WorldWideScience

Sample records for cu mn pb

  1. On the concentration and separation of the trace-elements fe, cu, zn, mn, pb, mo and co : Paper chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkelens, P.C. van

    1961-01-01

    Paper chromatographic separations are described by which the minor constituents of biological ashes are separated either into: (Pb) - Mn - Co - (Pb) - Cu - Fe, Mo, Zn; or into: Cu, Mn, Co - Pb - Fe - Mo - Zn.

  2. Graphite furnace analysis of a series of metals (Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn and Cd) in ox kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Vivianne L.B. de; Nascimento, Rizia K. do; Paiva, Ana Claudia de; Silva, Josenilda M. da, E-mail: vlsouza@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: riziakelia@hotmail.com, E-mail: acpaiva@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: jmnilda@hotmail.com [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Melo, Jessica V. de, E-mail: Jessica_clorofila@hotmail.com [Universidade de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to create a methodology for animal tissue analysis, with the use of flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry techniques and graphite furnace analysis to determining metal concentrations in ox kidney. The organ of this animal can be considered a great nutritional food, due to the high protein and micronutrient content beyond the ability to absorb and concentrate important metals such as Zn, Fe, Mn and Se. On the other hand, there is a risk when eating this food owing to the capacity to accumulate toxic metals such as Pb and Cd. In accordance with the laboratory analysis, Zn can be analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry, but other metals such as Cu, Mn, Pb and Cd, could only be detected by graphite furnace analysis. The results showed that there is more Zn and Cu than other metals. Such metals follows an order reported by the literature (Zn > Cu > Cd > Pb > Mn). The results showed that kidney is actually a rich source of Zn and Cu. The Cd levels in the ox kidney did not exceed the values which cause toxic effects. The adequacy of the results indicates that the proposed methodology can be used for animal tissue analysis.(author)

  3. Distributions of dissolved trace metals (Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, Ag in the southeastern Atlantic and the Southern Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Boye

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive synoptic datasets (surface water down to 4000 m of dissolved cadmium (Cd, copper (Cu, manganese (Mn, lead (Pb and silver (Ag are presented along a section between 34° S and 57° S in the southeastern Atlantic Ocean and the Southern Ocean to the south off South Africa. The vertical distributions of Cu, Ag, and of Cd display nutrient-like profiles similar to silicic acid, and phosphate, respectively. The distribution of Mn shows a subsurface maximum in the oxygen minimum zone, whereas Pb concentrations are rather invariable with depth. Dry deposition of aerosols is thought to be an important source of Pb to surface waters close to South Africa, and dry deposition and snowfall may have been significant sources of Cu and Mn at the higher latitudes. Furthermore, the advection of water-masses enriched in trace metals following contact with continental margins appeared to be an important source of trace elements to the surface, intermediate and deep waters in the southeastern Atlantic Ocean and the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Hydrothermal inputs appeared to have formed a source of trace metals to the deep waters over the Bouvet Triple Junction ridge crest, as suggested by relatively enhanced dissolved Mn concentrations. The biological utilization of Cu and Ag was proportional to that of silicic acid across the section, suggesting that diatoms formed an important control over the removal of Cu and Ag from surface waters. However uptake by dino- and nano-flagelattes may have influenced the distribution of Cu and Ag in the surface waters of the subtropical Atlantic domain. Cadmium correlated strongly with phosphate (P, yielding lower Cd/P ratios in the subtropical surface waters where phosphate concentrations were below 0.95 μM. The greater depletion of Cd relative to P observed in the Weddell Gyre compared to the Antarctic Circumpolar Current could be due to increase Cd-uptake induced by iron-limiting conditions in these High

  4. Role of estuarine natural flocculation process in removal of Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hassani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The flocculation of dissolved heavy metals is a process which has an important effect on decreasing the concentration of the colloidal elements during estuarine mixing of river water and sea or ocean water. During this important process, a large amount of colloidal elements change into particles in the form of flock and the dissolved loads decline. This study is performed to evaluate the mechanism of self-purification of heavy metals in Sardabroud's estuary. For this purpose, the effect of salinity (varying from 1 to 8.5‰ on the removal efficiency of colloidal metals (copper, zinc, lead, nickel and magnesium by flocculation process during mixing of Sardabroud River water and the Caspian Sea water was explored. The flocculation rate of Ni (25% > Zn (18.59% > Cu (16.67% > Mn(5.83% > Pb(4.86%  indicates that lead and manganese have relatively conservative behavior but nickel, zinc and copper have non-conservative behavior during Sardabroud River’s estuarine mixing. The highest removal efficiencies were obtained between salinities of 1 to 2.5%. Due to flocculation process, annual discharge of dissolved zinc, copper, lead, manganese and nickel release into the Caspian Sea via Sardabroud River would reduce from 44.30 to 36.06 ton/yr, 3.41 to 2.84 ton/yr, 10.22 to 9.7 ton/yr, 8.52 to 7.8 ton/yr and 3.41 to 2.56 ton/yr, respectively. Statistical analysis shows that the flocculation rate of Nickel is highly controlled by redox potential and dissolved oxygen. Moreover, it is found that total dissolved solid, salinity, electrical conductivity and potential of hydrogen do not have a significant influence in flocculation of studied metals.

  5. Pecan nutshell as biosorbent to remove Cu(II), Mn(II) and Pb(II) from aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaghetti, Julio C P; Lima, Eder C; Royer, Betina; da Cunha, Bruna M; Cardoso, Natali F; Brasil, Jorge L; Dias, Silvio L P

    2009-02-15

    In the present study we reported for the first time the feasibility of pecan nutshell (PNS, Carya illinoensis) as an alternative biosorbent to remove Cu(II), Mn(II) and Pb(II) metallic ions from aqueous solutions. The ability of PNS to remove the metallic ions was investigated by using batch biosorption procedure. The effects such as, pH, biosorbent dosage on the adsorption capacities of PNS were studied. Four kinetic models were tested, being the adsorption kinetics better fitted to fractionary-order kinetic model. Besides that, the kinetic data were also fitted to intra-particle diffusion model, presenting three linear regions, indicating that the kinetics of adsorption should follow multiple sorption rates. The equilibrium data were fitted to Langmuir, Freundlich, Sips and Redlich-Peterson isotherm models. Taking into account a statistical error function, the data were best fitted to Sips isotherm model. The maximum biosorption capacities of PNS were 1.35, 1.78 and 0.946mmolg(-1) for Cu(II), Mn(II) and Pb(II), respectively.

  6. Investigation on Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd fractions in the natural surface coating samples and surficial sediments in the Songhua River, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Shu-hai; WANG Xiao-li; LI YU; CHEN Jie-jiang; YANG Jun-cheng

    2006-01-01

    Natural surface coating samples (NSCSs) from the surface of shingles and surficial sediments (SSs) in the Songhua River,China were employed to investigate the relationship between NSCSs and SSs in fractions of heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd) using the modified sequential extraction procedure (MSEP). The results show that the differences between NSCSs and SSs in Fe fractions were insignificant and Fe was dominantly present as residual phase (76.22% for NSCSs and 80.88% for SSs) and Fe-oxides phase (20.33% for NSCSs and 16.15% for SSs). Significant variation of Mn distribution patterns between NSCSs and SSs was observed with Mn in NSCSs mainly present in Mn-oxides phase (48.27%) and that in SSs present as residual phase (45.44%). Zn, Cu,Pb and Cd were found dominantly in residual fractions (>48%), and next in solid oxides/hydroxides for Zn, Pb and Cd and in easily oxidizable solids/compounds form for Cu, respectively. The heavy metal distribution patterns implied that Fe/Mn oxides both in NSCSs and SSs were more important sinks for binding and adsorption of Zn, Pb and Cd than organic matter (OM), and inversely,higher affinity of Cu to OM than Fe/Mn oxides in NSCSs and SSs was obtained. Meanwhile, it was found that the distributions of heavy metals in NSCSs and SSs were similar to each other and the pseudo-total concentrations of Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd in NSCSs were greater than those in SSs, highlighting the more importance for NSCSs than SSs in controlling behaviours of heavy metals in aquatic environments.

  7. Adsorption of Pb(II) and Cu(II) from aqueous solution on magnetic porous ferrospinel MnFe2O4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yueming; Li, Nan; Feng, Jing; Luan, Tianzhu; Wen, Qing; Li, Zhanshuang; Zhang, Milin

    2012-02-01

    The adsorption of Pb(II) and Cu(II) from aqueous solution on magnetic porous ferrospinel MnFe(2)O(4) prepared by a sol-gel process was investigated. Single batch experiment was employed to test pH effect, sorption kinetics, and isotherm. The interaction mechanism and the regeneration were also explored. The results showed that Pb(II) and Cu(II) removal was strongly pH-dependent with an optimum pH value of 6.0, and the equilibrium time was 3.0 h. The adsorption process could be described by a pseudo-second-order model, and the initial sorption rates were 526.3 and 2631.5 μmol g(-1)min(-1) for Pb(II) and Cu(II) ions, respectively. The equilibrium data were corresponded well with Langmuir isotherm, and the maximum adsorption capacities were 333.3 and 952.4 μmol g(-1) for Pb(II) and Cu(II) ions, respectively. The adsorbed Pb(II) and Cu(II) ions were in the form of the complex with oxygen in carboxyl and hydroxyl groups binding on the surface of magnetic porous MnFe(2)O(4). The sorbent could be reused for five times with high removal efficiency.

  8. Determination of contamination levels of Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni, and Mn caused by former lead mining gallery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakırdere, Sezgin; Bölücek, Cemal; Yaman, Mehmet

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, levels of metal contamination caused by former lead mining area were figured out. For this purpose, Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni, and Mn were determined not only in sediment samples taken from different places of the mining area but also in some plants taken around the mining place. In the digestion of plant samples, dry ashing procedure was applied. Flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS) was used in the determination of analytes of interest. All the parameters in digestion and detection procedures were optimized to obtain efficient digestion and high sensitivities for analytes. Standard addition and direct calibration methods were applied to find whether there was any matrix interference to affect the determination of analytes. Mn concentration was found to be the highest for each sample analyzed. Lead concentration was found to be between 41 and 249 mg/kg in soil/sediment samples and between 2.2 and 1003 mg/kg in plant samples. The highest contamination levels for all of the analytes with the exception of Cd were found in current sediment sample.

  9. Evaluating the potential of three Fe- and Mn-(nano)oxides for the stabilization of Cd, Cu and Pb in contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michálková, Zuzana; Komárek, Michael; Šillerová, Hana; Della Puppa, Loïc; Joussein, Emmanuel; Bordas, François; Vaněk, Aleš; Vaněk, Ondřej; Ettler, Vojtěch

    2014-12-15

    The potential of three Fe- and Mn-(nano)oxides for stabilizing Cd, Cu and Pb in contaminated soils was investigated using batch and column experiments, adsorption tests and tests of soil microbial activity. A novel synthetic amorphous Mn oxide (AMO), which was recently proposed as a stabilizing amendment, proved to be the most efficient in decreasing the mobility of the studied metals compared to nano-maghemite and nano-magnetite. Its application resulted in significant decreases of exchangeable metal fractions (92%, 92% and 93% decreases of Cd, Cu and Pb concentrations, respectively). The adsorption capacity of the AMO was an order of magnitude higher than those recorded for the other amendments. It was also the most efficient treatment for reducing Cu concentrations in the soil solution. No negative effects on soil microorganisms were recorded. On the other hand, the AMO was able to dissolve soil organic matter to some extent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Study of the Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn dynamics in soil, plants and bee pollen from the region of Teresina (PI, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline S. Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to characterize native bee plants regarding their capacity to extract and accumulate trace elements from the soil and its consequences to the sanity of the produced pollen. The trace elements Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn were analyzed in soil, plants and bee pollen from Teresina region (PI, Brazil, by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Considering the studied plant species, Cu and Pb metals presented in the highest levels in the roots of B. platypetala with 47.35 and 32.71 μg.mL-1 and H. suaveolens with 39.69 and 17.06 μg.mL-1, respectively, while in the aerial parts Mn and Zn metals presented the highest levels in S. verticillata with 199.18 and 85.73 μg.mL-1. In the pollen, the levels of Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn vary from 5.44 to 11.75 μg.mL-1; 34.31 to 85.75 μg.mL-1; 13.98 to 18.19 μg.mL-1 and 50.19 to 90.35 μg.mL-1, respectively. These results indicate that in the apicultural pasture the translocation (from soil to pollen of Mn and Zn was more effective than in case of Cu and Pb, therefore, the bee pollen can be used as food supplement without causing risks to human health.O objetivo deste estudo é caracterizar plantas apícolas nativas, quanto a sua capacidade de extrair e acumular elementos-traço do solo e suas conseqüências na sanidade do pólen produzido. Os elementos-traço Cu, Mn, Pb e Zn foram analisados em solo, planta e pólen apícolas em Teresina (PI, Brasil, por espectrofotometria de absorção atômica com atomização em chama. Considerando as espécies de plantas estudadas, os metais Cu e Pb apresentaram nas raízes maiores teores de B. platypetala com 47,35 e 32,71 µg.mL-1 e H. suaveolens com 39,69 e 17,06 µg.mL-1, respectivamente, enquanto na parte aérea os metais Mn e Zn apresentaram os maiores teores, em S. verticillata com 199,18 e 85, 73 µg.mL-1. No pólen os teores de Cu, Mn, Pb e Zn varia de 5,44 a 11,75 µg.mL-1; 34,31 a 85,75 µg.mL-1; 13,98 a 18,19 µg.mL-1 e 50,19 a 90,35 µg.mL-1

  11. Levels of Cd (II, Mn (II, Pb (II, Cu (II, and Zn (II in Common Buzzard (Buteo buteo from Sicily (Italy by Derivative Stripping Potentiometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Licata

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Mn, and Zn in different organs (liver, kidney, muscle, lung, skin, and feathers of buzzards (Buteo buteo, utilized as a “biological indicator” for environmental contamination, from different areas of Sicily and to investigate the relationships between birds sex, age, and weight and metal levels in these samples. All samples of common buzzards were collected at the “Recovery Center of Wild Fauna” of Palermo, through the Zooprophilactic Institute. Potentiometric stripping analysis (PSA was used to determine the content of Cd(II, Cu(II, Mn(II, Pb(II, and Zn(II in bird tissues. For toxic metals, the highest levels of Pb were in liver and those of Cd in lung; Zn levels were higher than Cu and Mn in all tissues analyzed. The concentrations in liver, lung, kidney, and muscle could be considered as an indicative of chronic exposure to metals while the presence of metals in skin could be consequential to storing and elimination processes. The found concentrations of metals in the studied matrices required a highly sensitive method for their determination and a simple sample preparation procedure, and the proposed method was well suited for this purpose.

  12. Extratores para Cd, Cu, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb e Zn em LATOSSOLOS tratados com biossólido e cultivados com milho Extractants for Cd, Cu, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in biossolid-amanded Oxisols cultivated with corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rosa Martins dos Anjos

    2001-06-01

    in agriculture needs more information on plant availability of heavy metals added to soil by this waste. The efficiency of the chemical extractants HCl 0.1 mol L-1, DTPA-TEA pH 7.3, Mehlich 3 and aqua regia for the evaluation of Cd, Cu, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn availability in biosolid-amended soils, was studied in a pot (0.5 m³ experiment using corn as test plant. The soils used were a dystrophic Typic Hapludox (LAd and a dystrophic Rhodic Hapludox (LVd. The statistic design consisted of: random blocks in a 4x4 factorial outline, 4 treatments (LVd+sludge, LVd, LAd+sludge, LAd, 4 extraction methods (HCl 0.1 mol L-1, Mehlich 3, DTPA-TEA 0.005 mol L-1 pH 7,3 and aqua regia and 4 replications. Seventy-eight Mg ha-1 of biosolids on dry base were applied every two months to the soils, one year before planting corn. In five applications 388 Mg ha-1 of biosolids were applied. The metal contents of the various parts of the plants were correlated with the contents removed by the extraction methods. The results show that the total contents of Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn did not exceed the critical limits established by USEPA and the European Community regulations even at the biosolid application rate of 388 Mg ha-1. Mehlich 3 was an effective extractor only in the evaluation of the bioavailability of Cu and Zn in corn grown on soils treated with biosolids. Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb presented no availability to corn plants.

  13. Phytoremediation of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn from aqueous solution using Phragmites cummunis, Typha angustifolia and Cyperus esculentus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Ram; Yadav, Sangeeta

    2011-07-01

    A comparative bioaccumulation pattern and ultra structural changes were studied in Phragmites cummunis, Typha angustifolia and Cyperus esculentus in mixed metals solution of cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn). P. cummunis was observed to be a shoot accumulator for Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn. However, T. angustifolia was found to be a root accumulator for Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni and Pb. In addition, C. esculentus also accumulated most of the tested heavy metals in the roots, while Mn and Fe were translocated up to leaves. Further, the long term metal treatment showed maximum accumulation of all heavy metals in P. cummunis followed by T. angustifolia and C. esculentus. Among heavy metals, Fe was accumulated maximum, i.e., >1000 microg g(-1) by all three plants. Simultaneously, the adverse effects on biochemical parameters were noted earlier in C. esculentus than T. angustifolia and P. cummunis. Ultra structural observation showed the cellular changes in wetland plants after longer exposure. Results revealed that P. cummunis and T. angustifolia had more potential for tested metals than C. esculentus. This study established that these wetland plants could be used for heavy metals phytoremediation from metal containing industrial wastewater.

  14. Influence of Al and the heavy metals Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd on development and efficacy of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza in tropical and subtropical plants. Einfluss von Al und den Schwermetallen Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb und Cd auf die Effizienz der VA-Mykorrhiza bei tropischen und subtropischen Pflanzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabig, B.

    1982-07-08

    In greenhouse experiments the influence of Al and the heavy metals Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd on the efficacy of VA-mycorrhizal fungi was tested with special regard to several soil pH levels and soil water regimes in different combinations. The most important results were: The inoculation led to a significantly better growth of all test plants in the presence of Al, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd up to a specific amount of the soil-applied element; beyond this specific limit the efficacy of the mycorrhiza was more or less inhibited depending on the element. In correlation with the growth, the nearly always better P uptake of the inoculated plants was impaired only by the highest toxic amounts of the elements. In comparison with the uninoculated plants, all the inoculated plants showed higher P and Pb concentrations. The mycorrhizal plants generally had significantly higher concentrations of the elements Al, Mn, Zn, Cu, and Cd in the roots than the uninoculated plants. Generally even toxic levels of Fe in the soil did not lead to higher Fe concentrations in the plants. Even the highest amounts of Al, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu did not cause microscopically visible injuries to the development of the mycorrhiza and did not impede the infection. Only the toxic levels of Pb led to a decrease of the infection rate of about 50%. Pb and Cd were the reason for morphological changes of the different developmental phases of the fungus. High amounts of Pb induced an increased formation of vesicles. The highest amounts of Cd were accompanied by the crowded occurrence of arbuscules.

  15. Utilização de pelos de animais silvestres para monitoramento ambiental de Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb e Zn Utilization of wild animal hair for the environmental monitoring of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb e Zn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Hoff Brait

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the use of wild animal hair of C. brachyurus, C. thous and L. pardalis as biomonitors of trace metal at Parque Nacional das Emas, Brazil. Results reveal a strong correlation between Cd and Pb as well as Cu and Zn, which suggests a single source of emission. Most metals showed a lower or equal concentration than those obtained in previous studies. The research shows that monitoring may be performed only with Zn, Pb, Cd, and Cr because of statistical similarity and of a non-natural occurrence of large amounts of the material under analysis.

  16. Automated preconcentration of Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd, Pb, Co, and Mn in seawater with analysis using high-resolution sector field inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Insa; Schlosser, Christian; Rusiecka, Dagmara; Gledhill, Martha; Achterberg, Eric P

    2017-07-11

    A rapid, automated, high-throughput analytical method capable of simultaneous analysis of multiple elements at trace and ultratrace levels is required to investigate the biogeochemical cycle of trace metals in the ocean. Here we present an analytical approach which uses a commercially available automated preconcentration device (SeaFAST) with accurate volume loading and in-line pH buffering of the sample prior to loading onto a chelating resin (WAKO) and subsequent simultaneous analysis of iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), cobalt (Co) and manganese (Mn) by high-resolution inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR-ICP-MS). Quantification of sample concentration was undertaken using isotope dilution for Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd and Pb, and standard addition for Co and Mn. The chelating resin is shown to have a high affinity for all analyzed elements, with recoveries between 83 and 100% for all elements, except Mn (60%) and Ni (48%), and showed higher recoveries for Ni, Cd, Pb, Co and Mn in direct comparison to an alternative resin (NOBIAS Chelate-PA1). The reduced recoveries for Ni and Mn using the WAKO resin did not affect the quantification accuracy. A relatively constant retention efficiency on the resin over a broad pH range (pH 5-8) was observed for the trace metals, except for Mn. Mn quantification using standard addition required accurate sample pH adjustment with optimal recoveries at pH 7.5 ± 0.3. UV digestion was necessary to increase recovery of Co and Cu in seawater by 15.6% and 11.4%, respectively, and achieved full break-down of spiked Co-containing vitamin B12 complexes. Low blank levels and detection limits could be achieved (e.g., 0.029 nmol L(-1) for Fe and 0.028 nmol L(-1) for Zn) with the use of high purity reagents. Precision and accuracy were assessed using SAFe S, D1, and D2 reference seawaters, and results were in good agreement with available consensus values. The presented method is ideal for

  17. Drinking water interlaboratory ring test. Part IV. Results of some cationic analytes. Al, Zn, Cd, Cr, Pb, Ni, Mn, Fe, Cu and V; Circuito interlaboratorio Unichim sulle acque potabili. Parte IV. Risultati di alcuni cationi metallici. Al, Zn, Cd, Co, Cr, Pb, Ni, Mn, Fe, Cu e V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavaterra, E.; Divo, C.; Bottazzini, N. [Unichim, Milan (Italy); Alava, F. [Bergamo Ambiente e Servizi, Bergamo (Italy); Bettinelli, M. [Electric Power Production Company, Piacenza (Italy); Bonfiglioli, F. [Azienda Mediterranea Gas e Acqua SpA, Genoa (Italy)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper results of statistical treatment of experimental data obtained in some cycles of an interlaboratory ring test of content of Al, Zn, Cd, Co, Cr, Pb, Ni, Mn, Fe, Cu and V in drinking water are reported. Means, variances and parameters of precision and accuracy of some analytical techniques and methods employed by laboratories participating to the ring test will be reported and discussed. [Italian] Nel presente lavoro vengono riportati i risultati dell'elaborazione statistica dei dati sperimentali ottenuti in alcuni cicli del circuito interlaboratorio e relativi ai seguenti cationi metallici: Al, Zn, Cd, Co, Cr, Pb, Ni, Mn, Fe, Cu e V. Vengono riportati e discussi i valori medi e la varianza ed infine i dati di accuratezza e precisione delle tecniche o metodi d'analisi impiegati dai laboratori partecipanti al circuito.

  18. Evaluation of the heavy metals Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb in water penny wort (Hydrocotyle ranunculoides) from the upper course of the Lerma River, Mexico; Evaluacion de los metales pesados Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn y Pb en sombrerillo de agua (Hydrocotyle ranunculoides) del curso alto del Rio Lerma, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarazua, G.; Avila P, P.; Tejeda, S. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Valdivia B, M.; Macedo M, G. [Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca, Av. Tecnologico s/n, Ex-Rancho La Virgen, 52140 Metepec, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Zepeda G, C., E-mail: graciela.zarazua@inin.gob.mx [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Cerro de Coatepec s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, 50100 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2013-07-01

    The Lerma river is one of the most polluted water bodies in Mexico, it presents low biodiversity and lets grow up aquatic plants resistant to the pollution. The aim of this work was to evaluate the concentration and bioaccumulation factors of Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb in aerial and submerged structures of water penny wort (Hydrocotyle ranunculoides) from the upper course of the Lerma river. Inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry was used to determine the concentration of heavy metals in water and H. ranunculoides. Results show that the bioaccumulation factors of Fe and Zn were higher than those of Cu, Mn, Cr and Pb; with the exception of Zn, bioaccumulation factors were higher in the submerged structures of the plant, which shows low mobility of analyzed metals. As a result of this study H. ranunculoides can be considered as good indicator of metal pollution in water bodies. (Author)

  19. Study of the analytic quality in the determinations of Cr, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and Hg through conventional and nuclear analytical techniques in mosses of the MATV; Estudio de la calidad analitica en las determinaciones de Cr, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb y Hg a traves de tecnicas analiticas nucleares y convencionales en musgos de la ZMVT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero S, B.

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate the environmental risks of air pollution and to facilitate the decision-making for control, is necessary to have the capacity to generate data with analytical quality. A comparison between nuclear (Neutron activation analysis and total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry) and no nuclear analytical techniques (atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry) for simultaneous determination of metal content (Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Pb and Zn) in mosses from Metropolitan Area of the Toluca Valley (MATV) was performed. Epiphytic mosses (Fabriona ciliaris and Leskea angustata) were sampled in two campaigns, 16 sites (urban, transition and natural) and were prepared for each technique. The biological certified reference materials were used for the quality control and to evaluate accuracy, precision, linearity, detection and quantification limits. Results show that nuclear analytical techniques and no nuclear applied in chemical analysis of Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Pb and Zn in moss from MATV are comparable and therefore all of these can potentially be used for this purpose. However, if its considered both, the performance parameters and economic/operational characteristics is widely recommended inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, conventional analytical technique, which showed the highest analytical grade quality. Also were observed spatial and temporal variations in the concentrations of Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Pb and Zn in mosses from MATV and was discussed its potential origin. The urban sites had the highest concentration of anthropogenic elements as Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Pb and Zn because are strongly impacted by roads with high vehicle traffic. (Author)

  20. Concentrations of As, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, and Zn in uruguayan rice determined by atomic absorption spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario E. Rivero Huguet

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The United Nations General Assembly declared the year 2004 the International Year of Rice and the concept "Rice is life". The largest nutritional problems occurring globally are protein-energy malnutrition, and Ca, Fe, I, Zn, and vitamin A deficiency. In this report, 49 rice samples (Oryza sativa L. were digested by dry ashing in order to determine As, Cd, Cr, and Pb by ETA-AAS; while Ca, Co, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mo, Mn, Na, Ni, and Zn were determined by FAAS; and Hg by CV-AAS using microwave-assisted decomposition. The following concentration ranges were obtained for Ca (9.1-15 mg/100 g, Cd (2.30-4.12 µg/kg, Co (41-60 µg/kg, Cu (1.33-180 mg/kg, Fe (4.41-7.15 mg/kg, K (167-217 mg/100 g, Mg (45-121 mg/100 g, Mo (0.52-0.97 mg/kg, Mn (5.45-25.4 mg/kg, Na (0.95-2.50 mg/100g, Ni (0.53-0.72 mg/kg, and Zn (5.86-12.6 mg/kg. Mean recoveries of elements from fortified rice were: 87±12% for As, 95.3±8.9% for Ca, 106.2±7.7% for Cd, 103.3±6.5% for Co, 89.4±8.1% for Cr, 99.3±4.6% for Cu, 103±10% for Fe, 96.3±9.3% for Hg, 95.4±12% for K, 98.3±8.0% for Mg, 93.4±7.8% for Mo, 95.3±9.9% for Mn, 89±12% for Na, 90.3±9.7% for Ni, 91.2±5.5% for Pb and 92.0±9.4% for Zn. The concentrations of the minerals and microelements studied fall within the typical range of rice grown around the world. Potassium was the most abundant mineral, followed by Mg and Ca; among microelements, the concentrations of Cu, Fe, Mo, Mn, Na, and Zn in rice were outstanding. It was also found that the milling process highly affects the K, Mg, Mn, Na, and Zn concentrations, while it has little influence on Ca, Co, Cu, and Fe. On the other hand, there is a loss of Ca, Fe, and Mn during the parboiling process. Recent studies have shown the potential to exploit the genetic variation of rice seeds with regard to the concentration of some minerals (Ca, Fe, Zn, etc. without affecting yield or adding new traits. All rice samples tested showed lower levels of As, Cd, Hg, and Pb in comparison

  1. Accumulation of Pb, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn in plants and choice of hyperaccumulator plant in the industrial town of Vian, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorestani B.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Various industrial activities contribute heavy metals to the soil environment directly or indirectly through the release of solid wastes, waste gases, and wastewater. Phytoremediation can be potentially used to remedy metal-contaminated sites. A major step towards the development of phytoremediation of heavy metal-impacted soils is the discovery of the heavy metal hyperaccumulation in plants. This study evaluated the potential of 7 species growing on a contaminated site in an industrial area. Several established criteria to define a hyperaccumulator plant were applied. The case study was represented by an industrial town in the Hamedan province in the central-western part of Iran. This study showed that most of the sampled species were able to grow in heavily metal-contaminated soils and were also able to accumulate extraordinarily high concentrations of some metals such as Pb, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn. Based on the obtained results and using the most common criteria, Camphorosma monospeliacum for Pb and Fe, and Salsola soda and Circium arvense for Pb can be classified as hyperaccumulators and, therefore, they have suitable potential for the phytoremediation of contaminated soils.

  2. Concentrations of Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cr, Cd, Pb, Ni in selected Nigerian tubers, legumes and cereals and estimates of the adult daily intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyele, I O; Shokunbi, O S

    2015-04-15

    This study was designed to determine the levels of microminerals (manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), chromium (Cr)) and heavy metals (cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and nickel (Ni)) in some tubers, legumes and cereals obtained from the markets in Abeokuta city, South-West Nigeria. The food samples were digested by dry ashing procedure and their minerals were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results show mean values of 1.67-32.00, 7.25-61.58, 1.59-10.56, 6.65-46.99, 0.02-0.58, legumes and cereals from various parts of the world. The daily intakes of the metals through tubers, legumes and cereals were found to be lower than the provisional tolerable daily intakes proposed by Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives.

  3. Efeito da adição de fontes de matéria orgânica como amenizantes do efeito tóxico de B, Zn, Cu, Mn e Pb no cultivo de Brassica juncea Effect of sources of organic matter in the alleviation of the toxic effects of B, Zn, Cu, Mn and Pb to Brassica Juncea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaucia Cecília Grabrielli dos Santos

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Atividades humanas como mineração, siderurgia e aplicação de fertilizantes tornam a poluição por metais sério problema ambiental na atualidade. A fitorremediação - uso de plantas e da microbiota, associada ou não a adições de amenizantes de solo, para extrair, seqüestrar e, ou, reduzir a toxicidade dos poluentes - tem sido descrita como uma tecnologia efetiva, não-destrutiva, econômica e socialmente aceita para remediar solos poluídos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência da mostarda na remoção de Zn, Cu, Mn, Pb e B de um solo contaminado e o efeito da adição de materiais orgânicos na redução da disponibilidade de metais pesados e B para essa planta. O trabalho foi realizado em casa de vegetação, com delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 3 x 5 com quatro repetições, utilizando 0, 7, 14, 21 e 28 g kg-1 de C no solo. Os materiais orgânicos utilizados foram: solomax, turfa e concentrado húmico mineral (CHM. A adição de turfa e concentrado húmico mineral reduziu os teores de Zn, Cu, Pb e B extraíveis do solo e na parte aérea da mostarda; contudo, essa redução não foi suficiente para impedir os efeitos fitotóxicos dos elementos. A adição dos materiais orgânicos promoveu aumento nos teores de Mn no solo, entretanto apenas o solomax proporcionou aumento na concentração do elemento na parte aérea das plantas. Os efeitos da turfa e do CHM sobre a disponibilidade de Zn, Cu, Mn, Pb e B no solo, a concentração na parte aérea e o crescimento das plantas indicaram o potencial desses materiais como agentes amenizantes de toxicidade e do solomax como auxiliar em programas de fitoextração induzida.As a result of anthropogenic activities such as mining, metal industry and agricultural fertilizer application, metal pollution has become one of the most serious environmental problems of today. Phytoremediation denotes the use of plants and micro-biota, together or without soil

  4. Assessment of heavy metals/metalloid (As, Pb, Cd, Ni, Zn, Cr, Cu, Mn) concentrations in edible fish species tissue in the Pearl River Delta (PRD), China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, H M; Leung, A O W; Wang, H S; Ma, K K; Liang, Y; Ho, K C; Cheung, K C; Tohidi, F; Yung, K K L

    2014-01-15

    The major aim of this study was to investigate heavy metal content of edible fish in the PRD. Eleven species of fish (consisting of 711 individuals) [catfish (Clarias fuscus), tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis), mandarin fish (Siniperca kneri), snakehead (Channa asiatiea), black bass (Micropterus salmoides), mangrove snapper (Lutjanus griseus), star snapper (Lutjanu stellatus), snubnose pompano (Trachinotus blochii) and orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides)] were collected for the analyses of heavy metals. Overall concentrations (mg/kg, ww) in the fish muscles were: As (0.03-1.53), Pb (0.03-8.62), Cd (0.02-0.06), Ni (0.44-9.75), Zn (15.7-29.5), Cr (0.22-0.65), Cu (0.79-2.26), Mn (0.82-6.91). Significant level of Pb were found in tilapia at all locations. It is recommended that heavy metal concentrations in different fish species must be determined on a regular basis in the future so as to reduce human health risks from acute and chronic food intoxication.

  5. Solid phase extraction of Cu(II), Ni(II), Pb(II), Cd(II) and Mn(II) ions with 1-(2-thiazolylazo)-2-naphthol loaded Amberlite XAD-1180.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokalioğlu, Serife; Yilmaz, Vedat; Kartal, Senol

    2009-05-01

    A new method for separation and preconcentration of trace amounts of Cu(II), Ni(II), Pb(II), Cd(II) and Mn(II) ions in various matrices was proposed. The method is based on the adsorption and chelation of the metal ions on a column containing Amberlite XAD-1180 resin impregnated with 1-(2-thiazolylazo)-2-naphthol (TAN) reagent prior to their determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The effect of pH, type, concentration and volume of eluent, sample volume, flow rates of sample and elution solutions, and interfering ions have been investigated. The optimum pH for simultaneous retention of all the metal ions was 9. Eluent for quantitative elution was 20 ml of 2 mol l(-1) HNO(3). The optimum sample and eluent flow rates were found as 4 ml min(-1), and also sample volume was 500 ml, except for Mn (87% recovery). The sorption capacity of the resin was found to be 0.77, 0.41, 0.57, and 0.30 mg g(-1) for Cu(II), Ni(II), Cd(II), and Mn(II), respectively. The preconcentration factor of the method was 200 for Cu(II), 150 for Pb(II), 100 for Cd(II) and Ni(II), and 50 for Mn(II). The recovery values for all of the metal ions were > or = 95% and relative standard deviations (RSDs) were < or = 5.1%. The detection limit values were in the range of 0.03 and 1.19 microg l(-1). The accuracy of the method was confirmed by analysing the certified reference materials (TMDA 54.4 fortified lake water and GBW 07605 tea samples) and the recovery studies. This procedure was applied to the determination of Cu(II), Ni(II), Pb(II), Cd(II) and Mn(II) in waste water and lake water samples.

  6. The effect of mustard gas on salivary trace metals (Zn, Mn, Cu, Mg, Mo, Sr, Cd, Ca, Pb, Rb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Zamani Pozveh

    Full Text Available We have determined and compared trace metals concentration in saliva taken from chemical warfare injures who were under the exposure of mustard gas and healthy subjects by means of inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES for the first time. The influence of preliminary operations on the accuracy of ICP-OES analysis, blood contamination, the number of restored teeth in the mouth, salivary flow rate, and daily variations in trace metals concentration in saliva were also considered. Unstimulated saliva was collected at 10:00-11:00 a.m. from 45 subjects in three equal groups. The first group was composed of 15 healthy subjects (group 1; the second group consisted of 15 subjects who, upon chemical warfare injuries, did not use Salbutamol spray, which they would have normally used on a regular basis (group 2; and the third group contained the same number of patients as the second group, but they had taken their regular medicine (Salbutamol spray; group 3. Our results showed that the concentration of Cu in saliva was significantly increased in the chemical warfare injures compared to healthy subjects, as follows: healthy subjects 15.3± 5.45 (p.p.b., patients (group 2 45.77±13.65, and patients (Salbutamol spray; group 3 29 ±8.51 (P <0.02. In contrast, zinc was significantly decreased in the patients, as follows: healthy subjects 37 ± 9.03 (p.p.b., patients (group 2 12.2 ± 3.56, and patients (Salbutamol spray; group 3 20.6 ±10.01 (P < 0.01. It is important to note that direct dilution of saliva samples with ultrapure nitric acid showed the optimum ICP-OES outputs.

  7. Determination of Cu Fe Zn Mn Pb in Cocoa Powder%可可粉中铜、铁、锌、锰、铅的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒲涛猛; 张金生; 李丽华; 焦瑞; 牛桂昂

    2014-01-01

    The method of determining the contents of trace element Cu Fe Zn Mn and Pb in cacao powder was studied by microwave digestion-flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Some process variables , including the effects of acid, coexistence ion disruption, background interference, accuracy and precision were optimized. The cacao powder was treated by microwave digestion. We can obtain the linear coefficients (all more than 0.999 0), limits of detection (all less than 0.004 2 mg/L), the RSDs (all less than 4.72%). The standard addition recovery rate of each element respectively were 96.5%-101.2%, 97.3%-102.7%, 95.4%-101.5%, 97.7%-102.3%. The result proved that the method was correct and reliable, higher sensitivity and recovery. Compared with the content of each element in cacao powder from different manufacturer through statistical comparison , the results showed that there was no significant difference.%建立微波消解火焰原子吸收法测定可可粉中的微量元素铜、铁、锌、锰、铅含量的方法。对酸效应、共存离子干扰、背景干扰、准确度和精密度进行考察。用微波消解法处理可可粉。测得各元素的工作曲线相关系数均大于0.9990,方法检出限均小于0.0042 mg/L,相对标准偏差(RSD)均小于4.72%,各元素的加标回收率分别为96.5%~101.2%、97.3%~102.7%、95.4%~101.5%、97.7%~102.3%。经统计对比不同厂家生产的可可粉,发现各元素的含量不存在显著差异。

  8. Study on the distributions of Cd, Co, Sr, Zn, Ag, Cu, Pb, Mn and Ni in the eolian sands of the Gavkuni playa (southeast of Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Pakzad

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Heavy metals are continually introduced into hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere. These potentially toxic elements can concentrate in sediments in aqueous ecosystems and they can act as pollution sources in particular conditions. Heavy metals mainly concentrate in fine sand particles because of more concentration of heavy minerals in this grain size. The Gavkhuni playa lake with an approximate area of 550 km2 is located at southeast of Isfahan, Iran. The Zayandehrud permanent river and several seasonal rivers flow into this playa. During quaternary, massive volume of sediments in sand and gravel sizes were carried into this area and deposited. These sediments are mainly deposited in the delta of Zayandehrud river (northwest of Gavkhuni playa and northwest of the sand dunes in margin of the Zayandehrud river particularly from Varzaneh to the playa. The megafans surrounding the playa can be partly origin of these sediments. The Gavkhuni playa lake is composed of three major flats namely sand, mud and salt flats. The salt flat forms the major part of the playa. Igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary (mainly carbonates rocks outcrop in the drainage basin of the Gavkhuni playa lake. Schist, gneiss, limestone, shale and andesite are the dominant lithology in this basin. The main objective of this research is to determine the concentrations of Cd, Co, Sr, Zn, Ag, Cu, Pb, Mn and Ni in the eolian sand deposits, the factors influencing the distributions of these elements and also relationship between the heavy metals and the minerals (particularly heavy minerals containing these elements. Material & Methods The eolian sands (sand dunes and sand flats of the Gavkhuni playa were sampled in 15 sampling points from north to south of the playa. Grain size distribution of the sediments were determined through dry sieving method. Heavy minerals were separated and studied through microscopy of the prepared thin and polish sections. The concentration

  9. Chemical speciation of Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu, Co, Ni and Cr in the suspended particulate matter off the Mejerda River Delta (Gulf of Tunis, Tunisia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helali, Mohamed Amine; Oueslati, Walid; Zaaboub, Noureddine; Added, Ayed; Aleya, Lotfi

    2016-06-01

    Fluxes of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and their associated metals were performed off the Mejerda River Delta during both the wet (March) and the dry (July) seasons in 2012, using sediment traps at study stations at depths of 10, 20 and 40 m. Fluxes nearest to the Mejerda outlet were more significant, especially during winter (36 g m-2 day-1), but dissipated further offshore, 24.5-6 g m-2 day-1 at the 20 m and 21.8-4.8 g m-2 day-1 at the 40 m stations. Many variations observed in seasonal and spatial metal fluxes are similar to those of SPM, in particular Pb and Zn, probably because they are associated with the mining activity characteristic of the Mejerda catchment. Chemical speciation reveals that most of the metals (20-100%) are bound to the residual fraction. The most toxic metals (Pb, Zn) are bound in part to the exchangeable fraction (20-50% for Pb and 5-15% for Zn) making them relatively bioavailable and therefore potentially toxic. While Cu and Cd fluxes are not always clearly established according to season, both metals are apparently sequestered deep in the sediment, bound especially to clays (40-80% for Cd and up to 100% for Cu).

  10. Estudo de metais pesados (Co, Cu, Fe, Cr, Ni, Mn, Pb e Zn na Bacia do Tarumã-Açu Manaus (AM Heavy metal (Co, Cu, Fe, Cr, Ni, Mn, Pb e Zn study in the Tarumã-Açu Basin Manaus (AM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genilson Pereira Santana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Os resíduos gerados em domicílios incluem diversos produtos, como pesticidas, produtos farmacêuticos, detergentes, óleos de cozinha, metais pesados contidos em baterias e outros utensílios. Esses resíduos são lançados continuamente em aterro sanitário ou lixões em cidades como Manaus. O chorume produzido nesses aterros, quando não tratados, contamina recursos hídricos superficiais e subterrâneos. Neste estudo foi feita uma avaliação das conseqüências da liberação do chorume no sistema hídrico da bacia do Tarumã-Açu. Amostras de água e sedimento foram coletadas nos igarapés Matrinxã, Acará, Bolívia, bacia do Tarumã-Açu e dentro do aterro sanitário (Manaus - Amazonas - Brasil em março 2001. As amostras de água foram filtradas em filtro Milipore (0,45 mm de poro e, em seguida, tratadas com HNO3 concentrado. As amostras de sedimento foram peneiradas em malha de 0,053 mm e digeridas com HCl:HNO3 (1:3 a 150ºC. As concentrações de alguns metais pesados (Co, Cu, Fe, Cr, Ni, Mn, Pb e Zn foram determinadas nas amostras de água e sedimento por espectrometria de absorção atômica de chama. Os resultados revelaram que a concentração dos metais pesados é muito acima dos permitidos pela resolução 357/2005 do CONAMA em praticamente todos os locais amostrados, mostrando que o Aterro Sanitário é um dos principais responsáveis pelo impacto ambiental observado nos corpos hídricos estudados. As análises dos componentes principais (PCA e hierárquica de cluster (HCA, revelam que os pontos de coleta localizados dentro do aterro sanitário apresentam características diferentes dos outros locais amostrados. Além disso, o HCA e PCA mostraram que existe uma similaridade entre os pontos de coleta localizados fora do aterro o que permite afirmar que o chorume do aterro se dissolve por todo corpo hídrico estudado.Domestic sewage involves several products, such as pesticides, pharmaceutics products, detergents, soybean oil

  11. Study of Cu and Pb partitioning in mine tailings using the Tessier sequential extraction scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrei, Mariana Lucia; Senila, Marin; Hoaghia, Maria Alexandra; Borodi, Gheorghe; Levei, Erika-Andrea

    2015-12-01

    The Cu and Pb partitioning in nonferrous mine tailings was investigated using the Tessier sequential extraction scheme. The contents of Cu and Pb found in the five operationally defined fractions were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The results showed different partitioning patterns for Cu and Pb in the studied tailings. The total Cu and Pb contents were higher in tailings from Brazesti than in those from Saliste, while the Cu contents in the first two fractions considered as mobile were comparable and the content of mobile Pb was the highest in Brazesti tailings. In the tailings from Saliste about 30% of Cu and 3% of Pb were found in exchangeable fraction, while in those from Brazesti no metals were found in the exchangeable fraction, but the percent of Cu and Pb found in the bound to carbonate fraction were high (20% and 26%, respectively). The highest Pb content was found in the residual fraction in Saliste tailings and in bound to Fe and Mn oxides fraction in Brazesti tailings, while the highest Cu content was found in the fraction bound to organic matter in Saliste tailings and in the residual fraction in Brazesti tailings. In case of tailings of Brazesti medium environmental risk was found both for Pb and Cu, while in case of Saliste tailings low risk for Pb and high risk for Cu were found.

  12. Certification of the contents (mass fractions) of Cd, Pb, Se, Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn in wholemeal flour and lyophilized brown bread reference materials. Wholemeal flour - CRM no. 189; brown bread - CRM no. 191

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagstaffe, P.J.; Griepink, B.; Muntau, H.; Schramel, P.

    1987-01-01

    The report describes the preparation and certification of a wholemeal flour (CRM 189) and a lyophilised brown breas (CRM 191) for their contents (mass fractions) of elements of toxicological and nutritional importance: Cd, Pb, Se, Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn. Indicative values are also given for As, Ca, Cl, Cr, Hg, Mg, Na, Ni, P and K. Details are given of a preliminary intercomparison of methods for these elements in a wholemeal flour sample, homogeneity and stability studies on the two reference materials and the results and evaluation of the certification exercise which involved 21 European Laboratories. Summaries of the certification methods are also presented. The report concludes with a discussion of the most common sources of error in determining the elements of interest and the steps to be taken to control them. With 7 figs., 28 tabs.

  13. SERS and DFT investigation of 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol and its metal complexes with Al(III), Mn(II), Fe(III), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Pb(II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, László; Herman, Krisztian; Mircescu, Nicoleta E.; Fălămaş, Alexandra; Leopold, Loredana F.; Leopold, Nicolae; Buzumurgă, Claudia; Chiş, Vasile

    The development of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) as a prospective analytical methodology for detection of metal ions was shown in recent years by several studies on metal complexes. In this work, 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN) and its Al(III), Mn(II), Fe(III), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Pb(II) complexes were studied by FTIR, FT-Raman and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopies. Molecular geometry optimization, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) distribution and vibrational frequencies calculations were performed using the hybrid B3LYP exchange-correlation functional for the PAN molecule and its bidentate complexes. The calculated MEP distributions indicated the atoms with highest electronegativity, the adsorption to the silver surface occurring through these atoms. Based on experimental and theoretical data we were able to identify unique and representative features, useful for the identification of each PAN-metal complex.

  14. 10 Towards a Safer Environment:(7)How apatite minerals remediate Pb, Zn and Mn from wastewater?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Samy Mohamed Abdallah

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of apatite mineral in removing different contaminants from low quality water in the industrial city of abha,Asir region,southwestern of Saudi Arabia two phosphatic clay dominated by apatite mineral were selected.In situ remediation experiment proved that apatite mineral has the highest affinity for Pb and removed more than 94% from initial Pb concentration.The rest of contaminants followed the descending order of:Zn>Mn>Cu>Co>Ni.The sorption of Pb,Zn and Mn onto apatite mineral was well characterized by the Langmuir model.Ternary-metal addition induced competitive sorption among the three metals,with the interfering effect of Pb>Zn>Mn.Durlng metal retention by apatite mineral calcium and phosphate were determined in equilibrium solution.Calcium increased and phosphate decreased with increasing metal disappearance.The greatest increase of calcium and the largest phosphate reduction were found with Pb+2 sorption.This is suggested that Pb+2 retention by apatite was through the dissolution of apatite which mean release of Ca and P into solution and formation of pyromorphite(lead phosphate)as consuming of P.Obtained results suggested that there are two general mechanisms for the ability of apatite mineral to fake up Pb2+,Zn+2 and Mn+2.The first is(ion-ion exchange mechanism)concerned with adsorption of ions on the solid surface followed by their diffusion into apatite mineral and the release of cations originally contained within apatite.The second is(dissolution-precipitation mechanism)concerned to the dissolution of apatite in the aqueous solution containing Pb2+,Zn+2 and Mn+2 followed by the precipitation or coprecipitation.Pb+2 desorption responding to solution pH may indicate that not all the Pb+2 was chemisorbed and fraction of Pb+2 was weakly adsorbed or complexed on the surface of apatite mineral.

  15. Toxicity assessment using Lactuca sativa L. bioassay of the metal(loid)s As, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn in soluble-in-water saturated soil extracts from an abandoned mining site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagur-Gonzalez, Maria Gracia [Univ. of Granada, Faculty of Sciences, Dept. of Analytical Chemistry, Granada (Spain); Univ. of Granada-CSIC, Inst. Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra, Faculty of Sciences, Granada (Spain); Estepa-Molina, Carmen [Univ. of Granada, Faculty of Sciences, Dept. of Mineralogy and Petrology, Granada (Spain); Martin-Peinado, Francisco [Univ. of Granada, Faculty of Sciences, Dept. of Soil Science, Granada (Spain); Morales-Ruano, Salvador [Univ. of Granada-CSIC, Inst. Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra, Faculty of Sciences, Granada (Spain); Univ. of Granada, Faculty of Sciences, Dept. of Mineralogy and Petrology, Granada (Spain)

    2011-02-15

    We used the different soluble-in-water concentrations of As, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn from contaminated soils in an abandoned mining area (anthropogenic origin) to assess the phytotoxicity of the abandoned site using the results obtained with a Lactuca sativa L. bioassay. Material and methods The study has been carried out on potentially polluted samples from the Rodalquilar mining district (southern Spain). The area was sampled according to the different metallurgical treatments for gold extraction used in each one: dynamic cyanidation and heap leaching. The saturation extracts were obtained by filtering each saturated paste with a vacuum-extraction pump, in which measurements of metal(loid) concentrations, pH and electrical conductivity were made. The variables evaluated in the bioassay, defined as toxicity indices ranging from -1 (maximum phytotoxicity) to >0 (hormesis), were seed germination (SG) and root elongation (RE) of lettuce seeds. Results and discussion In areas with a low degree of contamination, the most sensitive toxicity index is RE, whereas in highly contaminated areas, both RE and SG are good estimators of soil toxicity. According to these results, samples from the western area showed moderate to low toxicity, which was closely related to water-soluble As concentrations. Samples from the eastern area had a high degree of toxicity in 40% of the soils. Conclusions The comparison of the two indices (SG and RE) defined using the L. sativa L. bioassay indicates that, for areas with a low degree of contamination, the most sensitive toxicity index is RE, whereas in highly contaminated areas, both RE and SG are good estimators of soil phytotoxicity. Unsupervised pattern recognition methods such as HCA and PCA enabled us to conclude that the low/moderate phytotoxicity of the soils is related to the extraction process used for the recovery of gold (mainly dynamic cyanidation in tanks located in the eastern area) and to the As and Pb contents. (orig.)

  16. Solid-phase extraction of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions from environmental samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, Celal [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Art and Science, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Gundogdu, Ali [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Art and Science, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Bulut, Volkan Numan [Department of Chemistry, Giresun Faculty of Art and Science, Karadeniz Technical University, 28049 Giresun (Turkey); Soylak, Mustafa [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Art and Science, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)]. E-mail: soylak@erciyes.edu.tr; Elci, Latif [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Art and Science, Pamukkale University, 20020 Denizli (Turkey); Sentuerk, Hasan Basri [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Art and Science, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Tuefekci, Mehmet [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Art and Science, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)

    2007-07-19

    A new method using a column packed with Amberlite XAD-2010 resin as a solid-phase extractant has been developed for the multi-element preconcentration of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), and Pb(II) ions based on their complex formation with the sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (Na-DDTC) prior to flame atomic absorption spectrometric (FAAS) determinations. Metal complexes sorbed on the resin were eluted by 1 mol L{sup -1} HNO{sub 3} in acetone. Effects of the analytical conditions over the preconcentration yields of the metal ions, such as pH, quantity of Na-DDTC, eluent type, sample volume and flow rate, foreign ions etc. have been investigated. The limits of detection (LOD) of the analytes were found in the range 0.08-0.26 {mu}g L{sup -1}. The method was validated by analyzing three certified reference materials. The method has been applied for the determination of trace elements in some environmental samples.

  17. Cu and Cu(Mn) films deposited layer-by-layer via surface-limited redox replacement and underpotential deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, J.S., E-mail: jsfang@nfu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Formosa University, Huwei 63201, Taiwan (China); Sun, S.L. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Formosa University, Huwei 63201, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Y.L. [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Chi-Nan University, Nan-Tou 54561, Taiwan (China); Chen, G.S.; Chin, T.S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung 40724, Taiwan (China)

    2016-02-28

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: The present paper reports Cu and Cu(Mn) films prepared layer-by-layer using an electrochemical atomic layer deposition (ECALD) method. The structure and properties of the films were investigated to elucidate their suitability as Cu interconnects for microelectronics. Previous studies have used primarily a vacuum-based atomic layer deposition to form a Cu metallized film. Herein, an entirely wet chemical process was used to fabricate a Cu film using the ECALD process by combining underpotential deposition (UPD) and surface-limited redox replacement (SLRR). The experimental results indicated that an inadequate UPD of Pb affected the subsequent SLRR of Cu and lead to the formation of PbSO{sub 4}. A mechanism is proposed to explain the results. Layer-by-layer deposition of Cu(Mn) films was successfully performed by alternating the deposition cycle-ratios of SLRR-Cu and UPD-Mn. The proposed self-limiting growth method offers a layer-by-layer wet chemistry-based deposition capability for fabricating Cu interconnects.

  18. Cu and Cu(Mn) films deposited layer-by-layer via surface-limited redox replacement and underpotential deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, J. S.; Sun, S. L.; Cheng, Y. L.; Chen, G. S.; Chin, T. S.

    2016-02-01

    The present paper reports Cu and Cu(Mn) films prepared layer-by-layer using an electrochemical atomic layer deposition (ECALD) method. The structure and properties of the films were investigated to elucidate their suitability as Cu interconnects for microelectronics. Previous studies have used primarily a vacuum-based atomic layer deposition to form a Cu metallized film. Herein, an entirely wet chemical process was used to fabricate a Cu film using the ECALD process by combining underpotential deposition (UPD) and surface-limited redox replacement (SLRR). The experimental results indicated that an inadequate UPD of Pb affected the subsequent SLRR of Cu and lead to the formation of PbSO4. A mechanism is proposed to explain the results. Layer-by-layer deposition of Cu(Mn) films was successfully performed by alternating the deposition cycle-ratios of SLRR-Cu and UPD-Mn. The proposed self-limiting growth method offers a layer-by-layer wet chemistry-based deposition capability for fabricating Cu interconnects.

  19. Cumulation of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Mn in Plants of Gardno Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trojanowski J.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper there have been shown the results of research on yhe content of Zn, Cd, Cu, Mn and Pb in chosen plants of Lake Gardno.The biggest concentration of those metals has been observed in Potamogton natans and Elodea canadensis, on average Zn – 34.9, Pb -2.77, Cd – 0.62, Cu – 3.24 and Mn – 257.4 μg g-1. It has been found that the over-ground parts of the plants under analysis cumulate several times less of heavy metals than their roots. The determined enrichment factors enabled the researchers to state that Cu in the examined plants is of natural origin while Mn, Cd and Zn – of anthropogenic origin.

  20. Removal of aqueous Pb(II) by adsorption on Al2O3-pillared layered MnO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haipeng; Gu, Liqin; Zhang, Ling; Zheng, Shourong; Wan, Haiqin; Sun, Jingya; Zhu, Dongqiang; Xu, Zhaoyi

    2017-06-01

    In the present study, Al2O3-pillared layered MnO2 (p-MnO2) was synthesized using δ-MnO2 as precursor and Pb(II) adsorption on p-MnO2 and δ-MnO2 was investigated. To clarify the adsorption mechanism, Al2O3 was also prepared as an additional sorbent. The adsorbents were characterized by X-ray fluorescence analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and N2 adsorption-desorption. Results showed that in comparison with pristine δ-MnO2, Al2O3 pillaring led to increased BET surface area of 166.3 m2 g-1 and enlarged basal spacing of 0.85 nm. Accordingly, p-MnO2 exhibited a higher adsorption capacity of Pb(II) than δ-MnO2. The adsorption isotherms of Pb(II) on δ-MnO2 and Al2O3 pillar fitted well to the Freundlich model, while the adsorption isotherm of Pb(II) on p-MnO2 could be well described using a dual-adsorption model, attributed to Pb(II) adsorption on both δ-MnO2 and Al2O3. Additionally, Pb(II) adsorption on δ-MnO2 and p-MnO2 followed the pseudo second-order kinetics, and a lower adsorption rate was observed on p-MnO2 than δ-MnO2. The Pb(II) adsorption capacity of p-MnO2 increased with solution pH and co-existing cation concentration, and the presence of dissolved humic acid (10.2 mg L-1) did not markedly impact Pb(II) adsorption. p-MnO2 also displayed good adsorption capacities for aqueous Cu(II) and Cd(II). Findings in this study indicate that p-MnO2 could be used as a highly effective adsorbent for heavy metal ions removal in water.

  1. Distribuição de Zn, Pb, Ni, Cu, Mn e Fe nas frações do sedimento superficial do Rio Cachoeira na região sul da Bahia, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Soares dos Santos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The metal distribution in the surface sediment fractions of the Cachoeira River was evaluated based on the fractionation method using a five-step sequential extraction. The determination of metals was made by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (F AAS. Zn, Pb and Cu exhibit higher concentrations in the residual fraction of the sediment from sites that receive discharges from urban and industrial zones. High levels of Ni (60 ± 1 to 447 ± 9 µg L-1 were found in the river water, which may be detrimental to the "health" of rural communities that utilize the river water for domestic purposes without treatment.

  2. Redetermination of brackebuschite, Pb2Mn3+(VO4)2(OH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafuente, Barbara; Downs, Robert T.

    2016-01-01

    The crystal structure of brackebuschite, ideally Pb2Mn3+(VO4)2(OH) [dilead(II) manganese(III) vanadate(V) hydroxide], was redetermined based on single-crystal X-ray diffraction data of a natural sample from the type locality Sierra de Cordoba, Argentina. Improving on previous results, anisotropic displacement parameters for all non-H atoms were refined and the H atom located, obtaining a significant improvement of accuracy and an unambiguous hydrogen-bonding scheme. Brackebuschite belongs to the brackebuschite group of minerals with general formula A 2 M(T1O4)(T2O4)(OH, H2O), with A = Pb2+, Ba, Ca, Sr; M = Cu2+, Zn, Fe2+, Fe3+, Mn3+, Al; T1 = As5+, P, V5+; and T2 = As5+, P, V5+, S6+. The crystal structure of brackebuschite is based on a cubic closest-packed array of O and Pb atoms with infinite chains of edge-sharing [Mn3+O6] octa­hedra located about inversion centres and decorated by two unique VO4 tetra­hedra (each located on a special position 2e, site symmetry m). One type of VO4 tetra­hedra is linked with the 1 ∞[MnO4/2O2/1] chain by one common vertex, alternating with H atoms along the chain, while the other type of VO4 tetra­hedra link two adjacent octa­hedra by sharing two vertices with them and thereby participating in the formation of a three-membered Mn2V ring between the central atoms. The 1 ∞[Mn3+(VO4)2OH] chains run parallel to [010] and are held together by two types of irregular [PbOx] polyhedra (x = 8, 11), both located on special position 2e (site symmetry m). The magnitude of the libration component of the O atoms of the 1 ∞[Mn3+(VO4)2OH] chain increases linearly with the distance from the centerline of the chain, indicating a significant twisting to and fro of the chain along [010]. The hy­droxy group bridges one Pb2+ cation with two Mn3+ cations and forms an almost linear hydrogen bond with a vanadate group of a neighbouring chain. The O⋯O distance of this inter­action determined from the structure refinement agrees well with

  3. Redetermination of brackebuschite, Pb2Mn(3+)(VO4)2(OH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafuente, Barbara; Downs, Robert T

    2016-03-01

    The crystal structure of brackebuschite, ideally Pb2Mn(3+)(VO4)2(OH) [dilead(II) manganese(III) vanadate(V) hydroxide], was redetermined based on single-crystal X-ray diffraction data of a natural sample from the type locality Sierra de Cordoba, Argentina. Improving on previous results, anisotropic displacement parameters for all non-H atoms were refined and the H atom located, obtaining a significant improvement of accuracy and an unambiguous hydrogen-bonding scheme. Brackebuschite belongs to the brackebuschite group of minerals with general formula A 2 M(T1O4)(T2O4)(OH, H2O), with A = Pb(2+), Ba, Ca, Sr; M = Cu(2+), Zn, Fe(2+), Fe(3+), Mn(3+), Al; T1 = As(5+), P, V(5+); and T2 = As(5+), P, V(5+), S(6+). The crystal structure of brackebuschite is based on a cubic closest-packed array of O and Pb atoms with infinite chains of edge-sharing [Mn(3+)O6] octa-hedra located about inversion centres and decorated by two unique VO4 tetra-hedra (each located on a special position 2e, site symmetry m). One type of VO4 tetra-hedra is linked with the (1) ∞[MnO4/2O2/1] chain by one common vertex, alternating with H atoms along the chain, while the other type of VO4 tetra-hedra link two adjacent octa-hedra by sharing two vertices with them and thereby participating in the formation of a three-membered Mn2V ring between the central atoms. The (1) ∞[Mn(3+)(VO4)2OH] chains run parallel to [010] and are held together by two types of irregular [PbO x ] polyhedra (x = 8, 11), both located on special position 2e (site symmetry m). The magnitude of the libration component of the O atoms of the (1) ∞[Mn(3+)(VO4)2OH] chain increases linearly with the distance from the centerline of the chain, indicating a significant twisting to and fro of the chain along [010]. The hy-droxy group bridges one Pb(2+) cation with two Mn(3+) cations and forms an almost linear hydrogen bond with a vanadate group of a neighbouring chain. The O⋯O distance of this inter-action determined from the

  4. Rational serendipity: "undirected" synthesis of a large {MnCu} complex from pre-formed Mn(II) building blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Jamie M; Kettles, Fraser J; Wilson, Claire; Murrie, Mark

    2016-11-15

    Use of an aminopolyalcohol-based Mn(II) complex in solvothermal Cu(II) chemistry leads to a rare example of a high nuclearity heterometallic {MnCu} system, in which four Cu(II)(H1Edte) units trap an inner {MnCu(II)} oxide core.

  5. Distribution of P, K, Ca, Mg, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn in wood and bark age classes of willows and poplars used for phytoextraction on soils contaminated by risk elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zárubová, Pavla; Hejcman, Michal; Vondráčková, Stanislava; Mrnka, Libor; Száková, Jiřina; Tlustoš, Pavel

    2015-12-01

    Fast-growing clones of Salix and Populus have been studied for remediation of soils contaminated by risk elements (RE) using short-rotation coppice plantations. Our aim was to assess biomass yield and distributions of elements in wood and bark of highly productive willow (S1--[Salix schwerinii × Salix viminalis] × S. viminalis, S2--Salix × smithiana clone S-218) and poplar (P1--Populus maximowiczii × Populus nigra, P2--P. nigra) clones with respect to aging. The field experiment was established in April 2008 on moderately Cd-, Pb- and Zn- contaminated soil. Shoots were harvested after four seasons (February 2012) and separated into annual classes of wood and bark. All tested clones grew on contaminated soils, with highest biomass production and lowest mortality exhibited by P1 and S2. Concentrations of elements, with exception of Ca and Pb, decreased with age and were higher in bark than in wood. The Salix clones were characterised by higher removal of Cd, Mn and Zn compared to the Populus clones. Despite generally higher RE content in young shoots, partly due to lower wood/bark ratios and higher RE concentrations in bark, the overall removal of RE was higher in older wood classes due to higher biomass yield. Thus, longer rotations seem to be more effective when phytoextraction strategy is considered. Of the four selected clones, S1 exhibited the best removal of Cd and Zn and is a good candidate for phytoextraction.

  6. Magnetic and electrical transport properties of La{sub 0.65}Ca{sub 0.30}Pb{sub 0.05}Mn{sub 0.90}Cu{sub 0.10}O{sub 3} compounds: Thermal hysteresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irmak, A.E., E-mail: ekberirmak@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Mugla Sitki Kocman University, 48000 Mugla (Turkey); Magnetic Materials Laboratory, Research Laboratories Center, Mugla Sitki Kocman University, 48000 Mugla (Turkey); Taşarkuyu, E.; Coşkun, A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Mugla Sitki Kocman University, 48000 Mugla (Turkey); Magnetic Materials Laboratory, Research Laboratories Center, Mugla Sitki Kocman University, 48000 Mugla (Turkey); Acet, M. [Experimental Physics, Duisburg-Essen University, 47048 Duisburg (Germany); Samancıoğlu, Y.; Aktürk, S. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Mugla Sitki Kocman University, 48000 Mugla (Turkey); Magnetic Materials Laboratory, Research Laboratories Center, Mugla Sitki Kocman University, 48000 Mugla (Turkey)

    2015-08-15

    Structural, electrical, and magnetic properties of La{sub 0.65}(Ca{sub 0.30}Pb{sub 0.05})Mn{sub 0.90}Cu{sub 0.10}O{sub 3} compound were investigated. The compound, prepared by the sol–gel route, was pressed into pellets and one of them was sintered at 900 °C and the other at 1000 °C for 24 h. The aim of the study was to explore structural, electrical and magnetic properties of the compound. Temperature dependent X-ray powder diffraction studies on the sample sintered at 900 °C reveal an orthorhombic-Pbnm perovskite structure through the temperature range between 320 K and 86 K. Scanning electron microcopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy analyses showed grainy, homogeneous and stoichiometric structure. Magnetization and resistivity measurements reveal that the Curie temperatures, T{sub C}, and insulator–metal transition temperatures, T{sub IM}, coincide, but the samples sintered at 900 °C also exhibit thermal hysteresis both in magnetization and resistivity upon cooling and warming. - Highlights: • 900C exhibit PbO impurity having orthorhombic structure (Pbcm). • Temperature dependent XRD pattern of 900C reveals that there is no structural transformation. • 900C exhibits thermal hysteresis in magnetization and resistivity. • PbO impurity accumulated at the grain boundary possibly acts as a pinning site. • Spin polarized tunneling was used to explain the grain boundary resistivity.

  7. Effect of substrate temperature on electrical and magnetic properties of epitaxial La$_{1-}$Pb$_{}$MnO3 films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ajay Singh; D K Aswal; Shashwati Sen; K Shah; L C Gupta; S K Gupta; V C Sahni

    2002-05-01

    Epitaxial La1-PbMnO3 (LPMO) thin films, grown on (100) SrTiO3 substrates by laser ablation technique at different temperatures between 600 and 850°C, have been characterized for electrical and magnetic properties. The temperature dependence of resistivity showed that the metal–insulator transition temperature (MI) decreases with increasing substrate temperature, which has been attributed to decrease in Pb content in the films. The YBa2Cu3O/La1-PbMnO3 heterostructures, exhibiting both superconductivity and ferromagnetism, have been fabricated.

  8. Molecular Dynamics study of Pb overlayer on Cu(100)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, M.; Tibbits, P.; Ila, D.; Dalins, I.; Vidali, G.

    1991-01-01

    Isothermal-isobaric Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation of a submonolayer Pb film in c(2x2) ordered structure adsorbed on a Cu(100) substrate showed retention of order to high T. The Embedded Atom Method (EAM) calculated the energy of atoms of overlayer and substrate. The time-averaged squared modulus of the two dimensional structure factor for the Pb overlayer measured the order of the overlayer. The results are for increasing T only, and require verification by simulated cooling.

  9. Molecular Dynamics study of Pb overlayer on Cu(100)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, M.; Tibbits, P.; Ila, D.; Dalins, I.; Vidali, G.

    1991-01-01

    Isothermal-isobaric Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation of a submonolayer Pb film in c(2x2) ordered structure adsorbed on a Cu(100) substrate showed retention of order to high T. The Embedded Atom Method (EAM) calculated the energy of atoms of overlayer and substrate. The time-averaged squared modulus of the two dimensional structure factor for the Pb overlayer measured the order of the overlayer. The results are for increasing T only, and require verification by simulated cooling.

  10. Preparation of nanoporous Ni and Ni-Cu by dealloying of rolled Ni-Mn and Ni-Cu-Mn alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakamada, Masataka, E-mail: masataka-hakamada@aist.go.j [Materials Research Institute for Sustainable Development, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 2266-98 Anagahora, Shimosihidami, Moriyama, Nagoya 463-8560 (Japan); Mabuchi, Mamoru [Department of Energy Science and Technology, Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2009-10-19

    Nanoporous Ni, Ni-Cu and Cu with ligament sizes of 10-20 nm were fabricated by dealloying rolled Ni-Mn, Cu-Ni-Mn and Cu-Mn alloys, respectively. Unlike conventional Raney nickel composed of brittle Ni-Al intermetallic compounds, the initial alloys had good workability. Ni and Cu atoms formed a homogeneous solid solution in the nanoporous architecture. The ligament sizes of nanoporous Ni and Ni-Cu were smaller than that of nanoporous Cu, reflecting the difference between the surface diffusivities of Ni and Cu.

  11. Fractionation of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in floodplain soils from Egypt, Germany and Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaheen S. M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Trace elements are potentially toxic to human life and the environment. Element toxicity depends on chemical associations in soils. Therefore, determining the chemical form of an element in soils is important to evaluate its mobility and bioavailability. Initial soil development in river floodplains influences soil properties, processes and therefore behavior of trace elements. In this study, three different floodplain soils sampled at three rivers (Nile/Egypt, Elbe/Germany and Penios/Greece were used to link soil development and properties to the geochemical fractions and mobility of some trace elements. Sequential extraction was used to fractionate five trace elements (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn into five operationally defined groups: water soluble + exchangeable, carbonate, Fe-Mn oxide, organic, and residual. German soil showed the highest total concentration of the studied elements (except Ni. The Greek soil had the greatest amount of Ni. The residual fraction was the abundant pool for the studied elements examined in the Egyptian and Greek soils while the non-residual fraction was the dominant pool for all elements in the German soil. A significant amount (71- 94% of all elements was present in German soil in the potentially available fraction: non-residual fraction, while the amount of this fraction ranged between 9 and 39 % in Greek soil and between 9 and 34 % in Egyptian soil. These suggest that the potential availability of the studied trace elements was extremely high in German soil compared to the Egyptian and Greek soil. In the German soil, most of the non-residual Cd, Ni and Zn were bounded with the Fe-Mn oxide fraction, while Cu and Pb distributed in the organic fraction. While in the Egyptian and Greek soils Fe-Mn oxide fraction was the abundant pool for the studied elements except for Cd, in which the exchangeable and the carbonate fractions had the greatest amount of Cd. Assuming that mobility and bioavailability of these elements

  12. First-principles spin-transfer torque in CuMnAs |GaP |CuMnAs junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamenova, Maria; Mohebbi, Razie; Seyed-Yazdi, Jamileh; Rungger, Ivan; Sanvito, Stefano

    2017-02-01

    We demonstrate that an all-antiferromagnetic tunnel junction with current perpendicular to the plane geometry can be used as an efficient spintronic device with potential high-frequency operation. By using state-of-the-art density functional theory combined with quantum transport, we show that the Néel vector of the electrodes can be manipulated by spin-transfer torque. This is staggered over the two different magnetic sublattices and can generate dynamics and switching. At the same time the different magnetization states of the junction can be read by standard tunneling magnetoresistance. Calculations are performed for CuMnAs |GaP |CuMnAs junctions with different surface terminations between the antiferromagnetic CuMnAs electrodes and the insulating GaP spacer. We find that the torque remains staggered regardless of the termination, while the magnetoresistance depends on the microscopic details of the interface.

  13. Biosorption of Cu(Ⅱ) and Pb(Ⅱ) by Auricularia polytricha

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Dan; GAO Jianwei; GAO Tingyan; YING Yigao; CHEN Hong

    2007-01-01

    For searching biological material for heavy metal removal of waste-water, using macrofungus Auricularia polytricha as biosorbent for Cu2+ and Pb2+ removal was investigated. After shaking and biosorbing Cu2+ and Pb2+ in solution by biosorbents, the filtrates were tested by AAS and the adsorbed quantity of Cu2+ and Pb2+ was calculated. The biosorbents were effective in removal of Cu2+ and Pb2+ on the biosorbents that showed a highest value around pH 5-6. The biosorption rate of Cu2+ and Pb2+on A. polytricha biomass decreased with increasing the initial concentration of Cu2+ and Pb2+ in the medium. The biosorption of Cu2+ and Pb2+ on the biomasses follows pseudo-second order kinetics. The determined maximum biosorption capacities presented by the fungus biomass were 3.34 and 13.03 mg·g -1 dry weight for Cu2+ and Pb2+, respectively by the biosorption equilibrium with Langmuir adsorption isotherm. According to the whole data analysis in each experiment of studying Cu2+ and Pb2+ biosorption including condition factors and adsorption isotherm, the adsorbed capacity of Pb2+ by A. polytricha biomass was bigger than Cu2+. The biosorption by A. polytricha was most effective when pH 5-6. The biosorbents are suitable for low Cu2+ and Pb2+ concentration waste-water, especially for Pb2+ removal.

  14. Spin polarization and exchange coupling of Cu and Mn atoms in paramagnetic CuMn diluted alloys induced by a Co layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abes, M.; Atkinson, D.; Tanner, B. K.; Charlton, T. R.; Langridge, Sean; Hase, T. P. A.; Ali, M.; Marrows, C. H.; Hickey, B. J.; Neudert, A.; Hicken, R. J.; Arena, D.; Wilkins, S. B.; Mirone, A.; Lebègue, S.

    2010-11-01

    Using the surface, interface, and element specificity of x-ray resonant magnetic scattering in combination with x-ray magnetic circular dichroism, we have spatially resolved the magnetic spin polarization, and the associated interface proximity effect, in a Mn-based high-susceptibility material close to a ferromagnetic Co layer. We have measured the magnetic polarization of Mn and Cu3d electrons in paramagnetic CuMn alloy layers in [Co/Cu(x)/CuMn/Cu(x)]20 multilayer samples with varying copper layer thicknesses from x=0 to 25Å . The size of the Mn and CuL2,3 edge dichroism shows a decrease in the Mn-induced polarization for increasing copper thickness indicating the dominant interfacial nature of the Cu and Mn spin polarization. The Mn polarization is much higher than that of Cu. Evidently, the Mn moment is a useful probe of the local spin density. Mn atoms appear to be coupled antiferromagnetically with the Co layer below x=10Å and ferromagnetically coupled above. In contrast, the interfacial Cu atoms remain ferromagnetically aligned to the Co layer for all thicknesses studied.

  15. Pb-free Sn-Ag-Cu ternary eutectic solder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, I.E.; Yost, F.G.; Smith, J.F.; Miller, C.M.; Terpstra, R.L.

    1996-06-18

    A Pb-free solder includes a ternary eutectic composition consisting essentially of about 93.6 weight % Sn-about 4.7 weight % Ag-about 1.7 weight % Cu having a eutectic melting temperature of about 217 C and variants of the ternary composition wherein the relative concentrations of Sn, Ag, and Cu deviate from the ternary eutectic composition to provide a controlled melting temperature range (liquid-solid ``mushy`` zone) relative to the eutectic melting temperature (e.g. up to 15 C above the eutectic melting temperature). 5 figs.

  16. Glassy dynamics in CuMn thin-film multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Qiang; Harrison, David C.; Tennant, Daniel; Dalhberg, E. Dan; Kenning, Gregory G.; Orbach, Raymond L.

    2017-02-01

    Thin-film multilayered spin-glass CuMn/Cu structures display glassy dynamics. The freezing temperature Tf was measured for 40 layers of CuMn films of thickness L =4.5 ,9.0 , and 20.0 nm, sandwiched between nonmagnetic Cu layers of thickness ≈60 nm. The Kenning effect, Tf∝lnL , is shown to follow from power-law dynamics where the correlation length grows from nucleation as ξ (t ,T ) =c1a0(t/τ0) c2(T /Tg) , leading to [(Tf/Tg) c2ln(tco/τ0) ] +lnc1=ln(L /a0) . Here, Tg is the bulk spin-glass temperature, c1 and c2 are constants determined from the spin-glass dynamics, tco is the time for the correlation length to grow to the film thickness, τ0 is a characteristic exchange time ≈ℏ /kBTg , and a0 is the average Mn-Mn separation. For t ≥tco , the magnetization dynamics are simple activated, with a single activation energy Δmax(L ) /kBTg=(1 /c2) [ln(L /a0) -lnc1] that does not change with time. Values for all these parameters are found for the three values of L explored in these measurements. We find experimentally Δmax(L ) /kB =907 , 1246, and 1650 K, respectively, for the three CuMn thin-film multilayer thicknesses, consistent with power-law dynamics. We perform a similar analysis based on the activated dynamics of the droplet model and find a much larger spread for Δmax(L ) than found experimentally.

  17. Electroanalysis of Mn(Ⅱ) to Mn(Ⅲ)on Pb-Sb-As electrode%Pb-Sb-As电极上Mn(Ⅱ)电解生成Mn(Ⅲ)的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李淑芹; 闫雷; 周定

    2002-01-01

    Pb-Sb-As合金为电极,进行电解Mn(Ⅱ)生成/Mn(Ⅲ)的研究.探讨了温度、电流密度、电解时间、阴阳极面积比等对电流效率的影响.结果表明,室温下电流密度45~60 mA/cm2,电解时间为45~60 min,阴阳面积比为1∶1.5时,Mn(Ⅱ)电解生成/Mn(Ⅲ)的电流效率可达85%以上.为进一步利用Mn(Ⅲ)/Mn(Ⅱ)循环媒质间接电合成芳香醛奠定了基础.

  18. Preparation-Properties Relation of Mn-Cu Hopcalite Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardita Mele

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The Mn-Cu hopcalite catalyst was used for the conversion of CO to CO2 at low temperatures. It was the catalyst of choice in the gas masks for respiratory protection in mines, aircrafts, military, spatial laboratories. Approach: The efficiency of hopcalite catalyst depends on its surface parameters. Its surface characteristics can be influenced from the chosen way of the MnO2 and CuO precipitation and from the pressure of pelletizing. Results: The hopcalite samples has been prepared by precipitation of MnO2 and by adding CuSO4 further in the solution the adsorption of Cu2+ ions on MnO2 particles surface is achieved. After acidification of the solution up to pH = 3 the copper is precipitated in form of Cu (OH2CuCO3 by adding NaHCO3. Precipitate was washed, dried, pressed, crushed, sieved (1-2 mm and calcined at 180°C for 3 h. MnO2 and hopcalite samples were characterized by XRD. The activity was evaluated by determination of its protection time and it was 610 min, better than activity of a commercial catalyst. Specific surface area, pore volume and density were measured by nitrogen adsorption and mercury intrusion porosimetry. The X-Ray diffractograms shows that the only crystallinity of hopcalite comes from MnO2, which is present mainly in amorphous form. By increasing the pressure in the pelletizing step, a significant decrease in the specific surface area (247.64-147.77 m2 g-1 and in the total pore volume (446-278 mm3 g-1 is observed in the hopcalite samples. Conclusion: The obtained hopcalite catalyst by the two step precipitation method shows high catalytic activity. The increasing pressure increases the strength and reduces the specific surface area and pore volume. A pressure of 500 kg cm-2 is recommended for the hopcalite production procedure.

  19. Synthesis of BiPbSrCaCuO superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hults, William L.; Kubat-Martin, Kimberly A.; Salazar, Kenneth V.; Phillips, David S.; Peterson, Dean E.

    1994-01-01

    A process and a precursor composition for preparing a lead-doped bismuth-strontium-calcium-copper oxide superconductor of the formula Bi.sub.a Pb.sub.b Sr.sub.c Ca.sub.d Cu.sub.e O.sub.f wherein a is from about 1.7 to about 1.9, b is from about 0.3 to about 0.45, c is from about 1.6 to about 2.2, d is from about 1.6 to about 2.2, e is from about 2.97 to about 3.2 and f is 10.+-.z by reacting a mixture of Bi.sub.4 Sr.sub.3 Ca.sub.3 Cu.sub.4 O.sub.16.+-.z, an alkaline earth metal cuprate, e.g., Sr.sub.9 Ca.sub.5 Cu.sub.24 O.sub.41, and an alkaline earth metal plumbate, e.g., Ca.sub.2-x Sr.sub.x PbO.sub.4 wherein x is about 0.5, is disclosed.

  20. Stabilization of Pb and Cu in contaminated soils using (nano)oxides - a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komárek, Michael; Michálková, Zuzana; Vaněk, Aleš

    2013-04-01

    Chemical stabilization techniques (the application of various stabilizing amendments, which by chemical means reduces contaminant mobility, bioavailability and bioaccessibility) have shown to be possible less destructive alternatives to conventional remediation options. Most stabilization techniques aim at rendering less available the metal(loid) fractions that can pose significant environmental and/or toxicological risks and protecting the functionality of the soil environment. Nano-particulate oxides (particle size of 1-100 nm) are important scavengers of contaminants in soils and due to their reactive and relatively large specific surface area, engineered oxide nanoparticles are promising materials for the remediation of soils contaminated with inorganic pollutants. However, studies assessing the efficiency of these amendments in contaminated soils are still rather scarce. Therefore, the aim of this work is to evaluate the stabilization efficiency of four (nano)oxides (maghemite, magnetite, gibbsite and amorphous Mn oxide (AMO)) in two soils contaminated with Cu (400 mg/kg; pH 3.6) and Pb (1500 mg/kg; pH 5.5), respectively, using chemical extraction methods (CaCl2, EDTA and the BCR sequential extraction) and direct sampling of soil solution using rhizons. The results suggest that the application of the oxides did not influence the pH of the soils, with the only exception of the AMO, which increased the pH and resulted into the formation of MnCO3 on the oxide surface (data from SEM and XRD). Additionally, the high reactivity of the oxides led to increased DOC concentrations originating from the dissolved soil organic matter, especially in the case of the AMO. The AMO was also the most efficient stabilizing amendment for Cu (most significant decrease in Cu in soil solution, in the exchangeable fraction and CaCl2/EDTA extracts), promoted by the pH increase. Despite their lower particle size, maghemite, magnetite and gibbsite were less efficient; although partial

  1. Giant orthorhombic distortions by Cu+ in ferrimagnetic spinel Mn334

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jae-Ho; Lee, Kee Hwan; Chang, Hun; Hwang, In Yong; Kang, Hyun Wook; Kim, Su Jae; Lee, Seongsu

    2015-03-01

    Mn3O4 is a tetragonal (c > a) spinel that exhibits noncollinear Yafet-Kittel ferrimagnetic ordering at low temperatures. We report large orthorhombic distortions in its ferrimagnetic phase stabilized by a few percent of Cu doping. The orthorhombic strains of the ferrimagnetic phases increased linearly to the doping and reached up to ɛ ~ 8 . 2 ×10-3 for x = 0.19, which is three times larger than the saturated value under external magnetic fields. For high doping (xagt 0 . 17), the distortions first appeared in the paramagnetic phases and underwent further enhancement simultaneously with the onset of the noncollinear ferrimagnetic ordering. We present the rich magnetostructural phase diagram of CuxMn3-xO4, and argue that the diluted t2 orbital degeneracy of Cu2+ under tetrahedral crystal field breaks the global symmetry and triggers the orthorhombic instability inherent in Mn3O4. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea through the ARCNEX (NRF-2011-0031933).

  2. Elastocaloric effect in CuAlZn and CuAlMn shape memory alloys under compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Suxin; Geng, Yunlong; Wang, Yi; Pillsbury, Thomas E; Hada, Yoshiharu; Yamaguchi, Yuki; Fujimoto, Kenjiro; Hwang, Yunho; Radermacher, Reinhard; Cui, Jun; Yuki, Yoji; Toyotake, Koutaro; Takeuchi, Ichiro

    2016-08-13

    This paper reports the elastocaloric effect of two Cu-based shape memory alloys: Cu68Al16Zn16 (CuAlZn) and Cu73Al15Mn12 (CuAlMn), under compression at ambient temperature. The compression tests were conducted at two different rates to approach isothermal and adiabatic conditions. Upon unloading at a strain rate of 0.1 s(-1) (adiabatic condition) from 4% strain, the highest adiabatic temperature changes (ΔTad) of 4.0 K for CuAlZn and 3.9 K for CuAlMn were obtained. The maximum stress and hysteresis at each strain were compared. The stress at the maximum recoverable strain of 4.0% for CuAlMn was 120 MPa, which is 70% smaller than that of CuAlZn. A smaller hysteresis for the CuAlMn alloy was also obtained, about 70% less compared with the CuAlZn alloy. The latent heat, determined by differential scanning calorimetry, was 4.3 J g(-1) for the CuAlZn alloy and 5.0 J g(-1) for the CuAlMn alloy. Potential coefficients of performance (COPmat) for these two alloys were calculated based on their physical properties of measured latent heat and hysteresis, and a COPmat of approximately 13.3 for CuAlMn was obtained.This article is part of the themed issue 'Taking the temperature of phase transitions in cool materials'.

  3. Effects of pre- and postnatal combined exposure to Pb and Mn on brain development in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra, S.V.; Murthy, R.C.; Saxena, D.K.; Lal, B.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of maternally administered lead (Pb 5.0 mg/kg) and/or manganese (Mn 6 mg/kg) on the brain growth and some biochemicals was investigated in 21 day old pups exposed during gestation and/or lactation. The pups continuously exposed to the mixture of Pb and Mn during pre- and postnatal life presented with significant alterations in the body, brain weights, contents of DNA, RNA, protein and accumulation of both the metals in the brain, the magnitude of these changes was greater in pups exposed to the mixture of Pb and Mn during gestation + lactation than observed in pups identically exposed during gestation only. Pups subjected to any regime of metal exposure during lactation were least affected as indicated by no changes in the brain growth and biochemical parameters. Accumulation of Pb in the brain increased several folds in the animals exposed to the mixture of Pb and Mn in comparison to that observed after exposure to Pb alone. These data suggest that exposure to the two metal ions during prenatal and early postnatal life is more injurious to the brain growth than the identical exposure during the lactation alone.

  4. Extremely High Phosphate Sorption Capacity in Cu-Pb-Zn Mine Tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Longbin; Li, Xiaofang; Nguyen, Tuan A H

    2015-01-01

    Elevated inorganic phosphate (Pi) concentrations in pore water of amended tailings under direct revegetation may cause toxicity in some native woody species but not native forbs or herb species, all of which are key constituents in target native plant communities for phytostabilizing base metal mine tailings. As a result, Pi sorption capacity has been quantified by a conventional batch procedure in three types of base metal mine tailings sampled from two copper (Cu)-lead (Pb)-zinc (Zn) mines, as the basis for Pi-fertiliser addition. It was found that the Pi-sorption capacity in the tailings and local soil was extremely high, far higher than highly weathered agricultural soils in literature, but similar to those of volcanic ash soils. The Langmuir P-sorption maximum was up to 7.72, 4.12, 4.02 and 3.62 mg P g-1 tailings, in the fresh tailings of mixed Cu-Pb-Zn streams (MIMTD7), the weathered tailings of mixed Cu-Pb-Zn streams (MIMTD5), EHM-TD (fresh Cu-stream, high magnetite content) and local soil (weathered shale and schist), respectively. Physicochemical factors highly correlated with the high Pi-sorption in the tailings were fine particle distribution, oxalate and dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate extractable Fe (FeO and Fed), oxalate-extractable Al and Mn, and the levels of soluble Cd and Zn, and total S and Fe. Large amounts of amorphous Fe oxides and oxyhydroxides may have been formed from the oxidation of pyritic materials and redox cycles of Fe-minerals (such as pyrite (FeS2), ankerite (Ca(Fe Mg)(CO3)2 and siderite (FeCO3), as indicated by the extractable FeO values. The likely formation of sparingly soluble Zn-phosphate in the Pb-Zn tailings containing high levels of Zn (from sphalerite ((Zn,Fe)S, ZnS, (Zn,Cd)S)) may substantially lower soluble Zn levels in the tailings through high rates of Pi-fertiliser addition. As a result, the possibility of P-toxicity in native plant species caused by the addition of soluble phosphate fertilizers would be minimal.

  5. Induced effects of Cu underlayer on (111) orientation of Fe50 Mn50 thin films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lei; WANG Feng-ping; LIU Huan-ping; WU Ping; QIU Hong; PAN Li-qing

    2005-01-01

    Effects of Cu underlayer on the structure of Fe50 Mn50 films were studied. Samples with a structure of Fe50 Mn50 (200 nm)/Cu(tCu) were prepared by magnetron sputtering on thermally oxidized silicon substrates at room temperature. The thickness of Cu underlayer varied from 0 to 60 nm in the intervals of 10 nm. High-vacuum annealing treatments, at different temperatures of 200, 300 and 400 ℃ for 1 h, respectively, on the Fe50 Mn50 (200 nm)/Cu(20 nm) thin films were performed. The surface morphologies and textures of the samples were measured by field emission scan electronic microscope (FE-SEM) and X-ray diffraction(XRD). Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and Auger electron spectroscopy(AES) were used to analyze the compositional distribution. It is found that Cu underlayer has an obvious induce effect on (111) orientation of Fe50 Mn50 thin films. The induce effects of Cu on (111) orientation of Fe50 Mn50 changed with the increase of Cu layer thickness and the best effect was obtained at the Cu layer thickness of 20 nm. High-vacuum annealing treatments cause the migration of Mn atoms towards surface of the film and interface between Cu layer and substrate. With the increasing annealing temperature, migration of Mn atoms is more obvious, which leads to a Fe-riched Fe-Mn alloy film.

  6. Lead (Pb) and copper (Cu) share a common uptake transporter in the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Marín, Paula; Fortin, Claude; Campbell, Peter G C

    2014-02-01

    The unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has a very high rate of lead (Pb) internalization and is known to be highly sensitive to dissolved Pb. However, the transport pathway that this metal uses to cross cellular membranes in microalgae is still unknown. To identify the Pb(2+) transport pathway in C. reinhartdii, we performed several competition experiments with environmentally relevant concentrations of Pb(2+) (~10 nM) and a variety of divalent cations. Among the essential trace metals tested, cobalt, manganese, nickel and zinc had no effect on Pb internalization. A greater than tenfold increase in the concentrations of the major ions calcium and magnesium led to a slight decrease (~34 %) in short-term Pb internalization by the algae. Copper (Cu) was even more effective: at a Cu concentration 50 times higher than that of Pb, Pb internalization by the algae decreased by 87 %. Pre-exposure of the algae to Cu showed that the effect was not due to a physiological effect of Cu on the algae, but rather to competition for the same transporter. A reciprocal effect of Pb on Cu internalization was also observed. These results suggest that Cu and Pb share a common transport pathway in C. reinhardtii at environmentally relevant metal concentrations.

  7. Pine bark as bio-adsorbent for Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutillas-Barreiro, L.; Ansias-Manso, L.; Fernandez Calviño, David;

    2014-01-01

    % for Pb2+, 83-84% for Cu2+, 78-84% for Cd2+, 77-83% for Zn2+, and 70-75% for Ni2+, and it was faster for low concentrations, with Pb suffering the highest retention, followed by Cu, Cd, Ni and Zn. The fitting to the Freundlich and Langmuir models was satisfactory. Desorption increased in parallel...

  8. Superconducting spin-valve effect and triplet superconductivity in Co Ox/Fe1/Cu /Fe2/Cu /Pb multilayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leksin, P. V.; Garif'yanov, N. N.; Kamashev, A. A.; Fominov, Ya. V.; Schumann, J.; Hess, C.; Kataev, V.; Büchner, B.; Garifullin, I. A.

    2015-06-01

    We report magnetic and superconducting properties of the modified spin-valve system CoOx/Fe1/Cu /Fe2/Cu /Pb . Introduction of a Cu interlayer between Fe2 and Pb layers prevents material interdiffusion process, increases the Fe2/Pb interface transparency, stabilizes and enhances properties of the system. This allowed us to perform a comprehensive study of such heterostructures and to present theoretical description of the superconducting spin-valve effect and of the manifestation of the long-range triplet component of the superconducting condensate.

  9. Structure-activity relationship of CuO/MnO2 catalysts in CO oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Kun; Qian, Zhaoxia; Hua, Qing; Jiang, Zhiquan; Huang, Weixin

    2013-05-01

    A series of CuO/MnO2 catalysts with different CuO loadings were synthesized by the incipient wetness impregnation method. The catalysts were characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, H2-temperature programmed reduction, CO-temperature programmed reduction and scanning electron microscope. The CuO/MnO2 catalysts with CuO loading of 1-40% exhibit almost the same catalytic performance toward CO oxidation while those with higher CuO loadings exhibit a much poorer catalytic activity. The structural characterization results demonstrate that the CuO-MnO2 interface is the active site for CO oxidation in CuO/MnO2 catalysts and CO oxidation over CuO/MnO2 probably follows the interfacial reaction mechanism in which CO chemisorbed on CuO reacts with oxygen species on MnO2 at the CuO-MnO2 interface.

  10. Crednerite-CuMnO{sub 2} thin films prepared using atmospheric pressure plasma annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hong-Ying, E-mail: hychen@cc.kuas.edu.tw [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences, 415 Chiken Kuang Road, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, Yu-Chang [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences, 415 Chiken Kuang Road, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lee, Jiann-Shing [Department of Applied Physics, National Pingtung University, 4-18 Minsheng Road, Pingtung City 900, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2015-05-30

    Highlights: • Crednerite-CuMnO{sub 2} thin films were formed at atmospheric pressure plasma with N{sub 2}–(5–10)%O{sub 2}. • The binding energy of Cu-2p spectrum of the crednerite-CuMnO{sub 2} thin films was 932.3 eV (Cu{sup +}). • The binding energies of Mn-3p spectrum were 48.1 ± 0.2 eV (Mn{sup 3+}) and 50.0 ± 0.2 eV (Mn{sup 4+}). • The cation distribution in the crednerite-CuMnO{sub 2} thin films was Cu{sub 1.0}{sup +}(Mn{sub 0.6}{sup 3+}Mn{sub 0.4}{sup 4+})O{sub 2}. • The electrical conductivity of CuMnO{sub 2} thin films was (2.61–2.65) × 10{sup 4} Ω cm. - Abstract: This study reports the preparation of crednerite-CuMnO{sub 2} thin films using atmospheric pressure plasma annealing. The pristine thin films were deposited onto a quartz substrate using the sol–gel process. The specimens were then annealed using atmospheric pressure plasma at N{sub 2}–(0–20%)O{sub 2} for 20 min. Crednerite-CuMnO{sub 2} thin films were obtained using atmospheric pressure plasma annealing at N{sub 2}–5%O{sub 2} and N{sub 2}–10%O{sub 2}. The lattice parameters of the thin films were a = 0.5574–0.5580 nm, b = 0.2874–0.2879 nm, c = 0.5878–0.5881 nm, and β = 104.15–104.25°, which agree well with previous reports. The Raman shifts of the crednerite-CuMnO{sub 2} thin films were 688 ± 2 cm{sup −1}, 381 ± 2 cm{sup −1}, and 314 ± 2 cm{sup −1}. The binding energy of Cu-2p spectrum of the crednerite-CuMnO{sub 2} thin films was 932.3 ± 0.2 eV representing the Cu{sup +} in the thin films. The binding energies of Mn-3p spectrum were 48.1 ± 0.2 eV (Mn{sup 3+}) and 50.0 ± 0.2 eV (Mn{sup 4+}). Furthermore, the cation distribution in the thin films was Cu{sup +}{sub 1.0}(Mn{sup 3+}{sub 0.6}Mn{sup 4+}{sub 0.4})O{sub 2} from the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurement. When the crednerite-CuMnO{sub 2} phase was formed, the surface morphology exhibited a compact/dense granular morphology. The optical bandgap of the crednerite-CuMnO{sub 2} thin

  11. Concentrative phenomenon of relative content ratios of Cu, Pb and Zn in soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    It is discovered that there is the concentrative phenomenon of relative content ratios of Cu, Pb and Zn in soil by studying their parageneous association in soil, meterites and rocks with the relative content ratios. This not only is helpful to understand the trends of Cu, Cd and Zn enriched and dispersed in the evolution course of earth matter, but also provide evidence for geochemical self-organization that there may be in the process of Cu, Pb and Zn translation and distribution.

  12. Dispersion, speciation and adsorption treatment of heavy metals in the vicinity of the Shi-Heung Cu-Pb-Zn mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Ho Song; Chon, Hyo Taek [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-10-01

    In order to investigate the dispersion patterns and speciation of Cu, Pb, Zn and Cd in soils, stream sediments and stream waters, geochemical studies of soil, stream sediment and stream water samples collected in the vicinity of the Shi-Heung Cu-Pb-Zn mine was carried out. Cation exchange capacity measurement, size analysis, X-ray diffraction analysis and batch test were performed to select applicable soil for adsorption treatment. The average content of Cu, Pb, Zn and Cd in soils collected from tailings and ore dressing plant is 1084 ppm, 2292 ppm, 3512 ppm and, 29.2 ppm, respectively, and therefore, tailings and ore dressing plant site may be the major contamination sources in this study area. The mean content of Cu, Pb, Zn and Cd in stream sediments is extremely high up to 794 ppm, 1633 ppm, 2946 ppm and 25.2 ppm, respectively. Tailing particles and heavy metal ions are dispersed along the tributary system. Results from the sequential extraction analysis indicate; (1) most of Cu is bound to organic matters and sulphides, (2) fraction of Pb is mainly bound to Fe and Mn oxides. Most of Zn is largely bound to Fe and Mn oxides and residual fraction. Ion exchangeable fraction of Cd is relatively higher than those of Cu, Pb and Zn. Batch test on soils collected from the kaolinite and/or pyrophyllite mines and from the control areas was carried out to select an applicable soil samples for adsorption treatment. The sample, S10, collected from the control area 2 (clay content 33.2%) shows the highest K{sub d} (distribution coefficient). Organic content in soils and several clay minerals shows relatively good correlation with K{sub d}. It means that applicable soils for adsorption treatment of heavy metals show high organic and clay content. (author). 37 refs., 9 tabs., 6 figs.

  13. Relationship between color and composition of Cu-Mn-Zn alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉平; 张津徐; 吴建生

    2002-01-01

    The color of Cu-Mn-Zn alloys is quantitatively researched using the CIE L*a*b* color system. The color parameters such as L*, a* and b* are employed to describe the color and are measured by a spectrophotometer. Based on the color data of 46 experimental alloys, a series of formulae are established to correlate color parameters changed with the alloy composition. Therefore, the color of the ternary Cu-Mn-Zn alloys can be calculated and forecast easily. The results show that Mn plays a more important role in the color of Cu-Mn-Zn alloys than Zn does. In particular, the chroma values of ternary Cu-Mn-Zn alloys mainly depend on the Mn content.

  14. New perovskite-based manganite Pb 2Mn 2O 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadermann, Joke; Abakumov, Artem M.; Perkisas, Tyché; D'Hondt, Hans; Tan, Haiyan; Verbeeck, Johan; Filonenko, Vladimir P.; Antipov, Evgeny V.; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf

    2010-09-01

    A new perovskite based compound Pb 2Mn 2O 5 has been synthesized using a high pressure high temperature technique. The structure model of Pb 2Mn 2O 5 is proposed based on electron diffraction, high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The compound crystallizes in an orthorhombic unit cell with parameters a=5.736(1) Å≈√2 ap, b=3.800(1) Å≈ ap, c=21.562(6) Å≈4√2 ap ( ap—the parameter of the perovskite subcell) and space group Pnma. The Pb 2Mn 2O 5 structure consists of quasi two-dimensional perovskite blocks separated by 1/2[110] p(1¯01) p crystallographic shear planes. The blocks are connected to each other by chains of edge-sharing MnO 5 distorted tetragonal pyramids. The chains of MnO 5 pyramids and the MnO 6 octahedra of the perovskite blocks delimit six-sided tunnels accommodating double chains of Pb atoms. The tunnels and pyramidal chains adopt two mirror-related configurations ("left" L and "right" R) and layers consisting of chains and tunnels of the same configuration alternate in the structure according to an -L-R-L-R-sequence. The sequence is sometimes locally violated by the appearance of -L-L- or -R-R-fragments. A scheme is proposed with a Jahn-Teller distortion of the MnO 6 octahedra with two long and two short bonds lying in the a- c plane, along two perpendicular orientations within this plane, forming a d-type pattern.

  15. Remediation of a historically Pb contaminated soil using a model natural Mn oxide waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Clare M; Gray, Neil D; Tourney, Janette; Davenport, Russell J; Wade, Matthew; Finlay, Nina; Hudson-Edwards, Karen A; Johnson, Karen L

    2015-11-01

    A natural Mn oxide (NMO) waste was assessed as an in situ remediation amendment for Pb contaminated sites. The viability of this was investigated using a 10 month lysimeter trial, wherein a historically Pb contaminated soil was amended with a 10% by weight model NMO. The model NMO was found to have a large Pb adsorption capacity (qmax 346±14 mg g(-1)). However, due to the heterogeneous nature of the Pb contamination in the soils (3650.54-9299.79 mg kg(-1)), no treatment related difference in Pb via geochemistry could be detected. To overcome difficulties in traditional geochemical techniques due to pollutant heterogeneity we present a new method for unequivocally proving metal sorption to in situ remediation amendments. The method combines two spectroscopic techniques; namely electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Using this we showed Pb immobilisation on NMO, which were Pb free prior to their addition to the soils. Amendment of the soil with exogenous Mn oxide had no effect on microbial functioning, nor did it perturb the composition of the dominant phyla. We conclude that NMOs show excellent potential as remediation amendments. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. [Remediation of Cu-Pb-contaminated loess soil by leaching with chelating agent and biosurfactant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xia; Wang, Jian-Tao; Zhang, Meng; Wang, Li; Yang, Ya-Ti

    2013-04-01

    Because of its strong chelation, solubilization characteristics, the chelating agents and biosurfactant are widely used in remediation of heavy metals and organic contaminated soils. Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), citric acid (CIT) and dirhamnolipid (RL2) were selected as the eluent. Batch experiments and column experiments were conducted to investigate the leaching effect of the three kinds of eluent, as well as the mixture of biosurfactant and chelating agent for Cu, Pb contaminated loess soil. The results showed that the leaching efficiencies of different eluent on Cu, Pb contaminated loess soil followed the sequence of EDTA > CIT > RL2. At an eluent concentration of 0.02 mol x L(-1), the Cu leaching efficiency was 62.74% (EDTA), 52.28% (CIT) and 15.35% (RL2), respectively; the Pb leaching efficiency was 96.10% (EDTA), 23.08% (CIT) and 14.42% (RL2), respectively. When the concentration of RL2 was 100 CMC, it had synergistic effects on the other two kinds of chelating agent in Cu leaching, and when the concentration of RL2 was 200 CMC, it had antagonism effects. The effect of RL2 on EDTA in Pb leaching was similar to that in Cu leaching. Pb leaching by CIT was inhibited in the presence of RL2. EDTA and CIT could effectively remove Cu and Pb in exchangeable states, adsorption states, carbonate salts and organic bound forms; RL2 could effectively remove Cu and Pb in exchangeable and adsorbed states.

  17. Stabilization of As-, Pb-, and Cu-contaminated soil using calcined oyster shells and steel slag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Deok Hyun; Wazne, Mahmoud; Cheong, Kyung Hoon; Chang, Yoon-Young; Baek, Kitae; Ok, Yong Sik; Park, Jeong-Hun

    2015-07-01

    In this study, As-, Pb-, and Cu-contaminated soil was stabilized using calcined oyster shells (COS) and steel slag (SS). The As-contaminated soil was obtained from a timber mill site where chromate copper arsenate (CCA) was used as a preservative. On the other hand, Pb- and Cu-contaminated soil was obtained from a firing range. These two soils were thoroughly mixed to represent As-, Pb-, and Cu-contaminated soil. Calcined oyster shells were obtained by treating waste oyster shells at a high temperature using the calcination process. The effectiveness of stabilization was evaluated by 1-N HCl extraction for As and 0.1-N HCl extraction for Pb and Cu. The treatment results showed that As, Pb, and Cu leachability were significantly reduced upon the combination treatment of COS and SS. The sole treatment of SS (10 wt%) did not show effective stabilization. However, the combination treatment of COS and SS showed a significant reduction in As, Pb, and Cu leachability. The best stabilization results were obtained from the combination treatment of 15 wt% COS and 10 wt% SS. The SEM-EDX results suggested that the effective stabilization of As was most probably achieved by the formation of Ca-As and Fe-As precipitates. In the case of Pb and Cu, stabilization was most probably associated with the formation of pozzolanic reaction products such as CSHs and CAHs.

  18. Structure and magnetic properties of Mn-doped CuO solids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Chong-fei; PAN Li-qing; ZHU Hao; QIU Hong-mei; WANG Feng-ping; WU Ping; QIU Hong; ZHANG Yue; J. Q. XIAO

    2005-01-01

    The CuO doped with 5%-20% Mn(molar fraction) solids were sintered from CuO and MnO2 powder at high temperature (1 273 K) for 8 h. X-ray diffraction was used to determine the solid crystallinity and to address the formation of secondary phases. It is found that it is difficult to achieve pure Cu1-xMnxO phase using standard solid phase reaction. However, sintering under a pressure of 27.7 MPa significantly reduces the undesirable second phase CuMn2O4, providing a route to achieve pure Cu1-xMnx O phase. SQUID magnetometry was employed to characterize the magnetic properties. Mn-doped CuO presents ferromagnetic characteristics below 70 K. Electrical transport properties were measured in a current-perpendicular-to-plane(CPP) geometry using the PPMS, which suggests variable-range hopping mechanism.

  19. Quenching effects in Cu-Al-Mn shape memory alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obrado, E.; Manosa, L.; Planes, A. [Barcelona Univ. (Spain). Dept. d' Estructura i Constituents de la Materia; Romero, R.; Somoza, A. [IFIMAT, Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Pinto 399, 7000 Tandil, and Comision de Investigaciones Cientificas de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1999-12-15

    In this paper the effect of quenching from different temperatures (T{sub q}) in a Cu-Al-Mn alloy is studied. This alloy system, which displays an L2{sub 1} ordered structure, transforms martensitically at an intermediate temperature T{sub M}, and undergoes a spin freezing process at a lower temperature T{sub f}. Positron annihilation measurements have shown that after the quench, an excess of vacancies is retained in the system, depending on T{sub q}. In addition, both T{sub M} and T{sub f} have been found to be sensitive to T{sub q}. This has been attributed to frozen-in disorder induced by the quench. Experimental results have been interpreted in terms of the growth of magnetic clusters, quenched-in vacancies and atomic disorder. (orig.)

  20. Thermodynamic stability of austenitic Ni-Mn-Cu cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Janus

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The performed research was aimed at determining thermodynamic stability of structures of Ni-Mn-Cu cast iron castings. Examined were 35 alloys. The castings were tempered at 900 °C for 2 hours. Two cooling speeds were used: furnace-cooling and water-cooling. In the alloys with the nickel equivalent value less than 20,0 %, partial transition of austenite to martensite took place. The austenite decomposition ratio and the related growth of hardness was higher for smaller nickel equivalent value and was clearly larger in annealed castings than in hardened ones. Obtaining thermodynamically stable structure of castings requires larger than 20,0 % value of the nickel equivalent.

  1. One-pot synthesis of an Mn(III)-Cu(II)-Mn(III) trinuclear heterometallic compound formed by Mn$\\cdots$S-Cu-S$\\cdots$Mn supramolecular interactions: Crystal structure of [{MnIII(salph)(H2O)}2{CuII(mnt)2}]$\\cdot$4DMF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vedichi Madhu; Samar K Das

    2006-11-01

    A one-pot synthesis, that includes CuCl2$\\cdot$2H2O, Na2mnt, H2salph and Mn(CH3COO)3$\\cdot$H2O, leads to the isolation of a trinuclear heterometallic compound [{MnIII(salph)(H2O)}2{CuII(mnt)2}]$\\cdot$4DMF (1) formed by Mn$\\cdots$S-Cu-S$\\cdots$Mn supramolecular interactions. Compound 1 crystallizes in the monoclinic space group 21/ with = 13.433(4), = 16.283(5), = 15.072(4) Å, = 107.785(4)°, = 2. In the crystal structure, the complex anion [CuII(mnt)2]2- bridges two [MnIII(salph)(H2O)]1+ cations through Mn$\\cdots$S contacts. The non-covalent hydrogen bonding and - interactions among the trinuclear [{MnIII(salph)(H2O)}2{CuII(mnt)2}] complexes lead to an extended chain-like arrangement of [MnIII(salph) (H2O)]1+ cations with [CuII(mnt)2]2- anions embedded in between these chains.

  2. Microstructure-Wear Resistance Correlation and Wear Mechanisms of Spark Plasma Sintered Cu-Pb Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Amit Siddharth; Biswas, Krishanu; Basu, Bikramjit

    2014-01-01

    The dispersion of a softer phase in a metallic matrix reduces the coefficient of friction (COF), often at the expense of an increased wear rate at the tribological contact. To address this issue, unlubricated fretting wear tests were performed on spark plasma sintered Cu-Pb nanocomposites against bearing steel. The sintering temperature and the Pb content as well as the fretting parameters were judiciously selected and varied to investigate the role of microstructure (grain size, second-phase content) on the wear resistance properties of Cu-Pb nanocomposites. A combination of the lowest wear rate (~1.5 × 10-6 mm3/Nm) and a modest COF (~0.4) was achieved for Cu-15 wt pct Pb nanocomposites. The lower wear rate of Cu-Pb nanocomposites with respect to unreinforced Cu is attributed to high hardness (~2 to 3.5 GPa) of the matrix, Cu2O/Fe2O3-rich oxide layer formation at tribological interface, and exuding of softer Pb particles. The wear properties are discussed in reference to the characteristics of transfer layer on worn surface as well as subsurface damage probed using focused ion beam microscopy. Interestingly, the flash temperature has been found to have insignificant effect on the observed oxidative wear, and alternative mechanisms are proposed. Importantly, the wear resistance properties of the nanocomposites reveal a weak Hall-Petch-like relationship with grain size of nanocrystalline Cu.

  3. Divalent Cu, Cd, and Pb Biosorption in Mixed Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Al-Qunaibit

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Dead dried Chlorella vulgaris was studied in terms of its performance in binding divalent copper, cadmium, and lead ions from their aqueous or 50% v/v methanol, ethanol, and acetone solutions. The percentage uptake of cadmium ions exhibited a general decrease with decrease in dielectric constant values, while that of copper and lead ions showed a general decrease with increase in donor numbers. Uptake percentage becomes less sensitive to solvent properties the larger the atomic radius of the biosorbed ion, and uptake of copper was the most affected. FT-IR analyses revealed stability of the biomass in mixed solvents and a shift in vibrations of amide(I and (II, carboxylate, glucose ring, and metal oxygen upon metal binding in all media. ΔνCOO values (59–69 cm−1 confirmed bidentate metal coordination to carboxylate ligands. The value of νasCOO increased slightly upon Cu, Cd, and Pb biosorption from aqueous solutions indicating lowering of symmetry, while a general decrease was noticed in mixed solvents pointing to the opposite. M–O stretching frequencies increased unexpectedly with increase in atomic mass as a result of solvent effect on the nature of binding sites. Lowering polarity of the solvent permits variations in metal-alga bonds strengths; the smaller the metal ion, the more affected.

  4. Analysis of Cu and Pb in the sediments of Kakum River, its estuary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR GATSING

    This paper discusses the levels of some heavy metals (Cu and Pb) in the soil sediments of the Kakum. River, its estuary and ... Keywords: River Kakum, soil sediment, Copper and Lead. ..... and active tailings pile in the State of. Mexico.

  5. Speciation and behaviour of Cd, Pb and Cu in Zuari Estuary, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    George

    Dissolved labile and nonlabile forms of Cd, Pb and Cu in Zuari Estuary, Goa, India measured for a period of 14 months showed lowest concentrations during the SW monsoon (June-September) while maximum concentrations were observed during...

  6. Biosorption of Cu2+ and Pb2+ using sophora alopecuroides residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, N.; Fan, W.; Zhu, M.; Zhang, Y.

    2016-08-01

    Sophora alopecuroides residue (SAP), a kind of traditional Chinese herbal medicine residue, was developed in an alternative biosorbent for the removal Cu2+ and Pb2+ in simulated wastewater. The morphology and surface texture of SAP were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, which showed a loose and porous structure. The biosorption experiments of Cu2+ and Pb2+ onto SAP were investigated by using batch techniques. High biosorption percentage appeared at pH values of 4.5-6.0. The experimental data followed the second-order kinetic model well. Equilibrium fit with the Langmuir isotherm model well. The maximum biosorption capacity of an adsorbent at 25 °C was respectively 60.6 mg/g Cu2+ and 128.1 mg/g Pb2+. The findings of the present study show that SAP is an attractive and effective biosorbent for Cu2+ and Pb2+.

  7. Predictive GIS Model for Potential Mapping of Cu, Pb, Zn Mineralization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tarik. B. Benomar; BIAN Fuling

    2006-01-01

    The geologic features indicative of Cu, Pb, Zn mineral deposits in a area are fractures (structure), and host rock sediments. Datasets used include Cu, Pb, Zn deposit points record, geological data, remote sensing imagery (Landsat TM5). The mineral potential of the study area is assessed by means of GIS based geodata integration techniques for generating predictive maps. GIS predictive model for Cu, Pb, Zn potential was carried out in this study area (Weixi) using weight of evidence. The weights of evidence modeling techniques is the data driven method in which the spatial associations of the indicative geologic features with the known mineral occurrences in the area are quantified, and weights statistically assigned to the geologic features. The best predictive map generated by this method defines 24% the area having potential for Cu, Pb, Zn mineralization further exploration work.

  8. (Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb) content in two fish species of Persian Gulf in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-13

    Sep 13, 2010 ... Heavy metal (HMs) pollution of aquatic environment has become a great concern in recent years. ... study, cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni) and lead (Pb) levels ... toxic effects on organs (Macfarlane and Burchettt 2000).

  9. Sorption selectivity of birnessite particle edges: a d-PDF analysis of Cd(ii) and Pb(ii) sorption by δ-MnO2 and ferrihydrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Genuchten, Case M; Peña, Jasquelin

    2016-08-10

    Birnessite minerals (layer-type MnO2), which bear both internal (cation vacancies) and external (particle edges) metal sorption sites, are important sinks of contaminants in soils and sediments. Although the particle edges of birnessite minerals often dominate the total reactive surface area, especially in the case of nanoscale crystallites, the metal sorption reactivity of birnessite particle edges remains elusive. In this study, we investigated the sorption selectivity of birnessite particle edges by combining Cd(ii) and Pb(ii) adsorption isotherms at pH 5.5 with surface structural characterization by differential pair distribution function (d-PDF) analysis. We compared the sorption reactivity of δ-MnO2 to that of the nanomineral, 2-line ferrihydrite, which exhibits only external surface sites. Our results show that, whereas Cd(ii) and Pb(ii) both bind to birnessite layer vacancies, only Pb(ii) binds extensively to birnessite particle edges. For ferrihydrite, significant Pb(ii) adsorption to external sites was observed (roughly 20 mol%), whereas Cd(ii) sorption was negligible. These results are supported by bond valence calculations that show comparable degrees of saturation of oxygen atoms on birnessite and ferrihydrite particle edges. Therefore, we propose that the sorption selectivity of birnessite edges follows the same order of that reported previously for ferrihydrite: Ca(ii) < Cd(ii) < Ni(ii) < Zn(ii) < Cu(ii) < Pb(ii).

  10. Spectral analysis of Cu2+ and Mn2+ ions doped borofluorophosphate glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Sudhakar Reddy; S Buddhudu

    2007-10-01

    We report here on the development and spectral analysis of Cu2+ (0.5 mol%) and Mn2+ (0.5 mol%) ions doped in two new series of glasses. The visible absorption spectra of Cu2+ and Mn2+ glasses have shown broad absorption bands at 820 nm and 495 nm, respectively. For Cu2+ BFP glasses, excitation at 380 nm, a blue emission at 441 nm and also a weak emission at 418 nm ions have been observed. For Mn2+ ions doped BFP glasses, excitation at 410 nm and a red shift at 605 nm emission have been observed.

  11. Phase Transformations and Microstructural Evolution in Aged Mn-Cu-Based Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    Sakhno, V. M. and Udovenko, V. A., "Fine Crystal Structure of MnCuGe Alloys", Physical Metalurgy and Metallography, Vol. 51, No. 4, pp. 93-97, 1981. 36...93 vi I. INTRODUCTION The physical metallurgy of alloys based on the Cu-Mn system has been a subject of research for more than 40 years [Ref. 1-4...separation within it [Ref. 24-30]. The most thorough and revealing body of research on the metal physics of Cu-Mn-based alloys has been reported in the

  12. Pengaruh Medium Tercemar Logam Pb dan Cu terhadap Pertumbuhan Nannochloropsis Salina

    OpenAIRE

    Abd.Wahid Wahab; Yusafir Hala; Fibiyanthy

    2013-01-01

    Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan tujuan memanfaatkan fitoplankton Nannochloropsis salina sebagai biosorben untuk ion logam Pb dan Cu di perairan. Pada penelitian ini pemaparan ion logam Pb dan Cu dengan variasi konsentrasi masing-masing 10, 30, dan 50 ppm dilakukan di awal masa pertumbuhan fitoplankton N. salina dalam Medium Conwy pada salinitas 30 ???, aerasi dan pencahayaan kontinyu, serta suhu ruangan 20 ??C. Konsentrasi ion logam ditentukan dengan menggunakan spektrofotometer serapan atom ...

  13. Aging Characteristics of Sn-Ag Eutectic Solder Alloy with the Addition of Cu, In, and Mn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, M.; Kar, Abhijit; Das, S. K.; Ray, A. K.

    2009-10-01

    In the present investigation, three types of solder alloy, i.e., Sn-Ag-Cu, Sn-Ag-In, and Sn-Ag-Cu-Mn, have been prepared and joined with Cu substrate. In the reflowed condition, the joint interface is decorated with Cu6Sn5 intermetallic in all cases. During aging at 100 °C for 50 to 200 hours, Cu3Sn formation took place in the diffusion zone of the Sn-Ag-Cu and Sn-Ag-In vs Cu assembly, which was not observed for the Sn-Ag-Cu-Mn vs Cu joint. Aging also leads to enhancement in the width of reaction layers; however, the growth is sluggish (~134 KJ/mol) for the Sn-Ag-Cu-Mn vs Cu transition joint. In the reflowed condition, the highest shear strength is obtained for the Sn-Ag-Cu-Mn vs Cu joint. Increment in aging time results in decrement in shear strength of the assemblies; yet small reduction is observed for the Sn-Ag-Cu-Mn vs Cu joint. The presence of Mn in the solder alloy is responsible for the difference in microstructure of the Sn-Ag-Cu-Mn solder alloy vs Cu assembly in the reflowed condition, which in turn influences the microstructure of the same after aging with respect to others.

  14. Genesis of the Bangbule Pb-Zn-Cu polymetallic deposit in Tibet, western China: Evidence from zircon U-Pb geochronology and S-Pb isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Tian; Zheng, Youye; Gao, Shunbao

    2016-04-01

    The Banbule Pb-Zn-Cu skarn deposit is located in the Longger-Gongbujiangda volcanic magma arc in the Gangdese-Nyainqentanglha Plate. It is the only lead-zinc polymetallic deposit discovered in the westernmost Nyainqentanglha metallogenic belt. The measured and indicated resources include 0.9 Mt of Pb+Zn (4.77% Pb and 4.74% Zn, respectively), 6499 t of Cu, and 178 t of Ag (18.75g/t Ag). The orebodies mainly occur as lenses, veins and irregular shapes in the contact zone between the quartz-porphyry and limestone of the Upper Permian Xiala Formation, or in the boundaries between limestone and sandstone. Pb-Zn-Cu mineralization in the Banbule deposit is closely associated with skarns. The ore minerals are dominated by galena, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, bornite, and magnetite, with subordinate pyrite, malachite, and azurite. The gangue minerals are mainly garnet, actinolite, diopside, quartz, and calcite. The ore-related quartz-porphyry displays LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb age of 77.31±0.74 Ma. The δ34S values of sulfides define a narrow range of -0.8 to 4.7‰ indicating a magmatic source for the ore-forming materials. Lead isotopic systematics yield 206Pb/204Pb of 18.698 to 18.752, 207Pb/204Pb of 15.696 to 15.760, and 208Pb/204Pb of 39.097 to 39.320. The data points are constrained around the growth curves of upper crust and orogenic belt according to the tectonic discrimination diagrams. The calculated Δβ - Δγ values plot within the magmatic field according to the discrimination diagram of Zhu et al. (1995). The S-Pb isotopic data suggest that Bangbule is a typical skarn deposit, and the Pb-Zn-Cu mineralization is genetically related to the quartz-porphyry in the mining district. The discovery of the Bangbule deposit indicates that there is metallogenic potential in the westernmost Nyainqentanglha belt, which is of great importance for the exploration work in this area.

  15. Electronic, magnetic, elastic and thermodynamic properties of Cu{sub 2}MnGa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Sukriti [Department of Physics, Government Kamla Raja Girls Autonomous Post Graduate College, Gwalior 474001, Madhya Pradesh (India); Condensed Matter Theory Group, School of Studies in Physics, Jiwaji University, Gwalior 474 011, Madhya Pradesh (India); Gupta, Dinesh C., E-mail: sosfizix@gmail.com [Condensed Matter Theory Group, School of Studies in Physics, Jiwaji University, Gwalior 474 011, Madhya Pradesh (India)

    2016-08-01

    The full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method in the stable Fm-3m phase has been implemented to investigate the structural, elastic, magnetic and electronic properties of Cu{sub 2}MnGa. The optimized equilibrium lattice parameter in stable phase is found to be 5.9495 Å. By the spin resolved density of states calculations, we have shown that the exchange splitting due to Mn atom is the main reason of ferromagnetic behavior of Cu{sub 2}MnGa. The absence of energy gap in both the spin channels predicts that the material is metallic. The total and partial density of states, elastic constants, Shear, Bulk and Young’s moduli, Zener isotropy factor, Cauchy pressure, Pugh's ductility, Kleinman parameter and Poisson's ratio are reported for the first time for the alloy. Cauchy's pressure and Pugh's index of ductility label Cu{sub 2}MnGa as ductile. Cu{sub 2}MnGa is found to be ferromagnetic and anisotropic in nature. The quasi-harmonic approximations have been employed to study the pressure and temperature dependent thermodynamic properties of Cu{sub 2}MnGa. - Highlights: • It is the first attempt to predict a variety of crystal properties of Cu{sub 2}MnGa. • Cu{sub 2}MnGa shows magnetism and hence can prove to be important in modern technology. • Cu{sub 2}MnGa is ductile and hence can attract attention of scientists and technologists.

  16. Additional micromineral Mn and Cu in ration to rumen biofermentation activities of sheep in vitro method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Fathul

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Ruminants need micro mineral for both their own requirements and rumen microbe activities. The objective of this research was to study the effect of Mn, Cu, and its combination addition in ration on the activity of in vitro fermentation using sheep rumen liquid. This research was conducted at Laboratory of Ruminant Nutrition Faculty of Animal Science Bogor Agricultural Institute. The rations were R0 = basal ration; R1 = basal ration + 40 ppm Mn; R2 = basal ration + 10 ppm Cu; dan R3 = basal ration + 40 ppm Mn + 10 ppm Cu. The result indicated that addition of Mn, Cu, or Mn+Cu did not significantly influence (P>0.05 pH, NH3, bacteria and VFA; but they significantly increased (P<0.01 dry matter digestibility (DMD and organic matter digestibility (OMD. The average: pH was 4.78 ± 0.07 – 4.89 ± 0.06; NH3 was 6.77 ± 2.07 – 7.47±0,67 mM, and VFA was 93.19 ± 55.79 – 136.61±15.31 mM. R1 gave the highest value of DMD (57.63% and OMD (70.32%. The VFA related positively to NH3 (r = 0.86; with the equation Ý = -266.9 + 54.182 X and R2 = 0.74. It was concluded that additional of Mn, Cu, or Mn+Cu did not alter pH, NH3, and VFA. The additional of Mn altered DMD, but additional of Mn+Cu reduced DMD and OMD.

  17. Photovoltaic properties of Cu-doped CH3NH3PbI3 with perovskite structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirahata, Yasuhiro; Oku, Takeo

    2017-01-01

    Photovoltaic properties of copper (Cu)-doped perovskite (CH3NH3PbCuxI3+x) photovoltaic devices with different Cu content were investigated. The CH3NH3PbCuxI3+x films were polycrystalline with a tetragonal system, and their lattice constants and crystallite size varied with Cu doping. Compared to conversion efficiencies of non-doped CH3NH3PbI3 photovoltaic device, those of CH3NH3PbCuxI3+x photovoltaic devises increased. The improvement of photovoltaic properties was attributed to partial substitution of Cu at the Pb sites.

  18. Engineering of electronic and optical properties of PbS thin films via Cu doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touati, Baligh; Gassoumi, Abdelaziz; Dobryden, Illia; Natile, Marta Maria; Vomiero, Alberto; Turki, Najoua Kamoun

    2016-09-01

    Copper-doped PbS polycrystalline thin films were deposited by chemical bath deposition by adding small amount of Cu (ysolution = [Cu2+]/[Pb2+]) between 0.5 and 2 at%. The composition, structure, morphology, optical and electrical properties of the films were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), UV-visible-near infrared (UV-Vis-NIR) spectrophotometry and Hall effect measurements. The XRD studies showed that the undoped films have PbS face centered cubic structure with (111) preferential orientation, while preferential orientation changes to (200) plane with increasing Cu doping concentration. The AFM and SEM measurements indicated that the film surfaces consisted of nanosized grains with pyramidal shape. Optical band gap was blue shifted from 0.72 eV to 1.69 eV with the increase in Cu doping concentration. The film obtained with the [Cu2+]/[Pb2+] ratio equal to 1.5 at% Cu showed the minimum resistivity of 0.16 Ω cm at room temperature and optimum value of optical band gap close to 1.5 eV. 1.5 at% Cu-doped PbS thin films exhibit the best optical and electrical properties, suitable for solar cells applications.

  19. Quenching of magnetic excitations in single adsorbates at surfaces: Mn on CuN/Cu(100)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaes, Frederico D.; Lorente, Nicolás; Gauyacq, Jean-Pierre

    2010-10-01

    The lifetimes of spin excitations of Mn adsorbates on CuN/Cu(100) are computed from first principles. The theory is based on a strong-coupling approach that evaluates the decay of a spin excitation due to electron-hole pair creation. Using a previously developed theory [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 176601 (2009)10.1103/PhysRevLett.103.176601 and Phys. Rev. B 81, 165423 (2010)10.1103/PhysRevB.81.165423], we compute the excitation rates by a tunneling current for all the Mn spin states. A rate equation approach permits us to simulate the experimental results by Loth and co-workers [Nat. Phys. 6, 340 (2010)]10.1038/nphys1616 for large tunneling currents, taking into account the finite population of excited states. Our simulations give us insight into the spin dynamics, in particular, in the way polarized electrons can reveal the existence of an excited-state population. In addition, it reveals that the excitation process occurs in a way very different from the deexcitation one. Indeed, while excitation by tunneling electrons proceeds via the s and p electrons of the adsorbate, deexcitation mainly involves the d electrons.

  20. Synthesis and magnetic properties of hexagonal Y(Mn,Cu)O{sub 3} multiferroic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeuvrey, L., E-mail: laurent.jeuvrey@univ-rennes1.fr [Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, UMR-CNRS 6226, Universite de Rennes 1, 35042 Rennes cedex (France); Pena, O. [Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, UMR-CNRS 6226, Universite de Rennes 1, 35042 Rennes cedex (France); Moure, A.; Moure, C. [Electroceramics Department, Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, CSIC, C/Kelsen 5, 28049, Madrid (Spain)

    2012-03-15

    Single-phase hexagonal-type solid solutions based on the multiferroic YMnO{sub 3} material were synthesized by a modified Pechini process. Copper doping at the B-site (YMn{sub 1-x}Cu{sub x}O{sub 3}; x<0.15) and self-doping at the A-site (Y{sub 1+y}MnO{sub 3}; y<0.10) successfully maintained the hexagonal structure. Self-doping was limited to y(Y)=2 at% and confirmed that excess yttrium avoids formation of ferromagnetic manganese oxide impurities but creates vacancies at the Mn site. Chemical substitution at the B-site inhibits the geometrical frustration of the Mn{sup 3+} two-dimensional lattice. The magnetic transition at T{sub N} decreases from 70 K down to 49 K, when x(Cu) goes from 0 to 15 at%. Weak ferromagnetic Mn{sup 3+}-Mn{sup 4+} interactions created by the substitution of Mn{sup 3+} by Cu{sup 2+}, are visible through the coercive field and spontaneous magnetization but do not modify the overall magnetic frustration. Presence of Mn{sup 3+}-Mn{sup 4+} pairs leads to an increase of the electrical conductivity due to thermally-activated small-polaron hopping mechanisms. Results show that local ferromagnetic interactions can coexist within the frustrated state in the hexagonal polar structure. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hexagonal-type solid solutions of Y(Mn,Cu)O{sub 3} synthesized by Pechini process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemical substitution at B site inhibits geometrical magnetic frustration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic transition decreases with Cu-doping. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Local ferromagnetic Mn-Mn interactions coexist with the frustrated state.

  1. Orientation dependence of heterogeneous nucleation at the Cu-Pb solid-liquid interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palafox-Hernandez, J. Pablo; Laird, Brian B.

    2016-12-01

    In this work, we examine the effect of surface structure on the heterogeneous nucleation of Pb crystals from the melt at a Cu substrate using molecular-dynamics (MD) simulation. In a previous work [Palafox-Hernandez et al., Acta Mater. 59, 3137 (2011)] studying the Cu/Pb solid-liquid interface with MD simulation, we observed that the structure of the Cu(111) and Cu(100) interfaces was significantly different at 625 K, just above the Pb melting temperature (618 K for the model). The Cu(100) interface exhibited significant surface alloying in the crystal plane in contact with the melt. In contrast, no surface alloying was seen at the Cu(111) interface; however, a prefreezing layer of crystalline Pb, 2-3 atomic planes thick and slightly compressed relative to bulk Pb crystal, was observed to form at the interface. We observe that at the Cu(111) interface the prefreezing layer is no longer present at 750 K, but surface alloying in the Cu(100) interface persists. In a series of undercooling MD simulations, heterogeneous nucleation of fcc Pb is observed at the Cu(111) interface within the simulation time (5 ns) at 592 K—a 26 K undercooling. Nucleation and growth at Cu(111) proceeded layerwise with a nearly planar critical nucleus. Quantitative analysis yielded heterogeneous nucleation barriers that are more than two orders of magnitude smaller than the predicted homogeneous nucleation barriers from classical nucleation theory. Nucleation was considerably more difficult on the Cu(100) surface-alloyed substrate. An undercooling of approximately 170 K was necessary to observe nucleation at this interface within the simulation time. From qualitative observation, the critical nucleus showed a contact angle with the Cu(100) surface of over 90°, indicating poor wetting of the Cu(100) surface by the nucleating phase, which according to classical heterogeneous nucleation theory provides an explanation of the large undercooling necessary to nucleate on the Cu(100) surface

  2. Removal of Cu (II) and Pb (II) from Aqueous Solution using engineered Iron Oxide Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamez, Carlos; Hernandez, Rebecca; Parsons, J G

    2016-03-01

    Nano-sized Fe3O4 and Fe2O3 were synthesized using a precipitation method. The nanomaterials were tested as adsorbents for the removal of both Cu(2+) and Pb(2+) ions. The nanomaterials were characterized using X-ray powder diffraction to determine both the phase and the average grain size of the synthesized nanomaterials. Batch pH studies were performed to determine the optimum binding pH for both the Cu(2+) and Pb(2+) to the synthesized nanomaterials. The optimum binding was observed to occur at pH 4 and above. Time dependency studies for Cu(2+) and Pb(2+) showed the binding occurred within the first five minutes of contact and remained constant up to 2 hours of contact. Isotherm studies were utilized to determine the binding capacity of each of the nanomaterials for Cu(2+) and Pb(2+). The binding capacity of Fe3O4 with Cu(2+) and Pb(2+) were 37.04 mg/g and 166.67 mg/g, respectively. The binding capacities of the Fe2O3 nanomaterials with Cu(2+) and Pb(2+) were determined to be 19.61 mg/g and 47.62 mg/g, respectively. In addition, interference studies showed no significant reduction in the binding of either Cu(2+) or Pb(2+) to the Fe3O4 or Fe2O3 nanomaterials in the presence of solutions containing the individual ions Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) or a solution consisting of a combination of all the aforementioned cations in one solution.

  3. Precession electron diffraction of Mn2O3 and PbMnO2.75: solving structures where X-rays fail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Holger

    2011-05-01

    The structure solutions of the two phases Mn(2)O(3) and PbMnO(2.75) by precession electron diffraction (PED) are presented. In the powder samples used these structures could not be solved by X-ray diffraction because Mn(2)O(3) is a minority phase in an MnO(2) powder and the complex structure of PbMnO(2.75) leads to severe peak overlap in the powder diffraction pattern. The influence of different parameters on the structure solution is studied, i.e. the number of reflections measured, precession angle, resolution limit and Lorentz-type correction. It is shown that the number of reflections is the most important parameter for successful structure solution from PED data.

  4. Effects of Cu, Zn and Pb Combined Pollution on Soil Hydrolase Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FENG Dan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available To study the relations between soil enzyme activities and heavy metal pollution, the combined effects of Cu, Zn and Pb on the three hydrolase activities, including invertase(IN, urease(Uand alkaline phosphatase(ALPwere investigated via an orthogonal experiment. Results showed as the following: When the concentration of Cu was 400 mg·kg-1, the U and ALP activities were decreased 51% and 44%, separately; When Zn was at 500 mg·kg-1, IN and ALP activities were only decreased 3% and 9%, while U activity was increased; When Pb was at 500 mg·kg-1, IN and U activities were increased, while ALP activity was decreased 13%. As a whole, Cu was considered as the most remarkable influence factor for IN, U and ALP activity regardless of interactions among the heavy metals, Zn came second, and Pb mainly showed activation. Considering interactions, Cu×Zn could significantly influence U activity(P<0.05, effects of Cu×Pb and Cu×Zn on ALP activity were remarkable(95% confidence interval. The response of ALP activity was more sensitive than the other two enzymes. Soil ALP activity might be a sensitive tool for assessing the pollution degree of Cu.

  5. Room-temperature ferromagnetism in Mn-doped CuCrO2 nanopowders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DENG Linyan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available (Cu1-xMnxCrO2 (0≤x≤6 at% and Cu(Cr1-yMnyO2 (0≤y≤6 at% nanopowders were prepared by combining solid-state reaction and ball milling.It is found that all the samples have a pure 3R-CuCrO2 delafossite structure.The lattice expansion supports the Mn entrance into the Cu and Cr sublattices,respectively,in (Cu1-xMnxCrO2 and Cu(Cr1-yMnyO2,which is further proved by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to some degree.Room-temperature ferromagnetism is achieved in B-site Mn-doped samples,originating from the hole-mediated Cr3+-Mn3+ double-exchange interaction.The saturation magnetization of this CuMO2 delafossite (M=Cr,Mn is about an order of magnitude higher than literature values,and gradually decreases with the Mn addition due to the combined influence of the number of the M-M pairs,the M-M distances and the hole density.

  6. Polyaniline nanofibers assembled on alginate microsphere for Cu2+ and Pb2+ uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nina; Xu, Yiting; Dai, Yuqiong; Luo, Weiang; Dai, Lizong

    2012-05-15

    Polyaniline (PANI) nanofibers were assembled on the micro- or millimeter-scale calcium alginate (CA) beads by "competitive adsorption-restricted polymerization" approach. The CA beads made the dimensional expansion of PANI nanofibers evident, which overcame the serious aggregation of PANI nanofibers and benefited the practical operation of PANI nanofibers. Batch adsorption results showed that the millimeter-scale CA beads decorated by PANI nanofibers had high affinity to Cu(2+) and Pb(2+) in aqueous solutions. The removal percentages of Cu(2+) and Pb(2+) in aqueous solutions by this PANI/CA composite with milli/nano hierarchical structure surpassed 90% in a wide pH range from 3 to 7. Sorption of the two kinds of ions to PANI/CA composite sorbent agreed well with the Freundlich adsorption model. The adsorption kinetic results of Cu(2+) and Pb(2+) showed that the adsorption reached equilibrium within 120min and 40min, respectively. And their adsorption rates could be described by pseudo-second-order kinetics. The desorption percentages of Pb(2+) and Cu(2+) from this PANI/CA composite are 62% and 75%, respectively. The Pb(2+) and Cu(2+) removal capacity of the sorbent could be further reinforced when the diameter of CA beads turned from millimeter to micrometer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Immobilization of Zn, Cu, and Pb in contaminated soils using phosphate rock and phosphoric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao Xinde [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)] [Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Wahbi, Ammar [Soil Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Aleppo, Aleppo (Syrian Arab Republic); Ma, Lena, E-mail: lqma@ufl.edu [Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Li Bing; Yang Yongliang [National Research Center for Geoanalysis, Beijing 100037 (China)

    2009-05-30

    Considerable research has been done on P-induced Pb immobilization in Pb-contaminated soils. However, application of P to soils contaminated with multiple heavy metals is limited. The present study examined effectiveness of phosphoric acid (PA) and/or phosphate rock (PR) in immobilizing Pb, Cu, and Zn in two contaminated soils. The effectiveness was evaluated using water extraction, plant uptake, and a simple bioaccessibility extraction test (SBET) mimicking metal uptake in the acidic environment of human stomach. The possible mechanisms for metal immobilization were elucidated using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and chemical speciation program Visual MINTEQ. Compared to the control, all P amendments significantly reduced Pb water solubility, phytoavailability, and bioaccessibility by 72-100%, 15-86%, and 28-92%, respectively. The Pb immobilization was probably attributed to the formation of insoluble Pb phosphate minerals. Phosphorus significantly reduced Cu and Zn water solubility by 31-80% and 40-69%, respectively, presumably due to their sorption on minerals (e.g., calcite and phosphate phases) following CaO addition. However, P had little effect on the Cu and Zn phytoavailability; while the acid extractability of Cu and Zn induced by SBET (pH 2) were even elevated by up to 48% and 40%, respectively, in the H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} treatments (PA and PR + PA). Our results indicate that phosphate was effective in reducing Pb availability in terms of water solubility, bioaccessibility, and phytoavailability. Caution should be exercised when H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} was amended to the soil co-contaminated with Cu and Zn since the acidic condition of SBET increased Cu and Zn bioaccessibility though their water solubility was reduced.

  8. Immobilization of Zn, Cu, and Pb in contaminated soils using phosphate rock and phosphoric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xinde; Wahbi, Ammar; Ma, Lena; Li, Bing; Yang, Yongliang

    2009-05-30

    Considerable research has been done on P-induced Pb immobilization in Pb-contaminated soils. However, application of P to soils contaminated with multiple heavy metals is limited. The present study examined effectiveness of phosphoric acid (PA) and/or phosphate rock (PR) in immobilizing Pb, Cu, and Zn in two contaminated soils. The effectiveness was evaluated using water extraction, plant uptake, and a simple bioaccessibility extraction test (SBET) mimicking metal uptake in the acidic environment of human stomach. The possible mechanisms for metal immobilization were elucidated using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and chemical speciation program Visual MINTEQ. Compared to the control, all P amendments significantly reduced Pb water solubility, phytoavailability, and bioaccessibility by 72-100%, 15-86%, and 28-92%, respectively. The Pb immobilization was probably attributed to the formation of insoluble Pb phosphate minerals. Phosphorus significantly reduced Cu and Zn water solubility by 31-80% and 40-69%, respectively, presumably due to their sorption on minerals (e.g., calcite and phosphate phases) following CaO addition. However, P had little effect on the Cu and Zn phytoavailability; while the acid extractability of Cu and Zn induced by SBET (pH 2) were even elevated by up to 48% and 40%, respectively, in the H(3)PO(4) treatments (PA and PR+PA). Our results indicate that phosphate was effective in reducing Pb availability in terms of water solubility, bioaccessibility, and phytoavailability. Caution should be exercised when H(3)PO(4) was amended to the soil co-contaminated with Cu and Zn since the acidic condition of SBET increased Cu and Zn bioaccessibility though their water solubility was reduced.

  9. Concentrations of heavy metals (Mn, Co, Ni, Cr, Ag, Pb) in coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nędzarek, Arkadiusz; Tórz, Agnieszka; Karakiewicz, Beata; Clark, Jeremy Simon; Laszczyńska, Maria; Kaleta, Agnieszka; Adler, Grażyna

    2013-01-01

    Technologies involved in roasting coffee beans, as well as the methods used to prepare infusions, vary according to culture, and contribute to differences in the concentration of elements in the drink. Concentrations of six elements: manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), chrome (Cr), silver (Ag) and lead (Pb) were investigated in coffee infusions from eleven samples of coffee, roasted and purchased in four countries: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Lebanon and Poland. Metal concentrations were determined using an induction coupled plasma technique in combination with mass spectrometry (ICP-MS, Perkin Elmer) which measures total metal (ionic and non-ionic) content. Metal intake estimated for individual countries (in the respective order; mean consumption per person per year) was as follows: Mn: 26.8-33.1, 28.3-29.5, 29.7, 12.6-18.9 mg; Co: 0.33-0.48, 0.42-0.35, 0.32, 0.12-0.17 mg; Ni: 3.83-5.68, 4.85-5.51, 4.04, 2.06-2.24 mg; Cr: 0.17-0.41, 0.21-0.47, 0.17, 0.09-0.28 mg; Ag: 0.16-1.13, 0.26-0.70, 0.61, 0.33-1.54 mg, Pb: 4.76-7.56, 3.59-5.13, 3.33, 1.48-2.43 mg. This finding gives new data for Mn, Co, Ni, Cr, and Ag intake from coffee , and suggests that the amounts are negligible. However, the data for Pb consumption in heavy drinkers, for example in Bosnia and Herzegovina, indicate that Pb intake from coffee may contribute to the disease burden. The high lead level in some coffees suggests the need for a more precise control of coffee contamination.

  10. Development of a new Pb-free solder: Sn-Ag-Cu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, C.M.

    1995-02-10

    With the ever increasing awareness of the toxicity of Pb, significant pressure has been put on the electronics industry to get the Pb out of solder. This work pertains to the development and characterization of an alloy which is Pb-free, yet retains the proven positive qualities of current Sn-Pb solders while enhancing the shortcomings of Sn-Pb solder. The solder studied is the Sn-4.7Ag-1.7Cu wt% alloy. By utilizing a variety of experimental techniques the alloy was characterized. The alloy has a melting temperature of 217{degrees}C and exhibits eutectic melting behavior. The solder was examined by subjecting to different annealing schedules and examining the microstructural stability. The effect of cooling rate on the microstructure of the solder was also examined. Overall, this solder alloy shows great promise as a viable alternative to Pb-bearing solders and, as such, an application for a patent has been filed.

  11. Synthetic, structural, spectroscopic and theoretical study of a Mn(III)-Cu(II) dimer containing a Jahn-Teller compressed Mn ion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Nelly; Hooper, Thomas N.; Liu, Junjie;

    2013-01-01

    The heterobimetallic complex [Cu(II)Mn(III)(L)(2)(py)(4)](ClO(4))·EtOH (1) built using the pro-ligand 2,2'-biphenol (LH(2)), contains a rare example of a Jahn-Teller compressed Mn(III) centre. Dc magnetic susceptibility measurements on 1 reveal a strong antiferromagnetic exchange between the Cu(I...

  12. Martensitic transformation in Cu-doped NiMnGa magnetic shape memory alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Pan-Pan; Wang Jing-Min; Jiang Cheng-Bao

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the martensitic transformation in the Cu-doped NiMnGa alloys. The orthorhombic martensite transforms to L21 cubic austenite by Cu substituting for Ni in the Ni50-x:CuxMn31Ga19 (x=2-10) alloys, the martensitic transformation temperature decreases significantly with the rate of 40 K per Cu atom addition. The variation of the Fermi sphere radius (kF) is applied to evaluate the change of the martensitic transformation temperature. The increase of kF leads to the increase of the martensitic transformation temperature.

  13. Magnetic properties of Cu substituted NdMn2Si2 intermetallics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmali, A.; Dincer, I.; Elerman, Y.; Ehrenberg, H.; Fuess, H.

    2005-05-01

    The structure and magnetic properties of NdMn2-xCuxSi2 (0.2 x 1) were studied by X-ray powder diffraction and magnetization measurements. In this study, we investigate the variations in the magnetic properties of NdMn2-xCuxSi2 as a function of Cu concentration by examing the evolution of the features in the temperature dependence of the magnetization. Earlier neutron diffraction experiments showed that the ferromagnetic Mn planes are ordered antiparallel along the c-axis below 380 K and the Nd sublattice orders at 33 K in NdMn2Si2. The ordering of the Nd sublattice reconfigures the ordering in Mn sublattice and leads to ferromagnetic ordering. With increasing amount of Cu, the Curie temperature has a maximum value of 120 K at x = 0.7 and decreases for the samples with x 0.8.

  14. Adsorption of Pb, Cd to Fe, Mn oxides in natural freshwater surface coatings developed in different seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, De-ming; Yang, Fan; Li, Yu; Hua, Xiu-yi; Lü, Xiao-jun; Zhang, Jing-jing

    2005-01-01

    Metal oxides( Fe, Mn oxides) in natural surface coatings(biofilms and associated minerals) are believed to play a significant role in the fate and transport of trace metal in aquatic environments. Seasonal variation of Fe, Mn oxides and organic materials in surface coatings, which were developed periodically on glass slides in Nanhu Lake, Jilin Province, China over the time frame of three seasons, was investigated in order to understand the influence of metal oxides on Pb and Cd adsorption to heterogeneous surface coating materials (biofilm). Pb and Cd adsorption was measured under controlled laboratory conditions(mineral salts solution with defined speciation, ionic strength 0.05 mol/L, 25 degrees C and pH 6.0). The classical Langmuir adsorption isotherm was applied to estimate equilibrium coefficients of Pb and Cd adsorption to the surface coatings. In general, components in the surface coatings varied greatly with seasons altering and obtained higher concentrations in summer while the content of iron oxides always exceeded that of manganese oxides. Correlation analyses between the maximum adsorption of Pb and Cd and components in the surface coatings developed periodically indicated that Pb phase association with Mn oxides and Cd phase association with Fe oxides as well as Mn oxides were statistically significant. Effect of Mn oxides on Cd adsorption was confirmed in view of its higher content in the surface coatings. The importance of ferromanganese oxides for Pb and Cd adsorption to the natural surface coatings developed in different seasons was evidenced.

  15. Adsorption of Pb, Cd to Fe, Mn oxides in natural freshwater surface coatings developed in different seasons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG De-ming; YANG Fan; LI Yu; HUA Xiu-yi; L(U) Xiao-jun; ZHANG Jing-jing

    2005-01-01

    Metal oxides( Fe, Mn oxides) in natural surface coatings(biofilms and associated minerals) are believed to play a significant role in the fate and transport of trace metal in aquatic environments. Seasonal variation of Fe, Mn oxides and organic materials in surface coatings, which were developed periodically on glass slides in Nanhu Lake, Jilin Province, China over the time frame of three seasons,was investigated in order to understand the influence of metal oxides on Pb and Cd adsorption to heterogeneous surface coating materials(biofilm). Pb and Cd adsorption was measured under controlled laboratory conditions(mineral salts solution with defined speciation, ionic strength 0.05 mol/L, 25℃ and pH 6.0). The classical Langmuir adsorption isotherm was applied to estimate equilibrium coefficients of Pb and Cd adsorption to the surface coatings. In general, components in the surface coatings varied greatly with seasons altering and obtained higher concentrations in summer while the content of iron oxides always exceeded that of manganese oxides. Correlation analyses between the maximum adsorption of Pb and Cd and components in the surface coatings developed periodically indicated that Pb phase association with Mn oxides and Cd phase association with Fe oxides as well as Mn oxides were statistically significant. Effect of Mn oxides on Cd adsorption was confirmed in view of its higher content in the surface coatings. The importance of ferromanganese oxides for Pb and Cd adsorption to the natural surface coatings developed in different seasons was evidenced.

  16. Pb, Cu botanogeochemical anomalies and toxic effects on plant cells in Pb-Zn (Sn) ore fields, Northeast Guangxi Autonomous Region, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Ci'an; LEI Liangqi; YANG Qijun

    2007-01-01

    In the Lingchuan-Daoping and Xinglu Pb-Zn ore fields in northern and eastern Guangxi Autonomous Region, Pb, Cu botanogeochemical anomalies may be ascribed to the excessive amounts of Pb and Cu taken up by the root system of plants, such as China fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata Lamb. Hook), mason pine (Pinus massoniana Lamb.) and bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum var. latiusculum). Under transmission electron microscope (TEM), the excess Pb, Cu in the leaf cells of the plants are present as high electron-density substances, which were precipitated in the leaf cells, causing phytotoxic effects by deforming and injuring cellular tissues. The sorts of toxic elements accumulating in the leaf cells are consistent with those of the botanogeochemically anomalous elements in the polluted soil where the plants grow. In addition, the plants may also be capable of resisting the invasion of excess Cu (and Pb) .

  17. Properties and Structure of the F-doped (Bi, Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O Superconductor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高孝恢; 王小刚; 蒋淑芬; 李洁; 高赛; 郑国栋

    1994-01-01

    By using TEM, XPS, IR, position annihilation and differential specific heat measurements, the properties and structure of the F-doped (Bi, Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductor have been studied. The results show that the fluorine atoms are homogeneously distributed in superconducting phase and substituted for the oxygen atoms at O(2) crystallographic sites; the Pb-F and Cu-F bonds are formed. F-doping results in the variance of the incommensurate modulation structure, the increase of the point defects and chemical pressure, the enhancement of flux pinning effect and the change of the electronic structure and chemical bond, and greatly improves superconductive properties of the 2223 phase (Bi, Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O.

  18. Behavior and influence of Pb and Bi in Ag-Cu-Zn brazing alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The effects of trace content of Pb and Bi elements on the spreading property and the strength of brazed joints of Ag-Cu-Zn filler metal have been studied. The results show that Pb has little effect on both above properties, and Bi has remarkable influence on the spreading property but little effect on the strength of brazed joint. Pb and Bi dissolve into the Ag-Cu-Zn matrix and will melt and gather at lower temperature when that alloy is being heated. Therefore a liquid forms on the surface of the Ag-Cu-Zn alloy and overlays the melting alloy, then keeps the filler metal away from the materials being joined, and so decreases the spreading property.

  19. Chemical behavior of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb in a eutrophic reservoir: speciation and complexation capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonietto, Alessandra Emanuele; Lombardi, Ana Teresa; Choueri, Rodrigo Brasil; Vieira, Armando Augusto Henriques

    2015-10-01

    This research aimed at evaluating cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) speciation in water samples as well as determining water quality parameters (alkalinity, chlorophyll a, chloride, conductivity, dissolved organic carbon, dissolved oxygen, inorganic carbon, nitrate, pH, total suspended solids, and water temperature) in a eutrophic reservoir. This was performed through calculation of free metal ions using the chemical equilibrium software MINEQL+ 4.61, determination of labile, dissolved, and total metal concentrations via differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry, and determination of complexed metal by the difference between the total concentration of dissolved and labile metal. Additionally, ligand complexation capacities (CC), such as the strength of the association of metals-ligands (logK'ML) and ligand concentrations (C L) were calculated via Ruzic's linearization method. Water samples were taken in winter and summer, and the results showed that for total and dissolved metals, Zn > Cu > Pb > Cd concentration. In general, higher concentrations of Cu and Zn remained complexed with the dissolved fraction, while Pb was mostly complexed with particulate materials. Chemical equilibrium modeling (MINEQL+) showed that Zn(2+) and Cd(2+) dominated the labile species, while Cu and Pb were complexed with carbonates. Zinc was a unique metal for which a direct relation between dissolved species with labile and complexed forms was obtained. The CC for ligands indicated a higher C L for Cu, followed by Pb, Zn, and Cd in decreasing amounts. Nevertheless, the strength of the association of all metals and their respective ligands was similar. Factor analysis with principal component analysis as the extraction procedure confirmed seasonal effects on water quality parameters and metal speciation. Total, dissolved, and complexed Cu and total, dissolved, complexed, and labile Pb species were all higher in winter, whereas in summer, Zn was mostly present in the

  20. Enhanced Thermoelectric Properties of Sn0.8Pb0.2Te Alloy by Mn Substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J. Q.; Lu, Z. W.; Wang, C. Y.; Li, Y.; Liu, F. S.; Ao, W. Q.

    2016-06-01

    A series of (Sn0.8Pb0.2)1- x Mn x Te alloys with x = 0, 0.03, 0.06, 0.09, 0.12 and 0.15 were prepared by melting, quenching and spark plasma sintering (SPS) techniques to investigate their phases and thermoelectric properties. Mn was used as doped element in Sn0.8Pb0.2Te solid solution to reduce the carrier concentration, enhance the Seebeck coefficient and reduce the thermal conductivity of the material. Experimental results show that the SnTe-based solid solution single phase was formed in the alloys with x = 0 and 0.03. The minor irregular-shaped MnTe2 phase presents in the alloys with x ≥ 0.06, while the minor needle-like MnTe phase appears in the alloys with x ≥ 0.12, together with the SnTe-based solid solution matrix. The lattice parameter a of SnTe-based solid solution decreases nearly linearly as Mn content x increases up to 0.12, but keeps constant as x further increases. All the samples show p-type conduction. Mn doping in Sn0.8Pb0.2Te decreases its carrier concentration and thus increases its Seebeck coefficient. The solute Mn and Pb atoms in the SnTe-based solid solution, and the minor phases MnTe2 and MnTe, enhance the phonon scattering and thus reduce the thermal conductivity. As a result, the figure-of-merit ZT of the (Sn0.8Pb0.2)1- x Mn x Te composites can be enhanced with proper Mn substitution. The maximum ZT of 0.65 was obtained in the sample (Sn0.8Pb0.2)0.88Mn0.12Te at 723 K, which is higher than the 0.29 of its parent alloy Sn0.8Pb0.2Te.

  1. Mid-twentieth century increases in anthropogenic Pb, Cd and Cu in central Asia set in hemispheric perspective using Tien Shan ice core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigholm, B.; Mayewski, P. A.; Aizen, V.; Kreutz, K.; Wake, C. P.; Aizen, E.; Kang, S.; Maasch, K. A.; Handley, M. J.; Sneed, S. B.

    2016-04-01

    High-resolution major and trace element (Al, As, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Na, Pb, S, Ti, and V) ice core records from Inilchek glacier (5120 m above sea level) on the northwestern margin of the Tibetan Plateau provide the first multi-decadal ice core record spanning the period 1908-1995 AD in central Tien Shan. The trace element records reveal pronounced temporal baseline trends and concentration maxima characteristic of post-1950 anthropogenic emissions. Examination of Pb, Cd and Cu concentrations, along with non-crustal calculation estimates (i.e. excess (ex) and enrichment factor (EF)), reveal that discernable anthropogenic inputs began during the 1950s and rapidly increased to the late-1970s and early 1980s, by factors up to of 5, 6 and 3, respectively, relative to a 1910-1950 means. Pb, Cd and Cu concentrations between the 1950s-1980s are reflective of large-scale Soviet industrial and agricultural development, including the growth of production and/or consumption of the non-ferrous metals, coal and phosphate fertilizers. NOAA HYSPLIT back-trajectory frequency analysis suggests pollutant sources originating primarily from southern Kazakhstan (e.g. Shymkent and Balkhash) and the Fergana Valley (located in Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan). Inilchek ice core Pb, Cd and Cu reveals declines during the 1980s concurrent with Soviet economic declines, however, due to the rapid industrial and agricultural growth of western China, Pb, Cd and Cu trends increase during the 1990s reflecting a transition from primarily central Asian sources to emission sources from western China (e.g. Xinjiang Province).

  2. Synthesis of highly phase pure (Bi, Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorris, Stephen E.; Poeppel, Roger B.; Prorok, Barton C.; Lanagan, Michael T.; Maroni, Victor A.

    1994-01-01

    An article and method of manufacture of (Bi,Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductor. The superconductor is manufactured by preparing a first powdered mixture of bismuth oxide, lead oxide, strontium carbonate, calcium carbonate and copper oxide. A second powdered mixture is then prepared of strontium carbonate, calcium carbonate and copper oxide. The mixtures are calcined separately with the two mixtures then combined. The resulting combined mixture is then subjected to a powder in tube deformation and thermal processing to produce a substantially phase pure (Bi,Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductor.

  3. Bioaccessibility of As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Sb in toys and low-cost jewelry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guney, Mert; Zagury, Gerald J

    2014-01-21

    Children can be exposed to toxic elements in toys and jewelry following ingestion. As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Sb bioavailability was assessed (n = 24) via the in vitro gastrointestinal protocol (IVG), the physiologically based extraction test (PBET), and the European Toy Safety Standard protocol (EN 71-3), and health risks were characterized. Cd, Cu, Ni, and Pb were mobilized from 19 metallic toys and jewelry (MJ) and one crayon set. Bioaccessible Cd, Ni, or Pb exceeded EU migratable concentration limits in four to six MJ, depending on the protocol. Using two-phase (gastric + intestinal) IVG or PBET might be preferable over EN 71-3 since they better represent gastrointestinal physiology. Bioaccessible and total metal concentrations were different and not always correlated, indicating that bioaccessibility measurement may provide more accurate risk characterization. More information on impacts of multiple factors affecting metals mobilization from toys and jewelry is needed before recommending specific tests. Hazard index (HI) for Cd, Ni, or Pb were >1 for all six MJ exceeding the EU limits. For infants (6-12 mo old), 10 MJ had HI > 1 for Cd, Cu, Ni, or Pb (up to 75 for Cd and 43 for Pb). Research on prolonged exposure to MJ and comprehensive risk characterization for toys and jewelry exposure is recommended.

  4. Sol gel synthesis and characterization studies of Cupromanganite CaCu3Mn4O12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurulhuda, A.; Warikh, A. R. M.; Hafizzal, Y.

    2017-08-01

    A single-phase CaCu3Mn4O12 electroceramic had been prepared via sol gel method and fairly well densified at relative low temperature under atmospheric condition where the crystallization of CaCu3Mn4O12 occurred due to amorphous polymeric mixture. The precursor was prepared by mixing the solutions with 0.6 M citric acid (C6H8O7) as a chelating reagent with the mol ratio 1:2. The precursor gel formed was calcined and sintered at range 400 °C to 800°C by varying dwell time. Material formations under the reported conditions have been confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results show that the formation of CaCu3Mn4O12 started at 500 ° C and was formed completely at 700 ° C for 18 hours. The microstructure of all CaCu3Mn4O12 was analysed using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). A smaller particle size with higher grain boundary was obtained at sintering 700°C to 800°C. FESEM results show the significant influence of calcinations and sintering parameter on the microstructure behaviour of CaCu2Mn4O12.

  5. Charge and orbital order in frustrated Pb3Mn7O15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimber, Simon A J

    2012-05-01

    The candidate magnetoelectric Pb(3)Mn(7)O(15) has a structure consisting of one-third filled kagome layers linked by ribbons of edge sharing octahedra in the stacking direction. Previous reports have indicated a complex hexagonal-orthorhombic structural transition upon cooling through ~335 K, although its origins are uncertain. Here both structures are revisited using a combination of neutron and synchrotron x-ray diffraction data. Large shifts of oxygen positions are detected, which show that the interlayer sites and those which occupy voids in the kagome lattice are trivially charge ordered in both phases. The symmetry breaking is found to occur due to Mn(3+) orbital ordering on the ribbon sites and charge ordering of the subset of layer sites which make up a kagome network.

  6. Optically switched magnetism in photovoltaic perovskite CH3NH3(Mn:Pb)I3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Náfrádi, B.; Szirmai, P.; Spina, M.; Lee, H.; Yazyev, O. V.; Arakcheeva, A.; Chernyshov, D.; Gibert, M.; Forró, L.; Horváth, E.

    2016-11-01

    The demand for ever-increasing density of information storage and speed of manipulation boosts an intense search for new magnetic materials and novel ways of controlling the magnetic bit. Here, we report the synthesis of a ferromagnetic photovoltaic CH3NH3(Mn:Pb)I3 material in which the photo-excited electrons rapidly melt the local magnetic order through the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida interactions without heating up the spin system. Our finding offers an alternative, very simple and efficient way of optical spin control, and opens an avenue for applications in low-power, light controlling magnetic devices.

  7. Design of Three-shell Icosahedral Matryoshka Clusters A@B12@A20 (A = Sn, Pb; B = Mg, Zn, Cd, Mn)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoming; Zhao, Jijun; Su, Yan; Chen, Zhongfang; King, R. Bruce

    2014-11-01

    We propose a series of icosahedral matryoshka clusters of A@B12@A20 (A = Sn, Pb; B = Mg, Zn, Cd), which possess large HOMO-LUMO gaps (1.29 to 1.54 eV) and low formation energies (0.06 to 0.21 eV/atom). A global minimum search using a genetic algorithm and density functional theory calculations confirms that such onion-like three-shell structures are the ground states for these A21B12 binary clusters. All of these icosahedral matryoshka clusters, including two previously found ones, i.e., [As@Ni12@As20]3- and [Sn@Cu12@Sn20]12-, follow the 108-electron rule, which originates from the high Ih symmetry and consequently the splitting of superatom orbitals of high angular momentum. More interestingly, two magnetic matryoshka clusters, i.e., Sn@Mn12@Sn20 and Pb@Mn12@Pb20, are designed, which combine a large magnetic moment of 28 µB, a moderate HOMO-LUMO gap, and weak inter-cluster interaction energy, making them ideal building blocks in novel magnetic materials and devices.

  8. Simulations of irradiated-enhanced segregation and phase separation in Fe-Cu-Mn alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Boyan; Hu, Shenyang; Li, Chengliang; Li, Qiulin; Chen, Jun; Shu, Guogang; Henager, Chuck, Jr.; Weng, Yuqing; Xu, Ben; Liu, Wei

    2017-09-01

    For reactor pressure vessel steels, the addition of Cu, Mn, and Ni has a positive effect on their mechanical, corrosion and radiation resistance properties. However, experiments show that radiation-enhanced segregation and/or phase separation is one of the important material property degradation processes. In this work, we develop a model integrating rate theory and phase-field approaches to investigate the effect of irradiation on solute segregation and phase separation. The rate theory is used to describe the accumulation and clustering of radiation defects, while the phase-field approach describes the effect of radiation defects on phase stability and microstructure evolution. The Fe-Cu-Mn ternary alloy is taken as a model system. The free energies used in the phase-field model are from CALPHAD. Spatial dependent radiation damage from atomistic simulations is introduced into the simulation cell for a given radiation dose rate. The radiation effect on segregation and phase separation is taken into account through the defect concentration dependence of solute mobility. Using the model, the effect of temperature and radiation rates on Cu and Mn segregation and Cu-rich phase nucleation were systematically investigated. The segregation and nucleation mechanisms were analyzed. The simulations demonstrate that the nucleus of Cu precipitates has a core-shell composition profile, i.e. Cu-rich at the center and Mn-rich at the interface, in good agreement with theoretical calculations as well as experimental observations.

  9. Characterization of Mn-modified Pb(Mg(13)Nb(23))O(3)-PbZrO(3)-PbTiO(3) single crystals for high power broad bandwidth transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shujun; Lee, Sung-Min; Kim, Dong-Ho; Lee, Ho-Yong; Shrout, Thomas R

    2008-09-22

    The effect of MnO(2) addition on the dielectric and piezoelectric properties of 0.4Pb(Mg(13)Nb(23))O(3)-0.25PbZrO(3)-0.35PbTiO(3) single crystals was investigated. Analogous to acceptor doping in "hard" Pb(Zr,Ti)O(3) based polycrystalline materials, the Mn doped crystals exhibited enhanced mechanical Q ( approximately 1050) with low dielectric loss ( approximately 0.2%), while maintaining ultrahigh electromechanical coupling k(33)>90%, inherent in domain engineered single crystals. The effect of acceptor doping was also evident in the build-up of an internal bias (E(i) approximately 1.6 kVcm), shown by a horizontal offset in the polarization-field behavior. Together with the relatively high usage temperature (T(R-T) approximately 140 degrees C), the Mn doped crystals are promising candidates for high power and broad bandwidth transducers.

  10. Leaching behavior of U, Mn, Sr, and Pb from different particle-size fractions of uranium mill tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Peng, Tongjiang; Sun, Hongjuan

    2017-06-01

    Pollution by the release of heavy metals from tailings constitutes a potential threat to the environment. To characterize the processes governing the release of Mn, Sr, Pb, and U from the uranium mill tailings, a dynamic leaching test was applied for different size of uranium mill tailings samples. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were performed to determine the content of Mn, Sr, Pb, and U in the leachates. The release of mobile Mn, Sr, Pb, and U fraction was slow, being faster in the initial stage and then attained a near steady-state condition. The experimental results demonstrate that the release of Mn, Sr, Pb, and U from uranium mill tailings with different size fractions is controlled by a variety of mechanisms. Surface wash-off is the release mechanism for Mn. The main release mechanism of Sr and Pb is the dissolution in the initial leaching stage. For U, a mixed process of wash-off and diffusion is the controlling mechanism.

  11. Ferromagnetism of Fe{sub 86}Mn{sub 14-y}Cu{sub y} alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franca, F. [DF-UDESC, Joinville, CEP 89223-100, SC (Brazil); Paduani, C. [DF-UFSC, Florianopolis, CEP 88040-900, SC (Brazil)]. E-mail: paduani@fisica.ufsc.br; Krause, J.C. [DCET-URI, Santo Angelo, CEP 98802-470, RS (Brazil); Ardisson, J.D. [CDTN, Belo Horizonte, CEP 30123-970, MG (Brazil); Yoshida, M.I. [DQ-ICEX-UFMG, Belo Horizonte, CEP 31270-901, MG (Brazil); Schaf, J. [IF-UFRGS, Porto Alegre, CEP 91501-970, RS (Brazil)

    2007-01-01

    The magnetic properties of disordered Fe{sub 86}Mn{sub 14-y}Cu{sub y} alloys were investigated with several experimental techniques. The results of X-ray diffraction showed that these alloys are single phase with the A2 (BCC) structure. These are ferromagnetic alloys at room temperature, and the Curie temperature decreases with the increase of the Cu content. An abrupt loss of magnetization was observed below T{sub C} at a temperature which increases with the reduction of the Mn content in the alloys. The addition of manganese enhances the solubility of copper in iron matrix and retains the BCC structure in iron-rich alloys. The behavior of the magnetization with temperature and its composition dependence indicate that an antiferromagnetic coupling is expected between the Fe and Mn atoms. The magnetic moments of both Fe and Mn atoms are expected to vary strongly with composition in these alloys.

  12. CARACTERIZATION OF Cu-Al-Mn ALLOYS FABRICATED USING ARC FURNACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego E. Velázquez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Two alloys of Cu-Al-Mn fabricated using an arc furnace built at the Instituto de Física de Materiales Tandil (IFIMAT were studied. The manufacture of alloys containing Mn is difficult, due to their high melting point and its low vapor pressure. Moreover, Mn at high temperature easily reacts with the materials used to build crucibles or capsules. In the casting arc difficulties arise to prevent volatilization, so it is very important the choice of electrode, the source setting, cooling, and the arrangement of the pure materials into the crucible. Critical temperatures of martensitic transformation and order were determined by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC. Using Optical Microscopy (OM the presence of martensite phase was determined. From the results obtained it is concluded that this method is suitable for producing Cu-Al-Mn alloys.

  13. Tetragonal phase of epitaxial room-temperature antiferromagnet CuMnAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadley, P; Novák, V; Campion, R P; Rinaldi, C; Martí, X; Reichlová, H; Zelezný, J; Gazquez, J; Roldan, M A; Varela, M; Khalyavin, D; Langridge, S; Kriegner, D; Máca, F; Mašek, J; Bertacco, R; Holý, V; Rushforth, A W; Edmonds, K W; Gallagher, B L; Foxon, C T; Wunderlich, J; Jungwirth, T

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the potential of antiferromagnets as the active component in spintronic devices. This is in contrast to their current passive role as pinning layers in hard disk read heads and magnetic memories. Here we report the epitaxial growth of a new high-temperature antiferromagnetic material, tetragonal CuMnAs, which exhibits excellent crystal quality, chemical order and compatibility with existing semiconductor technologies. We demonstrate its growth on the III-V semiconductors GaAs and GaP, and show that the structure is also lattice matched to Si. Neutron diffraction shows collinear antiferromagnetic order with a high Néel temperature. Combined with our demonstration of room-temperature-exchange coupling in a CuMnAs/Fe bilayer, we conclude that tetragonal CuMnAs films are suitable candidate materials for antiferromagnetic spintronics.

  14. Effect of Sn on the Color and Tarnishing of Cu-Mn-Zn Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The effect of Sn on the color and tarnishing of Cu-Mn-Zn alloys is investigated quantitatively. Using the CIE LAB color system,color parameters such as L*, a* and b* are selected to describe the surface color of alloys while the color difference (△E*)is used to evaluate the color stability. The results show that with the increase of Sn, the color change of Cu-Mn-Zn alloys is greatly reduced and the corrosion resistance in the synthetic sweat is improved dramatically. However, up to 4.4 wt pct Sn does not change the color of Cu-Mn-Zn alloys much. XPS and AES are employed to analyze the tarnished surface. It is proved that a Sn enriched film is formed and Sn takes the form of Sn oxide. This thin and protective oxide film can prevent alloy from further tarnishing.

  15. Sulfur Isotopes Geochemistry of the Nage Cu-Pb Polymetallic Deposit, Southeast Guizhou Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONG Xuan-lin; ZHOU Jia-xi; HUANG Zhi-long; WANG Jing-song; YANG De-zhi; FAN Liang-wu; BAO Guang-ping; LIU Yong-kun

    2009-01-01

    @@ The Nage Cu-Pb polymetallic deposit is located in the transitional zone of the Yangtze craton and cathaysia, that is the southwest of Jiangnan orogenic belt. The mainly strata are Wentong formation of Mesoproterozoic Sibo group and the Jialu formation (Qbj) , Wuye formation (Qbw) , Fanzhao formation (Qbf) and Gongdong formation (Qbg) of the Neoproterozoic Qingbaikou System Xiajiang group.

  16. Adsorption characteristics of Cu(II) and Pb(II) onto expanded perlite from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Ahmet; Tuzen, Mustafa; Citak, Demirhan; Soylak, Mustafa

    2007-09-01

    The adsorption characteristics of Cu(II) and Pb(II) onto expanded perlite (EP) from aqueous solution were investigated with respect to the changes in pH of solution, adsorbent dosage, contact time and temperature of solution. For the adsorption of both metal ions, the Langmuir isotherm model fitted to equilibrium data better than the Freundlich isotherm model. Using the Langmuir model equation, the monolayer adsorption capacity of EP was found to be 8.62 and 13.39 mg/g for Cu(II) and Pb(II) ions, respectively. Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm model was also applied to the equilibrium data and the mean free energies of adsorption were found as 10.82 kJ/mol for Cu(II) and 9.12 kJ/mol for Pb(II) indicating that the adsorption of both metal ions onto EP was taken place by chemical ion-exchange. Thermodynamic functions, the change of free energy (DeltaG degrees ), enthalpy (DeltaH degrees ) and entropy (DeltaS degrees ) of adsorption were also calculated for each metal ions. These parameters showed that the adsorption of Cu(II) and Pb(II) ions onto EP was feasible, spontaneous and exothermic at 20-50 degrees C. Experimental data were also evaluated in terms of kinetic characteristics of adsorption and it was found that adsorption process for both metal ions followed well pseudo-second-order kinetics.

  17. Assessing the Levels of Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu in Biscuits and Home ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    The mean levels of Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd found in plantain chips obtained from the University ... the upper limits of the range specified by the World Health Organization, the consumption of .... 0.52 mg/kg) in potato chips sampled from the second.

  18. Determination of Cd, Pb and Cu in Mandovi estuary by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    George, M.D.; Sawkar, K.; Reddy, C.V.G.

    0-60% for Pb and 0-80% for Cu. Compared to the reported values from other estuaries, Mandovi estuarine waters have registered a higher concentration of the metals. These high concentrations, to a large extent, are considered to be the effect...

  19. Electrodialytic removal of Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd from harbor sediment: Influence of changing experimental conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nystrøm, Gunvor Marie; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne

    2005-01-01

    Electrodialytic remediation (EDR) was used to remove Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd from contaminated harbor sediment. Extraction experiments were made prior to EDR, and the metal desorption was pH dependent but not liquid-to-solid ratio (L/S) dependent. The desorption order was Cd $GRT Zn $GRT Pb $GRT Cu...... for the removal of Cu, Zn, and Pb, probably due to oxidation of the sediments during stirring. Contrary, Cd removal was lower in the wet sediment as compared to the air-dried. The heavy metal removal was influenced by higher current strengths and varying L/S ratios. The highest removal obtained...... was in an experiment with dry sediment (L/S 8) and a 70 mA applied current that lasted 14 days. These experimental conditions were thereafter used to remediate more strongly contaminated sediments. Regardless of the initial heavy metal concentrations in the sediments, 67-87% Cu, 79-98% Cd, 90-97% Zn, and 91-96% Pb...

  20. A comparative study on Pb(II), Cd(II), Cu(II)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Co(II) while it decreased in the presence of Cu(II) in the studied range of concentration variation. Maximum Pb(II) .... size variation in the range of 2 to 10 nm. ...... Zinc-bromine Battery, Lead-acid and Lithium Batteries, Arsenic Remediation from.

  1. Leaching potential of pervious concrete and immobilization of Cu, Pb and Zn using pervious concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solpuker, U; Sheets, J; Kim, Y; Schwartz, F W

    2014-06-01

    This paper investigates the leaching potential of pervious concrete and its capacity for immobilizing Cu, Pb and Zn, which are common contaminants in urban runoff. Batch experiments showed that the leachability of Cu, Pb and Zn increased when pHconcrete might function to attenuate contaminant migration. A porous concrete block was sprayed with low pH water (pH=4.3±0.1) for 190 h. The effluent was highly alkaline (pH~10 to 12). In the first 50 h, specific conductance and trace-metal were high but declined towards steady state values. PHREEQC modeling showed that mixing of interstitial alkaline matrix waters with capillary pore water was required in order to produce the observed water chemistry. The interstitial pore solutions seem responsible for the high pH values and relatively high concentrations of trace metals and major cations in the early stages of the experiment. Finally, pervious concrete was sprayed with a synthetic contaminated urban runoff (10 ppb Cu, Pb and Zn) with a pH of 4.3±0.1 for 135 h. It was found that Pb immobilization was greater than either Cu or Zn. Zn is the most mobile among three and also has the highest variation in the observed degree of immobilization.

  2. Distribution of various forms of Cd, Pb and Cu in the Wadge Bank region (Arabian Sea)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    George, M.D.

    Labile, nonlabile and particulate forms of Cd,Pb and Cu were determined in 29 water samples collected from a depth of 5 m, from the Wadge Bank area. Labile Cd varied from 0.1 to 0.2 mu g.l-1 while nonlabile fraction was in the range 0.1 to 0.3 mu gl...

  3. Relation of Zn, Fe, Cu and Mn between progenies of mate-tree and soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Cava Guimarães

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The mate tea tree (Ilex Paraguariensis St. Hil. has considerable growth in acid a low fertility soils. The knowledge of soil and plant relation will contribute to genetic improvement programs, as highly capable progenies in nutrient acquisition may be selected. The objective of this study was to evaluate the interference of provenance and, or progenies, in relations established among the extractable contents of Zn, Fe, Cu and Mn, via Mehlich-1 (1:10; and EDTA (1%, with the corresponding contents in the mate tea tree leaves. In the experiment two provenances, Ivaí-PR and Barão de Cotegipe-RS, with five progenies each considered as treatments. The samples were distributed in four randomized blocks, totalizing 120 plant leaf samples, related to 120 soil samples of a Red Distrophic Latosol. The results were analyzed and fitted in regression equations. In Ivaí provenance Zn and Mn from the soil correlated with their contents in the leaves for progeny 04, for both extracts. For provenances 08 and 10, soil Mn via EDTA correlated with leaf Mn contents, while via Mehlich-1 only for progeny 10. In the provenance of Barão de Cotegipe, the correlations between soil and leaves for Zn, Fe and Cu occurred for the EDTA extract in the progenies 61, 65 and 69 respectively. For Mn and Cu, via Melich-1 the correlations occurred for progenies 53 and 69 respectively, and still for Cu, via EDTA, for progeny 53.

  4. Magnetic properties of Cu substituted NdMn{sub 2}Si{sub 2} intermetallics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmali, A.; Dincer, I.; Elerman, Y. [Ankara University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Engineering Physics, 06100 Besevler-Ankara (Turkey); Ehrenberg, H.; Fuess, H. [Institute for Materials Science, Darmstadt University of Technology, Petersenstrasse 23, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2005-05-01

    The structure and magnetic properties of NdMn{sub 2-x}Cu{sub x}Si{sub 2} (0.2{<=}x{<=}1) were studied by X-ray powder diffraction and magnetization measurements. In this study, we investigate the variations in the magnetic properties of NdMn{sub 2-x}Cu{sub x}Si{sub 2} as a function of Cu concentration by examining the evolution of the features in the temperature dependence of the magnetization. Earlier neutron diffraction experiments showed that the ferromagnetic Mn planes are ordered antiparallel along the c-axis below 380 K and the Nd sublattice orders at 33 K in NdMn{sub 2}Si{sub 2}. The ordering of the Nd sublattice reconfigures the ordering in Mn sublattice and leads to ferromagnetic ordering. With increasing amount of Cu, the Curie temperature has a maximum value of 120 K at x=0.7 and decreases for the samples with x{>=}0.8. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. Chemical effect on the K shell fluorescence yield of Fe, Mn, Co, Cr and Cu compounds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    U Turgut

    2004-11-01

    Chemical effects on the K shell fluorescence yields of Fe, Mn, Co, Cr and Cu compounds were investigated. Samples were excited using 59.5 keV energy photons from a 241Am radioisotope source. K X-rays emitted by samples were counted by a Si(Li) detector with a resolution 160 eV at 5.9 keV. Chemical effects on the K shell fluorescence yields (K) for Fe, Mn, Co, Cr and Cu compounds were observed. The values are compared with theoretical, semiempirical fit and experimental ones for the pure elements.

  6. Modeling and analysis of soybean (Glycine max. L Cu/Zn, Mn and Fe superoxide dismutases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ramana Gopavajhula

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1 is an important metal-containing antioxidant enzyme that provides the first line of defense against toxic superoxide radicals by catalyzing their dismutation to oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. SOD is classified into four metalloprotein isoforms, namely, Cu/Zn SOD, Mn SOD, Ni SOD and Fe SOD. The structural models of soybean SOD isoforms have not yet been solved. In this study, we describe structural models for soybean Cu/Zn SOD, Mn SOD and Fe SOD and provide insights into the molecular function of this metal-binding enzyme in improving tolerance to oxidative stress in plants.

  7. Differential tolerance of Agrostis tenuis populations growing at two mine soils to Cu, Zn, and Pb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karataglis, S.S.

    1980-01-01

    The Cu, Zn and Pb tolerance of Agrostis tenuis Sibth. populations found in the area of two mines in England as well as in uncontaminated areas were studied by determining the effect of these metals on the rooting of tillers. The populations proved tolerant to the particular metals present in high quantities in the soil of their original habitats as compared to the populations collected from uncontaminated soil. The populations of the Trelogan mine were tolerant only to Zn and not to Cu and Pb. On the contrary, the populations in the mine of Parys Mountain were highly tolerant to all these metals. A linear correlation in the index of tolerance between Zn and Pb in both mines was found suggesting the possibility of a physiological association of the tolerance mechanisms to these two elements.

  8. ASSESSMENT OF Pb, Cd, Cu AND Zn AVAILABILITY FOR PLANTS IN BAIA MARE MINING REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEVEI ERIKA-ANDREA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the mobility of heavy metals in soil from Baia Mare mining region, the total, water and DTPA extractable metal contents were determined. The results showed that despite the high total metals contents and the high percentages of plant available metals only a low percent was water soluble, indicating a potential accumulation of metals in trophic chain and a potential risk for public health. Among the investigated metals, the plant available Pb and Cd species are the most severe contaminants. Significant correlations between total and DTPA extractable metals were found for Cu (r=0.510 and Pb (0.418, and also an affinity between total and water extractable metals were identified for Cu (0.366, Pb (0.502 and Zn (0.597.

  9. Spectro-photometric determinations of Mn, Fe and Cu in aluminum master alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehan; Naveed, A.; Shan, A.; Afzal, M.; Saleem, J.; Noshad, M. A.

    2016-08-01

    Highly reliable, fast and cost effective Spectro-photometric methods have been developed for the determination of Mn, Fe & Cu in aluminum master alloys, based on the development of calibration curves being prepared via laboratory standards. The calibration curves are designed so as to induce maximum sensitivity and minimum instrumental error (Mn 1mg/100ml-2mg/100ml, Fe 0.01mg/100ml-0.2mg/100ml and Cu 2mg/100ml-10mg/ 100ml). The developed Spectro-photometric methods produce accurate results while analyzing Mn, Fe and Cu in certified reference materials. Particularly, these methods are suitable for all types of Al-Mn, Al-Fe and Al-Cu master alloys (5%, 10%, 50% etc. master alloys).Moreover, the sampling practices suggested herein include a reasonable amount of analytical sample, which truly represent the whole lot of a particular master alloy. Successive dilution technique was utilized to meet the calibration curve range. Furthermore, the workout methods were also found suitable for the analysis of said elements in ordinary aluminum alloys. However, it was observed that Cush owed a considerable interference with Fe, the later one may not be accurately measured in the presence of Cu greater than 0.01 %.

  10. Crystal field and low energy excitations measured by high resolution RIXS at the L edge of Cu, Ni and Mn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghiringhelli, G.; Piazzalunga, A.; Wang, X.;

    2009-01-01

    of the 3d transition metals with unprecedented energy resolution, of the order of 100 meV for Mn, Ni and Cu. We present here some preliminary spectra on CuO, malachite, NiO, , MnO and . The dd excitations are very well resolved allowing accurate experimental evaluation of 3d state energy splitting. The low...

  11. Paduan Ni-Cu-Mn Sebagai Logam Alternatif Kedokteran Gigi: Efek Perendaman dalam Larutan 0,1% Sodium Sulfida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Irawan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the ternary base alloys of nickel-copper-manganese (Ni-Cu-Mn alloys are prepared and these ternary alloys systems, which were constituted from higher nickel and lower copper contents than copper-base alloy ones, were evaluated by a tarnish test. Tarnish tests conducted in a 0,1% sodium sulphide solution (pH=12 at 37◦C. All test specimens were case into square paddles of 15 mm x 20 mm x 2,5 mm using the lost-wax technique with a phosphate-bonded investment. The surface of the specimens were then prepared with abrasion papers down to a 600 grit finish. Tarnish attack was quantitatively evaluated by Fibre colorimetry. The results of tarnish test showed that ternary nickel-copper-manganese alloys, such as 40Ni-30Cu-30Mn and 50Ni-30Cu-20Mn, have superior tarnishment resistance than other alloys, e.g. 20Ni-40Cu-40Mn, 30Ni-30Cu-40Mn and 30Ni-40Cu-30Mn. It was also found that 40Ni-30Cu-30Mn and 50Ni-30Cu-20Mn alloys have lower values of colour change vector than the other alloys given above.

  12. Comparison of serum Concentration of Se, Pb, Mg, Cu, Zn, between MS patients and healthy controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Anahita; Mehrpour, Omid; Nikkhah, Karim; Bayat, Golnaz; Espandani, Mahsa; Golzari, Alireza; Jarahi, Lida; Foroughipour, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is defined as one of the inflammatory autoimmune disorders and is common. Its exact etiology is unclear. There are some evidences on the role of environmental factors in susceptible genetics. The aim of this study is to evaluate the possible role of Selenium, Zinc, Copper, Lead and Magnesium metals in Multiple Sclerosis patients. Methods In the present analytical cross-sectional study, 56 individuals including 26 patients and 30 healthy controls were enrolled in the evaluation. The serum level of Se, Zn, Cu, Pb were quantified in graphite furnace conditions and flame conditions by utilizing an atomic absorption Perkin Elmer spectrophotometer 3030. The serum levels of Mg were measured by auto analyzer 1500 BT. The mean level of minerals (Zn, Pb, Cu, Mg, Se) in serum samples were compared in both cases and controls. The mean level of minerals (Zn, Pb, Cu, Mg, Se) in serum samples were compared in both cases and controls by using independent-samples t-test for normal distribution and Mann-Whitney U test as a non-parametric test. All statistical analyses were carried out using SPSS 11.0. Results As well as the Zn, Cu, and Se, there was no significant difference between MS patients and healthy individuals in Pb concentrations (p-value = 0.11, 0.14, 0.32, 0.20 respectively) but the level of Mg was significantly different (p= 0.001). Conclusion All serum concentrations of Zn, Pb, Se, Cu in both groups were in normal ranges and there was no difference in MS patients compared with the healthy group who were matched in genetics. Blood level of Mg was significantly lower in MS patients. But it should be noted that even with the low level of serum magnesium in MS patients, this value is still in the normal range. PMID:27757186

  13. Half-metallic antiferromagnetism in double perovskite BiPbCrCuO{sub 6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weng, Ke-Chuan [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Wang, Y. K., E-mail: kant@ntnu.edu.tw [Center for General Education and Department of Physics, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2015-05-07

    The electronic structure and magnetic properties of BiPbCrCuO{sub 6} double perovskite are investigated based on first-principles density functional calculations with generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and GGA incorporated with Coulomb correlation interaction U (GGA + U). The results suggest the half-metallic (HM) and antiferromagnetic (AFM) properties of BiPbCrCuO{sub 6} double perovskite. The HM-AFM property of the double perovskite is caused by the double-exchange mechanism between neighboring Cr{sup 5+}(t{sub 2g}{sup 1}↓) and Cu{sup 2+}(t{sub 2g}{sup 3}↑t{sub 2g}{sup 3}↓e{sub g}{sup 2}↑e{sub g}↓) via the intermediate O{sup 2−}(2s{sup 2}2p{sup 6}) ion.

  14. Studies on Electronic Structure and Magnetic Properties of an Organic Magnet with Metallic Mn2+ and Cu2+ Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Jian-Guo; PENG Guang-Xiong

    2004-01-01

    The electronic structure and the magnetic properties of the non-pure organic ferromagnetic compound MnCu(pbaOH)(H2O)3 with pbaOH = 2-hydroxy-1, 3-propylenebis (oxamato) are studied by using the density-functional theory with local-spin-density approximation. The density of states, total energy, and the spin magnetic moment are calculated. The calculations reveal that the compound MnCu(pbaOH)(H20)3 has a stable metal-ferromagnetic ground state, and the spin magnetic moment per molecule is 2.208 μB, and the spin magnetic moment is mainly from Mn ion and Cu ion. An antiferromagnetic order is expected and the antiferromagnetic exchange interaction of d-electrons of Cu and Mn passes through the antiferromagnetic interaction between the adjacent C, O, and N atoms along the path linking the atoms Cu and Mn.

  15. Size-dependent dual emission of Cu,Mn:ZnSe QDs: Controlling both emission wavelength and intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shuhong; Jiang, Han; Dong, Renjie; Lv, Changgui; Wang, Chunlei; Cui, Yiping

    2017-06-01

    Cu,Mn:ZnSe quantum dots (QDs) of tunable size, controllable photoluminescence (PL) intensity ratio and PL range were prepared. A study of the experimental conditions confirmed that the size of Cu,Mn:ZnSe QDs is affected by the pH of the solution, the speed at which the Zn solution is injected and the reaction temperature. In general, high pH, low injection speed and high reaction temperature are optimal for preparing large QDs. Based on this knowledge, different sizes of Cu,Mn:ZnSe QDs were synthesized. Moreover, white emission Cu,Mn:ZnSe QDs were designed by controlling the experimental conditions and the feeding mole ratio of Mn:Cu. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Effect of Cu surface segregation on the exchange coupling field of NiFe/FeMn bilayers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The NiFe/FeMn bilayers with different buffer layers (Ta or Ta/Cu) were prepared by magnetron sputtering.Results show that the exchange coupling field of NiFe/FeMn films with Ta buffer is higher than that of the films with Ta/ Cu buffer. We analysed the reasons by investigating the crystallographic texture, surface roughness and surface segregation of both films, respectively. We found that the decrease of the exchange coupling fields of NiFe/FeMn films with Ta/Cu buffer layers was mainly caused by the Cu surface segregation on NiFe surface.

  17. Synthesis, structure, magnetic, electrical and electrochemical properties of Al, Cu and Mg doped MnO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashem, Ahmed M., E-mail: ahmedh242@yahoo.com [National Research Centre, Inorganic Chemistry Department, Behoes St., Dokki, Cairo (Egypt); Institute for Complex Materials, IFW Dresden, Helmholtzstr. 20, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); Abuzeid, Hanaa M. [National Research Centre, Inorganic Chemistry Department, Behoes St., Dokki, Cairo (Egypt); Narayanan, N. [Institute for Complex Materials, IFW Dresden, Helmholtzstr. 20, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); Ehrenberg, Helmut [Institute for Complex Materials, IFW Dresden, Helmholtzstr. 20, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); Materials Science, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Petersenstr. 23, D-64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Julien, C.M. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Physicochimie des Electrolytes, Colloides et Sciences Analytiques (PECSA), 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France)

    2011-10-17

    Highlights: {yields} Al, Mg and Cu doped MnO{sub 2} as cathode in Li-ion batteries. {yields} Pure phase MnO{sub 2} for virgin and doped MnO{sub 2} were obtained. {yields} Doping elements improve the electrical conductivity of MnO{sub 2}. {yields} Electrochemical behaviour of MnO{sub 2} improved after doping by Al, Mg and Cu. - Abstract: Pure and doped manganese dioxides were prepared by wet-chemical method using fumaric acid and potassium permanganate as raw materials. X-ray diffraction patterns show that pure and Al, Cu and Mg doped manganese dioxides (d-MnO{sub 2}) crystallized in the cryptomelane-MnO{sub 2} structure. Thermal analysis show that, with the assistance of potassium ions inside the 2 x 2 tunnel, the presence of Al, Cu and Mg doping elements increases the thermal stability of d-MnO{sub 2}. The electrical conductivity of d-MnO{sub 2} increases in comparison with pure MnO{sub 2}, while Al-doped MnO{sub 2} exhibits the lower resistivity. As shown in the magnetic measurements, the value of the experimental effective magnetic moment of Mn ions decreases with introduction of dopants, which is attributed to the presence of a mixed valency of high-spin state Mn{sup 4+}/Mn{sup 3+}. Doped MnO{sub 2} materials show good capacity retention in comparison with virgin MnO{sub 2}. Al-doped MnO{sub 2} shows the best electrochemical results in terms of capacity retention and recharge efficiency.

  18. Large exchange bias enhancement in (Pt(or Pd)/Co)/IrMn/Co trilayers with ultrathin IrMn thanks to interfacial Cu dusting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinai, G. [SPINTEC, UMR 8191 CEA/CNRS/UJF/Grenoble-INP, CEA/INAC, 17, rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France); Crocus Technology, 4 Place Robert Schuman, 38054 Grenoble (France); Moritz, J. [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR 7198 CNRS - Université de Lorraine, Bd des Aiguillettes, BP 70239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France); Bandiera, S. [Crocus Technology, 4 Place Robert Schuman, 38054 Grenoble (France); Prejbeanu, I. L.; Dieny, B. [SPINTEC, UMR 8191 CEA/CNRS/UJF/Grenoble-INP, CEA/INAC, 17, rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France)

    2014-04-21

    The magnitude of exchange bias (H{sub ex}) at room temperature can be significantly enhanced in IrMn/Co and (Pt(or Pd)/Co)/IrMn/Co structures thanks to the insertion of an ultrathin Cu dusting layer at the IrMn/Co interface. The combination of trilayer structure and interfacial Cu dusting leads to a three-fold increase in H{sub ex} as compared to the conventional IrMn/Co bilayer structure, with an increased blocking temperature (T{sub B}) and a concave curvature of the temperature dependence H{sub ex}(T), ideal for improved Thermally Assisted-Magnetic Random Access Memory storage layer. This exchange bias enhancement is ascribed to a reduction of the spin frustration at the IrMn/Co interface thanks to interfacial Cu addition.

  19. Investigation of thermal, mechanical and magnetic behaviors of the Cu-11%Al alloy with Ag and Mn additions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, R.A.G., E-mail: galdino.ricardo@gmail.com [Departamento de Ciencias Exatas e da Terra-UNIFESP, Diadema-SP (Brazil); Paganotti, A.; Gama, S. [Departamento de Ciencias Exatas e da Terra-UNIFESP, Diadema-SP (Brazil); Adorno, A.T.; Carvalho, T.M.; Santos, C.M.A. [Instituto de Quimica - UNESP, Araraquara-SP (Brazil)

    2013-01-15

    The investigation of thermal, mechanical and magnetic behaviors of the Cu-11%Al, Cu-11%Al-3%Ag, Cu-11%Al-10%Mn and Cu-11%Al-10%Mn-3%Ag alloys was made using microhardness measurements, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersion X-ray spectroscopy and magnetic moment change with applied field measurement. The results indicated that the Mn addition changes the phase stability range, the microhardness values and makes undetectable the eutectoid reaction in annealed Cu-11%Al and Cu-11%Al-3%Ag alloys while the presence of Ag does not modify the phase transformation sequence neither microhardness values of the annealed Cu-11%Al and Cu-11%Al-10%Mn alloys, but it increases the magnetic moment of this latter at about 2.7 times and decreases the rates of eutectoid and peritectoid reactions of the former. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The microstructure of Cu-Al alloy is modified in the Ag presence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ({alpha} + {gamma}) phase is stabilized down to room temperature when Ag is added to Cu-Al alloy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ag-rich phase modifies the magnetic characteristics of Cu-Al-Mn alloy.

  20. New type of Schottky diode-based Cu-Al-Mn-Cr shape memory material films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksu Canbay, C.; Dere, A.; Mensah-Darkwa, Kwadwo; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed; Karagoz Genç, Z.; Gupta, R. K.; Yakuphanoglu, F.

    2016-07-01

    Cr-doped CuAlMn shape memory alloys were produced by arc melting method. The effects of Cr content on microstructure and transformation parameters of were investigated. The alloys were characterized by X-ray analysis, optical microscope observations and differential scanning calorimetry measurements. The grain size of the alloys was decreased by the addition of Cr into CuAlMn alloy system. The martensite transformation temperature was shifted both the lower temperature and higher temperature with the addition of chromium. This change was explained on the basis of the change in the thermodynamics such as enthalpy, entropy and activation energy values. The obtained results indicate that the phase transformation temperatures of the CuAlMn alloy system can be controlled by addition of Cr. We fabricated a Schottky barrier diode and observed that ideality factor and barrier height increase with increasing temperature. The diodes exhibited a thermal sensor behavior. This indicates that Schottky diode-based Cu-Al-Mn-Cr shape memory material films can be used as a sensor in high-temperature measurement applications.

  1. Photoconductivity of Polymer Composite Films Containing an Mn(III)/Cu(II) Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidenko, N. A.; Kokozay, V. N.; Petrusenko, S. R.; Stetsyuk, O. N.; Studzinsky, S. L.; Davidenko, I. I.

    2013-11-01

    We have studied the optical, photoelectric and dielectric properties of polymer composite films based on polyvinyl butyral with additives of a mixed-metal Mn(III)/Cu(II) complex. We observed high photoconductivity of the films obtained in the region of absorption by the complex. The slow photocurrent rise and relaxation kinetics are connected with the low mobility of the photogenerated charge carriers.

  2. Assessment of the Bioavailability of Cu, Pb, and Zn through Petunia axillaris in Contaminated Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Bondareva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are potentially toxic to human life and the environment. Metal toxicity depends on chemical associations in soils. For this reason, determining the chemical form of a metal in soils is important to evaluate its mobility and the potential accumulation. The aim of this examination is to evaluate the accumulation potential of Petunia x hybrida as a flower crop for three metals, namely, copper (Cu, lead (Pb, and nickel (Ni. Trace metals (Zn, Cu, and Pb in the soils were partitioned by a sequential extraction procedure into H2O extractable (F1, 1 M CH3COONa extractable (F2. Chemical fractionation showed that F1 and F2 fraction of the metals were near 1% and residue was the dominant form for Zn, Cu, and Pb in all samples. Using fluorescence method allowed us to estimate condition of the plants by adding metals. As result of plant and soil analysis, we can conclude that Petunia has Cu, Zn, and Ni tolerance and accumulation. Therefore, Petunia has the potential to serve as a model species for developing herbaceous, ornamental plants for phytoremediation.

  3. Alloyed Mn-Cu-In-S nanocrystals: a new type of diluted magnetic semiconductor quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qinghui; Deng, Ruiping; Ji, Xiangling; Pan, Daocheng

    2012-06-29

    A new type of Mn-Cu-In-S diluted magnetic semiconductor quantum dots was synthesized and reported for the first time. The quantum dots, with no highly toxic elements, not only show the same classic diluted magnetic behavior as Mn-doped CdSe, but also exhibit tunable luminescent properties in a relatively large window from 542 to 648 nm. An absolute photoluminescence quantum yield up to 20% was obtained after the shell growth of ZnS. This kind of magnetic/luminescent bi-functional Mn-Cu-In-S/ZnS core/shell quantum dot might serve as promising nanoprobes for use in dual-mode optical and magnetic resonance imaging techniques.

  4. Self-organization of Pb thin films on Cu(111) induced by quantum size effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dil, J. H.; Kim, J. W.; Gokhale, S.; Tallarida, M.; Horn, K.

    2004-07-01

    Electron confinement in thin films of Pb on Cu(111) leads to the formation of quantum well states, formed out of the upper valence band of Pb. Their evolution as a function of film thickness is characterized in angle-resolved photoemission and can be interpreted in terms of a straightforward quantum well model. This permits an identification of film growth mode at low temperatures. Bringing the films into thermal equilibrium by annealing induces strong changes in the spectra. Their interpretation demonstrates that specific “magic” layers are preferred because of total energy minimization induced by the arrangement of quantum well states with respect to the Fermi level.

  5. Ca, Mg, Zn, Fe, Cu and Mn content of ass’s milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Salimei

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine Ca, Mg, Zn, Fe, Cu and Mn content of ass’s milk. Twenty four individual milk samples were collected from 4 lactating asses. During the experi- mental period milk samples were collected every 3 weeks interval, using a milking machine; asses were housed with the foals that were separated from the jennets 3 hours before milking. Milk was analysed for Ca, Mg, Zn, Fe, Cu and Mn content by atomic absorption spectrometry. The concentration mean (±SD of Ca Mg, Zn, Fe, and Cu were respectively 334.61±39.80, 58.46±8.43, 1.99±0.51, 1.15±0.52, 0.16±0.06 mg/kg. Mn was found only at trace level. Iron content of ass’s milk was the most variable ranging from 0.43 to 1.88 mg/kg. Correlation coefficients were positive and significant between Ca and Mg (r=0.63, Zn and Mg (r=0.45, Zn and Fe (r=0.49 and Zn and Cu (r=0.50. In this study, except for Fe, mean concentration of Ca, Mg, Zn, and Cu in ass’s milk was similar to those reported in literature for human milk.

  6. Electron scattering mechanisms in Cu-Mn films for interconnect applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misják, F.; Nagy, K. H.; Radnóczi, G. [Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-1525 Budapest, P.O. Box 49, Hungary, (Hungary); Lobotka, P. [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2014-08-28

    Electrical properties and corresponding structural features of Cu-Mn alloy films with potential application as barrier and interconnect layers were studied. Cu-Mn films were deposited by DC magnetron sputtering at room temperature on SiO{sub 2} substrates. Electrical resistivity measurements were made as a function of film composition and temperature. The specific resistivity varies linearly with the Mn content showing a maximum of 205 μΩcm at 80 at. % Mn. The temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) of all alloy films is low, showing non-metallic conductivity for most compositions. Also a minimum TCR has been observed in the 40–80 at. % Mn range which was attributed to a magnetic transformation around 200–300 K. Electrical resistivity measurements are correlated with the film structure revealed by transmission electron microscopy to clarify the phase regions throughout the composition range. In the 20–40 at. % and 70–80 at. % Mn ranges, two-phase structures were identified, where Cu- or Mn-rich solid solution grains were surrounded by a thin amorphous covering layer. Based on the revealed phase regions and morphologies electron scattering mechanisms in the system were evaluated by combining the Matthiessen's rule and the Mayadas-Schatzkes theory. Grain boundary reflectivity coefficients (r = 0.6–0.8) were calculated from fitting the model to the measurements. The proposed model indicates that, in a binary system, the special arrangement of the two phases results in new scattering mechanisms. The results are of value in optimizing the various parameters needed to produce a suitable barrier layer.

  7. Effect of MnCuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} content on magnetic and dielectric properties of poly (O-Phenylenediamine)/MnCuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannapiran, Nagarajan [PG and Research Department of Chemistry, Sri Ramakrishna Mission Vidyalaya College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore 641020, Tamil Nadu (India); Muthusamy, Athianna, E-mail: muthusrkv@gmail.com [PG and Research Department of Chemistry, Sri Ramakrishna Mission Vidyalaya College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore 641020, Tamil Nadu (India); Chitra, Palanisamy [PG and Research Department of Chemistry, Sri Ramakrishna Mission Vidyalaya College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore 641020, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2016-03-01

    Poly o-phenylenediamine (PoPD)/MnCuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocomposites with three different ratios of MnCuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (10%, 20%, 30% w/w) were synthesized by in-situ oxidative chemical polymerization method ammonium persulphate used as oxidant, while MnCuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles was prepared by auto-combustion method. The structure, morphology and magnetic properties of synthesized PoPD/MnCuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocomposites were characterized by FT-IR, UV–visible absorption spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). FTIR spectra and XRD were confirmed the formation of the PoPD/MnCuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocomposites. The morphology of PoPD/MnCuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocomposites is visualized through SEM and TEM. The spherical morphology of the PoPD was confirmed using SEM analysis. Dielectric properties of PoPD/MnCuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocomposites at different temperatures have been performed in the frequency range of 50 Hz–5 MHz. The optical absorption experiments of PoPD/MnCuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocomposites reveal that the direct transition with an energy band gap is around 2 eV. - Highlights: • Green synthesis of PoPD (the polymerization carried out only in aqueous medium) by in-situ chemical polymerization method. • For the first time, PoPD incorporated with MnCuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} with lesser particle size. • The auto combustion reaction, support to achieve less particle size. • Ferrite content affects the magnetic properties of the nanocomposites.

  8. Mechanisms of wear in single- and two-phase materials: Final report. [Cu, Pb, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, Pb borosilicate glass, SiC (Pb-Cu), (Pb-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/), (glass-Cu), (glass-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macmillan, N.H.

    1987-11-01

    A comparative study has been made of the rolling-tumbling-sliding wear and solid particle erosion behavior of four single-phase materials (Cu, Pb, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, and a lead borosilicate glass and of series of ductile-ductile (Pb-Cu), ductile-brittle (Pb-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/), brittle-ductile (glass-Cu), and brittle-brittle (glass-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/) composites prepared from them. The same irregularly shaped 600 ..mu..m WC-8 wt.% Co abrasive particles were used throughout this work. Additional erosion measurements have been made on Danto Koruntz, Abresist, and sintered ..cap alpha..-SiC, using similar particles. Some subtle influences of erosive particle wear are documented for the first time, and the inadequacy of the currently available theoretical models to describe the influence of microstructure on erosion is exposed. 77 refs., 154 figs.

  9. Uptake and accumulation of potentially toxic metals (Zn, Cu and Pb) in soils and plants of Durgapur industrial belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisku, Ganesh Chandra; Pandey, Poonam; Negi, Mahendra Pratap Singh; Misra, Virendra

    2011-11-01

    Uptake and accumulation of metals in crops may cause possible health risks through food chain. A field survey was conducted to investigate the accumulation of potentially toxic metals contamination in soil and plants irrigated with complexed industrial effluents. Concentration of Zn, Cu and Pb was 205-255,101-130,118-177 microg g(-1) in rhizosphere soils and 116-223, 57-102 and 63-95 microg g(-1) d. wt. in root and 95-186, 44-75 and 27-58 microg g(-1) d. wt. in shoot, respectively. The trend in Cu and Pb was in the order: soil > root > shoot > seed while in Zn it was soil > root > seed > shoot. Roots accumulated a larger fraction of soil Cu (70%) > Zn (67%) > Pb (54%). Bioaccumulation coefficient of soil to root ranged from 51-98 for Zn, 54-85 for Cu and 43-63 for Pb.Analysis of variance showed marginal change in bioaccumulation coefficient, noticed between plants (p > 0.05) while it varied significantly (p shoot > seed/fruit) while decreased between metals from Zn to Pb (Zn > Cu > Pb). Out of the three, two Cu and Pb accumulated to phyotoxic levels while Zn was within threshold limit of phytotoxicity.

  10. Transformation of tetracyclines mediated by Mn(II) and Cu(II) ions in the presence of oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wan-Ru; Huang, Ching-Hua

    2009-01-15

    Complexation of tetracyclines (TCs) with dissolved Mn(II) and Cu(II) ions were found to significantly enhance the transformation of these antibiotics in the presence of oxygen at pH 8-9.5 and pH 4-6, respectively. In the TC-Mn(II)-O2 system, oxidation of the TC-complexed Mn(II) to Mn(III) by oxygen occurs, followed by oxidation of TC by Mn(III) to regenerate Mn(II). In the TC-Cu(II)-O2 system, Cu(II) oxidizes TC within the complex and the yielded Cu(I) is reoxidized by the present oxygen. Opposite reactivity trends were observed with the two metals: OTC (oxytetracycline) > TTC (tetracycline) > iso-CTC (iso-chlorotetracycline) for the Mn(II)-mediated reaction, whereas CTC > TTC > OTC > epimers for the Cu(II)-mediated reaction. The reactivity results and examination of TC-metal ion complexation and transformation products suggest that the BCD-ring and A-ring of TC are crucial to interact with Mn(II) and Cu(II), respectively. This study highlights that the fate of TCs in aquatic environments may differ significantly by their strong interactions with different metal species present in the systems.

  11. A Study of Occurrences of Ag in Pb-Zn-Cu Ore Deposits in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A systematic study of occurrences of silver in 156 Pb-Zn-Cu ore deposits indicates that silver mainly occurs in nonferrous metal ore deposits in forms of association and paragenesis. It occurs mainly as independent minerals in nature and occasionally as ion adsorption, isomorphous or amorphous silver minerals. Nearly 190 silver minerals have been discovered in China. Their shapes, constituents, textures, grain sizes, embedded types, distribution patterns, mineral assemblages and metallogenic series suggest that these characteristics are closely related to geneses of deposits and dependent of ore-forming conditions. Pb, Zn and Cu sulphides are the main carrier minerals of silver. The partition of silver in ore is constrained by the mineralization intensity, grain size and embedded form of silver minerals and mineral assemblages.

  12. Monte-Carlo simulation of {Pb}/{Cu (100) } surface superstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, S.; Ghazali, A.; Lévy, J.-C. S.

    1997-04-01

    Three surface superstructures of {Pb}/{Cu (100) } at low lead coverage are well known experimentally: c(4 × 4),c(2 × 2) and c(5√2×√2)R45°. The present study consists in (i) using generalized Lennard-Jones pair potentials for lead-lead and copper-copper interactions fitted on structural and elastic bulk properties, (ii) deriving an effective potential for lead-copper and (iii) developing a Monte-Carlo extensive relaxation of superstructure models. The MC simulations reveal the stability of these approximate superstructures and yield structural details that are all observed in STM and LEED experiments: the adlayer corrugation, surface alloying, structural modulations as well as PbPb and PbCu spacings. The simulated results on structures and on melting temperatures are in close agreement with experimental data.

  13. The effect of intermetallic compound morphology on Cu diffusion in Sn-Ag and Sn-Pb solder bump on the Ni/Cu Under-bump metallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Guh-Yaw; Duh, Jenq-Gong

    2005-01-01

    The eutectic Sn-Ag solder alloy is one of the candidates for the Pb-free solder, and Sn-Pb solder alloys are still widely used in today’s electronic packages. In this tudy, the interfacial reaction in the eutectic Sn-Ag and Sn-Pb solder joints was investigated with an assembly of a solder/Ni/Cu/Ti/Si3N4/Si multilayer structures. In the Sn-3.5Ag solder joints reflowed at 260°C, only the (Ni1-x,Cux)3Sn4 intermetallic compound (IMC) formed at the solder/Ni interface. For the Sn-37Pb solder reflowed at 225°C for one to ten cycles, only the (Ni1-x,Cux)3Sn4 IMC formed between the solder and the Ni/Cu under-bump metallization (UBM). Nevertheless, the (Cu1-y,Niy)6Sn5 IMC was observed in joints reflowed at 245°C after five cycles and at 265°C after three cycles. With the aid of microstructure evolution, quantitative analysis, and elemental distribution between the solder and Ni/Cu UBM, it was revealed that Cu content in the solder near the solder/IMC interface played an important role in the formation of the (Cu1-y,Niy)6Sn5 IMC. In addition, the diffusion behavior of Cu in eutectic Sn-Ag and Sn-Pb solders with the Ni/Cu UBM were probed and discussed. The atomic flux of Cu diffused through Ni was evaluated by detailed quantitative analysis in an electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA). During reflow, the atomic flux of Cu was on the order of 1016-1017 atoms/cm2sec in both the eutectic Sn-Ag and Sn-Pb systems.

  14. Investigation of Pb, Cd, Cu and Mg Concentrations in Groundwater Resources of Razan Plain

    OpenAIRE

    S. Sobhan Ardakani; M. Maanijou; Asadi, H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction & Objective: Iran is located in the dry and semi dry regions, thus almost 90% of the required fresh water is exploited from groundwater resources. Due to the increasing pol-lution of water resources, the purpose of this study was evaluation of Pb, Cd, Cu and Mg concentrations in groundwater resources of Razan Plain and preparing the zoning map using GIS. Materials & Methods: Groundwater samples were collected from 20 selected stations during two seasons in 2012. The samples were ...

  15. EDTA and citric acid mediated phytoextraction of Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd through marigold (Tagetes erecta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinhal, V K; Srivastava, Alok; Singh, V P

    2010-05-01

    Phytoextraction is an emerging cost-effective solution for remediation of contaminated soils which involves the removal of toxins, especially heavy metals and metalloids, by the roots of the plants with subsequent transport to aerial plant organs. The aim of the present investigation is to study the effects of EDTA and citric acid on accumulation potential of marigold (Tagetes erecta) to Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd and also to evaluate the impacts of these chelators (EDTA and citric acid) in combination with all the four heavy metals on the growth of marigold. The plants were grown in pots and treated with Zn (7.3 mg l(-1)), Cu (7.5 mg I(-1)), Pb (3.7 mg l(-1)) and Cd (0.2 mg l(-1)) alone and in combination with different doses of EDTA i.e., 10, 20 and 30 mg l(-1). All the three doses of EDTA i.e., 10, 20 and 30 mg l(-1) significantly increased the accumulation of Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd by roots, stems and leaves as compared to control treatments. The 30 mg l(-1) concentration of citric acid showed reduced accumulation of these metals by root, stem and leaves as compared to lower doses i.e., 10 and 20 mg l(-1). Among the four heavy metals, Zn accumulated in the great amount (526.34 mg kg(-1) DW) followed by Cu (443.14 mg kg(-1) DW), Pb (393.16 mg kg(-1) DW) and Cd (333.62 mg kg(-1) DW) in leaves with 30 mg l(-1) EDTA treatment. The highest concentration of EDTA and citric acid (30 mg l(-1)) caused significant reduction in growth of marigold in terms of plant height, fresh weight of plant, total chlorophyll, carbohydrate content and protein content. Thus EDTA and citric acid efficiently increased the phytoextractability of marigold which can be used to remediate the soil contaminated with these metals.

  16. Density Of The Copper-Rich Cu-Pb-Fe Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sak T.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Density of the copper-rich corner of the ternary Cu-Pb-Fe alloys was determined with the dilatometric method. Investigated alloys had constant copper content equal to 0.9, 0.8 and 0.7 mole fraction, and varied iron concentration up to 0.1 mole fraction. A model predicting the density of ternary solution from knowledge of density of pure component and the excess of molar volume for limiting binaries is proposed.

  17. Structural and magnetic modulations in CaCu(x)Mn(7 - x)O(12).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sławiński, W; Przeniosło, R; Sosnowska, I; Bieringer, M

    2010-05-12

    Low temperature atomic position modulations and magnetic moment modulations are reported for CaCu(x)Mn(7 - x)O(12) (x = 0.0, 0.1 and 0.23) using neutron powder diffraction. Both modulations are described with propagation vectors (0, 0, q) parallel to the c-axis in the hexagonal setting. The present neutron diffraction studies confirm the quantitative model describing the atomic position modulations in CaCu(x)Mn(7 - x)O(12) (x = 0.0 and 0.1) as derived from synchrotron based powder x-ray diffraction studies (Sławiński et al 2009 Acta Crystallogr. B 65 535). Neutron diffraction studies confirm the relation between the atomic position modulation length L(p) and the magnetic modulation length L(m) = 2L(p) between 50 K and the Néel temperature T(N). CaCu(x)Mn(7 - x)O(12) (x = 0.1 and 0.23) shows a magnetic phase transition near 50 K associated with considerable changes of the magnetic modulation length and the magnetic coherence length, similar to that observed in the parent CaMn(7)O(12).

  18. Role of microbial inoculation and chitosan in phytoextraction of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd by Elsholtzia splendens - a field case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Fayuan [Agricultural College, Henan University of Science and Technology, 70 Tianjin Road, Luoyang, Henan Province 471003 (China) and Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210008 (China)]. E-mail: wfy1975@163.com; Lin Xiangui [Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210008 (China); Yin Rui [Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210008 (China)

    2007-05-15

    A field experiment was carried out to study the effect of microbial inoculation on heavy metal phytoextraction by Elsholtzia splendens and whether chitosan could have a synergistic effect with the microbial inocula. The microbial inocula consisted of a consortium of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and two Penicillium fungi. Three treatments were included: the control, inoculation with microbial inocula, and the inoculation combined with chitosan. Microbial inoculation increased plant biomass especially shoot dry weight, enhanced shoot Cu, Zn and Pb concentrations but did not affect Cd, leading to higher shoot Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd uptake. Compared with microbial inoculation alone, chitosan application did not affect plant growth but increased shoot Zn, Pb and Cd concentrations except Cu, which led to higher phytoextraction efficiencies and partitioning to shoots of Zn, Pb and Cd. These results indicated synergistic effects between microbial inocula and chitosan on Zn, Pb and Cd phytoextraction. - Co-application of microbial inocula and chitosan enhanced heavy metal phytoextraction by E. splendens.

  19. Adsorption of Cu2+ and Pb2+ ion on dolomite powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehlivan, Erol; Ozkan, Ali Müjdat; Dinç, Salih; Parlayici, Serife

    2009-08-15

    Natural Turkish dolomite was shown to be effective for removing Cu(2+) and Pb(2+) from aqueous solution. Selected information on pH, dose required, initial metal concentration, adsorption capacity of the raw dolomite powder was evaluated for its efficiency in adsorbing metal ions. Dolomite exhibited good Cu(2+) and Pb(2+) removal levels at all initial metal amount tested (0.04-0.32 mmol, 20 mL). It is important to note that the adsorption capacities of the materials in equilibrium vary, depending on the characteristics of the individual adsorbent, the initial concentration of the adsorbate and pH of the solution. One hour was enough for the removal of metal ions from (0.2 mmol in 20 mL) aqueous solution. Effective removal of metal ions was demonstrated at pH values of 5.0. The adsorptive behavior of dolomite was described by fitting data generated from the study of the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The adsorption capacity of dolomite was found as 8.26 mg for Cu(2+) and 21.74 mg for Pb(2+), respectively, from the calculation of adsorption isotherm equation. More than 85% of studied cations were removed by dolomite from aqueous solution in single step. The mechanism for cations removal by dolomite includes surface complexation and ion exchange.

  20. Pb, Cu and Cd distribution in five estuary systems of Marche, central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annibaldi, Anna; Illuminati, Silvia; Truzzi, Cristina; Libani, Giulia; Scarponi, Giuseppe

    2015-07-15

    Heavy metals are subjected to monitoring in estuarine and marine water by the European Union Water Framework Directive, which requires water body health to be achieved by 2021. This is the first survey of heavy metals content in five estuaries of Marche, a region in central Italy. Results showed that total Pb and Cu concentrations decreased by 70-80%, from 1000-2000 to 100-200 ng L(-1) (Pb) and from 2000-3000 to 500-1000 ng L(-1) (Cu) from river to sea. Cd was consistently 20-40 ng L(-1). Dissolved Pb and Cu concentrations declined by 50% and 70% respectively passing from oligohaline to euhaline water, from 150 to 70 ng L(-1) and from 2000-1000 to 600-400 ng L(-1). Cd decreased slightly from ∼20 to ∼10 ng L(-1). Although such concentrations are in the range allowed by the Water Framework Directive, they far exceed (up to 10×) the ground content ceiling set for 2021. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Removal of metal ions Cu2+, Cd+ and Pb+ from solutions by sorption on slag].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao; Hou, Wen-hua; Wang, Qun-hui

    2009-10-15

    Batch experiments were carried out to investigate the adsorption kinetics and thermodynamic characteristics of heavy metal ions Cu2+, Cd2+ and Pb2+ on the electric are furnace (EAF) slag from Baoshan Steel Factory. Several kinds of techniques including XRD analysis, BET specific surface analysis and SEM/EDS analysis were employed to determine the physico-chemical and surface characteristics of slag. Results indicated that the adsorption rate of heavy metal ions on the EAF slag was relatively high, and the sorption rate followed the order Cd2+ > Pb2+ > Cu2+. The adsorption kinetics obeyed first-order kinetics model (R2 > 0.99). Adsorption isotherm experiment showed that adsorption isotherm of heavy metal ions on slag fitted Langmuir model, and the maximum adsorption capacity of Cu2+, Cd2+ and Pb2+ was 0.101, 0.058 and 0.120 mmol x g(-1), respectively. The adsorption of heavy metal ions on slag was a spontaneous reaction (deltaG0 0). The effect of enthopy was the main driving force of the spontaneous adsorption reaction. The analysis results of SEM/EDS revealed the changes of surface morphology and chemical proportion before and after adsorption. Due to low-cost and high-efficiency, electric are furnace slag showed great potential for the treatment of heavy metal polluted wastewaters.

  2. Synthesis and Electrochemical Characterization of M2Mn3O8 (M=Ca,Cu) Compounds and Derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yong Joon; Doeff, Marca M.

    2005-08-25

    M{sub 2}Mn{sub 3}O{sub 8} (M=Ca{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}) compounds were synthesized and characterized in lithium cells. The M{sup 2+} cations, which reside in the van der Waal's gaps between adjacent sheets of Mn{sub 3}O{sub 8}{sup 4-}, may be replaced chemically (by ion-exchange) or electrochemically with Li. More than 7 Li{sup +}/Cu{sub 2}Mn{sub 3}O{sub 8} may be inserted electrochemically, with concomitant reduction of Cu{sup 2+} to Cu metal, but less Li can be inserted into Ca{sub 2}Mn{sub 3}O{sub 8}. In the case of Cu{sup 2+}, this process is partially reversible when the cell is charged above 3.5 V vs. Li, but intercalation of Cu{sup +} rather than Cu{sup 2+} and Li{sup +}/Cu{sup +} exchange occurs during the subsequent discharge. If the cell potential is kept below 3.4 V, the Li in excess of 4Li{sup +}/Cu{sub 2}Mn{sub 3}O{sub 8} can be cycled reversibly. The unusual mobility of +2 cations in a layered structure has important implications both for the design of cathodes for Li batteries and for new systems that could be based on M{sup 2+} intercalation compounds.

  3. Investigation of electronic structure, magnetic and transport properties of half-metallic Mn2CuSi and Mn2ZnSi Heusler alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Idris Hamid; Yousuf, Saleem; Mohiuddin Bhat, Tahir; Gupta, Dinesh C.

    2015-12-01

    The electronic and magnetic properties of Mn2CuSi and Mn2ZnSi Heusler alloys have been investigated using full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method. The optimized equilibrium lattice parameters in stable F-43m configuration are found to be 5.75 Å for Mn2CuSi and 5.80 Å for Mn2ZnSi. Spin-resolved calculations show that the Mn atoms at inequivalent Wyckoff positions have different contributions to the total magnetic moment in the unit cell. The anti-parallel magnetic moments of inequivalent Mn atoms sum to an integer with total magnetic moment per unit cell. The 100% spin-polarization at Fermi energy together with the total magnetic moment of 1.0 μB for Mn2CuSi and 2.0 μB for Mn2ZnSi per unit cell, predict that the materials follow MT=ZT - 28 Slater-Pauling rule. Both the materials under study exhibit half-metallicity with an energy gap in the spin-down channels. In the study, we predict a rather fine value of Seebeck coefficient. Further, the decreasing electrical conductivity with temperature shows a metallic character in spin-up configurations, while the electrical conductivity of spin-down states follows a semiconductor-like trend.

  4. Structural, optical, dielectric and antibacterial studies of Mn doped Zn0.96Cu0.04O nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangeetha, R; Muthukumaran, S; Ashokkumar, M

    2015-06-05

    Zn(0.96-x)Cu0.04Mn(x)O (0⩽x⩽0.04) nanoparticles were synthesized by sol-gel method. The X-ray diffraction pattern indicated that doping of Mn and Cu did not change the ZnO hexagonal wurtzite structure. The Mn doped nanoparticles had smaller average crystallite size than un-doped Zn0.96Cu0.04O nanoparticles due to the distortion in the host ZnO lattice. This distortion prevented the subsequent growth and hence the size reduced by Mn doping. The changes in lattice parameters, average crystallite size, peak position and peak intensity confirmed the Mn substitution in Zn-Cu-O lattice. The Mn and Cu co-doping increased the charge carrier density in ZnO nanoparticles which led to increase the dielectric constant. The dielectric constant also varied by depend the size of the nanoparticles. The change in morphology by Mn-doping was studied by transmission electron microscope. The optical absorption and band gap were changed with respect to both compositional and size effects. The band gap was initially increased from 3.65 to 3.73 eV at 1% of Mn doping, while decreasing trend in band gap was noticed for further increase of Mn. The band gap was decreased from 3.73 to 3.48 eV when Mn concentration was increased from 2% to 4%. Presence of chemical bonding and purity of the nanoparticles were confirmed by FTIR spectra. The antibacterial study revealed that that the antibacterial activity of Zn0.96Cu0.04O is enhanced by Mn doping.

  5. Tolerance and biosorption of copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) by filamentous fungi isolated from a freshwater ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskandar, Nur Liyana; Zainudin, Nur Ain Izzati Mohd; Tan, Soon Guan

    2011-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are able to accumulate significant amount of metals from their environment. The potential of fungal biomass as agents for biosorption of heavy metals from contaminated sediments is currently receiving attention. In the present study, a total of 41 isolates of filamentous fungi obtained from the sediment of the Langat River, Selangor, Malaysia were screened for their tolerance and uptake capability of copper (Cu) and lead (Pb). The isolates were identified as Aspergillus niger, A. fumigatus, Trichoderma asperellum, Penicillium simplicissimum and P. janthinellum. A. niger and P. simplicissimum, were able to survive at 1000 mg/L of Cu(II) concentration on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) while for Pb, only A. niger survived at 5000 mg/L concentration. The results showed that A. niger, P. simplicissimum and T. asperellum have a better uptake capacity for Pb compared to Cu and the findings indicated promising biosorption of Cu and Pb by these filamentous fungi from aqueous solution. The present study was also determined the maximum removal of Cu(II) and Pb(II) that was performed by A. niger. The metal removal which occurred at Cu(II) 200 mg/L was (20.910 +/- 0.581) mg/g and at 250 mg/L of Pb(II) was (54.046 +/- 0.328) mg/g.

  6. Tolerance and biosorption of copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) by filamentous fungi isolated from a freshwater ecosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nur Liyana Iskandar; Nur Ain Izzati Mohd Zainudin; Soon Guan Tan

    2011-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are able to accumulate significant amount of metals from their environment.The potential of fungal biomass as agents for biosorption of heavy metals from contaminated sediments is currently receiving attention.In the present study, a total of 41 isolates of filamentous fungi obtained from the sediment of the Langat River, Selangor, Malaysia were screened for their tolerance and uptake capability of copper (Cu) and lead (Pb).The isolates were identified as Aspergillus niger, A.fumigatus, Trichoderma asperellum, Penicillium simplicissimum and P.janthinellum.A.niger and P simplicissimum, were able to survive at 1000 mg/L of Cu(Ⅱ)concentration on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) while for Pb, only A.niger survived at 5000 mg/L concentration.The results showed that A.niger, P.simplicissimum and T.asperellum have a better uptake capacity for Pb compared to Cu and the findings indicated promising biosorption of Cu and Pb by these filamentous fungi from aqueous solution.The present study was also determined the maximum removal of Cu(Ⅱ) and Pb(Ⅱ) that was performed by A.niger.The metal removal which occurred at Cu(Ⅱ) 200 mg/L was (20.910 ±0.581) mg/g and at 250 mg/L of Pb(Ⅱ) was (54.046 ± 0.328) mg/g.

  7. Thermophysical Properties of Sn-Ag-Cu Based Pb-Free Solders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sok Won; Lee, Jaeran; Jeon, Bo-Min; Jung, Eun; Lee, Sang Hyun; Kang, Kweon Ho; Lim, Kwon Taek

    2009-06-01

    Lead-tin (Pb-Sn) alloys are the dominant solders used for electronic packaging because of their low cost and superior properties required for interconnecting electronic components. However, increasing environmental and health concerns over the toxicity of lead, combined with global legislation to limit the use of Pb in manufactured products, have led to extensive research and development studies of lead-free solders. The Sn-Ag-Cu ternary eutectic alloy is considered to be one of the promising alternatives. Except for thermal properties, much research on several properties of Sn-Ag-Cu alloy has been performed. In this study, five Sn-xAg-0.5Cu alloys with variations of Ag content x of 1.0 mass%, 2.5 mass%, 3.0 mass%, 3.5 mass%, and 4.0 mass% were prepared, and their thermal diffusivity and specific heat were measured from room temperature to 150 °C, and the thermal conductivity was calculated using the measured thermal diffusivity, specific heat, and density values. Also, the linear thermal expansion was measured from room temperature to 170 °C. The results show that Sn-3.5Ag-0.5Cu is the best candidate because it has a maximum thermal conductivity and a low thermal expansion, which are the ideal conditions to be a proper packaging alloy for effective cooling and thermostability.

  8. Influence of IMC in the Semisolid Behaviour of an Eutectic Sn-Pb/Cu Slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merizalde, Carlos; Cabrera, José-María; Prado, José-Manuel

    2007-04-01

    A mixture of a liquid Sn-Pb alloy reinforced with solid Cu particles has been found to show thixotropic and pseudoplastic behaviour. The presence of an intermetallic compound (IMC) between the Cu particles and the molten matrix has some very important consequences in the rheological behaviour of the slurry. The semisolid material is obtained mixing a sufficient amount of Cu particles with a liquid eutectic Sn-Pb alloy by mechanical stirring at a given temperature and time. The intermetallic compound is formed from the reaction of solid Cu and liquid Sn. This reaction results in some displacement in the phase diagram, affecting the liquid alloy composition, moving the liquidus temperature and therefore altering the balance of %wt solid- %wt liquid necessary to obtain the best thixotropic behaviour. In this work a model of the solid fraction of the slurry taking into account the IMC growth rate is presented. This model is also used to predict the processing window under which the material keeps the thixotropic behaviour.

  9. Processing Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductors from amorphous state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, C. K.; Freiman, S. W.; Wong-Ng, W.; Hwang, N. M.; Shapiro, A. J.; Hill, M. D.; Cook, L. P.; Shull, R. D.; Swartzendruber, L. J.; Bennett, L. H.

    1990-01-01

    Researchers produced superconducting ceramics of the Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu-O system started from a glass. To form the glass, the mixed oxide powder was melted at 1200 C in air. The liquid was quenched rapidly by pouring it onto an aluminum plate and rapidly pressing with another plate. The quenched compound was in the form of black amorphous solid, whose x-ray powder pattern has no crystalline peaks. After heat treatment at high temperatures, the glass crystallized into a superconductor. The crystalline phases in the superconductor identified using x-ray diffraction patterns. These phases were that associated with the superconducting phases of T(sub c) = 80 K (Bi2Ca1Sr2Cu2Ox) and of T(sub c) = 110 K (Bi2Ca2Sr2Cu3Ox). The dc resistivity and the ac susceptibility of these superconductors were studied.

  10. Effect of the loading content of CuO on the activity and structure of CuO/Ce-Mn-O catalysts for CO oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵福真; 龚渺; 张广营; 李金林

    2015-01-01

    A urea-nitrate combustion method was used to prepare Ce-Mn-O material, which was applied as the support for a series of CuO/Ce-Mn-O catalysts. The structure of the catalysts was characterized with N2 adsorption/desorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The catalytic activity of the catalysts for the oxidation of CO was evaluated on a conventional fixed-bed quartz reactor. XRD results showed that the synergetic effect between manganese and cerium led to a little higher electron density of Ce3+ in the mixed oxides. When the CuO content was lower than 5 wt.%, Cu species were well dispersed onto the Ce-Mn-O support or/and they formed a solid solution with CeO2 (inside the fluorite lattice). At higher CuO content (CuO>5 wt.%), large CuO particles were observed. There was strong interaction among ceria, man-ganese and copper oxide because of the doping of Mn. This interplay changed the reducibility and the valence states of the compo-nents, leading to the improved activity of the CuO/Ce-Mn-O catalysts.

  11. Crystalline style and tissue redistribution in Perna viridis as indicators of Cu and Pb bioavailabilities and contamination in coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, C K; Ismail, A; Cheng, W H; Tan, S G

    2006-03-01

    The concentrations of Cu, Pb, and Zn in the crystalline style (CS) and in the remaining soft tissues (ST) of the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis from 10 geographical sites along the coastal waters off peninsular Malaysia were determined. The CS, compared with the remaining ST, accumulated higher levels of Cu in both contaminated and uncontaminated samples, indicating that the style has a higher affinity for the essential Cu to bind with metallothioneins. The similar pattern of Cu accumulation in the different ST of mussels collected from clean and Cu-contaminated sites indicated that the detoxification capacity of the metallothioneins had not been overloaded. For Pb, higher levels of the metal in the CS than in the remaining ST were found only in mussels collected from a contaminated site at Kg. Pasir Puteh. This indicated a tissue redistribution of Pb due to its binding to metallothioneins for Pb detoxification and the potential of the CS as an indicator organ of Pb bioavailability and contamination. For Zn, the above two phenomena were not found since no obvious patterns were observed (lower levels of Zn in the CS than in the remaining ST) in contaminated and uncontaminated samples due to the mechanism of partial regulation. Generally, all the different STs studied (foot, mantle, gonad, CS, gill, muscle, and byssus) are good biomonitoring tissues for Cu and Pb bioavailabilities and contamination. Among these organs, the CS was found to be the best organ for biomonitoring Cu. The present data also suggest the use of the tissue redistribution of Pb in P. viridis as an indicator of Pb bioavailability and contamination in coastal waters.

  12. Colloidal Organolead Halide Perovskite with a High Mn Solubility Limit: A Step Toward Pb-Free Luminescent Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunkumar, Paulraj; Gil, Kyeong Hun; Won, Seob; Unithrattil, Sanjith; Kim, Yoon Hwa; Kim, Ha Jun; Im, Won Bin

    2017-09-07

    Organolead halide perovskites have emerged as a promising optoelectronic material for lighting due to its high quantum yield, color-tunable, and narrow emission. Despite their unique properties, toxicity has intensified the search for ecofriendly alternatives through partial or complete replacement of lead. Herein, we report a room-temperature synthesized Mn(2+)-substituted 3D-organolead perovskite displacing ∼90% of lead, simultaneously retaining its unique excitonic emission, with an additional orange emission of Mn(2+) via energy transfer. A high Mn solubility limit of 90% was attained for the first time in lead halide perovskites, facilitated by the flexible organic cation (CH3NH3)(+) network, preserving the perovskite structure. The emission intensities of the exciton and Mn were influenced by the halide identity that regulates the energy transfer to Mn. Homogeneous emission and electron spin resonance characteristics of Mn(2+) indicate a uniform distribution of Mn. These results suggest that low-toxicity 3D-CH3NH3Pb1-xMnxBr3-(2x+1)Cl2x+1 nanocrystals may be exploited as magnetically doped quantum dots with unique optoelectronic properties.

  13. Continuous biosorption of Pb/Cu and Pb/Cd in fixed-bed column using algae Gelidium and granulated agar extraction algal waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilar, Vitor J.P. [LSRE-Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)], E-mail: vilar@fe.up.pt; Loureiro, Jose M. [LSRE-Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)], E-mail: loureiro@fe.up.pt; Botelho, Cidalia M.S. [LSRE-Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)], E-mail: cbotelho@fe.up.pt; Boaventura, Rui A.R. [LSRE-Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)], E-mail: bventura@fe.up.pt

    2008-06-15

    Continuous metal ions biosorption from Pb/Cu and Pb/Cd solutions onto seaweed Gelidium sesquipedale and a composite material prepared from an industrial algal waste was performed in a packed bed column. A binary Langmuir equation describes well the equilibrium data and indicates a good adsorption capacity. In the sorption process, Cd and Cu break through the column faster than Pb due to its lower affinity for the biosorbent. An overshoot in the outlet Cd concentration was observed and explained by competitive adsorption between Pb and Cd, whereby the higher Pb affinity for the biosorbent displaces bound Cd ions. A small overshoot happens for Cu adsorption in the presence of Pb ions. Desorption using 0.1 M HNO{sub 3} as eluant, was 100% effective. A mass transfer model for the adsorption and desorption processes, considering an external and intraparticle film resistance, adequately simulates the column performance. A binary Langmuir equation was used to describe equilibrium for the saturation process and a mass action law for the desorption process. Elution process is defined as an ion exchange mechanism, between protons and metal ions.

  14. Continuous biosorption of Pb/Cu and Pb/Cd in fixed-bed column using algae Gelidium and granulated agar extraction algal waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, Vítor J P; Loureiro, José M; Botelho, Cidália M S; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2008-06-15

    Continuous metal ions biosorption from Pb/Cu and Pb/Cd solutions onto seaweed Gelidium sesquipedale and a composite material prepared from an industrial algal waste was performed in a packed bed column. A binary Langmuir equation describes well the equilibrium data and indicates a good adsorption capacity. In the sorption process, Cd and Cu break through the column faster than Pb due to its lower affinity for the biosorbent. An overshoot in the outlet Cd concentration was observed and explained by competitive adsorption between Pb and Cd, whereby the higher Pb affinity for the biosorbent displaces bound Cd ions. A small overshoot happens for Cu adsorption in the presence of Pb ions. Desorption using 0.1 M HNO3 as eluant, was 100% effective. A mass transfer model for the adsorption and desorption processes, considering an external and intraparticle film resistance, adequately simulates the column performance. A binary Langmuir equation was used to describe equilibrium for the saturation process and a mass action law for the desorption process. Elution process is defined as an ion exchange mechanism, between protons and metal ions.

  15. Effect of alloying elements on branching of primary austenite dendrites in Ni-Mn-Cu cast iron

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A. Janus

    2011-01-01

    Within the research, determined were direction and intensity of influence of individual alloying elements on branching degree of primary austenite dendrites in austenitic cast iron Ni-Mn-Cu. 30 cast shafts dia...

  16. Cavitation Erosion Behavior of as-Welded Cu12Mn8Al3Fe2Ni Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoya LI; Yonggui YAN; Zhenming XU; Jianguo LI

    2004-01-01

    Cavitation erosion behavior of as-welded Cu12Mn8Al3Fe2Ni alloy in 3.5% NaCl aqueous solution was studied by magnetostrictive vibratory device for cavitation erosion. The results show that the cavitation erosion resistance of the as-welded Cu12Mn8Al3Fe2Ni alloy is much more superior to that of the as-cast one. The cumulative mass loss and the mass loss rate of the as-welded Cu12Mn8Al3Fe2Ni alloy are almost 1/4 that of the as-cast one. SEM analysis of eroded specimens reveals that the as-cast Cu12Mn8Al3Fe2Ni alloy is attacked more severely than the as-welded one. Microcracks causing cavitation damage initiate at the phase boundaries.

  17. Structure and Properties of Sol-Gel Derived CuNiMnZrO2 Catalysts for CO Hydrogenation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhongyi Ma; Cheng Yang; Run Xu; Wei Wei; Wenhuai Li; Yuhan Sun

    2003-01-01

    Two CuNiMnZrO2 catalysts (crystallized or non-crystallized) were prepared by co-hydrolyzing zirconium n-propoxide with Cu(NO3)2, Mn(NO3)2 and Ni(NO3)2 in an ethanol solution in the presence of diglycol. The physical and chemical properties of the catalysts were characterized using BET, XRD,TEM, XPS and CO-DRIFT techniques. It was found that the non-crystallized CuNiMnZrO2 catalyst demonstrated highly dispersed active phases and high activity for CO adsorption, which resulted in good performance for synthesis of higher alcohols in CO hydrogenation compared to crystallized CuNiMnZrO2.

  18. Effect of Nickel Equivalent on Austenite Transition Ratio in Ni-Mn-Cu Cast Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janus A.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Determined was quantitative effect of nickel equivalent value on austenite decomposition degree during cooling-down castings of Ni-Mn- Cu cast iron. Chemical composition of the alloy was 1.8 to 5.0 % C, 1.3 to 3.0 % Si, 3.1 to 7.7 % Ni, 0.4 to 6.3 % Mn, 0.1 to 4.9 % Cu, 0.14 to 0.16 % P and 0.03 to 0.04 % S. Analysed were castings with representative wall thickness 10, 15 and 20 mm. Scope of the examination comprised chemical analysis (including WDS, microscopic observations (optical and scanning microscopy, image analyser, as well as Brinell hardness and HV microhardness measurements of structural components.

  19. Effect of Chemical Composition on Number of Eutectic Colonies in Ni-Mn-Cu Cast Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Janus

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Determined were direction and intensity of influence of alloying additions on the number of eutectic graphite colonies in austenitic cast iron Ni-Mn-Cu. Chemical composition of the cast iron was 1.7 to 3.3% C, 1.4 to 3.1% Si, 2.8 to 9.9% Ni, 0.4 to 7.7% Mn, 0 to 4.6% Cu,0.14 to 0.16% P and 0.03 to 0.04% S. Analysed were structures of mottled (20 castings and grey (20 castings cast iron. Obtained wereregression equations determining influence intensity of individual components on the number of graphite colonies per 1 cm2 (LK. It wasfound that, in spite of high total content of alloying elements in the examined cast iron, the element that mainly decides the LK value is carbon, like in a plain cast iron.

  20. Effect of Chemical Composition on Number of Eutectic Colonies in Ni-Mn-Cu Cast Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janus A.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Determined were direction and intensity of influence of alloying additions on the number of eutectic graphite colonies in austenitic cast iron Ni-Mn-Cu. Chemical composition of the cast iron was 1.7 to 3.3% C, 1.4 to 3.1% Si, 2.8 to 9.9% Ni, 0.4 to 7.7% Mn, 0 to 4.6% Cu, 0.14 to 0.16% P and 0.03 to 0.04% S. Analysed were structures of mottled (20 castings and grey (20 castings cast iron. Obtained were regression equations determining influence intensity of individual components on the number of graphite colonies per 1 cm2 (LK. It was found that, in spite of high total content of alloying elements in the examined cast iron, the element that mainly decides the LK value is carbon, like in a plain cast iron.

  1. Magnetic properties of Mn1.9Cu0.1Sb under high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Matsubayashi, Kazuyuki; Uwatoko, Yoshiya; Hiroi, Masahiko; Mitsui, Yoshifuru; Koyama, Keiichi

    2016-08-01

    Magnetization measurements were carried out for polycrystalline Mn1.9Cu0.1Sb in magnetic fields up to 5 T in the 10-300 K temperature range under high pressures up to 1 GPa in order to investigate the magnetic properties and the thermal transformation arrest (TTA) phenomenon under high pressures. The spin-reorientation temperature increased from 202 K for 0.1 MPa to 244 K for 1 GPa, whereas the transition temperature from the ferrimagnetic (FRI) to antiferromagnetic (AFM) state did not drastically change at ˜116 K. The magnetic relaxation behavior from the FRI to AFM state was observed in 10 < T ≤ 70 K, which was analyzed using the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts model. Obtained results indicated that the TTA phenomenon of Mn1.9Cu0.1Sb was suppressed by the application of high pressures.

  2. Stabilization of As, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn in soil using amendments--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpiene, Jurate; Lagerkvist, Anders; Maurice, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The spread of contaminants in soil can be hindered by the soil stabilization technique. Contaminant immobilizing amendments decrease trace element leaching and their bioavailability by inducing various sorption processes: adsorption to mineral surfaces, formation of stable complexes with organic ligands, surface precipitation and ion exchange. Precipitation as salts and co-precipitation can also contribute to reducing contaminant mobility. The technique can be used in in situ and ex situ applications to reclaim and re-vegetate industrially devastated areas and mine-spoils, improve soil quality and reduce contaminant mobility by stabilizing agents and a beneficial use of industrial by-products. This study is an overview of data published during the last five years on the immobilization of one metalloid, As, and four heavy metals, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn, in soils. The most extensively studied amendments for As immobilization are Fe containing materials. The immobilization of As occurs through adsorption on Fe oxides by replacing the surface hydroxyl groups with the As ions, as well as by the formation of amorphous Fe(III) arsenates and/or insoluble secondary oxidation minerals. Cr stabilization mainly deals with Cr reduction from its toxic and mobile hexavalent form Cr(VI) to stable in natural environments Cr(III). The reduction is accelerated in soil by the presence of organic matter and divalent iron. Clays, carbonates, phosphates and Fe oxides were the common amendments tested for Cu immobilization. The suggested mechanisms of Cu retention were precipitation of Cu carbonates and oxy-hydroxides, ion exchange and formation of ternary cation-anion complexes on the surface of Fe and Al oxy-hydroxides. Most of the studies on Pb stabilization were performed using various phosphorus-containing amendments, which reduce the Pb mobility by ionic exchange and precipitation of pyromorphite-type minerals. Zn can be successfully immobilized in soil by phosphorus amendments and clays.

  3. Magnetic ordering of the Pr sublattice with the substitution of Cu for Mn in PrMn{sub 2}Si{sub 2} intermetallics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmali, A [Faculty of Engineering, Department of Engineering Physics, Ankara University, 06100 Besevler-Ankara (Turkey); Dincer, I [Faculty of Engineering, Department of Engineering Physics, Ankara University, 06100 Besevler-Ankara (Turkey); Elerman, Y [Faculty of Engineering, Department of Engineering Physics, Ankara University, 06100 Besevler-Ankara (Turkey); Ehrenberg, H [Institute for Materials Science, Darmstadt University of Technology, Petersenstrasse 23, D-64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Fuess, H [Institute for Materials Science, Darmstadt University of Technology, Petersenstrasse 23, D-64287 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2004-12-01

    The magnetic properties of PrMn{sub 2-x}Cu{sub x}Si{sub 2} (0 {<=} x {<=} 1) were studied by field-cooled and zero-field-cooled magnetization measurements in the temperature range 5 K {<=} T {<=} 350 K in low external fields (5 mT) and by magnetic-field-dependent magnetization measurements in fields up to 5.5 T. Substitution of Cu for Mn leads to a linear decrease in the lattice constant c and the unit cell volume V and a linear increase in the lattice constant a. Earlier neutron diffraction experiments showed that Pr does not order down to 1.6 K in PrMn{sub 2}Si{sub 2} while the ferromagnetic Mn planes are ordered antiparallel along the c axis. With the increasing Cu content, the magnetization increases rapidly at low temperatures for the samples with 0.4{<=} x {<=} 1. Cu substitution strongly changes the magnetic properties and leads to the magnetic ordering of the Pr sublattice. This is mainly deduced from the discussion of the values of the magnetic moments at low temperatures. Below the Curie temperatures T{sub C}, the spins in the Mn sublattice are arranged parallel to the Pr sublattice. With increasing Cu, T{sub C}(x) has a maximum value of 155 K at x = 0.6 and decreases for samples with x {>=} 0.7.

  4. Characteristics of flake graphite in Ni-Mn-Cu cast iron. Part 2

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A. Janus

    2010-01-01

    .... In this second part of the research, effect of chemical composition of hypereutectic cast iron containing 3.5÷5.1% C, 1.7÷2.8% Si, 3.5÷10.5 %Ni, 2.0÷8.0% Mn, 0.1÷3.5% Cu, 0.14÷0.17% P and 0.02÷0.04...

  5. Effect of tellurium on machinability and mechanical property of CuAlMnZn shape memory alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Na [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); Li Zhou, E-mail: lizhou6931@csu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Metal Materials Science and Engineering, Ministry of Education, Changsha, 410083 (China); Xu Genying; Feng Ze; Gong Shu; Zhu Lilong; Liang Shuquan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: {yields} A novel free-machining Cu-7.5Al-9.7Mn-3.4Zn-0.3Te (wt.%) shape memory alloy has been developed. {yields} The size of dispersed particles with richer Te is 2-5 {mu}m. {yields} The CuAlMnZnTe alloy has good machinability which approached that of BZn15-24-1.5 due to the addition of Te. {yields} Its shape memory property keeps the same as that of CuAlMnZn alloy with free Te. {yields} The CuAlMnZn shape memory alloy with and without Te both have good ductile as annealed at 700 deg. C for 15 min. - Abstract: The microstructure transition, shape memory effect, machinability and mechanical property of the CuAlMnZn alloy with and without Te have been studied using X-ray diffraction analysis, chips observation and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), tensile strength test and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), and semi-quantitative shape memory effect (SME) test. The particles with richer Te dispersedly distributed in grain interior and boundary with size of 2-5 {mu}m. After the addition of Te, the CuAlMnZnTe alloy machinability has been effectively increased to approach that of BZn15-24-1.5 and its shape memory property remains the same as the one of CuAlMnZn alloy. The CuAlMnZn shape memory alloys with and without Te both have good ductility as annealed at 700 deg. C for 15 min.

  6. EFFECT OF Cu AND Mn TOXICITY ON CHLOROPHYLL FLUORESCENCE AND GAS EXCHANGE IN RICE AND SUNFLOWER UNDER DIFFERENT LIGHT INTENSITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajiboland R.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Copper (Cu and manganese (Mn are essential micronutrients for plants, but toxic at high concentrations. Responses of rice (Oryza sativa L. and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. to toxic concentrations of Mn and Cu (up to 100 μM were studied under three light intensities including low (LL, PPFD=100, intermediate (IL, PPFD=500 and high (HL, PPFD=800 light intensities in hydroponic medium. Rice plants showed higher susceptibility than sunflower to both heavy metals concerning dry matter of shoot and root. Growing under higher light intensity strengthened the effect of Cu toxicity while ameliorated that of Mn, the latter was attributed to the lower Mn accumulation of HL plants in both shoot and root. Chlorophyll content of leaves was influenced negatively only by Cu treatment and that at the highest concentration in the medium (100 μM. Similar with growth results, reduction of net assimilation rate (A was higher in HL than LL plants treated by excess Cu, but in contrast to growth response, reduction was more prominent in sunflower than rice. Excess Mn-induced reduction of A was similar between LL and HL plants and was greater in sunflower than rice. Reduction of A was partly attributable to stomatal limitation, but non-stomatal mechanisms were also involved in this reduction. Copper and Mn treatment did not change the optimal quantum efficiency of PSII in dark-adapted chloroplasts (Fv/Fm ratio, but Fv/F0 was influenced particularly by Cu treatment, the reduction was higher in rice than sunflower and in HL compared to LL plants. Regarding excess Cu and Mn-mediated alterations in chlorophyll concentration, Fv/F0 and Tm values, it was suggested that, Cu and Mn toxicity depress the leaf photosynthetic capacity primarily by causing a significant alteration of the composition and functional competence of the photosynthetic units rather a reduction in the number of photosynthetic units (PSUs per unit leaf area.

  7. Ages and sources of components of Zn-Pb, Cu, precious metal, and platinum group element deposits in the goodsprings district, clark county, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikre, P.; Browne, Q.J.; Fleck, R.; Hofstra, A.; Wooden, J.

    2011-01-01

    The Goodsprings district, Clark County, Nevada, includes zinc-dominant carbonate replacement deposits of probable late Paleozoic age, and lead-dominant carbonate replacement deposits, copper ?? precious metal-platinum group element (PGE) deposits, and gold ?? silver deposits that are spatially associated with Late Triassic porphyritic intrusions. The district encompasses ??500 km2 although the distribution of all deposits has been laterally condensed by late Mesozoic crustal contraction. Zinc, Pb, and Cu production from about 90 deposits was ??160,000 metric tons (t) (Zn > Pb >> Cu), 2.1 million ounces (Moz) Ag, 0.09 Moz Au, and small amounts of PGEs-Co, V, Hg, Sb, Ni, Mo, Mn, Ir, and U-were also recovered. Zinc-dominant carbonate replacement deposits (Zn > Pb; Ag ?? Cu) resemble Mississippi Valley Type (MVT) Zn-Pb deposits in that they occur in karst and fault breccias in Mississippian limestone where the southern margin of the regional late Paleozoic foreland basin adjoins Proterozoic crystalline rocks of the craton. They consist of calcite, dolomite, sphalerite, and galena with variably positive S isotope compositions (??34S values range from 2.5-13%), and highly radiogenic Pb isotope compositions (206Pb/204Pb >19), typical of MVT deposits above crystalline Precambrian basement. These deposits may have formed when southward flow of saline fluids, derived from basinal and older sedimentary rocks, encountered thinner strata and pinch-outs against the craton, forcing fluid mixing and mineral precipitation in karst and fault breccias. Lead-dominant carbonate replacement deposits (Pb > Zn, Ag ?? Cu ?? Au) occur among other deposit types, often near porphyritic intrusions. They generally contain higher concentrations of precious metals than zinc-dominant deposits and relatively abundant iron oxides after pyrite. They share characteristics with copper ?? precious metal- PGE and gold ?? silver deposits including fine-grained quartz replacement of carbonate minerals in

  8. Constitutive Behavior of Mixed Sn-Pb/Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu Solder Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, J. P.; Chan, D. K.; Subbarayan, G.; Handwerker, C. A.

    2012-03-01

    During the transition from Pb-containing solders to Pb-free solders, joints composed of a mixture of Sn-Pb and Sn-Ag-Cu often result from either mixed assemblies or rework. Comprehensive characterization of the mechanical behavior of these mixed solder alloys resulting in a deformationally complete constitutive description is necessary to predict failure of mixed alloy solder joints. Three alloys with 1 wt.%, 5 wt.%, and 20 wt.% Pb were selected so as to represent reasonable ranges of Pb contamination expected from different 63Sn-37Pb components mixed with Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu. Creep and displacement-controlled tests were performed on specially designed assemblies at temperatures of 25°C, 75°C, and 125°C using a double lap shear test setup that ensures a nearly homogeneous state of plastic strain at the joint interface. The observed changes in creep and tensile behavior with Pb additions were related to phase equilibria and microstructure differences observed through differential scanning calorimetric and scanning electron microscopic cross-sectional analysis. As Pb content increased, the steady-state creep strain rates increased, and primary creep decreased. Even 1 wt.% Pb addition was sufficient to induce substantially large creep strains relative to the Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu alloy. We describe rate-dependent constitutive models for Pb-contaminated Sn-Ag-Cu solder alloys, ranging from the traditional time-hardening creep model to the viscoplastic Anand model. We illustrate the utility of these constitutive models by examining the inelastic response of a chip-scale package (CSP) under thermomechanical loading through finite-element analysis. The models predict that, as Pb content increases, total inelastic dissipation decreases.

  9. Distribution of Cu and Pb in particle size fractions of urban soils from different city zones of Nanjing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Huan-hua; LI Lian-qing; WU Xin-min; PAN Gen-xing

    2006-01-01

    Soil samples from 4 defined city zones of Nanjing were randomly collected at 0-5 cm and 5-20 cm intervals and size fractions of soil particles were separated from undisturbed bulk soils by low energy dispersion procedure. The total contents of Cu and Pb in the different particle size fractions of the urban soils were analyzed by HNO3-HF-HC1O4 digestion and flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer determination. The total content of Cu and Pb in soil particle size fractions varied with their size and with city zones as well. Both the content and variation with the size fractions of Pb was bigger than of Cu supporting our previous finding that there was Pb pollution to different degrees in the urban soils although the two elements were generally enriched in clay-sized fraction.Contaminated Pb tended to be preferentially enriched in the size fraction of 2000-250 μm and clay-sized fraction. While the size fractions of the soils from newly developed and preserved area contained smaller amount of Cu and Pb, the partitioning of them in coarse and fine particle size fractions were insignificant compared to that from inner residence and commercial area. The very high Pb level over 150 mg/kg of the fine particle fractions from the soils of the inner city could be a cause of high blood Pb level reported of children from the city as acute exposure to Pb of fine particles of the urban soil might occur by soil ingestion and inhalation by young children. Thus, much attention should be paid to the partitioning of toxic metals in fine soil particles of the urban soils and countermeasures against high health risk of Pb exposure by soil ingestion and dust inhalation should be practiced against the health problem of blood Pb for young children from the cities.

  10. Dynamic mechanical analyze of superelastic CuMnAl shape memory alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    (Dragoș Ursanu, A. I.; Stanciu, S.; Pricop, B.; Săndulache, F.; Cimpoeșu, N.

    2016-08-01

    A new shape memory alloy was obtain from high purity Cu, Mn and Al elements using a induce furnace. The intelligent material present negative transformation temperatures and an austenite like state at room temperature. The austenite state of CuMnAl shape memory alloy present superelasticity property. Five kilograms ingot was obtain of Cu10Mn10Al alloy. From the base material (melted state) were cut samples with 6 mm thickness using a mechanical saw. After an homogenization heat treatment the samples were hot rolled through four passes with a reduction coefficient of 20%. Experimental lamellas were obtained with 1.5 mm thickness and 90x10 mm length and width. After the hot rolled treatment the materials were heat treated at 800°C for 20 minutes and chilled in water. Four samples, one just laminated and three heat treated by aging, were analyzed with a Netzsch DMA equipment to establish the elastic modulus and the internal friction values of the materials. Metallic materials microstructure was analyzed using a scanning electron microscope Vega Tescan LMH II type. After the aging heat treatment a decrease of internal friction is observed on the entire analyze range which is assigned to formation of Al-based precipitates that block the internal movement of the alloy characteristic phases.

  11. Effect of alloying elements on solidification of primary austenite in Ni-Mn-Cu cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Janus

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Within the research, determined were direction and intensity of alloying elements influence on solidification way (directional orvolumetric of primary austenite dendrites in hypoeutectic austenitic cast iron Ni-Mn-Cu. 50 cast shafts dia. 20 mm were analysed.Chemical composition of the alloy was as follows: 1.7 to 3.3 % C, 1.4 to 3.1 % Si, 2.8 to 9.9 % Ni, 0.4 to 7.7 % Mn, 0 to 4.6 % Cu, 0.14 to0.16 % P and 0.03 to 0.04 % S. The discriminant analysis revealed that carbon influences solidification of primary austenite dendrites most intensively. It clearly increases the tendency to volumetric solidification. Influence of the other elements is much weaker. This means that the solidification way of primary austenite dendrites in hypoeutectic austenitic cast iron Ni-Mn-Cu does not differ from that in an unalloyed cast iron.

  12. Physiological responses and detoxific mechanisms to Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd in young seedlings of Paulownia fortunei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiang; Li, Weihua; Zhang, Chongbang; Ke, Shisheng

    2010-01-01

    Paulownia fortunei has been successfully used in the phytoremediation of many Pb/Zn mine tailings. However, seed germination and young seedlings of P. fortunei rarely occurred in these mine tailings. The physiological responses and detoxific mechanisms of P. fortunei young seedling to Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd stress were investigated. The germinated rate, shoot length, chlorophyll and carotenoid contents in leaves of young seedlings had a great reduction under Zn and Cu treatments, but had little decrease under Pb and Cd treatments. The production rate of O2*-, H2O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents significantly increased in response to added Zn and Cu indicating great oxidative stress for young seedlings, but they had no significant change to added Pb and Cd. Young seedlings had effective detoxific mechanism to Pb and Cd, as antioxidant enzymes activities, phytochelatins (PCs-SH) and proline contents increased with increasing rates of added Pb and Cd. However, young seedlings had un-effective detoxific mechanisms to Zn and Cu stress. Results revealed the heavy metals (such as Cu) that present at low concentrations in mine tailings may be major constraint for the survival of young seedlings.

  13. Physical, Optical and Electron paramagnetic resonance studies of PbBr2-PbO-B2O3 glasses containing Cu2+ ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhar, K. Chandra; Hameed, Abdul; Chary, M. Narasimha; Shareefuddin, Md

    2016-09-01

    The glasses with the composition PbBr2-PbO-B2O3 glasses containing Cu2+ ions were prepared by melt quenching technique. X-ray diffractograms revealed the amorphous nature of the glasses. Density and molar volume were determined. Density is found to decrease while the molar volume increases with increase of PbBr2 content. The optical absorption spectra exhibited a broad band corresponding to the d- d transition of Cu2+ ion. From optical absorption spectra Eopt and Urbach energies were determined. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) studies were carried out by introducing Cu2+ as the spin probe. Glasses containing transition metal(TM) ions such as Cu2+ give the information about the structure and the site symmetry around the TM ions. EPR spectra of all the glass samples were recorded at X-band frequencies. From the EPR spectra spin-Hamiltonian parameters were evaluated. It was observed that g∥ >g±>ge (2.0023) and A∥>A±. From this values it is concluded that the ground state of Cu2+ is dx2-y2 (2B1g) and the site symmetry around Cu2+ ion is tetragonally distorted octahedral. From the EPR and Optical data bonding coefficients were evaluated. The in plane o-bonding(α2) is moderately ionic while out of plane 7t-bonding(β2) and in plane 7t-bonding(β1 2) are ionic nature

  14. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN FRACTIONATIONS OF Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn AND Ni AND SOIL PROPERTIES IN URBAN SOILS OF CHANGCHUN, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Ping; XIE Zhong-lei; LI Jun; KANG Chun-li; LIU Jian-hua

    2005-01-01

    An extensive soil investigation was conducted in different domains of Changchun to disclose the fractionations of Pb, Cu, Cd, Zn and Ni in urban soils. Meanwhile correlation analysis and multiple stepwise regressions were used to define relationships between soil properties and metal fractions and the chief factors influencingthe fractionation of heavy metals in the soils. The results showed that Pb, Ni and Cu were mainly associated with the residual and organic forms; most of Cd was concentrated in the residual and exchangeable fractions. Zn in residual and carbonate fraction was the highest. The activities of the heavy metals probably declined in the following order: Cd, Zn,Pb, CuandNi. The chemical fractions of heavy metals in different domains in Changchun City were of significantly spatial heterogeneity. Soil properties had different influences on the chemical fractions of heavy metals to some extent and the main factors influencing Cd, Zn, Pb, Cu and Ni fractionation and transformation were apparently different.

  15. Spatial distribution of dissolved Pb,Hg,Cd,Cu and As in the Bohai Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Characteristics of the spatial distribution of selected dissolved heavy metals were analyzed during large scale surveys from August 12 to 25.2003 in the Bohai Sea.Dissolved Pb was the only element with average concentrations higher than the grade-one sea water quality standard of China.The spatial distribution of dissolved Pb in surface water was similar to those of Cd,Cu and As,where the isopleths generally indicated decreasing values from the bays to the central areas.Only for Hg did the high concentrations not only appear in Liaodong Bay,Bohai Bay and Laizhou Bay,but also in the Central Area,viz.not only in inshore but also in offshore areas.Vertical distributions of dissolved Pb,Cd,Cu and As were largely uniform,while that of dissolved Hg increased with depth.We infer that the input of pollutants from land was the main influencing factor for the detected distribution patterns of dissolved heavy metals,followed by the dynamics of sea water,release from bottom sediments and biochemical processes.Comparing with historical data,average concentrations of dissolved heavy metals appear to decline in recent years.

  16. Speciation of organic carbon, Cu and Mn in the River Marne (France): the role of colloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaïry, A.; Garban, B.; Blanchard, M.; Chesterikoff, A.

    1999-02-01

    The distribution of organic carbon (OC) and of some metals (Cu, Mn) amongst the particulate (>0·2 m), colloidal (10 kDa-0·2 m) and the truly dissolved (ultrafiltration (UF) device was utilized to separate the colloidal fraction. On average, 22% of the OC, 31% of the Cu and 53% of the Mn, usually assigned to the so-called dissolved fraction, were found in the colloidal fraction. The colloidal fraction exhibited a behaviour different from that of the particulate and truly dissolved fractions. Autochthonous production led to enrichment in the colloidal and particulate OC pools: up to 47% of the total dissolved OC was in the colloidal fraction. An increase in the colloidal metal fraction, concomitant with a fall in the truly dissolved fraction, coincided with peaks in phytoplankton during the bloom. These phenomena might be related either to an increase in pH associated with photosynthetic activity, resulting in the precipitation of truly dissolved forms into the colloidal fraction, or to scavenging of the truly dissolved metals by the algal species of colloidal size.The interaction between the colloidal and the truly dissolved phases was very important. The partition coefficients of the Cu and Mn between the colloidal and truly dissolved fractions were higher than between the particulate and the truly dissolved fractions. This pattern is consistent with a greater specific surface area of colloids than macroparticles. Consequently, the adsorption and complexation capacities are enhanced in the colloidal fraction of the particulate matter.The extraction of hydrophobic complexes with Cu using C18 Sep-Pak columns, showed that the Cu occurring in colloidal, total dissolved or truly dissolved forms was significantly complexed by the organic matter. The truly dissolved fraction might be complexed up to 100% during a phytoplankton bloom.

  17. Preparation, Processing and Tunneling in YBa2Cu3O7-δ-Pb Native-Barrier Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frangi, Francesca; Dwir, Benjamin; James, Jonathan H.; Gauzzi, Andrea; Pavuna, Davor

    1993-06-01

    We have developed a procedure for the preparation of small (40× 40 μm2) window-type YBa2Cu3O7-δ-Pb junctions with YSZ insulator and native tunnel barrier. We present the patterning technique of the two electrodes based on photolithography and wet etching. The nature of the barrier is found to be semiconducting. The tunneling measurements show gap-like feature of YBa2Cu3O7-δ at 8.5 meV and some additional features related to Pb and YBa2Cu3O7-δ phonon spectra.

  18. Tunneling characteristics of YBa 2Cu 3O 7-δ-Pb window-type Josephson junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frangi, F.; Dwir, B.; Pavuna, D.

    1992-02-01

    We present the results of tunneling measurements done on window-type, native-barrier YBa 2Cu 3O 7-δ-Pb junctions. We show features in the I-V curves which are related to the gap of YBa 2Cu 3O 7-δ, as well as to the Pb and YBa 2Cu 3O 7-δ phonon spectra. The nature of barrier in these structures is found to be semi-conducting. We can also see the asymmetry in the tunneling curves.

  19. Test of experimental set-ups for electrodialytic removal of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd from different contaminated harbour sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nystrøm, Gunvor Marie; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne

    2005-01-01

    of the sediment slurry, the other without stirring. The removal of heavy metals was highest in the non-calcareous sediment, where 94% Cd, 91% Zn and 73% Cu were removed after 24 days. The highest removal obtained for the calcareous sediment was 81% Cd, 76% Zn, 75% Pb and 53% Cu after 21 days, with stirred...... was the most stable in these experiments, and thus, the stirred set-up is the best choice for experimental set-up. The order in which the heavy metals were removed from the harbour sediments was Cd>Zn>Pb>Cu....

  20. Effects of Pb2+, Cd2+ and Cu2+ on the Aqueous Zn2+ Sorption by Hydroxyapatite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Yong; LIU Yu

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the behaviors of aqueous zinc sorption by hydroxyapatite in the co-existence of Pb2+, Cd2+ and Cu2+ are investigated, the effects of Pb2+, Cd2+ and Cu2+ on the sorption of Zn2+ are discussed, and the hydroxyapatite sorption capabilities for Pb2+, Cd2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+ are compared.The experimental results show that the Zn2+ removal efficiency decreases gradually with the increase of the Cd2+ concentration of the solution, and there is no sorption preference between Cd2+ and Zn2+. On the other hand, the Zn2+ removal efficiency rapidly decreases rapidly with the increase of the Cu2+ concentration of the solution, and there is a clear sorption preference between Cu2+ and Zn2+. It is noticed that the Zn2+ removal efficiency is hardly changed with the variance of Pb2+ concentration because the removal mechanisms for these two ions are totally different. It is concluded that the adsorption affinities of the heavy metals for the hydroxyapatite follows this sequence: Pb2+> Cu2+>Cd2+> Zn2+.

  1. Effect of dissolved organic matter (DOM) of contrasting origins on Cu and Pb speciation and toxicity to Paracentrotus lividus larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Marin, Paula, E-mail: paulasanchez@uvigo.es [Laboratorio de Ecoloxia Marina (LEM), Universidade de Vigo, Campus Universitario, 36310 Vigo, Galicia (Spain); Santos-Echeandia, Juan; Nieto-Cid, Mar; Alvarez-Salgado, Xose Anton [Instituto de Investigacions Marinas, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Eduardo Cabello 6, 36208 Vigo, Galicia (Spain); Beiras, Ricardo [Laboratorio de Ecoloxia Marina (LEM), Universidade de Vigo, Campus Universitario, 36310 Vigo, Galicia (Spain)

    2010-01-31

    Water samples of contrasting origin, including natural seawater, two sediment elutriates and sewage-influenced seawater, were collected and obtained to examine the effect of the dissolved organic matter (DOM) present on metal bioavailability. The carbon content (DOC) and the optical properties (absorbance and fluorescence) of the coloured DOM fraction (CDOM) of these materials were determined. Cu and Pb complexation properties were measured by anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) and the effect of DOM on Cu and Pb bioavailability was studied by means of the Paracentrotus lividus embryo-larval bioassay. Sediment elutriates and sewage-influenced water (1) were enriched 1.4-1.7 times in DOC; (2) absorbed and reemitted more light; and (3) presented higher Cu complexation capacities (L{sub Cu}) than the natural seawater used for their preparation. L{sub Cu} varied from 0.08 {mu}M in natural seawater to 0.3 and 0.5 {mu}M in sediment elutriates and sewage-influenced water, respectively. Differences in DOC, CDOM and Cu complexation capacities were reflected in Cu toxicity. DOM enriched samples presented a Cu EC{sub 50} of 0.64 {mu}M, significantly higher than the Cu EC{sub 50} of natural and artificial seawater, which was 0.38 {mu}M. The protecting effect of DOM on Cu toxicity greatly disappeared when the samples were irradiated with high intensity UV-light. Cu toxicity could be successfully predicted considering ASV-labile Cu concentrations in the samples. Pb complexation by DOM was only detected in the DOM-enriched samples and caused little effect on Pb EC{sub 50}. This effect was contrary for both elutriates: one elutriate reduced Pb toxicity in comparison with the control artificial seawater, while the other increased it. UV irradiation of the samples caused a marked increase in Pb toxicity, which correlated with the remaining DOC concentration. DOM parameters were related to Cu speciation and toxicity: good correlations were found between DOC and Cu EC{sub 50}, while L

  2. Gene Expression and Activities of SOD in Cucumber Seedlings Were Related with Concentrations of Mn2+,Cu2+,or Zn2+ Under Low Temperature Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Jun-jie; LI Tao; YU Xian-chang

    2009-01-01

    Effects of increasing Mn2+,Cu2+,or Zn2+ on SOD expressions were studied in cucumber seedlings under low temperature stress.Both gene expressions and activities of Cu/Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD in cucumber seedling leaves were induced by increasing Mn2+,Cu2+,or Zn2+ under low temperature stress,especially 48 h afterwards.The activities of Cu/Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD at 0 and 48 h after treatment were in accordance with their gene expression levels,which implied that the transcriptional regulation plays key roles in regulating their activities at the early stage of low temperature stress.Gene expressions of Cu/Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD declined at 96 h,but Cu/Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD activities still remain high,which suggested that Cu/Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD activities might be regulated by other factors after transcription at the later stage of low temperature stress.Therefore,we concluded that the increasing Mn2+,Cu2+,or Zn2+ could increase the capacity of scavenging ROS in cucumber seedlings under low temperature stress by inducing gene expressions of Cu/Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD,elevating activities of Cu/Zn-SOD,Mn-SOD,or regulating other factors after transcription.

  3. Preparation and properties of luminous materials of CaSiO3:Pb, Mn by sol-gel method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Liangzhun; FANG Min; Liu Yuejiao; LIU Chao; WANG Xiuying; YU Xibin

    2007-01-01

    The luminous materials of CaSiO3: Pb, Mn were synthesized by sol-gel method and ultrasound technology.The properties of the phosphors were characterized by luminescence spectrum, differential thermal analysis and thermal gravimetry analysis (DTA-TG), X-ray diffraction(XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR)and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The effects of factors such as the synthetic material compositions,ultrasound time and annealed temperature on phosphorescent brightness of sample were studied and the optimum synthetic conditions were determined. The results show that, compared with the sample made by the high temperature solid-state reaction, the luminescent intensity of the CaSiO3:Pb, Mn sample increased by about 200% and the mean diameter of particles of the sample decreased by about 300 nm.

  4. Dissolved Cu, Pb, Zn and Cd in the South China Sea surface waters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huo Wenmian; Ji Weidong; Xu Kuncan

    2001-01-01

    A total of 106 surface water samples were collected in the South China Sea during two transects in June and December 1998. The samples were collected with strictly contamination free procedure and trace metals were measured by clean laboratory methods and GFAAS. The mean concentrations for the dissolved fractions are: Cu 0.100 μg/dm3, Pb 0.060 μg/dm3, Zn 0.086 μg/dm3, Cd 0.007 μg/dm3, which is close to the world open ocean's level. The spatial distribution of the trace heavy metals shows higher concentrations in offshore area and lower concentrations in the central in the South China Sea, and the concentrations decrease with the distance from the offshore, which suggests the existence of significant continental shelf input of the trace heavy metals. The correlationship among the elements is better in summer than that in winter. Cu is positively correlated with Cd in both seasons and it is also found for the first time that they are positively correlated with nutrients in the South China Sea surface waters which further indicate the biogeochemical cycle of these elements in the marine environment. The baseline value of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd in the South China Sea surface waters is obtained through statistical analysis.

  5. Colorimetric detection of Cu2+ and Pb2+ ions using calix[4]arene functionalized gold nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ravi Gunupuru; Debdeep Maity; Gopala R Bhadu; Ashish Chakraborty; Divesh N Srivastava; Parimal Paul

    2014-05-01

    Calixarene functionalized gold nanoparticles (CFAuNPs) have been prepared and characterized by spectroscopic and microscopic (TEM) techniques. To use this material as potential colorimetric sensor, the binding property of this new material has been investigated with a large number of metal ions. It exhibited sharp colour change from dark brown to green and blue, detectable by naked-eye, in the presence of Cu2+ and Pb2+ ions, respectively. It has also triggered substantial change in surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band of the functionalized gold nanoparticles, which in case of Pb(II) is due to the inter particle plasmon coupling arising from the metal-induced aggregation of the nanoparticles and for Cu(II), it is because of the formation of AuCu alloy due to anti-galvanic exchange. The size and aggregation of the nanoparticles are confirmed from HRTEM images, elemental analysis and the line profiling for both the metal ions have been done by STEM-EDX analysis.

  6. A new mixed-valence lead(II manganese(II/III phosphate(V: PbMnII2MnIII(PO43

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaleb Alhakmi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, lead trimanganese tris(orthophosphate, has been synthesized by hydrothermal methods. In this structure, only two O atoms are in general positions and all others atoms are in the special positions of the Imma space group. Indeed, the atoms in the Wyckoff positions are namely: Pb1 and P1 on 4e (mm2; Mn1 on 4b (2/m; Mn2 and P2 on 8g (2; O1 on 8h (m; O2 on 8i (m. The crystal structure can be viewed as a three-dimensional network of corner- and edge-sharing PO4 tetrahedra and MnO6 octahedra, building two types of chains running along the b axis. The first is an infinite linear chain, formed by alternating MnIIIO6 octahedra and PO4 tetrahedra which share one vertex. The second chain is built up from two adjacent edge-sharing octahedra (MnII2O10 dimers whose ends are linked to two PO4 tetrahedra by a common edge. These chains are linked together by common vertices of polyhedra in such a way as to form porous layers parallel to (001. These sheets are bonded by the first linear chains, leading to the appearance of two types of tunnels, one propagating along the a axis and the other along b. The PbII ions are located within the intersections of the tunnels with eight neighbouring O atoms in form of a trigonal prism that is capped by two O atoms on one side. The three-dimensional framework of this structure is compared with similar phosphates such as Ag2Co3(HPO4(PO42 and Ag2Ni3(HPO4(PO42.

  7. ac MH loop measurements on Mn doped YBa2Cu3O7– superconductors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E Isaac Samuel; V Seshu Bai

    2006-06-01

    Isothermal ac MH (magnetization-field) loops for varying field amplitudes were recorded at 77 K on YBa2(Cu1–Mn)3O7– with = 0, 0.010, 0.015, 0.020, 0.025, 0.035 and 0.050, YBa2(Cu0.075Fe0.025)3O7–, YBa2(Cu0.075Ni0.025)3O7– and YBa2(Cu0.075Zn0.025)3O7– samples up to a maximum field amplitude of 80 Oe. Flat band susceptibility, ac losses and flux profiles were deduced from the ac MH loops. The undoped sample exhibited a minimum weak link ac loss and the 5.0% doped sample showed maximum weak link ac loss. Ni and Fe doped samples showed higher granular losses. cg estimated from the flux profiles decreases monotonically with increasing concentrations of Mn up to 2.5%.

  8. Catalytic behavior and synergistic effect of nanostructured mesoporous CuO-MnOx-CeO2 catalysts for chlorobenzene destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chi; Yu, Yanke; Shen, Qun; Chen, Jinsheng; Qiao, Nanli

    2014-04-01

    Mesoporous CuO-MnOx-CeO2 composite metal oxides with different copper and manganese loadings were prepared by a urea-assistant hydrothermal method, and were further adopted for the complete catalytic combustion of chlorobenzene. The effects of reaction conditions such as inlet reagent concentration and water feed concentration on chlorobenzene combustion were also studied. The structure and textural properties of the synthesized catalysts were characterized via the XRD, N2 adsorption/desorption, FE-SEM, TEM, H2-TPR, O2-TPD, and XPS techniques. The characterization results reveal that the presence of a small amount of Mn species can facilitate the incorporation of Cu and Mn ions into ceria lattice to form Cu-Mn-Ce-O solid solution. The synergistic effect of Cu and Mn species can reduce the redox potential of the composite catalysts, and produce large amounts of oxygen vacancies in the interface of CuOx, MnOx, and CeO2 oxides. The catalyst with Cu/Mn atomic ratio of 1/1 exhibits the best chlorobenzene elimination capability, oxidizing about 95% of the inlet chlorobenzene at 264 °C with CO2 selectivity higher than 99.5%. The concentration and mobility of the chemically adsorbed oxygen are vital for the effective removal of surface Cl species, which inhibits the dissociation of oxygen molecules and decreases the reducibility of the copper and manganese species. It can be rationally concluded that the superior catalytic performance and durability of the mesoporous CuO-MnOx-CeO2 composite oxides are primarily attributed to the higher surface oxygen concentration and better active oxygen mobility.

  9. Excitation dependent multicolor emission and photoconductivity of Mn, Cu doped In2S3 monodisperse quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sirshendu; Saha, Manas; Ashok, Vishal Dev; Chatterjee, Arijit; De, S. K.

    2016-04-01

    Indium sulphide (In2S3) quantum dots (QDs) of average size 6 ± 2 nm and hexagonal nanoplatelets of average size 37 ± 4 nm have been synthesized from indium myristate and indium diethyl dithiocarbamate precursors respectively. The absorbance and emission band was tuned with variation of nanocrytal size from very small in the strong confinement regime to very large in the weak confinement regime. The blue emission and its shifting with size has been explained with the donor-acceptor recombination process. The 3d element doping (Mn2+ and Cu2+) is found to be effective for formation of new emission bands at higher wavelengths. The characteristic peaks of Mn2+ and Cu2+ and the modification of In3+ peaks in the x-ray photoelectric spectrum (XPS) confirm the incorporation of Mn2+ and Cu2+ into the In2S3 matrix. The simulation of the electron paramagnetic resonance signal indicates the coexistence of isotropic and axial symmetry for In and S vacancies. Moreover, the majority of Mn2+ ions and sulphur vacancies (VS ) reside on the surface of nanocrystals. The quantum confinement effect leads to an enhancement of band gap up to 3.65 eV in QDs. The formation of Mn 3d levels between conduction band edge and shallow donor states is evidenced from a systematic variation of emission spectra with the excitation wavelength. In2S3 QDs have been established as efficient sensitizers to Mn and Cu emission centers. Fast and slow components of photoluminescence (PL) decay dynamics in Mn and Cu doped QDs are interpreted in terms of surface and bulk recombination processes. Fast and stable photodetctors with high photocurrent gain are fabricated with Mn and Cu doped QDs and are found to be faster than pure In2S3. The fastest response time in Cu doped QDs is an indication of the most suitable system for photodetector devices.

  10. Reduced Carrier Recombination in PbS - CuInS2 Quantum Dot Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhenhua; Sitbon, Gary; Pons, Thomas; Bakulin, Artem A.; Chen, Zhuoying

    2015-01-01

    Energy loss due to carrier recombination is among the major factors limiting the performance of TiO2/PbS colloidal quantum dot (QD) heterojunction solar cells. In this work, enhanced photocurrent is achieved by incorporating another type of hole-transporting QDs, Zn-doped CuInS2 (Zn-CIS) QDs into the PbS QD matrix. Binary QD solar cells exhibit a reduced charge recombination associated with the spatial charge separation between these two types of QDs. A ~30% increase in short-circuit current density and a ~20% increase in power conversion efficiency are observed in binary QD solar cells compared to cells built from PbS QDs only. In agreement with the charge transfer process identified through ultrafast pump/probe spectroscopy between these two QD components, transient photovoltage characteristics of single-component and binary QDs solar cells reveal longer carrier recombination time constants associated with the incorporation of Zn-CIS QDs. This work presents a straightforward, solution-processed method based on the incorporation of another QDs in the PbS QD matrix to control the carrier dynamics in colloidal QD materials and enhance solar cell performance. PMID:26024021

  11. Exchange bias through a Cu interlayer in an IrMn/Co system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geshev, J.; Nicolodi, S.; Pereira, L. G.; Nagamine, L. C. C. M.; Schmidt, J. E.; Deranlot, C.; Petroff, F.; Rodríguez-Suárez, R. L.; Azevedo, A.

    2007-06-01

    Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) and magnetization (MAG) measurements were used to study the exchange interaction between the antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic layers in an IrMn/Cu/Co system as a function of the Cu spacer thickness. Although the experimental angular variations of the exchange-bias fields HebFMR and HebMAG coincide, the coupling strengths J and the Co layers’ anisotropy fields HU , obtained via numerical simulations, are different. For all Cu thicknesses JFMR>JMAG and HUFMR

  12. Electrochemical processing of high- Bi(Pb)–Sr–Ca–CuO thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N V Desai; L A Ekal; D D Shivagan; S H Pawar

    2000-02-01

    Superconducting thin films of Bi(Pb)–Sr–Ca–CuO system were prepared by depositing the film onto silver substrate by d.c. electrodeposition technique with dimethyl sulphoxide bath in order to examine the effect of Pb addition to the BSCCO system. The films were deposited at the potential of – 0.8 V vs saturated calomel electrode (SCE) onto the silver substrate. The different preparative parameters such as deposition potential, deposition time were studied and optimized. These films were then oxidized electrochemically at room temperature in an alkaline (1 N KOH) solution, and also at 600°C temperature in an oxygen atmosphere. The films showed the superconducting behaviour, with values ranging between 85 K and 96 K, respectively.

  13. Pb/Cu (100) surface superstructures: Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, S.; Ghazali, A.; L´vy, J. C. S.

    1997-12-01

    Monte Carlo simulations with simple pair potentials of the Lennard-Jones type enable us to show the stability of the three experimentally known superstructures of Pb/Cu (100) at different lead submonolayer coverages: c(4 × 4)atθ = 3/8,c(2 × 2)atθ = 0.5 and c(5√2 × √2)R45° at θ = 0.6. In addition, numerous details of these superstructures, including interatomic distances, surface alloying, corrugation and weak modulation are obtained numerically in quantitative and qualitative accord with the experimentally observed and measured data. By molecular dynamics the melting of these structures is studied from the temperature dependence of the Pb-atom average energy and diffusion coefficient, with evidence for a first-order transition for every superstructure. The dispersion of surface phonons is also derived.

  14. Research on Shock Absorbing Properties of Mn-Cu Damping Alloy%Mn-Cu阻尼合金减振性能的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈泠俐; 李宁; 文玉华; 林波

    2011-01-01

    The damping properties of Mn-Cu damping alloy and its component's shock absorbing properties were studied by reversal torsion pendulum and vibration test equipments. The results indicate that Mn-Cu damping alloys all display high damping capacity compared with 18-8 stainless steel; the damping effect of Mn-Cu alloy increases quickly with the strain amplitude increasing and a terrace appears near the amplitude of 2× 10-4; compared with 18-8 stainless steel, Mn-Cu alloy barrel-shape component show good shock absorbing properties under free vibration and forced vibration.%利用倒扭摆和振动测试装置,研究了Mn-Cu阻尼合金的阻尼性能与其构件的减振性能.结果表明:Mn-Cu阻尼合金具有良好的力学性能,同18-8不锈钢相比,该合金具有显著的高阻尼性能;Mn-Cu合金的阻尼效果随应变振幅的增加而迅速增加,在应变振幅2×10-4左右出现平台;在自由振动条件下和受迫振动条件下,与18-8不锈圆桶相比,Mn-Cu合金圆桶构件表现出优良的减振性能.

  15. Synthesis and properties of a new quadruple perovskite: A-site ordered PbMn{sub 3}Mn{sub 4}O{sub 12}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locherer, T.; Dinnebier, R.; Kremer, R.K. [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Heisenbergstr. 1, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Greenblatt, M., E-mail: martha@rutchem.rutgers.edu [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Jansen, M. [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Heisenbergstr. 1, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    PbMn{sub 3}Mn{sub 4}O{sub 12} a quadruple perovskite was prepared by high pressure and high temperature synthesis. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXD) and differential scanning calorimetry reveal a structural phase transition at {approx}380 K. Rietveld refinement of the synchrotron room temperature data indicate rhombohedral symmetry (R-3) with a=6.43675(4) A and {alpha}=109.556(2) Degree-Sign . Similar 423 K PXD data refined in a body centered cubic cell (Im-3) with a=7.4283(9) A. The temperature variation of magnetization, shows a magnetic field dependent antiferromagnetic-like transition at 68 K, and dynamic fluctuations indicative of magnetic frustration. The semiconducting electrical behavior indicates a large decrease in the conductivity near 68 K. The temperature dependence of the real part of the dielectric constant, {epsilon}{sub real} increases dramatically at {approx}68 K, and shows relaxor-type ferroelectric behavior as a function of frequency. The intimate coupling of magnetic, electrical and dielectric properties at 68 K in PbMn{sub 3}Mn{sub 4}O{sub 12} suggests possible multiferroic behavior. - Graphical abstract: Resistance vs. temperature plot showing drastically increasing resistances at temperatures below 68 K (a). Formation of a frequency dependency of the dielectric constant between 68 K and ambient temperature (b). Sharp cusp in the magnetic susceptibility observed at 68 K which is suppressed with increasing magnetic field (c) indicates coupling of magnetic, electric and dielectric effects. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PbMn{sub 3}Mn{sub 4}O{sub 12} a quadruple perovskite was prepared at high pressure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A structural transition is seen at 380 K from space group R-3-to-Im-3. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An antiferromagnetic transition is observed at 68 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is semiconducting with a large decrease in the conductivity near 68 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The temperature dependence

  16. Characterization and Activity of Cu-MnOx/γ-Al2O3 Catalyst forHydrogenation of Carbon Dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI, Gong-Xin; ZHENG, Xiao-Ming; FEI, Jin-Hua; HOU, Zhao-Yin

    2001-01-01

    The effect of manganese on the dispersion, reduction behaviorand active states of surface of supported copper oxide catalysts have been investigated by XRD, temperature-programmed reduction and XPS. The activity of methanol synthesis from CO2/H2 was also investigated. The catalytic activity over CuO-MnOx/γ-Al2O3 catalyst for CO2 hydrogenation is higher than that of CuO/γ-Al2O3. The adding of manganese is beneficial in enhancing the dispersion of the supported copper oxide and make the TPR peak of the CuO-MnOx/γ-Al2O3 catalyst different from the individual supported coppper and manganese oxide catalysts, which indicates that there exists strong interaction between the copper and manganese oxide. For the CuO/γ-Al2O3 catalyst there are two reducible copper oxide species; α and β peaks are attributed to the reduction of highly dispersed copper oxide species and bulk CuO species, respectively. For the CuO-MnOx/γ-Al2O3 catalyst, four reduction peaks are observed, α peak is attributed to the dispersed copper oxide species; β peak is ascribed to the bulk CuO; γ peak is attributed to the reduction of high dispersed CuO interacting with manganese; δ peak may be the reduction of the manganese oxide interacting with copper oxide. XPS results show that Cu+ mostly existed on the working surface of the Cu-Mn/γ-Al2O3 catalysts. The activity was promoted by Cu with positive charge which was formed by means of long path exchange function between Cu-O-Mn. These results indicate that there is synergistic interaction between the copper and manganese oxide, which is responsible for the high activity of CO2 hydrogenation.

  17. Double-exchange driven ferromagnetic metal-paramagnetic insulator transition in Mn-doped CuO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippetti, Alessio; Fiorentini, Vincenzo

    2006-12-01

    Employing ab initio self-interaction-corrected local-spin-density calculations, we explain the nature of the ferromagnetic, metallic phase of Mn-doped CuO (an antiferromagnetic insulator when undoped), and of its concurrent transitions to a paramagnetic, insulating phase. Mn-induced donor levels enable conduction through ferromagnetically aligned Mn centers and ferromagnetic CuO planes via double exchange. In the paramagnetic insulating phase, a polaron hopping mechanism consistent with the experiments is envisaged. Our results suggest the intriguing possibility of designing double-exchange driven ferromagnetic cuprates.

  18. Concentrations of Pb, Zn, and Cu in Taraxacum spp. in relation to urban pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, C.M.; Lanaras, T.; Sgardelis, S.P.; Pantis, J.D. (Univ. of Thessaloniki (Greece))

    1994-08-01

    The combustion of petroleum fuel and exhaust emissions are major sources of atmospheric pollution in cities which result in the deposition of toxic substances, particularly heavy metals, in the surface layers of soils. Lead in particular enters the environment from the use of tetraethyl lead as an antiknock agent for petrol engines constituting 21% of fine particles emitted from cars burning leaded petrol. Antiwear protectants incorporated in lubricants often contain Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and/or Zn which are also released into the environment by inefficient engines and irresponsible dumping of engine oils. Zn from tyre wear and Cu from diesel engines also add considerably to the environmental metal burden. Lowering of the permitted lead content of petrol and the growing use of unleaded fuel are expected to lead to reductions in the environmental lead burden, however, until unleaded fuel becomes universally accepted lead contamination, particularly of roadside soils and vegetation is a major cause for concern. A direct relationship between car exhaust, the Pb content of needles of Abies alba and reduced growth has been observed and can extend hundreds of metres from major highways. Lead tolerance has been observed in higher plants growing mine waste soils and to a lesser extent on lead-contaminated roadside soils. Automobiles which are responsible for line sources of pollution emissions in rural and suburban areas have a more far-reaching impact on roadside vegetation, already under considerable stress, in urban areas. Information on heavy metal effects on vegetation in urban environments however, are scarce. Modeling and multivariate analysis of a few of the factors involved have provided only limited data related to plant performance in these complex environments. Therefore in this study, the extent of heavy metal pollution by Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd in soils and in dandelion plants in the city of Thessaloniki has been examined. 20 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Magnetic ordering of the Pr sublattice with the substitution of Cu for Mn in PrMn2Si2 intermetallics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmali, A.; Dincer, I.; Elerman, Y.; Ehrenberg, H.; Fuess, H.

    2004-12-01

    The magnetic properties of PrMn2-xCuxSi2 (0 \\le x \\le 1 ) were studied by field-cooled and zero-field-cooled magnetization measurements in the temperature range 5 K \\le T \\le 350 K in low external fields (5 mT) and by magnetic-field-dependent magnetization measurements in fields up to 5.5 T. Substitution of Cu for Mn leads to a linear decrease in the lattice constant c and the unit cell volume V and a linear increase in the lattice constant a. Earlier neutron diffraction experiments showed that Pr does not order down to 1.6 K in PrMn2Si2 while the ferromagnetic Mn planes are ordered antiparallel along the c axis. With the increasing Cu content, the magnetization increases rapidly at low temperatures for the samples with 0.4 \\le x \\le 1 . Cu substitution strongly changes the magnetic properties and leads to the magnetic ordering of the Pr sublattice. This is mainly deduced from the discussion of the values of the magnetic moments at low temperatures. Below the Curie temperatures TC, the spins in the Mn sublattice are arranged parallel to the Pr sublattice. With increasing Cu, TC(x) has a maximum value of 155 K at x = 0.6 and decreases for samples with x \\ge 0.7 .

  20. Cubane-type Cu(II)4 and Mn(II)2Mn(III)2 complexes based on pyridoxine: a versatile ligand for metal assembling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Nadia; Armentano, Donatella; Mastropietro, Teresa F; Julve, Miguel; De Munno, Giovanni; Martínez-Lillo, José

    2013-10-21

    By using Vitamin B6 in its monodeprotonated pyridoxine form (PN-H) [PN = 3-hydroxy-4,5-bis(hydroxymethyl)-2-methylpyridine], two tetranuclear compounds of formula [Mn4(PN-H)4(CH3CO2)3Cl2]Cl·2CH3OH·2H2O (1) and [Cu4(PN-H)4Cl2(H2O)2]Cl2 (2) have been synthesized and magneto-structurally characterized. 1 crystallizes in the triclinic system with space group P1 whereas 2 crystallizes in the orthorhombic system with Fdd2 as space group. They exhibit Mn(II)2Mn(III)2 (1) and Cu(II)4 (2) cubane cores containing four monodeprotonated pyridoxine groups simultaneously acting as chelating and bridging ligands (1 and 2), three bridging acetate ligands in the syn-syn conformation (1), and two terminally bound chloride anions (1 and 2) plus two coordinated water molecules (2). The electroneutrality is achieved by the presence of chloride counterions in both compounds. Tri- [Mn(1) and Mn(3)] and divalent [Mn(2) and Mn(4)] manganese centers coexist in 1, all being six-coordinate with distorted Mn(1/3)O6 and Mn(2/4)O5Cl octahedral surroundings, respectively, the equatorial Mn-O bonds being about 0.2 Å shorter at the former ones. The two crystallographically independent copper(II) ions in 2 are five-coordinate in somewhat distorted CuO5 [Cu(1)] and CuO4Cl [Cu(2)] square pyramidal geometries. The values of the intracore metal-metal separation cover the ranges 3.144(1)-3.535(1) (1) and 2.922(6)-3.376(1) Å (2). The magnetic properties of 1 and 2 were investigated in the temperature range 1.9-300 K, and they correspond to an overall antiferromagnetic behavior with susceptibility maxima at 5.0 (1) and 65.0 K (2). The analysis of the magnetic susceptibility data showed the coexistence of intracore antiferro- and ferromagnetic interactions in the two compounds. Their values compare well with those existing in the literature for the parent systems.

  1. Variation of photon interaction parameters with energy for some Cu-Pb alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Tejbir, E-mail: dr.tejbir@gmail.com; Kaur, Sarpreet; Kaur, Parminder; Kaur, Harvinder [Department of Physics, Sri Guru Granth Sahib World University, Fatehgarh Saheb-140406, Punjab (India); Singh, Parjit S. [Department of Physics, Punjabi University, Patiala-147002, Punjab (India)

    2015-08-28

    Various photon interaction parameters (mass attenuation coefficients, effective atomic numbers and effective electron numbers) have been computed for different compositions of Cu-Pb alloys in the wide energy regime of 1 keV to 100 GeV. The mass attenuation coefficients have been computed using mixture rule with the help of WinXCom (mass attenuation coefficient database for elements). The variation of mass attenuation coefficients, effective atomic numbers and electron density has been analysed and discussed in terms of dominance of different photon interaction processes viz. Compton scattering, photoelectric effect and pair production.

  2. Preparation of Bulky Bi(Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O Superconductor by Magnetized Twin-Roll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Nobuaki; Kawabata, Sanemasa; Enami, Hiroyoshi; Shinohara, Toshiyuki; Hoshizaki, Hiroki; Hasegawa, Masashi; Asai, Shigeo; Imura, Toru

    1990-02-01

    A highly oriented (Bi, Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox bulk superconductor has been prepared by magnetized twin-roll processing. In these bulks, plate-like crystal grains were highly oriented by a magnetic and mechanical force. The grain c-axes were parallel to the magnetic field and pressing directions. In fact, both critical current density (Jc) and orientation degree of the sample rolled under 2 T were higher than those of the sample rolled with no magnetic field. The magnetized twin-roll processing is effective not only in enhancing grain-orientation but also in packing to improve Jc.

  3. Anodic stripping voltammetric determination of Zn, Pb and Cu traces in whisky samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbeira, P.J.S. [Departamento de Quimica - ICEx - UFMG, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Stradiotto, N.R. [Departamento de Quimica - FFCLRP - USP, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

    1998-07-01

    The simultaneous ``in natura`` determination of trace Zn, Pb and Cu in whisky samples by anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV), using a hanging mercury drop electrode, without previous treatment or addition of supporting electrolyte is described. The choice of an appropriate stripping voltammetric method and deposition potential minimizes the influence of the organic content and ensures a good reproducibility of the measurements. The reliability of the method was tested comparing the results with those of atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), with differences of about 10%. The method allows the determination of heavy metal ions in the {mu}g L{sup -1} range. (orig.) With 3 figs., 1 tab., 18 refs.

  4. Kinetics of lead removal from the Cu-Pb-Fe alloy by barbotage with inert gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Oleksiak

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Discussion of the kinetics of lead removal from the Cu-Pb-Fe alloy by barbotage with argon and helium. The values of the mass penetration coefficient for the liquid and solid phase as well as the mass transfer coefficient were calculated for the temperatures of 1 473 K and 1 548 K, and for the gas flow rate of 5,55 • 10-6, 6,94 • 10-6, 8,33 • 10-6 and 9,72 • 10-6 m • s-1.

  5. ELECTROOXIDATION OF METHANOL ON PT MODIFIED WITH ADATOMS (NI, CU, PB, CD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Khouchaf

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The electro oxidation of methanol has been studied in alkaline medium NaOH 0.1 M and acid medium H2SO4 0.5 M on a platinum electrode and a platinum modified by adatom adsorption (Ni, Cu, Pb, and Cd. The influence of different experimental variables (methanol concentration, and temperature is reported. Preliminary investigations by cyclic voltammetry showed that the catalytic activity of platinum is still too low to be considered as a practical catalyst. Underpotential deposition of lead, nickel, cadmium, or copper adatoms at platinum allowed increasing significantly the current densities.

  6. The Role of Saturated Hydrocarbon in Enrichment of Cu, Pb, Znin Kupferschiefer, Southwestern Poland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In order to clarify the role of organic matter in the enrichment of base metal, 10 samples of the PermianKupferschiefer from southwestern Poland were analyzed by using microscopic and geochemical methods. The re-suts indicate that the solvent extracts have been depleted in the samples with high Cu, Pb, Zn contents. This de-pletion occurred preferably in saturated hydrocarbons. Saturated hydrocarbons served as hydrogen donor for ther-mochemical sulfate reduction (TSR). The GC traces of saturated hydrocarbon show that the depletion occurredmainly in long-chain n-alkanes.

  7. Disseminated, veinlet and vein Pb-Zn, Cu and Sb polymetallic mineralization in the GaleChah-Shurab mining district, Iranian East Magmatic Assemblage (IEMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Mehrabi

    2011-04-01

    hosted in rhyodacite and porphyry dacite rocks. The hypogene minerals are galena, sphalerite, stibnite, pyrite, realgar-orpiment, arsenopyrite, and chalcopyrite with extensive occurrence of oxide-sulfide supergene products, such as Mn-oxide, hematite, malachite and colloidal pyrite. Fluid inclusion study show that disseminated veinlet Cu and disseminated-replacement polymetallic mineralization at the Shurab and Chupan deposits, respectively occurred in the high temperature, salinity and depth compared to vein-veinlet Pb and Zn mineralization of Gale-chah deposit. It seems that the mineralization is related to hydrothermal fluid evolution affected by mixing with cold and low salinity meteoric water.

  8. CuMnOS Nanoflowers with Different Cu+/Cu2+ Ratios for the CO2-to-CH3OH and the CH3OH-to-H2 Redox Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoyun; Abdullah, Hairus; Kuo, Dong-Hau

    2017-01-01

    A conservative CO2-Methanol (CH3OH) regeneration cycle, to capture and reutilize the greenhouse gas of CO2 by aqueous hydrogenation for industry-useful CH3OH and to convert aqueous CH3OH solution by dehydrogenation for the clean energy of hydrogen (H2), is demonstrated at normal temperature and pressure (NTP) with two kinds of CuMnOS nanoflower catalysts. The [Cu+]-high CuMnOS led to a CH3OH yield of 21.1 mmol·g−1catal.·h−1 in the CuMnOS-CO2-H2O system and the other [Cu+]-low one had a H2 yield of 7.65 mmol·g−1catal.·h−1 in the CuMnOS-CH3OH-H2O system. The successful redox reactions at NTP rely on active lattice oxygen of CuMnOS catalysts and its charge (hole or electron) transfer ability between Cu+ and Cu2+. The CO2-hydrogenated CH3OH in aqueous solution is not only a fuel but also an ideal liquid hydrogen storage system for transportation application. PMID:28117456

  9. Tolerance and hyperaccumulation of a mixture of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Hg, and Zn) by four aquatic macrophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Hernández, Jorge Alberto; Amaya-Chávez, Araceli; Balderas-Hernández, Patricia; Roa-Morales, Gabriela; González-Rivas, Nelly; Balderas-Plata, Miguel Ángel

    2017-03-04

    In the present investigation, four macrophytes, namely Typha latifolia (L.), Lemna minor (L.), Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms-Laubach, and Myriophyllum aquaticum (Vell.) Verdc, were evaluated for their heavy metal (Cu, Pb, Hg, and Zn) hyperaccumulation potential under laboratory conditions. Tolerance analyses were performed for 7 days of exposure at five different treatments of the metals mixture (Cu(+2), Hg(+2), Pb(+2), and Zn(+2)). The production of chlorophyll and carotenoids was determined at the end of each treatment. L. minor revealed to be sensitive, because it did not survive in all the tested concentrations after 72 hours of exposure. E. crassipes and M. aquaticum displayed the highest tolerance to the metals mixture. For the most tolerant species of aquatic macrophytes, The removal kinetics of E. crassipes and M. aquaticum was carried out, using the following mixture of metals: Cu (0.5 mg/L) and Hg, Pb, and Zn 0.25 mg/L. The obtained results revealed that E. crassipes can remove 99.80% of Cu, 97.88% of Pb, 99.53% of Hg, and 94.37% of Zn. M. aquaticum withdraws 95.2% of Cu, 94.28% of Pb, 99.19% of Hg, and 91.91% of Zn. The obtained results suggest that these two species of macrophytes could be used for the phytoremediation of this mixture of heavy metals from the polluted water bodies.

  10. Valorization of biosorbent obtained from a forestry waste: Competitive adsorption, desorption and transport of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutillas-Barreiro, Laura; Paradelo, Remigio; Igrexas-Soto, Alba; Núñez-Delgado, Avelino; Fernández-Sanjurjo, María José; Álvarez-Rodriguez, Esperanza; Garrote, Gil; Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Arias-Estévez, Manuel

    2016-09-01

    Bark from Pinus pinaster is one of the most abundant forestry wastes in Europe, and among the proposed technologies for its reutilization, the removal of heavy metals from wastewater has been gaining increasing attention. In this work, we have studied the performance of pine bark for heavy metal biosorption on competitive systems. Pb, Cu, Ni, Zn and Cd sorption and desorption at equilibrium were studied in batch experiments, whereas transport was studied in column experiments. Batch experiments were performed adding simultaneously different concentrations (0.08-3.15mM) of two or more metals in solution to pine bark samples. Column experiments were performed with 10mM solutions of two metals or a 5mM solution of the five metals. In general, the results under competitive conditions were different to those obtained in monoelemental experiments. The multi-metal batch experiments showed the adsorption sequence Pb≈Cu>Cd>Zn>Ni for lower metal doses, Pb>Cu>Cd>Zn>Ni for intermediate doses, and Pb>Cu>Cd≈Zn≈Ni for high metal doses. Desorption followed the sequence PbCdCdCd, Ni and Zn from adsorption sites on pine bark. The transport experiments produced comparable results to those obtained in the batch experiments, with pine bark retention capacity following the sequence Pb>Cu>Zn>Cd>Ni. The presence of a second metal affected the transport of all the elements studied except Pb, and confirmed the strong influence of Pb and Cu on the retention of the other metals. These results can help to appropriately design decontamination systems using this forestry waste.

  11. Piezoelectric properties of low loss and high Curie temperature (Bi, La)FeO_3-Pb(Ti, Mn)O_3 ceramics with Mn doping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Piezoelectric ceramics of 0.6(Bi0.9La0.1)FeO3-0.4Pb(Ti1-xMnx)O3 (BLF-PTM) for x=0, 0.01, 0.02, and 0.03 were prepared by sol-gel process combined with a solid-state reaction method. The tan? for BLF-PTM of x=0.01 is just 0.006 at 1 kHz, drastically decreasing by using Mn dopants. The TC increases to 490 ℃ for BLF-PTM of x=0.02. Furthermore, Mn modification effectively enhances the poling state and the piezoelectric properties of BLF-PTM. The kp, Qm, d33, and g33 of 0.34, 403, and 124 pC1·N-1 and 37×10-3 Vm·...

  12. Effects of Doping Mn on Nd1.85Ce0.15CuO4 System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fa-She Wang; Yong-Liang Chen; Ye Yang; Yong Zhang; Cui-Hua Cheng; Yong Zhao

    2008-01-01

    Nd1.85Ce0.15Cu1-xMnxO4 samples with doping level up to 20% have been synthesized by solid-state reaction method. The influence of Mn on their normal-state transport, crystal structure, superconductivity and magnetic properties has been investigated. For the samples with x>0.03, magnetization under zero-field cooling indicates that the magnetic state changes from ferromagnetic to paramagnetic at T≈100 K, which can be explained with the interaction between Mn4+and Mn3+. The electrical resistivity ρ of samples increases with Mn doping. For the samples with doping level lower than 0.20, ρ initially increases with the decrease of temperature, i.e., dρ/dt<0, and then shows superconductivity transition at T≈20 K. The results suggest the coexistence of superconductivity and ferromagnetic ordering in Mn doped Nd1.85Ce0.15CuO4.

  13. Reinforcement of bulk Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductors by using Fe-Mn-Si-Ni shape memory alloy rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, H.; Honma, Y.; Nomura, M.; Nakayama, C.; Koshizuka, N.; Maruyama, T.; Murakami, M.

    Bulk Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductors are brittle ceramics and their tensional strengths are very low. Therefore, reinforcement of the bulk superconductor is needed for practical applications. Pre-compression load has been shown to be effective in enforcing the bulk superconductors. Fe-Mn-Si alloys exhibit shape-memory effects and the size change due to the shape recovery is large. Therefore, the Fe-Mn-Si shape memory alloy rings will function as effective reinforcement material for the bulk superconductors. We prepared Y-Ba-Cu-O bulk superconductors with top-seeded melt-growth process and the Ni added Fe-Mn-Si (Fe-Mn-Si-Ni) alloy ring which exhibited better shape memory performances than Ni-free Fe-Mn-Si alloys. The ring was extended by inserting a steel rod and heated to 623K. The amount of shape recovery strain was about 2%. Based on these results, the TSMG-processed bulk YBa- Cu-O superconductor 39.0 mm in diameter was inserted into the Fe-Mn-Si-Ni ring whose inner diameter was 39.3 mm at room temperature. With heating to 623K, the Fe-Mn-Si-Ni ring shrank and firmly encapsulated the bulk Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductor. Cracking was not observed in the bulk superconductor. It was interesting to note that the trapped magnetic field of the Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductor at 77K was increased from 2,550 G to 3,795 G through Fe-Mn-Si-Ni ring reinforcement. These results clearly show that the reinforcement treatment with Fe-Mn-Si-Ni alloy ring or pre-compression load is effective in improving the field trapping ability in addition to thee improvement of the mechanical properties.

  14. Measurement of the time-resolved spectrum of photoelectrons from ZnS:Mn, Cu luminescent material

    CERN Document Server

    Dong Guo Yi; Wei Zh; Yang Shao Peng; Fu Guang Sheng

    2003-01-01

    The process of decay of photoelectrons in the conduction band of ZnS:Mn, Cu luminescent materials after excitation with a short-pulse laser has been investigated in this paper by means of measurements made using the microwave absorption dielectric spectrum detection technique. Exponential decay processes were observed for the electrons in the conduction band and the shallow-trapped electrons; the lifetimes of the electrons were found to be 1177 and 1703 ns, respectively. The processes of decay of the luminescence from ZnS:Mn, Cu were investigated and exponential decay processes were found for blue Cu sup + , green Cu sup + and Mn sup 2 sup + luminescent centres with lifetimes of the excited state of 139, 140 and 680 mu s, respectively.

  15. The poisoning effect of PbO on Mn-Ce/TiO2 catalyst for selective catalytic reduction of NO with NH3 at low temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lingling; Li, Caiting; Zhao, Lingkui; Zeng, Guangming; Gao, Lei; Wang, Yan; Yu, Ming'e.

    2016-12-01

    Lead oxide (PbO) as one of the typical heavy metals in flue gas from power plants has strong accumulation as well as poisoning effects on SCR catalysts. In this paper, a series of PbO-doped Mn-Ce/TiO2 catalysts were synthesized by impregnation method. The poisoning effects of PbO over Mn-Ce/TiO2 samples for selective catalytic reduction of NO by NH3 were investigated based on catalytic activity test and characterizations. The NO conversion of Mn-Ce/TiO2 was greatly decreased after the addition of PbO. It was obvious that the NO conversion efficiency of Mn-Ce/TiO2 catalyst declined from 96.75% to about 40% at 200 °C when Pb:Mn molar ratio reached 0.5. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Hydrogen temperature programmed reduction (H2-TPR), Ammonia temperature programmed desorption (NH3-TPD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were carried out to study the deactivation reasons of PbO poisoned catalysts. Manganese oxides' crystallization, less reducible of manganese and cerium oxides, the decreasing of surface area, Mn4+ as well as Ce3+ concentration and chemisorbed oxygen (Ob) after the introduction of PbO, all of these resulted in a poor SCR performance. Furthermore, the alteration of acid sites (especially Brönsted acid sites), low ammonia adsorbance, an obvious reducing of ad-NOx species (only a spot of bidentate nitrates remained) and the vanishing of amide species contributed to the deactivation of Mn-Ce/TiO2 catalyst by PbO doping as well.

  16. Crystal structure and charge localization in Pb2Sr2Y1-xCaxCu3O8 for x=0.0-0.5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, J.-E.; Andersen, N.H.

    1993-01-01

    Neutron powder diffraction studies of Pb2Sr2Y1-xCaxCu3O8 samples for x = 0.0-0. 5 have shown that Ca doping causes a positive charge transfer to the CuO2 as well as to the PbO layers. The bond-valency sum for the Cu ions in the CuO2 layer increases as a function of x, while the bond-valency sum f...

  17. Effect of Cu-doping on optical, electrical and magnetic properties of chemically synthesized MnS nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veeramanikandasamy, T., E-mail: veeramaniks@gmail.com [Department of Electronics and Communication Systems, Sri Krishna Arts and Science College, Coimbatore 641 008 (India); Rajendran, K. [Department of Electronics, L.R.G Govt. Arts College for Women, Tirupur 641 604 (India); Sambath, K. [Department of Electronics and Communication Systems, Sri Krishna Arts and Science College, Coimbatore 641 008 (India); Rameshbabu, P. [Center for Crystal Growth, VIT University, Vellore 632 014 (India)

    2016-03-01

    Manganese sulfide and Cu-doped manganese sulfide nanocrystals have been synthesized by wet chemical technique. The structural, optical, electrical and magnetic properties of as-synthesized nanocrystals have been investigated. The average crystallite size and lattice strain of the samples have been calculated from powder X-ray diffraction patterns using the Williamson–Hall analysis. The results show that the average crystallite size decreased while both the lattice strain and the dislocation density values increased in the Cu-doped MnS nanocrystals. The surface morphology of Cu-doped MnS nanocrystals has lesser particle size than undoped sample and it shows spherical like structures with little agglomeration. The chemical composition of the prepared samples has been obtained from EDAX. It clearly indicates the presence of Cu ions in the MnS lattice. UV–visible spectroscopy shows a blue shift in the optical band gap with doping. The photoluminescence spectra on the doped sample show a quenching of the PL intensity due to strain induced by doping. The electrical conduction, dielectric and impedance properties of as-synthesized nanocrystals have been investigated in the frequency range 50 Hz–5 MHz and temperature range 323–473 K which are greatly affected by doping with Cu. The vibrating sample magnetometer measurement revealed that the undoped MnS has paramagnetic behavior while the Cu-doped MnS has superparamagnetic behavior. On Cu-doping, the saturation magnetization and remanence increases while the coercivity decreases. - Highlights: • Pure and Cu-doped MnS nanocrystals were synthesized by the wet chemical technique. • Optical band gap value is raised by the Burstein-Moss effect due to the introduction of Cu-dopant. • It is a potential material for violet-blue light emission. • Cu-doped MnS showed good electrical conductivity compared to pure γ-MnS. • Doping of Cu induces superparamagnetic behavior in the system.

  18. Evaluation of the bioaccessible fractions of Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn in baby foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento da Silva, Emanueli; Leme, Ana Beatriz Perriello; Cidade, Mirla; Cadore, Solange

    2013-12-15

    The bioaccessibility of four essential micronutrients (iron, zinc, copper and manganese) in some baby foods was evaluated using an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion model. For all of the flour-based foods evaluated, the bioaccessibility of Zn was low, while the bioaccessibility of Cu was above 50%. For these samples, the bioaccessibility of Mn was lower than 50%. Two samples composed of oat and rice flour and whole wheat flour demonstrated a lower bioaccessible fraction of Fe (less than 35%), while the sample made with wheat flour showed high Fe bioaccessibility (approximately 80%). For vegetable- and meat-based baby foods, the Fe bioaccessibility was greater than 80% in samples that contained meat and chicken and approximately 20% for the banana-based sample. The bioaccessibility of Zn was small for all of the foods studied, and in some cases, no Zn appeared to be released. The sample containing banana showed 100% Cu bioaccessibility, in contrast to meat and chicken-based samples, whose Cu bioaccessibility values were less than 50%. The opposite effect occurred for Mn, in which samples containing meat and chicken presented a bioaccessible fraction greater than 50% while the banana-based sample had a fraction less than 50%. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Crystal structure and thermal stability of martensite in Cu-25Al-3Mn alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李周; 汪明朴; 曹玲飞; 徐根应; 苏玉长

    2002-01-01

    The martensite structure in Cu-25Al-3Mn alloy and its thermal cycling and aging behavior are studied. It is convinced that the M2H martensite can be obtained by water-quenched, and the atoms distribution on the basal plane of the mart ensite is: Ⅰ(corner)-Al; Ⅱ(center of the plane)-Cu; Ⅲ(middle of b- side)-22/25Cu+3/25Mn. The lattice parameters are determined to be a=0.445 9 nm, b=0.527 9 nm, c=0.424 1 nm, β=88.64°. The triangle and other complicated configurations consisting of the variant group in the martensite are discovered. It is showed that the tested alloy has a high thermal stability when aging at average temperature in the parent phase, and the thermoelastic martensite amount is up to 90% af ter aging for 96 hat 400 ℃. The thermal cycling has a little influence on the transform ation temperature (Ms). When the number of thermal cycles is up to 1000, the increasing of Ms is only 8 ℃.

  20. Contact angle study on the activation mechanisms of sphalerite with Cu(II) and Pb(II); Estudio de los mecanismos de activacion de la esfalerita con Cu(II) y Pb(II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davila Pulido, G. I.; Uribe Salas, A.

    2011-07-01

    This article presents results of an experimental study on the sphalerite activation with Cu(II) and Pb(II), whose main objective was to investigate the activation mechanisms and to evaluate the magnitude of the hydrophobization achieved with both chemical species. The hydrophobicity acquired by the mineral due to the interaction with the activator and collector (sodium isopropyl xanthate) is characterized making use of the contact angle technique. The results show that Cu(II) replaces the Zn of the external layers of the mineral, promoting the sulfide (S{sup 2}-) oxidation to produce a mixture of CuS, Cu{sub 2}S and S{sup o}, of hydrophobic nature. The subsequent interaction with xanthate increases the hydrophobicity of the mineral surface. In turn, Pb(II) activation of sphalerite is due to the formation of a PbS layer that reacts with xanthate to produce hydrophobic species (e.g., PbX{sub 2}). It is also observed that the hydrophobicity of sphalerite activated with Pb(II) is favored under air atmospheres, as compared to that obtained under nitrogen atmospheres. It is concluded that the hydrophobicity achieved by lead activation may be of the same order of magnitude to that deliverately induced by copper activation. (Author) 11 refs.

  1. Energy Parameters of Interfacial Layers in Composite Systems: Graphene – (Si, Cu, Fe, Co, Au, Ag, Al, Ru, Hf, Pb and Semiconductor (Si,Ge – (Fe, Co, Cu, Al, Au, Cr, W, Pb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.P. Koman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the non-equilibrium thermodynamics relations and the surface physics phenomena we calculate adhesion and energy parameters to characterize the interfacial interactions in graphene – (Si, Cu, Fe, Co, Au, Ag, Al, Ru, Hf, Pb and semiconductor (Si, Ge – (Fe, Co, Cu, Al, Au, Cr, W, Pb systems. We analyze trends of the interfacial energy, interfacial tension, work of adhesion and the energy of adhesive bonds on the contacting element’s atomic number in the periodic table and on the electronegativity difference of interacting elements. Thus, this work provides theoretical basis for the development of new composite materials.

  2. Bioelectrochemical recovery of Cu, Pb, Cd, and Zn from dilute solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modin, Oskar; Wang, Xiaofei; Wu, Xue; Rauch, Sebastien; Fedje, Karin Karlfeldt

    2012-10-15

    In a microbial bioelectrochemical system (BES) living microorganisms catalyze the anodic oxidation of organic matter at a low anode potential. We used a BES with a biological anode to power the cathodic recovery of Cu, Pb, Cd, and Zn from a simulated municipal solid waste incineration ash leachate. By varying the control of the BES, the four metals could sequentially be recovered from a mixed solution by reduction on a titanium cathode. First, the cell voltage was controlled at zero, which allowed recovery of Cu from the solution without an electrical energy input. Second, the cathode potential was controlled at -0.51 V to recover Pb, which required an applied voltage of about 0.34 V. Third, the cathode potential was controlled at -0.66 V to recover Cd, which required an applied voltage of 0.51 V. Finally, Zn was the only metal remaining in solution and was recovered by controlling the anode at +0.2V to maximize the generated current. The study is the first to demonstrate that a BES can be used for cathodic recovery of metals from a mixed solution, which potentially could be used not only for ash leachates but also for e.g. metallurgical wastewaters and landfill leachates.

  3. [Response of Nostoc flageliforme cell to Cu2+, Cr2+ and Pb2+ stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jinying; Shi, Mingke; Zhao, Yanli; Ren, Guoyan; Yi, Junpeng; Niu, Leilei; Li, Juan

    2013-06-04

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of Cu2+, Cr2+ and Pb2+ stress on Nostoc flagelliforme cell. The response of Nostoc flagelliforme cell was analyzed under the stress. The modified BG11 culture medium containing different heavy metal ions of 0, 0.1, 1.0, 10, 100 mg/L was used to cultivate Nostoc flagelliforme cell at 25 degrees C and light intensity of 80 micromol/(m x s). Electrolyte leakage, the activities of superoxide dismutase, the content of malondialdehyde, proline, soluble protein and trehalose were analyzed. Under 1 - 100 mg/L Cu2+, Cr2+ and Pb2+ stress, electrolyte leakage and malondialdehyde contents in Nostoc flagelliforme cell were higher than those in the control group during heavy metal ions stress. Meanwhile, superoxide dismutase activity increased slightly under 10 mg/L, but was lower afterwards. The contents of proline, soluble protein and trehalose increased under 10 mg/L heavy metal ions stress, while declined under extreme heavy metal ions stress (100 mg/L). Nostoc flagelliforme cell has resistance to low heavy metal ions stress, but is damaged badly under extreme heavy metal ions stress.

  4. Comparison Studies of Dielectric and AC Conduction of PbPc and CuPc Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sivamalar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The thin film of Lead Phthalocyanine (PbPc and Copper Phthalocyanine (CuPc on glass are prepared by Vacuum deposition method. Deposition of PbPc and CuPc on pre-cleaned glass substrates under the pressure of 10-6 Torr are achieved by slowly varying current of 20 Volt. The rate of evaporation is properly controlled and maintained constant during all the evaporations. The thicknesses of the films are 150 nm, 300 nm and 450 nm on glass substrate. Dielectric and AC conduction studies of Lead Phthalocyanine and Cupper Phthalocyanine thin films have been studied. The variations of capacitance with frequency at different, permittivity with temperature, capacitance with temperature and ac conductance with frequency at different temperatures of PbPc and CuPc have been studied. The activation energies have been determined from the slope of 1000/T vs. log Gp curves at different frequencies (where Gp= -Eg/RT.

  5. Fine scale characterization of surface/subsurface and nanosized debris particles on worn Cu-10 % Pb nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Amit S.; Biswas, Krishanu, E-mail: kbiswas@iitk.ac.in; Basu, Bikramjit [Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (India)

    2013-05-15

    The identification of the damage mechanisms involved in the wear process demands the finer scale characterization of the surface, as well as the subsurface region of the wear scar region, and to this end, this article discusses the results obtained with Cu-10 wt% Pb-based metallic nanocomposites using a host of characterization techniques, including transmission electron microscopy and ion milling microscopy. Apart from finer scale characterization to understand deformation and cracking during the wear process, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of wear debris confirms the occurrence of oxidation of Pb phase to Pb{sub 3}O{sub 4}. In order to understand the role of oxides on friction and wear, sliding wear tests in argon were also carried out and such tests did not result in the formation of any tribo-oxides, as confirmed using electron probe microanalysis. Conclusively, oxidative wear is attributed as the dominant wear mechanism in ambient conditions for Cu-10 wt% Pb composite.

  6. Spatial Fluctuations of Loose Spin Coupling in CuMn/Co Multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saerbeck, T.; Loh, N.; Lott, D.; Toperverg, B. P.; Mulders, A. M.; Rodríguez, A. Fraile; Freeland, J. W.; Ali, M.; Hickey, B. J.; Stampfl, A. P. J.; Klose, F.; Stamps, R. L.

    2011-09-01

    A detailed investigation of magnetic impurity-mediated interlayer exchange coupling observed in Cu0.94Mn0.06/Co multilayers using polarized neutron reflectometry and magnetic x-ray techniques is reported. Excellent descriptions of temperature and magnetic field dependent biquadratic coupling are obtained using a variant of the loose spin model that takes into account the distribution of the impurity Mn ions in three dimensions. Positional disorder of the magnetic impurities is shown to enhance biquadratic coupling via a new contribution J2fluct, leading to a temperature dependent canting of magnetic domains in the multilayer. These results provide measurable effects on RKKY coupling associated with the distribution of impurities within planes parallel to the interfaces.

  7. Correlation between K, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn in natural honeys from Eucalyptus sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvânia V. M. Mattos

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-five natural honey samples from three apicultural regions of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, were collected from honeybee hives under various climatic conditions over a two-year period. The beehives were located in the districts of Bom Jesus do Amparo, Barão de Cocais and São Gonçalo do Rio Abaixo, all within a 100 km radius of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The pollinic spectrum, color and ash, moisture, K, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn contents were determined. Elemental analysis were done by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Accuracy and precision were verified by recovery tests and relative standard deviation, respectively. The mean mineral contents encountered were K = 1130; Mn = 3.88; Fe = 2.79; Zn = 2.34 and Cu = 0.54 µ g/g. During the dry season, several species of Eucalyptus pollen grains predominated, with Vernonia pollen grains present in lower abundance. In the rainy season, there was an inversion of dominance. Statistical treatment of results, separated according to comb and season, showed statistically equivalent means, although some good correlation indices (p = 0.05 were obtained, e.g. between percent Eucalyptus pollen grains and Mn content (0.450, between Fe and Zn (0.698 and between K and Mn (0.738.Foram coletadas 35 amostras de mel natural em diferentes condições climáticas, por um período de dois anos. Os apiários se localizavam nos distritos de Bom Jesus do Amparo, Barão de Cocais e São Gonçalo do Rio Abaixo, a cerca de 100 km de Belo Horizonte, a capital do Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. As amostras foram analisadas quanto aos teores de K, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, espectro polínico, cor, cinzas e umidade. As médias encontradas foram: K = 1130; Mn = 3,88; Fe = 2,79; Zn = 2,34 e Cu = 0,54 µ g/g. No período de seca houve predomínio de grãos de pólen de origem de espécies de Eucalyptus e, em menor extensão de Vernonia. No período chuvoso, houve uma inversão dessa proporção. O tratamento estat

  8. Phase field simulation of monotectic transformation for liquid Ni-Cu-Pb alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO BingChi; WANG HaiPeng; WEI BingBo

    2009-01-01

    Based on the subregular solution model, the liquid phase separation of ternary (NixCu100-x)50Pb50monotectic alloys is simulated by the phase field method. It is found that if the surface segregation potential is not incorporated, the dynamic morphologies of alloy melt show a transition from disperse microstructure into bicontinuous microstructure with the increase of fluidity parameter. When the sur-face segregation potential is coupled, Pb-rich phase migrates preferentially to the surface of the liquid alloy, and the Ni-rich phase depends on the Pb-rich phase to nucleate. With the extension of the phase separation time, the surface layer is formed through coagulation and growth, and its thickness gradu-ally increases. The Ni-rich phase migrates to the central part, and finally a two-layer core-shell micro-structure is produced. The concentration in the surface layer fluctuates more conspicuously than that inside the bulk phase, which subsequently transfers from the surface to the interior by a wave. The fluid field near the liquid-liquid interface is strong at the beginning of phase separation, and reduces later on. The surface segregation is essential to the formation of the surface layer, concentration profile variation, fluid field distribution and phase separation morphology.

  9. Sharpness-induced energy shifts of quantum well states in Pb islands on Cu(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wen-Yuan; Lu, Shin-Ming; Su, Wei-Bin; Liao, Chun-Chieh; Hoffmann, Germar; Tsai, Tsong-Ru; Chang, Chia-Seng

    2017-03-01

    We elucidate that the tip sharpness in scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) can be characterized through the number of field-emission (FE) resonances. A higher number of FE resonances indicates higher sharpness. We observe empty quantum well (QW) states in Pb islands on Cu(111) under different tip sharpness levels. We found that QW states observed by sharper tips always had lower energies, revealing negative energy shifts. This sharpness-induced energy shift originates from an inhomogeneous electric field in the STM gap. An increase in sharpness increases the electric field inhomogeneity, that is, enhances the electric field near the tip apex, but weakens the electric field near the sample. As a result, higher sharpness can increase the electronic phase in vacuum, causing the lowering of QW state energies. Moreover, the behaviors of negative energy shift as a function of state energy are entirely different for Pb islands with a thickness of two and nine atomic layers. This thickness-dependent behavior results from the electrostatic force in the STM gap decreasing with increasing tip sharpness. The variation of the phase contributed from the expansion deformation induced by the electrostatic force in a nine-layer Pb island is significantly greater, sufficient to effectively negate the increase of electronic phase in vacuum.

  10. Removal of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn from aqueous solutions by biochars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumer, M E; Rigol, A; Vidal, M; Mangrich, A S

    2016-02-01

    Sorption and desorption of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) was evaluated in biochars derived from sugarcane bagasse (SB), eucalyptus forest residues (CE), castor meal (CM), green coconut pericarp (PC), and water hyacinth (WH) as candidate materials for the treatment of contaminated waters and soils. Solid-liquid distribution coefficients depended strongly on the initial metal concentration, with K d,max values mostly within the range 10(3)-10(4) L kg(-1). For all biochars, up to 95 % removal of all the target metals from water was achieved. The WH biochar showed the highest K d,max values for all the metals, especially Cd and Zn, followed by CE (for Cd and Pb) and PC (for Cd, Pb, and Zn). Sorption data were fitted satisfactorily with Freundlich and linear models (in the latter case, for the low concentration range). The sorption appeared to be controlled by cationic exchange, together with specific surface complexation at low metal concentrations. The low desorption yields, generally less than 5 %, confirmed that the sorption process was largely irreversible and that the biochars could potentially be used in decontamination applications.

  11. Effect of Cu(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II) on Pb(II) biosorption by algae Gelidium-derived materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, Vítor J P; Botelho, Cidália M S; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2008-06-15

    Biosorption of Pb(II), Cu(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II) from binary metal solutions onto the algae Gelidium sesquipedale, an algal industrial waste and a waste-based composite material was investigated at pH 5.3, in a batch system. Binary Pb(II)/Cu(II), Pb(II)/Cd(II) and Pb(II)/Zn(II) solutions have been tested. For the same equilibrium concentrations of both metal ions (1 mmol l(-1)), approximately 66, 85 and 86% of the total uptake capacity of the biosorbents is taken by lead ions in the systems Pb(II)/Cu(II), Pb(II)/Cd(II) and Pb(II)/Zn(II), respectively. Two-metal results were fitted to a discrete and a continuous model, showing the inhibition of the primary metal biosorption by the co-cation. The model parameters suggest that Cd(II) and Zn(II) have the same decreasing effect on the Pb(II) uptake capacity. The uptake of Pb(II) was highly sensitive to the presence of Cu(II). From the discrete model it was possible to obtain the Langmuir affinity constant for Pb(II) biosorption. The presence of the co-cations decreases the apparent affinity of Pb(II). The experimental results were successfully fitted by the continuous model, at different pH values, for each biosorbent. The following sequence for the equilibrium affinity constants was found: Pb>Cu>Cd approximately Zn.

  12. Influence of Pb-rich phases of precursor powder on microstructural evolution in the silver-sheathed (Bi,Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox superconducting tapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, X.P.; Grivel, Jean-Claude; Li, M.Y.;

    2010-01-01

    The influence of Pb-rich phases of precursor powder on microstructural evolution during the first heat treatment of the silver-sheathed (Bi,Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox ((Bi,Pb)-2223/Ag) superconducting tapes was studied by means of in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Three monofilament tapes were fabricat...

  13. Influence of MnC2O4 microadditives on combustion characteristics of CuO/Al nanoenergetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painuly, Madhusudan; Patel, Vinay Kumar; Bhattacharya, Shantanu

    2016-05-01

    In this work, we have investigated the catalytic effect of MnC2O4 microrods on combustion characteristics of CuO/nAl nanoenergetic composites. CuO nanorods were prepared by solid state synthesis method using the nonionic surfactant of poly(ethylene)glycol of molecular weight 400 (PEG400). The crystal information and microstructure of CuO/nAl nanoenergetics were studied by X-ray diffractometry and Transmission Electron microscopy. Microrods shaped manganese oxalate (MnC2O4) were fabricated by using mild thermal precipitation and aging process and confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The microstructures of MnC2O4 microrods and the nanoenergetic composites of CuO/nAl/MnC2O4 were characterized by Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) imaging. The addition of MnC2O4 microrods has demonstrated a significant enhancement in dynamic pressure-time characteristics of CuO/nAl nanoenergetics.

  14. Superoxide radical anion scavenging and dismutation by some Cu2+ and Mn2+ complexes: A pulse radiolysis study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Ravi

    2017-10-01

    Copper (Cu) and manganese (Mn) ions are catalytic centers, in complexed form, in scavenging and dismutation process of superoxide radicals anion (O2.-) by superoxide dismutase enzyme. In the present work, fast reaction kinetics and mechanism of scavenging and dismutation of O2.- by Cu2+, Mn2+ and their complexes formed with some natural ligands have been studied using pulse radiolysis technique. Catechol, gentisic acid, tetrahydroxyquinone, tyrosine, tryptophan, embelin and bilirubin have been used as low molecular weight natural ligands for Cu2+ and Mn2+ to understand superoxide radical scavenging and dismutation reactions. These complexes have been found to be efficient scavengers of O2.- (k 107-109 M-1 s-1). The effects of nature of metal ion and ligand, and stoichiometry of complex on scavenging reaction rate constants are reported. Higher scavenging rate constants have been observed with complexes of: (1) Cu2+ as compared to Mn2+, and (2) at [ligand]/[metal] ratio of one as compared to two. A clear evidence of O2.- dismutation by free metal ions and some of the complexes has been observed. The study suggests that complexes of Cu2+ and Mn2+ with small natural ligands can also act as SOD mimics.

  15. Magnetic properties of CaCu5-type RNi3TSi (R=Gd and Tb, T=Mn, Fe, Co and Cu) compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozkin, A. V.; Knotko, A. V.; Yapaskurt, V. O.; Yao, Jinlei; Yuan, Fang; Mozharivskyj, Y.; Nirmala, R.; Quezado, S.; Malik, S. K.

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effect of CaCu5-type RNi3TSi (R=Gd and Tb, T=Mn, Fe, Co and Cu) compounds have been investigated. Magnetic measurements of RNi3TSi display the increasing of Curie temperature and the decreasing of magnetocaloric effect and saturated magnetic moment in the row of 'RNi3CuSi-RNi3NiSi-RNi3CoSi-RNi3MnSi-RNi3FeSi'. In contrast to GdNi3{Mn, Fe, Co}Si, TbNi3{Mn, Fe, Co}Si exhibit significant magnetic hysteresis. The coercive field increases from TbNi4Si ( 0.5 kOe) to TbNi3CoSi (4 kOe), TbNi3MnSi (13 kOe) and TbNi3FeSi (16 kOe) in field of 50 kOe at 5 K, whereas TbNi3CuSi exhibits a negligible coercive field.

  16. Magnetic properties of CaCu{sub 5}-type RNi{sub 3}TSi (R=Gd and Tb, T=Mn, Fe, Co and Cu) compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozkin, A.V., E-mail: morozkin@tech.chem.msu.ru [Department of Chemistry, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, House 1, Building 3, GSP-2, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Knotko, A.V. [Department of Chemistry, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, House 1, Building 3, GSP-2, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Yapaskurt, V.O. [Department of Petrology, Geological Faculty, Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Yao, Jinlei [Research Center for Solid State Physics and Materials, School of Mathematics and Physics, Suzhou University of Science and Technology, Suzhou 215009 (China); Yuan, Fang; Mozharivskyj, Y. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4M1 (Canada); Nirmala, R. [Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Quezado, S.; Malik, S.K. [Departamento de Física Teórica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal 59082-970 (Brazil)

    2015-12-15

    Magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effect of CaCu{sub 5}-type RNi{sub 3}TSi (R=Gd and Tb, T=Mn, Fe, Co and Cu) compounds have been investigated. Magnetic measurements of RNi{sub 3}TSi display the increasing of Curie temperature and the decreasing of magnetocaloric effect and saturated magnetic moment in the row of ‘RNi{sub 3}CuSi–RNi{sub 3}NiSi–RNi{sub 3}CoSi–RNi{sub 3}MnSi–RNi{sub 3}FeSi’. In contrast to GdNi{sub 3}{Mn, Fe, Co}Si, TbNi{sub 3}{Mn, Fe, Co}Si exhibit significant magnetic hysteresis. The coercive field increases from TbNi{sub 4}Si (~0.5 kOe) to TbNi{sub 3}CoSi (4 kOe), TbNi{sub 3}MnSi (13 kOe) and TbNi{sub 3}FeSi (16 kOe) in field of 50 kOe at 5 K, whereas TbNi{sub 3}CuSi exhibits a negligible coercive field. - Graphical abstract: Magnetic measurements of RNi{sub 3}TSi show the increasing of Curie temperature and the decreasing of magnetocaloric effect and saturated magnetic moment in the row of 'RNi{sub 3}CuSi–RNi{sub 3}NiSi–RNi{sub 3}CoSi–RNi{sub 3}MnSi–RNi{sub 3}FeSi'. In contrast to GdNi{sub 3}{Mn, Fe, Co}Si, TbNi{sub 3}{Mn, Fe, Co}Si exhibit significant magnetic hysteresis. The coercive field increases from TbNi{sub 4}Si (~0.5 kOe) to TbNi{sub 3}CoSi (4 kOe), TbNi{sub 3}MnSi (13 kOe) and TbNi{sub 3}FeSi (16 kOe) in field of 50 kOe at 5 K, whereas TbNi{sub 3}CuSi exhibits a negligible coercive field. - Highlights: • CaCu{sub 5}-type RNi{sub 3}TSi show ferromagnetic ordering (R=Gd, Tb, T=Mn–Co, Cu). • Curie point increases in ‘RNi{sub 3}CuSi–RNi{sub 3}NiSi–RNi{sub 3}CoSi–RNi{sub 3}MnSi–RNi{sub 3}FeSi’ row. • MCE decreases in ‘RNi{sub 3}CuSi–RNi{sub 3}NiSi–RNi{sub 3}CoSi–RNi{sub 3}MnSi–RNi{sub 3}FeSi’ row. • TbNi{sub 3}{Mn, Fe, Co}Si exhibit significant magnetic hysteresis. • The coercive field of TbNi{sub 3}MnSi and TbNi{sub 3}FeSi reach 13 kOe and 16 kOe at 5 K.

  17. Cu-Zn-Pb multi isotopic characterization of a small watershed (Loire river basin, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desaulty, A. M.; Millot, R.; Perret, S.; Bourrain, X.

    2015-12-01

    Combating metal pollution in surface water is a major environmental, public health and economic issue. Knowledge of the behavior of metals, such as copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) in sediments and dissolved load, is a key factor to improve the management of rivers. Recent advances in mass spectrometry related to the development of MC-ICPMS allow to analyze the isotopic composition of these elements, and previous studies show the effectiveness of isotopic analyses to determine the anthropogenic sources of pollution in environment. The goal of this study is to use the Cu-Zn-Pb multi-isotopic signature to track the pollutions in surface water, and to understand the complex processes causing the metals mobilization and transport in environment. More particularly we investigate the mechanisms of distribution between the dissolved load and particulate load, known to play an important role in the transport of metals through river systems. As case study, we chose a small watershed, poorly urbanized in the Loire river basin. Its spring is in a pristine area, while it is only impacted some kilometers further by the releases rich in metals coming from a hospital water treatment plant. First a sampling of these liquid effluents as well as dissolved load and sediment from upstream to downstream was realized and their concentrations and isotopic data were determined. Then to simulate a lot of potential natural and anthropogenic modifications of environmental conditions, we made sequential extraction protocol using various reagents on the sediments. Isotopic analyzes were performed also on the various extracting solutions. Isotopic ratios were measured using a Neptune MC-ICPMS at the BRGM, after a protocol of purification for Zn and Cu. The results showed that, these isotopic systematics reveal important informations about the mechanists of mobilization and transport of metals through river systems. However experiments performed under laboratory conditions will be necessary

  18. Imaging Current-Induced Switching of Antiferromagnetic Domains in CuMnAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzybowski, M. J.; Wadley, P.; Edmonds, K. W.; Beardsley, R.; Hills, V.; Campion, R. P.; Gallagher, B. L.; Chauhan, J. S.; Novak, V.; Jungwirth, T.; Maccherozzi, F.; Dhesi, S. S.

    2017-02-01

    The magnetic order in antiferromagnetic materials is hard to control with external magnetic fields. Using x-ray magnetic linear dichroism microscopy, we show that staggered effective fields generated by electrical current can induce modification of the antiferromagnetic domain structure in microdevices fabricated from a tetragonal CuMnAs thin film. A clear correlation between the average domain orientation and the anisotropy of the electrical resistance is demonstrated, with both showing reproducible switching in response to orthogonally applied current pulses. However, the behavior is inhomogeneous at the submicron level, highlighting the complex nature of the switching process in multidomain antiferromagnetic films.

  19. Effect of environmental temperature on damping capacity of Cu-Al-Mn alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAO Yu-qin; WEN Yu-hua; LI Ning; HE Jia-qiang; TENG Jin

    2009-01-01

    The effect of environmental temperature on the damping capacity of Cu-7.66Al-9.52Mn (mass fraction, %) alloy was studied. The result shows that with increasing the environmental temperature, the logarithmic decrement increases firstly and reaches the maximal value of 0.118. The reason is that more phase interfaces and twinning boundaries can move at a higher temperature, leading to higher consumption of energy, in despite of the decreasing of the amount of martensite. When the environmental temperature is above Ms, with further increase in the environmental temperature, the logarithmic decrement decreases sharply mainly because there is little martensite remaining in the alloy.

  20. Metabolismo del Mg, Cu, Zn, Cr, Mn, y Ni en la diabetes melitus

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    En los últimos años, a los elementos traza y al mg se las ha implicado en la patologenesis de las complicaciones crónicas de la diabetes mellitus (dm). Las alteraciones del estado mineral asociadas a la dm podrían estar influidas, entre otros factores, por el grado de control metabólico y la asociación, o no, de otras patologías metabólicas como la hipertensión arterial (hta), la dislipemia y la obesidad. A pesar de que el mg, cu, zn, cr, mn y ni son cationes de localización principalmente in...

  1. Disorder in Al-li-cu and Al-mn-si icosahedral alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiney, P A; Bancel, P A; Horn, P M; Jordan, J L; Laplaca, S; Angilello, J; Gayle, F W

    1987-10-30

    Faceted dendrites of icosahedral AL(6)Li(3)Cu have been studied by high-resolution x-ray scattering. The samples display long-range icosahedral symmetry both in their diffraction patterns and in their macroscopic morphology. Despite the appearance of well-defined facets, the samples have a high degree of atomic disorder. The Bragg peaks have symmetry-dependent shapes and widths that scale linearly with G perpendicular (phason momentum). The peak widths are surprisingly similar to those found in icosahedral Al-Mn-Si alloys in both their absolute magnitude and their dependence on G perpendicular. The origin of these features in models for the icosahedral phase is discussed.

  2. Cu, Mn, Fe, and Zn Levels in Soils of Shika Area, Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. A. MASHI; S. A. YARO; A. S. HAIBA

    2004-01-01

    Heavy metals presented in toxic amounts can become injurious to human health. In areas where there is a high level of human activities on soils (such as agriculture and grazing) studies are therefore required from time to time to monitor levels of such metals in the soils in order to identify the point in time when toxicity problems become real. The 英文摘要: of this paper is to determine the concentrations of some trace metals (Cu, Mn, Fe, and Zn) in soils under cultivation and grazing practices in Shika, a rural area of Kaduna state of Nigeria. Method In this study, soil samples collected from three different categories of locations (cultivated, grazed, and uncultivated/non- grazed serving as a control) across Shika area, Nigeria, were analysed for some trace metal levels (Cu, Mn, Fe, and Zn) using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. For each category, multiple sites were chosen to accommodate all possible intra-category variations, especially in terms of land use and management history and topographic characteristics. Topsoil (0-15 cm) and subsoil (20-30 cm) samples were collected from every site and analysed for the above metals. Averaged values of the metals for the three categories revealed that Zn is the most abundant metal, followed by Fe, then Mn and Cu the least. Results The results obtained indicate that the cultivation practices, and to a lesser extent grazing, in the area result in higher levels of all the metals than in the control, suggesting that crop immobilization of the metals from soils of the area is low, and that their systematic accumulation is taking place in cultivated soils of the area. Prospects of having elevated soil levels of the metals due to cultivation practices in the area therefore seem quite high. Conclusion On the basis of the results obtained, it was concluded that grazing and cultivation practices have in general caused some significant elevations in the bioavailable (i.e the plant available forms) levels of Zn, Fe, Mn

  3. Nerita chameleon as Biomonitoring Agent for Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn in Malaysian Intertidal Rocky Shore Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Fuad Miskon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn in the soft tissue of Nerita chameleon from particular rocky shore sites along the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia were investigated. Samples were measured using ICP-MS with standard configuration. The metal accumulation patterns indicate consistent enrichment of essential metals. Locations with relatively high concentrations of the contaminant metals Pb, Cd and Cu are related to their close proximity to industrial activities and urban sites. Comparison with maximum permissible limits of toxic metals in food indicated the values were well within safety levels.

  4. Efficiency of Chitosan for the Removal of Pb (II), Fe (II) and Cu (II) Ions from Aqueous Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Soheil Sobhanardakani; Raziyeh Zandipak; Hassan Parvizimosaed; Arash Javanshir Khoei; Mehran Moslemi; Mahsa Tahergorabi; Seyed Mehdi Hosseini; Parisa Delfieh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Heavy metals have been recognized as harmful environmental pollutant known to produce highly toxic effects on different organs and systems of both humans and animals. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the adsorption potential of chitosan for the removal of Pb(II), Fe(II) and Cu(II) ions from aqueous solutions. Methods: This study was conducted in laboratory scale. In this paper chitosan has been used as an adsorbent for the removal of Pb(II), Fe(II) and Cu(II) from aqueous s...

  5. One pot synthesis of Pb S/Cu{sub 2}S core-shell nanoparticles and their optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, T.; Gomez, I., E-mail: maria.gomez@uanl.edu.mx [Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Laboratorio de Materiales, Pedro de Alba, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)

    2014-07-01

    The synthesis of Pb S/Cu{sub 2}S core-shell nanoparticles with emission on the visible range and with improved luminescence properties was carried out by the colloidal solution-phase growth method by using simple stabilizers such as trisodium citrate and 3-mercaptopropionic acid. The core shell arrangement for particles with different crystalline structure was achieved, in addition this is the first report related to the synthesis Pb S/C{sub 2}S core-shell system. The data obtained from absorption spectra, Pl spectra, and HRTEM image provided direct proof of the formation of Pb S core with size around 11 nm and Cu{sub 2}S shell of 5 nm thickness. According to the UV-vis absorption and Pl spectrum the optical characteristics observed in the synthesized material correspond to a Pb S/Cu{sub 2}S system that has a higher confinement effect than the pure Pb S nanoparticles. The Q Y was improved in 15% from Pb S/C{sub 2}S nanoparticles. The estimated band (Homo-Lumo) alignment determined by C V measurements corresponds to a type-I core shell arrangement. The synthesized material was studied with different techniques. The size and dispersion of the particles were determined by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis), photoluminescence and quantum yield, Dynamic Light Scattering method and X-ray diffraction with copper radiation (λ = 0.15418 nm). (Author)

  6. Complexes of arabinogalactan of Pereskia aculeata and Co2+, Cu2+, Mn2+, and Ni2+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merce, A L; Landaluze, J S; Mangrich, A S; Szpoganicz, B; Sierakowski, M R

    2001-01-01

    The main interest in the biopolymer arabinogalactan is that it is edible. Complementing its high protein percentage, when complexed to essential metal ions, widens the use in food and pharmacology industries and technologies. The binding constants of Co2+, Cu2+, Mn2+ and Ni2+ with arabinogalactan, extracted from the leaves of Pereskia aculeata from Brazil were determined by potentiometric titrations and also the speciation according to pH values. The complexed species proposed by potentiometric titrations and the unique complexing ability of galacturonic acid groups towards Cu2+ and Ni2+ in the tridimensional web structure of arabinogalactan were confirmed by IR and EPR spectroscopies. The thermal stability of the complexed species also varied with the metal ion employed in the complexation when compared to the biopolymer alone. These complexes are new sources of additives for the food and pharmacology industries and carriers of essential metal ions to animal and vegetal biochemistry.

  7. Effect of CuF2 on the Synthesis and Superconducting Properties of (Bi,Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10 Bulk Ceramic Samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, Jean-Claude; Andersen, Niels Hessel

    2013-01-01

    Bulk polycrystalline samples with Bi1.72Pb0.34Sr1.87Ca1.91Cu3.13O9.83−x F x (0.00≤x≤0.51) were prepared by a solid-state route using CuF2 as a fluorine source. CuF2 was introduced in the precursor powders either by direct mixing with the other starting reagents or by addition to precalcined precu...

  8. The effect of the substitution of Cu for Mn on magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 34}In{sub 16}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaya, M. [Department of Engineering Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Ankara University, 06100 Besevler, Ankara (Turkey); Yildirim, S. [Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine Division, Hacettepe University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Yüzüak, E. [Department of Engineering Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Ankara University, 06100 Besevler, Ankara (Turkey); Department of Nanotechnology Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Recep Tayyip Erdogan University, 53100 Rize (Turkey); Dincer, I., E-mail: idincer@eng.ankara.edu.tr [Department of Engineering Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Ankara University, 06100 Besevler, Ankara (Turkey); Ellialtioglu, R. [Department of Engineering Physics, Faculty of Engineering Hacettepe University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Elerman, Y. [Department of Engineering Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Ankara University, 06100 Besevler, Ankara (Turkey)

    2014-11-15

    The influence of Cu substitution for Mn on magnetic and magnetocaloric properties has been investigated in Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 34−x}Cu{sub x}In{sub 16} (x=1.3 and 1.6) Heusler alloys by using calorimetric and magnetic measurements. The temperature dependent magnetization measurements and calorimetric studies indicate that martensitic transition temperatures shift to higher temperatures with increasing valence electron concentrations, e/a. The isothermal magnetization curves around the martensitic transition temperatures show a typical metamagnetic behavior. Associated with that, large positive values of magnetic entropy changes around structural transition region were determined by using the Maxwell and Clausius–Clapeyron relations. The maximum magnetic entropy change values were found to be 25.2 and 5.7 J kg{sup −1} K{sup −1} for Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 34−x}Cu{sub x}In{sub 16} (x=1.3 and 1.6) alloys by Maxwell relation in a magnetic field change of 2 T. In order to understand the limit can be reached for, the magnetic entropy change values recalculated by Clausius–Clapeyron relation. Obtained maximum entropy change values are 22.8 and 16.3 J kg{sup −1} K{sup −1} for Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 34−x}Cu{sub x}In{sub 16} (x=1.3 and 1.6) alloys by Clausius–Clapeyron relation. - Highlights: • Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 34−x}Cu{sub x}In{sub 16} alloys are prepared by an arc-melting method. • Structural properties are characterized by XRD, DSC and SEM. • Magnetic entropy change values are estimated by Maxwell and Clausius–Clapeyron equations.

  9. Direct detection of Pb in urine and Cd, Pb, Cu, and Ag in natural waters using electrochemical sensors immobilized with DMSA functionalized magnetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yantasee, Wassana; Hongsirikarn, Kitiya; Warner, Cynthia L; Choi, Daiwon; Sangvanich, Thanapon; Toloczko, Mychailo B; Warner, Marvin G; Fryxell, Glen E; Addleman, R Shane; Timchalk, Charles

    2008-03-01

    Urine is universally recognized as one of the best non-invasive matrices for biomonitoring exposure to a broad range of xenobiotics, including toxic metals. Detection of metal ions in urine has been problematic due to the protein competition and electrode fouling. For direct, simple, and field-deployable monitoring of urinary Pb, electrochemical sensors employing superparamagnetic iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles with a surface functionalization of dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) has been developed. The metal detection involves rapid collection of dispersed metal-bound nanoparticles from a sample solution at a magnetic or electromagnetic electrode, followed by the stripping voltammetry of the metal in acidic medium. The sensors were evaluated as a function of solution pH, the binding affinity of Pb to DMSA-Fe3O4, the ratio of nanoparticles per sample volume, preconcentration time, and Pb concentrations. The effect of binding competitions between the DMSA-Fe3O4 and urine constituents for Pb on the sensor responses was studied. After 90 s of preconcentration in samples containing 25 vol.% of rat urine and 0.1 g L(-1) of DMSA-Fe3O4, the sensor could detect background level of Pb (0.5 ppb) and yielded linear responses from 0 to 50 ppb of Pb, excellent reproducibility (%RSD of 5.3 for seven measurements of 30 ppb Pb), and Pb concentrations comparable to those measured by ICP-MS. The sensor could also simultaneously detect background levels (<1 ppb) of Cd, Pb, Cu, and Ag in river and seawater.

  10. X-ray absorption study of the ferromagnetic Cu moment at the YBa2Cu3O7/La2 /3Ca1 /3MnO3 interface and variation of its exchange interaction with the Mn moment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, K.; Perret, E.; Alberca, A.; Uribe-Laverde, M. A.; Marozau, I.; Yazdi-Rizi, M.; Mallett, B. P. P.; Marsik, P.; Piamonteze, C.; Khaydukov, Y.; Döbeli, M.; Keller, T.; Biškup, N.; Varela, M.; Vašátko, J.; Munzar, D.; Bernhard, C.

    2016-05-01

    With x-ray absorption spectroscopy and polarized neutron reflectometry we studied how the magnetic proximity effect at the interface between the cuprate high-TC superconductor YBa2Cu3O7 (YBCO) and the ferromagnet La2 /3Ca1 /3MnO3 (LCMO) is related to the electronic and magnetic properties of the LCMO layers. In particular, we explored how the magnitude of the ferromagnetic Cu moment on the YBCO side depends on the strength of the antiferromagnetic (AF) exchange coupling with the Mn moment on the LCMO side. We found that the Cu moment remains sizable if the AF coupling with the Mn moments is strongly reduced or even entirely suppressed. The ferromagnetic order of the Cu moments thus seems to be intrinsic to the interfacial CuO2 planes and related to a weakly ferromagnetic intraplanar exchange interaction. The latter is discussed in terms of the partial occupation of the Cu 3 d3 z2-r2 orbitals, which occurs in the context of the so-called orbital reconstruction of the interfacial Cu ions.

  11. Nano-structured CuO-Cu2O Complex Thin Film for Application in CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskite Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lung-Chieh; Chen, Cheng-Chiang; Liang, Kai-Chieh; Chang, Sheng Hsiung; Tseng, Zhong-Liang; Yeh, Shih-Chieh; Chen, Chin-Ti; Wu, Wen-Ti; Wu, Chun-Guey

    2016-09-01

    Nano-structured CuO-Cu2O complex thin film-based perovskite solar cells were fabricated on an indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass and studied. Copper (Cu) thin films with a purity of 99.995 % were deposited on an ITO-coated glass by magnetron reactive sputtering. To optimize the properties of the nano-structured CuO-Cu2O complex thin films, the deposited Cu thin films were thermally oxidized at various temperatures from 300 to 400 °C. A CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite absorber was fabricated on top of CuO-Cu2O complex thin film by a one-step spin-coating process with a toluene washing treatment. Following optimization, the maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) exceeded 8.1 %. Therefore, the low-cost, solution-processed, stable nano-structured CuO-Cu2O complex thin film can be used as an alternative hole transport layer (HTL) in industrially produced perovskite solar cells.

  12. Pb, Cu, and Zn distributions at humic acid-coated metal-oxide surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingge; Michel, F. Marc; Choi, Yongseong; Eng, Peter J.; Levard, Clement; Siebner, Hagar; Gu, Baohua; Bargar, John R.; Brown, Gordon E.

    2016-09-01

    Mineral surfaces are often coated by natural organic matter (NOM), which has a major influence on metal-ion sorption and sequestration because of the abundance of binding sites in such coatings and the changes they cause in local nanoscale environments. The effects of NOM coatings on mineral surfaces are, however, still poorly understood at the molecular level due to the complexity of these systems. In this study, we have applied long-period X-ray standing wave-fluorescence yield (LP-XSW-FY) spectroscopy to measure the partitioning of naturally present Cu(II) (0.0226%), Zn(II) (0.009%), and Pb(II) (∼0.0004%) between Elliott Soil Humic Acid (ESHA) coatings and three model single-crystal metal-oxide substrates: α-Al2O3 (0 0 0 1), α-Al2O3 (1 -1 0 2), and α-Fe2O3 (0 0 0 1). The competitive sorption effects among these metal ions for binding sites in the ESHA coatings and on the metal-oxide surfaces were investigated as a function of reaction time, calcium content, and solution pH. Pb(II) ions present in the ESHA coatings were found to redistribute to reactive α-Al2O3 (1 -1 0 2) and α-Fe2O3 (0 0 0 1) surfaces after 3 h of reaction (pH = 6.0, [Ca(II)] = 2 mM). Pb(II) partitioning onto these reactive metal-oxide surfaces increased with increasing reaction time (up to 7 d). In addition, the partitioning of Cu(II) and Zn(II) from the ESHA coating to the α-Fe2O3 (0 0 0 1) substrate increased slightly with reaction time (2.4% and 3.7% for Cu(II) and Zn(II), respectively, after 3 h and 6.4% and 7.7% for Cu(II) and Zn(II), respectively, after 72 h of reaction time). However, no changes in the partitioning of Cu(II) and Zn(II) onto the α-Al2O3 (1 -1 0 2) surface were observed with increasing reaction time, suggesting that these ions strongly complex with functional groups in the ESHA coatings. Similar results were obtained for Cu(II) and Zn(II) on the ESHA-coated α-Al2O3 (1 -1 0 2) surfaces in samples without the addition of calcium. However, the amounts of Pb

  13. Relation Between pH and Desorption of Cu, Cr, Zn, and Pb from Industrially Polluted Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Henrik K.; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2009-01-01

    Desorption of Cu, Cr, Pb, and Zn from industrially polluted soils as a result of acidification is in focus. The eight soils of the investigation vary greatly in composition and heavy metal concentration/combination. Three soils had elevated concentrations of Cu, Pb, and Zn; regardless of pollution...... level, pollution origin, and soil type, the order for desorption as pH decreased was Zn > Cu > Pb. Turning to a single heavy metal in different soils, there was a huge difference in the pH at which the major desorption started. The variation was most significant for Pb where, e.g., less than 10......% was desorbed at pH 2.5 from one soil, whereas in another soil 60% Pb was desorbed at this pH. Sequential extraction was made and the soils in which a high percentage of Pb was found in the residual phase (adsorbed strongest) was also the soils where less Pb was desorbed at low pH in the desorption experiments...

  14. Effect of Pseudomonas fluorescens RB4 and Bacillus subtilis 189 on the phytoremediation potential of Catharanthus roseus (L.) in Cu and Pb-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Waheed Ullah; Ahmad, Sajid Rashid; Yasin, Nasim Ahmad; Ali, Aamir; Ahmad, Aqeel

    2017-06-03

    The remediation of heavy metal-contaminated soils has become a critical issue due to toxic effects of these metals on living organisms. The current research was conducted to study the effect of Pseudomonas fluorescens RB4 and Bacillus subtilis 189 on the growth and phytoremediation potential of Catharanthus roseus in Cu- and Pb-contaminated soils. The bacterial strains exhibited significantly higher level of water-extractable Pb and Cu in Pb, Cu, and Cu+Pb-contaminated. The P. fluorescens RB4 inoculated plants, produced 102%, 48%, and 45% higher fresh weight (FW) in soils contaminated with Cu, Pb, and both elements, respectively, as compared to un-inoculated control plants. Similarly, B. subtilis 189 inoculated plants produced 108%, 43%, and 114% more FW in the presence of Cu, Pb, and both elements. The plants co-cultivated with both bacteria exhibited 121%, 102%, and 177% higher FW, in Cu, Pb, and both elements contaminated soils, as compared to respective un-inoculated control. Co-cultivation of P. fluorescens RB4, B. subtilis 189, and P. fluorescens RB4 + B. subtilis 189 resulted in higher accumulation of Cu and Pb in shoots of the C. roseus grown in contaminated soils as compared to un-inoculated control. Bacterial treatments also improved the translocation and metal bioconcentration factors. The growth and phytoextraction capability of C. roseus was improved by inoculation of P. fluorescens RB4 and B. subtilis 189.

  15. Comparative study of supported CuOx and MnOx catalysts for the catalytic wet air oxidation of β-naphthol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Yu, Chaoying; Zhao, Peiqing; Chen, Gexin

    2012-09-01

    MnOx/nano-TiO2, MnOx/Al2O3-TiO2 (Al-Ti), CuOx/nano-TiO2 and CuOx/Al-Ti were prepared and their application in catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) of β-naphthol were investigated. The catalysts had been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) measurements. Phases of CuO, Cu2O, CuAl2O4, MnO2 and Mn2O3 could be found on the surface of the aforementioned catalysts. Significant differences in activities were observed among the prepared catalysts. Compared to CuOx/nano-TiO2, the combined action of highly dispersed CuO as well as CuAl2O4 of CuOx/Al-Ti helped to achieve higher activity for the CWAO of β-naphthol, while the Cu2O component lead to lower efficiency of CuOx/nano-TiO2. On the surface of MnOx/nano-TiO2, both the larger amount of highly dispersed MnO2 and the stronger electron transfer between MnO2 and Mn2O3 were helpful to promote the activity for the degradation of β-naphthol. However, the higher amount of bulk MnO2 and the weaker electron transfer for MnOx/Al-Ti were unfavorable to increase its efficiency. Among the four catalysts as-prepared, MnOx/nano-TiO2 was identified the highest activity with 93.7% COD removal.

  16. Spatial and temporal variations in inhalable CuZnPb aerosols within the Mexico City pollution plume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, T; Querol, X; Pey, J; Minguillón, M C; Pérez, N; Alastuey, A; Bernabé, R M; Blanco, S; Cárdenas, B; Eichinger, W; Salcido, A; Gibbons, W

    2008-03-01

    We report on the CuPbZn content of PM10 and PM2.5 samples collected from three sites (urban T0, suburban T1 and rural T2) during the Mexico City MILAGRO campaign of March 2006. Daytime city centre concentrations of summation operator CuZnPb(PM10) were much higher (T0 > 450 ng m(-3)) than at the suburban site (T1 inversion layer, but decreased at the rural site. Transient spikes in concentrations of different metals, e.g. a "copper event" at T0 (CuPM10 281 ng m(-3)) and "zinc event" at T1 (ZnPM10 1481 ng m(-3)) on the night of March 7-8, demonstrate how industrial pollution sources produce localised chemical inhomogeneities in the city atmosphere. Most metal aerosols are <2.5 microm and SEM study demonstrates the dominance of Fe, Ti, Ba, Cu, Pb and Zn (and lesser Sn, Mo, Sb, W, Ni, V, As, Bi) in metalliferous particles that have shapes including spherical condensates, efflorescent CuZnClS particles, cindery Zn, and Cu wire. Metal aerosol concentrations do not change in concert with PM10 mass, which is more influenced by wind resuspension than industrial emissions. Metalliferous particles can induce cell damage, and PM composition is probably more important than PM mass, with respect to negative health effects, so that better monitoring and control of industrial emissions would likely produce significant improvements in air quality.

  17. Influence of Mn substitution on microstructure and magnetic properties of Cu1-xMnxO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, G. Narsinga; Yao, Y. D.; Chen, J. W.

    2007-05-01

    Mn-doped CuO nanoparticles were synthesized using a coprecipitation method. Powder x-ray analysis reveals that all the samples crystallize into a monoclinic-type structure. Significant changes occur in both the microstructure and particle size with calcination temperature TA. The average particle size d increases from 11to85nm as the TA increases from 250to850°C. For particles of size d ⩽22nm, energy dispersive spectroscopy indicates the existence of a crystalline Cu1-xMnxO core surrounded by an amorphous CuO shell. M(T ) curves reveal a spin-glass behavior for the 11 and 22nm particles and a ferromagnetic behavior for particles of size d ⩾35nm. The observed ferromagnetic behavior is attributed to the coexistence of Mn2+ and Mn3+ ions.

  18. High temperature EPR study of the M3Fe4V6O24 (M = Cu, Zn, Mg and Mn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guskos Niko

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectra of M3Fe4V6O24 (M = Cu, Zn, Mg and Mn compounds in high temperature range (293 K to 493 K have been investigated. The role of magnetic (Cu, Mn and non-magnetic (Zn, Mg ions in M3Fe4V6O24 structure in formation of magnetic resonance spectra was studied. Temperature dependence of EPR parameters: resonance field, linewidth and integrated intensity were examined. Similarities and differences in temperature behavior of these parameters has been discussed in terms of different relaxation mechanisms and magnetic interactions in the spin systems. An important role of additional magnetic ions (M = Mn or Cu in the M3Fe4V6O24 structure has been identified and its consequences considered.

  19. Application of Cu-Al-Mn superelastic alloy bars as reinforcement elements in concrete beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Kshitij C.; Araki, Yoshikazu; Nagae, Takuya; Yano, Hayato; Koetaka, Yuji; Omori, Toshihiro; Sutou, Yuji; Kainuma, Ryosuke; Ishida, Kiyohito

    2012-04-01

    Experimental works are done to assess the seismic behavior of concrete beams reinforced with superelastic alloy (SEA) bars. Applicability of newly developed Cu-Al-Mn SEA bars, characterized by large recovery strain, low material cost, and high machinability, have been proposed as partial replacements for conventional steel bars in order to reduce residual deformations in structures during and after intense earthquakes. Four-point reverse-cyclic bending tests were done on 1/3 scale concrete beams comprising three different types of specimens - conventional steel reinforced concrete (ST-RC), SEA reinforced concrete (SEA-RC), and SEA reinforced concrete with pre-tensioning (SEA-PC). The results showed that SEA reinforced concrete beams demonstrated significant enhancement in crack recovery capacity in comparison to steel reinforced beam. Average recovery of cracks for each of the specimens was 21% for ST-RC, 84% for SEA-RC, and 86% for SEA-PC. In addition, SEA-RC and SEA-PC beams demonstrated strong capability of recentering with comparable normalized strength and ductility relative to conventional ST-RC beam specimen. ST-RC beam, on the other hand, showed large residual cracks due to progressive reduction in its re-centering capability with each cycle. Both the SEA-RC and SEA-PC specimens demonstrated superiority of Cu-Al-Mn SEA bars to conventional steel reinforcing bars as reinforcement elements.

  20. Slurry Erosion Behavior of Destabilized and Deep Cryogenically Treated Cr-Mn-Cu White Cast Irons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gupta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of destabilization treatment and destabilization followed by cryogenic treatment have been evaluated on the microstructural evolution and sand-water slurry erosion behavior of Cr-Mn-Cu white cast irons. The phase transformations after the destabilization and cryotreatment have been characterized by bulk hardness measurement, optical and scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction analysis. The static corrosion rate has been measured in tap water (with pH=7 and the erosion-corrosion behavior has been studied by slurry pot tester using sand-water slurry. The test results indicate that the cryogenic treatment has a significant effect in minimizing the as-cast retained austenite content and transforming into martensitic and bainitic matrix embedded with ultra-fine M7C3 alloy carbides. In contrast, by conventional destabilization treatment retained austenite in the matrix are not fully eliminated. The slurry erosive wear resistance has been compared with reference to destabilized and cryotreated high chromium iron samples which are commonly employed for such applications. The cryotreated Cr-Mn-Cu irons have exhibited a comparable erosive wear performance to those of high chromium irons. Higher hardness combined with improved corrosion resistance result in better slurry erosion resistance.

  1. XRD and XANES study of some Cu-doped MnBi materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ashutosh; Patil, Harsha

    2016-10-01

    High purity MnBi low temperature phase has been prepared and analyzed using X- ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) measurements. The X-ray diffraction measurements were carried out using Bruker D8 Advance X-ray diffractometer. The X-rays were produced using a sealed tube and the wavelength of X-ray was 154 nm (Cu K-alpha). and X-rays were detected using a fast counting detector based on Silicon strip technology (Bruker LynxEye detector)[1]. and the X-ray absorption spectra has emerged as a powerful technique for local structure determination, which can be applied to any type of material. The X-ray absorption measurements of two Cu-doped MnBi alloys have been performed at the recently developed BL-8 Dispersive EXAFS beam line at 2.5 GeV Indus-2 synchrotron at RRCAT, Indore, India[2]. The X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) data obtained has been processed using data analysis program Athena. The energies of the K absorption edge, chemical shifts, edge-widths, shifts of the principal absorption maximum in the alloys have been determined.

  2. Structural and dielectric properties of Mn doped copper oxide (CuO) nanostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Imran; Khan, Shakeel; Ahmed, Hilal; Nongjai, Razia

    2013-06-01

    Undoped and Mn doped CuO nanocrystalline powder samples were prepared through standard solid state reaction method. The crystal structures of the CuO nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction. Dielectric measurements were performed on samples as a function of frequency at room temperate to determine the dielectric behavior of the samples. XRD data exhibited the presence of monoclinic crystal structure similar to the parent compound in all samples, suggesting that doped Mn ions sit at the regular lattice sites. The average crystallite size, calculated using Scherrer formula from XRD data, is found within the range of 23-27 nm. The dielectric constant (ɛ'), imaginary part of dielectric constant (ɛ") and loss tangent (tanδ) were studied as a function of frequency and composition at room temperature. The dependence of dielectric constant (ɛ') on frequency suggests a conduction mechanism in terms of hopping. This behavior can be explained on the basis of space charge polarization according to Maxwell and Wagner's two-layer model.

  3. DETERMINATION OF Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn AND FREE FATTY ACIDS IN PEQUI OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparecida M. S. Mimura

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb., a typical fruit of the Brazilian Cerrado, is an important source of micronutrients and fatty acids. In this work, a new approach for the acid digestion (using H2SO4, HNO3 and H2O2 of pequi oil samples and the determination of Cu, Fe, Zn and Mn by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (F AAS was employed. Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE was used for free fatty acid (FFA determination after simple and fast extraction with heated ethanol. Good results regarding precision (RSD < 10%, in most cases, sensitivity and adequate LOD and LOQ values were obtained. The accuracy was evaluated using spike tests and the recoveries were from 97 to 107%. The analytes were investigated in four different pequi oil samples. Fe was the trace element with the highest concentration (from 1.99 to 10.3 mg/100 g, followed by Zn, Mn and Cu (1.15 to 3.19, 0.42 to 0.91 and 0.31 to 0.56 mg/100 g, respectively. The main FFA found were oleic acid and palmitic acid (1.61 to 10.7 and 0.82 to 2.69 g/100 g, respectively, while linoleic acid (0.50 g/100 g was detected in only one sample. The pequi oil chemical composition showed good characteristics to be used as a food additive, in cosmetic formulations and for traditional medicine.

  4. A free-cutting and ductile CuAlMnZnTiB shape memory alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘娜; 李周; 李灵; 刘斌; 李擎天; 徐根应

    2015-01-01

    The mechanical properties and cutting performance of the designed CuAlMnZnTiB shape memory alloy were studied by tensile test and microstructure observation. Using X-ray diffractometry, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and semi-quantitative shape memory effect test, the microstructure and shape memory effect were analyzed. It is found that lots ofβ phase and fewα phase are formed in the quenching of Cu-7.5Al-9.7Mn-3.4Zn-0.3Ti-0.14B (mass fraction, %) alloy, a great deal of martensite and fewα phase are formed in the aging alloy, while the annealing alloy is composed of a great deal ofα phase and fewβ phase. The tensile strength and elongation of the annealed alloy are 649 MPa and 17.1%, respectively. Some tiny and dispersion distributed second phase particles are generated in Ti and B precipitates, greatly improving the alloy machinability.

  5. Accumulative Roll Bonding and Post-Deformation Annealing of Cu-Al-Mn Shape Memory Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Ahmad Ostovari; Ketabchi, Mostafa; Afrasiabi, Yaser

    2014-12-01

    Accumulative roll bonding is a severe plastic deformation process used for Cu-Al-Mn shape memory alloy. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the possibility of grain refinement of Cu-9.5Al-8.2Mn (in wt.%) shape memory alloy using accumulative roll bonding and post-deformation annealing. The alloy was successfully subjected to 5 passes of accumulative roll bonding at 600 °C. The microstructure, properties as well as post-deformation annealing of this alloy were investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimeter, and bend and tensile testing. The results showed that after 5 passes of ARB at 600 °C, specimens possessed α + β microstructure with the refined grains, but martensite phases and consequently shape memory effect completely disappeared. Post-deformation annealing was carried out at 700 °C, and the martensite phase with the smallest grain size (less than 40 μm) was obtained after 150 s of annealing at 700 °C. It was found that after 5 passes of ARB and post-deformation annealing, the stability of SME during thermal cycling improved. Also, tensile properties of alloys significantly improved after post-deformation annealing.

  6. Characteristics of flake graphite in Ni-Mn-Cu cast iron. Part 2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Janus

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper continues the article published by Archives of Foundry Engineering, vol. 9, issue 1/2009, pp. 185-290, that presented influence of chemical composition of hypo- and hypereutectic nickel-manganese-copper alloyed cast iron on properties of the contained flake graphite. In this second part of the research, effect of chemical composition of hypereutectic cast iron containing 3.5÷5.1% C, 1.7÷2.8% Si, 3.5÷10.5 %Ni, 2.0÷8.0% Mn, 0.1÷3.5% Cu, 0.14÷0.17% P and 0.02÷0.04% S on properties of flake graphite is determined. Evolution of graphite properties with changing eutecticity degree of the examined cast iron is presented. For selected castings, histograms of primary and eutectic graphite are presented, showing quantities of graphite precipitates in individual size ranges and their shape determined by the coefficient ξ defined as ratio of a precipitate area to square of its circumference. Moreover, presented are equations obtained by discriminant analysis to determine chemical composition of Ni-Mn-Cu cast iron which guarantee the most favourable distribution of A-type graphite from the point of view of castings properties.

  7. Magnetic properties of Nd0.5Pb0.5-xSrxMnO3 materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁毅; 李庆安; 邸乃力; 马骁; 寇志起; 罗志; 成昭华

    2003-01-01

    The structure and magnetic properties of Nd0.5Pb0.5-xSrxMnO3 (0 ≤ x ≤0.4) manganites were systematicallyinvestigated. Significant changes in Curie temperature and metal-insulator (MI) transition temperature of the sampleswere observed. All samples exhibited a transition from paramagnetic semiconducting to ferromagnetic metallic state.Curie temperature TC and the MI transition temperature Tp increased with increasing Sr content. We attributed thesebehaviours to the enhancing of both the double exchange mechanism and the Jahn-Teller electron-phonon coupling.

  8. Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Helical Bevel Gears Made by Mn-Cu Alloyed Austempered Ductile Iron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Sheng-fa; CHEN Yang; CHEN Xin; MIAO Hua-ming

    2012-01-01

    Austempered ductile iron (ADI) has several advantages of replacing cast steel and forged steel in many engineering fields. A new Mn-Cu alloyed ADI with excellent mechanical properties has been developed in order to cut the cost and enlarge the application of ADI. The helical bevel gears were made of the new-developed Mn-Cu alloyed ADI. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the standard sample were investigated by optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and performance measurement. The results showed that after a series of treatments, the mechanical properties (Rm 1007. 4 to 1200 MPa, A 5.2% to 8. 8%, HRC 32 to HRC 35, O~K 70 to 120 J/cmz ) of the Mn-Cu alloyed ADI standard sample could reach European standard EN1564-97/ EN-CJS-1000-5. The surface hardness after helical bevel gears meshing was significantly increased due to the formation of martensite. The bench test and traffic running testing results suggested that the new Mn-Cu alloyed ADI with ultimate life and median life respectively exceeding 30×104 and 50 × 10^4 times could replace 20CrMnTi forged steel for manufacturing the EQ140 helical bevel gears.

  9. Determination of Fe, Hg, Mn, and Pb in three-rings of poplar (Populus alba L.) by U-shaped DC arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, D. M.; Novović, I.; Vilotić, D.; Ignjatović, Lj.

    2007-09-01

    The U-shaped DC arc with aerosol supply was applied for the determination of Fe, Hg, Mn, and Pb in poplar (Populus alba L.) tree-rings. By optimization of the operating parameters and by selection of the most appropriate signal integration time (20 s for Fe, Mn, and Pb and 30 s for Hg), the obtained limits of detection for Fe, Hg, Mn, and Pb are 5.8, 2.6, 1.6, and 2.0 ng/ml, respectively. The detection limits achieved by this method for Fe, Hg, Mn, and Pb are comparable with the detection limits obtained for these elements by such methods as inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), direct coupled plasmatomic emission spectrometry (DCP-AES), and microwave-induced plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (MIP-AES). We used the tree-rings of poplar from two different locations. The first one is in the area close to the power plant “Nikola Tesla” TENT A, Obrenovac, while the other one is in the urban area of Novi Sad. In almost all cases, samples from the location at Obrenovac registered elevated average concentrations of Fe, Hg, Mn, and Pb in the tree-rings of poplar.

  10. Heterogeneous UV/Fenton catalytic degradation of wastewater containing phenol with Fe-Cu-Mn-Y catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑展望; 雷乐成; 徐生娟; 岑沛霖

    2004-01-01

    The heterogeneous UV/Fenton process with the appropriate amount of Fe-Mn-Cu-Y as catalyst was developed and various operation conditions for the degradation of phenol were evaluated. The results indicated that by using the heterogeneous UV/Fenton process, the CODcr removal rate reached almost 100% for wastewater containing phenol. Compared with the homogeneous process, the developed catalyst could be used at wider pH range in the UV/Fenton process. Comparison of various heterogeneous process showed that heterogeneous UV/Fenton process was best. The heterogeneous UV/Fenton process with Fe-Mn-Cu-Y catalyst is highly efficient in degrading various organic pollutants.

  11. Investigation of deformation and microstructure of bainite in Cu-9.97%Al-4.62%mn alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldirmaz E.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, some physical and mechanical properties in Cu-9.97%Al-4.62%Mn (wt% alloy were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and compression deformation test. Bainite phase were obtained in the samples according to SEM and XRD analyses. Compression stress was applied on the alloy in order to investigate the deformation effect on the bainite phase transformation. On the surface of the Cu-9.97%Al-4.62%Mn alloy after the deformation, both bainite and martensite variants formed.

  12. Immobilisation of Cu, Pb and Zn in Scrap Metal Yard Soil Using Selected Waste Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamari, A; Putra, W P; Yusoff, S N M; Ishak, C F; Hashim, N; Mohamed, A; Isa, I M; Bakar, S A

    2015-12-01

    Immobilisation of heavy metals in a 30-year old active scrap metal yard soil using three waste materials, namely coconut tree sawdust (CTS), sugarcane bagasse (SB) and eggshell (ES) was investigated. The contaminated soil was amended with amendments at application rates of 0 %, 1 % and 3 % (w/w). The effects of amendments on metal accumulation in water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) and soil metal bioavailability were studied in a pot experiment. All amendments increased biomass yield and reduced metal accumulation in the plant shoots. The bioconcentration factor and translocation factor values of the metals were in the order of Zn > Cu > Pb. The addition of ES, an alternative source of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), has significantly increased soil pH and resulted in marked reduction in soil metal bioavailability. Therefore, CTS, SB and ES are promising low-cost immobilising agents to restore metal contaminated land.

  13. Interaction Kinetics between Sn-Pb Solder Droplet and Au/Ni/Cu Pad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fuquan LI; Chunqing WANG; Yanhong TIAN

    2006-01-01

    The interfacial phenomena of the Sn-Pb solder droplet on Au/Ni/Cu pad are investigated. A continuous AuSn2and needle-like AuSn4 are formed at the interface after the liquid state reaction (soldering). The interfacial reaction between the solder and Au layer continues during solid state aging with AuSn4 breaking off from the interface and felling into the solder. The kinetics of Au layer dissolution and diffusion into the solder during soldering and aging is analyzed to elucidate intermetallic formation mechanism at the solder/Au pad interface.The concentration of Au near the solder/pad interface is identified to increase and reach the solubility limit during the period of liquid state reaction. During solid state reaction, the thickening of Au-Sn compound is mainly controlled by element diffusion.

  14. Structure and age of the Cerro de Pasco Cu-Zn-Pb-Ag deposit, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, E. S.

    1991-04-01

    The world-famous Cu-Zn-Pb-Ag deposit at Cerro de Pasco, Peru, consists of texturally massive pyrite, texturally massive sphalerite-galena-pyrite, and veins containing pyrite and enargite. Historically the deposit has been considered to be the hydrothermal product of the adjacent Miocene volcanic and intrusive complex (locally known as the “Vent”). However, both the texturally massive sulfides of the deposit and the pre-Miocene strata are cut by the Longitudinal fault, one of the largest faults in the district, but the Vent is not. Imbrication by the Longitudinal fault zone (duplex structures) has thickened the deposit so that it is amenable to open-pit mining. Dikes and pyrite-enargite veins pass from the Vent into the massive sulfides; fragments of massive pyrite occur in the Vent. Thus, no matter what their origin, the texturally massive sulfides are older and, therefore, genetically unrelated to the Vent.

  15. Relation Between pH and Desorption of Cu, Cr, Zn, and Pb from Industrially Polluted Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Henrik K.; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2009-01-01

    . It was evident that Cu, Pb, and Zn started to desorb at a higher pH from calcareous soils than from soils with low carbonate content. The mechanism responsible for this is co-precipitation of heavy metals in the carbonates. When the carbonates are dissolved at a relatively high pH of about 5, the co......Desorption of Cu, Cr, Pb, and Zn from industrially polluted soils as a result of acidification is in focus. The eight soils of the investigation vary greatly in composition and heavy metal concentration/combination. Three soils had elevated concentrations of Cu, Pb, and Zn; regardless of pollution...... level, pollution origin, and soil type, the order for desorption as pH decreased was Zn > Cu > Pb. Turning to a single heavy metal in different soils, there was a huge difference in the pH at which the major desorption started. The variation was most significant for Pb where, e.g., less than 10...

  16. Retention and distribution of Cu, Pb, Cr, and Zn in a full-scale hybrid constructed wetland receiving municipal sewage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiao, H.W.; Zhang, S.L.; Zhai, J.; He, Q.; Mels, A.R.; Ning, K.J.; Liu, J.

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the retention and distribution of Cu, Pb, Cr, and Zn in a hybrid constructed wetland (CW) that consists of both vertical baffled flow wetlands (VBFWs) and horizontal subsurface flow wetlands (HSSFs) with unique flow regimes and oxygen distribution. The heavy

  17. Bioaccumulation of Pb, Cd, Cu, and Cr by Porphyridium cruentum (S.F. Gray Nägeli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Retnaningsih Soeprobowati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The red microalgae Porphyridium cruentum (S.F. Gray Nägeli usually was used as feeds, a pigment for food and cosmetic, and antiviral activity that might be became industrial interest. Similar to another microalgae, P. cruentum has an ability to remediate heavy metals pollution, however research on it still limited. This research was conducted in order to find out the the accumulation of Pb, Cd, Cr, and Cu on the P. cruentum. A laboratory experiment were developed with different concentrations. Based on this research, P. cruentum with the treatment of 1 mg/L had reduced higher Cu, Pb, Cd, and Cr concentrations rather than 3 and 5 mg/L concentrations, respectively. This was also similar to the BCF, that in day 8 in order of Cu > Cr > Cd > Pb, respectively; however, in day 15 was Cu > Pb > Cd > Cr. The length of treatment influenced BCF value. P. cruentum was good for bioremediation of heavy metal pollution, with the advantage of the short of accumulation time.

  18. Retention and distribution of Cu, Pb, Cr, and Zn in a full-scale hybrid constructed wetland receiving municipal sewage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiao, H.W.; Zhang, S.L.; Zhai, J.; He, Q.; Mels, A.R.; Ning, K.J.; Liu, J.

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the retention and distribution of Cu, Pb, Cr, and Zn in a hybrid constructed wetland (CW) that consists of both vertical baffled flow wetlands (VBFWs) and horizontal subsurface flow wetlands (HSSFs) with unique flow regimes and oxygen distribution. The heavy m

  19. Stopping Power of Al, Cu, Ag, Au, Pb, and U for 5-18-MeV Protons and Deuterons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, H.; Andersen, Hans Henrik

    1973-01-01

    High energy protons and deuterons of energies between 9 and 18 MeV have been used to extend earlier measurements of the stopping power of Al, Cu, Ag and Au and the stopping powers of Pb and U in the range 5-18 MeV have been determined for the first time. Mean excitation potentials have been...

  20. Competitive adsorption of Cd, Cu, Hg and Pb by agricultural soils of the Changjiang and Zhujiang deltas in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Soils can often be contaminated simultaneously by more than one heavy metal. The sorption-desorption behavior of a metal in a soil will be affected by the presence of other metals. Therefore, selective retention and competitive adsorption of the soils to heavy metals can affect their availability and movement through the soils. In this study, the simultaneous competitive adsorption of four heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Hg, and Pb) on ten agricultural soils collected from the Changjiang and Zhujiang deltas,China was assessed. The results showed that the competition affected the behavior of heavy metal cations in such a way that the soils adsorbed less Cd and Hg, and more Pb and Cu with increasing total metal concentrations, regardless of the molar concentration applied. As the applied concentrations increased, Pb and Cu adsorption increased, while Cd and Hg adsorption decreased.The adsorption sequence most found was Pb>Cu>Hg>Cd. The maximum adsorption capacity for the heavy metal cations was calculated, and affected markedly by soil properties. The results suggest that Hg and Cd have higher mobility associated to the lower adsorption and that Pb and Cu present the opposite behavior. Significant correlations were found between the maximum adsorption capacity of the metals and pH value and exchangeable acid, suggesting that soil pH and exchangeable acid were key factors controlling the solubility and mobility of the metals in the agricultural soils.

  1. Risk assessment for Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in urban soils: chemical availability as the central concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, S.R.; Cruz, N.; Coelho, C.; Henriques, B.; Carvalho, L.; Duarte, A.C.; Pereira, E.; Römkens, P.F.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    To assess the geochemical reactivity and oral bioaccessibility of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in urban soils from the Porto area, four extractions were performed including Aqua Regia (AR; pseudototal), 0.43 M HNO(3) (reactive), 0.01 M CaCl(2) (available), and 0.4 M glycine at pH = 1.5, SBET method (oral bioac

  2. Risk assessment for Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in urban soils: chemical availability as the central concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, S.R.; Cruz, N.; Coelho, C.; Henriques, B.; Carvalho, L.; Duarte, A.C.; Pereira, E.; Römkens, P.F.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    To assess the geochemical reactivity and oral bioaccessibility of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in urban soils from the Porto area, four extractions were performed including Aqua Regia (AR; pseudototal), 0.43 M HNO(3) (reactive), 0.01 M CaCl(2) (available), and 0.4 M glycine at pH = 1.5, SBET method (oral bioac

  3. The effects of substituting B for Cu on the magnetic and shape memory properties of CuAlMnB alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydogdu, Y.; Aydogdu, A. [Gazi University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Ankara (Turkey); Turabi, A.S.; Vance, E.D.; Karaca, H.E. [University of Kentucky, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Lexington, KY (United States); Kok, M. [Firat University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Elazig (Turkey); Kirat, G. [Inonu University, Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Malatya (Turkey)

    2016-07-15

    The effects of B addition on the magnetization, mechanical and shape memory properties in Cu{sub 70-x}Al{sub 24}Mn{sub 6}B{sub x} at.% (x = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4) alloys have been investigated. The ductility was decreased, while the strength was improved with B addition. Transformation temperatures were increased with B content due to increased e/a ratio. Martensite start temperature of B-free CuAlMn was found to be 37.3 C and increased to 218.8 C with 4 % B addition. B-free CuAlMn exhibited shape memory effect with a recoverable strain of 2.25 % under 200 MPa and a perfect superelasticity with a recoverable strain of 2.5 % at 163 C. B addition degraded the shape memory properties and eventually resulted in the lack of recoverable strain. In addition, saturation magnetization was increased with B content. Moreover, the addition of B slightly decreased the ductility of the alloy. It was found that the magnetization, mechanical and shape memory properties CuAlMn alloys can be tailored by quaternary alloying with B. (orig.)

  4. Geology, mineralogy and fluid inclusion data from the Arapucan Pb Zn Cu Ag deposit, Canakkale, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgün, Yüksel; Gültekin, Ali Haydar; Onal, Ayten

    2005-07-01

    The Arapucan Pb-Zn-Cu-Ag deposit occurs as hydrothermal veins in diabase and altered Triassic metasandstones adjacent to calc-alkaline intrusive igneous rocks. The deposit is an important commercial source of base metal in northwestern Turkey. Potential by-products are silver and gold. The geology of the area includes a Paleozoic metamorphic basement, Triassic sedimentary rocks with carbonate blocks, Tertiary granitoids and Neogene volcanics. The mineral assemblage includes galena, quartz, calcite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite and pyrite as well as minor bismuthinite, tetrahedrite, pyrolusite, hematite, scheelite, malachite, magnetite, limonite and rutile. Silver is associated with tetrahedrite. Early hydrothermal activity was responsible for the formation of three hypogene alteration types of decreasing intensity: silicification, sericitization and argillic alteration. These alteration styles show a rough spatial zonation. The ore stage clearly postdates hydrothermal alteration, as indicated by the occurrence of ore minerals in vuggy cavities and fractures in silica bodies. The deposit contains evidence of at least two periods of hypogene mineralization separated by a period of faulting. In addition to Pb, Zn, Cu, Ag and Au, the ores contain substantial quantities of W, Bi, Sb and Te. Average δ 34S values for galena and pyrite are -3.95 and -2.24‰, respectively, suggesting an igneous source for both the sulphur and metals. However, geological and geochemical interpretations suggest that at least some of the metals were leached from the metasandstones and diabases. Fluid inclusions in main-stage sphalerite homogenize at 229-384 °C with salinities ranging from 1.7 to 18.5 eq.wt% NaCl. The deposits formed as the result of the interaction of two aqueous fluids: a higher-salinity fluid (probably magmatic) and a dilute meteoric fluid. The narrow range of δ 34S (galena and pyrite) values (-5.2 to -1.2‰ CDT) suggests that the sulphur source of the hydrothermal fluids

  5. Modelling the concentrations of dissolved contaminants (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn) in floodplain soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennert, Thilo; Rabus, Widar; Rinklebe, Jörg

    2017-04-01

    Central European floodplain soils are often contaminated with potentially toxic metals. The prediction of their aqueous concentrations is a prerequisite for an assessment of environmental concerns. We tested the aqueous concentrations of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) derived from multi-surface adsorption modelling (on hydrous iron, aluminum and manganese oxides, clay and soil organic matter) against those analyzed in situ in the soil solution of four horizons of floodplain soils at the Elbe River, Germany. The input data for the reactive metals were derived from a seven-step sequential extraction scheme or from extraction with 0.43 M nitric acid (HNO3) and evaluated in four modelling scenarios. In all scenarios, measured and modelled concentrations were positively related, except partially for Pb. Close reproduction of the measured data was obtained using measured data of accompanying cations and anions together with amounts of reactive metals from both the sequential extraction or from 0.43 M HNO3 extraction, except for Cu, which was often strongly overestimated, and partially Cd. We recommend extraction with 0.43 M HNO3 to quantify reactive metals in soil because the modelling results were metal-specific with better or equal results using the single extractant, the application of which is also less laborious. Approximations of ion concentrations and water contents yielded similar results. Modelled solid-phase speciation of metals varied with pH and differed from that from sequential extraction. Multi-surface modelling may be an effective tool to predict both aqueous concentrations and solid-phase speciation of metals in soil.

  6. Characterization and adsorption performance of Pb(II) on CuO nanorods synthesized by the hydrothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arfaoui, Lobna; Kouass, Salah [Laboratoire des matériaux utiles, Institut National de Recherche et d' Analyse Physico-Chimique (INRAP) Sidi Thabet, 2020 Tunis (Tunisia); Dhaouadi, Hassouna, E-mail: dhaouadihassouna@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire Matériaux Traitement et Analyse, Institut National de Recherche et d' Analyse Physico-Chimique (INRAP) Sidi Thabet, 2020 Tunis (Tunisia); Jebali, Raouf [Laboratoire des matériaux utiles, Institut National de Recherche et d' Analyse Physico-Chimique (INRAP) Sidi Thabet, 2020 Tunis (Tunisia); Touati, Fathi [Laboratoire Matériaux Traitement et Analyse, Institut National de Recherche et d' Analyse Physico-Chimique (INRAP) Sidi Thabet, 2020 Tunis (Tunisia)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The nanorods of CuO were synthesized by a hydrothermal route without any surfactant. • X-ray diffraction showed monoclinic structure with space group C{sub 2/c}. • The nanorods show relatively high adsorption capacity for the removal of Pb(II). • The adsorption kinetics could be fitted well by the pseudo-second-order model. • The equilibrium data can be fitted well using the Langmuir isotherm model - Abstract: Copper oxide (CuO) nanorods were synthesized by hydrothermal method. The detailed structural, compositional and optical characterization of this material was also evaluated with XRD, FT-IR, EDS, and UV–vis spectroscopy, which confirmed that the obtained nanorods are well-crystallized CuO and possess good optical properties. SEM and TEM studies revealed that the as-synthesized CuO nanorods are uniform with an average diameter of 17 nm. The adsorption activity of the CuO nanostructures was studied. The adsorption results showed that the CuO nanorods are an effective and efficient adsorbent for the removal of Pb(II) ions. The influence of various operational parameters such as the pH of the solution, the contact time and the initial concentrations were also studied and the results were discussed. The estimated maximum lead ion adsorption capacity of the CuO nanorods was found to be 188.67 mg g{sup −1} at an optimum pH of 6.

  7. Water pollution by Cu and Pb can adversely affect mallard embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertész, Virág; Bakonyi, Gábor; Farkas, Beáta

    2006-09-01

    The effects of heavy metal pollutants on aquatic birds have been widely studied in ecotoxicological investigations; however, the predominant focus has been on the postnatal period of life. Limited information on the adverse effects of metals to bird eggs is available. The possible toxic effects of lead and copper were studied in mallard eggs. After the accidental severe heavy metal pollution of the Tisa river (Hungary) in March 2000, these metals were detected in the highest concentration in both the water and the sediment, reaching far beyond acceptable concentrations. Pb treatment (2.9 mg/L) significantly increased the rate of mortality after a single immersion of the eggs into polluted water for 30 min. The rate of dead embryos significantly increased after the combined exposure to Cu and Pb (0.86 and 2.9 mg/L, respectively) both in the single- (once for 30 min) and in the multiple- (10s daily during first trimester of incubation) immersion groups. It was concluded that elevated metal concentrations similar to those found in the Tisa river after the tailing dam failure may cause toxic effects (mortality and teratogenicity) upon exposure of mallard eggs.

  8. Nucleation and evolution of dynamic damage at Cu/Pb interfaces using molecular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fensin, S. J.; Valone, S. M.; Cerreta, E. K.; Gray, G. T.; Shao, S.

    2017-01-01

    For ductile metals, the process of dynamic fracture occurs through nucleation, growth and coalescence of voids. For high purity single-phase metals, it has been observed by numerous investigators that voids tend to heterogeneously nucleate at grain boundaries and all grain boundaries are not equally susceptible to void nucleation. However, for materials of engineering significance, especially those with second phase particles, it is less clear if the type of bi-metal interface between the two phases will affect void nucleation and growth. To approach this problem in a systematic manner two bi-metal interfaces between Cu and Pb have been investigated: {111} and {100}. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the collected data from molecular dynamics shock and spall simulations suggests that Pb becomes disordered during shock compression and is the preferred location for void nucleation under tension. Despite the interfaces being aligned with the spall plane (by design), they are not the preferred location for void nucleation irrespective of interface type.

  9. Microscopy modifications in an aged Cu-Al-Ni-Mn alloy; Modificacoes microestruturais em uma liga Cu-Al-Ni-Mn submetida ao envelhecimento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gama, J.L.L. [Instituto Federal de Alagoas (IFAL), Maceio, AL (Brazil); Ferreira, R.A.S., E-mail: jorgelauriano@gmail.co [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DEM/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2010-07-01

    An Cu-12Al-4Ni-3Mn shape memory alloy have been manufactured using an induction furnace of 24 KVA. After melting, chemical analyse was performed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF). The phase transformation of this alloy was studied in the different sequences produced during thermomechanic treatments. After homogenization, the ingot was solution treated at 850 deg C. At 750 deg C samples were submitted to a reduction by rolling to about 30% in thickness, followed by water quenching. In sequence, the ingot was cold-rolled at different thicknesses. In deformed state, sample of this alloy was submitted to the thermal analyse-DTA for identification of the phase transformation domains. For each identified domain, ageing was carried out, at different times, to evaluate the presence of the different phases. Samples were characterized ray-X diffraction. The results showed that the microstructural evolutions are of a complex nature. At 425 deg C temperature both recrystallization and precipitation of different phases were simultaneously observed. (author)

  10. Physical properties of nanostructured (PbSx(CuS1−x composite thin films grown by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.U. Ubale

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured ternary semiconducting (PbSx(CuS1−x thin films were grown on glass substrates by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR technique at room temperature. The structural, morphological and optical characterizations of the films were carried out by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and UV–Vis spectrophotometer respectively. The structural studies revealed that, (PbSx(CuS1−x films are nanocrystalline in nature and have mixed phase of cubic PbS and hexagonal CuS. The optical absorption measurements showed that band gap energy of (PbSx(CuS1−x can be engineered between 2.57 and 2.28 eV by varying compositional parameter ‘x’. The room temperature dc dark electrical resistivity of PbS film is found to be 28.85 Ωcm and it decreases when content of Cu in composite increases and becomes 0.05 Ωcm for pure CuS. The thermo-emf measurements showed that the as deposited (PbSx(CuS1−x films are of n-type. The water angle contact measurements of (PbSx(CuS1−x, revealed that, films are hydrophilic in nature and it could be advantageous in electrochemical application.

  11. Influence of Cu, Fe, Pb, and Zn chlorides and oxides on formation of chlorinated aromatic compounds in MSWI fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimori, Takashi; Takaoka, Masaki; Takeda, Nobuo

    2009-11-01

    Model fly ashes containing admixed Cu, Fe, Pb, and Zn chlorides and oxides were heated at a temperature corresponding to the postcombustion zone of a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI), resulting in the formation of chlorinated aromatic compounds, including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and furans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and chlorobenzenes (CBzs). The concentrations of these compounds were measured and compared with those occurring in real fly ash. The order with respect generative capacity of each metal additive was calculated from principal component analysis of the concentrations of the different chlorinated aromatic compounds as CuCl(2)*2H(2)O > Cu(2)(OH)(3)Cl > FeCl(3)*6H(2)O > FeCl(2)*4H(2)O > CuO > Fe(2)O(3) > PbCl(2) > blank (no metal added) > ZnCl(2) > PbO > ZnO. From hierarchical cluster analysis of the concentrations and congener distribution patterns of the PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs, and CBzs, the metallic compounds were divided into five groups: Group A (CuCl(2)*2H(2)O and Cu(2)(OH)(3)Cl), B (FeCl(3)*6H(2)O and FeCl(2)*4H(2)O), C (CuO and PbCl(2)), D (Fe(2)O(3), blank, and ZnCl(2)), and E (PbO and ZnO). Cluster analysis showed the congener distribution patterns of model fly ashes to be similar to the pattern of real MSWI fly ash. The formation of PCDDs was influenced mainly by group B, blank, and PbO; PCDFs, mainly by CuO, Fe(2)O(3) and ZnCl(2); PCBs, mainly by groups B and C; and CBzs, mainly by groups A and B. Thus, the multiple promotion of chlorinated aromatic compound formation by metallic chlorides and oxides in the fly ashes of MSWIs and other thermal processes has considerable importance for the environment.

  12. Rapid solidification and dendrite growth of ternary Fe-Sn-Ge and Cu-Pb-Ge monotectic alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The phase separation and dendrite growth characteristics of ternary Fe-43.9%Sn- 10%Ge and Cu-35.5%Pb-5%Ge monotectic alloys were studied systematically by the glass fluxing method under substantial undercooling conditions. The maximum undercoolings obtained in this work are 245 and 257 K, respectively, for these two alloys. All of the solidified samples exhibit serious macrosegregation, indicating that the homogenous alloy melt is separated into two liquid phases prior to rapid solidification. The solidification structures consist of four phases including α-Fe, (Sn), FeSn and FeSn2 in Fe-43.9%Sn-10%Ge ternary alloy, whereas only (Cu) and (Pb) solid solution phases in Cu-35.5%Pb-5%Ge alloy under different undercool- ings. In the process of rapid monotectic solidification, α-Fe and (Cu) phases grow in a dendritic mode, and the transition "dendrite→monotectic cell" happens when alloy undercoolings become sufficiently large. The dendrite growth velocities of α-Fe and (Cu) phases are found to increase with undercooling according to an exponential relation.

  13. Rapid solidification and dendrite growth of ternary Fe-Sn-Ge and Cu-Pb-Ge monotectic alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG XueHua; RUAN Ying; WANG WeiLi; WEI BingBo

    2007-01-01

    The phase separation and dendrite growth characteristics of ternary Fe-43.9%Sn- 10%Ge and Cu-35.5%Pb-5%Ge monotectic alloys were studied systematically by the glass fluxing method under substantial undercooling conditions. The maximum undercoolings obtained in this work are 245 and 257 K, respectively, for these two alloys. All of the solidified samples exhibit serious macrosegregation, indicating that the homogenous alloy melt is separated into two liquid phases prior to rapid solidification. The solidification structures consist of four phases including α-Fe, (Sn), FeSn and FeSn2 in Fe-43.9%Sn-10%Ge ternary alloy, whereas only (Cu) and (Pb) solid solution phases in Cu-35.5%Pb-5%Ge alloy under different undercoolings. In the process of rapid monotectic solidification, α-Fe and (Cu) phases grow in a dendritic mode, and the transition "dendrite→monotectic cell" happens when alloy undercoolings become sufficiently large. The dendrite growth velocities of α-Fe and (Cu) phases are found to increase with undercooling according to an exponential relation.

  14. Characteristics of Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic compositions of hydrothermal Si-Fe-Mn-oxyhydroxides at the PACMANUS hydrothermal field, Eastern Manus Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Baoju; ZENG Zhigang; WANG Xiaoyuan

    2015-01-01

    Si-Fe-Mn-oxyhydroxides dredged at the PACMANUS (Papua New Guinea–Australia–Canada–Manus) hydrothermal field, Eastern Manus Basin, have87Sr/86Sr=0.708 079–0.708 581;εNd=5.149 833–6.534 826;208Pb/204Pb=38.245–38.440;207Pb/204Pb=15.503–15.560;206Pb/204Pb=18.682–18.783.87Sr/86Sr isotope ratios are relatively homogeneous and close to the value of the surrounding seawater (0.709 16). The content of Sr in the samples contributed by seawater was estimated to be 76.7%–83.1% of total amount. The mixing temperature of hydrothermal fluids and seawater were ranging from 53.2°C to 72.2°C and the hydrothermal activities were unstable when the samples precipitated. TheεNd values of all the samples are positive, which differ from the values of ferromanganese nodules (crusts) with hydrogenic origin. Nd was mainly derived from substrate rocks leached by hydrothermal circulation and preserved the hydrothermal signature. Pb isotopic compositions of most samples show minor variability except Sample #9–2 that has relatively high values of Pb isotopes. The Pb may be derived from the Eastern Manus Basin rocks leached by the hydrothermal fluid. The slightly lower208Pb/204Pb and 207Pb/204Pb values of the samples indicated that the hydrothermal circulation in PACMANUS was not entire and sufficient, or that hydrothermal circulation had transient changes in the past. Si-Fe-Mn-oxyhydroxides in the samples preserved the heterogeneities of local rocks.

  15. Studies on Electronic Structure and Magnetic Properties of an Organic Magnet with Metallic Mn2+ and Cu2+ Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAOJian-Guo; PENGGuang-Xiong

    2004-01-01

    The electronic structure and the magnetic properties of the non-pure organic ferromagnetic compound MnCu(pbaOH)(H2O)3 with pbaOH=2-hydroxy-1, 3-propylenebis (oxamato) are studied by using the density-functional theory with local-spin-density approximation. The density of states, total energy, and the spin magnetic moment are calculated. The calculations reveal that the compound MnCu(pbaOH)(H2O)3 has a stable metal-ferromagnetic ground state, and the spin magnetic moment per molecule is 2.208 μa, and the spin magnetic moment is mainly from Mn ionand Cu ion. An antiferromagnetic order is expected and the antiferromagnetic exchange interaction of d-electrons of Cu and Mn passes through the antiferromagnetic interaction between the adjacent O, 0, and N atoms along the path linking the atoms Cu and Mn.

  16. Immunoreactive Cu-SOD and Mn-SOD in lymphocytes sub-populations from normal and trisomy 21 subjects according to age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeteman, M.A. (Centre de Genetique Medicale and INSERM U. 242, France); Baret, A.; Courtiere, A.; Rebuffel, P.; Mattei, J.F.

    1983-02-21

    Copper and manganese superoxide dismutases (Cu-SOD and Mn-SOD) were measured by radioimmunoassay in B and T lymphocytes and macrophages, in patients with trisomy 21 and in matched controls. In the controls, Cu-SOD was present in greater amounts than Mn-SOD and there were quantitative differences in the distribution in the three cellular sub-populations. In trisomy 21, levels of Cu-SOD were raised, with no change in levels of Mn-SOD, supporting the theory of a gene dosage effect. There were significant positive and negative correlations between age and Cu-SOD levels in controls, and a correlation approaching significance for Mn-SOD. In trisomy 21, there was no correlation between age and Cu-SOD levels, and the only significant correlation for Mn-SOD was for B lymphocytes.

  17. Interactions of core–shell quantum dots with metal resistant bacterium Cupriavidus metallidurans: Consequences for Cu and Pb removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaveykova, Vera I., E-mail: vera.slaveykova@unige.ch [Environmental Biogeochemistry and Ecotoxicology, Institute F.-A. Forel, Earth and Environment Science, Faculty of Sciences, University of Geneva, 10, route de Suisse, 1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Pinheiro, José Paulo [IBB/CBME, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of the Algarve, Gambelas Campus, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Floriani, Magali [IRSN/DEI/SECRE/LRE CEA Cadarache, 13115 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Garcia, Miguel [School of Life Sciences, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), Station 15, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • QDs associate with C. metallidurans in time and concentration dependent manner. • 12.9 nm size QDs adhere to the bacterial surface and enter the periplasmic space. • QDs bound significantly Cu and Pb. • QDs increase Cu and Pb content in C. metallidurans during short term exposure. -- Abstract: In the present study we address the interactions of carboxyl-CdSe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots (QDs), as a model of water dispersible engineered nanoparticles, and metal resistant bacteria Cupriavidus metallidurans, largely used in metal decontamination. The results demonstrate that QDs with average hydrodynamic size of 12.9 nm adhere to C. metallidurans. The percentage of bacterial cells displaying QD-fluorescence increased proportionally with contact time and QD concentration in bacterial medium demonstrating the association of QDs with the metal resistant bacteria. No evidence of QD internalization into bacterial cytoplasm was found by transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, however QD clusters of sizes between 20 and 50 nm were observed on the bacterial surface and in the bacterial periplasmic compartment; observations consistent with the losses of membrane integrity induced by QDs. The presence of 20 nM QDs induced about 2-fold increase in Cu and Pb uptake fluxes by C. metallidurans exposed to 500 nM Pb or Cu, respectively. Overall, the results of this work suggest that when present in mixture with Cu and Pb, low levels of QDs originating from possible incidental release or QD disposal could increase metal accumulation in metal resistant bacterium.

  18. Efficiency of Chitosan for the Removal of Pb (II, Fe (II and Cu (II Ions from Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Sobhanardakani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Heavy metals have been recognized as harmful environmental pollutant known to produce highly toxic effects on different organs and systems of both humans and animals. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the adsorption potential of chitosan for the removal of Pb(II, Fe(II and Cu(II ions from aqueous solutions. Methods: This study was conducted in laboratory scale. In this paper chitosan has been used as an adsorbent for the removal of Pb(II, Fe(II and Cu(II from aqueous solution. In batch tests, the effects of parameters like pH solution (1.0-8.0, initial metal concentrations (100-1000 mgL-1, contact time (5.0-150 min and adsorbent dose (1.0-7.0 g on the adsorption process were studied. Results: The results showed that the adsorption of Pb(II, Fe(II and Cu(II ions on chitosan strongly depends on pH. The experimental isothermal data were analyzed using the Langmuir and Freundlich equations and it was found that the removal process followed the Langmuir isotherm and maximum adsorption capacity for the adsorption of Pb(II, Fe(II and Cu(II ions by the chitosan were 55.5mg g−1, 71.4 mg g−1 and 59 mg g−1, respectively, under equilibrium conditions at 25±1 ºC. The adsorption process was found to be well described by the pseudo-second-order rate model. Conclusion: The obtained results showed that chitosan is a readily, available, economic adsorbent and was found suitable for removing Pb(II, Fe(II and Cu(II ions from aqueous solution.

  19. Accumulation of Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr and Ni in Sediments Between Roots of the Tagus Estuary Salt Marshes, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ca çador, Isabel; Vale, Carlos; Catarino, Fernando

    1996-03-01

    Sediment cores of 60 cm length were collected from two Tagus estuary salt marshes. At each salt marsh, samples were taken from a non-vegetated zone and one from each of areas dominated by Halimione portulacoides, Spartina maritimaand Arthrocnemum fruticosum.Cores were sliced in situand, at each sediment layer, redox potential and pH were measured, and the organic matter content (LOI), grain size, and concentrations of Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni and Cr were determined. Sediment between roots and non-vegetated sediments of the same depth (5 -15 cm) were extracted with several acid solutions, and the metal concentrations were compared. Metal residues were determined in roots of vascular plants. Sediment between roots was more oxidative, more acidic and richer in organic matter than non-vegetated sediment. Profiles of Zn, Pb and Cu concentrations in vegetated sediments differed from those recorded in non-vegetated areas: at subsurface layers (where root density is higher), Zn, Pb and Cu were enriched. The percentages of Zn, Pb and Cu removed by acetic acid, nitric acid and DTPA extractions from sediment between roots were much lower than those from non-vegetated sediments, being preferentially linked to the residual fraction. Chromium and Ni behave differently no subsurface enrichment being found and their associations being similar in the two types of sediment. Furthermore, Ni concentrations in roots were much lower than in bulk sediments, while levels of Zn and Pb were similar and Cu values higher. These results point out that plants are an important feature for metal accumulation in salt marshes.

  20. The potential pool of Co, Ni, Cu, Pb and Cd organic complexing ligands in coastal and urban rain waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmo, Malcolm; Fones, Gary R.

    The detection of dissolved ACSV (adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry) Co, Ni, Cu, Cd and Pb in rain waters collected from an urban and a coastal site in the northwest of England is described. The presence of metal complexing organic ligands in rain waters is indicated with an overall percentage of ACSV non - labile dissolved metal of the total dissolved metal fraction ( = %ACSV nl/t) being 33 (33); 28 (35); 26 (32); 33 (25); 27 (34): for Co, Ni, Cu, Cd and Pb, respectively, for the urban site (and coastal site). ACSV metal lability is theoretically defined and is dependent upon the a-coefficient ( β' MAL [AL]) of the added ACSV ligand (AL). No major differences were observed between %ACSV nl/t metal fractions in rain waters collected at the two contrasting sites for all the metals considered. As Cu, Pb, Cd and Ni had values greater than 10 for their Ef crust (crustal enrichment factor), rain water collected from both sites had predominantly anthropic chemical characteristics. The commonality of the aerosol chemical characteristics at the two sites may account for the observed similar (relative to total metal concentrations) proportions of metal organic complexation at the two different sites. The general order of increasing organic associations was Cu = Pb = Ni < Co < Cd, although the analytical log α-coefficients ( β' MAL [AL]) for each metal were different (9.62—Ni; 9.27—Cu; 5.29—Co; 2.15—Pb; 1.13—Cd). Significant correlations were encountered between ACSV non - labile and total dissolved trace metal concentrations of the pooled data from both sites, again an indication of the similarity of the chemical characteristics of the scavenged soluble organic ligands associated with background aerosol material.

  1. Properties of complexes of galactomannan of Leucaena leucocephala and Al3+, Cu2+ and Pb2+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Simone Cristina; Mercê, Ana Lucia Ramalho

    2003-08-01

    The use of biopolymers in many industrial processes is on the increase. The different interactions of biopolymers and electrolytes either in aqueous solutions or in solid state provide different physico-chemical properties and a simple correlation cannot be established. In this study, in order to determine the properties of the complexes of galactomannan of Leucaena leucocephala (gal) with the metal ions Al3+ and Pb2+, toxic elements and Cu2+, essential, the logs of the binding constants of the complexes formed in the aqueous solutions were calculated. Their rheological properties, their thermal behavior, the infrared characteristics and shape and form of the films formed by those complexes in solid state were also determined. The aqueous solutions properties have shown a better complexation between gal and Al3+. The species distribution diagrams have shown an existence of complex species going from acidic to basic pH values. Infrared spectra have proved the complexations as well as the viscosity studies. Thermal stabilities in general were smaller in the complexed species than in the native biopolymers and the films obtained from aqueous solutions showed for Cu2+ the most different morphology compared to the biopolymer itself. A use can be suggested of this biopolymer in environmental remediations besides its already established industrial uses.

  2. Fe(II)-mediated reduction and repartitioning of structurally incorporated Cu, Co, and Mn in iron oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frierdich, Andrew J; Catalano, Jeffrey G

    2012-10-16

    The reduction of trace elements and contaminants by Fe(II) at Fe(III) oxide surfaces is well documented. However, the effect of aqueous Fe(II) on the fate of redox-active trace elements structurally incorporated into iron oxides is unknown. Here, we investigate the fate of redox-active elements during Fe(II)-activated recrystallization of Cu-, Co-, and Mn-substituted goethite and hematite. Enhanced release of Cu, Co, and Mn to solution occurs upon exposure of all materials to aqueous Fe(II) relative to reactions in Fe(II)-free fluids. The quantity of trace element release increases with pH when Fe(II) is present but decreases with increasing pH in the absence of Fe(II). Co and Mn release from goethite is predicted well using a second-order kinetic model, consistent with the release of redox-inactive elements such as Ni and Zn. However, Cu release and Co and Mn release from hematite require the sum of two rates to adequately model the kinetic data. Greater uptake of Fe(II) by Cu-, Co-, and Mn-substituted iron oxides relative to analogues containing only redox-inactive elements suggests that net Fe(II) oxidation occurs. Reduction of Cu, Co, and Mn in all materials following reaction with Fe(II) at pHs 7.0-7.5 is confirmed by X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy. This work shows that redox-sensitive elements structurally incorporated within iron oxides are reduced and repartitioned into fluids during Fe(II)-mediated recrystallization. Such abiotic reactions likely operate in tandem with partial microbial and abiotic iron reduction or during the migration of Fe(II)-containing fluids, mobilizing structurally bound contaminants and micronutrients in aquatic systems.

  3. Electronic and Optical Properties of Ca3MN (M = Ge, Sn, Pb, P, As, Sb and Bi) Antiperovskite Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Samad; Murtaza, G.; Khenata, R.; Mahmood, Asif; Yar, Abdullah; Muzammil, M.; Khan, Matiullah

    2016-08-01

    The electronic and optical properties of cubic antiperovskites Ca3MN (M = Ge, Sn, Pb, P, As, Sb and Bi) were investigated by applying the full potential linearized augmented plane wave plus local orbitals (FP-LAPW + lo) scheme based on density functional theory. Different exchange correlation potentials were adopted for the calculations. The results of band structure and density of states show that, by changing the central anion of Ca3MN, the nature of the materials change from metallic (Ca3GeN, Ca3SnN, Ca3PbN) to semiconducting with small band gaps (Ca3SbN and Ca3BiN) to insulating (Ca3PN and Ca3AsN). The optical properties such as dielectric function, absorption coefficient, optical conductivity, reflectivity and refractive indices have also been calculated. The results reveal that all the studied compounds are optically active in the visible and ultraviolet energy regions, and therefore can be effectively utilized for optoelectronic devices.

  4. Estudio de los mecanismos de activación de la esfalerita con Cu(II y Pb(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dávila Pulido, G. I.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This article presents results of an experimental study on the sphalerite activation with Cu(II and Pb(II, whose main objective was to investigate the activation mechanisms and to evaluate the magnitude of the hydrophobization achieved with both chemical species. The hydrophobicity acquired by the mineral due to the interaction with the activator and collector (sodium isopropyl xanthate is characterized making use of the contact angle technique. The results show that Cu(II replaces the Zn of the external layers of the mineral, promoting the sulfide (S2– oxidation to produce a mixture of CuS, Cu2S and S°, of hydrophobic nature. The subsequent interaction with xanthate increases the hydrophobicity of the mineral surface. In turn, Pb(II activation of sphalerite is due to the formation of a PbS layer that reacts with xanthate to produce hydrophobic species (e.g., PbX2. It is also observed that the hydrophobicity of sphalerite activated with Pb(II is favored under air atmospheres, as compared to that obtained under nitrogen atmospheres. It is concluded that the hydrophobicity achieved by lead activation may be of the same order of magnitude to that deliverately induced by copper activation.

    Este artículo presenta los resultados de un estudio experimental sobre la activación de esfalerita (ZnS con Cu(II y Pb(II, cuyo objetivo principal consistió en investigar los mecanismos de activación y en evaluar la magnitud relativa de la hidrofobización alcanzada con ambas especies químicas. La hidrofobicidad que la superficie mineral adquiere como resultado de la interacción con los activadores y colectores tipo xantato (ditiocarbonatos alquílicos, R-O-CS2 –, se caracteriza mediante la técnica del ángulo de contacto. Los resultados muestran que el Cu(II es intercambiado por el Zn de las capas exteriores del cristal, promoviendo la oxidación de sulfuro (S2– para producir una mezcla de

  5. Comparative modular analysis of two complex sulfosalt structures: sterryite, Cu(Ag,Cu)3Pb19(Sb,As)22(As-As)S56, and parasterryite, Ag4Pb20(Sb,As)24S58.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moëlo, Yves; Guillot-Deudon, Catherine; Evain, Michel; Orlandi, Paolo; Biagioni, Cristian

    2012-10-01

    The crystal structures of two very close, but distinct complex minerals of the lead sulfosalt group have been solved: sterryite, Cu(Ag,Cu)(3)Pb(19)(Sb,As)(22)(As-As)S(56), and parasterryite, Ag(4)Pb(20)(Sb,As)(24)S(58). They are analyzed and compared according to modular analysis. The fundamental building block is a complex column centred on a Pb(6)S(12) triangular prismatic core, with two additional long and short arms. The main chemical and topological differences relate to the short arm, which induces a relative a/4 shift (~2 Å along the elongation parameter) of the constitutive rod layers, as illustrated by distinct cell settings within the same space group (P2(1)/n and P2(1)/c, respectively). Selection of the shortest (i.e. strongest) (Sb,As)-S bonds permitted to enhance the polymeric organization of (Sb,As) atoms with triangular pyramidal coordination. These two quasi-homeotypic structures are expanded derivatives of owyheeite, Ag(3)Pb(10)Sb(11)S(28). The hierarchy of organization levels from zero- to three-dimensional entities is subordinated to building operators, which appear as the driving force for the construction of such complex structures. Minor cations (Ag, Cu) or the As-As pair in sterryite secure the final locking, which favours the formation of one or the other compound.

  6. Teores de Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni E Co em solos de referência de Pernambuco Concentrations of Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni and Co in benchmark soils of Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Miranda Biondi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Metais pesados formam um grupo de elementos com particularidades relevantes e de ocorrência natural no ambiente, como elementos acessórios na constituição de rochas. Esses elementos, apesar de associados à toxidez, exigem tratamento diferenciado em relação aos xenobióticos, uma vez que diversos metais possuem essencialidade (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn e Ni e benefício (Co comprovados para as plantas. Nesse contexto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar os teores naturais dos metais Fe, Mn, Zn, Ni, Cu e Co nos solos de referência de Pernambuco. Foram coletadas amostras de solo nas três regiões fisiográficas (Zona da Mata, Agreste e Sertão, dos dois primeiros horizontes dos 35 solos de referência do Estado de Pernambuco. A digestão das amostras baseou-se no método 3051A (USEPA, 1998, e a determinação foi efetuada em ICP-OES. Correlações significativas foram estabelecidas entre os metais e entre estes e a fração argila do solo, em ambos os horizontes, indicando a associação comum da maioria dos metais com solos mais argilosos. A maioria dos solos apresentou teores de Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni e Co menores que os de solos de outras regiões do País, com litologia mais máfica, o que corrobora o fato de que os teores desses elementos são mais diretamente relacionados aos minerais Fe-magnesianos. Os resultados indicam baixo potencial dos solos de Pernambuco em liberar Cu, Co e Ni para plantas, enquanto deficiências de Zn, Fe e Mn são menos prováveis. Os teores naturais de Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni e Co determinados podem ser utilizados como base para definição dos Valores de Referência de Qualidade para os solos de Pernambuco, de acordo com o preconizado pela legislação nacional.Heavy metals are a group of elements with specific features and natural occurrence in the environment, representing an accessory in the formation of rocks. These elements, although associated with toxicity, must be treated different from xenobiotics, since many

  7. The YBCO-PbS high-temperature superconducting system. Further investigations. [YBaCuO-PbS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyagi, A.K. (Dept. of Applied Physics, GND Univ., Amritsar (India)); Sharma, T.P. (Institute of Advanced Studies, Meerut (India). Dept. of Physics); Shahi, K. (Advanced Centre for Materials Science, IIT, Kanpur (India))

    1993-12-16

    Further investigations on the recently reported YBCO-PbS HTS system are reported. The system is found to have conducting BaPbO[sub 3] as a second phase, which fills the intergrain vacant spaces forming a composite-like microstructure. Thermoanalytical investigations revealed that PbS addition enhances the synthesis of the Y-123-phase and lowers the temperature of partial melting of this phase, which is essential to further reduce the voids. The metallurgical reaction occurring during sintering is also determined and investigated. It is shown that these composite superconducting materials have better normal-state, superconducting, and mechanical properties. (orig.)

  8. Removal of Pb(II), Cu(II), and Cd(II) from aqueous solutions by biochar derived from KMnO4 treated hickory wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongyu; Gao, Bin; Wang, Shenseng; Fang, June; Xue, Yingwen; Yang, Kai

    2015-12-01

    In this work, a novel approach was developed to prepare an engineered biochar from KMnO4 treated hickory wood through slow pyrolysis (600°C). Characterization experiments with various tools showed that the engineered biochar surface was covered with MnOx ultrafine particles. In comparison to the pristine biochar, the engineered biochar also had more surface oxygen-containing functional groups and much larger surface area. Batch sorption experiments showed that the engineered biochar had strong sorption ability to Pb(II), Cu(II), and Cd(II) with maximum sorption capacities of 153.1, 34.2, and 28.1mg/g, respectively, which were significantly higher than that of the pristine biochar. Batch sorption experiments also showed that the dosage, initial solution pH, and ionic strength affected the removal of the heavy metals by the biochars. The removal of the metals by the engineered biochar was mainly through surface adsorption mechanisms involving both the surface MnOx particles and oxygen-containing groups.

  9. Effect of Age-Hardening Treatment on Microstructure and Sliding Wear-Resistance Performance of WC/Cu-Ni-Mn Composite Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Yang, Shuai; Liu, Kai; Gui, Chibin; Xia, Weisheng

    2017-06-01

    The Cu-Ni-Mn alloy-based hardfacing coatings reinforced by WC particles (WC/Cu-Ni-Mn) were deposited on a steel substrate by a manual oxy-acetylene weld hardfacing method. A sound interfacial junction was formed between the WC particles and the Cu-Ni-Mn alloy metal matrix binder even after the age-hardening treatment. The friction and wear behavior of the hardfacing coatings was investigated. With the introduction of WC particles, the sliding wear resistance of the WC/Cu-Ni-Mn hardfacing coatings was sharply improved: more than 200 times better than that of the age-hardening-treated Cu-Ni-Mn alloy coating. The sliding wear resistances of the as-deposited and the age-hardening-treated WC/Cu-Ni-Mn hardfacing coatings were 1.83 and 2.26 times higher than that of the commercial Fe-Cr-C hardfacing coating, which is mainly ascribed to the higher volume fraction of carbide reinforcement. Owing to the precipitation of the NiMn secondary phase in the Cu-Ni-Mn metal matrix, the age-hardening-treated coating had better wear resistance than that of the as-deposited coating. The main sliding wear mechanisms of the age-hardening-treated coatings are adhesion and abrasion.

  10. Glutathione-capped Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots as a room-temperature phosphorescence sensor for the detection of Pb2 + ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jialing; Zhu, Yaxian; Zhang, Yong

    2016-07-01

    The room-temperature phosphorescence (RTP) of glutathione-capped Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots (GSH-Mn-ZnS QDs) was effectively quenched by the addition of Pb2 +. A simple and sensitive RTP sensor for Pb2 + detection based on the quenching effect was developed. Under the optimal conditions, good linear correlations were obtained for Pb2 + over a concentration range from 1.0 to 100 μg·L- 1, and the detection limit was 0.45 μg·L- 1. The established method has been successfully applied for the determination of Pb2 + in real water samples without complicated sample pretreatment with the recoveries in the range of 95.4%-104.0%.

  11. Cu(II) and Zn(II) ions alter the dynamics and distribution of Mn(II) in cultured chick glial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedler, F.C.; Ley, B.W. (Dept. of Molecular Cell Biology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park (USA))

    1990-12-01

    Previous studies revealed that Mn(II) is accumulated in cultured glial cells to concentrations far above those present in whole brain or in culture medium. The data indicated that Mn(II) moves across the plasma membrane into the cytoplasm by facilitated diffusion or counter-ion transport with Ca(II), then into mitochondria by active transport. The fact that 1-10 microM Mn(II) ions activate brain glutamine synthetase makes important the regulation of Mn(II) transport in the CNS. Since Cu(II) and Zn(II) caused significant changes in the accumulation of Mn(II) by glia, the mechanisms by which these ions alter the uptake and efflux of Mn(II) ions has been investigated systematically under chemically defined conditions. The kinetics of (54MN)-Mn(II) uptake and efflux were determined and compared under four different sets of conditions: no adducts, Cu(II) or Zn(II) added externally, and with cells preloaded with Cu(II) or Zn(II) in the presence and absence of external added metal ions. Zn(II) ions inhibit the initial velocity of Mn(II) uptake, increase total Mn(II) accumulated, but do not alter the rate or extent Mn(II) efflux. Cu(II) ions increase both the initial velocity and the net Mn(II) accumulated by glia, with little effect on rate or extent of Mn(II) efflux. These results predict that increases in Cu(II) or Zn(II) levels may also increase the steady-state levels of Mn(II) in the cytoplasmic fraction of glial cells, which may in turn alter the activity of Mn(II)-sensitive enzymes in this cell compartment.

  12. Assessment of Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb levels in beach and dune sands from Havana resorts, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Rizo, Oscar; Buzón González, Fran; Arado López, Juana O

    2015-11-15

    Concentrations of nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) in beach and dune sands from thirteen Havana (Cuba) resorts were estimated by X-ray fluorescence analysis. Determined mean metal contents (in mg·kg(-1)) in beach sand samples were 28±12 for Ni, 35±12 for Cu, 31±11 for Zn and 6.0±1.8 for Pb, while for dune sands were 30±15, 38±22, 37±15 and 6.8±2.9, respectively. Metal-to-iron normalization shows moderately severe and severe enrichment by Cu. The comparison with sediment quality guidelines shows that dune sands from various resorts must be considered as heavily polluted by Cu and Ni. Almost in every resort, the Ni and Cu contents exceed their corresponding TEL values and, in some resorts, the Ni PEL value. The comparison with a Havana topsoil study indicates the possible Ni and Cu natural origin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. STUDY OF MnOx-PROMOTED Cu/γ-Al203 CATALYSTS FOR HYDROGENATION OF CARBON MONOXIDE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Gongxin; Fei Jinhua; Hou Zhaoyin; Zheng Xiaoming

    2001-01-01

    γ-Alumina-supported copper-manganese oxide was prepared by impregnation and used for carbon monoxide hydrogenation. The Cu-MnOx/γ-Al2O3 catalysts exhibit high catalytic activity in CO hydrogenation, showing markedly enhanced catalytic activities due to the synergistic interaction between the copper and manganese oxide. The results of XRD indicated that the addition of manganese enhances the dispersion of CuO, retards the reduction of CuO and enhances the ability of H2-adsorption, which contribute to the activity of DME synthesis from syngas.

  14. Effect of alloying elements on branching of primary austenite dendrites in Ni-Mn-Cu cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Janus

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Within the research, determined were direction and intensity of influence of individual alloying elements on branching degree of primary austenite dendrites in austenitic cast iron Ni-Mn-Cu. 30 cast shafts dia. 20 mm were analysed. Chemical composition of the alloywas as follows: 2.0 to 3.3 % C, 1.4 to 3.1 % Si, 2.8 to 9.5 % Ni, 0.4 to 7.7 % Mn, 0 to 4.6 % Cu, 0.14 to 0.16 % P and 0.03 to 0.04 % S.Analysis was performed separately for the dendrites solidifying in directional and volumetric way. The average distance "x" between the2nd order arms was accepted as the criterion of branching degree. It was found that influence of C, Si, Ni, Mn and Cu on the parameter "x"is statistically significant. Intensity of carbon influence is decidedly higher than that of other elements, and the influence is more intensive in the directionally solidifying dendrites. However, in the case of the alloyed cast iron Ni-Mn-Cu, combined influence of the alloying elements on solidification course of primary austenite can be significant.

  15. CuO nanostructures grown by the SILAR method: Influence of Pb-doping on the morphological, structural and optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayansal, F., E-mail: fbayansal@gmail.com [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Technology, Mustafa Kemal University, Hatay (Turkey); Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Mustafa Kemal University, Hatay (Turkey); Gülen, Y. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Marmara University, İstanbul (Turkey); Şahin, B. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Mustafa Kemal University, Hatay (Turkey); Kahraman, S. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Technology, Mustafa Kemal University, Hatay (Turkey); Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Mustafa Kemal University, Hatay (Turkey); Çetinkara, H.A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Mustafa Kemal University, Hatay (Turkey)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • CuO nanostructures with Pb-doping by the SILAR method is reported for the first time. • CuO nanostructures of different morphologies were grown by different Pb ratios. • E{sub g} values of the films can be altered by changing Pb doping concentrations. - Abstract: CuO nanostructures with and without Pb were synthesized by the Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction method. The films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry. Scanning electron microscopy results showed that the morphology of the film surface was changed from plate-like to coral-like nanostructures with increasing Pb concentration. The X-ray diffraction patterns showed the monoclinic crystal structure with preferential planes of (1{sup ¯}11) and (1 1 1). Furthermore, ultraviolet–visible spectra showed that the band gap of the films was tailored by Pb doping.

  16. Stabilization of Pb²⁺ and Cu²⁺ contaminated firing range soil using calcined oyster shells and waste cow bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Deok Hyun; Cheong, Kyung Hoon; Khim, Jeehyeong; Wazne, Mahmoud; Hyun, Seunghun; Park, Jeong-Hun; Chang, Yoon-Young; Ok, Yong Sik

    2013-05-01

    Pb(2+) and Cu(2+) contamination at army firing ranges poses serious environmental and health risks to nearby communities necessitating an immediate and prompt remedial action. In this study, a novel mixture of calcined oyster shells (COSs) and waste cow bones (WCBs) was utilized to immobilize Pb(2+) and Cu(2+) in army firing range soils. The effectiveness of the treatment was evaluated based on the Korean Standard leaching test. The treatment results showed that Pb(2+) and Cu(2+) immobilization in the army firing range soil was effective in significantly reducing Pb(2+) and Cu(2+) leachability upon the combined treatment with COS and WCB. A drastic reduction in Pb(2+) (99%) and Cu(2+) leachability (95%) was obtained as compared to the control sample, upon treatment with 5 wt.% COS and 5 wt.% WCB. The combination treatment of COS and WCB was more effective for Pb immobilization, than the treatment with COS or WCB alone. The 5 wt.% COS alone treatment resulted in 95% reduction in Cu(2+) leachability. The SEM-EDX results suggested that Pb(2+) and Cu(2+) immobilization was most probably associated with the formation of ettringite, pozzolanic reaction products and pyromorphite-like phases at the same time.

  17. Synthesis of Nanophase α-PbO by Solid State Reaction and Its ce on MnO2 Electrode%α-PbO纳米粉体的固相合成及其对MnO2电极材料的改性作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娟; 龚良玉; 夏熙

    2001-01-01

    利用Pb(Ⅱ)盐与NaOH在室温下进行固相反应制备了纳米级a-PbO粉体(桔红色).借助X射线衍射、透射电镜测试对合成的纳米粉体试样的物理性质作了表征.初步探讨了反应机理.将合成的试样用于改性MnO2电极.1次深度放电测试结果表明,样品的掺杂量在1.25%~5.00%之间对MnO2有良好的改性效果,中等负荷放电时,纳米PbO改性的MnO2电极的放电容量比常粒径PbO改性的MnO2电极的放电容量高出20%以上,比纯国际1#电解锰样(γ-MnO2)的放电容量平均高出约50%,在重负荷放电时,改性MnO2电极的放电容量提高幅度更大.%Nanosize α-PbO particles were prepared by one-step solid state reaction of Pb (Ⅱ) com-pounds with NaOH at room temperature and characterized by XRD and TEM techniques. The forma-tion mechanism of nanophase materials was discussed. The α-PbO modified MnO2 electrodes were fab-ricated and their electrochemical properties were studied by using constant current deep dischargingtests. The results indicate that the optimal portions of α-PbO additives were 1.25~5.00%. Thedischarge capacity of the nanophase α-PbO modified MnO2 electrodes were in average 50% higher thanthat of International Common Sample No. 1 electrolytic manganese dioxide and 20% higher than thatof normal α-PbO particle modified MnO2 electrodes in middle load discharging. The most high dis-charge capacity was observed for modified MnO2 electrode at heavy load discharging.

  18. Bournonite PbCuSbS3 : Stereochemically Active Lone-Pair Electrons that Induce Low Thermal Conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yongkwan; Khabibullin, Artem R; Wei, Kaya; Salvador, James R; Nolas, George S; Woods, Lilia M

    2015-10-26

    An understanding of the structural features and bonding of a particular material, and the properties these features impart on its physical characteristics, is essential in the search for new systems that are of technological interest. For several relevant applications, the design or discovery of low thermal conductivity materials is of great importance. We report on the synthesis, crystal structure, thermal conductivity, and electronic-structure calculations of one such material, PbCuSbS3 . Our analysis is presented in terms of a comparative study with Sb2 S3 , from which PbCuSbS3 can be derived through cation substitution. The measured low thermal conductivity of PbCuSbS3 is explained by the distortive environment of the Pb and Sb atoms from the stereochemically active lone-pair s(2) electrons and their pronounced repulsive interaction. Our investigation suggests a general approach for the design of materials for phase-change-memory, thermal-barrier, thermal-rectification and thermoelectric applications, as well as other functions for which low thermal conductivity is purposefully sought.

  19. Studies of biosorption of Pb2+, Cd2+ and Cu2+ from aqueous solutions using Adansonia digitata root powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekere, N R; Agwogie, A B; Ihedioha, J N

    2016-01-01

    The potentials of Adansonia digitata root powders (ADRP) for adsorption of Pb(2+), Cd(2+) and Cu(2+) from aqueous solutions was investigated. Physico-chemical analysis of the adsorbent (ADRP) shows that hydroxyl, carbonyl and amino groups were predominant on the surface of the adsorbent. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) image revealed its high porosity and irregular pores in the adsorbent while the Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrum showed the major element with 53.0% Nitrogen, 23.8% carbon, 9.1% calcium, 7.5% potassium and 6.6% magnesium present. The found optimal conditions were: initial concentration of the metal ions = 0.5 mg/L, pH = 5, contact time = 90 min, adsorbent dose = 0.4 g and particle size = 32 µm. Freundlich isotherm showed good fit for the adsorption of Pb(2+), Cd(2+) and Cu(2+). Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm revealed that the adsorption processes were physisorption Cd(II) and Cu(II) but chemisorption with respect to Pb(II) ions. The kinetics and thermodynamic studies showed that Pseudo-second order and chemisorptions provided the best fit to the experimental data of Pb (II) ions only. Batch desorption result show that desorption in the acidic media for the metal ions were more rapid and over 90% of the metal ions were recovered from the biomass.

  20. An experimental investigation of innovative bridge columns with engineered cementitious composites and Cu-Al-Mn super-elastic alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, F.; Gencturk, B.; Lahpour, S.; Ibague Gil, D.

    2015-08-01

    Recent strong earthquakes have shown that reinforced concrete (RC) bridge columns constructed using conventional materials and techniques suffer from major damage and permanent deformations. The yielding of the longitudinal reinforcement as the main source of energy absorption, and cracking and spalling of concrete results in a dysfunctional bridge structure that does not support the post-disaster recovery efforts. This paper investigates the use of engineered cementitious composites (ECCs) and Cu-Al-Mn super-elastic alloys (SEAs) to improve the performance of bridge columns under seismic loads. A new column design is proposed, which is composed of a pre-fabricated ECC tube that encompasses the longitudinal and transverse steel reinforcement (rebar). The rebar in the plastic hinge region of the cantilever columns was totally or partially replaced with Cu-Al-Mn SEA bars. The tube was filled with conventional concrete after it was placed inside the rebar cage of the foundation. ECC exhibits superior tensile ductility, bonding with steel, energy absorption and shear resistance, in addition to lower permeability and reduced crack widths compared to conventional concrete. Cu-Al-Mn SEA bars are capable of recovering large inelastic deformations exceeding 12% strain. The proposed approach capitalizes on the deformability of ECC with reduced damage, and the energy absorption capacity of Cu-Al-Mn SEA bars without permanent deformation. A total of six column specimens were constructed and tested under simulated seismic loading. The number of rebars replaced with Cu-Al-Mn SEA bars, ECC mixture design, and the ratio of the concrete core area to total column cross-sectional area were the variables investigated in the test program. A comparison of the results indicated that the proposed concept with no Cu-Al-Mn SEA bars provides higher lateral strength, similar energy absorption and reduced damage compared to conventional RC columns; however, similar to a conventional column, it

  1. Noncollinear antiferromagnetism of coupled spins and pseudospins in the double perovskite La<mn>2mn>CuIrO>6mn>

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manna, Kaustuv [Leibniz Inst. for Solid State and Materials Research (IFW), Dresden (Germany); Sarkar, R. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany); Fuchs, S. [Leibniz Inst. for Solid State and Materials Research (IFW), Dresden (Germany); Onykiienko, Y. A. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany); Bera, A. K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Mumbai (India); Cansever, G. Aslan [Leibniz Inst. for Solid State and Materials Research (IFW), Dresden (Germany); Kamusella, S. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany); Maljuk, A. [Leibniz Inst. for Solid State and Materials Research (IFW), Dresden (Germany); Blum, C. G. F. [Leibniz Inst. for Solid State and Materials Research (IFW), Dresden (Germany); Corredor, L. T. [Leibniz Inst. for Solid State and Materials Research (IFW), Dresden (Germany); Wolter, A. U. B. [Leibniz Inst. for Solid State and Materials Research (IFW), Dresden (Germany); Yusuf, S. M. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Mumbai (India); Frontzek, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Keller, L. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Iakovleva, M. [Leibniz Inst. for Solid State and Materials Research (IFW), Dresden (Germany); Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Kazan (Russian Federation); Vavilova, E. [Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Kazan (Russian Federation); Grafe, H. -J. [Leibniz Inst. for Solid State and Materials Research (IFW), Dresden (Germany); Kataev, V. [Leibniz Inst. for Solid State and Materials Research (IFW), Dresden (Germany); Klauss, H. -H. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany); Inosov, D. S. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany); Wurmehl, S. [Leibniz Inst. for Solid State and Materials Research (IFW), Dresden (Germany); Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany); Büchner, B. [Leibniz Inst. for Solid State and Materials Research (IFW), Dresden (Germany); Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany)

    2016-10-01

    This article reports the structural, magnetic, and thermodynamic properties of the double perovskite compound La<mn>2mn>CuIrO>6mn> from x-ray, neutron diffraction, neutron depolarization, dc magnetization, ac susceptibility, specific heat, muon-spin-relaxation ( μ SR ) , electron-spin-resonance (ESR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements. Below ~113 K, short-range spin-spin correlations occur within the Cu2+ sublattice.

  2. Structural, optical and electrical characterization of Mn{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} doped/co-doped PbS nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakthi Sudar Saravanan, R., E-mail: rsakthiss@yahoo.com [Physics Research Centre, S.T. Hindu College, Nagercoil 629 002 (India); Department of Physics, Satyam College of Engineering and Technology, Aralvaimozhi 629 301 (India); Meena, M. [Physics Research Centre, S.T. Hindu College, Nagercoil 629 002 (India); Pukazhselvan, D. [Nanotechnology Research Division, Centre for Mechanical Technology and Automation, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Mahadevan, C.K. [Physics Research Centre, S.T. Hindu College, Nagercoil 629 002 (India)

    2015-04-05

    Highlights: • Mn and Cd doped/codoped nano PbS was synthesized by SMI method. • The observed stress is ∼90% lower, and the strain is only in the order of 10{sup −6}. • Band gap value can be enhanced from 0.5 eV to 2.025–2.235 eV (±0.012 eV). • Role of two conduction activation barriers was observed. - Abstract: The strain and stress minimized nanoparticles of PbS, Pb{sub 0.95}Mn{sub 0.05}S, Pb{sub 0.95}Cd{sub 0.05}S and Pb{sub 0.90}Mn{sub 0.05}Cd{sub 0.05}S were successfully synthesized using solvothermal microwave irradiation (SMI) method. The quality/performance of the materials was found to be in the series Pb{sub 0.90}Mn{sub 0.05}Cd{sub 0.05}S > Pb{sub 0.95}Cd{sub 0.05}S > Pb{sub 0.95}Mn{sub 0.05}S > PbS. The average crystallite size in the best material Pb{sub 0.90}Mn{sub 0.05}Cd{sub 0.05}S was found to be ∼18 nm where the particles are distributed within the range 20–60 nm. Optical studies reveals the existence of direct band gap in the range of 2.025–2.235 eV (±0.012 eV). This is one of the widest E{sub g} values reported for this system. Electrical measurements were performed on compacts of nanoparticles in the temperature range 313–433 K and frequency range 100 Hz–1 MHz. The conductivity profile exhibits two components; in which the activation energy (ΔE) values obtained for the temperature range 373–433 K is almost twice as compared to the ΔE value obtained for 313–373 K. Nonetheless, the conductivity at the higher temperatures was always higher than at the low temperatures and interestingly, the nanoparticles exhibits higher conductivity than their bulk counterpart. The feasible mechanism of conduction is discussed.

  3. Thermal Stability of CoFe/Cu/CoFe/IrMn Top Spin Valve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Guang-Hong; WANG Yin-Gang; QI Xian-Jin

    2009-01-01

    We present a study of thermal stability of the top spin valve with a structure of seed Ta (5nm)/Co75Fe25 (5nm)/Cu (2.5nm)/Co75Fe25n (5nm)/Ir20 Mn80 (12nm)/cap Ta (8nm) deposited at room temperature by magnetron sputtering. A vibrating sample magnetometer fixed with a heater was used to record the magnetic hysteresis loops at variational temperatures and x-ray diffraction was performed to characterize the structure of the multilayer.The exchange field Hex and the coercivity of the pinned CoFe layer Hcp decrease monotonically with increasing temperature.The coercivity of the free CoFe layer Hcf in the spin valve shows a maximum at 498K.The temperature dependences of Hex,Hcp and Hcf have also been discussed.

  4. TEM observation of oxidation of CuZnAlMnNi shape memory alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The atmospheric oxidation of a quenched CuZnAlMnNi alloy after ion-polishing was examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was found that a lot of oxide grains with various sizes yield homogeneously on the surface of the alloy after exposure at room temperature for 90 d. The grains mainly form along the planes of stacking fault, meanwhile, they can also be observed at the stacking fault tetrahedrals or around the dislocation lines. The formarion of the oxides gives rise to the reduction of the stacking faults, and even complete disappearance in some zones,which is partly responsible for the decrement of shape memory. effect (SME) of the alloy quenched during long-term holding at room temperature.

  5. Effect of Cu and Mn on the Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of Ductile Cast Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M.Omran

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper described the method used for producing ductile cast iron (SGI. The processing parameters affecting the production of SGI were studied. These parameters include chemical composition, castings thickness, mechanical properties, alloying elements and microstructure. The chemical composition of producing SGI was optimized. The nodularity was increased with increasing the percentages of Mg content and with decreasing the castings thickness. The amount of pearlite and mechanical properties were increased sharply with increasing Cu and Mn contents in the produced SGI. Empirical equations were correlated to indicate the relations among nodularity, Mg content and other parameters. The results shown also as the post inoculation increased the metallurgical quality was improved. The suitability of SGI as automotive engine was tested and different empirical correlations were obtained

  6. Effect of Chemical Composition on Structure and Corrosion Resistance of Ni-Mn-Cu Cast Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medyński D.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, a relationship between chemical composition of Ni-Mn-Cu cast iron and its structure, hardness and corrosion resistance is determined. The examinations showed a decrease of thermodynamic stability of austenite together with decreasing nickel equivalent value, in cast iron solidifying according to both the stable and the metastable systems. As a result of increasing degree of austenite transformation, the created martensite caused a significant hardness increase, accompanied by small decline of corrosion resistance. It was found at the same time that solidification way of the alloy and its matrix structure affect corrosion resistance to a much smaller extent than the nickel equivalent value, in particular concentration of elements with high electrochemical potential.

  7. Characteristics of flake graphite in Ni-Mn-Cu cast iron. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Janus

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Relationship between chemical composition of cast iron and properties of flake graphite occurring in hypoeutectic and eutectic nickelmanganese-copper cast iron was determined. The research covered over 60 alloys of cast iron containing 1.6 to 4.1 % C, 1.3 to 2.8 % Si,2.4 to 10.5 % Ni, 0.2 to 8.2 % Mn, 0.1 to 3.5 % Cu, 0.14 to 0.17 % P and 0.02 to 0.04 % S. Evolution of graphite properties with changingeutecticity degree of the examined cast iron is presented. For selected castings, histograms of eutectic graphite colonies are presented, showing numbers of graphite precipitates in individual size ranges and their shape described by the coefficient

  8. The content of Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg and Mn and antioxidant activity of green coffee brews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelmach, Ewelina; Pohl, Pawel; Szymczycha-Madeja, Anna

    2015-09-01

    A simple and fast method of the analysis of green coffee infusions was developed to measure total concentrations of Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg and Mn by high resolution-continuum source flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The precision of the method was within 1-8%, while the accuracy was within -1% to 2%. The method was used to the analysis of infusions of twelve green coffees of different geographical origin. It was found that Ca and Mg were leached the easiest, i.e., on average 75% and 70%, respectively. As compared to the mug coffee preparation, the rate of the extraction of elements was increased when infusions were prepared using dripper or Turkish coffee preparation methods. Additionally, it was established that the antioxidant activity of green coffee infusions prepared using the mug coffee preparation was high, 75% on average, and positively correlated with the total content of phenolic compounds and the concentration of Ca in the brew.

  9. Selective nonenzymatic bilirubin detection in blood samples using a Nafion/Mn-Cu sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Hui-Bog; Won, Mi-Sook; Shim, Yoon-Bo

    2014-11-15

    The specific detection of biological organics without the use of an enzyme is challenging, and it is crucial for analytical and clinical chemistry. We report specific nonenzymatic bilirubin detection through the catalytic oxidation of bilirubin molecule on the Nafion/Mn-Cu surface. The catalytic ability, true surface area, morphology, crystallinity, composition, and oxidation state of the sensor surface were assessed using voltammetry, coulometry, XPS, XRD, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), SEM, EDXS, and TOF-SIMS experiments. The results showed that the surface was composed of microporous Mn-Cu bimetallic crystal in flake shape with a large BET surface area (3.635 m(2)g(-1)), where the surface area and crystallinity mainly affected the sensor performance. Product analysis of the catalytic reaction on the sensor probe revealed a specific two-electron oxidation of dipyrromethane moiety to dipyrromethene in the bilirubin molecule. Experimental variables affecting the analysis of bilirubin were optimized in terms of probe composition, temperature, pH, and potential. At the optimized condition, the dynamic range was between 1.2 μM and 0.42 mM, which yielded the equation of ΔI (μA)=(1.03 ± 0.72)+(457.0 ± 4.03) [C] (mM) with 0.999 of correlation coefficient, and the detection limit was 25.0 ± 1.8 nM (n=5, k=3). The stability test, interference effects, and analysis of real clinical samples, human whole blood and certified serum samples were demonstrated to confirm the reliability of the proposed bilirubin sensor.

  10. Preparation, processing and tunneling in YBa2Cu3O(7-[delta])-Pb native-barrier structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frangi, F.; Dwir, B.; James, J. H.; Gauzzi, A.; Pavuna, D. (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne (Switzerland). Institute of Micro- and Optoelectonics)

    1993-06-15

    In this study, a procedure for the preparation of small (40[times]40[mu]m[sup 2]) window-type YBa2Cu3O(7-[delta])-Pb junctions with YSZ (yttrium-stabilized zirconium-oxide) insulator and native tunnel barrier has been developed. This paper presents the patterning technique of the two electrodes based on photolithography and wet etching. From the device characteristics, the nature of the barrier was found to be semiconducting. The tunneling I-V curves showed a behavior dominated by the Pb gap at 1.3 meV below 7.2 K. The dI/dV curve also showed an additional feature at 5.3 meV, which disappeared above Tc of Pb, and was attributed to longitudinal Pb phonons. Furthermore, another structure at 8.5 meV that persisted at temperatures above the critical temperature of Pb was attributed to the YBa2Cu3O(7-[delta]) gap. 15 refs., 7 figs.

  11. Speciation and fractionation of heavy metals in soil experimentally contaminated with Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn together and effects on soil negative surface charge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Speciation of heavy metals in soil subsamplesexperimentally loaded with Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn in orthogonal designwas investigated by sequential extraction, and operationallydefined as water-soluble and exchangeable(SE), weakly specificadsorbed(WSA), Fe and Mn oxides-bound(OX) and organic-bound(ORG).The results show that speciation of heavy metals in the soilsubsamples depended on their kinds. About 90% of Cd and 75% of Znexisted in soil subsamples in the SE fraction. Lead and Cu existedin soil subsamples as SE, WSA and OX fractions simultaneously,although SE was still the major fraction. Organic-bound heavymetals were not clearly apparent in all the soil subsamples. Theconcentration of some heavy metal speciation in soil subsamplesshowed good correlation with ionic impulsion of soil, especiallyfor the SE fraction. Continuous saturation of soil subsamples with0.20 mol/L NH4Cl, which is the first step for determination of thenegative surface charge of soil by the ion retention method, resulted in desorption of certain heavy metals from the soil. Itwas found that the percentage desorption of heavy metals from soilsubsamples depended greatly on pH, the composition and originalheavy metal content of the soil subsamples. However, most of theheavy metals in the soil subsamples were still retained aftermultiple saturation. Compared with the parent soil, the negativesurface charge of soil subsamples loaded with heavy metals did notshow differ significantly from that of the parent one bystatistical analysis. Heavy metals existed in the soil subsamplesmainly as exchangeable and precipitated simultaneously.

  12. Applying Freundlich, Langmuir and Temkin models in Cu and Pb soil sorption experiments Uso de los modelos de Freundlich, Langmuir y Temkin en experimentos de sorción de Cu y Pb en suelos Aplicação dos modelos de Freundlich, Langmuir e Temkin em ensaios de sorção de Cu e Pb no solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A. Vega

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available

    In acid soils, inputs of Cu and Pb of various origins create a high risk of environmental pollution. For this reason, batch experiments on Cu and Pb sorption and desorption in various horizons of three acid soils were performed on soil pH with 0.01 M NaNO3 as background electrolyte. The objectives were to evaluate Cu and Pb sorption and retention capacity through the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin equations parameters fitted to the sorption/desorption data; to determine the coherence of the implications of these parameters; and to estimate the role of various soil characteristics in the Cu and Pb immobilization soil capacity. The results confirmed the suitability of the models parameters for studying Cu and Pb sorption and retention by acid soils. The greatest maximum sorption and retention capacities, indicated by the Langmuir parameter ßL, corresponded to the lowest energy values required for fixation, indicated by the Temkin parameter b’. Together with the Freundlich parameter KF, which indicates sorption and retention capacity, they made it possible to infer that the acid soil component that most influences Cu and Pb immobilization was the organic matter, followed by the Al-oxide content. High organic matter and Al-oxide contents, especially the former, gave rise to a lower energy requirement for the immobilization of metal cations, since they increased the soils’ sorption and retention capacities. Al3+, the dominant cation in the exchange complex in the horizons studied, and K+ are responsible for the influence of CECe on Cu and Pb immobilization in the acid soils studied.

    El aporte de Cu y Pb a través de diversas fuentes a suelos ácidos supone un alto riesgo de contaminación medioambiental. Por ello, usando el método batch y con NaNO3 0,01 M como electrolito de fondo, se llevaron a cabo, al

  13. [Effects of combined pollution of Cd, Cu and Pb on antioxidant enzyme activities of earthworm in soils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Xie, Xin-Yuan

    2014-07-01

    Recently, soil heavy metal contamination becomes more and more serious in certain areas in China. Adverse effect caused by heavy metals in contaminated soils has been a wide concern for many years. In this study, a bioassay experiment with the earthworm (Eisenia foetida) was conducted to investigate the effects of compound application of Cd, Cu and Pb in soil on surperoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and acid phosphatase (AP) activity in earthworms. Through a method of greenhouse soil experiment, this study utilized a uniform design method of three factors and six levels (Cd: 0-15 mg x kg(-1), Cu: 0-175 mg x kg(-1), Pb: 0-600 mg x kg(-1)) to research the physiological property and enrichment characteristics of earthworm in soils with Cd, Cu and Pb compound pollution. The activity of SOD, GST and AP were inhibited significantly under Cd, Cu and Pb compound pollution. And they were impacted by both time and heavy metal contents in the soil. Compared with the control sample, the activity of SOD increased by 7.4% -240.5% in the first eight days under the stress of heavy metals. But owing to the extremely severe stress, it was suppressed and descended by 19.4% -69.7%. Compared with the control sample, the activity of GST increased by 104.3% -217.3% in the first sixteen days under the stress of heavy metals. But owing to the extremely severe stress, it was suppressed and descended by 1.2% - 40.3%. The activity of AP changed over time in a trend of "increase, decrease, increase, decrease". Compared with the control sample, the activity of AP decreased by 9.2% -37.8% in the first eight days, then increased by 37.2% -117.2% in sixteenth days and decreased by 24.3% -34.0% to the last day. The analysis demonstrates that Pb and Cd-Cu-Pb is the dominant factor to the activity of SOD, while Cd and Cu were the dominant factors to the activity of GST and AP.

  14. Assessment of Cu, Pb and Hg Contamination in Bottom Sediments Of Surface Water in XuZhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓; 韩宝平; 朱雪强

    2004-01-01

    Pollution of heavy metals Cu,Pb and Hg is assessed using geo-accumulation index in this paper. The result shows that the bottom sediments of surface water in Xuzhou is polluted by these heavy metals to deferent degrees, of which the Jinma River is the most serious, and then the Kuihe River, the abandoned Yellow River, and the Jinghang Canal. The Yunlong Lake has also been polluted by Hg. The three kinds of heavy metals in the order of concentration is Hg>Cu>Pb. The pollution degree and the type of element is closely related with industrial structure in Xuzhou.

  15. Mn valence state and electrode performance of perovskite-type cathode La0.8Sr0.2Mn1−CuO3− ( = 0, 0.2) for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Taimin Noh; Jinseong Kim; Yongtae Kim; Ho Hwan Chun; Min-Seok Jeon; Heesoo Lee

    2013-12-01

    Cu-free and Cu-doped LSM system, La0.8Sr0.2Mn1−CuO3− ( = 0, 0.2), with perovskite structure were prepared using an EDTA combined citrate process and the effects of Cu ion at B-site were investigated. Electrical conductivity and polarization resistance of the Cu-doped LSM were 210 S.cm-1 at 750 °C, and 2.54 . cm2 at 800 °C, respectively which were better than those of the Cu-free LSM. This indicated that the electrode performance of LSM was improved by the addition of Cu. The oxidation state of Mn ions increased with addition of Cu. The increase in the oxidation state of Mn ions was due to the formation of Mn4+ ions and oxygen vacancies. The addition of Cu ions to LSM systems could lead to enhanced electrode performance for oxygen reduction reactions originating from the change in valence of Mn ions.

  16. Investigation of Pb, Cd, Cu and Mg Concentrations in Groundwater Resources of Razan Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sobhan Ardakani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Iran is located in the dry and semi dry regions, thus almost 90% of the required fresh water is exploited from groundwater resources. Due to the increasing pol-lution of water resources, the purpose of this study was evaluation of Pb, Cd, Cu and Mg concentrations in groundwater resources of Razan Plain and preparing the zoning map using GIS. Materials & Methods: Groundwater samples were collected from 20 selected stations during two seasons in 2012. The samples were filtered (0.45 ?m and maintained cool in polyethyl-ene bottles. The samples were taken for the analysis of cations, the former was acidified with HNO3 to pH lower than 2. Minor elements were determined using ICP-OES. All statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS statistical package. Also, Kriging Method was used to prepare spatial distribution maps of elements in groundwater samples. Results: The results showed that the mean concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu and Mg in the groundwater samples during the spring were 5.60±0.66, 0.21±0.04, 32.10±2.21 and 6990.0±302.10 ppb, respectively, and the mean concentrations of these elements in the groundwater samples in the summer were 4.86±0.46, 0.30±0.08, 25.55±3.63 and 3654.05±215.65 ppb, respectively. Comparing the mean concentrations of the evaluated metals with WHO permissible limits showed a significant difference (p<0.05. Thus, the mean concentrations of the metals were significantly lower than the permissible limits. Conclusion: Although the groundwater resources of Razan Plain are not currently polluted with heavy metals, long-term excessive use of agricultural inputs and establishment of pollut-ing industries, can pose a threat to groundwater resources of this area. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2015; 21(4:319-329

  17. In situ TEM observation of novel chemical evolution of MnBr2 catalyzed by Cu under electron beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Bai, Xianwei; Guan, Xiangxiang; Shen, Xi; Yao, Yuan; Wang, Yanguo; Zou, Bingsuo; Yu, Richeng

    2017-10-01

    Manganese bromide has attracted enormous attention for its applications in the syntheses of organic-inorganic hybrid compounds. A complete understanding of structural and chemical stabilities of MnBr2 is important for controlling its properties. Here, we focus on the irradiation resistance of MnBr2. The chief purpose of this research is reached by in situ transmission electron microscopy. It is demonstrated that the deliquescent MnBr2 powder is prone to adsorb the vapor in air, and the hydrous MnBr2 can be decomposed under its continuous exposure to electron beam, indicated by a transmission electron microscope via the catalysis of Cu grid at room temperature.

  18. Genesis of Pb-Zn-Cu-Ag Deposits within Permian Carboniferous-Carbonate Rocks in Madina Regency, North Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhakti Hamonangan Harahap

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Strong mineralized carbonate rock-bearing Pb-Zn-Cu-Ag-(Au ores are well exposed on the Latong River area, Madina Regency, North Sumatra Province. The ore deposit is hosted within the carbonate rocks of the Permian to Carboniferous Tapanuli Group. It is mainly accumulated in hollows replacing limestone in the forms of lensoidal, colloform, veins, veinlets, cavity filling, breccia, and dissemination. The ores dominantly consist of galena (126 000 ppm Pb and sphalerite (2347 ppm Zn. The other minerals are silver, azurite, covellite, pyrite, marcasite, and chalcopyrite. This deposit was formed by at least three phases of mineralization, i.e. pyrite and then galena replaced pyrite, sphalerite replaced galena, and pyrite. The last phase is the deposition of chalcopyrite that replaced sphalerite. The Latong sulfide ore deposits posses Pb isotope ratio of 206Pb/204Pb = 19.16 - 20.72, 207Pb/204Pb = 16.16 - 17.29, and 208Pb/204Pb = 42.92 - 40.78. The characteristic feature of the deposit indicates that it is formed by a sedimentary process rather than an igneous activity in origin. This leads to an interpretation that the Latong deposit belongs to the Sedimentary Hosted Massive Sulfide (SHMS of Mississippi Valley-Type (MVT. The presence of SHMS in the island arc such as Sumatra has become controversial. For a long time, ore deposits in the Indonesian Island Arc are always identical with the porphyry and hydrothermal processes related to arc magmatism. This paper is dealing with the geology of Latong and its base metal deposits. This work is also to interpret their genesis as well as general relationship to the regional geology and tectonic setting of Sumatra.

  19. Genesis of Pb-Zn-Cu-Ag Deposits within Permian Carboniferous-Carbonate Rocks in Madina Regency, North Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhakti Hamonangan Harahap

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available DOI:10.17014/ijog.2.3.167-184Strong mineralized carbonate rock-bearing Pb-Zn-Cu-Ag-(Au ores are well exposed on the Latong River area, Madina Regency, North Sumatra Province. The ore deposit is hosted within the carbonate rocks of the Permian to Carboniferous Tapanuli Group. It is mainly accumulated in hollows replacing limestone in the forms of lensoidal, colloform, veins, veinlets, cavity filling, breccia, and dissemination. The ores dominantly consist of galena (126 000 ppm Pb and sphalerite (2347 ppm Zn. The other minerals are silver, azurite, covellite, pyrite, marcasite, and chalcopyrite. This deposit was formed by at least three phases of mineralization, i.e. pyrite and then galena replaced pyrite, sphalerite replaced galena, and pyrite. The last phase is the deposition of chalcopyrite that replaced sphalerite. The Latong sulfide ore deposits posses Pb isotope ratio of 206Pb/204Pb = 19.16 - 20.72, 207Pb/204Pb = 16.16 - 17.29, and 208Pb/204Pb = 42.92 - 40.78. The characteristic feature of the deposit indicates that it is formed by a sedimentary process rather than an igneous activity in origin. This leads to an interpretation that the Latong deposit belongs to the Sedimentary Hosted Massive Sulfide (SHMS of Mississippi Valley-Type (MVT. The presence of SHMS in the island arc such as Sumatra has become controversial. For a long time, ore deposits in the Indonesian Island Arc are always identical with the porphyry and hydrothermal processes related to arc magmatism. This paper is dealing with the geology of Latong and its base metal deposits. This work is also to interpret their genesis as well as general relationship to the regional geology and tectonic setting of Sumatra.

  20. Synthesis, identification and thermal decomposition of double sulfites like Cu2SO3·MSO3·2H2O (M=Cu, Fe, Mn or Cd)

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Texto completo: acesso restrito. p.17–27 Double sulfites with empirical formula Cu2SO3·MSO3·2H2O (where M is Cu, Fe, Mn, or Cd) were obtained by saturation with sulfur dioxide gas of an aqueous mixture of MII sulfate and copper sulfate at room temperature. The salts obtained were identified by infrared spectra, X-ray powder diffraction and elemental analysis. The compounds studied are isostructural with the CuII replacement by MnII, FeII, and CdII in Chevreul’s salt (Cu2SO3·CuSO3·2H2O). Th...

  1. Effects of Mn and Cu on the Mechanical Properties of a High Strength Low Alloy NiCrMoV Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.Abdollah-zadeh; M. Belbasy

    2005-01-01

    The present study focuses on the effects of Mn and Cu on the mechanical properties, in particular, strength and toughness of a low alloy steel containing Ni, Cr, Mo and V. Specimens with different amounts of Mn (0.23%~0.85%)and Cu (0.15%~0.45%) were cast and forged, and then austenitized at 870℃ for 1 h, followed by oil quenching. All specimens were tempered at 650℃ for 1 h. The results show that as the amounts of Mn and Cu increase respectively from 0.35% to 0.85% and from 0.15% to 0.45%, the yield and tensile strength increase. The highest impact energies were observed in the specimen with 0.35% Mn and in the specimen with 0.25% Cu. The impact energy decreases with increasing the Mn and Cu from 0.35% to 0.85% and from 0.25% to 0.45%, respectively. Furthermore, the variation of Mn and Cu does not cause a considerable change in the tempered martensite microstructure. The optimum strength and toughness is observed in 0.35% Mn containing steel and in the 0.25% Cu containing steel.

  2. Mn-Cu-Ce-Fe/REY系列催化剂上NH3选择性催化还原NO性能%Selective catalytic reduction of NO with NH3 over Mn-Cu-Ce-Fe/REY catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任翠涛; 李滨; 王虹; 李翠清; 丁福臣; 宋永吉

    2012-01-01

    Mn-Cu-Fe-Ce/REY catalysts were designed with orthogonal experimental method and prepared by impregnation method. The catalytic performance of the catalysts for selective reduction of NO with NH3 was evaluated in the presence of S02 and in a fixed bed micro-reactor. The effects of Mn, Cu, Fe and Ce components on the catalytic activity were investigated. The catalysts were characterized by XRD, SEM and H2 -TPR. The results showed that the sequence of the influence of active components on catalyst activity from big to small was as follows; Cu > Fe > Ce > Mn, and the activity of the catalysts was affected by their redox properties.%采用正交实验设计和浸渍法制备Mn-Cu-Fe-Ce/REY催化剂.采用固定床微型反应器评价SO2存在下催化剂在NH3选择性催化还原NO反应中的活性,考察Mn、Cu、Fe和Ce各活性组分对催化剂活性的影响,并采用XRD、H2-TPR和SEM等手段对催化剂进行表征.结果表明,Mn、Cu、Fe和Ce各活性组分对催化剂活性影响顺序为:Cu> Fe> Ce> Mn,催化剂的氧化还原性能影响催化剂活性.

  3. Isolation and characterization of heavy-metal-mobilizing bacteria from contaminated soils and their potential in promoting Pb, Cu, and Cd accumulation by Coprinus comatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Xiao-Bing; He, Nan; Zhang, Ying; Cao, Yan-Ru; Xu, Heng

    2012-01-01

    The enhanced effect of heavy-metal-mobilizing bacteria on the uptake of Pb, Cu, and Cd by Coprinus comatus from Pb-, Cu-, and Cd-multicontaminated soil was assessed in this study. Thirteen strains, tolerating 800 mg·L(-1) Pb, 200 mg·L(-1) Cu, and 200 mg·L(-1) Cd simultaneously were selected for heavy-metal-solubilizing experiments in soil. The mobilization of heavy metals depended on the characteristics of bacteria and heavy metals. Correlation analysis demonstrated that for Pb solubilization, the acid-producing ability was the most significant factor, while for Cu and Cd, siderophores played a leading role in this process. Four strains, based on their excellent ability to solubilize heavy metal in soil, were applied in pot experiments. The results showed that all strains can promote the growth of C. comatus and meanwhile help mushroom accumulate more heavy metals (Pb, Cd, and Cu). The maximum uptake for total Pb and Cu by C. comatus was observed in inoculations with Bacillus sp. strain JSG1 (2.02- and 2.13-fold, respectively, compared with uninoculated soil), while for Cd, it was recorded in Bacillus sp. strain PB2 treated soil (2.03-fold). Therefore, this work suggests that the mushroom-bacteria interaction can be developed into a novel bioremediation strategy.

  4. Co-adsorption of Cu and Pb on the Si(1 1 1)-(7 × 7) surface: interface formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukrinov, Pavel; Mutombo, Pingo; Cháb, Vladimír.; Prince, K. C.

    2003-06-01

    The adsorption of Cu and Pb atoms on a Si(1 1 1)-7 × 7 surface was studied by means of scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM). After deposition of ⩽0.1 monolayer (ML) of copper on the Pb √3×√3 mosaic phase and a subsequent annealing up to ˜373 K, new objects of a hexagonal shape appear on a surface. They are scattered over the surface and localised next to the mosaic phase islands. The difference between atomically resolved images of filled and empty states suggests strong covalent bonding within a hexagon. Increasing the concentration of Cu atoms leads to an increasing number of hexagons and their agglomeration. Annealing of this surface at a higher temperature (>470 K) leads to the transformation of these hexagonal-like objects and their agglomeration into the pseudo-"5 × 5" structure, commonly observed for the Cu/Si(1 1 1)system. The absence of hexagons at very low Cu concentration demonstrates the presence of a long-range, attractive interaction among Cu atoms and their strong diffusion just above room temperature (RT).

  5. Microstructural evolution and tensile properties of Sn-Ag-Cu mixed with Sn-Pb solder alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Fengjiang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Materials Research Center, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65401 (United States); O' Keefe, Matthew [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Materials Research Center, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65401 (United States)], E-mail: mjokeefe@mst.edu; Brinkmeyer, Brandon [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Materials Research Center, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65401 (United States)

    2009-05-27

    The effect of incorporating eutectic Sn-Pb solder with Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC) Pb-free solder on the microstructure and tensile properties of the mixed alloys was investigated. Alloys containing 100, 75, 50, 25, 20, 15, 10, 5 and 0 wt% SAC, with the balance being Sn-37Pb eutectic solder alloy, were prepared and characterized. Optical and scanning electron microscopy were used to analyze the microstructures while 'mini-tensile' test specimens were fabricated and tested to determine mechanical properties at the mm length scale, more closely matching that of the solder joints. Microstructural analysis indicated that a Pb-rich phase formed and was uniformly distributed at the boundary between the Sn-rich grains or between the Sn-rich and the intermetallic compounds in the solder. Tensile results showed that mixing of the alloys resulted in an increase in both the yield and the ultimate tensile strength compared to the original solders, with the 50% SAC-50% Sn-Pb mixture having the highest measured strength. Initial investigations indicate the formation and distribution of a Pb-rich phase in the mixed solder alloys as the source of the strengthening mechanism.

  6. CuMnNiSi钎料钎焊不锈钢接头组织性能研究%Structure and Property of Stainless Steel Brazed Joint with CuMnNiSi Filler Metal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨光; 李宁; 颜家振; 苑博

    2011-01-01

    采用新型的Cu-Mn-Ni-Si钎料真空钎焊2Cr13不锈钢,研究了钎焊温度和保温时间对接头组织和室温力学性能的影响.结果表明:钎焊接头组织由钎缝中心区Cu-Mn基固溶体和钎缝界面反应区的(Fe,Ni,Mn)- Si化合物组成.随着钎焊温度的增加,钎缝界面处化合物层厚度减小,Cu-Mn基固溶体相应增多,接头室温剪切强度随之增加,在钎焊时间15min、钎焊温度1050℃时达到321 MPa.在钎焊温度1000℃时,接头室温剪切强度随着钎焊保温时间的延长先增加后降低,在钎焊保温时间30min时取得最大值305 MPa.%The effects of brazing temperature and holding time on the microstructure and mechanical property at room-temperature of the brazed stainless steel joint with Cu-Mn-Ni-Si filler metal in vacuum were studied. The results show that the brazed joint is made up of Cu-Mn based solid solution in the middle area of the brazing seam and (Fe.Ni, Mn)-Si intermetallic phase in the reaction area near the interface. The volume of intermetallic phase decreases and joint clearance is primarily occupied by Cu-Mn based solid solution with the increase of brazing temperature, the shear strength of the brazed joint at room-temperature increases with the increase of the brazing temperature and reaches 321 Mpa when brazing holding time is 15 min and brazing temperature is 1050 °C . The shear strength of the brazed joint at room-temperature increases first and then decreases with the increase of the brazing holding times, and reaches 305 Mpa when the brazing holding time is 30 min.

  7. The CdS/CdSe/ZnS Photoanode Cosensitized Solar Cells Basedon Pt, CuS, Cu2S, and PbS Counter Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tung Ha Thanh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly ordered mesoporous TiO2 modified by CdS, CdSe, and ZnS quantum dots (QDs was fabricated by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR method. The quantity of material deposition seems to be affected not only by the employed deposition method but also and mainly by the nature of the underlying layer. The CdS, CdSe, and ZnS QDs modification expands the photoresponse range of mesoporous TiO2 from ultraviolet region to visible range, as confirmed by UV-Vis spectrum. Optimized anode electrodes led to solar cells producing high current densities. Pt, CuS, PbS, and Cu2S have been used as electrocatalysts on counter electrodes. The maximum solar conversion efficiency reached in this work was 1.52% and was obtained by using Pt electrocatalyst. CuS, PbS, and Cu2S gave high currents and this was in line with the low charge transfer resistances recorded in their case.

  8. Morphological, thermal and optical studies of jute-reinforced PbSrCaCuO-polypropylene composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Reenu; Isac, Jayakumari

    2016-11-01

    New research with modern technologies has always grabbed substantial attention. Conservation of raw materials like natural fibers has helped composite world to explore eco-friendly components. The aim of this paper is to study the potential of jute fiber-reinforced ceramic polymers. Alkali-treated jute fiber has been incorporated in a polypropylene ceramic matrix at different volume fractions. The morphological, thermal and optical studies of jute-reinforced ceramic Pb2Sr2CaCu2O9 (PbSrCaCuO) are studied. Morphological results evidently demonstrate that when the polypropylene ceramic matrix is reinforced with jute fiber, interfacial interaction between the varying proportions of the jute fiber and ceramic composite takes place. TGA and DSC results confirm the enhancement in the thermal stability of ceramic composites reinforced with jute fiber. The UV analysis of the composite gives a good quality measure on the optical properties of the new composite prepared.

  9. UJI TOLERANSI TANAMAN TEMBAKAU (Nicotiana tabacum L. TERHADAP CEKAMAN KADMIUM (Cd, TIMBAL (Pb, DAN TEMBAGA (Cu PADA KULTUR CAIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rosidah

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini menyelidiki respon fisiologis, anatomis, dan morfologis tanaman tembakau (Nicotiana tabacum L. terhadap cekaman logam berat Cu, Cd, dan Pb. Sampel yang digunakan adalah tembakau umur 3-4 minggu yang dikecambahkan secara in vitro dan kemudian dipapar logam berat selama 14 hari. Desain penelitian yang digunakan yaitu rancangan acak lengkap dengan satu faktor, yaitu konsentrasi logam Cu (0 µM, 50 µM, 100 µM, 150 µM & 200 µM, Cd (0 µM, 50 µM, 100 µM, 200 µM & 300 µM, dan Pb (0 µM, 5 µM, 20 µM, 50 µM & 100 µM. Parameter yang digunakan: pertambahan panjang akar, pertambahan jumlah akar, akumulasi logam dalam akar, lokalisasi penimbunan dalam akar, dan warna daun. Bertambahnya konsentrasi logam menghambat pertumbuhan akar dan menyebabkan deposit logam pada jaringan akar dan gejala klorosis. Hasil uji Atomic Absorbtion Spectrophotometry (AAS menunjukkan semakin besar konsentrasi semakin banyak akumulasi logam pada jaringan akar. Akan tetapi, akumulasi Cd pada konsentrasi 200 µM lebih besar dibanding pada konsentrasi 300 µM. Analisis kualitatif membuktikan bahwa cekaman Cu tidak berpengaruh signifikan terhadap warna daun, sedangkan pada cekaman Cd (100, 150 dan 200 µM dan Pb (150 µM daun mengalami klorosis. Pada konsentrasi logam yang rendah seperti 50 µM Cu, 50 µM Cd, dan 5 µM Pb tidak berbeda nyata dengan kontrol. Dengan demikian disimpulkan bahwa tembakau mampu mentoleransi cekaman logam pada konsentrasi yang rendah.  This research investigated the physiological, anatomical, and morphological responses of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. on stresses of heavy metals Cu, Cd, and Pb. The samples were 3- to 4-week tobacco plants germinated in vitro and then were exposed to heavy metals for 14 days. This study used a completed random design with single factor, i.e. the concentrations of Cu (0 µM, 50 µM, 100 µM, 150 µM & 200 µM, Cd (0 µM, 50 µM, 100 µM, 200 µM & 300 µM, and Pb (0 µM, 5 µM, 20 µM, 50 µM & 100

  10. Biosorption of Cu2+, Cd2+, Pb2+, and Zn2+ using dried marine green macroalga Caulerpa lentillifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavasant, Prasert; Apiratikul, Ronbanchob; Sungkhum, Vimonrat; Suthiparinyanont, Prateep; Wattanachira, Suraphong; Marhaba, Taha F

    2006-12-01

    The sorption of Cu2+, Cd2+, Pb2+, and Zn2+ by a dried green macroalga Caulerpa lentillifera was investigated. The removal efficiency increased with pH. The analysis with FT-IR indicated that possible functional groups involved in metal sorption by this alga were O-H bending, N-H bending, N-H stretching, C-N stretching, C-O, SO stretching, and S-O stretching. The sorption of all metal ions rapidly reached equilibrium within 20min. The sorption kinetics of these metals were governed by external mass transfer and intraparticle diffusion processes. The sorption isotherm followed the Langmuir isotherm where the maximum sorption capacities was Pb2+>Cu2+>Cd2+>Zn2+.

  11. Highly polarized single-c-domain single-crystal Pb(Mn,Nb)O(3)-PZT thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasa, Kiyotaka; Adachi, Hideaki; Nishida, Ken; Yamamoto, Takashi; Matsushima, Tomoaki; Kanno, Isaku; Kotera, Hidetoshi

    2012-01-01

    In-plane unstrained single-c-domain/single-crystal thin films of PZT-based ternary ferroelectric perovskite, ξPb(Mn,Nb)O3-(1 - ξ)PZT, were grown on SrRuO(3)/Pt/MgO substrates using magnetron sputtering followed by quenching. The sputtered unstrained thin films exhibit unique ferroelectric properties: high coercive field, Ec > 180 kV/cm, large remanent polarization, P(r) = 100 μC/cm(2), small relative dielectric constants, ε* = 100 to 150, high Curie temperature, Tc = ~600 °C, and bulk-like large transverse piezoelectric constants, e31,f = -12.0 C/m(2) for PZT(48/52) at ξ = 0.06. The unstrained thin films are an ideal structure to extract the bulk ferroelectric properties. Their micro-structures and ferroelectric properties are discussed in relation to the potential applications for piezoelectric MEMS. © 2012 IEEE

  12. Structural, dielectric and transport properties of Pb(Mn0.5W0.5)O3

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V L Mathe; K K Patankar; S D Lotke; P B Joshi; S A Patil

    2002-08-01

    Polycrystalline Pb(Mn0.5W0.5)O3, a ferroelectric oxide having perovskite structure, was prepared by high temperature solid state reaction technique. Preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis confirms single phase formation with the lattice parameters = 7.2501 Å, = 8.1276 Å and = 12.0232 Å. Room temperature dielectric constant (' ) and loss tangent (tan ) were scanned with respect to frequency in the range 100 Hz–1 MHz. Detailed study of dielectric constant and electrical conductivity reveals a phase change around 400 K, which is quite different from those in the other materials of the same type. Further, the seebeck coefficient () is temperature independent. The conduction is interpreted as due to small polaron hopping.

  13. Effect of Zn, Cu, Cr and Pb Chlorides on the Formation of Tricalcium Aluminate Trisulfate Hydrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wafaa S.Hegazi; Eisa E.Hekal; Essam A.Kishar; Maha R.Mohammed

    2008-01-01

    The effect of addition of Zn,Cu,Pb and Cr chlorides as admixtures on the hydration reaction of the system 3CaO·Al2O3-gypsum with molar ratio 1:3 was studied.Different ratios of each salt were used,namely 0.5%,2% and 4% by weight of the solid mixture.Hydration reaction was carried out at 35℃ for various time intervals from 0.5 h to up to 7 d.Hydration rate of the system 3CaO-Al2O3-CaSO4·2H2O in absence and presence of different salts was studied via the determination of the combined water contents.X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the ettringite was the only hydration product formed in the different mixes.The hydration products were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermal gravimetric analysis.The results indicated that the rate of formation of ettringite and its microstructure depend on the admixture and its dosage.

  14. sup 119 Sn-Moessbauer spectroscopic study of the single phase of Bi(Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu(Sn)-O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Y. (Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Fukuoka Univ. (Japan)); Nishida, T. (Dept. of Chemistry, Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)); Katada, M. (Dept. of Chemistry, Tokyo Metropolitan Univ. (Japan)); Deshimaru, Y.; Miura, N.; Yamazoe, N. (Dept. of Materials Science and Tech., Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan))

    1991-12-01

    Tin-doped samples of the high-Tc (2223) phase of Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductor have been prepared by a conventional sintering method. Sintering conditions were carefully selected to obtain the single high-Tc phase. {sup 119}Sn-Moessbauer spectra have been measured in the temperature range from 4.2 to 300 K. The temperature dependence of the recoilless fraction (f) is well understood by the temperature dependence of the normal phonon. (orig.).

  15. Concentration of Zn, Cu and Pb in Some Selected Marine Fishes of the Pahang Coastal Waters, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Y. Kamaruzzaman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Heavy metals constitute one of the most hazardous substances that could be accumulated in biota. Fish populations exploited by man often live in coastal area environments that contain high levels of heavy metals, coming from human activities such as industrial and agricultural wastes. A problem to deal when using fishes as biomonitors of heavy metals is the relationship existing between metal concentration and several intrinsic factors of the fish such as organism size, genetic composition and age of fish. Approach: Concentration of Zn, Cu and Pb were determined in eight commercially valuable fish species, Selaroides leptolepis, Euthynnus affinis, Parastromateus niger, Lutjanius malabaricus, Epinephelus sexfasciatus, Rastrelliger kanagurta, Nemipterus japonicus and Megalaspis cordyla from Pahang coastal water. The concentration was measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS. The study focuses on the level of Zn, Cu and Pb in order to assess the environmental pollution by using fishes as an indicator. Results: Concentrations of the heavy metals in examined fish species ranged as follow: Zn 19.27 µg g-1 dry weight; Cu 2.88 µg g-1 dry weight and Pb 0.26 µg g-1 dry weight, respectively. The concentrations of Zn, Cu and Pb were found to follow the order: stomach > muscle > gills. Significant correlations were found between fish weight and heavy metals concentration in the fish organs. Conclusion: The estimated values of all metals in muscles of fish in this study were below the established values. Therefore, it can be concluded that the fish from Pahang coastal water are comparatively clean and do not constitute a risk for human health.

  16. The Effect of Salinity on the Release of Copper (Cu), Lead (Pb) And Zinc (Zn) from Tailing

    OpenAIRE

    Apriani Sulu Parubak; Eko Sugiharto; Mudjiran Mudjiran

    2010-01-01

    The effects of salinity on the release of copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) in tailing sediment have been studied by stripping voltammetry. The purpose of the research is to know the effect of salinity on the release of metals with certain pH, conductivity and variety of metals. Simultaneous determination of copper, lead and zinc in tailing was done by Differential Pulse Anodic Stripping Voltammetry (DPASV) onto hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE) and nitric acid 65% as support electroly...

  17. Bioavailability of adsorbed and coprecipitated Cu, Ni, Pb, and Cd on iron and iron/aluminum hydroxide to Phragmites australis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, He; Jia, Yongfeng

    2017-01-01

    The bioavailability of heavy metals strongly depends on their speciation in the environment. Adsorption (ADS) and coprecipitation (CPT) on amorphous metal hydroxides are important processes, controlling the fates of heavy metals in an aqueous environment. This work studied the bioavailability of Cu, Cd, Ni, and Pb adsorbed on and/or coprecipitated with amorphous iron and iron/aluminum mixed hydroxides to the wetland plant Phragmites australis. After a 13-day treatment, there was an apparent uptake of the heavy metals by the plant, and the amount of metal bioaccumulation was measurably different for different association forms (ADS vs. CPT). The bioaccumulation of Cd associated with Fe0.5Al0.5(OH)3 was greater than that with Fe(OH)3; the adsorbed metals were found to be more bioavailable than the coprecipitated forms for most of the treatments while the aging treatment significantly reduced the bioaccumulation of ADS metals. In the single metal treatment, root metal concentrations in the Fe(OH)3 ADS system followed the order Ni (68 mg kg(-1)) > Cu (32 mg kg(-1)) > Cd (28 mg kg(-1)) > Pb (9 mg kg(-1)), while the CPT system followed the order of Cu (30 mg kg(-1)) > Ni (22 mg kg(-1)) > Pb (9 mg kg(-1)) > Cd (7 mg kg(-1)). The order of metal accumulation in a combined metal treatment was similar to that for single metal treatments, but observed Ni concentration declines by 22 and 71 % and Cu and Cd concentrations increase by 30 and 50 % (for CPT and ADS treatments, respectively), while Pb concentrations increased by 30~50 % in both of them. When treated with low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs), metal desorption, indicative of metal oxide bonding strength and metal bioavailability, was consistent with metal accumulation in the plant.

  18. A Study on the Effect of Ni Dopping on Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu-O System

    OpenAIRE

    ABUKAY, Mustafa TEPE and Doğan

    1998-01-01

    The effect of Ni doping on superconductivity properties of the Bi1.7Pb0.3Sr2Ca2(Cu1-xNix)3Oy system has been investigated by means of x-ray diffraction, ac electrical resistance, ac magnetic susceptibility and critical current measurements. The volume fraction of the 2223 phase decreases with increasing Ni concentration. The zero-resistance temperature and the critical current density are suppressed with Ni substitution.

  19. A Study on the Effect of Ni Dopping on Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu-O System

    OpenAIRE

    ABUKAY, Mustafa TEPE and Doğan

    2014-01-01

    The effect of Ni doping on superconductivity properties of the Bi1.7Pb0.3Sr2Ca2(Cu1-xNix)3Oy system has been investigated by means of x-ray diffraction, ac electrical resistance, ac magnetic susceptibility and critical current measurements. The volume fraction of the 2223 phase decreases with increasing Ni concentration. The zero-resistance temperature and the critical current density are suppressed with Ni substitution.

  20. Biosorption of Cd, Cr, Mn, and Pb from aqueous solutions by Bacillus sp strains isolated from industrial waste activate sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío García

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Los microorganismos tienen capacidad de acumular metales pesados como agentes bioadsorbentes ofreciendo una alternativa para la remoción de metales tóxicos en aguas de efluentes industriales. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue aislar e identificar bacterias tolerantes a los metales pesados (Cd, Cr, Mn y Pb de lodos activados provenientes de la planta de tratamiento de agua del Municipio de Santa Rosa Jáuregui, Querétaro. Para seleccionar las bacterias que son tolerantes a los metales se aislaron 37 cepas bacterianas de las cuales se seleccionaron la Cepa-13 y Cepa-16 (C-13 y C-16, que presentaron una máxima capacidad de adsorción para los metales estudiados. En este artículo, el término biosorción describe la remoción de contaminantes y la utilización de biomasas (muerta mediante mecanismos fisicoquímicos como el proceso de adsorción o de intercambio iónico. Para obtener las condiciones de máxima adsorción se aplicó un tratamiento alcalino y uno ácido. La capacidad de adsorción fue menor en medio ácido que el bioadsorbente con tratamiento alcalino. Una segunda etapa del estudio fue la biosorción de metales pesados (Cd, Cr, Mn, y Pb utilizando las biomasas muertas de Bacillus sp (cepa C13 y C16 aisladas de los lodos activados de la primera etapa.

  1. Simultaneous determination of Mn(II), Cu(II) and Fe(III) as 2-(5'-bromo-2'-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol complexes by adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry at a carbon paste electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoneim, Enass M

    2010-07-15

    A simple and precise square-wave adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry (SW-AdCSV) method has been described for simultaneous determination of Mn(II), Cu(II) and Fe(III) in water samples using a carbon paste electrode. In 0.1 mol L(-1) acetate buffer (pH 5) containing 50 micromol L(-1) of 2-(5'-bromo-2'-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol (5-Br-PADAP), Mn(II), Cu(II) and Fe(III) were simultaneously determined as metal-complexes with 5-Br-PADAP following preconcentration onto the carbon paste electrode by adsorptive accumulation at +1.0V (vs. Ag/AgCl/3M KCl). Insignificant interference from various cations (K(+), Na(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Al(3+), Bi(3+), Sb(3+), Se(4+), Zn(2+), Ni(2+), Co(2+), Cd(2+), Pb(2+), V(5+), Ti(4+) and NH(4)(+)), anions (HCO(3)(-), Cl(-), NO(3-), SO(4)(2-) and PO(4)(3-)) and ascorbic acid was noticed. Limits of detection of 0.066, 0.108 and 0.093 microg L(-1) and limits of quantitation of 0.22, 0.36 and 0.31 microg L(-1) Mn(II), Cu(II) and Fe(III), respectively, were achieved by the described method. The described stripping voltammetry method was successfully applied for simultaneous determination of Mn(II), Cu(II) and Fe(III) in ground, tap and bottled natural water samples. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Role of microbial inoculation and chitosan in phytoextraction of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd by Elsholtzia splendens--a field case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fa Yuan; Lin, Xian Gui; Yin, Rui

    2007-05-01

    A field experiment was carried out to study the effect of microbial inoculation on heavy metal phytoextraction by Elsholtzia splendens and whether chitosan could have a synergistic effect with the microbial inocula. The microbial inocula consisted of a consortium of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and two Penicillium fungi. Three treatments were included: the control, inoculation with microbial inocula, and the inoculation combined with chitosan. Microbial inoculation increased plant biomass especially shoot dry weight, enhanced shoot Cu, Zn and Pb concentrations but did not affect Cd, leading to higher shoot Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd uptake. Compared with microbial inoculation alone, chitosan application did not affect plant growth but increased shoot Zn, Pb and Cd concentrations except Cu, which led to higher phytoextraction efficiencies and partitioning to shoots of Zn, Pb and Cd. These results indicated synergistic effects between microbial inocula and chitosan on Zn, Pb and Cd phytoextraction.

  3. Mapping of Cu and Pb Contaminations in Soil Using Combined Geochemistry, Topography, and Remote Sensing: A Case Study in the Le’an River Floodplain, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Gao

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal pollution in soil is becoming a widely concerning environmental problem in China. The aim of this study is to integrate multiple sources of data, namely total Cu and Pb contents, digital elevation model (DEM data, remote sensing image and interpreted land-use data, for mapping the spatial distribution of total Cu and Pb contamination in top soil along the Le’an River and its branches. Combined with geographical analyses and watershed delineation, the source and transportation route of pollutants are identified. Regions at high risk of Cu or Pb pollution are suggested. Results reveal that topography is the major factor that controls the spatial distribution of Cu and Pb. Watershed delineation shows evidence that the streamflow resulting from rainfall is the major carrier of metal pollutants.

  4. Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotope systematics of the Hugo Dummett Cu-Au porphyry deposit (Oyu Tolgoi, Mongolia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolgopolova, A.; Seltmann, R.; Armstrong, R.; Belousova, E.; Pankhurst, R. J.; Kavalieris, I.

    2013-04-01

    Major and trace element geochemistry including Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic data are presented for a representative sample suite of Late Devonian to Early Carboniferous plutonic and volcanic rocks from the Hugo Dummett deposit of the giant Oyu Tolgoi porphyry Cu-Au district in South Gobi, Mongolia. Sr and Nd isotopes (whole-rock) show restricted ranges of initial compositions, with positive ɛNdt mainly between + 3.4 and + 7.4 and (87Sr/86Sr)t predominantly between 0.7037 and 0.7045 reflecting magma generation from a relatively uniform juvenile lithophile-element depleted source. Previously dated zircons from the plutonic rocks exhibit a sample-averaged range of ɛHft values of + 11.6 to + 14.5. Depleted-mantle model ages of 420-830 (Nd) and 320-730 Ma (zircon Hf) limit the involvement of pre-Neoproterozoic crust in the petrogenesis of the intermediate to felsic calc-alkaline magmas to, at most, a minor role. Pb isotopes (whole-rock) show a narrow range of unradiogenic initial compositions: 206Pb/204Pb 17.40-17.94, 207Pb/204Pb 15.43-15.49 and 208Pb/204Pb 37.25-37.64, in agreement with Sr-Nd-Hf isotopes indicating the dominance of a mantle component. All four isotopic systems suggest that the magmas from which the large Oyu Tolgoi porphyry system was generated originated predominantly from juvenile material within the subduction-related setting of the Gurvansayhan terrane.

  5. An Assessment of Metals (Pb and Cu Contamination in Bottom Sediment from South China Sea Coastal Waters, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Ong

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The accumulation of metal contaminants in sediments can pose serious environmental problems to the surrounding areas. Trace metal contamination in sediment could affect the water quality and the bio-assimilation and bioaccumulation of metals in aquatic organisms, resulting in potential long-term implications on human health and ecosystem. Approach: About 154 bottom sediment samples were collected using Smith McIntyre in a transect pattern from South China Sea East Coast coastal water (Terengganu, Pahang and Johor coastal area. The study focused on the levels of Pb and Cu in order to assess the extent of environment pollution and to discuss the origin of these contaminants in the sediment. Results: Results showed that the average concentration of Pb and Cu was 33.70 µg g-1 dry weights and 22.40 µg g-1 dry weights, respectively. Pb and Cu have relatively lower Enrichment Factors (EF value and geo-accumulation (Igeo indices in study area and these analysis validated that elevated heavy metals concentration in most sample are not due to artificial contamination. Conclusion: Overall, geochemistry of the samples showed the effect of both natural and anthropogenic inputs to the catchment, however, natural processes were more dominant than anthropogenic inputs in concentrating metals. Results obtained would help to develop strategies for pollution control and sediment remediation of coastal waters in the South China Sea.

  6. Kinetic extractions to assess mobilization of Zn, Pb, Cu, and Cd in a metal-contaminated soil: EDTA vs. citrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labanowski, Jerome [INRA, UR 251 Unite PESSAC, RD 10, F-78026 Versailles Cedex (France); Monna, Fabrice [ARTeHIS, UMR 5594 CNRS, Univ. de Bourgogne Centre des Sciences de la Terre, Bat. Gabriel, F-21000 Dijon (France); Bermond, Alain [AgroParis Tech., Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique, 16 rue C. Bernard, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Cambier, Philippe; Fernandez, Christelle; Lamy, Isabelle [INRA, UR 251 Unite PESSAC, RD 10, F-78026 Versailles Cedex (France); Oort, Folkert van [INRA, UR 251 Unite PESSAC, RD 10, F-78026 Versailles Cedex (France)], E-mail: vanoort@versailles.inra.fr

    2008-04-15

    Kinetic EDTA and citrate extractions were used to mimic metal mobilization in a soil contaminated by metallurgical fallout. Modeling of metal removal rates vs. time distinguished two metal pools: readily labile (Q{sub M1}) and less labile (Q{sub M2}). In citrate extractions, total extractability (Q{sub M1} + Q{sub M2}) of Zn and Cd was proportionally higher than for Pb and Cu. Proportions of Pb and Cu extracted with EDTA were three times higher than when using citrate. We observed similar Q{sub M1}/Q{sub M2} ratios for Zn and Cu regardless of the extractant, suggesting comparable binding energies to soil constituents. However, for Pb and Cd, more heterogeneous binding energies were hypothesized to explain different kinetic extraction behaviors. Proportions of citrate-labile metals were found consistent with their short-term, in-situ mobility assessed in the studied soil, i.e., metal amount released in the soil solution or extracted by cultivated plants. Kinetic EDTA extractions were hypothesized to be more predictive for long-term metal migration with depth. - Kinetically defined metal fractions mimic mobility aspects of heavy metals.

  7. Trace Elements (Pb, Zn, Cu in Blood of Mute Swan (Cygnus olor from the Isonzo River Nature Reserve (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Isani*, M Cipone, G Andreani, E Carpenè, E Ferlizza, K Kravos1 and F Perco1

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Lead concentrations in blood of 45 specimens of mute swan from the molting area of the Isonzo River Mouth Nature Reserve (Italy were determined in two consecutive years (2006-2007, some birds were neck ringed to identify their homing behavior. The second sampling included whole body X-ray radiography and Cu and Zn plasma analyses to investigate the health impact of putative Pb exposure. X-ray images of all investigated specimens did not show any radiopacity due to the ingestion of metal bodies. Lead levels (0.08-0.44 g/ml were in the range of those reported for swans living in unpolluted or slightly polluted environments and excluded acute intoxication, as confirmed by clinical investigation. Zinc concentrations ranged between 2.93 and 7.59 g/ml and were one order of magnitude higher than Cu concentrations (0.21-0.42 g/ml. The negative correlation between Pb and Zn concentrations could be indicative of adverse health effects caused by chronic lead exposure. To our knowledge this is the first study reporting Pb, Zn and Cu blood levels, X-ray radiographies and data on the origin of swan populations.

  8. Impact of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris (L.) on As, Cu, Pb and Zn mobility and speciation in contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sizmur, Tom, E-mail: t.p.sizmur@reading.ac.uk [Soil Research Centre, Department of Geography and Environmental Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6DW (United Kingdom); Palumbo-Roe, Barbara; Watts, Michael J. [British Geological Survey, Kingsley Dunham Centre, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Hodson, Mark E. [Soil Research Centre, Department of Geography and Environmental Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6DW (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-15

    To assess the risks that contaminated soils pose to the environment properly a greater understanding of how soil biota influence the mobility of metal(loid)s in soils is required. Lumbricus terrestris L. were incubated in three soils contaminated with As, Cu, Pb and Zn. The concentration and speciation of metal(loid)s in pore waters and the mobility and partitioning in casts were compared with earthworm-free soil. Generally the concentrations of water extractable metal(loid)s in earthworm casts were greater than in earthworm-free soil. The impact of the earthworms on concentration and speciation in pore waters was soil and metal specific and could be explained either by earthworm induced changes in soil pH or soluble organic carbon. The mobilisation of metal(loid)s in the environment by earthworm activity may allow for leaching or uptake into biota. - Research highlights: > Earthworms increase the mobility and availability of metals and metalloids in soils. > We incubated L. terrestris in three soils contaminated with As, Cu, Pb and Zn. > Earthworms increased the mobility of As, Cu, Pb and Zn in their casts. > The mechanisms for this could be explained by changes in pH or organic carbon. - Lumbricus terrestris change the partitioning of metal(loid)s between soil constituents and increase the mobility of metal(loid)s in casts and pore water.

  9. Nitrilotriacetic acid functionalized Adansonia digitata biosorbent: Preparation, characterization and sorption of Pb (II and Cu (II pollutants from aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adewale Adewuyi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Nitrilotriacetic acid functionalized Adansonia digitata (NFAD biosorbent has been synthesized using a simple and novel method. NFAD was characterized by X-ray Diffraction analysis technique (XRD, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET surface area analyzer, Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometer (FTIR, particle size dispersion, zeta potential, elemental analysis (CHNS/O analyzer, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, differential thermal analysis (DTA, derivative thermogravimetric analysis (DTG and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS. The ability of NFAD as biosorbent was evaluated for the removal of Pb (II and Cu (II ions from aqueous solutions. The particle distribution of NFAD was found to be monomodal while SEM revealed the surface to be heterogeneous. The adsorption capacity of NFAD toward Pb (II ions was 54.417 mg/g while that of Cu (II ions was found to be 9.349 mg/g. The adsorption of these metals was found to be monolayer, second-order-kinetic, and controlled by both intra-particle diffusion and liquid film diffusion. The results of this study were compared better than some reported biosorbents in the literature. The current study has revealed NFAD to be an effective biosorbent for the removal of Pb (II and Cu (II from aqueous solution.

  10. Nitrilotriacetic acid functionalized Adansonia digitata biosorbent: Preparation, characterization and sorption of Pb (II) and Cu (II) pollutants from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewuyi, Adewale; Pereira, Fabiano Vargas

    2016-11-01

    Nitrilotriacetic acid functionalized Adansonia digitata (NFAD) biosorbent has been synthesized using a simple and novel method. NFAD was characterized by X-ray Diffraction analysis technique (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analyzer, Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometer (FTIR), particle size dispersion, zeta potential, elemental analysis (CHNS/O analyzer), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA), derivative thermogravimetric analysis (DTG) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The ability of NFAD as biosorbent was evaluated for the removal of Pb (II) and Cu (II) ions from aqueous solutions. The particle distribution of NFAD was found to be monomodal while SEM revealed the surface to be heterogeneous. The adsorption capacity of NFAD toward Pb (II) ions was 54.417 mg/g while that of Cu (II) ions was found to be 9.349 mg/g. The adsorption of these metals was found to be monolayer, second-order-kinetic, and controlled by both intra-particle diffusion and liquid film diffusion. The results of this study were compared better than some reported biosorbents in the literature. The current study has revealed NFAD to be an effective biosorbent for the removal of Pb (II) and Cu (II) from aqueous solution.

  11. Removal of Pb(II), Cd(II), Cu(II) and trichloroethylene from water by Nanofer ZVI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eglal, Mahmoud M; Ramamurthy, Amruthur S

    2015-01-01

    Zero-valent iron nanoparticle (Nanofer ZVI) is a new reagent due to its unique structure and properties. Images of scanning electron microscopy/electron dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS), transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction revealed that Nanofer ZVI is stable, reactive and has a unique structure. The particles exhibited a spherical shape, a chain-like structure with a particle size of 20 to 100 nm and a surface area between 25-30 m2g(-1). The time interval for particles to agglomerate and settle was between 4-6 h. SEM/EDS Images showed that particle size increased to 2 µm due to agglomeration. Investigation of adsorption and oxidation behavior of Nanofer ZVI used for the removal of Cu(II), Pb(II), Cd(II) ions and trichloroethylene (TCE) from aqueous solutions showed that the optimal pH for Pb(II), Cu(II), Cd(II) and TCE removal were 4.5 and 4.8, 5.0 and 6.5, respectively. Test data were used to form Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The maximum contaminant loading was estimated as 270, 170, 110, 130 mg per gram of Nanofer ZVI for Cu(II), Pb(II), Cd(II) and TCE respectively. Removal of metal ions is interpreted in terms of their hydrated ionic radii and their electronegativity. TCE oxidation followed the dechlorination pathway resulting in nonhazardous by-products.

  12. Measurement of Labile Cu, Pb and Their Complexation Capa-city in Yueqing Bay in Zhejiang Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王正方; 吕海燕; 傅和芳

    2004-01-01

    The complexation capacity of Cu and Pb and their labile and organic contents were determined separately for surface seawater samples from Yueqing Bay. The samples were prepared using Nuclepore filtration method yielding <1.0μm, <0.4μm and <0.2μm particulate water samples. Our data indicated that the <0.2μm colloidal fraction is a major carrier for distribution of copper in seawater. Affinity of Cu to marine microparticles plays an important role in the process. Pb however, tends to be absorbed by >0.2μm particles. The complexation capacity of Pb with <0.2μm particulates was smaller than that with 0.2-1.0μm particulates, and averaged 11.5 and 23.0nmol/L respectively. The results suggested that colloidal particles were responsible for the distribution and concentration of Pb in seawater.

  13. Water Soluble Cationic Porphyrin Sensor for Detection of Hg2+, Pb2+, Cd2+, and Cu2+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matibur Zamadar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we report the sensing properties of the aqueous solution of meso-tetra(N-methyl-4-pyridylporphine tetrachloride (1 for simultaneous detection of toxic metal ions by using UV-vis spectroscopy. Cationic porphyrin 1 displayed different electronic absorptions in UV-vis region upon interacting with Hg2+, Pb2+, Cd2+, and Cu2+ ions in neutral water solution at room temperature. Quite interestingly, the porphyrin 1 showed that it can function as a single optical chemical sensor and/or metal ion receptor capable of detecting two or more toxic metal ions, particularly Hg2+, Pb2+, and Cd2+ ions coexisting in a water sample. Porphyrin 1 in an aqueous solution provides a unique UV-vis sensing system for the determination of Cd2+ in the presence of larger metal ions such as Hg2+, or Pb2+. Finally, the examination of the sensing properties of 1 demonstrated that it can operate as a Cu2+ ion selective sensor via metal displacement from the 1-Hg2+, 1-Pb2+, and 1-Cd2+.

  14. Multi-metal interactions between Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in water flea Daphnia magna, a stable isotope experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komjarova, I; Blust, R

    2008-11-11

    Metal interaction effects were investigated in Daphnia magna during a simultaneous exposure to essential (Cu, Ni and Zn) and non-essential (Cd and Pb) metals at environmentally relevant concentrations using a stable isotope technique. The metals were applied in the following concentration ranges: 0.0125-0.2 microM for (106)Cd, 0.025-0.25 microM for (65)Cu and (204)Pb, 0.1-1.25 microM for (62)Ni and (67)Zn. Cadmium and copper exhibited a suppressing effect on the uptake rates of all other metals present in the mixture with the exception to lead at all studied concentrations. The effect was already pronounced at low Cd and Cu concentrations and reached a maximum at the higher concentrations. Nickel and zinc showed weaker interactions with cadmium and between each other, while having no effect on copper and lead uptake. There was a high degree of correlation between Cd, Ni and Zn uptake rates indicating that these metals share in part common uptake or interaction pathways. Moreover, a significant correlation between Zn and Cu uptake processes suggests that more than one mechanism is involved in Zn accumulation since Cu is known to interact with Na uptake sites. The uptake of lead was marked by a high initial rate, but the uptake process reached saturation within 24 h. Cd applied at a concentration of 0.2 microM was the only metal which affected the lead uptake process by stimulation of the Pb uptake. Added to the medium at a concentration of 0.25 microM, lead in turn, increased copper uptake. Current work illustrates that metal interactions are significant and occur at low environmentally realistic concentrations affecting bioavailability of both toxic and essential metals.

  15. HEAVY METALS (Hg, Cu, Mn, Cr e Ni CONTENTS IN THE RIO DAS PEDRAS LAGOON, MOJI-GUAÇU RIVER BASIN (SÃO PAULO STATE, BRAZIL = HISTÓRICO DA PRESENÇA DE METAIS PESADOS (Hg, Cu, Mn, Cr e Ni NA LAGOA RIO DAS PEDRAS, BACIA DO RIO MOJI-GUAÇU -SP, BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudinéia Raquel de Oliveira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of heavy metals in a sediment profile from the Rio das Pedras lagoon, located at the Moji-Guaçu river floodplain, São Paulo, was investigated. Samples were stratified at each 1 cm, sieved in 63 m m and digested in a strong acid solution (HNO3 + HF + HClO4 in PTFE bomb. The extracts were analyzed by emission plasma spectrometry (ICP-AES for Al, Cu, Mn, Cr and Ni contents. For Hg, the direct pyrolysis of samples and atomic fluorescence spectrometry detector AFS were employed. By using Al as a normalizer agent, an enrichment of metals concentration, with exception for Mn was observed. Average concentration for Cu (0.12 mg g-1 and Mn (1.12 mg g-1 were considered high in comparison to those concentrations in an unpolluted environment. Probably, these data are related to the agricultural activity (sugarcane plantation around the lagoon, or to the Moji-Guaçu river transport in the flood season. Hg, Cr and Niconcentrations were similar the those verified in unpolluted areas. The chronology inventigation, determined by the 210Pb technique, indicated that the 25 cm long sediment profile shows a 135 years of deposition history of the suspended material in this lagoon. = A presença de metais pesados em perfil de sedimento coletado na Lagoa Rio das Pedras, localizada na planície de inundação do rio Moji-Guaçu, São Paulo, foi investigada. Amostras estratificadas a cada 1 cm foram peneiradas a 63 m m e digeridas através de ataque ácido (HNO3 + HF + HClO4 em bombas de PTFE. Os extratos obtidos foram analisados quanto aos teores de Al, Cu, Mn, Cr e Ni por espectrometria de emissão de plasma (ICP-AES. Para Hg, empregou-se a pirólise direta da amostra e detecção por AFS. Utilizando-se Al como elemento normalizador, observou-se enriquecimento nos teores de metais pesados para anos recentes, exceto para Mn. As concentrações médias de Cu (0,12 mg g-1 e Mn (1,12 mg g-1 para amostras de sedimentos foram elevadas, em comparação

  16. Fast-neutron induced pre-equilibrium reactions on 55Mn and 63,65Cu at energies up to 40 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Avrigeanu, M; Filatenkov, A A; Forrest, R A; Herman, M; Köning, A J; Plompen, A J M; Roman, F L; Avrigeanu, V

    2007-01-01

    Excitation functions were measured for the $^{55}$Mn(n,2n)$^{54}$Mn, $^{55}$Mn(n,$\\alpha$)$^{52}$V, $^{63}$Cu(n,$\\alpha$)$^{60}$Co, $^{65}$Cu(n,2n)$^{64}$Cu, and $^{65}$Cu(n,p)$^{65}$Ni reactions from 13.47 to 14.83 MeV. The experimental cross sections are compared with the results of calculations including all activation channels for the stable isotopes of Mn and Cu, for neutron incident energies up to 50 MeV. Within the energy range up to 20 MeV the model calculations are most sensitive to the parameters related to nuclei in the early stages of the reaction, while the model assumptions are better established by analysis of the data in the energy range 20-40 MeV. While the present analysis has taken advantage of both a new set of accurate measured cross sections around 14 MeV and the larger data basis fortunately available between 20 and 40 MeV for the Mn and Cu isotopes, the need of additional measurements below as well as above 40 MeV is pointed out. Keywords: 55Mn, 63,65Cu, E$\\leq$40 MeV, Neutron activati...

  17. Surface characterization of ZnO/ZnMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Cu/Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} powders obtained by thermal degradation of heterobimetallic complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrault, Joeel, E-mail: joel.barrault@univ-poitiers.fr [CNRS-Universite de Poitiers, LACCO/Laboratoire de catalyse en Chimie Organique, UMR6503, ENSIP, 1 rue Marcel Dore, 86022 Poitiers cedex (France); Makhankova, Valeriya G., E-mail: leram@univ.kiev.ua [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Kyiv National Taras Shevchenko University, Volodymyrska str. 64, Kyiv 01601 (Ukraine); Khavryuchenko, Oleksiy V.; Kokozay, Vladimir N. [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Kyiv National Taras Shevchenko University, Volodymyrska str. 64, Kyiv 01601 (Ukraine); Ayrault, Philippe [CNRS-Universite de Poitiers, LACCO/Laboratoire de catalyse en Chimie Organique, UMR6503, ENSIP, 1 rue Marcel Dore, 86022 Poitiers cedex (France)

    2012-03-15

    From the selective transformation of the heterometallic (Zn-Mn or Cu-Mn) carboxylate complexes with 2,2 Prime -bipyridyl by thermal degradation at relatively low (350 Degree-Sign C) temperature, it was possible to get either well defined spinel ZnMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} over zinc oxide or well dispersed copper particles surrounded by a manganese oxide (Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4}) in a core-shell like structure. Morphology of the powder surface was examined by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (SEM/EDX). Surface composition was determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Specific surface of the powders by nitrogen adsorption was found to be 33{+-}0.2 and 9{+-}0.06 m{sup 2} g{sup -1} for Zn-Mn and Cu-Mn samples, respectively, which is comparable to those of commercial products. - Graphical abstract: From the selective transformation of heterometallic (Zn-Mn or Cu-Mn) carboxylate complexes, it was possible to get either well defined spinel ZnMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} over zinc oxide or well dispersed copper particles surrounded by a manganese oxide (Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4}) in a core-shell like structure. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal degradation of heterometallic complexes results in fine disperse particles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Core-shell Cu/Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles are obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZnMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel layer covers ZnO particles.

  18. Microstructure and microhardness of nanostructured Al-4.6Cu-Mn alloy ribbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-wei Chen; Qin-ying Fan; Kai Zhao

    2015-01-01

    The microstructural characteristics and microhardness of nanostructured Al−4.6Cu−Mn ribbons produced by melt spinning were investigated using field-emission gun scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and hardness testing, and the results were compared to those of similar ribbons manufactured by direct-chill casting. It is shown that the nanostructure of the as-melt-spun ribbons consists ofα-Al dendrites with a secondary dendrite arm spacing of approximately 0.55−0.80μm and ultrafine eutectic crystals of a nanosized scale of approximately 100−200 nm on dendritic boundaries. The solidification time and cooling rate of 46-μm-thick ribbons were estimated to be 1.3 × 10−6 s and 4.04 × 106 K·s−1, respectively. At an aging temperature of 190°C, thecoherentθ″ phase in aged ribbons gradually transforms into nanoscaleθ′-phase platelets as the aging time is extended from 2 to 8 h; the rod-like morphology of the T (Al20Cu2Mn3) dispersoid with 120−160-nm diameter also forms, which results in peak aging hardness. The precipitation behaviors of aged ribbons cannot be changed at the high cooling rates of as-cast ribbons. However, a finer and more uniformly distributed microstructure and a supersaturated solid solution at a high cooling rate can shorten the time required to obtain a certain aging hardness before peak hardness.

  19. Removal of As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn from a highly contaminated industrial soil using surfactant enhanced soil washing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Luis G.; Lopez, Rosario B.; Beltran, Margarita

    Surfactant enhanced soil washing (SESW) was applied to an industrial contaminated soil. A preliminary characterization of the soil regarding the alkaline-earth metals, Na, K, Ca and Mg took values of 2866, 2036, 2783 and 4149 mg/kg. The heavy metals As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn, had values of 4019, 14, 35582, 70, 2603, and 261 mg/kg, respectively. When using different surfactants, high removal of Cu, Ni and Zn were found, and medium removals for Pb, As and Cd. In the case of these three metals, tap water removed more than the surfactant solutions, except for the case of As. There were surfactants with average removals (this is, the removal for all the metals studied) of 67.1% (Tween 80), 64.9% (Surfacpol 14104) and 61.2% (Emulgin W600). There were exceptional removals using Texapon N-40 (83.2%, 82.8% and 86.6% for Cu, Ni and Zn), Tween 80 (85.9, 85.4 and 81.5 for Cd, Zn and Cu), Polafix CAPB (79%, 83.2% and 49.7% for Ni, Zn and As). The worst results were obtained with POLAFIX LO with a global removal of 45%, well below of the average removal with tap water (50.2%).All removal efficiencies are reported for a one step washing using 0.5% surfactant solutions, except for the case of mezquite gum, where a 0.1% solution was employed.

  20. Competition from Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) in Pb(II) binding to Suwannee River Fulvic Acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chakraborty, P.; Chakrabarti, C.L.

    2008-01-01

    This is a study of trace metal competition in the complexation of Pb(II) by well-characterized humic substances, namely Suwannee River Fulvic Acid (SRFA) in model solutions. It was found that Cu(II) seems to compete with Pb(II) for strong binding sites of SRFA when present at the same concentration

  1. Lead Isotopic Composition and Lead Source of the Huogeqi Cu-Pb-Zn Deposit, Inner Mongolia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Xiaoqing; ZHANG Qian; HE Yuliang; ZHU Chaohui

    2006-01-01

    The Huogeqi orefield located on the northern side of Mt. Langshan, Inner Mongolia occurs in the Middle Proterozoic Langshan Group metamorphic rocks, and the orebodies are stratiform. In the past twenty years, many Chinese geologists have conducted researches on the Huogeqi Cu-Pb-Zn deposit, but there has been still a controversy on its origin. Some advocate that the deposit is of sedimentary-metamorphic reworking origin, some hold that it is of sea-floor SEDEX origin, and others have a preference for magmatic superimposition origin. The crux of the controversy is that there is no common understanding about the source of ore-forming materials. In this paper, the Pb isotopic compositions of regional Achaean-Early Proterozoic basement rocks, various types of sedimentarymetamorphic rocks and volcanic rocks in the mining district, Late Proterozoic and Hercynian magmatic rocks are introduced and compared with the ore-lead composition, so as to constrain the source of the ore lead. The result indicates that (1) sulfides in the ores have homogeneous Pb isotopic compositions, showing a narrow variation range. Their 206Pb/204Pb ratios are within a range of 17.027-17.317; 207pb/204pb ratios, 15.451-15.786 and 208Pb/204pb ratios, 36.747-37.669; (2) the Pb isotopic compositions of the regional Achaean-Early Proterozoic basement rocks are characteristic of the old Pb isotopic composition at the early-stage evolution of the Earth, which varies over a wider range,reflecting significant differences in Pb isotopic compositions of the ores. All this indicates that the source of ore lead has no bearing on the basement rocks; (3) the sedimentary-metamorphic rocks in the mining district are characterized by highly variable and more radiogenic Pb isotopic compositions and their Pb isotopic ratios are obviously higher than those of ores, demonstrating that ore lead did not result from metamorphic reworking of these rocks; (4) Pb isotopic compositions of Late Proterozoic diorite-gabbro and

  2. Crystal structure of the new diamond-like semiconductor CuMn$_2$InSe$_4$

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G E DELGADO; V SAGREDO

    2016-12-01

    The crystal structure of the semiconductor compound CuMn$_2$InSe$_4$ was analysed using X-ray powder diffraction data. CuMn$_2$InSe$_4$ crystallizes, with a stannite structure, in the tetragonal space group I$\\bar{4}$2m (No. 121), $Z = 2$, with unit cell parameters $a = 5.8111(2) \\AA$, $c = 11.5739(8) \\AA$ and $V = 390.84(3) \\AA^#$. The refinement of 28 instrumental and structural parameters led to $R_{\\rm p} = 8.1$%, $R_{\\rm wp} = 10.5$%, $R_{\\rm exp} = 6.5$% and $S = 1.6,$ for 86 independent reflections.

  3. Mechanisms for the Movement of Fe,Mn,Cu and Zn to Plant Roots in Loessal Soil and Lou Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUMINGGANG; ZHANGYIPING; 等

    1996-01-01

    The pot experiments were conducted in the artificial climate laboratories to determine the relative importance of mass flow and diffusion in supplying ,Fe,Mn,Cu,and Zn to wheat,soybean and maize plants growing in loessal soil and lou soil.It was found that the calculated relative contribution of mass flow of iron,manganese,copper and zinc to plant uptake varied from 5% to more than 100%,depending on the crop species and soil types as well as plant growth stage,soil moisture,atmosphere humidity,etc.The results also showed that the major transportation mechanisms of these micronutrients in soil-root system varied with the crop and its growth,climate and soil,singnificantly,In general,mass flow was more important for Cu and Zn and diffusion was more significant for Fe and Mn at the seedling stage.

  4. Effects of annealing on the GMR and domain structure stabilization in a Py/Cu/Py/MnIr spin valve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C.-G. E-mail: cglee@sarim.charngwon.ac.kr; Jung, J.-G.; Gornakov, V.S.; McMichael, R.D.; Chen, A.; Egelhoff, W.F

    2004-05-01

    The thermal stability of magnetic and magnetotransport properties of a Py/Cu/Py/Ir{sub 20}Mn{sub 80} spin-valve system were studied. The dependence of the magnetoresistance (MR) and the magnetic domain structures of the spin-valve on anneal temperature were measured. Domain imaging revealed that increasing anneal temperature leads to changes in the exchange coupling between the two ferromagnetic layers showing regions of antiferromagnetically coupled layers, which appeared in ferromagnetically coupled area after cooling.

  5. Mn-SOD and CuZn-SOD polymorphisms and interactions with risk factors in gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of superoxide dismutase (SOD) polymorphisms (rs4998557 , rs4880), Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori ) infection and environmental factors in gastric cancer (GC) and malignant potential of gastric precancerous lesions (GPL). METHODS: Copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1, CuZn-SOD)-G7958A (rs4998557 ) and manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2, Mn-SOD)-Val16Ala (rs4880 ) polymorphisms were genotyped by SNaPshot multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 145 patients with GPL (87...

  6. Heating ability of La-Sr-Mn-Cu perovskite spheres under an alternating current magnetic field for magnetic hyperthermia mediators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horiki, Mayumi [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nakagawa, Takashi, E-mail: nakagawa@mit.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Seino, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Takao A. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2013-03-15

    La{sub 0.666}Sr{sub 0.373}Mn{sub 0.943}Cu{sub 0.018}O{sub 3} spheres (average diameter: 2.4 mm) were used as magnetic hyperthermia mediators. They were prepared by the polymerized complex method and alginate gelation. A starch paste containing nine such spheres (0.1034 g) was maintained at a constant temperature when it was exposed to an alternating current magnetic field (frequency: 1 MHz; magnetic field strength: 20-55 Oe-rms). After exposure to a magnetic field with a field strength of 55 Oe-rms for 60 min, a temperature of T{sub 60}=73.5 Degree-Sign C was obtained. T{sub 60} for field strengths of 40 and 55 Oe-rms differed by only 2.6 Degree-Sign C. La{sub 0.666}Sr{sub 0.373}Mn{sub 0.943}Cu{sub 0.018}O{sub 3} spheres satisfy the following important requirements for heating mediators: their amount can be controlled in tumors, their temperature can be controlled without monitoring, and their heating ability is independent of the field strength and direction. Thus, La{sub 0.666}Sr{sub 0.373}Mn{sub 0.943}Cu{sub 0.018}O{sub 3} spheres are promising heating mediators for inducing magnetic hyperthermia. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We prepared La-Sr-Mn-Cu perovskite spheres used as magnetic hyperthermia mediators. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our perovskite spheres were maintained at a constant temperature under AC field. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The heating ability is independent of the field strength and direction.

  7. Influence of Heating Rate on Double Reversible Transformation in CuZnAlMnNi Shape Memory Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The influence of heating rate on double reversible transformation in CuZnA1MnNi shape memory alloy was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry. It was found that rapid heating inhibits X→M transformation but is fa vorable to the reverse martensite transformation, giving rise to the approach of the two transformation peaks. With the decrease of heating rate, the two transformation peaks separate gradually.

  8. Origin of epithermal Ag-Au-Cu-Pb-Zn mineralization in Guanajuato, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango, Helen; Arehart, Greg; Oreskes, Naomi; Zantop, Half

    2014-01-01

    The Guanajuato epithermal district is one of the largest silver producers in Mexico. Mineralization occurs along three main vein systems trending dominantly northwest-southeast: the central Veta Madre, the La Luz system to the northwest, and the Sierra system to the east. Mineralization consists dominantly of silver sulfides and sulfosalts, base metal sulfides (mostly chalcopyrite, galena, sphalerite, and pyrite), and electrum. There is a broad zonation of metal distribution, with up to 10 % Cu+Pb+Zn in the deeper mines along the northern and central portions of the Veta Madre. Ore occurs in banded veins and breccias and as stockworks, with gangue composed dominantly of quartz and calcite. Host rocks are Mesozoic sedimentary and intrusive igneous rocks and Tertiary volcanic rocks. Most fluid inclusion homogenization temperatures are between 200 and 300 °C, with salinities below 4 wt.% NaCl equivalent. Fluid temperature and salinity decreased with time, from 290 to 240 °C and from 2.5 to 1.1 wt.% NaCl equivalent. Relatively constant fluid inclusion liquid-to-vapor ratios and a trend of decreasing salinity with decreasing temperature and with increasing time suggest dilution of the hydrothermal solutions. However, evidence of boiling (such as quartz and calcite textures and the presence of adularia) is noted along the Veta Madre, particularly at higher elevations. Fluid inclusion and mineralogical evidence for boiling of metal-bearing solutions is found in gold-rich portions of the eastern Sierra system; this part of the system is interpreted as the least eroded part of the district. Oxygen, carbon, and sulfur isotope analysis of host rocks, ore, and gangue minerals and fluid inclusion contents indicate a hydrothermal fluid, with an initial magmatic component that mixed over time with infiltrating meteoric water and underwent exchange with host rocks. Mineral deposition was a result of decreasing activities of sulfur and oxygen, decreasing temperature, increasing p

  9. The critical oxide thickness for Pb-free reflow soldering on Cu substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, C. Key [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei, 10617, Taiwan (China); Assembly Test Global Materials, Intel Microelectronics Asia Ltd, B1, No. 205, Tun-Hwa North Road, 10595 Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Y.J.; Li, C.C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei, 10617, Taiwan (China); Kao, C.R., E-mail: crkao@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei, 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2012-06-01

    Oxidation is an undesirable effect of reflow soldering. Non-wetting occurs when the oxide layer grows above the critical thickness. Characterizing the critical oxide thickness for soldering is challenging due to oxide's nano-scale thickness and irregular topographic surface. In this paper, the critical copper oxide thickness was characterized by Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy-Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and Transmission Electron Microscopy. Copper substrates were coated with an Organic-Solderable-Preservative (OSP) layer and baked at 150 Degree-Sign C and 85% Relative Humidity for different amounts of time. The onset of the non-wetting phenomenon occurred when the oxide thickness reached 18 {+-} 5 nm. As the oxide grew beyond this critical thickness, the percentage of non-wetting solder joint increased exponentially. The growth of the oxide thickness followed a parabolic rate law. The rate constant of oxidation was 0.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -15} cm{sup 2} min{sup -1}. Oxidation resulted from interdiffusion of copper and oxygen atoms through the OSP and oxide layers. The oxidation mechanism will be presented and discussed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Critical oxide thickness for Pb free solder on Cu substrate is 18 {+-} 5 nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Above the critical oxide, non-wet solder joint increases exponentially. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A maximum 13-nm oxide thickness is suggested for good solder joint. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Initial growth of oxide thickness is logarithmic and then parabolic after 12 nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thick oxide (360-560 nm) is formed as pores shorten the oxidation path.

  10. Concentrations of Zn, Mn, Cu and Cd in different tissues of perch (Perca fluviatilis) and in perch intestinal parasite (Acanthocephalus lucii) from the stream near Prague (Czech Republic)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jankovska, Ivana, E-mail: jankovska@af.czu.cz [Department of Zoology and Fisheries, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Czech University of Life Sciences, 165 21 Prague 6 - Suchdol (Czech Republic); Miholova, Daniela [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Czech University of Life Sciences, 165 21 Prague 6 - Suchdol (Czech Republic); Lukesova, Daniela [Department of Animal Science and Food Processing in Tropics and Subtropics, Institute of Tropics and Subtropics, Czech University of Life Sciences, 165 21 Prague 6 - Suchdol (Czech Republic); Kalous, Lukas; Valek, Petr; Romocusky, Stepan; Vadlejch, Jaroslav; Petrtyl, Miloslav; Langrova, Iva; Cadkova, Zuzana [Department of Zoology and Fisheries, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Czech University of Life Sciences, 165 21 Prague 6 - Suchdol (Czech Republic)

    2012-01-15

    We monitored concentrations of Cd, Cu, Mn and Zn in acantocephalan parasites (Acanthocephalus lucii) and its final host (Perca fluviatilis). The concentrations in parasites were found to be significantly higher than those found in the muscle, gonads and liver of fish host. The bioaccumulation factor values were 194, 24.4, 2.2 and 4.7 for Cd, Cu, Mn and Zn, respectively. This suggests a benefit for the host due to the high accumulation of toxic cadmium.

  11. Phenazine containing indeno-furan based colorimetric and “on–off” fluorescent sensor for the detection of Cu{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aggarwal, Komal; Khurana, Jitender M., E-mail: jmkhurana1@yahoo.co.in

    2015-11-15

    A new fluorescent sensor 10a,15a-dihydroxy-10aH-benzo[a]indeno[2′,1′:4,5]furo[2,3-c]phenazin-15 (15aH)-one (1) based on the combination of phenazine and indenofuran moieties was designed and synthesized. Structure of the synthesized sensor has been confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis. Absorption and emission spectra of 1 has been studied in solvents of different polarity. The solvent effect on the spectral properties of 1 has been investigated by using the Lippert–Mataga and Reichardt–Dimroth methods. It exhibits high sensitivity and selectivity towards Cu{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} ions over other metal ions by fluorescence quenching. Sensor 1 exhibited a visible color change from light orange to pink, and yellow in the presence of Cu{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+}, respectively. The fluorescence of the 1-Cu{sup 2+}/Pb{sup 2+} complexes can be reversibly restored to that of the uncomplexed ligand by using EDTA. Binding stoichiometry and mechanism of Cu{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} ions detection have been investigated. The linear range for the synthesized sensor was found to be 1×10{sup −6}–6.31×10{sup −5} M with detection limit of 1.3×10{sup −6} M. Theoretical calculations were employed to understand the sensing mechanism of the sensors towards Cu{sup 2+}. - Highlights: • A new indeno-furan based “on–off” sensor for detection of Cu{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} has been synthesized. • 1 shows naked-eye visible color changes upon interaction with Cu{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+}. • The complex formation of 1 with Cu{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} could be reversed by addition of EDTA.

  12. The age of Au-Cu-Pb-bearing veins in the poly-orogenic Ubendian Belt (Tanzania): U-Th-total Pb dating of hydrothermally altered monazite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazimoto, Emmanuel Owden; Schenk, Volker; Appel, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The age of gold-copper-lead mineralization in the Katuma Block of the Ubendian Belt remains controversial because of the lack of radiometric ages that correlate with the age of tectonothermal events of this poly-orogenic belt. Previous studies reported whole rock and mineral Pb-Pb ages ranging between 1,660 and 720 Ma. In this study, we report U-Th-total Pb ages of monazite from hydrothermally altered metapelites that host the Au-Cu-Pb-bearing veins. Three types of chemically and texturally distinct types of monazite grains or zones of grains were identified: monazite cores, which yielded a metamorphic age of 1,938 ± 11 Ma ( n = 40), corresponding to known ages of a regional metamorphic event, deformation and granitic plutonism in the belt; metamorphic overgrowths that date a subsequent metamorphic event at 1,827 ± 10 Ma ( n = 44) that postdates known eclogite metamorphism (at ca. 1,880 Ma) in the belt; hydrothermally altered poikilitic monazite, formed by dissolution-precipitation processes, representing the third type of monazite, constrain the age of a hydrothermal alteration event at 1,171 ± 17 Ma ( n = 19). This Mesoproterozoic age of the hydrothermal alteration coincides with the first amphibolite grade metamorphism of metasediments in the Wakole Block, which adjoins with a tectonic contact the vein-bearing Katuma Block to the southwest. The obtained distinct monazite ages not only constrain the ages of metamorphic events in the Ubendian Belt, but also provide a link between the metamorphism of the Wakole metasediments and the generation of the hydrothermal fluids responsible for the formation of the gold-copper-lead veins in the Katuma Block.

  13. HC-SCR: NOx Reduction using Mn and Cu Catalysts Impregnated in Coconut and Palm Kernel Shell Activated Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrabas Sherra Bellina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of catalysts impregnated in coconut shell (CS and palm kernel shell (PKS activated carbon were determined as potential precursors of catalysts used in a flue gas denitrification system at low temperature. In this study, Manganese (Mn and Copper (Cu with metal loading of 8% were impregnated in the activated carbon (AC before undergoing low temperature calcination process. The morphological properties of samples was analysed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET was used to determine the surface area and pore size of samples. The exhaust gas from a diesel engine at a constant flow rate of 4L/min was passed through in a fixed-bed catalytic reactor containing the catalyst, and the concentration of NOx was measured for temperatures ranging from 150°C to 250°C. It was found that the CS catalysts (CS-Mn and CS-Cu and PKS catalysts (PKS-Mn and PKS-Cu have the potential to reduce NOx concentration, and results showed that the metal loading of 8% resulted NOx reduction ranging from ~48% to 64%.

  14. Finite size effects and spin transition in ball-milled γ-(FeMn) 30Cu 70 nanostructured alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, J.; Greneche, J. M.; González, J. M.

    2004-12-01

    Fe 15Mn 15Cu 70 alloys were prepared by high-energy ball milling over a wide range of grinding times from 15 min to 72 h. The corresponding magnetic properties were followed by means of vibrating sample magnetometry, magnetic susceptibility and Mössbauer spectroscopy. By using a Rietveld structural analysis of high-resolution X-ray diffraction data, lattice parameter and grain size correlations with magnetization and coercive force were carried out. Results revealed a strong microstructural dependence of the magnetic properties with the grain size, resembling a finite size-driven magnetic transition at a critical crystallite value of around 8.5 nm. This behavior is endorsed by a partial low- to high-spin transition according to isomer shift results, at a critical unit-cell volume of around 50 Å 3 at 77 K attributed to strong local variations of the interatomic spacing as a consequence of the employed ball-milling procedure. Finally, as concerns to temperature behavior, samples exhibited a freezing temperature at around 61 K and a wide distribution of relaxation times ascribed to the presence of interacting CuMn and FeMnCu clusters.

  15. Electrical Conductivity of Sintered Chromia Mixed with TiO2,CuO and Mn-Oxides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The electrical conductivity of sintered Cr2O3 mixed with 2% and 5% (in molar fraction) TiO2 or CuO was investigated in the temperature range 500~900℃ in air and in Ar/4 vol. pct H2 atmospheres. The effect of different Mn-oxides on the electrical conductivity of Cr2O3 was also studied under the same conditions.From the conductivity measurements it is established that additions of TiO2 change the defect structure of Cr2O3 and the effect of TiO2 on the electrical conductivity is controlled by TiO2 concentration as well as temperature and O2 partial pressure of the surrounding atmosphere. The conductivity of Cr2O3 increased in air and decreased in the Ar/H2 atmosphere by CuO additions. The effect of CuO was discussed with possible changes in the defect concentration in Cr2O3. Mixing of Cr2O3 with different Mn-oxides at the same Mn to metal atom fraction decreased the conductivity in air and in Ar/H2 atmospheres. No clear correlation between the spinel fraction and the changes in conductivity could be found.

  16. A novel selective fluorescent chemosensor for Cu(Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A novel fluorescence enhancement Cu2+ chemosensor derived from coumarin was prepared. Emission study found that it exhibits evident Cu2+-amplified fluorescence prior to Co2+, Pb2+, Mg2+, Mn2+, Ni2+, Zn2+, Fe3+, Ag+ and Cd2+, and the largest

  17. Determination of Pb(Ⅱ) and Cu(Ⅱ) by Electrothermal Atomic Absorption Spectrometry after Preconcentration by a Schiff Base Adsorbed on Surfactant Coated Alumina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SABER TEHRANI Mohammad; RASTEGAR Faramarz; PARCHEHBAF Ayob; KHATAMIAN Masoomeh

    2006-01-01

    1,2-Bis(salicylidenamino)ethane loaded onto sodium dodecyl sulfate-coated alumina was used as a new chelating sorbent for the preconcentration of traces of Pb(Ⅱ) and Cu(Ⅱ) prior to atomic absorption spectrometric determination. The influence of pH, flow rates of sample and eluent solutions, and foreign ions on the recovery of Pb(Ⅱ)by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). The data of limit of detection (3σ) for Pb(Ⅱ) and Cu(Ⅱ)posed method was successfully applied to determination of lead and copper in different water samples.

  18. Physical properties of nanostructured (PbS)x(CuS)1−x composite thin films grown by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method

    OpenAIRE

    UBALE, A. U.; M.V. Bhute; G.P. Malpe; Raut, P.P.; K.S. Chipade; S.G. Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Nanostructured ternary semiconducting (PbS)x(CuS)1−x thin films were grown on glass substrates by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique at room temperature. The structural, morphological and optical characterizations of the films were carried out by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and UV–Vis spectrophotometer respectively. The structural studies revealed that, (PbS)x(CuS)1−x films are nanocrystalline in nature and have mixed phase of cubic PbS and he...

  19. Dynamic Recrystallization and Precipitation Behavior of Mn-Cu-V Weathering Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongyan Wu; Linxiu Du; Xianghua Liu

    2011-01-01

    The hot deformation behavior of a Mn-Cu-V weathering steel was investigated at temperatures ranging from 850 to 1050℃ and strain rates ranging from 0.01 to 5 s-1 using MMS-300 thermal-mechanical simulator. The activation energy for dynamic recrystallization and stress exponent were calculated to be 551 kJ/mol and 7.73, respectively. The accurate values of critical strain were determined by the relationship between work hardening rate and flow stress (θ-σ) curves. The hyperbolic sine constitutive equation was employed to describe the relationship between the peak stress and Zener-Hollomon parameter during hot deformation. The interaction between dynamic recrystallization and dynamic precipitation of V(C,N) at a low strain rate was analyzed. The results showed that precipitation particles size of weathering steel increased with increasing strain at deformation temperature 950℃ and strain rate 0.1 s-1. The calculation results of the recrystallization driving force and pinning force showed that dynamic precipitation could retard the progress of dynamic recrystallization but not prevent it while the pinning forces is less than driving force. On the contrary, dynamic precipitation can effectively prevent the progress of dynamic recrystallization.

  20. Thermophysical Properties of Manganin (Cu86Mn12Ni2) in the Solid and Liquid State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmon, A.; Aziz, K.; Luckabauer, M.; Pottlacher, G.

    2015-07-01

    Manganin is the trademark name of the alloy Cu86Mn12Ni2. Despite its frequent usage in manufacturing processes, literature data are scarce particularly at higher temperatures. This work presents a set of thermophysical data of this alloy in a temperature range above its classic area of application up to the end of its liquid phase. For investigating the alloy, four examination setups were employed. Using differential thermal analysis, solidus and liquidus temperatures were obtained. In the solid phase, the electrical resistivity as a function of temperature was determined by a four-point probe positioned in a furnace. Thermal expansion was measured with a high-resolution two-beam laser dilatometer based on Michelson-interferometry and thereby density was calculated. The liquid state was investigated using a s-ohmic-pulse-heating setup. Wire-shaped specimens were resistively volume heated as part of an electrical discharge circuit. Measured quantities were the current through the specimen, the voltage drop along the specimen, the surface radiance by a pyrometer, and the thermal expansion with an adapted CCD camera system. On the basis of these measurements, temperature-dependent thermophysical properties of enthalpy, isobaric heat capacity, electrical resistivity, and density are obtained. Additionally the thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity are estimated in the high-temperature range applying the Wiedemann-Franz law.

  1. Synthesis and catalytic property of Cu-Mn-Ce/ γ -Al2O3 complex oxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄可龙; 王红霞; 刘素琴; 桂客

    2002-01-01

    A new type of catalytic material for purification of automobile exhaust,Cu-Mn-Ce-O/ γ -Al2O3,has been studied.The factors affecting its catalytic activity,such as calcination temperature and the period of calcinations and so on have been investigated.Its catalytic activity after SO2-poisoning was determined in a fixed-bed reactor by exposing the sample to the atmosphere of 160 mL/min SO2/air.The study reveals that the catalyst has shown high catalytic activities for the conversion of NH3 oxidation by NO after sulfate.The conversion of NO reduction over the sulfated catalyst is somewhat higher than that over the fresh catalyst except that the optimum temperature has increased about 100 ℃.Also at the optimum process for the experiment,the selective catalytic oxidation of CO by NO is over 76% and the conversion of NO reduction is over 80% by NH3.

  2. A new series of oxycarbonate superconductors (Cu(0.5)C(0.5))(m)Ba(m+1)Ca(n-1)Cu(n)O2(m+n)+1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama-Muromachi, E.; Kawashima, T.; Matsui, Y.

    1995-01-01

    We found a new series of oxycarbonate superconductors in the Ba-CaCu-C-O system under high pressure of 5 GPa. Their ideal formula is (Cu(0.5)C(0.5)(m)Ba(m+1)Ca(n-1)Cu(n)O2)((m+n)+1) ((Cu,C)-m(m+1)(n-1)n). Thus far, n = 3, 4 members of the m = 1 series, (Cu,C)-1223 and (Cu,C)-1234, have been prepared in bulk while n = 4, 5 members, (Cu,C)-2334 and (Cu,C)-2345, have been prepared for the m = 2 series. (Cu,C)-1223 shows superconductivity below 67 K while T(sub c)'s of other compounds are above 110 K. In particular, (Cu,C)-1234 has the highest T(sub c) of 117 K.

  3. Enhanced catalytic toluene oxidation by interaction between copper oxide and manganese oxide in Cu-O-Mn/γ-Al2O3 catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongpei; Lu, Yiyuan; Han, YuXiang; Lu, Chunliang; Wan, Haiqin; Xu, Zhaoyi; Zheng, Shourong

    2017-10-01

    Toward catalytic oxidation of toluene, Cu-O-Mn/γ-Al2O3 catalysts with series molar ratios of Cu/Mn were prepared using an impregnation method. The surface structure and chemical state of the as-prepared catalysts were characterized by the combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption/desorption, UV-vis spectroscopy (UV-vis), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and H2 temperature programmed reduction (H2-TPR). The results demonstrated that copper oxide and manganese oxide were highly dispersed on the γ-Al2O3 support. Meanwhile, there is an interaction between copper oxide and manganese oxide, depending on the atomic ratio of Cu/Mn. At the ratio of Cu/Mn = 1:1.5, the interaction between Cu and Mn oxides reached the strongest, thus leading to the highest catalytic activity and turn over frequency among all of the ratios. The temperature for complete combustion of toluene over the strongest interaction sample could be 350 °C, which could further decrease to 300 °C when tuning the loading amount of Cu and Mn. Findings in this work are important for the design of efficient catalyst by tuning the interaction between each components.

  4. Formation of the 110-K superconducting phase in Pb-doped Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kula, W.; Sobolewski, R.; Gorecka, J.; Lewandowski, S.J. (Instytut Fizyki, Polska Akademia Nauk, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, PL-02668 Warszawa (Poland))

    1991-09-15

    Investigation of the 110-K Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub {ital x}} phase formation in superconducting thin films of Bi-based cuprates is reported. The films were dc magnetron sputtered from single Bi(Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O targets of various stoichiometries, and subsequently annealed in air at high temperatures. The influence of the initial Pb content, annealing conditions, as well as the substrate material on the growth of the 110-K phase was investigated. We found that the films, fully superconducting above 100 K could be reproducibly fabricated on various dielectric substrates from Pb-rich targets by optimizing annealing conditions for each initial Pb/Bi ratio. Heavy Pb doping considerably accelerated formation of the 110-K phase, reducing the film annealing time to less than 1 h. Films containing, according to the x-ray measurement, more than 90% of the 110-K phase were obtained on MgO substrates, after sputtering from the Bi{sub 2}Pb{sub 2.5}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2.15}Cu{sub 3.3}O{sub {ital x}} target and annealing in air for 1 h at 870 {degree}C. The films were {ital c}-axis oriented, with 4.5-K-wide superconducting transition, and zero resistivity at 106 K. Their critical current density was 2 {times} 10{sup 2} A/cm{sup 2} at 90 K, and above 10{sup 4} A/cm{sup 2} below 60 K. The growth of the 110-K phase on epitaxial substrates, such as CaNdAlO{sub 4} and SrTiO{sub 3}, was considerably deteriorated, and the presence of the 80- and 10-K phases was detected. Nevertheless, the best films deposited on these substrates were fully superconducting at 104 K and exhibited critical current densities above 2 {times} 10{sup 5} A/cm{sup 2} below 60 K{minus}one order of magnitude greater than the films deposited on MgO.

  5. Terahertz conductivity in the under-doped Pb1-ySr2Y1-xCaxCu2+yO7+δ epitaxial film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzawa, Akira; Komori, Sachio; Kamei, Yuta; Kakeya, Itsuhiro

    2016-11-01

    We measured the complex conductivity at the frequencies from 0.2 THz to 1.0 THz in the under-doped Pb1-ySr2Y1-xCaxCu2+yO7+δ (Pb1212) epitaxial film with terahertz time-domain specteroscopy. By analyzing temperature and frequency dependence of the complex conductivity, we found that the superconducting fluctuation persists up to 12 K above Tc, onset. Compared with previous reports, the superconducting fluctuation in Pb1212 is observed shorter temperature range than Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ and La2-xSrxCuO4. This is ascribed to the lower anisotropy of Pb1212.

  6. Dating of Mesoproterozoic metamorphism in the Mount Isa and George Fisher Zn-Pb-Cu-Ag deposits, Australia, by paleomagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, K.; Symons, D. T.

    2010-12-01

    The Mount Isa Zn-Pb-Cu-Ag and George Fisher Zn-Pb-Ag black-shale-hosted deposits in Queensland, Australia, are in carbonaceous and dolomitic shales of the ~1655 Ma Urquhart Formation of the Mount Isa Group that exhibit greenschist facies metamorphism. Both deposits give lead model ages of ~1655 Ma. Ar-Ar biotite and Re-Os ages for the Mount Isa copper ore are 1523±3 and 1372±4 Ma, respectively. Excluding modern hematite, paleomagnetic and rock magnetic analyses of 333 specimens (28 sites) isolate a stable characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) in single- and pseudosingle-domain pyrrhotite for the Zn-Pb-Ag ore specimens and in pyrrhotite and/or titanomagnetite for the Cu ore. A negative paleomagnetic fold test shows that the ChRM postdates D3 deformation of the ~1595 to 1500 Ma Isan orogeny, yielding a Mesoproterozoic paleopole at ~1505 Ma on the northern Australian apparent polar wander path. The ~1505 Ma age is similar to the ~1523 Ma Ar-Ar age and it provides a minimum age for ore genesis of both deposits, as well as the age for peak greenschist metamorphism during the Isan orogeny in the surrounding Mount Isa inlier.

  7. Potential hyperaccumulation of Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd in endurant plants distributed in an old smeltery, northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Shuang; Zhou, Qixing; Chao, Lei

    2007-01-01

    The absorption and accumulation of Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd in some endurant weed plant species that survived in an old smeltery in Liaoning, China, were systematically investigated. Potential hyperaccumulative characteristics of these species were also discussed. The results showed that metal accumulation in plants differed with species, tissues and metals. Endurant weed plants growing in this contaminated site exhibited high metal adaptability. Both the metal exclusion and detoxification tolerance strategies were involved in the species studied. Seven species for Pb and four species for Cd were satisfied for the concentration time level standard for hyperaccumulator. Considering translocation factor (TF) values, one species for Pb, seven species for Zn, two species for Cu and five species for Cd possessed the characteristic of hyperaccumulator. Particularly, Abutilon theophrasti Medic, exhibited strong accumulative ability to four heavy metals. Although enrichment coefficients of all samples were lesser than 1 and the absolute concentrations didn’t reach the standard, species mentioned above were primarily believed to be potential hyperaccumulators.

  8. Role of ion beam excitations on quasi one-dimensional magnetic system of Mn-doped LiCuVO{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Abhishek [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi 221005 (India); Dwivedi, G.D.; Kumar, Shiv [Departments of Physics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Shahi, P.; Shukla, K.K. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi 221005 (India); Ghosh, A.K. [Departments of Physics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Asokan, K.; Kanjilal, D. [Inter University Accelerator Center, ArunaAsaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India); Singh, R.K. [Departments of Physics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Nigam, A.K. [Department of CMP & MS, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Chatterjee, Sandip, E-mail: schatterji.app@iitbhu.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi 221005 (India)

    2015-07-01

    Induction of short range ferromagnetic ordering has been observed in the quasi one dimensional antiferromagnetic LiCuVO{sub 4} system with doping of Mn in the octahedral (Cu) site. Though, magnetic ordering is not stable enough as further increase of Mn-concentration, magnetic ordering gets deteriorated. This might be the case that Mn{sup 2+} ions, with strong magnetic moment as compared to Cu{sup 2+} ions, enhance the ferromagnetic coupling between the nearest neighbor atoms of quasi-one-dimensional magnetic LiCuVO{sub 4} system. Ferromagnetic ordering in LiCu{sub 0.95}Mn{sub 0.05}VO{sub 4} system also degraded after high energy ion beam excitation which creates defects and may disturb the short range ferromagnetic ordering in its near locality but it does not have much effect on the long range antiferromagnetic ordering. Irradiation causes no change in Raman modes of LiCu{sub 0.95}Mn{sub 0.05}VO{sub 4} system, while it produces some new vibrational modes in intermediate and high frequency region of LiCu{sub 0.9}Mn{sub 0.1}VO{sub 4} system. Above results have been understood based on competitions between ferromagnetic nearest neighbor (NN) coupling and antiferromagnetic next nearest neighbor (NNN) coupling in CuO{sub 2} chain. - Highlights: • Quasi 1-D magnetic systems LiCu{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}VO{sub 4} (x = 0.00, 0.05 & 0.10) have been prepared. • Doping of Mn induces short range ferromagnetic ordering in the system. • High-energy ion beam excitations degrade ferromagnetic ordering in Mn doped LiCuVO{sub 4}. • Irradiations decay short range FM order but has no effect on long range AFM order. • Irradiation leads to few new vibrational modes in LiCu{sub 0.9}Mn{sub 0.1}VO{sub 4} system.

  9. Dietary manganese source does not affect Mn, Zn and Cu tissue deposition and the activity of manganese-containing enzymes in lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresakova, Lubomira; Venglovska, Katarina; Cobanova, Klaudia

    2016-12-01

    Manganese (Mn) is a trace element required for normal physiological processes in animals and humans. Organic forms of trace elements are expected to have higher bioavailability in comparison with inorganic sources. The effect of feeding a diet supplemented with different sources of manganese to lambs was studied in a 112-d feeding trial. The aim of this study was to investigate the deposition of Mn in relation to activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and arginase in the tissues of lambs fed the diet supplemented with an inorganic or an organic source of manganese up to the maximum total Mn content allowed in the European Union (150mg Mn/kg). A total of eighteen female lambs of the improved Valachian breed were randomly allocated to three dietary treatments and fed an unsupplemented basal diet (Control, 31mg Mn/kg) or the identical diet supplemented with manganese sulphate (MnSO4) or manganese chelate of glycine hydrate (Mn-Gly) with a total Mn content up to 150mg/kg. Regardless of the source, feed supplementation with manganese increased Mn concentrations in plasma (P˂0.05) and the liver (P˂0.001) as well as the activity of liver MnSOD (P˂0.05) and arginase (P˂0.001) compared with the control lambs. In the kidney cortex, the concentration of Mn was greatest in lambs fed the diet supplemented with the chelated Mn source compared with animals receiving the inorganic Mn source (P˂0.05) and the unsupplemented diet (P˂0.001). The 112-d intake of feed enriched with manganese did not result in any change in Mn levels, SOD or MnSOD activity in pancreas and kidney tissues. Plasma Cu concentration was depressed in both supplemented treatments. No analyzed tissue showed a change in zinc and copper levels, except the greater Cu concentration in the liver of lambs fed the diet with Mn-Gly. The presented results did not indicate any differences between dietary Mn sources either in Mn tissue deposition or activity of SOD, MnSOD and

  10. Two distinct halo populations in the solar neighborhood II. Evidence from stellar abundances of Mn, Cu, Zn, Y, and Ba

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Poul Erik; Schuster, William J.

    2011-01-01

    .4 in the solar neighborhood has revealed the existence of two distinct halo populations with a systematic difference in [α/Fe] at a given metallicity. In continuation of that work, abundances of Mn, Cu, Zn, Y, and Ba are determined for the same sample of stars. Methods. Equivalent widths of atomic lines...... differences between the “high-α” and “low-α” halo populations are found for [Cu/Fe], [Zn/Fe], and [Ba/Y], whereas there is no significant difference in the case of [Mn/Fe]. At a given metallicity, [Cu/Fe] shows a large scatter that is closely correlated with a corresponding scatter in [Na/Fe] and [Ni....../Fe]. Conclusions. The metallicity trends of [Cu/Fe], [Zn/Fe], and [Ba/Y] can be explained from existing nucleosynthesis calculations if the high-α stars formed in regions with such a high star formation rate that only massive stars and type II supernovae contributed to the chemical enrichment. The low-α stars...

  11. Electrochemical Study of Carbon Nanotubes/Nanohybrids for Determination of Metal Species Cu2+ and Pb2+ in Water Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Claudia Oliveira Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of nanomaterials, such as nanoparticles and nanotubes, for electrochemical detection of metal species has been investigated as a way of modifying electrodes by electrochemical stripping analysis. The present study develops a new methodology based on a comparative study of nanoparticles and nanotubes with differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV and examines the simultaneous determination of copper and lead. The glassy carbon electrode modified by gold nanoparticles demonstrated increased sensitivity and decreased detection limits, among other improvements in analytical performance data. Under optimized conditions (deposition potential −0.8 V versus Ag/AgCl; deposition time, 300 s; resting time, 10 s; pulse amplitude, 50 mV; and voltage step height, 4 mV, the detection limits were 0.2279 and 0.3321 ppb, respectively, for determination of Pb2+ and Cu2+. The effects of cations and anions on the simultaneous determination of metal ions do not exhibit significant interference, thereby demonstrating the selectivity of the electrode for simultaneous determination of Pb2+ and Cu2+. The same method was also used to determine Cu2+ in water samples.

  12. Mineralogical and geochemical characterization of supergene Cu-Pb-Zn-V ores in the Oriental High Atlas, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaert, Michèle; Bernard, Alain; Dekoninck, Augustin; Lafforgue, Ludovic; Saddiqi, Omar; Yans, Johan

    2017-07-01

    In the Moroccan High Atlas, two sulfide deposits hosted by Jurassic dolostones underwent significant weathering. In the Cu deposit of Jbel Klakh, several stages of supergene mineralization are distinguished: (1) the replacement of hypogene sulfides in the protolith (chalcopyrite) by secondary sulfides in the cementation zone (bornite, digenite, chalcocite, covellite), (2) the formation of oxidized minerals in the saprolite (malachite, azurite, brochantite) where the environment becomes more oxidizing and neutral, and (3) the precipitation of late carbonates (calcite) and iron (hydr-)oxides in the laterite. The precipitation of carbonates is related to the dissolution of dolomitic host rocks, which buffers the fluid acidity due to the oxidation of sulfides. In the Jbel Haouanit Pb-Zn deposit, the mineral assemblage is dominated by typical calamine minerals, Cu minerals (chalcocite, covellite, malachite), and a Cu-Pb-Zn vanadate (mottramite). Galena is successively weathered in anglesite and cerussite. Sphalerite is weathered in smithsonite, which is rapidly replaced by hydrozincite. Late iron (hydr-)oxides are mainly found at the top of both deposits (laterite). Both deposits are thus characterized by specific mineral zoning, from laterite to protolith, related to variations in the mineralogy and ore grades and probably caused by varying Eh-pH conditions.

  13. Determination of some heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb) in blood by total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounakhla, M.; Doukkali, A.; Lalaoui, K.; Aguenaou, H.; Mokhtar, N.; Attrassi, B.

    2003-05-01

    The main purpose of this study is the interaction between nutrition (micronutrients heavy metals: Fe, Zn, Cu) and toxic heavy metals such as Pb in blood of children living in Gharb region of Morocco. This region receives all pollution carried by the Sebou river coming mainly from industrial activities. A rapid and simple analytical procedure was used for the determination of Fe, Cu and Zn trace amounts in blood by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence technique. This method is an energy dispersive XRF technique in a special geometry of primary beam, sample and detector. The sample is deposited on a plane polished surface of a suitable reflector material. It is presented as a few drops (25 μl) from a solution of blood digested in a mixture of HNO3 and H2O2 using a microwaves accelerated reaction system. The accuracy of measurements has been investigated by using certified materials. The concentration of Cu was found to be normal in all samples (\\cong1 ppm) which ruled out any interaction between this element and the others. On the other hand, amounts of Fe and Zn are very variables, suggesting an interaction between Fe and Zn. However, amounts of Pb in blood are inferior to 50 ppb, suggesting that no interaction exist with this metal and micronutrients.

  14. Symmetric interfacial reconstruction and magnetism in La0.7Ca0.3MnO3/YBa2Cu3O7/La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visani, C. [Universidad Complutense, Spain; Tornos, J. [Universidad Complutense, Spain; Nemes, Norbert [Universidad Complutense, Spain; Rocci, M. [Universidad Complutense, Spain; Leon, C. [Universidad Complutense, Spain; Santamaria, J. [Universidad Complutense, Spain; te Velthuis, G. E. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Liu, Y. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Hoffman, A. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Freeland, J. W. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Garcia-Hernandez, M [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (ICMM); Fitzsimmons, M. R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Kirby, B. J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Varela del Arco, Maria [ORNL; Pennycook, Stephen J [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    We have analyzed the interface structure and composition of La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}/YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7}/La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} trilayers by combined polarized neutron reflectometry, aberration-corrected microscopy, and atomic column resolution electron-energy-loss spectroscopy and x-ray absorption with polarization analysis. We find the same stacking sequence at both top and bottom cuprate interfaces. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism experiments show that both cuprate interfaces are magnetic with a magnetic moment induced in Cu atoms as expected from symmetric Mn-O-Cu superexchange paths. These results supply a solid footing for the applicability of recent theories explaining the interplay between magnetism and superconductivity in this system in terms of the induced Cu spin polarization at both interfaces.

  15. Timing of porphyry (Cu-Mo) and base metal (Zn-Pb-Ag-Cu) mineralisation in a magmatic-hydrothermal system—Morococha district, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catchpole, Honza; Kouzmanov, Kalin; Bendezú, Aldo; Ovtcharova, Maria; Spikings, Richard; Stein, Holly; Fontboté, Lluís

    2015-12-01

    The Morococha district in central Peru is characterised by economically important Cordilleran polymetallic (Zn-Pb-Ag-Cu) vein and replacement bodies and the large Toromocho porphyry Cu-Mo deposit in its centre. U-Pb, Re-Os, and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology data for various porphyry-related hydrothermal mineralisation styles record a 3.5-Ma multi-stage history of magmatic-hydrothermal activity in the district. In the late Miocene, three individual magmatic-hydrothermal centres were active: the Codiciada, Toromocho, and Ticlio centres, each separated in time and space. The Codiciada centre is the oldest magmatic-hydrothermal system in the district and consists of a composite porphyry stock associated with anhydrous skarn and quartz-molybdenite veins. The hydrothermal events are recorded by a titanite U-Pb age at 9.3 ± 0.2 Ma and a molybdenite Re-Os age at 9.26 ± 0.03 Ma. These ages are indistinguishable from zircon U-Pb ages for porphyry intrusions of the composite stock and indicate a time span of 0.2 Ma for magmatic-hydrothermal activity. The small Ticlio magmatic-hydrothermal centre in the west of the district has a maximum duration of 0.3 Ma, ranging from porphyry emplacement to porphyry mineralisation at 8.04 ± 0.14 Ma (40Ar/39Ar muscovite cooling age). The Toromocho magmatic-hydrothermal centre has a minimum of five recorded porphyry intrusions that span a total of 1.3 Ma and is responsible for the formation of the giant Toromocho Cu-Mo deposit. At least two hydrothermal pulses are identified. Post-dating a first pulse of molybdenite mineralisation, wide-spread hydrous skarn covers an area of over 6 km2 and is recorded by five 40Ar/39Ar cooling ages at 7.2-6.8 Ma. These ages mark the end of the slowly cooling and long-lived Toromocho magmatic-hydrothermal centre soon after last magmatic activity at 7.26 ± 0.02 Ma. District-wide (50 km2) Cordilleran base metal vein and replacement bodies post-date the youngest recorded porphyry mineralisation event at Toromocho

  16. Comparative and competitive adsorption of Pb(II) and Cu(II) using tetraethylenepentamine modified chitosan/CoFe2O4 particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chunzhen; Li, Kan; Li, Juexiu; Ying, Diwen; Wang, Yalin; Jia, Jinping

    2017-03-15

    In this paper, tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA) modified chitosan/CoFe2O4 particles were prepared for comparative and competitive adsorption of Cu(II) and Pb(II) in single and bi-component aqueous solutions. The characteristics results of SEM, FTIR and XRD indicated that the adsorbent was successfully fabricated. The magnetic property results manifested that the particles with saturation magnetization value of 63.83emug(-1) would have a fast magnetic response. The effects of experimental parameters including contact time, pH value, initial metal ions concentration and coexisting ions on single and bi-component adsorption were investigated. The results revealed that the adsorption kinetic was followed pseudo-second-order kinetic model, indicating that chemical adsorption was the rate-limiting step. Sorption isotherms were also determined in single and bi-component solutions with different mass ratio of Cu(II) to Pb(II) (Cu(II)/Pb(II)) and fitted using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. A better fit for Cu(II) and Pb(II) adsorption were obtained with Langmuir model, with a maximum sorption capacity of 168.067 and 228.311mgg(-1) for Cu(II) and Pb(II) in single component solution, 139.860 and 160.256mgg(-1) in bi-component solution (Cu(II)/Pb(II)=1:1), respectively. The present results suggest that TEPA modified chitosan/CoFe2O4 particles are feasible and satisfactory adsorbent for efficient removal of Cu(II) and Pb(II) ions.

  17. REMOVAL OF Cd2+, Cu2+AND Pb2+ WITH A BURKINA FASO CLAY ELIMINATION DU Cd2+, DU Cu2+ ET DU Pb2+ PAR UNE ARGILE LOCALE DU BURKINA FASO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRAHIMA SORGHO

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of water by heavy metals is often linked to human, industrial and agricultural activities, and cause health and ecological problems. The objective of this study is to remove water pollutants like Cd2+, Cu2+ and Pb2+ in synthetic solutions by adsorption on clay from Burkina Faso. Electrochemical characterizations revealed that 90 % of heavy metals can be removed. Structural studies evidenced that almost all clay mineral species participate to the removal of heavy metals through different physico-chemical mechanisms namely ion exchange, complexation and precipitation.

  18. Contamination assessment of heavy metals in the soils around Khouzestan Steel Company (KSC (Ni, Mn, Pb, Fe, Zn, Cr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh hormozi Nejad

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Soil plays a vital role in human life as the very survival of mankind is tied to the preservation of soil productivity (Kabata- Pendies and Mukherjee, 2007. The purpose of this study is the assessment of heavy metal contamination (Zn, Mn, Pb, Fe, Ni, Cr of the soil around the Khuzestan Steel Complex. Materials and methods For this purpose, 13 surface soil samples (0-10 cm were taken. Also a control sample was taken from an area away from the steel complex. The coordinates of each point were recorded by Global Positioning System (GPS. The samples were transferred to the laboratory and then were air dried at room temperature for 72 hours. Then they were sieved through a 2mm sieve for determining physical and chemical parameters (soil texture, pH, OC, and a 63-micron sieve for measurement of heavy metal concentration. pH was measured using a calibrated pH meter at a 2: 1 mixture (soil: water, and soil texture was determined using a hydrometer. The amount of organic matter was measured using the Valkey black method (Chopin and Alloway, 2007. After preparation of the samples in the laboratory, the samples were analyzed using the ICP-OES method to assess concentration of heavy metals. Measurement of heavy metals concentration was carried out at the Zar azma laboratory in Tehran. To ensure the accuracy of the analysis of soil samples, replicate samples were also sent to the laboratory. In order to assess the heavy metal pollution in the soil samples, different indices including contamination factor (CF, contamination degree (Cd, anthropogenic enrichment percent (An%, and saturation degree of metals (SDM were calculated. Discussion In addition, the mean concentrations of heavy metals in soil samples were compared to the concentration of these metals in Control Sample and unpolluted soil standard. Measurement of soil pH showed that the soil has a tendency to alkalinity. Also, soil texture is sandy loam (Moyes, 2011. The results showed that

  19. Indirect mass determination for the neutron-deficient nuclides 44V, 48Mn, 52Co and 56Cu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, X. L.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Blaum, K.; Mei, B.; Sun, B. H.; Sun, Y.; Wang, M.; Xu, H. S.; Zhang, Y. H.

    2016-01-01

    Mass excess values for 44V, 52Co and 56Cu are derived indirectly using the mirror symmetry and known data from beta-delayed proton spectroscopy. The new mass excess obtained by using the energy conservation for 48Mn is - 29 303 (14) keV, which is an improvement by about an order of magnitude compared to the AME'12 value. Compared to previously known data, the new proton separation energy for 45Cr causes a ˜3.5 times smaller matter flow through the Casbnd Sc cycle during the rp-process. Obtained proton separation energies for 52Co and 56Cu are about 500 keV larger than the AME'12 values. If confirmed, this would affect photo disintegration rates of 52Co (γ, p)51Fe and 56Cu (γ, p)55Ni reactions during the rp-process in X-ray bursts.

  20. Low-temperature sintering method for NiCuZn ferrite and effect of Mn addition on electromagnetic properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JU Dong-ying; BIAN Pei

    2006-01-01

    Low temperature sintering NiCuZn ferrite was employed at most cases due to its co-firability with Ag (below 960 ℃). The NiCuZn ferrite sintered body with high-strength and high-frequency magnetic properties was fabricated. Firstly,NiCuZn ferrite powder was synthesized under CO2 atmosphere at 500 ℃ from the mixed doxalate synthesized by liquid phase precipitation method. Then a small amount of boric acid (H3BO3) was added to the powder,and the NiCuZn ferrite powder compact was prepared with Newton press and CIP methods. Finally,NiCuZn ferrite sintered body was fabricated by sintering at 900 ℃ under CO2 atmosphere. The minimum sintering temperature (800 ℃) was determined by the study of high temperature shrinkage. By this method,NiCuZn ferrite sintered body with 0.5% (mass fraction) boric acid was obtained,which has the bending strength of 340 MPa. The effect of various Mn addition on electromagnetic properties were studied.

  1. Dye-Sensitized Cu2 XSnS4 (X=Zn, Ni, Fe, Co, and Mn) Nanofibers for Efficient Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonce, Mehmet Kerem; Aslan, Emre; Ozel, Faruk; Hatay Patir, Imren

    2016-03-21

    The photocatalytic hydrogen evolution activities of low-cost and noble-metal-free Cu2 XSnS4 (X=Zn, Ni, Fe, Co, and Mn) nanofiber catalysts have been investigated using triethanolamine as an electron donor and eosin Y as a photosensitizer under visible-light irradiation. The rates of hydrogen evolution by Cu2 XSnS4 (X=Zn, Ni, Fe, Co, and Mn) nanofibers have been compared with each other and with that of the noble metal Pt. The hydrogen evolution rates for the nanofibers change in the order Cu2 NiSnS4 >Cu2 FeSnS4 >Cu2 CoSnS4 >Cu2 ZnSnS4 >Cu2 MnSnS4 (2028, 1870, 1926, 1420, and 389 μmol g(-1) h(-1) , respectively). The differences between the hydrogen evolution rates of the nanofibers could be attributed to their energy levels. Moreover, Cu2 NiSnS4, Cu2 FeSnS4 , and Cu2 CoSnS4 nanofibers show higher and more stable photocatalytic hydrogen production rates than that of the noble metal Pt under long-term irradiation with visible light.

  2. Geochemical behavior of heavy metals in a Zn-Pb-Cu mining area in the State of Mexico (central Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizárraga-Mendiola, L; González-Sandoval, M R; Durán-Domínguez, M C; Márquez-Herrera, C

    2009-08-01

    The geochemical behavior of zinc, lead and copper from sulfidic tailings in a mine site with potential to generate acidic drainage (pyrite (55%) and sphalerite (2%)) is reported in this paper. The mining area is divided in two zones, considering the topographic location of sampling points with respect to the tailings pile: (a) outer zone, out of the probable influence of acid mine drainage (AMD) pollution, and (b) inner zone, probably influenced by AMD pollution. Maximum total ions concentrations (mg/L) measured in superficial waters found were, in the outer zone: As (0.2), Cd (0.9), Fe (19), Mn (39), Pb (5.02), SO4(2-) (4650), Zn (107.67), and in the inner zone are As (0.1), Cd (0.2), Fe (88), Mn (13), Pb (6), SO4(2-) (4,880), Zn (46). The presence of these ions that exceeding the permissible maximum limits for human consume, could be associated to tailings mineralogy and acid leachates generated in tailings pile.

  3. Crystallographic and electronic contribution to the apparent step height in nanometer-thin Pb(111) films grown on Cu(111)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calleja, Fabian; Parga, Amadeo L Vazquez de; Anglada, Eduardo; Hinarejos, Juan Jose; Miranda, Rodolfo; Yndurain, Felix [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco 28049, Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: al.vazquezdeparga@uam.es

    2009-12-15

    Thermal roughening of Pb(111) films grown on Cu(111) produces three-dimensional (3D) islands of different number of layers allowing the simultaneous and direct measurement by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) of the step height for different thicknesses in real space. The apparent step heights separating adjacent layers show several oscillations with amplitudes of up to 0.8-1.4 A around the bulk interlayer distance as a function of film thickness. The oscillations have bilayer periodicity with a superimposed longer beating period that produces a phase slip every eight layers. Based on first-principles calculations of Pb(111) free standing slabs, we can identify the relevant electronic states responsible for these quantum size effects. In addition, we can distinguish between geometric and electronic contributions to the apparent step heights measured on the STM images.

  4. Oximato bridged Rh$^{\\text{III}}_2$MII and RhIIIMI species (MII = Mn, Co, Ni; MI = Cu, Ag)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Indranil Bhattacharyya; Sanjib Ganguly; Bikash Kumar Panda; Animesh Chakravorty

    2008-01-01

    The reaction of [RhCl2(HPhL)(PhL)] with MII(ClO4)2.6H2O in presence of alkali has furnished trinuclear [RhCl2(PhL)2]2M(H2O)2.H2O (HPhL is phenylazobenzaldoxime; M = Mn, Co, Ni). A similar reaction with MI(PPh3)2NO3 yielded binuclear [RhCl2(PhL)2]M(PPh3)2 (M = Cu, Ag). In these molecules the oximato group acts as a bridge between RhIII (bonded at N) and MII or MI (bonded at O). In structurally characterized [RhIIICl2(PhL)2]2Mn(H2O)2.H2O the centrosymmetric distorted octahedral MnO6 coordination sphere is spanned by four oximato oxygen atoms and two water molecules lying in trans position. In the lattice the neighbouring molecules are held together by H2O$\\cdots$H2O$\\cdots$H2O hydrogen bonds generating infinite zigzag chains. The manganese atoms lie parallel to the C-axis, the shortest Mn…Mn distance being 7.992 Å. Magnetic exchange interactions if any are small as seen in room temperature magnetic moments. The manganese system displays a strong EPR signal near = 2.00. In the complex [RhCl2(PhL)2]Cu(PPh3)2 the copper atom is coordinated to two oximato oxygen atoms and the two phosphorus atoms in a distorted tetrahedral geometry. The softness of the phosphine ligand is believed to sustain the stable coordination of hard oximato oxygen to soft CuI. The coordination sphere of the RhIII atom in both the complexes is uniformly trans-RhN4Cl2.

  5. The Effect of Salinity on the Release of Copper (Cu, Lead (Pb And Zinc (Zn from Tailing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apriani Sulu Parubak

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of salinity on the release of copper (Cu, lead (Pb and zinc (Zn in tailing sediment have been studied by stripping voltammetry. The purpose of the research is to know the effect of salinity on the release of metals with certain pH, conductivity and variety of metals. Simultaneous determination of copper, lead and zinc in tailing was done by Differential Pulse Anodic Stripping Voltammetry (DPASV onto hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE and nitric acid 65% as support electrolyte. The limit of detection for this method 0.60 µg/L, 0.150 µg/L and 0.238 µg/L for copper, lead and iMc respectively. The stripping solution of 300/00 salinity with pH= 7.85, conductivity= 46.62 mS/cm gives the amounts of released metals as follows :14.867 µg/L Cu, 0.976 µg/L Pb and 6.224 µg/L Zn. These results are higher as compared with the results from 15 0/00 salinity with pH= 7.66, conductivity= 23.22 mS/cm that give released metals of Cu= 7.988 µg/L, Pb= 0.311 µg/L and Zn= 4.699 µg/L. the results from ANOVA suggest that this is due to different in salinity of the solution. It also found that the conductivity does not give any effect. It can be concluded that the higher salinity will that give higher concentration or released metals.

  6. Geology and Characteristics of Pb-Zn-Cu-Ag Skarn Deposit at Ruwai, Lamandau Regency, Central Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arifudin Idrus

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v6i4.126This study is dealing with geology and characteristics of mineralogy, geochemistry, and physicochemical conditions of hydrothermal fluid responsible for the formation of skarn Pb-Zn-Cu-Ag deposit at Ruwai, Lamandau Regency, Central Kalimantan. The formation of Ruwai skarn is genetically associated with calcareous rocks consisting of limestone and siltstone (derived from marl? controlled by NNE-SSW-trending strike slip faults. It is localized along N 70° E-trending thrust fault, which also acts as the contact zone between sedimentary and volcanic rocks in the area. The Ruwai skarn is mineralogically characterized by prograde alteration comprising garnet (andradite and clino-pyroxene (wollastonite, and retrograde alteration composed of epidote, chlorite, calcite, and sericite. Ore mineralization is typified by sphalerite, galena, and chalcopyrite, formed at early retrograde stage. Galena is typically enriched in silver up to 0.45 wt % and bismuth of about 1 wt %. No Ag-sulphides are identified within the ore body. Geochemically, SiO is enriched and CaO is depleted in limestone, consistent with silicic alteration (quartz and calc-silicate and decarbonatization of the wallrock. The measured resources of the deposit are 2,297,185 tonnes at average grades of 14.98 % Zn, 6.44% Pb, 2.49 % Cu, and 370.87 g/t Ag. Ruwai skarn orebody was originated at moderate temperatures of 250 - 266 °C and low salinity of 0.3 - 0.5 wt.% NaCl eq. The late retrograde stage was formed at low temperature of 190 - 220 °C and low salinity of ~0.35 wt.% NaCl eq., which was influenced by meteoric water incursion at the late stage of the Ruwai Pb-Zn-Cu-Ag skarn formation.

  7. Abnormal dielectric behaviors in Mn-doped CaCu{sub 3}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 12} ceramics and their response mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yuan-Hua, E-mail: linyh@tsinghua.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Deng, Wei [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Xu, Wei [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, Yong [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Chen, Dongliang; Zhang, Xiaoli [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Nan, Ce-Wen [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2012-12-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mn-doping affects the electric behaviors remarkably in CCTO ceramics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The activation energy of grain and grain boundary disappears with increasing the Mn doping concentration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The XANES spectra reveal that valence states of Ti, Mn and Cu in the grain and grain boundary changes greatly. - Abstract: Mn-doped CaCu{sub 3}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 12} (CCTO) polycrystalline ceramics have been prepared by the conventional solid state sintering. Our results indicate that 10% Mn doping can decrease the dielectric permittivity in CaCu{sub 3}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 12} by about 2 orders of magnitude (from 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 2}). The grain and grain boundary activation energies show an obvious increase from 0.054 eV to 0.256 eV, and decrease from 0.724 eV to 0.258 eV with increasing the Mn doping concentration, respectively, which may be caused by the variation of Cu and Ti valence states in the CCTO samples evidenced by the X-ray absorption spectra. The similar grain and grain boundary activation energies result in invalidation of the internal boundary layer capacitance effect for the 10% Mn-doped CCTO sample, and thus result in the dramatic decrease of dielectric permittivity.

  8. Adsorption Kinetics of Pb2+ and Cu2+ on Variable Charge Soils and Minerals:I.Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUGUO-SONG

    1993-01-01

    A new technique for studying the adsorption kinetics of heavy metals,Pb2+ and Cu2+,on variable charge surfaces was established with two selective electrodes and microcomputer control system.Feasibility of the technique,including interference of other ions (mainly Fe3+ and Al3+),response time of electrodes,and the pH range of testing,was studied.Comparision with the most widely used miscible displacement technique,which was considered insufficient in studying 30-minute rapid reactions,at present time showed that the new technique was more advantageous in testing in situ,easy to operate,and economic.

  9. Impact of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris (L.) on As, Cu, Pb and Zn mobility and speciation in contaminated soils

    OpenAIRE

    Sizmur, Tom; B. Palumbo-Roe; Watts, M.J.; Hodson, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    To assess the risks that contaminated soils pose to the environment properly a greater understanding of how soil biota influence the mobility of metal(loid)s in soils is required. Lumbricus terrestris L. were incubated in three soils contaminated with As, Cu, Pb and Zn. The concentration and speciation of metal(loid)s in pore waters and the mobility and partitioning in casts were compared with earthworm-free soil. Generally the concentrations of water extractable metal(loid)s in earthworm cas...

  10. Experimental and modeling of the electrodialytic and dialytic treatment of a fly ash containing Cd, Cu and Pb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima, A.T.; Ribeiro, A.B.; Rodriguez-Maroto, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    A one-dimensional model is developed for simulating the electrodialytic and dialytic treatment of a fly ash containing cadmium, copper and lead. Two experimental systems have been used, a column of ash and a stirred ash suspension. The movement of Cd, Cu and Pb has been modeled taking into account...... ionic species in the system, H+ and OH-, proceeding of the electrolysis at the electrodes, Ca2+, CO3 (=), SO4 (=), etc. proceeding from the ash and Na+ and NO3 (-), or citrate and ammonium ions incorporated as electrolyte solutions and/or as agent solution during the ash treatment. The simulation also...

  11. Removal of Pb, Cu, Cd, and Zn Present in Aqueous Solution Using Coupled Electrocoagulation-Phytoremediation Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Ferniza-García

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the results of a coupled electrocoagulation-phytoremediation treatment for the reduction of copper, cadmium, lead, and zinc, present in aqueous solution. The electrocoagulation was carried out in a batch reactor using aluminum electrodes in parallel arrangement; the optimal conditions were current density of 8 mA/cm2 and operating time of 180 minutes. For phytoremediation the macrophytes, Typha latifolia L., were used during seven days of treatment. The results indicated that the coupled treatment reduced metal concentrations by 99.2% Cu, 81.3% Cd, and 99.4% Pb, while Zn increased due to the natural concentrations of the plant used.

  12. Analysis of different modeling approach at determining of backward extrusion force on AlCu5PbBi material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Barišić

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the paper is to present an outline of different modeling approach at determining of backward extrusion force on AlCu5PbBi material and to compare them with experimental obtained results. Stochastic modeling in the paper is based on the statistic processing of central composite experimental design i.e. in this investigations central composite circumscribed (CCC design. The numerical modeling is based on the finite element method (FEM using ABAQUS 6.4.1. Explicit software.

  13. SÍNTESIS Y CARACTERIZACIÓN DE FERRITAS DE Cd, Pb y Mn VÍA HIDROQUÍMICA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELIAZAR AQUINO

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue obtener por vía hidroquímica y bajo condiciones optimizadas, ferritas de Cd, Pb y Mn y comparar sus características químicas, fìsicoquímicas y estequiométricas. Se prepararon disoluciones separadas de estos metales a 1 g/L, se le adicionó FeSO4.7H2O para una relación molar 15:1 [Fe2+]/[Me2+], se mantuvo a pH de 10 y 60ºC en baño termostatizado. Se corroboró que el proceso de formación de ferritas in situ bajo condiciones óptimas, permite eliminar metales pesados como los evaluados de los medios acuosos, con efi ciencias superiores al 98%. De igual manera se lograron obtener estequiometrías defi nidas que permiten proponer los mecanismos de reacción que tienen lugar, toda vez que pueden ser justifi cados a partir de las estequiometrías logradas y por las diferentes técnicas empleadas en su caracterización. Se han podido dilucidar los mecanismos de sustitución de los iones Fe2+ por los metales divalentes como los estudiados en las estructuras de espinela inversa de estas ferritas y su correlación con las propiedades magnéticas de las mismas.

  14. Mineralogical data on angelaite, Cu2AgPbBiS4, from the Los Manantiales District, Chubut, Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topa, D.; Paar, W.H.; Putz, H.

    2010-01-01

    , native gold and galena; less common associates are aikinite, wittichenite, miharaite and cervelleite. Angelaite forms subhedral, commonly oriented inclusions in galena; these may attain a size of up to 200 3 50 mm. The mineral is grey in color with a brownish tint, opaque, and lacks internal reflections...... is strongly anisotropic, with rotation tints in shades of pale grey, deep green and deep blue. We provide the measured values of reflectance in air and oil. The average of 23 electron-microprobe analyses is: Cu 16.7(3), Ag 13.4(2), Pb 27.8(6), Bi 26.6(5), S 16.0(2), total 100.5(5) wt.%, equivalent to Cu2.07Ag...

  15. Anthropogenic impacts in North Poland over the last 1300 years - A record of Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni and S in an ombrotrophic peat bog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vleeschouwer, Francois, E-mail: fdevleeschouwer@gmail.com [Silesian University of Technology, Institute of Physics, Department of Radioisotopes, GADAM Centre of Excellence, Krzywoustego 2, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Unite de Recherche Argiles, geochimie et Environnement sedimentaire, Geology, University of Liege, Allee du 6 Aout, B18, Sart Tilman, B-4000, Liege (Belgium); Fagel, Nathalie [Unite de Recherche Argiles, geochimie et Environnement sedimentaire, Geology, University of Liege, Allee du 6 Aout, B18, Sart Tilman, B-4000, Liege (Belgium); Cheburkin, Andriy [Institute of Environmental Geochemistry, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 236 B-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Pazdur, Anna; Sikorski, Jaroslaw [Silesian University of Technology, Institute of Physics, Department of Radioisotopes, GADAM Centre of Excellence, Krzywoustego 2, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Mattielli, Nadine [Departement des Sciences de la Terre et de l' Environnement, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, avenue F.D. Roosevelt 50, 1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Renson, Virginie [Department of Geology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussel (Belgium); Fialkiewicz, Barbara [Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection from the University of Silesia, Katowice (Poland); Piotrowska, Natalia [Silesian University of Technology, Institute of Physics, Department of Radioisotopes, GADAM Centre of Excellence, Krzywoustego 2, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Le Roux, Gael [Unite de Recherche Argiles, geochimie et Environnement sedimentaire, Geology, University of Liege, Allee du 6 Aout, B18, Sart Tilman, B-4000, Liege (Belgium)

    2009-10-15

    Lead pollution history over Northern Poland was reconstructed for the last ca. 1300 years using the elemental and Pb isotope geochemistry of a dated Polish peat bog. The data show that Polish Pb-Zn ores and coal were the main sources of Pb, other heavy metals and S over Northern Poland up until the industrial revolution. After review of the potential mobility of each element, most of the historical interpretation was based on Pb and Pb isotopes, the other chemical elements (Zn, Cu, Ni, S) being considered secondary indicators of pollution. During the last century, leaded gasoline also contributed to anthropogenic Pb pollution over Poland. Coal and Pb-Zn ores, however, remained important sources of pollution in Eastern European countries during the last 50 years, as demonstrated by a high {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratio (1.153) relative to that of Western Europe (ca. 1.10). The Pb data for the last century were also in good agreement with modelled Pb inventories over Poland and the Baltic region.

  16. The influence of Mn-doped CeO2 on the activity of CuO/CeO2 in CO oxidation and NO + CO model reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Changshun; Huang, Qingqing; Zhu, Xiying; Hu, Qun; Su, Wenli; Qian, Junning; Dong, Lihui; Li, Bin; Fan, Minguang; Liang, Caiyuan

    2016-12-01

    This work is mainly focused on the investigation of the influence of Mn-doped CeO2 supported by CuO on the physicochemical and catalytic properties for CO oxidation and NO + CO model reaction. The obtained samples were characterized using N2-physisorption (BET), XRD, LRS, TEM, EDS-Mapping, ICP-AES, XPS, H2-TPR, O2-TPD, in situ DRIFTS, CO oxidation, and NO + CO model reaction. The results imply that appropriate doping MnOx into the lattice of CeO2 will cause an obvious change in the properties of the catalyst and the Cu/CeMn-10: 1 catalyst shows the largest specific surface area, the most uniformity of structure, and the most extent of lattice expansion. A few addition of MnOx is more conducive to the generation of low valence manganese ion in the process of calcination, which may contribute to the synergetic introduction. This further results in more Cu+ due to the shifting of redox equilibrium (Cu2+ + Ce3+ ↔ Cu+ + Ce4+) to right, as well as more oxygen vacancies. Moreover, the capability of Cu/CeMn-10: 1 on desorb/transform/decompose of the adsorbed NO species is more effective than that of Cu/CeO2. The results of catalytic performance show that Cu+/Cu0 species play a key role, and the activity is mainly related to the specific surface area, the content of Cu+ and Ce3+, the reduction, desorption capability of chemisorbed O2- (and/or O-) species as well as adsorption behaviors of these catalysts for CO oxidation and NO + CO reaction. Finally, possible reaction mechanisms are tentatively proposed to understand the reactions.

  17. Different binding affinities of Pb2+ and Cu2+ to glycosylation variants of human serum transferrin interfere with the detection of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lian-Zhong; Jin, Hong-Wei; Huang, Lin; Huang, He-Qing

    2011-12-01

    Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) is a specific biomarker of alcohol abuse, and for diagnosis of chronic alcohol, abuse is often determined using isoelectric focusing (IEF) and chromatographic techniques. To allow this method to be used for the diagnosis of alcohol abuse, inferences of various physical and chemical factors with the detection of CDT have been investigated. However, few reports have focused thus far on whether different metal ions have different binding affinities to CDT and HTf variants or further interfere in the detection of CDT. Here, in order to figure out whether and how metal ions such as Pb(2+) and Cu(2+) bind to holo-human serum transferrin (holo-HTf) and further interfere in CDT detection, the binding characteristics and the binding parameters of holo-HTf with metal ions such as Pb(2+) and Cu(2+) were investigated using UV-visible spectroscopy, Fluorescence spectroscopy, and ICP-MS. Moreover, whether the metal ions such as Pb(2+) and Cu(2+) will reduce the diagnostic accuracy of CDT in clinic was investigated using IEF. The present study demonstrates that Pb(2+) and Cu(2+) have different binding affinities to holo-HTf variants and produce different changes in the relative amounts of each glycosylation isoforms of HTf. Accordingly, the glycosylation chains of HTf will affect the binding affinities of glycosylation isoforms with Pb(2+) and Cu(2+), causing further interferences in CDT detection.

  18. Removal of Pb(II) and Cu(II) from aqueous solution using multiwalled carbon nanotubes/iron oxide magnetic composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jun; Zhao, Donglin; Wang, Xiangke

    2011-01-01

    Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)/iron oxide magnetic composites (named as MCs) were prepared by co-precipitation method, and were characterised by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) in detail. The prepared MCs were employed as an adsorbent for the removal of Pb(II) and Cu(II) ions from wastewater in heavy metal ion pollution cleanup. The results demonstrated that the sorption of Pb(II) and Cu(II) ions was strongly dependent on pH and temperature. The experimental data were well described by Langmuir model, and the monolayer sorption capacity of MCs was found to vary from 10.02 to 31.25 mg/g for Pb(II) and from 3.11 to 8.92 mg/g for Cu(II) at temperature increasing from 293.15 to 353.15 K at pH 5.50. The sorption capacity of Pb(II) on MCs was higher than that of Cu(II), which was attributed to their ionic radius, hydration energies and hydrolysis of their hydroxides. The thermodynamic parameters (i.e., ΔH(0), ΔS(0) and ΔG(0)) were calculated from temperature dependent sorption isotherms, and the results indicated that the sorption of Pb(II) and Cu(II) ions on MCs were spontaneous and endothermic processes.

  19. Selective removals of heavy metals (Pb(2+), Cu(2+), and Cd(2+)) from wastewater by gelation with alginate for effective metal recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Lu, Xingwen; Li, Xiao-yan

    2016-05-05

    A novel method that uses the aqueous sodium alginate solution for direct gelation with metal ions is developed for effective removal and recovery of heavy metals from industrial wastewater. The experimental study was conducted on Pb(2+), Cu(2+), and Cd(2+) as the model heavy metals. The results show that gels can be formed rapidly between the metals and alginate in less than 10 min and the gelation rates fit well with the pseudo second-order kinetic model. The optimum dosing ratio of alginate to the metal ions was found to be between 2:1 and 3:1 for removing Pb(2+) and around 4:1 for removing Cu(2+) and Cd(2+) from wastewater, and the metal removal efficiency by gelation increased as the solution pH increased. Alginate exhibited a higher gelation affinity toward Pb(2+) than Cu(2+) and Cd(2+), which allowed a selective removal of Pb(2+) from the wastewater in the presence of Cu(2+) and Cd(2+) ions. Chemical analysis of the gels suggests that the gelation mainly occurred between the metal ions and the -COO(-) and -OH groups on alginate. By simple calcination of the metal-laden gels at 700 °C for 1 h, the heavy metals can be well recovered as valuable resources. The metals obtained after the thermal treatment are in the form of PbO, CuO, and CdO nanopowders with crystal sizes of around 150, 50, and 100 nm, respectively.

  20. Geochemical signals and source contributions to heavy metal (Cd, Zn, Pb, Cu) fluxes into the Gironde Estuary via its major tributaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Matthieu; Blanc, Gérard; Schäfer, Jörg

    2006-10-15

    Daily measurements of water discharges and suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentrations and monthly sampling for trace element analyses (Cd, Zn, Pb and Cu) were conducted from 1999 to 2002 on the Garonne, Dordogne and Isle Rivers, the three main tributaries of the Gironde Estuary, France. Dissolved and particulate Cd, Zn, Pb and Cu concentrations in the Isle River were generally higher than those in the Garonne River, despite the known historical polymetallic pollution affecting the Lot-Garonne River system. Even if the relatively high dissolved metal concentrations in the Isle River may be of importance for the local ecosystem, metal inputs into the estuarine and coastal zones are mainly controlled by fluvial transport via the Garonne River. Characteristic element concentration ratios (e.g., Zn/Pb) in SPM and stream sediments from the Dordogne and Isle Rivers suggest two different metal source areas with distinct geochemical signals. Low Zn/Pb ratios (Pb ratios (Pb ratios were assigned to downstream sources (e.g., vineyards), partly explaining high Zn and Cu concentrations and high Cu/Pb ratios (>0.8) in SPM. Although SPM derived from the upstream parts of the studied watersheds may greatly contribute to the observed fluvial metal transport (up to approximately 80% for Pb), the results suggest that intensive agriculture also considerably influences gross metal (e.g., Zn, Cu) fluxes into the Gironde Estuary. Relative contributions of upstream and downstream source zones may vary from one year to another reflecting hydrological variations and/or reservoir management. Monitoring fluxes and identifying distinct geochemical signals from source areas in heterogeneous watersheds may greatly improve understanding of contaminant transport to the coast.

  1. Catalytic behavior and synergistic effect of nanostructured mesoporous CuO-MnO{sub x}-CeO{sub 2} catalysts for chlorobenzene destruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Chi, E-mail: chi_he@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Yu, Yanke [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Shen, Qun [Research Center for Greenhous