L. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-07-27

    ASTM D5798 sets the specifications for Ethanol Flex Fuel, which currently permits between 51 volume percent (vol%) and 83 vol% ethanol. The vapor pressure varies seasonally and geographically and is divided into four distinct classes to ensure year-round driveability. This project is the first survey of Ethanol Flex Fuel since these specification changes were made to Specification D5798.

  20. UniFlex A WWW-environment for project-based collaborative learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Ole; Helbo, Jan; Knudsen, Morten

    2003-01-01

    , a web site named UniFlex (University Flexible learning) has been developed and brought into use. The site is a comprehensive set of bookmarks including course taking, upload/download, and - of special significance - collaborative on-line project work. UniFlex has been developed to meet the requirement...

  1. Resonance circuits for adiabatic circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Schlachta

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the possible techniques to reduces the power consumption in digital CMOS circuits is to slow down the charge transport. This slowdown can be achieved by introducing an inductor in the charging path. Additionally, the inductor can act as an energy storage element, conserving the energy that is normally dissipated during discharging. Together with the parasitic capacitances from the circuit a LCresonant circuit is formed.

  2. FLEX: A Modular Software Architecture for Flight License Exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsan, Taner; Saka, Hamit Emre; Sahin, Ceyhun

    This paper is about the design and implementation of an examination system based on World Wide Web. It is called FLEX-Flight License Exam Software. We designed and implemented flexible and modular software architecture. The implemented system has basic specifications such as appending questions in system, building exams with these appended questions and making students to take these exams. There are three different types of users with different authorizations. These are system administrator, operators and students. System administrator operates and maintains the system, and also audits the system integrity. The system administrator can not be able to change the result of exams and can not take an exam. Operator module includes instructors. Operators have some privileges such as preparing exams, entering questions, changing the existing questions and etc. Students can log on the system and can be accessed to exams by a certain URL. The other characteristic of our system is that operators and system administrator are not able to delete questions due to the security problems. Exam questions can be inserted on their topics and lectures in the database. Thus; operators and system administrator can easily choose questions. When all these are taken into consideration, FLEX software provides opportunities to many students to take exams at the same time in safe, reliable and user friendly conditions. It is also reliable examination system for the authorized aviation administration companies. Web development platform - LAMP; Linux, Apache web server, MySQL, Object-oriented scripting Language - PHP are used for developing the system and page structures are developed by Content Management System - CMS.

  3. Bio-flex obtained from pyrolysis of biomass as fuel; Bio-flex obtido da pirolise de biomassa como combustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesa Perez, Juan Miguel; Viltre Rodriguez, Roberto Alfonso; Marin Mesa, Henry Ramon [Bioware Tecnologia, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Rocha, Jose Dilcio [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (NIPE/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico; Samaniego, Manuel Raul Pelaez [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Planejamento de Sistemas Energeticos; Cortez, Luis Augusto Barbosa [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes the BIOWARE experience in the bio fuel production from biomass residues. Fast pyrolysis of a mixture of sugar cane trash and elephant grass carried out in a fluidized bed reactor with capacity of 200 kg/h dry feed (12% w/w). The co-products particulate charcoal, acid extract, and bio-oil were obtained. The fast pyrolysis pilot plant PPR-200 belonged to UNICAMP and is operated by BIOWARE personnel. This paper presents the chemical rote to bio-flex production (a kind of bio diesel from acid esterification) from pyrolytic carboxylic acids. Both ethanol and methanol were used as reactant but higher yields were found with methanol. (author)

  4. GATING CIRCUITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, L.C.

    1958-10-14

    Control circuits for vacuum tubes are described, and a binary counter having an improved trigger circuit is reported. The salient feature of the binary counter is the application of the input signal to the cathode of each of two vacuum tubes through separate capacitors and the connection of each cathode to ground through separate diodes. The control of the binary counter is achieved in this manner without special pulse shaping of the input signal. A further advantage of the circuit is the simplicity and minimum nuruber of components required, making its use particularly desirable in computer machines.

  5. Learning Flex 4 Getting Up to Speed with Rich Internet Application Design and Development

    CERN Document Server

    Cole, Alaric

    2010-01-01

    Learn Adobe Flex 4 in a fun and engaging way with this book's unique, hands-on approach. Using clear examples and step-by-step coaching from two experts, you'll create four applications that demonstrate fundamental Flex programming concepts. Throughout the course of this book, you'll learn how to enhance user interaction with ActionScript, and create and skin a user interface with Flex's UI components (MXML) and Adobe's new FXG graphics format. You'll also be trained to manage dynamic data, connect to a database using server-side script, and deploy applications to both the Web and the deskto

  6. Advances in Current Rating Techniques for Flexible Printed Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Twist Capsule Assemblies are power transfer devices commonly used in spacecraft mechanisms that require electrical signals to be passed across a rotating interface. Flexible printed circuits (flex tapes, see Figure 2) are used to carry the electrical signals in these devices. Determining the current rating for a given trace (conductor) size can be challenging. Because of the thermal conditions present in this environment the most appropriate approach is to assume that the only means by which heat is removed from the trace is thru the conductor itself, so that when the flex tape is long the temperature rise in the trace can be extreme. While this technique represents a worst-case thermal situation that yields conservative current ratings, this conservatism may lead to overly cautious designs when not all traces are used at their full rated capacity. A better understanding of how individual traces behave when they are not all in use is the goal of this research. In the testing done in support of this paper, a representative flex tape used for a flight Solar Array Drive Assembly (SADA) application was tested by energizing individual traces (conductors in the tape) in a vacuum chamber and the temperatures of the tape measured using both fine-gauge thermocouples and infrared thermographic imaging. We find that traditional derating schemes used for bundles of wires do not apply for the configuration tested. We also determine that single active traces located in the center of a flex tape operate at lower temperatures than those on the outside edges.

  7. UniFlex A WWW-environment for project-based collaborative learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Ole; Helbo, Jan; Knudsen, Morten

    2003-01-01

    , a web site named UniFlex (University Flexible learning) has been developed and brought into use. The site is a comprehensive set of bookmarks including course taking, upload/download, and - of special significance - collaborative on-line project work. UniFlex has been developed to meet the requirement......Increasing demands for remote on-line education are changing the way teaching and learning is performed. New behavior in using pedagogy and supporting technology is needed to drive the learning process. To facilitate the use of services for selected activities to participants in on-line education...... for a simple and cheap personalized interactive site, supporting problem oriented and project organized study form, which has characterized Aalborg University for more than 25 years. UniFlex supports a virtual group room for collaborative work as a key facility. UniFlex has downloadable templates, which...

  8. Testing FlexRay ECUs with a hardware-in-the-loop simulator; Test von FlexRay-Steuergeraeten am Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroop, J.; Koehl, S. [dSPACE GmbH, Paderborn (Germany); Peller, M.; Riedesser, P. [BMW AG, Muenchen (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    To master the data communication of complex and safety relevant systems within future vehicles, the BMW Group prepares the application of FlexRay. The accompanying development process plays an important role for the quality, stability and reliability of those systems. Hardware-in-the-loop simulation and test stands are indispensable constituents and they are an integral part of the validation process. The following contribution describes the technology that is used within the BMW Group in more detail, especially in terms of communication networks with FlexRay. (orig.)

  9. Picosecond laser cutting and drilling of thin flex glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wlodarczyk, Krystian L.; Brunton, Adam; Rumsby, Phil; Hand, Duncan P.

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the feasibility of cutting and drilling thin flex glass (TFG) substrates using a picosecond laser operating at wavelengths of 1030 nm, 515 nm and 343 nm. 50 μm and 100 μm thick AF32®Eco Thin Glass (Schott AG) sheets are used. The laser processing parameters such as the wavelength, pulse energy, pulse repetition frequency, scan speed and the number of laser passes which are necessary to perform through a cut or to drill a borehole in the TFG substrate are studied in detail. Our results show that the highest effective cutting speeds (220 mm/s for a 50 μm thick TFG substrate and 74 mm/s for a 100 μm thick TFG substrate) are obtained with the 1030 nm wavelength, whereas the 343 nm wavelength provides the best quality cuts. The 515 nm wavelength, meanwhile, can be used to provide relatively good laser cut quality with heat affected zones (HAZ) of <25 μm for 50 μm TFG and <40 μm for 100 μm TFG with cutting speeds of 100 mm/s and 28.5 mm/s, respectively. The 343 nm and 515 nm wavelengths can also be used for drilling micro-holes (with inlet diameters of ⩽75 μm) in the 100 μm TFG substrate with speeds of up to 2 holes per second (using 343 nm) and 8 holes per second (using 515 nm). Optical microscope and SEM images of the cuts and micro-holes are presented.

  10. Controllable circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    A switch-mode power circuit comprises a controllable element and a control unit. The controllable element is configured to control a current in response to a control signal supplied to the controllable element. The control unit is connected to the controllable element and provides the control...

  11. Functional Performance Evaluation of the Northwestern University Flexible Subischial Vacuum (NU-FlexSIV) Socket for Persons with Transfemoral Amputation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0708 TITLE: Functional Performance Evaluation of the Northwestern University Flexible Subischial Vacuum (NU-FlexSIV...University Flexible Subischial Vacuum (NU-FlexSIV) Socket for Persons with Transfemoral Amputation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1...the Northwestern University Flexible Sub-Ischial Vacuum (NU-FlexSIV) Socket) with the current standard of care socket (the Ischial Containment (IC

  12. FlexAID: Revisiting Docking on Non-Native-Complex Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudreault, Francis; Najmanovich, Rafael J

    2015-07-27

    Small-molecule protein docking is an essential tool in drug design and to understand molecular recognition. In the present work we introduce FlexAID, a small-molecule docking algorithm that accounts for target side-chain flexibility and utilizes a soft scoring function, i.e. one that is not highly dependent on specific geometric criteria, based on surface complementarity. The pairwise energy parameters were derived from a large dataset of true positive poses and negative decoys from the PDBbind database through an iterative process using Monte Carlo simulations. The prediction of binding poses is tested using the widely used Astex dataset as well as the HAP2 dataset, while performance in virtual screening is evaluated using a subset of the DUD dataset. We compare FlexAID to AutoDock Vina, FlexX, and rDock in an extensive number of scenarios to understand the strengths and limitations of the different programs as well as to reported results for Glide, GOLD, and DOCK6 where applicable. The most relevant among these scenarios is that of docking on flexible non-native-complex structures where as is the case in reality, the target conformation in the bound form is not known a priori. We demonstrate that FlexAID, unlike other programs, is robust against increasing structural variability. FlexAID obtains equivalent sampling success as GOLD and performs better than AutoDock Vina or FlexX in all scenarios against non-native-complex structures. FlexAID is better than rDock when there is at least one critical side-chain movement required upon ligand binding. In virtual screening, FlexAID results are lower on average than those of AutoDock Vina and rDock. The higher accuracy in flexible targets where critical movements are required, intuitive PyMOL-integrated graphical user interface and free source code as well as precompiled executables for Windows, Linux, and Mac OS make FlexAID a welcome addition to the arsenal of existing small-molecule protein docking methods.

  13. Analog and VLSI circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wai-Kai

    2009-01-01

    Featuring hundreds of illustrations and references, this book provides the information on analog and VLSI circuits. It focuses on analog integrated circuits, presenting the knowledge on monolithic device models, analog circuit cells, high performance analog circuits, RF communication circuits, and PLL circuits.

  14. Circuit Connectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The U-shaped wire devices in the upper photo are Digi-Klipsm; aids to compact packaging of electrical and electronic devices. They serve as connectors linking the circuitry of one circuit board with another in multi-board systems. Digi-Klips were originally developed for Goddard Space Flight Center to meet a need for lightweight, reliable connectors to replace hand-wired connections formerly used in spacecraft. They are made of beryllium copper wire, noted for its excellent conductivity and its spring-like properties, which assure solid electrical contact over a long period of time.

  15. Flex-gear power transmission system for transmitting EMF between Sun and ring gears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A plurality of flexible cylindrical members, termed flex-gears and having gear tooth type perimeters are located in an annular space between two concentric rotating gear members, one an inner gear member and the other an outer ring gear member, both of which have mutually facing toothed surfaces which engage the flex-gears. The flex-gears rotate and orbit around the annular space as planetary gears when the inner and outer gear members rotate with respect to one another. Pairs of these elements located in two mutually parallel planes and separated by insulators provide two electrical conductor paths across which an electrical signal source, AC or DC, can be connected and coupled to an electrical device. Alternatively, one set of elements including outer gears segmented into mutually insulated semicircles and inner gears segmented into mutually insulated quadrants can be used.

  16. Flex Fatigue Behavior Of Plastic Optical Fibers With Low Bending Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Juan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Flex fatigue behaviour of plastic optical fibres (POFs with the diameters of 0.2 and 0.3 mm under different pretensions is measured with fatigue life curve by flexometer. The fatigue sensitivity coefficient is calculated by the linear fitting curve of normalised stress versus logarithm of bending cycles. The residual modulus is investigated during the flex fatigue processes. The results exhibit the exponential relationship between applied pretension and numbers of bending cycles at break. It is indicated that the flex fatigue of POFs might be sensitive with high swing angle or swing speed. There is an evident loss of modulus for two POFs with pretensions of 4 and 10% of ultimate tensile strength during 10-times bending cycles. The values of residual modulus of two POFs almost keep constant after 10-times bending cycles.

  17. LOGIC CIRCUIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, G.H.; Faught, M.L.

    1963-12-24

    A device for safety rod counting in a nuclear reactor is described. A Wheatstone bridge circuit is adapted to prevent de-energizing the hopper coils of a ball backup system if safety rods, sufficient in total control effect, properly enter the reactor core to effect shut down. A plurality of resistances form one arm of the bridge, each resistance being associated with a particular safety rod and weighted in value according to the control effect of the particular safety rod. Switching means are used to switch each of the resistances in and out of the bridge circuit responsive to the presence of a particular safety rod in its effective position in the reactor core and responsive to the attainment of a predetermined velocity by a particular safety rod enroute to its effective position. The bridge is unbalanced in one direction during normal reactor operation prior to the generation of a scram signal and the switching means and resistances are adapted to unbalance the bridge in the opposite direction if the safety rods produce a predetermined amount of control effect in response to the scram signal. The bridge unbalance reversal is then utilized to prevent the actuation of the ball backup system, or, conversely, a failure of the safety rods to produce the predetermined effect produces no unbalance reversal and the ball backup system is actuated. (AEC)

  18. Collective of mechatronics circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-02-15

    This book is composed of three parts, which deals with mechatronics system about sensor, circuit and motor. The contents of the first part are photo sensor of collector for output, locating detection circuit with photo interrupts, photo sensor circuit with CdS cell and lamp, interface circuit with logic and LED and temperature sensor circuit. The second part deals with oscillation circuit with crystal, C-R oscillation circuit, F-V converter, timer circuit, stability power circuit, DC amp and DC-DC converter. The last part is comprised of bridge server circuit, deformation bridge server, controlling circuit of DC motor, controlling circuit with IC for PLL and driver circuit of stepping motor and driver circuit of Brushless.

  19. Der Erste Weltkrieg als Medium der Gegenmoderne : zu den Werken von Walter Flex und Ernst Jünger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, Lars

    2004-01-01

    1. Inleiding Tussen de ‘visies op de oorlog’ die in de teksten van Walter Flex enerzijds, in die van Ernst Jünger anderzijds tot uitdrukking komen, ligt het trauma van de materiaalslag. Walter Flex, voornamelijk aan het oostfront ingezet, vocht in een van de laatste veldslagen van de door Eric Hobsb

  20. Inter-domain Embedded Carrying Network Construction in ReFlexNet%面向ReFlexNet的域间嵌入式承载网构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐宁; 汪斌强; 袁博; 张博; 王保进

    2011-01-01

    To solve the puzzle faced by traditional Internet infrastructure, a new Reconfigurable Flexible Network (ReFlexNet) Infrastructure is proposed. The inter-domain Reconfigurable Embedded Carrying Network (RECN) construction issues in ReFlexNet are discussed. Distributed layered management system and resource management mechanism is proposed. Based on the manner of token passing, a distributed inter-domain RECN construction method is proposed, which can resolve large-scale inter-domain construction problem efficiently. To improve efficiency of token transfer, an improved Token-Ring establishment algorithm is proposed which is called ImprovedSA based on traditional Simulated Annealing (SA) algorithm of solving Hamilton circle problem. It can find a better circle rapidly and effectively via ameliorating the result gained by traditional algorithm.%为解决传统互联网体系结构面临的困境,该文提出了新型的可重构柔性网络(Reconfigurable Flexible Network,ReFlexNet)体系架构.该文针对ReFlexNet中域间嵌入式承载网的构建方法进行了论述,提出了ReFlexNet的分布式分层管理体系和资源管理机制,并基于令牌传递的方式设计了分布式域间嵌入式承载网的构建方法,有效解决了大范围跨域的嵌入式承载网构建问题.为提高令牌传递的效率,在传统求解Hamilton回路的模拟退火算法基础上,提出了改进的令牌环构造算法ImprovedSA,通过对传统算法求得的解进行改良,可快速有效地找到更好的回路.

  1. Commutation circuit for an HVDC circuit breaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premerlani, William J.

    1981-01-01

    A commutation circuit for a high voltage DC circuit breaker incorporates a resistor capacitor combination and a charging circuit connected to the main breaker, such that a commutating capacitor is discharged in opposition to the load current to force the current in an arc after breaker opening to zero to facilitate arc interruption. In a particular embodiment, a normally open commutating circuit is connected across the contacts of a main DC circuit breaker to absorb the inductive system energy trapped by breaker opening and to limit recovery voltages to a level tolerable by the commutating circuit components.

  2. Comparative Analyses of MIRT Models and Software (BMIRT and flexMIRT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Guler; Hambleton, Ronald K.

    2017-01-01

    Application of MIRT modeling procedures is dependent on the quality of parameter estimates provided by the estimation software and techniques used. This study investigated model parameter recovery of two popular MIRT packages, BMIRT and flexMIRT, under some common measurement conditions. These packages were specifically selected to investigate the…

  3. A flexed posture in elderly patients is associated with impairments in postural control during walking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Maartje H.; van der Jagt-Willems, Hanna C.; van Campen, Jos P. C. M.; Lems, Willem F.; Beijnen, Jos H.; Lamoth, Claudine J. C.

    2014-01-01

    A flexed posture (FP) is characterized by protrusion of the head and an increased thoracic kyphosis (TK), which may be caused by osteoporotic vertebral fractures (VFs). These impairments may affect motor function, and consequently increase the risk of falling and fractures. The aim of the current st

  4. FlexPRET: A Processor Platform for Mixed-Criticality Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    Implementation We implemented FlexPRET in Chisel [27], a hardware construction language that generates both Verilog code and a cycle-accurate C++-based...configurations on both the cycle-accurate simulator and an FPGA implementation of the Verilog code, with results being examined for correctness. B. FPGA

  5. Bus Access Optimisation for FlexRay-based Distributed Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Traian; Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru

    2007-01-01

    -real time communication in a deterministic manner. In this paper, we propose techniques for optimising the FlexRay bus access mechanism of a distributed system, so that the hard real-time deadlines are met for all the tasks and messages in the system. We have evaluated the proposed techniques using...

  6. Assessing the operational life of flexible printed boards intended for continuous flexing applications : a case study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, David Franklin

    2011-01-01

    Through the vehicle of a case study, this paper describes in detail how the guidance found in the suite of IPC (Association Connecting Electronics Industries) publications can be applied to develop a high level of design assurance that flexible printed boards intended for continuous flexing applications will satisfy specified lifetime requirements.

  7. GMPLS control plane extensions in support of flex-grid enabled elastic optical networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turus, Ioan; Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Dittmann, Lars

    2013-01-01

    of generalized labels format and enable enhancements for the wavelength selection procedures. OSPF-TE enables the creation of spectrum databases based on novel LSA sub-TLV attributes capable of advertising spectrum status. Based on the implemented extensions, we propose and evaluate advanced distributed spectrum...... allocation schemes and strategies for dynamic routing algorithms in support of flex-grid optical networks....

  8. Analog circuit design designing dynamic circuit response

    CERN Document Server

    Feucht, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    This second volume, Designing Dynamic Circuit Response builds upon the first volume Designing Amplifier Circuits by extending coverage to include reactances and their time- and frequency-related behavioral consequences.

  9. The increased range of cervical flexed motion detected by radiographs in Hirayama disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Xiaojuan, E-mail: xu_xiaojuan@126.com [Department of Radiology, Peking University Third Hospital, North Huayuan Road No.49, Haidian District, Beijing 100191 (China); Han Hongbin, E-mail: hhb1630@vip.sina.com [Department of Radiology, Peking University Third Hospital, North Huayuan Road No.49, Haidian District, Beijing 100191 (China); Gao Hui, E-mail: gaohui815@yahoo.cn [Department of Radiology, Peking University Third Hospital, North Huayuan Road No.49, Haidian District, Beijing 100191 (China); Hou Chao, E-mail: houchaao@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Peking University Third Hospital, North Huayuan Road No.49, Haidian District, Beijing 100191 (China); Fan Dongsheng, E-mail: dsfan@sina.com [Department of Neurology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100191 (China); Fu Yu, E-mail: lilac_fu@tom.com [Department of Neurology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100191 (China); Sun Yu, E-mail: sunyuor@vip.sina.com [Department of Orthopedic, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2011-04-15

    Purpose: Cervical flexion movement is supposed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of Hirayama disease. But there is no report on the range of cervical flexed motion in this disease. The purpose of current study was to compare the range of cervical flexed motion in patients with Hirayama disease with the one in healthy controls using conventional lateral flexion radiographs of the cervical spine, and to investigate the diagnostic value of radiographs for Hirayama disease. Materials and methods: This prospective study was approved by a local institutional review board and written informed consent was obtained. From August 2007 to March 2009, conventional flexion cervical radiographs and flexion cervical MRI were performed on 31 Hirayama disease patients (all men, age range, 16-24 years, mean age, 19.52 {+-} 2.29 years) and 40 control subjects (all men, age range, 16-25 years, mean age, 23.10 {+-} 2.20 years). The segmental and overall range of cervical flexed motion was quantitatively measured. Receiver operating characteristic curve was calculated and the diagnostic accuracy was qualified by using the area under the curve Az. Results: Both the segmental and overall range of cervical flexed motion of patients determined by flexion cervical radiographs was greater than that of controls. The Az value was 0.90, indicating a moderate to good ability of conventional flexion radiographs in the diagnosis of Hirayama disease. Conclusion: Hirayama disease patients have an increased flexed motion range of cervical spine which would contribute to the pathophysiological change and determine its treatment. Conventional flexion radiographs might be suitable to be used as first line radiographic examination, followed by MRI in cases of suspected Hirayama disease.

  10. Design of a real time market for regulating power. FlexPower WP1 - Report 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, C.; Fock, F.; Togeby, M.

    2011-12-15

    The FlexPower project investigates the possibility of using broadcasted dynamic electricity prices as a simple and low cost means to activating a large number of flexible small-scale power units. The aim is to provide regulating power via an aggregated response from the numerous units on a volunteer basis. The power units could for example be electrical heating and cooling units, electrical vehicles, industrial demand and micro generation. Each power unit can have its own local controller and individual business model and objective function. The optimisation of the local controls may require forecasts of the services requested by the customer (such as heat for a house or charging power for an electrical vehicle) - in terms of quantity, timing and flexibility - and forecasts of the electricity prices. Based on international 'real-time' power market experiences, new dynamic FlexPower market mechanisms to perform regulating power are designed and tested via simulations, under laboratory conditions and in the field. A dedicated simulation tool is developed for this purpose. The FlexPower regulation can never be perfect, but is expected to be able to meet some of the present and future growing demand for regulating power. As a starting point, a 5-minute power price signal, based on the actual regulation power prices, is tested. WP1 addresses the following question: 1) How could a system with a one-way price be designed? How can the FlexPower mechanism be integrated into the present electricity market, including the market for regulating power? This report describes the FlexPower concept, and gives one suggestion as to how this new market could work. How this will affect the different stakeholders is discussed, and risks and opportunities in the new market are presented. (LN)

  11. Analog circuit design designing waveform processing circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Feucht, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    The fourth volume in the set Designing Waveform-Processing Circuits builds on the previous 3 volumes and presents a variety of analog non-amplifier circuits, including voltage references, current sources, filters, hysteresis switches and oscilloscope trigger and sweep circuitry, function generation, absolute-value circuits, and peak detectors.

  12. Electronics box having internal circuit cards interconnected to external connectors sans motherboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockett, John E. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An electronics chassis box includes a pair of opposing sidewalls, a pair of opposing end walls, a bottom surface, a top cover, and ring connectors assemblies mounted in selective ones of the walls of the electronic box. Boss members extend from the bottom surface at different heights upon which circuit cards are mounted in spatial relationship to each other. A flex interconnect substantially reduces and generally eliminates the need of a motherboard by interconnecting the circuit cards to one another and to external connectors mounted within the ring connector assemblies.

  13. Der Erste Weltkrieg als Medium der Gegenmoderne: zu den Werken von Walter Flex und Ernst Jünger

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, Lars

    2004-01-01

    1. Inleiding Tussen de ‘visies op de oorlog’ die in de teksten van Walter Flex enerzijds, in die van Ernst Jünger anderzijds tot uitdrukking komen, ligt het trauma van de materiaalslag. Walter Flex, voornamelijk aan het oostfront ingezet, vocht in een van de laatste veldslagen van de door Eric Hobsbawn zo genoemde ‘lange’ 19de eeuw. Ernst Jünger daarentegen, in België en Frankrijk ingezet, nam deel aan de eerste ‘moderne’ oorlog van de 20ste eeuw. Walter Flex vervulde in zijn rol van schrijve...

  14. Solid-state circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pridham, G J

    2013-01-01

    Solid-State Circuits provides an introduction to the theory and practice underlying solid-state circuits, laying particular emphasis on field effect transistors and integrated circuits. Topics range from construction and characteristics of semiconductor devices to rectification and power supplies, low-frequency amplifiers, sine- and square-wave oscillators, and high-frequency effects and circuits. Black-box equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, physical equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, and equivalent circuits of field effect transistors are also covered. This volume is divided

  15. Simple Autonomous Chaotic Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Jessica; Sprott, J.

    2010-03-01

    Over the last several decades, numerous electronic circuits exhibiting chaos have been proposed. Non-autonomous circuits with as few as two components have been developed. However, the operation of such circuits relies on the non-ideal behavior of the devices used, and therefore the circuit equations can be quite complex. In this paper, we present two simple autonomous chaotic circuits using only opamps and linear passive components. The circuits each use one opamp as a comparator, to provide a signum nonlinearity. The chaotic behavior is robust, and independent of nonlinearities in the passive components. Moreover, the circuit equations are among the algebraically simplest chaotic systems yet constructed.

  16. Circuit analysis for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Santiago, John

    2013-01-01

    Circuits overloaded from electric circuit analysis? Many universities require that students pursuing a degree in electrical or computer engineering take an Electric Circuit Analysis course to determine who will ""make the cut"" and continue in the degree program. Circuit Analysis For Dummies will help these students to better understand electric circuit analysis by presenting the information in an effective and straightforward manner. Circuit Analysis For Dummies gives you clear-cut information about the topics covered in an electric circuit analysis courses to help

  17. Current limiter circuit system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witcher, Joseph Brandon; Bredemann, Michael V.

    2017-09-05

    An apparatus comprising a steady state sensing circuit, a switching circuit, and a detection circuit. The steady state sensing circuit is connected to a first, a second and a third node. The first node is connected to a first device, the second node is connected to a second device, and the steady state sensing circuit causes a scaled current to flow at the third node. The scaled current is proportional to a voltage difference between the first and second node. The switching circuit limits an amount of current that flows between the first and second device. The detection circuit is connected to the third node and the switching circuit. The detection circuit monitors the scaled current at the third node and controls the switching circuit to limit the amount of the current that flows between the first and second device when the scaled current is greater than a desired level.

  18. Broncoscopia flexível em recém-nascidos = Flexible bronchoscopy in newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veras, Tiago Neves

    2008-01-01

    Conclusões: o principal achado em broncoscopia flexível nos recém-nascidos com obstrução de vias aéreas superiores foi a presença de anormalidades dinâmicas das vias aéreas superiores. Tais anormalidades apresentam uma prevalência elevada nesse grupo de pacientes, devendo ser sempre incluídas no diagnóstico diferencial. O uso de broncoscopia flexível no período neonatal deve ser incentivado, pois, além de apresentar baixo risco de complicações, pode excluir doenças de pior prognóstico das vias aéreas e contribuir com mudanças na conduta terapêutica

  19. Broncoscopia flexível em recém-nascidos = Flexible bronchoscopy in newborns

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Objetivos: descrever a casuística de broncoscopia flexível realizada em recém-nascidos com obstrução das vias aéreas superiores, discutindo suas indicações, riscos e benefícios Métodos: estudo retrospectivo sobre os casos de broncoscopia flexível realizada em recém-nascidos (idade = 30 dias) com suspeita de obstrução das vias aéreas superiores, entre abril de 1998 e dezembro de 2005. Foram revisadas as características dos pacientes, indicações, complicações e resultados dos procedimentos r...

  20. Semi-flexible gas-insulated transmission line using sandwiched discs for intermittent flexing joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kommineni, Prasad R. (Westboro, MA)

    1983-02-15

    A gas-insulated transmission line includes an outer sheath, an inner conductor, an insulating gas electrically insulating the inner conductor from the outer sheath, and insulating supports insulatably supporting the inner conductor within the outer sheath. The inner conductor is provided with flexibility by the use of main conductor sections which are joined together through a conductor hub section and flexible flexing elements. Stress shields are provided to control the electric field at the locations of the conductor hub sections where the insulating supports are contacting the inner conductor. The flexing elements are formed by sandwiching together, by fusing, a pair of thin hollow discs which are fixedly secured to both the main conductor sections and the conductor hub section.

  1. Semi-flexible gas-insulated transmission line using sandwiched discs for intermittent flexing joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kommineni, P.R.

    1983-02-15

    A gas-insulated transmission line includes an outer sheath, an inner conductor, an insulating gas electrically insulating the inner conductor from the outer sheath, and insulating supports insulatably supporting the inner conductor within the outer sheath. The inner conductor is provided with flexibility by the use of main conductor sections which are joined together through a conductor hub section and flexible flexing elements. Stress shields are provided to control the electric field at the locations of the conductor hub sections where the insulating supports are contacting the inner conductor. The flexing elements are formed by sandwiching together, by fusing, a pair of thin hollow discs which are fixedly secured to both the main conductor sections and the conductor hub section. 4 figs.

  2. PyzoFlex: a printed piezoelectric pressure sensing foil for human machine interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirkl, M.; Scheipl, G.; Stadlober, B.; Rendl, C.; Greindl, P.; Haller, M.; Hartmann, P.

    2013-09-01

    Ferroelectric material supports both pyro- and piezoelectric effects that can be used for sensing pressures on large, bended surfaces. We present PyzoFlex, a pressure-sensing input device that is based on a ferroelectric material (PVDF:TrFE). It is constructed by a sandwich structure of four layers that can easily be printed on any substrate. The PyzoFlex foil is sensitive to pressure- and temperature changes, bendable, energy-efficient, and it can easily be produced by a screen-printing routine. Even a hovering input-mode is feasible due to its pyroelectric effect. In this paper, we introduce this novel, fully printed input technology and discuss its benefits and limitations.

  3. Solenoid-Simulation Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    Electrical properties of solenoids imitated for tests of control circuits. Simulation circuit imitates voltage and current responses of two engine-controlling solenoids. Used in tests of programs of digital engine-control circuits, also provides electronic interface with circuits imitating electrical properties of pressure sensors and linear variable-differential transformers. Produces voltages, currents, delays, and discrete turnon and turnoff signals representing operation of solenoid in engine-control relay. Many such circuits used simulating overall engine circuitry.

  4. O Envolvimento de Fornecedores no Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Flex Fuel nas Montadoras Brasileiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilian Gatti Junior

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} O desenvolvimento do veículo flex fuel no Brasil, capaz de operar com qualquer mistura de gasolina e álcool em uma faixa entre o E25 e o E100, alcançou enorme sucesso comercial. Esse sucesso é resultado de diversos fatores entre eles o Proálcool e a introdução da injeção eletrônica. A introdução dessa tecnologia no início de 2003 pelas montadoras brasileiras ilustra duas diferentes estratégias de envolvimento dos fornecedores no desenvolvimento da solução: o black box e o co-design. Este artigo apresenta dois estudos de casos em duas montadoras veteranas instaladas no Brasil desenvolveram a tecnologia flex fuel. O artigo discute a relação entre a plataforma tecnológica (sistema de gerenciamento de motores que inclui sensores, sistemas de controle, unidade de processamento de dados, etc. na qual a tecnologia flex fuel foi desenvolvida e as competências competitivas de ambas as montadoras e seus fornecedores.  O artigo então analisa as implicações do desenvolvimento da tecnologia flex fuel no Brasil e a dominância tecnológica sobre o sistema de controle eletrônico do motor e de software.

  5. Apollo for Adobe Flex Developers Pocket Guide A Developer's Reference for Apollo's Alpha Release

    CERN Document Server

    Chambers, Mike; Swartz, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    Now you can build and deploy Flash-based Rich Internet Applications (RIAs) to the desktop using Adobe's Flex framework. Written by members of the Apollo product team, this is the official guide to the Alpha release of Adobe Apollo, the new cross platform desktop runtime from Adobe Labs. Numerous examples illustrate how Apollo works so you can start building RIAs for the desktop right away.

  6. Modeling automotive FlexRay transceivers for signal integrity and EMC simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, H.; Hilger, U.; Frei, S.

    2011-07-01

    Automotive bus systems like FlexRay or CAN transmit safety critical data. To ensure correct functionality under all circumstances, extensive investigations about signal integrity and EMC have to be performed. To be able to use simulation in this validation process, suitable models for the components of the bus systems have to be developed. This paper shows how a combined transceiver model for signal integrity and EMC investigations can be created. The model shows good results in comparison to measurement data.

  7. MR imaging of herniated lumbar disc : morphologic change between supine and flexed-prone position

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seong, Jin Yong; Lee, Seung Ro; Moon, Won Jin; Park, Dong Woo; Hahm, Chang Kok [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Tae [Sungnam Inha Hospital, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine morphologic change in a herniated lumbar disc, as seen on MR imaging according to position change (supine and flexed-prone positions). A hundred and twenty-two patients with herniated lumbar discs, as seen on supine MR imaging, underwent repeat MR imaging in the flexed-prone position; 100 patients, who showed more than 2 deg of flexion angle difference, were included in this study. Sixty-two were men and thirty-eight were women, and their ages ranged from 13 to 59 (mean, 30) years. Disc degeneration was graded as 1,2 or 3, depending on the area of decreased signal intensity seen on a T2-weighted MR image. Difference in the angle of flexion is defined as the angle difference of lumbar curvature, calculated by the Begg-falconer method in supine and flexed-prone positions. Morphologic changes in herniated discs in difference positions were analysed on the basis of shape change of anterior epidural spaces, thecal sacs and posterior margins of herniated discs, and classified as either A (not changed) or B (changed). Group B was subtyped as type I (decreased herniation without change of shape), type II (decreased herniation with change of shape) or type III (increased disc herniation). We statistically analysed correlations between a patient`s age, morphologic change in a herniated disc in different positions, and degree of degeneration in such a disc, as well as the correlation between morphologic change in a herniated disc in different positions and the degree of the flexion angle. In the flexed-prone position, which is similar to that used during surgery, MRI can reveal various morphologic changes in a herniated lumbar disc, mainly decreased herniation, and is helpful in making decisions related to surgery. (author). 12 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  8. Liquid flexRIXS: A RIXS endstation for molecular systems at BESSY II

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The liquid flexRIXS endstation is dedicated to resonant inelastic x-ray scattering experiments on liquid samples and gasses in the soft x-ray range. The liquids are injected into the chamber via a liquid jet system whereas gasses and also small amounts of liquids can be investigated using a liquid/gas flow cell. The MCP-based RIXS spectrometer allows for a resolving power of better than 1000.

  9. Characterisation of Materials used in Flex Bearings of Large Solid Rocket Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CH.V. Ram Mohan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Solid rocket motors are propulsion devices for both satellite launchers and missiles, which require guidance and steering to fly along a programmed trajectory and to compensate for flight disturbances. A typical solid rocket motor consists of motor case, solid propellant grain, motor insulation, igniter and nozzle. In most solid rocket motors, thrust vector control (TVC is required. One of the most efficient methods of TVC is by flex nozzle system. The flex nozzle consists of a flexible bearing made of an elastomeric material alternating with reinforcement rings of metallic or composite material. The material characterisation of AFNOR 15CDV6 steel and the natural rubber-based elastomer developed for use in flex nozzle are discussed. This includes testing, modelling of the material, selection of a material model suitable for analysis, and the validation of material model.Defence Science Journal, 2011, 61(3, pp.264-269, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.61.52

  10. EcoFlex: A Multifunctional MoClo Kit for E. coli Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Simon J; Lai, Hung-En; Kelwick, Richard J R; Chee, Soo Mei; Bell, David J; Polizzi, Karen Marie; Freemont, Paul S

    2016-10-21

    Golden Gate cloning is a prominent DNA assembly tool in synthetic biology for the assembly of plasmid constructs often used in combinatorial pathway optimization, with a number of assembly kits developed specifically for yeast and plant-based expression. However, its use for synthetic biology in commonly used bacterial systems such as Escherichia coli has surprisingly been overlooked. Here, we introduce EcoFlex a simplified modular package of DNA parts for a variety of applications in E. coli, cell-free protein synthesis, protein purification and hierarchical assembly of transcription units based on the MoClo assembly standard. The kit features a library of constitutive promoters, T7 expression, RBS strength variants, synthetic terminators, protein purification tags and fluorescence proteins. We validate EcoFlex by assembling a 68-part containing (20 genes) plasmid (31 kb), characterize in vivo and in vitro library parts, and perform combinatorial pathway assembly, using pooled libraries of either fluorescent proteins or the biosynthetic genes for the antimicrobial pigment violacein as a proof-of-concept. To minimize pathway screening, we also introduce a secondary module design site to simplify MoClo pathway optimization. In summary, EcoFlex provides a standardized and multifunctional kit for a variety of applications in E. coli synthetic biology.

  11. A rectangle bin packing optimization approach to the signal scheduling problem in the FlexRay static segment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui ZHAO; Gui-he QIN; Jia-qiao LIU

    2016-01-01

    As FlexRay communication protocol is extensively used in distributed real-time applications on vehicles, signal scheduling in FlexRay network becomes a critical issue to ensure the safe and efficient operation of time-critical applications. In this study, we propose a rectangle bin packing optimization approach to schedule communication signals with timing constraints into the FlexRay static segment at minimum bandwidth cost. The proposed approach, which is based on integer linear program-ming (ILP), supports both the slot assignment mechanisms provided by the latest version of the FlexRay specification, namely, the single sender slot multiplexing, and multiple sender slot multiplexing mechanisms. Extensive experiments on a synthetic and an automotive X-by-wire system case study demonstrate that the proposed approach has a well optimized performance.

  12. MegaFlex Scale-Up Cost & Risk Reduction for >50kW Future Power Demands Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As the MegaFlex solar array is scaled for power demands greater than 50kW over the next 20 years and deployed load requirements remain high or increase, advanced...

  13. Associations between vertebral fractures, increased thoracic kyphosis, a flexed posture and falls in older adults : a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Jagt-Willems, Hanna C.; de Groot, Maartje H.; van Campen, Jos P. C. M.; Lamoth, Claudine J. C.; Lems, Willem F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Vertebral fractures, an increased thoracic kyphosis and a flexed posture are associated with falls. However, this was not confirmed in prospective studies. We performed a prospective cohort study to investigate the association between vertebral fractures, increased thoracic kyphosis and/

  14. Associations between vertebral fractures, increased thoracic kyphosis, a flexed posture and falls in older adults : a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Jagt-Willems, Hanna C.; de Groot, Maartje H.; van Campen, Jos P. C. M.; Lamoth, Claudine J. C.; Lems, Willem F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Vertebral fractures, an increased thoracic kyphosis and a flexed posture are associated with falls. However, this was not confirmed in prospective studies. We performed a prospective cohort study to investigate the association between vertebral fractures, increased thoracic kyphosis

  15. HistoFlex--a microfluidic device providing uniform flow conditions enabling highly sensitive, reproducible and quantitative in situ hybridizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søe, Martin Jensen; Okkels, Fridolin; Sabourin, David; Alberti, Massimo; Holmstrøm, Kim; Dufva, Martin

    2011-11-21

    A microfluidic device (the HistoFlex) designed to perform and monitor molecular biological assays under dynamic flow conditions on microscope slide-substrates, with special emphasis on analyzing histological tissue sections, is presented. Microscope slides were reversibly sealed onto a cast polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) insert, patterned with distribution channels and reaction chambers. Topology optimization was used to design reaction chambers with uniform flow conditions. The HistoFlex provided uniform hybridization conditions, across the reaction chamber, as determined by hybridization to microscope slides of spotted DNA microarrays when applying probe concentrations generally used in in situ hybridization (ISH) assays. The HistoFlex's novel ability in online monitoring of an in situ hybridization assay was demonstrated using direct fluorescent detection of hybridization to 18S rRNA. Tissue sections were not visually damaged during assaying, which enabled adapting a complete ISH assay for detection of microRNAs (miRNA). The effects of flow based incubations on hybridization, antibody incubation and Tyramide Signal Amplification (TSA) steps were investigated upon adapting the ISH assay for performing in the HistoFlex. The hybridization step was significantly enhanced using flow based incubations due to improved hybridization efficiency. The HistoFlex device enabled a fast miRNA ISH assay (3 hours) which provided higher hybridization signal intensity compared to using conventional techniques (5 h 40 min). We further demonstrate that the improved hybridization efficiency using the HistoFlex permits more complex assays e.g. those comprising sequential hybridization and detection of two miRNAs to be performed with significantly increased sensitivity. The HistoFlex provides a new histological analysis platform that will allow multiple and sequential assays to be performed under their individual optimum assay conditions. Images can subsequently be recorded either in

  16. Flexible circuits with integrated switches for robotic shape sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnett, C. K.

    2016-05-01

    Digital switches are commonly used for detecting surface contact and limb-position limits in robotics. The typical momentary-contact digital switch is a mechanical device made from metal springs, designed to connect with a rigid printed circuit board (PCB). However, flexible printed circuits are taking over from the rigid PCB in robotics because the circuits can bend while carrying signals and power through moving joints. This project is motivated by a previous work where an array of surface-mount momentary contact switches on a flexible circuit acted as an all-digital shape sensor compatible with the power resources of energy harvesting systems. Without a rigid segment, the smallest commercially-available surface-mount switches would detach from the flexible circuit after several bending cycles, sometimes violently. This report describes a low-cost, conductive fiber based method to integrate electromechanical switches into flexible circuits and other soft, bendable materials. Because the switches are digital (on/off), they differ from commercially-available continuous-valued bend/flex sensors. No amplification or analog-to-digital conversion is needed to read the signal, but the tradeoff is that the digital switches only give a threshold curvature value. Boundary conditions on the edges of the flexible circuit are key to setting the threshold curvature value for switching. This presentation will discuss threshold-setting, size scaling of the design, automation for inserting a digital switch into the flexible circuit fabrication process, and methods for reconstructing a shape from an array of digital switch states.

  17. Hidden circuits and argumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinonen, Risto; Kesonen, Mikko H. P.; Hirvonen, Pekka E.

    2016-11-01

    Despite the relevance of DC circuits in everyday life and schools, they have been shown to cause numerous learning difficulties at various school levels. In the course of this article, we present a flexible method for teaching DC circuits at lower secondary level. The method is labelled as hidden circuits, and the essential idea underlying hidden circuits is in hiding the actual wiring of DC circuits, but to make their behaviour evident for pupils. Pupils are expected to find out the wiring of the circuit which should enhance their learning of DC circuits. We present two possible ways to utilise hidden circuits in a classroom. First, they can be used to test and enhance pupils’ conceptual understanding when pupils are expected to find out which one of the offered circuit diagram options corresponds to the actual circuit shown. This method aims to get pupils to evaluate the circuits holistically rather than locally, and as a part of that aim this method highlights any learning difficulties of pupils. Second, hidden circuits can be used to enhance pupils’ argumentation skills with the aid of argumentation sheet that illustrates the main elements of an argument. Based on the findings from our co-operating teachers and our own experiences, hidden circuits offer a flexible and motivating way to supplement teaching of DC circuits.

  18. Intuitive analog circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Intuitive Analog Circuit Design outlines ways of thinking about analog circuits and systems that let you develop a feel for what a good, working analog circuit design should be. This book reflects author Marc Thompson's 30 years of experience designing analog and power electronics circuits and teaching graduate-level analog circuit design, and is the ideal reference for anyone who needs a straightforward introduction to the subject. In this book, Dr. Thompson describes intuitive and ""back-of-the-envelope"" techniques for designing and analyzing analog circuits, including transistor amplifi

  19. The circuit designer's companion

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The Circuit Designer's Companion covers the theoretical aspects and practices in analogue and digital circuit design. Electronic circuit design involves designing a circuit that will fulfill its specified function and designing the same circuit so that every production model of it will fulfill its specified function, and no other undesired and unspecified function.This book is composed of nine chapters and starts with a review of the concept of grounding, wiring, and printed circuits. The subsequent chapters deal with the passive and active components of circuitry design. These topics are foll

  20. Electrical Circuits and Water Analogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Frederick A.; Wilson, Jerry D.

    1974-01-01

    Briefly describes water analogies for electrical circuits and presents plans for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate these analogies. Demonstrations include series circuits, parallel circuits, and capacitors. (GS)

  1. Circuits on Cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Miltersen, Peter Bro; Vinay, V

    2006-01-01

    We consider the computational power of constant width polynomial size cylindrical circuits and nondeterministic branching programs. We show that every function computed by a Pi2 o MOD o AC0 circuit can also be computed by a constant width polynomial size cylindrical nondeterministic branching...... program (or cylindrical circuit) and that every function computed by a constant width polynomial size cylindrical circuit belongs to ACC0....

  2. Electric circuits essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Electric Circuits I includes units, notation, resistive circuits, experimental laws, transient circuits, network theorems, techniques of circuit analysis, sinusoidal analysis, polyph

  3. Piezoelectric drive circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treu, Jr., Charles A.

    1999-08-31

    A piezoelectric motor drive circuit is provided which utilizes the piezoelectric elements as oscillators and a Meacham half-bridge approach to develop feedback from the motor ground circuit to produce a signal to drive amplifiers to power the motor. The circuit automatically compensates for shifts in harmonic frequency of the piezoelectric elements due to pressure and temperature changes.

  4. Signal sampling circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwsma, S.M.; Vertregt, Maarten

    2010-01-01

    A sampling circuit for sampling a signal is disclosed. The sampling circuit comprises a plurality of sampling channels adapted to sample the signal in time-multiplexed fashion, each sampling channel comprising a respective track-and-hold circuit connected to a respective analogue to digital converte

  5. Signal sampling circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwsma, S.M.; Vertregt, Maarten

    2011-01-01

    A sampling circuit for sampling a signal is disclosed. The sampling circuit comprises a plurality of sampling channels adapted to sample the signal in time-multiplexed fashion, each sampling channel comprising a respective track-and-hold circuit connected to a respective analogue to digital converte

  6. Load testing circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    A load testing circuit a circuit tests the load impedance of a load connected to an amplifier. The load impedance includes a first terminal and a second terminal, the load testing circuit comprising a signal generator providing a test signal of a defined bandwidth to the first terminal of the load...

  7. Short-circuit logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Ponse, A.

    2010-01-01

    Short-circuit evaluation denotes the semantics of propositional connectives in which the second argument is only evaluated if the first argument does not suffice to determine the value of the expression. In programming, short-circuit evaluation is widely used. A short-circuit logic is a variant of p

  8. Signal sampling circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwsma, Simon Minze; Vertregt, Maarten

    2011-01-01

    A sampling circuit for sampling a signal is disclosed. The sampling circuit comprises a plurality of sampling channels adapted to sample the signal in time-multiplexed fashion, each sampling channel comprising a respective track-and-hold circuit connected to a respective analogue to digital converte

  9. Signal sampling circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwsma, Simon Minze; Vertregt, Maarten

    2010-01-01

    A sampling circuit for sampling a signal is disclosed. The sampling circuit comprises a plurality of sampling channels adapted to sample the signal in time-multiplexed fashion, each sampling channel comprising a respective track-and-hold circuit connected to a respective analogue to digital converte

  10. Flexing Muscles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The non-aligned movement, representing two thirds of UN members, is gaining vigor in world affairs Imagine nearly two thirds of the UN members meeting together to discuss and reach consensus on international events. This is what happened in Havana, Cuba, at the 14th Non-Aligned Countries Movement (NAM) Summit from September 11-16. Cuba, the new holder of

  11. Tech Flex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demski, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    On many college campuses, the 21st century classroom is the exception rather than the norm. Here's what usually happens: A forward-thinking administrator pushes for a pilot program to redesign a handful of classrooms. The resulting learning spaces are cutting edge and successful--in high demand among faculty and students alike. And that's as far…

  12. Towards improved quantification of vegetation photosynthetic activity at global scale: the FLuorescence EXplorer (FLEX) mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Jose

    2014-05-01

    The fluorescence signal, originated from the core complexes of the photosynthetic machinery, is a sensitive indicator of the actual photosynthesis in both healthy and physiologically stressed vegetation, which can be used as a powerful non-invasive marker to track the status, resilience, and recovery of photochemical processes. This is of particular interest for the improvements in the predictive capability of global carbon cycle models through new parameterizations for canopy photosynthesis and the corresponding exchange processes of energy, water and carbon between the surface and the atmosphere. The shape of the fluorescence emission spectrum consists of two peaks having broad bands with maxima around 685 nm and 740 nm. The variations in amplitude and shape of the emission reflect the efficiency of photosynthetic electron transport. The integral of the overall fluorescence emission provides information about actual photosynthetic light conversion. The shape of the emission spectrum provides additional information about the vegetation health status. While most of the information that has been acquired by remote sensing of the Earth's surface about vegetation conditions and photosynthetic activity has come from "reflected" light in the solar domain, the ESA's Earth Explorer candidate FLEX (Fluorescence EXplorer) mission is the first space mission focused on the estimation of fluorescence emission by terrestrial vegetation on a global scale with high spatial resolution and resolving the spectral shape of fluorescence emission. The FLEX mission also includes explicit measurement of photochemical changes in reflectance (i.e., PRI), canopy temperature measurements and all the relevant variables (chlorophyll content, Leaf Area Index, etc.) needed to asses the actual physiological status of vegetation and to provide quantitative estimates of photosynthetic rates and gross primary production. FLEX is one of two candidate Earth Explorer-8 missions currently under Phase A

  13. Experimental Tests of UltraFlex Array Designs in Low Earth Orbital and Geosynchronous Charging Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galofaro, Joel T.; Vayner, Boris V.; Hillard, Grover B.

    2011-01-01

    The present ground based investigations give the first definitive look describing the expected on-orbit charging behavior of Orion UltraFlex array coupons in the Low Earth Orbital and Geosynchronous Environments. Furthermore, it is important to note that the LEO charging environment also applies to the International Space Station as well as to the lunar mission charging environments. The GEO charging environment includes the bounding case for all lunar orbital and lunar surface mission environments. The UltraFlex thin film photovoltaic array technology has been targeted to become the sole power system for life support and on-orbit power for the manned Aires Crew Exploration Vehicle. It is therefore, crucial to gain an understanding of the complex charging behavior to answer some of the basic performance and survivability issues in an attempt to ascertain that a single UltraFlex array design will be able to cope with the projected worst case LEO and GEO charging environments. Testing was limited to four array coupons, two coupons each from two different array manufactures, Emcore and Spectrolab. The layout of each array design is identical and varies only in the actual cell technology used. The individual array cells from each manufacturer have an antireflection layered coating and come in two different varieties either uncoated (only AR coating) or coated with a thin conducting ITO layer. The LEO Plasma tests revealed that all four coupons passed the arc threshold -120 V bias tests. GEO electron gun charging tests revealed that only front side area of ITO coated coupons passed tests. Only the Emcore AR array passed backside Stage 2 GEO Tests.

  14. Reversible Logic Circuit Synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Shende, V V; Markov, I L; Prasad, A K; Hayes, John P.; Markov, Igor L.; Prasad, Aditya K.; Shende, Vivek V.

    2002-01-01

    Reversible, or information-lossless, circuits have applications in digital signal processing, communication, computer graphics and cryptography. They are also a fundamental requirement for quantum computation. We investigate the synthesis of reversible circuits that employ a minimum number of gates and contain no redundant input-output line-pairs (temporary storage channels). We propose new constructions for reversible circuits composed of NOT, Controlled-NOT, and TOFFOLI gates (the CNT gate library) based on permutation theory. A new algorithm is given to synthesize optimal reversible circuits using an arbitrary gate library. We also describe much faster heuristic algorithms. We also pursue applications of the proposed techniques to the synthesis of quantum circuits.

  15. The existing Nordic regulating power market. FlexPower WP1 - Report 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, C.; Fock, F.; Togeby, M.

    2011-06-15

    The FlexPower project investigates the possibility of using broadcasted dynamic electricity prices as a simple and low cost means to activating a large number of flexible small-scale power units. The aim is to provide regulating power via an aggregated response from the numerous units on a volunteer basis. The report provides a brief historical and contextual background of the Nordic electricity market. Thereafter it goes into greater detail describing the Nordic regulating power market, both how it functions in practice, and examining some of the historical trends from a Danish perspective. (LN)

  16. Successful extraction of right ventricular lead remnants using the FlexCath® steerable sheath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanawuttiwat, Tanyanan; Cheng, Alan; Rickard, John; Chow, Grant V; Sciortino, Christopher M; Brinker, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    In patients undergoing laser lead extraction, incomplete or failed lead removal occur in over 3 % of leads. Because the current available tools have limitations in reaching the right ventricle (RV), the procedure becomes challenging when the lead breaks and its fragments remain lodged in the RV. We describe two cases in which the FlexCath® steerable sheath, normally used in cryoballoon catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation, was useful in directing a bioptome to right ventricular lead fragments and thus allowing for complete lead extraction.

  17. Evaluation of Ares-I Control System Robustness to Uncertain Aerodynamics and Flex Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jiann-Woei; VanTassel, Chris; Bedrossian, Nazareth; Hall, Charles; Spanos, Pol

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of robust control theory to evaluate robustness of the Ares-I control systems. Three techniques for estimating upper and lower bounds of uncertain parameters which yield stable closed-loop response are used here: (1) Monte Carlo analysis, (2) mu analysis, and (3) characteristic frequency response analysis. All three methods are used to evaluate stability envelopes of the Ares-I control systems with uncertain aerodynamics and flex dynamics. The results show that characteristic frequency response analysis is the most effective of these methods for assessing robustness.

  18. Full flex-grid asynchronous multiplexing demonstrated with Nyquist pulse-shaping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, P C; Schmogrow, R; Wolf, S; Baeuerle, B; Nebendahl, B; Koos, C; Freude, W; Leuthold, J

    2014-05-01

    We demonstrate full flex-grid operation with Nyquist frequency division multiplexing. The technique supports high spectral efficiency, asynchronous operation of channels, variable channel loading with different modulation formats and dynamic bandwidth allocation. Data from different sources with different bit and symbol rates are encoded onto electrical Nyquist pulses with different electrical subcarrier frequencies, and then transmitted optically. We give details on the transceiver design with digital signal processing and investigate the implementation penalty as a function of several design parameters such as limited filter length and effective number of bits. Finally, experiments are performed for receivers with direct detection, intradyne and remote heterodyne reception.

  19. Foundation ActionScript 3.0 for Flash and Flex

    CERN Document Server

    Richardson, Darren

    2009-01-01

    In this book, you'll: *Learn the fundamentals of ActionScript 3.0 using both the Flash IDE and Flex *Use ActionScript 3.0's object-oriented features *Manipulate sound and video to produce exciting modern web applications *Work with XML as your data source ActionScript 3.0, the latest version of the Flash Platform's scripting language, offers many new and powerful features. ActionScript is now a full-fledged programming language, with complete object-oriented capabilities, improved event handling, sound and video support, drawing capabilities, support for regular expressions, and much more. Whe

  20. Exact Threshold Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Podolskii, Vladimir V.

    2010-01-01

    We initiate a systematic study of constant depth Boolean circuits built using exact threshold gates. We consider both unweighted and weighted exact threshold gates and introduce corresponding circuit classes. We next show that this gives a hierarchy of classes that seamlessly interleave with the ......We initiate a systematic study of constant depth Boolean circuits built using exact threshold gates. We consider both unweighted and weighted exact threshold gates and introduce corresponding circuit classes. We next show that this gives a hierarchy of classes that seamlessly interleave...... with the well-studied corresponding hierarchies defined using ordinary threshold gates. A major open problem in Boolean circuit complexity is to provide an explicit super-polynomial lower bound for depth two threshold circuits. We identify the class of depth two exact threshold circuits as a natural subclass...

  1. Feedback in analog circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Ochoa, Agustin

    2016-01-01

    This book describes a consistent and direct methodology to the analysis and design of analog circuits with particular application to circuits containing feedback. The analysis and design of circuits containing feedback is generally presented by either following a series of examples where each circuit is simplified through the use of insight or experience (someone else’s), or a complete nodal-matrix analysis generating lots of algebra. Neither of these approaches leads to gaining insight into the design process easily. The author develops a systematic approach to circuit analysis, the Driving Point Impedance and Signal Flow Graphs (DPI/SFG) method that does not require a-priori insight to the circuit being considered and results in factored analysis supporting the design function. This approach enables designers to account fully for loading and the bi-directional nature of elements both in the feedback path and in the amplifier itself, properties many times assumed negligible and ignored. Feedback circuits a...

  2. Feasibility of SaeboFlex upper-limb training in acute stroke rehabilitation: a clinical case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuck, Rebecca A; Marshall, Lisa M; Sivakumar, Ramachandran

    2014-09-01

    Upper-limb (UL) recovery following stroke is often poor. UL rehabilitation therefore continues to be a major focus for occupational therapy. Published evidence for the effectiveness of SaeboFlex training in acute stroke rehabilitation is scarce. The purpose of this study is to explore the feasibility and patient experience of SaeboFlex training in acute stroke. This feasibility study recruited stroke patients (< 84 days post-stroke) with moderate/severe UL weakness. They participated in SaeboFlex sessions for 12 weeks in addition to conventional rehabilitation. A battery of measures was taken at baseline, 4, 8 and 12 weeks. Eight participants were recruited. For the action research arm test score and UL Motricity Index, clinically significant improvements were noted in five out of seven (71%) and six out of seven participants (86%) respectively. Clinically significant improvements were also noted in secondary outcomes. Shoulder complications occurred in one participant. SaeboFlex training facilitated clinically significant improvements in UL function. It has the potential to improve participation and independence in ADLs, reduce carer burden and associated costs. Being a feasibility study with no control arm, we urge caution in interpreting these results. Future research is needed to evaluate the efficacy, optimum dosage and impact on dependency levels of SaeboFlex training as part of a randomized controlled trial.

  3. 臂丛神经磁共振IDEAL T2WI 和CUBE Flex T2WI 成像%Imaging of the Brachial Plexus with IDEAL and CUBE FlexT2-Weighted Imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭勇; 林伟; 钱明珠; 黄敏华; 孙楠; 吕剑; 盛浩

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To compare the methods ofiterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetry and least-squares estimation (IDEAL), Cube Flex methods with fat-saturated T2-weighted-imaging (T2WI), fast spin-echo (FSE) and short-TI inversion recovery (STIR) imaging of the brachial plexus. Materials and Methods Images were acquired at 3.0T scanner in 14 volunteers. Fat-saturated FSE T2WI and STIR images were compared with IDEAL T2WI images and Cube Flex-T2WI images. Results IDEAL T2WI and Cube Flex-T2WI demonstrated similar fat suppression quality compared with STIR (P > 0.05) and better than fat-saturated FSE T2WI (P < 0.05). Signal noise ratio and contrast noise ratio of brachial plexus showed significant difference in the following sequences: IDEAL T2WI > Cube Flex T2WI > FSE T2WI > STIR (P < 0.05). Images of IDEAL T2WI and Cube Flex T2WI reconstructed with different slice thickness could clearly demonstrate brachial plexus. Conclusion IDEAL T2WI and Cube Flex T2WI can provide high signal noise ratio images with reliable and uniform fat suppression for clearly imaging the brachial plexus.%目的 比较磁共振脂肪抑制FSE T2WI 、STIR T2WI 、IDEAL T2WI 及CUBE Flex T2WI 4 种方法显示正常臂丛神经的优劣.资料与方法对14 例自愿者行臂丛神经MRI 脂肪抑制FSE T2WI 、STIR T2WI 、IDEAL T2WI 及CUBE Flex T2WI 检查.对图像脂肪抑制质量进行肉眼分级评估,并测量信噪比和对比噪声比.结果 IDEAL T2WI 、CUBE Flex T2WI 脂肪抑制质量明显优于FSE T2WI(P <0.05),与STIR T2WI 相比差异无统计学意义(P >0.05).信噪比、对比噪声比均值比较各组间差异均有统计学意义(P <0.05),IDEAL T2WI >CUBE Flex T2WI >FSE T2WI >STIR T2WI.IDEAL T2WI 和CUBE Flex T2WI 图像均可选择不同厚度重建、斜面重建等,从而可显示臂丛神经各段.结论 IDEAL T2WI 、CUBE Flex T2WI 能提供均匀稳定的脂肪抑制,图像信噪比高,可清晰显示臂丛神经.

  4. FORECAST OF PRODUCTION OF FLEX FUEL CARS AND ETHANOL DEMAND IN BRAZIL IN 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Teixeira Favaro

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is currently set up as an important worldwide example in relation to the successful incorporation of biofuel ethanol in its energy matrix. The article examines the impacts of biofuel technology insertion (flex fuel and estimated, using the methodology Fisher-Pry, the evolution of the total vehicle fleet with this technology in Brazil in 2014. In addition, we performed a prediction of future demand for ethanol, using the technique of Gompertz, also for the year 2014. Both methodologies were checked through STATA statistical system. The study relied on data from January 2005 to October 2009, which were extrapolated to December 2014. The Fisher-Pry model was used to prepare the scenario analysis of the replacement of cars with conventional technology (gasoline, for cars with flex fuel technology. As a result, the projection showed an increase of 18.2 percentage points in five years, rising from 78.4% recorded in October 2009, to 96.6% in December 2014. As a premise, we considered the continuity of the prices of ethanol and gasoline observed between jan/02 Oct/2009 and that shows ethanol being marketed at a price below the minimum necessary to make this renewable fuel competitive with gasoline in 88 of 95 months. The Gompertz model indicated that ethanol will represent approximately 43.9% of all fuel sold by distributors at the end of 2014, whereas today this share is only 18.2%.

  5. Tracking C. elegans and its neuromuscular activity using NemaFlex

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bussel, Frank; Rahman, Mizanur; Hewitt, Jennifer; Blawzdziewicz, Jerzy; Driscoll, Monica; Szewczyk, Nathaniel; Vanapalli, Siva

    Recently, a novel platform has been developed for studying the behavior and physical characteristics of the nematode C. elegans. This is NemaFlex, developed by the Vanapalli group at Texas Tech University to analyze movement and muscular strength of crawling C. elegans. NemaFlex is a microfluidic device consisting of an array of deformable PDMS pillars, with which the C. elegans interacts in the course of moving through the system. Deflection measurements then allow us to calculate the force exerted by the worm via Euler-Bernoulli beam theory. For the procedure to be fully automated a fairly sophisticated software analysis has to be developed in tandem with the physical device. In particular, the usefulness of the force calculations is highly dependent on the accuracy and volume of the deflection measurements, which would be prohibitively time-consuming if carried out by hand/eye. In order to correlate the force results with muscle activations the C. elegans itself has to be tracked simultaneously, and pillar deflections precisely associated with mechanical-contact on the worm's body. Here we will outline the data processing and analysis routines that have been implemented in order to automate the calculation of these forces and muscular activations.

  6. Clinical Use of GalaFLEX in Facial and Breast Cosmetic Plastic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, William P; Toriumi, Dean M; Van Natta, Bruce W

    2016-11-01

    Resolution of ptosis is a key step to the success of many plastic surgery procedures. Ptosis is a manifestation of tissue stretch. Tissue stretch can occur as a result of the natural aging process or health of the patient, or tissue may stretch under added weight or volume, such as when implants are placed. Surgical rejuvenation of ptotic tissues is very effective and results in marked changes in the patient profile yet the tissue that resulted in the need for the procedure first place has not improved and ptosis can recur. Recent developments in long-term resorbable porous materials have provided surgeons with the opportunity to experiment with tissue reinforcement in plastic surgery procedures. These new materials have a low profile, rapid tissue integration, and a long-term strength retention profile. Long-term resorbable scaffolds such as poly-4-hydroxybutyrate (P4HB) natural scaffold (GalaFLEX scaffold, Galatea Surgical, Inc., Lexington, MA) have shown promise for a host of plastic surgery indications. This article presents clinical experience with GalaFLEX for soft tissue reinforcement in three different clinical applications; including the reinforcement of the superficial muscular aponeurotic system (SMAS) in minimally invasive facelift, reinforcement of the skin envelope in mastopexy, and reinforcement of the breast capsule (pocket) in revisional breast surgery. Soft tissue reinforcement has been shown to provide increased mechanical strength as well as improved maintenance of postoperative results. 5 Therapeutic. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Contratos flexíveis de trabalho: diferentes perfis de trabalhadores qualificados brasileiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Carvalho de Azevedo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOO objetivo neste artigo é discutir como profissionais que já passaram por vínculos tradicionais de trabalho se organizam na nova realidade laboral da experimentação de contratos flexíveis, considerados, na pesquisa aqui relatada, como contratos não CLT. Por meio de entrevistas realizadas com 43 trabalhadores bem qualificados, foi construída uma tipologia composta por nove perfis com caracterís ticas próprias, a saber: PJ, Paraquedista, Indiferente, Pragmático, Independente, Autônomo, Empresário, Ressentido e CLT. Mostra -se que a construção dos perfis ajudou a compor uma imagem de como essa realidade de trabalho é vivenciada por trabalhadores qualificados e conclui-se, nesse caso, que o trabalho flexível não é sinônimo de trabalho precário, pois não acarreta, necessariamente, prejuízos do ponto de vista profissional ou pessoal para o indivíduo que opta por realizá-lo.

  8. Finding Vulnerabilities in Rich Internet Applications (Flex/AS3 Using Static Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreenivasa Rao Basavala

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The number and the importance of Rich Internet Applications (RIA have increased rapidly over the last years. At the same time, the quantity and impact of security vulnerabilities in such rich internet applications (RIA have increasing as well. Since manual code reviews are time consuming, error prone and costly and it need skilled developers or programmers to review the manual source code review, the need for automated solutions has become evident.In this paper, we address the problem of application security vulnerable detection in Adobe Flex (Rich Internet Applications platform in web 2.0 applications by means of static source code analysis. To this end, we present precise analysis targeted at the unique reference semantics commonly found in RIA based web applications or widgets (small applications which will run on fly i.e. drag and drop developed in Adobe Flex Framework or Action Script 3.0. Moreover, we enhance the quality and quantity of the generated vulnerability reports.

  9. Flexing the frame: contemplating the use of multiple ports of entry in parent-infant psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugmore, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Multirelational interventions are well described in the psychoanalytic parent-infant literature. Daniel Stern (1995) originally suggested and described five "ports of entry" that may be employed to access the multiperson parent-infant clinical system. Other authors have elaborated and extended Stern's original list of ports of entry. The impact of using multiple ports of entry on the psychoanalytic frame, however, is largely neglected in the parent-infant psychotherapy literature. Danielle Quinodoz's (1992) four facets of the psychoanalytic setting are used to structure a discussion of how the multiplicities associated with parent-infant psychotherapy may impact the frame. The article argues strongly for a necessary flexing of the psychoanalytic frame to establish therapeutic alliances. A fifth facet, that of psychoanalytic mindfulness, is offered as a counterbalance to the risks associated with excessive flexing of the frame, particularly in relation to Quinodoz's fourth facet of "refraining from 'doing.'" This article relies on case material to illustrate the issues under discussion. Further engagement and debate are invited.

  10. The FlexControl concept - a vision, a concept and a product for the future power system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Per Bromand

    2011-01-01

    FlexControl is a vision, a concept and a product – a vision for the control of future power systems based on renewable energy and distributed control, a generic concept for smart control of many power units and ‘product’ implementations of the concept in different applications. The general...... development trends for power system towards more stochastic power generation from wind and solar, more distributed generation and control, and the introduction of demand responses from a huge number of small, flexible loads, require new architecture, design and means of controlling of the power system...... in order to maintain the power balances and the high security of supply and power quality in all parts of the grid. FlexControl is a flexible, modular, scalable and generic control concept designed for smart control of a huge number of distributed, controllable power units (DERs) in the power system. Flex...

  11. Effects of an adapted physical activity program in a group of elderly subjects with flexed posture: clinical and instrumental assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frizziero Antonio

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flexed posture commonly increases with age and is related to musculoskeletal impairment and reduced physical performance. The purpose of this clinical study was to systematically compare the effects of a physical activity program that specifically address the flexed posture that marks a certain percentage of elderly individuals with a non specific exercise program for 3 months. Methods Participants were randomly divided into two groups: one followed an Adapted Physical Activity program for flexed posture and the other one completed a non-specific physical activity protocol for the elderly. A multidimensional clinical assessment was performed at baseline and at 3 months including anthropometric data, clinical profile, measures of musculoskeletal impairment and disability. The instrumental assessment of posture was realized using a stereophotogrammetric system and a specific biomechanical model designed to describe the reciprocal position of the body segments on the sagittal plane in a upright posture. Results The Adapted Physical Activity program determined a significant improvement in several key parameters of the multidimensional assessment in comparison to the non-specific protocol: decreased occiput-to-wall distance, greater lower limb range of motion, better flexibility of pectoralis, hamstrings and hip flexor muscles, increased spine extensor muscles strength. Stereophotogrammetric analysis confirmed a reduced protrusion of the head and revealed a reduction in compensative postural adaptations to flexed posture characterized by knee flexion and ankle dorsiflexion in the participants of the specific program. Conclusion The Adapted Physical Activity program for flexed posture significantly improved postural alignment and musculoskeletal impairment of the elderly. The stereophotogrammetric evaluation of posture was useful to measure the global postural alignment and especially to analyse the possible compensatory strategies

  12. Regenerative feedback resonant circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. Mark; Kelly, James F.; McCloy, John S.; McMakin, Douglas L.

    2014-09-02

    A regenerative feedback resonant circuit for measuring a transient response in a loop is disclosed. The circuit includes an amplifier for generating a signal in the loop. The circuit further includes a resonator having a resonant cavity and a material located within the cavity. The signal sent into the resonator produces a resonant frequency. A variation of the resonant frequency due to perturbations in electromagnetic properties of the material is measured.

  13. Analog circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Dobkin, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Analog circuit and system design today is more essential than ever before. With the growth of digital systems, wireless communications, complex industrial and automotive systems, designers are being challenged to develop sophisticated analog solutions. This comprehensive source book of circuit design solutions aids engineers with elegant and practical design techniques that focus on common analog challenges. The book's in-depth application examples provide insight into circuit design and application solutions that you can apply in today's demanding designs. <

  14. Parallelizing quantum circuit synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Di Matteo, Olivia; Mosca, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Quantum circuit synthesis is the process in which an arbitrary unitary operation is decomposed into a sequence of gates from a universal set, typically one which a quantum computer can implement both efficiently and fault-tolerantly. As physical implementations of quantum computers improve, the need is growing for tools which can effectively synthesize components of the circuits and algorithms they will run. Existing algorithms for exact, multi-qubit circuit synthesis scale exponentially in t...

  15. Analog circuits cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Hickman, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Analog Circuits Cookbook presents articles about advanced circuit techniques, components and concepts, useful IC for analog signal processing in the audio range, direct digital synthesis, and ingenious video op-amp. The book also includes articles about amplitude measurements on RF signals, linear optical imager, power supplies and devices, and RF circuits and techniques. Professionals and students of electrical engineering will find the book informative and useful.

  16. Dispositivo robótico para guiagem de agulhas flexíveis em procedimentos minimamente invasivos

    OpenAIRE

    Geraldes, André Augusto

    2016-01-01

    Agulhas flexíveis constituem uma nova tecnologia para a realização de procedimentos cirúrgicos minimamente invasivos. Devido a sua capacidade de curvar dentro do corpo do paciente, elas tem potencial de melhorar a performance de diferentes procedimentos cirúrgicos, no entanto o posicionamento preciso deste tipo de agulha ainda é um desafio em aberto na comunidade científica. Neste contexto, este trabalho apresenta o desenvolvimento de um novo dispositivo robótico para guiagem de agulhas flexí...

  17. Electronic devices and circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pridham, Gordon John

    1968-01-01

    Electronic Devices and Circuits, Volume 1 deals with the design and applications of electronic devices and circuits such as passive components, diodes, triodes and transistors, rectification and power supplies, amplifying circuits, electronic instruments, and oscillators. These topics are supported with introductory network theory and physics. This volume is comprised of nine chapters and begins by explaining the operation of resistive, inductive, and capacitive elements in direct and alternating current circuits. The theory for some of the expressions quoted in later chapters is presented. Th

  18. CMOS circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    1995-01-01

    CMOS Circuits Manual is a user's guide for CMOS. The book emphasizes the practical aspects of CMOS and provides circuits, tables, and graphs to further relate the fundamentals with the applications. The text first discusses the basic principles and characteristics of the CMOS devices. The succeeding chapters detail the types of CMOS IC, including simple inverter, gate and logic ICs and circuits, and complex counters and decoders. The last chapter presents a miscellaneous collection of two dozen useful CMOS circuits. The book will be useful to researchers and professionals who employ CMOS circu

  19. Circuits and filters handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wai-Kai

    2003-01-01

    A bestseller in its first edition, The Circuits and Filters Handbook has been thoroughly updated to provide the most current, most comprehensive information available in both the classical and emerging fields of circuits and filters, both analog and digital. This edition contains 29 new chapters, with significant additions in the areas of computer-aided design, circuit simulation, VLSI circuits, design automation, and active and digital filters. It will undoubtedly take its place as the engineer's first choice in looking for solutions to problems encountered in the design, analysis, and behavi

  20. Timergenerator circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    2013-01-01

    Timer/Generator Circuits Manual is an 11-chapter text that deals mainly with waveform generator techniques and circuits. Each chapter starts with an explanation of the basic principles of its subject followed by a wide range of practical circuit designs. This work presents a total of over 300 practical circuits, diagrams, and tables.Chapter 1 outlines the basic principles and the different types of generator. Chapters 2 to 9 deal with a specific type of waveform generator, including sine, square, triangular, sawtooth, and special waveform generators pulse. These chapters also include pulse gen

  1. Security electronics circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    MARSTON, R M

    1998-01-01

    Security Electronics Circuits Manual is an invaluable guide for engineers and technicians in the security industry. It will also prove to be a useful guide for students and experimenters, as well as providing experienced amateurs and DIY enthusiasts with numerous ideas to protect their homes, businesses and properties.As with all Ray Marston's Circuits Manuals, the style is easy-to-read and non-mathematical, with the emphasis firmly on practical applications, circuits and design ideas. The ICs and other devices used in the practical circuits are modestly priced and readily available ty

  2. MOS integrated circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfendale, E

    2013-01-01

    MOS Integral Circuit Design aims to help in the design of integrated circuits, especially large-scale ones, using MOS Technology through teaching of techniques, practical applications, and examples. The book covers topics such as design equation and process parameters; MOS static and dynamic circuits; logic design techniques, system partitioning, and layout techniques. Also featured are computer aids such as logic simulation and mask layout, as well as examples on simple MOS design. The text is recommended for electrical engineers who would like to know how to use MOS for integral circuit desi

  3. Printed circuit board industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDou, Joseph

    2006-05-01

    The printed circuit board is the platform upon which microelectronic components such as semiconductor chips and capacitors are mounted. It provides the electrical interconnections between components and is found in virtually all electronics products. Once considered low technology, the printed circuit board is evolving into a high-technology product. Printed circuit board manufacturing is highly complicated, requiring large equipment investments and over 50 process steps. Many of the high-speed, miniaturized printed circuit boards are now manufactured in cleanrooms with the same health and safety problems posed by other microelectronics manufacturing. Asia produces three-fourths of the world's printed circuit boards. In Asian countries, glycol ethers are the major solvents used in the printed circuit board industry. Large quantities of hazardous chemicals such as formaldehyde, dimethylformamide, and lead are used by the printed circuit board industry. For decades, chemically intensive and often sloppy manufacturing processes exposed tens of thousands of workers to a large number of chemicals that are now known to be reproductive toxicants and carcinogens. The printed circuit board industry has exposed workers to high doses of toxic metals, solvents, acids, and photolithographic chemicals. Only recently has there been any serious effort to diminish the quantity of lead distributed worldwide by the printed circuit board industry. Billions of electronics products have been discarded in every region of the world. This paper summarizes recent regulatory and enforcement efforts.

  4. flexZhouse: New business model for affordable housing in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Zairul bin Mohd Noor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Central to this PhD research was the problem of the lack of affordable housing for young starters in Malaysia. The solutions for affordable housing that are available in the market do not truly solve the problem from the customer’s point of view. Hence, it was important to analyse the contributing factors associated with the term ‘affordability’. The term touches upon interconnected elements that cover many issues ranging from demand (housing needs, demographics, household income, quality housing to supply (the authorities’ requirements, design, cost, sustainability and procurement. In this thesis, we discuss some of the problems related to the supply and demand issues and examine a possible intervention to solve the problem.This research contributed to the body of knowledge by employing a prescriptive strategy and designing an innovative flexZhouse business model (BM, and by applying an in-depth strategy that revealed why the problem exists and why there is still no appropriate solution. The result provides a description of the situation that young starters find themselves in, the reactions of the industry’s key players and the policies that hamper innovation in the housing market.MethodologyWe applied the model of ‘design sciences’ as described by Van Aken (2004. The strategy first helped us to understand the problem (the issues related to the term ‘affordable housing’; the next step was to prescribe solutions for the practice by formulating the draft flexZhouse business model (BM. The mission of this research was to further develop knowledge for the design and understanding the problems that is, to provide alternative solutions to the affordable housing demands in the housing industry in Malaysia. We used the term ‘design research’ from Van Aken (2004 because the ultimate objective of studies in this category is to acquire a knowledge of how to develop solutions to problems in the real world (i.e. the new business model

  5. Flex concept for US-A BWR extended loss of AC power events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, J. [Toshiba America Nuclear Energy, Charlotte, North Carolina (United States); Aoyagi, Y.; Kataoka, K. [Toshiba Corporation, Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan); Thomas, S.; Mookhoek, B., E-mail: jim.powers@toshiba.com [Nuclear Innovation North America, Lake Jackson, Texas (United States)

    2015-09-15

    The US-Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (US-A BWR), certified by the US NRC, is a third generation, evolutionary boiling water reactor design which is the reference for the South Texas Project Units 3 and 4 (Stp 3 and 4) Combined License Application (Cola) and incorporates numerous design and technology enhancements for improved safety performance. Nuclear Innovation North America (NINA) is the License Applicant for this new build project, and Toshiba is the selected primary technology contractor. The Stp 3 and 4 project has finished the US NRC technical review of the Cola, and the final safety evaluation report (FSER) is scheduled to be issued by the US NRC in 2015. Following the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi plant, the US-A BWR was reviewed for Beyond Design Basis Event (BDBE) safety using industry and regulatory guidance for US NRC Order EA-12-049 Order Modifying Licenses with Regard to Requirements for Mitigation of Beyond Design Basis External Events (BDBEE). By virtue of the design approach, the US-A BWR is capable of providing an indefinite coping period for a station blackout. The use of installed systems with extended coping times is a significant advantage of the US-A BWR compared to most of the plants currently operating in the U.S. In addition, the Stp 3 and 4 design incorporates enhancements consistent with the current US industry Diverse and Flexible Coping Strategies (Flex) initiative. The final technical topic requiring review by the US NRC Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards was the Flex Integrated Plan submitted by NINA, and this review was successfully completed. This paper summarizes the progress of the US-A BWR in licensing the Flex Integrated Plan for the project, and describes the technology and features of the US-A BWR design that contribute to safety post-Fukushima. It also provides an informational comparison of the design capabilities of the US-A BWR for extreme external events, and relates these capabilities to re

  6. Synchronizing Hyperchaotic Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamasevicius, Arunas; Cenys, Antanas; Namajunas, Audrius

    1997-01-01

    Regarding possible applications to secure communications the technique of synchronizing hyperchaotic circuits with a single dynamical variable is discussed. Several specific examples including the fourth-order circuits with two positive Lyapunov exponents as well as the oscillator with a delay line...... characterized by multiple positive Lyapunov exponents are reviewd....

  7. Genetic circuit design automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Alec A K; Der, Bryan S; Shin, Jonghyeon; Vaidyanathan, Prashant; Paralanov, Vanya; Strychalski, Elizabeth A; Ross, David; Densmore, Douglas; Voigt, Christopher A

    2016-04-01

    Computation can be performed in living cells by DNA-encoded circuits that process sensory information and control biological functions. Their construction is time-intensive, requiring manual part assembly and balancing of regulator expression. We describe a design environment, Cello, in which a user writes Verilog code that is automatically transformed into a DNA sequence. Algorithms build a circuit diagram, assign and connect gates, and simulate performance. Reliable circuit design requires the insulation of gates from genetic context, so that they function identically when used in different circuits. We used Cello to design 60 circuits forEscherichia coli(880,000 base pairs of DNA), for which each DNA sequence was built as predicted by the software with no additional tuning. Of these, 45 circuits performed correctly in every output state (up to 10 regulators and 55 parts), and across all circuits 92% of the output states functioned as predicted. Design automation simplifies the incorporation of genetic circuits into biotechnology projects that require decision-making, control, sensing, or spatial organization.

  8. A Virtual Circuits Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vick, Matthew E.

    2010-01-01

    The University of Colorado's Physics Education Technology (PhET) website offers free, high-quality simulations of many physics experiments that can be used in the classroom. The Circuit Construction Kit, for example, allows students to safely and constructively play with circuit components while learning the mathematics behind many circuit…

  9. Discussion of WebGIS Reseach Based on Flex_RIA and REST%浅谈基于Flex RIA与REST的WebGIS研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郎永刚

    2011-01-01

    WebGIS是GIS技术和Web技术结合的产物,近年来得到极大发展,但是随着人们对WebGIS要求的不断提高,WebGIS在应用中暴露出了反应速度慢、交互性差、用户体验性不高等缺点,文章通过对以Flex为代表的RIA技术和REST风格的研究,设计了WebGIS系统框架,在此基础上开发了一个试验系统,实验结果表明利用RIA和REST能有效地提高WebGIS的运行效率,增强用户的体验度,能够呈现更加丰富、体验性更强的用户界面,为WebGIS开发应用提供了新的思路。%World Wide Web Geographical Information System(WebGIS)is the combination of Geographical Information System(GIS)and Internet,which developed rapidly in recent years.But with the public increasing demands on WebGIS,poor interaction and low userexperience in traditional WebGIS application are gradually exposed.After studying the RIA(Rich Internet Applications)represented by Flex technology and REST(Representational State Transfer)style,this paper proposes WebGIS framework.Based this a test system is developed,and the result shows that this framework can effectively improve operating efficiency and enhance user's experience,which offers the new way for WebGIS development and application.

  10. Desempenho de um veículo flex em bancada dinamométrica de chassi

    OpenAIRE

    Laranja, Gil Colona

    2010-01-01

    Os veículos flex são equipados com um motor de combustão interna do ciclo Otto e têm como característica a capacidade de funcionar com mais de um tipo de combustível, misturados no mesmo tanque e queimados na câmara de combustão simultaneamente. Este tipo de motorização é uma tendência mundial devido à escassez do petróleo, a comercialização de vários tipos de combustíveis, aos avanços tecnológicos dos sistemas de gerenciamento eletrônico de combustível e às restrições as emiss...

  11. Analysis of knee-joint forces during flexed-knee stance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J; Antonelli, D; Ford, W

    1975-10-01

    Using an instrumented cadaver lower extremity, the forces in the quadriceps, patella, and tibia during flexed-knee stance were measured and the calculated and experimental data were found to correlate with an average discrepancy of 6 per cent. The quadriceps force required to stabilize the knee was 75 per cent of the load on the femoral head at 15 degrees of knee flexion, 210 per cent at 30 degrees, and 410 per cent at 60 degrees. Stresses at the tibiofemoral and patellofemoral joint surfaces increased in similar fashion. The quadriceps force was equivalent to 20 per cent of average maximum quadriceps strength at 15 degrees and to 50 per cent at 30 degrees, as determined from torque tests on five normal subjects.

  12. HyFlex: A Benchmark Framework for Cross-domain Heuristic Search

    CERN Document Server

    Burke, Edmund; Hyde, Matthew; Ochoa, Gabriela; Vazquez-Rodriguez, Jose A

    2011-01-01

    Automating the design of heuristic search methods is an active research field within computer science, artificial intelligence and operational research. In order to make these methods more generally applicable, it is important to eliminate or reduce the role of the human expert in the process of designing an effective methodology to solve a given computational search problem. Researchers developing such methodologies are often constrained on the number of problem domains on which to test their adaptive, self-configuring algorithms; which can be explained by the inherent difficulty of implementing their corresponding domain specific software components. This paper presents HyFlex, a software framework for the development of cross-domain search methodologies. The framework features a common software interface for dealing with different combinatorial optimisation problems, and provides the algorithm components that are problem specific. In this way, the algorithm designer does not require a detailed knowledge th...

  13. Large Intra-Articular Anterior Cruciate Ligament Ganglion Cyst, Presenting with Inability to Flex the Knee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jake Sloane

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A 41-year-old female presented with a 3-month history of gradually worsening anterior knee pain, swelling and inability to flex the knee. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI revealed a large intra-articular cystic swelling anterior to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL, extending into the Hoffa's infrapatellar fat pad. Following manipulation under anaesthesia and arthroscopic debridement of the cyst, the patient's symptoms were relieved with restoration of normal knee motion. ACL ganglion cysts are uncommon intra-articular pathological entities, which are usually asymptomatic and diagnosed incidentally by MRI. This is the first reported case of an ACL cyst being so large as to cause a mechanical block to knee flexion.

  14. Construct validity of a modification of the flexed arm hang test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemons, Jim M

    2014-12-01

    Despite the ubiquitous use of the flexed arm hang (FAH) as a field test of muscular fitness, evidence for the construct validity of it is lacking. The strongest validity coefficients (r) to date are 0.71 and 0.72 found by correlating modified versions of the FAH (i.e., 90 and 180° of elbow extension, respectively) with relative dynamic strength (i.e., 1 repetition maximum [1RM] lat pull downs × body mass). Considering a significant portion of all FAH and modified flexed arm hang (MFAH) performances are isometric, the test may be more correlated with the construct of relative isometric strength (RIS) rather than relative dynamic strength. The purpose of this study was to determine if the construct validity of the 90° MFAH might be strengthened by correlating it with either absolute isometric strength (AIS) (i.e., maximum volitional isometric contraction [MVIC]) or RIS (i.e., MVIC × body mass). Thirty-one college-aged women participated in the study. Inter-rater reliability coefficients for two 90° MFAH tests were determined using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC): F1,30 = 1.356, ICC = 0.99; F1,30 = 0.675, ICC = 0.99. In addition, test-retest reliability was also found to be excellent: F1,30 = 3.809; ICC = 0.98. Pearson product moment correlation (r) was used at an adjusted alpha level of 0.025 to examine construct validity of the 90° MFAH with both AIS (MVIC) and RIS (MVIC × body mass). Results indicated no significant relationship with AIS (r = 0.096, p = 0.606); however, a strong significant relationship emerged with RIS (r = 0.878, p = 0.000). It was concluded that 90° MFAH scores alone were not related to absolute strength; however, they were found to be a valid and reliable estimate of the construct of RIS.

  15. Cupiennius salei: biomechanical properties of the tibia-metatarsus joint and its flexing muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, Tobias; Weihmann, Tom; Rode, Christian; Blickhan, Reinhard

    2010-02-01

    Hunting spiders are well adapted to fast locomotion. Space saving hydraulic leg extension enables leg segments, which consist almost soley of flexor muscles. As a result, the muscle cross sectional area is high despite slender legs. Considering these morphological features in context with the spider's segmented C-shaped legs, these specifics might influence the spider's muscle properties. Moreover, these properties have to be known for modeling of spider locomotion. Cupiennius salei (n = 5) were fixed in a metal frame allowing exclusive flexion of the tibia-metatarsus joint of the second leg (counted from anterior). Its flexing muscles were stimulated supramaximally using needle electrodes. Accounting for the joint geometry, the force-length and the force-velocity relationships were determined. The spider muscles produce 0.07 N cm maximum isometric moment (corresponding to 25 N/cm(2) maximum stress) at 160 degrees tibia-metatarsus joint angle. When overextended to the dorsal limit at approximately 200 degrees , the maximum isometric moments decrease to 72%, and, when flexed to the ventral hinge stop at 85 degrees , they drop to 11%. The force-velocity relation shows the typical hyperbolic shape. The mean maximum shortening velocity is 5.7 optimum muscle lengths per second and the mean curvature (a/F (iso)) of the Hill-function is 0.34. The spider muscle's properties which were determined are similar to those of other species acting as motors during locomotion (working range, curvature of Hill hyperbola, peak power at the preferred speeds), but they are relatively slow. In conjunction with the low mechanical advantage (muscle lever/load arm), the arrangement of three considerably actuated joints in series may nonetheless enable high locomotion velocities.

  16. Assessment of scatter for the micro-CT subsystem of the trimodality FLEX Triumph (TM) preclinical scanner

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutierrez, Daniel; Zaidi, Habib

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This work aims at assessing, through experimental measurements and Monte Carlo calculations, the scatter to primary ratio (SPR) for the micro-CT subsystem of the FLEX Triumph (TM) preclinical PET-CT scanner to improve its quantitative capabilities. Methods: Experimental measurements were ca

  17. Approximate circuits for increased reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamlet, Jason R.; Mayo, Jackson R.

    2015-08-18

    Embodiments of the invention describe a Boolean circuit having a voter circuit and a plurality of approximate circuits each based, at least in part, on a reference circuit. The approximate circuits are each to generate one or more output signals based on values of received input signals. The voter circuit is to receive the one or more output signals generated by each of the approximate circuits, and is to output one or more signals corresponding to a majority value of the received signals. At least some of the approximate circuits are to generate an output value different than the reference circuit for one or more input signal values; however, for each possible input signal value, the majority values of the one or more output signals generated by the approximate circuits and received by the voter circuit correspond to output signal result values of the reference circuit.

  18. Approximate circuits for increased reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamlet, Jason R.; Mayo, Jackson R.

    2015-12-22

    Embodiments of the invention describe a Boolean circuit having a voter circuit and a plurality of approximate circuits each based, at least in part, on a reference circuit. The approximate circuits are each to generate one or more output signals based on values of received input signals. The voter circuit is to receive the one or more output signals generated by each of the approximate circuits, and is to output one or more signals corresponding to a majority value of the received signals. At least some of the approximate circuits are to generate an output value different than the reference circuit for one or more input signal values; however, for each possible input signal value, the majority values of the one or more output signals generated by the approximate circuits and received by the voter circuit correspond to output signal result values of the reference circuit.

  19. Differentiation and Distribution of Marrow Stem Cells in Flex-Flow Environments Demonstrate Support of the Valvular Phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasmita Rath

    Full Text Available For treatment of critical heart valve diseases, prosthetic valves perform fairly well in most adults; however, for pediatric patients, there is the added requirement that the replacement valve grows with the child, thus extremely limiting current treatment options. Tissue engineered heart valves (TEHV, such as those derived from autologous bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs, have the potential to recapitulate native valve architecture and accommodate somatic growth. However, a fundamental pre-cursor in promoting directed integration with native tissues rather than random, uncontrolled growth requires an understanding of BMSC mechanobiological responses to valve-relevant mechanical environments. Here, we report on the responses of human BMSC-seeded polymer constructs to the valve-relevant stress states of: (i steady flow alone, (ii cyclic flexure alone, and (iii the combination of cyclic flexure and steady flow (flex-flow. BMSCs were seeded onto a PGA: PLLA polymer scaffold and cultured in static culture for 8 days. Subsequently, the aforementioned mechanical conditions, (groups consisting of steady flow alone-850ml/min, cyclic flexure alone-1 Hz, and flex-flow-850ml/min and 1 Hz were applied for an additional two weeks. We found samples from the flex-flow group exhibited a valve-like distribution of cells that expressed endothelial (preference to the surfaces and myofibroblast (preference to the intermediate region phenotypes. We interpret that this was likely due to the presence of both appreciable fluid-induced shear stress magnitudes and oscillatory shear stresses, which were concomitantly imparted onto the samples. These results indicate that flex-flow mechanical environments support directed in vitro differentiation of BMSCs uniquely towards a heart valve phenotype, as evident by cellular distribution and expression of specific gene markers. A priori guidance of BMSC-derived, engineered tissue growth under flex-flow conditions may serve to

  20. Plasmonic Nanoguides and Circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey

    2008-01-01

    Modern communication systems dealing with huge amounts of data at ever increasing speed try to utilize the best aspects of electronic and optical circuits. Electronic circuits are tiny but their operation speed is limited, whereas optical circuits are extremely fast but their sizes are limited by diffraction. Waveguide components utilizing surface plasmon (SP) modes were found to combine the huge optical bandwidth and compactness of electronics, and plasmonics thereby began to be considered as the next chip-scale technology. In this book, the authors concentrate on the SP waveguide configurati

  1. Optoelectronics circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    2013-01-01

    Optoelectronics Circuits Manual covers the basic principles and characteristics of the best known types of optoelectronic devices, as well as the practical applications of many of these optoelectronic devices. The book describes LED display circuits and LED dot- and bar-graph circuits and discusses the applications of seven-segment displays, light-sensitive devices, optocouplers, and a variety of brightness control techniques. The text also tackles infrared light-beam alarms and multichannel remote control systems. The book provides practical user information and circuitry and illustrations.

  2. Circuit analysis with Multisim

    CERN Document Server

    Baez-Lopez, David

    2011-01-01

    This book is concerned with circuit simulation using National Instruments Multisim. It focuses on the use and comprehension of the working techniques for electrical and electronic circuit simulation. The first chapters are devoted to basic circuit analysis.It starts by describing in detail how to perform a DC analysis using only resistors and independent and controlled sources. Then, it introduces capacitors and inductors to make a transient analysis. In the case of transient analysis, it is possible to have an initial condition either in the capacitor voltage or in the inductor current, or bo

  3. Modern TTL circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    2013-01-01

    Modern TTL Circuits Manual provides an introduction to the basic principles of Transistor-Transistor Logic (TTL). This book outlines the major features of the 74 series of integrated circuits (ICs) and introduces the various sub-groups of the TTL family.Organized into seven chapters, this book begins with an overview of the basics of digital ICs. This text then examines the symbology and mathematics of digital logic. Other chapters consider a variety of topics, including waveform generator circuitry, clocked flip-flop and counter circuits, special counter/dividers, registers, data latches, com

  4. Pragmatic circuits frequency domain

    CERN Document Server

    Eccles, William

    2006-01-01

    Pragmatic Circuits: Frequency Domain goes through the Laplace transform to get from the time domain to topics that include the s-plane, Bode diagrams, and the sinusoidal steady state. This second of three volumes ends with a-c power, which, although it is just a special case of the sinusoidal steady state, is an important topic with unique techniques and terminology. Pragmatic Circuits: Frequency Domain is focused on the frequency domain. In other words, time will no longer be the independent variable in our analysis. The two other volumes in the Pragmatic Circuits series include titles on DC

  5. Gallium Arsenide Domino Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Long; Long, Stephen I.

    1990-01-01

    Advantages include reduced power and high speed. Experimental gallium arsenide field-effect-transistor (FET) domino circuit replicated in large numbers for use in dynamic-logic systems. Name of circuit denotes mode of operation, which logic signals propagate from each stage to next when successive stages operated at slightly staggered clock cycles, in manner reminiscent of dominoes falling in a row. Building block of domino circuit includes input, inverter, and level-shifting substages. Combinational logic executed in input substage. During low half of clock cycle, result of logic operation transmitted to following stage.

  6. Troubleshooting analog circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pease, Robert A

    1991-01-01

    Troubleshooting Analog Circuits is a guidebook for solving product or process related problems in analog circuits. The book also provides advice in selecting equipment, preventing problems, and general tips. The coverage of the book includes the philosophy of troubleshooting; the modes of failure of various components; and preventive measures. The text also deals with the active components of analog circuits, including diodes and rectifiers, optically coupled devices, solar cells, and batteries. The book will be of great use to both students and practitioners of electronics engineering. Other

  7. Monolithic microwave integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucel, R. A.

    Monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs), a new microwave technology which is expected to exert a profound influence on microwave circuit designs for future military systems as well as for the commercial and consumer markets, is discussed. The book contains an historical discussion followed by a comprehensive review presenting the current status in the field. The general topics of the volume are: design considerations, materials and processing considerations, monolithic circuit applications, and CAD, measurement, and packaging techniques. All phases of MMIC technology are covered, from design to testing.

  8. Printed circuit for ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1999-01-01

    A printed circuit board made by scientists in the ATLAS collaboration for the transition radiaton tracker (TRT). This will read data produced when a high energy particle crosses the boundary between two materials with different electrical properties.

  9. Latching overcurrent circuit breaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, M. L.

    1970-01-01

    Circuit breaker consists of a preset current amplitude sensor, and a lamp-photo-resistor combination in a feedback arrangement which energizes a power switching relay. The ac input power is removed from the load at predetermined current amplitudes.

  10. High temperature circuit breaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, R. N.; Travis, E. F.

    1970-01-01

    Alternating current circuit breaker is suitable for reliable long-term service at 1000 deg F in the vacuum conditions of outer space. Construction materials are resistant to nuclear radiation and vacuum welding. Service test conditions and results are given.

  11. A Comparison of Performance of Endotracheal Intubation Using the Levitan FPS Optical Stylet or Lary-Flex Videolaryngoscope in Morbidly Obese Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Gaszynski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The use of videolaryngoscopes is recommended for morbidly obese patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate the Levitan FPS optical stylet (Levitan vs Lafy-Flex videolaryngoscope (Lary-Flex in a group of MO patients. Methods. Seventy-nine MO (BMI>40 kg m−2 patients scheduled for bariatric surgery were included in the study and randomly allocated to the Levitan FPS or Lary-Flex group. The primary endpoint was time to intubation and evaluation laryngoscopic of glottic view. Anesthesiologists were asked to evaluate the glottic view first under direct laryngoscopy using the videolaryngoscope as a standard laryngoscope (monitor display was excluded from use and then using devices. The secondary endpoint was the cardiovascular response to intubation and the participant’s evaluation of such devices. Results. The time to intubation was 8.572.66 sec. versus 5.790.2 sec. for Levitan and Lary-Flex, respectively (P1 under direct laryngoscopy, the study devices improved CL grade to 1. The Levitan FPS produced a greater cardiovascular response than the Lary-Flex videolaryngoscope. Conclusion. The Lary-Flex videolaryngoscope and the Levitan FPS optical stylet improve the laryngeal visualization in morbidly obese patients, allowing for fast endotracheal intubation, but Lary-Flex produces less cardiovascular response to intubation attempt.

  12. Overriding Faulty Circuit Breakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Richard L.; Pierson, Thomas E.

    1987-01-01

    Retainer keeps power on in emergency. Simple mechanical device attaches to failed aircraft-type push/pull circuit breaker to restore electrical power temporarily until breaker replaced. Device holds push/pull button in closed position; unnecessary for crewmember to hold button in position by continual finger pressure. Sleeve and plug hold button in, overriding mechanical failure in circuit breaker. Windows in sleeve show button position.

  13. Comprehensive evaluation of Capillarys 2 Flex Piercing glycated hemoglobin A1cdetermination system%Capillarys 2 Flex Piercing糖化血红蛋白检测系统的综合评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐安平; 纪玲; 陈卫东; 夏勇; 黄静之; 喻晶; 周宇; 李璐

    2016-01-01

    目的:综合评估基于毛细管电泳法的Capillarys 2 Flex Piercing糖化血红蛋白(HbA1c)检测系统。方法验证Capillarys 2 Flex PiercingHbA1c检测系统的相关性、精密度和线性范围等基本性能指标,并采用干扰实验评价其抗干扰能力,项目包括胆红素(Bil)、甘油三酯(TG)、血红蛋白(Hb)、不稳定糖化血红蛋白(LA1c)、HbF和广东地区常见的Hb变异体(Hb E、Hb J-Bangkok、Hb New York、Hb G-Taipei和Hb G-Coushatta)。采用Capillarys 2 Flex PiercingHbA1c检测系统检测HbA2,评价其与毛细管电泳法的相关性;采用Capillarys 2 Flex PiercingHbA1c检测系统测定40份美国国家糖化血红蛋白标准化计划(NGSP)HbA1c临床实验室认证样本,分析其与NGSP参考实验室结果的差异,验证正确度。结果 Capillarys 2 Flex PiercingHbA1c检测系统与VariantⅡ Turbo 2.0 HbA1c分析仪的相关性良好(r=0.997,P=0.000);总精密度[变异系数(CV)]<2.00%;HbA1c在3.8%~17.1%范围内呈线性;当Bil≤355μmol/L、TG≤25.3 mmol/L、Hb为28~182 g/L、LA1c为1.2%~7.8%、HbF≤22.3%时不受干扰;能分离广东地区常见的Hb变异体(Hb E、Hb J-Bangkok、Hb New York、Hb G-Taipei和Hb G-Coushatta)。Capillarys 2 Flex PiercingHbA1c检测系统检测HbA2和毛细管电泳法相关性良好(r=0.993, P=0.000);与NGSP参考实验室结果的偏差均<6%。结论 Capillarys 2 Flex PiercingHbA1c检测系统完全能满足临床需求,可同时提供HbA2的结果用于地中海贫血的筛查,是一种多用途的HbA1c检测系统。%Objective To comprehensively evaluate Capillarys 2 Flex Piercing glycated hemoglobin A1c(HbA1c) determination system based on capillary electrophoresis.MethodsThe correlation,precision and linear range of Capillarys 2 Flex Piercing HbA1c determination system were verified. Samples with different levels of bilirubin(Bil), triglyceride(TG),hemoglobin(Hb),labile glycated

  14. Heterogeneous photonic integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Alexander W.; Fish, Gregory; Hall, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Photonic Integrated Circuits (PICs) have been dichotomized into circuits with high passive content (silica and silicon PLCs) and high active content (InP tunable lasers and transceivers) due to the trade-off in material characteristics used within these two classes. This has led to restrictions in the adoption of PICs to systems in which only one of the two classes of circuits are required to be made on a singular chip. Much work has been done to create convergence in these two classes by either engineering the materials to achieve the functionality of both device types on a single platform, or in epitaxial growth techniques to transfer one material to the next, but have yet to demonstrate performance equal to that of components fabricated in their native substrates. Advances in waferbonding techniques have led to a new class of heterogeneously integrated photonic circuits that allow for the concurrent use of active and passive materials within a photonic circuit, realizing components on a transferred substrate that have equivalent performance as their native substrate. In this talk, we review and compare advances made in heterogeneous integration along with demonstrations of components and circuits enabled by this technology.

  15. Circuit simulation: some humbling thoughts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, Manfred; /Fermilab

    2006-01-01

    A short, very personal note on circuit simulation is presented. It does neither include theoretical background on circuit simulation, nor offers an overview of available software, but just gives some general remarks for a discussion on circuit simulator needs in context to the design and development of accelerator beam instrumentation circuits and systems.

  16. Impact of the flex-fuel vehicle on the prices formation and regulation in Brazil; Analise do impacto dos veiculos flex-fuel na formacao e regulacao de precos de combustiveis veiculares no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buscarini, Rodolfo Jose Galvao [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (IE/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Economia; Cesca, Igor Gimenes [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DEP/FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Engenharia de Petroleo

    2012-07-01

    The main fuels for vehicles in Brazil are the gasoline type C - which is a mixture of gasoline, resulting from the fractional distillation of oil and anhydrous ethanol - and hydrated ethanol. For this importance, has been created an institutional framework to guide and regulate the activities of the fuel sector, initially for gasoline, hydrated ethanol was contemplated by such device in 2011. Since 2003, there has been manufactured in Brazil the flex-fuel vehicles. With this, the possibility of activation of an additional factor for the regulation of vehicle fuel prices, increasing consumer power to define which of the fuels could be used as the disposition of their prices. One of the effects of growth flex-fuel sales has been increased production and investment in ethanol (especially sugar cane) as a suitable alternative to the. The hope was that the formation of fuel prices was less dependent on their cost of production and distribution and more influenced by a pressure of consumer demand. However, the increase in the sales of the flex-fuel vehicle in Brazil in the last years was not the determining factor in the price of fuels, as it was expected. The explanation of this is on external factors to the automotive industry, linked to the structures of the production chain of oil and ethanol, especially the question of the great increase in international prices of oil and hydrated ethanol in the international market in recent years. (author)

  17. Low latency asynchronous interface circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadowski, Greg

    2017-06-20

    In one form, a logic circuit includes an asynchronous logic circuit, a synchronous logic circuit, and an interface circuit coupled between the asynchronous logic circuit and the synchronous logic circuit. The asynchronous logic circuit has a plurality of asynchronous outputs for providing a corresponding plurality of asynchronous signals. The synchronous logic circuit has a plurality of synchronous inputs corresponding to the plurality of asynchronous outputs, a stretch input for receiving a stretch signal, and a clock output for providing a clock signal. The synchronous logic circuit provides the clock signal as a periodic signal but prolongs a predetermined state of the clock signal while the stretch signal is active. The asynchronous interface detects whether metastability could occur when latching any of the plurality of the asynchronous outputs of the asynchronous logic circuit using said clock signal, and activates the stretch signal while the metastability could occur.

  18. Controle pela carga de trabalho de um sistema flexível de manufatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Battaglia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo foi calcular tempos de atravessamento e inventário médios em um sistema de manufatura flexível, que atende muitas ordens, de tamanho e mix variado. Foi aplicado o workload control (controle por carga de trabalho para o cálculo da situação atual, e simulação computacional (software ProModel para avaliar duas situação alternativas: aumento na demanda e redução na demanda. O método de pesquisa foi a modelagem quantitativa. Os resultados apontam que atualmente há excesso de inventário, provocado por desequilíbrio entre demanda e entrega da manufatura, o que é típico em sistemas de filas. Seria necessário sincronizar melhor entradas e saídas. Os cenários simulados apontam que a manufatura não suporta aumento de carga, crescendo continuamente o inventário, até a operação tornar-se inviável. Para estabilidade do inventário, seria necessário reduzir a demanda, se for mantido o atual regime de trabalho, com entradas aleatórias e independentes.

  19. Anatomical study of the posterior cruciate ligament with the knee flexed at 90°,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kyubin Cho

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To study the anatomy of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL and define anatomical parameters with the knee flexed at 90°.Methods:Eight knees from cadavers were dissected in order to make measurements from the center of the anterolateral band to the roof (AL1, from the center of the anterolateral band to the anterior cartilage (AL2, from the center of the posteromedial band to the roof (PM1, from the center of the posteromedial band to the anterior cartilage (PM2, from the center of the tibial insertion to the medial region of the tibia (TIM, from the center of the tibial insertion to the lateral region of the tibia (TIL, from the center of the medial insertion to the medial meniscus (IMM and the width of the origin of the PCL (WO. To obtain the results from each anatomical structure, the means and standard deviations of the measurements were calculated.Results:The measurements in millimeters that were found were AL1, 6.2; AL2, 4.9; PM1, 11.7; PM2, 5.5; TIM, 32.5; TIL, 40.6; IMM, 9.4; and WO, 32.5.Conclusions:The PCL has an extensive origin. The center of the anterolateral band is 6 mm from the roof and 5 mm from the anterior cartilage of the knee. The tibial insertion is slightly medial and 10 mm distal to the posterior cornu of the medial meniscus.

  20. A kinematic-freedom analysis of a flexed-knee-stance testing rig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavatsky, A B

    1997-03-01

    The Oxford Rig was designed for biomechanical testing of post-mortem human knee-joint specimens during simulated flexed-knee stance, such as occurs when riding a bicycle, rising from a chair, or climbing stairs. It has been asserted, but never proven, that the movements of the 'ankle' and 'hip' assemblies of the Oxford Rig combine to allow a knee specimen its natural six degrees-of-freedom of movement (6 d.o.f.). This paper investigates this claim mathematically using the general mobility criterion for spatial linkages and the basics of screw theory. It is shown that within the physiological range of knee-joint movement and the physical construction of the Rig, the knee specimen is allowed full spatial freedom (6 d.o.f.). The general approach used in this paper could also be applied to the analysis and, in particular, to the design of other rigs used for biomechanical testing of post-mortem human joint specimens.

  1. Evaluation of candidate alloys for the construction of metal flex hoses in the STS launch environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ontiveros, Cordelia

    1988-01-01

    Various vacuum jacketed cryogenic supply lines at the Shuttle launch site use convoluted flexible expansion joints. The atmosphere at the launch site has a very high salt content, and during a launch, fuel combustion products include hydrochloric acid. This extremely corrosive environment has caused pitting corrosion failure in the flex hoses, which were made of 304L stainless steel. A search was done to find a more corrosion resistant replacement material. This study focused on 19 metal alloys. Tests which were performed include electrochemical corrosion testing, accelerated corrosion testing in a salt fog chamber, long term exposure at the beach corrosion testing site, and pitting corrosion tests in ferric chloride solution. Based on the results of these tests, the most corrosion resistant alloys were found to be (in order) Hastelloy C-22, Inconel 625, Hastelloy C-276, Hastelloy C-4, and Inco Alloy G-3. Of these top five alloys, the Hastelloy C-22 stands out as being the best of those tested for this application.

  2. VIDEOCONFERENCING WEB APPLICATION FOR CARDIOLOGY DOMAIN USING FLEX/J2EE TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imen Debbabi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent advances in computer technology and data networking have made videoconferencing system a popular medium for users to interact with one another from remote locations. This system offers communication between more than two users, who are able to interact through their webcams, microphone and other components. The use of this system has been increased recently due to many reasons, for one thing, progress in Internet access in different networks like companies, universities and houses, with the increase of available bandwidth whereas the decrease of delay in sending and receiving packets . On the other hand, the coming of Rich Internet Applications (RIA means that a large part of web application started to be implemented on the web browsers. This paper discusses the conception of multiparty videoconferencing systems using technologies of Web 2.0. For our conceptual Videoconferencing Platform, we have developed many feature : live audio video, text chat, video recording, user and room management and quality control. Videoconferencing modules have been carried out using open source technologies Flex and J2EE.

  3. A semiconductor laser excitation circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaadzunari, O.; Masaty, K.

    1984-03-27

    A semiconductor laser excitation circuit is patented that is designed for operation in a pulsed mode with a high pulse repetition frequency. This circuit includes, in addition to a semiconductor laser, a high speed photodetector, a reference voltage source, a comparator, and a pulse oscillator and modulator. If the circuit is built using standard silicon integrated circuits, its speed amounts to several hundred megahertz, if it is constructed using gallium arsenide integrated circuits, its speed is several gigahertz.

  4. Automação flexível: o ocaso do taylorismo fordismo e a supremacia do toyotismo

    OpenAIRE

    Alban,Marcus

    1999-01-01

    Nos anos 70, em função do desenvolvimento da microeletrônica, a automação rígida foi tecnicamente superada pela automação flexível. Mesmo superada, contudo, ela não foi abandonada. Ao contrário, por pelo menos mais uma década, manteve-se como o paradigma dominante em todo o ocidente. Por que isto aconteceu? A hipótese desenvolvida é de que a automação flexível mostrou-se incompatível com o sistema taylorista-fordista de organização da do trabalho/produção. Por esta razão ela só pôde se desenv...

  5. Upgrade of the primary spectrometer of the cold triple-axis spectrometer FLEX at the BER II reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skoulatos, M., E-mail: markos.skoulatos@helmholtz-berlin.de [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin for Materials and Energy-Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Habicht, K. [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin for Materials and Energy-Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany)

    2011-08-11

    Monte Carlo simulation results for the upgrade of the FLEX/V2 cold neutron triple-axis spectrometer are presented. The main goals are increased flux and energy resolution, while keeping a low background. In the same time the energy transfer range is significantly increased, bridging the gap between cold and thermal neutrons. We aim towards a flexible instrument, by employing the virtual source concept defining a beam before a double-focusing monochromator. This enables fine-tuning according to energy resolution, intensity and sample size requirements. A velocity selector adds the extra flexibility of tuning the spectrometer to any desired fixed wavevector. Neutron ray-tracing programs McStas and VITESS were extensively used and tested in this process. - Highlights: > Monte Carlo simulations of the FLEX triple-axis spectrometer. > Increased flux and better energy resolution, low background. > Increased energy transfer range.

  6. The Mind Grows Circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Panigrahy, Rina

    2012-01-01

    There is a vast supply of prior art that study models for mental processes. Some studies in psychology and philosophy approach it from an inner perspective in terms of experiences and percepts. Others such as neurobiology or connectionist-machines approach it externally by viewing the mind as complex circuit of neurons where each neuron is a primitive binary circuit. In this paper, we also model the mind as a place where a circuit grows, starting as a collection of primitive components at birth and then builds up incrementally in a bottom up fashion. A new node is formed by a simple composition of prior nodes when we undergo a repeated experience that can be described by that composition. Unlike neural networks, however, these circuits take "concepts" or "percepts" as inputs and outputs. Thus the growing circuits can be likened to a growing collection of lambda expressions that are built on top of one another in an attempt to compress the sensory input as a heuristic to bound its Kolmogorov Complexity.

  7. Coping Strategies for Beyond-Design-Basis External Events: Insights from the U. S. EDMG and FLEX Approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jaewhan; Ahn, Kwang Il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Inn Seock [ISSA Technology, Inc., Germantown (United States)

    2013-10-15

    The proposed integrated coping strategies include operation strategies for specific accident conditions, extension or revision of emergency operating procedures (EOPs), integration between EOPs and severe accident mitigation guidelines (SAMG), and so on. This paper reviewed mitigation strategies adopted in the U. S. EDMG and FLEX approaches, and then proposed extended coping strategies for BDBEEs. The extended coping strategies provide comprehensive mitigation approach including restoration of the RCS inventory and pressure control as well as mitigation strategies of the U. S. EDMG and FLEX. More detailed strategies will be developed in the near future following an evaluation of the various accident mitigation strategies being implemented worldwide in the aftermath of the Fukushima accident. An extended loss of all AC power occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, on March 11, 2011, by a large earthquake and subsequent tsunamis. This event led to loss of reactor core cooling and containment integrity functions at several units of the site, ultimately resulting in large release of radioactive materials into the environment. Extreme events, or beyond-design-basis external events (BDBEEs), as occurred in the Fukushima Daiichi plant, may threaten plant safety by disabling critical safety functions of nuclear power plants for an extended period. Therefore, coping strategies need to be developed to further enhance nuclear safety by maintaining or restoring core cooling and containment integrity for BDBEEs. This paper reviews the U. S. EDMG and FLEX approaches from the perspective of coping strategies, and proposes an integrated strategic approach to cope with BDBEEs by extending the concepts of EDMG and FLEX.

  8. The Mooring Pattern Study for Q-Flex Type LNG Carriers Scheduled for Berthing at Ege Gaz Aliaga LNG Terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selcuk Nas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ever growing energy industry requires larger quantities of LNG to be transported by bigger ships between terminals. Every day, new kind of large vessels created by new technologies, and these are used to trade around the globe. This is the dynamic change in shipping industry. But on the other hand these new vessels need to safely berth to existing terminals which we may accept as more static part of the trade. Thus this study born by the request of Ege Gaz Aliaga LNG Terminal management to determine if it is safe to berth to the terminal by a new breed of large LNG carrier type named as Q-Flex and Q-Max. Transas Bridge Simulator NTPRO 5000 series was used in this study for extensive experiments which had been simulated by the use of hook function. During the study, every force applied to mooring hooks and dolphins by the ship lines were divided into 3 dimensions and then measured by simulation experiments. With analysis of the data, required hook and dolphins strengths were determined for the safe mooring arrangements. Upon the completion of the study Ege Gaz Aliaga LNG Terminal became the first safe berth for Q-Flex type vessels in the Mediterranean and the Black Sea. And finally all experiments were confirmed with real life experience when the first Q-Flex type LNG carrier berthed to the Ege Gaz Aliaga LNG Terminal.

  9. Carborane clusters in computational drug design: a comparative docking evaluation using AutoDock, FlexX, Glide, and Surflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Rohit; Mahasenan, Kiran; Pavlovicz, Ryan; Li, Chenglong; Tjarks, Werner

    2009-06-01

    Compounds containing boron atoms play increasingly important roles in the therapy and diagnosis of various diseases, particularly cancer. However, computational drug design of boron-containing therapeutics and diagnostics is hampered by the fact that many software packages used for this purpose lack parameters for all or part of the various types of boron atoms. In the present paper, we describe simple and efficient strategies to overcome this problem, which are based on the replacement of boron atom types with carbon atom types. The developed methods were validated by docking closo- and nido-carboranyl antifolates into the active site of a human dihydrofolate reductase (hDHFR) using AutoDock, Glide, FlexX, and Surflex and comparing the obtained docking poses with the poses of their counterparts in the original hDHFR-carboranyl antifolate crystal structures. Under optimized conditions, AutoDock and Glide were equally good in docking of the closo-carboranyl antifolates followed by Surflex and FlexX, whereas Autodock, Glide, and Surflex proved to be comparably efficient in the docking of nido-carboranyl antifolates followed by FlexX. Differences in geometries and partial atom charges in the structures of the carboranyl antifolates resulting from different data sources and/or optimization methods did not impact the docking performances of AutoDock or Glide significantly. Binding energies predicted by all four programs were in accordance with experimental data.

  10. Chaotic memristive circuit: equivalent circuit realization and dynamical analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao Bo-Cheng; Xu Jian-Ping; Zhou Guo-Hua; Ma Zheng-Hua; Zou Ling

    2011-01-01

    In this paper,a practical equivalent circuit of an active flux-controlled memristor characterized by smooth piecewise-quadratic nonlinearity is designed and an experimental chaotic memristive circuit is implemented.The chaotic memristive circuit has an equilibrium set and its stability is dependent on the initial state of the memristor.The initial state-dependent and the circuit parameter-dependent dynamics of the chaotic memristive circuit are investigated via phase portraits,bifurcation diagrams and Lyapunov exponents.Both experimental and simulation results validate the proposed equivalent circuit realization of the active flux-controlled memristor.

  11. Primer printed circuit boards

    CERN Document Server

    Argyle, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Step-by-step instructions for making your own PCBs at home. Making your own printed circuit board (PCB) might seem a daunting task, but once you master the steps, it's easy to attain professional-looking results. Printed circuit boards, which connect chips and other components, are what make almost all modern electronic devices possible. PCBs are made from sheets of fiberglass clad with copper, usually in multiplelayers. Cut a computer motherboard in two, for instance, and you'll often see five or more differently patterned layers. Making boards at home is relatively easy

  12. Current Conveyor Equivalent Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejmal S. Rathore

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An equivalence between a class of (current conveyor CC II+ and CC II- circuits is established. CC IIequivalent circuit uses one extra element. However, under certain condition, the extra element can be eliminated. As an illustration of the application of this equivalence, minimal first and second order all-pass filters are derived. Incertain cases, it is possible to compensate the effect of the input resistor of CC at port X. At the end, an open problem of realizing an Nth order (N > 2 minimal all-pass filter is stated.

  13. Circuit design for reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Yu; Wirth, Gilson

    2015-01-01

    This book presents physical understanding, modeling and simulation, on-chip characterization, layout solutions, and design techniques that are effective to enhance the reliability of various circuit units.  The authors provide readers with techniques for state of the art and future technologies, ranging from technology modeling, fault detection and analysis, circuit hardening, and reliability management. Provides comprehensive review on various reliability mechanisms at sub-45nm nodes; Describes practical modeling and characterization techniques for reliability; Includes thorough presentation of robust design techniques for major VLSI design units; Promotes physical understanding with first-principle simulations.

  14. Inrush Current Control Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Steven W. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    An inrush current control circuit having an input terminal connected to a DC power supply and an output terminal connected to a load capacitor limits the inrush current that charges up the load capacitor during power up of a system. When the DC power supply applies a DC voltage to the input terminal, the inrush current control circuit produces a voltage ramp at the load capacitor instead of an abrupt DC voltage. The voltage ramp results in a constant low level current to charge up the load capacitor, greatly reducing the current drain on the DC power supply.

  15. Electronic circuits fundamentals & applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tooley, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Electronics explained in one volume, using both theoretical and practical applications.New chapter on Raspberry PiCompanion website contains free electronic tools to aid learning for students and a question bank for lecturersPractical investigations and questions within each chapter help reinforce learning Mike Tooley provides all the information required to get to grips with the fundamentals of electronics, detailing the underpinning knowledge necessary to appreciate the operation of a wide range of electronic circuits, including amplifiers, logic circuits, power supplies and oscillators. The

  16. Validity and Reliability of Fitbit Flex for Step Count, Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity and Activity Energy Expenditure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushames, Ashleigh; Edwards, Andrew; Thompson, Fintan; McDermott, Robyn; Gebel, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the validity and reliability of the Fitbit Flex against direct observation for measuring steps in the laboratory and against the Actigraph for step counts in free-living conditions and for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and activity energy expenditure (AEE) overall. Methods Twenty-five adults (12 females, 13 males) wore a Fitbit Flex and an Actigraph GT3X+ during a laboratory based protocol (including walking, incline walking, running and stepping) and free-living conditions during a single day period to examine measurement of steps, AEE and MVPA. Twenty-four of the participants attended a second session using the same protocol. Results Intraclass correlations (ICC) for test-retest reliability of the Fitbit Flex were strong for walking (ICC = 0.57), moderate for stair stepping (ICC = 0.34), and weak for incline walking (ICC = 0.22) and jogging (ICC = 0.26). The Fitbit significantly undercounted walking steps in the laboratory (absolute proportional difference: 21.2%, 95%CI 13.0–29.4%), but it was more accurate, despite slightly over counting, for both jogging (6.4%, 95%CI 3.7–9.0%) and stair stepping (15.5%, 95%CI 10.1–20.9%). The Fitbit had higher coefficients of variation (Cv) for step counts compared to direct observation and the Actigraph. In free-living conditions, the average MVPA minutes were lower in the Fitbit (35.4 minutes) compared to the Actigraph (54.6 minutes), but AEE was greater from the Fitbit (808.1 calories) versus the Actigraph (538.9 calories). The coefficients of variation were similar for AEE for the Actigraph (Cv = 36.0) and Fitbit (Cv = 35.0), but lower in the Actigraph (Cv = 25.5) for MVPA against the Fitbit (Cv = 32.7). Conclusion The Fitbit Flex has moderate validity for measuring physical activity relative to direct observation and the Actigraph. Test-rest reliability of the Fitbit was dependant on activity type and had greater variation between sessions compared to the Actigraph. Physical

  17. ESD analog circuits and design

    CERN Document Server

    Voldman, Steven H

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive and in-depth review of analog circuit layout, schematic architecture, device, power network and ESD design This book will provide a balanced overview of analog circuit design layout, analog circuit schematic development, architecture of chips, and ESD design.  It will start at an introductory level and will bring the reader right up to the state-of-the-art. Two critical design aspects for analog and power integrated circuits are combined. The first design aspect covers analog circuit design techniques to achieve the desired circuit performance. The second and main aspect pres

  18. Bioluminescent bioreporter integrated circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Michael L. (Knoxville, TN); Sayler, Gary S. (Blaine, TN); Paulus, Michael J. (Knoxville, TN)

    2000-01-01

    Disclosed are monolithic bioelectronic devices comprising a bioreporter and an OASIC. These bioluminescent bioreporter integrated circuit are useful in detecting substances such as pollutants, explosives, and heavy-metals residing in inhospitable areas such as groundwater, industrial process vessels, and battlefields. Also disclosed are methods and apparatus for environmental pollutant detection, oil exploration, drug discovery, industrial process control, and hazardous chemical monitoring.

  19. Superconducting Quantum Circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Majer, J.B.

    2002-01-01

    This thesis describes a number of experiments with superconducting cir- cuits containing small Josephson junctions. The circuits are made out of aluminum islands which are interconnected with a very thin insulating alu- minum oxide layer. The connections form a Josephson junction. The current trough

  20. Quantum secure circuit evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Huanhuan; LI Bin; ZHUANG Zhenquan

    2004-01-01

    In order to solve the problem of classical secure circuit evaluation, this paper proposes a quantum approach. In this approach, the method of inserting redundant entangled particles and quantum signature has been employed to strengthen the security of the system. Theoretical analysis shows that our solution is secure against classical and quantum attacks.

  1. Resistor Combinations for Parallel Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTernan, James P.

    1978-01-01

    To help simplify both teaching and learning of parallel circuits, a high school electricity/electronics teacher presents and illustrates the use of tables of values for parallel resistive circuits in which total resistances are whole numbers. (MF)

  2. Electronic circuits and systems: A compilation. [including integrated circuits, logic circuits, varactor diode circuits, low pass filters, and optical equipment circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Technological information is presented electronic circuits and systems which have potential utility outside the aerospace community. Topics discussed include circuit components such as filters, converters, and integrators, circuits designed for use with specific equipment or systems, and circuits designed primarily for use with optical equipment or displays.

  3. The LMT circuit and SPICE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Erik; Murali, K.; Tamacevicius, Arunas

    2006-01-01

    The state equations of the LMT circuit are modeled as a dedicated analogue computer circuit and solved by means of PSpice. The nonlinear part of the system is studied. Problems with the PSpice program are presented.......The state equations of the LMT circuit are modeled as a dedicated analogue computer circuit and solved by means of PSpice. The nonlinear part of the system is studied. Problems with the PSpice program are presented....

  4. Behavioral synthesis of asynchronous circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sune Fallgaard

    2005-01-01

    This thesis presents a method for behavioral synthesis of asynchronous circuits, which aims at providing a synthesis flow which uses and tranfers methods from synchronous circuits to asynchronous circuits. We move the synchronous behavioral synthesis abstraction into the asynchronous handshake...... is idle. This reduces unnecessary switching activity in the individual functional units and therefore the energy consumption of the entire circuit. A collection of behavioral synthesis algorithms have been developed allowing the designer to perform time and power constrained design space exploration...

  5. Diode, transistor & fet circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    2013-01-01

    Diode, Transistor and FET Circuits Manual is a handbook of circuits based on discrete semiconductor components such as diodes, transistors, and FETS. The book also includes diagrams and practical circuits. The book describes basic and special diode characteristics, heat wave-rectifier circuits, transformers, filter capacitors, and rectifier ratings. The text also presents practical applications of associated devices, for example, zeners, varicaps, photodiodes, or LEDs, as well as it describes bipolar transistor characteristics. The transistor can be used in three basic amplifier configuration

  6. 基于FlexPaper的校内知识平台系统设计与实现%Design and Implementation of Document Sharing System Based on FlexPaper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟爱青

    2014-01-01

    设计与实现一个知识分享阅读平台,便于学校教师与学生的知识分享,基于FlexPaper技术实现方案,将各种类型的文件转换为swf文件,使用FlexPaper插件在网页上播放,该技术方案成熟可靠并被广泛使用,包括百度文库、豆丁网都在使用该技术方案。系统架构设计采用业界领先的基于领域驱动的开发方式,分为表现层、服务层、领域层,业务逻辑集中在领域层,基于集群的负载均衡与缓存,使系统具有高可用性、高可靠性及高性能。%Implements a system for sharing and reading documents among school teachers and students. With the help of swf tools, various types of documents can be changed to swf files, after that, views the documents on website using FlexPaper plugin, the techniques are reliable and widely used by many companies, including Baidu, Douding. To make system with high availability, high reliability and high performance, designs the system using MVC modal, load balance, memory cache, cluster, domain driven development and others.

  7. Statistical circuit design for yield improvement in CMOS circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, H. J.; Purviance, J. E.; Whitaker, S. R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses the statistical design of CMOS integrated circuits for improved parametric yield. The work uses the Monte Carlo technique of circuit simulation to obtain an unbiased estimation of the yield. A simple graphical analysis tool, the yield factor histogram, is presented. The yield factor histograms are generated by a new computer program called SPICENTER. Using the yield factor histograms, the most sensitive circuit parameters are noted, and their nominal values are changed to improve the yield. Two basic CMOS example circuits, one analog and one digital, are chosen and their designs are 'centered' to illustrate the use of the yield factor histograms for statistical circuit design.

  8. Circuit Bodging: Atari Punk Console

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, B.

    2009-01-01

    Circuit bodging is back! Maxwell is proud to present small, simple, but ultimately lovable little circuits to build for your own, personal pleasure. In this edition we are featuring: The Atari Punk Console. The Atari Punk Console (or APC) is a 555 timer IC based noise maker circuit. The original was

  9. Circuit Bodging: Atari Punk Console

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, B.

    2009-01-01

    Circuit bodging is back! Maxwell is proud to present small, simple, but ultimately lovable little circuits to build for your own, personal pleasure. In this edition we are featuring: The Atari Punk Console. The Atari Punk Console (or APC) is a 555 timer IC based noise maker circuit. The original was

  10. Selective Manipulation of Neural Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hong Geun; Carmel, Jason B

    2016-04-01

    Unraveling the complex network of neural circuits that form the nervous system demands tools that can manipulate specific circuits. The recent evolution of genetic tools to target neural circuits allows an unprecedented precision in elucidating their function. Here we describe two general approaches for achieving circuit specificity. The first uses the genetic identity of a cell, such as a transcription factor unique to a circuit, to drive expression of a molecule that can manipulate cell function. The second uses the spatial connectivity of a circuit to achieve specificity: one genetic element is introduced at the origin of a circuit and the other at its termination. When the two genetic elements combine within a neuron, they can alter its function. These two general approaches can be combined to allow manipulation of neurons with a specific genetic identity by introducing a regulatory gene into the origin or termination of the circuit. We consider the advantages and disadvantages of both these general approaches with regard to specificity and efficacy of the manipulations. We also review the genetic techniques that allow gain- and loss-of-function within specific neural circuits. These approaches introduce light-sensitive channels (optogenetic) or drug sensitive channels (chemogenetic) into neurons that form specific circuits. We compare these tools with others developed for circuit-specific manipulation and describe the advantages of each. Finally, we discuss how these tools might be applied for identification of the neural circuits that mediate behavior and for repair of neural connections.

  11. 基于AUTOSAR的汽车FlexRay网络通信故障检测与管理%Fault detection and management for automotive FlexRay network communication based on AUTOSAR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王跃飞; 张亚生; 刘红军; 黄维康

    2016-01-01

    针对汽车网络安全性、可靠性等通信要求,参照 AUTOSAR 网络管理规范,提出一种基于故障检测的 FlexRay网络通信管理方法,建立了节点内部网络通信管理状态转换模型,设计了Error check状态下的分布式故障检测机制,给出了该机制下 FlexRay 网络参数及网络管理参数的计算方法,实现了网络节点状态实时监控和协同休眠功能。Vector CANoe中的仿真试验结果表明:该方法不仅能够实时在线管理FlexRay网络通信,实现高效的节点故障检测,而且可以有效降低网络通信管理带宽消耗约为5%。该方法为建立高可靠的车载网络通信管理系统提供了参考。%During the past few decades, more and more hydraulic components in vehicles have been replaced by electronic control units (ECU). The increasing number of ECUs leads to the larger demands for real-time and high-speed communication between ECUs. As a result, communication network has become an inevitable trend in vehicles. Compared with the traditional controller area network (CAN) bus, FlexRay bus has great advantages in transmission efficiency, reliability and flexibility. Since it can meet the future requirements of network communication between ECUs, it has been applied to the power system, chassis system and X-by-wire system in some vehicles. However, how to guarantee the safety and reliability of FlexRay network communication has become an important problem. AUTOSAR NM (automotive open system architecture network management) possesses the functions of the state real-time monitoring and the cooperative sleep of network nodes, which are suitable for the vehicular FlexRay network management. AUTOSAR FlexRay NM mainly consists of 3 basic modes: bus sleep mode, synchronization mode and network mode. Based on the AUTOSAR NM, a network communication management method with fault detection function is proposed and designed. First, a FlexRay network of an automotive

  12. LC-Circuit Calorimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Bossen, Olaf

    2011-01-01

    We present a new type of calorimeter in which we couple an unknown heat capacity with the aid of Peltier elements to an electrical circuit. The use of an electrical inductance and an amplifier in the circuit allows us to achieve autonomous oscillations, and the measurement of the corresponding resonance frequency makes it possible to accurately measure the heat capacity with an intrinsic statistical error that decreases as ~t^{-3/2} with measuring time t, as opposed to a corresponding error ~t^{-1/2} in the conventional alternating current (a.c.) method to measure heat capacities. We have built a demonstration experiment to show the feasibility of the new technique, and we have tested it on a gadolinium sample at its transition to the ferromagnetic state.

  13. Neuromorphic silicon neuron circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo eIndiveri

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Hardware implementations of spiking neurons can be extremely useful for a large variety of applications, ranging from high-speed modeling of large-scale neural systems to real-time behaving systems, to bidirectional brain-machine interfaces. The specific circuit solutions used to implement silicon neurons depend on the application requirements. In this paper we describe the most common building blocks and techniques used to implement these circuits, and present an overview of a wide range of neuromorphic silicon neurons, which implement different computational models, ranging from biophysically realistic and conductance based Hodgkin-Huxley models to bi-dimensional generalized adaptive Integrate and Fire models. We compare the different design methodologies used for each silicon neuron design described, and demonstrate their features with experimental results, measured from a wide range of fabricated VLSI chips.

  14. Cartography of serotonergic circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparta, Dennis R; Stuber, Garret D

    2014-08-06

    Serotonin is an essential neuromodulator, but the precise circuit connectivity that regulates serotonergic neurons has not been well defined. Using rabies virus tracing strategies Weissbourd et al. (2014) and Pollak Dorocic et al. (2014) in this issue of Neuron and Ogawa et al. (2014) in Cell Reports provide a comprehensive map of the inputs to serotonergic neurons, highlighting the complexity and diversity of potential upstream cellular regulators. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Modelos de verificação à flexão de estruturas protendidas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Cavalcanti

    Full Text Available No cálculo da capacidade portante de estruturas protendidas a protensão pode ser considerada tanto como resistência quanto como carga. Tem-se, portanto, o "Modelo 1" que considera os cabos como parte integrante da seção, onde a operação de protensão induz deformação imposta correspondente ao pré-alongamento das armaduras ativas. Alternativamente, tem-se o "Modelo 2" que considera a protensão como caso de carregamento externo, composto por sistema auto-equilibrante de forças nas ancoragens e transversais no concreto. Após ativação da aderência os cabos de protensão são considerados no cálculo como armadura convencional, apenas deslocando o eixo das deformações para levar em conta o pré-alongamento. Apesar do "Modelo 1" ser mais utilizado no dimensionamento de vigas contínuas e estar consagrado na NBR-6118, ele possui o inconveniente do surgimento de esforços adicionais denominados efeitos hiperestáticos de protensão, que precisam ser considerados na verificação a ruptura. O cálculo dos efeitos hiperestáticos de protensão é relativamente simples no caso de vigas contínuas, porém torna-se complexo no caso de pórticos e grelhas e inviável no caso de lajes e cascas. Já no "Modelo 2" não há necessidade do cálculo dos efeitos hiperestáticos, porém as seções forçosamente terão que ser verificadas à flexão composta. Para comparar os resultados dos modelos são apresentados dois exemplos: um pórtico e uma de laje de tabuleiro de viaduto analisado utilizando-se analogia de grelha.

  16. Inkjet deposited circuit components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidoki, S. M.; Nouri, J.; Heidari, A. A.

    2010-05-01

    All-printed electronics as a means of achieving ultra-low-cost electronic circuits has attracted great interest in recent years. Inkjet printing is one of the most promising techniques by which the circuit components can be ultimately drawn (i.e. printed) onto the substrate in one step. Here, the inkjet printing technique was used to chemically deposit silver nanoparticles (10-200 nm) simply by ejection of silver nitrate and reducing solutions onto different substrates such as paper, PET plastic film and textile fabrics. The silver patterns were tested for their functionality to work as circuit components like conductor, resistor, capacitor and inductor. Different levels of conductivity were achieved simply by changing the printing sequence, inks ratio and concentration. The highest level of conductivity achieved by an office thermal inkjet printer (300 dpi) was 5.54 × 105 S m-1 on paper. Inkjet deposited capacitors could exhibit a capacitance of more than 1.5 nF (parallel plate 45 × 45 mm2) and induction coils displayed an inductance of around 400 µH (planar coil 10 cm in diameter). Comparison of electronic performance of inkjet deposited components to the performance of conventionally etched items makes the technique highly promising for fabricating different printed electronic devices.

  17. Digital integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polasek, P.; Halamik, J.

    1984-05-01

    The term semicustom designed integrated circuits denotes integrated circuits of an all purpose character in which the production of chips is completed by using one to three custom design stencil type exposure masks. This involves in most cases interconnecting masks that are used to devise the circuit function desired by the customer. Silicon plates with an all purpose gate matrix are produced up to the interconnection level and can be kept at this phase in storage, after which a customer's specific demands can be met very expediently. All purpose logic fields containing 200 logic gates on a chip and an all purpose chip to be expanded to 1,000 logic gates are discussed. The technology facilitates the devising of fast gates with a delay of approximately 5 ns and power dissipation of 1 mW. In assembly it will be possible to make use of the entire assortment of the currently used casings with 16, 18, 20, 24, 28 and 40 outlets. In addition to the development of the mentioned technology, a general methodology for design of the mentioned gate fields is currently under way.

  18. Mid-term results of interventional closure of patent foramen ovale with the Occlutech Figulla(®) Flex II Occluder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuser, Jonas; Akin, Muharrem; Bavendiek, Udo; Kempf, Tibor; Bauersachs, Johann; Widder, Julian D

    2016-11-10

    Patients with a patent foramen ovale (PFO) who suffered from stroke, TIA or peripheral paradoxical embolism are at substantial risk for recurrent neurologic events and in need for secondary prevention. Interventional closure of PFO has been performed for over 20 years. Numerous devices have been developed and used for treatment. We investigated PFO closure with the third generation Occlutech Figulla(®) Flex II Occluder device. Between 2012 and 2015 57 patients (mean age 47.3 ± 1.5 years) who had suffered from a thromboembolic event of unknown cause underwent transcatheter PFO closure with the Occlutech Figulla(®) Flex II Occluder at our department. 68.4 % of all patients had suffered from cryptogenic stroke, while TIA had occurred in 28.1 %. Almost all patients were diagnosed with an atrial septum aneurysm (90.9 %) and a severe right-to-left shunt grade 3: >20 microbubbles (92.0 %). Follow-up was done 6 months post intervention by clinical examination and transesophageal contrast echocardiography. No major periprocedural or in-hospital complication occurred. Closure was sufficient with no residual right-to-left shunt in 94.4 % of all patients at 6 months post implantation and only minimal residual shunt in three cases. There were no thrombotic formations associated to the occluder device. Atrial fibrillation occurred in one patient and a recurrent cerebral ischemic event was seen in one patient, who suffered from another TIA. The Occlutech Figulla(®) Flex II Occluder device and its delivery system is safe and provides sufficient closure of PFO in patients who suffered from cryptogenic stroke, TIA or paradoxical peripheral embolism.

  19. FlexRFID: A Security and Service Control Policy-Based Middleware for Context-Aware Pervasive Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdia Ajana El Khaddar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Ubiquitous computing targets the provision of seamless services and applications by providing an environment that involves a variety of devices having different capabilities. The design of applications in these environments needs to consider the heterogeneous devices, applications preferences, and rapidly changing contexts. RFID and WSN technologies are widely used in today’s ubiquitous computing. In Wireless Sensor Networks, sensor nodes sense the physical environment and send the sensed data to the sink by multi-hops. WSN are used in many applications such as military and environment monitoring. In Radio Frequency Identification, a unique ID is assigned to a RFID tag which is associated with a real world object. RFID applications cover many areas such as Supply Chain Management (SCM, healthcare, library management, automatic toll collection, etc. The integration of both technologies will bring many advantages in the future of ubiquitous computing, through the provision of real-world tracking and context information about the objects. This will increase considerably the automation of an information system. In order to process the large volume of data captured by sensors and RFID readers in real time, a middleware solution is needed. This middleware should be designed in a way to allow the aggregation, filtering and grouping of the data captured by the hardware devices before sending them to the backend applications. In this paper we demonstrate how our middleware solution called FlexRFID handles large amount of RFID and sensor scan data, and executes applications’ business rules in real time through its policy-based Business Rules layer. The FlexRFID middleware provides easy addition and removal of hardware devices that capture data, as well as uses the business rules of the applications to control all its services. We demonstrate how the middleware controls some defined healthcare scenarios, and deals with the access control security

  20. Changes to the shuttle circuits

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2011-01-01

    To fit with passengers expectation, there will be some changes to the shuttle circuits as from Monday 10 October. See details on http://cern.ch/ShuttleService (on line on 7 October). Circuit No. 5 is cancelled as circuit No. 1 also stops at Bldg. 33. In order to guarantee shorter travel times, circuit No. 1 will circulate on Meyrin site only and circuit No. 2, with departures from Bldg. 33 and 500, on Prévessin site only. Site Services Section

  1. Power system with an integrated lubrication circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Brian D.; Akasam, Sivaprasad; Algrain, Marcelo C.; Johnson, Kris W.; Lane, William H.

    2009-11-10

    A power system includes an engine having a first lubrication circuit and at least one auxiliary power unit having a second lubrication circuit. The first lubrication circuit is in fluid communication with the second lubrication circuit.

  2. Ethanol fermentation of sugar beet thick juice diluted with crude cheese whey by the flex yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus KD-15

    OpenAIRE

    Oda, Y.; Nakamura, K.; Shinomiya, N; Ohba, K.; 小田, 有二

    2010-01-01

    Kluyveromyces marxianus KD-15, called flex yeast, is a strain that is insensitive tocatabolite repression and has the capacity to produce ethanol efficiently from a mixtureof beet molasses and whey powder. When a fermentation test was conducted in 50 mLof a medium containing 200 mg mL-1 of sugar as sugar beet thick juice diluted with anarbitrary amount of crude whey, strain KD-15 produced over 99 mg mL-1 ethanol in allthe media tested, and ethanol formation decreased in proportion to the volu...

  3. Cuadro de Mando Integral para la empresa de animación digital FlexArt S.A.

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Rojas, Mariela; Morera Vargas, Michelle

    2006-01-01

    Tesis de maestría -- Universidad de Costa Rica. Posgrado en Administración y Dirección de Empresas. Maestría Profesional en Administración y Dirección de Empresas con énfasis en Mercadeo y Ventas, 2006 El objetivo general del trabajo es elaborar un Cuadro de Mando Integral para la toma de decisiones gerenciales que sirva como guía para la empresa FlexArt S.A., con el fin de potenciar su crecimiento y hacerla más competitiva y rentable. La organización investigada se dedica a la comerci...

  4. HistoFlex-a microfluidic device providing uniform flow conditions enabling highly sensitive, reproducible and quantitative in situ hybridizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søe, Martin Jensen; Okkels, Fridolin; Sabourin, David;

    2011-01-01

    slides of spotted DNA microarrays when applying probe concentrations generally used in in situ hybridization (ISH) assays. The HistoFlex's novel ability in online monitoring of an in situ hybridization assay was demonstrated using direct fluorescent detection of hybridization to 18S rRNA. Tissue sections...... were not visually damaged during assaying, which enabled adapting a complete ISH assay for detection of microRNAs (miRNA). The effects of flow based incubations on hybridization, antibody incubation and Tyramide Signal Amplification (TSA) steps were investigated upon adapting the ISH assay...

  5. Memristor based startup circuit for self biased circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Mangal; Singh, Amit Kumar; Rathi, Amit; Singhal, Sonal

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the design of a Memristor based startup circuit for self biased circuits. Memristor has many advantages over conventional CMOS devices such as low leakage current at nanometer scale, easy to manufacture. In this work the switching characteristics of memristor is utilized. First the theoretical equations describing the switching behavior of memristor are investigated. To prove the switching capability of Memristor, a startup circuit based on memristor is proposed which uses series combination of Memristor and capacitor. Proposed circuit is compared with the previously reported MOSFET based startup circuits. Comparison of different circuits was done to validate the results. Simulation results show that memristor based circuit can attain on (I = 12.94 µA) to off state (I = 1 .2 µA) in 25 ns while the MOSFET based startup circuits take on (I = 14.19 µA) to off state (I = 1.4 µA) in more than 90 ns. The benefit comes in terms of area because the number of components used in the circuit are lesser than the conventional startup circuits.

  6. Research and implementation of campus electronic map based on ArcGIS Flex API%基于ArcGIS Flex API的校园电子地图研究与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姬英杰; 徐鹏; 杨怀卿

    2014-01-01

    将 ArcGIS Server 地图服务、WebServer 服务集成于 Adobe Flash Builder 4下,研究开发了基于 ArcGIS Flex API 的校园电子地图展示软件。该软件提供了山西某大学详细的地图信息,不仅拥有常规地图导航、支持属性模糊查询空间要素等功能,而且还对任意两个热点间最短路径分析功能进行合理定制,对校园风光和人文历史的展示产生了很好的效果。%By the integration of the ArcGIS Server map service and WebServer service in Adobe Flash Builder 4, the paper researches and develops campus electronic map display software based on ArcGIS Flex API. The software provides a university in Shanxi detailed map information, it not only has a conventional map navigation functions, supports attribute fuzzy query spatial features and other functions, but also reasonably customizes the analysis functions on the shortest path between any two hotspots. The software produces very good results the campus scenery and cultural history of showing.

  7. Shaping ability of reciprocating motion of WaveOne and HyFlex in moderate to severe curved canals: A comparative study with cone beam computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpsy, Gurram Samuel; Sajjan, Girija S.; Mudunuri, Padmaja; Chittem, Jyothi; Prasanthi, Nalam N. V. D.; Balaga, Pankaj

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: M-Wire and reciprocating motion of WaveOne and controlled memory (CM) wire) of HyFlex were the recent innovations using thermal treatment. Therefore, a study was planned to evaluate the shaping ability of reciprocating motion of WaveOne and HyFlex using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Methodology: Forty-five freshly extracted mandibular teeth were selected and stored in saline until use. All teeth were scanned pre- and post-operatively using CBCT (Kodak 9000). All teeth were accessed and divided into three groups. (1) Group 1 (control n = 15): Instrumented with ProTaper. (2) Group 2 (n = 15): Instrumented with primary file (8%/25) WaveOne. (3) Group 3 (n = 15): Instrumented with (4%/25) HyFlex CM. Sections at 1, 3, and 5 mm were obtained from the pre- and post-operative scans. Measurement was done using CS3D software and Adobe Photoshop software. Apical transportation and degree of straightening were measured and statistically analyzed. Results: HyFlex showed lesser apical transportation when compared to other groups at 1 and 3 mm. WaveOne showed lesser degree of straightening when compared to other groups. Conclusion: This present study concluded that all systems could be employed in routine endodontics whereas HyFlex and WaveOne could be employed in severely curved canals. PMID:27994323

  8. Shape-estimation of human hand using polymer flex sensor and study of its application to control robot arm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jin Hyuck; Kim, Dae Hyun [Seoul National University of Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Ultrasonic inspection robot systems have been widely researched and developed for the real-time monitoring of structures such as power plants. However, an inspection robot that is operated in a simple pattern has limitations in its application to various structures in a plant facility because of the diverse and complicated shapes of the inspection objects. Therefore, accurate control of the robot is required to inspect complicated objects with high-precision results. This paper presents the idea that the shape and movement information of an ultrasonic inspector's hand could be profitably utilized for the accurate control of robot. In this study, a polymer flex sensor was applied to monitor the shape of a human hand. This application was designed to intuitively control an ultrasonic inspection robot. The movement and shape of the hand were estimated by applying multiple sensors. Moreover, it was successfully shown that a test robot could be intuitively controlled based on the shape of a human hand estimated using polymer flex sensors.

  9. ReFlexIn: a flexible receptor protein-ligand docking scheme evaluated on HIV-1 protease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Leis

    Full Text Available For many targets of pharmaceutical importance conformational changes of the receptor protein are relevant during the ligand binding process. A new docking approach, ReFlexIn (Receptor Flexibility by Interpolation, that combines receptor flexibility with the computationally efficient potential grid representation of receptor molecules has been evaluated on the retroviral HIV-1 (Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 protease system. An approximate inclusion of receptor flexibility is achieved by using interpolation between grid representations of individual receptor conformations. For the retroviral protease the method was tested on an ensemble of protease structures crystallized in the presence of different ligands and on a set of structures obtained from morphing between the unbound and a ligand-bound protease structure. Docking was performed on ligands known to bind to the protease and several non-binders. For the binders the ReFlexIn method yielded in almost all cases ligand placements in similar or closer agreement with experiment than docking to any of the ensemble members without degrading the discrimination with respect to non-binders. The improved docking performance compared to docking to rigid receptors allows for systematic virtual screening applications at very small additional computational cost.

  10. Aerodynamic Drag Analysis of 3-DOF Flex-Gimbal GyroWheel System in the Sense of Ground Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Huo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available GyroWheel is an innovative device that combines the actuating capabilities of a control moment gyro with the rate sensing capabilities of a tuned rotor gyro by using a spinning flex-gimbal system. However, in the process of the ground test, the existence of aerodynamic disturbance is inevitable, which hinders the improvement of the specification performance and control accuracy. A vacuum tank test is a possible candidate but is sometimes unrealistic due to the substantial increase in costs and complexity involved. In this paper, the aerodynamic drag problem with respect to the 3-DOF flex-gimbal GyroWheel system is investigated by simulation analysis and experimental verification. Concretely, the angular momentum envelope property of the spinning rotor system is studied and its integral dynamical model is deduced based on the physical configuration of the GyroWheel system with an appropriately defined coordinate system. In the sequel, the fluid numerical model is established and the model geometries are checked with FLUENT software. According to the diversity and time-varying properties of the rotor motions in three-dimensions, the airflow field around the GyroWheel rotor is analyzed by simulation with respect to its varying angular velocity and tilt angle. The IPC-based experimental platform is introduced, and the properties of aerodynamic drag in the ground test condition are obtained through comparing the simulation with experimental results.

  11. Electric circuits problem solver

    CERN Document Server

    REA, Editors of

    2012-01-01

    Each Problem Solver is an insightful and essential study and solution guide chock-full of clear, concise problem-solving gems. All your questions can be found in one convenient source from one of the most trusted names in reference solution guides. More useful, more practical, and more informative, these study aids are the best review books and textbook companions available. Nothing remotely as comprehensive or as helpful exists in their subject anywhere. Perfect for undergraduate and graduate studies.Here in this highly useful reference is the finest overview of electric circuits currently av

  12. Linear integrated circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Carr, Joseph

    1996-01-01

    The linear IC market is large and growing, as is the demand for well trained technicians and engineers who understand how these devices work and how to apply them. Linear Integrated Circuits provides in-depth coverage of the devices and their operation, but not at the expense of practical applications in which linear devices figure prominently. This book is written for a wide readership from FE and first degree students, to hobbyists and professionals.Chapter 1 offers a general introduction that will provide students with the foundations of linear IC technology. From chapter 2 onwa

  13. Optoelectronics circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    1999-01-01

    This manual is a useful single-volume guide specifically aimed at the practical design engineer, technician, and experimenter, as well as the electronics student and amateur. It deals with the subject in an easy to read, down to earth, and non-mathematical yet comprehensive manner, explaining the basic principles and characteristics of the best known devices, and presenting the reader with many practical applications and over 200 circuits. Most of the ICs and other devices used are inexpensive and readily available types, with universally recognised type numbers.The second edition

  14. Nano integrated circuit process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Yung Sup

    2004-02-15

    This book contains nine chapters, which are introduction of manufacture of semiconductor chip, oxidation such as Dry-oxidation, wet oxidation, oxidation model and oxide film, diffusion like diffusion process, diffusion equation, diffusion coefficient and diffusion system, ion implantation, including ion distribution, channeling, multiimplantation and masking and its system, sputtering such as CVD and PVD, lithography, wet etch and dry etch, interconnection and flattening like metal-silicon connection, silicide, multiple layer metal process and flattening, an integrated circuit process, including MOSFET and CMOS.

  15. Photonic Integrated Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krainak, Michael; Merritt, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Integrated photonics generally is the integration of multiple lithographically defined photonic and electronic components and devices (e.g. lasers, detectors, waveguides passive structures, modulators, electronic control and optical interconnects) on a single platform with nanometer-scale feature sizes. The development of photonic integrated circuits permits size, weight, power and cost reductions for spacecraft microprocessors, optical communication, processor buses, advanced data processing, and integrated optic science instrument optical systems, subsystems and components. This is particularly critical for small spacecraft platforms. We will give an overview of some NASA applications for integrated photonics.

  16. Electronic logic circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, J

    2013-01-01

    Most branches of organizing utilize digital electronic systems. This book introduces the design of such systems using basic logic elements as the components. The material is presented in a straightforward manner suitable for students of electronic engineering and computer science. The book is also of use to engineers in related disciplines who require a clear introduction to logic circuits. This third edition has been revised to encompass the most recent advances in technology as well as the latest trends in components and notation. It includes a wide coverage of application specific integrate

  17. Electronics circuits and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    2011-01-01

    The material in Electronics - Circuits and Systems is a truly up-to-date textbook, with coverage carefully matched to the electronics units of the 2007 BTEC National Engineering and the latest AS and A Level specifications in Electronics from AQA, OCR and WJEC. The material has been organized with a logical learning progression, making it ideal for a wide range of pre-degree courses in electronics. The approach is student-centred and includes: numerous examples and activities; web research topics; Self Test features, highlighted key facts, formulae and definitions. Ea

  18. Electronics circuits and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    2007-01-01

    The material in Electronics - Circuits and Systems is a truly up-to-date textbook, with coverage carefully matched to the electronics units of the 2007 BTEC National Engineering and the latest AS and A Level specifications in Electronics from AQA, OCR and WJEC. The material has been organized with a logical learning progression, making it ideal for a wide range of pre-degree courses in electronics. The approach is student-centred and includes: numerous examples and activities; web research topics; Self Test features, highlighted key facts, formulae and definitions. Each chapter ends with a set

  19. Sequential circuit design for radiation hardened multiple voltage integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Lawrence T.; McIver, III, John K.

    2009-11-24

    The present invention includes a radiation hardened sequential circuit, such as a bistable circuit, flip-flop or other suitable design that presents substantial immunity to ionizing radiation while simultaneously maintaining a low operating voltage. In one embodiment, the circuit includes a plurality of logic elements that operate on relatively low voltage, and a master and slave latches each having storage elements that operate on a relatively high voltage.

  20. FLORIS: phase A status of the fluorescence imaging spectrometer of the Earth Explorer mission candidate FLEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, S.; Bézy, J.-L.; Del Bello, U.; Berlich, R.; Drusch, M.; Franco, R.; Gabriele, A.; Harnisch, B.; Meynart, R.; Silvestrin, P.

    2013-10-01

    The Fluorescence Explorer (FLEX) mission is currently subject to feasibility (Phase A) study as one of the two candidates of ESA's 8th Earth Explorer opportunity mission. The FLuORescence Imaging Spectrometer (FLORIS) will be an imaging grating spectrometer onboard of a medium sized satellite flying in tandem with Sentinel-3 in a Sun synchronous orbit at a height of about 815 km. FLORIS will observe vegetation fluorescence and reflectance within a spectral range between 500 nm and 780 nm. It will thereby cover the photochemical reflection features between 500 nm and 600 nm, the Chlorophyll absorption band between 600 and 677 nm, and the red-edge in the region from 697 nm to 755 nm being located between the Oxygen A and B absorption bands. By this measurement approach, it is expected that the full spectrum and amount of the vegetation fluorescence radiance can be retrieved, and that atmospheric corrections can efficiently be applied. FLORIS will measure Earth reflected spectral radiance at a relatively high spectral resolution of ~0.3 nm around the Oxygen absorption bands. Other spectral band areas with less pronounced absorption features will be measured at medium spectral resolution between 0.5 and 2 nm. FLORIS will provide imagery at 300 m resolution on ground with a swath width of 150 km. This will allow achieving global revisit times of less than one month so as to monitor seasonal variations of the vegetation cycles. The mission life time is expected to be at least 4 years. The fluorescence retrieval will make use of information coming from OLCI and SLSTR, which are onboard of Sentinel-3, to monitor temperature, to detect thin clouds and to derive vegetation reflectance and information on the aerosol content also outside the FLORIS spectral range. In order to mitigate the technological and programmatic risk of this Explorer mission candidate, ESA has initiated two comprehensive bread-boarding activities, in which the most critical technologies and instrument

  1. 49 CFR 236.13 - Spring switch; selection of signal control circuits through circuit controller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... circuits through circuit controller. 236.13 Section 236.13 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to...; selection of signal control circuits through circuit controller. The control circuits of signals governing... circuit controller, or through the contacts of relay repeating the position of such circuit...

  2. Quasi-Linear Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, William; Bird, Ross; Eldred, Dennis; Zook, Jon; Knowles, Gareth

    2013-01-01

    This work involved developing spacequalifiable switch mode DC/DC power supplies that improve performance with fewer components, and result in elimination of digital components and reduction in magnetics. This design is for missions where systems may be operating under extreme conditions, especially at elevated temperature levels from 200 to 300 degC. Prior art for radiation-tolerant DC/DC converters has been accomplished utilizing classical magnetic-based switch mode converter topologies; however, this requires specific shielding and component de-rating to meet the high-reliability specifications. It requires complex measurement and feedback components, and will not enable automatic re-optimization for larger changes in voltage supply or electrical loading condition. The innovation is a switch mode DC/DC power supply that eliminates the need for processors and most magnetics. It can provide a well-regulated voltage supply with a gain of 1:100 step-up to 8:1 step down, tolerating an up to 30% fluctuation of the voltage supply parameters. The circuit incorporates a ceramic core transformer in a manner that enables it to provide a well-regulated voltage output without use of any processor components or magnetic transformers. The circuit adjusts its internal parameters to re-optimize its performance for changes in supply voltage, environmental conditions, or electrical loading at the output

  3. Automated Design of Quantum Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Colin P.; Gray, Alexander G.

    2000-01-01

    In order to design a quantum circuit that performs a desired quantum computation, it is necessary to find a decomposition of the unitary matrix that represents that computation in terms of a sequence of quantum gate operations. To date, such designs have either been found by hand or by exhaustive enumeration of all possible circuit topologies. In this paper we propose an automated approach to quantum circuit design using search heuristics based on principles abstracted from evolutionary genetics, i.e. using a genetic programming algorithm adapted specially for this problem. We demonstrate the method on the task of discovering quantum circuit designs for quantum teleportation. We show that to find a given known circuit design (one which was hand-crafted by a human), the method considers roughly an order of magnitude fewer designs than naive enumeration. In addition, the method finds novel circuit designs superior to those previously known.

  4. Large-scale circuit simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Y. P.

    1982-12-01

    The simulation of VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) circuits falls beyond the capabilities of conventional circuit simulators like SPICE. On the other hand, conventional logic simulators can only give the results of logic levels 1 and 0 with the attendent loss of detail in the waveforms. The aim of developing large-scale circuit simulation is to bridge the gap between conventional circuit simulation and logic simulation. This research is to investigate new approaches for fast and relatively accurate time-domain simulation of MOS (Metal Oxide Semiconductors), LSI (Large Scale Integration) and VLSI circuits. New techniques and new algorithms are studied in the following areas: (1) analysis sequencing (2) nonlinear iteration (3) modified Gauss-Seidel method (4) latency criteria and timestep control scheme. The developed methods have been implemented into a simulation program PREMOS which could be used as a design verification tool for MOS circuits.

  5. Integrated circuit cooled turbine blade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ching-Pang; Jiang, Nan; Um, Jae Y.; Holloman, Harry; Koester, Steven

    2017-08-29

    A turbine rotor blade includes at least two integrated cooling circuits that are formed within the blade that include a leading edge circuit having a first cavity and a second cavity and a trailing edge circuit that includes at least a third cavity located aft of the second cavity. The trailing edge circuit flows aft with at least two substantially 180-degree turns at the tip end and the root end of the blade providing at least a penultimate cavity and a last cavity. The last cavity is located along a trailing edge of the blade. A tip axial cooling channel connects to the first cavity of the leading edge circuit and the penultimate cavity of the trailing edge circuit. At least one crossover hole connects the penultimate cavity to the last cavity substantially near the tip end of the blade.

  6. CMOS Nonlinear Signal Processing Circuits

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The chapter describes various nonlinear signal processing CMOS circuits, including a high reliable WTA/LTA, simple MED cell, and low-voltage arbitrary order extractor. We focus the discussion on CMOS analog circuit design with reliable, programmable capability, and low voltage operation. It is a practical problem when the multiple identical cells are required to match and realized within a single chip using a conventional process. Thus, the design of high-reliable circuit is indeed needed. Th...

  7. Analog electronic neural network circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graf, H.P.; Jackel, L.D. (AT and T Bell Labs., Holmdel, NJ (USA))

    1989-07-01

    The large interconnectivity and moderate precision required in neural network models present new opportunities for analog computing. This paper discusses analog circuits for a variety of problems such as pattern matching, optimization, and learning. Most of the circuits build so far are relatively small, exploratory designs. The most mature circuits are those for template matching. Chips performing this function are now being applied to pattern recognition problems.

  8. Comparison of wrist-worn Fitbit Flex and waist-worn ActiGraph for measuring steps in free-living adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Sheryl H. X.; Paknezhad, Mahsa; Gauterin, Alvaro; Koh, David; Brown, Michael S.; Müller-Riemenschneider, Falk

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Accelerometers are commonly used to assess physical activity. Consumer activity trackers have become increasingly popular today, such as the Fitbit. This study aimed to compare the average number of steps per day using the wrist-worn Fitbit Flex and waist-worn ActiGraph (wGT3X-BT) in free-living conditions. Methods 104 adult participants (n = 35 males; n = 69 females) were asked to wear a Fitbit Flex and an ActiGraph concurrently for 7 days. Daily step counts were used to classify inactive (active (≥10,000 steps) days, which is one of the commonly used physical activity guidelines to maintain health. Proportion of agreement between physical activity categorizations from ActiGraph and Fitbit Flex was assessed. Statistical analyses included Spearman’s rho, intraclass correlation (ICC), median absolute percentage error (MAPE), Kappa statistics, and Bland-Altman plots. Analyses were performed among all participants, by each step-defined daily physical activity category and gender. Results The median average steps/day recorded by Fitbit Flex and ActiGraph were 10193 and 8812, respectively. Strong positive correlations and agreement were found for all participants, both genders, as well as daily physical activity categories (Spearman's rho: 0.76–0.91; ICC: 0.73–0.87). The MAPE was: 15.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.8–28.1%) for overall steps, 16.9% (6.8–30.3%) vs. 15.1% (4.5–27.3%) in males and females, and 20.4% (8.7–35.9%) vs. 9.6% (1.0–18.4%) during inactive days and active days. Bland-Altman plot indicated a median overestimation of 1300 steps/day by the Fitbit Flex in all participants. Fitbit Flex and ActiGraph respectively classified 51.5% and 37.5% of the days as active (Kappa: 0.66). Conclusions There were high correlations and agreement in steps between Fitbit Flex and ActiGraph. However, findings suggested discrepancies in steps between devices. This imposed a challenge that needs to be considered when using Fibit Flex in

  9. 适合于所有纸种脱水的靴式压榨技术--NipcoFlex和TissueFlex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jens Müller

    2004-01-01

    介绍了Voith造纸技术控股股份有限公司近期研发的新技术和新装备,包括CompactPulper 损纸碎浆机,经过优化设计的回收浆车间废渣处理系统,适合于所有纸种脱水的靴式 压榨技术--NipcoFlex和TissueFlex,PrintFlex P压榨毛布,VTT真空引纸系统,Duoshake摇 振器,Strato系列橡胶包覆层新品种等.

  10. Transistor switching and sequential circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Sparkes, John J

    1969-01-01

    Transistor Switching and Sequential Circuits presents the basic ideas involved in the construction of computers, instrumentation, pulse communication systems, and automation. This book discusses the design procedure for sequential circuits. Organized into two parts encompassing eight chapters, this book begins with an overview of the ways on how to generate the types of waveforms needed in digital circuits, principally ramps, square waves, and delays. This text then considers the behavior of some simple circuits, including the inverter, the emitter follower, and the long-tailed pair. Other cha

  11. Unstable oscillators based hyperchaotic circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murali, K.; Tamasevicius, A.; G. Mykolaitis, A.;

    1999-01-01

    A simple 4th order hyperchaotic circuit with unstable oscillators is described. The circuit contains two negative impedance converters, two inductors, two capacitors, a linear resistor and a diode. The Lyapunov exponents are presented to confirm hyperchaotic nature of the oscillations in the circ......A simple 4th order hyperchaotic circuit with unstable oscillators is described. The circuit contains two negative impedance converters, two inductors, two capacitors, a linear resistor and a diode. The Lyapunov exponents are presented to confirm hyperchaotic nature of the oscillations...

  12. A Circuit to Demonstrate Phase Relationships in "RLC" Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokol, P. E.; Warren, G.; Zheng, B.; Smith, P.

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a circuit to demonstrate the phase relationships between resistive and reactive elements in series "RLC" circuits. We utilize a differential amplifier to allow the phases of the three elements and the current to be simultaneously displayed on an inexpensive four channel oscilloscope. We have included a novel circuit…

  13. Flex Cargo Rail. Developing new service, collection and distribution concepts for the transport of freight by rail.; Flex Cargo Rail. Wege zu neuen Bedien-, Sammel- und Verteilkonzepten im Schienengueterverkehr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochsiek, Joachim [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Materialfluss und Logistik (IML), Dortmund (Germany). Gruppe Multimodale Logistik

    2010-07-01

    FlexCargoRail is a concept for self propelled electric freight wagons. This will enhance rail operations on first and last mile. The concept can be integrated in the existing rail system, so migration is possible without any lost investments. Standard components from industry and rail are used to realise the FCR wagon. Motors, transmissions, control and batteries are available and approved. One of the effects is to enhance service for loading terminals. This can become independent from factory siding operation. From the economic point of view, FCR is realisable. This is shown by target costing. Efficiency of FCR is dependent from high frequent use of FCR rail cars and the use of the possibility to shunt also conventional freight wagons with FCR wagons. Migration should be carried out in logistical networks with frequent operations between plants and sidings with a closed wagon pool. (orig.)

  14. VLSI circuits implementing computational models of neocortical circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijekoon, Jayawan H B; Dudek, Piotr

    2012-09-15

    This paper overviews the design and implementation of three neuromorphic integrated circuits developed for the COLAMN ("Novel Computing Architecture for Cognitive Systems based on the Laminar Microcircuitry of the Neocortex") project. The circuits are implemented in a standard 0.35 μm CMOS technology and include spiking and bursting neuron models, and synapses with short-term (facilitating/depressing) and long-term (STDP and dopamine-modulated STDP) dynamics. They enable execution of complex nonlinear models in accelerated-time, as compared with biology, and with low power consumption. The neural dynamics are implemented using analogue circuit techniques, with digital asynchronous event-based input and output. The circuits provide configurable hardware blocks that can be used to simulate a variety of neural networks. The paper presents experimental results obtained from the fabricated devices, and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the analogue circuit approach to computational neural modelling.

  15. Modeling cortical circuits.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrer, Brandon Robinson; Rothganger, Fredrick H.; Verzi, Stephen J.; Xavier, Patrick Gordon

    2010-09-01

    The neocortex is perhaps the highest region of the human brain, where audio and visual perception takes place along with many important cognitive functions. An important research goal is to describe the mechanisms implemented by the neocortex. There is an apparent regularity in the structure of the neocortex [Brodmann 1909, Mountcastle 1957] which may help simplify this task. The work reported here addresses the problem of how to describe the putative repeated units ('cortical circuits') in a manner that is easily understood and manipulated, with the long-term goal of developing a mathematical and algorithmic description of their function. The approach is to reduce each algorithm to an enhanced perceptron-like structure and describe its computation using difference equations. We organize this algorithmic processing into larger structures based on physiological observations, and implement key modeling concepts in software which runs on parallel computing hardware.

  16. Memristor Circuits and Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Zidan, Mohammed A.

    2015-05-01

    Current CMOS-based technologies are facing design challenges related to the continuous scaling down of the minimum feature size, according to Moore’s law. Moreover, conventional computing architecture is no longer an effective way of fulfilling modern applications demands, such as big data analysis, pattern recognition, and vector processing. Therefore, there is an exigent need to shift to new technologies, at both the architecture and the device levels. Recently, memristor devices and structures attracted attention for being promising candidates for this job. Memristor device adds a new dimension for designing novel circuits and systems. In addition, high-density memristor-based crossbar is widely considered to be the essential element for future memory and bio-inspired computing systems. However, numerous challenges need to be addressed before the memristor genuinely replaces current memory and computing technologies, which is the motivation behind this research effort. In order to address the technology challenges, we begin by fabricating and modeling the memristor device. The devices fabricated at our local clean room enriched our understanding of the memristive phenomenon and enabled the experimental testing for our memristor-based circuits. Moreover, our proposed mathematical modeling for memristor behavior is an essential element for the theoretical circuit design stage. Designing and addressing the challenges of memristor systems with practical complexity, however, requires an extra step, which takes the form of a reliable and modular simulation platform. We, therefore, built a new simulation platform for the resistive crossbar, which can simulate realistic size arrays filled with real memory data. In addition, this simulation platform includes various crossbar nonidealities in order to obtain accurate simulation results. Consequently, we were able to address the significant challenges facing the high density memristor crossbar, as the building block for

  17. A dishwasher for circuits

    CERN Multimedia

    Rosaria Marraffino

    2014-01-01

    You have always been told that electronic devices fear water. However, at the Surface Mount Devices (SMD) Workshop here at CERN all the electronic assemblies are cleaned with a machine that looks like a… dishwasher.   The circuit dishwasher. Credit: Clara Nellist.  If you think the image above shows a dishwasher, you wouldn’t be completely wrong. Apart from the fact that the whole pumping system and the case itself are made entirely from stainless steel and chemical resistant materials, and the fact that it washes electrical boards instead of dishes… it works exactly like a dishwasher. It’s a professional machine (mainly used in the pharmaceutical industry) designed to clean everything that can be washed with a water-based chemical soap. This type of treatment increases the lifetime of the electronic boards and therefore the LHC's reliability by preventing corrosion problems in the severe radiation and ozone environment of the LHC tunn...

  18. Basic electronic circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Buckley, P M

    1980-01-01

    In the past, the teaching of electricity and electronics has more often than not been carried out from a theoretical and often highly academic standpoint. Fundamentals and basic concepts have often been presented with no indication of their practical appli­ cations, and all too frequently they have been illustrated by artificially contrived laboratory experiments bearing little relationship to the outside world. The course comes in the form of fourteen fairly open-ended constructional experiments or projects. Each experiment has associated with it a construction exercise and an explanation. The basic idea behind this dual presentation is that the student can embark on each circuit following only the briefest possible instructions and that an open-ended approach is thereby not prejudiced by an initial lengthy encounter with the theory behind the project; this being a sure way to dampen enthusiasm at the outset. As the investigation progresses, questions inevitably arise. Descriptions of the phenomena encounte...

  19. Diamond Integrated Optomechanical Circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Rath, Patrik; Nebel, Christoph; Wild, Christoph; Pernice, Wolfram H P

    2013-01-01

    Diamond offers unique material advantages for the realization of micro- and nanomechanical resonators due to its high Young's modulus, compatibility with harsh environments and superior thermal properties. At the same time, the wide electronic bandgap of 5.45eV makes diamond a suitable material for integrated optics because of broadband transparency and the absence of free-carrier absorption commonly encountered in silicon photonics. Here we take advantage of both to engineer full-scale optomechanical circuits in diamond thin films. We show that polycrystalline diamond films fabricated by chemical vapour deposition provide a convenient waferscale substrate for the realization of high quality nanophotonic devices. Using free-standing nanomechanical resonators embedded in on-chip Mach-Zehnder interferometers, we demonstrate efficient optomechanical transduction via gradient optical forces. Fabricated diamond resonators reproducibly show high mechanical quality factors up to 11,200. Our low cost, wideband, carri...

  20. Comminution circuits for compact itabirites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Ferreira Pinto

    Full Text Available Abstract In the beneficiation of compact Itabirites, crushing and grinding account for major operational and capital costs. As such, the study and development of comminution circuits have a fundamental importance for feasibility and optimization of compact Itabirite beneficiation. This work makes a comparison between comminution circuits for compact Itabirites from the Iron Quadrangle. The circuits developed are: a crushing and ball mill circuit (CB, a SAG mill and ball mill circuit (SAB and a single stage SAG mill circuit (SSSAG. For the SAB circuit, the use of pebble crushing is analyzed (SABC. An industrial circuit for 25 million tons of run of mine was developed for each route from tests on a pilot scale (grinding and industrial scale. The energy consumption obtained for grinding in the pilot tests was compared with that reported by Donda and Bond. The SSSAG route had the lowest energy consumption, 11.8kWh/t and the SAB route had the highest energy consumption, 15.8kWh/t. The CB and SABC routes had a similar energy consumption of 14.4 kWh/t and 14.5 kWh/t respectively.

  1. Sequential Polarity-Reversing Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labaw, Clayton C.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed circuit reverses polarity of electric power supplied to bidirectional dc motor, reversible electro-mechanical actuator, or other device operating in direction depending on polarity. Circuit reverses polarity each time power turned on, without need for additional polarity-reversing or direction signals and circuitry to process them.

  2. Logic Circuit Design Selected Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Vingron, Shimon P

    2012-01-01

        In three main divisions the  book covers combinational circuits, latches, and asynchronous sequential circuits. Combinational circuits have  no memorising ability, while sequential circuits have such an ability to various degrees. Latches are the simplest sequential circuits, ones with the shortest memory. The presentation is decidedly non-standard.         The design of combinational circuits is discussed in an orthodox manner using normal forms and in an unorthodox manner using set-theoretical evaluation formulas relying heavily on Karnaugh maps. The latter approach allows for a new design technique called composition.          Latches are covered very extensively. Their memory functions are expressed mathematically in a time-independent manner allowing the use of (normal, non-temporal) Boolean logic in their calculation. The theory of latches is then used as the basis for calculating asynchronous circuits.         Asynchronous circuits are specified in a tree-representation, eac...

  3. Enhancement of Linear Circuit Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaunholt, Hans; Dabu, Mihaela; Beldiman, Octavian

    1996-01-01

    In this report a preliminary user friendly interface has been added to the LCP2 program making it possible to describe an electronic circuit by actually drawing the circuit on the screen. Component values and other options and parameters can easily be set by the aid of the interface. The interface...

  4. Short-circuit impedance measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Knud Ole Helgesen; Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2003-01-01

    Methods for estimating the short-circuit impedance in the power grid are investigated for various voltage levels and situations. The short-circuit impedance is measured, preferably from naturally occurring load changes in the grid, and it is shown that such a measurement system faces different...

  5. Dive In to Aquatic Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Joseph M.

    1995-01-01

    The article presents a method for swimming teachers and coaches to stave off workout boredom in their students by using a circuit in the pool. After explaining how to set up a training circuit, the article describes sample stations and notes important safety precautions. (SM)

  6. Enhancement of Linear Circuit Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaunholt, Hans; Dabu, Mihaela; Beldiman, Octavian

    1996-01-01

    In this report a preliminary user friendly interface has been added to the LCP2 program making it possible to describe an electronic circuit by actually drawing the circuit on the screen. Component values and other options and parameters can easily be set by the aid of the interface. The interfac...

  7. Accurate Switched-Voltage voltage averaging circuit

    OpenAIRE

    金光, 一幸; 松本, 寛樹

    2006-01-01

    Abstract ###This paper proposes an accurate Switched-Voltage (SV) voltage averaging circuit. It is presented ###to compensated for NMOS missmatch error at MOS differential type voltage averaging circuit. ###The proposed circuit consists of a voltage averaging and a SV sample/hold (S/H) circuit. It can ###operate using nonoverlapping three phase clocks. Performance of this circuit is verified by PSpice ###simulations.

  8. 46 CFR 169.670 - Circuit breakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Circuit breakers. 169.670 Section 169.670 Shipping COAST... Gross Tons § 169.670 Circuit breakers. Each circuit breaker must be of the manually reset type designed... the circuit without damage to the circuit breaker....

  9. [Utility of the WallFlexTM duodenal stent for unresectable advanced gastric cancer related to gastric outlet obstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Taro; Hyuga, Satoshi; Kato, Aya; Chono, Teruhiro; Watanabe, Risa; Komori, Takamichi; Matsumoto, Takashi; Takachi, Kou; Nishioka, Kiyonori; Uemura, Yoshio; Kobayashi, Kenji

    2012-11-01

    Duodenal stenting for malignant disease related to gastric outlet obstruction(GOO) has been covered by health insurance in Japan since April 2010. We inserted WallFlexTM duodenal stents(WDS) in 4 patients with GOO caused by unresectable gastric cancer. WDS insertion was successful in all 4 cases. Duodenal perforation occurred in 1 case. One case each of stent obstruction and stent migration occurred. All patients could eat a soft-food diet for 3-6 months (median, 5.3 months). Survival time ranged between 5 and 14 months (median, 6 months). Three patients underwent S-1 combination chemotherapy. Duodenal stenting is expected to be effective for advanced gastric cancer related to GOO.

  10. The Future Organization of Danish Electricity Market for Integrating DERs - a View of FlexPower Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yang; Zhang, Chunyu; Ding, Yi;

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a view of the Danish FlexPower project to reform the existing electricity market by coordinating vast Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) for integration in future scenarios. Aiming to maximize the preservation of the existing market structure, Aggregator, the key player...... in mobilizing small-scale DERs to participate in the existing electricity market, is proposed in this paper to cope with the day-ahead, intra-day and regulating power market. Possible future organizations of different time-scale markets are also introduced and discussed with the precise roles...... and responsibilities of Aggregator. It is seen that the most appropriate function for Aggregator’s capabilities is to cluster DERs as an expended ancillary service. In addition, the interactions with current market actors are introduced in detail....

  11. Diseño e implementación de un nodo FlexRay de bajo coste

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    El presente proyecto se ha desarrollado con la intención de conocer el protocolo de comunicación FlexRay, una tecnología que se encuentra a la vanguardia de la electrónica en el sector automovilístico y así además, poder proporcionar un dispositivo representativo de esta tecnología a la ETSEIB para fines docentes. El primer capítulo de esta memoria se centra en el análisis del estado del arte de esta temática. En el capítulo 2, se describen los componentes y el diseño del hardware necesario p...

  12. Upgrade of the primary spectrometer of the cold triple-axis spectrometer FLEX at the BER II reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoulatos, M.; Habicht, K.

    2011-08-01

    Monte Carlo simulation results for the upgrade of the FLEX/V2 cold neutron triple-axis spectrometer are presented. The main goals are increased flux and energy resolution, while keeping a low background. In the same time the energy transfer range is significantly increased, bridging the gap between cold and thermal neutrons. We aim towards a flexible instrument, by employing the virtual source concept defining a beam before a double-focusing monochromator. This enables fine-tuning according to energy resolution, intensity and sample size requirements. A velocity selector adds the extra flexibility of tuning the spectrometer to any desired fixed wavevector. Neutron ray-tracing programs McStas and VITESS were extensively used and tested in this process.

  13. Capillarys 2 Flex Piercing 糖化血红蛋白检测系统性能验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈乔彬; 李维; 刘梦莹; 张伟; 邓玉奎; 张静

    2015-01-01

    目的:评价 Capillarys 2 Flex Piercing 全自动毛细管电泳仪检测糖化血红蛋白(HbA1c)的检测性能。方法参照美国临床实验室标准化协会(CLSI)及厂家声明对 Capillarys 2 Flex Piercing 全自动毛细管电泳仪测定 HbA1c 的精密度、正确度、可报告范围、抗干扰能力、不同检测系统结果一致性进行验证。结果Capillarys 2 Flex Piercing 全自动毛细管电泳仪检测正常HbA1c 水平的批内、批间变异系数(CV)分别为0.80%、0.92%,病理 HbA1c 水平的批内、批间 CV 分别为1.10%、1.32%;正确度验证的偏差均小于厂家声明的5%;可报告范围验证的回归方程为 Y =1.002X +0.023(r 2=0.023,P =0.000),在4.4%~18.3%范围内的检测结果能达到线性要求;在 HbA1c 浓度分别在低、中、高水平时,干扰物总胆红素、脂血、血红蛋白对测定HbA1c 的偏差绝对值均未超过5%;与 Bio-Rad Variant Ⅱ糖化血红蛋白分析仪检测结果的一致性分析的回归方程为 Y =0.9877X -0.1344(r 2=0.9942,P =0.000),呈良好的线性关系;基于生物学变异的最佳允许总误差为2.31%。结论Capillar-ys 2 Flex Piercing 全自动毛细管电泳仪检测 HbA1c 的性能达到 CLSI 指南和厂家说明书的要求,可以满足临床检测需求。

  14. Numerical Analysis of Energy-Efficient Walking Gait with Flexed Knee for a Four-DOF Planar Biped Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chunye; Ono, Kyosuke

    In this paper we solve the energy-efficient periodic gaits for a biped mechanism walking in the sagittal plane. The biped locomotion mechanism that has thighs, shanks and small feet is modeled as a four-degree-of-freedom (DOF) link system composed of a two-DOF stance leg and a two-DOF swing leg that are connected directly at the hip joint. Using the optimal trajectory planning method based on function approximation, we obtained minimum square input torque trajectories of cyclic walking gaits with flexed knee stance leg for both full-actuated and under-actuated models that are similar to those of the human walking. Also, the validity of this gait generating method is confirmed by forward dynamic simulation.

  15. Algumas considerações sobre cinema e tempo nas periferias do capitalismo flexível

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erly Vieira Jr.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo propõe algumas reflexões acerca das reconfigurações espaço-temporais operadas pelo cinemacontemporâneo, a partir das noções de “sociedade em rede” (Castells, “sociedade de controle” (Deleuzee de concepções temporais da Antiguidade Clássica (cronos, aiôn, kairós, aplicando-as no contexto dasperiferias do “capitalismo flexível”, a partir das experiências urbanas em metrópoles fora do eixo EuropaAmérica do Norte, em especial nos filmes dos diretores Abbas Kiarostami (Irã, Hou Hsiao-Hsien(Taiwan e Wong Kar-Wai (Hong Kong.

  16. Análise de virabrequins automotivos utilizando modelos analíticos e flexíveis

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Gradella Villalva

    2014-01-01

    Resumo: O virabrequim é um dos componentes mais importantes de um motor de combustão interna. É responsável, juntamente com as bielas, por transformar o movimento de translação dos pistões em movimento rotativo, capaz de transmitir torque. Durante o funcionamento do motor, o virabrequim é submetido a cargas axiais, torcionais e de flexão, as quais resultam em regiões com níveis elevados de tensões ao longo da peça. Além disso, o virabrequim apresenta altos níveis de carga de torção devido às ...

  17. Photodiode circuits for retinal prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loudin, J D; Cogan, S F; Mathieson, K; Sher, A; Palanker, D V

    2011-10-01

    Photodiode circuits show promise for the development of high-resolution retinal prostheses. While several of these systems have been constructed and some even implanted in humans, existing descriptions of the complex optoelectronic interaction between light, photodiode, and the electrode/electrolyte load are limited. This study examines this interaction in depth with theoretical calculations and experimental measurements. Actively biased photoconductive and passive photovoltaic circuits are investigated, with the photovoltaic circuits consisting of one or more diodes connected in series, and the photoconductive circuits consisting of a single diode in series with a pulsed bias voltage. Circuit behavior and charge injection levels were markedly different for platinum and sputtered iridium-oxide film (SIROF) electrodes. Photovoltaic circuits were able to deliver 0.038 mC/cm(2) (0.75 nC/phase) per photodiode with 50- μm platinum electrodes, and 0.54-mC/cm(2) (11 nC/phase) per photodiode with 50-μ m SIROF electrodes driven with 0.5-ms pulses of light at 25 Hz. The same pulses applied to photoconductive circuits with the same electrodes were able to deliver charge injections as high as 0.38 and 7.6 mC/cm(2) (7.5 and 150 nC/phase), respectively. We demonstrate photovoltaic stimulation of rabbit retina in-vitro, with 0.5-ms pulses of 905-nm light using peak irradiance of 1 mW/mm(2). Based on the experimental data, we derive electrochemical and optical safety limits for pixel density and charge injection in various circuits. While photoconductive circuits offer smaller pixels, photovoltaic systems do not require an external bias voltage. Both classes of circuits show promise for the development of high-resolution optoelectronic retinal prostheses.

  18. Flex-rigid pleuroscopic biopsy with the SB knife Jr is a novel technique for diagnosis of malignant or benign fibrothorax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Bo; Yin, Yan; Miao, Yuan; Eberhardt, Ralf; Hou, Gang; Herth, Felix J; Kang, Jian

    2016-11-01

    Diagnosing pleural effusion is challenging, especially in patients with malignant or benign fibrothorax, which is difficult to sample using standard flexible forceps (SFF) via flex-rigid pleuroscopy. An adequate sample is crucial for the differential diagnosis of malignant fibrothorax (malignant pleural mesothelioma, metastatic lung carcinoma, etc.) from benign fibrothorax (benign asbestos pleural disease, tuberculous pleuritis, etc.). Novel biopsy techniques are required in flex-rigid pleuroscopy to improve the sample size and quality. The SB knife Jr, which is a scissor forceps that uses a mono-pole high frequency, was developed to allow convenient and accurate resection of larger lesions during endoscopic dissection (ESD). Herein, we report two patients with fibrothorax who underwent a pleural biopsy using an SB knife Jr to investigate the potential use of this tool in flex-rigid pleuroscopy when pleural lesions are difficult to biopsy via SFF. The biopsies were successful, with sufficient size and quality for definitive diagnosis. We also successfully performed adhesiolysis with the SB knife Jr in one case, and adequate biopsies were conducted. No complications were observed. Electrosurgical biopsy with the SB knife Jr during flex-rigid pleuroscopy allowed us to obtain adequate samples for the diagnosis of malignant versus benign fibrothorax, which is usually not possible with SFF. The SB knife Jr also demonstrated a potential use for pleuropulmonary adhesions.

  19. Flex-rigid pleuroscopic biopsy with the SB knife Jr is a novel technique for diagnosis of malignant or benign fibrothorax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Bo; Yin, Yan; Miao, Yuan; Herth, Felix J.; Kang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosing pleural effusion is challenging, especially in patients with malignant or benign fibrothorax, which is difficult to sample using standard flexible forceps (SFF) via flex-rigid pleuroscopy. An adequate sample is crucial for the differential diagnosis of malignant fibrothorax (malignant pleural mesothelioma, metastatic lung carcinoma, etc.) from benign fibrothorax (benign asbestos pleural disease, tuberculous pleuritis, etc.). Novel biopsy techniques are required in flex-rigid pleuroscopy to improve the sample size and quality. The SB knife Jr, which is a scissor forceps that uses a mono-pole high frequency, was developed to allow convenient and accurate resection of larger lesions during endoscopic dissection (ESD). Herein, we report two patients with fibrothorax who underwent a pleural biopsy using an SB knife Jr to investigate the potential use of this tool in flex-rigid pleuroscopy when pleural lesions are difficult to biopsy via SFF. The biopsies were successful, with sufficient size and quality for definitive diagnosis. We also successfully performed adhesiolysis with the SB knife Jr in one case, and adequate biopsies were conducted. No complications were observed. Electrosurgical biopsy with the SB knife Jr during flex-rigid pleuroscopy allowed us to obtain adequate samples for the diagnosis of malignant versus benign fibrothorax, which is usually not possible with SFF. The SB knife Jr also demonstrated a potential use for pleuropulmonary adhesions. PMID:28066660

  20. The Influence of Age at Single-Event Multilevel Surgery on Outcome in Children with Cerebral Palsy Who Walk with Flexed Knee Gait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svehlik, Martin; Steinwender, Gerhard; Kraus, Tanja; Saraph, Vinay; Lehmann, Thomas; Linhart, Wolfgang E.; Zwick, Ernst B.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Information on the timing and long-term outcome of single-event multilevel surgery in children with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy (CP) walking with flexed knee gait is limited. Based on our clinical experience, we hypothesized that older children with bilateral spastic CP would benefit more from single-event multilevel surgery than younger…

  1. From Local to EXtreme Environments (FLEXE) Student-Scientist Online Forums: hypothesis-based research examining ways to involve scientists in effective science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goehring, L.; Carlsen, W.; Fisher, C. R.; Kerlin, S.; Trautmann, N.; Petersen, W.

    2011-12-01

    Science education reform since the mid-1990's has called for a "new way of teaching and learning about science that reflects how science itself is done, emphasizing inquiry as a way of achieving knowledge and understanding about the world" (NRC, 1996). Scientists and engineers, experts in inquiry thinking, have been called to help model these practices for students and demonstrate scientific habits of mind. The question, however, is "how best to involve these experts?" given the very real challenges of limited availability of scientists, varying experience with effective pedagogy, widespread geographic distribution of schools, and the sheer number of students involved. Technology offers partial solutions to enable Student-Scientist Interactions (SSI). The FLEXE Project has developed online FLEXE Forums to support efficient, effective SSIs, making use of web-based and database technology to facilitate communication between students and scientists. More importantly, the FLEXE project has approached this question of "how best to do this?" scientifically, combining program evaluation with hypothesis-based research explicitly testing the effects of such SSIs on student learning and attitudes towards science. FLEXE Forums are designed to showcase scientific practices and habits of mind through facilitated interaction between students and scientists. Through these Forums, students "meet" working scientists and learn about their research and the environments in which they work. Scientists provide students with intriguing "real-life" datasets and challenge students to analyze and interpret the data through guiding questions. Students submit their analyses to the Forum, and scientists provide feedback and connect the instructional activity with real-life practice, showcasing their activities in the field. In the FLEXE project, Forums are embedded within inquiry-based instructional units focused on essential learning concepts, and feature the deep-sea environment in contrast

  2. Experimental Device for Learning of Logical Circuit Design using Integrated Circuits

    OpenAIRE

    石橋, 孝昭

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental device for learning of logical circuit design using integrated circuits and breadboards. The experimental device can be made at a low cost and can be used for many subjects such as logical circuits, computer engineering, basic electricity, electrical circuits and electronic circuits. The proposed device is effective to learn the logical circuits than the usual lecture.

  3. 30 CFR 75.800 - High-voltage circuits; circuit breakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-voltage circuits; circuit breakers. 75.800... § 75.800 High-voltage circuits; circuit breakers. High-voltage circuits entering the underground area of any coal mine shall be protected by suitable circuit breakers of adequate interrupting...

  4. Performance analysis of electrical circuits /PANE/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, K. L.; Steinberg, L. L.

    1968-01-01

    Automated statistical and worst case computer program has been designed to perform dc and ac steady circuit analyses. The program determines the worst case circuit performance by solving circuit equations.

  5. Variational integrators for electric circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ober-Blöbaum, Sina, E-mail: sinaob@math.upb.de [Computational Dynamics and Optimal Control, University of Paderborn (Germany); Tao, Molei [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University (United States); Cheng, Mulin [Applied and Computational Mathematics, California Institute of Technology (United States); Owhadi, Houman; Marsden, Jerrold E. [Control and Dynamical Systems, California Institute of Technology (United States); Applied and Computational Mathematics, California Institute of Technology (United States)

    2013-06-01

    In this contribution, we develop a variational integrator for the simulation of (stochastic and multiscale) electric circuits. When considering the dynamics of an electric circuit, one is faced with three special situations: 1. The system involves external (control) forcing through external (controlled) voltage sources and resistors. 2. The system is constrained via the Kirchhoff current (KCL) and voltage laws (KVL). 3. The Lagrangian is degenerate. Based on a geometric setting, an appropriate variational formulation is presented to model the circuit from which the equations of motion are derived. A time-discrete variational formulation provides an iteration scheme for the simulation of the electric circuit. Dependent on the discretization, the intrinsic degeneracy of the system can be canceled for the discrete variational scheme. In this way, a variational integrator is constructed that gains several advantages compared to standard integration tools for circuits; in particular, a comparison to BDF methods (which are usually the method of choice for the simulation of electric circuits) shows that even for simple LCR circuits, a better energy behavior and frequency spectrum preservation can be observed using the developed variational integrator.

  6. Overpulse railgun energy recovery circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honig, E.M.

    1984-09-28

    The invention presented relates to a high-power pulsing circuit and more particularly to a repetitive pulse inductive energy storage and transfer circuit for an electromagnetic launcher. In an electromagnetic launcher such as a railgun for propelling a projectile at high velocity, an overpulse energy recovery circuit is employed to transfer stored inductive energy from a source inductor to the railgun inductance to propel the projectile down the railgun. Switching circuitry and an energy transfer capacitor are used to switch the energy back to the source inductor in readiness for a repetitive projectile propelling cycle.

  7. Counterpulse railgun energy recovery circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honig, E.M.

    1984-09-28

    The invention presented relates to a high-power pulsing circuit and more particularly to a repetitive pulse inductive energy storage and transfer circuit for an electromagnetic launcher. In an electromagnetic launcher such as a railgun for propelling a projectile at high velocity, a counterpulse energy recovery circuit is employed to transfer stored inductive energy from a source inductor to the railgun inductance to propel the projectile down the railgun. Switching circuitry and an energy transfer capacitor are used to switch the energy back to the source inductor in readiness for a repetitive projectile propelling cycle.

  8. The Maplin electronic circuits handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Tooley, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The Maplin Electronic Circuits Handbook provides pertinent data, formula, explanation, practical guidance, theory and practical guidance in the design, testing, and construction of electronic circuits. This book discusses the developments in electronics technology techniques.Organized into 11 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the common types of passive component. This text then provides the reader with sufficient information to make a correct selection of passive components for use in the circuits. Other chapters consider the various types of the most commonly used semiconductor

  9. Secure integrated circuits and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Verbauwhede, Ingrid MR

    2010-01-01

    On any advanced integrated circuit or 'system-on-chip' there is a need for security. In many applications the actual implementation has become the weakest link in security rather than the algorithms or protocols. The purpose of the book is to give the integrated circuits and systems designer an insight into the basics of security and cryptography from the implementation point of view. As a designer of integrated circuits and systems it is important to know both the state-of-the-art attacks as well as the countermeasures. Optimizing for security is different from optimizations for speed, area,

  10. Determining Covers in Combinational Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubomir Cvetkovic

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a procedure for determining 0- or 1-cover of an arbitrary line in a combinational circuit. When determining a cover we do not need Boolean expression for the line; only the circuit structure is used. Within the proposed procedure we use the tools of the cube theory, in particular, some operations defined on cubes. The procedure can be applied for determining 0- and 1- covers of output lines in programmable logic devices. Basically, this procedure is a method for the analysis of a combinational circuit.

  11. CADAT integrated circuit mask analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    CADAT System Mask Analysis Program (MAPS2) is automated software tool for analyzing integrated-circuit mask design. Included in MAPS2 functions are artwork verification, device identification, nodal analysis, capacitance calculation, and logic equation generation.

  12. Circuit design on plastic foils

    CERN Document Server

    Raiteri, Daniele; Roermund, Arthur H M

    2015-01-01

    This book illustrates a variety of circuit designs on plastic foils and provides all the information needed to undertake successful designs in large-area electronics.  The authors demonstrate architectural, circuit, layout, and device solutions and explain the reasons and the creative process behind each. Readers will learn how to keep under control large-area technologies and achieve robust, reliable circuit designs that can face the challenges imposed by low-cost low-temperature high-throughput manufacturing.   • Discusses implications of problems associated with large-area electronics and compares them to standard silicon; • Provides the basis for understanding physics and modeling of disordered material; • Includes guidelines to quickly setup the basic CAD tools enabling efficient and reliable designs; • Illustrates practical solutions to cope with hard/soft faults, variability, mismatch, aging and bias stress at architecture, circuit, layout, and device levels.

  13. Chaos Control for Chua's Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tôrres, L. A. B.; Aguirre, L. A.; Palhares, R. M.; Mendes, E. M. A. M.

    The practical implementation of Chua's circuit control methods is discussed in this chapter. In order to better address this subject, an inductorless Chua's circuit realization is first presented, followed by practical issues related to data analysis, mathematical modelling, and dynamical characterization associated to this electronic chaotic oscillator. As a consequence of the investigation of different control strategies applied to Chua's circuit, a tradeoff among control objective, control energy, and model complexity is devised, which quite naturally leads to a principle that seems to be of general nature: the Information Transmission Via Control (ITVC) for nonlinear oscillators. The main purpose of the present chapter is to serve as an introductory guide to the universe of Chua's circuit control, synchronization, and mathematical modelling.

  14. Logic circuits from zero forcing

    CERN Document Server

    Burgarth, Daniel; Hogben, Leslie; Severini, Simone; Young, Michael

    2011-01-01

    We design logical circuits based on the notion of zero forcing on graphs; each gate of the circuits is a gadget in which zero forcing is performed. We show that such circuits can evaluate every monotone Boolean function. By using two vertices to encode each logical bit, we obtain universal computation. We also highlight a phenomenon of "back forcing" as a property of each function. Such a phenomenon occurs in a circuit when the input of gates which have been already used at a given time step is further modified by a computation actually performed at a later stage. Finally, we show that zero forcing can be also used to implement reversible computation. The model introduced here provides a potentially new tool in the analysis of Boolean functions, with particular attention to monotonicity.

  15. Spinal sensory circuits in motion

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    International audience; The role of sensory feedback in shaping locomotion has been long debated. Recent advances in genetics and behavior analysis revealed the importance of proprioceptive pathways in spinal circuits. The mechanisms underlying peripheral mechanosensation enabled to unravel the networks that feedback to spinal circuits in order to modulate locomotion. Sensory inputs to the vertebrate spinal cord were long thought to originate from the periphery. Recent studies challenge this ...

  16. Optimizing Transmission Line Matching Circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Novak, S.

    1996-01-01

    When designing transmission line matching circuits, there exist often overlooked, additional, not much used, degree of choice in the selection of the transmission line impedance. In this work are presented results of CAD analysis for the two element transmission line matching networks, demonstrating that selecting matching circuits transmission lines with higher impedance, than usually used 50 or 75 ohms, can in most cases substantially decrease the physical dimension of the final matching ci...

  17. Neural Circuits on a Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Fayad Hasan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Neural circuits are responsible for the brain’s ability to process and store information. Reductionist approaches to understanding the brain include isolation of individual neurons for detailed characterization. When maintained in vitro for several days or weeks, dissociated neurons self-assemble into randomly connected networks that produce synchronized activity and are capable of learning. This review focuses on efforts to control neuronal connectivity in vitro and construct living neural circuits of increasing complexity and precision. Microfabrication-based methods have been developed to guide network self-assembly, accomplishing control over in vitro circuit size and connectivity. The ability to control neural connectivity and synchronized activity led to the implementation of logic functions using living neurons. Techniques to construct and control three-dimensional circuits have also been established. Advances in multiple electrode arrays as well as genetically encoded, optical activity sensors and transducers enabled highly specific interfaces to circuits composed of thousands of neurons. Further advances in on-chip neural circuits may lead to better understanding of the brain.

  18. Sutures, Sinkers, Shear zones and Sills: Cryptic Targets and Explicit Strategies for EARTHSCOPE FlexArray in the East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, L. D.

    2006-05-01

    Given the 3D framework represented by EarthScope's USArray as it scans eastward, the strategic challenge falls to defining cost-effective deployments of FlexArray to address specific lithospheric targets. Previous deep geophysical surveys (e.g. COCORP, USGS, GLIMPCE, et al.) provide guidance not only in framing the geological issues involved, but in designing field experiments that overcome the limitations of previous work. Opportunities highlighted by these precursor studies include: a) Collisional sutures (e.g. Brunswick Anomaly/Suwannee terrane) which lie buried beneath overthrust terranes/ younger sedimentary covers. Signal penetration in previous controlled source surveys has been insufficient. High resolution passive surveys designed to map intralithospheric detachments, Moho, and mantle subduction scars is needed to validate the extrapolations of the existing upper crustal information; b) Intracratonic basins and domes (e.g. Michigan Basin, Adirondack Dome) are perhaps the greatest geological mystery hosted in the east. Previous geophysical studies have lacked the resolution or penetration needed to identify the buoyancy drivers presumed to be responsible for such structures. It is likely that these drivers lie in the upper mantle and will require detailed velocity imaging to recognized. c) Distributed shear fabrics are a defining characteristic of the deep crust in many deformation zones (e.g. Grenville Front). Detailed mapping of crustal anisotropy associated with such shear zones should help delineate ductile flow directions associated with the orogenies that accreted the eastern U.S. 3 component, 3D active+passive surveys are needed to obtain definitive remote measures of such vector characteristics in the deep crust. d) Extensive reflectors in the central U.S. may mark important buried Precambrian basins and/or sill complexes. If the latter, the magmatic roots of those systems remain unrecognized, as does their volumetric contribution to crustal growth

  19. Difference-Equation/Flow-Graph Circuit Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcvey, I. M.

    1988-01-01

    Numerical technique enables rapid, approximate analyses of electronic circuits containing linear and nonlinear elements. Practiced in variety of computer languages on large and small computers; for circuits simple enough, programmable hand calculators used. Although some combinations of circuit elements make numerical solutions diverge, enables quick identification of divergence and correction of circuit models to make solutions converge.

  20. Multi-Layer E-Textile Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Lucy E.; Bibeau, Kaila; Mulligan, Lucie; Frith, Ashton; Simon, Cory

    2012-01-01

    Stitched e-textile circuits facilitate wearable, flexible, comfortable wearable technology. However, while stitched methods of e-textile circuits are common, multi-layer circuit creation remains a challenge. Here, we present methods of stitched multi-layer circuit creation using accessible tools and techniques.

  1. 30 CFR 56.6403 - Branch circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Branch circuits. 56.6403 Section 56.6403... Blasting § 56.6403 Branch circuits. (a) If electric blasting includes the use of branch circuits, each branch shall be equipped with a safety switch or equivalent method to isolate the circuits to be used....

  2. Equivalence Checking of Hierarchical Combinational Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Poul Frederick; Hulgaard, Henrik; Andersen, Henrik Reif

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a method for verifying that two hierarchical combinational circuits implement the same Boolean functions. The key new feature of the method is its ability to exploit the modularity of circuits to reuse results obtained from one part of the circuits in other parts. We demonstrate...... our method on large adder and multiplier circuits....

  3. Comparison between four piezoelectric energy harvesting circuits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinhao QIU; Hao JIANG; Hongli JI; Kongjun ZHU

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates and compares the efficiencies of four different interfaces for vibration-based energy harvesting systems. Among those four circuits, two circuits adopt the synchronous switching technique, in which the circuit is switched synchronously with the vibration. In this study, a simple source-less trigger circuit used to control the synchronized switch is proposed and two interface circuits of energy harvesting systems are designed based on the trigger circuit. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed circuits, an experimental system was established and the power harvested by those circuits from a vibration beam was measured. Experimental results show that the two new circuits can increase the harvested power by factors 2.6 and 7, respectively, without consuming extra power in the circuits.

  4. Using Combinational Circuits for Control Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher A. Nabulsi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Combinational circuits are used in computers for generating binary control decisions and for providing digital components for data processing. Approach: The use of combinational circuits and logic gates to control other circuits was discussed. Different systems that use logic gates, multiplexers, decoders and encoders to control different circuits were presented. This study presented a design and implementation of some combinational circuits such as a decoder, an encoder, a multiplexer, a bus system and read/write memory operations. Results: When we connected some types of combinational circuits to the inputs/outputs of digital circuit, these combinational circuits can help us to manage and flow a different types of control signals through a large digital circuit. Conclusion: Many combinational circuits had a good function which can be used for controlling different parts of any digital system and they produce a suitable way to transfer a control signals between different digital components of any large digital system.

  5. Instrumentation and test gear circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    2013-01-01

    Instrumentation and Test Gear Circuits Manual provides diagrams, graphs, tables, and discussions of several types of practical circuits. The practical circuits covered in this book include attenuators, bridges, scope trace doublers, timebases, and digital frequency meters. Chapter 1 discusses the basic instrumentation and test gear principles. Chapter 2 deals with the design of passive attenuators, and Chapter 3 with passive and active filter circuits. The subsequent chapters tackle 'bridge' circuits, analogue and digital metering techniques and circuitry, signal and waveform generation, and p

  6. Fully automated synthesis of [(18) F]fluoro-dihydrotestosterone ([(18) F]FDHT) using the FlexLab module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Uwe; Lewis, Jason S; Young, Kenneth; Morris, Michael J; Weickhardt, Andrew; Davis, Ian D; Scott, Andrew M

    2016-08-01

    Imaging of androgen receptor expression in prostate cancer using F-18 FDHT is becoming increasingly popular. With the radiolabelling precursor now commercially available, developing a fully automated synthesis of [(18) F] FDHT is important. We have fully automated the synthesis of F-18 FDHT using the iPhase FlexLab module using only commercially available components. Total synthesis time was 90 min, radiochemical yields were 25-33% (n = 11). Radiochemical purity of the final formulation was > 99% and specific activity was > 18.5 GBq/µmol for all batches. This method can be up-scaled as desired, thus making it possible to study multiple patients in a day. Furthermore, our procedure uses 4 mg of precursor only and is therefore cost-effective. The synthesis has now been validated at Austin Health and is currently used for [(18) F]FDHT studies in patients. We believe that this method can easily adapted by other modules to further widen the availability of [(18) F]FDHT.

  7. Does freezing and dynamic flexing of frozen branches impact the cavitation resistance of Malus domestica and the Populus clone Walker?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Karen K; Tyree, Melvin T

    2013-11-01

    Frost damage to the xylem conduits of trees is a phenomenon of eco-physiological importance. It is often documented in terms of the percentage loss of conductivity (PLC), an indicator of air filling of the conduits. However, trees that refill their conduits in spring could be impacted more by damage to the conduits that reduce cavitation resistance, making them more susceptible to future drought events. We investigated whether ice formation, dynamic flexing of frozen branches or freeze-thaw events could reduce the cavitation resistance (cause "frost fatigue") in first-year shoots of apple (Malus domestica) and clonal hybrid cottonwood (Walker). Frost fatigue was measured in terms of P50 (the negative xylem pressure required to cause a 50 % loss of conductivity). All treatment groups showed significant frost fatigue, with the exception of the pre-flushed, constantly frozen poplar branches. The P50 following freeze treatments was approximately 50 % of the pre-freeze values. The effect tended to be greater in freeze-thawed branches. Dynamic bending of the branches had no effect on either PLC or P50. In three out of four cases, there was a significant correlation between P50 and PLC. Frost fatigue occurred in both apple and poplar, two unrelated species with different drought and frost tolerances, suggesting that it may be a widespread phenomenon that could impact the ecophysiology of temperate forests.

  8. Preliminary analysis of the PreFlexMS molten salt once-through steam generator dynamics and control strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabucchi, Stefano; Casella, Francesco; Maioli, Tommaso; Elsido, Cristina; Franzini, Davide; Ramond, Mathieu

    2017-06-01

    Concentrated Solar Power plants (CSP) coupled with thermal storage have the potential to guarantee both flexible and continuous energy production, thus being competitive with conventional fossil fuel and hydro power plants, in terms of dispatchability and provision of ancillary services. Hence, the plant equipment and control design have to be focused on flexible operation on one hand, and on plant safety concerning the molten salt freezing on the other hand. The PreFlexMS European project aims to introduce a molten salt Once-Through Steam Generator (OTSG) within a Rankine cycle based power unit, a technology that has greater flexibility potential if compared to steam drum boilers, currently used in CSP plants. The dynamic modelling and simulation from the early design stages is, thus, of paramount importance, to assess the plant dynamic behavior and controllability, and to predict the achievable closed-loop dynamic performance, potentially saving money and time during the detailed design, construction and commissioning phases. The present paper reports the main results of the analysis carried out during the first part of the project, regarding the system analysis and control design. In particular, two different control systems have been studied and tested with the plant dynamic model: a decentralized control strategy based on PI controllers and a Linear Model Predictive Control (LMPC).

  9. Distributed Continuous Event-Based Data Acquisition Using the IEEE 1588 Synchronization and FlexRIO FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taliercio, C.; Luchetta, A.; Manduchi, G.; Rigoni, A.

    2017-07-01

    High-speed event driven acquisition is normally performed by analog-to-digital converter (ADC) boards with a given number of pretrigger sample and posttrigger sample that are recorded upon the occurrence of a hardware trigger. A direct physical connection is, therefore, required between the source of event (trigger) and the ADC, because any other software-based communication method would introduce a delay in triggering that would turn out to be not acceptable in many cases. This paper proposes a solution for the relaxation of the event communication time that can be, in this case, carried out by software messaging (e.g., via an LAN), provided that the system components are synchronized in time using the IEEE 1588 synchronization mechanism. The information about the exact event occurrence time is contained in the software packet that is sent to communicate the event and is used by the ADC FPGA to identify the exact sample in the ADC sample queue. The length of the ADC sample queue will depend on the maximum delay in software event message communication time. A prototype implementation using a National FlexRIO FPGA board connected with an ADC device is presented as the proof of concept.

  10. Role flexing: how community, religion, and family shape the experiences of young black men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, Alexandra B; Oster, Alexandra M; Viall, Abigail H; Heffelfinger, James D; Mena, Leandro A; Toledo, Carlos A

    2012-12-01

    While the disproportionate impact of HIV on young black men who have sex with men (MSM) is well documented, the reasons for this disparity remain less clear. Through in-depth interviews, we explored the role of familial, religious, and community influence on the experiences of young black MSM and identified strategies that these young men use to negotiate and manage their sexual minority status. Between February and April 2008, 16 interviews were conducted among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected young (19- to 24-year-old) black MSM in the Jackson, Mississippi, area. Results suggest that overall, homosexuality remains highly stigmatized by the men's families, religious community, and the African American community. To manage this stigma, many of the participants engaged in a process of "role flexing," in which individuals modified their behavior in order to adapt to a particular situation. The data also provided evidence of internalized homophobia among a number of the participants. The impact of stigma on risk behavior should be more fully explored, and future intervention efforts need to explicitly address and challenge stigma, both among young men themselves and the communities in which they reside. Attention should also be paid to the role masculinity may play as a driver of the HIV epidemic among young black MSM and how this knowledge can be used to inform prevention efforts.

  11. Obtenção de espumas flexíveis de poliuretano com celulose de Pinus elliottii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius de Macedo

    Full Text Available Resumo Neste trabalho foram desenvolvidas espumas flexíveis de poliuretano com a adição de celulose de Pinus nas concentrações de 0,5; 1 e 2% (m/m. A celulose foi submetida ao processo de fibrilação mecânica e posterior secagem por aspersão (spray dry sendo caracterizada quanto a sua morfologia por MEV e MET. As espumas foram produzidas pelo método de batelada (one-shot com a adição e mistura da fibra junto ao poliol. As espumas foram caracterizadas por MEV, densidade aparente e resistência à compressão. Os principais resultados indicam que a fibrilação mecânica promove a obtenção de fibras em escala nanométrica, porém durante a secagem, ocorre aglomeração ocasionando aumento para escala micrométrica. As propriedades mecânicas da espuma obtiveram acréscimos de 40 e 50% na resistência à compressão com a adição de 0,5 e 1% de celulose, respectivamente, evidenciando seu potencial como aditivo alternativo para o desenvolvimento de espumas de poliuretano.

  12. 30 CFR 75.601-1 - Short circuit protection; ratings and settings of circuit breakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of circuit breakers. 75.601-1 Section 75.601-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Trailing Cables § 75.601-1 Short circuit protection; ratings and settings of circuit breakers. Circuit breakers providing short circuit protection for trailing cables shall be set so as not to exceed...

  13. 49 CFR 236.5 - Design of control circuits on closed circuit principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design of control circuits on closed circuit..., AND APPLIANCES Rules and Instructions: All Systems General § 236.5 Design of control circuits on closed circuit principle. All control circuits the functioning of which affects safety of train...

  14. 30 CFR 77.506 - Electric equipment and circuits; overload and short-circuit protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric equipment and circuits; overload and short-circuit protection. 77.506 Section 77.506 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... circuits; overload and short-circuit protection. Automatic circuit-breaking devices or fuses of the...

  15. 30 CFR 77.800 - High-voltage circuits; circuit breakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-voltage circuits; circuit breakers. 77.800... COAL MINES Surface High-Voltage Distribution § 77.800 High-voltage circuits; circuit breakers. High-voltage circuits supplying power to portable or mobile equipment shall be protected by suitable...

  16. 基于Flex与Google Maps的地方特产Web GIS构建%Local Specialties Web GIS Based on Flex and Google Maps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何辉; 龚成莹

    2011-01-01

    基于Google Maps API,利用开源Flash框架Flex,PHP及开源数据库MySQL,构建基于Web的地方特产WebGIS展示系统,以电子地图方式灵活地实现了特产分类查询、特产查询展示、行车路线查询等功能.介绍了系统设计思路,主要功能及其实现方法.%Using of open source Flash framework for Flex, PHP and open source database MySQL, This article builds local specialties Web GIS display system based on Google Maps API, achieves the specialty category queries,query specialty show, driving directions inquiry Function with flexible electronic maps, describes the design of system, the main function and its implementation.

  17. Resistência à flexão estática de alguns painéis aglomerados comercializados no Rio Grande do Sul.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clovis Roberto Haselein

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Foram testados em flexão estática sete tipos de painéis aglomerados comercializados no RS. De cada tipo, foram retirados ao acaso cinco painéis e de cada um destes cortados três corpos de prova para os ensaios de flexão segundo a norma ASTM D1037-93 (1995. Os resultados indicam que os painéis enquadram-se nos critérios das normas norte-americanas de padronização. Para alguns tipos de painéis foi possível estabelecer modelos matemáticos relacionando módulos de elasticidade e de ruptura à massa específica.

  18. Logic circuits from zero forcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgarth, Daniel; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Hogben, Leslie; Severini, Simone; Young, Michael

    We design logic circuits based on the notion of zero forcing on graphs; each gate of the circuits is a gadget in which zero forcing is performed. We show that such circuits can evaluate every monotone Boolean function. By using two vertices to encode each logical bit, we obtain universal computation. We also highlight a phenomenon of "back forcing" as a property of each function. Such a phenomenon occurs in a circuit when the input of gates which have been already used at a given time step is further modified by a computation actually performed at a later stage. Finally, we show that zero forcing can be also used to implement reversible computation. The model introduced here provides a potentially new tool in the analysis of Boolean functions, with particular attention to monotonicity. Moreover, in the light of applications of zero forcing in quantum mechanics, the link with Boolean functions may suggest a new directions in quantum control theory and in the study of engineered quantum spin systems. It is an open technical problem to verify whether there is a link between zero forcing and computation with contact circuits.

  19. Introduction to lethal circuit transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fišer, Petr; Schmidt, Jan

    2015-12-01

    Logic optimization is a process that takes a logic circuit description (Boolean network) as an input and tries to refine it, to reduce its size and/or depth. An ideal optimization process should be able to devise an optimum implementation of a network in a reasonable time, given any circuit structure at the input. However, there are cases where it completely fails to produce even near-optimum solutions. Such cases are typically induced by non-standard circuit structure modifications. Surprisingly enough, such deviated structures are frequently present in standard benchmark sets too. We may only wonder whether it is an intention of the benchmarks creators, or just an unlucky coincidence. Even though synthesis tools should be primarily well suited for practical circuits, there is no guarantee that, e.g., a higher-level synthesis process will not generate such unlucky structures. Here we present examples of circuit transformations that lead to failure of most of state-of-the-art logic synthesis and optimization processes, both academic and commercial, and suggest actions to mitigate the disturbing effects.

  20. Dynamical compensation in physiological circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karin, Omer; Swisa, Avital; Glaser, Benjamin; Dor, Yuval; Alon, Uri

    2016-11-08

    Biological systems can maintain constant steady-state output despite variation in biochemical parameters, a property known as exact adaptation. Exact adaptation is achieved using integral feedback, an engineering strategy that ensures that the output of a system robustly tracks its desired value. However, it is unclear how physiological circuits also keep their output dynamics precise-including the amplitude and response time to a changing input. Such robustness is crucial for endocrine and neuronal homeostatic circuits because they need to provide a precise dynamic response in the face of wide variation in the physiological parameters of their target tissues; how such circuits compensate their dynamics for unavoidable natural fluctuations in parameters is unknown. Here, we present a design principle that provides the desired robustness, which we call dynamical compensation (DC). We present a class of circuits that show DC by means of a nonlinear feedback loop in which the regulated variable controls the functional mass of the controlling endocrine or neuronal tissue. This mechanism applies to the control of blood glucose by insulin and explains several experimental observations on insulin resistance. We provide evidence that this mechanism may also explain compensation and organ size control in other physiological circuits.

  1. Design of a satellite end-to-end mission performance simulator for imaging spectrometers and its application to the ESA's FLEX/Sentinel-3 tandem mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicent, Jorge; Sabater, Neus; Tenjo, Carolina; Acarreta, Juan R.; Manzano, María.; Rivera, Juan P.; Jurado, Pedro; Franco, Raffaella; Alonso, Luis; Moreno, Jose

    2015-09-01

    The performance analysis of a satellite mission requires specific tools that can simulate the behavior of the platform; its payload; and the acquisition of scientific data from synthetic scenes. These software tools, called End-to-End Mission Performance Simulators (E2ES), are promoted by the European Space Agency (ESA) with the goal of consolidating the instrument and mission requirements as well as optimizing the implemented data processing algorithms. Nevertheless, most developed E2ES are designed for a specific satellite mission and can hardly be adapted to other satellite missions. In the frame of ESA's FLEX mission activities, an E2ES is being developed based on a generic architecture for passive optical missions. FLEX E2ES implements a state-of-the-art synthetic scene generator that is coupled with dedicated algorithms that model the platform and instrument characteristics. This work will describe the flexibility of the FLEX E2ES to simulate complex synthetic scenes with a variety of land cover classes, topography and cloud cover that are observed separately by each instrument (FLORIS, OLCI and SLSTR). The implemented algorithms allows modelling the sensor behavior, i.e. the spectral/spatial resampling of the input scene; the geometry of acquisition; the sensor noises and non-uniformity effects (e.g. stray-light, spectral smile and radiometric noise); and the full retrieval scheme up to Level-2 products. It is expected that the design methodology implemented in FLEX E2ES can be used as baseline for other imaging spectrometer missions and will be further expanded towards a generic E2ES software tool.

  2. Diagnostic Utility of Pleural Fluid Cell Block versus Pleural Biopsy Collected by Flex-Rigid Pleuroscopy for Malignant Pleural Disease: A Single Center Retrospective Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasada, Shinji; Izumo, Takehiro; Matsumoto, Yuji; Tsuchida, Takaaki

    2016-01-01

    Background Some trials recently demonstrated the benefit of targeted treatment for malignant disease; therefore, adequate tissues are needed to detect the targeted gene. Pleural biopsy using flex-rigid pleuroscopy and pleural effusion cell block analysis are both useful for diagnosis of malignancy and obtaining adequate samples. The purpose of our study was to compare the diagnostic utility between the two methods among patients with malignant pleural disease with effusion. Methods Data from patients who underwent flex-rigid pleuroscopy for diagnosis of pleural effusion suspicious for malignancy at the National Cancer Center Hospital, Japan between April 2011 and June 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. All procedures were performed under local anesthesia. At least 150 mL of pleural fluid was collected by pleuroscopy, followed by pleural biopsies from the abnormal site. Results Thirty-five patients who were finally diagnosed as malignant pleural disease were included in this study. Final diagnoses of malignancy were 24 adenocarcinoma, 1 combined adeno-small cell carcinoma, and 7 malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), and 3 metastatic breast cancer. The diagnostic yield was significantly higher by pleural biopsy than by cell block [94.2% (33/35) vs. 71.4% (25/35); p = 0.008]. All patients with positive results on cell block also had positive results on pleural biopsy. Eight patients with negative results on cell block had positive results on pleural biopsy (lung adenocarcinoma in 4, sarcomatoid MPM in 3, and metastatic breast cancer in 1). Two patients with negative results on both cell block and pleural biopsy were diagnosed was sarcomatoid MPM by computed tomography-guided needle biopsy and epithelioid MPM by autopsy. Conclusion Pleural biopsy using flex-rigid pleuroscopy was efficient in the diagnosis of malignant pleural diseases. Flex-rigid pleuroscopy with pleural biopsy and pleural effusion cell block analysis should be considered as the initial diagnostic

  3. Systems level circuit model of C. elegans undulatory locomotion: mathematical modeling and molecular genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbowski, Jan; Schindelman, Gary; Cronin, Christopher J; Seah, Adeline; Sternberg, Paul W

    2008-06-01

    To establish the relationship between locomotory behavior and dynamics of neural circuits in the nematode C. elegans we combined molecular and theoretical approaches. In particular, we quantitatively analyzed the motion of C. elegans with defective synaptic GABA and acetylcholine transmission, defective muscle calcium signaling, and defective muscles and cuticle structures, and compared the data with our systems level circuit model. The major experimental findings are: (1) anterior-to-posterior gradients of body bending flex for almost all strains both for forward and backward motion, and for neuronal mutants, also analogous weak gradients of undulatory frequency, (2) existence of some form of neuromuscular (stretch receptor) feedback, (3) invariance of neuromuscular wavelength, (4) biphasic dependence of frequency on synaptic signaling, and (5) decrease of frequency with increase of the muscle time constant. Based on (1) we hypothesize that the Central Pattern Generator (CPG) is located in the head both for forward and backward motion. Points (1) and (2) are the starting assumptions for our theoretical model, whose dynamical patterns are qualitatively insensitive to the details of the CPG design if stretch receptor feedback is sufficiently strong and slow. The model reveals that stretch receptor coupling in the body wall is critical for generation of the neuromuscular wave. Our model agrees with our behavioral data (3), (4), and (5), and with other pertinent published data, e.g., that frequency is an increasing function of muscle gap-junction coupling.

  4. Modular integration of electronics and microfluidic systems using flexible printed circuit boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Amy; Wang, Lisen; Jensen, Erik; Mathies, Richard; Boser, Bernhard

    2010-02-21

    Microfluidic systems offer an attractive alternative to conventional wet chemical methods with benefits including reduced sample and reagent volumes, shorter reaction times, high-throughput, automation, and low cost. However, most present microfluidic systems rely on external means to analyze reaction products. This substantially adds to the size, complexity, and cost of the overall system. Electronic detection based on sub-millimetre size integrated circuits (ICs) has been demonstrated for a wide range of targets including nucleic and amino acids, but deployment of this technology to date has been limited due to the lack of a flexible process to integrate these chips within microfluidic devices. This paper presents a modular and inexpensive process to integrate ICs with microfluidic systems based on standard printed circuit board (PCB) technology to assemble the independently designed microfluidic and electronic components. The integrated system can accommodate multiple chips of different sizes bonded to glass or PDMS microfluidic systems. Since IC chips and flex PCB manufacturing and assembly are industry standards with low cost, the integrated system is economical for both laboratory and point-of-care settings.

  5. Estruturas de concreto reforçadas com PRFC Parte I: análise dos modelos de flexão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Gamino

    Full Text Available Este trabalho, apresentado em duas partes, trata da avaliação dos modelos de projeto de estruturas de concreto armado reforçadas com Polímeros Reforçados com Fibras de Carbono (PRFC. Nesta primeira parte são avaliados modelos de flexão originados das recomendações ACI-440 e fib-14, assim como outros modelos mais recentes, disponíveis na literatura. Esses critérios foram aplicados a um total de vinte e cinco vigas reforçadas à flexão, ensaiadas pelos autores, das quais dezesseis com seção retangular e nove com seção "T". Foram aplicados diferentes tipos de compósitos de fibras de carbono (tecidos e laminados, de diferentes fabricantes, encontrados no mercado brasileiro. Os resultados obtidos mostram uma boa proximidade entre as cargas de ruptura calculadas de acordo com as recomendações ACI-440 para reforços à flexão e os valores observados nos ensaios.

  6. High performance thin film transistor (flex-TFT) with textured nanostructure ZnO film channel fabricated by exploiting electric double layer gate insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Rishi Ram; Raychaudhuri, A. K.

    2017-01-01

    We report a flexible thin film transistor (flex-TFT) fabricated on a commonly available polyimide (Kapton®) tape with a channel of highly textured nanocrystalline ZnO film grown by pulsed laser deposition. The flex-TFT with an electric double layer (EDL) gate insulator shows a low threshold for operation (Vth ≤ 1 V), an ON/OFF ratio reaching ≈107 and a subthreshold swing ≈75 mV/dec. The superior performance is enabled by a high saturation mobility (μs ≈ 70 cm2/V s) of the highly textured nanocrystalline channel. The low Vth arises from large charge density (≈1014/cm2) induced into the channel by EDL gate insulator. The large charge density induced by the EDL gate dielectric also enhances the Hall mobility in the film and brings down the sheet resistance by nearly 2 orders, which leads to large ON/OFF ratio. The flex-TFT operation can be sustained with reproducibility when the TFT is bent down to a radius of curvature ≈2 cm.

  7. Investigation of a FAST-OrcaFlex Coupling Module for Integrating Turbine and Mooring Dynamics of Offshore Floating Wind Turbines: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masciola, M.; Robertson, A.; Jonkman, J.; Driscoll, F.

    2011-10-01

    To enable offshore floating wind turbine design, the following are required: accurate modeling of the wind turbine structural dynamics, aerodynamics, platform hydrodynamics, a mooring system, and control algorithms. Mooring and anchor design can appreciably affect the dynamic response of offshore wind platforms that are subject to environmental loads. From an engineering perspective, system behavior and line loads must be studied well to ensure the overall design is fit for the intended purpose. FAST (Fatigue, Aerodynamics, Structures and Turbulence) is a comprehensive simulation tool used for modeling land-based and offshore wind turbines. In the case of a floating turbine, continuous cable theory is used to emulate mooring line dynamics. Higher modeling fidelity can be gained through the use of finite element mooring theory. This can be achieved through the FASTlink coupling module, which couples FAST with OrcaFlex, a commercial simulation tool used for modeling mooring line dynamics. In this application, FAST is responsible for capturing the aerodynamic loads and flexure of the wind turbine and its tower, and OrcaFlex models the mooring line and hydrodynamic effects below the water surface. This paper investigates the accuracy and stability of the FAST/OrcaFlex coupling operation.

  8. The Columbus Knee System: 4-Year Results of a New Deep Flexion Design Compared to the NexGen Full Flex Implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Goebel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Columbus knee system is designed as a standard knee implant to allow high flexion without additional bone resection. Between August, 2004 and March, 2010 we performed 109 total knee arthroplasties of the Columbus knee system in 101 consecutive patients suffering from primary arthrosis of the knee. Mean age was 72.4 years in women and 70.3 years in men. Mean followup was 47.3 months. The 4-year results of a group of patients who received the NexGen Full Flex implant operated by the same surgeon were used for comparison. Mean total knee score was Columbus: 175.6 and NexGen Flex: 183.4; =0.037. Mean operation time was 53 min for Columbus and 66 min for NexGen Flex; 0.05. Radiological assessment showed no signs of loosening for both groups. Therefore, the Columbus knee system can be recommended for flexion angles up to 140∘.

  9. Electronically Tunable Sinusoidal Oscillator Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhanshu Maheshwari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel electronically tunable third-order sinusoidal oscillator synthesized from a simple topology, employing current-mode blocks. The circuit is realized using the active element: Current Controlled Conveyors (CCCIIs and grounded passive components. The new circuit enjoys the advantages of noninteractive electronically tunable frequency of oscillation, use of grounded passive components, and the simultaneous availability of three sinusoidal voltage outputs. Bias current generation scheme is given for the active elements used. The circuit exhibits good high frequency performance. Nonideal and parasitic study has also been carried out. Wide range frequency tuning is shown with the bias current. The proposed theory is verified through extensive PSPICE simulations using 0.25 μm CMOS process parameters.

  10. Optimization of reversible sequential circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Sayem, Abu Sadat Md

    2010-01-01

    In recent years reversible logic has been considered as an important issue for designing low power digital circuits. It has voluminous applications in the present rising nanotechnology such as DNA computing, Quantum Computing, low power VLSI and quantum dot automata. In this paper we have proposed optimized design of reversible sequential circuits in terms of number of gates, delay and hardware complexity. We have designed the latches with a new reversible gate and reduced the required number of gates, garbage outputs, and delay and hardware complexity. As the number of gates and garbage outputs increase the complexity of reversible circuits, this design will significantly enhance the performance. We have proposed reversible D-latch and JK latch which are better than the existing designs available in literature.

  11. Chua's Circuit: Control and Synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irimiciuc, Stefan-Andrei; Vasilovici, Ovidiu; Dimitriu, Dan-Gheorghe

    Chaos-based data encryption is one of the most reliable methods used in secure communications. This implies a good control of a chaotic system and a good synchronization between the involved systems. Here, experimental results are shown on the control and synchronization of Chua's circuits. The control of the chaotic circuit was achieved by using the switching method. The influence of the control signal characteristics (amplitude, frequency and shape) on the system's states was also investigated. The synchronization of two similar chaotic circuits was studied, emphasizing the importance of the chaotic state characteristics of the Master system in respect to those of Slave system. It was shown that the synchronization does not depend on the chaotic state type, neither on the dimension (x, y or z) used for synchronization.

  12. Additive Manufacturing of Hybrid Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; Clem, Paul G.; Keicher, David; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Hall, Aaron C.; Bell, Nelson S.

    2016-07-01

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects. Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. Finally, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.

  13. Vertically Integrated Circuits at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deptuch, Grzegorz; Demarteau, Marcel; Hoff, James; Lipton, Ronald; Shenai, Alpana; Trimpl, Marcel; Yarema, Raymond; Zimmerman, Tom; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01

    The exploration of the vertically integrated circuits, also commonly known as 3D-IC technology, for applications in radiation detection started at Fermilab in 2006. This paper examines the opportunities that vertical integration offers by looking at various 3D designs that have been completed by Fermilab. The emphasis is on opportunities that are presented by through silicon vias (TSV), wafer and circuit thinning and finally fusion bonding techniques to replace conventional bump bonding. Early work by Fermilab has led to an international consortium for the development of 3D-IC circuits for High Energy Physics. The consortium has submitted over 25 different designs for the Fermilab organized MPW run organized for the first time.

  14. Nuclear sensor signal processing circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallenbach, Gene A.; Noda, Frank T.; Mitchell, Dean J.; Etzkin, Joshua L.

    2007-02-20

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for a compact and temperature-insensitive nuclear sensor that can be calibrated with a non-hazardous radioactive sample. The nuclear sensor includes a gamma ray sensor that generates tail pulses from radioactive samples. An analog conditioning circuit conditions the tail-pulse signals from the gamma ray sensor, and a tail-pulse simulator circuit generates a plurality of simulated tail-pulse signals. A computer system processes the tail pulses from the gamma ray sensor and the simulated tail pulses from the tail-pulse simulator circuit. The nuclear sensor is calibrated under the control of the computer. The offset is adjusted using the simulated tail pulses. Since the offset is set to zero or near zero, the sensor gain can be adjusted with a non-hazardous radioactive source such as, for example, naturally occurring radiation and potassium chloride.

  15. Measurement of the flexing force of the fingers by a dynamic splint with a dynamometer Medida da força de flexão dos dedos da mão através de órtese dinâmica com dinamômetro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silmara Nicolau Pedro da Silva

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE AND METHODS: In order to determine forces acting upon an articular joint during hand rehabilitation, a dynamic splint was built and connected to a dynamometer (capable of measuring forces in the range 0 - 600 gf. Through trigonometric calculation, the authors measured the flexing force in the proximal interphalangeal joint of the middle finger at 30°, 45°, 60°, and 90° of flexion. Measurements were obtained in a population of 40 voluntary adults, 20 females and 20 males, This flexing force was correlated with age, sex, and anthropometric measures. RESULTS: Force in the flexing tendon is maximal at the start of flexion, and decreases as the angle of joint flexion increases. A relationship was observed between finger length and the magnitude of the force exerted on the tendon: the longer the finger, the greater the force exherted upon the tendon. Force is greater at all the measured angles, (except 30° in males and in individuals of higher stature, and bigger arm span. CONCLUSIONS: The flexing force can be effectively measured at all flexing angles, that it correlates with a number of different anthropometric parameters, and that such data are likely to open the way for future studies.OBJETIVO E MÉTODOS: Em virtude do desconhecimento relativo às forças que atuam em uma articulação durante o processo de reabilitação da mão, foi confeccionada uma órtese dinâmica que, acoplada a um dinamômetro, mediu, através de cálculos trigonométricos, a força (entre 0 a 600gf, flexora na articulação interfalângica proximal do terceiro dedo, a 30º, 45º, 60º e 90º de flexão. Estas medidas foram obtidas, em uma população de 40 adultos voluntários, 20 do sexo feminino e 20 do masculino, e confrontadas com idade, sexo e medidas antropométricas como estatura, envergadura e comprimento do dedo. RESULTADOS: Os resultados do estudo demonstraram que o tendão flexor é submetido à máxima força no início da flexão e que a for

  16. Endogenous money, circuits and financialization

    OpenAIRE

    Malcolm Sawyer

    2013-01-01

    This paper locates the endogenous money approach in a circuitist framework. It argues for the significance of the credit creation process for the evolution of the economy and the absence of any notion of ‘neutrality of money’. Clearing banks are distinguished from other financial institutions as the providers of initial finance in a circuit whereas other financial institutions operate in a final finance circuit. Financialization is here viewed in terms of the growth of financial assets an...

  17. Circuit modeling for electromagnetic compatibility

    CERN Document Server

    Darney, Ian B

    2013-01-01

    Very simply, electromagnetic interference (EMI) costs money, reduces profits, and generally wreaks havoc for circuit designers in all industries. This book shows how the analytic tools of circuit theory can be used to simulate the coupling of interference into, and out of, any signal link in the system being reviewed. The technique is simple, systematic and accurate. It enables the design of any equipment to be tailored to meet EMC requirements. Every electronic system consists of a number of functional modules interconnected by signal links and power supply lines. Electromagnetic interference

  18. Simplified design of filter circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Lenk, John

    1999-01-01

    Simplified Design of Filter Circuits, the eighth book in this popular series, is a step-by-step guide to designing filters using off-the-shelf ICs. The book starts with the basic operating principles of filters and common applications, then moves on to describe how to design circuits by using and modifying chips available on the market today. Lenk's emphasis is on practical, simplified approaches to solving design problems.Contains practical designs using off-the-shelf ICsStraightforward, no-nonsense approachHighly illustrated with manufacturer's data sheets

  19. Embedded systems circuits and programming

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchez, Julio

    2012-01-01

    During the development of an engineered product, developers often need to create an embedded system--a prototype--that demonstrates the operation/function of the device and proves its viability. Offering practical tools for the development and prototyping phases, Embedded Systems Circuits and Programming provides a tutorial on microcontroller programming and the basics of embedded design. The book focuses on several development tools and resources: Standard and off-the-shelf components, such as input/output devices, integrated circuits, motors, and programmable microcontrollers The implementat

  20. Integrated circuits for multimedia applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandi, Luca

    2007-01-01

    This work presents several key aspects in the design of RF integrated circuits for portable multimedia devices. One chapter is dedicated to the application of negative-feedback topologies to receiver frontends. A novel feedback technique suitable for common multiplier-based mixers is described......, and it is applied to a broad-band dual-loop receiver architecture in order to boost the linearity performances of the stage. A simplified noise- and linearity analysis of the circuit is derived, and a comparison is provided with a more traditional dual-loop topology (a broad-band stage based on shunt...

  1. Fermionic models with superconducting circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Las Heras, Urtzi; Garcia-Alvarez, Laura; Mezzacapo, Antonio; Lamata, Lucas [University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Department of Physical Chemistry, Bilbao (Spain); Solano, Enrique [University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Department of Physical Chemistry, Bilbao (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, Bilbao (Spain)

    2015-12-01

    We propose a method for the efficient quantum simulation of fermionic systems with superconducting circuits. It consists in the suitable use of Jordan-Wigner mapping, Trotter decomposition, and multiqubit gates, be with the use of a quantum bus or direct capacitive couplings. We apply our method to the paradigmatic cases of 1D and 2D Fermi-Hubbard models, involving couplings with nearest and next-nearest neighbours. Furthermore, we propose an optimal architecture for this model and discuss the benchmarking of the simulations in realistic circuit quantum electrodynamics setups. (orig.)

  2. Circuit, Thermal and Cost Characteristics of Impulse Magnetizing Circuits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the development of circuit, thermal and cost model for a capacitor discharge impulse megnetizer and compares simulations to measurements from an actual system. We used a cost structure consisting of five major subsystems for cost modeling. Especially, we estimated the potential for cost reductions impulse magnetizer as a function of time using the learning curve.

  3. Relaxation Based Electrical Simulation for VLSI Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rajkumar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Electrical circuit simulation was one of the first CAD tools developed for IC design. The conventional circuit simulators like SPICE and ASTAP were designed initially for the cost effective analysis of circuits containing a few hundred transistors or less. A number of approaches have been used to improve the performances of congenital circuit simulators for the analysis of large circuits. Thereafter relaxation methods was proposed to provide more accurate waveforms than standard circuit simulators with up to two orders of magnitude speed improvement for large circuits. In this paper we have tried to highlights recently used waveform and point relaxation techniques for simulation of VLSI circuits. We also propose a simple parallelization technique and experimentally demonstrate that we can solve digital circuits with tens of million transistors in a few hours.

  4. An Approach to Simplify Reversible Logic Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pabitra Roy

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Energy loss is one of the major problems in traditional irreversible circuits. For every bit of information loss kTln2 joules of heat is lost. In order to reduce the energy loss the concept of reversible logic circuits are introduced. Here we have described an algorithm for simplifying the reversible logic circuit and hence reduction of circuit cost and energy. The algorithm considers sub_circuit with respect to their number of lines and contiguous gates. The resulting sub_circuits are re-synthesized with smaller equivalent implementation. The process continues until circuit cost reaches good enough for Application or until a given computation budget has been exhausted. The circuit is constructed by NOT, CNOT and Toffoli gates only. By applying the algorithm and using the equivalent implementation we will get significant reduction of circuit cost and hence energy.

  5. Retropath: automated pipeline for embedded metabolic circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell, Pablo; Parutto, Pierre; Baudier, Claire; Junot, Christophe; Faulon, Jean-Loup

    2014-08-15

    Metabolic circuits are a promising alternative to other conventional genetic circuits as modular parts implementing functionalities required for synthetic biology applications. To date, metabolic design has been mainly focused on production circuits. Emergent applications such as smart therapeutics, however, require circuits that enable sensing and regulation. Here, we present RetroPath, an automated pipeline for embedded metabolic circuits that explores the circuit design space from a given set of specifications and selects the best circuits to implement based on desired constraints. Synthetic biology circuits embedded in a chassis organism that are capable of controlling the production, processing, sensing, and the release of specific molecules were enumerated in the metabolic space through a standard procedure. In that way, design and implementation of applications such as therapeutic circuits that autonomously diagnose and treat disease, are enabled, and their optimization is streamlined.

  6. Clocking Scheme for Switched-Capacitor Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensgaard-Madsen, Jesper

    1998-01-01

    A novel clocking scheme for switched-capacitor (SC) circuits is presented. It can enhance the understanding of SC circuits and the errors caused by MOSFET (MOS) switches. Charge errors, and techniques to make SC circuits less sensitive to them are discussed.......A novel clocking scheme for switched-capacitor (SC) circuits is presented. It can enhance the understanding of SC circuits and the errors caused by MOSFET (MOS) switches. Charge errors, and techniques to make SC circuits less sensitive to them are discussed....

  7. Digital circuit boards mach 1 GHz

    CERN Document Server

    Morrison, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    A unique, practical approach to the design of high-speed digital circuit boards The demand for ever-faster digital circuit designs is beginning to render the circuit theory used by engineers ineffective. Digital Circuit Boards presents an alternative to the circuit theory approach, emphasizing energy flow rather than just signal interconnection to explain logic circuit behavior. The book shows how treating design in terms of transmission lines will ensure that the logic will function, addressing both storage and movement of electrical energy on these lines. It cove

  8. Advanced circuit simulation using Multisim workbench

    CERN Document Server

    Báez-López, David; Cervantes-Villagómez, Ofelia Delfina

    2012-01-01

    Multisim is now the de facto standard for circuit simulation. It is a SPICE-based circuit simulator which combines analog, discrete-time, and mixed-mode circuits. In addition, it is the only simulator which incorporates microcontroller simulation in the same environment. It also includes a tool for printed circuit board design.Advanced Circuit Simulation Using Multisim Workbench is a companion book to Circuit Analysis Using Multisim, published by Morgan & Claypool in 2011. This new book covers advanced analyses and the creation of models and subcircuits. It also includes coverage of transmissi

  9. A Low Noise Electronic Circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annema, Anne J.; Leenaerts, Dominicus M.W.; de Vreede, Petrus W.H.

    2002-01-01

    An electronic circuit, which can be used as a Low Noise Amplifier (LNA), comprises two complementary Field Effect Transistors (M1, M2; M5, M6), each having a gate, a source and a drain. The gates are connected together as a common input terminal, and the drains are connected together as a

  10. A circuit mechanism for neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roselli, Francesco; Caroni, Pico

    2012-10-12

    How deficiency in SMN1 selectively affects motoneurons in spinal muscular atrophy is poorly understood. Here, Imlach et al. and Lotti et al. show that aberrant splicing of Stasimon in cholinergic sensory neurons and interneurons leads to motoneuron degeneration, suggesting that altered circuit function may underlie the disorder.

  11. Integrated Circuit Stellar Magnitude Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, James A.

    1978-01-01

    Describes an electronic circuit which can be used to demonstrate the stellar magnitude scale. Six rectangular light-emitting diodes with independently adjustable duty cycles represent stars of magnitudes 1 through 6. Experimentally verifies the logarithmic response of the eye. (Author/GA)

  12. Structural Testing of RSFQ Circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arun, A.J.; Kerkhoff, Hans G.; Flokstra, Jakob; Rogalla, Horst; Brinkman, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    The RSFQ family of logic circuits built in Niobium (Nb) tri-layer processes are being widely used for designs in Superconductor Electronics (SCE). But little information is available about the defects and fault mechanisms occurring in an RSFQ Nb process.

  13. Capillarys 2 Flex Piercing: Analytical performance assessment according to CLSI protocols for HbA1c quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doggui, Radhouene; Abdelhafidh Sahli, Chaïma; Aissa, Wassef Lotfi; Hammami, Maroua; Ben Sedrine, Maha; Mahjoub, Rahma; Zouaoui, Khemais; Daboubi, Rim; Siala, Hajer; Messaoud, Taieb; Bibi, Amina

    2017-09-01

    HbA1c is used for monitoring diabetic balance. In this paper we report an assessment of the analytical performances of Capillarys 2 Flex Piercing (C2FP) for HbA1c measurement using CE (Capillary Electrophoresis). CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute) protocols are used for the evaluation of apparatus performances: precision, linearity, method comparison, trueness and common interferences. HbA1c CVs average in intra-assay was 1.6% between run imprecision CV ranged from 0.1 to 1.8%. The linearity was demonstrated between 4.7 and 15.0%. The comparison study revealed that Bland Altman plot mean difference was equal to -0.03 (CI 95% (-0.05 to -0.0003)) and Passing-Bablok regression intercept was -0.05, CI95%(-0.13 -  -0.05); slope: 1.00, CI95%[1.00-1.01]. A strong correlation (r > 0.99) was proved. No significant effects of hemoglobin variants were seen with CE on HbA1c measurement. No problem related to sample-to-sample carry over was noted. No interferences of LA1c and cHb were observed. CE allowed quantification of HbA1c even at low level of total hemoglobin (40 g/L) in contrast to HPLC. Furthermore, this analyzer offered the opportunity of quantifying the HbA2 simultaneously with HbA1c . This evaluation showed that C2FP is a convenient system for the control of diabetes and the detection of hemoglobinopathies. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. The voltage-current relationship and equivalent circuit implementation of parallel flux-controlled memristive circuits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao Bo-Cheng; Feng Fei; Dong Wei; Pan Sai-Hu

    2013-01-01

    A flux-controlled memristor characterized by smooth cubic nonlinearity is taken as an example,upon which the voltage-current relationships (VCRs) between two parallel memristive circuits-a parallel memristor and capacitor circuit (the parallel MC circuit),and a parallel memristor and inductor circuit (the parallel ML circuit)-are investigated.The results indicate that the VCR between these two parallel memristive circuits is closely related to the circuit parameters,and the frequency and amplitude of the sinusoidal voltage stimulus.An equivalent circuit model of the memristor is built,upon which the circuit simulations and experimental measurements of both the parallel MC circuit and the parallel ML circuit are performed,and the results verify the theoretical analysis results.

  15. Developing a Domain Model for Relay Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    the statics as well as the dynamics of relay circuits, i.e. how a relay circuit can be composed legally from electrical components as well as how the components may change state over time. Finally the circuit model is transformed into an executable model, and we show how a concrete circuit can be defined......In this paper we stepwise develop a domain model for relay circuits as used in railway control systems. First we provide an abstract, property-oriented model of networks consisting of components that can be glued together with connectors. This model is strongly inspired by a network model...... for railways madeby Bjørner et.al., however our model is more general: the components can be of any kind and can later be refined to e.g. railway components or circuit components. Then we show how the abstract network model can be refined into an explicit model for relay circuits. The circuit model describes...

  16. Driver circuit for solid state light sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, Fred; Denvir, Kerry; Allen, Steven

    2016-02-16

    A driver circuit for a light source including one or more solid state light sources, a luminaire including the same, and a method of so driving the solid state light sources are provided. The driver circuit includes a rectifier circuit that receives an alternating current (AC) input voltage and provides a rectified AC voltage. The driver circuit also includes a switching converter circuit coupled to the light source. The switching converter circuit provides a direct current (DC) output to the light source in response to the rectified AC voltage. The driver circuit also includes a mixing circuit, coupled to the light source, to switch current through at least one solid state light source of the light source in response to each of a plurality of consecutive half-waves of the rectified AC voltage.

  17. Fabric circuits and method of manufacturing fabric circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Andrew W. (Inventor); Dobbins, Justin A. (Inventor); Scully, Robert C. (Inventor); Trevino, Robert C. (Inventor); Lin, Greg Y. (Inventor); Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A flexible, fabric-based circuit comprises a non-conductive flexible layer of fabric and a conductive flexible layer of fabric adjacent thereto. A non-conductive thread, an adhesive, and/or other means may be used for attaching the conductive layer to the non-conductive layer. In some embodiments, the layers are attached by a computer-driven embroidery machine at pre-determined portions or locations in accordance with a pre-determined attachment layout before automated cutting. In some other embodiments, an automated milling machine or a computer-driven laser using a pre-designed circuit trace as a template cuts the conductive layer so as to separate an undesired portion of the conductive layer from a desired portion of the conductive layer. Additional layers of conductive fabric may be attached in some embodiments to form a multi-layer construct.

  18. Brain-machine interface circuits and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zjajo, Amir

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a complete overview of significant design challenges in respect to circuit miniaturization and power reduction of the neural recording system, along with circuit topologies, architecture trends, and (post-silicon) circuit optimization algorithms. The introduced novel circuits for signal conditioning, quantization, and classification, as well as system configurations focus on optimized power-per-area performance, from the spatial resolution (i.e. number of channels), feasible wireless data bandwidth and information quality to the delivered power of implantable system.

  19. DC operating points of transistor circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trajkovic, Ljiljana

    Finding a circuit's dc operating points is an essential step in its design and involves solving systems of nonlinear algebraic equations. Of particular research and practical interests are dc analysis and simulation of electronic circuits consisting of bipolar junction and field-effect transistors (BJTs and FETs), which are building blocks of modern electronic circuits. In this paper, we survey main theoretical results related to dc operating points of transistor circuits and discuss numerical methods for their calculation.

  20. An Improved Squaring Circuit for Binary Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabiraj Sethi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a high speed squaring circuit for binary numbers is proposed. High speed Vedic multiplier is used for design of the proposed squaring circuit. The key to our success is that only one Vedic multiplier is used instead of four multipliers reported in the literature. In addition, one squaring circuit is used twice. Our proposed Squaring Circuit seems to have better performance in terms of speed.

  1. Solid-State dc Circuit Breaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, P.

    1983-01-01

    Circuit breaker with no moving parts protects direct-current (dc) loads. Current which circuit breaker opens (trip current) is adjustable and so is time delay before breaker trips. Forward voltage drop rises from 0.6 to 1.2 V as current rises to trip point. Breaker has two terminals, like fuse, therefore replaces fuse in dc circuit. Powered by circuit it protects and reset by either turning off power source or disconnecting load.

  2. 49 CFR 236.721 - Circuit, control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Circuit, control. 236.721 Section 236.721..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.721 Circuit, control. An electrical circuit between a source of electric energy and a device which it operates....

  3. New Logic Circuit with DC Parametric Excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugahara, Masanori; Kaneda, Hisayoshi

    1982-12-01

    It is shown that dc parametric excitation is possible in a circuit named JUDO, which is composed of two resistively-connected Josephson junctions. Simulation study proves that the circuit has large gain and properties suitable for the construction of small, high-speed logic circuits.

  4. An eigenvalue study of the MLC circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Erik; Murali, K.

    1998-01-01

    The MLC (Murali-Lakshmanan-Chua) circuit is the simplest non-autonomous chaotic circuit. Insight in the behaviour of the circuit is obtained by means of a study of the eigenvalues of the linearized Jacobian of the nonlinear differential equations. The trajectories of the eigenvalues as functions...

  5. Controllability/observability analysis of digital circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, L.H.

    1978-11-01

    The testability of a digital circuit is directy related to the difficulty of controlling and observing the logical values of internal nodes from circuit inputs and outputs, respectively. A method for analyzing digital circuits in terms of six functions which characterize combinational and sequential controllability and observability is presented.

  6. Controllability/observability analysis of digital circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, L.H.

    1979-01-01

    The testability of a digital circuit is directly related to the difficulty of controlling and observing the logical values of internal nodes from circuit inputs and outputs, respectively. A method for analyzing digital circuits in terms of six functions which characterize combinational and sequential controllability and observability is presented.

  7. Controllability/observability analysis of digital circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, L.H.

    1979-09-01

    The testability of a digital circuit is directly related to the difficulty of controlling and observing the logical values of internal nodes from circuit inputs and outputs, respectively. A method for analyzing digital circuits in terms of six functions which characterize combinational and sequential controllability and observability is presented.

  8. An Equivalent Circuit for Landau Damping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Hans

    1976-01-01

    An equivalent circuit simulating the effect of Landau damping in a stable plasma‐loaded parallel‐plate capacitor is presented. The circuit contains a double infinity of LC components. The transition from stable to unstable plasmas is simulated by the introduction of active elements into the circuit....

  9. 30 CFR 75.1323 - Blasting circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blasting circuits. 75.1323 Section 75.1323... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1323 Blasting circuits. (a) Blasting circuits shall be protected from sources of stray electric current. (b) Detonators made...

  10. 30 CFR 57.6403 - Branch circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Branch circuits. 57.6403 Section 57.6403... Blasting-Surface and Underground § 57.6403 Branch circuits. (a) If electric blasting includes the use of branch circuits, each branch shall be equipped with a safety switch or equivalent method to isolate...

  11. 49 CFR 234.203 - Control circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Control circuits. 234.203 Section 234.203 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION..., Inspection, and Testing Maintenance Standards § 234.203 Control circuits. All control circuits that...

  12. Nanoelectronic circuit design and test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsir, Muzaffer Orkun

    Controlling power consumption in CMOS integrated circuits (ICs) during normal mode of operation is becoming one of the limiting factors to further scaling. In addition, it is a well known fact that during testing of a complex IC, power consumption can far exceed the values reached during its normal operation. High power consumption, combined with limited cooling support, leads to overheating of ICs. This can cause permanent damage to the chip or can invalidate test results due to the fact that extreme temperature variations lead to changes in path delays. Therefore, even good chips can fail the test. For these reasons, thermal problems during test need to be identified to prevent the loss of yield in CMOS ICs. In this thesis, we propose a methodology for thermally characterizing circuits under test. Using this methodology, it is possible to simulate the thermal profiles of the chips during test and prevent possible yield loss because of thermal problems. In addition to the problems associated with power and temperature, a more important barrier is the scaling limitations of the CMOS technology. It has been predicted that in next decade, it will not be possible to scale it further. In the near future, rather than a transition to a completely new technology, extensions to CMOS seem to be more realistic. Double-gate CMOS technology is one of the most promising alternatives that offers a simple extension to CMOS. The transistors of this technology are formed by adding a second gate across the conventional CMOS transistor gate. Designing circuits using this technology has attracted a lot of attention. However, as circuit design methods mature, there is a need to identify how these circuits can be tested. From a circuit testing viewpoint, it is unclear if CMOS fault models are comprehensive enough to model all defects in double-gate CMOS circuits. Therefore, fault models of this technology need to be defined to enable manufacturing-time testing. In this thesis, we

  13. 30 CFR 75.518 - Electric equipment and circuits; overload and short circuit protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric equipment and circuits; overload and short circuit protection. 75.518 Section 75.518 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Equipment-General § 75.518 Electric equipment and circuits; overload and short circuit protection....

  14. Plants flex their skeletons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foster, Randy; Mattsson, Ole; Mundy, John

    2003-01-01

    Recent work on the fragile fiber mutants of Arabidopsis has identified microtubule-associated proteins that affect the orientation of cellulose microfibrils in cell walls, a major determinant of plant elongation growth. These same proteins are implicated in responses to gibberellin, provoking fresh...

  15. Flexing Its Muscles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A rising Russia frequently finds itself at odds with the West Less than six months after the dip- lomatic row between Russia and Britain triggered by the poisoning of former Russian spy Alexander Litvinenko,the two countries were embroiled in another dispute at the begin- ning of 2008.Russia’s closure of two regional offices of the British Council in

  16. Delay locked loop integrated circuit.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brocato, Robert Wesley

    2007-10-01

    This report gives a description of the development of a Delay Locked Loop (DLL) integrated circuit (IC). The DLL was developed and tested as a stand-alone IC test chip to be integrated into a larger application specific integrated circuit (ASIC), the Quadrature Digital Waveform Synthesizer (QDWS). The purpose of the DLL is to provide a digitally programmable delay to enable synchronization between an internal system clock and external peripherals with unknown clock skew. The DLL was designed and fabricated in the IBM 8RF process, a 0.13 {micro}m CMOS process. It was designed to operate with a 300MHz clock and has been tested up to 500MHz.

  17. Optogenetic Investigation of Arousal Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyree, Susan M; de Lecea, Luis

    2017-08-15

    Modulation between sleep and wake states is controlled by a number of heterogeneous neuron populations. Due to the topological proximity and genetic co-localization of the neurons underlying sleep-wake state modulation optogenetic methods offer a significant improvement in the ability to benefit from both the precision of genetic targeting and millisecond temporal control. Beginning with an overview of the neuron populations mediating arousal, this review outlines the progress that has been made in the investigation of arousal circuits since the incorporation of optogenetic techniques and the first in vivo application of optogenetic stimulation in hypocretin neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. This overview is followed by a discussion of the future progress that can be made by incorporating more recent technological developments into the research of neural circuits.

  18. Relativistic causality and clockless circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Matherat, Philippe; 10.1145/2043643.2043650

    2011-01-01

    Time plays a crucial role in the performance of computing systems. The accurate modelling of logical devices, and of their physical implementations, requires an appropriate representation of time and of all properties that depend on this notion. The need for a proper model, particularly acute in the design of clockless delay-insensitive (DI) circuits, leads one to reconsider the classical descriptions of time and of the resulting order and causal relations satisfied by logical operations. This questioning meets the criticisms of classical spacetime formulated by Einstein when founding relativity theory and is answered by relativistic conceptions of time and causality. Applying this approach to clockless circuits and considering the trace formalism, we rewrite Udding's rules which characterize communications between DI components. We exhibit their intrinsic relation with relativistic causality. For that purpose, we introduce relativistic generalizations of traces, called R-traces, which provide a pertinent des...

  19. Phonon waveguides for electromechanical circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatanaka, D.; Mahboob, I.; Onomitsu, K.; Yamaguchi, H.

    2014-07-01

    Nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS), utilizing localized mechanical vibrations, have found application in sensors, signal processors and in the study of macroscopic quantum mechanics. The integration of multiple mechanical elements via electrical or optical means remains a challenge in the realization of NEMS circuits. Here, we develop a phonon waveguide using a one-dimensional array of suspended membranes that offers purely mechanical means to integrate isolated NEMS resonators. We demonstrate that the phonon waveguide can support and guide mechanical vibrations and that the periodic membrane arrangement also creates a phonon bandgap that enables control of the phonon propagation velocity. Furthermore, embedding a phonon cavity into the phonon waveguide allows mobile mechanical vibrations to be dynamically switched or transferred from the waveguide to the cavity, thereby illustrating the viability of waveguide-resonator coupling. These highly functional traits of the phonon waveguide architecture exhibit all the components necessary to permit the realization of all-phononic NEMS circuits.

  20. Handbook of microwave integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Reinmut K.

    The design and operation of ICs for use in the 0.5-20-GHz range are described in an introductory and reference work for industrial engineers. Chapters are devoted to an overview of microwave IC (MIC) technology, general stripline characteristics, microwave transmission line (MTL) parameters for microstrips with isotropic dielectric substrates, higher-order modes on a microstrip, the effects of metallic enclosure on MTL transmission parameters, losses in microstrips, the measurement of MTL parameters, and MTLs on anisotropic dielectric substrates. Consideration is given to coupled microstrips on dielectric substrates, microstrip discontinuities, radiation from microstrip circuits, MTL variations, coplanar MTLs, slotlines, and spurious modes in MTL circuits. Diagrams, drawings, graphs, and a glossary of symbols are provided.

  1. Advanced Microwave Circuits and Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book is based on recent research work conducted by the authors dealing with the design and development of active and passive microwave components, integrated circuits and systems. It is divided into seven parts. In the first part comprising the first two chapters, alternative concepts...... and equations for multiport network analysis and characterization are provided. A thru-only de-embedding technique for accurate on-wafer characterization is introduced. The second part of the book corresponds to the analysis and design of ultra-wideband low-noise amplifiers (LNA). The LNA is the most critical...... as sufficient gain in a wide frequency range of operation, which is very difficult to achieve. Most circuits demonstrated are not stable across the frequency band, which makes these amplifiers prone to self-oscillations and therefore limit their applicability. The trade-off between noise figure, gain, linearity...

  2. Foundations for microstrip circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Edwards, Terry

    2016-01-01

    Building on the success of the previous three editions, Foundations for Microstrip Circuit Design offers extensive new, updated and revised material based upon the latest research. Strongly design-oriented, this fourth edition provides the reader with a fundamental understanding of this fast expanding field making it a definitive source for professional engineers and researchers and an indispensable reference for senior students in electronic engineering. Topics new to this edition: microwave substrates, multilayer transmission line structures, modern EM tools and techniques, microstrip and planar transmision line design, transmission line theory, substrates for planar transmission lines, Vias, wirebonds, 3D integrated interposer structures, computer-aided design, microstrip and power-dependent effects, circuit models, microwave network analysis, microstrip passive elements, and slotline design fundamentals.

  3. Ultra-low power integrated circuit design circuits, systems, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Dongmei; Wang, Zhihua

    2014-01-01

    This book describes the design of CMOS circuits for ultra-low power consumption including analog, radio frequency (RF), and digital signal processing circuits (DSP). The book addresses issues from circuit and system design to production design, and applies the ultra-low power circuits described to systems for digital hearing aids and capsule endoscope devices. Provides a valuable introduction to ultra-low power circuit design, aimed at practicing design engineers; Describes all key building blocks of ultra-low power circuits, from a systems perspective; Applies circuits and systems described to real product examples such as hearing aids and capsule endoscopes.

  4. Counterpulse railgun energy recovery circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honig, Emanuel M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1986-01-01

    In an electromagnetic launcher such as a railgun for propelling a projectile at high velocity, a counterpulse energy recovery circuit is employed to transfer stored inductive energy from a source inductor to the railgun inductance to propel the projectile down the railgun. Switching circuitry and an energy transfer capacitor are used to switch the energy back to the source inductor in readiness for a repetitive projectile propelling cycle.

  5. Overpulse railgun energy recovery circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honig, Emanuel M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1989-01-01

    In an electromagnetic launcher such as a railgun for propelling a projectile at high velocity, an overpulse energy recovery circuit is employed to transfer stored inductive energy from a source inductor to the railgun inductance to propel the projectile down the railgun. Switching circuitry and an energy transfer capacitor are used to switch the energy back to the source inductor in readiness for a repetitive projectile propelling cycle.

  6. Monolithic readout circuits for RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Connor, P.; Harder, J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Several CMOS ASICs have been developed for a proposed RHIC experiment. This paper discusses why ASIC implementation was chosen for certain functions, circuit specifications and the design techniques used to meet them, and results of simulations and early prototypes. By working closely together from an early stage in the planning process, in-house ASIC designers and detector and data acquisition experimenters can achieve optimal use of this important technology.

  7. Monolithic readout circuits for RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Connor, P.; Harder, J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Several CMOS ASICs have been developed for a proposed RHIC experiment. This paper discusses why ASIC implementation was chosen for certain functions, circuit specifications and the design techniques used to meet them, and results of simulations and early prototypes. By working closely together from an early stage in the planning process, in-house ASIC designers and detector and data acquisition experimenters can achieve optimal use of this important technology.

  8. Optimization of Bootstrapping in Circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Benhamouda, Fabrice; Lepoint, Tancrède; Mathieu, Claire; Zhou, Hang

    2016-01-01

    In 2009, Gentry proposed the first Fully Homomorphic Encryption (FHE) scheme, an extremely powerful cryptographic primitive that enables to perform computations, i.e., to evaluate circuits, on encrypted data without decrypting them first. This has many applications, in particular in cloud computing. In all currently known FHE schemes, encryptions are associated to some (non-negative integer) noise level, and at each evaluation of an AND gate, the noise level increases. This is problematic bec...

  9. Coulomb drag in quantum circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Levchenko, Alex; Kamenev, Alex

    2008-01-01

    We study drag effect in a system of two electrically isolated quantum point contacts (QPC), coupled by Coulomb interactions. Drag current exhibits maxima as a function of QPC gate voltages when the latter are tuned to the transitions between quantized conductance plateaus. In the linear regime this behavior is due to enhanced electron-hole asymmetry near an opening of a new conductance channel. In the non-linear regime the drag current is proportional to the shot noise of the driving circuit,...

  10. Behavioral synthesis of asynchronous circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sune Fallgaard

    2005-01-01

    domain by introducing a computation model, which resembles the synchronous datapath and control architecture, but which is completely asynchronous. The model contains the possibility for isolating some or all of the functional units by locking their respective inputs and outputs while the functional unit....... The datapath and control architecture is then expressed in the Balsa-language, and using syntax directed compilation a corresponding handshake circuit implementation (and eventually a layout) is produced....

  11. Effects of High Octane Ethanol Blends on Four Legacy Flex-Fuel Vehicles, and a Turbocharged GDI Vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, John F [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); West, Brian H [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Huff, Shean P [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is supporting engine and vehicle research to investigate the potential of high-octane fuels to improve fuel economy. Ethanol has very high research octane number (RON) and heat of vaporization (HoV), properties that make it an excellent spark ignition engine fuel. The prospects of increasing both the ethanol content and the octane number of the gasoline pool has the potential to enable improved fuel economy in future vehicles with downsized, downsped engines. This report describes a small study to explore the potential performance benefits of high octane ethanol blends in the legacy fleet. There are over 17 million flex-fuel vehicles (FFVs) on the road today in the United States, vehicles capable of using any fuel from E0 to E85. If a future high-octane blend for dedicated vehicles is on the horizon, the nation is faced with the classic chicken-and-egg dilemma. If today’s FFVs can see a performance advantage with a high octane ethanol blend such as E25 or E30, then perhaps consumer demand for this fuel can serve as a bridge to future dedicated vehicles. Experiments were performed with four FFVs using a 10% ethanol fuel (E10) with 88 pump octane, and a market gasoline blended with ethanol to make a 30% by volume ethanol fuel (E30) with 94 pump octane. The research octane numbers were 92.4 for the E10 fuel and 100.7 for the E30 fuel. Two vehicles had gasoline direct injected (GDI) engines, and two featured port fuel injection (PFI). Significant wide open throttle (WOT) performance improvements were measured for three of the four FFVs, with one vehicle showing no change. Additionally, a conventional (non-FFV) vehicle with a small turbocharged direct-injected engine was tested with a regular grade of gasoline with no ethanol (E0) and a splash blend of this same fuel with 15% ethanol by volume (E15). RON was increased from 90.7 for the E0 to 97.8 for the E15 blend. Significant wide open throttle and thermal efficiency performance

  12. CMOS circuit design, layout and simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Baker, R Jacob

    2010-01-01

    The Third Edition of CMOS Circuit Design, Layout, and Simulation continues to cover the practical design of both analog and digital integrated circuits, offering a vital, contemporary view of a wide range of analog/digital circuit blocks including: phase-locked-loops, delta-sigma sensing circuits, voltage/current references, op-amps, the design of data converters, and much more. Regardless of one's integrated circuit (IC) design skill level, this book allows readers to experience both the theory behind, and the hands-on implementation of, complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) IC design via detailed derivations, discussions, and hundreds of design, layout, and simulation examples.

  13. Self arbitrated VLSI asynchronous sequential circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, S.; Maki, G.

    1990-01-01

    A new class of asynchronous sequential circuits is introduced in this paper. The new design procedures are oriented towards producing asynchronous sequential circuits that are implemented with CMOS VLSI and take advantage of pass transistor technology. The first design algorithm utilizes a standard Single Transition Time (STT) state assignment. The second method introduces a new class of self synchronizing asynchronous circuits which eliminates the need for critical race free state assignments. These circuits arbitrate the transition path action by forcing the circuit to sequence through proper unstable states. These methods result in near minimum hardware since only the transition paths associated with state variable changes need to be implemented with pass transistor networks.

  14. Design of analog circuits through symbolic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Fakhfakh, Mourad; V Fernández, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Symbolic analyzers have the potential to offer knowledge to sophomores as well as practitioners of analog circuit design. Actually, they are an essential complement to numerical simulators, since they provide insight into circuit behavior which numerical analyzers do not provide. Symbolic analysis of electronic circuits addresses the generation of symbolic expressions for the parameters that describe the performance of linear and nonlinear circuits in three domains: DC, AC and time; some or all the circuit parameters can be kept as symbols. Due to the fact that these expressions remain va

  15. Model Order Reduction for Electronic Circuits:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.; Shontz, Suzanne

    Electronic circuits are ubiquitous; they are used in numerous industries including: the semiconductor, communication, robotics, auto, and music industries (among many others). As products become more and more complicated, their electronic circuits also grow in size and complexity. This increased...... the need for circuit simulators to evaluate potential designs before fabrication, as integrated circuit prototypes are expensive to build, and troubleshooting is difficult. In this report, we focus on the simulation of printed circuit boards (PCB’s) and interconnects both of which are of great importance...

  16. The Selection and Design of Deep-water Flex Joints%深水立管柔性节点选型设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周灿丰; 焦向东; 曹静; 沙勇; 房晓明

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate several key problems of deep-water flex joints, such as application conditions, major components, installation methods and selection principles, this paper demonstrated the overall knowledge through collecting and understanding literatures abroad. Flex joints are usually used to hang SCR, which are controlled by molded elastomeric bearing, and the 1st weld between the joint and the first pipe segment must be manufactured and checked strictly. For flex joint selection, several factors must be considered carefully, such as working tension, working pressure, working tension, angular rotation, rotational stiffness and geometrical sizes.%研究了深水立管系统柔性节点的应用场合、关键构件、安装方法、选型原则等基本技术问题,通过对国外文献的搜集、整理、翻译和消化,对这些问题有了比较系统的认识.研究表明柔性节点最主要的应用是SCR立管悬挂,球形模压弹性轴承是柔性节点的关键构件,在柔性节点安装中要求严格保证第一焊缝质量,柔性节点选型主要考虑轴向张力、介质压力、偏角、转动刚度和尺寸等因素.

  17. Predictors for anterior pelvic tilt following surgical correction of flexed knee gait including patellar tendon shortening in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Harald; Hösl, Matthias; Döderlein, Leonhard

    2017-05-01

    Patellar tendon shortening procedure within single event multilevel surgeries was shown to improve crouch gait in Cerebral Palsy (CP) patients. However, one of the drawbacks associated to the correction of flexed knee gait may be increased pelvic anterior tilt with compensatory lumbar lordosis. Which CP patients are at risk for excessive anterior pelvic tilt following correction of flexed knee gait including patellar tendon shortening? 32 patients with CP between 8 and 18 years GMFCS I&II were included. They received patellar tendon shortenings within multilevel surgery. Patients with concomitant knee flexor lengthening were excluded. Gait analysis and clinical testing was performed pre- and 24.1 (SD=1.9) months postoperatively. Patients were subdivided into more/less than 5° increase in anterior pelvic tilt. Preoperative measures indicating m. rectus and m. psoas shortness, knee flexor over-length, hip extensor and abdominal muscle weakness and equinus gait were compared between groups. Stepwise multilinear regression of the response value increase in pelvic tilt during stance phase was performed from parameters that were significantly different between groups. 34% of patients showed more than 5° increased pelvic anterior tilt postoperatively. Best predictors for anterior pelvic tilt from preoperative measures were increased m. rectus tone and reduced hip extension during walking that explained together 39% of the variance in increase of anterior pelvic tilt. Every third patient showed considerable increased pelvic tilt following surgery of flexed knee gait. In particular patients with preoperative higher muscle tone in m. rectus and lower hip extension during walking were at risk and both features need to be addressed in the therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. LHCb: Production, measurement and simulation of a low mass flex cable for multi gigabit/s readout for the LHCb VELO upgrade

    CERN Multimedia

    Lemos Cid, E; Buytaert, J; Esperante Pereira, D; Ronning, P A; Visniakov, J; G Sanchez, M; Vazquez Regueiro, P

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this project is to examine the feasibility of data transmission up to ~5Gbit/s on a short (~60cm) low mass flex cable. These cables will be used for the readout of the upgraded vertex detector (VELO) of the LHCb experiment in high radiation and vacuum environment. We present a study of different transmission line geometries, the effect of using fine pitch (400μm) connectors, the use of grounded guard traces and via holes to suppress crosstalk and the effect of the line parameters in the data transmission. Time and frequency domain measurements and simulation will be presented.

  19. 氯化聚乙烯/丁腈橡胶共混胶的屈挠性能%Flex Properties of Chlorinated Polyethylene/Nitrile Rubber Blends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘林国; 鲁冰雪; 曹江勇; 辛振祥

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the impact of ethylenethiourea(NA-22)/tetramethyl thiuram di-sulfide (TMTD),dicumyl peroxide/sulphur (DCP/S) curing system and filling system on flex properties of chlorinated polyethylene/nitrile rubber (CM/NBR) blends were studied using the optimized formula design. The results showed that, the flex fatigue life of CM/NBR blends using the NA-22/TMTD curing system was better. The times of first order crack growth reached 100 000 when NA-22 and TMTD contents were 1. 5 phr and 1. 2 phr, respectively. The flex property was improved when the blends were filled with carbon black N220, the larger the carbon black size, the worse the flex property. In addition, CM/NBR blends filled with nano-CaCO3 also had a good fatigue resistant characteristic with the times of first order crack of 50000.%采用氯化聚乙烯/丁腈橡胶(CM/NBR)共混质量比为60:40的共混胶,利用配方优化设计方法,研究了亚乙级硫脲/二硫化四甲基秋兰姆(NA-22/TMTD)、过氧化二异丙苯/硫磺(DCP/S)硫化体系以及补强填充体系对共混胶屈挠性能的影响.结果表明,采用NA-22/TMTD硫化体系的硫化胶具有较好的屈挠性能,用量为1.5份/1.2份时,1级裂口屈挠次数可达10万次;DCP/S用量为0.58份/0.92份时,屈挠性较好,1级裂口屈挠次数达到2万次;不同粒径补强炭黑(N550,N330,N220),粒径最小的N220具有较好的屈挠性能,随着粒径增加,屈挠性能变差;填充纳米碳酸钙时,1级裂口屈挠次数达到5万次,比其他填充剂屈挠性好.

  20. Component Testing for Modular Pier Replacement at McMurdo Station, Antarctica: Inflatable Pontoons, Gelbo Flex and Full-Scale Cold Storage/Fold Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    40 4 0 10,000 No leaks Welded -4 Vulcanized −40 4 0 10,000 No leaks ERDC/CRREL TR-14-14 8 The LMCS pontoon fabric (samples Pontoon-1 to 3...cracking or leaks in the fabric or fabric joint welds . Upon receiving the pontoon, we inflated it and determined that there were 5 leaks caused from prior...durability and strength of the pontoon fabric when tested at Antarctic temperatures by using a cold-modified Gelbo flex (ASTM F392) test. The

  1. High-frequency data observations from space shuttle main engine low pressure fuel turbopump discharge duct flex joint tripod failure investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, T. F.; Farr, R. A.

    1991-01-01

    Observations made by Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) engineers during their participation in the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) low pressure fuel turbopump discharge duct flex joint tripod failure investigation are summarized. New signal processing techniques used by the Component Assessment Branch and the Induced Environments Branch during the failure investigation are described in detail. Moreover, nonlinear correlations between frequently encountered anomalous frequencies found in SSME dynamic data are discussed. A recommendation is made to continue low pressure fuel (LPF) duct testing through laboratory flow simulations and MSFC-managed technology test bed SSME testing.

  2. Design of superconductor frame compression circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, T.; Miyaho, N.; Miyahara, K.

    2007-10-01

    We proposed previously a novel interface circuit which was used between semiconductor data-input circuits and superconductor high-speed routers. The frame length of data packets is compressed in the interface circuit. Our proposed interface circuit has rather narrow timing margin. The problem was that our control circuit of the interface circuit could allow only very small timing delay. In this paper we propose a modified control circuit. We have improved the timing margin of the control circuit using RS-flip flop (RS-FF), where two shift registers and one control circuit are driven by clock pulses provided from a master clock-pulse generator. In this circuit, we have assumed fixed frame length packets. Our final target of master clock frequency is 100 GHz which will be realized with the device-parameter set of future advanced process. As the first step of realizing this target value, we aimed at 40 GHz clock operation with the conventional device-parameter set of NECs standard I process. The behavior of the whole frame compression circuit was simulated by a computer, and it was confirmed that it operated properly up to the master clock frequency of 23 GHz.

  3. Fractional linear systems and electrical circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Kaczorek, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    This monograph covers some selected problems of positive and fractional electrical circuits composed of resistors, coils, capacitors and voltage (current) sources. The book consists of 8 chapters, 4 appendices and a list of references. Chapter 1 is devoted to fractional standard and positive continuous-time and discrete-time linear systems without and with delays. In chapter 2 the standard and positive fractional electrical circuits are considered and the fractional electrical circuits in transient states are analyzed.  Descriptor linear electrical circuits and their properties are investigated in chapter 3,  while chapter 4 is devoted to the stability of fractional standard and positive linear electrical circuits. The reachability, observability and reconstructability of fractional positive electrical circuits and their decoupling zeros are analyzed in chapter 5. The fractional linear electrical circuits with feedbacks are considered in chapter 6. In chapter 7 solutions of minimum energy control for standa...

  4. Graphene radio frequency receiver integrated circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shu-Jen; Garcia, Alberto Valdes; Oida, Satoshi; Jenkins, Keith A; Haensch, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Graphene has attracted much interest as a future channel material in radio frequency electronics because of its superior electrical properties. Fabrication of a graphene integrated circuit without significantly degrading transistor performance has proven to be challenging, posing one of the major bottlenecks to compete with existing technologies. Here we present a fabrication method fully preserving graphene transistor quality, demonstrated with the implementation of a high-performance three-stage graphene integrated circuit. The circuit operates as a radio frequency receiver performing signal amplification, filtering and downconversion mixing. All circuit components are integrated into 0.6 mm(2) area and fabricated on 200 mm silicon wafers, showing the unprecedented graphene circuit complexity and silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process compatibility. The demonstrated circuit performance allow us to use graphene integrated circuit to perform practical wireless communication functions, receiving and restoring digital text transmitted on a 4.3-GHz carrier signal.

  5. 46 CFR 111.54-1 - Circuit breakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Circuit breakers. 111.54-1 Section 111.54-1 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Circuit Breakers § 111.54-1 Circuit breakers. (a) Each Circuit breaker must— (1) Meet the general... circuit breaker frame. (e) Each circuit breaker located in an engineroom, boilerroom, or machinery......

  6. 14 CFR 23.1357 - Circuit protective devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... circuit breakers, must be installed in all electrical circuits other than— (1) Main circuits of starter... circuit breaker or replace a fuse is essential to safety in flight, that circuit breaker or fuse must be... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Circuit protective devices. 23.1357...

  7. Lower Bounds for Tropical Circuits and Dynamic Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Jukna, Stasys

    2014-01-01

    Tropical circuits are circuits with Min and Plus, or Max and Plus operations as gates. Their importance stems from their intimate relation to dynamic programming algorithms. The power of tropical circuits lies somewhere between that of monotone boolean circuits and monotone arithmetic circuits. In this paper we present some lower bounds arguments for tropical circuits, and hence, for dynamic programs.

  8. Integration of the heat and refrigeration sector into the electricity market model PowerFlex for the analysis of sector encompasing effects on the climate protection goals and EE integration. Scientific final report - actualized version; Einbindung des Waerme- und Kaeltesektors in das Strommarktmodell PowerFlex zur Analyse sektoruebergreifender Effekte auf Klimaschutzziele und EE-Integration. Wissenschaftlicher Endbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Matthias; Hesse, Tilman; Kenkmann, Tanja [Oeko-Institut e.V., Institut fuer Angewandte Oekologie, Freiburg (Germany); and others

    2017-06-21

    The report covers the following issues: (i) Detailed description of the heat sector and its coupling to the electricity sector within the electricity market model PowerFlex: provate heat demand, derivation of heat load profiles, development of a technology and energy carrier mix, data inputs for the electricity market regulation. (ii) Creation of an empirically based data basis for the air conditioning of building, its coupling to the electricity system and derivation of recommendations: preparation of a representative empirical determination of the status quo and the factors that provoke private households to install air conditions, effective parameters for the development of energy demand for air conditioning of residential homes, preparation of a data input for the electricity market model - methodology and results. (iii) Preparation of generic renewable energy supply time series with different levels of fluctuation: Methodology of the renewable energy profile calculation, calculation of the supply profile for photovoltaics, calculation of the supply profile for onshore wind and offshore wind. (iv) Extension of the electricity market model PowerFlex to PowerFlex-heat and cold for the sector encompassing scenario analysis: extension of the module to cogeneration power plants, power-to-heat and power-to-gas for the detailed description of the heat sector, extension of the module for load management, scenarios and interpretation of the results.

  9. Quantum Memristors with Superconducting Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmilehto, J.; Deppe, F.; di Ventra, M.; Sanz, M.; Solano, E.

    2017-02-01

    Memristors are resistive elements retaining information of their past dynamics. They have garnered substantial interest due to their potential for representing a paradigm change in electronics, information processing and unconventional computing. Given the advent of quantum technologies, a design for a quantum memristor with superconducting circuits may be envisaged. Along these lines, we introduce such a quantum device whose memristive behavior arises from quasiparticle-induced tunneling when supercurrents are cancelled. For realistic parameters, we find that the relevant hysteretic behavior may be observed using current state-of-the-art measurements of the phase-driven tunneling current. Finally, we develop suitable methods to quantify memory retention in the system.

  10. Circuit considerations for repetitive railguns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honih, E.M.

    1986-01-01

    Railgun electromagnetic launchers have significant military and scientific potential. They provide direct conversion of electrical energy to projectile kinetic energy, and they offer the hope of achieving projectile velocities greatly exceeding the limits of conventional guns. With over 10 km/sec already demonstrated, railguns are attracting attention for tactical and strategic weapons systems and for scientific equation-of-state research. The full utilization of railguns will require significant improvements in every aspect of system design - projectile, barrel, and power source - to achieve operation on a large scale. This paper will review fundamental aspects of railguns, with emphasis on circuit considerations and repetitive operation.

  11. Circuit for Driving Piezoelectric Transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, David P.; Chapsky, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The figure schematically depicts an oscillator circuit for driving a piezoelectric transducer to excite vibrations in a mechanical structure. The circuit was designed and built to satisfy application-specific requirements to drive a selected one of 16 such transducers at a regulated amplitude and frequency chosen to optimize the amount of work performed by the transducer and to compensate for both (1) temporal variations of the resonance frequency and damping time of each transducer and (2) initially unknown differences among the resonance frequencies and damping times of different transducers. In other words, the circuit is designed to adjust itself to optimize the performance of whichever transducer is selected at any given time. The basic design concept may be adaptable to other applications that involve the use of piezoelectric transducers in ultrasonic cleaners and other apparatuses in which high-frequency mechanical drives are utilized. This circuit includes three resistor-capacitor networks that, together with the selected piezoelectric transducer, constitute a band-pass filter having a peak response at a frequency of about 2 kHz, which is approximately the resonance frequency of the piezoelectric transducers. Gain for generating oscillations is provided by a power hybrid operational amplifier (U1). A junction field-effect transistor (Q1) in combination with a resistor (R4) is used as a voltage-variable resistor to control the magnitude of the oscillation. The voltage-variable resistor is part of a feedback control loop: Part of the output of the oscillator is rectified and filtered for use as a slow negative feedback to the gate of Q1 to keep the output amplitude constant. The response of this control loop is much slower than 2 kHz and, therefore, does not introduce significant distortion of the oscillator output, which is a fairly clean sine wave. The positive AC feedback needed to sustain oscillations is derived from sampling the current through the

  12. Pragmatic circuits signals and filters

    CERN Document Server

    Eccles, William

    2006-01-01

    Pragmatic Circuits: Signals and Filters is built around the processing of signals. Topics include spectra, a short introduction to the Fourier series, design of filters, and the properties of the Fourier transform. The focus is on signals rather than power. But the treatment is still pragmatic. For example, the author accepts the work of Butterworth and uses his results to design filters in a fairly methodical fashion. This third of three volumes finishes with a look at spectra by showing how to get a spectrum even if a signal is not periodic. The Fourier transform provides a way of dealing wi

  13. Circuit Breakers and Market Runs

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Draus; Mark Van Achter

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes whether the application of a “circuit breaker” to a financial market (i.e. a mechanism that interrupts trading for a predetermined period when the price moves beyond a predetermined level) reaches its intended goals of increased market stability and overall welfare. Our framework of analysis is a model in which investors can trade at several dates and might face a liquidity shock forcing them to sell immediately when the shock occurs. This setting potentially induces a “ma...

  14. Recursive Optimization of Digital Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-14

    capability will become increasingly important as the application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) market continues to meet its rapid growth projections... market (ASIC) continues to grow (18). The recursive optimization system presented in this thesis was developed to inves- tigate a new approach to global...f)) (narg (bar arg)) (fO (divide f narg)) (f1 (divide f arg)) (gO (divide g narg)) (gi (divide g arg)) ( productO (mult fO gO)) (producti (mult fl gl

  15. Model reduction for circuit simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Hinze, Michael; Maten, E Jan W Ter

    2011-01-01

    Simulation based on mathematical models plays a major role in computer aided design of integrated circuits (ICs). Decreasing structure sizes, increasing packing densities and driving frequencies require the use of refined mathematical models, and to take into account secondary, parasitic effects. This leads to very high dimensional problems which nowadays require simulation times too large for the short time-to-market demands in industry. Modern Model Order Reduction (MOR) techniques present a way out of this dilemma in providing surrogate models which keep the main characteristics of the devi

  16. Quantum Memristors with Superconducting Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmilehto, J.; Deppe, F.; Di Ventra, M.; Sanz, M.; Solano, E.

    2017-01-01

    Memristors are resistive elements retaining information of their past dynamics. They have garnered substantial interest due to their potential for representing a paradigm change in electronics, information processing and unconventional computing. Given the advent of quantum technologies, a design for a quantum memristor with superconducting circuits may be envisaged. Along these lines, we introduce such a quantum device whose memristive behavior arises from quasiparticle-induced tunneling when supercurrents are cancelled. For realistic parameters, we find that the relevant hysteretic behavior may be observed using current state-of-the-art measurements of the phase-driven tunneling current. Finally, we develop suitable methods to quantify memory retention in the system. PMID:28195193

  17. Circuit QED with transmon qubits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wulschner, Karl Friedrich; Puertas, Javier; Baust, Alexander; Eder, Peter; Fischer, Michael; Goetz, Jan; Haeberlein, Max; Schwarz, Manuel; Xie, Edwar; Zhong, Ling; Deppe, Frank; Fedorov, Kirill; Marx, Achim; Menzel, Edwin; Gross, Rudolf [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM), Muenchen (Germany); Huebl, Hans [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany); Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM), Muenchen (Germany); Weides, Martin [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Superconducting quantum bits are basic building blocks for circuit QED systems. Applications in the fields of quantum computation and quantum simulation require long coherence times. We have fabricated and characterized superconducting transmon qubits which are designed to operate at a high ratio of Josephson energy and charging energy. Due to their low sensitivity to charge noise transmon qubits show good coherence properties. We couple transmon qubits to coplanar waveguide resonators and coplanar slotline resonators and characterize the devices at mK-temperatures. From the experimental data we derive the qubit-resonator coupling strength, the qubit relaxation time and calibrate the photon number in the resonator via Stark shifts.

  18. Radio frequency integrated circuit design

    CERN Document Server

    Rogers, John W M

    2010-01-01

    This newly revised and expanded edition of the 2003 Artech House classic, Radio Frequency Integrated Circuit Design, serves as an up-to-date, practical reference for complete RFIC know-how. The second edition includes numerous updates, including greater coverage of CMOS PA design, RFIC design with on-chip components, and more worked examples with simulation results. By emphasizing working designs, this book practically transports you into the authors' own RFIC lab so you can fully understand the function of each design detailed in this book. Among the RFIC designs examined are RF integrated LC

  19. HF radio systems and circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Sabin, William

    1998-01-01

    A comprehensive reference for the design of high frequency communications systems and equipment. This revised edition is loaded with practical data, much of which cannot be found in other reference books. Its approach to the subject follows the needs of an engineer from system definition and performance requirements down to the individual circuit elements that make up radio transmitters and receivers. The accompanying disk contains updated software on filters, matching networks and receiver analysis. SciTech Publishing also provides many other products related to Communication Systems Design.

  20. Clinical Outcomes in Men and Women following Total Knee Arthroplasty with a High-Flex Knee: No Clinical Effect of Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M. Nassif

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available While it is generally recognized that anatomical differences exist between the male and female knee, the literature generally refutes the clinical need for gender-specific total knee prostheses. It has been found that standard, unisex knees perform as well, or better, in women than men. Recently, high-flex knees have become available that mechanically accommodate increased flexion yet no studies have directly compared the outcomes of these devices in men and women to see if gender-based differences exist. We retrospectively compared the performance of the high-flex Vanguard knee (Biomet, Warsaw, IN in 716 male and 1,069 female knees. Kaplan-Meier survivorship was 98.5% at 5.6–5.7 years for both genders. After 2 years, mean improvements in Knee Society Knee and Function scores for men and women (50.9 versus 46.3; 26.5 versus 23.1 and corresponding SF-12 Mental and Physical scores (0.2 versus 2.2; 13.7 versus 12.2 were similar with differences not clinically relevant. Postoperative motion gains as a function of preoperative motion level were virtually identical in men and women. This further confirms the suitability of unisex total knee prostheses for both men and women.

  1. Concreto autoadensável reforçado com fibras de aço: comportamento à flexão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Barros

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi desenvolvido para avaliar o comportamento de vigas de concreto autoadensável (CAA reforçado com fibras de aço submetidas à flexão. Para tal, foram utilizadas fibras de aço com fator l/d = 50, em uma fração volumétrica de 1%. Foram confeccionadas vigas armadas de dimensões (12,5 x 23,5 x 132 cm, as quais foram ensaiadas por flexão a quatro pontos, aos 28 dias de idade, sendo feitas medições das deformações apresentadas nos estribos e armadura longitudinal, além de medições das deformações do concreto na região comprimida e das flechas no meio do vão. Os resultados dos ensaios mostraram que a adição das fibras de aço ao CAA promoveu sensível ganho na capacidade resistente da viga, com menores flechas, menores deformações das armaduras, longitudinal e transversal, e melhorado controle da fissuração, em comparação às demais vigas produzidas com concretos convencionais, com e sem fibras de aço.

  2. The INDUS knee prosthesis - Prospective multicentric trial of a posteriorly stabilized high-flex design: 2 years follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sancheti Kantilal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The anatomical and morphological differences and high-flexion daily activities in the Asian population have since ever prompted for development of customized knee replacement systems. INDUS knee system has advantages both of high-flex designs and is developed by keeping the anatomical variations of the native population in mind. The purpose of this study is to analyze the 2-year follow-up results using the INDUS prosthesis. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and ninety-seven knees in 276 patients were prospectively analyzed. There were 65 men (72 knees and 211 (225 knees women with a mean age of 64.56 years. Two hundred and forty-five knees had primary osteoarthritis, 48 knees had rheumatoid arthritis, and four knees had post-traumatic arthritis. Clinical parameters, including the Knee Society scores (knee score and function score, range of motion, post-operative anterior knee pain, and complications were recorded. Pre- and post-operative serial radiographs were analyzed for limb alignment, component positioning, and evidence of loosening. Results: The patients were followed-up for an average of 2.59 years (range, 2-3.3 years. The mean knee score and the mean function score were significantly improved from a pre-operative value of 39.4 points and 46.7 points to a post-operative value of 87 points and 86 points, respectively (P value < 0.05. Two hundred and thirty four knees had no anterior knee pain while 63 knees had mild to moderate pain, but none of the patients requested any intervention for the same. Of the 276 patients (297 knees, 79 knees had flexion above 140°, 167 had a flexion range of 130-140°, 27 had a flexion range of 100-130°, and 24 knees had a flexion < 100°, with the mean range of movement being 132.9°. Improvements in the range of movement were retained over time and a total of 205 patients (224 knees, 75.7% could squat or sit cross-legged at the final follow-up. The mean tibiofemoral angle was 8.5°± 6.9º of

  3. Research and implement of point to point communicate based on FPGA’s FlexRay IP%基于FPGA的Flexray IP核通信的研究与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷志军; 李文新; 雷志广; 贾露娟

    2016-01-01

    At present from the perspective of Aerospace Engineering, CAN and 1553B's rate, reliability and cost index in the application of space system are the most appropriate. But for the system security level required higher needs a new standard. Especially for the fault tolerance and time deterministic demand are increasing system. FlexRay through the transmission of information in determining the time slot, And the transmission of fault tolerance and redundancy information in two on the channel,To meet these new increased demand. However, integrated with FlexRay IP chip at present mainly is to meet the automotive safety level and can not meet the space level. Through screening and reinforcement will lead to expensive of the integrated FlexRay chip IP core CPU. Based on the above problems, this paper used the FPGA to meet aerospace grade to realize FlexRay communication controller, This method can not only simplify the FlexRay node hardware complexity and cost, Also provides for a method of the implementation of FlexRay. And make the appropriate research for its application in the field of space. The test indicated that the two nodes can be normal and stable communication.%目前从航天工程角度来看,CAN和1553B的速率、可靠性和成本指标在航天系统中应用最为适宜。但是对于安全等级要求更高的系统则需一个新的标准。尤其是对故障容错与时间确定性需求不断增加的系统。FlexRay通过在确定的时隙中传递信息,以及在两个通道上的故障容错和冗余信息的传送,满足了这些新增加的要求。然而,集成着FlexRay IP的芯片目前主要满足的是汽车安全等级而不能满足宇航级。通过对集成着FlexRay IP核的CPU进行筛选和加固会导致芯片费用昂贵。基于以上问题,本文选用满足宇航级的FPGA来实现FlexRay通信控制器,这种方法既可以简化FlexRay节点的硬件复杂度和成本,也为 FlexRay的实现新添了一种方

  4. Analog VLSI neural network integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kub, F. J.; Moon, K. K.; Just, E. A.

    1991-01-01

    Two analog very large scale integration (VLSI) vector matrix multiplier integrated circuit chips were designed, fabricated, and partially tested. They can perform both vector-matrix and matrix-matrix multiplication operations at high speeds. The 32 by 32 vector-matrix multiplier chip and the 128 by 64 vector-matrix multiplier chip were designed to perform 300 million and 3 billion multiplications per second, respectively. An additional circuit that has been developed is a continuous-time adaptive learning circuit. The performance achieved thus far for this circuit is an adaptivity of 28 dB at 300 KHz and 11 dB at 15 MHz. This circuit has demonstrated greater than two orders of magnitude higher frequency of operation than any previous adaptive learning circuit.

  5. Physical synthesis of quantum circuits using templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirkhani, Zahra; Mohammadzadeh, Naser

    2016-10-01

    Similar to traditional CMOS circuits, quantum circuit design flow is divided into two main processes: logic synthesis and physical design. Addressing the limitations imposed on optimization of the quantum circuit metrics because of no information sharing between logic synthesis and physical design processes, the concept of " physical synthesis" was introduced for quantum circuit flow, and a few techniques were proposed for it. Following that concept, in this paper a new approach for physical synthesis inspired by template matching idea in quantum logic synthesis is proposed to improve the latency of quantum circuits. Experiments show that by using template matching as a physical synthesis approach, the latency of quantum circuits can be improved by more than 23.55 % on average.

  6. A concise guide to chaotic electronic circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Buscarino, Arturo; Frasca, Mattia; Sciuto, Gregorio

    2014-01-01

    This brief provides a source of instruction from which students can be taught about the practicalities of designing and using chaotic circuits. The text provides information on suitable materials, circuit design and schemes for design realization. Readers are then shown how to reproduce experiments on chaos and to design new ones. The text guides the reader easily from the basic idea of chaos to the laboratory test providing an experimental basis that can be developed for such applications as secure communications. This brief provides introductory information on sample chaotic circuits, includes coverage of their development, and the “gallery” section provides information on a wide range of circuits. Concise Guide to Chaotic Electronic Circuits will be useful to anyone running a laboratory class involving chaotic circuits and to students wishing to learn about them.

  7. GLITCH ANALYSIS AND REDUCTION IN DIGITAL CIRCUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronak Shah

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Hazard in digital circuits is unnecessary transitions due to gate propagation delay in that circuit. Hazards occur due to uneven delay offered in the path of the various ongoing signals. One of the important reasons for power dissipation in CMOS circuits is the switching activity .This include activities such as spurious pulses, called glitches. Power optimization techniques that concentrate on the reduction of switching power dissipation of a given circuit are called glitch reduction techniques. In this paper, we analyse various Glitch reduction techniques such as Hazard filtering Technique, Balanced Path Technique, Multiple Threshold Technique and Gate Freezing Technique. We also measure the parameters such as noise and delay of the circuits on application of various techniques to check the reliability of different circuits in various situations.

  8. A Singularity in the Kirchhoff's Circuit Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Harsha, N R Sree

    2016-01-01

    Students often have difficulty in understanding qualitatively the behaviour of simple electric circuits. In particular, as different studies have shown, they find multiple batteries connected in multiple loops difficult to analyse. In a recent paper [Phys. Educ. 50 568 (2015)], we showed such an electric circuit, which consists of ideal batteries connected in parallel, that couldn't be solved by the existing circuit analysis methods. In this paper, we shall introduce a new mathematical method of solving simple electric circuits from the solutions of more general circuits and show that the currents, in this particular circuit, take the indeterminate 0/0 form. We shall also present some of the implications of teaching the method. We believe that the description presented in this paper should help the instructors in teaching the behaviour of multiple batteries connected in parallel.

  9. Development of larval motor circuits in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohsaka, Hiroshi; Okusawa, Satoko; Itakura, Yuki; Fushiki, Akira; Nose, Akinao

    2012-04-01

    How are functional neural circuits formed during development? Despite recent advances in our understanding of the development of individual neurons, little is known about how complex circuits are assembled to generate specific behaviors. Here, we describe the ways in which Drosophila motor circuits serve as an excellent model system to tackle this problem. We first summarize what has been learned during the past decades on the connectivity and development of component neurons, in particular motor neurons and sensory feedback neurons. We then review recent progress in our understanding of the development of the circuits as well as studies that apply optogenetics and other innovative techniques to dissect the circuit diagram. New approaches using Drosophila as a model system are now making it possible to search for developmental rules that regulate the construction of neural circuits.

  10. Efficient FM Algorithm for VLSI Circuit Partitioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.RAJESH

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In FM algorithm initial partitioning matrix of the given circuit is assigned randomly, as a result for larger circuit having hundred or more nodes will take long time to arrive at the final partition if theinitial partitioning matrix is close to the final partitioning then the computation time (iteration required is small . Here we have proposed novel approach to arrive at initial partitioning by using spectralfactorization method the results was verified using several circuits.

  11. Nonsmooth Modeling and Simulation for Switched Circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Acary, Vincent; Brogliato, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    "Nonsmooth Modeling and Simulation for Switched Circuits" concerns the modeling and the numerical simulation of switched circuits with the nonsmooth dynamical systems (NSDS) approach, using piecewise-linear and multivalued models of electronic devices like diodes, transistors, switches. Numerous examples (ranging from introductory academic circuits to various types of power converters) are analyzed and many simulation results obtained with the INRIA open-source SICONOS software package are presented. Comparisons with SPICE and hybrid methods demonstrate the power of the NSDS approach

  12. Integrated capacitors for conductive lithographic film circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Harrey, PM; Evans, PSA; Harrison, DJ

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports on fabrication of low-value embedded capacitors in conductive lithographic film (CLF) circuit boards. The CLF process is a low-cost and high speed manufacturing technique for flexible circuits and systems. We report on the construction and electrical characteristics of CLF capacitor structures printed onto flexible substrates. These components comprise a single polyester dielectric layer, which separates the printed electrode films. Multilayer circuit boards with printed co...

  13. The analysis and design of linear circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, Roland E; Toussaint, Gregory J

    2009-01-01

    The Analysis and Design of Linear Circuits, 6e gives the reader the opportunity to not only analyze, but also design and evaluate linear circuits as early as possible. The text's abundance of problems, applications, pedagogical tools, and realistic examples helps engineers develop the skills needed to solve problems, design practical alternatives, and choose the best design from several competing solutions. Engineers searching for an accessible introduction to resistance circuits will benefit from this book that emphasizes the early development of engineering judgment.

  14. Monitoring transients in low inductance circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilford, R.P.; Rosborough, J.R.

    1985-10-21

    The instant invention relates to methods of and apparatus for monitoring transients in low inductance circuits and to a probe utilized to practice said method and apparatus. More particularly, the instant invention relates to methods of and apparatus for monitoring low inductance circuits, wherein the low inductance circuits include a pair of flat cable transmission lines. The instant invention is further directed to a probe for use in monitoring pairs of flat cable transmission lines.

  15. Long-wavelength silicon photonic integrated circuits

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we elaborate on our development of silicon photonic integrated circuits operating at wavelengths beyond the telecommunication wavelength window. Silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuits up to 3.8 mu m wavelength are demonstrated as well as germanium-on-silicon waveguide circuits operating in the 5-5 mu m wavelength range. The heterogeneous integration of III-V semiconductors and IV-VI semiconductors on this platform is described for the integration of lasers and photodetectors op...

  16. Computer-Aided Pneumatic Circuit Design

    OpenAIRE

    TEKİNER, Zafer; KORKUT, İhsan

    2001-01-01

    In this study, a user-interactive computer program was developed for computer-aided pneumatic circuit design. The pneumatic circuit elements were selected and designed by the determination of the main principles that are in accordance with the aim the user is going to specify. A database was established by forming IGES files for pneumatic circuit elements. In addition to this database, lists displaying the connection nodes of each element were prepared. The coordinates will be conne...

  17. MESOSCOPIC ELECTRIC CIRCUITS WITH CHARGE DISCRETIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    MESOSCOPIC ELECTRIC CIRCUITS WITH CHARGE DISCRETIZATION Nanoscience is a modern aspect of electronic engineering with significant projections for applications on new devices. This project allowed presenting an innovative language and a rigorous vision on aspects of nanoscience. The theory of quantum electrical circuits with discrete charge corresponds to the description (in simple terms) of some aspects of nanoscience. Our results gather aspects of quantum mechanics, electrical circuit...

  18. Electronic circuits for communications systems: A compilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The compilation of electronic circuits for communications systems is divided into thirteen basic categories, each representing an area of circuit design and application. The compilation items are moderately complex and, as such, would appeal to the applications engineer. However, the rationale for the selection criteria was tailored so that the circuits would reflect fundamental design principles and applications, with an additional requirement for simplicity whenever possible.

  19. Combinational Circuit Obfuscation Through Power Signature Manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    hardware descrip- tion files such as VHDL , SPICE netlist are needed for the SPICE-like simulation tools; however, the SID just needs a simple circuit...Time Interval) Figure 3.12: The Summary of Procedure for SPICE Simulation CORGI 3.0 XML Exporter Truth Table Exporter GraphML Exporter VHDL Exporter...encryption system developed by Falkinburg [4]. For installing the obfuscated version of a circuit into the test-bed, the circuit is described in VHDL format

  20. Logarithmic current-measuring transistor circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højberg, Kristian Søe

    1967-01-01

    Describes two transistorized circuits for the logarithmic measurement of small currents suitable for nuclear reactor instrumentation. The logarithmic element is applied in the feedback path of an amplifier, and only one dual transistor is used as logarithmic diode and temperature compensating...... transistor. A simple one-amplifier circuit is compared with a two-amplifier system. The circuits presented have been developed in connexion with an amplifier using a dual m.o.s. transistor input stage with diode-protected gates....

  1. Efficient Scheme for Optimizing Quantum Fourier Circuits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Min; ZHANG Zengke; Tzyh-Jong Tarn

    2008-01-01

    In quantum circuits, importing of additional qubits can reduce the operation time and prevent de-coherence induced by the environment. However, excessive qubits may make the quantum system vulner-able. This paper describes how to relax existing qubits without additional qubits to significantly reduce the operation time of the quantum Fourier circuit compared to a circuit without optimization. The results indicate that this scheme makes full use of the qubits relaxation. The concepts can be applied to improve similar quantum circuits and guide the physical implementations of quantum algorithms or devices.

  2. The emergy analysis of loop circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Kai; Feng, Xiao

    2008-12-01

    Emergy analysis can analyze the resource utilization and environmental performance of a system. Loop circuit is a common structure in the process industry, but when emergy analysis is carried out to such structure, mistakes such as emergy double counting often occur. To avoid emergy double counting, two types of loop circuit-direct loop circuit and indirect loop circuit-are theoretically distinguished, and the methods to avoid such mistake are proposed. Finally, PVC production and vinyl acetate production are adopted to demonstrate the methods.

  3. Rule-Based Optimization of Reversible Circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Arabzadeh, Mona; Zamani, Morteza Saheb

    2010-01-01

    Reversible logic has applications in various research areas including low-power design and quantum computation. In this paper, a rule-based optimization approach for reversible circuits is proposed which uses both negative and positive control Toffoli gates during the optimization. To this end, a set of rules for removing NOT gates and optimizing sub-circuits with common-target gates are proposed. To evaluate the proposed approach, the best-reported synthesized circuits and the results of a recent synthesis algorithm which uses both negative and positive controls are used. Our experiments reveal the potential of the proposed approach in optimizing synthesized circuits.

  4. Model Order Reduction for Electronic Circuits:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.; Shontz, Suzanne

    Electronic circuits are ubiquitous; they are used in numerous industries including: the semiconductor, communication, robotics, auto, and music industries (among many others). As products become more and more complicated, their electronic circuits also grow in size and complexity. This increased ...... in the semiconductor industry. Circuit simulation proceeds by using Maxwell’s equations to create a mathematical model of the circuit. The boundary element method is then used to discretize the equations, and the variational form of the equations are then solved on the graph network....

  5. Electric circuit theory applied electricity and electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Yorke, R

    1981-01-01

    Electric Circuit Theory provides a concise coverage of the framework of electrical engineering. Comprised of six chapters, this book emphasizes the physical process of electrical engineering rather than abstract mathematics. Chapter 1 deals with files, circuits, and parameters, while Chapter 2 covers the natural and forced response of simple circuit. Chapter 3 talks about the sinusoidal steady state, and Chapter 4 discusses the circuit analysis. The fifth chapter tackles frequency response of networks, and the last chapter covers polyphase systems. This book will be of great help to electrical

  6. High Speed Solid State Circuit Breaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlesak, Thomas F.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Fort Monmouth, NJ, has developed and is installing two 3.3 MW high speed solid state circuit breakers at the Army's Pulse Power Center. These circuit breakers will interrupt 4160V three phase power mains in no more than 300 microseconds, two orders of magnitude faster than conventional mechanical contact type circuit breakers. These circuit breakers utilize Gate Turnoff Thyristors (GTO's) and are currently utility type devices using air cooling in an air conditioned enclosure. Future refinements include liquid cooling, either water or two phase organic coolant, and more advanced semiconductors. Each of these refinements promises a more compact, more reliable unit.

  7. Wafer-scale graphene integrated circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Ming; Valdes-Garcia, Alberto; Han, Shu-Jen; Farmer, Damon B; Meric, Inanc; Sun, Yanning; Wu, Yanqing; Dimitrakopoulos, Christos; Grill, Alfred; Avouris, Phaedon; Jenkins, Keith A

    2011-06-10

    A wafer-scale graphene circuit was demonstrated in which all circuit components, including graphene field-effect transistor and inductors, were monolithically integrated on a single silicon carbide wafer. The integrated circuit operates as a broadband radio-frequency mixer at frequencies up to 10 gigahertz. These graphene circuits exhibit outstanding thermal stability with little reduction in performance (less than 1 decibel) between 300 and 400 kelvin. These results open up possibilities of achieving practical graphene technology with more complex functionality and performance.

  8. Circuit For Control Of Electromechanical Prosthetic Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Proposed circuit for control of electromechanical prosthetic hand derives electrical control signals from shoulder movements. Updated, electronic version of prosthesis, that includes two hooklike fingers actuated via cables from shoulder harness. Circuit built around favored shoulder harness, provides more dexterous movement, without incurring complexity of computer-controlled "bionic" or hydraulically actuated devices. Additional harness and potentiometer connected to similar control circuit mounted on other shoulder. Used to control stepping motor rotating hand about prosthetic wrist to one of number of angles consistent with number of digital outputs. Finger-control signals developed by circuit connected to first shoulder harness transmitted to prosthetic hand via sliprings at prosthetic wrist joint.

  9. Analog circuit design art, science, and personalities

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Jim

    1991-01-01

    Analog Circuit Design: Art, Science, and Personalities discusses the many approaches and styles in the practice of analog circuit design. The book is written in an informal yet informative manner, making it easily understandable to those new in the field. The selection covers the definition, history, current practice, and future direction of analog design; the practice proper; and the styles in analog circuit design. The book also includes the problems usually encountered in analog circuit design; approach to feedback loop design; and other different techniques and applications. The text is

  10. Estudo comparativo dos resultados da medição da amplitude articular do movimento de flexão do cotovelo através do goniómetro e observação visual

    OpenAIRE

    Coutinho, António; Santos, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Objectivos: Verificar se a experiência clínica na área da fisioterapia influencia o rigor de uma medição da amplitude articular no movimento de flexão do cotovelo utilizando o goniómetro universal e/ou a observação visual. Comparar o rigor destes dois métodos de medida de avaliação. Relevância: A integridade da amplitude do movimento de flexão do cotovelo é essencial para o desempenho normal de inúmeras actividades da vida diária. Neste sentido, existem diversos instrumentos de...

  11. A Stereomicroscopic Evaluation of Dentinal Cracks at Different Instrumentation Lengths by Using Different Rotary Files (ProTaper Universal, ProTaper Next, and HyFlex CM): An Ex Vivo Study

    OpenAIRE

    Fauzia Ashraf; Pushpa Shankarappa; Abhinav Misra; Asheesh Sawhney; Nandamuri Sridevi; Anu Singh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the dentinal cracks after root canal preparation with rotary files: Gates Glidden, ProTaper Universal, ProTaper Next, and HyFlex CM at different instrumentation lengths. Methodology. Sixty-five mandibular premolars were mounted in the acrylic tube with simulated periodontal ligaments and the apex was exposed. The root canals were instrumented with different rotary files, namely, ProTaper Universal, ProTaper Next, and HyFlex CM, to the...

  12. Reliability of Physical Systems: Detection of Malicious Subcircuits (Trojan Circuits) in Sequential Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matrosova, A. Yu.; Kirienko, I. E.; Tomkov, V. V.; Miryutov, A. A.

    2016-12-01

    Reliability of physical systems is provided by reliability of their parts including logical ones. Insertion of malicious subcircuits that can destroy logical circuit or cause leakage of confidential information from a system necessitates the detection of such subcircuits followed by their masking if possible. We suggest a method of finding a set of sequential circuit nodes in which Trojan Circuits can be inserted. The method is based on random estimations of controllability and observability of combinational nodes calculated using a description of sequential circuit working area and an evidence of existence of a transfer sequence for the proper set of internal states without finding the sequence itself. The method allows cutting calculations using operations on Reduced Ordered Binary Decision Diagrams (ROBDDs) that can depend only on the state variables of the circuit. The approach, unlike traditional ones, does not require preliminary sequential circuit simulation but can use its results. It can be used when malicious circuits cannot be detected during sequential circuit verification.

  13. Electrical circuit theory and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Bird, John

    2014-01-01

    This much-loved textbook explains the principles of electrical circuit theory and technology so that students of electrical and mechanical engineering can master the subject. Real-world situations and engineering examples put the theory into context. The inclusion of worked problems with solutions help you to learn and further problems then allow you to test and confirm you have fully understood each subject. In total the book contains 800 worked problems, 1000 further problems and 14 revision tests with answers online. This an ideal text for foundation and undergraduate degree students and those on upper level vocational engineering courses, in particular electrical and mechanical. It provides a sound understanding of the knowledge required by technicians in fields such as electrical engineering, electronics and telecommunications. This edition has been updated with developments in key areas such as semiconductors, transistors, and fuel cells, along with brand new material on ABCD parameters and Fourier's An...

  14. Microtubule as nanobioelectronic nonlinear circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekulić Dalibor L.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the use of biological molecules has offered exciting alternatives to conventional synthetic methods. Specific methods use various biological templates to direct the deposition and patterning of inorganic materials. Here we have established a new electrical model of microtubules as a biological nanoscale circuit based on polyelectrolyte features of cylindrical biopolymers. Our working hypothesis is that microtubules play an active role in sub-cellular computation and signaling via electronic and protonic conductivity and can thus be made useful in hybrid materials that offer novel electronic characteristics. We verify these hypotheses both computationally and analytically through a quantitative model based on the atomic resolution structures of the key functional proteins.

  15. TIME CALIBRATED OSCILLOSCOPE SWEEP CIRCUIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, V.L.; Carstensen, H.K.

    1959-11-24

    An improved time calibrated sweep circuit is presented, which extends the range of usefulness of conventional oscilloscopes as utilized for time calibrated display applications in accordance with U. S. Patent No. 2,832,002. Principal novelty resides in the provision of a pair of separate signal paths, each of which is phase and amplitude adjustable, to connect a high-frequency calibration oscillator to the output of a sawtooth generator also connected to the respective horizontal deflection plates of an oscilloscope cathode ray tube. The amplitude and phase of the calibration oscillator signals in the two signal paths are adjusted to balance out feedthrough currents capacitively coupled at high frequencies of the calibration oscillator from each horizontal deflection plate to the vertical plates of the cathode ray tube.

  16. Advanced Microwave Circuits and Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    such as voltage-controlled oscillators and electron devices for millimeter wave and submillimeter wave applications. This part also covers studies of integrated buffer circuits. Passive components are indispensable elements of any electronic system. The increasing demands to miniaturization and cost effectiveness...... component in a receiving system. Its performance determines the overall system sensitivity because it is the first block to amplify the received signal from the antenna. Hence, for the achievement of high receiver performance, the LNA is required to have a low noise figure with good input matching as well......, bandwidth, and power consumption, which generally accompanies the LNA design process, is discussed in this part. The requirement from an amplifier design differs for different applications. A power amplifier is a type of amplifier which drives the antenna of a transmitter. Unlike LNA, a power amplifier...

  17. Cornered by reality: circuit minors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Moreno Mena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines a category of migrant children named “circuit minors.” This category includes unaccompanied migrant children and adolescents who cross the border continuously for various reasons and are typically associated with criminal gangs and human and drug traffickers. The aim of this paper is to highlight the problem and consider the risks and the state of social vulnerability in which this population lives. These categories of children and adolescent migrants are identified through a review of the literature, newspaper archives, and official statistics. The study draws on interviews with key informants to characterize this population. We conclude that there is a need to review existing frameworks for the protection of migrant children and to create an action protocol for officials who have contact with these children to ensure their best interests.

  18. Molectronics: a circuit design perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nackashi, David P.; Franzon, Paul D.

    2001-03-01

    Recently, several mechanisms have been proposed as a basis for designing molecular electronic logic switching elements. Many two terminal molecular devices functioning as diodes have been synthesized with responses similar to silicon devices such as rectifying and resonant tunneling diodes. In this paper, the feasibility of integrating these molecular diodes into current circuit architectures is explored. A series of logic gates and a memory element are simulated based on the voltage-controlled current flow method using the Tour-Reed molecular diode exhibiting negative differential resistance (NDR). HSPICE simulation results are used to illustrate the performance of these devices and to quantify additional component and interconnect requirements. Finally, future system design approaches using molecular components are discussed.

  19. Design of an improved RCD buffer circuit for full bridge circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenyan; Wei, Xueye; Du, Yongbo; Hu, Liang; Zhang, Liwei; Zhang, Ou

    2017-05-01

    In the full bridge inverter circuit, when the switch tube suddenly opened or closed, the inductor current changes rapidly. Due to the existence of parasitic inductance of the main circuit. Therefore, the surge voltage between drain and source of the switch tube can be generated, which will have an impact on the switch and the output voltage. In order to ab sorb the surge voltage. An improve RCD buffer circuit is proposed in the paper. The peak energy will be absorbed through the buffer capacitor of the circuit. The part energy feedback to the power supply, another part release through the resistor in the form of heat, and the circuit can absorb the voltage spikes. This paper analyzes the process of the improved RCD snubber circuit, According to the specific parameters of the main circuit, a reasonable formula for calculating the resistance capacitance is given. A simulation model will be modulated in Multisim, which compared the waveform of tube voltage and the output waveform of the circuit without snubber circuit with the improved RCD snubber circuit. By comparing and analyzing, it is proved that the improved buffer circuit can absorb surge voltage. Finally, experiments are demonstrated to validate that the correctness of the RC formula and the improved RCD snubber circuit.

  20. Design of Multivalued Circuits Based on an Algebra for Current—Mode CMOS Multivalued Circuits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈偕雄; ClaudioMoraga

    1995-01-01

    An algebra proposed for current-mode CMOS multivalued circuits is briefly reviewed.this paper discusses its application in the design of multivalued circuits.Several current-mode CMOS quaternary and quinary circuits are designed by algebraic means.The design method based on this algebra may offer a design simpler than the previously known ones.

  1. 可变线路式公交车辆调度优化模型%An Optimal Model for Flex-route Transit Scheduling Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林叶倩; 李文权; 邱丰; 丁钰玲

    2012-01-01

    Flex-route transit scheduling model is described as a mixed integer programming formulation. An optimal model for vehicle routing problem is established, with the minimization of passenger travel costs and vehicle operating costs as the objective function. In the light of the model characteristics, nearest insertion method is used to construct the initial solution and genetic algorithm is designed to solve the model. Finally, the model validation and performance comparisons between flex-route bus service and fixed-route bus service under different demand level are conducted by a simulation analysis. The results show that this scheduling model is available for flex-route transit, and that this new bus service mode has more advantages than that of fixed-route bus within residential areas with lower demand.%将可变线路式公交调度模型描述为混合整数规划问题,考虑公交公司运营成本和乘客出行费用,以系统成本最低为目标建立可变线路式公交调度模型.针对该调度模型的特点采用最近插入法构建初始解,并设计了相应的遗传算法对模型进行求解.通过数学仿真实验对该模型进行有效性验证,对比分析了可变线路式公交与常规公交在不同出行需求量下的性能指标.结果表明,该调度模型适用于可变线路式公交系统,随着出行需求的降低,可变线路式公交相比于常规公交的优势愈加明显.

  2. Scaling of graphene integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Massimiliano; Guerriero, Erica; Fiocco, Marco; Alberti, Ruggero; Polloni, Laura; Behnam, Ashkan; Carrion, Enrique A.; Pop, Eric; Sordan, Roman

    2015-04-01

    The influence of transistor size reduction (scaling) on the speed of realistic multi-stage integrated circuits (ICs) represents the main performance metric of a given transistor technology. Despite extensive interest in graphene electronics, scaling efforts have so far focused on individual transistors rather than multi-stage ICs. Here we study the scaling of graphene ICs based on transistors from 3.3 to 0.5 μm gate lengths and with different channel widths, access lengths, and lead thicknesses. The shortest gate delay of 31 ps per stage was obtained in sub-micron graphene ROs oscillating at 4.3 GHz, which is the highest oscillation frequency obtained in any strictly low-dimensional material to date. We also derived the fundamental Johnson limit, showing that scaled graphene ICs could be used at high frequencies in applications with small voltage swing.The influence of transistor size reduction (scaling) on the speed of realistic multi-stage integrated circuits (ICs) represents the main performance metric of a given transistor technology. Despite extensive interest in graphene electronics, scaling efforts have so far focused on individual transistors rather than multi-stage ICs. Here we study the scaling of graphene ICs based on transistors from 3.3 to 0.5 μm gate lengths and with different channel widths, access lengths, and lead thicknesses. The shortest gate delay of 31 ps per stage was obtained in sub-micron graphene ROs oscillating at 4.3 GHz, which is the highest oscillation frequency obtained in any strictly low-dimensional material to date. We also derived the fundamental Johnson limit, showing that scaled graphene ICs could be used at high frequencies in applications with small voltage swing. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Discussions on the cutoff frequency fT, the maximum frequency of oscillation fmax, and the intrinsic gate delay CV/I. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr01126d

  3. Analysis of circuits including magnetic cores (MTRAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzen, G. R.; Nitzan, D.; Herndon, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    Development of automated circuit analysis computer program to provide transient analysis of circuits with magnetic cores is discussed. Allowance is made for complications caused by nonlinearity of switching core model and magnetic coupling among loop currents. Computer program is conducted on Univac 1108 computer using FORTRAN IV.

  4. Circuits in the Sun: Solar Panel Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gfroerer, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Typical commercial solar panels consist of approximately 60 individual photovoltaic cells connected in series. Since the usual Kirchhoff rules apply, the current is uniform throughout the circuit, while the electric potential of the individual devices is cumulative. Hence, a solar panel is a good analog of a simple resistive series circuit, except…

  5. Wire recycling for quantum circuit optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paler, Alexandru; Wille, Robert; Devitt, Simon J.

    2016-10-01

    Quantum information processing is expressed using quantum bits (qubits) and quantum gates which are arranged in terms of quantum circuits. Here, each qubit is associated with a quantum circuit wire which is used to conduct the desired operations. Most of the existing quantum circuits allocate a single quantum circuit wire for each qubit and hence introduce significant overhead. In fact, qubits are usually not needed during the entire computation, only between their initialization and measurement. Before and after that, corresponding wires may be used by other qubits. In this work, we propose a solution which exploits this fact in order to optimize the design of quantum circuits with respect to the required wires. To this end, we introduce a representation of the lifetimes of all qubits which is used to analyze the respective need for wires. Based on this analysis, a method is proposed which "recycles" the available wires and, as a result, reduces the size of the resulting circuit. Numerical tests based on established reversible and fault-tolerant quantum circuits confirm that the proposed solution reduces the number of wires by more than 90% compared to unoptimized quantum circuits.

  6. Design of drive circuit of laser diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Yingying; Huang, Xuegong; Xu, Xiaobin

    2016-10-01

    Aiming at the difficult problem of high precision frequency stabilization of semiconductor laser diode, the laser frequency control is realized through the design of the semiconductor drive system. Above all, the relationship between the emission frequency and the temperature of LD is derived theoretically. Then the temperature corresponding to the stable frequency is obtained. According to the desired temperature stability of LD, temperature control system is designed, which is composed of a temperature setting circuit, temperature gathering circuit, the temperature display circuit, analog PID control circuit and a semiconductor refrigerator control circuit module. By sampling technology, voltage of platinum resistance is acquired, and the converted temperature is display on liquid crystal display. PID analog control circuit controls speed stability and precision of temperature control. The constant current source circuit is designed to provide the reference voltage by a voltage stabilizing chip, which is buffered by an operational amplifier. It is connected with the MOSFET to drive the semiconductor laser to provide stable current for the semiconductor laser. PCB circuit board was finished and the experimental was justified. The experimental results show that: the design of the temperature control system could achieve the goal of temperature monitoring. Meanwhile, temperature can be stabilized at 40°C +/- 0.1°C. The output voltage of the constant current source is 2 V. The current is 35 mA.

  7. Depth optimization for topological quantum circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlFailakawi, Mohammad; Ahmad, Imtiaz; AlTerkawi, Laila; Hamdan, Suha

    2015-02-01

    Topological quantum computing (TQC) model is one of the most promising models for quantum computation. A circuit implemented under TQC is optimized by reducing its depth due to special construction requirements in such technology. In this work, we propose a hybrid approach that combines a left-edge greedy heuristic with genetic algorithm (GA) to minimize circuit depth through combined line and gate ordering. In our implementation, GA is used to find line ordering, whereas the left edge is used to reduce circuit depth by taking into consideration overlap constraints imposed by line ordering. Moreover, the proposed algorithm can merge gates together realizing circuit with multi-target gates to provide reduced circuit depth. Experimental results on random benchmark circuits show that the proposed algorithm was able to reduce circuit depth by 42 % on average for CNOT circuits, with additional 5 % savings when multi-target optimization is used. Results on RevLib benchmarks revealed a typical enhancement of 21 % and an additional 11 % when multi-target gates are allowed.

  8. 30 CFR 57.6407 - Circuit testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Electric Blasting-Surface and Underground § 57.6407 Circuit testing. A blasting galvanometer or other instrument designed for testing blasting circuits shall be used to test the following: (a) In surface operations—...

  9. Sustainability issues in circuit board recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Jens Brøbech; Alting, Leo; Baldo, Gian Luca

    1995-01-01

    The resource recovery and environmental impact issues of printed circuit board recycling by secondary copper smelters are discussed. Guidelines concerning material selection for circuit board manufacture and concerning the recycling processes are given to enhance recovery efficiency and to lower...... the impacts on the external environment from recycling...

  10. Worst Asymmetrical Short-Circuit Current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arana Aristi, Iván; Holmstrøm, O; Grastrup, L

    2010-01-01

    In a typical power plant, the production scenario and the short-circuit time were found for the worst asymmetrical short-circuit current. Then, a sensitivity analysis on the missing generator values was realized in order to minimize the uncertainty of the results. Afterward the worst asymmetrical...

  11. Low power SEU immune CMOS memory circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, M. N.; Whitaker, Sterling

    1992-01-01

    The authors report a design improvement for CMOS static memory circuits hardened against single event upset (SEU) using a recently proposed logic/circuit design technique. This improvement drastically reduces static power consumption, reduces the number of transistors required in a D flip-flop design, and eliminates the possibility of capturing an upset state in the slave section during a clock transition.

  12. CMOS circuits for analog signal processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallinga, Hans

    1988-01-01

    Design choices in CMOS analog signal processing circuits are presented. Special attention is focussed on continuous-time filter technologies. The basics of MOSFET-C continuous-time filters and CMOS Square Law Circuits are explained at the hand of a graphical MOST characteristics representation.

  13. RF Circuit Design in Nanometer CMOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, Bram

    2007-01-01

    With CMOS technology entering the nanometer regime, the design of analog and RF circuits is complicated by low supply voltages, very non-linear (and nonquadratic) devices and large 1/f noise. At the same time, circuits are required to operate over increasingly wide bandwidths to implement modern mul

  14. Understanding the Behaviour of Infinite Ladder Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucak, C.; Yegin, K.

    2008-01-01

    Infinite ladder circuits are often encountered in undergraduate electrical engineering and physics curricula when dealing with series and parallel combination of impedances, as a part of filter design or wave propagation on transmission lines. The input impedance of such infinite ladder circuits is derived by assuming that the input impedance does…

  15. Automatic design of digital synthetic gene circuits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario A Marchisio

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available De novo computational design of synthetic gene circuits that achieve well-defined target functions is a hard task. Existing, brute-force approaches run optimization algorithms on the structure and on the kinetic parameter values of the network. However, more direct rational methods for automatic circuit design are lacking. Focusing on digital synthetic gene circuits, we developed a methodology and a corresponding tool for in silico automatic design. For a given truth table that specifies a circuit's input-output relations, our algorithm generates and ranks several possible circuit schemes without the need for any optimization. Logic behavior is reproduced by the action of regulatory factors and chemicals on the promoters and on the ribosome binding sites of biological Boolean gates. Simulations of circuits with up to four inputs show a faithful and unequivocal truth table representation, even under parametric perturbations and stochastic noise. A comparison with already implemented circuits, in addition, reveals the potential for simpler designs with the same function. Therefore, we expect the method to help both in devising new circuits and in simplifying existing solutions.

  16. RF Circuit Design in Nanometer CMOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, Bram

    2007-01-01

    With CMOS technology entering the nanometer regime, the design of analog and RF circuits is complicated by low supply voltages, very non-linear (and nonquadratic) devices and large 1/f noise. At the same time, circuits are required to operate over increasingly wide bandwidths to implement modern

  17. Delay Reduction in Optimized Reversible Multiplier Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Assarian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study a novel reversible multiplier is presented. Reversible logic can play a significant role in computer domain. This logic can be applied in quantum computing, optical computing processing, DNA computing, and nanotechnology. One condition for reversibility of a computable model is that the number of input equate with the output. Reversible multiplier circuits are the circuits used frequently in computer system. For this reason, optimization in one reversible multiplier circuit can reduce its volume of hardware on one hand and increases the speed in a reversible system on the other hand. One of the important parameters that optimize a reversible circuit is reduction of delays in performance of the circuit. This paper investigates the performance characteristics of the gates, the circuits and methods of optimizing the performance of reversible multiplier circuits. Results showed that reduction of the reversible circuit layers has lead to improved performance due to the reduction of the propagation delay between input and output period. All the designs are in the nanometric scales.

  18. Circuits in the Sun: Solar Panel Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gfroerer, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Typical commercial solar panels consist of approximately 60 individual photovoltaic cells connected in series. Since the usual Kirchhoff rules apply, the current is uniform throughout the circuit, while the electric potential of the individual devices is cumulative. Hence, a solar panel is a good analog of a simple resistive series circuit, except…

  19. Hyperchaotic circuit with damped harmonic oscillators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Erik; Murali, K.; Tamasevicius, A.

    2001-01-01

    capacitors and one nonlinear active conductor. The Lyapunov exponents are presented to confirm the hyperchaotic nature of the oscillations of the circuit. The nonlinear conductor is realized with a diode. A negative impedance converter and a linear resistor. The performance of the circuit is investigated...

  20. Active components for integrated plasmonic circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krasavin, A.V.; Bolger, P.M.; Zayats, A.V.;

    2009-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of highly efficient and compact passive and active components for integrated plasmonic circuit based on dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides.......We present a comprehensive study of highly efficient and compact passive and active components for integrated plasmonic circuit based on dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides....