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Sample records for cu pb mn

  1. An experimental and thermodynamic equilibrium investigation of the Pb, Zn, Cr, Cu, Mn and Ni partitioning during sewage sludge incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingyong; Fu, Jiewen; Ning, Xun'an; Sun, Shuiyu; Wang, Yujie; Xie, Wuming; Huang, Shaosong; Zhong, Sheng

    2015-09-01

    The effects of different chlorides and operational conditions on the distribution and speciation of six heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cr, Cu, Mn and Ni) during sludge incineration were investigated using a simulated laboratory tubular-furnace reactor. A thermodynamic equilibrium investigation using the FactSage software was performed to compare the experimental results. The results indicate that the volatility of the target metals was enhanced as the chlorine concentration increased. Inorganic-Cl influenced the volatilization of heavy metals in the order of Pb>Zn>Cr>Cu>Mn>Ni. However, the effects of organic-Cl on the volatility of Mn, Pb and Cu were greater than the effects on Zn, Cr and Ni. With increasing combustion temperature, the presence of organic-Cl (PVC) and inorganic-Cl (NaCl) improved the transfer of Pb and Zn from bottom ash to fly ash or fuse gas. However, the presence of chloride had no obvious influence on Mn, Cu and Ni. Increased retention time could increase the volatilization rate of heavy metals; however, this effect was insignificant. During the incineration process, Pb readily formed PbSiO4 and remained in the bottom ash. Different Pb compounds, primarily the volatile PbCl2, were found in the gas phase after the addition of NaCl; the dominant Pb compounds in the gas phase after the addition of PVC were PbCl2, Pb(ClO4)2 and PbCl2O4. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Graphite furnace analysis of a series of metals (Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn and Cd) in ox kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Vivianne L.B. de; Nascimento, Rizia K. do; Paiva, Ana Claudia de; Silva, Josenilda M. da; Melo, Jessica V. de

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to create a methodology for animal tissue analysis, with the use of flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry techniques and graphite furnace analysis to determining metal concentrations in ox kidney. The organ of this animal can be considered a great nutritional food, due to the high protein and micronutrient content beyond the ability to absorb and concentrate important metals such as Zn, Fe, Mn and Se. On the other hand, there is a risk when eating this food owing to the capacity to accumulate toxic metals such as Pb and Cd. In accordance with the laboratory analysis, Zn can be analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry, but other metals such as Cu, Mn, Pb and Cd, could only be detected by graphite furnace analysis. The results showed that there is more Zn and Cu than other metals. Such metals follows an order reported by the literature (Zn > Cu > Cd > Pb > Mn). The results showed that kidney is actually a rich source of Zn and Cu. The Cd levels in the ox kidney did not exceed the values which cause toxic effects. The adequacy of the results indicates that the proposed methodology can be used for animal tissue analysis.(author)

  3. Graphite furnace analysis of a series of metals (Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn and Cd) in ox kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Vivianne L.B. de; Nascimento, Rizia K. do; Paiva, Ana Claudia de; Silva, Josenilda M. da, E-mail: vlsouza@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: riziakelia@hotmail.com, E-mail: acpaiva@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: jmnilda@hotmail.com [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Melo, Jessica V. de, E-mail: Jessica_clorofila@hotmail.com [Universidade de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to create a methodology for animal tissue analysis, with the use of flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry techniques and graphite furnace analysis to determining metal concentrations in ox kidney. The organ of this animal can be considered a great nutritional food, due to the high protein and micronutrient content beyond the ability to absorb and concentrate important metals such as Zn, Fe, Mn and Se. On the other hand, there is a risk when eating this food owing to the capacity to accumulate toxic metals such as Pb and Cd. In accordance with the laboratory analysis, Zn can be analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry, but other metals such as Cu, Mn, Pb and Cd, could only be detected by graphite furnace analysis. The results showed that there is more Zn and Cu than other metals. Such metals follows an order reported by the literature (Zn > Cu > Cd > Pb > Mn). The results showed that kidney is actually a rich source of Zn and Cu. The Cd levels in the ox kidney did not exceed the values which cause toxic effects. The adequacy of the results indicates that the proposed methodology can be used for animal tissue analysis.(author)

  4. Biosynthesis of lipids in Chlorella vulgaris Beijer. under the action of Mn2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, and Pb2+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorda, A.Yi.; Grubyinko, V.V.

    2011-01-01

    We study the influence of Mn 2+ , Zn 2+ , Cu 2+ , and Pb 2+ on the intensity of biosynthesis of lipids in unicellular algae Chlorella vulgaris Beijer. In all cases, there is a general tendency to the accumulation of triacylglycerols, dyacylglycerols, and nonesterified fatty acids, which participate in protecting the cages of algae from an unfavorable action, and to a decrease of the content of phospholipids. For the actions of Zn 2+ , Cu 2+ , and Pb 2+ , 14 C-acetate is maximally included in phospholipids, for the actions of Mn 2+ - in dyacylglycerols, and the synthesis of other classes of lipids is inhibited. The content of chlorophylls a and b grows substantially for the actions of ions of zinc and lead and diminishes for the actions of ions of copper and manganese. We discuss the regulatory role and the toxic influence of ions of metals on the lipid metabolism in chlorella.

  5. Distributions of dissolved trace metals (Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, Ag in the southeastern Atlantic and the Southern Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Boye

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive synoptic datasets (surface water down to 4000 m of dissolved cadmium (Cd, copper (Cu, manganese (Mn, lead (Pb and silver (Ag are presented along a section between 34° S and 57° S in the southeastern Atlantic Ocean and the Southern Ocean to the south off South Africa. The vertical distributions of Cu and Ag display nutrient-like profiles similar to silicic acid, and of Cd similar to phosphate. The distribution of Mn shows a subsurface maximum in the oxygen minimum zone, whereas Pb concentrations are rather invariable with depth. Dry deposition of aerosols is thought to be an important source of Pb to surface waters close to South Africa, and dry deposition and snowfall may have been significant sources of Cu and Mn at the higher latitudes. Furthermore, the advection of water masses enriched in trace metals following contact with continental margins appeared to be an important source of trace elements to the surface, intermediate and deep waters in the southeastern Atlantic Ocean and the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Hydrothermal inputs may have formed a source of trace metals to the deep waters over the Bouvet Triple Junction ridge crest, as suggested by relatively enhanced dissolved Mn concentrations. The biological utilization of Cu and Ag was proportional to that of silicic acid across the section, suggesting that diatoms formed an important control over the removal of Cu and Ag from surface waters. However, uptake by dino- and nano-flagellates may have influenced the distribution of Cu and Ag in the surface waters of the subtropical Atlantic domain. Cadmium correlated strongly with phosphate (P, yielding lower Cd / P ratios in the subtropical surface waters where phosphate concentrations were below 0.95 μM. The greater depletion of Cd relative to P observed in the Weddell Gyre compared to the Antarctic Circumpolar Current could be due to increase Cd uptake induced by iron-limiting conditions in these high

  6. Direct determination of Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn in beer by thermospray flame furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascentes, Clesia C.; Kamogawa, Marcos Y.; Fernandes, Kelly G.; Arruda, Marco A.Z.; Nogueira, Ana Rita A.; Nobrega, Joaquim A.

    2005-01-01

    In this work, thermospray flame furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (TS-FF-AAS) was employed for Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn determination in beer without any sample digestion. The system was optimized and calibration was based on the analyte addition technique. A sample volume of 300 μl was introduced into the hot Ni tube at a flow-rate of 0.4 ml min -1 using 0.14 mol l -1 nitric acid solution or air as carrier. Different Brazilian beers were directly analyzed after ultrasonic degasification. Results were compared with those obtained by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). The detection limits obtained for Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn in aqueous solution were 2.2, 18, 1.6, and 0.9 μg l -1 , respectively. The relative standard deviations varied from 2.7% to 7.3% (n=8) for solutions containing the analytes in the 25-50 μg l -1 range. The concentration ranges obtained for analytes in beer samples were: Cu: 38.0-155 μg l -1 ; Mn: 110-348 μg l -1 , Pb: 13.0-32.9 μg l -1 , and Zn: 52.7-226 μg l -1 . Results obtained by TS-FF-AAS and GFAAS were in agreement at a 95% confidence level. The proposed method is fast and simple, since sample digestion is not required and sensitivity can be improved without using expensive devices. The TS-FF-AAS presented suitable sensitivity for determination of Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn in the quality control of a brewery

  7. Pecan nutshell as biosorbent to remove Cu(II), Mn(II) and Pb(II) from aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaghetti, Julio C P; Lima, Eder C; Royer, Betina; da Cunha, Bruna M; Cardoso, Natali F; Brasil, Jorge L; Dias, Silvio L P

    2009-02-15

    In the present study we reported for the first time the feasibility of pecan nutshell (PNS, Carya illinoensis) as an alternative biosorbent to remove Cu(II), Mn(II) and Pb(II) metallic ions from aqueous solutions. The ability of PNS to remove the metallic ions was investigated by using batch biosorption procedure. The effects such as, pH, biosorbent dosage on the adsorption capacities of PNS were studied. Four kinetic models were tested, being the adsorption kinetics better fitted to fractionary-order kinetic model. Besides that, the kinetic data were also fitted to intra-particle diffusion model, presenting three linear regions, indicating that the kinetics of adsorption should follow multiple sorption rates. The equilibrium data were fitted to Langmuir, Freundlich, Sips and Redlich-Peterson isotherm models. Taking into account a statistical error function, the data were best fitted to Sips isotherm model. The maximum biosorption capacities of PNS were 1.35, 1.78 and 0.946mmolg(-1) for Cu(II), Mn(II) and Pb(II), respectively.

  8. Essential trace (Zn, Cu, Mn and toxic (Cd, Pb, Cr elements in the liver of birds from Eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komosa A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We have focused our study on the concentrations of essential heavy metals (Zn, Cu and Mn and non-essential trace metals (Pb, Cd and Cr in the livers of birds from Eastern Poland. The largest mean amount of Zn - as much as 279 mg/kg dry mass (d.m. - was found in mute swans. However, only in one of the analysed buzzard specimens the concentration of Zn, found to be 664 mg/kg d.m., exceeded the level indicative of poisoning for this element. Birds specializing in catching rodents accumulated Mn in their livers in a very narrow range of concentrations, around 5.0 mg/kg d.m. on average. The range of mean Mn concentrations (around 6.5 mg/kg d.m. was also found to be narrow for piscivorous birds. The highest mean levels of Pb were found in mute swans (2.7 mg/kg d.m., and the highest levels of Cd (2.0 mg/kg d.m. for rooks. Concentrations of total Cr above detection level were found in 22 specimens (53.7%, and concentration values were highest for rooks. Analyses showed that the concentrations of biogenic elements did not exceed the levels indicative of poisoning (except in one specimen. The study demonstrated that lead shots remain a hazard to water ecosystems. Pb, Cd and Cr levels in the livers of omnivorous and piscivorous species indicate the permanent presence of these elements in the environment and may confirm the thesis about the growing role of electronic waste, including metallic e-waste, in the emission of the total amount of contamination with these elements.

  9. Qualitative analysis of As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Zn, Fe, Mn, K, Hg, Pb y Cu, as constituents of Amatitlan Lake sediment by XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltran, P.A.E.; Morales, E.A.

    1987-10-01

    Samples of fifteen sampling points were analyzed. Molybdenum X-ray tube with secondary excitation assembly, SiLi detector and deconvolution software AXIL were employed; self-standardization method based upon incoherent ratio was used for quantitative analysis of some elements. Ca, P, S, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cr, Zn, Cu, Ni, Ga, As, Pb, Ge, Sr and Pb, were found. As, Pb and Cu concentrations lower than 109 mg/lt, 119 mg/lt, and 500mg/lt, respectively, were measured. Hg was not detected. (author)

  10. Study of the Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn dynamics in soil, plants and bee pollen from the region of Teresina (PI), Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Aline S; Araújo, Sebastião B; Souza, Darcet C; Silva, Fábio A Santos e

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to characterize native bee plants regarding their capacity to extract and accumulate trace elements from the soil and its consequences to the sanity of the produced pollen. The trace elements Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn were analyzed in soil, plants and bee pollen from Teresina region (PI), Brazil, by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Considering the studied plant species, Cu and Pb metals presented in the highest levels in the roots of B. platypetala with 47.35 and 32.71 μg.mL(-1) and H. suaveolens with 39.69 and 17.06 μg.mL(-1), respectively, while in the aerial parts Mn and Zn metals presented the highest levels in S. verticillata with 199.18 and 85.73 μg.mL(-1). In the pollen, the levels of Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn vary from 5.44 to 11.75 μg.mL(-1); 34.31 to 85.75 μg.mL(-1); 13.98 to 18.19 μg.mL(-1) and 50.19 to 90.35 μg.mL(-1), respectively. These results indicate that in the apicultural pasture the translocation (from soil to pollen) of Mn and Zn was more effective than in case of Cu and Pb, therefore, the bee pollen can be used as food supplement without causing risks to human health.

  11. Determination of Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb contents in samples in samples of apple trees by radionuclide X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bumbalova, A.; Havranek, E.; Harangozo, M.

    1982-01-01

    The applicability of the radionuclide X-ray fluorescence analysis (RXFA) for qualitative and quantitative evaluation of environmental plant samples is discussed and examples of determination of Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb in samples of apple trees are given. The instrumentation, the standard and sample preparation are also presented. (author)

  12. Radionuclide X-ray fluorescence determination of Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb in wastewaters and sludges from wastewater treatment plants in Bratislava (SR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harangozo, M.; Toelgyessy, J.

    1997-01-01

    Radiometric X-ray fluorescence analysis was used for the determination of Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb in wastewater and sludges from three wastewater treatment plants in Bratislava (SR). Metals were determined in wastewaters after preconcentration by 8-hydroxyquinoline and in sludges by drying and pressing to pellets. 238 Pu and 109 Cd was used for excitation of fluorescence radiation. (author)

  13. Atomic absorption spectrophotometric determination of microgram levels of Co, Ni, Cu, Pb, and Zn in soil and sediment extracts containing large amounts of Mn and Fe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, T.T.; Sanzolone, R.F.

    1973-01-01

    An atomic absorption spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of seven metal ions in the hydroxylamine extract of soils and sediments. Mn, Fe, and Zn are directly determined in the aqueous extract upon dilution. Co, Ni, Cu, and Pb in a separate aliquot of the extract are chelated with APDC (ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate) and extracted into MIBK (methyl isobutyl ketone) before determination. Data are presented to show the quantitative recovery of microgram levels of Co, Ni, Cu, and Pb by APDC-MIBK chelation-extraction from synthetic solutions containing as much as 2,000 ug/ml (micrograms per milliliter) Mn or 50 ug/ml Fe. Recovery of known amounts of the metal ions from sample solutions is equally satisfactory. Reproducible results are obtained by replicate analyses of two sediment samples for the seven metals.

  14. Study of the Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn dynamics in soil, plants and bee pollen from the region of Teresina (PI, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline S. Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to characterize native bee plants regarding their capacity to extract and accumulate trace elements from the soil and its consequences to the sanity of the produced pollen. The trace elements Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn were analyzed in soil, plants and bee pollen from Teresina region (PI, Brazil, by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Considering the studied plant species, Cu and Pb metals presented in the highest levels in the roots of B. platypetala with 47.35 and 32.71 μg.mL-1 and H. suaveolens with 39.69 and 17.06 μg.mL-1, respectively, while in the aerial parts Mn and Zn metals presented the highest levels in S. verticillata with 199.18 and 85.73 μg.mL-1. In the pollen, the levels of Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn vary from 5.44 to 11.75 μg.mL-1; 34.31 to 85.75 μg.mL-1; 13.98 to 18.19 μg.mL-1 and 50.19 to 90.35 μg.mL-1, respectively. These results indicate that in the apicultural pasture the translocation (from soil to pollen of Mn and Zn was more effective than in case of Cu and Pb, therefore, the bee pollen can be used as food supplement without causing risks to human health.O objetivo deste estudo é caracterizar plantas apícolas nativas, quanto a sua capacidade de extrair e acumular elementos-traço do solo e suas conseqüências na sanidade do pólen produzido. Os elementos-traço Cu, Mn, Pb e Zn foram analisados em solo, planta e pólen apícolas em Teresina (PI, Brasil, por espectrofotometria de absorção atômica com atomização em chama. Considerando as espécies de plantas estudadas, os metais Cu e Pb apresentaram nas raízes maiores teores de B. platypetala com 47,35 e 32,71 µg.mL-1 e H. suaveolens com 39,69 e 17,06 µg.mL-1, respectivamente, enquanto na parte aérea os metais Mn e Zn apresentaram os maiores teores, em S. verticillata com 199,18 e 85, 73 µg.mL-1. No pólen os teores de Cu, Mn, Pb e Zn varia de 5,44 a 11,75 µg.mL-1; 34,31 a 85,75 µg.mL-1; 13,98 a 18,19 µg.mL-1 e 50,19 a 90,35 µg.mL-1

  15. Evaluation of the heavy metals Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb in water penny wort (Hydrocotyle ranunculoides) from the upper course of the Lerma River, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarazua, G.; Avila P, P.; Tejeda, S.; Valdivia B, M.; Macedo M, G.; Zepeda G, C.

    2013-01-01

    The Lerma river is one of the most polluted water bodies in Mexico, it presents low biodiversity and lets grow up aquatic plants resistant to the pollution. The aim of this work was to evaluate the concentration and bioaccumulation factors of Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb in aerial and submerged structures of water penny wort (Hydrocotyle ranunculoides) from the upper course of the Lerma river. Inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry was used to determine the concentration of heavy metals in water and H. ranunculoides. Results show that the bioaccumulation factors of Fe and Zn were higher than those of Cu, Mn, Cr and Pb; with the exception of Zn, bioaccumulation factors were higher in the submerged structures of the plant, which shows low mobility of analyzed metals. As a result of this study H. ranunculoides can be considered as good indicator of metal pollution in water bodies. (Author)

  16. Levels of Cd (II, Mn (II, Pb (II, Cu (II, and Zn (II in Common Buzzard (Buteo buteo from Sicily (Italy by Derivative Stripping Potentiometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Licata

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Mn, and Zn in different organs (liver, kidney, muscle, lung, skin, and feathers of buzzards (Buteo buteo, utilized as a “biological indicator” for environmental contamination, from different areas of Sicily and to investigate the relationships between birds sex, age, and weight and metal levels in these samples. All samples of common buzzards were collected at the “Recovery Center of Wild Fauna” of Palermo, through the Zooprophilactic Institute. Potentiometric stripping analysis (PSA was used to determine the content of Cd(II, Cu(II, Mn(II, Pb(II, and Zn(II in bird tissues. For toxic metals, the highest levels of Pb were in liver and those of Cd in lung; Zn levels were higher than Cu and Mn in all tissues analyzed. The concentrations in liver, lung, kidney, and muscle could be considered as an indicative of chronic exposure to metals while the presence of metals in skin could be consequential to storing and elimination processes. The found concentrations of metals in the studied matrices required a highly sensitive method for their determination and a simple sample preparation procedure, and the proposed method was well suited for this purpose.

  17. Study of the analytic quality in the determinations of Cr, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and Hg through conventional and nuclear analytical techniques in mosses of the MATV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caballero S, B.

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the environmental risks of air pollution and to facilitate the decision-making for control, is necessary to have the capacity to generate data with analytical quality. A comparison between nuclear (Neutron activation analysis and total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry) and no nuclear analytical techniques (atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry) for simultaneous determination of metal content (Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Pb and Zn) in mosses from Metropolitan Area of the Toluca Valley (MATV) was performed. Epiphytic mosses (Fabriona ciliaris and Leskea angustata) were sampled in two campaigns, 16 sites (urban, transition and natural) and were prepared for each technique. The biological certified reference materials were used for the quality control and to evaluate accuracy, precision, linearity, detection and quantification limits. Results show that nuclear analytical techniques and no nuclear applied in chemical analysis of Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Pb and Zn in moss from MATV are comparable and therefore all of these can potentially be used for this purpose. However, if its considered both, the performance parameters and economic/operational characteristics is widely recommended inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, conventional analytical technique, which showed the highest analytical grade quality. Also were observed spatial and temporal variations in the concentrations of Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Pb and Zn in mosses from MATV and was discussed its potential origin. The urban sites had the highest concentration of anthropogenic elements as Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Pb and Zn because are strongly impacted by roads with high vehicle traffic. (Author)

  18. Influence of Al and the heavy metals Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd on development and efficacy of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza in tropical and subtropical plants. Einfluss von Al und den Schwermetallen Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb und Cd auf die Effizienz der VA-Mykorrhiza bei tropischen und subtropischen Pflanzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabig, B.

    1982-07-08

    In greenhouse experiments the influence of Al and the heavy metals Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd on the efficacy of VA-mycorrhizal fungi was tested with special regard to several soil pH levels and soil water regimes in different combinations. The most important results were: The inoculation led to a significantly better growth of all test plants in the presence of Al, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd up to a specific amount of the soil-applied element; beyond this specific limit the efficacy of the mycorrhiza was more or less inhibited depending on the element. In correlation with the growth, the nearly always better P uptake of the inoculated plants was impaired only by the highest toxic amounts of the elements. In comparison with the uninoculated plants, all the inoculated plants showed higher P and Pb concentrations. The mycorrhizal plants generally had significantly higher concentrations of the elements Al, Mn, Zn, Cu, and Cd in the roots than the uninoculated plants. Generally even toxic levels of Fe in the soil did not lead to higher Fe concentrations in the plants. Even the highest amounts of Al, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu did not cause microscopically visible injuries to the development of the mycorrhiza and did not impede the infection. Only the toxic levels of Pb led to a decrease of the infection rate of about 50%. Pb and Cd were the reason for morphological changes of the different developmental phases of the fungus. High amounts of Pb induced an increased formation of vesicles. The highest amounts of Cd were accompanied by the crowded occurrence of arbuscules.

  19. Evaluation of the heavy metals Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb in water penny wort (Hydrocotyle ranunculoides) from the upper course of the Lerma River, Mexico; Evaluacion de los metales pesados Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn y Pb en sombrerillo de agua (Hydrocotyle ranunculoides) del curso alto del Rio Lerma, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarazua, G.; Avila P, P.; Tejeda, S. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Valdivia B, M.; Macedo M, G. [Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca, Av. Tecnologico s/n, Ex-Rancho La Virgen, 52140 Metepec, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Zepeda G, C., E-mail: graciela.zarazua@inin.gob.mx [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Cerro de Coatepec s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, 50100 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2013-07-01

    The Lerma river is one of the most polluted water bodies in Mexico, it presents low biodiversity and lets grow up aquatic plants resistant to the pollution. The aim of this work was to evaluate the concentration and bioaccumulation factors of Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb in aerial and submerged structures of water penny wort (Hydrocotyle ranunculoides) from the upper course of the Lerma river. Inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry was used to determine the concentration of heavy metals in water and H. ranunculoides. Results show that the bioaccumulation factors of Fe and Zn were higher than those of Cu, Mn, Cr and Pb; with the exception of Zn, bioaccumulation factors were higher in the submerged structures of the plant, which shows low mobility of analyzed metals. As a result of this study H. ranunculoides can be considered as good indicator of metal pollution in water bodies. (Author)

  20. Certification of trace element contents (As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Hg, Na, Pb and Zn) in a fly ash obtained from the combustion of pulverised coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griepink, B.; Colinet, E.; Guzzi, G.; Haemers, L.; Muntau, H.

    1983-01-01

    The element contents of As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Hg, Na, Pb and Zn of a fly ash from pulverised coal are certified. The procedures and their results for the homogenisation, the contamination and homogeneity checks and the analytical campaign are reported. The certified mass fractions and indicative values for Cr, Ni, Th, V and water soluble sulphate are given. The work was carried out within the framework of the activities of the Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) of the Commission of the European Communities. (orig.) [de

  1. Study of the analytic quality in the determinations of Cr, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and Hg through conventional and nuclear analytical techniques in mosses of the MATV; Estudio de la calidad analitica en las determinaciones de Cr, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb y Hg a traves de tecnicas analiticas nucleares y convencionales en musgos de la ZMVT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero S, B.

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate the environmental risks of air pollution and to facilitate the decision-making for control, is necessary to have the capacity to generate data with analytical quality. A comparison between nuclear (Neutron activation analysis and total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry) and no nuclear analytical techniques (atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry) for simultaneous determination of metal content (Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Pb and Zn) in mosses from Metropolitan Area of the Toluca Valley (MATV) was performed. Epiphytic mosses (Fabriona ciliaris and Leskea angustata) were sampled in two campaigns, 16 sites (urban, transition and natural) and were prepared for each technique. The biological certified reference materials were used for the quality control and to evaluate accuracy, precision, linearity, detection and quantification limits. Results show that nuclear analytical techniques and no nuclear applied in chemical analysis of Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Pb and Zn in moss from MATV are comparable and therefore all of these can potentially be used for this purpose. However, if its considered both, the performance parameters and economic/operational characteristics is widely recommended inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, conventional analytical technique, which showed the highest analytical grade quality. Also were observed spatial and temporal variations in the concentrations of Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Pb and Zn in mosses from MATV and was discussed its potential origin. The urban sites had the highest concentration of anthropogenic elements as Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Pb and Zn because are strongly impacted by roads with high vehicle traffic. (Author)

  2. Associations between standardized school performance tests and mixtures of Pb, Zn, Cd, Ni, Mn, Cu, Cr, Co, and V in community soils of New Orleans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahran, Sammy; Mielke, Howard W.; Weiler, Stephan; Hempel, Lynn; Berry, Kenneth J.; Gonzales, Christopher R.

    2012-01-01

    In New Orleans a strong inverse association was previously identified between community soil lead and 4th grade school performance. This study extends the association to zinc, cadmium, nickel, manganese, copper, chromium, cobalt, and vanadium in community soil and their comparative effects on 4th grade school performance. Adjusting for poverty, food security, racial composition, and teacher-student ratios, regression results show that soil metals variously reduce and compress student scores. Soil metals account for 22%–24% while food insecurity accounts for 29%–37% of variation in school performance. The impact on grade point averages were Ni > Co > Mn > Cu ∼Cr ∼ Cd > Zn > Pb, but metals are mixtures in soils. The quantities of soil metal mixtures vary widely across the city with the largest totals in the inner city and smallest totals in the outer city. School grade point averages are lowest where the soil metal mixtures and food insecurity are highest. - Highlights: ► Mixtures of metals vary; largest totals in the inner city and lowest in the outer city. ► An inverse association between soil Pb and 4th grade school performance is known. ► Assuming the same exposure pathway, multiple metals are compared to performance. ► Soil metals account for 22%–24% of variation in school test performance. ► Soil metal plus food insecurity accounts for 54% of explained variance. - Controlling for potential confounding variables, the accumulation of metals (Pb, Zn, Cd, Ni, Mn, Cu, Cr, and Co) in neighborhood soils is significantly negatively associated with 4th grade school performance on standardized tests in New Orleans.

  3. Efeito da adição de fontes de matéria orgânica como amenizantes do efeito tóxico de B, Zn, Cu, Mn e Pb no cultivo de Brassica juncea Effect of sources of organic matter in the alleviation of the toxic effects of B, Zn, Cu, Mn and Pb to Brassica Juncea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaucia Cecília Grabrielli dos Santos

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Atividades humanas como mineração, siderurgia e aplicação de fertilizantes tornam a poluição por metais sério problema ambiental na atualidade. A fitorremediação - uso de plantas e da microbiota, associada ou não a adições de amenizantes de solo, para extrair, seqüestrar e, ou, reduzir a toxicidade dos poluentes - tem sido descrita como uma tecnologia efetiva, não-destrutiva, econômica e socialmente aceita para remediar solos poluídos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência da mostarda na remoção de Zn, Cu, Mn, Pb e B de um solo contaminado e o efeito da adição de materiais orgânicos na redução da disponibilidade de metais pesados e B para essa planta. O trabalho foi realizado em casa de vegetação, com delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 3 x 5 com quatro repetições, utilizando 0, 7, 14, 21 e 28 g kg-1 de C no solo. Os materiais orgânicos utilizados foram: solomax, turfa e concentrado húmico mineral (CHM. A adição de turfa e concentrado húmico mineral reduziu os teores de Zn, Cu, Pb e B extraíveis do solo e na parte aérea da mostarda; contudo, essa redução não foi suficiente para impedir os efeitos fitotóxicos dos elementos. A adição dos materiais orgânicos promoveu aumento nos teores de Mn no solo, entretanto apenas o solomax proporcionou aumento na concentração do elemento na parte aérea das plantas. Os efeitos da turfa e do CHM sobre a disponibilidade de Zn, Cu, Mn, Pb e B no solo, a concentração na parte aérea e o crescimento das plantas indicaram o potencial desses materiais como agentes amenizantes de toxicidade e do solomax como auxiliar em programas de fitoextração induzida.As a result of anthropogenic activities such as mining, metal industry and agricultural fertilizer application, metal pollution has become one of the most serious environmental problems of today. Phytoremediation denotes the use of plants and micro-biota, together or without soil

  4. Qualitative aspects of biomonitoring: Sphagnum auriculatum response vs. aerosol metal concentrations (Pb, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn) in the Porto urban atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teresa, M.; Vasconcelos, S.D.; Tavares Laquipai, H.M.F.

    2000-01-01

    Bags of S. auriculatum and a low-volume aerosol sampler provided with 0.8 μm pore size filters were exposed, in parallel, to the atmosphere of Porto, at different sampling points and in different periods of time, between 1991 and 1997. The levels of lead in the moss (weekly samples) and in the filters (daily samples) were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and the results were compared. Living S. auriculatum exposed in bags to the Porto atmosphere died in several weeks (about a month), but continued to sorb metals from the atmosphere for about another month. In dry weather periods (relative humidity ≤ 76%) the rate of lead uptake by moss was approximately constant and proportional to the levels of the metal in atmospheric aerosols. A converting factor [CF=parallel-Pb-parallel moss (μg/g.day)/ parallel-Pb-parallel air (μg/m 3 )] allowed conversion of the lead levels in S. auriculatum to those in the atmospheric aerosols. Because the moss fixed lead from gas, aerosol and particulate matter, the rate of sorption depends markedly on the distance to the lead sources (mainly traffic) and on surrounding obstacles which retain particles. Therefore, specific calibration by mechanic monitoring, at each sampling point is required in a first stage of biomonitoring, when moss bag samplers are used to provide quantitative information about lead levels in the atmosphere. The mean Pb levels were ≤ 0.5 μg/m 3 and approximately constants at each sample point up to January 1996. After that date it decreased about 50%, in consequence of the reduction of the Pb concentration in leaded gasoline. In wet weather periods, higher but irregular rate of lead uptake was observed. In contrast, the lead levels in atmospheric aerosols decreased when the humidity increased due to wet deposition. Therefore, no proportionality between lead levels in the moss and in air were found. For about two months, in 1994, during a dry weather period, the levels of Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni

  5. The Survey and Measurement of Ni, Pb, Cu, Mn, Zn, Cd and V Content in Green Vegetables of South Area of Tehran Refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazemzadeh Khoyi, J.; Noori, A. S.; Pourang, N.; Alizadeh, M.; Ghoreishi, H.; Padash, A.

    2013-01-01

    Oil pollution is one of the most critical soil and water pollutant. Areas which are subjected to oil industry may have this kind of pollution by different ways such as extraction, transformation and refining. The example of these areas is south east of Tehran refinery which is surrounded by agricultural fields and are subjected by pollution via Tehran refinery, oil transforming lines, waste water and industrial activities. Since the crops from this area is providing the needs of neighbor cities like Tehran, to realize their oil pollution, the content of some heavy metals like Ni, V, Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb and Mn has been measured. The results analyzed by analytical method include SPSS and MVSP. Finally the relation between elements and pollution has been recognized. The result of this survey showed the high heavy metal content in most plants which were higher than similar research. Onion had the highest amount of most heavy metals. Ni and Pd content were high in plants which are indicator of oil pollution.

  6. Succulent species differ substantially in their tolerance and phytoextraction potential when grown in the presence of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chengjun; Sale, Peter W G; Clark, Gary J; Liu, Wuxing; Doronila, Augustine I; Kolev, Spas D; Tang, Caixian

    2015-12-01

    Plants for the phytoextraction of heavy metals should have the ability to accumulate high concentrations of such metals and exhibit multiple tolerance traits to cope with adverse conditions such as coexistence of multiple heavy metals, high salinity, and drought which are the characteristics of many contaminated soils. This study compared 14 succulent species for their phytoextraction potential of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn. There were species variations in metal tolerance and accumulation. Among the 14 succulent species, an Australian native halophyte Carpobrotus rossii exhibited the highest relative growth rate (20.6-26.6 mg plant(-1) day(-1)) and highest tolerance index (78-93%), whilst Sedum "Autumn Joy" had the lowest relative growth rate (8.3-13.6 mg plant(-1) day(-1)), and Crassula multicava showed the lowest tolerance indices (phytoextraction of these heavy metals than other species. These findings suggest that Carpobrotus rossii is a promising candidate for phytoextraction of multiple heavy metals, and the aquatic or semiterrestrial Crassula helmsii is suitable for phytoextraction of Cd and Zn from polluted waters or wetlands.

  7. TXRF and XRF techniques for the determination of K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr and Pb in some plant species and their infusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khuder, A [Atomic Energy Commission, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic). Dept. of Chemistry

    2009-02-15

    The content of K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, and Sr elements in some medicinal plants, including: A. herba-alba, T. officinale, M. officinalis, T. syeriacus, T. vulgaris, A. officinalis, R. officinalis, M. piperita, M. aquatica, Zea mays, G. glabra, A. vulgare, U. urens, C. aronica, H. officinalis, M. aurea, C. cyminum, was determined using TXRF technique. Concentrations of Pb upper the detection limits of TXRF method was determined only in A. herba-alba leaves with a mean value of 3.6 ppm. The accuracy and the precision of TXRF method were verified using Apple leaves, Peach leaves, and Hay Powder Standard Reference Materials (SRM) for the analysis of plant samples. The previously mentioned elements were accurately determined by TXRF, except Br. Errors obtained by Br determination may be obtained by the partial losses of element content during evaporation of sample on quartz carrier proposed for TXRF measurements. TXRF results for Ca, Mn, and Sr elements agreed well with these obtained by XRF method with standard relative error (SR) better than 10 %, while, these obtained for rest elements, except Br, were with SR ranging between 11 %-20 %. Br was not included in the determination of elements by TXRF. Transfer of K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, and Sr from A. herba-alba, A. vulgare, Zea mays, M. aquatica, M. piperita, C. cyminum, G. glabra, M. officinalis, and R. officinalis plant materials to infusions at different temperatures were studied using XRF method. Data analyses were verified by Peach and Apple leaves of Standard Reference Materials. Potassium represented the dominant element in all studied plants, particularly, in roots of U. dioica plant with concentrations in the range of 59.3 g/Kg-90.8 g/Kg. Independently of brewing 5 temperature, potassium with a high ratio was transferred from plants to infusions. K transfer ratio was in a range from 57.2 % for A. vulgare leaves at 25 .C to 91 % for G. glabra at 55 .C. Although, Fe content in dry plant

  8. TXRF and XRF techniques for the determination of K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr and Pb in some plant species and their infusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khuder, A.

    2009-02-01

    The content of K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, and Sr elements in some medicinal plants, including: A. herba-alba, T. officinale, M. officinalis, T. syeriacus, T. vulgaris, A. officinalis, R. officinalis, M. piperita, M. aquatica, Zea mays, G. glabra, A. vulgare, U. urens, C. aronica, H. officinalis, M. aurea, C. cyminum, was determined using TXRF technique. Concentrations of Pb upper the detection limits of TXRF method was determined only in A. herba-alba leaves with a mean value of 3.6 ppm. The accuracy and the precision of TXRF method were verified using Apple leaves, Peach leaves, and Hay Powder Standard Reference Materials (SRM) for the analysis of plant samples. The previously mentioned elements were accurately determined by TXRF, except Br. Errors obtained by Br determination may be obtained by the partial losses of element content during evaporation of sample on quartz carrier proposed for TXRF measurements. TXRF results for Ca, Mn, and Sr elements agreed well with these obtained by XRF method with standard relative error (SR) better than 10 %, while, these obtained for rest elements, except Br, were with SR ranging between 11 %-20 %. Br was not included in the determination of elements by TXRF. Transfer of K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, and Sr from A. herba-alba, A. vulgare, Zea mays, M. aquatica, M. piperita, C. cyminum, G. glabra, M. officinalis, and R. officinalis plant materials to infusions at different temperatures were studied using XRF method. Data analyses were verified by Peach and Apple leaves of Standard Reference Materials. Potassium represented the dominant element in all studied plants, particularly, in roots of U. dioica plant with concentrations in the range of 59.3 g/Kg-90.8 g/Kg. Independently of brewing 5 temperature, potassium with a high ratio was transferred from plants to infusions. K transfer ratio was in a range from 57.2 % for A. vulgare leaves at 25 .C to 91 % for G. glabra at 55 .C. Although, Fe content in dry plant

  9. The effect of mustard gas on salivary trace metals (Zn, Mn, Cu, Mg, Mo, Sr, Cd, Ca, Pb, Rb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Zamani Pozveh

    Full Text Available We have determined and compared trace metals concentration in saliva taken from chemical warfare injures who were under the exposure of mustard gas and healthy subjects by means of inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES for the first time. The influence of preliminary operations on the accuracy of ICP-OES analysis, blood contamination, the number of restored teeth in the mouth, salivary flow rate, and daily variations in trace metals concentration in saliva were also considered. Unstimulated saliva was collected at 10:00-11:00 a.m. from 45 subjects in three equal groups. The first group was composed of 15 healthy subjects (group 1; the second group consisted of 15 subjects who, upon chemical warfare injuries, did not use Salbutamol spray, which they would have normally used on a regular basis (group 2; and the third group contained the same number of patients as the second group, but they had taken their regular medicine (Salbutamol spray; group 3. Our results showed that the concentration of Cu in saliva was significantly increased in the chemical warfare injures compared to healthy subjects, as follows: healthy subjects 15.3± 5.45 (p.p.b., patients (group 2 45.77±13.65, and patients (Salbutamol spray; group 3 29 ±8.51 (P <0.02. In contrast, zinc was significantly decreased in the patients, as follows: healthy subjects 37 ± 9.03 (p.p.b., patients (group 2 12.2 ± 3.56, and patients (Salbutamol spray; group 3 20.6 ±10.01 (P < 0.01. It is important to note that direct dilution of saliva samples with ultrapure nitric acid showed the optimum ICP-OES outputs.

  10. Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis of traces of heavy metals (Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ta, Pb, U) in mineral waters after separation on the cellulose-exchanger Hyphan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burba, P.; Lieser, K.H.

    1979-01-01

    Trace elements in mineral water are separated in small columns on the cellulose-exchanger Hyphan, eluted by diluted hydrochloric acid, bound on 100 mg of Hyphan by shaking and determined by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence. The following heavy metals can be analysed quantitatively if present in water in concentrations >= 1 ppb: Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ta, Pb and U. Several commercial mineral waters, a sodium chloride spring and seawater were analyzed for trace elements. The results obtained by X-ray fluorescence and by atomic absorption agree within the limits of error. (orig.) [de

  11. Estudo de metais pesados (Co, Cu, Fe, Cr, Ni, Mn, Pb e Zn na Bacia do Tarumã-Açu Manaus (AM Heavy metal (Co, Cu, Fe, Cr, Ni, Mn, Pb e Zn study in the Tarumã-Açu Basin Manaus (AM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genilson Pereira Santana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Os resíduos gerados em domicílios incluem diversos produtos, como pesticidas, produtos farmacêuticos, detergentes, óleos de cozinha, metais pesados contidos em baterias e outros utensílios. Esses resíduos são lançados continuamente em aterro sanitário ou lixões em cidades como Manaus. O chorume produzido nesses aterros, quando não tratados, contamina recursos hídricos superficiais e subterrâneos. Neste estudo foi feita uma avaliação das conseqüências da liberação do chorume no sistema hídrico da bacia do Tarumã-Açu. Amostras de água e sedimento foram coletadas nos igarapés Matrinxã, Acará, Bolívia, bacia do Tarumã-Açu e dentro do aterro sanitário (Manaus - Amazonas - Brasil em março 2001. As amostras de água foram filtradas em filtro Milipore (0,45 mm de poro e, em seguida, tratadas com HNO3 concentrado. As amostras de sedimento foram peneiradas em malha de 0,053 mm e digeridas com HCl:HNO3 (1:3 a 150ºC. As concentrações de alguns metais pesados (Co, Cu, Fe, Cr, Ni, Mn, Pb e Zn foram determinadas nas amostras de água e sedimento por espectrometria de absorção atômica de chama. Os resultados revelaram que a concentração dos metais pesados é muito acima dos permitidos pela resolução 357/2005 do CONAMA em praticamente todos os locais amostrados, mostrando que o Aterro Sanitário é um dos principais responsáveis pelo impacto ambiental observado nos corpos hídricos estudados. As análises dos componentes principais (PCA e hierárquica de cluster (HCA, revelam que os pontos de coleta localizados dentro do aterro sanitário apresentam características diferentes dos outros locais amostrados. Além disso, o HCA e PCA mostraram que existe uma similaridade entre os pontos de coleta localizados fora do aterro o que permite afirmar que o chorume do aterro se dissolve por todo corpo hídrico estudado.Domestic sewage involves several products, such as pesticides, pharmaceutics products, detergents, soybean oil

  12. Certification of the contents (mass fractions) of Cd, Pb, Se, Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn in wholemeal flour and lyophilized brown bread reference materials. Wholemeal flour - CRM no. 189; brown bread - CRM no. 191

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagstaffe, P J; Griepink, B; Muntau, H; Schramel, P

    1987-01-01

    The report describes the preparation and certification of a wholemeal flour (CRM 189) and a lyophilised brown breas (CRM 191) for their contents (mass fractions) of elements of toxicological and nutritional importance: Cd, Pb, Se, Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn. Indicative values are also given for As, Ca, Cl, Cr, Hg, Mg, Na, Ni, P and K. Details are given of a preliminary intercomparison of methods for these elements in a wholemeal flour sample, homogeneity and stability studies on the two reference materials and the results and evaluation of the certification exercise which involved 21 European Laboratories. Summaries of the certification methods are also presented. The report concludes with a discussion of the most common sources of error in determining the elements of interest and the steps to be taken to control them. With 7 figs., 28 tabs.

  13. Study of Cu and Pb partitioning in mine tailings using the Tessier sequential extraction scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrei, Mariana Lucia, E-mail: marianaluciaandrei@yahoo.com [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Babes-Bolyai University, Environmental Science and Engineering Faculty, 30 Fantanele, 400294, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Senila, Marin; Hoaghia, Maria Alexandra; Levei, Erika-Andrea [INCDO-INOE 2000, Research Institute for Analytical Instrumentation, 67 Donath, 400293, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Borodi, Gheorghe [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2015-12-23

    The Cu and Pb partitioning in nonferrous mine tailings was investigated using the Tessier sequential extraction scheme. The contents of Cu and Pb found in the five operationally defined fractions were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The results showed different partitioning patterns for Cu and Pb in the studied tailings. The total Cu and Pb contents were higher in tailings from Brazesti than in those from Saliste, while the Cu contents in the first two fractions considered as mobile were comparable and the content of mobile Pb was the highest in Brazesti tailings. In the tailings from Saliste about 30% of Cu and 3% of Pb were found in exchangeable fraction, while in those from Brazesti no metals were found in the exchangeable fraction, but the percent of Cu and Pb found in the bound to carbonate fraction were high (20% and 26%, respectively). The highest Pb content was found in the residual fraction in Saliste tailings and in bound to Fe and Mn oxides fraction in Brazesti tailings, while the highest Cu content was found in the fraction bound to organic matter in Saliste tailings and in the residual fraction in Brazesti tailings. In case of tailings of Brazesti medium environmental risk was found both for Pb and Cu, while in case of Saliste tailings low risk for Pb and high risk for Cu were found.

  14. Study of Cu and Pb partitioning in mine tailings using the Tessier sequential extraction scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrei, Mariana Lucia; Senila, Marin; Hoaghia, Maria Alexandra; Levei, Erika-Andrea; Borodi, Gheorghe

    2015-01-01

    The Cu and Pb partitioning in nonferrous mine tailings was investigated using the Tessier sequential extraction scheme. The contents of Cu and Pb found in the five operationally defined fractions were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The results showed different partitioning patterns for Cu and Pb in the studied tailings. The total Cu and Pb contents were higher in tailings from Brazesti than in those from Saliste, while the Cu contents in the first two fractions considered as mobile were comparable and the content of mobile Pb was the highest in Brazesti tailings. In the tailings from Saliste about 30% of Cu and 3% of Pb were found in exchangeable fraction, while in those from Brazesti no metals were found in the exchangeable fraction, but the percent of Cu and Pb found in the bound to carbonate fraction were high (20% and 26%, respectively). The highest Pb content was found in the residual fraction in Saliste tailings and in bound to Fe and Mn oxides fraction in Brazesti tailings, while the highest Cu content was found in the fraction bound to organic matter in Saliste tailings and in the residual fraction in Brazesti tailings. In case of tailings of Brazesti medium environmental risk was found both for Pb and Cu, while in case of Saliste tailings low risk for Pb and high risk for Cu were found

  15. Evolution with time of 12 metals (V, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Ag, Cd, Ba, Pb, Bi and U) and of lead isotopes in the snows of Coats Land (Antarctica) since the 1830's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planchon, F.

    2001-01-01

    This work shows that it is now possible to get reliable data on the occurrence of numerous heavy metals at ultra low levels in Antarctic snow, by combining ultra clean field sampling and laboratory sub-sampling procedures and the use of ultra sensitive analytical techniques such as ICP-SFMS and TIMS. It has allowed us to determine concentrations of twelve metals (V, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Ag, Cd, Ba, Pb, Bi et U) and lead isotopic composition in the ultra clean series of snow samples collected at Coats Land, in the Atlantic sector of Antarctica. This work presents a 150 years record of metal inputs from natural and anthropogenic sources to Antarctica from the 1830's to the early 1990's. Lead atmospheric pollution begins as early as the end of the 19. century, peaks during the 1970's-1980's and then falls sharply during recent decades. Evolution in lead isotopic abundance shows that Pb inputs to Antarctica reflect a complex blend of contributions originating from the Southern part of South America and Australia. For Cr, Cu, Zn, Ag, Bi and U, concentrations in the snow show significant increases from 1950 to 1980. These enhancements which cannot be explained by variations in natural inputs, illustrate that atmospheric pollution for heavy metals linked with anthropogenic activities in the Southern Hemisphere countries such as for example ferrous and non-ferrous metal mining and smelting is really global. Study of the time period 1920-1990, has allowed us to detail short-term (intra and inter annual) heavy metals concentration's changes. The large short-term variability, observed in Coats Land snow, shows the complex patterns of metal inputs to Antarctica, associated for instance to changes in long-range transport processes from mid-latitude to polar zone and to variability in the different natural sources, such local volcanic activity, sea-salt spray or crustal dust inputs. (author)

  16. Solvent extraction of Ca2+, Ba2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Pb2+, UO22+, Mn2+, Co2+ and Ni2+ into nitrobenzene using strontium dicarbol-lylcobaltate and tetra-tert-butyl p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene tetraacetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. MAKRLÍK

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The exchange extraction constants corresponding to the general equilibrium M2+(aq + SrL2+(nb D ML2+ (nb + Sr2+ (aq occurring in the two-phase water–nitrobenzene system (M2+ = Ca2+, Ba2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Pb2+, UO22+, Mn2+, Co2+ or Ni2+; L = tetra-tert-butyl p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene tetraacetate; aq = aqueous phase; nb = nitrobenzene phase were evaluated from extraction experiments and -activity measurements. Furthermore, the stability constants of the ML2+ complexes in water saturated nitrobenzene were calculated; they were found to increase in the cation order Ba2+ < Mn2+ < Pb2+, Co2+ < Cu2+, Zn2+ < Cd2+, Ni2+ < UO22+ < Ca2+.

  17. Solid-phase extraction of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions from environmental samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, Celal [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Art and Science, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Gundogdu, Ali [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Art and Science, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Bulut, Volkan Numan [Department of Chemistry, Giresun Faculty of Art and Science, Karadeniz Technical University, 28049 Giresun (Turkey); Soylak, Mustafa [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Art and Science, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)]. E-mail: soylak@erciyes.edu.tr; Elci, Latif [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Art and Science, Pamukkale University, 20020 Denizli (Turkey); Sentuerk, Hasan Basri [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Art and Science, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Tuefekci, Mehmet [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Art and Science, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)

    2007-07-19

    A new method using a column packed with Amberlite XAD-2010 resin as a solid-phase extractant has been developed for the multi-element preconcentration of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), and Pb(II) ions based on their complex formation with the sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (Na-DDTC) prior to flame atomic absorption spectrometric (FAAS) determinations. Metal complexes sorbed on the resin were eluted by 1 mol L{sup -1} HNO{sub 3} in acetone. Effects of the analytical conditions over the preconcentration yields of the metal ions, such as pH, quantity of Na-DDTC, eluent type, sample volume and flow rate, foreign ions etc. have been investigated. The limits of detection (LOD) of the analytes were found in the range 0.08-0.26 {mu}g L{sup -1}. The method was validated by analyzing three certified reference materials. The method has been applied for the determination of trace elements in some environmental samples.

  18. Toxicity assessment using Lactuca sativa L. bioassay of the metal(loid)s As, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn in soluble-in-water saturated soil extracts from an abandoned mining site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagur-Gonzalez, Maria Gracia [Univ. of Granada, Faculty of Sciences, Dept. of Analytical Chemistry, Granada (Spain); Univ. of Granada-CSIC, Inst. Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra, Faculty of Sciences, Granada (Spain); Estepa-Molina, Carmen [Univ. of Granada, Faculty of Sciences, Dept. of Mineralogy and Petrology, Granada (Spain); Martin-Peinado, Francisco [Univ. of Granada, Faculty of Sciences, Dept. of Soil Science, Granada (Spain); Morales-Ruano, Salvador [Univ. of Granada-CSIC, Inst. Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra, Faculty of Sciences, Granada (Spain); Univ. of Granada, Faculty of Sciences, Dept. of Mineralogy and Petrology, Granada (Spain)

    2011-02-15

    We used the different soluble-in-water concentrations of As, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn from contaminated soils in an abandoned mining area (anthropogenic origin) to assess the phytotoxicity of the abandoned site using the results obtained with a Lactuca sativa L. bioassay. Material and methods The study has been carried out on potentially polluted samples from the Rodalquilar mining district (southern Spain). The area was sampled according to the different metallurgical treatments for gold extraction used in each one: dynamic cyanidation and heap leaching. The saturation extracts were obtained by filtering each saturated paste with a vacuum-extraction pump, in which measurements of metal(loid) concentrations, pH and electrical conductivity were made. The variables evaluated in the bioassay, defined as toxicity indices ranging from -1 (maximum phytotoxicity) to >0 (hormesis), were seed germination (SG) and root elongation (RE) of lettuce seeds. Results and discussion In areas with a low degree of contamination, the most sensitive toxicity index is RE, whereas in highly contaminated areas, both RE and SG are good estimators of soil toxicity. According to these results, samples from the western area showed moderate to low toxicity, which was closely related to water-soluble As concentrations. Samples from the eastern area had a high degree of toxicity in 40% of the soils. Conclusions The comparison of the two indices (SG and RE) defined using the L. sativa L. bioassay indicates that, for areas with a low degree of contamination, the most sensitive toxicity index is RE, whereas in highly contaminated areas, both RE and SG are good estimators of soil phytotoxicity. Unsupervised pattern recognition methods such as HCA and PCA enabled us to conclude that the low/moderate phytotoxicity of the soils is related to the extraction process used for the recovery of gold (mainly dynamic cyanidation in tanks located in the eastern area) and to the As and Pb contents. (orig.)

  19. Cu and Cu(Mn) films deposited layer-by-layer via surface-limited redox replacement and underpotential deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, J.S., E-mail: jsfang@nfu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Formosa University, Huwei 63201, Taiwan (China); Sun, S.L. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Formosa University, Huwei 63201, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Y.L. [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Chi-Nan University, Nan-Tou 54561, Taiwan (China); Chen, G.S.; Chin, T.S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung 40724, Taiwan (China)

    2016-02-28

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: The present paper reports Cu and Cu(Mn) films prepared layer-by-layer using an electrochemical atomic layer deposition (ECALD) method. The structure and properties of the films were investigated to elucidate their suitability as Cu interconnects for microelectronics. Previous studies have used primarily a vacuum-based atomic layer deposition to form a Cu metallized film. Herein, an entirely wet chemical process was used to fabricate a Cu film using the ECALD process by combining underpotential deposition (UPD) and surface-limited redox replacement (SLRR). The experimental results indicated that an inadequate UPD of Pb affected the subsequent SLRR of Cu and lead to the formation of PbSO{sub 4}. A mechanism is proposed to explain the results. Layer-by-layer deposition of Cu(Mn) films was successfully performed by alternating the deposition cycle-ratios of SLRR-Cu and UPD-Mn. The proposed self-limiting growth method offers a layer-by-layer wet chemistry-based deposition capability for fabricating Cu interconnects.

  20. Cumulation of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Mn in Plants of Gardno Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trojanowski J.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper there have been shown the results of research on yhe content of Zn, Cd, Cu, Mn and Pb in chosen plants of Lake Gardno.The biggest concentration of those metals has been observed in Potamogton natans and Elodea canadensis, on average Zn – 34.9, Pb -2.77, Cd – 0.62, Cu – 3.24 and Mn – 257.4 μg g-1. It has been found that the over-ground parts of the plants under analysis cumulate several times less of heavy metals than their roots. The determined enrichment factors enabled the researchers to state that Cu in the examined plants is of natural origin while Mn, Cd and Zn – of anthropogenic origin.

  1. Solidified structure of Al-Pb-Cu alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Tetsuyuki; Nishi, Seiki; Kumeuchi, Hiroyuki; Tatsuta, Yoshinori.

    1986-01-01

    Al-Pb-Cu alloys were cast into bars or plates in different two metal mold casting processes in order to suppress gravity segregation of Pb and to achieve homogeneous dispersion of Pb phase in the alloys. Solidified structures were analyzed by a video-pattern-analyzer. Plate castings 15 to 20 mm in thickness of Al-Pb-1 % Cu alloy containing Pb up to 5 % in which Pb phase particles up to 10 μm disperse are achieved through water cooled metal mold casting. The plates up to 5 mm in thickness containing Pb as much as 8 to 10 % cast in this process have dispersed Pb particles up to 5 μm in diameter in the surface layer. Al-8 % Pb-1 % Cu alloy bars 40 mm in diameter and 180 mm in height in which gravity segregation of Pb is prevented can be cast by movable and water sprayed metal mold casting at casting temperature 920 deg C and mold moving speed 1.0 mm/s. Pb phase particles 10 μm in mean size are dispersed in the bars. (author)

  2. 210Pb geochronology and trace metal fluxes (Cd, Cu and Pb) in the Gulf of Tehuantepec, South Pacific of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz-Fernandez, Ana Carolina; Paez-Osuna, Federico; Machain-Castillo, Maria Luisa; Arellano-Torres, Elsa

    2004-01-01

    Distributions of Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn and Pb were analyzed in a sediment core collected in the Gulf of Tehuantepec, an important fisheries region located in the South Pacific of Mexico, where data on metal accumulation and accretion rates were previously almost nonexistent. Depth profiles of metal concentrations were converted to time-based profiles by using a 210 Pb-derived vertical accretion rate, estimated to be 0.05 cm year -1 on the average. Sediments were dated up to 8 cm depth, corresponding to a layer of ca. 140 years old. The historical changes of metal accumulation along the sediment core have shown a moderate enrichment of Cd, Cu and Pb concentrations at present, of about threefold the corresponding background concentrations. Chronological trace metal records showed that metal fluxes have increased over the last 20 years, reaching the maximum values at present of 2.5, 22.5 and 45.8 (μg cm -2 year -1 ) for Cd, Pb and Cu, respectively. These increments in metal fluxes are likely influenced by the development of anthropogenic land-based activities since over this period of time oil production activities in the region have had a significant development

  3. Moessbauer spectroscopy of Fe-Mn-Cu alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paduani, Clederson; Krause, Joao Carlos; Yoschida, M.I. Soares

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Although a continuous series of solid solutions exists between Cu and Mn, Fe and Cu are miscible only a few percent at higher temperatures. In moderately concentrated Cu-Mn alloys the Mn moments are bound to the long ranged antiferromagnetic order and the perpendicular components form an X-Y spin glass. Copper alloys are largely employed in various industrial applications. In this work we study the magnetic properties of iron-rich disordered Fe-Mn-Cu alloys with the bcc structure with the experimental techniques of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Moessbauer spectroscopy (MS) and thermogravimetry (TGA). We investigate the formation of a solid solution with the bcc structure as well as the effect of the composition on the structural and magnetic properties of these alloys. A Rietveld analysis of the XRD diffractograms indicate that all prepared samples are single phase and are well crystallized with a bcc structure. (author)

  4. Distribution of P, K, Ca, Mg, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn in wood and bark age classes of willows and poplars used for phytoextraction on soils contaminated by risk elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zárubová, Pavla; Hejcman, Michal; Vondráčková, Stanislava; Mrnka, Libor; Száková, Jiřina; Tlustoš, Pavel

    2015-12-01

    Fast-growing clones of Salix and Populus have been studied for remediation of soils contaminated by risk elements (RE) using short-rotation coppice plantations. Our aim was to assess biomass yield and distributions of elements in wood and bark of highly productive willow (S1--[Salix schwerinii × Salix viminalis] × S. viminalis, S2--Salix × smithiana clone S-218) and poplar (P1--Populus maximowiczii × Populus nigra, P2--P. nigra) clones with respect to aging. The field experiment was established in April 2008 on moderately Cd-, Pb- and Zn- contaminated soil. Shoots were harvested after four seasons (February 2012) and separated into annual classes of wood and bark. All tested clones grew on contaminated soils, with highest biomass production and lowest mortality exhibited by P1 and S2. Concentrations of elements, with exception of Ca and Pb, decreased with age and were higher in bark than in wood. The Salix clones were characterised by higher removal of Cd, Mn and Zn compared to the Populus clones. Despite generally higher RE content in young shoots, partly due to lower wood/bark ratios and higher RE concentrations in bark, the overall removal of RE was higher in older wood classes due to higher biomass yield. Thus, longer rotations seem to be more effective when phytoextraction strategy is considered. Of the four selected clones, S1 exhibited the best removal of Cd and Zn and is a good candidate for phytoextraction.

  5. RF properties of superconducting Pb electroplated onto Cu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delayen, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    The properties of Pb as a superconducting material for high power rf applications are reviewed. The most common method of producing Pb superconducting resonators, which is by electrodeposition of a thin layer on a Cu substrate, is described, and some suggestions for further development are presented. 56 references, 11 figures, 1 table

  6. Experimental Liquidus Studies of the Pb-Cu-Si-O System in Equilibrium with Metallic Pb-Cu Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, M.; Nicol, S.; Hayes, P. C.; Jak, E.

    2018-03-01

    Phase equilibria of the Pb-Cu-Si-O system have been investigated in the temperature range from 1073 K to 1673 K (800 °C to 1400 °C) for oxide liquid (slag) in equilibrium with solid Cu metal and/or liquid Pb-Cu alloy, and solid oxide phases: (a) quartz or tridymite (SiO2) and (b) cuprite (Cu2O). High-temperature equilibration on silica or copper substrates was performed, followed by quenching, and direct measurement of Pb, Cu, and Si concentrations in the liquid and solid phases using the electron probe X-ray microanalysis has been employed to accurately characterize the system in equilibrium with Cu or Pb-Cu metal. All results are projected onto the PbO-"CuO0.5"-SiO2 plane for presentation purposes. The present study is the first-ever systematic investigation of this system to describe the slag liquidus temperatures in the silica and cuprite primary phase fields.

  7. Ostwald ripening of Pb nanocrystalline phase in mechanically milled Al-Pb alloys and the influence of Cu additive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Z.F.; Zeng, M.Q.; Ouyang, L.Z.; Zhang, X.P.; Zhu, M.

    2005-01-01

    The coarsening behavior of nanosized Pb phase in both Al-10%Pb and Al-10%Pb-4.5%Cu alloys has been studied by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy analysis. The coarsening of Pb nanophase in Al-Pb alloys still follows the classical ripening theory (the LSW theory) and the addition of Cu decreases the coarsening rate of Pb nanophase

  8. Assessment of heavy metals (Cd and Pb) and micronutrients (Cu, Mn, and Zn) of paddy (Oryza sativa L.) field surface soil and water in a predominantly paddy-cultivated area at Puducherry (Pondicherry, India), and effects of the agricultural runoff on the elemental concentrations of a receiving rivulet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, M Vikram; Satpathy, Deepmala; Dhiviya, K Shyamala

    2013-08-01

    The concentrations of toxic heavy metals-Cd and Pb and micronutrients-Cu, Mn, and Zn were assessed in the surface soil and water of three different stages of paddy (Oryza sativa L.) fields, the stage I-the first stage in the field soon after transplantation of the paddy seedlings, holding adequate amount of water on soil surface, stage II-the middle stage with paddy plants of stem of about 40 cm length, with sufficient amount of water on the soil surface, and stage III-the final stage with fully grown rice plants and very little amount of water in the field at Bahour, a predominantly paddy cultivating area in Puducherry located on the southeast Coast of India. Comparison of the heavy metal and micronutrient concentrations of the soil and water across the three stages of paddy field showed their concentrations were significantly higher in soil compared with that of water (p soil. The elemental concentrations in paddy soil as well as water was in the ranking order of Cd > Mn > Zn > Cu > Pb indicating concentration of Cd was maximum and Pb was minimum. The elemental concentrations in both soil and water across the three stages showed a ranking order of stage II > stage III > stage I. The runoff from the paddy fields has affected the elemental concentrations of the water and sediment of an adjacent receiving rivulet.

  9. Electromigration in Cu(Al) and Cu(Mn) damascene lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, C.-K.; Ohm, J.; Gignac, L. M.; Breslin, C. M.; Mittal, S.; Bonilla, G.; Edelstein, D.; Rosenberg, R.; Choi, S.; An, J. J.; Simon, A. H.; Angyal, M. S.; Clevenger, L.; Maniscalco, J.; Nogami, T.; Penny, C.; Kim, B. Y.

    2012-05-01

    The effects of impurities, Mn or Al, on interface and grain boundary electromigration (EM) in Cu damascene lines were investigated. The addition of Mn or Al solute caused a reduction in diffusivity at the Cu/dielectric cap interface and the EM activation energies for both Cu-alloys were found to increase by about 0.2 eV as compared to pure Cu. Mn mitigated and Al enhanced Cu grain boundary diffusion; however, no significant mitigation in Cu grain boundary diffusion was observed in low Mn concentration samples. The activation energies for Cu grain boundary diffusion were found to be 0.74 ± 0.05 eV and 0.77 ± 0.05 eV for 1.5 μm wide polycrystalline lines with pure Cu and Cu (0.5 at. % Mn) seeds, respectively. The effective charge number in Cu grain boundaries Z*GB was estimated from drift velocity and was found to be about -0.4. A significant enhancement in EM lifetimes for Cu(Al) or low Mn concentration bamboo-polycrystalline and near-bamboo grain structures was observed but not for polycrystalline-only alloy lines. These results indicated that the existence of bamboo grains in bamboo-polycrystalline lines played a critical role in slowing down the EM-induced void growth rate. The bamboo grains act as Cu diffusion blocking boundaries for grain boundary mass flow, thus generating a mechanical stress-induced back flow counterbalancing the EM force, which is the equality known as the "Blech short length effect."

  10. Oriented Mn-doped CuO nanowire arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Dongqiang; Wu, Zhaofeng; Wang, Zhihe; Yang, Shaoguang

    2016-01-01

    Using anodic aluminum oxide membranes as the nanoreactors and controller, oriented nanowire arrays of the diluted magnetic semiconductor Mn-doped CuO have been successfully fabricated using Mn(NO_3)_2 · 4H_2O and Cu(NO_3)_2 · 3H_2O as the starting materials. X-ray diffraction measurements showed that the as-prepared oriented nanowire arrays are of high purity. Scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope studies showed the nanowires are oriented, continuous and uniform with a diameter and length of about 170 nm and several tens of micrometers, respectively, and thus of a high aspect ratio. Low-temperature magnetic measurements showed the ferromagnetic property of the oriented Mn-doped CuO nanowire arrays with the critical temperature at around 80 K, which will endow them with great potential applications in spintronics in the future. (paper)

  11. Magnetic excitations in CuMn spin-glass alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsunoda, Y.; Kunitomi, N.; Cable, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    Recent neutron scattering measurements have helped to clarify two important features of CuMn spin glasses. Murani and co-workers have studied the dynamical behavior of spin-glass systems and have observed characteristic ferromagnetic spin correlations with a broad distribution of relaxation times and a dynamical freezing process. By means of the polarization analysis technique, Cable and co-workers have observed the coexistence of two types of magnetic short-range order (MSRO): one is a modulated-spin structure, and the other is a ferromagnetic cluster associated with the atomic short-range order (ASRO). These ordered regions produce diffraction maxima which are found at the (1 1/2 +/- delta 0) and the (1 1/2 0) reciprocal lattice points, respectively. Both of these observations seem to be essential for understanding the CuMn spin-glass system. However, the physical relationship of these properties is not yet understood. The authors have studied the inelastic scattering of neutrons around the magnetic diffuse peak positions of a Cu/sub 78.7/Mn/sub 21.3/ single crystal. The spin-glass freezing temperature of a CuMn alloy with this Mn concentration is estimated to be T/sub f/ approx. 90 K. Most of the data were taken by scanning along the [0 1 0] direction from the (1 0 0) to the (1 1 0) reciprocal lattice points

  12. Preparation-Properties Relation of Mn-Cu Hopcalite Catalyst

    OpenAIRE

    Ardita Mele; Ilo Mele; Altin Mele

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: The Mn-Cu hopcalite catalyst was used for the conversion of CO to CO2 at low temperatures. It was the catalyst of choice in the gas masks for respiratory protection in mines, aircrafts, military, spatial laboratories. Approach: The efficiency of hopcalite catalyst depends on its surface parameters. Its surface characteristics can be influenced from the chosen way of the MnO2 and CuO precipitation and from the pressure of pelletizing. Results: The hopcalite samples has been ...

  13. First-principles spin-transfer torque in CuMnAs |GaP |CuMnAs junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamenova, Maria; Mohebbi, Razie; Seyed-Yazdi, Jamileh; Rungger, Ivan; Sanvito, Stefano

    2017-02-01

    We demonstrate that an all-antiferromagnetic tunnel junction with current perpendicular to the plane geometry can be used as an efficient spintronic device with potential high-frequency operation. By using state-of-the-art density functional theory combined with quantum transport, we show that the Néel vector of the electrodes can be manipulated by spin-transfer torque. This is staggered over the two different magnetic sublattices and can generate dynamics and switching. At the same time the different magnetization states of the junction can be read by standard tunneling magnetoresistance. Calculations are performed for CuMnAs |GaP |CuMnAs junctions with different surface terminations between the antiferromagnetic CuMnAs electrodes and the insulating GaP spacer. We find that the torque remains staggered regardless of the termination, while the magnetoresistance depends on the microscopic details of the interface.

  14. Phase stability of CuAlMn shape memory alloys

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zárubová, Niva; Novák, Václav

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 378, - (2004), s. 216-221 ISSN 0921-5093 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : CuAlMn * shape memory alloys * martensitic transformation * - stress -strain tests * tension-compression cycling * history dependent phenomena Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.445, year: 2004

  15. Elastocaloric effect in CuAlZn and CuAlMn shape memory alloys under compression

    OpenAIRE

    Qian, Suxin; Geng, Yunlong; Wang, Yi; Pillsbury, Thomas E.; Hada, Yoshiharu; Yamaguchi, Yuki; Fujimoto, Kenjiro; Hwang, Yunho; Radermacher, Reinhard; Cui, Jun; Yuki, Yoji; Toyotake, Koutaro; Takeuchi, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the elastocaloric effect of two Cu-based shape memory alloys: Cu68Al16Zn16 (CuAlZn) and Cu73Al15Mn12 (CuAlMn), under compression at ambient temperature. The compression tests were conducted at two different rates to approach isothermal and adiabatic conditions. Upon unloading at a strain rate of 0.1 s−1 (adiabatic condition) from 4% strain, the highest adiabatic temperature changes (ΔTad) of 4.0 K for CuAlZn and 3.9 K for CuAlMn were obtained. The maximum stress and hystere...

  16. Failure analysis of PB-1 (EBTS Be/Cu mockup)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odegard, B.C. Jr.; Cadden, C.H.

    1996-11-01

    Failure analysis was done on PB-1 (series of Be tiles joined to Cu alloy) following a tile failure during a high heat flux experiment in EBTS (electron beam test system). This heat flux load simulated ambient conditions inside ITER; the Be tiles were bonded to the Cu alloy using low-temperature diffusion bonding, which is being considered for fabricating plasma facing components in ITER. Results showed differences between the EBTS failure and a failure during a room temperature tensile test. The latter occurred at the Cu-Be interface in an intermetallic phase formed by reaction of the two metals at the bonding temperature. Fracture strengths measured by these tests were over 300 MPa. The high heat flux specimens failed at the Cu-Cu diffusion bond. Fracture morphology in both cases was a mixed mode of dimple rupture and transgranular cleavage. Several explanations for this difference in failure mechanism are suggested

  17. Removal of aqueous Pb(II) by adsorption on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-pillared layered MnO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Haipeng; Gu, Liqin; Zhang, Ling; Zheng, Shourong; Wan, Haiqin; Sun, Jingya [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Vehicle Emissions Control, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Zhu, Dongqiang [School of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Xu, Zhaoyi, E-mail: zhaoyixu@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Vehicle Emissions Control, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China)

    2017-06-01

    Highlights: • Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-pillared layered MnO{sub 2} (p-MnO{sub 2}) was prepared from δ-MnO{sub 2} precursor. • p-MnO{sub 2} showed markedly higher Pb(II) adsorption capacity than pristine δ-MnO{sub 2.}. • Pillaring of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} into the layer of δ-MnO{sub 2} enhanced the Pb(II) adsorption. - Abstract: In the present study, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-pillared layered MnO{sub 2} (p-MnO{sub 2}) was synthesized using δ-MnO{sub 2} as precursor and Pb(II) adsorption on p-MnO{sub 2} and δ-MnO{sub 2} was investigated. To clarify the adsorption mechanism, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was also prepared as an additional sorbent. The adsorbents were characterized by X-ray fluorescence analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption. Results showed that in comparison with pristine δ-MnO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} pillaring led to increased BET surface area of 166.3 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} and enlarged basal spacing of 0.85 nm. Accordingly, p-MnO{sub 2} exhibited a higher adsorption capacity of Pb(II) than δ-MnO{sub 2}. The adsorption isotherms of Pb(II) on δ-MnO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} pillar fitted well to the Freundlich model, while the adsorption isotherm of Pb(II) on p-MnO{sub 2} could be well described using a dual-adsorption model, attributed to Pb(II) adsorption on both δ-MnO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Additionally, Pb(II) adsorption on δ-MnO{sub 2} and p-MnO{sub 2} followed the pseudo second-order kinetics, and a lower adsorption rate was observed on p-MnO{sub 2} than δ-MnO{sub 2}. The Pb(II) adsorption capacity of p-MnO{sub 2} increased with solution pH and co-existing cation concentration, and the presence of dissolved humic acid (10.2 mg L{sup −1}) did not markedly impact Pb(II) adsorption. p-MnO{sub 2} also displayed good adsorption capacities for aqueous Cu(II) and Cd(II). Findings in this study indicate that p-MnO{sub 2} could be used as a highly effective

  18. Glomus mosseae enhances root growth and Cu and Pb acquisition of upland rice (Oryza sativa L.) in contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Aijun; Zhang, Xuhong; Yang, Xiaojin

    2014-12-01

    A pot culture experiment was carried out to investigate the roles of Glomus mosseae in Cu and Pb acquisition by upland rice (Oryza sativa L.) and the interactions between Cu and Pb. The soil was treated with three Cu levels (0, 100 and 200 mg kg(-1)) and three Pb levels (0, 300, and 600 mg kg(-1)). All treatments were designed with (+M) or without (-M) G. mosseae inoculation in a randomized block design. The addition of Cu and Pb significantly decreased root mycorrhizal colonization. Compared with -M, +M significantly increased root biomass in almost all treatments, and also significantly increased shoot biomass in the Pb(0)Cu(200), Pb(300)Cu(0), and all Pb(600) treatments. AM fungi enhanced plant Cu acquisition, but decreased plant Cu concentrations with all Cu plus Pb treatments, except for shoot in the Cu(200)Pb(600) treatment. Irrespective of Cu and Pb levels, +M plants had higher Pb uptakes than -M plants, but had lower root Pb and higher shoot Pb concentrations than those of -M plants. Another interpretation for the higher shoot Pb concentration in +M plants relied on Cu-Pb interactions. The study provided further evidences for the protective effects of AM fungi on upland rice against Cu and Pb contamination, and uncovered the phenomenon that Cu addition could promote Pb uptake and Pb partitioning to shoot. The possible mechanisms by which AM fungi can alleviate the toxicity induced by Cu and Pb are also discussed.

  19. Diffusivities and atomic mobilities in Cu-rich fcc Al-Cu-Mn alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Ming; Du, Yong; Cui, Senlin; Xu, Honghui; Liu, Shuhong [Central South Univ., Changsha (China). State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy; Zhang, Lijun [Bochum Univ. (DE). Interdisciplinary Centre for Advanced Materials Simulation (ICAMS)

    2012-07-15

    Via solid-solid diffusion couples, electron probe microanalysis and the Whittle and Green method, interdiffusivities in fcc Al-Cu-Mn alloys at 1 123 K were measured. The reliability of the obtained diffusivities is validated by comparing the computed diffusivities with literature data plus constraints among the diffusivities. Through assessments of experimentally determined diffusion coefficients by means of a diffusion-controlled transformations simulation package, the atomic mobilities of Al, Cu, and Mn in fcc Al-Cu-Mn alloys are obtained. Comprehensive comparisons between the model-predicted and the experimental data indicate that the presently obtained atomic mobilities can reproduce most of the diffusivities, concentration profiles, and diffusion paths reasonably. (orig.)

  20. Factors affecting the partitioning of Cu, Zn and Pb in boulder coatings and stream sediments in the vicinity of a polymetallic sulfide deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipek, L.H.; Chao, T.T.; Carpenter, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    A sequential extraction scheme is utilized to determine the geochemical partitioning of Cu, Zn and Pb among hydrous Mn- and Fe-oxides, organics and residual crystalline silicates and oxides in the minus-80-mesh ( Fe-oxides > Mn-oxides; Zn, Mn-oxides {reversed tilde equals} organics > Fe-oxides; Pb, Fe-oxides > organics > Mn-oxides. In the sediments, organics are the most efficient scavengers of all three ore metals. These results emphasize the importance of organics as sinks for the ore metals, even in environments with high concentrations of Mn- and Fe-oxides. Of the ore metals, Zn appears to be the most mobile, and is partitioned most strongly into the coatings. However, anomaly contrast for hydromorphic Zn, normalized to the MnFe-oxide or organic content, is similar in sediments and coatings. Cu shows the highest anomaly on the boulder coatings, probably due to precipitation of a secondary Cu mineral. In contrast, detrital Pb in the pan concentrates shows a better anomaly than any hydromorphic Pb component. ?? 1981.

  1. The Paramagnetism of Small Amounts of Mn Dissolved in Cu-Al and Cu-Ge Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, H P; Westin, R

    1963-06-15

    Previous measurements of the valency of Mn in Cu-Zn alloys have been confirmed by measurements with the isoelectronic Cu-Al and Cu-Ge alloys as matrices for Mn. The valency, having the value i in pure copper, decreases slightly with increasing electron to atom ratio attaining the values 0. 9 and 0. 8 at the limiting composition in the Al and Ge alloys respectively. The apparent size of Mn in these alloys is discussed.

  2. The Paramagnetism of Small Amounts of Mn Dissolved in Cu-Al and Cu-Ge Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, H.P.; Westin, R.

    1963-06-01

    Previous measurements of the valency of Mn in Cu-Zn alloys have been confirmed by measurements with the isoelectronic Cu-Al and Cu-Ge alloys as matrices for Mn. The valency, having the value i in pure copper, decreases slightly with increasing electron to atom ratio attaining the values 0. 9 and 0. 8 at the limiting composition in the Al and Ge alloys respectively. The apparent size of Mn in these alloys is discussed

  3. Defect-induced magnetic structure of CuMnSb

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Máca, František; Kudrnovský, Josef; Drchal, Václav; Turek, I.; Stelmakhovych, O.; Beran, Přemysl; Llobet, A.; Martí, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 9 (2016), 1-9, č. článku 094407. ISSN 2469-9950 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-37427G Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : CuMnSb * electronic structure * defects * magnetic order * ab initio calculations * neutron diffraction analysis Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.836, year: 2016

  4. Adsorption of Cu, As, Pb and Zn by Banana Trunk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurzulaifa Shaheera Erne Mohd Yasim; Zitty Sarah Ismail; Suhanom Mohd Zaki; Mohd Fahmi Abd Azis

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of banana trunk as an adsorbent in removal of heavy metals in aqueous solution. Functional groups of adsorbent were determined using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Batch experiments were conducted to determine the adsorption percentage of heavy metals (Cu, As, Pb and Zn). The optimum adsorption using banana trunk was based on pH difference, contact time and dosage. Adsorption percentage was found to be proportional to pH, contact time and dosage. Maximum adsorption percentage of Cu, As, Pb and Zn at pH 6, 100 minutes and 8 gram of dosage are 95.80 %, 75.40 %, 99.36 % and 97.24 %, respectively. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were used to determine the equilibrium state for heavy metals ion adsorption experiments. All equilibrium heavy metals were well explained by the Freundlich isotherm model with R"2= 0.9441, R"2= 0.8671, R"2= 0.9489 and R"2= 0.9375 for Cu, As, Pb and Zn respectively. It is concluded that banana trunk has considerable potential for the removal of heavy metals from aqueous solution. (author)

  5. First principles density functional theory study of Pb doped α-MnO2 catalytic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zilin; Yan, Zhiguo; Yang, Xiaojun; Bai, Hang; Duan, Yuhua; Yang, Bin; Leng, Li

    2018-03-01

    The impact of Pb in the tunnels of manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieves on chemical state of Mn species and lattice oxygen were investigated utilizing density functional theory calculations. The results show that the Pb dopant in the tunnels of OMS-2 could reduce the average valence states of Mn. The lower energy required for bulk oxygen defects formation in Pb-OMS-2 validates the activation of lattice oxygen by inclusion of tunnel dopant. The inclusion of Pb promotes the catalytic oxidation activity of OMS-2 by reducing the energy required for the surface lattice oxygen migration during the Mars - van Krevelen oxidation process.

  6. Secondary ordering in ternary alloy CuMnPt6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Miwako; Das, Ananda Kumar; Nakamura, Reo; Ohshima, Ken-ichi; Iwasaki, Hiroshi; Shishido, Toetsu

    2006-01-01

    Using the pulsed-neutron diffraction technique, we performed in situ measurements of structural ordering in the ternary alloy CuMnPt 6 . The diffraction patterns at various temperatures give a direct observation of a double-step ordering: disorder to Cu 3 Au type order as an ordering within the fundamental face-centered cubic lattice to subdivide the lattice into two sublattices formed by face-centered sites (first sublattice) and corner sites (second sublattice) at 968degC; and Cu 3 Au type order to ABC 6 type order as an ordering within the second to subdivide the lattice further into two sublattices formed by alternating (111) planes at 746degC. The order parameters for the ABC 6 type structure experimentally estimated by the method of static concentration waves indicate that the primary ordering developed almost completely, but the secondary ordering remained incomplete. (author)

  7. Determination of Ca, Cu, Fe and Pb in sugarcane raw spirits by atomic absorption spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzo, Magdalena; Reyes, Arlyn; Blanco, Idania; Vasallo, Maria C

    2010-01-01

    The determination of Ca, Cu, Fe and Pb in sugarcane raw spirits by atomic absorption spectrophotometry was carried out. For 20 μL injected sample, calibration within the 0,5-25,0 mg. L -1 Ca; 0,25-5,0 mg. L -1 Cu, Pb and Cu intervals were established using the ratios Cu, Ca, Fe and Pb absorbance versus analyte concentration, respectively. Typical linear correlations of r = 0,999 were obtained. The proposed method was applied for the direct determination of Ca, Cu, Fe and Pb in sugar cane spirits, and in samples. The results obtained were in accordance to those obtained at 95% confidence level

  8. Geochemical fractionation of Ni, Cu and Pb in the deep sea sediments from the Central Indian Ocean Basin: An insight into the mechanism of metal enrichment in sediment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sensarma, S.; Chakraborty, P.; Banerjee, R.; Mukhopadhyay, S.

    speciation study suggests that Fe–Mn oxyhydroxide phase was the major binding phase for Ni, Cu and Pb in the sediments. The second highest concentrations of all these metals were present within the structure of the sediments. Easily reducible oxide phase...

  9. Atomistic spin dynamics simulations on Mn-doped GaAs and CuMn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellsvik, Johan, E-mail: johan.hellsvik@fysik.uu.s [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Uppsala University, Box 530, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2010-01-01

    The magnetic dynamical behavior of two random alloys have been investigated in atomistic spin dynamics (ASD) simulations. For both materials, magnetic exchange parameters calculated with first principles electronic structure methods were used. From experiments it is well known that CuMn is a highly frustrated magnetic system and a good manifestation of a Heisenberg spin glass. In our ASD simulations the behavior of the autocorrelation function indicate spin glass behavior. The diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) Mn-doped GaAs is engineered with hopes of high enough Curie temperatures to operate in spintronic devices. Impurities such as As antisites and Mn interstitials change the exhange couplings from being mainly ferromagnetic to also have antiferromagnetic components. We explore how the resulting frustration affects the magnetization dynamics for a varying rate of As antisites.

  10. Mn3O4 precipitates in Ag and Cu studied with HRTEM : orientation relations and tetragonal twinning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, B.J.; de Hosson, J.T.M.; Sarton, LAJ; Zeedijk, HB

    1997-01-01

    Internal oxidation of Ag-3at.%Mn resulted in Mn3O4 precipitates and of Cu-1at.%Mn gave rise to MnO and a minor amount of Mn3O4 precipitates. In Cu Mn3O4 transformed out of MnO, whereas in Ag Mn3O4 developed directly. Predominantly, precipitates with parallel topotaxy and an octahedron shape due to 8

  11. Electronic Topological Transitions in CuNiMnAl and CuNiMnSn under pressure from first principles study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambabu, P.; Kanchana, V.

    2018-06-01

    A detailed study on quaternary ordered full Heusler alloys CuNiMnAl and CuNiMnSn at ambient and under different compressions is presented using first principles electronic structure calculations. Both the compounds are found to possess ferromagnetic nature at ambient with magnetic moment of Mn being 3.14 μB and 3.35 μB respectively in CuNiMnAl and CuNiMnSn. The total magnetic moment for both the compounds is found to decrease under compression. Fermi surface (FS) topology change is observed in both compounds under pressure at V/V0 = 0.90, further leading to Electronic Topological Transitions (ETTs) and is evidenced by the anomalies visualized in density of states and elastic constants under compression.

  12. Position annihilation study on the (Bi,Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-(O,F) superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaogang; Gao Xiaohui; Wang Ruidan; Hu Pingya

    1993-01-01

    In this note, we report the results of positron lifetime measurements in heat-treated (Bi, Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-(O, F), and discuss the possible location of the doped fluorine in the (Bi, Pb)-system superconductors. (orig.)

  13. Application of atomic absorption spectrophotometry to determine Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn,...in vegetable samples in Dalat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giang, Nguyen; Tam, Nguyen Thanh; Ngoc Trinh, Le Thi; Mai, Truong Phuong; Minh, Nguyen Van [Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam)

    2004-08-01

    Nowadays atomic absorption spectrometry has become valuable method for trace element analysis because high specificity; low detection litmus, easy to use; easy sample preparation, low investment and running costs... atomic absorption spectrometry is generally accepted as one the most suitable method for single - element analysis of trace elements in various kinds of materiel. In 2003, we applied flame - atomic absorption spectrometry for analyzing Ca, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn...in vegetables and their extracted juices were collected form 11 locations of Dalat, including two kinds of vegetables (goods and safety) in both the summer and winter. Average concentration of Ca = 240 mg/kg wet, Cd = 0.035 mg/kg wet, Cu = 0.67 mg/kg wet, Mg = 131 mg/kg wet, Fe = 8.1/kg wet, Mn = 3.1/kg wet, Na = 3266 mg/kg wet, Pb = 0.345 mg/kg wet and Zn = 3.3 mg wet. In their extracted juices: Ca = 89 mg/kg wet, Cd = 0.008 mg/kg wet, Cu = 0.19 mg/kg wet, Mg = 43 mg/kg wet, Fe = 2.3 mg/kg wet, Mn = 0.61 mg/kg wet, Na = 971 mg/kg wet, Pb = 0.107 mg/kg wet and Zn = 0.65 mg/kg wet. (author)

  14. Application of atomic absorption spectrophotometry to determine Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn,...in vegetable samples in Dalat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Giang; Nguyen Thanh Tam; Le Thi Ngoc Trinh; Truong Phuong Mai; Nguyen Van Minh

    2004-01-01

    Nowadays atomic absorption spectrometry has become valuable method for trace element analysis because high specificity; low detection litmus, easy to use; easy sample preparation, low investment and running costs... atomic absorption spectrometry is generally accepted as one the most suitable method for single - element analysis of trace elements in various kinds of materiel. In 2003, we applied flame - atomic absorption spectrometry for analyzing Ca, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn...in vegetables and their extracted juices were collected form 11 locations of Dalat, including two kinds of vegetables (goods and safety) in both the summer and winter. Average concentration of Ca = 240 mg/kg wet, Cd = 0.035 mg/kg wet, Cu = 0.67 mg/kg wet, Mg = 131 mg/kg wet, Fe = 8.1/kg wet, Mn = 3.1/kg wet, Na = 3266 mg/kg wet, Pb = 0.345 mg/kg wet and Zn = 3.3 mg wet. In their extracted juices: Ca = 89 mg/kg wet, Cd = 0.008 mg/kg wet, Cu = 0.19 mg/kg wet, Mg = 43 mg/kg wet, Fe = 2.3 mg/kg wet, Mn = 0.61 mg/kg wet, Na = 971 mg/kg wet, Pb = 0.107 mg/kg wet and Zn = 0.65 mg/kg wet. (author)

  15. New perovskite-based manganite Pb2Mn2O5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadermann, Joke; Abakumov, Artem M.; Perkisas, Tyche; D'Hondt, Hans; Tan Haiyan; Verbeeck, Johan; Filonenko, Vladimir P.; Antipov, Evgeny V.; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf

    2010-01-01

    A new perovskite based compound Pb 2 Mn 2 O 5 has been synthesized using a high pressure high temperature technique. The structure model of Pb 2 Mn 2 O 5 is proposed based on electron diffraction, high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The compound crystallizes in an orthorhombic unit cell with parameters a=5.736(1) A∼√2a p , b=3.800(1) A∼a p , c=21.562(6) A∼4√2a p (a p -the parameter of the perovskite subcell) and space group Pnma. The Pb 2 Mn 2 O 5 structure consists of quasi two-dimensional perovskite blocks separated by 1/2[110] p (101) p crystallographic shear planes. The blocks are connected to each other by chains of edge-sharing MnO 5 distorted tetragonal pyramids. The chains of MnO 5 pyramids and the MnO 6 octahedra of the perovskite blocks delimit six-sided tunnels accommodating double chains of Pb atoms. The tunnels and pyramidal chains adopt two mirror-related configurations ('left' L and 'right' R) and layers consisting of chains and tunnels of the same configuration alternate in the structure according to an -L-R-L-R-sequence. The sequence is sometimes locally violated by the appearance of -L-L- or -R-R-fragments. A scheme is proposed with a Jahn-Teller distortion of the MnO 6 octahedra with two long and two short bonds lying in the a-c plane, along two perpendicular orientations within this plane, forming a d-type pattern. - Graphical abstract: Order of the Jahn-Teller distorted MnO 6 octahedra in Pb 2 Mn 2 O 5 . Two long and two short bonds lie in the a-c plane, along two perpendicular orientations within this plane, forming a d-type pattern.

  16. Fractionation of Pb and Cu in the fine fraction (landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczala, Fabio; Orupõld, Kaja; Augustsson, Anna; Burlakovs, Juris; Hogland, Marika; Bhatnagar, Amit; Hogland, William

    2017-11-01

    The fractionation of metals in the fine fraction (landfill was carried out to evaluate the metal (Pb and Cu) contents and their potential towards not only mobility but also possibilities of recovery/extraction. The fractionation followed the BCR (Community Bureau of Reference) sequential extraction, and the exchangeable (F1), reducible (F2), oxidizable (F3) and residual fractions were determined. The results showed that Pb was highly associated with the reducible (F2) and oxidizable (F3) fractions, suggesting the potential mobility of this metal mainly when in contact with oxygen, despite the low association with the exchangeable fraction (F1). Cu has also shown the potential for mobility when in contact with oxygen, since high associations with the oxidizable fraction (F3) were observed. On the other hand, the mobility of metals in excavated waste can be seen as beneficial considering the circular economy and recovery of such valuables back into the economy. To conclude, not only the total concentration of metals but also a better understanding of fractionation and in which form metals are bound is very important to bring information on how to manage the fine fraction from excavated waste both in terms of environmental impacts and also recovery of such valuables in the economy.

  17. The relative influence of electrokinetic remediation design on the removal of As, Cu, Pb and Sb from shooting range soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kristine B.; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2018-01-01

    to simultaneously optimise the removal by applying a stirred set-up, placement of the anode directly in the soil suspension, sieving the soil (analysis is a valuable tool for evaluating remediation measures depending soil...... and analysis was applied for assessing the efficiency of electrodialytic remediation treatment and variable importance varied for each of the studied metals. In general, applying a stirred set-up improved the metal removal, acidification time and reduced the energy consumption. The placement of the anode...... directly in the soil did not significantly influence the removal of Al, Mg, Mn, As and Pb, while moderately influencing the removal of Cu. Multivariate analysis (projections onto latent structures) revealed similar variable importance and optimal settings for removal of Cu and Pb. It is hence possible...

  18. Thermal behaviour of Cu-Mg-Mn and Ni-Mg-Mn layered double hydroxides and characterization of formed oxides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovanda, F.; Grygar, Tomáš; Dorničák, V.; Rojka, T.; Bezdička, Petr; Jirátová, Květa

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 28, 1-4 (2005), s. 121-136 ISSN 0169-1317 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : Cu-Mg-Mn basic carbonates * Ni-Mg-Mn hydrotalcite Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.324, year: 2005

  19. Magnetocaloric behavior of Mn rich Ni46Cu2Mn43In11 alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Mayukh K.; Obaidat, I. M.; Banerjee, Sangam

    2018-02-01

    In this work, we studied the magnetic entropy change (ΔSM) across the martensite transformation (MT) in Mn-rich Ni46Cu2Mn43ln11 alloy. This compound undergoes a MT and a magnetic phase transition around the temperatures (TM=) 272 K and (TCA=) 325 K, respectively. A large field induced shift (=0.28 K/kOe) of the MT temperatures is observed. An application of magnetic field (H =) of 50 kOe causes a large ΔSM of 20 J/kg-K and -4.4 J/kg-K around TM and TCA, respectively. We also found that the change in magnetic field induced isothermal ΔSM(H)T is mainly depends on the induced austenite phase fraction by the applied magnetic field at that temperature. Possible reasons for the observed behaviours are comprehensively discussed.

  20. Extremely High Phosphate Sorption Capacity in Cu-Pb-Zn Mine Tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Longbin; Li, Xiaofang; Nguyen, Tuan A H

    2015-01-01

    Elevated inorganic phosphate (Pi) concentrations in pore water of amended tailings under direct revegetation may cause toxicity in some native woody species but not native forbs or herb species, all of which are key constituents in target native plant communities for phytostabilizing base metal mine tailings. As a result, Pi sorption capacity has been quantified by a conventional batch procedure in three types of base metal mine tailings sampled from two copper (Cu)-lead (Pb)-zinc (Zn) mines, as the basis for Pi-fertiliser addition. It was found that the Pi-sorption capacity in the tailings and local soil was extremely high, far higher than highly weathered agricultural soils in literature, but similar to those of volcanic ash soils. The Langmuir P-sorption maximum was up to 7.72, 4.12, 4.02 and 3.62 mg P g-1 tailings, in the fresh tailings of mixed Cu-Pb-Zn streams (MIMTD7), the weathered tailings of mixed Cu-Pb-Zn streams (MIMTD5), EHM-TD (fresh Cu-stream, high magnetite content) and local soil (weathered shale and schist), respectively. Physicochemical factors highly correlated with the high Pi-sorption in the tailings were fine particle distribution, oxalate and dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate extractable Fe (FeO and Fed), oxalate-extractable Al and Mn, and the levels of soluble Cd and Zn, and total S and Fe. Large amounts of amorphous Fe oxides and oxyhydroxides may have been formed from the oxidation of pyritic materials and redox cycles of Fe-minerals (such as pyrite (FeS2), ankerite (Ca(Fe Mg)(CO3)2 and siderite (FeCO3), as indicated by the extractable FeO values. The likely formation of sparingly soluble Zn-phosphate in the Pb-Zn tailings containing high levels of Zn (from sphalerite ((Zn,Fe)S, ZnS, (Zn,Cd)S)) may substantially lower soluble Zn levels in the tailings through high rates of Pi-fertiliser addition. As a result, the possibility of P-toxicity in native plant species caused by the addition of soluble phosphate fertilizers would be minimal.

  1. Extremely High Phosphate Sorption Capacity in Cu-Pb-Zn Mine Tailings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longbin Huang

    Full Text Available Elevated inorganic phosphate (Pi concentrations in pore water of amended tailings under direct revegetation may cause toxicity in some native woody species but not native forbs or herb species, all of which are key constituents in target native plant communities for phytostabilizing base metal mine tailings. As a result, Pi sorption capacity has been quantified by a conventional batch procedure in three types of base metal mine tailings sampled from two copper (Cu-lead (Pb-zinc (Zn mines, as the basis for Pi-fertiliser addition. It was found that the Pi-sorption capacity in the tailings and local soil was extremely high, far higher than highly weathered agricultural soils in literature, but similar to those of volcanic ash soils. The Langmuir P-sorption maximum was up to 7.72, 4.12, 4.02 and 3.62 mg P g-1 tailings, in the fresh tailings of mixed Cu-Pb-Zn streams (MIMTD7, the weathered tailings of mixed Cu-Pb-Zn streams (MIMTD5, EHM-TD (fresh Cu-stream, high magnetite content and local soil (weathered shale and schist, respectively. Physicochemical factors highly correlated with the high Pi-sorption in the tailings were fine particle distribution, oxalate and dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate extractable Fe (FeO and Fed, oxalate-extractable Al and Mn, and the levels of soluble Cd and Zn, and total S and Fe. Large amounts of amorphous Fe oxides and oxyhydroxides may have been formed from the oxidation of pyritic materials and redox cycles of Fe-minerals (such as pyrite (FeS2, ankerite (Ca(Fe Mg(CO32 and siderite (FeCO3, as indicated by the extractable FeO values. The likely formation of sparingly soluble Zn-phosphate in the Pb-Zn tailings containing high levels of Zn (from sphalerite ((Zn,FeS, ZnS, (Zn,CdS may substantially lower soluble Zn levels in the tailings through high rates of Pi-fertiliser addition. As a result, the possibility of P-toxicity in native plant species caused by the addition of soluble phosphate fertilizers would be minimal.

  2. Free standing CuO-MnO2 nanocomposite for room temperature ammonia sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuvaneshwari, S.; Papachan, Seethal; Gopalakrishnan, N.

    2017-05-01

    CuO nanostructures and CuO-MnO2 nanocomposite were successfully synthesized using hydrothermal method without any aid of growth controlling agents. The synthesized CuO nanostructures have monoclinic structure. The XRD pattern of CuO-MnO2 observed with mixed phases of monoclinic CuO and birnessite-type MnO2 which confirms the formation of nanocomposite. SEM images revealed the turmeric-like morphology for CuO and intercalated sheets with flowers on the surface for CuO-MnO2. The length and breadth of turmeric-like structure is about 642.2 nm and 141.8 nm, respectively. The band gap of 1.72 eV for CuO nanostructure and 1.9 eV for CuO-MnO2 nanocomposite were observed from the absorption spectra. The free standing devices of CuO-MnO2 showed nearly a 3 fold increase sensing response to ammonia at room temperature when compared to the constituent CuO. The composite sensor showed response time of 120 s and recovered within 600 s. This enhanced response can be asserted to the peculiar morphology of the composite that provides more adsorption site for gas diffusion to take place.

  3. Deposition of Mn-Cu-Ni-enriched sediments during glacial period in the Central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Borole, D.V.

    Two siliceous sediment cores collected from the Central Indian Basin have been analysed for organic carbon, biogenic silica, Al, Mn, Ni and Cu content. The concentrations of Mn, Cu and Ni showed one order of magnitude variation (an enrichment by a...

  4. Proximity effect of Pb on CeCu6 and La0.05Ce0.95Cu6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, T.P.; Tipparachi, U.; Yang, H.D.; Wang, J.T.; Chen, B.; Chen, J.C.J.

    1999-01-01

    Heavy fermion materials have attracted a great deal of attention since 1979. These materials which contain a rare earth (U, or Ce, etc.) element exhibit unusual behavior at low temperature. The effective mass m* of the Landau quasiparticles is found to be orders of magnitude higher than that of a bare electron. Some of the Heavy Fermion materials become superconductors at low temperature. The pairing of electrons in these superconductors may not be of s symmetry like those in BCS type superconductors. The mismatch in electronic mass and the difference in pairing state between the light conventional superconducting electrons and the heavy fermion electrons have brought the coupling between light electrons (BCS type) and the heavy fermion electrons into question. Proximity effect of Pb on CeCu 6 , Pb on La 0.05 Ce 0.95 Cu 6 , and Pb on Cu was used to investigate the coupling between the conventional superconducting electrons of Pb and the heavy electrons in CeCu 6 or La 0.05 Ce 0.95 Cu 6 . In this experiment proximity effect was found between Pb and CeCu 6 , as well as between Pb and La 0.05 Ce 0.95 Cu 6 . However, the proximity effect is small when compared with that between Pb and Cu. This indicates a much shorter extrapolation length in the heavy fermion materials than in Cu. Such a phenomenon can be explained by the mismatch in effective mass between the superconducting Pb electrons and the heavy fermion electrons

  5. Effect of Ce addition on microstructure of Al20Cu2Mn3 twin phase in an Al–Cu–Mn casting alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhongwei; Chen Pei; Li Shishun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Rare earth element Ce can retard the formation of the Al 20 Cu 2 Mn 3 twin phase in an Al–Cu–Mn casting alloy. ► Patterns of the particles of the Al 20 Cu 2 Mn 3 phase in Al–Cu–Mn free Ce alloy are more diverse. ► The symmetry of neighboring components of twins is characterized by glide reflection and reflection. ► The twins of Al 20 Cu 2 Mn 3 phase can enhance the mechanical properties of the Al–Cu–Mn casting alloys. - Abstract: Effects of Ce addition on microstructure of Al 20 Cu 2 Mn 3 twin phase and mechanical properties of an Al–Cu–Mn casting alloy were investigated by transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and tensile test. The results show that rare earth element Ce can retard the formation of the Al 20 Cu 2 Mn 3 phase in the Al–Cu–Mn alloy. Compared with the Ce containing alloy, patterns of particles of the Al 20 Cu 2 Mn 3 phase in the Al–Cu–Mn free Ce alloy are more diverse. The symmetry of neighboring components of twins is characterized by glide reflection and reflection. In addition, twins of the Al 20 Cu 2 Mn 3 phase can enhance the mechanical properties of the Al–Cu–Mn alloy.

  6. Thermodynamic stability of austenitic Ni-Mn-Cu cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Janus

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The performed research was aimed at determining thermodynamic stability of structures of Ni-Mn-Cu cast iron castings. Examined were 35 alloys. The castings were tempered at 900 °C for 2 hours. Two cooling speeds were used: furnace-cooling and water-cooling. In the alloys with the nickel equivalent value less than 20,0 %, partial transition of austenite to martensite took place. The austenite decomposition ratio and the related growth of hardness was higher for smaller nickel equivalent value and was clearly larger in annealed castings than in hardened ones. Obtaining thermodynamically stable structure of castings requires larger than 20,0 % value of the nickel equivalent.

  7. Temperature- and field-dependent critical currents in [(Bi,Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox]0.07(La0.7Sr0.3MnO3)0.03 thick films grown on LaAlO3 substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Omar; Morán, Oswaldo; Baca, Eval

    2013-01-01

    La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO) nanoparticles were embedded in (Bi,Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox (Bi2223) thick films, which were grown by simple melting-quenching-annealing (MQA) method on (001)-oriented LaAlO3 (LAO) substrates. The nominal composition of the composite-like hybrid system was (Bi2223)1-x(LSMO)x with x = 0.03. The constituent elements, Bi2223 and LSMO, were prepared separately by standard solid state reaction and Pechini's method, respectively. The analysis of the X-ray diffraction patterns suggested a polycrystalline growth mode of the thick films on the LAO substrates. From electric transport measurements, the superconducting onset temperature and the superconducting critical temperature (ρ = 0) ended up being 105 and 62 K, respectively. The flux pinning energy U was determined using the Anderson-Kim model. The value of U was compared with those obtained for similar samples with concentrations x = 0.01 and x = 0.05. Current-voltage characteristics were recorded at different temperatures in order to analyze the behavior of the superconducting current (Ic) of the films. A dramatic drop of Ic was observed at ˜20 K. This seems to be linked to the presence of flux creep acting as dissipation factors attributed to LSMO nanoparticles. Isothermal magnetization loops recorded at T Tc showed clear diamagnetic and ferromagnetic signals, which verify the multifunctional character of the system. Based on the isothermal M(H)-loops recorded at 5, 20, and 40 K and taking Kim's model into account, the dependence of superconducting current density (Jc), and the volume pinning force (Fp) on the magnetic field were calculated. The dependence Jc(B) at 5 K showed an exponential-type behavior, which is described by an empirical equation. This empirical equation considers the maximum value of Fp, which may be scaled with the Kramer's expression for Fp. From this scaling procedure, diverse exponents, associated with different pinning mechanisms, were determined. The drastic fall of Jc(B) at T

  8. Remediation of a historically Pb contaminated soil using a model natural Mn oxide waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Clare M; Gray, Neil D; Tourney, Janette; Davenport, Russell J; Wade, Matthew; Finlay, Nina; Hudson-Edwards, Karen A; Johnson, Karen L

    2015-11-01

    A natural Mn oxide (NMO) waste was assessed as an in situ remediation amendment for Pb contaminated sites. The viability of this was investigated using a 10 month lysimeter trial, wherein a historically Pb contaminated soil was amended with a 10% by weight model NMO. The model NMO was found to have a large Pb adsorption capacity (qmax 346±14 mg g(-1)). However, due to the heterogeneous nature of the Pb contamination in the soils (3650.54-9299.79 mg kg(-1)), no treatment related difference in Pb via geochemistry could be detected. To overcome difficulties in traditional geochemical techniques due to pollutant heterogeneity we present a new method for unequivocally proving metal sorption to in situ remediation amendments. The method combines two spectroscopic techniques; namely electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Using this we showed Pb immobilisation on NMO, which were Pb free prior to their addition to the soils. Amendment of the soil with exogenous Mn oxide had no effect on microbial functioning, nor did it perturb the composition of the dominant phyla. We conclude that NMOs show excellent potential as remediation amendments. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Stabilization of As-, Pb-, and Cu-contaminated soil using calcined oyster shells and steel slag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Deok Hyun; Wazne, Mahmoud; Cheong, Kyung Hoon; Chang, Yoon-Young; Baek, Kitae; Ok, Yong Sik; Park, Jeong-Hun

    2015-07-01

    In this study, As-, Pb-, and Cu-contaminated soil was stabilized using calcined oyster shells (COS) and steel slag (SS). The As-contaminated soil was obtained from a timber mill site where chromate copper arsenate (CCA) was used as a preservative. On the other hand, Pb- and Cu-contaminated soil was obtained from a firing range. These two soils were thoroughly mixed to represent As-, Pb-, and Cu-contaminated soil. Calcined oyster shells were obtained by treating waste oyster shells at a high temperature using the calcination process. The effectiveness of stabilization was evaluated by 1-N HCl extraction for As and 0.1-N HCl extraction for Pb and Cu. The treatment results showed that As, Pb, and Cu leachability were significantly reduced upon the combination treatment of COS and SS. The sole treatment of SS (10 wt%) did not show effective stabilization. However, the combination treatment of COS and SS showed a significant reduction in As, Pb, and Cu leachability. The best stabilization results were obtained from the combination treatment of 15 wt% COS and 10 wt% SS. The SEM-EDX results suggested that the effective stabilization of As was most probably achieved by the formation of Ca-As and Fe-As precipitates. In the case of Pb and Cu, stabilization was most probably associated with the formation of pozzolanic reaction products such as CSHs and CAHs.

  10. Prediction of phase equilibria and thermal analysis in the Bi-Cu-Pb ternary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manasijevic, Dragan [University of Belgrade, Technical Faculty, VJ 12, 19210 Bor (Serbia); Mitovski, Aleksandra, E-mail: amitovski@tf.bor.ac.rs [University of Belgrade, Technical Faculty, VJ 12, 19210 Bor (Serbia); Minic, Dusko [University of Pristina, Faculty of Technical Sciences, 38220 Kosovska Mitrovica (Serbia); Zivkovic, Dragana; Marjanovic, Sasa [University of Belgrade, Technical Faculty, VJ 12, 19210 Bor (Serbia); Todorovic, Radisa [Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Zeleni Bulevar 35, 19210 Bor (Serbia); Balanovic, Ljubisa [University of Belgrade, Technical Faculty, VJ 12, 19210 Bor (Serbia)

    2010-05-20

    The knowledge about phase diagram of the Bi-Cu-Pb ternary system is of importance in development of copper-lead based bearing materials, soldering and in refining of copper and lead. In this work, the phase diagram of the Bi-Cu-Pb ternary system was calculated by the CALPHAD method using binary thermodynamic parameters included in the COST 531 database. The results include liquidus projection, invariant equilibria and three vertical sections with molar ratio Cu:Pb = 1, Cu:Pb = 1:3 and Bi:Cu = 1. Alloys, with compositions along three predicted vertical sections, were measured using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The experimentally determined phase transition temperatures were compared with calculated results and good mutual agreement was noticed.

  11. Prediction of phase equilibria and thermal analysis in the Bi-Cu-Pb ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manasijevic, Dragan; Mitovski, Aleksandra; Minic, Dusko; Zivkovic, Dragana; Marjanovic, Sasa; Todorovic, Radisa; Balanovic, Ljubisa

    2010-01-01

    The knowledge about phase diagram of the Bi-Cu-Pb ternary system is of importance in development of copper-lead based bearing materials, soldering and in refining of copper and lead. In this work, the phase diagram of the Bi-Cu-Pb ternary system was calculated by the CALPHAD method using binary thermodynamic parameters included in the COST 531 database. The results include liquidus projection, invariant equilibria and three vertical sections with molar ratio Cu:Pb = 1, Cu:Pb = 1:3 and Bi:Cu = 1. Alloys, with compositions along three predicted vertical sections, were measured using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The experimentally determined phase transition temperatures were compared with calculated results and good mutual agreement was noticed.

  12. Ductile shape memory alloys of the Cu-Al-Mn system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kainuma, R.; Takahashi, S.; Ishida, K.

    1995-01-01

    Cu-Al-Mn shape memory alloys with enhanced ductility have been developed by decreasing the degree of order in the β parent phase. Cu-Al-Mn alloys with Al contents lower than 18% exhibit good ductility with elongations of about 15% and excellent cold-workability arising from a lower degree of order in the Heusler (L21) β 1 parent phase, without any loss in their shape memory behavior. In this paper the mechanical and shape memory characteristics, such as the cold-workability, the Ms temperatures, the shape memory effect and the pseudo-elasticity of such ductile Cu-Al-Mn alloys are presented. (orig.)

  13. Deposition of Cu-doped PbS thin films with low resistivity using DC sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soetedjo, Hariyadi; Siswanto, Bambang; Aziz, Ihwanul; Sudjatmoko

    2018-03-01

    Investigation of the electrical resistivity of Cu-doped PbS thin films has been carried out. The films were prepared using a DC sputtering technique. The doping was achieved by introducing the Cu dopant plate material directly on the surface of the PbS sputtering target plate. SEM-EDX data shows the Cu concentration in the PbS film to be proportional to the Cu plate diameter. The XRD pattern indicates the film is in crystalline cubic form. The Hall effect measurement shows that Cu doping yields an increase in the carrier concentration to 3.55 × 1019 cm-3 and a significant decrease in electrical resistivity. The lowest resistivity obtained was 0.13 Ωcm for a Cu concentration of 18.5%. Preferential orientation of (1 1 1) and (2 0 0) occurs during deposition.

  14. Synthesis and magnetic properties of hexagonal Y(Mn,Cu)O3 multiferroic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeuvrey, L.; Peña, O.; Moure, A.; Moure, C.

    2012-01-01

    Single-phase hexagonal-type solid solutions based on the multiferroic YMnO 3 material were synthesized by a modified Pechini process. Copper doping at the B-site (YMn 1−x Cu x O 3 ; x 1+y MnO 3 ; y 3+ two-dimensional lattice. The magnetic transition at T N decreases from 70 K down to 49 K, when x(Cu) goes from 0 to 15 at%. Weak ferromagnetic Mn 3+ –Mn 4+ interactions created by the substitution of Mn 3+ by Cu 2+ , are visible through the coercive field and spontaneous magnetization but do not modify the overall magnetic frustration. Presence of Mn 3+ –Mn 4+ pairs leads to an increase of the electrical conductivity due to thermally-activated small-polaron hopping mechanisms. Results show that local ferromagnetic interactions can coexist within the frustrated state in the hexagonal polar structure. - Highlights: ► Hexagonal-type solid solutions of Y(Mn,Cu)O 3 synthesized by Pechini process. ► Chemical substitution at B site inhibits geometrical magnetic frustration. ► Magnetic transition decreases with Cu-doping. ► Local ferromagnetic Mn–Mn interactions coexist with the frustrated state.

  15. Electronic, magnetic, elastic and thermodynamic properties of Cu{sub 2}MnGa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Sukriti [Department of Physics, Government Kamla Raja Girls Autonomous Post Graduate College, Gwalior 474001, Madhya Pradesh (India); Condensed Matter Theory Group, School of Studies in Physics, Jiwaji University, Gwalior 474 011, Madhya Pradesh (India); Gupta, Dinesh C., E-mail: sosfizix@gmail.com [Condensed Matter Theory Group, School of Studies in Physics, Jiwaji University, Gwalior 474 011, Madhya Pradesh (India)

    2016-08-01

    The full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method in the stable Fm-3m phase has been implemented to investigate the structural, elastic, magnetic and electronic properties of Cu{sub 2}MnGa. The optimized equilibrium lattice parameter in stable phase is found to be 5.9495 Å. By the spin resolved density of states calculations, we have shown that the exchange splitting due to Mn atom is the main reason of ferromagnetic behavior of Cu{sub 2}MnGa. The absence of energy gap in both the spin channels predicts that the material is metallic. The total and partial density of states, elastic constants, Shear, Bulk and Young’s moduli, Zener isotropy factor, Cauchy pressure, Pugh's ductility, Kleinman parameter and Poisson's ratio are reported for the first time for the alloy. Cauchy's pressure and Pugh's index of ductility label Cu{sub 2}MnGa as ductile. Cu{sub 2}MnGa is found to be ferromagnetic and anisotropic in nature. The quasi-harmonic approximations have been employed to study the pressure and temperature dependent thermodynamic properties of Cu{sub 2}MnGa. - Highlights: • It is the first attempt to predict a variety of crystal properties of Cu{sub 2}MnGa. • Cu{sub 2}MnGa shows magnetism and hence can prove to be important in modern technology. • Cu{sub 2}MnGa is ductile and hence can attract attention of scientists and technologists.

  16. Microstructure and Electrical Properties of Fe,Cu Substituted (Co,Mn)3O4 Thin Films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szymczewska, Dagmara; Molin, Sebastian; Hendriksen, Peter Vang

    2017-01-01

    In this work, thin films (~1000 nm) of a pure MnCo2O4 spinel together with its partially substituted derivatives (MnCo1.6Cu0.2Fe0.2O4, MnCo1.6Cu0.4O4, MnCo1.6Fe0.4O4) were prepared by spray pyrolysis and were evaluated for electrical conductivity. Doping by Cu increases the electrical conductivit...

  17. Measurement of neutron multiplication in Pb by Mn foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yuan; Liu Rong; Guo Haiping; Jiang Wenmian; Shen Jian

    1994-01-01

    The Leakage neutron multiplication in bulk lead has been measured using the total absorption detector and relative method. The polyethylene sphere of 138 cm in diameter is used as the moderator and total absorption detector. The measured results from 55 Mn foils and 6 Li glass are compared. The neutron multiplication is 1.74 with the lead shell of 23.1 cm thick. The measured result is consistent with the calculated one with ANISN code and ENDF/B-6 evaluated data within the experimental error. (4 figs., 3 tabs.)

  18. Bioaccessibility of Ba, Cu, Pb, and Zn in urban garden and orchard soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Meifang; McBride, Murray B.; Li, Kaiming

    2016-01-01

    Exposure of young children to toxic metals in urban environments is largely due to soil and dust ingestion. Soil particle size distribution and concentrations of toxic metals in different particle sizes are important risk factors in addition to bioaccessibility of these metals in the particles. Analysis of particle size distribution and metals concentrations for 13 soils, 12 sampled from urban gardens and 1 from orchard found that fine particles (<105 μm) comprised from 22 to 66% by weight of the tested soils, with Ba, Cu, Pb and Zn generally at higher concentrations in the finer particles. However, metal bioaccessibility was generally lower in finer particles, a trend most pronounced for Ba and Pb. Gastric was higher than gastrointestinal bioaccessibility for all metals except Cu. The lower bioaccessibility of Pb in urban garden soils compared to orchard soil is attributable to the higher organic matter content of the garden soils. - Highlights: • The bioaccessibility of metals in urban garden and orchard soils was measured. • Ba, Cu, Pb, Zn were concentrated in fine particles of the soils. • Bioaccessibilities of Ba and Pb were generally lower in fine particles of soils. • Pb bioaccessibility was generally lower in soils with higher organic matter content. • Pb bioaccessibility was lower in urban garden soils than in an orchard soil. - Pb and other trace metals (Ba, Cu, Zn) were concentrated in fine particles of urban and orchard soils, but the bioaccessibility of Ba and Pb was generally lower in finer particles.

  19. Quantitative trait loci controlling Cu, Ca, Zn, Mn and Fe content in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of essential minerals (such as Fe, Zn etc), breeding mineral- efficient crops that produce .... and seven digenic interactions were identified for Cu, Ca,. Zn, Mn and Fe, .... Eva P. 1993 Cadmium, copper and lead in wild rice from central. Canada.

  20. Far-infrared phonon spectroscopy of Pb1-xMn xTe layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romcevic, N.; Nadolny, A.J.; Romcevic, M.; Story, T.; Taliashvili, B.; Milutinovic, A.; Trajic, J.; Lusakowska, E.; Vasiljevic-Radovic, D.; Domukhovski, V.; Osinniy, V.; Hadzic, B.; Dziawa, P.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we used far-infrared spectroscopy, reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED), X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy (AFM) to investigate structural and optical properties of Pb 1-x Mn x Te layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). A numerical model for calculating the reflectivity coefficient for complex systems which include films, buffer layer and substrate has been applied. The infrared reflectivity spectra consist of Pb 1-x Mn x Te phonons, which exhibit intermediate one-two mode behavior, and MnTe phonons. A good agreement between calculated and experimental spectra is achieved. We registered the local distribution of Mn impurities depending on substrate type. For films growth on BaF 2 substrate we registered the orthorhombic local structure of MnTe clusters, while in the case of KCl substrate this structure is cubic. The Pb 1-x Mn x Te long wavelength optical phonons were described by the modified Genzel's model

  1. Biosorption of Cu2+ and Pb2+ using sophora alopecuroides residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, N.; Fan, W.; Zhu, M.; Zhang, Y.

    2016-08-01

    Sophora alopecuroides residue (SAP), a kind of traditional Chinese herbal medicine residue, was developed in an alternative biosorbent for the removal Cu2+ and Pb2+ in simulated wastewater. The morphology and surface texture of SAP were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, which showed a loose and porous structure. The biosorption experiments of Cu2+ and Pb2+ onto SAP were investigated by using batch techniques. High biosorption percentage appeared at pH values of 4.5-6.0. The experimental data followed the second-order kinetic model well. Equilibrium fit with the Langmuir isotherm model well. The maximum biosorption capacity of an adsorbent at 25 °C was respectively 60.6 mg/g Cu2+ and 128.1 mg/g Pb2+. The findings of the present study show that SAP is an attractive and effective biosorbent for Cu2+ and Pb2+.

  2. Speciation and behaviour of Cd, Pb and Cu in Zuari Estuary, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    George, M.D.

    Dissolved labile and nonlabile forms of Cd, Pb and Cu in Zuari Estuary, Goa, India measured for a period of 14 months showed lowest concentrations during the SW monsoon (June-September) while maximum concentrations were observed during...

  3. Synthesis and magnetic properties of hexagonal Y(Mn,Cu)O{sub 3} multiferroic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeuvrey, L., E-mail: laurent.jeuvrey@univ-rennes1.fr [Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, UMR-CNRS 6226, Universite de Rennes 1, 35042 Rennes cedex (France); Pena, O. [Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, UMR-CNRS 6226, Universite de Rennes 1, 35042 Rennes cedex (France); Moure, A.; Moure, C. [Electroceramics Department, Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, CSIC, C/Kelsen 5, 28049, Madrid (Spain)

    2012-03-15

    Single-phase hexagonal-type solid solutions based on the multiferroic YMnO{sub 3} material were synthesized by a modified Pechini process. Copper doping at the B-site (YMn{sub 1-x}Cu{sub x}O{sub 3}; x<0.15) and self-doping at the A-site (Y{sub 1+y}MnO{sub 3}; y<0.10) successfully maintained the hexagonal structure. Self-doping was limited to y(Y)=2 at% and confirmed that excess yttrium avoids formation of ferromagnetic manganese oxide impurities but creates vacancies at the Mn site. Chemical substitution at the B-site inhibits the geometrical frustration of the Mn{sup 3+} two-dimensional lattice. The magnetic transition at T{sub N} decreases from 70 K down to 49 K, when x(Cu) goes from 0 to 15 at%. Weak ferromagnetic Mn{sup 3+}-Mn{sup 4+} interactions created by the substitution of Mn{sup 3+} by Cu{sup 2+}, are visible through the coercive field and spontaneous magnetization but do not modify the overall magnetic frustration. Presence of Mn{sup 3+}-Mn{sup 4+} pairs leads to an increase of the electrical conductivity due to thermally-activated small-polaron hopping mechanisms. Results show that local ferromagnetic interactions can coexist within the frustrated state in the hexagonal polar structure. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hexagonal-type solid solutions of Y(Mn,Cu)O{sub 3} synthesized by Pechini process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemical substitution at B site inhibits geometrical magnetic frustration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic transition decreases with Cu-doping. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Local ferromagnetic Mn-Mn interactions coexist with the frustrated state.

  4. Adsorption of Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu and Hg ions on Formaldehyde and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adsorption of Pb(II), Cd(II), Zn(II), Cu(II) and Hg(II) ions on formaldehyde and Pyridine modified bean husks were determined. The adsorption capacity of formaldehyde modified bean husks (mg/g) was: Pb2+, 5.01; Cd2+, 3.63; Zn2+, 2.18; Hg2+, 1.82; Cu2+, 1.58 and that of pyridine modified bean husk was: Hg2+, 6.92; Cd2+ ...

  5. Dislocation structure evolution and characterization in the compression deformed Mn-Cu alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Y.; Yin, F.; Sakaguchi, T.; Nagai, K.; Yang, K.

    2007-01-01

    Dislocation densities and dislocation structure arrangements in cold compressed polycrystalline commercial M2052 (Mn-20Cu-5Ni-2Fe) high damping alloy with various strains were determined in scanning mode by X-ray peak profile analysis and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The results indicate that the Mn-Cu-Ni-Fe alloy has an evolution behavior quite similar to the dislocation structure in copper. The dislocation arrangement parameter shows a local minimum in the transition range between stages III and IV that can be related to the transformation of the dislocation arrangement in the cell walls from a polarized dipole wall (PDW) into a polarized tile wall (PTW) structure. This evolution is further confirmed by the results of local misorientation determined by EBSD. In addition, during deformation, the multiplication of dislocation densities in the MnCu alloy is significantly slower than that in copper, and the transition of the dislocation structure is strongly retarded in the MnCu alloy compared with copper. These results can be explained by the mechanism of elastic anisotropy on the dislocation dynamics, as the elastic anisotropy in the MnCu alloy is larger than that in copper, which can strongly retard the multiplication of the dislocation population and the transformation of the dislocation structure. These results are important for research into the plastic working behavior of Mn-Cu-Ni-Fe high damping alloy

  6. Phytoextraction of Pb and Cu contaminated soil with maize and microencapsulated EDTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhiyi; Wu, Longhua; Chen, Nengchang; Liu, Chengshuai; Zheng, Yuji; Xu, Shengguang; Li, Fangbai; Xu, Yanling

    2012-09-01

    Chelate-assisted phytoextraction using agricultural crops has been widely investigated as a remediation technique for soils contaminated with low mobility potentially toxic elements. Here, we report the use of a controlled-release microencapsulated EDTA (Cap-EDTA) by emulsion solvent evaporation to phytoremediate soil contaminated with Pb and Cu. Incubation experiments were carried out to assess the effect of Cap- and non-microencapsulated EDTA (Ncap-EDTA) on the mobility of soil metals. Results showed EDTA effectively increased the mobility of Pb and Cu in the soil solution and Cap-EDTA application provided lower and more constant water-soluble concentrations of Pb and Cu in comparison with. Phytotoxicity may be alleviated and plant uptake of Pb and Cu may be increased after the incorporation of Cap-EDTA. In addition phytoextraction efficiencies of maize after Cap- and Ncap-EDTA application were tested in a pot experiment. Maize shoot concentrations of Pb and Cu were lower with Cap-EDTA application than with Ncap-EDTA. However, shoot dry weight was significantly higher with Cap-EDTA application. Consequently, the Pb and Cu phytoextraction potential of maize significantly increased with Cap-EDTA application compared with the control and Ncap-EDTA application.

  7. Genesis of the Bangbule Pb-Zn-Cu polymetallic deposit in Tibet, western China: Evidence from zircon U-Pb geochronology and S-Pb isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Tian; Zheng, Youye; Gao, Shunbao

    2016-04-01

    The Banbule Pb-Zn-Cu skarn deposit is located in the Longger-Gongbujiangda volcanic magma arc in the Gangdese-Nyainqentanglha Plate. It is the only lead-zinc polymetallic deposit discovered in the westernmost Nyainqentanglha metallogenic belt. The measured and indicated resources include 0.9 Mt of Pb+Zn (4.77% Pb and 4.74% Zn, respectively), 6499 t of Cu, and 178 t of Ag (18.75g/t Ag). The orebodies mainly occur as lenses, veins and irregular shapes in the contact zone between the quartz-porphyry and limestone of the Upper Permian Xiala Formation, or in the boundaries between limestone and sandstone. Pb-Zn-Cu mineralization in the Banbule deposit is closely associated with skarns. The ore minerals are dominated by galena, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, bornite, and magnetite, with subordinate pyrite, malachite, and azurite. The gangue minerals are mainly garnet, actinolite, diopside, quartz, and calcite. The ore-related quartz-porphyry displays LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb age of 77.31±0.74 Ma. The δ34S values of sulfides define a narrow range of -0.8 to 4.7‰ indicating a magmatic source for the ore-forming materials. Lead isotopic systematics yield 206Pb/204Pb of 18.698 to 18.752, 207Pb/204Pb of 15.696 to 15.760, and 208Pb/204Pb of 39.097 to 39.320. The data points are constrained around the growth curves of upper crust and orogenic belt according to the tectonic discrimination diagrams. The calculated Δβ - Δγ values plot within the magmatic field according to the discrimination diagram of Zhu et al. (1995). The S-Pb isotopic data suggest that Bangbule is a typical skarn deposit, and the Pb-Zn-Cu mineralization is genetically related to the quartz-porphyry in the mining district. The discovery of the Bangbule deposit indicates that there is metallogenic potential in the westernmost Nyainqentanglha belt, which is of great importance for the exploration work in this area.

  8. Magnetotransport of CaCu3Mn4O12 complex perovskite derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Benitez, J.; Andres, A. de; Garcia-Hernandez, M.; Alonso, J.A.; Martinez-Lope, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Neutron powder diffraction, magnetic and magnetotransport studies were carried out on new derivatives of the CaCu 3 Mn 4 O 12 (A'A 3 B 4 O 12 ) complex perovskite. The samples were prepared in polycrystalline form under moderate pressure conditions. Substitutions at A and A' sites of CaCu 3 Mn 4 O 12 , with only Mn 4+ and insulating behavior, imply electron doping that affects the magnetic and transport properties. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy showed that Mn 3+ /Mn 4+ valence mixing occurs only at B site, progressively filling the e g band and providing the metallic character in these compounds, as we observe in most of these samples. A semiconducting behavior is observed in samples with 50% Mn 3+ at B site. This can be understood by the opening of a gap in the conduction band corresponding to the half filling of the e g states. This is the case of the tetravalent rare earth doped samples (Ce and Th at A' site) and of the appropriate A site doped Ca(CuMn 2 )Mn 4 O 12 sample. At the strongly distorted A positions, Mn 3+ , with localized e g electrons, act as magnetic impurities at very low temperatures (<40 K) giving rise to the observed upturn in the resistivity. The magnetic origin of this scattering is evidenced by its drastic reduction under a magnetic field

  9. A test of the stability of Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn profiles over two decades in lake sediments near the Flin Flon Smelter, Manitoba, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Percival, J.B.; Outridge, P.M., E-mail: outridge@nrcan.gc.ca

    2013-06-01

    Lake sediments are valuable archives of atmospheric metal deposition, but the stability of some element profiles may possibly be affected by diagenetic changes over time. In this extensive case study, the stability of sedimentary Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn profiles was assessed in dated sediment cores that were collected in 2004 from four smelter-affected lakes near Flin Flon, Manitoba, which had previously been cored in 1985. Metal profiles determined in 1985 were in most cases clearly reproduced in the corresponding sediment layers in 2004, although small-scale spatial heterogeneity in metal distribution complicated the temporal comparisons. Pre-smelter (i.e. pre-1930) increases in metal profiles were likely the result of long-range atmospheric metal pollution, coupled with particle mixing at the 1930s sediment surface. However, the close agreement between key inflection points in the metal profiles sampled two decades apart suggests that metals in most of the lakes, and Hg and Zn in the most contaminated lake (Meridian), were stable once the sediments were buried below the surface mixed layer. Cadmium, Cu and Pb profiles in Meridian Lake did not agree as well between studies, showing evidence of upward remobilization over time. Profiles of redox-indicator elements (Fe, Mn, Mo and U) suggested that the rate of Mn oxyhydroxide recycling within sediment was more rapid in Meridian Lake, which may have caused the Cd, Cu and Pb redistribution. - Highlights: • Sedimentary Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn profiles in four lakes were mostly unchanged over 19 years. • In one lake, Cd, Cu and Pb profiles were offset relative to the originals. • The offset could indicate diagenetic upcore dispersal of these metals.

  10. Photovoltaic properties of Cu-doped CH3NH3PbI3 with perovskite structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirahata, Yasuhiro; Oku, Takeo

    2017-01-01

    Photovoltaic properties of copper (Cu)-doped perovskite (CH3NH3PbCuxI3+x) photovoltaic devices with different Cu content were investigated. The CH3NH3PbCuxI3+x films were polycrystalline with a tetragonal system, and their lattice constants and crystallite size varied with Cu doping. Compared to conversion efficiencies of non-doped CH3NH3PbI3 photovoltaic device, those of CH3NH3PbCuxI3+x photovoltaic devises increased. The improvement of photovoltaic properties was attributed to partial substitution of Cu at the Pb sites.

  11. Formation and structure of nanocrystalline Al-Mn-Ni-Cu alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latuch, J.; Krasnowski, M.; Ciesielska, B.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports the results of the short investigation on the effect of Cu additions upon the nanocrystallization behaviour of an Al-Mn-Ni alloy. 2 at.% Cu added to the base alloy of Al 85 Mn 10 Ni 5 alloy by substitution for Mn(mischmetal). The control of cooling rate did not cause the formation of nanocrystals of fcc-Al phase. The nanocrystalline structure fcc-Al + amorphous phase in quarternary alloy was obtained by isothermal annealing and continuous heating method, but the last technique is more effective. The volume fraction, lattice parameter, and size of Al-phase were calculated. (author)

  12. Phenomenological approach to the spin glass state of (Cu-Mn, Ag-Mn, Au-Mn and Au-Fe) alloys at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Jalali, Muhammad A.; Kayali, Fawaz A.

    2000-01-01

    Full text.The spin glass of: (Cu-Mn, Ag-Mn, Au-Mn, Au-Fe) alloys has been extensively studied. The availability of published and assured experimental data on the susceptibility x(T) of this alloys has enabled the design and application of phenomenological approach to the spin glass state of these interesting alloys. The use of and advanced (S.P.S.S) computer software has resulted revealing some important features of the spin glass in these alloys, the most important of which is that the spin glass state do not represent as phase change

  13. 27Al, 63Cu NMR spectroscopy and electrical transport in Heusler Cu-Mn-Al alloy powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadutov, V. M.; Perekos, A. O.; Kokorin, V. V.; Trachevskii, V. V.; Konoplyuk, S. M.; Vashchuk, D. L.

    2018-02-01

    The ultrafine powder of the Heusler Cu-13,1Mn-12,6Al (wt.%) alloy produced by electrical spark dispersion (ESD) in ethanol and the pellets prepared by pressing of the powders and aged in various gas environment (air, Ar, vacuum) were studied by XRD, nuclear magnetic resonance, magnetic and electric transport methods. The constituent phases were identified as b.c.c. α-Cu-Mn-Al, f.c.c. γ-Cu-Mn-Al, Cu2MnAl, and oxides. The sizes of the coherently scattering domains (CSD) and the saturation magnetizations were in the range of 4-90 nm and 0-1.5 Am2/kg, respectively. 27Al and 63Cu NMR spectra of the powders and pellets have shown hyperfine structure caused by contributions from atomic nuclei of the constituent phases. The aging of pellets in different gas environments had effect on their phase composition but no effect on dispersion of the phases. In contrast to the as-cast alloy, electrical resistance of the pellets evidenced semiconducting behavior at elevated temperatures due to the presence of metal oxides formed on the surfaces of nanoparticles.

  14. Preparation and magnetic properties of multiferroic CuMnO2 nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Akinobu; Yanoh, Tkuya; Yano, Shinya; Ichiyanagi, Yuko

    2014-03-01

    CuMnO2 nanoparticles with diameters of 64 nm were synthesized by a novel wet chemical method. An optimized two-step annealing method was developed through the analysis of thermogravimetric differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) measurements in order to obtain single-phase CuMnO2. A sharp exothermic peak was observed in the DTA curve at approximately 500 K where structural changes of the copper oxides and manganese oxides in the precursor are expected to occur. It is believed that Cu+ ions were oxidized to Cu2+ ions and that Mn2+ ions were oxidized to Mn3+ ions in the Cu-Mn-O system. Deoxidization reactions were also found at approximately 1200 K. The optimized annealing temperature for the first step was determined to be 623 K in air. The optimized annealing temperature for the second step was 1173 K in an Ar atmosphere. Magnetization measurements suggested an antiferromagnetic spin ordering at approximately 50 K. It was expected that Mn3+ spin interactions induced magnetic phase transition affected by definite temperature.

  15. Synthetic, structural, spectroscopic and theoretical study of a Mn(III)-Cu(II) dimer containing a Jahn-Teller compressed Mn ion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Nelly; Hooper, Thomas N.; Liu, Junjie

    2013-01-01

    The heterobimetallic complex [Cu(II)Mn(III)(L)(2)(py)(4)](ClO(4))·EtOH (1) built using the pro-ligand 2,2'-biphenol (LH(2)), contains a rare example of a Jahn-Teller compressed Mn(III) centre. Dc magnetic susceptibility measurements on 1 reveal a strong antiferromagnetic exchange between the Cu...

  16. L-J phase in a Cu2.2Mn0.8Al alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, S. C.; Liu, T. F.

    1995-06-01

    A new type of precipitate (designated L-J phase) with two variants was observed within the (DO3 + L21) matrix in a Cu2.2Mn0.8Al alloy. Transmission electron microscopy examinations indicated that the L-J phase has an orthorhombic structure with lattice parameters a = 0.413 nm, b = 0.254 nm and c = 0.728 nm. The orientation relationship between the L-J phase and the matrix is (100)L-J//(011) m , (010)L-J//(111) m and (001)L-J//(211) m . The rotation axis and rotation angle between two variants of the L-J phase are [021] and 90 deg. The L-J phase has never been observed in various Cu-Al, Cu-Mn, and Cu-Al-Mn alloy systems before.

  17. Self-Formed Barrier with Cu-Mn alloy Metallization and its Effects on Reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, J.; Wada, M.; Usui, T.; Nasu, H.; Takahashi, S.; Shimizu, N.; Yoshimaru, M.; Shibata, H.

    2006-01-01

    Advancement of semiconductor devices requires the realization of an ultra-thin (less than 5 nm thick) diffusion barrier layer between Cu interconnect and insulating layers. Self-forming barrier layers have been considered as an alternative barrier structure to the conventional Ta/TaN barrier layers. The present work investigated the possibility of the self-forming barrier layer using Cu-Mn alloy thin films deposited directly on SiO2. After annealing at 450 deg. C for 30 min, an amorphous oxide layer of 3-4 nm in thickness was formed uniformly at the interface. The oxide formation was accompanied by complete expulsion of Mn atoms from the Cu-Mn alloy, leading to a drastic decrease in resistivity of the film. No interdiffusion was observed between Cu and SiO2, indicating an excellent diffusion-barrier property of the interface oxide

  18. Effects of Cu, Zn and Pb Combined Pollution on Soil Hydrolase Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FENG Dan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available To study the relations between soil enzyme activities and heavy metal pollution, the combined effects of Cu, Zn and Pb on the three hydrolase activities, including invertase(IN, urease(Uand alkaline phosphatase(ALPwere investigated via an orthogonal experiment. Results showed as the following: When the concentration of Cu was 400 mg·kg-1, the U and ALP activities were decreased 51% and 44%, separately; When Zn was at 500 mg·kg-1, IN and ALP activities were only decreased 3% and 9%, while U activity was increased; When Pb was at 500 mg·kg-1, IN and U activities were increased, while ALP activity was decreased 13%. As a whole, Cu was considered as the most remarkable influence factor for IN, U and ALP activity regardless of interactions among the heavy metals, Zn came second, and Pb mainly showed activation. Considering interactions, Cu×Zn could significantly influence U activity(P<0.05, effects of Cu×Pb and Cu×Zn on ALP activity were remarkable(95% confidence interval. The response of ALP activity was more sensitive than the other two enzymes. Soil ALP activity might be a sensitive tool for assessing the pollution degree of Cu.

  19. Preparation of catalysts based on Cu-Mn for combustion of n-hexane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picasso, Gino; Belleza, Freddy; Zavala, Cesar; Lopez, Alcides; Sun Kou, Rosario

    2014-01-01

    Catalysts based on Cu-Mn mixed oxides (with molar ratio Cu/Mn in the range of 0,33 to 3) have been prepared by sol-gel method of self-combustion for removal of n-hexane. Two combustion agents, citric acid and ethylenglycol, were applied to study their influence in the final catalyst. Additionally, simple oxides have been synthesized using the same procedure for comparison reasons. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and sorption of N_2 (BET method). All samples depicted surfaces, preferentially assigned to mesoporosity whose values ranged from 4 to 50 m"2/g. All XRD difractograms of mixed samples showed the presence of a good crystalinity indepently of composition, with the formation of spinel-hopcalite phase meanwhile Mn and Cu simple oxide showed peaks attributed to Mn_O_3, Mn_3O_4 and CuO, respectively. Curves of activity, measured as number of VOC molecules converted per hour and per gram of catalyst, considering the specific surface, showed that mixed oxides with more Mn content were the best, additionally, the sample prepared from citric acid was more active than the corresponding values to simple oxides, probably due to the better specific surface and the better spinel-hopcalite structure obtained. (author)

  20. Cobalt doped CuMnOx catalysts for the preferential oxidation of carbon monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Subhashish; Dhal, Ganesh Chandra; Mohan, Devendra; Prasad, Ram; Gupta, Rajeev Nayan

    2018-05-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a poisonous gas, recognized as a silent killer for the 21st century. It is produced from the partial oxidation of carbon containing compounds. The catalytic oxidation of CO receives a huge attention due to its applications in different fields. In the present work, hopcalite (CuMnOx) catalysts were synthesized using a co-precipitation method for CO oxidation purposes. Also, it was doped with the cobalt by varying concentration from 1 to 5wt%. It was observed that the addition of cobalt into the CuMnOx catalyst (by the deposition-precipitation method) improved the catalytic performance for the low-temperature CO oxidation. CuMnOx catalyst doped with 3wt% of cobalt exhibited most active performance and showed the highest activity than other cobalt concentrations. Different analytical tools (i.e. XRD, FTIR, BET, XPS and SEM-EDX) were used to characterize the as-synthesized catalysts. It was expected that the introduction of cobalt will introduce new active sites into the CuMnOx catalyst that are associated with the cobalt nano-particles. The order of calcination strategies based on the activity for cobalt doped CuMnOx catalysts was observed as: Reactive calcinations (RC) > flowing air > stagnant air. Therefore, RC (4.5% CO in air) route can be recommended for the synthesis of highly active catalysts. The catalytic activity of doped CuMnOx catalysts toward CO oxidation shows a correlation among average oxidation number of Mn and the position and the nature of the doped cobalt cation.

  1. Effect of foliar applied (Zn, Fe, Cu and Mn) in citrus production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khurshid, F.; Sarwar, S.; Khattak, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the impact of micronutrients (Zn, Fe, Cu and Mn) on sweet orange (Citrus Sinensis L.), blood red var., on farmer's orchard at Khanpur, district Haripur, NWFP, during 2002-03. Micronutrients were applied in foliar sprays over the canopy of each tree. The main effects and interactions of Zinc sulphate (Zn), iron sulphate (Fe), Copper Sulphate (Cu) and Manganese Sulphate (Mn) were studied in factorial combinations. A basal dose of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium was applied at the rate 1.5, 1 and 1 kg tree/sup -1/. Zn, Fe, Cu and Mn were applied alone and in various combinations at the rate 0.115, 0.057, 0.05 and 0.13 kg in 100 liters of water. Application of micronutrients significantly increased Zn, Fe, Cu and Mn concentrations in leaves, compared with control. Zn treatments significantly increased the yield, number of fruit and total sugar. Manganese treatments significantly increased the total soluble solids and reduced the acidity of fruit juice. Other quality parameters, including fruit size, percent peel, percent pulp, sugar as well as total soluble solids, were improved with the application of Zn, Fe, Cu and Mn. (author)

  2. Suppression of antiferromagnetic interactions through Cu vacancies in Mn-substituted CuInSe2 chalcopyrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Jinlei; Brunetta, Carl D; Aitken, Jennifer A

    2012-01-01

    Stoichiometric and Cu-poor Cu 0.95-x Mn 0.05 InSe 2 (x = 0-0.20) compounds were synthesized by high-temperature, solid-state reactions. The presence of copper vacancies is revealed by Rietveld refinements of combined neutron and x-ray powder diffraction data. The antiferromagnetic interaction is depressed by the copper deficiency, which may be explained as the competition between the antiferromagnetic Mn-Se-eMn superexchange interaction and the hole-mediated ferromagnetic exchange induced by the copper vacancy. The introduction of copper vacancies is proposed to be a viable route to impart carrier-mediated ferromagnetic exchange in the chalcopyrite-based dilute magnetic semiconductors. (paper)

  3. Kandungan Tembaga (Cu dan Timbal (Pb pada Lamun Enhalus accoroides dari Perairan Batam, Kepulauan Riau, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismarti Ismarti

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to analyze the metal content of copper and lead in Enhalus accoroides seagrass in Batam Island waters. Samples of seagrass (E. accoroides were collected from six locations along the western region of Batam Island then dried and performed with acid destruction. The measurements of Cu and Pb in the samples were conducted by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The result showed that there was an increasing of copper and lead contaminant level on sample E accoroides during two periods in a year.  The Cu level ranged from 0.63 to 46.1 mg/kg, meanwhile, lead level ranged from  2.14 to 10.52mg/kg respectively. The highest accumulation of copper and lead were recorded on leaves, it was reached 10.81 mg/kg and 5.98mg/kg, respectively. Penelitian ini bertujuan menganalisis kandungan logam tembaga (Cu dan timbal (Pb pada lamun Enhalus accoroides di sepanjang perairan barat Pulau Batam. Sampel lamun dikumpulkan dari enam lokasi  kemudian dikeringkan dan dilakukan destruksi dengan asam. Penentuan kadar logam tembaga dan timbal dalam sampel dilakukan dengan spektrometri serapan atom. Hasil penelitian menunjukan adanya peningkatan kadar logam Cu dan Pb pada sampel lamun E. accoroides selama 2 periode sampling dalam 1 tahun. Kadar logam Cu dan Pb pada lamun secara berturut berada pada rentang 0.63-46.1 mg/kg dan 2.14-10.52mg/kg. Akumulasi logam Cu dan Pb dalam lamun E. accoroides tertinggi pada bagian daun sebanyak 10.81 mg/kg Cu dan 5.98 mg/kg Pb.

  4. Whisker and Hillock formation on Sn, Sn-Cu and Sn-Pb electrodeposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettinger, W.J.; Johnson, C.E.; Bendersky, L.A.; Moon, K.-W.; Williams, M.E.; Stafford, G.R.

    2005-01-01

    High purity bright Sn, Sn-Cu and Sn-Pb layers, 3, 7 and 16 μm thick were electrodeposited on phosphor bronze cantilever beams in a rotating disk apparatus. Beam deflection measurements within 15 min of plating proved that all electrodeposits had in-plane compressive stress. In several days, the surfaces of the Sn-Cu deposits, which have the highest compressive stress, develop 50 μm contorted hillocks and 200 μm whiskers, pure Sn deposits develop 20 μm compact conical hillocks, and Sn-Pb deposits, which have the lowest compressive stress, remain unchanged. The differences between the initial compressive stresses for each alloy and pure Sn is due to the rapid precipitation of Cu 6 Sn 5 or Pb particles, respectively, within supersaturated Sn grains produced by electrodeposition. Over longer time, analysis of beam deflection measurements indicates that the compressive stress is augmented by the formation of Cu 6 Sn 5 on the bronze/Sn interface, while creep of the electrodeposit tends to decrease the compressive stress. Uniform creep occurs for Sn-Pb because it has an equi-axed grain structure. Localized creep in the form of hillocks and whiskers occurs for Sn and Sn-Cu because both have columnar structures. Compact hillocks form for the Sn deposits because the columnar grain boundaries are mobile. Contorted hillocks and whiskers form for the Sn-Cu deposits because the columnar grain boundary motion is impeded

  5. Phase transformation and microstructure study of the as-cast Cu-rich Cu-Al-Mn ternary alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holjevac-Grgurić T.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Four Cu-rich alloys from the ternary Cu-Al-Mn system were prepared in the electric-arc furnace and casted in cylindrical moulds with dimensions: f=8 mm and length 12 mm. Microstructural investigations of the prepared samples were performed by using optical microscopy (OM and scanning electron microscopy, equipped by energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS. Assignation of crystalline phases was confirmed by XRD analysis. Phase transition temperatures were determined using simultaneous thermal analyzer STA DSC/TG. Phase equilibria calculation of the ternary Cu-Al-Mn system was performed using optimized thermodynamic parameters from literature. Microstructure and phase transitions of the prepared as-cast alloys were investigated and experimental results were compared with the results of thermodynamic calculations.

  6. Interdiffusion coefficients and atomic mobilities in fcc Cu-Fe-Mn alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the interdiffusion coefficients in fcc Cu-Fe-Mn alloys were experimentally determined via a combination of solid/solid diffusion couples, electron probe microanalysis (EPMA technique and Matano-Kirkaldy method. Based on the reliable thermodynamic description of fcc phase in the Cu-Fe-Mn system available in the literature as well as the ternary diffusion coefficients measured in the present work, the atomic mobilities in fcc Cu-Fe-Mn alloys were assessed by utilizing the DICTRA (Diffusion Controlled TRAnsformation software package. The calculated interdiffusion coefficients based on the assessed atomic mobilities agree well with most of the experimental data. The comprehensive comparison between various model-predicted diffusion properties and the measured data, including the concentration penetration profiles, interdiffusion flux profile, and diffusion paths, further verify the reliability of the presently obtained atomic mobilities.

  7. Determination of toxicity limiting values of Zn, Cu, and Pb for oat and red clover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodenberg, A V; Finck, A

    1975-01-01

    Toxicity limiting values of Zn, Cu and Pb are determined in order to investigate the causes of growth damages in certain fields. Since the true toxicity limit is difficult to estimate, a somewhat higher content is called the toxicity limiting value resulting after the subtraction of a significant yield difference. The pot experiments with increasing fertilization of Zn, Cu and Pb in soil cultures gave the following results. For Zn, the toxicity limit is 410 ppm in oats at the beginning of tilling. In red clover six weeks of age, it is only 290 ppm of Zn and therefore much lower. For Cu, the toxicity limit is 20 ppm in oats at the beginning of tilling and 18 ppm in six weeks old red clover. For Pb, a toxic effect could be observed above 50 ppm, but this does not seem to be the true limit because of disturbing salt effects.

  8. Cathodoluminescence and Thermoluminescence of Undoped LTB and LTB:A (A = Cu, Ag, Mn)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    and Mn Ions for Nonlinear Applications.” Acta Physica Polonica A 107, no. 3 (2005): 507-518. [22] Kimball Physics, Inc.. Operator’s Manual: EMG...CATHODOLUMINESCENCE AND THERMOLUMINESCENCE OF UNDOPED LTB AND LTB:A ( A = Cu, Ag, Mn) THESIS Zachary L. Hadfield, USA AFIT-ENP-13-M-13...STATEMENT A . APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED The views expressed in this thesis are those of the author and

  9. Effect of CeLa addition on the microstructures and mechanical properties of Al-Cu-Mn-Mg-Fe alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Jiandi; Ding, Dongyan; Xu, Zhou; Zhang, Junchao; Zhang, Wenlong; Gao, Yongjin; Chen, Guozhen; Chen, Weigao; You, Xiaohua; Chen, Renzong; Huang, Yuanwei; Tang, Jinsong

    2017-01-01

    Development of high strength lithium battery shell alloy is highly desired for new energy automobile industry. The microstructures and mechanical properties of Al-Cu-Mn-Mg-Fe alloy with different CeLa additions were investigated through optical microscopy (OM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Rietveld refinement and tensile testing. Experimental results indicate that Al 8 Cu 4 Ce and Al 6 Cu 6 La phases formed due to CeLa addition. Addition of 0.25 wt.% CeLa could promote the formation of denser precipitation of Al 20 Cu 2 Mn 3 and Al 6 (Mn, Fe) phases, which improved the mechanical properties of the alloy at room temperature. However, up to 0.50 wt.% CeLa addition could promote the formation of coarse Al 8 Cu 4 Ce phase, Al 6 Cu 6 La phase and Al 6 (Mn, Fe) phase, which resulted in weakened mechanical properties. - Highlights: •Al-Cu-Mn-Mg-Fe alloys with different CeLa addition were fabricated through casting and rolling. •Al 8 Cu 4 Ce and Al 6 Cu 6 La phases formed after CeLa addition. •Addition of 0.25 wt.% CeLa promoted formation of denser precipitates of Al 20 Cu 2 Mn 3 and Al 6 (Mn, Fe). •Mechanical properties of the alloy was improved after 0.25 wt.% CeLa addition.

  10. Effect of alloying elements on the shape memory properties of ductile Cu-Al-Mn alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutou, Y.; Kainuma, R.; Ishida, K.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of alloying elements on the M s temperature, ductility and the shape memory properties of Cu-Al-Mn ductile shape memory (SM) alloys was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry, cold-rolling and tensile test techniques. It was found that the addition of Au, Si and Zn to the Cu 73 -Al 17 -Mn 10 alloy stabilized the martensite (6M) phase increasing the M s temperature, while the addition of Ag, Co, Cr, Fe, Ni, Sn and Ti decreased the stability of the martensite phase, decreasing the M s temperature. The SM properties were improved by the addition of Co, Ni, Cr and Ti. (orig.)

  11. Effect of Thermomagnetic Treatment on Structure and Properties of Cu-Al-Mn Alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titenko, A N; Demchenko, L D; Perekos, A O; Gerasimov, O Yu

    2017-12-01

    The paper studies the influence of magnetic field on magnetic and mechanical properties of Cu-Mn-Al alloy under annealing. The comparative analysis of the magnetic field orientation impact on solid solution decomposition processes in a fixed annealing procedure is held using the methods of low-field magnetic susceptibility, specific magnetization, and microhardness test. The paper highlights changes in the magnetic and mechanical properties of Cu-Al-Mn alloy as the result of change in a critical size of forming precipitated ferromagnetic phase and determines correlation in the behavior of magnetic and mechanical properties of the alloy, depending on a critical nucleus size of forming precipitated ferromagnetic phase.

  12. Microstructures and Properties Evolution of Al-Cu-Mn Alloy with Addition of Vanadium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fansheng Meng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the vanadium addition on the microstructure, the precipitation behavior, and the mechanical properties of the Al-5.0Cu-0.4Mn alloy has been studied. The as-cast Al-5.0Cu-0.4Mn alloy was produced by squeeze casting and the heat treatment was carried out following the standard T6 treatment. It is shown that, with the addition of V, grain refinement of aluminum occurred. During heat treatment, the addition of V accelerates the precipitation kinetics of θ′ (Al2Cu phase along the grain boundaries, and promotes the growth rate of the θ′ in the α(Al matrix. Meanwhile, the addition of V retards the precipitation of T (Al20Cu2Mn3 phase. The tensile strength of the Al-5.0Cu-0.4Mn alloy increases with the increase of V content, which can be explained by combined effects of the solid solution strengthening and precipitate strengthening. However, excessively high V addition deteriorates the mechanical properties by forming brittle coarse intermetallic phases.

  13. Spectro-photometric determinations of Mn, Fe and Cu in aluminum master alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehan; Naveed, A.; Shan, A.; Afzal, M.; Saleem, J.; Noshad, M. A.

    2016-08-01

    Highly reliable, fast and cost effective Spectro-photometric methods have been developed for the determination of Mn, Fe & Cu in aluminum master alloys, based on the development of calibration curves being prepared via laboratory standards. The calibration curves are designed so as to induce maximum sensitivity and minimum instrumental error (Mn 1mg/100ml-2mg/100ml, Fe 0.01mg/100ml-0.2mg/100ml and Cu 2mg/100ml-10mg/ 100ml). The developed Spectro-photometric methods produce accurate results while analyzing Mn, Fe and Cu in certified reference materials. Particularly, these methods are suitable for all types of Al-Mn, Al-Fe and Al-Cu master alloys (5%, 10%, 50% etc. master alloys).Moreover, the sampling practices suggested herein include a reasonable amount of analytical sample, which truly represent the whole lot of a particular master alloy. Successive dilution technique was utilized to meet the calibration curve range. Furthermore, the workout methods were also found suitable for the analysis of said elements in ordinary aluminum alloys. However, it was observed that Cush owed a considerable interference with Fe, the later one may not be accurately measured in the presence of Cu greater than 0.01 %.

  14. Complex impedance spectra of chip inductor using Li-Zn-Cu-Mn ferrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Tatsuya; Naoe, Masayuki; Yamada, Yoshihiro

    2006-01-01

    A multi-layer chip inductor (MCI) was fabricated using polycrystalline Li-Zn-Cu-Mn ferrite and the green-sheet technique, and its complex impedance spectrum was evaluated with the help of numerical calculations. The complex impedance spectra of the MCI component using Ni-Zn-Cu ferrite, which have been widely used for this application, were very sensitive to the residual stress and deviated much from the calculated values; however, it was found that the complex impedance spectrum of the MCI component using Li-Zn-Cu-Mn ferrite is quite well reproduced by calculation, where the complex permittivity and permeability of the polycrystalline ferrite as well as the MCI dimensions, were used. It implied that the magneto-striction effect was negligible in case of MCI using Li-Zn-Cu-Mn ferrite, and that the difference was related to magneto-strictive coefficient of the polycrystalline ferrite. Consequently, utilization of Li-Zn-Cu-Mn ferrite enabled us to easily design the complex impedance of MCI component

  15. Bioaccessibility of As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Sb in toys and low-cost jewelry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guney, Mert; Zagury, Gerald J

    2014-01-21

    Children can be exposed to toxic elements in toys and jewelry following ingestion. As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Sb bioavailability was assessed (n = 24) via the in vitro gastrointestinal protocol (IVG), the physiologically based extraction test (PBET), and the European Toy Safety Standard protocol (EN 71-3), and health risks were characterized. Cd, Cu, Ni, and Pb were mobilized from 19 metallic toys and jewelry (MJ) and one crayon set. Bioaccessible Cd, Ni, or Pb exceeded EU migratable concentration limits in four to six MJ, depending on the protocol. Using two-phase (gastric + intestinal) IVG or PBET might be preferable over EN 71-3 since they better represent gastrointestinal physiology. Bioaccessible and total metal concentrations were different and not always correlated, indicating that bioaccessibility measurement may provide more accurate risk characterization. More information on impacts of multiple factors affecting metals mobilization from toys and jewelry is needed before recommending specific tests. Hazard index (HI) for Cd, Ni, or Pb were >1 for all six MJ exceeding the EU limits. For infants (6-12 mo old), 10 MJ had HI > 1 for Cd, Cu, Ni, or Pb (up to 75 for Cd and 43 for Pb). Research on prolonged exposure to MJ and comprehensive risk characterization for toys and jewelry exposure is recommended.

  16. Paduan Ni-Cu-Mn Sebagai Logam Alternatif Kedokteran Gigi: Efek Perendaman dalam Larutan 0,1% Sodium Sulfida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Irawan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the ternary base alloys of nickel-copper-manganese (Ni-Cu-Mn alloys are prepared and these ternary alloys systems, which were constituted from higher nickel and lower copper contents than copper-base alloy ones, were evaluated by a tarnish test. Tarnish tests conducted in a 0,1% sodium sulphide solution (pH=12 at 37◦C. All test specimens were case into square paddles of 15 mm x 20 mm x 2,5 mm using the lost-wax technique with a phosphate-bonded investment. The surface of the specimens were then prepared with abrasion papers down to a 600 grit finish. Tarnish attack was quantitatively evaluated by Fibre colorimetry. The results of tarnish test showed that ternary nickel-copper-manganese alloys, such as 40Ni-30Cu-30Mn and 50Ni-30Cu-20Mn, have superior tarnishment resistance than other alloys, e.g. 20Ni-40Cu-40Mn, 30Ni-30Cu-40Mn and 30Ni-40Cu-30Mn. It was also found that 40Ni-30Cu-30Mn and 50Ni-30Cu-20Mn alloys have lower values of colour change vector than the other alloys given above.

  17. Crystal field and low energy excitations measured by high resolution RIXS at the L edge of Cu, Ni and Mn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghiringhelli, G.; Piazzalunga, A.; Wang, X.

    2009-01-01

    of the 3d transition metals with unprecedented energy resolution, of the order of 100 meV for Mn, Ni and Cu. We present here some preliminary spectra on CuO, malachite, NiO, , MnO and . The dd excitations are very well resolved allowing accurate experimental evaluation of 3d state energy splitting. The low...

  18. Leaching behavior of U, Mn, Sr, and Pb from different particle-size fractions of uranium mill tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Peng, Tongjiang; Sun, Hongjuan

    2017-06-01

    Pollution by the release of heavy metals from tailings constitutes a potential threat to the environment. To characterize the processes governing the release of Mn, Sr, Pb, and U from the uranium mill tailings, a dynamic leaching test was applied for different size of uranium mill tailings samples. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were performed to determine the content of Mn, Sr, Pb, and U in the leachates. The release of mobile Mn, Sr, Pb, and U fraction was slow, being faster in the initial stage and then attained a near steady-state condition. The experimental results demonstrate that the release of Mn, Sr, Pb, and U from uranium mill tailings with different size fractions is controlled by a variety of mechanisms. Surface wash-off is the release mechanism for Mn. The main release mechanism of Sr and Pb is the dissolution in the initial leaching stage. For U, a mixed process of wash-off and diffusion is the controlling mechanism.

  19. Porous quasi three-dimensional nano-Mn3O4 + PbO2 composite as supercapacitor electrode material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dan Yuanyuan; Lin Haibo; Liu Xiaolei; Lu Haiyan; Zhao Jingzhe; Shi Zhan; Guo Yupeng

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We prepare nano-PbO 2 + Mn 3 O 4 composite material by composite deposition method. ► The nano-PbO 2 + Mn 3 O 4 composite has porous quasi three-dimensional structure. ► Maximum electrochemically effective area (R F ) of the composite is 72. ► The composite shows high specific capacitance up to ∼340 F g −1 . ► A general knowledge of the pesudocapacitance behavior of the composite is acquired. - Abstract: Nano-Mn 3 O 4 + PbO 2 composite electrode materials with different compositions are prepared by anodic composite electrodeposition in Pb 2+ plating solution containing suspended nano-Mn 3 O 4 particles (40–60 nm). The particles are synthesized via one-step homogeneous precipitation at low temperature. The composite materials are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses. The results indicate that the composite composed of γ-Mn 3 O 4 and β-PbO 2 is porous and quasi three-dimensional (3D), and its maximum electrochemically effective area ratio (R F ) is 72. The capacitance performance of the composite is determined by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and charge–discharge test. The composite shows a high specific capacitance up to 338 F g −1 .

  20. Deposition of Cu-doped PbS thin films with low resistivity using DC sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hariyadi Soetedjo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the electrical resistivity of Cu-doped PbS thin films has been carried out. The films were prepared using a DC sputtering technique. The doping was achieved by introducing the Cu dopant plate material directly on the surface of the PbS sputtering target plate. SEM-EDX data shows the Cu concentration in the PbS film to be proportional to the Cu plate diameter. The XRD pattern indicates the film is in crystalline cubic form. The Hall effect measurement shows that Cu doping yields an increase in the carrier concentration to 3.55 × 1019 cm−3 and a significant decrease in electrical resistivity. The lowest resistivity obtained was 0.13 Ωcm for a Cu concentration of 18.5%. Preferential orientation of (1 1 1 and (2 0 0 occurs during deposition. Keywords: Thin films, Lead sulfide, Sputtering, Resistivity, Semiconductor, Infrared

  1. Electrodeposition and Characterization of Mn-Cu-Zn Alloys for Corrosion Protection Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurtsumia, Gigla; Gogoli, David; Koiava, Nana; Kakhniashvili, Izolda; Jokhadze, Nunu; Lezhava, Tinatin; Nioradze, Nikoloz; Tatishvili, Dimitri

    2017-12-01

    Mn-Cu-Zn alloys were electrodeposited from sulphate bath, containing citrate or EDTA and their mixtures as complexing ligands. The influence of bath composition and deposition parameters on alloys composition, cathodic current efficiency and structural and electrochemical properties were studied. At a higher current density (≥ 37.5 A dm-2) a uniform surface deposit of Mn-Cu-Zn was obtained. Optimal pH of electrolyte (0.3 mol/dm3Mn2+ + 0.6 mol/dm3 (NH4)2SO4 +0.1 mol/dm3Zn2++0.005 mol/dm3 Cu2++ 0.05mol/dm3Na3Cit + 0.15mol/dm3 EDTA; t=300C; τ=20 min) for silvery, nonporous coating of Mn-Cu-Zn alloy was within 6.5-7.5; coating composition: 71-83% Mn, 6-7.8% Cu, 11.5-20% Zn, current efficiency up to 40%. XRD patterns revealed BCT (body centred tetragonal) γ-Mn solid phase solution (lattice constants a=2.68 Å c=3.59 Å). Corrosion measurements of deposited alloys were performed in aerated 3.5% NaCl solution. The corrosion current density (icorr) of the electrodeposited alloys on carbon steel was 10 times lower than corrosion rate of pure zinc and manganese coatings. Triple alloy coatings corrosion potential (Ecorr = -1140 mV vs. Ag/AgCl) preserved negative potential value longer (more than three months) compared to carbon steel substrate (Ecorr = -670 mV vs. Ag/AgCl). Tafel polarization curves taken on Mn-Cu-Zn alloy coating in aerated 3.5% NaCl solution did not show a typical passivation behaviour which can be explained by formation oflow solubility of adherent corrosion products on the alloy surface. Corrosion test of Mn-Cu-Zn electrocoating in chlorine environment shows that it is the best cathodic protective coating for a steel product.

  2. Specific heat (1-330K), magnetic susceptiblity and Meissner effect Bi-(Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junod, A.; Eckert, D.; Triscone, G.; Brunner, O.; Muller, J.; Zhao, Z.

    1989-01-01

    Five samples in the Bi 2 - y Pb y Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8 + x system selected for their sharp diamagnetic transitions are characterized with particular emphasis on the specific heat. The behavior of the magnetic susceptibility upon doping with holes (Pb) is similar to that of the La 1 - y Sr y CuO 4 system

  3. Formation of stable and metastable phases in reciprocal systems PbSe + MI2 = MSe + PbI2 (M = Hg, Mn, Sn)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odin, I.N.; Grin'ko, V.V.; Kozlovskij, V.F.; Safronov, E.V.; Gapanovich, M.V.

    2004-01-01

    Using data of differential thermal, X-ray phase and microstructural analyses, phase diagrams of reciprocal systems PbSe + MI 2 = MSe + PbI 2 (M=Hg (1), Mn (2), Sn (3)) were constructed. It was ascertained that the HgSe-PbI 2 diagonal in system 1 is stable. Transformations leading to crystallization of metastable ternary compound formed in the system PbSe-PbI 2 and metastable polytypes of lead iodide in systems 1 and 2 in the range of temperatures from 620 to 685 K were studied. New intermediate metastable phases in systems 1, 2 and 3 were prepared by melt quenching. Crystal lattice parameters of the phases crystallizing in the CdCl 2 structural type were defined [ru

  4. Ab initio electronic structure calculations for Mn linear chains deposited on CuN/Cu(001) surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barral, Maria Andrea; Weht, Ruben; Lozano, Gustavo; Maria Llois, Ana

    2007-01-01

    In a recent experiment, scanning tunneling microscopy has been used to obtain a direct probe of the magnetic interaction in linear manganese chains arranged by atomic manipulation on thin insulating copper nitride islands grown on Cu(001). The local spin excitation spectra of these chains have been measured with inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy. Analyzing the spectroscopic results with a Heisenberg Hamiltonian the interatomic coupling strength within the chains has been obtained. It has been found that the coupling strength depends on the deposition sites of the Mn atoms on the islands. In this contribution, we perform ab initio calculations for different arrangements of infinite Mn chains on CuN in order to understand the influence of the environment on the value of the magnetic interactions

  5. Synthesis, structure, magnetic, electrical and electrochemical properties of Al, Cu and Mg doped MnO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashem, Ahmed M., E-mail: ahmedh242@yahoo.com [National Research Centre, Inorganic Chemistry Department, Behoes St., Dokki, Cairo (Egypt); Institute for Complex Materials, IFW Dresden, Helmholtzstr. 20, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); Abuzeid, Hanaa M. [National Research Centre, Inorganic Chemistry Department, Behoes St., Dokki, Cairo (Egypt); Narayanan, N. [Institute for Complex Materials, IFW Dresden, Helmholtzstr. 20, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); Ehrenberg, Helmut [Institute for Complex Materials, IFW Dresden, Helmholtzstr. 20, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); Materials Science, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Petersenstr. 23, D-64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Julien, C.M. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Physicochimie des Electrolytes, Colloides et Sciences Analytiques (PECSA), 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France)

    2011-10-17

    Highlights: {yields} Al, Mg and Cu doped MnO{sub 2} as cathode in Li-ion batteries. {yields} Pure phase MnO{sub 2} for virgin and doped MnO{sub 2} were obtained. {yields} Doping elements improve the electrical conductivity of MnO{sub 2}. {yields} Electrochemical behaviour of MnO{sub 2} improved after doping by Al, Mg and Cu. - Abstract: Pure and doped manganese dioxides were prepared by wet-chemical method using fumaric acid and potassium permanganate as raw materials. X-ray diffraction patterns show that pure and Al, Cu and Mg doped manganese dioxides (d-MnO{sub 2}) crystallized in the cryptomelane-MnO{sub 2} structure. Thermal analysis show that, with the assistance of potassium ions inside the 2 x 2 tunnel, the presence of Al, Cu and Mg doping elements increases the thermal stability of d-MnO{sub 2}. The electrical conductivity of d-MnO{sub 2} increases in comparison with pure MnO{sub 2}, while Al-doped MnO{sub 2} exhibits the lower resistivity. As shown in the magnetic measurements, the value of the experimental effective magnetic moment of Mn ions decreases with introduction of dopants, which is attributed to the presence of a mixed valency of high-spin state Mn{sup 4+}/Mn{sup 3+}. Doped MnO{sub 2} materials show good capacity retention in comparison with virgin MnO{sub 2}. Al-doped MnO{sub 2} shows the best electrochemical results in terms of capacity retention and recharge efficiency.

  6. Levels Of Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn And Cd, In Effluent From A Sewage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study reports the results of preliminary investigation of heavy metal levels-Ni, Cd, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn; pH; temperature and electrical conductivity in effluents from a sewage treatment oxidation pond and its receiving stream. The heavy metal concentrations were determined with Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass ...

  7. The geochemical profile of Mn, Co, Cu and Fe in Kerteh Mangrove Forest, Terengganu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaruzzaman, B.Y.; Antotina, A.; Airiza, Z.; Syalindran, S.; Ong, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    The geochemical profile of Kerteh mangrove sediments was analyzed for the vertical and horizontal distribution. The 100 cm core sediment sample and 15 surface sediments samples were taken from the field. The geochemical elements of Mn, Co, Cu and Fe of the sediments were analyzed. Geochemical proxy of Mn, Co, Cu and Fe were analyzed by using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The mean concentrations of Mn, Co, Cu and Fe for the vertical distribution were 210.18 μg/ g, 15.55 μg/ g, 43.65 μg/ g and 1.88 μg/ g respectively. on the other hand, the mean concentrations of the geochemical elements for horizontal distributions were 230.50 μg/ g for Mn, 17.57 μg/ g for Co, 43.381 μg/ g for Cu and 2.93 μg/ g for Fe. Enrichment factor and normalization was used to point out the level of pollution. The EF and the normalization indicated that all the geochemical elements were from the natural sources. (author)

  8. Thermoelastic martensite and shape memory effect in ductile Cu-Al-Mn alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kainuma, R.; Takahashi, S.; Ishida, K.

    1996-08-01

    Ductile shape memory (SM) alloys of the Cu-AI-Mn system have been developed by controlling the degree of order in the β phase. Additions of Mn to the binary Cu-Al alloy stabilize the β phase and widen the single-phase region to lower temperature and lower Al contents. It is shown that Cu-Al-Mn alloys with low Al contents have either the disordered A2 structure or the ordered L21 structure with a lower degree of order and that they exhibit excellent ductility. The disordered A2 phase martensitically transforms to the disordered Al phase with a high density of twins. The martensite phase formed from the ordered L21 phase has the 18R structure. The SM effect accompanies both the A2 → Al and L21 → 18R martensitic transformations. These alloys exhibit 15 pct strain to failure, 60 to 90 pct rolling reduction without cracking, and 80 to 90 pct recovery from bend test in the martensitic condition. Experimental results on the microstructure, crystal structure, mechanical properties, and shape memory behavior in the ductile Cu-AI-Mn alloys are presented and discussed.

  9. Heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb) content in two fish species of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-13

    Sep 13, 2010 ... Water pollution and fish physiology. CRC press. Florida, USA, p. 245. Kalay M, Canli M (2000). Elimination of essential (Cu, Zn) and nonessential (Cd, Pb) metals from tissue of a freshwater fish Tilapia zillii following and uptake protocol. Turk. J. Zool. 24: 429-436. Karadede H, Ünlü E (2000). Concentrations ...

  10. Heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn) in mudfish and sediments from three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    driniev

    2004-04-02

    Apr 2, 2004 ... and analysed for Cd and Pb by electro-thermal AAS, and for Cu and Zn by flame AAS. ... measurements and the dolomitic hard water and high pH of the Mooi River water .... Copper and zinc were determined by flame analysis at 324.8 nm ... were placed separately in clean 20 ml glass vials and one ml de-.

  11. Batch adsorption of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Fe, Cr and Cd) from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cinthia

    This study was carried out to evaluate the efficiency of metals (Cu, Fe, Pb, Cr and Cd) removal from mixed metal ions solution using coconut husk as adsorbent. The effects of varying contact time, initial metal ion concentration, adsorbent dose and pH on adsorption process of these metals were studied using synthetically ...

  12. Leaching potential of pervious concrete and immobilization of Cu, Pb and Zn using pervious concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solpuker, U; Sheets, J; Kim, Y; Schwartz, F W

    2014-06-01

    This paper investigates the leaching potential of pervious concrete and its capacity for immobilizing Cu, Pb and Zn, which are common contaminants in urban runoff. Batch experiments showed that the leachability of Cu, Pb and Zn increased when pHconcrete might function to attenuate contaminant migration. A porous concrete block was sprayed with low pH water (pH=4.3±0.1) for 190 h. The effluent was highly alkaline (pH~10 to 12). In the first 50 h, specific conductance and trace-metal were high but declined towards steady state values. PHREEQC modeling showed that mixing of interstitial alkaline matrix waters with capillary pore water was required in order to produce the observed water chemistry. The interstitial pore solutions seem responsible for the high pH values and relatively high concentrations of trace metals and major cations in the early stages of the experiment. Finally, pervious concrete was sprayed with a synthetic contaminated urban runoff (10 ppb Cu, Pb and Zn) with a pH of 4.3±0.1 for 135 h. It was found that Pb immobilization was greater than either Cu or Zn. Zn is the most mobile among three and also has the highest variation in the observed degree of immobilization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Distribution of various forms of Cd, Pb and Cu in the Wadge Bank region (Arabian Sea)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    George, M.D.

    Labile, nonlabile and particulate forms of Cd,Pb and Cu were determined in 29 water samples collected from a depth of 5 m, from the Wadge Bank area. Labile Cd varied from 0.1 to 0.2 mu g.l-1 while nonlabile fraction was in the range 0.1 to 0.3 mu gl...

  14. Biosorption of Pb2+ and Cu2+ in aqueous solutions using agricultural wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieva Aileen D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine and compare the adsorptive capacity of Pb2+ and Cu2+ in simulated wastewater onto three agricultural wastes The adsorption capacities of Pb2+ onto the agricultural wastes can be arranged as Litchi chinensis (4.30 mg of sorbate per g of sorbent (mg g-1, 85.68% adsorption > Bambusa vulgaris (3.83 mg g-1, 76.19% adsorption > Annona squamosa (2.70 mg g-1, 53.66% adsorption while the adsorption capacities of Cu2+ onto the same agricultural wastes can be arranged in the order: Bambusa vulgaris (3.86 mg g-1, 77.17% adsorption > Annona squamosal (3.58 mg g-1, 71.58% adsorption > Litchi chinensis (3.42 mg g-1, 68.32% adsorption. The biosorbents had relatively higher adsorptive capacities with Cu2+ as compared to that of Pb2+ except for Litchi chinensis. Although the results show lower adsorptive capacity as compared to a number of treated agricultural wastes showing 80% up to almost 100% adsorption of Pb2+ and Cu2+, the results show that Annona squamosa, Bamubusa vulgaris, and Litchi chinensis are potential biosorbents and promote sustainable treatment process.

  15. Behaviors of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in soil amended with composts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusiatin, Zygmunt Mariusz; Kulikowska, Dorota

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated how amendment with sewage sludge compost of different maturation times (3, 6, 12 months) affected metal (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn) bioavailability, fractionation and redistribution in highly contaminated sandy clay soil. Metal transformations during long-term soil stabilization (35 months) were determined. In the contaminated soil, Cd, Ni and Zn were predominately in the exchangeable and reducible fractions, Pb in the reducible fraction and Cu in the reducible, exchangeable and oxidizable fractions. All composts decreased the bioavailability of Cd, Ni and Zn for up to 24 months, which indicates that cyclic amendment with compost is necessary. The bioavailability of Pb and Cu was not affected by compost amendment. Based on the reduced partition index (IR), metal stability in amended soil after 35 months of stabilization was in the following order: Cu > Ni = Pb > Zn > Cd. All composts were more effective in decreasing Cd, Ni and Zn bioavailability than in redistributing the metals, and increasing Cu redistribution more than that of Pb. Thus, sewage sludge compost of as little as 3 months maturation can be used for cyclic amendment of multi-metal-contaminated soil.

  16. Determination of field-based sorption isotherms for Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in Dutch soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otte JG; Grinsven JJM van; Peijnenburg WJGM; Tiktak A; LBG; ECO

    1999-01-01

    Sorption isotherms for metals in soil obtained in the laboratory generally underpredict the observed metal content in the solid phase in the field. Isotherms based on in-situ data are therefore required. The aim of this study is to obtain field-based sorption isotherms for Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn as input

  17. Determination of Cd, Pb and Cu in Mandovi estuary by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    George, M.D.; Sawkar, K.; Reddy, C.V.G.

    Dissolved labile and non-labile (organically associated) concentration of Cd, Pb and Cu in Mandovi Estuary, Goa, India have been measured for 1 y (February 1980 to January 1981). Percentage non-labile form varies from 0-50% of the total for Cd, from...

  18. Synthesis and application of a novel Cu/RGO@Pb alloy for lead-acid batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yumeng; Zhao, Ruirui; Zhou, Huawen; Zhang, Dejing; Zhao, Wei; Chen, Hongyu

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a novel Cu/RGO@Pb alloy was prepared successfully and tested in the simulated lead-acid battery environment. In preparing the novel alloy, Cu/RGO composite was firstly synthesized in order to increase the wettability of RGO to Pb, and then the composite was added to the molten lead to obtain the target alloy. Scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive spectrometer, X-ray diffraction as well as electrochemical measurements were employed to evaluate the performance of the obtained composite and alloy. Results show that the prepared Cu/RGO@Pb possessed higher oxygen evolution over-potential and lower hydrogen evolution over-potential than the contrast alloy, indicating this novel alloy was more suitable for using as positive grids in lead acid batteries. Moreover, the RGO additive could inhibit the formation of Pb(II) and Pb(IV) film on the surface of the alloy, which could enhance the deep-charge/discharge performance of the grids and improve the corrosion resistance.

  19. Microstructure and corrosion resistance of Sm-containing Al-Mn-Si-Fe-Cu alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Yuyin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Optimizing alloy composition is an effective way to improve physical and chemical properties of automobile heat exchanger materials.A Sm-containing Al-Mn-Si-Fe-Cu alloy was investigated through transmission electron microscopy,scanning electron microscopy,and electrochemical measurement.Experimental results indicated that main phases distributed in the alloy wereα-Al(Mn,FeSi,Al2Sm and Al10Cu7Sm2.Alloying with Sm element could refine the precipitated α-Al(Mn,FeSi phase.Polarization testing results indicated that the corrosion surfacewas mainly composed of pitting pits and corrosion products.Sea water acetic acid test(SWAAT showed that corrosion loss increased first and then slowed downwith increase of the corrosion time.

  20. On The Utilization of (1-X)Cu-X Pb) Alloys for Gamma-Rays Shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Latif, A.A.; Saeid, Kh.S.; Abd El-Latif, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    The present work deals with the study of the attenuation properties of gamma rays for [(1-X) Cu -X Pb] alloys where, x=10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% Pb waste by weight. Investigation has been performed by measuring the transmitted gamma ray spectra behind cylindrical samples of [(1-X) Cu - X Pb] alloys of different thicknesses. A collimated beam of gamma ray measured by using γ - ray spectrometer NaI(Tl) Scintillation detector with multichannel analyzer (MCA) cassy. Total mass attenuation coefficients (μ/ρ) of γ-ray have been evaluated and calculated using measured results and XCOM code respectively . Comparison between measured and calculated results shows a reasonable divergence at 0.511 MeV ,and 0.662 MeV γ-ray energies, in addition there is a convergence at 1.17 MeV, 1.274 MeV, and 1.3 MeV γ-ray energies

  1. Rapid adsorption of Pb, Cu and Cd from aqueous solutions by β-cyclodextrin polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Junyong; Li, Yulian; Wang, Chengming; Zhang, Kaisheng; Lin, Dongyue; Kong, Lingtao; Liu, Jinhuai

    2017-12-01

    Removing heavy metals from aqueous solutions has drawn more and more attentions these years because of their serious global health challenge to human society. To develop an adsorbent with low-cost and high-efficiency for removal of heavy metals (HMs), β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) polymers crosslinked with rigid aromatic groups were prepared and used for lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) removal for the first time. The negatively charged β-CD polymers with large BET surface area were suitable to be used in HMs adsorption. The adsorption process completed in 5 min was well fit by Freundlich isotherm model and pseudo-second-order model. The intraparticle diffusion model was also appropriate to describe the adsorption of Pb, Cu and Cd on β-CD polymer. The maximum of adsorption capacities at 25 °C for Pb, Cu and Cd were 196.42, 164.43 and 136.43 mg/g when the initial concentration was 200 mg/L. The HMs adsorption process on the surface of β-CD polymer was an endothermic and spontaneous process. Both of the electrostatic interaction and distribution of Pb, Cu and Cd species influenced the adsorption process at different pH values. The order of removal efficiencies in multi-component adsorption for the three metal ions were Pb > Cu > Cd. The adsorption mechanisms were H+ ions on hydroxyl groups exchanged with heavy metal ions and electrostatic interactions. This study indicated that β-CD polymers could be developed into effective adsorbents for rapid removal of heavy metals.

  2. Half-metallic antiferromagnetism in double perovskite BiPbCrCuO6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, Ke-Chuan; Wang, Y. K.

    2015-01-01

    The electronic structure and magnetic properties of BiPbCrCuO 6 double perovskite are investigated based on first-principles density functional calculations with generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and GGA incorporated with Coulomb correlation interaction U (GGA + U). The results suggest the half-metallic (HM) and antiferromagnetic (AFM) properties of BiPbCrCuO 6 double perovskite. The HM-AFM property of the double perovskite is caused by the double-exchange mechanism between neighboring Cr 5+ (t 2g 1 ↓) and Cu 2+ (t 2g 3 ↑t 2g 3 ↓e g 2 ↑e g ↓) via the intermediate O 2− (2s 2 2p 6 ) ion

  3. Magnetic anisotropy in Pb_{1-x-y}Sn_{y}Mn_{x}Te studied by ferromagnetic resonance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggenkamp, P.J.T.; Story, T.; Swüste, C.H.W.; Swagten, H.J.M.; Jonge, de W.J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Proceedings of the XXII International School of Semiconducting Compounds, Jaszowiec 1993 We will report on the anisotropy in (Pb)SnMnTe, studied by ferromagnetic resonance. We have found a cubic anisotropy with a = 73 × 10-4 cm-1 for Sn1-xMnxTe and a = 200 × 10-4 cm-1 for Pb0.28-xSn0.72MnxTe. We

  4. Effect of MnCuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} content on magnetic and dielectric properties of poly (O-Phenylenediamine)/MnCuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannapiran, Nagarajan [PG and Research Department of Chemistry, Sri Ramakrishna Mission Vidyalaya College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore 641020, Tamil Nadu (India); Muthusamy, Athianna, E-mail: muthusrkv@gmail.com [PG and Research Department of Chemistry, Sri Ramakrishna Mission Vidyalaya College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore 641020, Tamil Nadu (India); Chitra, Palanisamy [PG and Research Department of Chemistry, Sri Ramakrishna Mission Vidyalaya College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore 641020, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2016-03-01

    Poly o-phenylenediamine (PoPD)/MnCuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocomposites with three different ratios of MnCuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (10%, 20%, 30% w/w) were synthesized by in-situ oxidative chemical polymerization method ammonium persulphate used as oxidant, while MnCuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles was prepared by auto-combustion method. The structure, morphology and magnetic properties of synthesized PoPD/MnCuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocomposites were characterized by FT-IR, UV–visible absorption spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). FTIR spectra and XRD were confirmed the formation of the PoPD/MnCuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocomposites. The morphology of PoPD/MnCuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocomposites is visualized through SEM and TEM. The spherical morphology of the PoPD was confirmed using SEM analysis. Dielectric properties of PoPD/MnCuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocomposites at different temperatures have been performed in the frequency range of 50 Hz–5 MHz. The optical absorption experiments of PoPD/MnCuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocomposites reveal that the direct transition with an energy band gap is around 2 eV. - Highlights: • Green synthesis of PoPD (the polymerization carried out only in aqueous medium) by in-situ chemical polymerization method. • For the first time, PoPD incorporated with MnCuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} with lesser particle size. • The auto combustion reaction, support to achieve less particle size. • Ferrite content affects the magnetic properties of the nanocomposites.

  5. Structural, optical and electrical characterization of Mn2+ and Cd2+ doped/co-doped PbS nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakthi Sudar Saravanan, R.; Meena, M.; Pukazhselvan, D.; Mahadevan, C.K.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Mn and Cd doped/codoped nano PbS was synthesized by SMI method. • The observed stress is ∼90% lower, and the strain is only in the order of 10 −6 . • Band gap value can be enhanced from 0.5 eV to 2.025–2.235 eV (±0.012 eV). • Role of two conduction activation barriers was observed. - Abstract: The strain and stress minimized nanoparticles of PbS, Pb 0.95 Mn 0.05 S, Pb 0.95 Cd 0.05 S and Pb 0.90 Mn 0.05 Cd 0.05 S were successfully synthesized using solvothermal microwave irradiation (SMI) method. The quality/performance of the materials was found to be in the series Pb 0.90 Mn 0.05 Cd 0.05 S > Pb 0.95 Cd 0.05 S > Pb 0.95 Mn 0.05 S > PbS. The average crystallite size in the best material Pb 0.90 Mn 0.05 Cd 0.05 S was found to be ∼18 nm where the particles are distributed within the range 20–60 nm. Optical studies reveals the existence of direct band gap in the range of 2.025–2.235 eV (±0.012 eV). This is one of the widest E g values reported for this system. Electrical measurements were performed on compacts of nanoparticles in the temperature range 313–433 K and frequency range 100 Hz–1 MHz. The conductivity profile exhibits two components; in which the activation energy (ΔE) values obtained for the temperature range 373–433 K is almost twice as compared to the ΔE value obtained for 313–373 K. Nonetheless, the conductivity at the higher temperatures was always higher than at the low temperatures and interestingly, the nanoparticles exhibits higher conductivity than their bulk counterpart. The feasible mechanism of conduction is discussed

  6. Modulation-free bismuth-lead cuprate superconductors: BiPbSr1+xL1-xCuO6 and BiPbSr2Y1-xCaxCu2O8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manivannan, V.; Gopalakrishnan, J.; Rao, C.N.R.

    1991-01-01

    Modulation-free BiPbSrLCuO 6 (L=La, Pr, Nd) and BiPbSr 2 YCu 2 O 8 , which are isotypic with the n=1 and 2 members of the Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca n-1 Cu n O 2n+4 family, have been prepared and characterized. These parent compounds are nonsuperconducting, but when doped with holes by substitution chemistry give modulation-free superconducting cuprates of the general formulas BiPbSr 1+xL1-x CuO 6 and BiPbSr 2 Y 1-x Ca x Cu 2 O 8 , exhibiting maximum T c 's of 24 and 85 K, respectively. Significantly, the hole concentration at the maximum T c is 0.12 in the cuprate family with a single Cu-O layer and 0.22 in that with two Cu-O layers

  7. Investigation of thermal, mechanical and magnetic behaviors of the Cu-11%Al alloy with Ag and Mn additions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, R.A.G.; Paganotti, A.; Gama, S.; Adorno, A.T.; Carvalho, T.M.; Santos, C.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    The investigation of thermal, mechanical and magnetic behaviors of the Cu-11%Al, Cu-11%Al-3%Ag, Cu-11%Al-10%Mn and Cu-11%Al-10%Mn-3%Ag alloys was made using microhardness measurements, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersion X-ray spectroscopy and magnetic moment change with applied field measurement. The results indicated that the Mn addition changes the phase stability range, the microhardness values and makes undetectable the eutectoid reaction in annealed Cu-11%Al and Cu-11%Al-3%Ag alloys while the presence of Ag does not modify the phase transformation sequence neither microhardness values of the annealed Cu-11%Al and Cu-11%Al-10%Mn alloys, but it increases the magnetic moment of this latter at about 2.7 times and decreases the rates of eutectoid and peritectoid reactions of the former. - Highlights: ► The microstructure of Cu-Al alloy is modified in the Ag presence. ► (α + γ) phase is stabilized down to room temperature when Ag is added to Cu-Al alloy. ► Ag-rich phase modifies the magnetic characteristics of Cu–Al–Mn alloy.

  8. Intermartensitic transitions in Ni-Mn-Fe-Cu-Ga Heusler alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Mahmud; Gautam, Bhoj; Pathak, Arjun; Dubenko, Igor; Stadler, Shane; Ali, Naushad

    2008-01-01

    A series of Fe doped Ni 2 Mn 0.75-x Fe x Cu 0.25 Ga Heusler alloys have been investigated by means of x-ray diffraction, magnetizations, thermal expansion, and electrical resistivity measurements. In Ni 2 Mn 0.75 Cu 0.25 Ga, martensitic and ferromagnetic transitions occur at the same temperature. Partial substitution of Mn by Fe results in a decrease of the martensitic transition temperature, T M , and an increase of the ferromagnetic transition temperature, T C , resulting in separation of the two transitions. In addition to the martensitic transition, complete thermoelastic intermartensitic transformations have been observed in the Fe doped Ni 2 Mn 0.75-x Fe x Cu 0.25 Ga samples with x>0.04. An unusual transition is observed in the alloy with x = 0.04. The magnetization curve as a function of increasing temperature shows only one first-order transition in the temperature range 5-400 K, which is identified as a typical coupled magnetostructural martensitic transformation. The magnetization curve as a function of decreasing temperature shows three different transitions, which are characterized as the ferromagnetic transition, the martensitic transition and the intermartensitic transition.

  9. Magnetic refrigeration capabilities of magnetocaloric Ni2Mn:75Cu:25Ga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, S. K.; Jenkins, C. A.; Dubenko, I.; Samanta, T.; Ali, N.; Roy, S.

    2013-03-01

    Doping-driven competition between energetically similar ground states leads to many exciting materials phenomena such as the emergence of high-Tc superconductivity, diluted magnetic semiconductors, and colossal magnetoresistance. Doped Ni2MnGa Heusler alloy, which is a multifunctional ferromagnetic alloy with various exotic physical properties demonstrates this notion of rich phenomenology via modified ground spin states. Adopting this generic concept, here we will present a novel doped Ni2Mn.75Cu.25Ga alloy that offers unprecedented co-existence of the magnetocaloric effect and fully controlled ferromagnetism at room temperature. Application of site engineering enables us to manipulate the ground spin state that leads to the decrease in magnetic transition temperature and also increases the delocalization of the Mn magnetism. SQUID magnetometery suggests that Cu doping enhances the saturation magnetization, coercive field and clarity of magnetic hysteresis loops. By exploiting x-ray absorption techniques and measuring element specific magnetic hysteresis loops, here we will describe the microscopic origin of enhnaced magnetocaloric properties and d-d interaction driven charge transfer effects in Ni2Mn.75Cu.25Ga This work was supported by DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-06ER46291

  10. Low-temperature thermoelectric properties of Pb doped Cu2SnSe3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad K, Shyam; Rao, Ashok; Gahtori, Bhasker; Bathula, Sivaiah; Dhar, Ajay; Chang, Chia-Chi; Kuo, Yung-Kang

    2017-09-01

    A series of Cu2Sn1-xPbxSe3 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.04) compounds was prepared by solid state synthesis technique. The electrical resistivity (ρ) decreased with increase in Pb content up to x = 0.01, thereafter it increased with further increase in x (till x = 0.03). However, the lowest value of electrical resistivity is observed for Cu2Sn0.96Pb0.04Se3. Analysis of electrical resistivity of all the samples suggests that small poloron hoping model is operative in the high temperature regime while variable range hopping is effective in the low temperature regime. The positive Seebeck coefficient (S) for pristine and doped samples in the entire temperature range indicates that the majority charge carriers are holes. The electronic thermal conductivity (κe) of the Cu2Sn1-xPbxSe3 compounds was estimated by the Wiedemann-Franz law and found that the contribution from κe is less than 1% of the total thermal conductivity (κ). The highest ZT 0.013 was achieved at 400 K for the sample Cu2Sn0.98Pb0.02Se3, about 30% enhancement as compared to the pristine sample.

  11. Assessment of the Bioavailability of Cu, Pb, and Zn through Petunia axillaris in Contaminated Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Bondareva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are potentially toxic to human life and the environment. Metal toxicity depends on chemical associations in soils. For this reason, determining the chemical form of a metal in soils is important to evaluate its mobility and the potential accumulation. The aim of this examination is to evaluate the accumulation potential of Petunia x hybrida as a flower crop for three metals, namely, copper (Cu, lead (Pb, and nickel (Ni. Trace metals (Zn, Cu, and Pb in the soils were partitioned by a sequential extraction procedure into H2O extractable (F1, 1 M CH3COONa extractable (F2. Chemical fractionation showed that F1 and F2 fraction of the metals were near 1% and residue was the dominant form for Zn, Cu, and Pb in all samples. Using fluorescence method allowed us to estimate condition of the plants by adding metals. As result of plant and soil analysis, we can conclude that Petunia has Cu, Zn, and Ni tolerance and accumulation. Therefore, Petunia has the potential to serve as a model species for developing herbaceous, ornamental plants for phytoremediation.

  12. Gd3+-ESR and magnetic susceptibility of GdCu4Al8 and GdMn4Al8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coldea, R.; Coldea, M.; Pop, I.

    1994-01-01

    Gd ESR of GdCu 4 Al 8 and GdMn 4 Al 8 and magnetic susceptibility of GdCu 4 Al 8 , GdMn 4 Al 8 , and YMn 4 Al 8 were measured in the temperature range of 290K--460K and 90K--1050K, respectively. The occurrence of the Mn moment in YMn 4 Al 8 and GdMn 4 Al 8 is strongly correlated with the critical value of d∼2.6 angstrom of the Mn-Mn distance below which the Mn moment is not stable. The experimental data for GdMn 4 Al 8 , compared with the data for the isostructural compounds GdCu 4 Al 8 and YMn 4 Al 8 , show that near the critical value of d, the existence of Mn moment depends not only on the value of d, but also on the local magnetic surroundings. It has been revealed that the magnetic character of Mn moment in YMn 4 Al 8 and GdMn 4 Al 8 changes from an itinerant electron type to a local-moment type with increasing temperature

  13. Growth and characterization of La2CoMnO6 crystals doped with Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milenov, T.I.; Rafailov, P.M.; Abrashev, M.V.; Nikolova, R.P.; Nakatsuka, A.; Avdeev, G.V.; Veleva, M.N.; Dobreva, S.; Yankova, L.; Gospodinov, M.M.

    2010-01-01

    Crystals of La 2 CoMnO 6 doped with Pb were grown by the high temperature solution growth method. Several crystals were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), X-ray single-crystal diffractometry and polarized Raman spectroscopy. Some variations in the composition of different crystals are observed, however, within the volume of each distinct crystal the composition is found to be fairly constant. Crystals with lateral dimensions larger than 2 mm and thicker than 1 mm contain structural defects as twin lamellae and surface roughness. The results from the characterization of the grown crystals with X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy are consistent with an assumption for a coexistence of an ordered monoclinic and a disordered orthorhombic phase.

  14. Determination of Fe, Mn and Pb by GFAAS in red wine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying Zhecong; Jin Hua; Su Yulan

    2008-01-01

    A method for determination of Fe, Mn and Pb in red wine samples was developed by the graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometric. Several different matrix modifiers were necessary because of evident analyte losses that occurred immediately in sample incineration. Red wine samples were analyzed after microwave digestion using HNO 3 . Standard addition method was used, the calibration concentration was 1 ng · ml -1 , 3 ng · ml -1 , 5 ng · ml -1 which containing 580 μg/ml KNO 3 as matrix and 0.2% HNO 3 . The correlation coefficient of the calibration line was very good within the measurement area. The recovery with red wine sample was very good at the range from 95%-107.5%. (authors)

  15. Pine bark as bio-adsorbent for Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutillas-Barreiro, L.; Ansias-Manso, L.; Fernandez Calviño, David

    2014-01-01

    to the added concentrations, with Pb always showing the lowest levels. Stirred flow chamber experiments showed strong hysteresis for Pb and Cu, sorption being mostly irreversible. The differences affecting the studied heavy metals are mainly due to different affinity for the adsorption sites. Pine bark can......The objective of this work was to determine the retention of five metals on pine bark using stirred flow and batch-type experiments. Resulting from batch-type kinetic experiments, adsorption was rapid, with no significant differences for the various contact times. Adsorption was between 98 and 99...

  16. Effects of CuBr addition to CH3NH3PbI3(Cl) perovskite photovoltaic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oku, Takeo; Ohishi, Yuya; Tanaka, Hiroki

    2018-01-01

    Effects of CuBr addition to perovskite CH3NH3PbI3(Cl) precursor solutions on photovoltaic properties were investigated. The CH3NH3Pb(Cu)I3(Cl,Br)-based photovoltaic devices were fabricated by a spin-coating technique, and the microstructures of the devices were investigated by X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Current density-voltage characteristics were improved by a small amount of CuBr addition, which resulted in improvement of the conversion efficiencies of the devices. The structure analysis showed decrease of unit cell volume and increase of Cu/Br composition by the CuBr addition, which would indicate the Cu/Br substitution at the Pb/I sites in the perovskite crystal, respectively.

  17. Effect of CeLa addition on the microstructures and mechanical properties of Al-Cu-Mn-Mg-Fe alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Jiandi [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Ding, Dongyan, E-mail: dyding@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Xu, Zhou; Zhang, Junchao; Zhang, Wenlong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Gao, Yongjin; Chen, Guozhen; Chen, Weigao; You, Xiaohua [Huafon NLM Al Co., Ltd, Shanghai 201506 (China); Chen, Renzong; Huang, Yuanwei; Tang, Jinsong [Shanghai Huafon Materials Technology Institute, Shanghai 201203 (China)

    2017-01-15

    Development of high strength lithium battery shell alloy is highly desired for new energy automobile industry. The microstructures and mechanical properties of Al-Cu-Mn-Mg-Fe alloy with different CeLa additions were investigated through optical microscopy (OM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Rietveld refinement and tensile testing. Experimental results indicate that Al{sub 8}Cu{sub 4}Ce and Al{sub 6}Cu{sub 6}La phases formed due to CeLa addition. Addition of 0.25 wt.% CeLa could promote the formation of denser precipitation of Al{sub 20}Cu{sub 2}Mn{sub 3} and Al{sub 6}(Mn, Fe) phases, which improved the mechanical properties of the alloy at room temperature. However, up to 0.50 wt.% CeLa addition could promote the formation of coarse Al{sub 8}Cu{sub 4}Ce phase, Al{sub 6}Cu{sub 6}La phase and Al{sub 6}(Mn, Fe) phase, which resulted in weakened mechanical properties. - Highlights: •Al-Cu-Mn-Mg-Fe alloys with different CeLa addition were fabricated through casting and rolling. •Al{sub 8}Cu{sub 4}Ce and Al{sub 6}Cu{sub 6}La phases formed after CeLa addition. •Addition of 0.25 wt.% CeLa promoted formation of denser precipitates of Al{sub 20}Cu{sub 2}Mn{sub 3} and Al{sub 6}(Mn, Fe). •Mechanical properties of the alloy was improved after 0.25 wt.% CeLa addition.

  18. Producing a particle-reinforced AlCuMgMn alloy by means of mechanical alloying; Herstellung einer partikelverstaerkten AlCuMgMn-Legierung durch mechanisches Legieren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nestler, D.; Wielage, B. [TU Chemnitz, Institut fuer Werkstoffwissenschaft und Werkstofftechnik (Germany); Siebeck, S.

    2012-07-15

    High-energy ball milling (HEM) with subsequent consolidation is a suitable method to produce particle-reinforced aluminium materials. The task of HEM is to distribute the reinforcement particles as homogeneously as possible. A further application of HEM is mechanical alloying (MA). This paper deals with the combination of both applications. Pure metallic powders (Al, Cu, Mg, Mn) were milled together with SiC particles up to 10 h. The composition of the metallic powder corresponds to that of the alloy AA2017 (3.9% Cu, 0.7% Mg, 0.6% Mn). In previous experiments [1], this alloy was used in the form of atomized powder. The changes in microstructure during the formation of the composite powder have been studied by light microscopy, SEM, EDXS and XRD. The results show that the production of composite powders in a single step is possible. This not only allows the economical production of such powders, but also facilitates the use of alloy compositions that are not producible via the melting route, or only producible with difficulty via the melting route. It's possible to produce tailor-made-alloys. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. The effect of intermetallic compound morphology on Cu diffusion in Sn-Ag and Sn-Pb solder bump on the Ni/Cu Under-bump metallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Guh-Yaw; Duh, Jenq-Gong

    2005-01-01

    The eutectic Sn-Ag solder alloy is one of the candidates for the Pb-free solder, and Sn-Pb solder alloys are still widely used in today’s electronic packages. In this tudy, the interfacial reaction in the eutectic Sn-Ag and Sn-Pb solder joints was investigated with an assembly of a solder/Ni/Cu/Ti/Si3N4/Si multilayer structures. In the Sn-3.5Ag solder joints reflowed at 260°C, only the (Ni1-x,Cux)3Sn4 intermetallic compound (IMC) formed at the solder/Ni interface. For the Sn-37Pb solder reflowed at 225°C for one to ten cycles, only the (Ni1-x,Cux)3Sn4 IMC formed between the solder and the Ni/Cu under-bump metallization (UBM). Nevertheless, the (Cu1-y,Niy)6Sn5 IMC was observed in joints reflowed at 245°C after five cycles and at 265°C after three cycles. With the aid of microstructure evolution, quantitative analysis, and elemental distribution between the solder and Ni/Cu UBM, it was revealed that Cu content in the solder near the solder/IMC interface played an important role in the formation of the (Cu1-y,Niy)6Sn5 IMC. In addition, the diffusion behavior of Cu in eutectic Sn-Ag and Sn-Pb solders with the Ni/Cu UBM were probed and discussed. The atomic flux of Cu diffused through Ni was evaluated by detailed quantitative analysis in an electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA). During reflow, the atomic flux of Cu was on the order of 1016-1017 atoms/cm2sec in both the eutectic Sn-Ag and Sn-Pb systems.

  20. Atmospheric Deposition of Pb, Zn, Cu, and Cd in Amman, Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momani, K.A.; Jiries, A.G.; Jaradat, Q.M.

    1999-01-01

    Atmospheric samples were collected by high-volume air sampler and dust fall containers during the summer of 1995 at different sites in Amman City, Jordan. Heavy metal contents in settle able (dust fall) as well as in air particulates (suspended) were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The atmospheric concentrations of Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd were 344, 170, 291, and 3.8 ng/m 3 , respectively. On the other hand, the levels of these elements in dust fall deposition were 505, 94, 74, and 3.1 μg/g, respectively. The fluxes and dry deposition velocities of these heavy metals were determined and compared with the findings of other investigators worldwide. Significant enrichment coefficients of heavy metals in dust fall were observed. The enrichment coefficients were 12.1, 6.1, 11.7, and 1.1 for Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd, respectively

  1. Removal of Cu(II) and Pb(II) from Aqueous Solutions Using Nanoporous Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Debajani; Roy, Sushanta Kumar; Das, Bodhaditya; Talukdar, Anup K.

    2018-05-01

    The present work deals with the adsorption of Cu2+ and Pb2+ on zeolites (ZSM-5, mordenite) and mesoporous materials (MCM-48, MCM-41). The characterization of the synthesized samples was performed by means of XRD, SEM, and thermogravimetric analysis. The batch method was employed to study the influence of adsorbent nature, contact time, initial metal ion concentration, and adsorbent load. The adsorption on MCM-48 follows a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. This material was found to be more effective for the removal of lead in a batch process as compared to the other adsorbents and the removal efficiency of the materials for Pb(II) followed the order MCM-48 > mordenite > ZSM-5 > MCM-41 and that for Cu(II) followed the order ZSM-5 > mordenite > MCM-41 > MCM-48.

  2. Square-lattice magnetism of diaboleite Pb2Cu(OH)4Cl2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirlin, Alexander A.; Janson, Oleg; Lebernegg, Stefan; Rosner, Helge

    2013-02-01

    We report on the quasi-two-dimensional magnetism of the natural mineral diaboleite Pb2Cu(OH)4Cl2 with a tetragonal crystal structure, which is closely related to that of the frustrated spin-(1)/(2) magnet PbVO3. Magnetic susceptibility of diaboleite is well described by a Heisenberg spin model on a diluted square lattice with the nearest-neighbor exchange of J≃35 K and about 5% of nonmagnetic impurities. The dilution of the spin lattice reflects the formation of Cu vacancies that are tolerated by the crystal structure of diaboleite. The weak coupling between the magnetic planes triggers the long-range antiferromagnetic order below TN≃11 K. No evidence of magnetic frustration is found. We also analyze the signatures of the long-range order in heat-capacity data, and discuss the capability of identifying magnetic transitions with heat-capacity measurements.

  3. Effect of Nickel Equivalent on Austenite Transition Ratio in Ni-Mn-Cu Cast Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janus A.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Determined was quantitative effect of nickel equivalent value on austenite decomposition degree during cooling-down castings of Ni-Mn- Cu cast iron. Chemical composition of the alloy was 1.8 to 5.0 % C, 1.3 to 3.0 % Si, 3.1 to 7.7 % Ni, 0.4 to 6.3 % Mn, 0.1 to 4.9 % Cu, 0.14 to 0.16 % P and 0.03 to 0.04 % S. Analysed were castings with representative wall thickness 10, 15 and 20 mm. Scope of the examination comprised chemical analysis (including WDS, microscopic observations (optical and scanning microscopy, image analyser, as well as Brinell hardness and HV microhardness measurements of structural components.

  4. Microstructure of laser floating zone (LFZ) textured (Bi,Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductor composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuente, G.F. de la; Ruiz, M.T.; Sotelo, A.; Larrea, A.; Navarro, R.

    1993-01-01

    Directionally solidified high temperature superconducting (Bi,Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O pure ceramics and composites were obtained using a laser floating zone (LFZ) apparatus. The presence of secondary non-superconducting and metallic phases as well as their solidification habit have been analysed. The influence of the LFZ growth conditions and the precursor composition on the microstructure of the final products was studied using optical and electron microscopies. (orig.)

  5. Mechanical properties of thermomechanical treated hyper-eutectic Al-Si-(Fe, Mn, Cu) materials

    OpenAIRE

    Umezawa, Osamu

    2005-01-01

    Tensile and high-cycle fatigue behavior of thermomechanical treated hyper-eutectic Al-Si-(Fe, Mn, Cu) materials were studied. Through the repeated thermomechanical treatment (RTMT) which is a repeat of the multi steps cold-working followed by heat treatment, Si crystals and/or intermetallic compounds were broken into some fragments and dispersed in the aluminum matrix. Fine dispersion of the second phase particles exhibited good ductility, since early fracture was overcome. A few large Si cry...

  6. Joining of Cu-Mg-Mn Aluminum Alloy with Linear Friction Welding

    OpenAIRE

    A. Medvedev; V. Bychkov; A. Selivanov; Yu. J. Ershova; B. Bolshakov; I.V. Alexаndrov; F. F. Musin

    2014-01-01

    Al-Cu-Mg-Mn alloy samples were joined together with linear friction welding in two conditions, as is, without pretreatment, and after etching the welding interface. The effect of the welding interface condition was evaluated based on microstructure analysis, microhardness and tensile testing at room temperature. Also, the temperature distribution during welding was estimated with an analytical one-dimensional heat conduction model of the welding process and welding process data

  7. Pb, Cu and Cd distribution in five estuary systems of Marche, central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annibaldi, Anna; Illuminati, Silvia; Truzzi, Cristina; Libani, Giulia; Scarponi, Giuseppe

    2015-07-15

    Heavy metals are subjected to monitoring in estuarine and marine water by the European Union Water Framework Directive, which requires water body health to be achieved by 2021. This is the first survey of heavy metals content in five estuaries of Marche, a region in central Italy. Results showed that total Pb and Cu concentrations decreased by 70-80%, from 1000-2000 to 100-200 ng L(-1) (Pb) and from 2000-3000 to 500-1000 ng L(-1) (Cu) from river to sea. Cd was consistently 20-40 ng L(-1). Dissolved Pb and Cu concentrations declined by 50% and 70% respectively passing from oligohaline to euhaline water, from 150 to 70 ng L(-1) and from 2000-1000 to 600-400 ng L(-1). Cd decreased slightly from ∼20 to ∼10 ng L(-1). Although such concentrations are in the range allowed by the Water Framework Directive, they far exceed (up to 10×) the ground content ceiling set for 2021. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Contamination and Health Risks from Heavy Metals (Cd and Pb and Trace Elements (Cu and Zn in Dairy Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Ghafari

    2017-08-01

    Conclusion: Considering the serious contamination of some brands of butter and cheese by Cu and Pb, a control of heavy metals and trace elements levels during the whole production processing of dairy products must be applied.

  9. Role of microbial inoculation and chitosan in phytoextraction of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd by Elsholtzia splendens - a field case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Fayuan [Agricultural College, Henan University of Science and Technology, 70 Tianjin Road, Luoyang, Henan Province 471003 (China) and Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210008 (China)]. E-mail: wfy1975@163.com; Lin Xiangui [Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210008 (China); Yin Rui [Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210008 (China)

    2007-05-15

    A field experiment was carried out to study the effect of microbial inoculation on heavy metal phytoextraction by Elsholtzia splendens and whether chitosan could have a synergistic effect with the microbial inocula. The microbial inocula consisted of a consortium of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and two Penicillium fungi. Three treatments were included: the control, inoculation with microbial inocula, and the inoculation combined with chitosan. Microbial inoculation increased plant biomass especially shoot dry weight, enhanced shoot Cu, Zn and Pb concentrations but did not affect Cd, leading to higher shoot Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd uptake. Compared with microbial inoculation alone, chitosan application did not affect plant growth but increased shoot Zn, Pb and Cd concentrations except Cu, which led to higher phytoextraction efficiencies and partitioning to shoots of Zn, Pb and Cd. These results indicated synergistic effects between microbial inocula and chitosan on Zn, Pb and Cd phytoextraction. - Co-application of microbial inocula and chitosan enhanced heavy metal phytoextraction by E. splendens.

  10. Role of microbial inoculation and chitosan in phytoextraction of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd by Elsholtzia splendens - a field case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fayuan; Lin Xiangui; Yin Rui

    2007-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out to study the effect of microbial inoculation on heavy metal phytoextraction by Elsholtzia splendens and whether chitosan could have a synergistic effect with the microbial inocula. The microbial inocula consisted of a consortium of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and two Penicillium fungi. Three treatments were included: the control, inoculation with microbial inocula, and the inoculation combined with chitosan. Microbial inoculation increased plant biomass especially shoot dry weight, enhanced shoot Cu, Zn and Pb concentrations but did not affect Cd, leading to higher shoot Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd uptake. Compared with microbial inoculation alone, chitosan application did not affect plant growth but increased shoot Zn, Pb and Cd concentrations except Cu, which led to higher phytoextraction efficiencies and partitioning to shoots of Zn, Pb and Cd. These results indicated synergistic effects between microbial inocula and chitosan on Zn, Pb and Cd phytoextraction. - Co-application of microbial inocula and chitosan enhanced heavy metal phytoextraction by E. splendens

  11. A high performance quasi-solid-state supercapacitor based on CuMnO2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Arif, Muhammad; Duan, Guorong; Chen, Shenming; Liu, Xiaoheng

    2017-07-01

    Mixed metal or transition metal oxides hold an unveiled potential as one of the most promising energy storage material because of their excellent stability, reliable conductivity, and convenient use. In this work, CuMnO2 nanoparticles are successfully prepared by a facile hydrothermal process with the help of dispersing agent cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). CuMnO2 nanoparticles possess a uniform quadrilateral shape, small size (approximately 25 × 25 nm-35 × 35 nm), excellent dispersity, and large specific surface specific (56.9 m2 g-1) with an interparticle mesoporous structure. All these characteristics can bring benefit for their application in supercapacitor. A quasi-solid-state symmetric supercapacitor device is assembled by using CuMnO2 nanoparticles as both positive electrode and negative electrode. The device exhibits good supercapacitive performance with a high specific capacitance (272 F g-1), a maximum power density of 7.56 kW kg-1 and a superior cycling stability of 18,000 continuous cycles, indicating an excellent potential to be used in energy storage device.

  12. TRACE METAL CONTENT (Cu, Zn, Mn AND Fe) IN URTICA DIOICA L. AND PLANTAGO MAJOR L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krolak, Elzbieta; Raczuk, Jolanta; Borkowska, Lidia

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the contents of Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe in the washed and unwashed leaves and roots of two plant species: Urica dioica L. and Plantago major L., used in herbal medicine. These two herb species occur in the same environmental habitats, yet their morphological structure is different. The soil and plant samples for analyses were collected from an uncontaminated area in Eastern Poland. In each habitat location, the samples were taken from sandy soils with slightly acidic and neutral pH values. The obtained results showed that U. dioica and P. major accumulated similar amounts of trace metals, such as: Cu, Zn and Fe, in leaves, despite the differences in the morphological structure of their overground parts. The content of Mn in leaves U. dioica was about twice as much as in P. major. Also, no differences in the metal content were observed between washed and unwashed leaves of both species. However, in the same habitat conditions, a significantly higher content of Cu, Zn and Mn was found in the roots of P. major than U. dioica. The content of Fe in the roots was similar in both species. P. major and U. dioica may be a valuable source of microelements, if they are obtained from unpolluted habitats.

  13. Effect of alloying elements on solidification of primary austenite in Ni-Mn-Cu cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Janus

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Within the research, determined were direction and intensity of alloying elements influence on solidification way (directional orvolumetric of primary austenite dendrites in hypoeutectic austenitic cast iron Ni-Mn-Cu. 50 cast shafts dia. 20 mm were analysed.Chemical composition of the alloy was as follows: 1.7 to 3.3 % C, 1.4 to 3.1 % Si, 2.8 to 9.9 % Ni, 0.4 to 7.7 % Mn, 0 to 4.6 % Cu, 0.14 to0.16 % P and 0.03 to 0.04 % S. The discriminant analysis revealed that carbon influences solidification of primary austenite dendrites most intensively. It clearly increases the tendency to volumetric solidification. Influence of the other elements is much weaker. This means that the solidification way of primary austenite dendrites in hypoeutectic austenitic cast iron Ni-Mn-Cu does not differ from that in an unalloyed cast iron.

  14. Electronic structure and x-ray spectroscopy of Cu2MnAl1-xGax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, D. P.; Ekuma, C. E.; Boochani, A.; Solaymani, S.; Thapa, R. K.

    2018-04-01

    We explore the electronic and related properties of Cu2MnAl1-xGax with a first-principles, relativistic multiscattering Green function approach. We discuss our results in relation to existing experimental data and show that the electron-core hole interaction is essential for the description of the optical spectra especially in describing the X-ray absorption and magnetic circular dichroism spectra at the L2,3 edges of Cu and Mn.

  15. Effect of tellurium on machinability and mechanical property of CuAlMnZn shape memory alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Na; Li Zhou; Xu Genying; Feng Ze; Gong Shu; Zhu Lilong; Liang Shuquan

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A novel free-machining Cu-7.5Al-9.7Mn-3.4Zn-0.3Te (wt.%) shape memory alloy has been developed. → The size of dispersed particles with richer Te is 2-5 μm. → The CuAlMnZnTe alloy has good machinability which approached that of BZn15-24-1.5 due to the addition of Te. → Its shape memory property keeps the same as that of CuAlMnZn alloy with free Te. → The CuAlMnZn shape memory alloy with and without Te both have good ductile as annealed at 700 deg. C for 15 min. - Abstract: The microstructure transition, shape memory effect, machinability and mechanical property of the CuAlMnZn alloy with and without Te have been studied using X-ray diffraction analysis, chips observation and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), tensile strength test and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), and semi-quantitative shape memory effect (SME) test. The particles with richer Te dispersedly distributed in grain interior and boundary with size of 2-5 μm. After the addition of Te, the CuAlMnZnTe alloy machinability has been effectively increased to approach that of BZn15-24-1.5 and its shape memory property remains the same as the one of CuAlMnZn alloy. The CuAlMnZn shape memory alloys with and without Te both have good ductility as annealed at 700 deg. C for 15 min.

  16. Adsorption characteristics of Pb(II) and Cu(II) ions by domestic clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Ee Yol; Noh, Hea Ran

    1990-01-01

    This investigation was carried out to study the adsorption characteristics of Pb(II) and Cu(II) ions in aqueous solution by using clays of Gampo 35, Bentonite (chulwon) and Mangwoon 95 which were dug in the country. As the results, the adsorption of metal ions clays were reached equilibrium by shaking for about 40-60 minutes. In acidic solution, the adsorptivity of clays was increased as pH increased, however, Gampo 35 showed the high adsorptivity over 90% even at pH2-3. Pb(II) ion showed better removal efficiency than Cu(II) ion. The adsorptivities of adsorbents showed following order: Gampo 35>Bentonite> Mangwoon 95. The adsorption isotherms of Pb(II) ion on clays were well fitted in Freundlich's equation. Freundlich constantstion isotherms of Pb(II) ion on clays were well fitted in Freundlich's equation. Freundlich constants (1/n) of Gampo 35, Bentonite and Mangwoon 95 were 0.195, 0.271 and 0.314, respectively.(Author)

  17. Bioremediation of Zn, Cu, Mg and Pb in Fresh Domestic Sewage by Brevibacterium sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojoawo, S. O.; Rao, C. V.; Goveas, L. C.

    2016-01-01

    The study applied an isolated Brevibacterium sp. (MTCC 10313) for bioremediation of Zn, Cu, Mg and Pb in domestic sewage. Batch culture experiments were performed on both the fresh and stale sewage samples with glucose supplementation of 1-8g/l. Nutrient broth medium was prepared, sterilized and p H adjusted to 6.5-6.8. 1% of the Brevibacteria sp. stock was inoculated into the broth and maintained at 370C for 24 hours in shaker incubator at 120 rpm. Another 1% of fresh grown sub-culture of broth was inoculated into supplemented and sterilized samples. Optical Density was taken at 600nm, growth monitored over 12 days, cultured samples denatured with TCA and centrifuged, supernatants filtered and analyzed with AAS, Settled pellets oven dried, subjected to SEM analysis for morphology and constituents determination. Fresh sewage samples permitted bacterial growth and facilitated bioremediation of Zn, Cu and Mg through metal uptake and bioabsoption by Brevibacteria sp. This effectively reduced concentration of heavy metals, with treatment efficiency order Cu>Zn>Mg, and respective removal percentages of 77, 63 and 55. The optimum glucose concentration for effective bioremediation found as 2g/l for Zn and Cu, and 8g/l for Mg. Pb was resistant to bioremediation with Brevibacteria sp. Stale sewage produced inhibitory substances preventing adequate growth of bacterium with no bioremediation. Bioremediation with Brevibacteria sp. is found effective in removal of micro-units of Zn, Cu and Mg from domestic sewage. As a readily available low-cost agent, it is recommended for large- scale application on those metals while Pb should be further subjected to advanced treatments.

  18. Thermodynamic properties of Al-Mn, Al-Cu, and Al-Fe-Cu melts and their relations to liquid and quasicrystal structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaitsev, A I; Zaitseva, N E; Shimko, R Yu; Arutyunyan, N A; Dunaev, S F; Kraposhin, V S; Lam, Ha Thanh

    2008-01-01

    Thermodynamic properties of molten Al-Mn, Al-Cu and Al-Fe-Cu alloys in a wide temperature range of 1123-1878 K and the whole range of concentrations have been studied using the integral effusion method and Knudsen mass spectrometry. Thermodynamic functions of melts were described by the associated solution model. The possibility of icosahedral quasicrystal (i-QC) precipitation from liquid Al-Mn and Al-Cu-Fe alloys was found to be a consequence of the existence in liquid associates (clusters). A geometric model is suggested for the structure of associates in liquid

  19. Electronic configuration of the c(2 x 2)MnCu two-dimensional alloy in layered structures supported on Cu(100)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallego, S; Munoz, M C; Huttel, Y; Avila, J; Asensio, M C

    2003-01-01

    The c(2 x 2)MnCu surface alloy on Cu(100) can be considered as a purely two-dimensional magnetic system where the Mn atoms exhibit a large corrugation closely related to their high spin moment. In this paper we investigate the influence of the atomic environment on the electronic and magnetic properties of the two-dimensional alloyed layer, extending our study to the less known multilayered system made of MnCu two-dimensional alloy layers embedded in a Cu crystal. The analysis is based on angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy measurements and calculations using the Green function matching method, which allows us to treat exactly the projection of the three-dimensional lattice on the c(2 x 2) plane. A complete study of the valence band is performed along the two-dimensional Brillouin zone in a wide energy range. We show that the presence of Mn results in an important redistribution of the spin-polarized electronic states of the neighbouring Cu atoms. This redistribution is not accompanied by a net charge transfer between different atoms, and also the spin moment of Cu remains small. Most of the new features induced by Mn in the surface alloy are also present in the multilayered system, evidencing that they are specific to the two-dimensional alloyed layer and not surface effects

  20. Antifriction coating of Cu-Fe-Al-Pb system for plain bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotenkov, Pavel; Kontsevoi, Yurii; Mejlakh, Anna; Pastukhov, Eduard; Shubin, Alexey; Goyda, Eduard; Sipatov, Ivan

    2017-09-01

    Aluminium, copper and their compounds are used in common as basis for antifriction coatings of plain bearings. Antifriction testing of plain bearings (based on Al and Cu) made by leading automotive manufacturers from Germany, Japan, USA, United Kingdom and Russia were carried out to make judicious selection of basis for development of new antifriction material. Testing was carried out using friction machine. It was defined that materials based on Cu provide better durability and robustness of plain bearings in comparison with Al based ones. The new antifriction composite coatings based on copper were developed taking into account the requirements specified for plain bearings of internal-combustion engine. Pilot samples of plain bearings with antifriction coatings of Cu-Fe-Al-Pb system were produced. The antifriction composite having Cu-5Fe-5Al5Fe2-10Pb (mass %) composition has demonstrated low friction factor and high wear-resistance. Metallographic analysis of pilot samples was carried out by means of optical and scanning electron microscopy.

  1. Ion bombardment induced topography evolution on low index crystal surfaces of Cu and Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanovic, L.; Tanovic, N.; Carter, G.; Nobes, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    (100), (110) and (111) oriented single crystal surfaces of Cu and Pb have been bombarded with inert gas ions, self ions, ions of the other substrate species and Bi in the energy range 50-150 keV and in the fluence range 10 15 -10 18 ions.cm 2 . The evolving surface topography was observed by scanning electron microscopy. This topography was observed to be strongly influenced by ion species and surface orientation but the habit of the topography was delineated at low fluences and the features increased in size and density with increasing fluence with some mutation to the more stable of the features. As an example Bi and Pb bombardment of (100) Cu leads to little topographic evolution, (110) Cu develops a system of parallel ridges with (100) facets and (111) Cu develops a prismatic surface, each prism possessing (100) facets. These, and the more general, results cannot be explained by surface erosion by sputtering theory alone (this predicts surface stability of the lowest sputtering yield orientation (110), nor by surface free energy density minimisation criteria (this predicts stability of (111) surfaces). It is proposed that the observed topography is most strongly related to the crystallographic form of precipitates of implanted species. (orig.)

  2. Simultaneous preconcentration of Cu, Fe and Pb as methylthymol blue complexes on naphthalene adsorbent and flame atomic absorption determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourreza, Nahid; Hoveizavi, Reza

    2005-01-01

    A simultaneous preconcentration method was developed for determination of trace amounts of Cu, Fe and Pb by atomic absorption spectrometry. The method is based on the retention of their methylthymol blue complexes by naphthalene methyltrioctyl ammonium chloride adsorbent in a column. The adsorbed metal complexes were eluted from the column with nitric acid and Cu, Fe and Pb were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Several parameters such as pH of the sample solution, ligand concentration, volume of the sample and the amount of methyltrioctyl ammonium chloride loaded on naphthalene were evaluated. The effect of diverse ions on the preconcentration was also investigated. A preconcentration factor of up to 100 or more can easily be achieved depending on the volume of the sample taken. The calibration graphs were obtained in the range of 5-40, 10-100 and 10-200 ng ml -1 for Cu, Fe and Pb in the initial solution, respectively, when using 500 ml of the solution. The detection limit based on three standard deviations of the blank was 0.54, 3.1, and 4.5 ng ml -1 for Cu, Fe and Pb, respectively. The relative standard deviations (R.S.D.) of 0.62-1.4% for Cu, 1.9-3.4% for Fe and 1.0-2.2% for Pb were obtained. The method was applied to the determination of Cu, Fe and Pb in river and wastewater samples

  3. Structural, optical, dielectric and magnetic studies of gadolinium-added Mn-Cu nanoferrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanna, R. Rajesh; Lenin, N.; Sakthipandi, K.; Kumar, A. Senthil

    2018-05-01

    Spinel ferrite with the general formula Mn1-xCuxFe1.85Gd0.15O4 (x = 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8) was synthesized using the standard sonochemical method. The structure, optical, morphology, dielectric and magnetic properties of the prepared Mn1-xCuxFe1.85Gd0.15O4 nanoferrites were exhaustively investigated using various characterization techniques. The phase purity, secondary phase and crystallite parameters were studied from X-ray diffraction patterns. Fourier transform infrared spectra showed two absorption bands of transition metal oxides in the frequency range from 400 to 650 cm-1, which are related to asymmetric stretching modes of the spinel ferrites (AB2O4). Raman spectra have five active modes illustrating the vibration of O2- ions at both tetrahedral (A) site and octahedral (B) site ions. The wide and narrow scan spectrum from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results confirmed the presence of Mn, Cu, Gd, Fe, C and O elements in the composition. The oxidation state and core level of the photo electron peaks of Mn 2p, Cu 2p, Gd 3d, Fe 2p and O 1s were analyzed. The influence of the Cu2+ concentration in Mn1-xCuxFe1.85Gd0.15O4 on the morphology, varying from nanorods, nanoflakes to spherical, was explored on the basis of scanning electron microscopy images. Ultraviolet diffuse reflectance spectroscopy studies indicated that the optical bandgap (5.12-5.32 eV) of the nanoferrites showed an insulating behavior. The dielectric constant, loss tangent and complex dielectric constant values decreased with an increase in frequency with the addition of Gd3+ content. A vibrating sample magnetometer showed that the prepared nanoferrites had a soft ferromagnetic nature. The magnetic parameter changed markedly with an increase in the Cu content in Mn1-xCuxFe1.85Gd0.15O4 nanoferrites. The optical, dielectric and magnetic properties were considerably enhanced with the addition of Gd3+ ions in the spinel nanoferrites.

  4. Influence of Homogenization on Microstructural Response and Mechanical Property of Al-Cu-Mn Alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Lu, Yalin; Zhou, Dongshuai; Sun, Lingyan; Li, Renxing; Xu, Wenting

    2018-05-29

    The evolution of the microstructures and properties of large direct chill (DC)-cast Al-Cu-Mn alloy ingots during homogenization was investigated. The results revealed that the Al-Cu-Mn alloy ingots had severe microsegregation and the main secondary phase was Al₂Cu, with minimal Al₇Cu₂Fe phase. Numerous primary eutectic phases existed in the grain boundary and the main elements were segregated at the interfaces along the interdendritic region. The grain boundaries became discontinuous, residual phases were effectively dissolved into the matrix, and the segregation degree of all elements was reduced dramatically during homogenization. In addition, the homogenized alloys exhibited improved microstructures with finer grain size, higher number density of dislocation networks, higher density of uniformly distributed θ' or θ phase (Al₂Cu), and higher volume fraction of high-angle grain boundaries compared to the nonhomogenized samples. After the optimal homogenization scheme treated at 535 °C for 10 h, the tensile strength and elongation% were about 24 MPa, 20.5 MPa, and 1.3% higher than those of the specimen without homogenization treatment.

  5. Piezoelectric properties and temperature stability of Mn-doped Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)-PbZrO3-PbTiO3 textured ceramics

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Yongke; Cho, Kyung-Hoon; Priya, Shashank

    2012-01-01

    In this letter, we report the electromechanical properties of textured 0.4Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3) O-3-0.25PbZrO(3)-0.35PbTiO(3) (PMN-PZT) composition which has relatively high rhombohedral to tetragonal (R-T) transition temperature (TR-T of 160 degrees C) and Curie temperature (T-C of 234 degrees C) and explore the effect of Mn-doping on this composition. It was found that MnO2-doped textured PMN-PZT ceramics with 5 vol.% BaTiO3 template (T-5BT) exhibited inferior temperature stability. The coupling f...

  6. Assessment of Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni and Cr in vegetables grown around Zanjan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Afshari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted aimed to assess the potential risk of heavy metals on human health resulting from consumption of vegetables. To this end, the vegetables grown around town and industrial center of Zanjan were sampled randomly. Plant samples were digested using hydrochloric acid (HCL 2 M and concentration of elements (Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni and Cr were recorded by atomic absorption. Obtained means of heavy metals in all vegetables (N= 32 for Zn, Pb, Cu, Ni and Cr is 98.8, 31.9, 19.3, 4.4 and 2.3 mg/kg, respectively. The highest amount of metal pollution index (MPI in the basil and the lowest was observed in the garden cress (respectively 16.46 and 4.88. Daily intake (EDI for zinc, copper and chromium in all age groups was lower than the provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI. This amount for nickel was 2, 1.6 and 1.3 %, and for Pb 28.1, 22 and 19 % higher than PTDI in children, adults and seniors, respectively. The potential risk (THQ was calculated in all age groups as Pb>>Cu>Zn>Ni>Cr. The potential risks (THQ of chromium, nickel and zinc were calculated lower than 1, for copper a bit more of 1 and for lead much higher than 1. Health index (HI for children, adults and the elderly was estimated 31.331, 24.58 and 21.14, respectively, with the largest contribution of the lead (89.7%.

  7. The evaluation of Cu, Zn, Mn, and Se concentrations in the hair of South American camelids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milada Holasová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to monitor the content of trace elements in the hair of South American camelids and to evaluate the effect of coat colour, species, age, and sex on their concentration in the hair. The samples were collected from 77 animals – 23 llamas (Llama guanicoe f. gllama and 54 alpacas (Llama guanicoe f. pacos during a spring health check. The concentrations of copper (Cu, zinc (Zn, and manganese (Mn were determined by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry and selenium (Se by Hydride Generation Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. We found the following concentrations (mean ± standard deviation; mg/kg dry matter in the llama hair: Cu 9.70 ± 4.69; Zn 145.20 ± 21.07; Mn 12.49 ± 10.14; Se 0.25 ± 0.14. In alpaca hair we found the following concentrations: Cu 10.22 ± 2.90; Zn 129.81 ± 19.01; Mn 12.67 ± 13.85; Se 0.48 ± 0.24. We found a significant difference between llamas and alpacas in Zn and Se concentrations in the hair. From all the evaluated factors we found that coat colour had the highest effect on Mn and Se concentration. Dark haired animals had significantly higher concentrations of these trace elements than other coloured groups. The evaluation of the concentration of trace elements in the hair of llamas has a potential to be used for the evaluation of long-term status of trace elements in the body; however, it is necessary to continue with experimental work in this area. Our findings can serve as a pilot study for further works in this field.

  8. The effect of Cu addition and milling contaminations on the microstructure evolution of ball milled Al-Pb alloy during sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, M.; Ouyang, L.Z.; Wu, Z.F.; Zeng, M.Q.; Li, Y.Y.; Zou, J.

    2006-01-01

    Al-10 wt.%Pb and Al-10 wt.%Pb-x wt.%Cu (x = 0-7.0) bulk alloys were prepared by sintering the mechanically alloyed powders at various temperatures. The microstructure changes of the as consolidated powders in the course of sintering were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis and transmission electron microscopy. It has been found that, with respect to the Al-10 wt.%Pb-x wt.%Cu alloy, CuAl 2 and Cu 9 Al 4 phases formed in the milling process, and the amount of CuAl 2 phase increased while the Cu 9 Al 4 phase disappeared gradually in the sintering process. In both Al-10 wt.%Pb and Al-10 wt.%Pb-x wt.%Cu alloys, the sintering process results in the coarsening of Pb phase and the growth rate of Pb phase fulfills the Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner equation even though the size of the Pb phase was in nanometer range. The Pb particle exhibits cuboctahedral morphology and has a cubic to cubic orientation relationship with the Al matrix. The addition of Cu strongly depressed the growth rate of Pb. Contamination induced by milling has apparent influence on the microstructure of the sintered alloys. Al 7 Cu 2 Fe and aluminium oxide phases were identified in the sintered alloys. The cuboctahedral morphology of Pb particles was broken up by the presence of the oxide phase

  9. Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy and Small Angle Neutron Scattering Characterization of Nanostructural Features in Irradiated Fe-Cu-Mn Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirth, B D; Asoka-Kumar, P; Howell, R H; Odette, G R; Sterne, P A

    2001-01-01

    Radiation embrittlement of nuclear reactor pressure vessel steels results from a high number density of nanometer sized Cu-Mn-Ni rich precipitates (CRPs) and sub-nanometer matrix features, thought to be vacancy-solute cluster complexes (VSC). However, questions exist regarding both the composition of the precipitates and the defect character and composition of the matrix features. We present results of positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) and small angle neutron scattering (SANS) characterization of irradiated and thermally aged Fe-Cu and Fe-Cu-Mn alloys. These complementary techniques provide insight into the composition and character of both types of nanoscale features. The SANS measurements indicate populations of CRPs and VSCs in both alloys. The CRPs are coarser in the Fe-Cu alloy and the number densities of CRP and VSC increase with the addition of Mn. The PAS involved measuring both the positron lifetimes and the Doppler broadened annihilation spectra in the high momentum region to provide elemental sensitivity at the annihilation site. The spectra in Fe-Cu-Mn specimens thermally aged to peak hardness at 450 C and irradiated at 288 C are nearly identical to elemental Cu. Positron lifetime and spectrum measurements in Fe-Cu specimens irradiated at 288 C clearly show the existence of long lifetime (∼500 ps) open volume defects, which also contain Cu. Thus the SANS and PAS provide a self-consistent picture of nanostructures composed of CRPs and VSCs and tend to discount high Fe concentrations in the CRPs

  10. Soldering-induced Cu diffusion and intermetallic compound formation between Ni/Cu under bump metallization and SnPb flip-chip solder bumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Sheng; Jang, Guh-Yaw; Duh, Jenq-Gong

    2004-04-01

    Nickel-based under bump metallization (UBM) has been widely used as a diffusion barrier to prevent the rapid reaction between the Cu conductor and Sn-based solders. In this study, joints with and without solder after heat treatments were employed to evaluate the diffusion behavior of Cu in the 63Sn-37Pb/Ni/Cu/Ti/Si3N4/Si multilayer structure. The atomic flux of Cu diffused through Ni was evaluated from the concentration profiles of Cu in solder joints. During reflow, the atomic flux of Cu was on the order of 1015-1016 atoms/cm2s. However, in the assembly without solder, no Cu was detected on the surface of Ni even after ten cycles of reflow. The diffusion behavior of Cu during heat treatments was studied, and the soldering-process-induced Cu diffusion through Ni metallization was characterized. In addition, the effect of Cu content in the solder near the solder/intermetallic compound (IMC) interface on interfacial reactions between the solder and the Ni/Cu UBM was also discussed. It is evident that the (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 IMC might form as the concentration of Cu in the Sn-Cu-Ni alloy exceeds 0.6 wt.%.

  11. Soil Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn sorption and retention models using SVM: Variable selection and competitive model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Costa, J J; Reigosa, M J; Matías, J M; Covelo, E F

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to model the sorption and retention of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in soils. To that extent, the sorption and retention of these metals were studied and the soil characterization was performed separately. Multiple stepwise regression was used to produce multivariate models with linear techniques and with support vector machines, all of which included 15 explanatory variables characterizing soils. When the R-squared values are represented, two different groups are noticed. Cr, Cu and Pb sorption and retention show a higher R-squared; the most explanatory variables being humified organic matter, Al oxides and, in some cases, cation-exchange capacity (CEC). The other group of metals (Cd, Ni and Zn) shows a lower R-squared, and clays are the most explanatory variables, including a percentage of vermiculite and slime. In some cases, quartz, plagioclase or hematite percentages also show some explanatory capacity. Support Vector Machine (SVM) regression shows that the different models are not as regular as in multiple regression in terms of number of variables, the regression for nickel adsorption being the one with the highest number of variables in its optimal model. On the other hand, there are cases where the most explanatory variables are the same for two metals, as it happens with Cd and Cr adsorption. A similar adsorption mechanism is thus postulated. These patterns of the introduction of variables in the model allow us to create explainability sequences. Those which are the most similar to the selectivity sequences obtained by Covelo (2005) are Mn oxides in multiple regression and change capacity in SVM. Among all the variables, the only one that is explanatory for all the metals after applying the maximum parsimony principle is the percentage of sand in the retention process. In the competitive model arising from the aforementioned sequences, the most intense competitiveness for the adsorption and retention of different metals appears between

  12. Contamination assessment of heavy metals in the soils around Khouzestan Steel Company (Ni, Mn, Pb, Fe, Zn, Cr)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hormozi Nejad, F.; Rastmanesh, F.; Zarasvandi, A.

    2016-01-01

    The highest concentrations were found at soil samples 4 and 12. Comparison of heavy metals concentration with unpolluted soil standard indicated that, concentrations of Cr, Zn, Fe, Ni and Pb is higher than that of unpolluted soil standard. In general, Manganese, Chromium, Zinc and Lead are the most important elements that are found in emissions of steel plants. The soil samples near the steel plant and downwind direction have much higher pollution level. The results showed that Mn, Pb and Zn is related to human activity and Cr have geogenic source and Fe and Ni have both geogenic and anthropogenic source in the study area in the city of Ahwaz.

  13. Continuous biosorption of Pb/Cu and Pb/Cd in fixed-bed column using algae Gelidium and granulated agar extraction algal waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, Vítor J P; Loureiro, José M; Botelho, Cidália M S; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2008-06-15

    Continuous metal ions biosorption from Pb/Cu and Pb/Cd solutions onto seaweed Gelidium sesquipedale and a composite material prepared from an industrial algal waste was performed in a packed bed column. A binary Langmuir equation describes well the equilibrium data and indicates a good adsorption capacity. In the sorption process, Cd and Cu break through the column faster than Pb due to its lower affinity for the biosorbent. An overshoot in the outlet Cd concentration was observed and explained by competitive adsorption between Pb and Cd, whereby the higher Pb affinity for the biosorbent displaces bound Cd ions. A small overshoot happens for Cu adsorption in the presence of Pb ions. Desorption using 0.1 M HNO3 as eluant, was 100% effective. A mass transfer model for the adsorption and desorption processes, considering an external and intraparticle film resistance, adequately simulates the column performance. A binary Langmuir equation was used to describe equilibrium for the saturation process and a mass action law for the desorption process. Elution process is defined as an ion exchange mechanism, between protons and metal ions.

  14. Continuous biosorption of Pb/Cu and Pb/Cd in fixed-bed column using algae Gelidium and granulated agar extraction algal waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilar, Vitor J.P. [LSRE-Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)], E-mail: vilar@fe.up.pt; Loureiro, Jose M. [LSRE-Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)], E-mail: loureiro@fe.up.pt; Botelho, Cidalia M.S. [LSRE-Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)], E-mail: cbotelho@fe.up.pt; Boaventura, Rui A.R. [LSRE-Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)], E-mail: bventura@fe.up.pt

    2008-06-15

    Continuous metal ions biosorption from Pb/Cu and Pb/Cd solutions onto seaweed Gelidium sesquipedale and a composite material prepared from an industrial algal waste was performed in a packed bed column. A binary Langmuir equation describes well the equilibrium data and indicates a good adsorption capacity. In the sorption process, Cd and Cu break through the column faster than Pb due to its lower affinity for the biosorbent. An overshoot in the outlet Cd concentration was observed and explained by competitive adsorption between Pb and Cd, whereby the higher Pb affinity for the biosorbent displaces bound Cd ions. A small overshoot happens for Cu adsorption in the presence of Pb ions. Desorption using 0.1 M HNO{sub 3} as eluant, was 100% effective. A mass transfer model for the adsorption and desorption processes, considering an external and intraparticle film resistance, adequately simulates the column performance. A binary Langmuir equation was used to describe equilibrium for the saturation process and a mass action law for the desorption process. Elution process is defined as an ion exchange mechanism, between protons and metal ions.

  15. Continuous biosorption of Pb/Cu and Pb/Cd in fixed-bed column using algae Gelidium and granulated agar extraction algal waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilar, Vitor J.P.; Loureiro, Jose M.; Botelho, Cidalia M.S.; Boaventura, Rui A.R.

    2008-01-01

    Continuous metal ions biosorption from Pb/Cu and Pb/Cd solutions onto seaweed Gelidium sesquipedale and a composite material prepared from an industrial algal waste was performed in a packed bed column. A binary Langmuir equation describes well the equilibrium data and indicates a good adsorption capacity. In the sorption process, Cd and Cu break through the column faster than Pb due to its lower affinity for the biosorbent. An overshoot in the outlet Cd concentration was observed and explained by competitive adsorption between Pb and Cd, whereby the higher Pb affinity for the biosorbent displaces bound Cd ions. A small overshoot happens for Cu adsorption in the presence of Pb ions. Desorption using 0.1 M HNO 3 as eluant, was 100% effective. A mass transfer model for the adsorption and desorption processes, considering an external and intraparticle film resistance, adequately simulates the column performance. A binary Langmuir equation was used to describe equilibrium for the saturation process and a mass action law for the desorption process. Elution process is defined as an ion exchange mechanism, between protons and metal ions

  16. A study on the cementation of Cu, Ni and Co ions with Mn powders in chloride solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Jae-Woo [Daejin University, Pochun-gun(Korea); Ahn, Jong-Gwan [Korea Univ., Seoul(Korea); Park, Kyung-Ho [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-06-30

    A study on the cementation for the recovery of Cu, Ni and Co with Mn metallic powders in leaching solution from the manganese nodule that have removed Fe ions was studied. The results showed that the recovery efficiencies of metal ions with Mn powders increased when the temperature, pH and the concentration of chloride ions were increased in mixed solution. And the recovery efficiencies of Cu was 98% and not changed with the addition amounts of Mn powders but, in case of Co and Ni, the recovery efficiencies were increased with the addition amounts. The particle size of precipitate was about 5 {mu}m. From the results of experiment we proposed the two-step cementation process for the recovery of Cu, Ni and Co with Mn powders. (author). 9 refs., 4 tabs., 14 figs.

  17. Investigations of small-gap semiconductors: HgTe, HgMnTe and PbMnTe in the far infrared region using Fourierspectroscopic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roschger, I.

    1985-05-01

    A special method was developed in the framework of this thesis to solve the inherent problem of dynamic range in Fourier spectrometry by using optical compensation. The so-called dual beam spectrometer consists of two coupled interferometers. This technique was adapted for measurements on small gap semiconductors. The investigated sample was n-HgTe, for which a resonant acceptor absorption in the conduction band was predicted. By alloying Mn-ions into the inverted gap-HgTe-crystal the band gap can be tuned to an open gap band structure. The mixed crystal exhibits additional structures in the phonon spectrum. The model of Barker and Verleur (including clustering) was applied. The substitution of Mn-ions in the IV-VI-compound PbTe leads to semimagnetic effects resolved by magneto-reflectivity measurements. The extrapolation in the fan-charts to zero-magnetic field suggests residual spin splitting either in the conduction and/or in the valence band. To evaluate the data an oscillator fit was applied to cyclotron absorption (Faraday- and Voigt-configuration) and was proved to be in agreement with the experimental data. Zero field splitting appears in PbMnTe in the valence band and indicates a weak ferromagnetism already observed in other measurements cited in the literature. Kramers-Kronig-data were in agreement with the theoretical results of the Barker-Verleur-model. The influence of clustering in the mixed crystal HgMnTe on the phonon spectra must be taken into account for Mn concentrations > 20%. The existence of the resonance acceptor state in HgTe was proved by optical transmission measurements. (Author, shortened by G.Q.)

  18. Effect of iron promoter on structure and performance of CuMnZnO catalyst for higher alcohols synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Mingyue [Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy and Natural Gas Hydrate, Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou Guangdong 510640 (China); Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou Guangdong 510640 (China); Qiu, Minghuang [Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy and Natural Gas Hydrate, Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou Guangdong 510640 (China); Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou Guangdong 510640 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang, Tiejun [Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy and Natural Gas Hydrate, Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou Guangdong 510640 (China); Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou Guangdong 510640 (China); Ma, Longlong; Wu, Chuangzhi [Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy and Natural Gas Hydrate, Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou Guangdong 510640 (China); Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou Guangdong 510640 (China); Liu, Jianguo [Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy and Natural Gas Hydrate, Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou Guangdong 510640 (China); Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou Guangdong 510640 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Incorporation of iron promotes the dispersion of catalyst particles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adding iron facilitates the separation of CuO from the Cu-Mn solid solution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both the copper and iron carbides are well dispersed in higher iron amount. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The selectivity to C{sub 2}{sup +}OH is promoted by increasing iron concentration. -- Abstract: Effect of iron promoter on the microstructures of CuMnZnO catalysts was investigated by N{sub 2} physical adsorption (BET), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and temperature-programmed reduction of hydrogen (H{sub 2}-TPR). Higher alcohols synthesis (HAS) was performed in a fixed bed reactor. The characterization results indicated that incorporation of iron in the CuMnZnO catalyst resulted in the increase of BET surface area and the dispersion of catalyst particles. Adding iron facilitated the formation of Fe-Mn solid solution and reduced the interaction between copper and manganese, which promoted the separation of CuO from the Cu-Mn solid solution and the reduction of the catalyst. In the HAS reaction, the catalytic activity of CO hydrogenation and the selectivity to C{sub 2}{sup +}OH and hydrocarbons presented an increasing trend with the increase in iron concentration, which may be attributed to the synergistic effect between the dispersed copper and iron carbides.

  19. Effect of dissolved organic matter (DOM) of contrasting origins on Cu and Pb speciation and toxicity to Paracentrotus lividus larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Marín, Paula; Santos-Echeandía, Juan; Nieto-Cid, Mar; Alvarez-Salgado, Xosé Antón; Beiras, Ricardo

    2010-01-31

    Water samples of contrasting origin, including natural seawater, two sediment elutriates and sewage-influenced seawater, were collected and obtained to examine the effect of the dissolved organic matter (DOM) present on metal bioavailability. The carbon content (DOC) and the optical properties (absorbance and fluorescence) of the coloured DOM fraction (CDOM) of these materials were determined. Cu and Pb complexation properties were measured by anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) and the effect of DOM on Cu and Pb bioavailability was studied by means of the Paracentrotus lividus embryo-larval bioassay. Sediment elutriates and sewage-influenced water (1) were enriched 1.4-1.7 times in DOC; (2) absorbed and reemitted more light; and (3) presented higher Cu complexation capacities (L(Cu)) than the natural seawater used for their preparation. L(Cu) varied from 0.08 microM in natural seawater to 0.3 and 0.5 microM in sediment elutriates and sewage-influenced water, respectively. Differences in DOC, CDOM and Cu complexation capacities were reflected in Cu toxicity. DOM enriched samples presented a Cu EC(50) of 0.64 microM, significantly higher than the Cu EC(50) of natural and artificial seawater, which was 0.38 microM. The protecting effect of DOM on Cu toxicity greatly disappeared when the samples were irradiated with high intensity UV-light. Cu toxicity could be successfully predicted considering ASV-labile Cu concentrations in the samples. Pb complexation by DOM was only detected in the DOM-enriched samples and caused little effect on Pb EC(50). This effect was contrary for both elutriates: one elutriate reduced Pb toxicity in comparison with the control artificial seawater, while the other increased it. UV irradiation of the samples caused a marked increase in Pb toxicity, which correlated with the remaining DOC concentration. DOM parameters were related to Cu speciation and toxicity: good correlations were found between DOC and Cu EC(50), while L(Cu) correlated

  20. Effect of dissolved organic matter (DOM) of contrasting origins on Cu and Pb speciation and toxicity to Paracentrotus lividus larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Marin, Paula; Santos-Echeandia, Juan; Nieto-Cid, Mar; Alvarez-Salgado, Xose Anton; Beiras, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Water samples of contrasting origin, including natural seawater, two sediment elutriates and sewage-influenced seawater, were collected and obtained to examine the effect of the dissolved organic matter (DOM) present on metal bioavailability. The carbon content (DOC) and the optical properties (absorbance and fluorescence) of the coloured DOM fraction (CDOM) of these materials were determined. Cu and Pb complexation properties were measured by anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) and the effect of DOM on Cu and Pb bioavailability was studied by means of the Paracentrotus lividus embryo-larval bioassay. Sediment elutriates and sewage-influenced water (1) were enriched 1.4-1.7 times in DOC; (2) absorbed and reemitted more light; and (3) presented higher Cu complexation capacities (L Cu ) than the natural seawater used for their preparation. L Cu varied from 0.08 μM in natural seawater to 0.3 and 0.5 μM in sediment elutriates and sewage-influenced water, respectively. Differences in DOC, CDOM and Cu complexation capacities were reflected in Cu toxicity. DOM enriched samples presented a Cu EC 50 of 0.64 μM, significantly higher than the Cu EC 50 of natural and artificial seawater, which was 0.38 μM. The protecting effect of DOM on Cu toxicity greatly disappeared when the samples were irradiated with high intensity UV-light. Cu toxicity could be successfully predicted considering ASV-labile Cu concentrations in the samples. Pb complexation by DOM was only detected in the DOM-enriched samples and caused little effect on Pb EC 50 . This effect was contrary for both elutriates: one elutriate reduced Pb toxicity in comparison with the control artificial seawater, while the other increased it. UV irradiation of the samples caused a marked increase in Pb toxicity, which correlated with the remaining DOC concentration. DOM parameters were related to Cu speciation and toxicity: good correlations were found between DOC and Cu EC 50 , while L Cu correlated better with the

  1. Effect of dissolved organic matter (DOM) of contrasting origins on Cu and Pb speciation and toxicity to Paracentrotus lividus larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Marin, Paula, E-mail: paulasanchez@uvigo.es [Laboratorio de Ecoloxia Marina (LEM), Universidade de Vigo, Campus Universitario, 36310 Vigo, Galicia (Spain); Santos-Echeandia, Juan; Nieto-Cid, Mar; Alvarez-Salgado, Xose Anton [Instituto de Investigacions Marinas, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Eduardo Cabello 6, 36208 Vigo, Galicia (Spain); Beiras, Ricardo [Laboratorio de Ecoloxia Marina (LEM), Universidade de Vigo, Campus Universitario, 36310 Vigo, Galicia (Spain)

    2010-01-31

    Water samples of contrasting origin, including natural seawater, two sediment elutriates and sewage-influenced seawater, were collected and obtained to examine the effect of the dissolved organic matter (DOM) present on metal bioavailability. The carbon content (DOC) and the optical properties (absorbance and fluorescence) of the coloured DOM fraction (CDOM) of these materials were determined. Cu and Pb complexation properties were measured by anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) and the effect of DOM on Cu and Pb bioavailability was studied by means of the Paracentrotus lividus embryo-larval bioassay. Sediment elutriates and sewage-influenced water (1) were enriched 1.4-1.7 times in DOC; (2) absorbed and reemitted more light; and (3) presented higher Cu complexation capacities (L{sub Cu}) than the natural seawater used for their preparation. L{sub Cu} varied from 0.08 {mu}M in natural seawater to 0.3 and 0.5 {mu}M in sediment elutriates and sewage-influenced water, respectively. Differences in DOC, CDOM and Cu complexation capacities were reflected in Cu toxicity. DOM enriched samples presented a Cu EC{sub 50} of 0.64 {mu}M, significantly higher than the Cu EC{sub 50} of natural and artificial seawater, which was 0.38 {mu}M. The protecting effect of DOM on Cu toxicity greatly disappeared when the samples were irradiated with high intensity UV-light. Cu toxicity could be successfully predicted considering ASV-labile Cu concentrations in the samples. Pb complexation by DOM was only detected in the DOM-enriched samples and caused little effect on Pb EC{sub 50}. This effect was contrary for both elutriates: one elutriate reduced Pb toxicity in comparison with the control artificial seawater, while the other increased it. UV irradiation of the samples caused a marked increase in Pb toxicity, which correlated with the remaining DOC concentration. DOM parameters were related to Cu speciation and toxicity: good correlations were found between DOC and Cu EC{sub 50}, while L

  2. Postsynthetic Doping of MnCl2 Molecules into Preformed CsPbBr3 Perovskite Nanocrystals via a Halide Exchange-Driven Cation Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guangguang; Wang, Chunlei; Xu, Shuhong; Zong, Shenfei; Lu, Ju; Wang, Zhuyuan; Lu, Changgui; Cui, Yiping

    2017-08-01

    Unlike widely used postsynthetic halide exchange for CsPbX 3 (X is halide) perovskite nanocrystals (NCs), cation exchange of Pb is of a great challenge due to the rigid nature of the Pb cationic sublattice. Actually, cation exchange has more potential for rendering NCs with peculiar properties. Herein, a novel halide exchange-driven cation exchange (HEDCE) strategy is developed to prepare dually emitting Mn-doped CsPb(Cl/Br) 3 NCs via postsynthetic replacement of partial Pb in preformed perovskite NCs. The basic idea for HEDCE is that the partial cation exchange of Pb by Mn has a large probability to occur as a concomitant result for opening the rigid halide octahedron structure around Pb during halide exchange. Compared to traditional ionic exchange, HEDCE is featured by proceeding of halide exchange and cation exchange at the same time and lattice site. The time and space requirements make only MnCl 2 molecules (rather than mixture of Mn and Cl ions) capable of doping into perovskite NCs. This special molecular doping nature results in a series of unusual phenomenon, including long reaction time, core-shell structured mid states with triple emission bands, and dopant molecules composition-dependent doping process. As-prepared dual-emitting Mn-doped CsPb(Cl/Br) 3 NCs are available for ratiometric temperature sensing. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Synthesis and properties of a new quadruple perovskite: A-site ordered PbMn{sub 3}Mn{sub 4}O{sub 12}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locherer, T.; Dinnebier, R.; Kremer, R.K. [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Heisenbergstr. 1, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Greenblatt, M., E-mail: martha@rutchem.rutgers.edu [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Jansen, M. [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Heisenbergstr. 1, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    PbMn{sub 3}Mn{sub 4}O{sub 12} a quadruple perovskite was prepared by high pressure and high temperature synthesis. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXD) and differential scanning calorimetry reveal a structural phase transition at {approx}380 K. Rietveld refinement of the synchrotron room temperature data indicate rhombohedral symmetry (R-3) with a=6.43675(4) A and {alpha}=109.556(2) Degree-Sign . Similar 423 K PXD data refined in a body centered cubic cell (Im-3) with a=7.4283(9) A. The temperature variation of magnetization, shows a magnetic field dependent antiferromagnetic-like transition at 68 K, and dynamic fluctuations indicative of magnetic frustration. The semiconducting electrical behavior indicates a large decrease in the conductivity near 68 K. The temperature dependence of the real part of the dielectric constant, {epsilon}{sub real} increases dramatically at {approx}68 K, and shows relaxor-type ferroelectric behavior as a function of frequency. The intimate coupling of magnetic, electrical and dielectric properties at 68 K in PbMn{sub 3}Mn{sub 4}O{sub 12} suggests possible multiferroic behavior. - Graphical abstract: Resistance vs. temperature plot showing drastically increasing resistances at temperatures below 68 K (a). Formation of a frequency dependency of the dielectric constant between 68 K and ambient temperature (b). Sharp cusp in the magnetic susceptibility observed at 68 K which is suppressed with increasing magnetic field (c) indicates coupling of magnetic, electric and dielectric effects. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PbMn{sub 3}Mn{sub 4}O{sub 12} a quadruple perovskite was prepared at high pressure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A structural transition is seen at 380 K from space group R-3-to-Im-3. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An antiferromagnetic transition is observed at 68 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is semiconducting with a large decrease in the conductivity near 68 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The temperature dependence

  4. Ag2CuMnO4: A new silver copper oxide with delafossite structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz-Rojas, David; Subias, Gloria; Oro-Sole, Judith; Fraxedas, Jordi; Martinez, Benjamin; Casas-Cabanas, Montse; Canales-Vazquez, Jesus; Gonzalez-Calbet, Jose; Garcia-Gonzalez, Ester; Walton, Richard I.; Casan-Pastor, Nieves

    2006-01-01

    The use of hydrothermal methods has allowed the synthesis of a new silver copper mixed oxide, Ag 2 CuMnO 4 , the first example of a quaternary oxide containing both elements. It crystallizes with the delafossite 3R structure, thus being the first delafossite to contain both Ag and Cu. Synthesis conditions affect the final particle size (30-500nm). Powder X-ray diffraction Rietveld refinement indicates a trigonal structure (R3-bar m) and cell parameters a=2.99991A and c=18.428A, where Cu and Mn are disordered within the octahedral B positions in the plane and linearly coordinated Ag occupies de A position between layers. X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) for copper and manganese, and XPS for silver evidence +2, +4, and +1 oxidation states. The microstructure consists of layered particles that may form large twins showing 5nm nanodomains. Finally, magnetic measurements reveal the existence of ferromagnetic coupling yielding in-plane moments that align antiferromagnetically at lower temperatures. The singularity of the new phase resides on the fact that is an example of a bidimensional arrangement of silver and copper in an oxide that also shows clear bidimensionality in its physical properties. That is of special relevance to the field of high T c superconducting oxides, while the ferromagnetic coupling in a bidimensional system deserves itself special attention

  5. Study on accumulation mechanism of Cu and Pb in moss, Scopelophila cataractae, by micro-XRF imaging and XAFS analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshii, Yuichi; Nakai, Izumi; Hokura, Akiko; Abe, Tomoko; Itouga, Misao; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Terada, Yasuko

    2011-01-01

    Scopelophila cataractae is known as a 'copper moss'. It is known as a peculiar moss which can accumulate high level of metals (Cu, Pb, etc.) in its plant body. This moss is expected as a material to collect metals from water. In this study, gametophyte's leaf of the moss was examined by μ-XRF imaging, and Cu K-edge and Pb L 1 -, L 3 -edge XAFS analyses to reveal the accumulation behavior of Cu and Pb. μ-XRF imaging was carried out utilizing X-ray microbeam at BL37XU, SPring-8 from the undulator source, and at BL-4A, Photon Factory KEK from the bending magnet. The results have revealed that Cu and Pb were accumulated on the cell wall of the leaf, and especially at the stereid cells of midrib. It was found that Cu-XANES spectra of the leaf were similar to that of copper(II) acetate, a reference substance. On the other hand, Pb XANES spectra of the leaf were similar to that of a reference, lead(II) stearate. These results suggested that these metals were bound to oxygen of carboxyl group in the plant. Consequently, it is assumed that Cu and Pb could be bound to acidic sugar which is a component of its cell wall such as pectic acid, polygalacturonic acid and others. Furthermore, to compare with other heavy-metal accumulating moss (Scopelophila ligulata and Sphagnum palustre), their gametophyte's leaves were also examined by μ-XRF imaging. S. ligulata accumulated Pb in its stereid cells of midlib, while S. palustre accumulated Pb in its hyaline cells. (author)

  6. The effect of Fe, Mn, Ni and Pb Load on Soil and its enrichment factor ratios in different soil grain size fractions as an Indicator for soil pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabie, F.H.; Abdel-Sabour, M.F.

    2000-01-01

    An industrial area north of greater Cairo was selected to investigate the impact of intensive industrial activities on soil characteristics and Fe, Mn, Ni and Pb total content. The studied area was divided to six sectors according to its source of irrigation water and/or probability of pollution. Sixteen soil profiles were dug and soil samples were taken, air dried, fractionated to different grain size fractions, then total heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Ni and Pb) were determined using ICP technique. The enrichment factor for each metal for each soil fraction/soil layer was estimated and discussed. The highest EF ratios in the clay fraction was mainly with Pb which indicated the industrial impact on the soil. In case of sand fraction, Mn was the highest always compared to other studied metals. Concerning silt fraction, a varied accumulation of Fe, Mn, and Pb was observed with soil depth and different soil profiles

  7. Effect of Fertilizers and Irrigation on Distribution of Mobile Forms of Mn, Zn and Cu in Typical Chernozems of the Republic of Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah T. Gh.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the study results of mobile forms of Mn, Zn and Cu in irrigated fertilized and unfertilized chernozems typical. Irrigation affects the content and distribution of mobile forms of trace elements, increasing their removal beyond the 150 cm of soil layer. The fertilization increase the migration of Cu until 130 cm, fixed Mn and Zn in 0-60 cm of the irrigated soils. During irrigation constitutes a danger of soil contamination with Mn, Cu and Zn.

  8. Biological diversity of Salix taxa in Cu, Pb and Zn phytoextraction from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mleczek, Mirosław; Rutkowski, Paweł; Goliński, Piotr; Kaczmarek, Zygmunt; Szentner, Kinga; Waliszewska, Bogusława; Stolarski, Mariusz; Szczukowski, Stefan

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the efficiency of copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) phytoextraction by 145 Salix taxa cultivated in an area affected by industrial activity. Survivability and biomass of plants were also analyzed. The highest Cu, Pb and Zn content in shoots was 33.38 ± 2.91 (S. purpurea × viminalis 8), 24.64 ± 1.97 (S. fragilis 1) and 58.99 ± 4.30 (S. eriocephala 7) mg kg -1 dry weight, respectively. In the case of unwashed leaves, the highest content of these metals was 135.06 ± 8.14 (S. purpurea 26), 67.98 ± 5.27 (S. purpurea 45) and 142.56 ± 12.69 (S. alba × triandra 2) mg kg -1 dw, while in washed leaves it was 106.02 ± 11.12 (S. purpurea 45), 55.06 ± 5.75 (S. purpurea 45) and 122.87 ± 12.33 (S. alba × triandra 2) mg kg -1 dw, respectively. The differences between the highest and lowest values for Cu, Pb and Zn were 545%, 20500% and 535% in shoots; 2692%, 2560% and 7500% in unwashed leaves; and 3286%, 2221% and 6950% in washed leaves, respectively. S. acutifolia was able to effectively accumulate all three metals jointly, producing shoots that were well developed in both length and diameter when compared with the other tested willows-an ability that would suggest its high suitability for practical application.

  9. AC losses in (Bi,Pb) 2Sr 2Ca 2Cu 3O x tapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Anna, G.; Indenbom, M. V.; André, M.-O.; Benoit, W.; Grivel, J.-C.; Hensel, B.; Flükiger, R.

    1994-05-01

    A double peak structure is observed in the AC losses of (Bi,Pb) 2Sr 2Ca 2Cu 3O x silver-sheathed tapes using a torsion-pendulum oscillator. The low-temperature peak is associated to the intragrain flux expulsion, while the high-temperature peak results from a macroscopic current path around the whole sample due to a well-coupled fraction of the grains. The flux pinning by the dislocations forming small-angle grain boundaries is suggested to control the transport current.

  10. Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn biogeochemical behaviour and biological transfer processes in the Northwestern Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolas, E.; Marty, J.C.; Miquel, J.C.; Fowler, S.W.

    1999-01-01

    Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn concentrations were determined in planktonic organisms (Salps, copepods), their associated faecal pellets and in particles collected at 200 and 2000 m depth in sediment traps moored in the Ligurian Sea. Al and P were also measured and taken as tracers of lithogenic and biogenic components, respectively. The aim of this work was to determine the fluxes of trace metals in the Ligurian Sea and their variations with depth, and to to assess the biogeochemical behaviour of elements having, for some of them, an anthropogenic origin, by the study of biologically-mediated uptake and removal processes

  11. Characteristics of Heavy Metals Adsorption Cu, Pb and Cd Using Synthetics Zeolite Zsm-5

    OpenAIRE

    Priyadi,; Iskandar,; Suwardi,; Mukti, Rino Rakhmata

    2015-01-01

    It is generally known that zeolite has potential for heavy metal adsorption. The objectives of this study were to synthesize and characterize zeolite ZSM-5 and to figure out the adsorption capacity of zeolite ZSM-5 for heavy metals of Cu2+, Pb2+ and Cd2+. Characterization of zeolite ZSM-5 included some variables i.e. crystal structure (XRD), morphology (SEM), specific surface area and total pore volume (N2 physisorption). Adsorption capacity of zeolite ZSM-5 was analysed using a batch system...

  12. Pb(Zr,Ti)O3-Pb(Mn1/3Nb2/3)O3 piezoelectric thick films by aerosol deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Jungho; Choi, Jong-Jin; Hahn, Byung-Dong; Yoon, Woon-Ha; Lee, Byoung-Kuk; Choi, Joon Hwan; Park, Dong-Soo

    2010-01-01

    Piezoelectric thick films of Pb(Zr,Ti)O 3 -Pb(Mn 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 (PZT-PMnN) with Zr:Ti ratios ranging from 0.45:0.55 to 0.60:0.40 were fabricated on a platinized silicon wafer by aerosol deposition (AD). All the films were deposited with a thickness of 10 μm with high density. By adding PMnN to 57:43 PZT, a dielectric constant as low as ∼660 was achieved while the effective piezoelectric constant was over 140 pC/N. PZT-PMnN with a Zr:Ti ratio of 57:43 thus showed a maximum piezoelectric voltage constant (g 33 ) of 23.8 x 10 -3 Vm/N and is a good candidate for high quality thick films for application to high-energy density or high sensitivity, piezoelectric energy harvesters and sensors.

  13. Fluorescence enhancing under UV-NIR simultaneous-excitation in ZnS:Cu,Mn phosphors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. J. Xie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The fluorescence properties of a long-lasting phosphor, ZnS:Cu,Mn was studied for the first time under simultaneously excitation of both UV and NIR light. Up to 20% fluorescence enhancement of the phosphor was observed. In the present simultaneously-excitation process, broad-band NIR light was absorbed and converted to visible photons via a single-photon upconversion path. We propose that a novel kind of spectral-conversion material with the unique ability to simultaneously convert both UV and NIR photons can be developed and is promising in the application of enhancing the EQE of solar cells.

  14. Physical properties of the tetragonal CuMnAs: A first-principles study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Máca, František; Kudrnovský, Josef; Drchal, Václav; Carva, K.; Baláž, P.; Turek, I.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 96, č. 9 (2017), s. 1-8, č. článku 094406. ISSN 2469-9950 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-37427G Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015042 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : first-principles calculations * defects * CuMnAs * transport properties Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 3.836, year: 2016

  15. Pressure-induced electrical and magnetic property changes in CaCuMn6O12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, W.; Yao, L.D.; Yang, L.X.; Li, F.Y.; Liu, Z.X.; Jin, C.Q.; Yu, R.C.

    2006-01-01

    CaCuMn 6 O 12 was prepared by using a traditional solid-state reaction method. It is a highly correlated electron system with a small gap appearing at E F and cluster glass state at low temperature, whereas temperature dependence of resistivity suggests that it is related to thermally activated nearest-neighbor hopping in paramagnetism state in higher temperature range. The resistivity decreases with increasing pressure until 11 kbar, and then increases with further increasing pressure. The blocking temperature T b goes down under pressure, indicating the suppression of cluster glass state under pressure

  16. Pathways of Pb and Mn observed in a 5-year longitudinal investigation in young children and environmental measures from an urban setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulson, Brian; Mizon, Karen; Taylor, Alan; Korsch, Michael; Davis, J. Michael; Louie, Honway; Wu, Michael; Gomez, Laura; Antin, Luminita

    2014-01-01

    We monitored 108 children ≤5 years on a 6-month basis for up to 5 years in a major urban setting. Samples (n ∼ 7000) included blood, urine, handwipes (interior, and after exterior playing), 6-day duplicate diet, drinking water, interior house and day care dust-fall accumulation using petri dishes, exterior dust-fall accumulation, exterior dust sweepings, paint, soil and urban air. The geometric mean blood Pb (PbB) was 2.1 μg/dL and blood Mn (MnB) was 10.0 μg/L. Following a path modelling approach, mixed model analyses for a fully adjusted model showed the strongest associations for PbB were with interior house dust and soil; for MnB there were no significant associations with any predictors. Predictor variables only explained 9% of the variance for Pb and 0.7% for Mn. Relationships between environmental measures and PbB in children are not straightforward; soil and dust sweepings contribute only about 1/5th of the amounts to PbB found in other studies. - Highlights: • 5-year longitudinal study of young children in urban setting. • Samples analysed for Pb and Mn in blood and environmental samples. • Modified structural equation modelling. • Strongest associations for blood Pb with house dust and soil. • Soil and dust contribute very small amounts to blood Pb. - This study provides useful insights about the environmental pathways leading to Pb and Mn exposure in young children

  17. Studies on Electronic Structure and Magnetic Properties of an Organic Magnet with Metallic Mn2+ and Cu2+ Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jian-Guo; Peng, Guang-Xiong

    2004-11-01

    The electronic structure and the magnetic properties of the non-pure organic ferromagnetic compound MnCu(pbaOH)(H2O)3 with pbaOH = 2-hydroxy-1, 3-propylenebis (oxamato) are studied by using the density-functional theory with local-spin-density approximation. The density of states, total energy, and the spin magnetic moment are calculated. The calculations reveal that the compound MnCu(pbaOH)(H20)3 has a stable metal-ferromagnetic ground state, and the spin magnetic moment per molecule is 2.208 μB, and the spin magnetic moment is mainly from Mn ion and Cu ion. An antiferromagnetic order is expected and the antiferromagnetic exchange interaction of d-electrons of Cu and Mn passes through the antiferromagnetic interaction between the adjacent C, O, and N atoms along the path linking the atoms Cu and Mn. The project supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 10375074 and Hubei Automotive Industries Institute Foundation under Grant No. QY2002-16

  18. Development of half metallicity within mixed magnetic phase of Cu1‑x Co x MnSb alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Abhisek; Neogi, Swarup Kumar; Paul, Atanu; Meneghini, Carlo; Bandyopadhyay, Sudipta; Dasgupta, Indra; Ray, Sugata

    2018-05-01

    Cubic half-Heusler Cu1‑x Co x MnSb () compounds have been investigated both experimentally and theoretically for their magnetic, transport and electronic properties in search of possible half metallic antiferromagnetism. The systems (Cu,Co)MnSb are of particular interest as the end member alloys CuMnSb and CoMnSb are semi metallic (SM) antiferromagnetic (AFM) and half metallic (HM) ferromagnetic (FM), respectively. Clearly, Co-doping at the Cu-site of CuMnSb introduces changes in the carrier concentration at the Fermi level that may lead to half metallic ground state but there remains a persistent controversy whether the AFM to FM transition occurs simultaneously. Our experimental results reveal that the AFM to FM magnetic transition occurs through a percolation mechanism where Co-substitution gradually suppresses the AFM phase and forces FM polarization around every dopant cobalt. As a result a mixed magnetic phase is realized within this composition range while a nearly HM band structure is developed already at the 10% Co-doping. Absence of T 2 dependence in the resistivity variation at low T-region serves as an indirect proof of opening up an energy gap at the Fermi surface in one of the spin channels. This is further corroborated by the ab initio electronic structure calculations that suggests that a nearly ferromagnetic half-metallic ground state is stabilized by Sb-p holes produced upon Co doping.

  19. Magnetic properties of CaCu{sub 5}-type RNi{sub 3}TSi (R=Gd and Tb, T=Mn, Fe, Co and Cu) compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozkin, A.V., E-mail: morozkin@tech.chem.msu.ru [Department of Chemistry, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, House 1, Building 3, GSP-2, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Knotko, A.V. [Department of Chemistry, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, House 1, Building 3, GSP-2, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Yapaskurt, V.O. [Department of Petrology, Geological Faculty, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Yao, Jinlei [Research Center for Solid State Physics and Materials, School of Mathematics and Physics, Suzhou University of Science and Technology, Suzhou 215009 (China); Yuan, Fang; Mozharivskyj, Y. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4M1 (Canada); Nirmala, R. [Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Quezado, S.; Malik, S.K. [Departamento de Física Teórica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal 59082-970 (Brazil)

    2015-12-15

    Magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effect of CaCu{sub 5}-type RNi{sub 3}TSi (R=Gd and Tb, T=Mn, Fe, Co and Cu) compounds have been investigated. Magnetic measurements of RNi{sub 3}TSi display the increasing of Curie temperature and the decreasing of magnetocaloric effect and saturated magnetic moment in the row of ‘RNi{sub 3}CuSi–RNi{sub 3}NiSi–RNi{sub 3}CoSi–RNi{sub 3}MnSi–RNi{sub 3}FeSi’. In contrast to GdNi{sub 3}{Mn, Fe, Co}Si, TbNi{sub 3}{Mn, Fe, Co}Si exhibit significant magnetic hysteresis. The coercive field increases from TbNi{sub 4}Si (~0.5 kOe) to TbNi{sub 3}CoSi (4 kOe), TbNi{sub 3}MnSi (13 kOe) and TbNi{sub 3}FeSi (16 kOe) in field of 50 kOe at 5 K, whereas TbNi{sub 3}CuSi exhibits a negligible coercive field. - Graphical abstract: Magnetic measurements of RNi{sub 3}TSi show the increasing of Curie temperature and the decreasing of magnetocaloric effect and saturated magnetic moment in the row of 'RNi{sub 3}CuSi–RNi{sub 3}NiSi–RNi{sub 3}CoSi–RNi{sub 3}MnSi–RNi{sub 3}FeSi'. In contrast to GdNi{sub 3}{Mn, Fe, Co}Si, TbNi{sub 3}{Mn, Fe, Co}Si exhibit significant magnetic hysteresis. The coercive field increases from TbNi{sub 4}Si (~0.5 kOe) to TbNi{sub 3}CoSi (4 kOe), TbNi{sub 3}MnSi (13 kOe) and TbNi{sub 3}FeSi (16 kOe) in field of 50 kOe at 5 K, whereas TbNi{sub 3}CuSi exhibits a negligible coercive field. - Highlights: • CaCu{sub 5}-type RNi{sub 3}TSi show ferromagnetic ordering (R=Gd, Tb, T=Mn–Co, Cu). • Curie point increases in ‘RNi{sub 3}CuSi–RNi{sub 3}NiSi–RNi{sub 3}CoSi–RNi{sub 3}MnSi–RNi{sub 3}FeSi’ row. • MCE decreases in ‘RNi{sub 3}CuSi–RNi{sub 3}NiSi–RNi{sub 3}CoSi–RNi{sub 3}MnSi–RNi{sub 3}FeSi’ row. • TbNi{sub 3}{Mn, Fe, Co}Si exhibit significant magnetic hysteresis. • The coercive field of TbNi{sub 3}MnSi and TbNi{sub 3}FeSi reach 13 kOe and 16 kOe at 5 K.

  20. Local structure in (MnS)2x(CuInS2)1-x alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietnoczka, A.; Bacewicz, R.; Schorr, S.

    2006-01-01

    Local structure around Mn atoms in (MnS) 2x (CuInS 2 ) 1-x alloys for x≤0.09 has been determined using near-edge and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (XANES and EXAFS) measured at the Mn K-edge. We found that for the Mn concentration up to 9 at% Mn atoms substitute preferentially for indium in the chalcopyrite lattice. The Mn-S bond length is 2.43±0.015 Aa, and is about 2% shorter than the In-S bond length. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  1. Fine scale remobilisation of Fe, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu and Cd in contaminated marine sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tankere-Muller, Sophie; Zhang, Hao; Davison, William

    2007-01-01

    to less than 0.3 μM. With both DET and DGT measurements, there were sharply defined maxima of Cu and Cd within 2 mm of the sediment water interface, consistent with their release from organic material as it is oxidised. There was a Co maximum about 5–8 mm lower than the Cu and Cd maxima, apparently...... coincidental with Mn mobilisation. While there were clear Ni maxima, their location appeared to vary from being coincident with Co to a few mm above the Co maxima. The remobilisation of metals could not be explained by the pH gradients in the near-surface sediments. As sulphate reduction rates were appreciable...

  2. Mechanical properties of Fe-Mn-Cu-Al alloy systems and optimization of their composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkachenko, I.F.; Baranov, A.A.

    1981-01-01

    Studied is the separate and combined effect of Cu and Al on mechanical properties of the Fe-Mn-Al-Cu system alloys using a simplex- lattice method of experiment planning. Heat treated specimens in the form of plates have been subjected to mechanical tests. It is shown that mechanical properties of studied alloys change sufficiently in the result of tempering in heterogeneous (α+γ) region. Studied alloys have the most favourable conbination of characteristics of strength, plasticity and impact strength after tempering at 630 deg C during 2 hours. Diagrams are obtained which characterizes dependence of mechanical properties of alloys on their composition. They permit to select optimum compositions of alloys with the necessary combination of strength, plasticity and impact strength [ru

  3. 1D chain formation by coadsorption of Pb and Bi on Cu(001): Determination using low energy electron diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabiruzzaman, Md; Ahmed, Rezwan; Nakagawa, Takeshi; Mizuno, Seigi

    2017-10-01

    Coadsorption of two heavy metals, Pb and Bi, on Cu(001) at room temperature has been studied using low energy electron diffraction (LEED). c(4 × 4), c(2 × 2), and c(9√{ 2}×√{ 2}) phases are obtained at different coverages; here, we have determined the best-fit structure of c(4 × 4) phase. This structure can be described as a 1D substitutional chain arrangement of Pb and Bi atoms between the Cu rows along the [110] direction. The unit cell in the two-dimensional (2D) surface consists of one Bi atom, two Pb atoms, and four Cu atoms with one vacancy at the center. The optimal structure parameters demonstrate that Bi atoms are located at fourfold-hollow sites and that Pb atoms are laterally displaced by 0.78 Å from the fourfold-hollow site toward the vacancy. The reasons for the formation of the c(4 × 4) structure upon deposition of Pb and Bi on Cu(001) are discussed in comparison with a similar structure formed by the individual adsorption of Pb on the same substrate.

  4. Effect of Sintering Time on Superconducting Wire Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu-O With Dopant MgO Sheated Ag Using Powder in Tube Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hariyati Lubis

    2018-01-01

      DAFTAR PUSTAKA Abbas M.M., Abass L.K and Salman U., (2012, Influences of Sintering Time on the Tc of Bi2-xCuxPb0.3Sr2Ca2Cu3010+ High Temperature Superconductors, Energy Procedia 18, 215-224  Abbas, M.M., Abbas, L.K., Bahedh, H.S. 2015. Superconducting Properties of Bi2-SbxPb0,3Sr1,9Ba0,1Ca2Cu3O10+δ Compounds. Journal of Applied Science Research. 11. 22: 164-172 Darsono, N., Imaduddin, A., Raju, K., Yoon, D.H., (2015, Synthesis and Characterization of Bi1.6Pb0.4Sr2Ca2Cu3O7 Superconducting Oxide by High-Energy Milling, J Supercond Nov Magn. E. Chew,. (2010, Superconducting Transformer Design And Construction, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand. March Hamadneh, I., Halim, S. A., dan Lee, C. K., (2006,  Characterization of Bi1.6Pb0.4Sr2Ca2Cu3Oy Ceramic Superconductor Prepared Via Coprecipitation Method at Different Sintering Time, J. Mater. Sci, 41: 5526-5530. Hermiz G.Y., Aljurani B.A., Beayaty M.A., (2014, Effect of Mn Substitution on the Superconducting Properties of Bi1.7Pb0,3Sr2Ca2-xMnxCu3O10+, International Journal Of Engineering and Advanced Technology (IJEAT. 3. 4: 213-217 John R Hull, (2003, Applications of high-temperature superconductors in power technology, Reports on Progress in Physics, Volume 66, Number 11 Lu, X.Y., Yi, D., Chen, H., Nagata, A. 2016. Effect of Sn, MgO and Ag2O mix-doping on the formation and superconducting properties of Bi-2223 Ag/tapes. Physics Procedia. 81: 129-132 Meretliev Sh., Sadykov K.B., Berkeliev A., (2000, Doping of High Temperature Superconductors, Turk J Phy.24: 39-48 Mohammed, N. H., Ramadhan A., Ali I. A., Ibrahim, I. H., dan Hassan, M. S, (2012, Optimizing the Preparation Conditions of Bi-2223 Superconducting Phase Using PbO and PbO2, Materials Sciences and Applications, 3: 224-233. Roumie, M., Marhaba, S., Awad R., Kork M., Hassan I., Mawassi R., (2014, Effect of Fe2O3 Nano-Oxide Addition on the Superconducting Properties of the (Bi,Pb-2223 Phase, Journal of Supercond Nov Magn, 27: 143-153 Serkan

  5. Critical Josephson current in a model Pb/YBa2Cu3O7-δ junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, W.A.; Carbotte, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    We consider a simple model for a c-axis Pb/YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ Josephson junction. The observation of a nonzero current in such a junction by Sun et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2267 (1994)] has been taken as evidence against d-wave superconductivity in YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ . We suggest, however, that the pairing interaction in the CuO 2 planes may well be d wave but that the CuO chains destroy the tetragonal symmetry of the system. We examine two ways in which this happens. In a simple model of an incoherent junction, the chains distort the superconducting condensate away from d x 2 -y 2 symmetry. In a specular junction the chains destroy the tetragonal symmetry of the tunneling matrix element. In either case, the loss of tetragonal symmetry results in a finite Josephson current. Our calculated values of the critical current for specular junctions are in good agreement with the results of Sun and co-workers

  6. Tolerance and hyperaccumulation of a mixture of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Hg, and Zn) by four aquatic macrophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Hernández, Jorge Alberto; Amaya-Chávez, Araceli; Balderas-Hernández, Patricia; Roa-Morales, Gabriela; González-Rivas, Nelly; Balderas-Plata, Miguel Ángel

    2017-03-04

    In the present investigation, four macrophytes, namely Typha latifolia (L.), Lemna minor (L.), Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms-Laubach, and Myriophyllum aquaticum (Vell.) Verdc, were evaluated for their heavy metal (Cu, Pb, Hg, and Zn) hyperaccumulation potential under laboratory conditions. Tolerance analyses were performed for 7 days of exposure at five different treatments of the metals mixture (Cu +2 , Hg +2 , Pb +2 , and Zn +2 ). The production of chlorophyll and carotenoids was determined at the end of each treatment. L. minor revealed to be sensitive, because it did not survive in all the tested concentrations after 72 hours of exposure. E. crassipes and M. aquaticum displayed the highest tolerance to the metals mixture. For the most tolerant species of aquatic macrophytes, The removal kinetics of E. crassipes and M. aquaticum was carried out, using the following mixture of metals: Cu (0.5 mg/L) and Hg, Pb, and Zn 0.25 mg/L. The obtained results revealed that E. crassipes can remove 99.80% of Cu, 97.88% of Pb, 99.53% of Hg, and 94.37% of Zn. M. aquaticum withdraws 95.2% of Cu, 94.28% of Pb, 99.19% of Hg, and 91.91% of Zn. The obtained results suggest that these two species of macrophytes could be used for the phytoremediation of this mixture of heavy metals from the polluted water bodies.

  7. The synthetic evaluation of CuO-MnOx-modified pinecone biochar for simultaneous removal formaldehyde and elemental mercury from simulated flue gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yaoyao; Li, Caiting; Zhao, Lingkui; Du, Xueyu; Gao, Lei; Chen, Jiaqiang; Zhai, Yunbo; Zeng, Guangming

    2018-02-01

    A series of low-cost Cu-Mn-mixed oxides supported on biochar (CuMn/HBC) synthesized by an impregnation method were applied to study the simultaneous removal of formaldehyde (HCHO) and elemental mercury (Hg 0 ) at 100-300° C from simulated flue gas. The metal loading value, Cu/Mn molar ratio, flue gas components, reaction mechanism, and interrelationship between HCHO removal and Hg 0 removal were also investigated. Results suggested that 12%CuMn/HBC showed the highest removal efficiency of HCHO and Hg 0 at 175° C corresponding to 89%and 83%, respectively. The addition of NO and SO 2 exhibited inhibitive influence on HCHO removal. For the removal of Hg 0 , NO showed slightly positive influence and SO 2 had an inhibitive effect. Meanwhile, O 2 had positive impact on the removal of HCHO and Hg 0 . The samples were characterized by SEM, XRD, BET, XPS, ICP-AES, FTIR, and H 2 -TPR. The sample characterization illustrated that CuMn/HBC possessed the high pore volume and specific surface area. The chemisorbed oxygen (O β ) and the lattice oxygen (O α ) which took part in the removal reaction largely existed in CuMn/HBC. What is more, MnO 2 and CuO (or Cu 2 O) were highly dispersed on the CuMn/HBC surface. The strong synergistic effect between Cu-Mn mixed oxides was critical to the removal reaction of HCHO and Hg 0 via the redox equilibrium of Mn 4+ + Cu + ↔ Mn 3+ + Cu 2+ .

  8. High pressure luminescence studies of localized excitations in ZnS doped with Pb2+ and Mn2+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    House, G.L.; Drickamer, H.G.

    1977-01-01

    High pressure luminescence measurements have been made on ZnS doped with Pb +2 and Mn +2 . The data include changes in peak energy and shape, integrated intensities, and lifetimes. These localized emissions are treated in terms of a single configuration coordinate model. For Pb +2 the emission peak shifted to lower energy by a moderate amount and narrowed. For excitation in the Pb +2 absorption the intensity was independent of pressure, which is consistent with the fact that the energy barrier for radiationless return to the ground state was high at all pressures. For excitation in the ZnS absorption edge the intensity decreased significantly with pressure above about 80 kbar. Data on shifts of the conduction band with pressure would indicate that one is approaching a transition from a direct to indirect transition at high pressure so that decrease in emission intensity may be associated with decreased absorption efficiency. The Mn+ 2 emission peak shifted strongly to lower energy with increasing pressure. The direction and magnitude of the shift were consistent with the predictions of ligand field theory. The intensity doubled in 100 kbar, while the lifetime decreased by roughly a factor of 2. These results could be described in terms of a model for a phonon assisted transition. In addition, peak location, intensity, and lifetime measurements were made on ZnS:Pb:Mn. There is clear evidence of energy transfer by exchange, but in addition there is a nonradiative process in the doubly doped crystal which affects both intensities and lifetimes

  9. [Response of Nostoc flageliforme cell to Cu2+, Cr2+ and Pb2+ stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jinying; Shi, Mingke; Zhao, Yanli; Ren, Guoyan; Yi, Junpeng; Niu, Leilei; Li, Juan

    2013-06-04

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of Cu2+, Cr2+ and Pb2+ stress on Nostoc flagelliforme cell. The response of Nostoc flagelliforme cell was analyzed under the stress. The modified BG11 culture medium containing different heavy metal ions of 0, 0.1, 1.0, 10, 100 mg/L was used to cultivate Nostoc flagelliforme cell at 25 degrees C and light intensity of 80 micromol/(m x s). Electrolyte leakage, the activities of superoxide dismutase, the content of malondialdehyde, proline, soluble protein and trehalose were analyzed. Under 1 - 100 mg/L Cu2+, Cr2+ and Pb2+ stress, electrolyte leakage and malondialdehyde contents in Nostoc flagelliforme cell were higher than those in the control group during heavy metal ions stress. Meanwhile, superoxide dismutase activity increased slightly under 10 mg/L, but was lower afterwards. The contents of proline, soluble protein and trehalose increased under 10 mg/L heavy metal ions stress, while declined under extreme heavy metal ions stress (100 mg/L). Nostoc flagelliforme cell has resistance to low heavy metal ions stress, but is damaged badly under extreme heavy metal ions stress.

  10. Contact angle study on the activation mechanisms of sphalerite with Cu(II) and Pb(II); Estudio de los mecanismos de activacion de la esfalerita con Cu(II) y Pb(II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davila Pulido, G. I.; Uribe Salas, A.

    2011-07-01

    This article presents results of an experimental study on the sphalerite activation with Cu(II) and Pb(II), whose main objective was to investigate the activation mechanisms and to evaluate the magnitude of the hydrophobization achieved with both chemical species. The hydrophobicity acquired by the mineral due to the interaction with the activator and collector (sodium isopropyl xanthate) is characterized making use of the contact angle technique. The results show that Cu(II) replaces the Zn of the external layers of the mineral, promoting the sulfide (S{sup 2}-) oxidation to produce a mixture of CuS, Cu{sub 2}S and S{sup o}, of hydrophobic nature. The subsequent interaction with xanthate increases the hydrophobicity of the mineral surface. In turn, Pb(II) activation of sphalerite is due to the formation of a PbS layer that reacts with xanthate to produce hydrophobic species (e.g., PbX{sub 2}). It is also observed that the hydrophobicity of sphalerite activated with Pb(II) is favored under air atmospheres, as compared to that obtained under nitrogen atmospheres. It is concluded that the hydrophobicity achieved by lead activation may be of the same order of magnitude to that deliverately induced by copper activation. (Author) 11 refs.

  11. Microstructure and mechanical properties of Al-Cu-Mg-Mn-Zr alloy with trace amounts of Ag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaoyan; Pan Qinglin; Lu Congge; He Yunbin; Li Wenbin; Liang Wenjie

    2009-01-01

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of Al-Cu-Mg-(Ag)-Mn-Zr alloys were studied by means of tensile testing, optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results show that small additions of Ag to Al-Cu-Mg-Mn-Zr alloy can accelerate the hardening effect of the aged alloy and reduce the time to peak-aged. The mechanical properties can be improved both at room temperature and at elevated temperatures, which is attributed to the fine and uniform plate-like Ω precipitates. Meanwhile the ductility of the studied alloys remains at relatively high level. The major strengthening phases of the Ag-free alloy are θ' and less S', while that of Al-Cu-Mg-Mn-Zr alloy containing trace amounts of Ag are Ω and less θ'.

  12. Synthesis and Characterization of Nano-Crystalline Cu and Pb0.5-Cu0.5- ferrites by Mechanochemical Method and Their Electrical and Gas Sensing Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. GAIKWAD

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present communication, we have reported the synthesis of nanocrystalline ferrites of the type CuFe2O4 and Pb0.5Cu0.5Fe2O4 by mechanochemical alloying at 960 0C. The samples prepared were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, VSM, FT-IR, UV-DRS, and SEM. The average particle size was determined by XRD pattern using Scherrer equation and it is 7.295 nm, 4.484 nm for CuFe2O4, and Pb0.5Cu0.5Fe2O4. The surface morphology of the samples is characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Magnetic studies were carried out using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM and shows very high coercive field for the mixed ferrite. UV-DRS studies were performed to investigate the band gap of synthesized nanocrystalline material. Electrical properties show semiconducting nature of synthesized ferrites. The thick films of the material were prepared by screen printing method. The gas sensing properties were studied towards reducing gases like CO, NH3 and H2S and it was revealed that CuFe2O4 is the most sensitive and selective to H2S gas at relatively lower operating temperature 200 0C. Furthermore Pb0.5Cu0.5Fe2O4 also shows the response to H2S at operating temperature 300 0C.

  13. [CoCuMnOx Photocatalyzed Oxidation of Multi-component VOCs and Kinetic Analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Hai-long; Bo, Long-li; Liu, Jia-dong; Gao, Bo; Feng, Qi-qi; Tan, Na; Xie, Shuai

    2016-05-15

    Solar energy absorption coating CoCuMnOx was prepared by co-precipitation method and applied to photodegrade multi- component VOCs including toluene, ethyl acetate and acetone under visible light irradiation. The photocatalytic oxidation performance of toluene, ethyl acetate and acetone was analyzed and reaction kinetics of VOCs were investigated synchronously. The research indicated that removal rates of single-component toluene, ethyl acetate and acetone were 57%, 62% and 58% respectively under conditions of 400 mg · m⁻³ initial concentration, 120 mm illumination distance, 1 g/350 cm² dosage of CoCuMnOx and 6 h of irradiation time by 100 W tungsten halogen lamp. Due to the competition among different VOCs, removal efficiencies in three-component mixture were reduced by 5%-26% as compared with single VOC. Degradation processes of single-component VOC and three-component VOCs both fitted pseudo first order reaction kinetics, and kinetic constants of toluene, ethyl acetate and acetone were 0.002, 0.002 8 and 0.002 33 min⁻¹ respectively under single-component condition. Reaction rates of VOCs in three-component mixture were 0.49-0.88 times of single components.

  14. DETERMINATION OF Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn AND FREE FATTY ACIDS IN PEQUI OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparecida M. S. Mimura

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb., a typical fruit of the Brazilian Cerrado, is an important source of micronutrients and fatty acids. In this work, a new approach for the acid digestion (using H2SO4, HNO3 and H2O2 of pequi oil samples and the determination of Cu, Fe, Zn and Mn by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (F AAS was employed. Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE was used for free fatty acid (FFA determination after simple and fast extraction with heated ethanol. Good results regarding precision (RSD < 10%, in most cases, sensitivity and adequate LOD and LOQ values were obtained. The accuracy was evaluated using spike tests and the recoveries were from 97 to 107%. The analytes were investigated in four different pequi oil samples. Fe was the trace element with the highest concentration (from 1.99 to 10.3 mg/100 g, followed by Zn, Mn and Cu (1.15 to 3.19, 0.42 to 0.91 and 0.31 to 0.56 mg/100 g, respectively. The main FFA found were oleic acid and palmitic acid (1.61 to 10.7 and 0.82 to 2.69 g/100 g, respectively, while linoleic acid (0.50 g/100 g was detected in only one sample. The pequi oil chemical composition showed good characteristics to be used as a food additive, in cosmetic formulations and for traditional medicine.

  15. Slurry Erosion Behavior of Destabilized and Deep Cryogenically Treated Cr-Mn-Cu White Cast Irons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gupta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of destabilization treatment and destabilization followed by cryogenic treatment have been evaluated on the microstructural evolution and sand-water slurry erosion behavior of Cr-Mn-Cu white cast irons. The phase transformations after the destabilization and cryotreatment have been characterized by bulk hardness measurement, optical and scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction analysis. The static corrosion rate has been measured in tap water (with pH=7 and the erosion-corrosion behavior has been studied by slurry pot tester using sand-water slurry. The test results indicate that the cryogenic treatment has a significant effect in minimizing the as-cast retained austenite content and transforming into martensitic and bainitic matrix embedded with ultra-fine M7C3 alloy carbides. In contrast, by conventional destabilization treatment retained austenite in the matrix are not fully eliminated. The slurry erosive wear resistance has been compared with reference to destabilized and cryotreated high chromium iron samples which are commonly employed for such applications. The cryotreated Cr-Mn-Cu irons have exhibited a comparable erosive wear performance to those of high chromium irons. Higher hardness combined with improved corrosion resistance result in better slurry erosion resistance.

  16. The Investigation of Heavy Metal Content (Cu, Cd, Pb in Sapu-Sapu Fish (Hypostomus plecostomus in Bengawan Solo River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristiyana Eko Setyarini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A study had been carried out to investigate heavy metal (Cu, Cd, Pb content in sapu-sapu fish (hypostomus plecostomus in Bengawan Solo river. The type of this research was observational research, with sapu-sapu fish inhabit Bengawan Solo River as the population. The samples were taken with purposive random sampling. Nine sapu-sapu fishes taken from 3 places, i.e.: Nguter Sukoharjo area, Premulung river outlet and Anyar river, 3 fishes from each palce, and then take examined the content of heavy metal. The result of study showed that the average content of Cu: 0.027 mg/100gr, Cd: 0.005 mg/100gr and Pb: 0.042 mg/100gr. Hence, sapu-sapu fish in Be3ngawan Solo had been contaminated with heavy metal (Cu, Cd, and Pb and should not be consumed.

  17. Effect of Mn on microstructures and mechanical properties of Al-Mg-Si-Cu-Cr-V alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Zhihao

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the performances of the Al-Mg-Si-Cu-Cr-V alloy, various amounts of Mn (0-0.9wt.% were added. The effect of this Mn on the microstructures and mechanical properties of Al-Mg-Si-Cu-Cr-V alloys in different states, especially after hot extrution and solid solution treatment, was systematically studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, and mechanical tests at room temperature. The results show that 0.2wt.% Mn can both refine the as-cast microstructure of the alloy and strengthen the extrusion+T6 state alloy without damaging the plasticity badly due to the formation of Al15(FeMn3Si2 and Al15Mn3Si2 dispersoids. Compared with the extrusion+T6 state alloy without Mn addition, the ultimate tensile strength and yield strength of the alloy with 0.2wt.% Mn addition are increased from 416.9 MPa to 431.4 MPa, 360.8 MPa to 372 MPa, respectively. The elongation of the extrusion+T6 state alloy does not show obvious change when the Mn addition is less than 0.5wt.%, and for the alloy with 0.2wt.% Mn addition its elongation is still as high as 15.6%. However, when over 0.7wt.% Mn is added to the alloy, some coarse, stable and refractory AlVMn and Al(VMnSi phases form. These coarse phases can reduce the effect of Mn on the inhibition of re-crystallization; and they retain the angular morphology permanently after the subsequent deformation process and heat treatment. This damages the mechanical properties of the alloy.

  18. Modelling equilibrium adsorption of single, binary, and ternary combinations of Cu, Pb, and Zn onto granular activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loganathan, Paripurnanda; Shim, Wang Geun; Sounthararajah, Danious Pratheep; Kalaruban, Mahatheva; Nur, Tanjina; Vigneswaran, Saravanamuthu

    2018-03-30

    Elevated concentrations of heavy metals in water can be toxic to humans, animals, and aquatic organisms. A study was conducted on the removal of Cu, Pb, and Zn by a commonly used water treatment adsorbent, granular activated carbon (GAC), from three single, three binary (Cu-Pb, Cu-Zn, Pb-Zn), and one ternary (Cu-Pb-Zn) combination of metals. It also investigated seven mathematical models on their suitability to predict the metals adsorption capacities. Adsorption of Cu, Pb, and Zn increased with pH with an abrupt increase in adsorption at around pH 5.5, 4.5, and 6.0, respectively. At all pHs tested (2.5-7.0), the adsorption capacity followed the order Pb > Cu > Zn. The Langmuir and Sips models fitted better than the Freundlich model to the data in the single-metal system at pH 5. The Langmuir maximum adsorption capacities of Pb, Cu, and Zn (mmol/g) obtained from the model's fits were 0.142, 0.094, and 0.058, respectively. The adsorption capacities (mmol/g) for these metals at 0.01 mmol/L equilibrium liquid concentration were 0.130, 0.085, and 0.040, respectively. Ideal Adsorbed Solution (IAS)-Langmuir and IAS-Sips models fitted well to the binary and ternary metals adsorption data, whereas the Extended Langmuir and Extended Sips models' fits to the data were poor. The selectivity of adsorption followed the same order as the metals' capacities and affinities of adsorption in the single-metal systems.

  19. Heterogeneous coarsening of Pb phase and the effect of Cu addition on it in a nanophase composite of Al-10 wt%Pb alloy prepared by mechanical alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, M.; Liu, X.; Wu, Z.F.; Ouyang, L.Z.; Zeng, M.Q.

    2009-01-01

    A nanophase composite of Al-10 wt%Pb alloy was prepared by mechanical alloying. The coarsening behavior of Pb phase in the composite during heating process was investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and nanoindentation test. The present work shows that the Pb phase grew substantially and had two different size distributions when the heating temperature was above 823 K. The different size distributions of Pb phase were owing to different grain size ranges of Al matrix in different regions, which led to the different growth rates of the Pb phase in those regions. It has been proposed that the different size ranges of Al grain appeared upon heating were originated from a statistical size distribution of Al grains in the as-milled powder. With the addition of a small amount of Cu, the heterogeneous growth of Pb phase can be suppressed, and the coarsening of Pb phase shows two distinct rates. This indicates that the coarsening is mainly governed by grain boundary diffusion and lattice diffusion of Al matrix in the initial stage and the later one, respectively

  20. Cu-Zn-Pb multi isotopic characterization of a small watershed (Loire river basin, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desaulty, A. M.; Millot, R.; Perret, S.; Bourrain, X.

    2015-12-01

    Combating metal pollution in surface water is a major environmental, public health and economic issue. Knowledge of the behavior of metals, such as copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) in sediments and dissolved load, is a key factor to improve the management of rivers. Recent advances in mass spectrometry related to the development of MC-ICPMS allow to analyze the isotopic composition of these elements, and previous studies show the effectiveness of isotopic analyses to determine the anthropogenic sources of pollution in environment. The goal of this study is to use the Cu-Zn-Pb multi-isotopic signature to track the pollutions in surface water, and to understand the complex processes causing the metals mobilization and transport in environment. More particularly we investigate the mechanisms of distribution between the dissolved load and particulate load, known to play an important role in the transport of metals through river systems. As case study, we chose a small watershed, poorly urbanized in the Loire river basin. Its spring is in a pristine area, while it is only impacted some kilometers further by the releases rich in metals coming from a hospital water treatment plant. First a sampling of these liquid effluents as well as dissolved load and sediment from upstream to downstream was realized and their concentrations and isotopic data were determined. Then to simulate a lot of potential natural and anthropogenic modifications of environmental conditions, we made sequential extraction protocol using various reagents on the sediments. Isotopic analyzes were performed also on the various extracting solutions. Isotopic ratios were measured using a Neptune MC-ICPMS at the BRGM, after a protocol of purification for Zn and Cu. The results showed that, these isotopic systematics reveal important informations about the mechanists of mobilization and transport of metals through river systems. However experiments performed under laboratory conditions will be necessary

  1. Heavy metal (Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) partitioning and bioaccessibility in uncontaminated and long-term contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamb, Dane T.; Ming Hui; Megharaj, Mallavarapu [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, Building X, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRC CARE), P.O. Box 486, Salisbury, SA 5106 (Australia); Naidu, Ravi, E-mail: ravi.naidu@crccare.com [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, Building X, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRC CARE), P.O. Box 486, Salisbury, SA 5106 (Australia)

    2009-11-15

    We investigated the pore-water content and speciation of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in a range of uncontaminated and long-term contaminated soils in order to establish their potential bioaccessibility to soil biota, plants and humans. Among the samples, soil pH (0.01 M CaCl{sub 2}) ranged from 4.9 to 8.2. The total metal content of the uncontaminated soils ranged from 3.8 to 93.8 mg Cu kg{sup -1}, 10.3 to 95 mg kg{sup -1} Zn, 0.1 to 1.8 mg Cd kg{sup -1} and 5.2 to 183 mg kg{sup -1} Pb, while metal content in the contaminated soils ranged from 104 to 6841 mg Cu kg{sup -1}, 312 to 39,000 mg kg{sup -1} Zn, 6 to 302 mg Cd kg{sup -1} and 609 to 12,000 mg kg{sup -1} Pb. Our analysis of pore-water found the Cu concentrations to be much higher in contaminated soils than in uncontaminated soils, with the distribution coefficients (K{sub d}) correlating significantly with the log of dissolved organic carbon concentrations. Despite the high total metal content of the contaminated soil, Zn, Cd and Pb were not generally found at elevated levels in the pore-water with the exception of a single contaminated soil. A long period of ageing and soil weathering may have led to a substantial reduction in heavy metal concentrations in the pore-water of contaminated soils. On the other hand, Pb bioaccessibility was found to be comparatively high in Pb contaminated soils, where it tended to exceed the total Pb values by more than 80%. We conclude that, despite the extensive ageing of some contaminated soils, the bioaccessibility of Pb remains relatively high.

  2. Heavy metal (Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) partitioning and bioaccessibility in uncontaminated and long-term contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamb, Dane T.; Ming Hui; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the pore-water content and speciation of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in a range of uncontaminated and long-term contaminated soils in order to establish their potential bioaccessibility to soil biota, plants and humans. Among the samples, soil pH (0.01 M CaCl 2 ) ranged from 4.9 to 8.2. The total metal content of the uncontaminated soils ranged from 3.8 to 93.8 mg Cu kg -1 , 10.3 to 95 mg kg -1 Zn, 0.1 to 1.8 mg Cd kg -1 and 5.2 to 183 mg kg -1 Pb, while metal content in the contaminated soils ranged from 104 to 6841 mg Cu kg -1 , 312 to 39,000 mg kg -1 Zn, 6 to 302 mg Cd kg -1 and 609 to 12,000 mg kg -1 Pb. Our analysis of pore-water found the Cu concentrations to be much higher in contaminated soils than in uncontaminated soils, with the distribution coefficients (K d ) correlating significantly with the log of dissolved organic carbon concentrations. Despite the high total metal content of the contaminated soil, Zn, Cd and Pb were not generally found at elevated levels in the pore-water with the exception of a single contaminated soil. A long period of ageing and soil weathering may have led to a substantial reduction in heavy metal concentrations in the pore-water of contaminated soils. On the other hand, Pb bioaccessibility was found to be comparatively high in Pb contaminated soils, where it tended to exceed the total Pb values by more than 80%. We conclude that, despite the extensive ageing of some contaminated soils, the bioaccessibility of Pb remains relatively high.

  3. Effect of Pb and Ag additions on electrical properties Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox superconductive ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddi, B.V.; Uskov, E.M.

    1990-01-01

    The influence of Pb and Ag additions on the electrical properties of Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O x superconducting ceramics has been studied by Hall method. It was found that the Pb additions has more influence on the sample characteristics than Ag. It was found, that Hall EMF at 77 K equal to zero in the samples having some residue resistance

  4. Synthesis and mechanical properties of conventionally cast icosahedral particle-reinforced Al-Mn(-Cu)-Be-Si alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleury, E.; Chang, H.J.; Kim, D.H.; Kim, D.H.; Kim, W.T.

    2005-01-01

    The microstructure of the Al-Mn(-Cu)-Be-Si alloys analyzed by X-ray diffraction and TEM consisted of icosahedral (i) quasicrystal particles embedded in α Al matrix. The conjoint addition of Si and Be elements enabled the i-phase formation in diameter 10 mm specimens prepared by conventional casting technique. The size, volume fraction and stability of the i-phase were found to be dependent on the Mn content. The addition of 2 at.% Cu did not affect the formation and stability of the i-phase but contributed significantly to the enhancement of the mechanical properties. (orig.)

  5. General synthesis of hierarchical C/MOx@MnO2 (M=Mn, Cu, Co) composite nanofibers for high-performance supercapacitor electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Guangdi; Lu, Xiaofeng; Chi, Maoqiang; Gao, Mu; Wang, Ce

    2018-01-01

    Improving the conductivity and specific surface area of electrospun carbon nanofibers (CNFs) is beneficial to a rapid realization of their applications in energy storage field. Here, a series of one-dimensional C/MO x (M=Mn, Cu, Co) nanostructures are first prepared by a simple two-step process consisting of electrospinning and thermal treatment. The presence of low-valence MO x enhances the porosity and conductivity of nanocomposites to some extent through expanding graphitic domains or mixing metallic Cu into the CNF substrates. Next, the C/MO x frameworks are coated with MnO 2 nanosheets/nanowhiskers (C/MO x @MnO 2 ), during which process the low-valence MO x can partly reduce KMnO 4 so as to mitigate the consumption of CNFs. When used as active materials for supercapacitor electrodes, the obtained C/MO x @MnO 2 exhibit excellent electrochemical performances in comparison with the common CNFs@MnO 2 (CM) core-shell electrode due to the combination of desired functions of the individual components and the introduction of extra synergistic effect. It is believed that these results will provide an alternative way to further increase the capacitive properties of CNFs- or metal oxide-based nanomaterials and potentially stimulate the investigation on other kinds of C/MO x composite nanostructures for various applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Heavy Metals (Cu, Pb and Cd) in Water and Angel Fish (Chelmon rostractus) from Batam Coastal, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Ismarti Ismarti; Ramses Ramses; Suheryanto Suheryanto; Fitrah Amelia

    2017-01-01

    Fish play an important role in human nutrition and therefore need to be carefully and routinely monitored to ensure that there are no high levels of heavy metals being transferred to human through their consumption. This study has been carried out to determine level of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, and Cd) in water and angel fish, Chelmon rostractus collected from coast of Batam. We report levels of Cu, Cd and Pb in water and angel fish from Coast Batam using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). Lev...

  7. Effect of Cu(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II) on Pb(II) biosorption by algae Gelidium-derived materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, Vítor J P; Botelho, Cidália M S; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2008-06-15

    Biosorption of Pb(II), Cu(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II) from binary metal solutions onto the algae Gelidium sesquipedale, an algal industrial waste and a waste-based composite material was investigated at pH 5.3, in a batch system. Binary Pb(II)/Cu(II), Pb(II)/Cd(II) and Pb(II)/Zn(II) solutions have been tested. For the same equilibrium concentrations of both metal ions (1 mmol l(-1)), approximately 66, 85 and 86% of the total uptake capacity of the biosorbents is taken by lead ions in the systems Pb(II)/Cu(II), Pb(II)/Cd(II) and Pb(II)/Zn(II), respectively. Two-metal results were fitted to a discrete and a continuous model, showing the inhibition of the primary metal biosorption by the co-cation. The model parameters suggest that Cd(II) and Zn(II) have the same decreasing effect on the Pb(II) uptake capacity. The uptake of Pb(II) was highly sensitive to the presence of Cu(II). From the discrete model it was possible to obtain the Langmuir affinity constant for Pb(II) biosorption. The presence of the co-cations decreases the apparent affinity of Pb(II). The experimental results were successfully fitted by the continuous model, at different pH values, for each biosorbent. The following sequence for the equilibrium affinity constants was found: Pb>Cu>Cd approximately Zn.

  8. Microscopy modifications in an aged Cu-Al-Ni-Mn alloy; Modificacoes microestruturais em uma liga Cu-Al-Ni-Mn submetida ao envelhecimento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gama, J.L.L. [Instituto Federal de Alagoas (IFAL), Maceio, AL (Brazil); Ferreira, R.A.S., E-mail: jorgelauriano@gmail.co [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DEM/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2010-07-01

    An Cu-12Al-4Ni-3Mn shape memory alloy have been manufactured using an induction furnace of 24 KVA. After melting, chemical analyse was performed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF). The phase transformation of this alloy was studied in the different sequences produced during thermomechanic treatments. After homogenization, the ingot was solution treated at 850 deg C. At 750 deg C samples were submitted to a reduction by rolling to about 30% in thickness, followed by water quenching. In sequence, the ingot was cold-rolled at different thicknesses. In deformed state, sample of this alloy was submitted to the thermal analyse-DTA for identification of the phase transformation domains. For each identified domain, ageing was carried out, at different times, to evaluate the presence of the different phases. Samples were characterized ray-X diffraction. The results showed that the microstructural evolutions are of a complex nature. At 425 deg C temperature both recrystallization and precipitation of different phases were simultaneously observed. (author)

  9. Structure of as cast L12 compounds in Al3Zr-base alloys containing Cu and Mn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virk, I.S.; Varin, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    It was first shown that the low symmetry, tetragonal DO 23 crystal structure of Al 3 Zr intermetallic can be changed to the related cubic L1 2 crystal structure by alloying with Ni (Al 5 NiZr 2 ) and Cu(Al 5 CuZr 2 ). It has been reported that previous work has successfully modified Al 3 Zr with Fe, Cu, Cr and Ni obtaining nearly single phase materials with L1 2 structure. However, they only studied the microstructure and mechanical properties of Fe - modified intermetallic (Al-6at% Fe-25at% Zr). The purpose of the paper is to describe and interpret experimental observations on the microstructure of Al 5 CuZr 2 and Al 66 Mn 9 Zr 25 (at.%) modifications of base Al 3 Zr intermetallic. The one modified with Mn has not been reported in literature although its Al 3 Ti - base counterpart has recently been successfully produced (3, 4)

  10. One pot synthesis of Pb S/Cu2S core-shell nanoparticles and their optical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano, T.; Gomez, I.

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of Pb S/Cu 2 S core-shell nanoparticles with emission on the visible range and with improved luminescence properties was carried out by the colloidal solution-phase growth method by using simple stabilizers such as trisodium citrate and 3-mercaptopropionic acid. The core shell arrangement for particles with different crystalline structure was achieved, in addition this is the first report related to the synthesis Pb S/C 2 S core-shell system. The data obtained from absorption spectra, Pl spectra, and HRTEM image provided direct proof of the formation of Pb S core with size around 11 nm and Cu 2 S shell of 5 nm thickness. According to the UV-vis absorption and Pl spectrum the optical characteristics observed in the synthesized material correspond to a Pb S/Cu 2 S system that has a higher confinement effect than the pure Pb S nanoparticles. The Q Y was improved in 15% from Pb S/C 2 S nanoparticles. The estimated band (Homo-Lumo) alignment determined by C V measurements corresponds to a type-I core shell arrangement. The synthesized material was studied with different techniques. The size and dispersion of the particles were determined by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis), photoluminescence and quantum yield, Dynamic Light Scattering method and X-ray diffraction with copper radiation (λ = 0.15418 nm). (Author)

  11. One pot synthesis of Pb S/Cu{sub 2}S core-shell nanoparticles and their optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, T.; Gomez, I., E-mail: maria.gomez@uanl.edu.mx [Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Laboratorio de Materiales, Pedro de Alba, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)

    2014-07-01

    The synthesis of Pb S/Cu{sub 2}S core-shell nanoparticles with emission on the visible range and with improved luminescence properties was carried out by the colloidal solution-phase growth method by using simple stabilizers such as trisodium citrate and 3-mercaptopropionic acid. The core shell arrangement for particles with different crystalline structure was achieved, in addition this is the first report related to the synthesis Pb S/C{sub 2}S core-shell system. The data obtained from absorption spectra, Pl spectra, and HRTEM image provided direct proof of the formation of Pb S core with size around 11 nm and Cu{sub 2}S shell of 5 nm thickness. According to the UV-vis absorption and Pl spectrum the optical characteristics observed in the synthesized material correspond to a Pb S/Cu{sub 2}S system that has a higher confinement effect than the pure Pb S nanoparticles. The Q Y was improved in 15% from Pb S/C{sub 2}S nanoparticles. The estimated band (Homo-Lumo) alignment determined by C V measurements corresponds to a type-I core shell arrangement. The synthesized material was studied with different techniques. The size and dispersion of the particles were determined by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis), photoluminescence and quantum yield, Dynamic Light Scattering method and X-ray diffraction with copper radiation (λ = 0.15418 nm). (Author)

  12. Content of Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn on Pacific white shrimp cultured in modern farm at BLUPPB, Karawang, West Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takarina, N. D.; Rahman, A.; Siswanting, T.; Pin, T. J.

    2018-03-01

    Heavy metal is one of the hazardous substances which often found in shrimp farm. Since this shrimp become mostly favorable food, it is necessary to determine the content of metal in this shrimps. This research was aimed to determine the content of Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn on Pacific white shrimp cultured on the modern farm at BLUPPB, Karawang, West Java. Samples were taken from five farms. During transport, samples were kept in a more relaxed box. Farms used were designed using black plastic as the bottom layer to separate contact with soil. Heavy metal of Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn on shrimp meat was analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry method. The content of Cr was ranged from 0.06 – 0.38 ppm and Pb were 0.02 – 0.05 ppm. The content of Cu was ranged from 1.89 – 15.25 ppm and Zn were 2.16 – 3.92 ppm. According to government rules and literature, those content were below a threshold which was 0.4 ppm for Cu, 0.5 ppm for Pb, 20 ppm for Cu and 0.2 ppm for Zn.

  13. A review of Pb-Sb(As-S, Cu(Ag-Fe(Zn-Sb(As-S, Ag(Pb-Bi(Sb-S and Pb-Bi-S(Te sulfosalt systems from the Boranja orefield, West Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosavljević Slobodan A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent mineralogical, chemical, physical, and crystallographic investigations of the Boranja orefield showed very complex mineral associations and assemblages where sulfosalts have significant role. The sulfosalts of the Boranja orefield can be divided in four main groups: (i Pb-Sb(As-S system with ±Fe and ±Cu; (ii Cu(Ag-Fe(Zn-Sb(As-S system; (iii Ag(Pb-Bi(Sb-S; (iv and Pb-Bi-S(Te system. Spatially, these sulfosalts are widely spread, however, they are the most abundant in the following polymetallic deposits and ore zones: Cu(Bi-FeS Kram-Mlakva; Pb(Ag-Zn-FeS2 Veliki Majdan (Kolarica-Centralni revir-Kojići; Sb-Zn-Pb-As Rujevac; and Pb-Zn-FeS2-BaSO4 Bobija. The multi stage formation of minerals, from skarnhydrothermal to complex hydrothermal with various stages and sub-stages has been determined. All hydrothermal stages and sub-stages of various polymetallic deposits and ore zones within the Boranja orefield are followed by a variety of sulfosalts. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI-176016: Magmatism and geodynamics of the Balkan Peninsula from Mesozoic to present day: Significance for the formation of metallic and non-metallic mineral deposits

  14. Effect of copper valence on the glass structure and crystallization behavior of Bi-Pb-Cu-O glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Yi; Lin, U.-L.; Liu, N.-H.

    1997-01-01

    Bi 0.43 Pb 0.35 Cu 0.22 O y glasses with different Cu + contents were prepared by melting at different temperatures. The glass structure consists of [BiO 3 [ and [BiO 6 [ units and the ratio of [BiO 3 [/[BiO 6 [ increases with increasing Cu + content. The glass transition temperature, the first crystallization temperature peak, and the thermal stability of the glasses decreases with increasing Cu + content. The value of the activation energy, E a , varies as a function of the Cu + content. The crystallization mechanism in the glasses is closely related to the glass structure, which is mainly affected by the Cu + content. (orig.)

  15. Pb, Cu, and Zn distributions at humic acid-coated metal-oxide surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingge; Michel, F. Marc; Choi, Yongseong; Eng, Peter J.; Levard, Clement; Siebner, Hagar; Gu, Baohua; Bargar, John R.; Brown, Gordon E.

    2016-09-01

    Mineral surfaces are often coated by natural organic matter (NOM), which has a major influence on metal-ion sorption and sequestration because of the abundance of binding sites in such coatings and the changes they cause in local nanoscale environments. The effects of NOM coatings on mineral surfaces are, however, still poorly understood at the molecular level due to the complexity of these systems. In this study, we have applied long-period X-ray standing wave-fluorescence yield (LP-XSW-FY) spectroscopy to measure the partitioning of naturally present Cu(II) (0.0226%), Zn(II) (0.009%), and Pb(II) (∼0.0004%) between Elliott Soil Humic Acid (ESHA) coatings and three model single-crystal metal-oxide substrates: α-Al2O3 (0 0 0 1), α-Al2O3 (1 -1 0 2), and α-Fe2O3 (0 0 0 1). The competitive sorption effects among these metal ions for binding sites in the ESHA coatings and on the metal-oxide surfaces were investigated as a function of reaction time, calcium content, and solution pH. Pb(II) ions present in the ESHA coatings were found to redistribute to reactive α-Al2O3 (1 -1 0 2) and α-Fe2O3 (0 0 0 1) surfaces after 3 h of reaction (pH = 6.0, [Ca(II)] = 2 mM). Pb(II) partitioning onto these reactive metal-oxide surfaces increased with increasing reaction time (up to 7 d). In addition, the partitioning of Cu(II) and Zn(II) from the ESHA coating to the α-Fe2O3 (0 0 0 1) substrate increased slightly with reaction time (2.4% and 3.7% for Cu(II) and Zn(II), respectively, after 3 h and 6.4% and 7.7% for Cu(II) and Zn(II), respectively, after 72 h of reaction time). However, no changes in the partitioning of Cu(II) and Zn(II) onto the α-Al2O3 (1 -1 0 2) surface were observed with increasing reaction time, suggesting that these ions strongly complex with functional groups in the ESHA coatings. Similar results were obtained for Cu(II) and Zn(II) on the ESHA-coated α-Al2O3 (1 -1 0 2) surfaces in samples without the addition of calcium. However, the amounts of Pb

  16. Dissolved trace metals (Ni, Zn, Co, Cd, Pb, Al, and Mn) around the Crozet Islands, Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrillejo, Maxi; Statham, Peter J.; Fones, Gary R.; Planquette, Hélène; Idrus, Farah; Roberts, Keiron

    2013-10-01

    A phytoplankton bloom shown to be naturally iron (Fe) induced occurs north of the Crozet Islands (Southern Ocean) every year, providing an ideal opportunity to study dissolved trace metal distributions within an island system located in a high nutrient low chlorophyll (HNLC) region. We present water column profiles of dissolved nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn), cobalt (Co), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), aluminium (Al), and manganese (Mn) obtained as part of the NERC CROZEX program during austral summer (2004-2005). Two stations (M3 and M1) were sampled downstream (north) of Crozet in the bloom area and near the islands, along with a control station (M2) in the HNLC zone upstream (south) of the islands. The general range found was for Ni, 4.64-6.31 nM; Zn, 1.59-7.75 nM; Co, 24-49 pM; Cd, 135-673 pM; Pb, 6-22 pM; Al, 0.13-2.15 nM; and Mn, 0.07-0.64 nM. Vertical profiles indicate little island influence to the south with values in the range of other trace metal deprived regions of the Southern Ocean. Significant removal of Ni and Cd was observed in the bloom and Zn was moderately correlated with reactive silicate (Si) indicating diatom control over the internal cycling of this metal. Higher concentrations of Zn and Cd were observed near the islands. Pb, Al, and Mn distributions also suggest small but significant atmospheric dust supply particularly in the northern region.

  17. Relation Between pH and Desorption of Cu, Cr, Zn, and Pb from Industrially Polluted Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Henrik K.; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2009-01-01

    Desorption of Cu, Cr, Pb, and Zn from industrially polluted soils as a result of acidification is in focus. The eight soils of the investigation vary greatly in composition and heavy metal concentration/combination. Three soils had elevated concentrations of Cu, Pb, and Zn; regardless of pollution...... level, pollution origin, and soil type, the order for desorption as pH decreased was Zn > Cu > Pb. Turning to a single heavy metal in different soils, there was a huge difference in the pH at which the major desorption started. The variation was most significant for Pb where, e.g., less than 10......% was desorbed at pH 2.5 from one soil, whereas in another soil 60% Pb was desorbed at this pH. Sequential extraction was made and the soils in which a high percentage of Pb was found in the residual phase (adsorbed strongest) was also the soils where less Pb was desorbed at low pH in the desorption experiments...

  18. Immunoreactive Cu-SOD and Mn-SOD in lymphocytes sub-populations from normal and trisomy 21 subjects according to age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeteman, M.A.; Baret, A.; Courtiere, A.; Rebuffel, P.; Mattei, J.F.

    1983-01-01

    Copper and manganese superoxide dismutases (Cu-SOD and Mn-SOD) were measured by radioimmunoassay in B and T lymphocytes and macrophages, in patients with trisomy 21 and in matched controls. In the controls, Cu-SOD was present in greater amounts than Mn-SOD and there were quantitative differences in the distribution in the three cellular sub-populations. In trisomy 21, levels of Cu-SOD were raised, with no change in levels of Mn-SOD, supporting the theory of a gene dosage effect. There were significant positive and negative correlations between age and Cu-SOD levels in controls, and a correlation approaching significance for Mn-SOD. In trisomy 21, there was no correlation between age and Cu-SOD levels, and the only significant correlation for Mn-SOD was for B lymphocytes

  19. Magnetic properties and EXAFS study of nanocrystalline Fe2Mn0.5Cu0.5Al synthesized using mechanical alloying technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanto, Dwi; Yang, Dong-Seok; Yu, Seong-Cho

    2014-01-01

    Nanocrystalline Fe 2 Mn 0.5 Cu 0.5 Al has been synthesized by the mechanical alloying technique and studied as a function of milling time. Alloy nature of Fe 2 Mn 0.5 Cu 0.5 Al was observed in a sample milled for 96 h. The magnetic saturation is 4.0 μ B /f.u., which coincidently follows Slater–Pauling rule at 5 K. Nanocrystalline Fe 2 Mn 0.5 Cu 0.5 Al has enhanced saturate magnetization compared to any other fabrication of Fe 2 MnAl reported. Cu element plays an important role in site competes with other elements and may result in the enhancement of saturate magnetization. In accordance to the magnetic results and EXAFS pattern, it was revealed that the dynamics of magnetic properties were confirmed as structural changes of nanocrystalline Fe 2 Mn 0.5 Cu 0.5 Al

  20. Biosorption of Cd, Cr, Mn, and Pb from aqueous solutions by Bacillus sp strains isolated from industrial waste activate sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Rocío García; Juan Campos; Julio Alfonso Cruz; Ma. Elena Calderón; Ma. Elena Rayna; Germán Buitrón

    2016-01-01

    Los microorganismos tienen capacidad de acumular metales pesados como agentes bioadsorbentes ofreciendo una alternativa para la remoción de metales tóxicos en aguas de efluentes industriales. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue aislar e identificar bacterias tolerantes a los metales pesados (Cd, Cr, Mn y Pb) de lodos activados provenientes de la planta de tratamiento de agua del Municipio de Santa Rosa Jáuregui, Querétaro. Para seleccionar las bacterias que son tolerantes a los metales se ai...

  1. Teores de Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni E Co em solos de referência de Pernambuco Concentrations of Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni and Co in benchmark soils of Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Miranda Biondi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Metais pesados formam um grupo de elementos com particularidades relevantes e de ocorrência natural no ambiente, como elementos acessórios na constituição de rochas. Esses elementos, apesar de associados à toxidez, exigem tratamento diferenciado em relação aos xenobióticos, uma vez que diversos metais possuem essencialidade (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn e Ni e benefício (Co comprovados para as plantas. Nesse contexto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar os teores naturais dos metais Fe, Mn, Zn, Ni, Cu e Co nos solos de referência de Pernambuco. Foram coletadas amostras de solo nas três regiões fisiográficas (Zona da Mata, Agreste e Sertão, dos dois primeiros horizontes dos 35 solos de referência do Estado de Pernambuco. A digestão das amostras baseou-se no método 3051A (USEPA, 1998, e a determinação foi efetuada em ICP-OES. Correlações significativas foram estabelecidas entre os metais e entre estes e a fração argila do solo, em ambos os horizontes, indicando a associação comum da maioria dos metais com solos mais argilosos. A maioria dos solos apresentou teores de Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni e Co menores que os de solos de outras regiões do País, com litologia mais máfica, o que corrobora o fato de que os teores desses elementos são mais diretamente relacionados aos minerais Fe-magnesianos. Os resultados indicam baixo potencial dos solos de Pernambuco em liberar Cu, Co e Ni para plantas, enquanto deficiências de Zn, Fe e Mn são menos prováveis. Os teores naturais de Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni e Co determinados podem ser utilizados como base para definição dos Valores de Referência de Qualidade para os solos de Pernambuco, de acordo com o preconizado pela legislação nacional.Heavy metals are a group of elements with specific features and natural occurrence in the environment, representing an accessory in the formation of rocks. These elements, although associated with toxicity, must be treated different from xenobiotics, since many

  2. Thermopower of thermoelectric materials with resonant levels: PbTe:Tl versus PbTe:Na and Cu1 -xNix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiendlocha, Bartlomiej

    2018-05-01

    Electronic transport properties of thermoelectric materials containing resonant levels are discussed by analyzing the two best known examples: copper-nickel metallic alloy (Cu-Ni, constantan) and thallium-doped lead telluride (PbTe:Tl). As a contrasting example of a material with a nonresonant impurity, sodium-doped PbTe is considered. Theoretical calculations of the electronic structure, Bloch spectral functions, and energy-dependent electrical conductivity at T =0 K are done using the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker method with the coherent potential approximation and the Kubo-Greenwood formalism. The effect of a resonance on the residual resistivity and electronic lifetimes in PbTe is analyzed. By using the full Fermi integrals, room-temperature thermopower is calculated, confirming its increase in PbTe:Tl versus PbTe:Na, due to the presence of the resonant level. In addition, our calculations support the self-compensation model, in which the experimentally observed reduction of carrier concentration in PbTe:Tl against the nominal one is explained by the presence of n -type Te vacancies.

  3. Determination of Fe, Hg, Mn, and Pb in three-rings of poplar (Populus alba L.) by U-shaped DC arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, D. M.; Novović, I.; Vilotić, D.; Ignjatović, Lj.

    2007-09-01

    The U-shaped DC arc with aerosol supply was applied for the determination of Fe, Hg, Mn, and Pb in poplar (Populus alba L.) tree-rings. By optimization of the operating parameters and by selection of the most appropriate signal integration time (20 s for Fe, Mn, and Pb and 30 s for Hg), the obtained limits of detection for Fe, Hg, Mn, and Pb are 5.8, 2.6, 1.6, and 2.0 ng/ml, respectively. The detection limits achieved by this method for Fe, Hg, Mn, and Pb are comparable with the detection limits obtained for these elements by such methods as inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), direct coupled plasmatomic emission spectrometry (DCP-AES), and microwave-induced plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (MIP-AES). We used the tree-rings of poplar from two different locations. The first one is in the area close to the power plant “Nikola Tesla” TENT A, Obrenovac, while the other one is in the urban area of Novi Sad. In almost all cases, samples from the location at Obrenovac registered elevated average concentrations of Fe, Hg, Mn, and Pb in the tree-rings of poplar.

  4. Conductivity and superconductivity of (Bi,Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazda, M.; Kusz, B.; Klimczuk, T.; Natali, R.; Stizza, S.

    2007-01-01

    The (Bi,Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O glass-ceramics may be considered as disordered metal and superconductor. Depending on the heat treatment conditions the materials are either composed of the oval grains of the 2212 or 2201 phases embedded in the insulating matrix or they mainly contain the 2212 plate-like crystallites weakly connected one with another. The materials have large resistivity and usually large negative temperature coefficient of resistivity (TCR). The granular and disordered character of the materials is also reflected in their superconducting properties. Both the normal-state and superconducting properties correlate one with another. The glass-ceramic samples were obtained by annealing the amorphous solid at temperatures between 840 and 860 deg. C. The measurements of the temperature dependence of resistivity in annealed samples were carried out with the conventional four-terminal method in a temperature range from 3 to 300 K

  5. Synthesis and electrical properties of (Pb,Co)Sr2(Y,Ca)Cu2Oz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, T.; Maeda, T.; Abe, R.; Takechi, S.; Takahashi, T.; Haruta, M.; Horii, S.

    One of related materials to high-temperature superconductors (HTSC's) with nominal compositions of (Pb0.5Co0.5)Sr2(Y1xCax)Cu2Oz (x=0∼0.6) is synthesized and characterized. All samples are nearly single-phase, and its crystal structure is likely to be so-called "1-2-1-2" type which is one of typical structures of HTSC's. Electrical resistivity is decreased as x increases. While superconductivity is not observed at temperatures between room-temperature and 20 K for all samples, temperature dependence of the resistivity exhibits metallic behavior down to 150 K for x=0.5. Phase formation and transport behavior are discussed focusing on mixed valence-state of Co2+ and Co3+.

  6. Removal of lead from the industrial and synthetic Cu-Pb-Fe alloy with argon barbotage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Oleksiak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of research on removal of lead from synthetic and industrial Cu-Pb-Fe alloy with argon barbotage are presented. For examinations was taken a synthetic alloy and industrial alloy coming “Glogow II” Copperworks. As basic research equipment was used a pipe resistance furnace enabling heating of samples up to 1 473 K. Examinations were made in 2 test series. The 1 series was performed on the synthetic alloy, while in 2 series was used an industrial alloy. All series were conducted at 1 473 K and with gas fl ow 5,55•10-6, 6,94•10-6, 8,33•10-6, 9,72•10-6 m3•s-1.

  7. Immobilisation of Cu, Pb and Zn in Scrap Metal Yard Soil Using Selected Waste Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamari, A; Putra, W P; Yusoff, S N M; Ishak, C F; Hashim, N; Mohamed, A; Isa, I M; Bakar, S A

    2015-12-01

    Immobilisation of heavy metals in a 30-year old active scrap metal yard soil using three waste materials, namely coconut tree sawdust (CTS), sugarcane bagasse (SB) and eggshell (ES) was investigated. The contaminated soil was amended with amendments at application rates of 0 %, 1 % and 3 % (w/w). The effects of amendments on metal accumulation in water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) and soil metal bioavailability were studied in a pot experiment. All amendments increased biomass yield and reduced metal accumulation in the plant shoots. The bioconcentration factor and translocation factor values of the metals were in the order of Zn > Cu > Pb. The addition of ES, an alternative source of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), has significantly increased soil pH and resulted in marked reduction in soil metal bioavailability. Therefore, CTS, SB and ES are promising low-cost immobilising agents to restore metal contaminated land.

  8. Microstructural discovery of Al addition on Sn–0.5Cu-based Pb-free solder design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Jahyun; Lee, Changsoo; Hong, Sung Jea; Kim, Keun-Soo; Lee, Hyuck Mo

    2015-01-01

    It is important to develop Pb-free solder alloys suitable for automotive use instead of traditional Sn–Pb solder due to environmental regulations (e.g., Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS)). Al addition has been spotlighted to enhance solder properties. In this study, we investigated the microstructural change of Sn–0.5Cu wt.% based Pb-free solder alloys with Al addition (0.01–0.05 wt.%). The small amount of Al addition caused a remarkable microstructural change. The Al was favored to form Cu–Al intermetallic compounds inside the solder matrix. We identified the Cu–Al intermetallic compound as Cu_3_3Al_1_7, which has a rhombohedral structure, using EPMA and TEM analyses. This resulted in refined Cu_6Sn_5 networks in the Sn–0.5Cu based solder alloy. In addition, we conducted thermal analysis to confirm its stability at a high temperature of approximately 230 °C, which is the necessary temperature range for automotive applications. The solidification results were substantiated thermodynamically using the Scheil solidification model. We can provide criteria for the minimum aluminum content to modify the microstructure of Pb-free solder alloys. - Graphical abstract: The minor Al additions refined eutectic Cu_6Sn_5 IMC networks on the Sn–0.5Cu based solder alloys. The microstructure was dramatically changed with the minor Al addition. - Highlights: • We observed dramatic microstructure-change with Al additions. • We defined Cu_3_3Al_1_7 IMC with Al additions using TEM analysis. • We investigated grain refinement with Al additions using EBSD. • We discussed the refinement based on Scheil solidification model.

  9. Microstructural discovery of Al addition on Sn–0.5Cu-based Pb-free solder design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Jahyun; Lee, Changsoo [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sung Jea [MK Electron Co., Ltd., Yongin Cheoin-gu 316-2 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Keun-Soo, E-mail: keunsookim@hoseo.edu [Department of Display Engineering, Hoseo University, Asan 336-795 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyuck Mo, E-mail: hmlee@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-25

    It is important to develop Pb-free solder alloys suitable for automotive use instead of traditional Sn–Pb solder due to environmental regulations (e.g., Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS)). Al addition has been spotlighted to enhance solder properties. In this study, we investigated the microstructural change of Sn–0.5Cu wt.% based Pb-free solder alloys with Al addition (0.01–0.05 wt.%). The small amount of Al addition caused a remarkable microstructural change. The Al was favored to form Cu–Al intermetallic compounds inside the solder matrix. We identified the Cu–Al intermetallic compound as Cu{sub 33}Al{sub 17}, which has a rhombohedral structure, using EPMA and TEM analyses. This resulted in refined Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} networks in the Sn–0.5Cu based solder alloy. In addition, we conducted thermal analysis to confirm its stability at a high temperature of approximately 230 °C, which is the necessary temperature range for automotive applications. The solidification results were substantiated thermodynamically using the Scheil solidification model. We can provide criteria for the minimum aluminum content to modify the microstructure of Pb-free solder alloys. - Graphical abstract: The minor Al additions refined eutectic Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} IMC networks on the Sn–0.5Cu based solder alloys. The microstructure was dramatically changed with the minor Al addition. - Highlights: • We observed dramatic microstructure-change with Al additions. • We defined Cu{sub 33}Al{sub 17} IMC with Al additions using TEM analysis. • We investigated grain refinement with Al additions using EBSD. • We discussed the refinement based on Scheil solidification model.

  10. Designing a New Ni-Mn-Sn Ferromagnetic Shape Memory Alloy with Excellent Performance by Cu Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Both magnetic-field-induced reverse martensitic transformation (MFIRMT and a high working temperature are crucial for the application of Ni-Mn-Sn magnetic shape memory alloys. Here, by first-principles calculations, we demonstrate that the substitution of Cu for Sn is effective not only in enhancing the MFIRMT but also in increasing martensitic transformation, which is advantageous for its application. Large magnetization difference (ΔM in Ni-Mn-Sn alloy is achieved by Cu doping, which arises from the enhancement of magnetization of austenite due to the change of Mn-Mn interaction from anti-ferromagnetism to ferromagnetism. This directly leads to the enhancement of MFIRMT. Meanwhile, the martensitic transformation shifts to higher temperature, owing to the energy difference between the austenite L21 structure and the tetragonal martensite L10 structure increases by Cu doping. The results provide the theoretical data and the direction for developing a high temperature magnetic-field-induced shape memory alloy with large ΔM in the Ni-Mn-Sn Heusler alloy system.

  11. Crystal structure of the new diamond-like semiconductor CuMn2InSe4

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The crystal structure of the semiconductor compound CuMn2InSe4 was analysed using X-ray powder ... properties arising from the presence of magnetic ions in the ... by SEM technique, using a Hitachi S2500 microscope equip-.

  12. Synthesis and characterisation of Cu(II), Ni(II), Mn(II), Zn(II) and VO(II ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Synthesis and characterisation of Cu(II), Ni(II), Mn(II), Zn(II) and VO(II) Schiff base complexes derived from o-phenylenediamine and acetoacetanilide. N RAMAN*, Y PITCHAIKANI RAJA and A KULANDAISAMY. Department of Chemistry, VHNSN College, Virudhunagar 626 001, India e-mail: ra_man@123india.com.

  13. Variability of Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu and Co in manganese nodules from the Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jauhari, P.

    clays which contain higher Fe and Co. Clustering of analysed shows that Ni and Cu are geochemically associated with Mn, and Co with in both sediment types. However, the degree of correlation between all the elements is higher in the nodules from red clay...

  14. Pathways of Pb and Mn observed in a 5-year longitudinal investigation in young children and environmental measures from an urban setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulson, Brian; Mizon, Karen; Taylor, Alan; Korsch, Michael; Davis, J Michael; Louie, Honway; Wu, Michael; Gomez, Laura; Antin, Luminita

    2014-08-01

    We monitored 108 children ≤5 years on a 6-month basis for up to 5 years in a major urban setting. Samples (n ∼ 7000) included blood, urine, handwipes (interior, and after exterior playing), 6-day duplicate diet, drinking water, interior house and day care dust-fall accumulation using petri dishes, exterior dust-fall accumulation, exterior dust sweepings, paint, soil and urban air. The geometric mean blood Pb (PbB) was 2.1 μg/dL and blood Mn (MnB) was 10.0 μg/L. Following a path modelling approach, mixed model analyses for a fully adjusted model showed the strongest associations for PbB were with interior house dust and soil; for MnB there were no significant associations with any predictors. Predictor variables only explained 9% of the variance for Pb and 0.7% for Mn. Relationships between environmental measures and PbB in children are not straightforward; soil and dust sweepings contribute only about 1/5th of the amounts to PbB found in other studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Mechanisms controlling Cu, Fe, Mn, and Co profiles in peat of the Filson Creek Fen, northeastern Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton-Day, K.; Filipek, L.H.; Papp, C.S.E.

    1990-01-01

    Filson Creek Fen, located in northeastern Minnesota, overlies a Cu-Ni sulfide deposit. A site in the fen was studied to evaluate the hydrogeochemical mechanisms governing the development of Fe, Mn, Co, and Cu profiles in the peat. At the study site, surface peat approximately 1 m thick is separated from the underlying mineralized bedrock by a 6-12 m thickness of lake and glaciofluvial sediments and till. Concentrations of Fe, Mn, Co, and Cu in peat and major elements in pore water delineate a shallow, relatively oxidized, Cu-rich zone overlying a deeper, reduced, Fe-, Mn-, and Co-rich zone within the peat. Sequential metal extractions from peat samples reveal that 40-55% of the Cu in the shallow zone is associated with organic material, whereas the remaining Cu is distributed between iron-oxide, sulfide, and residual fractions. Sixty to seventy percent of the Fe, Mn, and Co concentrated in the deeper zone occur in the residual phase. The metal profiles and associations probably result from non-steady-state input of metals and detritus into the fen during formation of the peat column. The enrichment of organic-associated Cu in the upper, oxidized zone represents a combination of Cu transported into the fen with detrital plant fragments and soluble Cu, derived from weathering of outcrop and subcrop of the mineral deposit, transported into the fen, and fixed onto organic matter in the peat. The variable stratigraphy of the peat indicates that weathering processes and surface vegetation have changed through time in the fen. The Fe, Mn, and Co maxima at the base of the peat are associated with a maximum in detrital matter content of the peat resulting from a transition between the underlying inorganic sedimentary environment to an organic sedimentary environment. The chemistry of sediments and ground water collected beneath the peat indicate that mobilization of metals from sulfide minerals in the buried mineral deposit or glacial deposits is minimal. Therefore, the

  16. Kinetic competitivity between ordering and solute segregation to dislocations in Cu-20% at. Mn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donoso, E.; Varschavsky, A.

    1997-01-01

    By using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) energetic measurements associated with the different peaks displayed during linear heating of Cu-20% at. Mn were made, employing quenched and cold-worked materials. Unique to the situation observed in the quenched alloy in which disperse order is developed, in the deformed alloy such process is inhibited by the segregation of solute atoms to partial dislocations. An appropriate model for calculation the energy evolved during the pinning process was applied in order to determine the dislocation density from the exothermic peak designated as stage 4. The computed value, which is in excellent agreement with the one obtained from expressions governing the energy release accompanying recrystallization allows to verify together with microhardness measurements and kinetic analysis that the first observed thermal effect in the deformed materials effectively corresponds a solute segregation process. (Author) 35 refs

  17. Growth of nucleation sites on Pb-doped Bi2Sr2Ca1Cu2O8+δ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finnemore, D.K.; Xu, M.; Kouzoudis, D.; Bloomer, T.; Kramer, M.J.; McKernan, S.; Balachandran, U.; Haldar, P.

    1996-01-01

    In the growth of Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O 10+δ from mixed powders of Pb-doped Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 1 Cu 2 O 8+δ and other oxides, it has been discovered that a dense array of hillocks or mesas grow at the interface between a Ag overlay and Pb-doped Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 1 Cu 2 O 8+δ grains during the ramp up to the reaction temperature. As viewed in an environmental scanning electron microscope, the Ag coated grains develop a texture that looks like open-quote open-quote chicken pox close-quote close-quote growing on the grains at about 700 degree C. These hillocks are about 100 nm across and are spaced at about 500 to 1000 nm. If there is no Ag, this texture does not develop. Preliminary measurements indicate that the hillocks are a recrystallization of (Bi,Pb) 2 Sr 2 Ca 1 Cu 2 O 8+δ , and are definitely not a Pb rich phase. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  18. Risk assessment for Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in urban soils: chemical availability as the central concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, S.R.; Cruz, N.; Coelho, C.; Henriques, B.; Carvalho, L.; Duarte, A.C.; Pereira, E.; Römkens, P.F.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    To assess the geochemical reactivity and oral bioaccessibility of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in urban soils from the Porto area, four extractions were performed including Aqua Regia (AR; pseudototal), 0.43 M HNO(3) (reactive), 0.01 M CaCl(2) (available), and 0.4 M glycine at pH = 1.5, SBET method (oral

  19. A study on adsorption of Pb(II), Cr(Ш) and Cu(II) from aqueous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peanut husk has been used in this work for removing Pb(II), Cr(Ш) and Cu(II) from aqueous solution. Batch adsorption studies were carried out under different pH, initial concentration of metal ions, interfering metal ions, time and temperature. Adsorption was poor in strongly acidic solution but was improved in alkaline ...

  20. Enhanced desorption of PCB and trace metal elements (Pb and Cu) from contaminated soils by saponin and EDDS mixed solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Menghua; Hu, Yuan; Sun, Qian; Wang, Linling; Chen, Jing; Lu, Xiaohua

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the simultaneous desorption of trace metal elements and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) from mixed contaminated soil with a novel combination of biosurfactant saponin and biodegradable chelant S,S-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS). Results showed significant promotion and synergy on Pb, Cu and PCB desorption with the mixed solution of saponin and EDDS. The maximal desorption of Pb, Cu and PCB were achieved 99.8%, 85.7% and 45.7%, respectively, by addition of 10 mM EDDS and 3000 mg L −1 saponin. The marked interaction between EDDS and saponin contributed to the synergy performance. The sorption of EDDS and saponin on soil was inhibited by each other. EDDS could enhance the complexation of metals with the saponin micelles and the solubilization capabilities of saponin micelles for PCB. Our study suggests the combination of saponin and EDDS would be a promising alternative for remediation of co-contaminated soils caused by hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) and metals. -- Highlights: ► A novel combination of biosurfactant saponin and EDDS was used to simultaneously remove mixed contaminations from soil. ► Significant synergy on Pb, Cu and PCB desorption were achieved with EDDS/saponin. ► The marked interaction between EDDS and saponin contributed to the synergy performance. -- Significant synergistic effect on Pb, Cu and PCB desorption were achieved with the mixed solution of saponin and EDDS

  1. Mineralogical data on angelaite, Cu2AgPbBiS4, from the Los Manantiales District, Chubut, Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topa, D.; Paar, W.H.; Putz, H.

    2010-01-01

    Angelaite, ideally Cu2AgPbBiS4, occurs as a hypogene mineral in polymetallic ores at the Ángela groups of veins in the mining district of Los Manantiales, in the province of Chubut, Argentina. The new mineral species is predominantly associated with pyrite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, hematite...

  2. Influence of conditions of preparation on quality of superconductors Bi(Pb)SrCaCuO with boron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sykorova, D.; Smrckova, O.; Ptrydes, D.; Vasek, P.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this work was to verify influence of B 2 O 3 on formation of the phase Bi-2223 of samples with nominal composition Bi 1.8 (Pb 0.26 )Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O 8+x . Conditions of preparation of superconductors as well as their properties are described

  3. Generation of covariance files for the isotopes of Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Pb in ENDF/B-VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetrick, D.M.; Larson, D.C.; Fu, C.Y.

    1991-02-01

    The considerations that governed the development of the uncertainty files for the isotopes of Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Pb in ENDF/B-VI are summarized. Four different approaches were used in providing the covariance information. Some examples are given which show the standard deviations as a function of incident energy and the corresponding correlation matrices. 11 refs., 5 tabs

  4. Retention and distribution of Cu, Pb, Cr, and Zn in a full-scale hybrid constructed wetland receiving municipal sewage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiao, H.W.; Zhang, S.L.; Zhai, J.; He, Q.; Mels, A.R.; Ning, K.J.; Liu, J.

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the retention and distribution of Cu, Pb, Cr, and Zn in a hybrid constructed wetland (CW) that consists of both vertical baffled flow wetlands (VBFWs) and horizontal subsurface flow wetlands (HSSFs) with unique flow regimes and oxygen distribution. The heavy

  5. Anomalous superconducting spin-valve effect in NbN/FeN/Cu/FeN/FeMn multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Tae Jong; Kim, Dong Ho [Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    We have studied magnetic and transport properties of NbN/FeN/Cu/FeN/FeMn spin-valve structure. In-plane magnetic moment exhibited typical hysteresis loops of spin valves in the normal state of NbN film at 20 K. On the other hand, the magnetic hysteresis loop in the superconducting state exhibited more complex behavior in which exchange bias provided by antiferrmagnetic FeMn layer to adjacent FeN layer was disturbed by superconductivity. Because of this, the ideal superconducting spin-valve effect was not detected. Instead the stray field originated from unsaturated magnetic states dominated the transport properties of NbN/FeN/Cu/FeN/FeMn multilayer.

  6. Surface topography and roughness of high-speed milled AlMn1Cu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenhua; Yuan, Juntang; Yin, Zengbin; Hu, Xiaoqiu

    2016-10-01

    The aluminum alloy AlMn1Cu has been broadly applied for functional parts production because of its good properties. But few researches about the machining mechanism and the surface roughness were reported. The high-speed milling experiments are carried out in order to improve the machining quality and reveal the machining mechanism. The typical topography features of machined surface are observed by scan electron microscope(SEM). The results show that the milled surface topography is mainly characterized by the plastic shearing deformation surface and material piling zone. The material flows plastically along the end cutting edge of the flat-end milling tool and meanwhile is extruded by the end cutting edge, resulting in that materials partly adhere to the machined surface and form the material piling zone. As the depth of cut and the feed per tooth increase, the plastic flow of materials is strengthened and the machined surface becomes rougher. However, as the cutting speed increases, the plastic flow of materials is weakened and the milled surface becomes smoother. The cutting parameters (e.g. cutting speed, feed per tooth and depth of cut) influencing the surface roughness are analyzed. It can be concluded that the roughness of the machined surface formed by the end cutting edge is less than that by the cylindrical cutting edge when a cylindrical flat-end mill tool is used for milling. The proposed research provides the typical topography features of machined surface of the anti-rust aluminum alloy AlMn1Cu in high speed milling.

  7. High Br- Content CsPb(Cl yBr1- y)3 Perovskite Nanocrystals with Strong Mn2+ Emission through Diverse Cation/Anion Exchange Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Xia, Zhiguo; Pan, Caofeng; Gong, Yue; Gu, Lin; Liu, Quanlin; Zhang, Jin Z

    2018-04-11

    The unification of tunable band edge (BE) emission and strong Mn 2+ doping luminescence in all-inorganic cesium lead halide perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) CsPbX 3 (X = Cl and Br) is of fundamental importance in fine tuning their optical properties. Herein, we demonstrate that benefiting from the differentiation of the cation/anion exchange rate, ZnBr 2 and preformed CsPb 1- x Cl 3 : xMn 2+ NCs can be used to obtain high Br - content Cs(Pb 1- x- z Zn z )(Cl y Br 1- y ) 3 : xMn 2+ perovskite NCs with strong Mn 2+ emission, and the Mn 2+ substitution ratio can reach about 22%. More specifically, the fast anion exchange could be realized by the soluble halide precursors, leading to anion exchange within a few seconds as observed from the strong BE emission evolution, whereas the cation exchange instead generally required at least a few hours; moreover, their exchange mechanism and dynamics process have been evaluated. The Mn 2+ emission intensity could be further varied by controlling the replacement of Mn 2+ by Zn 2+ with prolonged ion exchange reaction time. White light emission of the doped perovskite NCs via this cation/anion synergistic exchange strategy has been realized, which was also successfully demonstrated in a prototype white light-emitting diode (LED) device based on a commercially available 365 nm LED chip.

  8. Synthesis, Magnetization, and Electrical Transport Properties of Mn3Zn0.9Cu0.1N

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Yin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We synthesized Mn3Zn0.9Cu0.1N by solid state reaction, and magnetic as well as electrical transport properties were investigated. It is found that Mn3Zn0.9Cu0.1N exhibits a first-order antiferromagnetism (AFM to paramagnetic (PM transition with the Néel temperature TN ~163 K, and substitution of Cu for Zn would favor ferromagnetism (FM state and weaken AFM ground state, leading to a convex curvature character of M(T curve. With high external fields 10 kOe–50 kOe, magnetic transition remains a robust AFM-PM feature while FM phase is completely suppressed. Thermal hysteresis of M(T under 500 Oe is also suppressed when the magnetic field exceeds 10 kOe. Mn3Zn0.9Cu0.1N exhibits a good metallic behavior except for a slope change around TN, which is closely related to AFM-PM magnetic transition. Compared with the first differential of resistivity with respect to temperature for (dρ/dTMn3ZnN in transition temperature range, the absolute value of (dρ/dTMn3Zn0.9Cu0.1N is much lower which is close to zero.

  9. Thermodynamic description of the Al-Cu-Mg-Mn-Si quinary system and its application to solidification simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Keke; Liu, Shuhong; Zhao, Dongdong; Du, Yong; Zhou, Liangcai; Chen, Li

    2011-01-01

    By means of the first-principles calculations, the enthalpy of formation for the quaternary phase in the Al-Cu-Mg-Si system was computed. A set of self-consistent thermodynamic parameters for the Al-Cu-Mg-Si and Al-Cu-Mn-Si systems was then obtained using CALPHAD approach taking into account the reliable experimental data and the first-principles calculations. The thermodynamic database for the Al-Cu-Mg-Mn-Si system was developed based on the constituent binary, ternary, and quaternary systems. Comprehensive comparisons between the calculated and measured phase diagrams and invariant reactions showed that the experimental information was satisfactorily accounted for by the present thermodynamic description. The obtained database was used to describe the solidification behavior of Al alloys B319.1 (90.2Al-6Si-3.5Cu-0.3Mg, in wt.%) and B319.1 + xMn (x = 0.5-2, in wt.%) under Gulliver-Scheil non-equilibrium condition. The reliability of the present thermodynamic database was also verified by the good agreement between calculation and experiment for Gulliver-Scheil non-equilibrium solidification.

  10. Effect of composition on the fabrication and properties of Ag-Cu alloy sheathed (Bi,Pb)2223 tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Yuichi; Nakashima, Sohei; Inada, Ryoji; Oota, Akio

    2004-01-01

    To achieve high J c values as well as high mechanical strength, the effects of Ag-Cu alloy sheath and initial composition of precursor on the microstructure and J c properties of Ag-Cu alloy sheathed tapes were investigated. The alkaline-earth cuprate particles were found to form preferentially near the interface between superconducting core and sheath. Although the worse (Bi,Pb)2223 purity and microstructure of alloy sheathed tapes, the reduction of J c values of the tapes was small especially in 7-filaments tapes. This might be explained by the well grain alignment of (Bi,Pb)2223 into the middle region of the filament due to the high strength of alloy sheath. The usage of the Cu deficient composition was effective to reduce the total amount of 14:24 particle while the filament thickness should be thin to maintain J c values for Ag-Cu alloy sheathed tapes due to the lack of Cu diffusion from the sheath to convert 2212 into (Bi,Pb) in the middle region of the filament

  11. Facile fabrication of CuO-Pb2O3 nanophotocatalyst for efficient degradation of Rose Bengal dye under visible light irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaraj, Eswaran; Somasundaram, Sivaraman; Balasubramani, Kavitha; Eswaran, Muthu Prema; Muthuramalingam, Rajarajan; Park, Sanghyuk

    2018-03-01

    A p-type CuO/n-type Pb2O3 heterojunction photocatalyst was prepared by a simple wet chemical process and the photocatalytic ability was evaluated for the degradation of Rose Bengal (RB) under visible light irradiation. Synthesized nanocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analysis, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The p-n heterojunction of CuO-Pb2O3 nanostructures can promote the light absorption capability of photocatalyst and charge separation of electron-hole pairs. Photodegradation assays showed that the addition of CuO effectively enhanced the photocatalytic activity of CuO-Pb2O3 under visible light irradiation (λmax > 420 nm). Compared with pure Pb2O3 and CuO, the CuO-Pb2O3 exhibited significantly enhanced photocatalytic degradation activity. The reaction rate constant of CuO-Pb2O3 is 0.092 min-1, which is much higher than those of CuO (0.073 min-1) and Pb2O3 (0.045 min-1).

  12. Physical properties of nanostructured (PbSx(CuS1−x composite thin films grown by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.U. Ubale

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured ternary semiconducting (PbSx(CuS1−x thin films were grown on glass substrates by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR technique at room temperature. The structural, morphological and optical characterizations of the films were carried out by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and UV–Vis spectrophotometer respectively. The structural studies revealed that, (PbSx(CuS1−x films are nanocrystalline in nature and have mixed phase of cubic PbS and hexagonal CuS. The optical absorption measurements showed that band gap energy of (PbSx(CuS1−x can be engineered between 2.57 and 2.28 eV by varying compositional parameter ‘x’. The room temperature dc dark electrical resistivity of PbS film is found to be 28.85 Ωcm and it decreases when content of Cu in composite increases and becomes 0.05 Ωcm for pure CuS. The thermo-emf measurements showed that the as deposited (PbSx(CuS1−x films are of n-type. The water angle contact measurements of (PbSx(CuS1−x, revealed that, films are hydrophilic in nature and it could be advantageous in electrochemical application.

  13. Electronic structure of Pr doped into superconducting Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu-O ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, A.I.; Karazhanova, G.I.; Smirnov, Yu.P.; Sovestnov, A.E.; Tyunis, A.V.; Shaburov, V.A.

    1992-07-01

    The shift of K α 1 and K β 1 X-ray lines of Pr in HTS-ceramic Bi 1.7 Pb 0.3 Sr 2-x Pr x Ca 2 Cu 3 O y (0,10≤x≤0,50, refer to PrF 3 ) are measured experimentally. The valence m(x), the charge q(x) and the 4f(x)-, 5d(x)-levels population of Pr are determined from experimental shifts. It is found that the Pr valence is near 3; the small valence increasing m≅3,04 at x=0,1 is observed. The small of Pr 5d-electron localization in ceramics in comparison with PrF 3 is revealed (∼0,1-0,2 5d-electron per Pr-atom). The probable cause of the superconductivity suppression in Y 1-x Pr xB a 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ system is discussed. 26 refs.; 6 figs.; 1 tab

  14. Pb isotope investigations on Cu-Au deposits from Carajas Province, Amazonian craton, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macambira, M.J.B.; Galarza, M.A.T.; Souza, S.R.B.; Silva, C.M.G

    2001-01-01

    The Carajas Province is the most important mineral province of Brazil hosting deposits of iron, copper, gold, manganese, nickel and others. In the last years, discoveries of large Cu-Au deposits in Carajas Province have demonstrated the vocation of this region for such deposits, which are, in general, associated with volcanosedimentary sequences and, in some cases, with Archean and/or Paleoproterozoic granitic instrusions. The age and nature of the deposits, as well as the metal source, are still not well understood. Someone believe that these deposits are volcano-exhalant in nature (e.g. Ferreira Filho, 1985; Vieira et al., 1988; Almada and Villas, 1999), while others propose a hydrothermal source for the ore associated with granitic intrusions (e.g. Winter, 1994; Lindenmayer et al., 1998; Tallarico et al., 2000). This work presents a brief discussion about three Cu-Au deposits from Carajas Basin (Bahia, Aguas Claras, and Pojuca deposits) based on new Pb isotope data on zircon and sulfides carried out in the Para-Iso Laboratory of the University of Para, Brazil (au)

  15. Accumulation of Pb and Mn on Road Side Leaves, Analysis from Mauri Por to Hawks bay Road

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salam, M.

    2010-01-01

    Accurate measurements of the heavy-metal contents in polluted areas are required to assess the potential ecological risks in these areas. Chemical and biological indicators are of interest when they provide information about the concentration and accumulation of heavy metals in the environment. These studies were conducted in order to investigate heavy-metal accumulation and the effect on Conocarpus (Conocarpus Erectus) on roadside trees. The total content of Pb and Mn was determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry, AAS. The present results showed variations that indicate both the concerned species have the highest concentration in all the sampling areas near the road. According to the results present study, the average concentration of Pb and Mn are 10.576+3.482 micro g/gm and 91.977+ 30.030 micro g/gm respectively. The results showed that the plant demonstrated a physiological response to the heavy-metal pollution, which suggests that roadside plants are indicators of heavy-metal accumulation and the effect on the environment. (author)

  16. Oyonite, Ag3Mn2Pb4Sb7As4S24, a New Member of the Lillianite Homologous Series from the Uchucchacua Base-Metal Deposit, Oyon District, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Bindi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The new mineral species oyonite, ideally Ag3Mn2Pb4Sb7As4S24, has been discovered in the Uchucchacua base-metal deposit, Oyon district, Catajambo, Lima Department, Peru, as very rare black metallic subhedral to anhedral crystals, up to 100 μm in length, associated with orpiment, tennantite/tetrahedrite, menchettiite, and other unnamed minerals of the system Pb-Ag-Sb-Mn-As-S, in calcite matrix. Its Vickers hardness (VHN100 is 137 kg/mm2 (range 132–147. In reflected light, oyonite is weakly to moderately bireflectant and weakly pleochroic from dark grey to a dark green. Internal reflections are absent. Reflectance values for the four COM wavelengths [Rmin, Rmax (% (λ in nm] are: 33.9, 40.2 (471.1; 32.5, 38.9 (548.3, 31.6, 38.0 (586.6; and 29.8, 36.5 (652.3. Electron microprobe analysis gave (in wt %, average of 5 spot analyses: Cu 0.76 (2, Ag 8.39 (10, Mn 3.02 (7, Pb 24.70 (25, As 9.54 (12, Sb 28.87 (21, S 24.30 (18, total 99.58 (23. Based on 20 cations per formula unit, the chemical formula of oyonite is Cu0.38Ag2.48Mn1.75Pb3.79Sb7.55As4.05S24.12. The main diffraction lines are (d in Å, hkl and relative intensity: 3.34 (−312; 40, 3.29 (−520; 100, 2.920 (−132; 40, 2.821 (−232; 70, 2.045 (004; 50. The crystal structure study revealed oyonite to be monoclinic, space group P21/n, with unit-cell parameters a = 19.1806 (18, b = 12.7755 (14, c = 8.1789 (10 Å, β = 90.471 (11°, V = 2004.1 (4 Å3, Z = 2. The crystal structure was refined to a final R1 = 0.032 for 6272 independent reflections. Oyonite belongs to the Sb-rich members of the andorite homeotypic sub-series within the lillianite homologous series. The name oyonite is after the Oyon district, Lima Department, Peru, the district where the type locality (Uchucchacua mine is located.

  17. Interactions of core–shell quantum dots with metal resistant bacterium Cupriavidus metallidurans: Consequences for Cu and Pb removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaveykova, Vera I., E-mail: vera.slaveykova@unige.ch [Environmental Biogeochemistry and Ecotoxicology, Institute F.-A. Forel, Earth and Environment Science, Faculty of Sciences, University of Geneva, 10, route de Suisse, 1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Pinheiro, José Paulo [IBB/CBME, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of the Algarve, Gambelas Campus, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Floriani, Magali [IRSN/DEI/SECRE/LRE CEA Cadarache, 13115 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Garcia, Miguel [School of Life Sciences, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), Station 15, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • QDs associate with C. metallidurans in time and concentration dependent manner. • 12.9 nm size QDs adhere to the bacterial surface and enter the periplasmic space. • QDs bound significantly Cu and Pb. • QDs increase Cu and Pb content in C. metallidurans during short term exposure. -- Abstract: In the present study we address the interactions of carboxyl-CdSe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots (QDs), as a model of water dispersible engineered nanoparticles, and metal resistant bacteria Cupriavidus metallidurans, largely used in metal decontamination. The results demonstrate that QDs with average hydrodynamic size of 12.9 nm adhere to C. metallidurans. The percentage of bacterial cells displaying QD-fluorescence increased proportionally with contact time and QD concentration in bacterial medium demonstrating the association of QDs with the metal resistant bacteria. No evidence of QD internalization into bacterial cytoplasm was found by transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, however QD clusters of sizes between 20 and 50 nm were observed on the bacterial surface and in the bacterial periplasmic compartment; observations consistent with the losses of membrane integrity induced by QDs. The presence of 20 nM QDs induced about 2-fold increase in Cu and Pb uptake fluxes by C. metallidurans exposed to 500 nM Pb or Cu, respectively. Overall, the results of this work suggest that when present in mixture with Cu and Pb, low levels of QDs originating from possible incidental release or QD disposal could increase metal accumulation in metal resistant bacterium.

  18. Efficiency of Chitosan for the Removal of Pb (II, Fe (II and Cu (II Ions from Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Sobhanardakani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Heavy metals have been recognized as harmful environmental pollutant known to produce highly toxic effects on different organs and systems of both humans and animals. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the adsorption potential of chitosan for the removal of Pb(II, Fe(II and Cu(II ions from aqueous solutions. Methods: This study was conducted in laboratory scale. In this paper chitosan has been used as an adsorbent for the removal of Pb(II, Fe(II and Cu(II from aqueous solution. In batch tests, the effects of parameters like pH solution (1.0-8.0, initial metal concentrations (100-1000 mgL-1, contact time (5.0-150 min and adsorbent dose (1.0-7.0 g on the adsorption process were studied. Results: The results showed that the adsorption of Pb(II, Fe(II and Cu(II ions on chitosan strongly depends on pH. The experimental isothermal data were analyzed using the Langmuir and Freundlich equations and it was found that the removal process followed the Langmuir isotherm and maximum adsorption capacity for the adsorption of Pb(II, Fe(II and Cu(II ions by the chitosan were 55.5mg g−1, 71.4 mg g−1 and 59 mg g−1, respectively, under equilibrium conditions at 25±1 ºC. The adsorption process was found to be well described by the pseudo-second-order rate model. Conclusion: The obtained results showed that chitosan is a readily, available, economic adsorbent and was found suitable for removing Pb(II, Fe(II and Cu(II ions from aqueous solution.

  19. Role of metal mixtures (Ca, Cu and Pb) on Cd bioaccumulation and phytochelatin production by Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, Pauline; Wilkinson, Kevin J

    2013-08-01

    The goal of the study was to determine whether metal uptake and biological effects could be predicted by free ion concentrations when organisms were exposed to Cd and a second metal. Bioaccumulation and algal phytochelatin (PC) concentrations were determined for Chlamydomonas reinhardtii following a 6-h exposure. Bioaccumulation results, after six hours of exposure, showed that Cd uptake decreased in the presence of relatively high concentrations of Ca, Cu and Pb, however, Cd bioaccumulation increased in the presence of ca. equimolar concentrations of Cu. A good correlation was observed between the production of PCs and the amount of metals bioaccumulated for the binary mixtures of Cd-Pb and Cd-Cu, but not the Cd-Ca mixture. Overall, the results suggested that, in the case of mixtures, bioaccumulated metal rather than free ion concentrations would be a better predictor of biological effect. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Piezoelectric properties and temperature stability of Mn-doped Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)-PbZrO3-PbTiO3 textured ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yongke; Cho, Kyung-Hoon; Priya, Shashank

    2012-03-01

    In this letter, we report the electromechanical properties of textured 0.4Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.25PbZrO3-0.35PbTiO3 (PMN-PZT) composition which has relatively high rhombohedral to tetragonal (R-T) transition temperature (TR-T of 160 °C) and Curie temperature (TC of 234 °C) and explore the effect of Mn-doping on this composition. It was found that MnO2-doped textured PMN-PZT ceramics with 5 vol. % BaTiO3 template (T-5BT) exhibited inferior temperature stability. The coupling factor (k31) of T-5BT ceramic started to degrade from 75 °C while the random counterpart showed a very stable tendency up to 180 °C. This degradation was associated with the "interface region" formed in the vicinity of BT template. MnO2 doped PMN-PZT ceramics textured with 3 vol. % BT and subsequently poled at 140 °C (T-3BT140) exhibited very stable and high k31 (>0.53) in a wide temperature range from room temperature to 130 °C through reduction in the interface region volume. Further, the T-3BT140 ceramic exhibited excellent hard and soft combinatory piezoelectric properties of d33 = 720 pC/N, k31 = 0.53, Qm = 403, tan δ = 0.3% which are very promising for high power and magnetoelectric applications.

  1. Role of W and Mn for reliable 1X nanometer-node ultra-large-scale integration Cu interconnects proved by atom probe tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shima, K.; Shimizu, H.; Momose, T.; Shimogaki, Y. [Department of Materials Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Tu, Y. [The Oarai Center, Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan); Key Laboratory of Polar Materials and Devices, Ministry of Education, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241 (China); Takamizawa, H.; Shimizu, Y.; Inoue, K.; Nagai, Y. [The Oarai Center, Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan)

    2014-09-29

    We used atom probe tomography (APT) to study the use of a Cu(Mn) as a seed layer of Cu, and a Co(W) single-layer as reliable Cu diffusion barriers for future interconnects in ultra-large-scale integration. The use of Co(W) layer enhances adhesion of Cu to prevent electromigration and stress-induced voiding failures. The use of Cu(Mn) as seed layer may enhance the diffusion barrier performance of Co(W) by stuffing the Cu diffusion pass with Mn. APT was used to visualize the distribution of W and Mn in three dimensions with sub-nanometer resolution. W was found to segregate at the grain boundaries of Co, which prevents diffusion of Cu via the grain boundaries. Mn was found to diffuse from the Cu(Mn) layer to Co(W) layer and selectively segregate at the Co(W) grain boundaries with W, reinforcing the barrier properties of Co(W) layer. Hence, a Co(W) barrier coupled with a Cu(Mn) seed layer can form a sufficient diffusion barrier with film that is less than 2.0-nm-thick. The diffusion barrier behavior was preserved following a 1-h annealing at 400 °C. The underlayer of the Cu interconnects requires a large adhesion strength with the Cu, as well as low electrical resistivity. The use of Co(W) has previously been shown to satisfy these requirements, and addition of Mn is not expected to deteriorate these properties.

  2. Estudio de los mecanismos de activación de la esfalerita con Cu(II y Pb(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dávila Pulido, G. I.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This article presents results of an experimental study on the sphalerite activation with Cu(II and Pb(II, whose main objective was to investigate the activation mechanisms and to evaluate the magnitude of the hydrophobization achieved with both chemical species. The hydrophobicity acquired by the mineral due to the interaction with the activator and collector (sodium isopropyl xanthate is characterized making use of the contact angle technique. The results show that Cu(II replaces the Zn of the external layers of the mineral, promoting the sulfide (S2– oxidation to produce a mixture of CuS, Cu2S and S°, of hydrophobic nature. The subsequent interaction with xanthate increases the hydrophobicity of the mineral surface. In turn, Pb(II activation of sphalerite is due to the formation of a PbS layer that reacts with xanthate to produce hydrophobic species (e.g., PbX2. It is also observed that the hydrophobicity of sphalerite activated with Pb(II is favored under air atmospheres, as compared to that obtained under nitrogen atmospheres. It is concluded that the hydrophobicity achieved by lead activation may be of the same order of magnitude to that deliverately induced by copper activation.

    Este artículo presenta los resultados de un estudio experimental sobre la activación de esfalerita (ZnS con Cu(II y Pb(II, cuyo objetivo principal consistió en investigar los mecanismos de activación y en evaluar la magnitud relativa de la hidrofobización alcanzada con ambas especies químicas. La hidrofobicidad que la superficie mineral adquiere como resultado de la interacción con los activadores y colectores tipo xantato (ditiocarbonatos alquílicos, R-O-CS2 –, se caracteriza mediante la técnica del ángulo de contacto. Los resultados muestran que el Cu(II es intercambiado por el Zn de las capas exteriores del cristal, promoviendo la oxidación de sulfuro (S2– para producir una mezcla de

  3. Assessment of Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb levels in beach and dune sands from Havana resorts, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Rizo, Oscar; Buzón González, Fran; Arado López, Juana O

    2015-11-15

    Concentrations of nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) in beach and dune sands from thirteen Havana (Cuba) resorts were estimated by X-ray fluorescence analysis. Determined mean metal contents (in mg·kg(-1)) in beach sand samples were 28±12 for Ni, 35±12 for Cu, 31±11 for Zn and 6.0±1.8 for Pb, while for dune sands were 30±15, 38±22, 37±15 and 6.8±2.9, respectively. Metal-to-iron normalization shows moderately severe and severe enrichment by Cu. The comparison with sediment quality guidelines shows that dune sands from various resorts must be considered as heavily polluted by Cu and Ni. Almost in every resort, the Ni and Cu contents exceed their corresponding TEL values and, in some resorts, the Ni PEL value. The comparison with a Havana topsoil study indicates the possible Ni and Cu natural origin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Effect of Different Levels of Cu, Zn and Mn Nanoparticles in Hen Turkey Diet on the Activity of Aminopeptidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jóźwik, Artur; Marchewka, Joanna; Strzałkowska, Nina; Horbańczuk, Jarosław Olav; Szumacher-Strabel, Małgorzata; Cieślak, Adam; Lipińska-Palka, Paulina; Józefiak, Damian; Kamińska, Agnieszka; Atanasov, Atanas G

    2018-05-11

    The aim of the study was to estimate the influence of the different levels of Cu, Zn, and Mn nanoparticles on the activity of aminopeptidases in turkey. An experiment was carried out on 144 turkey hen Hybrid Converter. The birds were divided into groups given standard- and nanoparticle-supplementation of different level of copper (Cu 20, 10, 2 mg/kg), zinc (Zn 100, 50, 10 ppm), and manganese (Mn 100, 50, 10 ppm), covering respectively 100%, 50%, and 10% of the physiological demands for those minerals in the diet. The activity of aminopeptidases (alanyl: AlaAP, leucyl: LeuAP and arginyl: ArgAP) after supplementation of minerals was determined in the breast and thigh turkey muscle. The strongest effect of interaction among minerals supplementation form and dose on the activity levels of the aminopeptidases in thigh muscle was observed for nano-Cu already at the lowest dose of 2 mg/kg. In this dose (covering 10% of the birds’ demand) nano form of supplementation significantly increased the activity of Ala-, Leu-, and ArgAP (877, 201, and 719, respectively), compared to standard form of supplementation (461, 90.5, and 576, respectively). In turn, in breast muscle, after supplementation covering 10% of the demand with the nano-Cu, nano-Zn, and nano-Mn compared to the standard form, we did not observe any significant difference in the activity levels of any of the investigated aminopeptidases, except for AlaAP under Zn supplementation. Supplementation with the 20 mg/kg of Nano-Cu (100% of demand) and with 10 mg/kg of Nano-Cu (50% of demand) inhibited the activity of all of the three aminopeptidases in thigh muscle. Supplementation of the minerals in nano form into the diet, especially of Cu and Zn in the dose covering 10% of the demand is relevant to maintain homeostasis in turkey muscles, as indicated by the activity of the aminopeptidases.

  5. Influence of mechanical activation on the leaching of non-ferrous metals from a CuPbZn complex concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godoèíková Erika

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to research the procedures of copper, lead and zinc leaching from CuPbZn complex sulphide concentrate during the intervention of mechanical activation.Mechanical activation belongs to innovative procedures, which intensifies technological processes by means of creation of new surfaces and making defective structure of solid phase. Mechanical impact on the solid phase is a suitable procedure to ensure the mobility of its structure elements and to accumulate the mechanical energy that is later used in following processes of leaching.This paper deals with the intensification of the chloride and thiourea leaching of copper, lead and zinc from a CuPbZn complex concentrate of Hodruša-Hámre (Slovak deposit by using the mechanical activation in an attritor. Ferric chloride and thiourea were used as leaching reagents. The leaching of the concentrate with ferric chloride solution afforded 23 % recovery of Cu, 99 % of Pb and 28 % of Zn. 9 % recovery of Cu, 17 % of Pb and 3 % of Zn were achieved by the leaching with thiourea. Thus results showed that the extraction of Cu, Zn and also Pb in the case of thiourea leaching was low. The use of milling in the attritor as an innovation method of pretreatment leads to the structural degradation and increasing the surface area of the investigated concentrate from the original value of 0.18 m2g-1 to the maximum value of 4.67 m2g-1. This fact manifested itself in the subsequent process of extraction of Cu, Pb and Zn into the chloride and thiourea solutions. Our results indicate more effective leaching of pretreated concentrate in the chloride medium with recoveries of 84 % Zn and 100 % Pb. In thiourea, the recoveries for Zn and Pb were low, however 99 % Cu can be recovered. In regard to the economy, the extraction of Cu, Pb and Zn was studied in this work with the aspect of minimal energy consumption during milling. The maximum recoveries of non-ferrous metals in the solutions of ferric chloride

  6. Ecological modelling of a wetland for phytoremediating Cu, Zn and Mn in a gold–copper mine site using Typha domingensis (Poales: Typhaceae near Orange, NSW, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subrahmanyam Sreenath

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An artificial wetland was computationally modelled using STELLA®, a graphical programming tool for an Au-Cu mine site in Central-west NSW, the aim of which was to offer a predictive analysis of a proposed wetland for Cu, Zn and Mn removal using Typha domingensis as the agent. The model considers the important factors that impact phytoremediation of Cu, Zn and Mn. Simulations were performed to optimise the area of the wetland; concentration of Cu, Zn and Mn released from mine (AMD; and flow rates of water for maximum absorption of the metals. A scenario analysis indicates that at AMD = 0.75mg/L for Cu, Zn and Mn, 12.5, 8.6, and 357.9 kg of Cu, Zn and Mn, respectively, will be assimilated by the wetland in 35 years, which would be equivalent to 61 mg of Cu/kg, 70 mg of Zn/kg and 2,886 mg of Mn/kg of T. domingensis, respectively. However, should Cu, Zn and Mn in AMD increase to 3 mg/L, then 18.6 kg of Cu and 11.8 kg of Zn, respectively, will be assimilated in 35 years, whereas no substantial increase in absorption for Mn would occur. This indicates that 91 mg of Cu, 96 mg of Zn and 2917 mg of Mn will be assimilated for every kg of T. domingensis in the wetland. The best option for Cu storage would be to construct a wetland of 50,000 m2 area (AMD = 0.367 mg/L of Cu, which would capture 14.1 kg of Cu in 43 years, eventually releasing only 3.9 kg of Cu downstream. Simulations performed for a WA of 30,000 m2 indicate that for AMD = 0.367 mg/L of Zn, the wetland captures 6.2 kg, releasing only 3.5 kg downstream after 43 years; the concentration of Zn in the leachate would be 10.2 kg, making this the most efficient wetland amongst the options considered for phytoremediating Zn. This work will help mine managers and environmental researchers in developing an effective environmental management plan by focusing on phytoremediation, with a view at extracting Cu, Zn and Mn from the contaminated sites.

  7. Stabilization of Pb²⁺ and Cu²⁺ contaminated firing range soil using calcined oyster shells and waste cow bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Deok Hyun; Cheong, Kyung Hoon; Khim, Jeehyeong; Wazne, Mahmoud; Hyun, Seunghun; Park, Jeong-Hun; Chang, Yoon-Young; Ok, Yong Sik

    2013-05-01

    Pb(2+) and Cu(2+) contamination at army firing ranges poses serious environmental and health risks to nearby communities necessitating an immediate and prompt remedial action. In this study, a novel mixture of calcined oyster shells (COSs) and waste cow bones (WCBs) was utilized to immobilize Pb(2+) and Cu(2+) in army firing range soils. The effectiveness of the treatment was evaluated based on the Korean Standard leaching test. The treatment results showed that Pb(2+) and Cu(2+) immobilization in the army firing range soil was effective in significantly reducing Pb(2+) and Cu(2+) leachability upon the combined treatment with COS and WCB. A drastic reduction in Pb(2+) (99%) and Cu(2+) leachability (95%) was obtained as compared to the control sample, upon treatment with 5 wt.% COS and 5 wt.% WCB. The combination treatment of COS and WCB was more effective for Pb immobilization, than the treatment with COS or WCB alone. The 5 wt.% COS alone treatment resulted in 95% reduction in Cu(2+) leachability. The SEM-EDX results suggested that Pb(2+) and Cu(2+) immobilization was most probably associated with the formation of ettringite, pozzolanic reaction products and pyromorphite-like phases at the same time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Neutron diffraction and magnetic study of the Nd0.7Pb0.3Mn1-xFexO3 (0=

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, J.J.; Insausti, M.; Gil de Muro, I.; Lezama, L.; Rojo, T.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of Fe doping on the ferromagnetic Nd 0.7 Pb 0.3 Mn 1-x Fe x O 3 (x=0, 0.025, 0.05, 0.075, 0.1) phases has been studied in order to analyze the double-exchange interaction. The structural and magnetic study has been carried out by neutron powder diffraction and susceptibility measurements between 1.7 and 300K. The substitution of Fe at the Mn site results in reductions in both the Curie temperature T c and the magnetic moment per Mn ion without appreciable differences in the crystal structures. All the compounds crystallize in Pnma space group. The thermal evolution of the lattice parameters of the Nd 0.7 Pb 0.3 Mn 1-x Fe x O 3 (x=0.025, 0.05, 0.075) compounds shows discontinuities in volume and lattice parameters close to the magnetic transition temperature. Increasing amounts of Fe 3+ reduces the double exchange interactions and no magnetic contribution for x=0.1 is observed. The magnetic structures of Nd 0.7 Pb 0.3 Mn 1-x Fe x O 3 (x=0, 0.025, 0.05, 0.075) compounds show that the Nd and Mn ions are ferromagnetically ordered

  9. Bournonite PbCuSbS3 : Stereochemically Active Lone-Pair Electrons that Induce Low Thermal Conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yongkwan; Khabibullin, Artem R; Wei, Kaya; Salvador, James R; Nolas, George S; Woods, Lilia M

    2015-10-26

    An understanding of the structural features and bonding of a particular material, and the properties these features impart on its physical characteristics, is essential in the search for new systems that are of technological interest. For several relevant applications, the design or discovery of low thermal conductivity materials is of great importance. We report on the synthesis, crystal structure, thermal conductivity, and electronic-structure calculations of one such material, PbCuSbS3 . Our analysis is presented in terms of a comparative study with Sb2 S3 , from which PbCuSbS3 can be derived through cation substitution. The measured low thermal conductivity of PbCuSbS3 is explained by the distortive environment of the Pb and Sb atoms from the stereochemically active lone-pair s(2) electrons and their pronounced repulsive interaction. Our investigation suggests a general approach for the design of materials for phase-change-memory, thermal-barrier, thermal-rectification and thermoelectric applications, as well as other functions for which low thermal conductivity is purposefully sought. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. CuO nanostructures grown by the SILAR method: Influence of Pb-doping on the morphological, structural and optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayansal, F., E-mail: fbayansal@gmail.com [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Technology, Mustafa Kemal University, Hatay (Turkey); Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Mustafa Kemal University, Hatay (Turkey); Gülen, Y. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Marmara University, İstanbul (Turkey); Şahin, B. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Mustafa Kemal University, Hatay (Turkey); Kahraman, S. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Technology, Mustafa Kemal University, Hatay (Turkey); Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Mustafa Kemal University, Hatay (Turkey); Çetinkara, H.A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Mustafa Kemal University, Hatay (Turkey)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • CuO nanostructures with Pb-doping by the SILAR method is reported for the first time. • CuO nanostructures of different morphologies were grown by different Pb ratios. • E{sub g} values of the films can be altered by changing Pb doping concentrations. - Abstract: CuO nanostructures with and without Pb were synthesized by the Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction method. The films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry. Scanning electron microscopy results showed that the morphology of the film surface was changed from plate-like to coral-like nanostructures with increasing Pb concentration. The X-ray diffraction patterns showed the monoclinic crystal structure with preferential planes of (1{sup ¯}11) and (1 1 1). Furthermore, ultraviolet–visible spectra showed that the band gap of the films was tailored by Pb doping.

  11. CuO nanostructures grown by the SILAR method: Influence of Pb-doping on the morphological, structural and optical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayansal, F.; Gülen, Y.; Şahin, B.; Kahraman, S.; Çetinkara, H.A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • CuO nanostructures with Pb-doping by the SILAR method is reported for the first time. • CuO nanostructures of different morphologies were grown by different Pb ratios. • E g values of the films can be altered by changing Pb doping concentrations. - Abstract: CuO nanostructures with and without Pb were synthesized by the Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction method. The films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry. Scanning electron microscopy results showed that the morphology of the film surface was changed from plate-like to coral-like nanostructures with increasing Pb concentration. The X-ray diffraction patterns showed the monoclinic crystal structure with preferential planes of (1 ¯ 11) and (1 1 1). Furthermore, ultraviolet–visible spectra showed that the band gap of the films was tailored by Pb doping

  12. The effect of disorder on electronic and magnetic properties of quaternary Heusler alloy CoFeMnSi with LiMgPbSb-type structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Yu; Chen, Hong; Yuan, Hongkuan; Zhou, Ying; Chen, Xiaorui

    2015-01-01

    Thin films based on Heusler alloy often lost their theoretical predicted ultra-high spin polarization owing to the appearance of disorder. Using the first-principles calculations within density functional theory (DFT), we investigate the effect of disorder including antisite and swap on electronic and magnetic properties of quaternary Heusler alloy CoFeMnSi with LiMgPbSb-type structure. Twelve kinds of antisites and six kinds of swap disorders are proposed and studied comprehensively. In our calculations, Co(Fe)-, Mn(Fe)-, Si(Mn)-antisite and Co–Fe swap disorders are most favorable due to their lowest formation energies. Moreover, the positive binding energies of Co–Fe, Co–Si, Fe–Si and Mn–Si swap disorders with respect to their corresponding antisite disorders indicate that these complex swap disorders are more stable compared with their corresponding isolated antisite disorders. The investigations on density of states (DOS) show that the spin down energy gap of disordered structures suffers contraction and their DOS entirely move towards lower zone. Besides, the 100% spin polarization is maintained in all structures with antisite and swap disorders except for those with Co(Mn)-, Co(Si)-antisite and Co–Mn, Co–Si swap disorders. Therefore, the half-metallicity of quaternary Heusler alloy CoFeMnSi is quite robust against interfering effects such as Si(Mn), Co(Fe) and Co–Fe disorders most possibly formed in the growth. - Highlights: • CoFeMnSi with LiMgPbSb-type structure is found to be a half-metallic ferromagnet. • Si(Mn), Co(Fe), Mn(Fe) antisites and Co–Fe swap disorders are most likely to form. • The half-metallicity of CoFeMnSi is robust against the most possible disorders. • The magnetic moments of the most possible disorders follow the Pauli-Slater rule

  13. Pb solubility of the high-temperature superconducting phase Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10+d

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaesche, S.; Majewski, P.; Aldinger, F.

    1994-01-01

    For the nominal composition of Bi 2.27x Pb x Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O 10+d the lead content was varied from x=0.05 to 0.45. The compositions were examined between 830 degrees C and 890 degrees C which is supposed to be the temperature range over which the so-called 2223 phase (Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O 10+d ) is stable. Only compositions between x=0.18 to 0.36 could be synthesized in a single phase state. For x>0.36 a lead containing phase with a stoichiometry of Pb 4 (Sr,Ca) 5 CuO d is formed, for x 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+d and cuprates are the equilibrium phases. The temperature range for the 2223 phase was found to be 830 degrees C to 890 degrees C but the 2223 phase has extremely varying cation ratios over this temperature range. Former single phase 2223 samples turn to multi phase samples when annealed at slightly higher or lower temperatures. A decrease in the Pb solubility with increasing temperature was found for the 2223 phase

  14. Role of metal mixtures (Ca, Cu and Pb) on Cd bioaccumulation and phytochelatin production by Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abboud, Pauline; Wilkinson, Kevin J.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the study was to determine whether metal uptake and biological effects could be predicted by free ion concentrations when organisms were exposed to Cd and a second metal. Bioaccumulation and algal phytochelatin (PC) concentrations were determined for Chlamydomonas reinhardtii following a 6-h exposure. Bioaccumulation results, after six hours of exposure, showed that Cd uptake decreased in the presence of relatively high concentrations of Ca, Cu and Pb, however, Cd bioaccumulation increased in the presence of ca. equimolar concentrations of Cu. A good correlation was observed between the production of PCs and the amount of metals bioaccumulated for the binary mixtures of Cd–Pb and Cd–Cu, but not the Cd–Ca mixture. Overall, the results suggested that, in the case of mixtures, bioaccumulated metal rather than free ion concentrations would be a better predictor of biological effect. -- Highlights: •Cd bioaccumulation and phytochelatin production were evaluated for metal mixtures. •Bioaccumulated metal rather than free ion was a better predictor of biological effect. •Calcium additions decreased Cd bioaccumulation but increased phytochelatin production. •Copper additions increased Cd bioaccumulation and phytochelatin production. •Lead additions had little effect on either Cd bioaccumulation or phytochelatin production. -- In metal mixtures containing Cd and Ca, Pb or Cu, bioaccumulated metal rather than free ion was a better predictor of biological effect

  15. Effects of Mn, Cu doping concentration to the properties of magnetic nanoparticles and arsenic adsorption capacity in wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thi, Tran Minh; Trang, Nguyen Thi Huyen; Van Anh, Nguyen Thi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Investigation the decrease of saturate magnetic moment of Fe 3 O 4 over time. • Substitution of Mn, Cu ions into Fe position to create stable properties of materials. • Investigate the surface and mesopore structure of nanoparticles. • The arsenic adsorption capacity of Cu doped Fe 3 O 4 nanomaterials is higher than of Fe 3 O 4 and Mn doped Fe 3 O 4 nanomaterials. - Abstract: The research results of Fe 3 O 4 and Mn, Cu doped Fe 3 O 4 nanomaterials synthesized by a chemical method for As(III) wastewater treatment are presented in this paper. The X-ray diffraction patterns and transmission electron microscopy images showed that samples had the cubic spinel structure with the grain sizes were varied from 9.4 nm to 18.1 nm. The results of vibrating sample magnetometer measurements at room temperature showed that saturation magnetic moments of Fe 1−x Cu x Fe 2 O 4 and Fe 1−x Mn x Fe 2 O 4 samples decreased from 65.9 emu/g to 53.2 emu/g and 65.9 emu/g to 61.5 emu/g, respectively, with the increase of Cu, Mn concentrations from 0.0 to 0.15. The nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherm of a typical Fe 3 O 4 sample at 77 K was studied in order to investigate the surface and porous structure of nanoparticles by BET method. The specific surface area of Fe 3 O 4 magnetic nanoparticles was calculated about of 100.2 m 2 /g. The pore size distribution of about 15–20 nm calculated by the BJH (Barrett, Joyner, and Halendar) method at a relative pressure P/P 0 of about 1. Although the saturation magnetic moments of samples decreased when the increase of doping concentration, but the arsenic adsorption capacity of Cu doped Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles is better than that of Fe 3 O 4 and Mn doped Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles in a solution with pH = 7. In the solution with a pH > 14, the arsenic adsorption of magnetic nanoparticles is insignificant

  16. Investigation of Pb, Cd, Cu and Mg Concentrations in Groundwater Resources of Razan Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sobhan Ardakani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Iran is located in the dry and semi dry regions, thus almost 90% of the required fresh water is exploited from groundwater resources. Due to the increasing pol-lution of water resources, the purpose of this study was evaluation of Pb, Cd, Cu and Mg concentrations in groundwater resources of Razan Plain and preparing the zoning map using GIS. Materials & Methods: Groundwater samples were collected from 20 selected stations during two seasons in 2012. The samples were filtered (0.45 ?m and maintained cool in polyethyl-ene bottles. The samples were taken for the analysis of cations, the former was acidified with HNO3 to pH lower than 2. Minor elements were determined using ICP-OES. All statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS statistical package. Also, Kriging Method was used to prepare spatial distribution maps of elements in groundwater samples. Results: The results showed that the mean concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu and Mg in the groundwater samples during the spring were 5.60±0.66, 0.21±0.04, 32.10±2.21 and 6990.0±302.10 ppb, respectively, and the mean concentrations of these elements in the groundwater samples in the summer were 4.86±0.46, 0.30±0.08, 25.55±3.63 and 3654.05±215.65 ppb, respectively. Comparing the mean concentrations of the evaluated metals with WHO permissible limits showed a significant difference (p<0.05. Thus, the mean concentrations of the metals were significantly lower than the permissible limits. Conclusion: Although the groundwater resources of Razan Plain are not currently polluted with heavy metals, long-term excessive use of agricultural inputs and establishment of pollut-ing industries, can pose a threat to groundwater resources of this area. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2015; 21(4:319-329

  17. Mitigation of chromium poisoning of cathodes in solid oxide fuel cells employing CuMn1.8O4 spinel coating on metallic interconnect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruofan; Sun, Zhihao; Pal, Uday B.; Gopalan, Srikanth; Basu, Soumendra N.

    2018-02-01

    Chromium poisoning is one of the major reasons for cathode performance degradation in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). To mitigate the effect of Cr-poisoning, a protective coating on the surface of interconnect for suppressing Cr vaporization is necessary. Among the various coating materials, Cu-Mn spinel coating is considered to be a potential candidate due to their good thermal compatibility, high stability and good electronic conductivity at high temperature. In this study, Crofer 22 H meshes with no protective coating, those with commercial CuMn2O4 spinel coating and the ones with lab-developed CuMn1.8O4 spinel coating were investigated. The lab-developed CuMn1.8O4 spinel coating were deposited on Crofer 22 H mesh by electrophoretic deposition and densified by a reduction and re-oxidation process. With these different Crofer 22 H meshes (bare, CuMn2O4-coated, and CuMn1.8O4-coated), anode-supported SOFCs with Sr-doped LaMnO3-based cathode were electrochemically tested at 800 °C for total durations of up to 288 h. Comparing the mitigating effects of the two types of Cu-Mn spinel coatings on Cr-poisoning, it was found that the performance of the denser lab-developed CuMn1.8O4 spinel coating was distinctly better, showing no degradation in the cell electrochemical performance and significantly less Cr deposition near the cathode/electrolyte interface after the test.

  18. Genesis of Pb-Zn-Cu-Ag Deposits within Permian Carboniferous-Carbonate Rocks in Madina Regency, North Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhakti Hamonangan Harahap

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available DOI:10.17014/ijog.2.3.167-184Strong mineralized carbonate rock-bearing Pb-Zn-Cu-Ag-(Au ores are well exposed on the Latong River area, Madina Regency, North Sumatra Province. The ore deposit is hosted within the carbonate rocks of the Permian to Carboniferous Tapanuli Group. It is mainly accumulated in hollows replacing limestone in the forms of lensoidal, colloform, veins, veinlets, cavity filling, breccia, and dissemination. The ores dominantly consist of galena (126 000 ppm Pb and sphalerite (2347 ppm Zn. The other minerals are silver, azurite, covellite, pyrite, marcasite, and chalcopyrite. This deposit was formed by at least three phases of mineralization, i.e. pyrite and then galena replaced pyrite, sphalerite replaced galena, and pyrite. The last phase is the deposition of chalcopyrite that replaced sphalerite. The Latong sulfide ore deposits posses Pb isotope ratio of 206Pb/204Pb = 19.16 - 20.72, 207Pb/204Pb = 16.16 - 17.29, and 208Pb/204Pb = 42.92 - 40.78. The characteristic feature of the deposit indicates that it is formed by a sedimentary process rather than an igneous activity in origin. This leads to an interpretation that the Latong deposit belongs to the Sedimentary Hosted Massive Sulfide (SHMS of Mississippi Valley-Type (MVT. The presence of SHMS in the island arc such as Sumatra has become controversial. For a long time, ore deposits in the Indonesian Island Arc are always identical with the porphyry and hydrothermal processes related to arc magmatism. This paper is dealing with the geology of Latong and its base metal deposits. This work is also to interpret their genesis as well as general relationship to the regional geology and tectonic setting of Sumatra.

  19. Eutectic Al-Si-Cu-Fe-Mn alloys with enhanced mechanical properties at room and elevated temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, E.R.; Hui, X.D.; Chen, G.L.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Fabricated a kind of high performance Al-Si alloy with low production costs. → Clarified two different morphologies of α-Fe and corresponding crystal structures. → Analyzed the crystallography of Cu-rich phases before and after T6 treatment. → Fracture mechanism of precipitates in experimental alloys during tensile process. -- Abstract: In this paper, we report a novel kind of eutectic Al-Si-Cu-Fe-Mn alloy with ultimate tensile strength up to 336 MPa and 144.3 MPa at room temperature and 300 o C, respectively. This kind of alloy was prepared by metal mold casting followed by T6 treatment. The microstructure is composed of eutectic and primary Si, α-Fe, Al 2 Cu and α-Al phases. Iron-rich phases, which were identified as BCC type of α-Fe (Al 15 (Fe,Mn) 3 Si 2 ), exist in blocky and dendrite forms. Tiny blocky Al 2 Cu crystals disperse in α-Fe dendrites or at the grain boundaries of α-Al. During T6 treatment, Cu atoms aggregate from the super-saturation solid solution to form GP zones, θ'' or θ'. Further analysis found that the enhanced mechanical properties of the experimental alloy are mainly attributed to the formation of α-Fe and copper-rich phases.

  20. The CdS/CdSe/ZnS Photoanode Cosensitized Solar Cells Basedon Pt, CuS, Cu2S, and PbS Counter Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tung Ha Thanh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly ordered mesoporous TiO2 modified by CdS, CdSe, and ZnS quantum dots (QDs was fabricated by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR method. The quantity of material deposition seems to be affected not only by the employed deposition method but also and mainly by the nature of the underlying layer. The CdS, CdSe, and ZnS QDs modification expands the photoresponse range of mesoporous TiO2 from ultraviolet region to visible range, as confirmed by UV-Vis spectrum. Optimized anode electrodes led to solar cells producing high current densities. Pt, CuS, PbS, and Cu2S have been used as electrocatalysts on counter electrodes. The maximum solar conversion efficiency reached in this work was 1.52% and was obtained by using Pt electrocatalyst. CuS, PbS, and Cu2S gave high currents and this was in line with the low charge transfer resistances recorded in their case.

  1. Effects of EDTA on phytoextraction of heavy metals (Zn, Mn and Pb) from sludge-amended soil with Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaier, Hanen; Ghnaya, Tahar; Ben Rejeb, Kilani; Lakhdar, Abdelbasset; Rejeb, Salwa; Jemal, Fatima

    2010-06-01

    Sludge application is a reliable practice to ameliorate soil fertility. However, repetitive sludge addition represents a potential soil contamination source with heavy metals, which must be extracted. The aim of this study was to evaluate the capacity of Brassica napus to remove metals from soils amended with sludge, and to study the effect of EDTA on this process. Seedlings were cultivated in presence of sludge combined or not with EDTA. Results showed that sludge ameliorate significantly biomass production. This effect was accompanied with an increase in Pb, Zn and Mn shoot concentrations. EDTA application does not affect significantly plant growth. However, this chelator enhances shoot metals accumulation. It's therefore concluded that sludge has a beneficial effect on soil fertility, B. napus can be used for the decontamination of affected soils and that the EDTA addition increases the ability of B. napus to accumulate heavy metals. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Highly polarized single-c-domain single-crystal Pb(Mn,Nb)O(3)-PZT thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasa, Kiyotaka; Adachi, Hideaki; Nishida, Ken; Yamamoto, Takashi; Matsushima, Tomoaki; Kanno, Isaku; Kotera, Hidetoshi

    2012-01-01

    In-plane unstrained single-c-domain/single-crystal thin films of PZT-based ternary ferroelectric perovskite, ξPb(Mn,Nb)O3-(1 - ξ)PZT, were grown on SrRuO(3)/Pt/MgO substrates using magnetron sputtering followed by quenching. The sputtered unstrained thin films exhibit unique ferroelectric properties: high coercive field, Ec > 180 kV/cm, large remanent polarization, P(r) = 100 μC/cm(2), small relative dielectric constants, ε* = 100 to 150, high Curie temperature, Tc = ~600 °C, and bulk-like large transverse piezoelectric constants, e31,f = -12.0 C/m(2) for PZT(48/52) at ξ = 0.06. The unstrained thin films are an ideal structure to extract the bulk ferroelectric properties. Their micro-structures and ferroelectric properties are discussed in relation to the potential applications for piezoelectric MEMS. © 2012 IEEE

  3. Development of medical guide wire of Cu-Al-Mn-base superelastic alloy with functionally graded characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutou, Yuji; Omori, Toshihiro; Furukawa, Akihisa; Takahashi, Yukinori; Kainuma, Ryosuke; Yamauchi, Kiyoshi; Yamashita, Shuzo; Ishida, Kiyohito

    2004-04-15

    A new type of medical guide wire with functionally graded hardness from the tip to the end was developed with the use of Cu-Al-Mn-based alloys. The superelasticity (SE) of the Cu-Al-Mn-based alloys in the tip is drastically improved by controlling the grain size, whereas the end of the wire is hardened using bainitic transformation by aging at around 200-400 degrees C. Therefore, the tip of the guide wire shows a superelasticity and its end has high stiffness. This guide wire with functionally graded characteristics shows excellent pushability and torquability, superior to that of the Ni-Ti guide wire. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Microstructural evolution and tensile properties of Sn-Ag-Cu mixed with Sn-Pb solder alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Fengjiang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Materials Research Center, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65401 (United States); O' Keefe, Matthew [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Materials Research Center, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65401 (United States)], E-mail: mjokeefe@mst.edu; Brinkmeyer, Brandon [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Materials Research Center, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65401 (United States)

    2009-05-27

    The effect of incorporating eutectic Sn-Pb solder with Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC) Pb-free solder on the microstructure and tensile properties of the mixed alloys was investigated. Alloys containing 100, 75, 50, 25, 20, 15, 10, 5 and 0 wt% SAC, with the balance being Sn-37Pb eutectic solder alloy, were prepared and characterized. Optical and scanning electron microscopy were used to analyze the microstructures while 'mini-tensile' test specimens were fabricated and tested to determine mechanical properties at the mm length scale, more closely matching that of the solder joints. Microstructural analysis indicated that a Pb-rich phase formed and was uniformly distributed at the boundary between the Sn-rich grains or between the Sn-rich and the intermetallic compounds in the solder. Tensile results showed that mixing of the alloys resulted in an increase in both the yield and the ultimate tensile strength compared to the original solders, with the 50% SAC-50% Sn-Pb mixture having the highest measured strength. Initial investigations indicate the formation and distribution of a Pb-rich phase in the mixed solder alloys as the source of the strengthening mechanism.

  5. Tuning of cu doping on phase transition and high-field phase diagram of Nd{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1−x}Cu{sub x}O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shang, C. [Wuhan National High Magnetic Field Center, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Xia, Z.C., E-mail: xia9020@hust.edu.cn [Wuhan National High Magnetic Field Center, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Wei, M.; Jin, Z.; Chen, B.R.; Shi, L.R. [Wuhan National High Magnetic Field Center, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Ouyang, Z.W. [Wuhan National High Magnetic Field Center, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Huang, S.; Xiao, G.L. [Wuhan National High Magnetic Field Center, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2016-10-15

    Pulsed high magnetic fields up to 52 T have been used in the systematic investigation of the magnetic properties of manganites Nd{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1−x}Cu{sub x}O{sub 3} (0≤x≤0.15). The Cu-doping dependent first-order metamagnetic transitions are observed below the charge ordering temperature, which is ascribed to both Cu-doping and field-induced collapse of the charge ordering with antiferromagnetic phase. Based on the magnetization and electrical transport measurements, a three-dimensional phase diagram with coordinate axis of temperature, magnetic field, and doping level has been obtained, in which the critical fields of the metamagnetic transitions increase with the increase in Cu content and decrease with increasing temperature. The experimental results confirm that Mn-site substitution with Cu destroys the Mn{sup 3+}–O{sup 2−}–Mn{sup 4+} bridges and weakens the double exchange interaction between Mn{sup 3+} and Mn{sup 4+} ions, which shows an obvious tuning effect on the metamagnetic transition under the external magnetic field. - Highlights: • Tuning effect of Cu-doping on the properties of Nd{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1−x}Cu{sub x}O{sub 3} was studied. • First-order metamagnetic transition was observed under high magnetic fields. • A phase diagram with temperature, magnetic field and doping level was obtained. • Cu-doping weakens the ferromagnetic coupling in Nd{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1−x}Cu{sub x}O{sub 3}.

  6. Chemical speciation of Pb, Ni Cr, Cu, Co and V in two natural soils and in an antropic agricultural soil contaminated by irrigation with the polluted Rio Bogota waters in its High Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matamoros, Adriana; Vargas, O; Mejia, L

    1999-01-01

    Traditional and continuous irrigation with the highly polluted waters of Rio Bogota in its upper basin has induced in soils, grasses and crops grown next to the river, a gradually increasing accumulation of highly toxic elements like Pb, Ni, Cr, Cu, Cd, Co, V and some others, which represents a real and very high risk for public health whenever grasses and edible crops growing on them absorb these elements above critical or permissible limits. To evaluate the magnitude of this problem three different soils of the Sabana were subjected to the chemical speciation procedure proposed by Tessier (1979) in order to determine: 1) the total content of essential and/or structural elements like Al, Fe, Ca, K, P, Mn and Ti, and the trace elements Pb, Ni, Cr, Cu, Cd, Co and V accumulated through time in the soils; 2) the relative proportion on which each one of them are linked to the different components or fractions of soils (ex. exchangeable, CO 3 , Fe/Mn oxides, O.M. and sulfides, and residual fraction) and 3) the bioavailability or amount of each that could be really absorbed by plants or able to go down to the underground water. Results showed in general for all soils normal values for the essential and/or structural elements and high to very high levels of Pb, Ni, Cu, Cd, Cr, Co y V, higher in Jardines de Colombia and Las Parcelas farms soils than in el Recreo farm soils. This situation is aggravated by the relatively high mobility and high concentration and bioavailability of some of these elements, which increase the risk for public health and the possibility of its migration down to the underground waters

  7. SINTESIS SUPERKONDUKTOR SISTEM (Bi,PbSr(Y,CaCuO BERFASE 1212 DENGAN METODE PELELEHAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sumadiyasa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Superconductors system BPSCCO 1212 phase have been synthesized by solid state reaction with melting methods. The schedules: calcining at 9000C during 10 h, making of pellet, melting at 10100C for 0.1 h, cooling (cooling rate 350C/h to 9800C, and sintering at 9800C during 5, 10, 20, and 30 h. From measurement of XRD, all of the sample has showed to be formed of  Bi-1212 phase. The highest volume fraction reach 91,23 % given by sample which is sintering at 9800C during 10 h. The spectrum pattern show reflection of its 00l extremely high intensity, showing the existence highly textured which as according to the typical behaviour for materials with the c-axis lying normal to the surface plane. The resistivity as function of temperature, that sample not yet shown the existence of Tc0, not yet had the superconducting properties at temperature above 77 K. The SEM shows morphology of surface, showing the existence of  the stacking of plate-like. Analyse EDX at some spots observation, show elements distribution of Bi, Pb, Sr, Y, Ca and Cu nearly homogenous, and its ratio of the spots on grain have been nearly the composition of 1212 phase.

  8. Cu-Pb rheocast alloy as joining material for CFC composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvo, M.

    1995-01-01

    High heat flux components for future use in thermonuclear fusion reactors are designed as layered structures. The assembling of the different parts (armour, heat sink and external structure) requires a joint which could withstand large heat loads and thermal stresses. In this paper we examined a 50 wt% Pb-Cu rheocast alloy (RCA) as joining material for the armour/heat sink joint. The alloy was prepared in vacuum in a rotational furnace and was characterized by SEM-EDS analysis and heating microscopy. The obtained microstructure was globular as foreseen and it remained after prolonged heating at 650 C. The alloy showed very good ductility: sheets of about 200 μm were rolled starting from about 1x1x1 cm 3 cubes. The alloy was successful in joining both the armour and the heat sink materials, respectively, carbon fibre reinforced composites and copper. Initial mechanical testing shows that the technique is viable for the foreseen applications in the field of thermonuclear fusion reactors. (orig.)

  9. Biosorption of Cd, Cr, Mn, and Pb from aqueous solutions by Bacillus sp strains isolated from industrial waste activate sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío García

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Los microorganismos tienen capacidad de acumular metales pesados como agentes bioadsorbentes ofreciendo una alternativa para la remoción de metales tóxicos en aguas de efluentes industriales. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue aislar e identificar bacterias tolerantes a los metales pesados (Cd, Cr, Mn y Pb de lodos activados provenientes de la planta de tratamiento de agua del Municipio de Santa Rosa Jáuregui, Querétaro. Para seleccionar las bacterias que son tolerantes a los metales se aislaron 37 cepas bacterianas de las cuales se seleccionaron la Cepa-13 y Cepa-16 (C-13 y C-16, que presentaron una máxima capacidad de adsorción para los metales estudiados. En este artículo, el término biosorción describe la remoción de contaminantes y la utilización de biomasas (muerta mediante mecanismos fisicoquímicos como el proceso de adsorción o de intercambio iónico. Para obtener las condiciones de máxima adsorción se aplicó un tratamiento alcalino y uno ácido. La capacidad de adsorción fue menor en medio ácido que el bioadsorbente con tratamiento alcalino. Una segunda etapa del estudio fue la biosorción de metales pesados (Cd, Cr, Mn, y Pb utilizando las biomasas muertas de Bacillus sp (cepa C13 y C16 aisladas de los lodos activados de la primera etapa.

  10. A comparative study of metabolism and concentration factors of Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Co and Mg in Carcinus maenas and Cancer irroratus ovaries during ovogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.-L.M.

    1975-01-01

    Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Co, and Mg were analysed in the ovary of Carcinus maenas and Cancer irroratus during ovogenesis. In both ovaries, the relatives rates, expressed as parts per millions as a ratio of wet and dry weight, are the following: Mg>Zn>Fe>Cu>Mn>Co, while in the hemolymph of Cancer irroratus these relative rates are the following: Mg>Cu>Zn>Fe>Mn>Co. Compared to concentrations of these metals in sea water, Mg expected, all metals in the ovary of Cancer irroratus have a concentration factor upper than 1. Compared to the concentration of metals in the hemolymph is, for Fe, Mn, and Co, the concentration factor upper than 1, and for Cu, Zn and Mg, the concentration factor lower than 1. A study of correlations was done between the concentrations of metals considered in pairs, and between the concentrations of metals and the parameters: water content and gonad index [fr

  11. High-density Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductor prepared by rapid thermal melt processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, B. M.; Lalevic, B.; Kear, B. H.; McCandlish, L. E.; Safari, A.; Meskoob, M.

    1989-10-01

    A high quality, dense Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductor has been successfully synthesized by rapid thermal melt processing. Conventionally sintered pellets were melted at 1200 °C, cooled rapidly, and then annealed. As-melted samples exhibited semiconductor behavior, which upon annealing became superconducting at 115 K [Tc(zero)=105 K]. A detailed study of various processing techniques has been carried out.

  12. Transformation of technogenic compounds of Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb in different soil types in model experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladonin, D.V.; Smirnova, M.S.; Karpukhin, M.M.; Plyaskina, O.V.

    2008-01-01

    In model experiment fractional distribution of Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb in soils artificially polluted with readily and sparingly soluble compounds (nitrates and oxides respectively) of these heavy metals was investigated. It is shown that heavy metals fractional distribution may strongly vary depending on the form in which the metal deposits in the soil. Transformation of heavy metals oxides is controlled by two main factors: solubility of an oxide and characteristics of reactions between dissolution products and the soil components

  13. Characterisation of Pb(Mn{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3} ceramics by SEM, XRD, XPS and dielectric permittivity tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molak, A. [Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, Ul. Uniwersytecka 4, PL-40-007 Katowice (Poland)]. E-mail: molak@us.edu.pl; Talik, E. [Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, Ul. Uniwersytecka 4, PL-40-007 Katowice (Poland); Kruczek, M. [Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, Ul. Uniwersytecka 4, PL-40-007 Katowice (Poland); Paluch, M. [Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, Ul. Uniwersytecka 4, PL-40-007 Katowice (Poland); Ratuszna, A. [Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, Ul. Uniwersytecka 4, PL-40-007 Katowice (Poland); Ujma, Z. [Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, Ul. Uniwersytecka 4, PL-40-007 Katowice (Poland)

    2006-03-15

    The Pb(Mn{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3} ceramics has been obtained from oxides by sintering in air, using a two-stage process with precursor columbite-like (Mn{sub 0.5}Nb)O{sub 3} phase. The PbO oxide was added in the second stage. Analysis of the X-ray diffraction pattern shows that the ceramics consist of 91% of major perovskite phase. A monoclinic distortion of the perovskite structure was found. The cell parameters are a = 12.193(3) A, b = 11.966(6) A, c 12.144(2) A, {beta} = 90{sup o}10.7'. The microanalysis made with SEM exhibited fluctuation in chemical composition of the perovskite phase. Precipitation of MnO{sub 2}, PbO and the Pb-Mn-Nb-O phase different from perovskite was found. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to study the electronic structure of the Pb(Mn{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3} ceramics. The core levels of lead, manganese, niobium and oxygen were measured. The shape of valence band ridge is influenced by Mn 3d states. The real average chemical composition obtained from the XPS measurement is Pb{sub 0.99}(Mn{sub 0.42}Nb{sub 0.67})O{sub 2.92}. Broadband dielectric measurement was carried out in 10{sup -2} to 10{sup 6} Hz and within 80-700 K ranges. The dominant relaxation process exhibits characteristic times typical for ionic processes {tau} {sub 0,H} = 1 x 10{sup -11} s for the higher temperature range and, {tau} {sub 0,L} = 1 x 10{sup -9} s for lower temperatures. The activation energy of relaxation process, E {sub M,H} = 0.43 eV and E {sub M,L} = 0.34 eV corresponds to activation energy of electric conductivity. The dielectric relaxation is ascribed to dipoles created by oxygen vacancies and/or Mn-V {sub O} complexes.

  14. Laser surface remelting of a Cu-Al-Ni-Mn shape memory alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero da Silva, Murillo, E-mail: murilloromero_@hotmail.com [Postgraduate Program in Materials Science and Engineering, Federal University of São Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luís, km 235, São Carlos, SP 13565-905 (Brazil); Gargarella, Piter [Department of Materials Engineering, Federal University of São Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luís, km 235, São Carlos, SP 13565-905 (Brazil); Gustmann, Tobias [IFW Dresden, Institute for Complex Materials, Helmholtzstraße 20, d-01069 Dresden (Germany); Botta Filho, Walter José; Kiminami, Claudio S. [Department of Materials Engineering, Federal University of São Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luís, km 235, São Carlos, SP 13565-905 (Brazil); Eckert, Jürgen [Erich Schmid Institute of Materials Science, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Jahnstraße 12, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Department Materials Physics, Montanuniversität Leoben, Jahnstraße 12, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Pauly, Simon [IFW Dresden, Institute for Complex Materials, Helmholtzstraße 20, d-01069 Dresden (Germany); Bolfarini, Claudemiro [Department of Materials Engineering, Federal University of São Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luís, km 235, São Carlos, SP 13565-905 (Brazil)

    2016-04-20

    Cu-based shape memory alloys (SMAs) show better thermal and electrical conductivity, lower cost and are easier to process than traditional Ti-based SMAs, but they exhibit a lower ductility and lower fatigue life. These properties can be improved by decreasing the grain size and reducing microstructural segregations, which may be obtained using laser surface remelting treatments. The aim of the present work was to produce and characterize laser remelted Cu-11.85Al-3.2Ni-3Mn SMA plates. Twelve plates with the dimensions of 50×10×1.5 mm were produced by suction casting in a first step. The surface of the plates was remelted afterwards with a laser beam power of 300 W, hatching of 50% and using three different scanning speeds: 100, 300 and 500 mm/s. The plates were characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry as well as by tensile and microhardness tests. The remelted region showed a T morphology, with average thickness of 52, 29 and 23 µm for the plates remelted with scanning speeds of 100, 300 and 500 mm/s, respectively. In the plates remelted with 100 and 300 mm/s, some pores were found around the center of the track, due to the keyhole instability. The same phase formed in the as-cast sample was obtained in the laser remelted coatings: the monoclinic β′{sub 1} martensitic phase with zig-zag morphology. However, the laser treated samples exhibit lower transformation temperatures than the as-cast sample, due to grain refinement at the surface. They also show an improvement in the mechanical properties, with an increase of up to 162 MPa in fracture stress, up to 2.2% in ductility and up to 20.9 HV in microhardness when compared with the as-cast sample, which makes the laser surface remelting a promising method for improving the mechanical properties of Cu-based SMAs.

  15. Simultaneous analysis of Zn, Cu, Mn, In, As and Sb in Zinc concentrates by neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenorio, F.; Mendoza, P.; Espinosa, R.

    1986-01-01

    A method has been developed for simultaneous analysis by neutronic activation of Zn, Cu, As, Mn, In and Sb in concentrated minerals of Zn. The method is based entirely on the use of instruments as it does not comprise any chemical treatments. Samples and models are submitted to irradiation for 60 minutes in a flux of thermal neutrons of 1.5x10 n/cm 2 s in the reactor RP-0 of IPEN. The induced activities are measured by gamma spectrometry of high resolution using an intrinsic detector of germanium. One measurement is made immediately after the irradiation of 2000s and another 24 hours after the 3600s irradiation. The interference, the reproductibility, and the limits of detection of each element are discussed. The analytic results of 5 zinc concentrates are compared with the ones obtained by atomic absorption showing excellent concordance. The method is particularly adaptable to portable radioisotope sources of neutrons making it possible to use it in sites such as industrial plants

  16. Temperature dependence of electroluminescent emission from (ZnS : Cu, Mn(H)) type luminophors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, L.K.

    1986-04-01

    The dependence of electroluminescent yield on temperature for hydrogen coactivated (ZnS : Cu, Mn) type triple band emitting phosphors has been investigated at various temperatures under varied operating conditions of excitations. The influence of the excitation frequency, voltage and of emission wavelengths for the electroluminescent characteristics has also been observed on temperature variations. The results have also been studied for temperature dependences of emitting brightness under the excitation by UV-radiations of 3650 A.U. and a comparison is made between temperature dependent characteristics of E.L. and PL-brightness of emissions. It was observed that, as usual, brightness maxima on temperature scale varied with alteration of operating electric fields regarding frequency and voltage both for blue, green and yellow orange emissions of attempted samples. The important thing which is observed here, is that with regards the temperature EL-intensities vary respectively for all respective emissions but emission peaks are not shifted on wave-length scale. This no shift is due to the narrowly and compactly distributed coactivator levels of hydrogen. (author)

  17. Effect Of Cooling Rate On Thermal And Mechanical Properties Of Cu-%24.2Mn Alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celik, H.

    2010-01-01

    In this research, different heat and mechanical treatments have been applied to the Cu-%24.2Mn and some samples have been obtained from this alloy. On these samples, phase transformations have been formed by thermal and mechanical effect. Morphological, mechanical and crystallographic properties of the phase transformations have been examined by using different physical methods. Austenite phase has been obtained in the samples which have been applied slow and rapid cooling according to the SEM analysis. It has been observed that the grain size obtained by the rapid cooling is smaller than the grain size obtained by the slow cooling. Therefore, it has been concluded that the cooling process differences, changes the grain size of the alloy. Compression stress has been applied to the alloy in order to search the deformation effect on the austenite phase transformation. The structural features of the phase transformations have been examined. Slip lines and martensite structural were observed on the surface of the alloys after the deformation. Changes in phase structure of the alloy are also examined by means of XRD technique.

  18. Microscopy modifications in an aged Cu-Al-Ni-Mn alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gama, J.L.L.; Ferreira, R.A.S.

    2010-01-01

    An Cu-12Al-4Ni-3Mn shape memory alloy have been manufactured using an induction furnace of 24 KVA. After melting, chemical analyse was performed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF). The phase transformation of this alloy was studied in the different sequences produced during thermomechanic treatments. After homogenization, the ingot was solution treated at 850 deg C. At 750 deg C samples were submitted to a reduction by rolling to about 30% in thickness, followed by water quenching. In sequence, the ingot was cold-rolled at different thicknesses. In deformed state, sample of this alloy was submitted to the thermal analyse-DTA for identification of the phase transformation domains. For each identified domain, ageing was carried out, at different times, to evaluate the presence of the different phases. Samples were characterized ray-X diffraction. The results showed that the microstructural evolutions are of a complex nature. At 425 deg C temperature both recrystallization and precipitation of different phases were simultaneously observed. (author)

  19. X-ray resonant Raman scattering cross sections of Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Hector Jorge; Valentinuzzi, MarIa Cecilia; Perez, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence spectra present singular characteristics produced by the different scattering processes. When atoms are irradiated with incident energy lower and close to an absorption edge, scattering peaks appear due to an inelastic process known as resonant Raman scattering. It constitutes an important contribution to the background of the fluorescent line. The resonant Raman scattering must be taken into account in the determination of low concentration contaminants, especially when the elements have proximate atomic numbers. The values of the mass attenuation coefficients experimentally obtained when materials are analysed with monochromatic x-ray beams under resonant conditions differ from the theoretical values (between 5% and 10%). This difference is due, in part, to the resonant Raman scattering. Monochromatic synchrotron radiation was used to study the Raman effect on pure samples of Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn. Energy scans were carried out in different ranges of energy near the absorption edge of the target element. As the Raman peak has a non-symmetric shape, theoretical models for the differential cross section, convoluted with the instrument function, were used to determine the RRS cross section as a function of the incident energy

  20. Evolution of electrical properties and domain configuration of Mn modified Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-PbTiO3 single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Huimin; He, Chao; Yuan, Feifei; Wang, Zujian; Li, Xiuzhi; Liu, Ying; Guo, Haiyan; Long, Xifa

    2018-04-01

    The acceptor doped relaxor-based ferroelectric materials are useful for high power applications such as probes in ultrasound-guided high intensity focused ultrasound therapy. In addition, a high Curie temperature is desired because of wider temperature usage and improved temperature stability. Previous investigations have focused on Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 and Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 systems, which have a ultrahigh piezoelectric coefficient and dielectric constant, but a relatively low Curie temperature. It is desirable to study the binary relaxor-based system with a high Curie temperature. Therefore, Pb(In1/2Nb1/2)O3-PbTiO3 (PINT) single crystals were chosen to study the Mn-doped influence on their electrical properties and domain configuration. The evolution of ferroelectric hysteresis loops for doped and virgin samples exhibit the pinning effect in Mn-doped PINT crystals. The relaxation behaviors of doped and virgin samples are studied by fit of the modified Curie-Weiss law and Volgel-Fucher relation. In addition, a short-range correlation length was fitted to study the behavior of polar nanoregions based on the domain configuration obtained by piezoresponse force microscopy. Complex domain structures and smaller short-range correlation lengths (100-150 nm for Mn-doped PINT and >400 nm for pure PINT) were obtained in the Mn-doped PINT single crystals.

  1. Aging effects on the microstructure, surface characteristics and wettability of Cu pretinned with Sn-Pb solders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linch, Heidi Sue [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1993-11-01

    This study investigates effects of aging in air and argon at 170 C on Cu coupons which were pretinned with 75Sn-25Pb, 8Sn-92Pb, and 5Sn-95Pb solders. Coatings were applied using electroplating or hot dipping techniques. The coating thickness was controlled between 3 to 3μm and the specimens were aged for 0 hours, 2 hours, 24 hours and 2 weeks. Wetting balance tests were used to evaluate the wettability of the test specimens. Microstructural development was evaluated using X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray and Auger spectroscopy, as well as optical and scanning electron microscopy. The wetting behavior of the test specimens is interpreted with respect to observed microstructural changes and as a function of aging time, solder composition, and processing conditions.

  2. Population health risk via dietary exposure to trace elements (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Hg, and As) in Qiqihar, Northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jinming; Meng, Jia; Ye, Yajie; Wang, Yongjie; Bai, Lin

    2018-02-01

    The estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of six trace elements (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Hg, and As) in vegetables (leafy vegetable, i.e., bok choy, fruit vegetables, i.e., cucumber and tomato, and other categories, i.e., mushroom, kidney bean, and potato), cereals (rice and wheat flour), and meats (pork, mutton, and beef) most commonly consumed by adult inhabitants of Qiqihar, Northeastern China, were determined to assess the health status of local people. The average EDIs of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Hg, and As were with 20.77 μg (kg bw) -1 day -1 of Cu, 288 μg (kg bw) -1 day -1 of Zn, 2.01 μg (kg bw) -1 day -1 of Pb, 0.41 μg (kg bw) -1 day -1 of Cd, 0.01 μg (kg bw) -1 day -1 of Hg, and 0.52 μg (kg bw) -1 day -1 of As, respectively, which are below the daily allowance recommended by FAO/WHO. However, the maximum EDIs of Pb and Cd were 4.56 μg (kg bw) -1 day -1 and 1.68 μg (kg bw) -1 day -1 , respectively, which are above the recommended levels [i.e., 3.58 μg (kg bw) -1 day -1 for Pb and 1.0 μg (kg bw) -1 day -1 for Cd] by FAO/WHO. This finding indicates that the potential health risk induced by daily ingestion of Pb and Cd for the local residents should receive a significant concern. Similarly, we detected elevated Pb and Cd concentrations, i.e., with average of 13.58 and 0.60 mg kg -1 dw, respectively, in the adult scalp hairs. Consumption of rice, potato, bok choy, and wheat flour contributed to 75 and 82% of Pb and Cd daily intake from foodstuffs. Nevertheless, human scalp hair is inappropriate biological material for determination of the nutritional status of trace elements in this region.

  3. Fabrication and electrochemical properties of activated CNF/Cu x Mn1- x Fe2O4 composite nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilmoung, Sukanya; Sonsupap, Somchai; Sawangphruk, Montree; Maensiri, Santi

    2018-06-01

    This work reports the fabrication and electrochemical properties of activated carbon nanofibers composited with copper manganese ferrite (ACNF/Cu x Mn1- x Fe2O4: x = 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8) nanostructures. The obtained samples were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analyzer, thermal gravimetric analysis, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The supercapacitive behavior of the electrodes is tested using cyclic voltammetery, galvanostatic charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. By varying ` x', the highest specific capacitance of 384 F/g at 2 mV/s using CV and 314 F/g at 2 A/g using GCD are obtained for the x = 0.2 electrode. The second one of 235 F/g at 2 mV/s using CV and 172 F/g at 2 A/g using GCD are observed for x = 0.8 electrode. The corresponding energy densities are 74 and 41 Wh/kg, respectively. It is observed that the cyclic stability of the prepared samples strongly depend on the amount of carbon, while the specific capacitance was enhanced by the sample with nearly proportional amount between carbon and CuMnFe2O4. Such results may arise from the synergetic effect between CuMnFe2O4 and ACNF.

  4. The Structure and Mechanical Properties of Ni-Mo PM Steels with Addition of Mn And Cu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichańska, E.; Kulecki, P.; Pańcikiewicz, K.

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of chemical composition on the structure and mechanical properties of Mn-Ni-Mo and Ni-Mo-Cu PM steels. Pre-alloyed powder Astaloy 85Mo, diffusion alloyed powders Distaloy AQ and Distaloy AB produced by Höganäs, low carbon ferromanganese, carbonyl nickel powder T255 with three-dimensional filamentary structure and graphite CU-F have been used as the basic powders. Three mixtures with compositions of Fe-1%Mn-(0.5/1.75)%Ni-(0.5/0.85)%Mo-0.8%C and Fe-1.75%Ni-0.5%Mo-1.5%Cu-0.8%C were prepared in a Turbula mixer. Green compacts were single pressed in a steel die at 660 MPa according to PN-EN ISO 2740 standard. Sinterhardening was carried out at 1250°C in a mixture of 95% N2+5% H2 for 60 minutes. Mechanical tests (tensile, bend, hardness) and microstructural investigations were performed. Additionally, XRD and EDS analysis, fractographic investigations were carried out. The microstructures of steels investigated were mainly bainitic or bainitic-martensitic. Addition 1% Mn to Distaloy AQ based steel caused increase of tensile properties (YS from 422 to 489 MPa, UTS from 522 to 638 MPa, TRS from 901 to 1096 MPa) and decrease of plasticity (elongation from 3.65 to 2.84%).

  5. Merging of Kirkendall Growth and Ostwald Ripening: CuO@MnO2 Core-shell Architectures for Asymmetric Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ming; Zhang, Yuxin; Li, Fei; Wang, Zhongchang; Alamusi; Hu, Ning; Wen, Zhiyu; Liu, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Fabricating hierarchical core-shell nanostructures is currently the subject of intensive research in the electrochemical field owing to the hopes it raises for making efficient electrodes for high-performance supercapacitors. Here, we develop a simple and cost-effective approach to prepare CuO@MnO2 core-shell nanostructures without any surfactants and report their applications as electrodes for supercapacitors. An asymmetric supercapacitor with CuO@MnO2 core-shell nanostructure as the positive electrode and activated microwave exfoliated graphite oxide (MEGO) as the negative electrode yields an energy density of 22.1 Wh kg−1 and a maximum power density of 85.6 kW kg−1; the device shows a long-term cycling stability which retains 101.5% of its initial capacitance even after 10000 cycles. Such a facile strategy to fabricate the hierarchical CuO@MnO2 core-shell nanostructure with significantly improved functionalities opens up a novel avenue to design electrode materials on demand for high-performance supercapacitor applications. PMID:24682149

  6. Construction and characterization of nonenzymatic glucose sensor from recycling of Co, Cu and Mn from spent batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvatici, Livia Serra; Favalessa, Luiza Botan; Loureiro, Eduardo dos Santos; Dixini, Pedro Vitor Morbach; Freitas, Marcos Benedito Jose de; Celante, Vinicius Guilherme

    2016-01-01

    Full text: In this work, Co, Cu and MnO 2 films were synthesized from the electrochemical recycling of spent Li-ion and alkaline batteries and applied as non-enzymatic electrochemical sensors for glucose determination in aqueous solution. The batteries were dismantled, physically separated into different constituents and leached solution of acetic acid 3:1 v/v. The films were synthesized in potentiostatic condition with E =-0.90 V and fixed charge density of 10 C.cm -2 on glassy carbon substrate with area equal to 3.0 mm 2 . Measurements of X-ray diffraction showed the Co structures (111), Cu (101) and MnO 2 (110). By analysis of scanning electron microscopy, a homogeneous coating of the surface was observed without the presence of surface irregularities. For energy dispersive X-ray, Co, Cu, Mn and O were observed. These films were subsequently used in determining glucose in aqueous solution by measures of successive voltammetric cycles in solutions of concentration varying from 0.1 to 0.5 g/l. These solutions were related to anodic peak current (I peak ), relative oxidation of glucose in glucolactona, the concentration of the solution, obtaining a linear correlation coefficient of 0.989. The sensor stability was measured in 20 voltammetric cycles in each solution, obtaining a correlation coefficient equal to 0978, being stable in the measurements. (author)

  7. Determination of Mn, Fe, and Cu in chemically-treated wood pulps by the XRF addition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raemoe, J.; Klasila, T.; Piepponen, S. [VTT Chemical Technology (Finland); Sillanpaeae, M. [Oulu Univ. (Finland)

    2001-08-01

    A rapid X-ray fluorescence addition method has been developed for quantification of the technically most important metals in wood pulp matrix (Mn, Fe, and Cu). Pretreatment consisted of just two steps: first, acid was added to the sample to achieve homogeneous distribution of the metals; the pulp was then pressed lightly on to Mylar film. Total analysis time was less than 10 min. The concentration range investigated was up to 15 mg kg{sup -1} for Mn and up to 5 mg kg{sup -1} for Fe and Cu. Metal concentrations in Scandinavian pulps are not expected to exceed these amounts. The quantification limit was 2 mg kg{sup -1} for all three metals. The reproducibilities and repeatabilities were concentration-dependent and varied between 3 and 19% and between 1 and 17%, respectively. The squares of the linear correlation coefficients between measured intensity and added metal concentration were 0.994, 0.950, and 0.932 for Mn, Fe, and Cu, respectively. (orig.)

  8. Free-standing hierarchical α-MnO2@CuO membrane for catalytic filtration degradation of organic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xinsheng; Liang, Heng; Qu, Fangshu; Ding, An; Cheng, Xiaoxiang; Tang, Chuyang Y; Li, Guibai

    2018-06-01

    Catalytic membrane, due to its compact reactor assembling, high catalytic performance as well as low energy consumption, has proved to be more attractive for wastewater treatment. In this work, a free-standing α-MnO 2 @CuO membrane with hierarchical nanostructures was prepared and evaluated as the catalytic membrane to generate radicals from peroxymonosulfate (PMS) for the oxidative degradation of organic dyes in aqueous solution. Benefiting from the high mass transport efficiency and the hierarchical nanostructures, a superior catalytic activity of the membrane was observed for organic dyes degradation. As a typical organic dye, more than 99% of methylene blue (MB) was degraded within 0.23 s using dead-end filtration cell. The effects of flow rate, PMS concentration and buffer solution on MB degradation were further investigated. Besides MB, the catalytic membrane also showed excellent performance for the removal of other dyes, such as congo red, methyl orange, rhodamine B, acid chrome blue K and malachite green. Moreover, the mechanism study indicated that OH and SO 4 - generated from the interaction between PMS and Mn/Cu species with different oxidation states mainly accounted for the dyes degradation. The catalytic filtration process using α-MnO 2 @CuO catalytic membrane could provide a novel method for wastewater purification with high efficiency and low energy consumption. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterisation of the early stages of solute clustering in 1Ni-1.3Mn welds containing Cu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyde, J.M., E-mail: jonathan.hyde@materials.ox.ac.uk [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); National Nuclear Laboratory Ltd, B168 Harwell, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QJ (United Kingdom); Burke, M.G. [Bechtel Bettis Inc., 814 Pittsburgh-McKeesport Blvd, West Mifflin, Pittsburgh 15122-0079 (United States); Boothby, R.M.; English, C.A. [National Nuclear Laboratory Ltd, B168 Harwell, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QJ (United Kingdom)

    2009-04-15

    Microstructural characterisation of neutron irradiated low alloy steels is important for developing mechanistic understanding of irradiation embrittlement. This work is focused on the early stages of irradiation-induced clustering in a low Cu (0.03 wt%), high Ni ({approx}1 wt%) weld. The weld was irradiated at a very high dose rate and then examined by atom probe (energy-compensated position-sensitive atom probe (ECOPoSAP) and local electrode atom probe (LEAP)) with supporting microstructural information obtained by small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and positron annihilation (PALA). It was demonstrated that extreme care must be taken optimising parameters used to characterise the extent of clustering. This is particularly important during the early stages of irradiation-damage when the clusters are poorly defined and significant compositional variations are present in what is traditionally described as matrix. Analysis of the irradiated materials showed increasing clustering of Cu, Mn, Ni and Si with dose. In the low Cu steel the results showed that initially the irradiation damage results in clustering of Mn, Ni and Si, but at very high doses, at very high dose rates, redistribution of Si is significantly more advanced than that for Mn and Ni.

  10. Correlation between electron work functions of multiphase Cu-8Mn-8Al and de-alloying corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punburi, P.; Tareelap, N.; Srisukhumbowornchai, N.; Euaruksakul, C.; Yordsri, V.

    2018-05-01

    Low energy electron emission microscopy (LEEM) was used to measure local transition energy that was directly correlated to electron work function (EWF) of multiphase manganese-aluminum bronze alloys. We developed color mapping to distinguish the EWF of multiple phases and clarified that the EWF were in the following order: EWF of α > EWF of β > EWF of κ (EWFα > EWFβ > EWFκ). De-alloying corrosion took place due to the micro-galvanic cell at grain boundaries before it propagated into the β phase that had lower EWF than the α phase. The α phase was a stable phase because it contained high Cu while the β phase contained high Al and Mn. In addition, XRD analysis showed that the texture coefficient of the β phase revealed that almost all of the grains had (2 2 0) orientation, the lowest EWF compared to (1 1 1) and (2 0 0). Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy illustrated that there were fine Cu3Mn2Al precipitates in the Cu2MnAl matrix of the β phase. These precipitates formed micro-galvanic cells which played an important role in accelerating de-alloying corrosion.

  11. Structure and soft magnetic properties of Fe-Si-B-P-Cu nanocrystalline alloys with minor Mn addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingjie Jia

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Addition of minor Mn effectively improves the amorphous-forming ability and thermal stability of the Fe85Si2B8P4Cu1 alloy. With increasing the Mn content from 0 to 3 at.%, the critical thickness for amorphous formation and onset temperature of the primary crystallization increase from 14 μm and 659 K to 27 μm and 668 K, respectively. The fine nanocrystalline structure with α-Fe grains in size (D of < 20 nm was obtained for the annealed amorphous alloys, which show excellent soft magnetic properties. The alloying of Mn reduces the coercivity (Hc by decreasing the D value and widens the optimum annealing temperature range for obtaining low Hc, although the saturation magnetic flux density (Bs is decreased slightly. The Fe83Mn2Si2B8P4Cu1 nanocrystalline alloy possesses fine structure with a D of ∼17.5 nm, and exhibits a high Bs of ∼1.75 T and a low Hc of ∼5.9 A/m. The mechanism related to the alloying effects on the structure and magnetic properties was discussed in term of the crystallization activation energy.

  12. Structure and soft magnetic properties of Fe-Si-B-P-Cu nanocrystalline alloys with minor Mn addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xingjie; Li, Yanhui; Wu, Licheng; Zhang, Wei

    2018-05-01

    Addition of minor Mn effectively improves the amorphous-forming ability and thermal stability of the Fe85Si2B8P4Cu1 alloy. With increasing the Mn content from 0 to 3 at.%, the critical thickness for amorphous formation and onset temperature of the primary crystallization increase from 14 μm and 659 K to 27 μm and 668 K, respectively. The fine nanocrystalline structure with α-Fe grains in size (D) of < 20 nm was obtained for the annealed amorphous alloys, which show excellent soft magnetic properties. The alloying of Mn reduces the coercivity (Hc) by decreasing the D value and widens the optimum annealing temperature range for obtaining low Hc, although the saturation magnetic flux density (Bs) is decreased slightly. The Fe83Mn2Si2B8P4Cu1 nanocrystalline alloy possesses fine structure with a D of ˜17.5 nm, and exhibits a high Bs of ˜1.75 T and a low Hc of ˜5.9 A/m. The mechanism related to the alloying effects on the structure and magnetic properties was discussed in term of the crystallization activation energy.

  13. Theoretical study of EPR spectra in Cu2+ - and Mn2+ - doped CaCd(CH3COO)4.6H2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yiyang; Zhao Minguang

    1987-08-01

    The EPR spectra of CaCd(CH 3 COO) 4 .6H 2 O doped with Cu 2+ and Mn 2+ have been studied theoretically. A comparison between the calculated results and the experimental data shows quantitatively that the Cu 2+ and Mn 2+ ions substitute for the Cd 2+ and Ca 2+ ions, respectively. This conclusion is consistent with the qualitative assumption given by previous authors. (author). 36 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs

  14. Application of neutron activation analysis to evaluate the health status of equines by means of Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn determinations in their hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armelin, M.J.A.; Avila, R.L.; Piasentin, R.M.; Saiki, M.

    2001-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was applied to evaluate the clinical status of equines, belonging to the Military Police of Sao Paulo State, by means of Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn determinations in their hair. Comparison of the results obtained in these analyses with reference values indicated Zn deficiency in the equines, Fe is in the minimum limit and the elements Cu and Mn are within the normal range. (author)

  15. Impact of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris (L.) on As, Cu, Pb and Zn mobility and speciation in contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sizmur, Tom; Palumbo-Roe, Barbara; Watts, Michael J.; Hodson, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    To assess the risks that contaminated soils pose to the environment properly a greater understanding of how soil biota influence the mobility of metal(loid)s in soils is required. Lumbricus terrestris L. were incubated in three soils contaminated with As, Cu, Pb and Zn. The concentration and speciation of metal(loid)s in pore waters and the mobility and partitioning in casts were compared with earthworm-free soil. Generally the concentrations of water extractable metal(loid)s in earthworm casts were greater than in earthworm-free soil. The impact of the earthworms on concentration and speciation in pore waters was soil and metal specific and could be explained either by earthworm induced changes in soil pH or soluble organic carbon. The mobilisation of metal(loid)s in the environment by earthworm activity may allow for leaching or uptake into biota. - Research highlights: → Earthworms increase the mobility and availability of metals and metalloids in soils. → We incubated L. terrestris in three soils contaminated with As, Cu, Pb and Zn. → Earthworms increased the mobility of As, Cu, Pb and Zn in their casts. → The mechanisms for this could be explained by changes in pH or organic carbon. - Lumbricus terrestris change the partitioning of metal(loid)s between soil constituents and increase the mobility of metal(loid)s in casts and pore water.

  16. Counter-current acid leaching process for the removal of Cu, Pb, Sb and Zn from shooting range soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafond, Stéphanie; Blais, Jean-François; Mercier, Guy; Martel, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This research explores the performance of a counter-current leaching process (CCLP) for Cu, Pb, Sb and Zn extraction in a polluted shooting range soil. The initial metal concentrations in the soil were 1790 mg Cu/kg, 48,300 mg Pb/kg, 840 mg Sb/kg and 368 mg Zn/kg. The leaching process consisted of five one-hour acid leaching steps, which used 1 M H2SO4 + 4 M NaCl (20 degrees C, soil suspension = 100 g/L) followed by two water rinsing steps. Ten counter-current remediation cycles were completed and the average metal removal yields were 98.3 +/- 0.3% of Cu, 99.5 +/- 0.1% of Pb, 75.5 +/- 5.1% of Sb and 29.1 +/- 27.2% of Zn. The quality of metal leaching did not deteriorate throughout the 10 remediation cycles completed for this study. The CCLP reduced acid and salt use by approximately 68% and reduced water consumption by approximately 60%, exceeding reductions achieved by a standard acid leaching process.

  17. Synthesis of poly(aminopropyl/methyl)silsesquioxane particles as effective Cu(II) and Pb(II) adsorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xin; Yin, Qiangfeng; Xin, Zhong; Li, Yang; Han, Ting

    2011-11-30

    Poly(aminopropyl/methyl)silsesquioxane (PAMSQ) particles have been synthesized by a one-step hydrolytic co-condensation process using 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS) as precursors in the presence of base catalyst in aqueous medium. The amino functionalities of the particles could be controlled by adjusting the organosilanes feed ratio. The compositions of the amino-functionalized polysilsesquioxanes were confirmed by FT-IR spectroscopy, solid-state (29)Si NMR spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. The strong adsorbability of Cu(II) and Pb(II) ions onto PAMSQ particles was systematically examined. The effect of adsorption time, initial metal ions concentration and pH of solutions was studied to optimize the metal ions adsorbability of PAMSQ particles. The kinetic studies indicated that the adsorption process well fits the pseudo-second-order kinetics. Adsorption phenomena appeared to follow Langmuir isotherm. The PAMSQ particles demonstrate the highest Cu(II) and Pb(II) adsorption capacity of 2.29 mmol/g and 1.31 mmol/g at an initial metal ions concentration of 20mM, respectively. The PAMSQ particles demonstrate a promising application in the removal of Cu(II) and Pb(II) ions from aqueous solutions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris (L.) on As, Cu, Pb and Zn mobility and speciation in contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sizmur, Tom, E-mail: t.p.sizmur@reading.ac.uk [Soil Research Centre, Department of Geography and Environmental Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6DW (United Kingdom); Palumbo-Roe, Barbara; Watts, Michael J. [British Geological Survey, Kingsley Dunham Centre, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Hodson, Mark E. [Soil Research Centre, Department of Geography and Environmental Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6DW (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-15

    To assess the risks that contaminated soils pose to the environment properly a greater understanding of how soil biota influence the mobility of metal(loid)s in soils is required. Lumbricus terrestris L. were incubated in three soils contaminated with As, Cu, Pb and Zn. The concentration and speciation of metal(loid)s in pore waters and the mobility and partitioning in casts were compared with earthworm-free soil. Generally the concentrations of water extractable metal(loid)s in earthworm casts were greater than in earthworm-free soil. The impact of the earthworms on concentration and speciation in pore waters was soil and metal specific and could be explained either by earthworm induced changes in soil pH or soluble organic carbon. The mobilisation of metal(loid)s in the environment by earthworm activity may allow for leaching or uptake into biota. - Research highlights: > Earthworms increase the mobility and availability of metals and metalloids in soils. > We incubated L. terrestris in three soils contaminated with As, Cu, Pb and Zn. > Earthworms increased the mobility of As, Cu, Pb and Zn in their casts. > The mechanisms for this could be explained by changes in pH or organic carbon. - Lumbricus terrestris change the partitioning of metal(loid)s between soil constituents and increase the mobility of metal(loid)s in casts and pore water.

  19. Trace Elements (Pb, Zn, Cu in Blood of Mute Swan (Cygnus olor from the Isonzo River Nature Reserve (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Isani*, M Cipone, G Andreani, E Carpenè, E Ferlizza, K Kravos1 and F Perco1

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Lead concentrations in blood of 45 specimens of mute swan from the molting area of the Isonzo River Mouth Nature Reserve (Italy were determined in two consecutive years (2006-2007, some birds were neck ringed to identify their homing behavior. The second sampling included whole body X-ray radiography and Cu and Zn plasma analyses to investigate the health impact of putative Pb exposure. X-ray images of all investigated specimens did not show any radiopacity due to the ingestion of metal bodies. Lead levels (0.08-0.44 g/ml were in the range of those reported for swans living in unpolluted or slightly polluted environments and excluded acute intoxication, as confirmed by clinical investigation. Zinc concentrations ranged between 2.93 and 7.59 g/ml and were one order of magnitude higher than Cu concentrations (0.21-0.42 g/ml. The negative correlation between Pb and Zn concentrations could be indicative of adverse health effects caused by chronic lead exposure. To our knowledge this is the first study reporting Pb, Zn and Cu blood levels, X-ray radiographies and data on the origin of swan populations.

  20. The relationships between heavy metal (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn) levels and the size of six Mediterranean fish species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canli, Mustafa; Atli, Gueluezar

    2003-01-01

    Significant relationships between metal concentrations and fish size were negative. - Heavy metal (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn) concentrations in the muscle, gill and liver of six fish species (Sparus auratus, Atherina hepsetus, Mugil cephalus, Trigla cuculus, Sardina pilchardus and Scomberesox saurus) from the northeast Mediterranean Sea were measured and the relationships between fish size (length and weight) and metal concentrations in the tissues were investigated by linear regression analysis. Metal concentrations (as μg/g d.w.) were highest in the liver, except for iron in the gill of Scomberesox saurus and lowest in the muscle of all the fish species. Highest concentrations of Cd (4.50), Cr (17.1) and Pb (41.2) were measured in liver tissues of T. cuculus, Sardina pilchardus and A. hepsetus, respectively. The liver of M. cephalus showed strikingly high Cu concentrations (202.8). The gill of Scomberesox saurus was the only tissue that showed highest (885.5) iron concentrations. Results of linear regression analysis showed that, except in a few cases, significant relationships between metal concentrations and fish size were negative. Highly significant (P<0.001) negative relationships were found between fish length and Cr concentrations in the liver of A. hepsetus and M. cephalus, and Cr concentrations in the gill of T. cuculus. Cr and Pb concentrations in the liver and Cu concentrations in all the tissues of Scomberesox saurus also showed very significant (P<0.001) negative relationships. Negative relationships found here were discussed

  1. Mapping of Cu and Pb Contaminations in Soil Using Combined Geochemistry, Topography, and Remote Sensing: A Case Study in the Le’an River Floodplain, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Gao

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal pollution in soil is becoming a widely concerning environmental problem in China. The aim of this study is to integrate multiple sources of data, namely total Cu and Pb contents, digital elevation model (DEM data, remote sensing image and interpreted land-use data, for mapping the spatial distribution of total Cu and Pb contamination in top soil along the Le’an River and its branches. Combined with geographical analyses and watershed delineation, the source and transportation route of pollutants are identified. Regions at high risk of Cu or Pb pollution are suggested. Results reveal that topography is the major factor that controls the spatial distribution of Cu and Pb. Watershed delineation shows evidence that the streamflow resulting from rainfall is the major carrier of metal pollutants.

  2. Phase equilibria and homogeneity range of the high temperature superconducting compound (Bi,Pb)2+xSr2Ca2Cu3O10+δ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaesche, S.

    1995-01-01

    For the superconducting cuprates (Bi,Pb) 2+x Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O 10+y phase equilibria, the homogeneity region, and the phase formation has been studied in the temperture range 800 to 890 C. Sintered samples were prepared by a solid state reaction starting from Bi 2 O 3 , PbO, CuO and carbonates CaCO 3 and SrCO 3 in a three-stage calcination process. For the phase identification polarization microscopy, X-ray diffraction and susceptibility measurements have been applied. Multi-phase regions were determined in the cross section of the quasi-ternary system (Bi,Pb) 2 O 3 -SrO-CaO-CuO with constant Bi/(Bi+Pb) ratio 0.84 taking into account the 2223-phase. The homogeneity region was determined as function of Sr, Ca, Bi and Pb concentration. Its maximum size was found at 850 C

  3. Water Soluble Cationic Porphyrin Sensor for Detection of Hg2+, Pb2+, Cd2+, and Cu2+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matibur Zamadar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we report the sensing properties of the aqueous solution of meso-tetra(N-methyl-4-pyridylporphine tetrachloride (1 for simultaneous detection of toxic metal ions by using UV-vis spectroscopy. Cationic porphyrin 1 displayed different electronic absorptions in UV-vis region upon interacting with Hg2+, Pb2+, Cd2+, and Cu2+ ions in neutral water solution at room temperature. Quite interestingly, the porphyrin 1 showed that it can function as a single optical chemical sensor and/or metal ion receptor capable of detecting two or more toxic metal ions, particularly Hg2+, Pb2+, and Cd2+ ions coexisting in a water sample. Porphyrin 1 in an aqueous solution provides a unique UV-vis sensing system for the determination of Cd2+ in the presence of larger metal ions such as Hg2+, or Pb2+. Finally, the examination of the sensing properties of 1 demonstrated that it can operate as a Cu2+ ion selective sensor via metal displacement from the 1-Hg2+, 1-Pb2+, and 1-Cd2+.

  4. Feasibility of internal standardization in the direct and simultaneous determination of As, Cu and Pb in sugar-cane spirits by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldas, Naise Mary; Ruella Oliveira, Silvana; Anchieta Gomes Neto, Jose

    2009-01-01

    Bismuth and Sb were evaluated as internal standards (IS) to minimize matrix effects on the direct and simultaneous determination of As, Cu, and Pb in cachaca by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry using W-coated platform plus Pd-Mg(NO 3 ) 2 as modifier. For 20 μL injected sample, calibration within the 0.5-10 μg L -1 As, 100-1000 μg L -1 Cu and 0.5-30 μg L -1 Pb intervals were established using the ratios As absorbance to Sb absorbance, Cu absorbance to Bi absorbance and Pb absorbance to Bi absorbance versus analytes concentration, respectively. Typical linear correlations of 0.998, 0.999 and 0.999 were, respectively, obtained. The proposed method was applied for direct determination of As, Cu and Pb in 10 commercial cachaca samples and results were in agreement with those obtained by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry at 95% confidence level. The found characteristic masses were 30 pg As, 274 pg Cu and 39 pg Pb. The useful lifetime of the graphite tube was around 760 firings. Recoveries of As, Cu and Pb added to cachaca samples varied, respectively, from 98% to 109%, 97% to 108% and 98% to 104% with internal standards and from 48% to 54%, 53% to 92% and 62% to 97% without internal standards. The limits of detection were 0.13 μg L -1 As, 22 μg L -1 Cu and 0.05 μg L -1 Pb. The relative standard deviations (n = 12) for a spiked sample containing 20 μg L -1 As, Pb and 500 μg L -1 Cu were 1.6%, 1.0%, and 1.8% with IS and 4.3%, 5.2%, and 5.5% without IS

  5. Photoelectric properties by interface effect of organic/inorganic(CuPc/PbTe) multilayer prepared by pulsed laser deposition and thermal evaporation

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, H Y; Choi, B C; Jeong, J H; Tabata, H; Kawai, T

    1999-01-01

    Highly crystallized CuPc/PbTe multilayer are prepared at substrate temperature from room temperature to 300 .deg. C by pulsed laser deposition and thermal evaporation method. From the measurement of AFM image, these all film exhibits composed of round grains and flat matrix. For observation the interface effect of multilayer, we measured the transverse current-voltage characteristics in the dark and under illumination. The photocarrier is generated in the CuPc layer and the electron-hole pairs are separated by the steep incline of the potential near the CuPc/PbTe interface. The CuPc/PbTe multilayers in the in-plane current-voltage curve exhibit larger photoconduction effect than that of CuPc single layer.

  6. Teores de Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni E Co em solos de referência de Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Miranda Biondi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Metais pesados formam um grupo de elementos com particularidades relevantes e de ocorrência natural no ambiente, como elementos acessórios na constituição de rochas. Esses elementos, apesar de associados à toxidez, exigem tratamento diferenciado em relação aos xenobióticos, uma vez que diversos metais possuem essencialidade (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn e Ni e benefício (Co comprovados para as plantas. Nesse contexto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar os teores naturais dos metais Fe, Mn, Zn, Ni, Cu e Co nos solos de referência de Pernambuco. Foram coletadas amostras de solo nas três regiões fisiográficas (Zona da Mata, Agreste e Sertão, dos dois primeiros horizontes dos 35 solos de referência do Estado de Pernambuco. A digestão das amostras baseou-se no método 3051A (USEPA, 1998, e a determinação foi efetuada em ICP-OES. Correlações significativas foram estabelecidas entre os metais e entre estes e a fração argila do solo, em ambos os horizontes, indicando a associação comum da maioria dos metais com solos mais argilosos. A maioria dos solos apresentou teores de Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni e Co menores que os de solos de outras regiões do País, com litologia mais máfica, o que corrobora o fato de que os teores desses elementos são mais diretamente relacionados aos minerais Fe-magnesianos. Os resultados indicam baixo potencial dos solos de Pernambuco em liberar Cu, Co e Ni para plantas, enquanto deficiências de Zn, Fe e Mn são menos prováveis. Os teores naturais de Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni e Co determinados podem ser utilizados como base para definição dos Valores de Referência de Qualidade para os solos de Pernambuco, de acordo com o preconizado pela legislação nacional.

  7. Competition from Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) in Pb(II) binding to Suwannee River Fulvic Acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chakraborty, P.; Chakrabarti, C.L.

    2008-01-01

    This is a study of trace metal competition in the complexation of Pb(II) by well-characterized humic substances, namely Suwannee River Fulvic Acid (SRFA) in model solutions. It was found that Cu(II) seems to compete with Pb(II) for strong binding sites of SRFA when present at the same concentration

  8. Determination of Na, Mn and Cu in cocoon, raw silk and degummed silk by nondestructive activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maki, Y; Ishiguro, Y [Industrial Research Inst. of Kanagawa Prefecture, Yokohama (Japan)

    1976-01-01

    The sodium, manganese and copper contained in cocoons, raw silk and degummed silk thread were determined by the nondestructive activation analysis. After each sample was irradiated with the thermal neutron flux of 5 x 10/sup 11/n/cm/sup 2/.sec, its ..gamma..-ray spectrum was measured with a NaI(Tl) detector. With the photoelectric peaks at 511 keV (/sup 64/Cu), 1368 keV (/sup 24/Na) and 847 keV (/sup 56/Mn), each element was quantitatively determined and its content was obtained. The measurement of the ..gamma..-ray spectra of samples with a Ge (Li) detector proved the presence of An, Sb, Fe, Zn, Cr, Sc, Co, etc. Large amounts of Na and Cu were detected in the sericin portion of cocoons, and the adhesion of Cu from a reeling-off machine to raw silk was also observed during the process of degumming cocoons to make raw silk.

  9. PbO-SiO_2-CuO及びPbO-SiO_2-K_2O-Na_2O-CuO系ガラス中のCu^<2+>イオンの光吸収スペクトル及びガラスの屈折率

    OpenAIRE

    小山田, 了三; 古賀, 秀人; 星野, 朝則

    1984-01-01

    PbO-SiO2-CuO及びPbO-SiO2-K2O-Na2O-CuO系ガラス中のCu2+イオンの光吸収スペクトルを測定し、ガラス組成と吸収ピーク波数との関係を調べた。その結果、PbO-SiO2-CuO系ガラス中のCu2+の吸収ピーク波数は[PbO]/[SiO2]比の増加とともに高波数側へシフトすることが分かった。PbO-SiO2-K2O-Na2O-CuO系ガラス中のCu2+の吸収ピーク波数の混合アルカリ効果は[PbO]/[SiO2]比により現れ方が異なる。[PbO]/[SiO2]=0.64の場合、ピーク波数は[K2O]/[K2O+Na2O]比の増加とともに低波数側へシフトする。[PbO]/[SiO2]=1.0の場合もピーク波数は[K2O]/[K2O+Na2O]比の増加とともに低波数側へシフトし、[K2O]/[K2O+Na2O]=0.7付近に極小が存在する。[PbO]/[SiO2]=1.5の場合、極小が[K2O]/[K2O+Na2O]=0.35付近に存在し、このとき混合アルカリ効果が最も顕著に現れる。次に、PbO-SiO2-K2O-Na2O-CuO系ガラスの組成と屈折率の関係を調...

  10. The Influence of Cu Addition on Dispersoid Formation and Mechanical Properties of Al-Mn-Mg 3004 Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Cu addition on dispersoid precipitation, mechanical properties and creep resistance was investigated in an Al-Mn-Mg 3004 alloy. The addition of Cu promoted dispersoid precipitation by increasing the number density and decreasing the size of dispersoids. Metastable β′-Mg2Si and Q-AlCuMgSi precipitates were observed during the heating process and both could provide favorable nucleation sites for dispersoid precipitation. The addition of Cu improved the thermal stability of dispersoids during a long-term thermal holding at 350 °C for 500 h. Results of mechanical testing show that the addition of Cu remarkably improved the hardness at room temperature, as well as the yield strength and creep resistance at 300 °C, which was mainly attributed to dispersoid strengthening and Cu solid solution strengthening. The yield strength contribution at 300 °C was quantitatively evaluated based on the dispersoid, solid solution and matrix contributions. It was confirmed that dispersoid strengthening is the main strengthening mechanism in the experimental alloys.

  11. The critical oxide thickness for Pb-free reflow soldering on Cu substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, C. Key [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei, 10617, Taiwan (China); Assembly Test Global Materials, Intel Microelectronics Asia Ltd, B1, No. 205, Tun-Hwa North Road, 10595 Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Y.J.; Li, C.C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei, 10617, Taiwan (China); Kao, C.R., E-mail: crkao@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei, 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2012-06-01

    Oxidation is an undesirable effect of reflow soldering. Non-wetting occurs when the oxide layer grows above the critical thickness. Characterizing the critical oxide thickness for soldering is challenging due to oxide's nano-scale thickness and irregular topographic surface. In this paper, the critical copper oxide thickness was characterized by Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy-Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and Transmission Electron Microscopy. Copper substrates were coated with an Organic-Solderable-Preservative (OSP) layer and baked at 150 Degree-Sign C and 85% Relative Humidity for different amounts of time. The onset of the non-wetting phenomenon occurred when the oxide thickness reached 18 {+-} 5 nm. As the oxide grew beyond this critical thickness, the percentage of non-wetting solder joint increased exponentially. The growth of the oxide thickness followed a parabolic rate law. The rate constant of oxidation was 0.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -15} cm{sup 2} min{sup -1}. Oxidation resulted from interdiffusion of copper and oxygen atoms through the OSP and oxide layers. The oxidation mechanism will be presented and discussed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Critical oxide thickness for Pb free solder on Cu substrate is 18 {+-} 5 nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Above the critical oxide, non-wet solder joint increases exponentially. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A maximum 13-nm oxide thickness is suggested for good solder joint. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Initial growth of oxide thickness is logarithmic and then parabolic after 12 nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thick oxide (360-560 nm) is formed as pores shorten the oxidation path.

  12. Phenazine containing indeno-furan based colorimetric and “on–off” fluorescent sensor for the detection of Cu{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aggarwal, Komal; Khurana, Jitender M., E-mail: jmkhurana1@yahoo.co.in

    2015-11-15

    A new fluorescent sensor 10a,15a-dihydroxy-10aH-benzo[a]indeno[2′,1′:4,5]furo[2,3-c]phenazin-15 (15aH)-one (1) based on the combination of phenazine and indenofuran moieties was designed and synthesized. Structure of the synthesized sensor has been confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis. Absorption and emission spectra of 1 has been studied in solvents of different polarity. The solvent effect on the spectral properties of 1 has been investigated by using the Lippert–Mataga and Reichardt–Dimroth methods. It exhibits high sensitivity and selectivity towards Cu{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} ions over other metal ions by fluorescence quenching. Sensor 1 exhibited a visible color change from light orange to pink, and yellow in the presence of Cu{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+}, respectively. The fluorescence of the 1-Cu{sup 2+}/Pb{sup 2+} complexes can be reversibly restored to that of the uncomplexed ligand by using EDTA. Binding stoichiometry and mechanism of Cu{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} ions detection have been investigated. The linear range for the synthesized sensor was found to be 1×10{sup −6}–6.31×10{sup −5} M with detection limit of 1.3×10{sup −6} M. Theoretical calculations were employed to understand the sensing mechanism of the sensors towards Cu{sup 2+}. - Highlights: • A new indeno-furan based “on–off” sensor for detection of Cu{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} has been synthesized. • 1 shows naked-eye visible color changes upon interaction with Cu{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+}. • The complex formation of 1 with Cu{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} could be reversed by addition of EDTA.

  13. Phenazine containing indeno-furan based colorimetric and “on–off” fluorescent sensor for the detection of Cu2+ and Pb2+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, Komal; Khurana, Jitender M.

    2015-01-01

    A new fluorescent sensor 10a,15a-dihydroxy-10aH-benzo[a]indeno[2′,1′:4,5]furo[2,3-c]phenazin-15 (15aH)-one (1) based on the combination of phenazine and indenofuran moieties was designed and synthesized. Structure of the synthesized sensor has been confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis. Absorption and emission spectra of 1 has been studied in solvents of different polarity. The solvent effect on the spectral properties of 1 has been investigated by using the Lippert–Mataga and Reichardt–Dimroth methods. It exhibits high sensitivity and selectivity towards Cu 2+ and Pb 2+ ions over other metal ions by fluorescence quenching. Sensor 1 exhibited a visible color change from light orange to pink, and yellow in the presence of Cu 2+ and Pb 2+ , respectively. The fluorescence of the 1-Cu 2+ /Pb 2+ complexes can be reversibly restored to that of the uncomplexed ligand by using EDTA. Binding stoichiometry and mechanism of Cu 2+ and Pb 2+ ions detection have been investigated. The linear range for the synthesized sensor was found to be 1×10 −6 –6.31×10 −5 M with detection limit of 1.3×10 −6 M. Theoretical calculations were employed to understand the sensing mechanism of the sensors towards Cu 2+ . - Highlights: • A new indeno-furan based “on–off” sensor for detection of Cu 2+ and Pb 2+ has been synthesized. • 1 shows naked-eye visible color changes upon interaction with Cu 2+ and Pb 2+ . • The complex formation of 1 with Cu 2+ and Pb 2+ could be reversed by addition of EDTA

  14. Effect of Abrasive Machining on the Electrical Properties Cu86Mn12Ni2 Alloy Shunts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nabilah Misti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the effect of abrasive trimming on the electrical properties of Cu86Mn12Ni2 Manganin alloy shunt resistors. A precision abrasive trimming system for fine tuning the resistance tolerance of high current Manganin shunt resistors is proposed. The system is shown to be capable of reducing the resistance tolerance of 100 μΩ shunts from their standard value of ±5% to <±1% by removing controlled amounts of Manganin material using a square cut trim geometry. The temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR, high current, and high temperature performance of the trimmed shunts was compared to that of untrimmed parts to determine if trimming had any detrimental effect on these key electrical performance parameters of the device. It was shown that the TCR value was reduced following trimming with typical results of +106 ppm/°C and +93 ppm/°C for untrimmed and trimmed parts respectively. When subjected to a high current of 200 A the trimmed parts showed a slight increase in temperature rise to 203 °C, as compared to 194 °C for the untrimmed parts, but both had significant temporary increases in resistance of up to 1.3 μΩ. The results for resistance change following high temperature storage at 200 °C for 168 h were also significant for both untrimmed and trimmed parts with shifts of 1.85% and 2.29% respectively and these results were related to surface oxidation of the Manganin alloy which was accelerated for the freshly exposed surfaces of the trimmed part.

  15. Effect of Abrasive Machining on the Electrical Properties Cu86Mn12Ni₂ Alloy Shunts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misti, Siti Nabilah; Birkett, Martin; Penlington, Roger; Bell, David

    2017-07-29

    This paper studies the effect of abrasive trimming on the electrical properties of Cu 86 Mn 12 Ni₂ Manganin alloy shunt resistors. A precision abrasive trimming system for fine tuning the resistance tolerance of high current Manganin shunt resistors is proposed. The system is shown to be capable of reducing the resistance tolerance of 100 μΩ shunts from their standard value of ±5% to <±1% by removing controlled amounts of Manganin material using a square cut trim geometry. The temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR), high current, and high temperature performance of the trimmed shunts was compared to that of untrimmed parts to determine if trimming had any detrimental effect on these key electrical performance parameters of the device. It was shown that the TCR value was reduced following trimming with typical results of +106 ppm/°C and +93 ppm/°C for untrimmed and trimmed parts respectively. When subjected to a high current of 200 A the trimmed parts showed a slight increase in temperature rise to 203 °C, as compared to 194 °C for the untrimmed parts, but both had significant temporary increases in resistance of up to 1.3 μΩ. The results for resistance change following high temperature storage at 200 °C for 168 h were also significant for both untrimmed and trimmed parts with shifts of 1.85% and 2.29% respectively and these results were related to surface oxidation of the Manganin alloy which was accelerated for the freshly exposed surfaces of the trimmed part.

  16. Simultaneous efficient adsorption of Pb2+ and MnO4− ions by MCM-41 functionalized with amine and nitrilotriacetic acid anhydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Feiyun; Hong, Mingzhu; You, Weijie; Li, Chong; Yu, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • MCM-41 was successfully modified with amine and nitrilotriacetic acid anhydride. • The adsorbent can simultaneously remove Pb 2+ and MnO 4 − by adjusting pH of the system. • The maximum adsorption capacities of Pb 2+ and MnO 4 − are 147 mg/g and 156 mg/g. • The absorbent exhibits good regeneration and reusability for 5 cycles use. - Abstract: A novel adsorbent NH 2 /MCM-41/NTAA, capable of simultaneous adsorption of cations and anions from aqueous solution, was prepared by immobilization of amine and nitrilotriacetic acid anhydride (NTAA) onto MCM-41. The structures and properties before and after surface modification were systematically investigated through X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), nitrogen adsorption–desorption, and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetry (TGA) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). They together confirm that the amine and NTAA group were chemically bonded to the internal surface of the mesoporous. The NH 2 /MCM-41/NTAA were used to adsorb Pb 2+ and MnO 4 − in an aqueous solution in a batch system, and the maximum adsorption efficiency was found to occur at pH 5.0 and 3.0, respectively. NH 2 /MCM-41/NTAA exhibit preferable removal of Pb 2+ through electrostatic interactions and chelation, whereas it captures MnO 4 − by means of electrostatic interactions. The experimental data are fitted the Langmuir isotherm model reasonably well, with the maximum adsorption capacity of 147 mg/g for Pb 2+ and of 156 mg/g for MnO 4 − . The adsorption rates of both Pb 2+ and MnO 4 − are found to follow the pseudo-second order kinetics. Furthermore, the NH 2 /MCM-41/NTAA adsorbent performs good recyclability and reusability for 5 cycles use. This study indicates a potential applicability of NH 2 /MCM-41/NTAA as new absorbents for effective simultaneous adsorption of hazardous metal ions and anions from wastewater.

  17. Could incommensurability in sulfosalts be more common than thought? The case of meneghinite, CuPb13Sb7S24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindi, Luca; Petříček, Václav; Biagioni, Cristian; Plášil, Jakub; Moëlo, Yves

    2017-06-01

    The structure of meneghinite (CuPb 13 Sb 7 S 24 ), from the Bottino mine in the Apuan Alps (Italy), has been solved and refined as an incommensurate structure in four-dimensional superspace. The structure is orthorhombic, superspace group Pnma(0β0)00s, cell parameters a = 24.0549 (3), b = 4.1291 (6), c = 11.3361 (16) Å, modulation vector q = 0.5433 (4)b*. The structure was refined from 6604 reflections to a final R = 0.0479. The model includes modulation of both atomic positions and displacement parameters, as well as occupational waves. The driving forces stabilizing the modulated structure of meneghinite are linked to the occupation modulation of Cu and some of the Pb atoms. As a consequence of the Cu/[] and Pb/Sb modulations, three- to sevenfold coordinations of the M cations (Pb/Sb) occur in different parts of the structure. The almost bimodal distribution of the occupation of Cu/[] and Pb/Sb at M5 conforms with the coupled substitution Sb 3+ + [] → Pb 2+ + Cu + , thus corroborating the hypothesis deduced previously for the incorporation of copper in the meneghinite structure. The very small departure (∼0.54 versus 0.50) from the commensurate value of the modulation raises the question of whether other sulfosalts considered superstructures have been properly described, and, in this light, if incommensurate modulation in sulfosalts could be much more common than thought.

  18. Effects of cationic substitution on the electronic and magnetic properties of manganocuprate with a layered Eu3Ba2Mn2Cu2O12 structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubara, Ichiro; Funahashi, Ryoji; Ueno, Kazuo; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Kida, Noriaki; Ohno, Nobuhito

    1998-01-01

    Systematic studies on the effect of substitutions on the layered manganocuprate Eu 3 Ba 2 Mn 2 Cu 2 O 12 have been conducted. To introduce holes, the authors have made substitutions of Ca for Eu and/or Sc for Mn, (Eu 3-x Ca x )Ba 2 (Mn 2-y Sc y )Cu 2 O 12 . Single-phase compounds are obtained over a fairly wide range of x and y values for x ≤ 0.7 (y = 0), x ≤ 0.5 (y = 0.5), and x ≤ 0.1 (y = 1.0). The doped holes are received predominantly at the Mn-O site and change the charge of Mn from 3+ to 4+, and no superconductivity has been obtained for any sample. The electronic ground state of (Eu 3-x Ca x )Ba 2 (Mn 2-y Sc y )Cu 2 O 12 is discussed by comparing with that of the three-dimensional perovskite La 1-x Ca x MnO 3 and K 2 NiF 4 -type La 1-x Sr 1+x MnO 4 compounds. The substitution of Sr for Ba gives rise to a different crystal structure, the Sr 3 Ti 2 O 7 structure

  19. Synthesis of the phase with T sub c =110 K in Bi(Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconducting ceramics. Sintez fazy T sub c =110 K sverkhprovodyashchej keramiki sostava Bi(Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubovitskij, A V; Makarov, E F; Makova, M K; Merzhanov, V A; Topnikov, V N [AN SSSR, Moscow (USSR). Inst. Khimicheskoj Fiziki

    1991-05-01

    Synthesis of 110 K single-phase bismuth ceramics (BiPb){sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub n-1}Cu{sub n}O{sub x} was conducted in narrow temperature and time range. Diffusion of bismuth ions is proposed to be the decisive factor of synthesis of bismuth ceramics. The diffusion depends on prehistory of basic burden preparation and on its dispersivity and homogeneity in particluar. Optimal time of synthesis for lead doped ceramics of 2223 composition, synthesized from initial nitrate components, is equal to 65 h at 850 deg C. The role of Pb{sup 2+} ions is probably reduced to decrease of diffusion mobility of Bi{sup 3+} ions over the bismuth sublattice. Ceramics doping with CdO and CdCl{sub 2} compounds instead of lead stabilizes superconductivity in bismuth ceramics, but with worth superconducting parameters.

  20. Timing of porphyry (Cu-Mo) and base metal (Zn-Pb-Ag-Cu) mineralisation in a magmatic-hydrothermal system—Morococha district, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catchpole, Honza; Kouzmanov, Kalin; Bendezú, Aldo; Ovtcharova, Maria; Spikings, Richard; Stein, Holly; Fontboté, Lluís

    2015-12-01

    The Morococha district in central Peru is characterised by economically important Cordilleran polymetallic (Zn-Pb-Ag-Cu) vein and replacement bodies and the large Toromocho porphyry Cu-Mo deposit in its centre. U-Pb, Re-Os, and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology data for various porphyry-related hydrothermal mineralisation styles record a 3.5-Ma multi-stage history of magmatic-hydrothermal activity in the district. In the late Miocene, three individual magmatic-hydrothermal centres were active: the Codiciada, Toromocho, and Ticlio centres, each separated in time and space. The Codiciada centre is the oldest magmatic-hydrothermal system in the district and consists of a composite porphyry stock associated with anhydrous skarn and quartz-molybdenite veins. The hydrothermal events are recorded by a titanite U-Pb age at 9.3 ± 0.2 Ma and a molybdenite Re-Os age at 9.26 ± 0.03 Ma. These ages are indistinguishable from zircon U-Pb ages for porphyry intrusions of the composite stock and indicate a time span of 0.2 Ma for magmatic-hydrothermal activity. The small Ticlio magmatic-hydrothermal centre in the west of the district has a maximum duration of 0.3 Ma, ranging from porphyry emplacement to porphyry mineralisation at 8.04 ± 0.14 Ma (40Ar/39Ar muscovite cooling age). The Toromocho magmatic-hydrothermal centre has a minimum of five recorded porphyry intrusions that span a total of 1.3 Ma and is responsible for the formation of the giant Toromocho Cu-Mo deposit. At least two hydrothermal pulses are identified. Post-dating a first pulse of molybdenite mineralisation, wide-spread hydrous skarn covers an area of over 6 km2 and is recorded by five 40Ar/39Ar cooling ages at 7.2-6.8 Ma. These ages mark the end of the slowly cooling and long-lived Toromocho magmatic-hydrothermal centre soon after last magmatic activity at 7.26 ± 0.02 Ma. District-wide (50 km2) Cordilleran base metal vein and replacement bodies post-date the youngest recorded porphyry mineralisation event at Toromocho

  1. Contamination assessment of heavy metals in the soils around Khouzestan Steel Company (KSC (Ni, Mn, Pb, Fe, Zn, Cr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh hormozi Nejad

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Soil plays a vital role in human life as the very survival of mankind is tied to the preservation of soil productivity (Kabata- Pendies and Mukherjee, 2007. The purpose of this study is the assessment of heavy metal contamination (Zn, Mn, Pb, Fe, Ni, Cr of the soil around the Khuzestan Steel Complex. Materials and methods For this purpose, 13 surface soil samples (0-10 cm were taken. Also a control sample was taken from an area away from the steel complex. The coordinates of each point were recorded by Global Positioning System (GPS. The samples were transferred to the laboratory and then were air dried at room temperature for 72 hours. Then they were sieved through a 2mm sieve for determining physical and chemical parameters (soil texture, pH, OC, and a 63-micron sieve for measurement of heavy metal concentration. pH was measured using a calibrated pH meter at a 2: 1 mixture (soil: water, and soil texture was determined using a hydrometer. The amount of organic matter was measured using the Valkey black method (Chopin and Alloway, 2007. After preparation of the samples in the laboratory, the samples were analyzed using the ICP-OES method to assess concentration of heavy metals. Measurement of heavy metals concentration was carried out at the Zar azma laboratory in Tehran. To ensure the accuracy of the analysis of soil samples, replicate samples were also sent to the laboratory. In order to assess the heavy metal pollution in the soil samples, different indices including contamination factor (CF, contamination degree (Cd, anthropogenic enrichment percent (An%, and saturation degree of metals (SDM were calculated. Discussion In addition, the mean concentrations of heavy metals in soil samples were compared to the concentration of these metals in Control Sample and unpolluted soil standard. Measurement of soil pH showed that the soil has a tendency to alkalinity. Also, soil texture is sandy loam (Moyes, 2011. The results showed that

  2. Catalytic behavior and synergistic effect of nanostructured mesoporous CuO-MnO{sub x}-CeO{sub 2} catalysts for chlorobenzene destruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Chi, E-mail: chi_he@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Yu, Yanke [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Shen, Qun [Research Center for Greenhouse Gases and Environmental Engineering, Shanghai Advanced Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201210 (China); Chen, Jinsheng, E-mail: jschen@iue.ac.cn [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Qiao, Nanli [Department of Environmental Nano-materials, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2014-04-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Mesoporous CuO-MnO{sub x}-CeO{sub 2} oxides with enhanced reducibility and oxygen mobility. • Incorporation of Cu and Mn ions causes abundant crystal defects and oxygen vacancies. • Surface oxygen concentration and active oxygen mobility determine the catalytic efficiency. • Catalysts with conspicuous chlorobenzene low-temperature removal activity and durability. - Abstract: Mesoporous CuO-MnO{sub x}-CeO{sub 2} composite metal oxides with different copper and manganese loadings were prepared by a urea-assistant hydrothermal method, and were further adopted for the complete catalytic combustion of chlorobenzene. The effects of reaction conditions such as inlet reagent concentration and water feed concentration on chlorobenzene combustion were also studied. The structure and textural properties of the synthesized catalysts were characterized via the XRD, N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption, FE-SEM, TEM, H{sub 2}-TPR, O{sub 2}-TPD, and XPS techniques. The characterization results reveal that the presence of a small amount of Mn species can facilitate the incorporation of Cu and Mn ions into ceria lattice to form Cu-Mn-Ce-O solid solution. The synergistic effect of Cu and Mn species can reduce the redox potential of the composite catalysts, and produce large amounts of oxygen vacancies in the interface of CuO{sub x}, MnO{sub x}, and CeO{sub 2} oxides. The catalyst with Cu/Mn atomic ratio of 1/1 exhibits the best chlorobenzene elimination capability, oxidizing about 95% of the inlet chlorobenzene at 264 °C with CO{sub 2} selectivity higher than 99.5%. The concentration and mobility of the chemically adsorbed oxygen are vital for the effective removal of surface Cl species, which inhibits the dissociation of oxygen molecules and decreases the reducibility of the copper and manganese species. It can be rationally concluded that the superior catalytic performance and durability of the mesoporous CuO-MnO{sub x}-CeO{sub 2} composite

  3. Cu{sub 1.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4}-based ceramic spectrally selective coatings for efficient solar absorber applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Pengjun [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049 (China); Geng, Qingfen; Gao, Xianghu [Research & Development Center for Eco-material and Eco-chemistry, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, 730000 (China); Yang, Shengrong [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, 730000 (China); Liu, Gang, E-mail: gangliu@licp.cas.cn [Research & Development Center for Eco-material and Eco-chemistry, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, 730000 (China)

    2016-08-05

    Cu{sub 1.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4}-based ceramic spectrally selective (CSS) coating was deposited on aluminum substrate using a sol–gel dip-coating method. The citric acid introduced in the precursor system lowered the required calcining temperature of crystalline Cu{sub 1.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4}. X-Ray diffraction (XRD) peaks of coatings annealed above 450 °C were found to coincide exactly with that of crystalline Cu{sub 1.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} in JCPDS database. By optimizing the withdrawal rate and calcining temperature, coating with spectral selectivity as good as α{sub s} = 0.876 and ε{sub 100} = 0.057 was achieved after only one dipping/annealing cycle. Subjected to an accelerated ageing test at 259 °C, the obtained CSS coating showed an excellent thermally durability with the performance criterion (PC) values below 0.05. - Highlights: • Cu{sub 1.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4}-based CSS coating is achieved after only one dipping/annealing cycle. • Cu{sub 1.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} coating is obtained as the annealing temperature reaches to 450 °C. • Cu{sub 1.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} coating exhibits optical parameter: α{sub s} = 0.876 and ε{sub 100} = 0.057. • Cu{sub 1.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} coating shows the excellent stability in low to mid temperature region.

  4. Formation of Al15Mn3Si2 Phase During Solidification of a Novel Al-12%Si-4%Cu-1.2%Mn Heat-Resistant Alloy and Its Thermal Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, Xiaojing; Liao, Hengcheng; Hu, Yiyun; Dixit, Uday S.; Petrov, Pavel

    2018-02-01

    The formation of Al15Mn3Si2 phase in Al-12Si-4Cu-1.2Mn (wt.%) alloy during solidification was investigated by adopting CALPHAD method and microstructural observation by optical microscopy, SEM-EDS, TEM-EDS/SAD and XRD analysis; SEM fixed-point observation method was applied to evaluate its thermal stability. As-cast microstructural observation consistently demonstrates the solidification sequence of the studied alloy predicted by phase diagram calculation. Based on the phase diagram calculation, SEM-EDS, TEM-EDS/SAD and XRD analysis, as well as evidences on Al-Si-Mn-Fe compounds from the literature, the primary and eutectic Mn-rich phases with different morphologies in the studied alloy are identified to be Al15Mn3Si2 that has a body-centered cubic (BCC) structure with a lattice constant of a = 1.352 nm. SEM fixed-point observation and XRD analysis indicate that Al15Mn3Si2 phase has more excellent thermal stability at high temperature than that of CuAl2 phase and can serve as the major strengthening phase in heat-resistant aluminum alloy that has to face a high-temperature working environment. Results of tension test show that addition of Mn can improve the strength of Al-Si-Cu alloy, especially at elevated temperature.

  5. Effect of cooling rate on the transition temperature in Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu-O system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yugui; Wang Jinsong; Wang Nanlin; Jiao Xinping; Han Guchang; Chen Zhaojia; Wang Keqin; Wu Xiaoguang

    1989-12-01

    The resistance and a.c. susceptibility measurement show that cooling rate of the cast-annealing samples in heat treatment process has some effect on the 110K superconducting phase in Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu-O system. Rapid quenching of the sample in air from 845 deg C causes oxygen deficiency in lattice and brings about a trifling change of unit cell size along c-axis direction. The d.c. magnetization and specific heat anomaly Δc measurements demostrate that fast cooling rate can reduce the transition temperature of high-T c phase and the lower critical field, and weaken the pinning forces for vertex lines. The peak value of specific heat anomaly of the sample with nominal composition of Bi 1.7 Pb 0.3 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 4.5 O v is still small in comparison with YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 . From the magnetization curve the authors estimate that the superconducting volume fraction is about 20%

  6. Electrochemical Study of Carbon Nanotubes/Nanohybrids for Determination of Metal Species Cu2+ and Pb2+ in Water Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Claudia Oliveira Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of nanomaterials, such as nanoparticles and nanotubes, for electrochemical detection of metal species has been investigated as a way of modifying electrodes by electrochemical stripping analysis. The present study develops a new methodology based on a comparative study of nanoparticles and nanotubes with differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV and examines the simultaneous determination of copper and lead. The glassy carbon electrode modified by gold nanoparticles demonstrated increased sensitivity and decreased detection limits, among other improvements in analytical performance data. Under optimized conditions (deposition potential −0.8 V versus Ag/AgCl; deposition time, 300 s; resting time, 10 s; pulse amplitude, 50 mV; and voltage step height, 4 mV, the detection limits were 0.2279 and 0.3321 ppb, respectively, for determination of Pb2+ and Cu2+. The effects of cations and anions on the simultaneous determination of metal ions do not exhibit significant interference, thereby demonstrating the selectivity of the electrode for simultaneous determination of Pb2+ and Cu2+. The same method was also used to determine Cu2+ in water samples.

  7. Mineralogical and geochemical characterization of supergene Cu-Pb-Zn-V ores in the Oriental High Atlas, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaert, Michèle; Bernard, Alain; Dekoninck, Augustin; Lafforgue, Ludovic; Saddiqi, Omar; Yans, Johan

    2017-10-01

    In the Moroccan High Atlas, two sulfide deposits hosted by Jurassic dolostones underwent significant weathering. In the Cu deposit of Jbel Klakh, several stages of supergene mineralization are distinguished: (1) the replacement of hypogene sulfides in the protolith (chalcopyrite) by secondary sulfides in the cementation zone (bornite, digenite, chalcocite, covellite), (2) the formation of oxidized minerals in the saprolite (malachite, azurite, brochantite) where the environment becomes more oxidizing and neutral, and (3) the precipitation of late carbonates (calcite) and iron (hydr-)oxides in the laterite. The precipitation of carbonates is related to the dissolution of dolomitic host rocks, which buffers the fluid acidity due to the oxidation of sulfides. In the Jbel Haouanit Pb-Zn deposit, the mineral assemblage is dominated by typical calamine minerals, Cu minerals (chalcocite, covellite, malachite), and a Cu-Pb-Zn vanadate (mottramite). Galena is successively weathered in anglesite and cerussite. Sphalerite is weathered in smithsonite, which is rapidly replaced by hydrozincite. Late iron (hydr-)oxides are mainly found at the top of both deposits (laterite). Both deposits are thus characterized by specific mineral zoning, from laterite to protolith, related to variations in the mineralogy and ore grades and probably caused by varying Eh-pH conditions.

  8. COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT EXTRACTION METHODS REPRESENTING AVAILABLE AND TOTAL CONCENTRATIONS OF Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn IN SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Ivezić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Various extraction methods are used to predict plant uptake of trace metals. Most commonly it is total concentration that is used for risk assessment and evaluation of trace metal availability. However, recent studies showed that total concentration is a poor indicator of availability while concentrations in soil solution show good correlation with plant uptake. Present study was conducted on magricultural soils with low levels of trace metals where 45 soil samples were collected from different soil types. The main objective was to compare four different extraction methods and examine how total and reactive (EDTA trace metal concentrations correlate ,with soil solution concentration (in this study determined by water extraction. The samples were analyzed by four extraction methods: strong acid extraction (ultra-pure HNO3 extraction and aqua regia, weak acid extraction by EDTA and the most available fraction, fraction in soil solution, were represented by water extraction (weakest extractant. Five elements were investigated (Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn. Water extraction significantly correlated with EDTA extraction for Cu, Fe and Mn, while total extraction (HNO3 extraction and aqua regia correlated significantly with water extraction only for Cu. No correlation between water extraction and total extraction confirmed poor role of total concentration as an indicator of availability. EDTA extraction can be used to represent reactive pool of trace metals in soil but it should be also taken with caution when using it to describe available fraction.

  9. Effect of titanium on structure and martensitic transformation in rapidly solidified Cu-Al-Ni-Mn-Ti alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutkiewicz, J.; Czeppe, T.; Morgiel, J.

    1999-01-01

    Alloys of composition Cu-(11.8-13.5)%Al-(3.2-4)%Ni-(2-3)%Mn and 0-1%Ti (wt.%) were cast using the melt spinning method in He atmosphere. Ribbons obtained in this process showed grains from 0.5 to 30 μm depending on the type of alloy and wheel speed. Bulk alloys and most of the ribbons contained mixed 18R and 2H type martensite at room temperature (RT). Some ribbons, crystallizing at the highest cooling rate, retained also β phase due to a drop of M s below RT. The M s temperatures in ribbons were strongly lowered with increasing wheel speed controlling the solidification rate. This drop of M s shows a linear relationship with d -1/2 , where d is grain size. The strongest decrease of M s and smallest grains were found in the ribbons containing titanium due to its grain refinement effect. The cubic Ti rich precipitates, present in both Cu-Al-Ni-Ti and Cu-Al-Ni-Mn-Ti bulk, were dispersed in ribbons cast with intermediate cooling rates of up to 26 m s -1 , but suppressed for higher cooling rates. The transformation hysteresis loop was much broader in ribbons due to presence of coherent Ti rich precipitates and differences in grain size which is particularly important in the ultra small grain size range. (orig.)

  10. High temperature superconductivity in Zn and Mn substituted (Tl,Cr)Sr2CaCu2O7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, S.V.; Abd Shukor, R.

    1999-01-01

    Samples with nominal starting composition (TICr 0 .15)Sr 2 (Ca 1-x M x )Cu 2 O 7 (TI-1212) for x=0 - 0.7 with M= Zn and Mn have been prepared and investigated by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electrical resistance measurements. All sample showed a mixed phase of 1212 and 1201. Dominant 1212-phase was observed for x=0.0-0.5 and x=0.0-0.4, for Zn and Mn series, respectively. The superconducting transition temperature was suppressed when Zn and Mn are substituted at the Ca site. For the Zn series the normal state behavior is metallic throughout the doping range. For the Mn series the normal state behavior is metallic for 0.1≤x≥0.3 and semiconducting like x>0.3. The suppression of T c and formation of the TI-1212 phase are discussed in terms of the ionic radius and valence state of the substituted elements. (author)

  11. Compatibility between Co-Metallized PbTe Thermoelectric Legs and an Ag-Cu-In Brazing Alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ayoun, Dana; Sadia, Yatir; Gelbstein, Yaniv

    2018-01-10

    In thermoelectric (TE) generators, maximizing the efficiency of conversion of direct heat to electricity requires the reduction of any thermal and electrical contact resistances between the TE legs and the metallic contacts. This requirement is especially challenging in the development of intermediate to high-temperature TE generators. PbTe-based TE materials are known to be highly efficient up to temperatures of around 500 °C; however, only a few practical TE generators based on these materials are currently commercially available. One reason for that is the insufficient bonding techniques between the TE legs and the hot-side metallic contacts. The current research is focused on the interaction between cobalt-metallized n -type 9.104 × 10 -3 mol % PbI₂-doped PbTe TE legs and the Ag 0.32 Cu 0.43 In 0.25 brazing alloy, which is free of volatile species. Clear and fine interfaces without any noticeable formation of adverse brittle intermetallic compounds were observed following prolonged thermal treatment testing. Moreover, a reasonable electrical contact resistance of ~2.25 mΩmm² was observed upon brazing at 600 °C, highlighting the potential of such contacts while developing practical PbTe-based TE generators.

  12. Phase contribution of image potential on empty quantum well States in pb islands on the cu(111) surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, M C; Lin, C L; Su, W B; Lin, S P; Lu, S M; Lin, H Y; Chang, C S; Hsu, W K; Tsong, Tien T

    2009-05-15

    We use scanning tunneling spectroscopy to explore the quantum well states in the Pb islands grown on a Cu(111) surface. Our observation demonstrates that the empty quantum well states, whose energy levels lie beyond 1.2 eV above the Fermi level, are significantly affected by the image potential. As the quantum number increases, the energy separation between adjacent states is shrinking rather than widening, contrary to the prediction for a square potential well. By simply introducing a phase factor to reckon the effect of the image potential, the shrinking behavior of the energy separation can be reasonably explained with the phase accumulation model. The model also reveals that there exists a quantum regime above the Pb surface in which the image potential is vanished. Moreover, the quasi-image-potential state in the tunneling gap is quenched because of the existence of the quantum well states.

  13. A study on non-crystalline BiPbSbSrCaCuO and its heat treatment effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hong; Wu Hong; Hu Suhui

    1993-01-01

    In this work positron annihilation spectroscopy, X ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis, scanning electron microscopy and ac susceptibility measurement have been used to study non-crystalline Bi-Pb-Sb-Sr-Ca-Cu-O and the effect of heat treatment. The crystallization temperature T c is around 450-470 degree C for investigated materials. There are low temperature and high temperature structure relaxation as in metallic glasses from room temperature to glass temperature. For T>T c in the crystallized multiphase the low n phase can transform to high n phase by reaction diffusion and T c can reach near 110 K by 850 degree C annealing. The positron annihilation characteristics are sensitive to phase transformation and the electron density sampled by positrons in the non-crystal is lower than that in crystallized one. The doping of Pb and Sb together is of benefit to forming of non-crystal but narrows the temperature range of the viscous state

  14. Electrodialytic extraction of Cu, Pb and Cl from municipal solid waste incineration fly ash suspended in water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Lima, Ana Teresa; Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2006-01-01

    that is least soluble. Hence electrodialytic treatment of the ash suspended in water is not a solution to improve the ash quality in terms of Pb. The water-soluble Cl content per unit weight of the original ash was 12.4%. The removal of water-soluble Cl was efficient and >98% of Cl was removed (calculated......The possibility of using fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) in, for example, concrete is considered. MSWI fly ash, however, has too high a concentration of heavy metals, which may cause leaching problems during use or problems with waste handling at the end of the lifetime...... of the concrete. The Cl content in MSWI fly ash is also too high and will cause corrosion problems in reinforced concrete. The possibility of removing some of the unwanted heavy metals (Cu and Pb) together with Cl from an MSWI fly ash suspended in water using an electrodialytic separation method was investigated...

  15. Formation pathways in the synthesis and properties of (Tl0.5Pb0.5)(Sr0.9Ba0.1)2Ca2Cu3Oz and (Tl0.5Pb0.5)(Sr0.8Ba0.2)2Ca2Cu3Oz-1223 superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auinger, M; Gritzner, G; Bertrand, Ch; Galez, Ph; Soubeyroux, J-L

    2007-01-01

    The formation pathway of (Tl 0.5 Pb 0.5 )(Sr 0.9 Ba 0.1 ) 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O z and (Tl 0.5 Pb 0.5 )(Sr 0.8 Ba 0.2 ) 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O z was studied by neutron and x-ray diffraction. The following reaction pathway was proposed: thallium oxide and lead oxide react with Sr-rich (Sr 1-x Ca x )CuO 2 and Ca-rich (Ca x Sr 1-x )O to form Sr 4 Tl 2 O 7 and (Ca x Sr 1-x )PbO 3 , respectively. The thallate and the plumbate compounds then form the (Tl 0.5 Pb 0.5 )-1212 phase starting at a temperature of 600 deg. C. Finally, between 850 and 900 deg. C, the 1223 phase is formed from (Tl 0.5 Pb 0.5 )-1212 (Ca x Sr 1-x ) 2 CuO 3 and CuO. Parallel experiments to fabricate the (Tl, Pb)-1223 superconductor resulted in specimens with critical temperatures of 117.5 K and 116 K, respectively, and transition widths of 2 K. Differences between the pathways for the formation of Pb-doped, Sr-rich and Pb-free, Ba-rich Tl-1223 superconductors are discussed

  16. Geology and Characteristics of Pb-Zn-Cu-Ag Skarn Deposit at Ruwai, Lamandau Regency, Central Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arifudin Idrus

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v6i4.126This study is dealing with geology and characteristics of mineralogy, geochemistry, and physicochemical conditions of hydrothermal fluid responsible for the formation of skarn Pb-Zn-Cu-Ag deposit at Ruwai, Lamandau Regency, Central Kalimantan. The formation of Ruwai skarn is genetically associated with calcareous rocks consisting of limestone and siltstone (derived from marl? controlled by NNE-SSW-trending strike slip faults. It is localized along N 70° E-trending thrust fault, which also acts as the contact zone between sedimentary and volcanic rocks in the area. The Ruwai skarn is mineralogically characterized by prograde alteration comprising garnet (andradite and clino-pyroxene (wollastonite, and retrograde alteration composed of epidote, chlorite, calcite, and sericite. Ore mineralization is typified by sphalerite, galena, and chalcopyrite, formed at early retrograde stage. Galena is typically enriched in silver up to 0.45 wt % and bismuth of about 1 wt %. No Ag-sulphides are identified within the ore body. Geochemically, SiO is enriched and CaO is depleted in limestone, consistent with silicic alteration (quartz and calc-silicate and decarbonatization of the wallrock. The measured resources of the deposit are 2,297,185 tonnes at average grades of 14.98 % Zn, 6.44% Pb, 2.49 % Cu, and 370.87 g/t Ag. Ruwai skarn orebody was originated at moderate temperatures of 250 - 266 °C and low salinity of 0.3 - 0.5 wt.% NaCl eq. The late retrograde stage was formed at low temperature of 190 - 220 °C and low salinity of ~0.35 wt.% NaCl eq., which was influenced by meteoric water incursion at the late stage of the Ruwai Pb-Zn-Cu-Ag skarn formation.

  17. The Effect of Salinity on the Release of Copper (Cu, Lead (Pb And Zinc (Zn from Tailing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apriani Sulu Parubak

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of salinity on the release of copper (Cu, lead (Pb and zinc (Zn in tailing sediment have been studied by stripping voltammetry. The purpose of the research is to know the effect of salinity on the release of metals with certain pH, conductivity and variety of metals. Simultaneous determination of copper, lead and zinc in tailing was done by Differential Pulse Anodic Stripping Voltammetry (DPASV onto hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE and nitric acid 65% as support electrolyte. The limit of detection for this method 0.60 µg/L, 0.150 µg/L and 0.238 µg/L for copper, lead and iMc respectively. The stripping solution of 300/00 salinity with pH= 7.85, conductivity= 46.62 mS/cm gives the amounts of released metals as follows :14.867 µg/L Cu, 0.976 µg/L Pb and 6.224 µg/L Zn. These results are higher as compared with the results from 15 0/00 salinity with pH= 7.66, conductivity= 23.22 mS/cm that give released metals of Cu= 7.988 µg/L, Pb= 0.311 µg/L and Zn= 4.699 µg/L. the results from ANOVA suggest that this is due to different in salinity of the solution. It also found that the conductivity does not give any effect. It can be concluded that the higher salinity will that give higher concentration or released metals.

  18. Modeling the adsorption of metal ions (Cu 2+, Ni 2+, Pb 2+) onto ACCs using surface complexation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faur-Brasquet, Catherine; Reddad, Zacaria; Kadirvelu, Krishna; Le Cloirec, Pierre

    2002-08-01

    Activated carbon cloths (ACCs), whose efficiency has been demonstrated for microorganics adsorption from water, were here studied in the removal of metal ions from aqueous solution. Two ACCs are investigated, they are characterized in terms of porosity parameters (BET specific surface area, percentage of microporosity) and chemical characteristics (acidic surface groups, acidity constants, point of zero charge). A first part consists in the experimental study of three metal ions removal (Cu 2+, Ni 2+ and Pb 2+) in a batch reactor. Isotherms modeling by Freundlich and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) equations enables the following adsorption order: Cu 2+>Ni 2+>Pb 2+ to be determined for adsorption capacities on a molar basis. It may be related to adsorbates characteristics in terms of electronegativity and ionic radius. The influence of adsorbent's microporosity is also shown. Adsorption experiments carried out for pH values ranging from 2 to 10 demonstrate: (i) an adsorption occurring below the precipitation pH; (ii) the strong influence of pH, with a decrease of electrostatic repulsion due to the formation of less charged hydrolyzed species coupled with a decrease of activated carbon surface charge as pH increases. The second part focuses on the modeling of adsorption versus the pH experimental data by the diffuse layer model (DLM) using Fiteql software. The model is efficient to describe the system behavior in the pH range considered. Regarding complexation constants, they show the following affinity for ACC: Pb 2+>Cu 2+>Ni 2+. They are related to initial concentrations used for the three metal ions.

  19. Risk assessment for Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in urban soils: Chemical availability as the central concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, S.M.; Cruz, N.; Coelho, C.; Henriques, B.; Carvalho, L.; Duarte, A.C.; Pereira, E.; Römkens, Paul F.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    To assess the geochemical reactivity and oral bioaccessibility of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in urban soils from the Porto area, four extractions were performed including Aqua Regia (AR; pseudototal), 0.43 M HNO 3 (reactive), 0.01 M CaCl 2 (available), and 0.4 M glycine at pH = 1.5, SBET method (oral bioaccessible pool). Oral bioaccessibility in urban soils was higher than in samples from rural, industrial and mining areas which is most likely related to sources of metals and parent materials of corresponding soils. The availability and reactivity were described well by non-linear Freundlich-type equations when considering differences in soil properties. The resulting empirical models are able to predict availability and reactivity and can be used to improve the accuracy of risk assessment. Furthermore, a close 1:1 relationship exists between results from the 0.43 M HNO 3 method and the SBET method which substantially facilitates risk assessment procedures and reduces analytical costs. -- Highlights: ► Availability of PTEs in urban soils is described well by non-linear Freundlich-type equations. ► A 1:1 relationship was obtained between the 0.43 M HNO 3 method and the SBET method. ► A single soil extraction indicates reactivity and bioaccessibility of metals in soils. ► The reactive pool is suitable to assess risks of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in urban soils. -- A single analysis of the reactive pool by dilute nitric acid is suitable to assess risks of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in urban soils related to leaching to (ground)water and exposure to human beings (bioaccessibility)

  20. Effects of Al-Mn-Ti-P-Cu master alloy on microstructure and properties of Al-25Si alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Chunxiang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To obtain a higher microstructural refining efficiency, and improve the properties and processing ability of hypereutectic Al-25Si alloy, a new environmentally friendly Al-20.6Mn-12Ti-0.9P-6.1Cu (by wt.% master alloy was fabricated; and its modification and strengthening mechanisms on the Al-25Si alloy were studied. The mechanical properties of the unmodified, modified and heat treated alloys were investigated. Results show that the optimal addition amount of the Al-20.6Mn-12Ti-0.9P-6.1Cu master alloy is 4wt.%. In this case, primary Si and eutectic Si as well as メ-Al phase were clearly refined, and this refining effect shows an excellent long residual action as it can be heat-retained for at least 5 h. After being T6 heat treated, the morphology of primary and eutectic Si in the Al-25Si alloys with the addition of 4wt.% Al-20.6Mn-12Ti-0.9P-6.1Cu alloy changes into particles and short rods. The average grain size of the primary and eutectic Si decreases from 250 レm (unmodified to 13.83 レm and 35 レm (unmodified to 7 レm; the メ-Al becomes obviously finer and the distribution of Si phases tends to be uniform and dispersed. Meanwhile, the tensile properties are improved obviously; the tensile strengths at room temperature and 300 ìC reach 241 MPa and 127 MPa, increased by 153.7% and 67.1%, respectively. In addition, the tensile fracture mechanism changes from brittle fracture for the alloy without modification to ductile fracture after modification. Modifying the morphology of Si phase and strengthening the matrix can effectively block the initiation and propagation of cracks, thus improving the strength of the hypereutectic Al-25Si alloy.

  1. Assessing comparative terrestrial ecotoxicity of Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn: The influence of aging and emission source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Holm, Peter E.; Fantke, Peter

    2015-01-01

    H or soil organic carbon, emission source occasionally has an effect on reactivity of Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn emitted from various anthropogenic sources followed by aging in the soil from a few years to two centuries. The uncertainties in estimating the age prevent definitive conclusions about...... the influence of aging time on the reactivity of metals from anthropogenic sources in soils. Thus, for calculating comparative toxicity potentials of man-made metal contaminations in soils, we recommend using time-horizon independent accessibility factors derived from source-specific reactive fractions....

  2. Levels determination of heavy elements (Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb and Hg) in sword fish caught from the bay of Ghazaouet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalabi, A.; Malek, M.; Ghomari, M.; Benamar, M.A.; Tchantchane, A.; Azbouche, A.; Toumert, I.; Benouali, N.; Tobbeche, S. , Algiers; Algeria)

    1993-04-01

    The nuclear technics 'PIXE' and 'XRF', were used for heavy metals analysis (Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Hg), in sword fish (xiphias Gladius) caught in Ghazaouet bay. Muscles, liver and gonads were analysed. The methods gave similar results. A bioaccumulation phenomenon was observed except for Hg. The high amount of concentrations found liver, especially in the case of confirms that liver is a storage organ. The high levels of Zn seem to be due to the industrial wastes from the electrolyte plant in the region. All values were lower than the admissible norms

  3. Removal of Pb, Cu, Cd, and Zn Present in Aqueous Solution Using Coupled Electrocoagulation-Phytoremediation Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Ferniza-García

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the results of a coupled electrocoagulation-phytoremediation treatment for the reduction of copper, cadmium, lead, and zinc, present in aqueous solution. The electrocoagulation was carried out in a batch reactor using aluminum electrodes in parallel arrangement; the optimal conditions were current density of 8 mA/cm2 and operating time of 180 minutes. For phytoremediation the macrophytes, Typha latifolia L., were used during seven days of treatment. The results indicated that the coupled treatment reduced metal concentrations by 99.2% Cu, 81.3% Cd, and 99.4% Pb, while Zn increased due to the natural concentrations of the plant used.

  4. Synthesis and Microstructure Properties of (Bi,Pb2Sr2Ca1Cu2Oy Ceramic Superconductor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    nurmalita .

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Properties of (Bi, Pb2Sr2Ca1Cu2Oy ceramic superconductors were prepared by the melt textured growth methods in order to investigate the effects of the slow cooling time on the microstructur.  Phase analyses of the samples by X-ray diffraction (XRD has been carried out to assess the effects of the slow cooling time. From XRD analyses, the addition to the sample of  the slow cooling time degrades formation of the high-Tc Bi-2212 phase. The possible reasons for the observed degradation in the microstructure properties due to the slow cooling time addition were discussed.

  5. Experimental and modeling of the electrodialytic and dialytic treatment of a fly ash containing Cd, Cu and Pb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima, A.T.; Ribeiro, A.B.; Rodriguez-Maroto, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    A one-dimensional model is developed for simulating the electrodialytic and dialytic treatment of a fly ash containing cadmium, copper and lead. Two experimental systems have been used, a column of ash and a stirred ash suspension. The movement of Cd, Cu and Pb has been modeled taking into account...... takes into account that OH- generated on the cathode, during the electrodialytic remediation, is periodically neutralized by the addition of nitric acid in the cathode compartment. The anion and cation-exchange membranes are simply represented as ionic filters that preclude the transport of the cations...

  6. Suppression of the long-range magnetic order in Pb{sub 3}(Mn{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x}){sub 7}O{sub 15} upon substitution of Fe for Mn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkov, N.V. [Kirensky Institute of Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Krasnoyarsk 660036 (Russian Federation); Eremin, E.V., E-mail: eev@iph.krasn.ru [Kirensky Institute of Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Krasnoyarsk 660036 (Russian Federation); Bayukov, O.A.; Sablina, K.A. [Kirensky Institute of Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Krasnoyarsk 660036 (Russian Federation); Solov’ev, L.A. [Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Krasnoyarsk 660049 (Russian Federation); Velikanov, D.A.; Mikhashenok, N.V.; Osetrov, E.I. [Kirensky Institute of Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Krasnoyarsk 660036 (Russian Federation); Schefer, J.; Keller, L. [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering, ETH Zurich and Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Boehm, M. [Institut Laue-Langevin, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP 156, 38042 Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France)

    2013-09-15

    Structure and magnetic properties of Pb{sub 3}(Mn{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x}){sub 7}O{sub 15} single crystals with x=0–0.2 grown by spontaneous crystallization from solution in melt have been investigated. All the crystals belong to the hexagonal space group P6{sub 3}/mcm. The magnetic properties appeared to be strongly dependent on the iron doping level. At small (x=0.05) dopant concentrations, the value of magnetization and Neel temperature T{sub N} decrease insignificantly (T{sub N}=70 K). With increasing x, the three-dimensional magnetic ordering does not occur and temperature dependences of magnetization at x≥0.1 exhibit spin-glass-like features in the low-temperature region. - Highlights: • In the first time the single crystals of Pb{sub 3}(Mn{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x}){sub 7}O{sub 15} were grown. • The valence and locations of iron ions in crystal were determined. • Suppression of the long-range magnetic order in Pb{sub 3}(Mn{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x}){sub 7}O{sub 15} was discovered.

  7. Friction-stir processing of a high-damping Mn-Cu alloy used for marine propellers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, S.P.; Edwards, D.P.; Majumdar, A. [Defence Science and Technology Organisation, Melbourne (Australia); Moutsos, S. [Centre for Advanced Materials Technology, Monash Univ. (Australia); Mahoney, M.W. [Rockwell Scientific, Thousand Oaks (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Mn-Cu alloys are used for specialised applications, such as marine propellers, where high noise-damping characteristics are required. These alloys tend to have more severe shrinkage porosity than conventional propeller alloys, and the corrosion resistance (including stress-corrosion and corrosion-fatigue resistance) of the alloys is not as high as desirable. Friction-stir processing (FSP) trials on one such alloy (tradename Sonoston) have shown that near-surface porosity can be eliminated and that the coarse, as-cast microstructure can be significantly refined. The corrosion resistance of processed material is substantially improved provided a heat treatment to relieve residual stress is carried out after FSP. (orig.)

  8. Fluorescence turn-on detection of alkaline phosphatase activity based on controlled release of PEI-capped Cu nanoclusters from MnO2 nanosheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunyi; Li, Yongxin; Zhang, Cuiyun; Zhang, Qingfeng; Huang, Xinan; Yang, Meiding; Shahzad, Sohail Anjum; Lo, Kenneth Kam-Wing; Yu, Cong; Jiang, Shichun

    2017-08-01

    A fluorescence turn-on assay for alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity is developed through the controlled release of polyethyleneimine-capped copper nanoclusters (PEI-capped CuNCs) from the MnO 2 nanosheets. In an aqueous solution, the positively charged PEI-capped CuNCs could be adsorbed onto the surface of the negatively charged MnO 2 nanosheets. Such adsorption through favorable electrostatic interactions could efficiently quench the nanocluster fluorescence emission via resonance energy transfer from the PEI-capped CuNCs to the MnO 2 nanosheets. 2-Phospho-L-ascorbic acid (AAP) could be hydrolyzed to L-ascorbic acid (AA) in the presence of ALP. AA could reduce MnO 2 into Mn 2+ and trigger the disintegration of the MnO 2 nanosheets. As a result, the CuNCs were released and the quenched fluorescence was recovered efficiently. The detection strategy is simple, inexpensive, sensitive, selective, with low toxicity, and has better biocompatibility. The newly fabricated biosensor for ALP activity will potentially make it a robust candidate for numerous biological and biomedical applications.

  9. Electronic transitions of Ho in Pb2Sr2HoCu3O8 observed by inelastic neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soderholm, L.; Loong, C.; Xue, J.S.; Hammonds, J.P.; Greedan, J.E.; Maric, M.

    1993-01-01

    The electronic behavior of the 5 I 8 Russell Saunders ground multiplet of Ho 3+ in Pb 2 Sr 2 HoCu 3 O 8 has been investigated using inelastic neutron scattering. We observe ten peaks in the excitation spectra that are associated with crystal field transitions. The peaks are only slightly broader than expected from instrument resolution, indicating that there are no strong interactions between the local Ho f states and the CuO conduction states. Comparing the energies and intensities of the experimental peaks with those expected from modeling convinces us that there are at least three states populated at the temperature of our experiment (15 K), making the assignments of transitions very difficult in the absence of further data

  10. Genotypic variations in the accumulation of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn exhibited by six commonly grown vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, P.D.; Alloway, B.J.; Dourado, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Metal contaminants in garden and allotment soils could possibly affect human health through a variety of pathways. This study focused on the potential pathway of consumption of vegetables grown on contaminated soil. Five cultivars each of six common vegetables were grown in a control and in a soil spiked with Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. Highly significant differences in metal content were evident between cultivars of a number of vegetables for several of the contaminants. Carrot and pea cultivars exhibited significant differences in accumulated concentrations of Cd and Cu with carrot cultivars also exhibiting significant differences in Zn. Distinctive differences were also identified when comparing one vegetable to another, legumes (Leguminosae) tending to be low accumulators, root vegetables (Umbelliferae and Liliaceae) tending to be moderate accumulators and leafy vegetables (Compositae and Chenopodiaceae) being high accumulators. - Genotypic differences between cultivars of vegetable species can be important in determining the extent of accumulation of metals from contaminated soil

  11. Use of response surface methodology to evaluate the effect of metal ions (Ca2+, Ni2+, Mn2+, Cu2+) on production of antifungal compounds by Paenibacillus polymyxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Waseem; Hongsheng, Wu; Qirong, Shen

    2010-03-01

    The effects of four metal ions (Ca(2+), Ni(2+), Mn(2+) and Cu(2+)) were evaluated on growth and production of antifungal compounds by Paenibacillus polymyxa SQR-21 and a quadratic predictive model was developed using response surface methodology (RSM). The results revealed, Mn(2+) and Ni(2+) showed most positive synergistic interactive affect on production of antifungal compounds followed by the positive interactive synergistic affect of Cu(2+) and Ni(2+) and then Mn(2+) and Cu(2+). While the interactive effect of Ca(2+) with all other three metals inhibited the production of antifungal compounds. The Mn(2+) (P=0.0384), Ni(2+) (P=0.0004) and Cu(2+) (P=0.0117) significantly affected the production of antifungal compounds while the effect of Ca(2+) (P=0.1851) was less significant. The maximum growth (OD(600)=1.55) was obtained at 500 (0), 125 (0), 100 (-2) and 37.5 (0) microM levels and the maximum size of inhibition zone (31 mm) was measured at 400 (-1), 150 (1), 400 (1) and 25 microM (-1) levels of Ca(2+), Mn(2+), Ni(2+) and Cu(2+), respectively. The RSM model provided an easy and effective way to determine the interactive effect of metal ions on production of antifungal compounds by P. polymyxa SQR-21 so that optimum media recipes can be developed to produce maximum amounts of antifungal compounds under laboratory and commercial fermentation conditions. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of processing of mechanical alloying and powder metallurgy on microstructure and properties of Cu-Al-Ni-Mn alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Zhu; Li Zhou; Fang Mei; Xiong Shiyun; Sheng Xiaofei; Zhou Mengqi

    2008-01-01

    The fabrication conditions of Cu-Al-Ni-Mn alloy powder by mechanical alloying and powder metallurgy have been systematically studied. The mechanically alloyed powder (MAed powder) was fabricated at a speed between 100 rpm and 300 rpm for various milling times with and without process control agent (PCA). With an increasing of milling time, the size of crystallite grain decreases. Only the Cu diffraction pattern appear as the rotation speed is up to 300 rpm for 25 h. The elemental powders with PCA agglomerate slightly, but the degree of alloying is lower than that without PCA. The shape memory recovery of the quenched sample hot-extruded at extrusion rate of 50:1 is measured to be 100% recovered in 250 deg. C oil bath for 40 s after deformed to 4.0%. After aging at 120 deg. C for 10 days, the shape memory recovery of the alloy remains 98%

  13. Effect of Mn and AlTiB Addition and Heattreatment on the Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Al-Si-Fe-Cu-Zr Alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hyo-Sang; Kim, Yong-Ho; Lee, Seong-Hee; Son, Hyeon-Taek

    2018-09-01

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of as-extruded Al-0.1 wt%Si-0.2 wt%Fe- 0.4 wt%Cu-0.04 wt%Zr-xMn-xAlTiB (x = 1.0 wt%) alloys under various annealing processes were investigated and compared. After the as-cast billets were kept at 400 °C for 1 hr, hot extrusion was carried out with a reduction ratio of 38:1. In the case of the as-extruded Al-Si-Fe-Cu-Zr alloy at annealed at 620 °C, large equiaxed grain was observed. When the Mn content is 1.0 wt%, the phase exhibits a skeleton morphology, the phase formation in which Mn participated. Also, the volume fraction of the intermetallic compounds increased with Mn and AlTiB addition. For the Al-0.1Si-0.2Fe-0.4Cu-0.04Zr alloy with Mn and AlTiB addition from 1.0 wt%, the ultimate tensile strength increased from 100.47 to 119.41 to 110.49 MPa. The tensile strength of the as-extruded alloys improved with the addition of Mn and AlTiB due to the formation of Mn and AlTiB-containing intermetallic compounds.

  14. The effect of heat treatment on the properties of (Bi,Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3Oδ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetisov, A.V.; Yasnikov, A.G.; Fotiev, A.A.

    1994-01-01

    In synthesis of (Bi,Pb) 2 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 2 O δ (2-2-2-3 phase), which is known to belong to a homologous series of bismuth-based superconductors, several routes have been reported to date to yield materials with a high content, around 95% of the main phase. This phase is characterized by the highest superconducting-transition temperature T c among all known high-T c materials. Based on literature data, heat-treatment conditions are expected to affect strongly the T c of the 2-2-2-3 phase, as they do for other high-T c materials. An optimal oxygen content in 2-2-2-3 was presumed to be the deciding factor for attainment of high T c 's. However, heating below ∼ 870 K in air causes no change in oxygen content in the 2-2-2-3 phase. At the same time, it is oxidizing annealing at T c up to 105-110 K. The conclusions found that changes in oxygen content for (Bi,Pb) 2 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 2 O δ (2-2-2-3 phase) do not affect T c , which remains unchanged after shor anneals at 370-1020 Kelvin in different atmospheres. In order to obtain high T c 's, it will suffice to exclude long anneals at 1020-1090 Kelvin from the technology. For the 2-2-2-3 phase, a degradation process, which does not change the composition of the phase, is like that for YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6+delta . Proposed is that different structural planes participate in mass exhanage with an atmosphere: (BiO) planes which do not participate to superconductivity, participate in oxygen exchange; and H 2 O and CO 2 penetrate into the CuO 2 planes, which are responsible for superconductivity in the 2-2-2-3 phase

  15. Hydrogen storage properties of LaMgNi3.6M0.4 (M = Ni, Co, Mn, Cu, Al) alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Tai; Zhai, Tingting; Yuan, Zeming; Bu, Wengang; Xu, Sheng; Zhang, Yanghuan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • La–Mg–Ni system AB 2 -type alloys were prepared by induction melting. • Structures and lattice parameters were analysed by XRD. • Hydrogen absorption/desorption performances were studied. • Mechanisms of hydrogen absorption capacity fading were investigated. - Abstract: LaMgNi 3.6 M 0.4 (M = Ni, Co, Mn, Cu, Al) alloys were prepared through induction melting process. The phase compositions and crystal structures were characterised via X-ray diffraction (XRD). The hydrogen storage properties, including activation performance, hydrogen absorption capacity, cycle stability, alloy particle pulverisation and plateau pressure, were systemically investigated. Results show that Ni, Co, Mn and Cu substitution alloys exhibit multiphase structures comprising the main phase LaMgNi 4 and the secondary phase LaNi 5 . However, the secondary phase of the Al substitution alloy changes into LaAlNi 4 . The lattice parameters and cell volumes of the LaMgNi 4 phase follow the order Ni < Co < Al < Cu < Mn. Activation is simplified through partial substitution of Ni with Al, Cu and Co. The hydrogen absorption capacities of all of the alloys are approximately 1.7 wt.% at the first activation process; however, they rapidly decrease with increasing cycle number. In addition, the stabilities of hydriding and dehydriding cycles decrease in the order Al > Co > Ni > Cu > Mn. Hydriding processes result in numerous cracks and amorphisation of the LaMgNi 4 phase in the alloys. The p–c isotherms were determined by a Sieverts-type apparatus. Two plateaus were observed for the Ni, Co and Al substitution alloys, whereas only one plateau was found for Mn and Cu. This result was caused by the amorphisation of the LaMgNi 4 phase during the hydriding cycles. Reversible absorption and desorption of hydrogen are difficult to achieve. Substitutions of Ni with Co, Mn, Cu and Al significantly influence the reduction of hysteresis between hydriding and dehydriding

  16. Mobility of Pb, Cu, and Zn in the phosphorus-amended contaminated soils under simulated landfill and rainfall conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xinde; Liang, Yuan; Zhao, Ling; Le, Huangying

    2013-09-01

    Phosphorus-bearing materials have been widely applied in immobilization of heavy metals in contaminated soils. However, the study on the stability of the initially P-induced immobilized metals in the contaminated soils is far limited. This work was conducted to evaluate the mobility of Pb, Cu, and Zn in two contrasting contaminated soils amended with phosphate rock tailing (PR) and triple superphosphate fertilizer (TSP), and their combination (P + T) under simulated landfill and rainfall conditions. The main objective was to determine the stability of heavy metals in the P-treated contaminated soils in response to the changing environment conditions. The soils were amended with the P-bearing materials at a 2:1 molar ratio of P to metals. After equilibrated for 2 weeks, the soils were evaluated with the leaching procedures. The batch-based toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) was conducted to determine the leachability of heavy metals from both untreated and P-treated soils under simulated landfill condition. The column-based synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP) were undertaken to measure the downward migration of metals from untreated and P-treated soils under simulated rainfall condition. Leachability of Pb, Cu, and Zn in the TCLP extract followed the order of Zn > Cu > Pb in both soils, with the organic-C- and clay-poor soil showing higher metal leachability than the organic-C- and clay-rich soil. All three P treatments reduced leachability of Pb, Cu, and Zn by up to 89.2, 24.4, and 34.3 %, respectively, compared to the untreated soil, and TSP revealed more effectiveness followed by P + T and then PR. The column experiments showed that Zn had the highest downward migration upon 10 pore volumes of SPLP leaching, followed by Pb and then Cu in both soils. However, migration of Pb and Zn to subsoil and leachate were inhibited in the P-treated soil, while Cu in the leachate was enhanced by P treatment in the organic

  17. The poisoning effect of PbO on Mn-Ce/TiO{sub 2} catalyst for selective catalytic reduction of NO with NH{sub 3} at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Lingling [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Li, Caiting, E-mail: ctli@hnu.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Zhao, Lingkui; Zeng, Guangming; Gao, Lei; Wang, Yan; Yu, Ming’e [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • The poisoning effects of PbO-doped Mn-Ce/TiO{sub 2} catalysts for low temperature NH{sub 3}-SCR were investigated. • Low concentration of Mn{sup 4+} and chemisorbed oxygen (O{sub b}) were not favorable for the generation of intermediates. • The decreased Ce{sup 3+} and less reducible of manganese oxides hindered the redox cycle (Mn{sup 3+} + Ce{sup 4+} ↔ Mn{sup 4+} + Ce{sup 3+}). • The doping of PbO not only altered acid sites but also inhibited ammonia adsorption as well as activation. • The poisoning of PbO resulted in the decrease of ad-NO{sub x} species (only a spot of bidentate nitrates remained). - Abstract: Lead oxide (PbO) as one of the typical heavy metals in flue gas from power plants has strong accumulation as well as poisoning effects on SCR catalysts. In this paper, a series of PbO-doped Mn-Ce/TiO{sub 2} catalysts were synthesized by impregnation method. The poisoning effects of PbO over Mn-Ce/TiO{sub 2} samples for selective catalytic reduction of NO by NH{sub 3} were investigated based on catalytic activity test and characterizations. The NO conversion of Mn-Ce/TiO{sub 2} was greatly decreased after the addition of PbO. It was obvious that the NO conversion efficiency of Mn-Ce/TiO{sub 2} catalyst declined from 96.75% to about 40% at 200 °C when Pb:Mn molar ratio reached 0.5. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Hydrogen temperature programmed reduction (H{sub 2}-TPR), Ammonia temperature programmed desorption (NH{sub 3}-TPD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were carried out to study the deactivation reasons of PbO poisoned catalysts. Manganese oxides’ crystallization, less reducible of manganese and cerium oxides, the decreasing of surface area, Mn{sup 4+} as well as Ce{sup 3+} concentration and chemisorbed oxygen (O{sub b}) after the introduction of PbO, all of these resulted in a poor SCR performance

  18. Anthropogenic impacts in North Poland over the last 1300 years - A record of Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni and S in an ombrotrophic peat bog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vleeschouwer, Francois; Fagel, Nathalie; Cheburkin, Andriy; Pazdur, Anna; Sikorski, Jaroslaw; Mattielli, Nadine; Renson, Virginie; Fialkiewicz, Barbara; Piotrowska, Natalia; Le Roux, Gael

    2009-01-01

    Lead pollution history over Northern Poland was reconstructed for the last ca. 1300 years using the elemental and Pb isotope geochemistry of a dated Polish peat bog. The data show that Polish Pb-Zn ores and coal were the main sources of Pb, other heavy metals and S over Northern Poland up until the industrial revolution. After review of the potential mobility of each element, most of the historical interpretation was based on Pb and Pb isotopes, the other chemical elements (Zn, Cu, Ni, S) being considered secondary indicators of pollution. During the last century, leaded gasoline also contributed to anthropogenic Pb pollution over Poland. Coal and Pb-Zn ores, however, remained important sources of pollution in Eastern European countries during the last 50 years, as demonstrated by a high 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratio (1.153) relative to that of Western Europe (ca. 1.10). The Pb data for the last century were also in good agreement with modelled Pb inventories over Poland and the Baltic region.

  19. Effect of Cu{sup 2+} and Ni{sup 2+} substitution at the Mn site in (La{sub 0.63}Ca{sub 0.37})MnO{sub 3}: A neutron powder diffraction investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinelli, A., E-mail: alberto.martinelli@spin.cnr.it [CNR-SPIN, C.so Perrone 24, 16152 Genova (Italy); Ferretti, M. [CNR-SPIN, C.so Perrone 24, 16152 Genova (Italy); Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, Università di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 31, 16146 Genova (Italy); Castellano, C. [Università degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Chimica Strutturale e Stereochimica Inorganica, Via G. Venezian 21, 20133 Milano (Italy); Cimberle, M.R. [IMEM-CNR, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Ritter, C. [Institute Laue—Langevin, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2013-04-15

    The crystal and magnetic structures of the (La{sub 0.63}Ca{sub 0.37})(Mn{sub 1−x}TM{sub x})O{sub 3} compounds (x=0.00, 0.03, 0.08; TM=Cu{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}) were investigated between 5 K and 300 K by means of dc magnetic measurements and neutron powder diffraction analysis followed by Rietveld refinement. Both substituting cations lead to a reduction of the long range ferromagnetic ordering temperature; ferromagnetism is strongly suppressed in the 8% Cu-substituted sample, where long- and short-range FM magnetic orders coexist together with short-range A-type AFM order. This particular feature can be related to the Jahn–Teller character of Cu{sup 2+}, absent in Ni{sup 2+}, and suggests the occurrence of a quantum critical point in the (La{sub 0.63}Ca{sub 0.37})(Mn{sub 1−x}Cu{sub x})O{sub 3} system. - Graphical abstract: Rietveld refinement plot of (La{sub 0.63}Ca{sub 0.37})(Mn{sub 0.92}Cu{sub 0.08})O{sub 3} showing in the inset the coexistence of broad A-type AFM peaks with FM ones. Highlights: ► (La{sub 0.63}Ca{sub 0.37})MnO{sub 3} was substituted with Ni and Cu. ► Neutron powder diffraction and Rietveld refinement were carried out. ► A quantum critical point possibly occurs in the (La{sub 0.63}Ca{sub 0.37})(Mn{sub 1−x}Cu{sub x})O{sub 3} system.

  20. Survey of trace elements (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Co, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, and Si) in retail samples of flavoured and bottled waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, M F; Ramos, S; Oliva-Teles, M T; Delerue-Matos, C; Sales, M G F; Oliveira, M B P P

    2009-01-01

    Concentrations of eleven trace elements (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Co, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, and Si) were measured in 39 (natural and flavoured) water samples. Determinations were performed using graphite furnace electrothermetry for almost all elements (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Co, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Si). For Se determination hydride generation was used, and cold vapour generation for Hg. These techniques were coupled to atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The trace element content of still or sparkling natural waters changed from brand to brand. Significant differences between natural still and natural sparkling waters (p element was compared with the presence of flavours, preservatives, acidifying agents, fruit juice and/or sweeteners, according to the labelled composition. It was shown that flavoured waters generally increase the trace element content. The addition of preservatives and acidifying regulators had a significant influence on Mn, Co, As and Si contents (p < 0.05). Fruit juice can also be correlated to the increase of Co and As. Sweeteners did not provide any significant difference in Mn, Co, Se and Si content.

  1. Enriquecimiento, disponibilidad y contaminación de metales traza (Cd, Cu, Pb y Zn) en sedimentos de lagunas urbanas de Concepción-Chile Enrichment, availability and contamination of trace metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) in sediments of urban lagoons in Concepción, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth González Sepúlveda; María Retamal Cifuentes; Valentina Medina Pedreros; Ramón Ahumada Bermúdez; José Neira Hinojosa

    2009-01-01

    Trace metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) enrichment, availability and contamination in superficial sediments of three interconnected urban lagoons localized in Concepción-Chile, were evaluated. According to the results of geochemical fracctionation analysis, Cu and Pb are rather associated with oxi-hydroxides, Cd is associated with exchangeable and carbonates fraction, while Zn is mainly associated with organic, oxi-hydroxides and residual fraction. The estimation of the availability percentages indi...

  2. Direct imaging of thermally-activated grain-boundary diffusion in Cu/Co/IrMn/Pt exchange-bias structures using atom-probe tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letellier, F.; Lardé, R.; Le Breton, J.-M., E-mail: jean-marie.lebreton@univ-rouen.fr [Groupe de Physique des Matériaux, UMR 6634 CNRS/Université et INSA de Rouen, F-76801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray (France); Lechevallier, L. [Groupe de Physique des Matériaux, UMR 6634 CNRS/Université et INSA de Rouen, F-76801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray (France); Département de GEII, Université de Cergy-Pontoise, F-95031 Cergy-Pontoise (France); Akmaldinov, K. [SPINTEC, Univ. Grenoble-Alpes/CNRS/INAC-CEA, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CROCUS Technology, F-38025 Grenoble (France); Auffret, S.; Dieny, B.; Baltz, V., E-mail: vincent.baltz@cea.fr [SPINTEC, Univ. Grenoble-Alpes/CNRS/INAC-CEA, F-38000 Grenoble (France)

    2014-11-28

    Magnetic devices are often subject to thermal processing steps, such as field cooling to set exchange bias and annealing to crystallize amorphous magnetic electrodes. These processing steps may result in interdiffusion and the subsequent deterioration of magnetic properties. In this study, we investigated thermally-activated diffusion in Cu/Co/IrMn/Pt exchange biased polycrystalline thin-film structures using atom probe tomography. Images taken after annealing at 400 °C for 60 min revealed Mn diffusion into Co grains at the Co/IrMn interface and along Pt grain boundaries for the IrMn/Pt stack, i.e., a Harrison type C regime. Annealing at 500 °C showed further Mn diffusion into Co grains. At the IrMn/Pt interface, annealing at 500 °C led to a type B behavior since Mn diffusion was detected both along Pt grain boundaries and also into Pt grains. The deterioration of the films' exchange bias properties upon annealing was correlated to the observed diffusion. In particular, the topmost Pt capping layer thickness turned out to be crucial since a faster deterioration of the exchange bias properties for thicker caps was observed. This is consistent with the idea that Pt acts as a getter for Mn, drawing Mn out of the IrMn layer.

  3. Atomic kinetic Monte Carlo model based on ab initio data: Simulation of microstructural evolution under irradiation of dilute Fe-CuNiMnSi alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincent, E.; Becquart, C.S.; Domain, C.

    2007-01-01

    The embrittlement of pressure vessel steels under radiation has been long ago correlated with the presence of Cu solutes. Other solutes such as Ni, Mn and Si are now suspected to contribute also to the embrittlement. The interactions of these solutes with radiation induced point defects thus need to be characterized properly in order to understand the elementary mechanisms behind the formation of the clusters formed upon radiation. Ab initio calculations based on the density functional theory have been performed to determine the interactions of point defects with solute atoms in dilute FeX alloys (X = Cu, Mn, Ni or Si) in order to build a database used to parameterise an atomic kinetic Monte Carlo model. Some results of irradiation damage in dilute Fe-CuNiMnSi alloys obtained with this model are presented

  4. Atomic kinetic Monte Carlo model based on ab initio data: Simulation of microstructural evolution under irradiation of dilute Fe CuNiMnSi alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, E.; Becquart, C. S.; Domain, C.

    2007-02-01

    The embrittlement of pressure vessel steels under radiation has been long ago correlated with the presence of Cu solutes. Other solutes such as Ni, Mn and Si are now suspected to contribute also to the embrittlement. The interactions of these solutes with radiation induced point defects thus need to be characterized properly in order to understand the elementary mechanisms behind the formation of the clusters formed upon radiation. Ab initio calculations based on the density functional theory have been performed to determine the interactions of point defects with solute atoms in dilute FeX alloys (X = Cu, Mn, Ni or Si) in order to build a database used to parameterise an atomic kinetic Monte Carlo model. Some results of irradiation damage in dilute Fe-CuNiMnSi alloys obtained with this model are presented.

  5. Determination of Proton Relaxivities of Mn(II, Cu(II and Cr(III added to Solutions of Serum Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Yilmaz

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Relaxometric studies are still of scientific interest due to their use in medicine and biology. In this study, proton T1 and T2 relaxivities of Mn(II, Cu(II and Cr(III in water were determined in the presence and absence of various proteins (albumin, α-globulin, γ-globulin, lysozyme, fibrinogen. The 1/T1 and 1/T2 in all solutions are linearly proportional to the concentration of the paramagnetic ions. Mn(II has the great influence to alter relaxations in all protein solutions, while Cu(II and Cr(III have a poor influence on the relaxations. In addition, Mn(II and Cu(II are bound to each protein, but Cr(III is not bound to any protein.

  6. Removal of Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cr from Yangtze Estuary Using the Phragmites australis Artificial Floating Wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of heavy metals would threaten the water and soil resources; phytoremediation can be potentially used to remediate metal contaminated sites. We constructed the Phragmites australis artificial floating wetlands outside the Qingcaosha Reservoir in the Yangtze Estuary. Water characteristic variables were measured in situ by using YSI Professional Pro Meter. Four heavy metals (copper, zinc, lead, and chromium in both water and plant tissues were determined. Four heavy metals in estuary water were as follows: 0.03 mg/Kg, 0.016 mg/Kg, 0.0015 mg/Kg, and 0.004 mg/Kg. These heavy metals were largely retained in the belowground tissues of P. australis. The bioaccumulation (BAF and translation factor (TF value of four heavy metals were affected by the salinity, temperature, and dissolved oxygen. The highest BAF of each metal calculated was as follows: Cr (0.091 in winter > Cu (0.054 in autumn > Pb (0.016 in summer > Zn (0.011 in summer. Highest root-rhizome TF values were recorded for four metals: 6.450 for Cu in autumn, 2.895 for Zn in summer, 7.031 for Pb in autumn, and 2.012 for Cr in autumn. This indicates that the P. australis AFW has potential to be used to protect the water of Qingcaosha Reservoir from heavy metal contamination.

  7. Adsorption of Cu (II), Pb (II) and Cr (VI) from aqueous solutions using black wattle tannin-immobilized nanocellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qinghua; Wang, Yulu; Jin, Liqiang; Wang, Yu; Qin, Menghua

    2017-10-05

    A novel nanocomposite based on black wattle (BW) tannin and nanocellulose was prepared and applied in heavy metal ions adsorptive removal from aqueous solutions. Firstly, nanocrystalline cellulose was oxidized by sodium periodate to get dialdehyde nanocellulose (DANC). BW tannin was then covalently immobilized onto DANC, which was used as both the matrix and crosslinker, to obtain tannin-nanocellulose (TNCC) composite. The resulting nanocomposite was characterized using FTIR, AFM, and TG. The successful immobilization was confirmed by the chromogenic reaction between FeCl 3 and TNCC and FT-IR analysis. AFM images revealed that TNCC was ellipsoidal particles with lengths ranging from 100-400nm. Zeta potential measurement showed that TNCC was negative charged at a pH range from 1-12. Compared to the original tannin, the thermal stability of TNCC was slightly increased by the addition of nanocellulose. TNCC demonstrated the maximum adsorption efficiency at pH2 for Cr(VI) and pH 6 for Cu(II) and Pb(II), respectively. The adsorption for these three metal ions followed pseudo second-order kinetics, indicating the chemisorption nature. The adsorption isotherms all fitted well with the Sips model, and the calculated maximum adsorption capacities were 51.846mgg -1 , 53.371mgg -1 and 104.592mgg -1 for Cu(II), Pb(II) and Cr (VI), respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Stabilization of Cd-, Pb-, Cu- and Zn-contaminated calcareous agricultural soil using red mud: a field experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yangyang; Li, Fangfang; Song, Jian; Xiao, Ruiyang; Luo, Lin; Yang, Zhihui; Chai, Liyuan

    2018-04-12

    Red mud (RM) was used to remediate heavy metal-contaminated soils. Experiments with two different dosages of RM added to soils were carried out in this study. It was found that soil pH increased 0.3 and 0.5 unit with the dosage of 3 and 5% (wt%), respectively. At the dosage of 5%, the highest stabilization efficiencies for Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn reached 67.95, 64.21, 43.73 and 63.73%, respectively. The addition of RM obviously transferred Cd from the exchangeable fraction to the residual fraction. Meanwhile, in comparison with the control (no RM added), it reduced 24.38, 49.20, 19.42 and 8.89% of Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn in wheat grains at the RM addition dosage of 5%, respectively. At the same time, the yield of wheat grains increased 17.81 and 24.66% at the RM addition dosage of 3 and 5%, respectively. Finally, the addition of RM did not change the soil bacterial community. These results indicate that RM has a great potential in stabilizing heavy metals in calcareous agricultural soils.

  9. Microstructural characterization of Cu82.3Al8.3Mn9.4 shape memory alloy after rolling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Gojić

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the microstructure of Cu82.3Al8.3Mn9.4 (in wt. % shape memory alloy after hot and cold rolling was investigated. The Cu82.3Al8.3Mn9.4 alloy was produced by a vertical continuous casting method in the form a cylinder rod of 8 mm in diameter. After the casting, hot and cold rolling was performed. By hot rolling a strip with a thickness of 1.75 mm was obtained, while by cold rolling a strip with a thickness of 1.02 mm was produced. After the rolling process, heat treatment was performed. Heat treatment was carried out by solution annealing at 900 °C held for 30 minutes and water quenched immediately after heating. The microstructure characterization of the investigated alloy was carried out by optical microscopy (OM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM equipped with a device for energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS. Phase transformation temperatures and fusion enthalpies were determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC method. The homogenous martensite microstructure was confirmed by OM and SEM micrographs after casting. During rolling the two-phase microstructure occurred. Results of DSC analysis showed martensite start (Ms, martensite finish (Mf, austenite start (As and austenite finish (Af temperatures.

  10. Influence of heat treatment on microstructure and tensile properties of a cast Al-Cu-Si-Mn alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Zhixue

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Solution and aging treatments are important approaches to improve mechanical properties and microstructure of aluminum-base alloys. In this research, a new type high strength Al-Cu-Si-Mn cast alloy was prepared. The effect of different solution and aging treatment temperatures on microstructure and mechanical properties of the Al-Cu-Si-Mn cast alloy were studied by means of microstructure observation and mechanical properties testing. Results showed that after solution treated at different temperatures for 12 h and aged at 175 ℃ for 12 h, with the increase of the solution temperature, both the tensile strength and the elongation of the alloy firstly increase and then decrease, and reach their peak values at 530 ℃. When the solution temperature is below 530 ℃, the microstructure of the alloy consists of α phase, undissolved θ phase and T phase; while when it exceeds 530 ℃, the microstructure only consists of α phase and T phase. After solution treated at 530 ℃ for 12 h and aged at different temperatures for 12 h, both the tensile strength and the elongation of the alloy firstly increase and then decrease with the increasing of temperature, and reach their peak values at 175 ℃. Therefore, the optimal heat treatment process for the alloy in this study is 12 h solution at 530 ℃ and 12 h aging at 175 ℃, and the corresponding tensile strength is 417 MPa, elongation is 4.0%.

  11. Crystal substructures of the rotation-twinned T (Al20Cu2Mn3) phase in 2024 aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Z.Q.; Yang, Y.Q.; Huang, B.; Li, M.H.; Chen, Y.X.; Ru, J.G.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The substructures in rotation-twinned T (Al 20 Cu 2 Mn 3 ) particles were investigated. • A flattened hexagonal structural subunit with 20 atomic columns was proposed. • The stacking mode of these subunits at APB and TB were revealed. • The transition structures at twin domain junctions were unraveled. -- Abstract: The substructures in rotation-twinned T (Al 20 Cu 2 Mn 3 ) particles were investigated by means of high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) in the present work. A flattened hexagonal structural subunit with 20 atomic columns was proposed. The stacking mode of these subunits in non-defective T phase was proved to be tessellation of many flattened hexagonal subunits with the same orientations, while the stacking modes near anti-phase boundary (APB) and twin boundary (TB) were tessellations of two differently oriented flattened hexagonal subunits. The transition region at twin domain junctions has hybrid structure and perfect or imperfect pentagram structure. Centered with the perfect pentagram transition structure, a rotation twin with ten fan-shaped domains and constituted by five twin variants can be deduced

  12. Removal of Pb(II), Cu(II) and Cd(II) from aqueous solution by some fungi and natural adsorbents in single and multiple metal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoaib, A.; Badar, T.; Aslam, N.

    2011-01-01

    Six fungal and 10 natural biosorbents were analyzed for their Cu(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II) uptake capacity from single, binary and ternary metal ion system. Preliminary screening biosorption of assays revealed 2 fungi (Aspergillus niger and Cunninghamella echinulata) and three natural [Cicer arietinum husk, Moringa oleifera flower and soil (clay)] adsorbents hold considerable high adsorption efficiency and capacity for 3 meta l ions amongst the adsorbents. Further biosorption trials with five elected adsorbents showed a considerable reduction in metal uptake capability of adsorbents in binary- and ternary systems as compared to singly metal system. Cd(II) manifested the highest inhibitory effect on the biosorption of other metal ions, followed by Pb(II) and Cu(II). On account of metal preference, the selectivity order for metal ion towards the studied biomass matrices was Pb(II) (40-90%) > Cd(II) (2-53%) > Cu(II) (2-30%). (author)

  13. Formation of nanocrystalline and amorphous phase of Al-Pb-Si-Sn-Cu powder during mechanical alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ran Guang; Zhou Jingen; Xi Shengqi; Li Pengliang

    2006-01-01

    Al-15%Pb-4%Si-1%Sn-1.5%Cu alloys (mass fraction, %) were prepared by mechanical alloying (MA). Phase transformation and microstructure characteristics of the alloy powders were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results show that the nanocrystalline supersaturated solid solutions and amorphous phase in the powders are obtained during MA. The effect of ball milling is more evident to lead than to aluminum. During MA, the mixture powders are firstly fined, alloyed, nanocrystallized and then the nanocrystalline partly transforms to amorphous phase. A thermodynamic model is developed based on semi-experimental theory of Miedema to calculate the driving force for phase evolution. The thermodynamic analysis shows that there is no chemical driving force to form a crystalline solid solution from the elemental components. But for the amorphous phase, the Gibbs free energy is higher than 0 for the alloy with lead content in the ranges of 0-86.8 at.% and 98.4-100 at.% and lower than 0 in range of 86.8-98.4 at.%. For the Al-2.25 at.%Pb (Al-15%Pb, mass fraction, %), the driving force for formation of amorphization and nanocrystalline supersaturated solid solutions are provided not by the negative heat of mixing but by mechanical work

  14. Successful treatment of radiation-induced fibrosis using Cu/Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefaix, J L; Delanian, S; Leplat, J J; Tricaud, Y; Martin, M; Nimrod, A; Baillet, F; Daburon, F

    1996-05-01

    To establish how far liposomal copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD) and manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), respectively, reduce radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF), using a well-characterized pig model of RIF permitting the design of a controlled laboratory experiment. In this model of acute localized gamma irradiation simulating accidental overexposure in humans, three groups of five large white pigs were irradiated using a collimated 192Ir source to deliver a single dose of 160 Gy onto the skin surface (100%) of the outer side of the thigh. A well-defined block of subcutaneous fibrosis involving skin and skeletal muscle developed 6 months after irradiation. One experimental group of five pigs was then injected i.m. with 10 mg/10 kg b.wt. of Cu/Zn-SOD, twice a week for 3 weeks, and another experimental group of five was injected with 10 mg/10 kg b.wt. of Mn-SOD, three times a week for 3 weeks. Five irradiated control pigs were injected with physiological serum. Animals were assessed for changes in the density of the palpated fibrotic block and in the dimensions of the projected cutaneous surface. Block depth was determined by ultrasound. Physical and sonographic findings were confirmed by autopsy 12-14 weeks after completing SOD injections. The density, length, width, and depth of the fibrotic block, and the areas and volume of its projected cutaneous surface were compared before treatment, 1, 3, and 6 weeks thereafter, and at autopsy, 12-14 weeks after treatment ended. The experimental animals exhibited no change in behavior and no abnormal clinical or anatomic signs. Whether they were given Cu/Zn- or Mn-SOD, significant and roughly equivalent softening and shrinking of the fibrotic block were noted in all treated animals between the first week after treatment ended and autopsy, when mean regression was 45% for length and width, 30% for depth, and 70% for area and volume. Histologic examination showed completely normal muscle and subcutaneous tissue

  15. Effect of mineral-enriched diet and medicinal herbs on Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu uptake in chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stef Ducu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of our study was to evaluate the effects of different medicinal herbs rich in polyphenol (Lemon balm, Sage, St. John's wort and Small-flowered Willowherb used as dietary supplements on bioaccumulation of some essential metals (Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu in different chicken meats (liver, legs and breast. Results In different type of chicken meats (liver, legs and breast from chickens fed with diets enriched in minerals and medicinal herbs, beneficial metals (Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu were analysed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Fe is the predominant metal in liver and Zn is the predominant metal in legs and breast chicken meats. The addition of metal salts in the feed influences the accumulations of all metals in the liver, legs and breast chicken meat with specific difference to the type of metal and meat. The greatest influences were observed in legs meat for Fe and Mn. Under the influence of polyphenol-rich medicinal herbs, accumulation of metals in the liver, legs and breast chicken meat presents specific differences for each medicinal herb, to the control group that received a diet supplemented with metal salts only. Great influence on all metal accumulation factors was observed in diet enriched with sage, which had significantly positive effect for all type of chicken meats. Conclusions Under the influence of medicinal herbs rich in different type of polyphenol, accumulation of metals in the liver, legs and breast chicken meat presents significant differences from the group that received a diet supplemented only with metal salts. Each medicinal herb from diet had a specific influence on the accumulation of metals and generally moderate or poor correlations were observed between total phenols and accumulation of metals. This may be due to antagonism between metal ions and presence of other chelating agents (amino acids and protein from feeding diets which can act as competitor for complexation of metals and influence

  16. The Effect of Powder Ball Milling on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Sintered Fe-Cr-Mo-Mn-(Cu) Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulecki, P.; Lichańska, E.

    2017-12-01

    The effect of ball milling powder mixtures of Höganäs pre-alloyed iron Astaloy CrM, low-carbon ferromanganese Elkem, elemental electrolytic Cu and C-UF graphite on the sintered structure and mechanical properties was evaluated. The mixing was conducted using Turbula mixer for 30 minutes and CDI-EM60 frequency inverter for 1 and 2 hours. Milling was performed on 150 g mixtures with (in weight %) CrM + 1% Mn, CrM + 2% Mn, CrM + 1% Mn + 1% Cu and CrM + 2% Mn + 1% Cu, all with 0.6%C. The green compacts were single pressed at 660 MPa according to PN-EN ISO 2740. Sintering was carried out in a laboratory horizontal furnace Carbolite STF 15/450 at 1250°C for 60 minutes in 5%H2 - 95%N2 atmosphere with a heating rate of 75°C/min, followed by sintering hardening at 60°C/min cooling rate. All the steels were characterized by martensitic structures. Mechanical testing revealed that steels based on milled powders have slightly higher mechanical properties compared to those only mixed and sintered. The best combination of mechanical properties, for ball milled CrM + 1% Mn + 1% Cu was UTS 1046 MPa, TRS 1336 MPa and A 1.94%.

  17. Raman spectroscopy of DNA-metal complexes. I. Interactions and conformational effects of the divalent cations: Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Pd, and Cd

    OpenAIRE

    Duguid, J.; Bloomfield, V.A.; Benevides, J.; Thomas Jr, G.J.

    1993-01-01

    Interactions of divalent metal cations (Mg2+, Ca2+, Ba2+, Sr2+, Mn2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Pd2+, and Cd2+) with DNA have been investigated by laser Raman spectroscopy. Both genomic calf-thymus DNA (> 23 kilobase pairs) and mononucleosomal fragments (160 base pairs) were employed as targets of metal interaction in solutions containing 5 weight-% DNA and metal:phosphate molar ratios of 0.6:1. Raman difference spectra reveal that transition metal cations (Mn2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Pd2+, and Cd2+) ind...

  18. Fatigue and retention in ferroelectric Y-Ba-Cu-O/Pb-Zr-Ti-O/Y-Ba-Cu-O heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, R.; Chan, W. K.; Wilkens, B.; Gilchrist, H.; Sands, T.; Tarascon, J. M.; Keramidas, V. G.; Fork, D. K.; Lee, J.; Safari, A.

    1992-09-01

    Fatigue and retention characteristics of ferroelectric lead zirconate titanate thin films grown with Y-Ba-Cu-O(YBCO) thin-film top and bottom electrodes are found to be far superior to those obtained with conventional Pt top electrodes. The heterostructures reported here have been grown in situ by pulsed laser deposition on yttria-stabilized ZrO2 buffer [100] Si and on [001] LaAlO3. Both the a- and c-axis orientations of the YBCO lattice have been used as electrodes. They were prepared using suitable changes in growth conditions.

  19. Manipulating the magnetism and resistance state of Mn:ZnO/Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 heterostructured films through electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong-Chao; Wu, Jun; Pan, Hai-Yang; Wang, Jue; Wang, Guang-Hou; Liu, Jun-Ming; Wan, Jian-Guo

    2018-05-01

    Mn:ZnO/Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT) heterostructured films have been prepared on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si wafers by a sol-gel process. Nonvolatile and reversible manipulation of the magnetism and resistance by electric fields has been realized. Compared with the saturation magnetic moment (Ms) in the +3.0 V case, the modulation gain of Ms can reach 270% in the -3.0 V case at room temperature. The resistance change is attributed to the interfacial potential barrier height variation and the formation of an accumulation (or depletion) layer at the Mn:ZnO/PZT interface, which can be regulated by the ferroelectric polarization direction. The magnetism of Mn:ZnO originates from bound magnetic polarons. The mobile carrier variation in Mn:ZnO, owing to interfacial polarization coupling and the ferroelectric field effect, enables the electric manipulation of the magnetism in the Mn:ZnO/PZT heterostructured films. This work presents an effective method for modulating the magnetism of magnetic semiconductors and provides a promising avenue for multifunctional devices with both electric and magnetic functionalities.

  20. Spin glass and ferromagnetic properties of Ce(Cu_1_-_xNi_x)_4Mn alloys: Multicritical points in the magnetic phase diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synoradzki, K.; Toliński, T.

    2016-01-01

    We report on the CeNi_4Mn (ferromagnet FM) - CeCu_4Mn (spin-glass SG) transformation leading to a complex magnetic phase diagram (MPD). It is verified that all the Ce(Cu_1_-_xNi_x)_4Mn alloys are isostructural and the transformation is governed only by the Cu-Ni substitution. MPD is built based on the magnetic dc/ac susceptibility measurements and reveals SG formation as well as the region of the coexistence of the FM and SG state in the middle range of the Ni concentration. The complex MPD is explained by clusters formation and a competition of interactions between various crystallographic sites of the hexagonal CaCu_5-type structure, mainly the 3g-3g and 3g-2c interactions. The predominance of the SG state is confirmed by the analysis of the frequency dependence of the ac magnetic susceptibility components and the relaxation of the remanent magnetization. Additionally, the presence of two multicritical points is observed. - Highlights: • We fully characterized the magnetic properties of Ce(Cu_1_-_xNi_x)_4Mn alloys. • We show the presence of complex magnetic behaviour due to atomic-site disorder. • Magnetic phase diagram revels mixed-phase ground state. • Two multicritical points on magnetic phase diagram occurs.

  1. The improvement of the superconducting Y-Ba-Cu-O magnet characteristics through shape recovery strain of Fe-Mn-Si alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimpo, Y.; Seki, H.; Wongsatanawarid, A.; Taniguchi, S.; Maruyama, T.; Kurita, T.; Murakami, M.

    2010-01-01

    Since bulk Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductors are brittle ceramics, reinforcement of mechanical properties is important for practical applications. It has been reported that bulk Y-Ba-Cu-O can be reinforced with Al or Fe based alloy ring, in that compression force acts on bulk Y-Ba-Cu-O due to a difference in thermal expansion coefficients. However, the shrinkage of the metal ring was not so large, and therefore careful adjustment of the circumference of the bulk and the metal rings was necessary. In this study, we employed Fe-Mn-Si shape memory alloy rings to reinforce bulk Y-Ba-Cu-O. The advantage of the shape memory alloy is that the shrinkage can take place on heating, and furthermore, the alloy shrinks and compresses the bulk body on cooling. Bulk Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductor 22.8 mm in diameter was inserted in a Fe-Mn-Si ring 23.0 mm in inner diameter at room temperature. Beforehand, the Fe-Mn-Si ring was expanded by 12% strain at room temperature. Then the composite was heated to 673 K. At room temperature, the Fe-Mn-Si ring firmly gripped the bulk superconductor. We then measured trapped fields before and after the ring reinforcement, and found that the trapped field was improved through the treatment.

  2. Optical properties of oxide magnetic ZnO, Zn{sub 0.95}Mn{sub 0.05}O and Cu{sub 2}O nanopowders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolov, V.I., E-mail: visokolov@imp.uran.r [Institute of Metal Physics UD RAS, S.Kovalevskaya Str. 18, 620041 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Yermakov, A.Ye.; Uimin, M.A.; Mysik, A.A. [Institute of Metal Physics UD RAS, S.Kovalevskaya Str. 18, 620041 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Pustovarov, V.A. [Ural State Technical University, Mira Street 19, 620002 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Chukichev, M.V. [M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Physics Faculty, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Gruzdev, N.B. [Institute of Metal Physics UD RAS, S.Kovalevskaya Str. 18, 620041 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2009-12-15

    ZnO, Zn{sub 0.95}Mn{sub 0.05}O and Cu{sub 2}O nanocrystals are synthesized. Excitonic lines in absorption spectra of these materials are detected. In photoluminescence and photoluminescence excitation spectra of Zn{sub 0.95}Mn{sub 0.05}O the dangling bond hybrid (DBH) state is found. It has splitted out from the top of the valence band due to the hybridization between d-states of the Mn impurity and the p-states of oxygen.

  3. Controlled facile synthesis of hierarchical CuO@MnO{sub 2} core–shell nanosheet arrays for high-performance lithium-ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Qing; Heng, Bojun; Wang, Hai; Sun, Daming; Wang, Bixiao; Sun, Miao; Guan, Shunli; Fu, Ranyan; Tang, Yiwen, E-mail: ywtang@phy.ccnu.edu.cn

    2015-08-25

    Highlights: • We have facile synthesized the CuO@MnO{sub 2} nanosheet array directly on Cu substrate. • This core–shell structure was assembled as a full cell (vs LiCoO{sub 2}) for the first time. • The full cell exhibits a 127 mA h g{sup −1} at the 150 mA g{sup −1} after 100 cycle. • This strategy can be generalized to construct other hybrid nanostructures. - Abstract: We report a facile, rapid and low-cost two step approach to synthesize hierarchical CuO@MnO{sub 2} core–shell nanosheet arrays directly on Cu foil substrate. The as prepared CuO@MnO{sub 2} arrays can be directly used as integrated electrodes. Furthermore, the CuO@MnO{sub 2} nanosheet arrays were assembled with the commercial Li Ion Battery Cathode (LiCoO{sub 2}) as a full cell, which exhibited high capacity and good cycle stability (120 mA h g{sup −1} after 100 cycles at a rate of 150 mA g{sup −1}) and an excellent rate performance (a stable capacity of about 127 mA h g{sup −1} after 100 cycles of variable charging rate). The excellent performance of the CuO@MnO{sub 2} hybrids comes from their intelligent integration of the two compatible components into unique hierarchical architectures with a high specific capacity. Primary single-crystalline CuO nanosheet arrays directly grown on Cu substrates allow for efficient electrical and ionic transport. The secondary MnO{sub 2} shell provide enhanced surface area and high theoretical Li{sup +} storage capacity, and can also serve as volume spacers between neighboring CuO nanosheet arrays to maintain electrolyte penetration as well as reduce the aggregation during Li{sup +} intercalation, thus leading to improved electrochemical energy storage performance.

  4. The End of Monterey Submarine Canyon Incision and Potential River Source Areas-Os, Nd, and Pb Isotope Constraints from Hydrogenetic Fe-Mn Crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, T. A.; Nielsen, S.; Ehrenbrink, B. P. E.; Blusztajn, J.; Hein, J. R.; Paytan, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Monterey Canyon off central California is the largest submarine canyon off North America and is comparable in scale to the Grand Canyon. The age and history of the Monterey Canyon are poorly constrained due to thick sediment cover and sediment disruption from turbidity currents. To address this deficit we analyzed isotopic proxies (Os, Pb, Nd) from hydrogenetic ferromanganese (Fe-Mn) crusts, which grow over millions of years on elevated rock surfaces by precipitation of metals from seawater. Fe-Mn crusts were studied from Davidson Seamount near the base of the Monterey submarine fan, the Taney Seamount Chain, and from Hoss Seamount, which serves as a regional control (Fig.). Fe-Mn crusts were dated using Os isotope ratios compared to those that define the Cenozoic Os isotope seawater curve. Four Fe-Mn crust samples from Davidson and Taney Seamounts deviate from the Os isotopic seawater curve towards radiogenic values after 4.5±1 Ma. Osmium is well mixed in the global ocean and is not subject to significant diffusive reequilibration in Fe-Mn crusts. We therefore attribute deviations from the Os isotope seawater curve to large-scale terrestrial input that ended about 4.5±1 Ma. The two Davidson samples also show more radiogenic Nd isotope values from about 4.5±1 Ma. Lead isotopes in one Davidson Seamount crust, measured by LA-ICPMS, deviate from regional values after 4.5±1 Ma for about 500 ka towards terrestrial sources. The Taney Seamount Fe-Mn crust does not deviate from regional Nd nor Pb isotope values due to its greater distance from Monterey Canyon and the shorter marine residence times of Nd and Pb. Isotope plots of our crust data and compiled data for potential source rocks indicate that the river that carved Monterey Canyon carried sediment with values closer to the Sierra Nevada than to a Colorado Plateau source, with cessation of major riverine input occurring approximately 4.5±1 Ma, an age that we interpret as the end of the Monterey Canyon

  5. Heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn) in mudfish and sediments from three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The percentage of uranium present in sediment samples (analysed by energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry) from the three dams was 9.0 % (SD 2.1%). In sediment it was found that cation exchange capacity measurements and the dolomitic hard water and high pH of the Mooi River water effectively \\'detoxified\\' Cd and Pb, ...

  6. The potential of Lemna gibba L. and Lemna minor L. to remove Cu, Pb, Zn, and As in gallery water in a mining area in Keban, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasmaz, Merve; Arslan Topal, Emine Işıl; Obek, Erdal; Sasmaz, Ahmet

    2015-11-01

    This study was designed to investigate removal efficiencies of Cu, Pb, Zn, and As in gallery water in a mining area in Keban, Turkey by Lemna gibba L. and Lemna minor L. These plants were placed in the gallery water of Keban Pb-Zn ore deposits and adapted individually fed to the reactors. During the study period (8 days), the plant and water samples were collected daily and the temperature, pH, and electric conductivity of the gallery water were measured daily. The plants were washed, dried, and burned at 300 °C for 24 h in a drying oven. These ash and water samples were analyzed by ICP-MS to determine the amounts of Cu, Pb, Zn, and As. The Cu, Pb, Zn and As concentrations in the gallery water of the study area detected 67, 7.5, 7230, and 96 μg L(-1), respectively. According to the results, the obtained efficiencies in L. minor L. and L. gibba L. are: 87% at day 2 and 36% at day 3 for Cu; 1259% at day 2 and 1015% at day 2 for Pb; 628% at day 3 and 382% at day 3 for Zn; and 7070% at day 3 and 19,709% at day 2 for As, respectively. The present study revealed that both L. minor L. and L. gibba L. had very high potential to remove Cu, Pb, Zn, and As in gallery water contaminated by different ores. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Chitosan-based Schiff base-metal complexes (Mn, Cu, Co) as ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and A C PISE. Chemistry Research ... Data obtained by thermal analysis revealed that these complexes showed good thermal ... vents along with its inherent chirality makes chitosan .... resulting Schiff base IC was cooled, filtered and washed with ethanol ..... experiments with homogeneous Mn-salen catalyst at different ...

  8. Oximato bridged Rh M and Rh M species (M = Mn, Co, Ni; M = Cu, Ag)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    MnO6 coordination sphere is spanned by four oximato oxygen atoms and two water molecules lying in ... The manganese system displays a strong EPR signal near g = 2⋅00. In the ... Electronic and IR spectra were recorded ... Microanalysis (C, H, N) were performed us- .... Selected characterization data are given in the ex-.

  9. Mass change calculations of hydrothermal alterations within the volcanogenic metasediments hosted Cu-Pb (-Zn) mineralization at Halilar area, NW Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran Yildirim, Demet; Abdelnasser, Amr; Doner, Zeynep; Kumral, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    The Halilar Cu-Pb (-Zn) mineralization that is formed in the volcanogenic metasediments of Bagcagiz Formation at Balikesir province, NW Turkey, represents locally vein-type deposit as well as restricted to fault gouge zone directed NE-SW along with the lower boundary of Bagcagiz Formation and Duztarla granitic intrusion in the study area. Furthermore, This granite is traversed by numerous mineralized sheeted vein systems, which locally transgress into the surrounding metasediments. Therefore, this mineralization closely associated with intense hydrothermal alteration within brecciation, and quartz stockwork veining. The ore mineral assemblage includes chalcopyrite, galena, and some sphalerite with covellite and goethite formed during three phases of mineralization (pre-ore, main ore, and supergene) within an abundant gangue of quartz and calcite. The geologic and field relationships, petrographic and mineralogical studies reveal two alteration zones occurred with the Cu-Pb (-Zn) mineralization along the contact between the Bagcagiz Formation and Duztarla granite; pervasive phyllic alteration (quartz, sericite, and pyrite), and selective propylitic alteration (albite, calcite, epidote, sericite and/or chlorite). This work, by using the mass balance calculations, reports the mass/volume changes (gain and loss) of the chemical components of the hydrothermal alteration zones associated with Halilar Cu-Pb (-Zn) mineralization at Balikesir area (Turkey). It revealed that the phyllic alteration has enrichments of Si, Fe, K, Ba, and LOI with depletion of Mg, Ca, and Na reflect sericitization of alkali feldspar and destruction of ferromagnesian minerals. This zone has high Cu and Pb with Zn contents represents the main mineralized zone. On the other hand, the propylitic zone is characterized by addition of Ca, Na, K, Ti, P, and Ba with LOI and Cu (lower content) referring to the replacement of plagioclase and ferromagnesian minerals by albite, calcite, epidote, and sericite

  10. Geochemistry of Hydrothermal Alteration Associated with Cenozoic Intrusion-Hosted Cu-Pb-Zn Mineralization at Tavşanlı Area, Kütahya, NW Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Kumral

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Miocene magmatic intrusion in the Tavşanlı zone of the Kütahya-Bolkardağ Belt (KBB in the northwestern region of Turkey is represented by the Eğrigöz granitoids. This paper studies the petrology and geochemistry of hydrothermal alterations associated with the vein-type Cu-Pb-Zn mineralization hosted by this pluton, focusing on the determination of the mass gains and losses of chemical components, which reflect the chemical exchanges between the host rocks and hydrothermal fluids. Vein-type Cu-Pb-Zn mineralization is closely associated with intense hydrothermal alterations within the brecciation, quartz stockwork veining, and brittle fracture zones that are controlled by NW-SE trending faults cutting through the Eğrigöz granitoids. Paragenetic relationships reveal three stages of mineralization: pre-ore, ore, and supergene. The ore mineralogy typically includes hypogene chalcopyrite, sphalerite, galena, and pyrite, with locally supergene covellite, malachite, and azurite. Wall-rock hypogene hydrothermal alterations include pervasive silicification, sulfidation, sericitization, and selective carbonatization and albitization. These are distributed in three main alteration zones (zone 1: silicified/iron carbonatized alterations ± albite, zone 2: argillic-silicic alterations, and zone 3: phyllic alterations. Based on the gains and losses of mass and volume (calculated by the GEOISO-Windows™ program, zone 1 has a higher mass and volume gain than zones 2 and 3. Non-systematic zonal distributions of alterations are observed in which the silicic-carbonate alterations +/− albitization appeared in zone 1 in the center and the phyllic-argillic alterations appeared in zones 2 and 3, with an increase in base metals (Cu-Pb-Zn in the zone from Cu, Cu-Pb, to Cu-Pb-Zn moving outwards.

  11. Improved performance of CdS/CdSe quantum dot-sensitized solar cells using Mn-doped PbS quantum dots as a catalyst in the counter electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung-Man; Son, Min-Kyu; Kim, Soo-Kyoung; Hong, Na-Yeong; Park, Songyi; Jeong, Myeong-Soo; Seo, Hyunwoong; Prabakar, Kandasamy; Kim, Hee-Je

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • PbS QDs synthesized using the SILAR method act not only as the electrochemical catalysts but as donors providing additional electrons under illumination. • The electrochemical and optical properties of the PbS QDs were enhanced considerably after Mn 2+ doping. • The electron supply from the counter electrode was significantly activated by Mn 2+ doping, improving the performance of QDSSC. - Abstract: This study reports the enhanced catalytic ability of Mn-doped PbS QDs synthesized using a successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). Electrochemical and optical analysis of each material showed that the catalytic ability of the PbS electrode was improved significantly by Mn 2+ doping. Two factors can explain this behavior. The first is that intentional impurities have an impact on the structure of the host material, such as increases in surface roughness. The other is that dopants create new energy states that delay the exciton recombination time and allow charge separation to be activated. As a result, the photoelectron supply from the counter electrode is accelerated, resulting in vigorous redox reactions at the polysulfide electrolyte. The performance of the CdS/CdSe QDSSC using a Mn-doped PbS counter electrode was compared with those using the Pt and PbS counter electrodes. Finally, a power conversion efficiency of 3.61% was achieved with the Mn-doped PbS counter electrode (V OC = 0.61 V, J SC = 11.67 mA cm −2 , FF = 0.51) under one sun illumination (100 mW cm −2 ), which is ∼40% higher than that of CdS/CdSe QDSSCs with the bare PbS counter electrode

  12. Phases and structural characteristics of high Tc superconducting oxide in (Bi, Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zuyano; Li, Zhengrong; Qian, Yitai; Zhou, Quien; Cheng, Tingzhu

    1989-01-01

    The various phases, which are responsible for variant maximum d-value including 18.5 angstrom, 15.4 angstrom, 12.2 angstrom, 6.2 angstrom, 3.2 angstrom and possible 9.1 angstrom respectively, observed in high Tc superconducting complex oxide of (Bi,Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O system are reported in this paper according to the result of X-ray diffraction on platelike crystals or crystallites synthesized under different preparation conditions. The phase of tetragonal system with c=3.21 angstrom, a=3.86 angstrom is possible parent structural unit and it is of great significance to the structure constitution of various phases with large lattice parameter c and structural characteristics of superconducting oxide. In view of the above a model of two-dimension stack-up which causes a stack in variant styles along c-axis and constitute various phases with different lattice parameter c is proposed and discussed

  13. Determination of Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn by ICP-OES in mushroom samples from Sakarya, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Altıntığ

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Russula cyanoxantha, Russula delica, Lactarius salmonicolor, Lactarius deliciosus, Pleurotus eryngii, Pleurotus ostreatus, Agaricus bisporus, Suillus luteus, Pleurotus spp and Boletus edulis were collected from Sakarya-Turkey respectively. Also canned food in the form of the Pleurotus eryngii, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Lactarius salmonicolor mushrooms were used for the examination. Trace metal concentrations found in these mushrooms were determined inductively using coupled plasma optic emission spectrometry microwave processes. The results were obtained for (Cr 0.3-26.65, (Cu 17.38-132.75, (Fe 26.3-225.40, (Ni 2.57-39.28, (Pb 11.52-185.20, and (Zn 22.86-126.84 mg/kg. The accuracy of the method was checked by the standard reference material; tea leaves (INCY-TL-1 and tomato leaves (1573a.

  14. Cold texturing of prereacted high-Tc phase Bi(Pb)SrCaCuO under triaxial stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langlois, P.; Massat, H.; Suryanarayanan, R.

    1994-01-01

    The alignment of grains in isostatically precompacted samples of prereacted Bi 1.8 Pb 0.4 Sr 2.0 Ca 2.2 Cu 3.0 O 10.3+x powder has been achieved by compressive plastic deformation under isostatic pressure at room temperature. Isostatic pressures were in the range 0.1 to 1. GPa and deformation rates were led up to 57%. Prior to sintering, X-ray diffraction measurements corroborate an expected high-Tc phase purity of nearly 85% and indicate that the as-deformed samples have been textured with the c-axes parallel to the pressing direction whilst a.c. susceptibility measurements ascertain a high transition temperature around 107 K. Intergranular connection does not occur until sintering at 850 C for 80 h and measurements indicate then that the texture has been retained. Superconducting properties themselves show sensitivity to texture through anisotropy-related distinctive irreversibility lines. (orig.)

  15. Peltier-effect in the mixed state of (Bi, Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3Oδ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galffy, M.; Hohn, C.; Freimuth, A.

    1994-01-01

    We present measurements of the Peltier-effect in the mixed state of Bi 1.76 Pb 0.24 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O δ . The Peltier-coefficient broadens in a magnetic field quite similar to the resistivity and the thermopower. Comparison with the thermopower shows that Onsagers relation holds well. The occurrence of the Peltier-heat in the mixed state well below T c implies that the electric current is accompanied by a large heat current. We show that the vortex contribution to the Peltier-heat is negligibly small. Therefore the heat current has to be attributed to normal quasiparticle excitations. Our results indicate that this quasiparticle contribution to the heat current remains large even at temperatures far below T c . (orig.)

  16. Determination of mobile form contents of Zn, Cd, Pb and Cu in soil extracts by combined stripping voltammetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nedeltcheva, T. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 8 Kl. Ohridsi Blvd., 1756 Sofia (Bulgaria)]. E-mail: nedel@uctm.edu; Atanassova, M. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 8 Kl. Ohridsi Blvd., 1756 Sofia (Bulgaria); Dimitrov, J. [N. Pushkarov Institute of Soil Science and Agroecology, 7 Shosse Bankya St., 1080 Sofia (Bulgaria); Stanislavova, L. [N. Pushkarov Institute of Soil Science and Agroecology, 7 Shosse Bankya St., 1080 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2005-01-10

    The amount of mobile forms of Zn, Pb, Cd and Cu in extracts obtained by treating soil samples with ammonium nitrate were determined by an appropriate combination of anodic and cathodic stripping voltammetry with hanging mercury drop electrode. Every analysis required three mercury drops: on the first one, zinc was determined; on the second, cadmium and lead; on the third, copper was determined. Zinc, lead and cadmium were determined by conventional differential-pulse anodic stripping voltammetry. For copper determination, adsorptive differential-pulse cathodic stripping voltammetry with amalgamation using chloride ions as a complexing agent was applied. The standard deviation of the results was from 1 to 10% depending on the metal content in the sample. Voltammetric results were in good agreement with the AAS analysis. No microwave digestion of soil extracts was necessary.

  17. Depth profile distribution of Cr, Cu, Co, Ni and Pb in the sediment cores of Mumbai Harbour Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhuparna, D.; Hemalatha, P.; Raj, Sanu S.; Jha, S.K.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    Estuarine and coastal sediments act as ultimate sink for trace metals that are discharged into the aquatic environment. Sources of environmental contaminants to the coastal system are numerous and may enter the estuarine environment via a number of pathways Mumbai Harbour Bay on the western coast of India, receives low level nuclear wastes and industrial and domestic sewage waste from the surrounding dwellings. Also, the bay is extensively exploited for various other local activities. The present study was carried out in the bay sediment cores to investigate the depth profile distribution of trace element concentration. Biologically significant toxic elements such as Cr, Cu, Co, Ni and Pb were estimated in the sediment cores to find out pattern of distribution in the sediment bed to follow the accumulation of elements with respect to depth

  18. Determination of mobile form contents of Zn, Cd, Pb and Cu in soil extracts by combined stripping voltammetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedeltcheva, T.; Atanassova, M.; Dimitrov, J.; Stanislavova, L.

    2005-01-01

    The amount of mobile forms of Zn, Pb, Cd and Cu in extracts obtained by treating soil samples with ammonium nitrate were determined by an appropriate combination of anodic and cathodic stripping voltammetry with hanging mercury drop electrode. Every analysis required three mercury drops: on the first one, zinc was determined; on the second, cadmium and lead; on the third, copper was determined. Zinc, lead and cadmium were determined by conventional differential-pulse anodic stripping voltammetry. For copper determination, adsorptive differential-pulse cathodic stripping voltammetry with amalgamation using chloride ions as a complexing agent was applied. The standard deviation of the results was from 1 to 10% depending on the metal content in the sample. Voltammetric results were in good agreement with the AAS analysis. No microwave digestion of soil extracts was necessary

  19. Effects of Cu and Ni additions on the heat affected zone (HAZ) microstructure and mechanical properties of a C-Mn niobium microalloyed steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ale, Ricardo Miranda; Rebello, Joao Marques A.; Charlier, Jacques

    1996-01-01

    The influence of small additions of Cu and Ni on the heat affected zone microstructure and mechanical properties, particularly toughness, of C-Mn microalloyed steel has been evaluated. Cu and Ni additions improved the toughness of both coarse grained region and coarse grained region reheated intercritically due to the formation of lower bainite and avoiding Nb precipitation hardening, respectively. With Cu and Ni additions the embrittlement of the coarse grained region reheated intercritically, due to MA constituent, is counterbalanced by the formation of fine ferrite recrystallized grains near the prior austenite grain boundaries and the stabilisation of austenite between ferrite laths. (author)

  20. Seasonal variation of major elements (Ca, Mg) and trace metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn) and cultured mussel Perna viridis L. and seawater in the Dona Paula Bay, Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rivonker, C.U.; Parulekar, A.H.

    The major elements and trace metals were analysed from nussel tissue and the seawater taken from three depths (0, 5 and 9 meters) from the culture site. Range of variation in Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn were 226-399; 708-1329; 0.005-0.084; BDL-0...

  1. Voltammetric and X-ray diffraction analysis of the early stages of the thermal crystallization of mixed Cu,Mn oxides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grygar, Tomáš; Rojka, T.; Bezdička, Petr; Večerníková, Eva; Kovanda, F.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 4 (2004), s. 252-259 ISSN 1432-8488 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A028 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4032918 Keywords : amorphous phases * Cu,Mn oxides * hydrotalcite Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.984, year: 2004

  2. The effects of small metal additions (Co, Cu, Ga, Mn, Al, Bi, Sn) on the magnetocaloric properties of the Gd5Ge2Si2 alloy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shull, R. D.; Provenzano, V.; Shapiro, A. J.; Fu, A.; Lufaso, M. W.; Karapetrova, J.; Kletetschka, Günther; Mikula, V.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 99, č. 8 (2006), s. 8-8 ISSN 0021-8979 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : magnetocaloric * (Co, Cu, Ga, Mn, Al, Bi, Sn) additions * Cryogenic properties Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.316, year: 2006

  3. Study of Hopcalite (CuMnOx Catalysts Prepared Through A Novel Route for the Oxidation of Carbon Monoxide at Low Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhashish Dey

    2017-10-01

    How to Cite: Dey, S., Dhal, G.C., Mohan, D., Prasad, R. (2017. Study of Hopcalite (CuMnOx Catalysts Prepared through A Novel Route for the Oxidation of Carbon Monoxide at Low Temperature. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 12 (3: 393-407 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.12.3.882.393-407

  4. Evaluation of catalytic ferrispinel MFe_2O_4 (M = Cu, Co, Mn and Ni) in transesterification reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Kleberson Ricardo de Oliveira; Dantas, Joelda; Costa, Ana Cristina Figueiredo de Melo; Silva, Adriano Sant'Ana; Cornejo, Daniel Reinaldo

    2014-01-01

    Among the existing biofuels, biodiesel has achieved great economic and technological, for its potential to replace petroleum diesel and being biodegradable, have low emission of gaseous and be from renewable sources highlighted. In this context we propose to evaluate the performance of ferrispinel type MFe_2O_4, where M represents divalent metals (Cu, Co, Ni and Mn) in methyl transesterification reaction of soybean oil. The ferrispinel were synthesized by combustion reaction and characterized by XRD, FTIR and magnetic measurements. The results indicate that the synthesis is conducive to the production of ferrispinel with magnetization values ranging from 11.0 to 58.0 emu/g. The conversion values were 53; 55; 57 and 52 %, respectively, concluding that the type of divalent metal affects the morphology and hence the catalytic conversion. (author)

  5. Ionic configuration of copper ferrimanganites Cu 0.5Mn xFe 2.5- xO 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenglet, M.; Kasperek, J.; Hannoyer, B.; Lopitaux, J.; d'Huysser, A.; Tellier, J. C.

    1992-06-01

    Mössbauer spectrometry, neutron diffraction, XANES, and XPS have led to the determination of the cation distributions of the system Cu 0.5Mn xFe 2.5- xO 4 (0≤ x≤1.5). The three cations are present in both tetrahedral and octahedral sites, and the relative number of Fe ions on A- and B-sites remains nearly constant in the whole range of x. It appears that for x≤0.5 manganese is divalent and copper is in its two oxidation states. For x>0.5 copper and iron are respectively divalent and trivalent; the manganese is in +2 and +3 oxydation states.

  6. Determination of the impurities Al, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu and Zn in nuclear grade uranium by ICP-OES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakazu, Mauricio H.; Cotrim, Marycel E.B.; Silva, Douglas B. da; Pires, Maria Aparecida F., E-mail: mhkakazu@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Uranium compounds are specially produced for use in nuclear reactors and must meet strict physical and chemicals specifications. The current study discusses the separation of Al, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu and Zn from uranium compounds and their quantitative determination using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. To avoid interference effect caused by uranium in the spectroscopic emission lines of elements of interest, the chromatographic behavior of TBP impregnated macroporous Amberlite XAD-4 column was investigated. The break through curves of uranium obtained showed maximum retention of up to 11 grams of uranium and the elution curves for the elements showed reproducible recovery rate of 90% on 50 mL elution. Synthetic samples of nuclear grade uranium prepared with the addition of 250 {mu}g/g of U of the above individual elements were used to verify the performance of the method. The method showed a recovery rate of 80 to 90% for the elements under study. (author)

  7. Effect of Annealing in Magnetic Field on Ferromagnetic Nanoparticle Formation in Cu-Al-Mn Alloy with Induced Martensite Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titenko, Anatoliy; Demchenko, Lesya

    2016-12-01

    The paper considers the influence of aging of high-temperature phase on subsequent martensitic transformation in Cu-Al-Mn alloy. The morphology of behavior of martensitic transformation as a result of alloy aging under annealing in a constant magnetic field with different sample orientation relatively to the field direction and without field was studied for direct control of the processes of martensite induction at cooling. Temperature dependences of electrical resistance, magnetic susceptibility, and magnetization, as well as field dependences of magnetization, and phase composition were found. The tendency to the oriented growth of precipitated ferromagnetic phase nanoparticles in a direction of applied field and to an increase of their volume fraction under thermal magnetic treatment of material that favors a reversibility of induced martensitic transformation is observed.

  8. Determination of the impurities Al, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu and Zn in nuclear grade uranium by ICP-OES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakazu, Mauricio H.; Cotrim, Marycel E.B.; Silva, Douglas B. da; Pires, Maria Aparecida F.

    2011-01-01

    Uranium compounds are specially produced for use in nuclear reactors and must meet strict physical and chemicals specifications. The current study discusses the separation of Al, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu and Zn from uranium compounds and their quantitative determination using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. To avoid interference effect caused by uranium in the spectroscopic emission lines of elements of interest, the chromatographic behavior of TBP impregnated macroporous Amberlite XAD-4 column was investigated. The break through curves of uranium obtained showed maximum retention of up to 11 grams of uranium and the elution curves for the elements showed reproducible recovery rate of 90% on 50 mL elution. Synthetic samples of nuclear grade uranium prepared with the addition of 250 μg/g of U of the above individual elements were used to verify the performance of the method. The method showed a recovery rate of 80 to 90% for the elements under study. (author)

  9. [Determination of Al, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se and Tl in whole blood by atomic absorption spectrometry without preliminary sample digestion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanenko, N B; Ivanenko, A A; Solov'ev, N D; Navolotskiĭ, D V; Pavlova, O V; Ganeev, A A

    2014-01-01

    Methods of whole blood trace element determination by Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (in the variant of Zeeman's modulation polarization spectrometry) have been proposed. They do not require preliminary sample digestion. Furnace programs, modifiers and blood dilution factors were optimized. Seronorm™ human whole blood reference materials were used for validation. Dynamic ranges (for undiluted blood samples) were: Al 8 ¸ 210 мg/L; Be 0.3 ¸ 50 мg/L; Cd 0.2 ¸ 75 мg/L; Сo 5 ¸ 350 мg/L; Cr 10 ¸ 100 мg/L; Mn 6 ¸ 250 мg/L; Ni 10 ¸ 350 мg/L; Pb 3 ¸ 240 мg/L; Se 10 ¸ 500 мg/L; Tl 2 ¸ 600 мg/L. Precision (RSD) for the middle of dynamic range ranged from 5% for Mn to 11 for Se.

  10. Initiation of soil formation in weathered sulfidic Cu-Pb-Zn tailings under subtropical and semi-arid climatic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Fang; Dalal, Ram; Huang, Longbin

    2018-08-01

    Field evidence has been scarce about soil (or technosol) formation and direct phytostabilization of base metal mine tailings under field conditions. The present study evaluated key attributes of soil formation in weathered and neutral Cu-Pb-Zn tailings subject to organic amendment (WC: woodchips) and colonization of pioneer native plant species (mixed native woody and grass plant species) in a 2.5-year field trial under subtropical and semi-arid climatic conditions. Key soil indicators of engineered soil formation process were characterized, including organic carbon fractions, aggregation, microbial community and key enzymatic activities. The majority (64-87%) of the OC was stabilized in microaggregate or organo-mineral complexes in the amended tailings. The levels of OC and water soluble OC were elevated by 2-3 folds across the treatments, with the highest level in the treatment of WC and plant colonization (WC+P). Specifically, the WC+P treatment increased the proportion of water stable macroaggregates. Plants further contributed to the N rich organic matter in the tailings, favouring organo-mineral interactions and organic stabilization. Besides, the plants played a major role in boosting microbial biomass and activities in the treated tailings. WC and plants enhanced the contents of organic carbon (OC) associated with aggregates (e.g., physically protected OC), formation of water-stable aggregates (e.g., micro and macroaggregates), chemical buffering capacity (e.g., cation exchange capacity). Microbial community and enzymatic activities were also stimulated in the amended tailings. The present results showed that the formation of functional technosol was initiated in the eco-engineered and weathered Cu-Pb-Zn tailings under field conditions for direct phytostabilization. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mineralogy and REE geochemistry at Gomish-Tappeh Zn-Pb-Cu (Ag deposit, southwest of Zanjan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tooba Salehi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Gomish-Tappeh Zn-Pb-Cu (Ag deposit is located 90 km southwest of Zanjan, in northwestern part of Urumieh-Dokhtar volcano-plutonic zone. Exposed rocks at the area include Oligo-Miocene volcano-sedimentary and sedimentary sequences as well as Pliocene volcano-plutonic sequence (andesite porphyry dykes, dacitic subvolcanic dome and rhyodacitic volcanics. Alteration in the deposit developed as silicic, silicic-sulfidic, sericitic, carbonate, argillic and propylitic. Main mineralization at the Gomish-Tappeh deposit is observed as veins occurring in a steeply-deeping normal fault defined by an NE-SW trend in host rocks such as dacitic crystal litic tuff, dacitic subvolcanic dome, specifically the rhyolitic tuff. Paragenetic minerals in the ore veins consist of pyrite, arsenopyrite, chalcopyrite, bornite, low-Fe sphalerite, galena, tetrahedrite and specularite. Gangue minerals accompanying the ores include quartz, calcite, chlorite, sericite and clay minerals. Based on geochemical data, average grades for samples from the ore veins at the Gomish-Tappeh deposit are: 4% Pb, 6% Zn, 2% Cu and 88 ppm Ag. Moreover, REE distribution patterns for altered samples of the dacitic subvolcanic dome and acidic tuff when compared with fresh samples, show enrichment in LREE, while HREE demonstrate various bahaviours. The negative Eu anomaly in chondrite-normalized REE patterns for these rocks is related to the increase in fluid/rock ratio and destruction of those grains of plagioclase enriched in Eu. REE distribution patterns for the silty tuff (footwall to the ore compared with acidic tuff represent enrichment in all REE as well as positive Eu anomalies. However, the ore samples indicate more enrichment in LREE/HREE ratios and higher Eu contents when compared with wallrock of the ore veins (silty tuff. This is due to the influence of chloric magmatic-hydrothermal fluids that caused alteration along the ore zone, releasing LREE and Eu from the host rocks and finally

  12. Investigations of Cu, Pb and Zn partitioning by sequential extraction in harbour sediments after electrodialytic remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne

    2010-01-01

    remediation time. A three step sequential extraction scheme (BCR), with an extra residual step, was used to evaluate the heavy metal distribution in the sediments before and after electrodialytic remediation. Cu was mainly associated with the oxidisable phase of the sediment, both before and after remediation...

  13. Magnetic Properties of Dy in Pb2Sr2DyCu3O8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skanthakumar, S.; Soderholm, L.; Movshovich, R.

    1999-01-01

    Superconductivity can be induced at high temperatures in Pb 2 Sr 2 RCu 3 O 8 (R - rare earth) by partially doping Ca 2+ for R 3+ . In order to understand the interplay between magnetism and superconductivity, the magnetic properties of the parent compounds, Pb 2 Sr 2 RCu 3 O 8 , have been studied. The work presented here includes magnetic susceptibility and specific heat measurements on R=Dy and extends the previous studies on R=Ce, Pr, Tb, Ho and Er. Specific heat experiments suggest that the Dy ions order antiferromagnetically with an ordering temperature of 1.3K. The magnetic susceptibility data are in good agreement with the susceptibility calculated using crystal field parameters that are extrapolated from previous modeling of the R=Er and Ho analogs of this series

  14. Adsorbent material based on passion-fruit wastes to remove lead (Pb), chromium (Cr) and copper (Cu) from metal-contaminated waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Flores, Gaby; Castillo-Herrera, Alb