WorldWideScience

Sample records for cts cubital tunnel

  1. CASE SERIES Cubital tunnel syndrome: A report of two cases

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cubital tunnel syndrome occurs as a result of compression of the ulnar nerve between the medial ... A 40-year-old man revealed high signal on T2W (T2 weighted). MRI in a thickened ... Pathological compression gives rise to cubital tunnel ...

  2. Pain and Function Following Revision Cubital Tunnel Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidge, Kristen M; Ebersole, Gregory C; Mackinnon, Susan E

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine pain and functional outcomes following revision cubital tunnel surgery and to identify predictors of poor postoperative outcome. A retrospective cohort study was conducted of all patients undergoing revision cubital tunnel surgery over a 5-year period at a high-volume peripheral nerve center. Intraoperative findings, demographic and injury factors, and outcomes were reviewed. Average pain, worst pain, and impact of pain on self-perceived quality of life were each measured using a 10-cm visual analog scale (VAS). Function was evaluated using pinch and grip strength, as well as the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire. Differences in preoperative and postoperative pain, strength, and DASH were analyzed using nonparametric tests. Predictors of postoperative average pain were evaluated using odds ratios and linear regression analyses. The final cohort consisted of 50 patients (mean age: 46.3 ± 12.5 years; 29 [68%] male) undergoing 52 revision ulnar nerve transpositions (UNTs). Pain VAS scores decreased significantly following revision UNT. Strength and DASH scores demonstrated nonsignificant improvements postoperatively. Worse preoperative pain and greater than 1 prior cubital tunnel procedure were significant predictors of worse postoperative average pain VAS scores. Patients can and do improve following revision cubital tunnel surgery, particularly as it relates to pain. Intraoperative findings during the revision procedure suggest that adherence to specific principles in the primary operation is key to prevention of secondary cubital tunnel syndrome.

  3. Endoscopic cubital tunnel release using the Hoffmann technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Reimer; Lubahn, John

    2013-06-01

    Endoscopic cubital tunnel release was originally described in 1989 by Tsai, and his technique has been modified by other surgeons including Mirza and Cobb. In 2006, Hoffmann and Siemionow described an endoscopic technique quite different from Tsai's original description. Instead of working from the "inside out," Hoffmann's technique is performed through an incision similar to that which would be used for an in situ release of the ulnar nerve. The main difference being that the nerve can be explored and decompressed 10 cm proximal and distal to the arcuate ligament as the surgeon looks down on the nerve and the surrounding tissues while viewing the anatomy through a camera attached to a soft tissue endoscope that is inserted in the wound. The arcuate (Osborne's) ligament is released under direct vision much like a standard in situ decompression. Using a blunt dissection instrument, a workspace is created proximally and distally to the cubital tunnel. Next an illuminated speculum is introduced, the nerve is directly visualized between 4 and 5 cm proximal and distal to the cubital tunnel, and potential compressive forearm fasciae or fibrous bands are released. Finally, a 15-cm, 30° soft tissue endoscope is introduced into the incision, and viewing the internal anatomy on a video monitor, the decompression continues using longer scissors. Any potential bleeding is controlled with a long bayonet bipolar cautery. The authors discuss indications, contraindications, and the surgical technique. Postoperative management and associated complications are also discussed. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Relationship between Smoking and Outcomes after Cubital Tunnel Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Nicholas E; Nosrati, Naveed N; Merrell, Greg; Hasting, Hill

    2018-04-01

    Several studies have drawn a connection between cigarette smoking and cubital tunnel syndrome. One comparison article demonstrated worse outcomes in smokers treated with transmuscular transposition of the ulnar nerve. However, very little is known about the effect that smoking might have on patients who undergo ulnar nerve decompression at the elbow. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of smoking preoperatively on outcomes in patients treated with ulnar nerve decompression. This study used a survey developed from the comparison article with additional questions based on outcome measures from supportive literature. Postoperative improvement was probed, including sensation, strength, and pain scores. A thorough smoking history was obtained. The study spanned a 10-year period. A total of 1,366 surveys were mailed to former patients, and 247 surveys with adequate information were returned. No significant difference was seen in demographics or comorbidities. Patients who smoked preoperatively were found to more likely relate symptoms of pain. Postoperatively, nonsmoking patients generally reported more favorable improvement, though these findings were not statistically significant. This study finds no statistically significant effect of smoking on outcomes after ulnar nerve decompression. Finally, among smokers, there were no differences in outcomes between simple decompression and transposition.

  5. Anterior subcutaneous transposition of the ulnar nerve improves neurological function in patients with cubital tunnel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although several surgical procedures exist for treating cubital tunnel syndrome, the best surgical option remains controversial. To evaluate the efficacy of anterior subcutaneous transposition of the ulnar nerve in patients with moderate to severe cubital tunnel syndrome and to analyze prognostic factors, we retrospectively reviewed 62 patients (65 elbows diagnosed with cubital tunnel syndrome who underwent anterior subcutaneous transposition. Preoperatively, the initial severity of the disease was evaluated using the McGowan scale as modified by Goldberg: 18 patients (28% had grade IIA neuropathy, 20 (31% had grade IIB, and 27 (42% had grade III. Postoperatively, according to the Wilson & Krout criteria, treatment outcomes were excellent in 38 patients (58%, good in 16 (25%, fair in 7 (11%, and poor in 4 (6%, with an excellent and good rate of 83%. A negative correlation was found between the preoperative McGowan grade and the postoperative Wilson & Krout score. The patients having fair and poor treatment outcomes had more advanced age, lower nerve conduction velocity, and lower action potential amplitude compared with those having excellent and good treatment outcomes. These results suggest that anterior subcutaneous transposition of the ulnar nerve is effective and safe for the treatment of moderate to severe cubital tunnel syndrome, and initial severity, advancing age, and electrophysiological parameters can affect treatment outcome.

  6. Current diagnostics and treatment of the cubital tunnel syndrome in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harder, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the vote of the Austrian Society for Surgery of the Hand (ÖGH an investigation to collect data on the current state of the treatment of cubital tunnel syndrome was initiated. Over one year a total of 875 patients with cubital tunnel syndrome were operated in Austria, this means an incidence of this nerve entrapment of 0.011%. Most of the operations were done by trauma surgeons (287; 33%. For diagnosis most of the centers rely on clinical symptoms, electroneurophysiology, and elbow X-ray. 40% of the institutions regard conservative therapy as useless and not indicated. If conservative treatment modalities are applied, physiotherapy (97%, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medication (77%, and glucocorticoid injections (30% are primarily used. In case of simple nerve entrapment most of the surgeons (72% prefer simple nerve decompression. If there is additional pathology subcutaneous cubital nerve transposition is recommended (62%. Endoscopic techniques are only use by 3% of the surgeons. In the postoperative care, physiotherapy is favored in 51%, whereas 24% do not judge any postoperative care as beneficial.The three most often encountered complications were incomplete remission, scar contracture and hypertrophy, and postoperative bleeding.

  7. Predictors of postoperative outcomes of cubital tunnel syndrome treatments using multiple logistic regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Taku; Iwamoto, Takuji; Shizu, Kanae; Suzuki, Katsuji; Yamada, Harumoto; Sato, Kazuki

    2017-05-01

    This retrospective study was designed to investigate prognostic factors for postoperative outcomes for cubital tunnel syndrome (CubTS) using multiple logistic regression analysis with a large number of patients. Eighty-three patients with CubTS who underwent surgeries were enrolled. The following potential prognostic factors for disease severity were selected according to previous reports: sex, age, type of surgery, disease duration, body mass index, cervical lesion, presence of diabetes mellitus, Workers' Compensation status, preoperative severity, and preoperative electrodiagnostic testing. Postoperative severity of disease was assessed 2 years after surgery by Messina's criteria which is an outcome measure specifically for CubTS. Bivariate analysis was performed to select candidate prognostic factors for multiple linear regression analyses. Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify the association between postoperative severity and selected prognostic factors. Both bivariate and multiple linear regression analysis revealed only preoperative severity as an independent risk factor for poor prognosis, while other factors did not show any significant association. Although conflicting results exist regarding prognosis of CubTS, this study supports evidence from previous studies and concludes early surgical intervention portends the most favorable prognosis. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Orthopaedic Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. MR neurography of ulnar nerve entrapment at the cubital tunnel: a diffusion tensor imaging study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breitenseher, Julia B.; Berzaczy, Dominik; Nemec, Stefan F.; Weber, Michael; Prayer, Daniela; Kasprian, Gregor; Kranz, Gottfried; Sycha, Thomas; Hold, Alina

    2015-01-01

    MR neurography, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and tractography at 3 Tesla were evaluated for the assessment of patients with ulnar neuropathy at the elbow (UNE). Axial T2-weighted and single-shot DTI sequences (16 gradient encoding directions) were acquired, covering the cubital tunnel of 46 patients with clinically and electrodiagnostically confirmed UNE and 20 healthy controls. Cross-sectional area (CSA) was measured at the retrocondylar sulcus and FA and ADC values on each section along the ulnar nerve. Three-dimensional nerve tractography and T2-weighted neurography results were independently assessed by two raters. Patients showed a significant reduction of ulnar nerve FA values at the retrocondylar sulcus (p = 0.002) and the deep flexor fascia (p = 0.005). At tractography, a complete or partial discontinuity of the ulnar nerve was found in 26/40 (65 %) of patients. Assessment of T2 neurography was most sensitive in detecting UNE (sensitivity, 91 %; specificity, 79 %), followed by tractography (88 %/69 %). CSA and FA measurements were less effective in detecting UNE. T2-weighted neurography remains the most sensitive MR technique in the imaging evaluation of clinically manifest UNE. DTI-based neurography at 3 Tesla supports the MR imaging assessment of UNE patients by adding quantitative and 3D imaging data. (orig.)

  9. MR neurography of ulnar nerve entrapment at the cubital tunnel: a diffusion tensor imaging study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breitenseher, Julia B.; Berzaczy, Dominik; Nemec, Stefan F.; Weber, Michael; Prayer, Daniela; Kasprian, Gregor [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Kranz, Gottfried; Sycha, Thomas [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Neurology, Vienna (Austria); Hold, Alina [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Vienna (Austria)

    2015-07-15

    MR neurography, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and tractography at 3 Tesla were evaluated for the assessment of patients with ulnar neuropathy at the elbow (UNE). Axial T2-weighted and single-shot DTI sequences (16 gradient encoding directions) were acquired, covering the cubital tunnel of 46 patients with clinically and electrodiagnostically confirmed UNE and 20 healthy controls. Cross-sectional area (CSA) was measured at the retrocondylar sulcus and FA and ADC values on each section along the ulnar nerve. Three-dimensional nerve tractography and T2-weighted neurography results were independently assessed by two raters. Patients showed a significant reduction of ulnar nerve FA values at the retrocondylar sulcus (p = 0.002) and the deep flexor fascia (p = 0.005). At tractography, a complete or partial discontinuity of the ulnar nerve was found in 26/40 (65 %) of patients. Assessment of T2 neurography was most sensitive in detecting UNE (sensitivity, 91 %; specificity, 79 %), followed by tractography (88 %/69 %). CSA and FA measurements were less effective in detecting UNE. T2-weighted neurography remains the most sensitive MR technique in the imaging evaluation of clinically manifest UNE. DTI-based neurography at 3 Tesla supports the MR imaging assessment of UNE patients by adding quantitative and 3D imaging data. (orig.)

  10. Prevalence of Mucopolysaccharidosis Types I, II, and VI in the Pediatric and Adult Population with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS). Retrospective and Prospective Analysis of Patients Treated for CTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørmark, Mette Borch; Kjaer, Nanna; Lund, Allan Meldgaard

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We wanted to investigate whether the prevalence of mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) I, II, and VI was higher than expected in a selected cohort of patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). CTS is a common finding in patients with MPS, and therefore we screened patients who had undergone ...

  11. Current evidence for effectiveness of interventions for cubital tunnel syndrome, radial tunnel syndrome, instability, or bursitis of the elbow: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinkel, Willem D; Schreuders, Ton A R; Koes, Bart W; Huisstede, Bionka M A

    2013-12-01

    To provide an evidence-based overview of the effectiveness of interventions for 4 nontraumatic painful disorders sharing the anatomic region of the elbow: cubital tunnel syndrome, radial tunnel syndrome, elbow instability, and olecranon bursitis. The Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, PEDro, and CINAHL were searched to identify relevant reviews and randomized clinical trials (RCTs). Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed the quality of the methodology. A best-evidence synthesis was used to summarize the results. One systematic review and 6 RCTs were included. For the surgical treatment of cubital tunnel syndrome (1 review, 3 RCTs), comparing simple decompression with anterior ulnar nerve transposition, no evidence was found in favor of either one of these. Limited evidence was found in favor of medial epicondylectomy versus anterior transposition and for early postoperative therapy versus immobilization. No evidence was found for the effect of local steroid injection in addition to splinting. No RCTs were found for radial tunnel syndrome. For olecranon bursitis (1 RCT), limited evidence for effectiveness was found for methylprednisolone acetate injection plus naproxen. Concerning elbow instability, including 2 RCTs, one showed that nonsurgical treatment resulted in similar results compared with surgery, whereas the other found limited evidence for the effectiveness in favor of early mobilization versus 3 weeks of immobilization after surgery. In this review no, or at best, limited evidence was found for the effectiveness of nonsurgical and surgical interventions to treat painful cubital tunnel syndrome, radial tunnel syndrome, elbow instability, or olecranon bursitis. Well-designed and well-conducted RCTs are clearly needed in this field.

  12. Cubital tunnel syndrome: comparative results of a multicenter study of 4 surgical techniques with a mean follow-up of 92 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacle, G; Marteau, E; Freslon, M; Desmoineaux, P; Saint-Cast, Y; Lancigu, R; Kerjean, Y; Vernet, E; Fournier, J; Corcia, P; Le Nen, D; Rabarin, F; Laulan, J

    2014-06-01

    Cubital tunnel syndrome is the second most frequent entrapment syndrome. Physiopathology is mixed, and treatment options are multiple, none having yet proved superior efficacy. The present retrospective multicenter study compared results and rates of complications and recurrence between the 4 main cubital tunnel syndrome treatments, to identify trends and optimize outcome. Patients presenting with primary clinical cubital tunnel syndrome diagnosed on electroneuromyography were included and operated on using 1 of the following 4 techniques: open or endoscopic in situ decompression, or subcutaneous or submuscular anterior transposition. Four specialized upper-limb surgery centers participated, each systematically performing 1 of the above procedures. Subjective and objective results and rates of complications and recurrence were compared at end of follow-up. Five hundred and two patients were included and 375 followed up for a mean 92 months (range, 9-144 months); 103 were lost to follow-up and 24 died. Whichever the procedure, more than 90% of patients were cured or showed improvement. There was a single case of scar pain at end of follow-up, managed by endoscopic decompression; there were no other long-term complications. None of the 4 techniques aggravated symptoms. There were 6 recurrences by end of follow-up: 1 associated with open in situ decompression and 5 with submuscular transposition. Surgery was effective in treating cubital tunnel syndrome. Submuscular anterior transposition was associated with recurrence. In contrast to literature reports, subcutaneous anterior transposition, which is a reliable and valid technique, was not associated with a higher complication rate than in situ decompression. Level IV. Multicenter retrospective. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Cubital Tunnel Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is ... behind the elbow. This can happen during sleep. Anatomy : ... thicker or there is an “extra” muscle over the nerve that can keep it from ...

  14. [Prevalence and Co-prevalence of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) and Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) in Hand Rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubrech, F; Gentzsch, T; Kotsougiani, D; Bickert, B; Kneser, U; Harhaus, L

    2016-06-01

    In the current literature, there are reports of associations between complex regional pain syndromes (CRPS) and carpal tunnel syndromes (CTS). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of both disease patterns in hand rehabilitation patients and to investigate whether there is a correlation between CTS and CRPS. Furthermore, differences in the healing process of patients with and without additional CTS, and the effectiveness of the rehabilitative therapy for both diseases, were investigated. The computerised medical records of 791 patients in the years 2009-2015 who had been in hand rehabilitation were retrospectively analysed. At the beginning and end of rehabilitation, measurements were made of pain by visual analogue scales (VAS, 0-10), grip strength and finger mobility (mean distance from finger pulp to palmar D2-D5). The clinical course was statistically analysed. CRPS diagnosis was confirmed clinically by a pain therapist, CTS diagnosis was confirmed by neurological and neurophysiological examination. Surgical therapy was performed despite CRPS diagnosis. The prevalence of CRPS was 161/1000 and of CTS 62/1000; the co-prevalence of the 2 diagnoses was 24/1000 (pCRPS group, after a mean of 8 (1-21) weeks of rehabilitative therapy, mean pain was reduced from 5 (1-10) to 3 (0-9), grip strength improved from 10 (0-39)kg to 18.5 (2.5-45.5)kg and finger mobility increased from 2.9 (0-7.6)cm to 1.8 (0-7.8)cm. In the CRPS+CTS group, after a mean of 6.8 (3-23) weeks of rehabilitative therapy, mean pain was reduced from 5 (0-8) to 2.6 (0-5), grip strength improved from 9.7 (2.4-25.5)kg to 17.4 (0.9-47.4)kg and finger mobility increased from 2.7 (0-5.3)cm to 1.7 (0-5.3)cm. Improvement over the period of rehabilitation was significant in both groups, though the period of therapy was significantly shorter in the CRPS+CTS group. CRPS and CTS are often associated. Rehabilitative therapy was effective for CRPS- and CRPS+CTS patients. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG

  15. Reliability and construct validity of the Spanish version of the 6-item CTS symptoms scale for outcomes assessment in carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales, Roberto S; Martin-Hidalgo, Yolanda; Reboso-Morales, Luis; Atroshi, Isam

    2016-03-03

    The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability and construct validity of the Spanish version of the 6-item carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) symptoms scale (CTS-6). In this cross-sectional study 40 patients diagnosed with CTS based on clinical and neurophysiologic criteria, completed the standard Spanish versions of the CTS-6 and the disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (QuickDASH) scales on two occasions with a 1-week interval. Internal-consistency reliability was assessed with the Cronbach alpha coefficient and test-retest reliability with the intraclass correlation coefficient, two way random effect model and absolute agreement definition (ICC2,1). Cross-sectional precision was analyzed with the Standard Error of the Measurement (SEM). Longitudinal precision for test-retest reliability coefficient was assessed with the Standard Error of the Measurement difference (SEMdiff) and the Minimal Detectable Change at 95 % confidence level (MDC95). For assessing construct validity it was hypothesized that the CTS-6 would have a strong positive correlation with the QuickDASH, analyzed with the Pearson correlation coefficient (r). The standard Spanish version of the CTS-6 presented a Cronbach alpha of 0.81 with a SEM of 0.3. Test-retest reliability showed an ICC of 0.85 with a SRMdiff of 0.36 and a MDC95 of 0.7. The correlation between CTS-6 and the QuickDASH was concordant with the a priori formulated construct hypothesis (r 0.69) CONCLUSIONS: The standard Spanish version of the 6-item CTS symptoms scale showed good internal consistency, test-retest reliability and construct validity for outcomes assessment in CTS. The CTS-6 will be useful to clinicians and researchers in Spanish speaking parts of the world. The use of standardized outcome measures across countries also will facilitate comparison of research results in carpal tunnel syndrome.

  16. Zespół rowka nerwu łokciowego – ocena efektów leczenia operacyjnego = Cubital tunnel syndrome - evaluation of the effects of surgical treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Woźniak

    2016-09-01

    Abstract   Introduction Cubital tunnel syndrome is a syndrome caused by compression of the ulnar nerve. The disease is most often the consequence of stenosis of the elbow (anatomic structure created by the medial epicondyle of the humerus, elbow-ligament brachiocephalic and aponeurosis situated between the heads of the flexor carpi ulnaris. The causes of stenosis are injuries, inflammation or degenerative arthritis. Aim of study The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of surgical treatment of patients with cubital tunnel syndrome directly after surgery and during the 14 days after surgery. Materials and methods From January 2012 to June 2016 in the Department of Neurosurgery, Neurotraumatology and Pediatric Neurosurgery, Dr Antoni Jurasz University Hospital No.1 in Bydgoszcz 20 patients diagnosed with unilateral cubital tunel syndrome with varying degrees of severity were qualified to the surgery. Study the effectiveness of surgical method included an evaluation of objective and subjective clinical symptoms in the period after surgery – on 1 and 14 day. Results The analysis of the treatment results showed that the method used the majority of patients following a decrease or disappearance of pain and disorders vegetative in the area supplied by the ulnar nerve and improve the function of diseased hand. Conclusions The applied surgical treatment is an effective procedure for patients who have exhausted the possibility of pharmacological treatment and physiotherapy. The rating is based on the effects of the therapy needs further study on a larger number of patients.   Key words: cubital tunnel syndrome, ulnar nerve, surgical treatment

  17. Tratamento da síndrome do túnel ulnar pela técnica da epicondilectomia parcial medial do cotovelo Treatment of cubital tunnel syndrome using the technique of medial partial epicondylectomy of the elbow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Eduardo de Melo Viveiros

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisamos retrospectivamente os resultados de 21 casos de síndrome cubital tratados cirurgicamente com a técnica da epicondilectomia parcial medial. MÉTODOS: No período de fevereiro de 2001 a outubro de 2006, 21 pacientes com síndrome do canal cubital foram tratados pela técnica da epicondilectomia parcial medial do cotovelo associada à neurólise do nervo ulnar. Destes, 12 (57,1% eram do sexo masculino. O lado direito foi o acometido em 15 (71,4% pacientes. A média da idade dos pacientes foi de 51,6 anos. Pela graduação de McGowan, seis (28,6% pacientes encontravam-se no grau I, 11 (52,3%, no grau II e quatro (19,1%, no grau III do período pré-operatório. RESULTADOS: O tempo médio de acompanhamento pós-operatório foi de 25,7 meses. No pós-operatório, os pacientes foram avaliados conforme a escala de pontos de Bishop, sendo que nove (42,8% apresentavam resultados excelentes, sete (33,3%, bons, três (14,2%, regulares e dois (9,5%, ruins. Nesta série, não se encontraram como complicações a instabilidade em valgo residual, a lesão permanente do nervo ulnar, a recidiva da compressão ou a subluxação do nervo ulnar. As complicações encontradas foram perda do arco de movimento em um (4,7% caso, infecção superficial em um (4,7% e um (4,7% com dor residual. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados apresentados permitem concluir que a epicondilectomia parcial medial do cotovelo associada à neurólise do nervo ulnar é eficiente e segura para o tratamento da síndrome do canal cubital.OBJECTIVE: The authors made a retrospective analysis of the results of 21 cases of cubital syndrome that were surgically treated with the partial medial epicondylectomy. METHODS: From February 2001 to October 2006, 21 patients with cubital tunnel syndrome were treated with the technique of elbow partial medial epicondylectomy associated to neurolysis of the ulnar nerve. Of these patients, 12 (57.1% were male. The right side was involved in 15 (71

  18. The Strain Index (SI) and Threshold Limit Value (TLV) for Hand Activity Level (HAL): risk of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in a prospective cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, A; Kapellusch, J; Hegmann, K; Wertsch, J; Merryweather, A; Deckow-Schaefer, G; Malloy, E J

    2012-01-01

    A cohort of 536 workers was enrolled from 10 diverse manufacturing facilities and was followed monthly for six years. Job physical exposures were individually measured. Worker demographics, medical history, psychosocial factors, current musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and nerve conduction studies (NCS) were obtained. Point and lifetime prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) at baseline (symptoms + abnormal NCS) were 10.3% and 19.8%. During follow-up, there were 35 new CTS cases (left, right or both hands). Factors predicting development of CTS included: job physical exposure (American conference of governmental industrial hygienists Threshold Limit Value (ACGIH TLV) for Hand Activity Level (HAL) and the Strain Index (SI)), age, BMI, other MSDs, inflammatory arthritis, gardening outside of work and feelings of depression. In the adjusted models, the TLV for HAL and the SI were both significant per unit increase in exposure with hazard ratios (HR) increasing up to a maximum of 5.4 (p = 0.05) and 5.3 (p = 0.03), respectively; however, similar to other reports, both suggested lower risk at higher exposures. Data suggest that the TLV for HAL and the SI are useful metrics for estimating exposure to biomechanical stressors. This study was conducted to determine how well the TLV for HAL and the SI predict risk of CTS using a prospective cohort design with survival analysis. Both the TLV for HAL and the SI were found to predict risk of CTS when adjusted for relevant covariates.

  19. Artificial life models in lung CTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorin, Cheran

    2006-01-01

    A new method for the analysis of 3D medical images is introduced. The algorithm is based on Biological Models of ants known as Artificial Life models. Test images (lung Computed Tomographies) undergo a 3D region growing procedure for the identification of the ribs cage. Active Contour Models (snakes) are used in order to build a confined area where ants are deployed. The ant-based approach, in which steps are allowed in any direction with different probabilities, allows a kind of tunneling effect for the successful identification of small 3D structures that are not clearly connected to the rest of the tree. The best approach is based on a gradient rule for the release of pheromone. A possible application, as part of a Computer Assisted Detection system for the identification of lung nodules, is the removal of the bronchial and vascular tree from lung CTs thus reducing the number of false positives a Nodule Hunter might report. (Full Text)

  20. Additional Muscle Slip of Bicipital Aponeurosis and its Anomalous Relationship with the Median Cubital Vein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandini Bhat

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The cubital region of the arm is a common site for recording blood pressure, taking blood for analysis and administering intravenous therapy and blood transfusions. During the routine dissection of a 70-year-old male cadaver at the Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, Karnataka, India, in 2015, it was observed that the aponeurotic insertion of the biceps brachii muscle divided into two slips. The medial slip fused normally with the deep fascia of the forearm, while flexor carpi radialis muscle fibres originated from the lateral slip. There was also a single vein in the forearm, the cephalic vein, which bifurcated to form the median cubital vein and the cephalic vein proper. The median cubital vein, further reinforced by the radial vein, passed deep to the two slips of the bicipital aponeurosis and then continued as the basilic vein. During venepuncture, medical practitioners should be aware of potential cubital fossa variations which could lead to nerve entrapment syndromes.

  1. Decreased Sudomotor Function is Involved in the Formation of Atopic Eczema in the Cubital Fossa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aya Takahashi

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: These results suggest that decreased sweating is a major source of water in the stratum corneum, and decreased sudomotor function may be involved in both the cause and aggravation of representative atopic eczema in the cubital fossa.

  2. Radiographic anatomy and technique for arthrography of the cubital joint in clinically normal dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowry, J.E.; Carpenter, L.G.; Park, R.D.; Steyn, P.F.; Schwarz, P.D.

    1993-01-01

    A technique for arthrography of the cubital joint in clinically normal large-breed dogs was developed with the objective of improving visualization of the articular margin of the medial coronoid process. A lateral approach to the cubital joint for injection of contrast medium was selected. Arthrography of 24 cubital joints was performed by using 14 dogs. Twelve combinations of iodinated contrast medium, consisting of various concentrations (3) and volumes (4), were used. Two sets of arthrograms for each of the 12 combinations of contrast medium were obtained. Five radiographic views were used for each set. All arthrograms were examined by 3 evaluators, and each articular surface received a numerical rating for how well it could be seen in each view. Results of the evaluation indicated that low volumes of contrast medium were preferable to high volumes, with 2 ml providing the best visualization. Concentration of iodine seemed less important than did volume. The numerical ratings also indicated that the articular margin of the coronoid process was clearly observed a maximum of only 24% of the time on a slightly supinated mediolateral projection. The articular margins of the head of the radius, trochlea humeri, and trochlear notch were well visualized > 90% of the time. Arthrography of the cubital joint was technically easy to perform, and complications were not encountered, but arthrographic anatomy of the cubital joint is complex. Potential uses for arthrography of the cubital joint include diagnosis of osteochondrosis, intraarticular fragments, and joint capsule ruptures

  3. Colgajo de perforantes de la arteria colateral cubital inferior para defectos por quemadura eléctrica en fosa cubital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. González-Alaña

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Las quemaduras eléctricas producen lesiones profundas, especialmente las debidas a la entrada y salida de la corriente y al arco voltaico, que pueden dejar expuestas estructuras nobles y afectar áreas de flexo-extensión, como la fosa antecubital. Los defectos resultantes pueden cubrirse mediante colgajos libres o pediculados de brazo y antebrazo. Entre las distintas opciones quirúrgicas, el colgajo medial del brazo evita la interrupción de los ejes vasculares mayores y la secuela en la zona donante es discreta. Sin embargo, su uso está poco extendido por considerarse un colgajo de difícil disección debido a la variabilidad anatómica de las arterias colaterales cubitales superior e inferior que lo irrigan. Presentamos la cobertura para un defecto secundario a quemadura eléctrica en la fosa antecubital mediante un colgajo medial del brazo basado en las ramas perforantes de la arteria colateral cubital inferior. Aunque confirmamos en este caso la variabilidad vascular, la disección resultó sencilla y el resultado estético y funcional fue excelente.

  4. The US, CT and MR findings of cubital bursitis: a report of five cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liessi, G.; Cesari, S.; Spaliviero, B.; Dell'Antonio, C.; Avventi, P.

    1996-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the appearance of ''cubital bursitis'' on ultrasonography and CT and MR imaging. ''Cubital bursitis'' is a rare pathological condition involving a large swelling of the bicipito-radial or interosseous bursae located at the insertion of the distal biceps tendon on the radial tuberosity. Design and patients. We report on five patients with ''cubital bursitis'' resulting from their work or sporting activities. All patients underwent an ultrasound and MR examination. CT scans were performed on two patients before and after contrast enhancement. Results. Ultrasound studies showed a fusiform anechoic or hypoechoic lesion. CT images showed the lesions but there were some difficulties in determining the exact extent of the bursae. MR imaging showed the enlarged bursae and their fluid content. Four patients each underwent a surgical procedure. Conclusion. Ultrasound and CT were effective in the evaluation of ''cubital bursitis'', but with some diagnostic difficulties. MR imaging is probably the method of choice for determining both the development of the bursae and their fluid content. (orig.)

  5. The US, CT and MR findings of cubital bursitis: a report of five cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liessi, G. [Servizio di Radiologia, Ospedale, I-31033 Castelfranco V.to, Ulss 8 (Tuvalu) (Italy); Cesari, S. [Servizio di Radiologia, Ospedale, I-31033 Castelfranco V.to, Ulss 8 (Tuvalu) (Italy); Spaliviero, B. [Servizio di Radiologia, Ospedale, I-31033 Castelfranco V.to, Ulss 8 (Tuvalu) (Italy); Dell`Antonio, C. [Servizio di Radiologia, Ospedale, I-31033 Castelfranco V.to, Ulss 8 (Tuvalu) (Italy); Avventi, P. [Servizio di Radiologia, Ospedale, I-31033 Castelfranco V.to, Ulss 8 (Tuvalu) (Italy)

    1996-07-01

    Objective. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the appearance of ``cubital bursitis`` on ultrasonography and CT and MR imaging. ``Cubital bursitis`` is a rare pathological condition involving a large swelling of the bicipito-radial or interosseous bursae located at the insertion of the distal biceps tendon on the radial tuberosity. Design and patients. We report on five patients with ``cubital bursitis`` resulting from their work or sporting activities. All patients underwent an ultrasound and MR examination. CT scans were performed on two patients before and after contrast enhancement. Results. Ultrasound studies showed a fusiform anechoic or hypoechoic lesion. CT images showed the lesions but there were some difficulties in determining the exact extent of the bursae. MR imaging showed the enlarged bursae and their fluid content. Four patients each underwent a surgical procedure. Conclusion. Ultrasound and CT were effective in the evaluation of ``cubital bursitis``, but with some diagnostic difficulties. MR imaging is probably the method of choice for determining both the development of the bursae and their fluid content. (orig.)

  6. Occurrence of myofascial pain in patients with possible carpal tunnel syndrome - a single-blinded study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qerama, Erisela; Kasch, Helge; Fuglsang-Frederiksen, Anders

    2009-01-01

    There exits some similarity between symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and myofascial pain related to trigger points (TPs) in the infraspinatus muscle.......There exits some similarity between symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and myofascial pain related to trigger points (TPs) in the infraspinatus muscle....

  7. The analog CTS communication interface in nuclear logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Min

    2000-01-01

    The author introduced a micro-controller-based CTS communication interface in nuclear logging, which provided convenience for the overhaul and regulation of the logging tool in CTS communication system. The use of micro-controller simplified the hardware structure of the interface, made the soft structure more rational and the whole system more flexible to control

  8. Trophic ulcers in the carpal tunnel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abelardo Q.-C. Araújo

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available A patient with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS and trophic ulcers is described. Despite the healing of the ulcers after surgery for CTS, the severe sensory deficit and the electrophysiological tests have not shown any significant improvement. We think these findings argue against the hypothesis of the sensory deficit being responsible for the trophic ulcers. We favor a major role for the sympathetic disturbances as the main cause for those lesions.

  9. ORIENTACIONES CURRICULARES CON EL ENFOQUE CTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Corchuelo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Considerando que el propósito de la educación con un enfoque CTS propende por abordar problemas contextualizados socialmente, se busca construir una propuesta desde la práctica, con el fi n de fortalecer la formación para la participación ciudadana. Encontramos que abordar el tratamiento de las relaciones entre deporte, nutrición humana y motricidad convierte al cuerpo humano en un objeto de estudio vigente. En la ciudad de Popayán (Cauca, Colombia se vive una de las más altas tasas de bulimia y anorexia en adolescentes del país, al igual que de consumo de drogas ilícitas. Además, el bajo rendimiento de los deportistas caucanos en los últimos Juegos Nacionales, los casos de dopaje en atletas olímpicos, entre otros, abre interrogantes sobre la formación integral de nuestros estudiantes. Con el fi n de acercar la escuela a estas problemáticas locales y nacionales, se asume un trabajo interdisciplinario basado en la resolución de problemas socialmente relevantes. En esta oportunidad compartiremos los resultados del camino recorrido en torno a la pregunta: “El deporte: ¿emancipación o alienación?”.

  10. Topographical anatomy of superficial veins, cutaneous nerves, and arteries at venipuncture sites in the cubital fossa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikuni, Yuko; Chiba, Shoji; Tonosaki, Yoshikazu

    2013-01-01

    We investigated correlations among the superficial veins, cutaneous nerves, arteries, and venous valves in 128 cadaveric arms in order to choose safe venipuncture sites in the cubital fossa. The running patterns of the superficial veins were classified into four types (I-IV) and two subtypes (a and b). In types I and II, the median cubital vein (MCV) was connected obliquely between the cephalic and basilic veins in an N-shape, while the median antebrachial vein (MAV) opened into the MCV in type I and into the basilic vein in type II. In type III, the MCV did not exist. In type IV, additional superficial veins above the cephalic and basilic veins were developed around the cubital fossa. In types Ib-IVb, the accessory cephalic vein was developed under the same conditions as seen in types Ia-IVa, respectively. The lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm descended deeply along the cephalic vein in 124 cases (97 %), while the medial cutaneous nerve of the forearm descended superficially along the basilic vein in 94 (73 %). A superficial brachial artery was found in 27 cases (21 %) and passed deeply under the ulnar side of the MCV. A median superficial antebrachial artery was found in 1 case (1 %), which passed deeply under the ulnar side of the MCV and ran along the MAV. Venous valves were found at 239 points in 28 cases with superficial veins, with a single valve seen at 79 points (33 %) and double valves at 160 points (67 %). At the time of intravenous injection, caution is needed regarding the locations of cutaneous nerves, brachial and superficial brachial arteries, and venous valves. The area ranging from the middle segment of the MCV to the confluence between the MCV and cephalic vein appears to be a relatively safe venipuncture site.

  11. MTB-USDH Compensation Tracking System (MTB-CTS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — MTB-USDH Compensation Tracking System: is the USDH Compensation Tracking System (MTB-CTS) to assist managers in monitoring their payroll costs for U.S. direct hires....

  12. Construction of image database for newspapaer articles using CTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamio, Tatsuo

    Nihon Keizai Shimbun, Inc. developed a system of making articles' image database automatically by use of CTS (Computer Typesetting System). Besides the articles and the headlines inputted in CTS, it reproduces the image of elements of such as photography and graphs by article in accordance with information of position on the paper. So to speak, computer itself clips the articles out of the newspaper. Image database is accumulated in magnetic file and optical file and is output to the facsimile of users. With diffusion of CTS, newspaper companies which start to have structure of articles database are increased rapidly, the said system is the first attempt to make database automatically. This paper describes the device of CTS which supports this system and outline.

  13. The diagnostic efficacy of clinical findings and electrophysiological studies in carpal tunnel syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Buyukkoyuncu Pekel, Nilufer; Nar Senol, Pelin; Yildiz, Demet; Kilic, Ahmet Kasim; Kamaci Sener, Deniz; Seferoglu, Meral; Gunes, Aygul

    2017-01-01

    Objective. The aim of the study was to examine the relation between clinical findings, neurological examination and electrophysiological studies in diagnosing carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and share our institutional experience in patients with CTS. Methods. Patients presenting with complaints of pain, paresthesia, and weakness in hands who diagnosed CTS between 2014 and 2015 were examined retrospectively. Demographic characteristics, clinical and neurological examination findings and electrod...

  14. Electrophysiologic Findings and Pain in Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hava Dönmez Keklikoğlu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS is defined as median nerve entrapment within the carpal tunnel at the wrist. Pain and paresthesia are the most common presenting symptoms of the patients. In this study, our aim was to identify the association between intensity of presenting symptoms and electrophysiologic findings in patients referred to the electrophysiology laboratory with prediagnosis of CTS. METHODS: Sixty-two consecutive patients who were referred to the electrophysiology laboratory with the diagnosis of CTS were enrolled in the study. The intensity of pain was determined by visual analog scale, the findings of Tinel-Phalen tests were assessed, and clinico-demographic findings were recorded. Nerve conduction studies were performed bilaterally in median and ulnar nerves. The severity of CTS was determined with electrophysiologic evaluation, and the association between electrophysiologic findings and symptoms were analyzed statistically. RESULTS: Sixty-two (57 female, 5 male patients were examined in the study. CTS was bilateral in 53 patients and unilateral in 9 patients (total 115 hands. Mean pain score was 5.78 ± 3.50. In 28 hands with a clinical diagnosis of CTS, no electrophysiologic CTS findings were found, whereas in 32 hands mild, in 41 hands moderate and in 14 hands severe findings were obtained. CONCLUSION: According to our study, there was no statistically significant association between severity of symptoms and severity of electrophysiologic findings in CTS

  15. Carpal tunnel sonography by the rheumatologist versus nerve conduction study by the neurologist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swen, WAA; Jacobs, JWG; Bussemaker, FEAM; de Waard, J; Bijlsma, JWJ

    Objective. To determine the value of sonogaphy (SG) performed by the rheumatologist to diagnose carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Methods. Sixty-three patients with clinical signs of CTS according to the neurologist. based on patient history and clinical examination, were studied. In the 6 weeks prior

  16. Carpal tunnel syndrome. Risk factors and preventive strategies for the dental hygienist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerwatowski, L J; McFall, D B; Stach, D J

    1992-02-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is well recognized as an occupational risk for dental hygienists. The contributing risk factors fall primarily into two categories: medical and occupational. The purposes of this paper are to examine the factors that predispose one to CTS in order to increase awareness among dental hygienists, and to offer preventive strategies that can be incorporated into daily practice.

  17. Dextrose-induced subsynovial connective tissue fibrosis in the rabbit carpal tunnel: A potential model to study carpal tunnel syndrome?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oh, S.; Ettema, A.M.; Zhao, C.; Zobitz, M.E.; Wold, L.E.; An, K.N.; Amadio, P.C.

    2008-01-01

    In this pilot study, hypertonic dextrose solution was used to induce fibrosis of the subsynovial connective tissue (SSCT) and create an animal model of potential use in the study of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). The SSCT of the carpal tunnel in 15 New Zealand white rabbits were injected with 0.05 ml

  18. Predictive factors associated with severity of carpal tunnel syndrome in multiethnic Asian patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulaiman, W.A.W.; Sumon, S.H.; Kee, H.F.; Lim, S.M.S.; Said, S.M.

    2017-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the commonest entrapment neuropathy referred for electro diagnostic evaluation. The objective of this study is to evaluate the risk factors associated with CTS and their relationship with the severity in nerve conduction abnormality. Methodology: This study was based on the retrospective data analysis of patients who were electro-physiologically diagnosed as CTS in a tertiary neurophysiology service. Patients were divided into 2 groups; non-severe and severe CTS. Factors, which include age, gender, ethnicity, laterality of CTS, symptoms and diabetes mellitus were analyzed separately and compared with severity of CTS based on NCS. Results: We analyzed 144 patients with age ranging from 18 to 76 years. Patients with bilateral CTS were 4 times more likely at risk to developed severe CTS while diabetes mellitus patients are 2.5 times more likely. There was no significant association found between age, gender, ethnicity and symptomatic patients with the CTS severity. Conclusion: This study shows that patients with bilateral CTS and diabetes mellitus are at higher risk in developing severe CTS. Therefore, early screening with NCS is recommended in these groups of patients. (author)

  19. Psychosocial Risk Factors and the Association With Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Michael; Thacker, Michael; Sandford, Fiona

    2017-10-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common entrapment neuropathy of the upper limb. Research has shown that associative factors for CTS include occupational and biomechanical elements, gender, and age. To date, no systematic review has been undertaken to determine specifically whether there are any psychosocial risk factors in developing CTS. The objective is to determine whether psychosocial factors are associated with and/or predict the development of CTS. A systematic review was conducted including searches of PubMed (MEDLINE), EMBASE, and CINAHL from inception to May 30, 2017. Quantitative studies must have investigated a minimum of 1 or more psychosocial factors-cognitive, affective, behavioral, vocational, or interpersonal processes (eg, social support)-and include a point or risk estimate. One reviewer conducted the search and 2 reviewers independently assessed eligibility and completed methodological quality assessment using a modified Downs and Black checklist. Data were analyzed narratively. Six moderate- to high-quality studies were included in the final review. Five studies reported a positive association between psychosocial factors and CTS, where psychosocial factors were more in those who reported CTS. One study reported no positive or negative association with CTS development. Four studies reported a negative association between psychosocial factors and CTS, where psychosocial factors were less in those who reported CTS. There is limited evidence for a positive association between psychosocial factors and CTS. However, this was not a consistent finding across all included studies. Further research is indicated in standardizing CTS diagnostic criteria and investigating other working environments.

  20. Evaluation of the scratch collapse test for the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makanji, H. S.; Becker, S. J. E.; Mudgal, C. S.; Jupiter, J. B.; Ring, D.

    2014-01-01

    This prospective study measured and compared the diagnostic performance characteristics of various clinical signs and physical examination manoeuvres for carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), including the scratch collapse test. Eighty-eight adult patients that were prescribed electrophysiological testing

  1. Incidence of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome in the US Military Population

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, Jennifer Moriatis; Mountcastle, Sally; Owens, Brett D.

    2009-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a common disease. Its epidemiology has been evaluated previously, mostly in regional populations or in working groups, with an incidence between 1.5 and 3.5 per 1,000 person-years. We studied this diagnosis in the US military population, with the hypothesis that this young population would have a lower incidence of CTS than previously reported in general populations. The Defense Medical Epidemiology Database notes all medical encounters for all US military pers...

  2. Incidence of carpal tunnel syndrome in the US military population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Jennifer Moriatis; Mountcastle, Sally; Owens, Brett D

    2009-09-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a common disease. Its epidemiology has been evaluated previously, mostly in regional populations or in working groups, with an incidence between 1.5 and 3.5 per 1,000 person-years. We studied this diagnosis in the US military population, with the hypothesis that this young population would have a lower incidence of CTS than previously reported in general populations. The Defense Medical Epidemiology Database notes all medical encounters for all US military personnel and maintains the number of all personnel on active duty each year. We queried the database using the International Classification of Diseases, ninth revision, code 354.0 (CTS) and analyzed the personnel presenting for initial visits for the years 1998-2006. Multivariate Poisson analysis was performed, controlling for rank, gender, age, and race. The raw incidence of CTS in the US military was 3.98 per 1,000 person-years, in a population of 12,298,088 person-years. Females had a significantly higher incidence of CTS than males, with an adjusted incidence rate ratio of 3.29. CTS incidence increased by age, with the age group > or = 40 years having a significantly higher incidence. Additionally, military rank was found to be an independent risk factor for CTS, with rates higher in senior officer and enlisted groups. This suggests that occupational requirements have an effect on CTS within the military. We showed a comparable incidence of CTS between the US military and general population, with a significantly higher female cohort with a diagnosis of CTS. Increased age and advanced rank were risk factors for CTS.

  3. Caso clínico: tratamiento quirúrgico de la neuropatía cubital por pseudoartrosis del gancho del hueso ganchoso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. León Garrigosa

    2017-03-01

    Conclusiones: El dolor en el margen cubital de la mano, con tenosinovitis flexora de los tendones del cuarto y quinto dedos y/o manifestaciones de neuropatía cubital distal, cuando se produce en pacientes que practican deporte de empuñadura, obliga a realizar tomografía axial computerizada, y, si hay pseudoartrosis del gancho del hueso ganchoso, intentar su osteosíntesis.

  4. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome in Aberrant Muscle Syndrome: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Jessica; Coombs, Christopher

    2018-06-01

    Aberrant Muscle Syndrome (AMS) is a rare congenital hand difference that is characterised by unilateral non-progressive muscular hyperplasia. The aetiology of aberrant muscle syndrome is not known, but a recently published case has shown a somatic PIK3CA activating mutation in a patient with AMS. Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in children is rare. The most common causes are the mucopolysaccaridoses but space-occupying lesions have also been reported to cause CTS in children. We report the first case of CTS in a child with AMS successfully treated with open carpal tunnel release and excision of aberrant muscles.

  5. [Carpal tunnel syndrome and steel industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caciari, T; Rosati, M V; Casale, T; Sancini, A; Giubilati, R; De Sio, S; Suppi, A; Tomei, G; Santoro, L; Scala, B; Nardone, N; Tomei, F

    2013-01-01

    The carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a common working pathology. The CTS diagnosis is not so easy because neurophysiological investigations are necessary. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the working risks and the presence of CTS signs using a focused anamnestic and clinical procedure. We evaluated the working risks of CTS in a population of 65 male workers of a steel industry (average age 25.1 and seniority 2.82), performing 5 different tasks. The Borg Scale was used to evaluate the subjective muscle effort. Diurnal paresthesia (V1FG), nocturnal paresthesia (V1FN), hypersensitivity (V1IS), hypostenia (V1IT) were considered. We identified three main working risks repetitiveness of single actions, static and prolonged posture of the truck, muscle effort. 21.5% of the workers showed at least one of the three symptoms;13.8% showed one or more symptoms; the clinical objectivity was observed in 18.5%. A relation between V1FG, V1FN, clinical objective linked to the workers age of the task 1 (p =0.035) is showed. To prevent CTS, the use of the Borg Scale associated with identification of the risks and with the anamenstic-clinical investigation is useful to discriminate people at risk of CTS.

  6. Increased pain sensitivity is not associated with electrodiagnostic findings in women with carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Llave-Rincón, Ana Isabel; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Laguarta-Val, Sofia; Alonso-Blanco, Cristina; Martínez-Perez, Almudena; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Pareja, Juan A

    2011-01-01

    To determine the differences in widespread pressure pain and thermal hypersensitivity in women with minimal, moderate, and severe carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and healthy controls. A total of 72 women with CTS (19 with minimal, 18 with moderate, and 35 with severe) and 19 healthy age-matched women participated. Pressure pain thresholds were bilaterally assessed over the median, ulnar, and radial nerves, the C5 to C6 zygapophyseal joint, the carpal tunnel, and the tibialis anterior muscle. In addition, warm and cold detection thresholds and heat and cold pain thresholds were bilaterally assessed over the carpal tunnel and the thenar eminence. All outcome parameters were assessed by an assessor blinded to the participant's condition. No significant differences in pain parameters among patients with minimal, moderate, and severe CTS were found. The results showed that PPT were significantly decreased bilaterally over the median, ulnar, and radial nerve trunks, the carpal tunnel, C5 to C6 zygapophyseal joint, and the tibialis anterior muscle in patients with minimal, moderate, or severe CTS as compared with healthy controls (all, P<0.001). In addition, patients with CTS also showed lower heat pain threshold and reduced cold pain threshold compared with controls (P<0.001). No significant sensory differences between minimal, moderate, or severe CTS were found. The similar widespread pressure and thermal hypersensitivity in patients with minimal, moderate, or severe CTS and pain intensity suggests that increased pain sensitivity is not related to electrodiagnostic findings.

  7. Prevalence, incidence and risk factors of carpal tunnel syndrome in a large footwear factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roquelaure, Y; Mariel, J; Dano, C; Fanello, S; Penneau-Fontbonne, D

    2001-01-01

    The study was conducted to assess the prevalence and incidence of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in a large modern footwear factory and to identify factors predictive of CTS. To this end, 199 workers were examined in 1996, and 162 of them were re-examined in 1997. Ergonomic and psychosocial risk factors of CTS were assessed by workpost analysis and self-administered questionnaire. The prevalence of CTS at baseline in 1996 and in 1997 was 16.6% (95%CI: 11.4-21.7) and 11.7% (95%CI: 6.7-16.8), respectively. The incidence rate of CTS in 1997 was 11.7% (95%CI: 6.7-7.8). No specific type of job performance was associated with CTS. Obesity (OR = 4.4; 95%CI: 1.1-17.1) and psychological distress at baseline (OR = 4.3; 95%CI: 1.0-18.6) were strongly predictive of CTS. Rapid trigger movements of the fingers were also predictive of CTS (OR = 3.8; 95%CI: 1.0-17.2). A strict control of thework by superiors was negatively associatedwith CTS (OR = 0.5; 95%CI: 0.2-1.3). The prevalence and incidence of CTS in this workforce were largely higher than in the general population and numerous industries. The study highlights the role of psychological distress in workers exposed to a high level of physical exposure and psychological demand.

  8. Electrodiagnostic Testing and Treatment for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li Pi Shan, Rodney; Nicolle, Michael; Chan, Ming; Ashworth, Nigel; White, Chris; Winston, Paul; Dukelow, Sean

    2016-01-01

    1) Assess which electrodiagnostic studies Canadian clinicians use to aid in the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). 2) Assess whether Canadian clinicians follow the American Association of Neuromuscular & Electrodiagnostic Medicine/American Academy of Neurology/American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Practice Parameter for Electrodiagnostic Studies in CTS. 3) Assess how Canadian clinicians manage CTS once a diagnosis has been established. In this prospective observational study, an electronic survey was sent to all members of the Canadian Neuromuscular Group (CNMG) and the Canadian Association of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (CAPM&R) Neuromuscular Special Interest Group. Questions addressed which electrodiagnostic tests were being routinely used for the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome. Management recommendations for CTS was also explored. Of the 70 individuals who completed the survey, fourteen different nerve conduction study techniques were reported. Overall, 36/70 (51%) of participants followed the AANEM/AAN/AAPM&R Practice Parameter. The standard followed by the fewest of our respondents with 64% compliance (45/70) was the use of a standard distance of 13 to 14 cm with respect to the median sensory nerve conduction study. Regarding management, 99% would recommend splinting in the case of mild CTS. In moderate CTS, splinting was recommended by 91% of clinicians and 68% would also consider referral for surgery. In severe CTS, most recommended surgery (93%). There is considerable variability in terms of which electrodiagnostic tests Canadian clinicians perform for CTS. Canadian clinicians are encouraged to adhere to the AANEM/AAN/AAPM&R Practice Parameter for Electrodiagnostic Studies in CTS.

  9. Acute carpal tunnel syndrome in a patient with haemophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayne, Alistair Ivan William; Howard, Anthony; Kent, Matthew; Banks, Joanne

    2012-07-03

    Acute carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a rare surgical condition usually resulting from wrist trauma. We present the case of a young haemophilic man who developed acute CTS following trivial injury. The patient was initially managed conservatively but symptom progression resulted in carpal tunnel decompression. A literature review and management approach are presented. This is an important complication of haemophilia to be aware of as prompt conservative management can obviate the need for surgery. This case is useful in (a) highlighting the importance of considering a patient's medical history when formulating differential diagnoses and (b) outlining a management approach to this condition.

  10. Incidence rates of in-hospital carpal tunnel syndrome in the general population and possible associations with marital status

    OpenAIRE

    Melani Carla; Fateh-Moghadam Pirous; dell'Omo Marco; de Giacomi Giovanna; Bena Antonella; Cooke Robin MT; Curti Stefania; Baldasseroni Alberto; Mattioli Stefano; Biocca Marco; Buiatti Eva; Campo Giuseppe; Zanardi Francesca; Violante Francesco S

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a socially relevant condition associated with biomechanical risk factors. We evaluated age-sex-specific incidence rates of in-hospital cases of CTS in central/northern Italy and explored relations with marital status. Methods Seven regions were considered (overall population, 14.9 million) over 3–6-year periods between 1997 and 2002 (when out-of-hospital CTS surgery was extremely rare). Incidence rates of in-hospital cases of CTS were estima...

  11. Efficacy of high frequency ultrasound in postoperative evaluation of carpal tunnel syndrome treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Kapuścińska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS is the most common entrapment neuropathy and a frequent cause of sick leave because of work-related hand overload. The main treatment is operation. Aim: The aim of the study is to assess the usefulness of high frequency ultrasound in the postoperative evaluation of CTS treatment efficacy. Material and methods: Sixty-two patients (50 women and 12 men aged 28–70, mean age 55.2 underwent surgical treatment of CTS. Ultrasound examinations of the wrist in all carpal tunnel sufferers were performed 3 months after the procedure with the use of a high frequency broadband linear array transducer (6–18 MHz, using 18 MHz band of MyLab 70/Esaote. On the basis of the collected data, the author has performed multiple analyses to confirm the usefulness of ultrasound imaging for postoperative evaluation of CTS treatment efficacy. Results: Among all 62 patients, 3 months after surgical median nerve decompression: in 40 patients, CTS symptoms subsided completely, and sonographic evaluation did not show median nerve entrapment signs; in 9 patients, CTS symptoms persisted or exacerbated, and ultrasound proved nerve compression revealing preserved flexor retinaculum fibers; in 13 patients, scar tissue symptoms occurred, and in 5 of them CTS did not subside completely (although ultrasound showed no signs of compression. Conclusions: Ultrasound imaging with the use of a high frequency transducer is a valuable diagnostic tool for postoperative assessment of CTS treatment efficacy.

  12. Importance of Recognizing Carpal Tunnel Syndrome for Neurosurgeons: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunoki, Masatoshi; Kanda, Takahiro; Suzuki, Kenta; Uneda, Atsuhito; Hirashita, Koji; Yoshino, Kimihiro

    2017-04-15

    Idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a common complaint, reflecting entrapment neuropathy of the upper extremity. CTS produces symptoms similar to those of other conditions, such as cervical spondylosis or ischemic or neoplastic intracranial disease. Because of these overlaps, patients with CTS are often referred to a neurosurgeon. Surgical treatment of CTS was started recently in our department. Through this experience, we realized that neurosurgeons should have an increased awareness of this condition so they can knowledgeably assess patients with a differential diagnosis that includes CTS and cervical spinal and cerebral disease. We conducted a literature review to gain the information needed to summarize current knowledge on the clinical, pathogenetic, and therapeutic aspects of CTS. Because the optimal diagnostic criteria for this disease are still undetermined, its diagnosis is based on the patient's history and physical examination, which should be confirmed by nerve conduction studies and imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography. Treatment methods include observation, medication, splinting, steroid injections, and surgical intervention. Understanding the clinical features and pathogenesis of CTS, as well as the therapeutic options available to treat it, is important for neurosurgeons if they are to provide the correct management of patients with this disease.

  13. Evaluation of Radiographic Instability of the Trapeziometacarpal Joint in Women With Carpal Tunnel Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Hwan; Gong, Hyun Sik; Kim, Youn Ho; Rhee, Seung Hwan; Kim, Jihyoung; Baek, Goo Hyun

    2015-07-01

    To determine whether median nerve dysfunction measured by electrophysiologic studies in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is associated with thumb trapeziometacarpal (TMC) joint instability. We evaluated 71 women with CTS and 31 asymptomatic control women. Patients with generalized laxity or TMC joint osteoarthritis were excluded. We classified the electrophysiologic severity of CTS based on nerve conduction time and amplitude and assessed radiographic instability of the TMC joint based on TMC joint stress radiographs. We compared subluxation ratio between patients with CTS and controls and performed correlation analysis of the relationship between the electrophysiologic grade and subluxation ratio. Thirty-one patients were categorized into the mild CTS subgroup and 41 into the severe CTS subgroup. There was no significant difference in subluxation ratio between the control group and CTS patients or between the control group and CTS subgroup patients. Furthermore, there was no significant correlation between electrophysiologic grade and subluxation ratio. This study demonstrated that patients with CTS did not have greater radiographic TMC joint instability compared with controls, and suggests that TMC joint stability is not affected by impaired median nerve function. Further studies could investigate how to better evaluate proprioceptive function of TMC joint and whether other nerves have effects on TMC joint motor/proprioceptive function, to elucidate the relationship between neuromuscular control of the TMC joint, its stability, and its progression to osteoarthritis. Diagnostic II. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A new technique of single portal endoscopic carpal tunnel release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Wing-Yuk Josephine; Sweed, Tamer Ahmed; Fung, Kwok Keung Boris; Tipoe, George L; Pun, Tze Shing

    2012-03-01

    Since the first description of endoscopic carpal tunnel release (ECTR) in 1987 by Okutsu many endoscopic techniques have been developed, but the majority of the literature on ECTR has dealt with the Chow and Agee techniques. ECTR is indicated for carpal tunnel syndrome that is not responding to conservative treatment for 6 months. This new technique of ECTR is a single-portal technique using instruments originally designed for endoscopic cubital tunnel release, with no disposable instruments used. It also has the advantage of performing the release with the median nerve protected under direct vision. Ten cases were operated with this technique after performing the procedure on 8 hands of 4 fresh frozen cadavers. There were no neurovascular or tendon injuries with this technique and patients were satisfied with the results.

  15. College curriculum-sharing via CTS. [Communications Technology Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, H. E.; Guild, P. D.; Coll, D. C.; Lumb, D. R.

    1975-01-01

    Domestic communication satellites and video compression techniques will increase communication channel capacity and reduce cost of video transmission. NASA Ames Research Center, Stanford University and Carleton University are participants in an experiment to develop, demonstrate, and evaluate college course sharing techniques via satellite using video compression. The universities will exchange televised seminar and lecture courses via CTS. The experiment features real-time video compression with channel coding and quadra-phase modulation for reducing transmission bandwidth and power requirements. Evaluation plans and preliminary results of Carleton surveys on student attitudes to televised teaching are presented. Policy implications for the U.S. and Canada are outlined.

  16. Continuous Traumatic Situations in the Face of Ongoing Political Violence: The Relationship Between CTS and PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttman-Shwartz, Orit; Shoval-Zuckerman, Yael

    2016-12-01

    This article presents a literature review of the concept of continuous traumatic situations (CTS), which relates to residents living in ongoing situations of political violence and national security threats. The first aim of this review is to narrow the gap regarding knowledge about the concept of CTS by presenting findings from studies that have assessed the effects of CTS on civilian populations. The second aim is to describe CTS in a way that highlights the differences and similarities between posttraumatic stress disorder and responses to CTS. This distinction is a necessary precondition for examining CTS, as is a careful clinical analysis of the development and course of symptoms. This literature review also highlights the importance of adopting a supplementary perspective for understanding the psychological impact of ongoing exposure to real threats, which can be used as a basis for developing intervention strategies that are appropriate for coping with life in the context of persistent violence. CTS can be manifested as emotions, behaviors, and perceptions among individuals, families, communities, and societies. The nature of the proposed model of CTS is a circular one, combining past and future perceptions and emotional reactions that have resulted from continuous and repeated traumatic experiences over an extended period of time. This wider understanding reflects the complexity of the CTS phenomenon. Various micro and macro interventions relating to CTS as the result of political violence situations and national security threats are presented, and recommendations for practice, policy, and future research are offered. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Formações venosas superficiais da fossa cubital: aspectos de interesse para a prática da Enfermagem Formaciones venosas superficiales de la fosa cubital: aspectos de interés para la práctica de Enfermería Superficial venous formation of the cubital fossa: aspects of interest for nursing practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Alves

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo é contribuir para o conhecimento que auxilie o profissional de enfermagem na identificação dos tipos mais comuns de formações venosas da região da fossa cubital e, ainda, enfocar a importância de estar sempre atento aos casos pouco comuns como o aqui relatado. Através de uma revisão bibliográfica, constatamos que as formações venosas dessa região podem ser classificadas em 5 tipos mais comuns, sendo o tipo II o mais frequente. Constatamos ainda, que a VICo é o local de punção mais indicado, seguido pela VIB. Descrevemos também uma variação anatômica, onde observamos ausência de comunicação entre VC e VB no nível da fossa cubital e VIA drenando na VB, estando presente a VCA.El objetivo de esta investigación es contribuir al conocimiento que auxilie al profesional de enfermería en la identificación de los tipos más comunes de formaciones venosas de la fosa cubital, además de advertir sobre la importancia de fijar la atención a los casos poco comunes, como lo aquí reportado. A través de la revisión bibliográfica, clasificamos las formaciones venosas de esta región en cinco tipos más comunes, siendo lo más frecuente el Tipo II. La utilización de la VICo se recomienda como el mejor sitio de punción, seguido por la VIB. Además, describimos una variación anatómica, donde se observó la ausencia de comunicación entre VC y VB a nivel de fosa cubital y VIA drenando en VB, con presencia de la VCA.The aim of this study is to contribute to the knowledge to assists the nursing staff to identify the most common types of venous formations of the cubital fossa region, and also focus on the importance of always being alert to unusual cases as that reported here. Through a literature review, we found that the venous formations of this region can be classified into five common types, bring the Type II the was most frequent. We also found that MCV is considered the best puncture site, followed by MBV

  18. Effect of finger motion on transverse median nerve movement in the carpal tunnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyo Jung; Yoon, Joon Shik

    2016-10-01

    We used ultrasonography (US) to investigate the effects of finger motion on movement of the median nerve in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and the correlation between these US parameters and CTS severity. Ultrasonographic measures were performed in 23 control wrists and 22 CTS wrists in women. During first through third finger flexion and grip motion, median nerve movements were obtained using US and a tracing program. Nerve movements during third finger flexion in the dorsopalmar axis and grip motion in both axes, and during second finger flexion in the radioulnar axis, differed significantly between the control and CTS groups. US parameters correlated negatively with cross-sectional area. This study shows that transverse median nerve movements decreased during grip using US and correlated negatively with CTS severity. Muscle Nerve, 2016 Muscle Nerve 54: -, 2016 Muscle Nerve 54: 738-742, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Cooling modifies mixed median and ulnar palmar studies in carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Rogério Gayer Machado de; Kouyoumdjian, João Aris

    2007-09-01

    Temperature is an important and common variable that modifies nerve conduction study parameters in practice. Here we compare the effect of cooling on the mixed palmar median to ulnar negative peak-latency difference (PMU) in electrodiagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Controls were 22 subjects (19 women, mean age 42.1 years, 44 hands). Patients were diagnosed with mild symptomatic CTS (25 women, mean age 46.6 years, 34 hands). PMU was obtained at the usual temperature, >32 degrees C, and after wrist/hand cooling to PMU and mixed ulnar palmar latency in patients versus controls. We concluded that cooling significantly modifies the PMU. We propose that the latencies of compressed nerve overreact to cooling and that this response could be a useful tool for incipient CTS electrodiagnosis. There was a significant latency overreaction of the ulnar nerve to cooling in CTS patients. We hypothesize that subclinical ulnar nerve compression is associated with CTS.

  20. Is one-stop surgery for carpal tunnel syndrome safe?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Louise Møller; Piil, Karin; Bashir, Asma

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate one-stop surgery (OSS) for carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) regarding symptom relief and patient satisfaction. OSS in our setting means only one visit to the hospital for surgery and no hospital appointments for preassessment or follow-up. We hypothes...

  1. Does a carpal tunnel syndrome predict an underlying disease?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C. de Rijk (Maarten); F.H. Vermeij (Frederique); M. Suntjens (Maartje); P.A. van Doorn (Pieter)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractCarpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) may be the presenting symptom of an underlying disease such as diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism or connective tissue disease (CTD). It was investigated whether additional blood tests (glucose level, thyroid-stimulating hormone level and erythrocyte

  2. Formações venosas superficiais da fossa cubital: aspectos de interesse para a prática da Enfermagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Alves

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo é contribuir para o conhecimento que auxilie o profissional de enfermagem na identificação dos tipos mais comuns de formações venosas da região da fossa cubital e, ainda, enfocar a importância de estar sempre atento aos casos pouco comuns como o aqui relatado. Através de uma revisão bibliográfica, constatamos que as formações venosas dessa região podem ser classificadas em 5 tipos mais comuns, sendo o tipo II o mais frequente. Constatamos ainda, que a VICo é o local de punção mais indicado, seguido pela VIB. Descrevemos também uma variação anatômica, onde observamos ausência de comunicação entre VC e VB no nível da fossa cubital e VIA drenando na VB, estando presente a VCA.

  3. Topiramate-induced Neuropathy Mimicking Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jigar S. Gandhi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Carpel tunnel syndrome (CTS is a condition in which median nerve compression results in paresthesias and pain in thewrist and hand. We are going to report a rare case of topiramate-induced neuropathy which clinically resembles CTS.Discontinuation of topiramate resulted in spontaneous resolution of numbness, paresthesia and pain in a few days. Highclinical suspicion is advised in patients who are on topiramate and present with signs of compressive neuropathy.

  4. Meta-analysis: association between wrist posture and carpal tunnel syndrome among workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Doohee; Smith, Allan H; Rempel, David

    2014-03-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a common work-related peripheral neuropathy. In addition to grip force and repetitive hand exertions, wrist posture (hyperextension and hyperflexion) may be a risk factor for CTS among workers. However, findings of studies evaluating the relationship between wrist posture and CTS are inconsistent. The purpose of this paper was to conduct a meta-analysis of existing studies to evaluate the evidence of the relationship between wrist posture at work and risk of CTS. PubMed and Google Scholar were searched to identify relevant studies published between 1980 and 2012. The following search terms were used: "work related", "carpal tunnel syndrome", "wrist posture", and "epidemiology". The studies defined wrist posture as the deviation of the wrist in extension or flexion from a neutral wrist posture. Relative risk (RR) of individual studies for postural risk was pooled to evaluate the overall risk of wrist posture on CTS. Nine studies met the inclusion criteria. All were cross-sectional or case-control designs and relied on self-report or observer's estimates for wrist posture assessment. The pooled RR of work-related CTS increased with increasing hours of exposure to wrist deviation or extension/flexion [RR = 2.01; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.646-2.43; p Workplace interventions to prevent CTS should incorporate training and engineering interventions that reduce sustained non-neutral wrist postures.

  5. Carpal tunnel syndrome among laboratory technicians in relation to personal and ergonomic factors at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Helaly, Mohamed; Balkhy, Hanan H; Vallenius, Laura

    2017-11-25

    Work-related carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) has been reported in different occupations, including laboratory technicians, so this study was carried out to determine the prevalence and the associated personal and ergonomic factors for CTS among laboratory technicians. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 279 laboratory technicians at King Fahd Hospital, Saudi Arabia, who filled in a self-administered questionnaire, including questions regarding their demographic criteria, occupational history, job tasks, workplace tools, ergonomic factors at work, and symptoms suggestive of CTS. Physical examinations and electrodiagnostic studies were carried out for those who had symptoms suggestive of CTS to confirm the diagnosis. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed for both personal and physical factors in association with confirmed CTS among laboratory technicians. The prevalence of CTS among the laboratory technicians was 9.7% (27/279). The following were the statistically significant risk factors for CTS among them: gender (all cases of CTS were female, P=0.00), arm/hand exertion (OR: 7.96; 95% CI: 1.84-34.33), pipetting (OR: 7.27; 95% CI: 3.15-16.78), repetitive tasks (OR: 4.60; 95% CI: 1.39-15.70), using unadjustable chairs or desks (OR: 3.35; 95% CI: 1.23-9.15), and working with a biosafety cabinet (OR: 2.49; 95% CI: 1.11-5.59). CTS cases had significant longer work duration (17.9 ± 5.6 years) than CTS non-case (11.5 ± 7.4 yeas) with low OR (1.108). This study demonstrates some personal and ergonomic factors associated with CTS among the laboratory technicians, including female gender, arm/hand exertion, pipetting, repetitive tasks, working with a biosafety cabinet, and an unadjusted workstation.

  6. Evaluation of median nerve T2 signal changes in patients with surgically treated carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanci, Yavuz; Karagöz, Yeşim; Yaman, Mehmet; Atçı, İbrahim Burak; Emre, Ufuk; Kılıçkesmez, Nuri Özgür; Çelik, Suat Erol

    2016-11-01

    To determine the accuracy of median nerve T2 evaluation and its relation with Boston Questionnaire (BQ) and nerve conduction studies (NCSs) in pre-operative and post-operative carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) patients in comparison with healthy volunteers. Twenty-three CTS patients and 24 healthy volunteers underwent NCSs, median nerve T2 evaluation and self-administered BQ. Pre-operative and 1st year post-operative median nerve T2 values and cross-sectional areas (CSAs) were compared both within pre-operative and post-operative CTS groups, and with healthy volunteers. The relationship between MRI findings and BQ and NCSs was analyzed. The ROC curve analysis was used for determining the accuracy. The comparison of pre-operative and post-operative T2 values and CSAs revealed statistically significant improvements in the post-operative patient group (pT2 values at all levels and BQ values, and positive and negative correlations were also found regarding T2 values and NCS findings in CTS patients. The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis for defined cut-off levels of median nerve T2 values in hands with severe CTS yielded excellent accuracy at all levels. However, this accuracy could not be demonstrated in hands with mild CTS. This study is the first to analyze T2 values in both pre-operative and post-operative CTS patients. The presence of increased T2 values in CTS patients compared to controls and excellent accuracy in hands with severe CTS indicates T2 signal changes related to CTS pathophysiology and possible utilization of T2 signal evaluation in hands with severe CTS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Usefulness of ultrasound assessment of median nerve mobility in carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gi-Young; Kwon, Dong Rak; Seok, Jung Im; Park, Dong-Soon; Cho, Hee Kyung

    2018-01-01

    Background Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common peripheral compression neuropathy of the upper extremity. Recently, dynamic ultrasound (US) imaging has shown differences in median nerve mobility between the affected and unaffected sides in CTS. Purpose The present study was performed to compare the median nerve mobility between patients with CTS and healthy individuals, and to correlate median nerve mobility with the severity of CTS. Material and Methods A total of 101 patients (128 wrists) with CTS and 43 healthy individuals (70 wrists) were evaluated. Electrodiagnostic studies were initially conducted to determine the neurophysiological grading scale (NGS). The cross-sectional area (CSA) of the median nerve and the grade of median nerve mobility were measured using US. Results The mean grade of median nerve mobility in the CTS group (1.9) was significantly lower than that in the control group (2.6; P mobility and distal motor latency of the median nerve (r = -0.218, P = 0.015), NGS (r = -0.207, P = 0.020) and CSA of the median nerve (r = -0.196, P = 0.028). Conclusion The grade of median nerve mobility was negatively correlated with the severity of CTS. US assessment of median nerve mobility may be useful in diagnosing and determining the severity of CTS.

  8. Etiological factors for developing carpal tunnel syndrome in people who work with computers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Lewańska

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS is the most frequent mononeuropathy of upper extremities. From the early 1990's it has been suggested that intensive work with computers can result in CTS development, however, this relationship has not as yet been proved. The aim of the study was to evaluate occupational and non-occupational risk factors for developing CTS in the population of computer-users. Material and Methods: The study group comprised 60 patients (58 women and 2 men; mean age: 53.8±6.35 years working with computers and suspected of occupational CTS. A survey as well as both median and ulnar nerve conduction examination (NCS were performed in all the subjects. Results: The patients worked with use of computer for 6.43±1.71h per day. The mean latency between the beginning of employment and the occurrence of first CTS symptoms was 12.09±5.94 years. All patients met the clinical and electrophysiological diagnostic criteria of CTS. In the majority of patients etiological factors for developing CTS were non-occupational: obesity, hypothyroidism, oophorectomy, past hysterectomy, hormonal replacement therapy or oral contraceptives, recent menopause, diabetes, tendovaginitis. In 7 computer-users etiological factors were not identified. Conclusion: The results of our study show that CTS is usually generated by different causes not related with using computers at work. Med Pr 2013;64(1:37–45

  9. Body mass index as predictor of carpal tunnel syndrome among garment workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lie T Merijanti S.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Of the nerve entrapment syndromes the most well-known is the carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS involving the median nerve. In the field of occupational medicine this condition is categorized as an occupational disease, for which industrial workers may claim compensation if the CTS occurs as a consequence of their job. However, although several occupational risk factors have been suggested as causing the development of CTS, a definitive role of work activities as the central cause of CTS is unclear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate both non-occupational and occupational factors associated with CTS in garment home-industry workers. A cross-sectional study was performed from April to June 2008 in the garment home industry in North Jakarta. A total of 99 workers, consisting of 45 males and 54 females were included in this study. Historical data were obtained from a self-administered detailed questionnaire, while anthropometric and provocative median nerve test variables were measured directly. The results showed that body mass index (BMI was a significant predictor of CTS in male workers (p=0.031, while the risk of CTS was three-fold higher in female workers using hormonal contraceptives (Prevalence Ratio/PR = 3.3 ; 95% Confidence of Interval/CI = 1.0 – 10.5. In conclusion it appears that BMI and hormonal contraceptive use were CTS predictors.

  10. Body mass index as predictor of carpal tunnel syndrome among garment workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lie T. Merijanti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Of the nerve entrapment syndromes the most well-known is the carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS involving the median nerve. In the field of occupational medicine this condition is categorized as an occupational disease, for which industrial workers may claim compensation if the CTS occurs as a consequence of their job. However, although several occupational risk factors have been suggested as causing the development of CTS, a definitive role of work activities as the central cause of CTS is unclear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate both non-occupational and occupational factors associated with CTS in garment home-industry workers. A cross-sectional study was performed from April to June 2008 in the garment home industry in North Jakarta. A total of 99 workers, consisting of 45 males and 54 females were included in this study. Historical data were obtained from a self-administered detailed questionnaire, while anthropometric and provocative median nerve test variables were measured directly. The results showed that body mass index (BMI was a significant predictor of CTS in male workers (p=0.031, while the risk of CTS was three-fold higher in female workers using hormonal contraceptives (Prevalence Ratio/PR = 3.3 ; 95% Confidence of Interval/CI = 1.0 – 10.5. In conclusion it appears that BMI and hormonal contraceptive use were CTS predictors.

  11. Attributable risk of carpal tunnel syndrome according to industry and occupation in a general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roquelaure, Yves; Ha, Catherine; Nicolas, Guillaume; Pélier-Cady, Marie-Christine; Mariot, Camille; Descatha, Alexis; Leclerc, Annette; Raimbeau, Guy; Goldberg, Marcel; Imbernon, Ellen

    2008-09-15

    An epidemiologic surveillance network for carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) was set up in the general population of a French region to assess the proportion of CTS cases attributable to work in high-risk industries and occupations. Cases of CTS occurring among patients ages 20-59 years living in the Maine and Loire region were included prospectively from 2002 to 2004. Medical and occupation history was gathered by mailed questionnaire for 815 women and 320 men. Age-adjusted relative risks of CTS and the attributable risk fractions of CTS among exposed persons (AFEs) were computed in relation to industry sectors and occupation categories. Twenty-one industry sectors and 8 occupational categories for women and 10 sectors and 6 occupational categories for men were characterized by a significant excess risk of CTS. High AFE values were observed in the manufacturing (42-93% for both sexes), construction (66% for men), and personal service industries (66% for women) and in the trade and commerce sectors (49% for women). High AFE values were observed in lower-grade white-collar occupations for women (43-67%) and blue-collar occupations for men (60-74%) and women (48-88%). The attributable proportions of CTS cases among workers employed in industry sectors and occupation categories identified at high risk of CTS varied between 36% and 93%.

  12. [Socio professional impact of surgical release of carpal tunnel syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraiem, Aouatef Mahfoudh; Hnia, Hajer; Bouzgarrou, Lamia; Henchi, Mohamed Adnène; Khalfallah, Taoufik

    2016-01-01

    The objective was studying the socio-professional impact of release surgery for carpal tunnel syndrom (CTS). We conducted a cross-sectional study of patients operated for work-related CTS; data were collected in the Occupational Health Department at the University Hospital Tahar Sfar in Mahdia, Tunisia over a period of 8 years, from 1 January 2006 to December 2013. Data collection was performed using a survey form focusing on participants' socio-professional and medical characteristics and on their professional future. We used Karasek's questionnaire to study psychosocial constraints at work. The duration of a work stoppage following release surgery for CTS was significantly related to the existence of musculoskeletal disorders other than CTS, to a statement that the carpal tunnel syndrome was work related and to job seniority. As regards the professional future of operated employees, 50.7% remained in the same position, 15.3% were given customized workstation and 33.8% were offered a different position within the same company. The professional future of these employees was related to their occupational qualifications and to the type of sensory and/or motor impairment of median nerve detected during EMG test. A number of nonlesional factors determines the duration of the work stoppage, while the professional future of patients operated for CTS essentially depends on their professional qualifications and on EMG data. Certainly much broader studies would allow to refine these results.

  13. Carpal tunnel syndrome in the Turkish steel industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedizlioglu, Muhtesem; Arpaci, Esra; Cevher, Demet; Ce, Pinar; Kulan, Can Ahmet; Colak, Ilhan; Duzgun, Baran

    2008-05-01

    Certain occupations are reported to be associated with a high risk for carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). In this study, we investigated the development of CTS in iron-steel industry workers. Subjects were recruited from a factory of 650 workers and assessed by means of history, physical examination and electrophysiological testing. Seventy-nine subjects from the factory and 53 healthy controls with occupations unrelated to heavy physical work were assessed. None of the worker group had electrophysiological evidence of CTS. One subject in the control group has electrophysiological evidence of CTS. In the worker group, all sensory nerve conduction velocities and ulnar nerve action potential amplitudes in both hands and distal motor latencies were statistically different. In our study, among a group of heavy labourers, no cases of CTS were detected. However, all electrophysiologic parameters of workers were different from controls. Our results point to a diffuse, but subclinical injury of peripheral nerves under heavy physical work conditions, instead of a local effect such as CTS.

  14. Modeling the cost-benefit of nerve conduction studies in pre-employment screening for carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evanoff, Bradley; Kymes, Steve

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the costs associated with pre-employment nerve conduction testing as a screening tool for carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in the workplace. We used a Markov decision analysis model to compare the costs associated with a strategy of screening all prospective employees for CTS and not hiring those with abnormal nerve conduction, versus a strategy of not screening for CTS. The variables included in our model included employee turnover rate, the incidence of CTS, the prevalence of median nerve conduction abnormalities, the relative risk of developing CTS conferred by abnormal nerve conduction screening, the costs of pre-employment screening, and the worker's compensation costs to the employer for each case of CTS. In our base case, total employer costs for CTS from the perspective of the employer (cost of screening plus costs for workers' compensation associated with CTS) were higher when screening was used. Median costs per employee position over five years were US$503 for the screening strategy versus US$200 for a no-screening strategy. A sensitivity analysis showed that a strategy of screening was cost-beneficial from the perspective of the employer only under a few circumstances. Using Monte Carlo simulation varying all parameters, we found a 30% probability that screening would be cost-beneficial. A strategy of pre-employment screening for CTS should be carefully evaluated for yield and social consequences before being implemented. Our model suggests such screening is not appropriate for most employers.

  15. Primary somatosensory/motor cortical thickness distinguishes paresthesia-dominant from pain-dominant carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Yumi; Kettner, Norman; Kim, Jieun; Kim, Hyungjun; Cina, Stephen; Malatesta, Cristina; Gerber, Jessica; McManus, Claire; Libby, Alexandra; Mezzacappa, Pia; Mawla, Ishtiaq; Morse, Leslie R; Audette, Joseph; Napadow, Vitaly

    2016-05-01

    Paresthesia-dominant and pain-dominant subgroups have been noted in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), a peripheral neuropathic disorder characterized by altered primary somatosensory/motor (S1/M1) physiology. We aimed to investigate whether brain morphometry dissociates these subgroups. Subjects with CTS were evaluated with nerve conduction studies, whereas symptom severity ratings were used to allocate subjects into paresthesia-dominant (CTS-paresthesia), pain-dominant (CTS-pain), and pain/paresthesia nondominant (not included in further analysis) subgroups. Structural brain magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired at 3T using a multiecho MPRAGE T1-weighted pulse sequence, and gray matter cortical thickness was calculated across the entire brain using validated, automated methods. CTS-paresthesia subjects demonstrated reduced median sensory nerve conduction velocity (P = 0.05) compared with CTS-pain subjects. In addition, cortical thickness in precentral and postcentral gyri (S1/M1 hand area) contralateral to the more affected hand was significantly reduced in CTS-paresthesia subgroup compared with CTS-pain subgroup. Moreover, in CTS-paresthesia subjects, precentral cortical thickness was negatively correlated with paresthesia severity (r(34) = -0.40, P = 0.016) and positively correlated with median nerve sensory velocity (r(36) = 0.51, P = 0.001), but not with pain severity. Conversely, in CTS-pain subjects, contralesional S1 (r(9) = 0.62, P = 0.042) and M1 (r(9) = 0.61, P = 0.046) cortical thickness were correlated with pain severity, but not median nerve velocity or paresthesia severity. This double dissociation in somatotopically specific S1/M1 areas suggests a neuroanatomical substrate for symptom-based CTS subgroups. Such fine-grained subgrouping of CTS may lead to improved personalized therapeutic approaches, based on superior characterization of the linkage between peripheral and central neuroplasticity.

  16. Risk assessments using the Strain Index and the TLV for HAL, Part II: Multi-task jobs and prevalence of CTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapellusch, Jay M; Silverstein, Barbara A; Bao, Stephen S; Thiese, Mathew S; Merryweather, Andrew S; Hegmann, Kurt T; Garg, Arun

    2018-02-01

    The Strain Index (SI) and the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold limit value for hand activity level (TLV for HAL) have been shown to be associated with prevalence of distal upper-limb musculoskeletal disorders such as carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). The SI and TLV for HAL disagree on more than half of task exposure classifications. Similarly, time-weighted average (TWA), peak, and typical exposure techniques used to quantity physical exposure from multi-task jobs have shown between-technique agreement ranging from 61% to 93%, depending upon whether the SI or TLV for HAL model was used. This study compared exposure-response relationships between each model-technique combination and prevalence of CTS. Physical exposure data from 1,834 workers (710 with multi-task jobs) were analyzed using the SI and TLV for HAL and the TWA, typical, and peak multi-task job exposure techniques. Additionally, exposure classifications from the SI and TLV for HAL were combined into a single measure and evaluated. Prevalent CTS cases were identified using symptoms and nerve-conduction studies. Mixed effects logistic regression was used to quantify exposure-response relationships between categorized (i.e., low, medium, and high) physical exposure and CTS prevalence for all model-technique combinations, and for multi-task workers, mono-task workers, and all workers combined. Except for TWA TLV for HAL, all model-technique combinations showed monotonic increases in risk of CTS with increased physical exposure. The combined-models approach showed stronger association than the SI or TLV for HAL for multi-task workers. Despite differences in exposure classifications, nearly all model-technique combinations showed exposure-response relationships with prevalence of CTS for the combined sample of mono-task and multi-task workers. Both the TLV for HAL and the SI, with the TWA or typical techniques, appear useful for epidemiological studies and surveillance

  17. Ultrasound Evaluation of Patients with Moderate and Severe Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Moghtaderi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to determine cut-off points for the crosssectional areas of the median nerve proximal and distal to carpal tunnel in moderate and severe Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS and compare the results of our study with those available in the literature. Forty-three patients with upper limb pain other than CTS and 36 patients with idiopathic CTS enrolled into the study. The diagnosis and categorization of CTS were based on electrophysiologic criteria of the American Academy of Neurology. Median nerve cross-sectional areas were measured. Arithmetic mean values and standard deviation of each variable were measured. Student t-test and chi-squared test were applied to compare continuous and dichotomous variables between CTS and non-CTS control groups. Ultimately the diagnostic performances of the test characteristics including sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were measured. Mean cross-sectional area of the nerve is higher in moderate than severe CTS proximal and distal to carpal tunnel. We accepted cut-off points of 11.5 mm2 and 13.5 mm2 for cross-sectional areas of the proximal and distal portions of carpal canal respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for the proximal inlet are 83%, 90.7%, 65.5% and 55.7%; and for the distal outlet are 36.1%, 93%, 81.2% and 63.4% respectively. We suggest that ultrasound is a good diagnostic modality for patients referred to tertiary care centers which categorized as moderate CTS.

  18. Cumulative keyboard strokes: a possible risk factor for carpal tunnel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleftheriou Andreas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Contradictory reports have been published regarding the association of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS and the use of computer keyboard. Previous studies did not take into account the cumulative exposure to keyboard strokes among computer workers. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between cumulative keyboard use (keyboard strokes and CTS. Methods Employees (461 from a Governmental data entry & processing unit agreed to participate (response rate: 84.1 % in a cross-sectional study. Α questionnaire was distributed to the participants to obtain information on socio-demographics and risk factors for CTS. The participants were examined for signs and symptoms related to CTS and were asked if they had previous history or surgery for CTS. The cumulative amount of the keyboard strokes per worker per year was calculated by the use of payroll’s registry. Two case definitions for CTS were used. The first included subjects with personal history/surgery for CTS while the second included subjects that belonged to the first case definition plus those participants were identified through clinical examination. Results Multivariate analysis used for both case definitions, indicated that those employees with high cumulative exposure to keyboard strokes were at increased risk of CTS (case definition A: OR = 2.23;95 % CI = 1.09-4.52 and case definition B: OR = 2.41; 95%CI = 1.36-4.25. A dose response pattern between cumulative exposure to keyboard strokes and CTS has been revealed (p  Conclusions The present study indicated a possible association between cumulative exposure to keyboard strokes and development of CTS. Cumulative exposure to key-board strokes would be taken into account as an exposure indicator regarding exposure assessment of computer workers. Further research is needed in order to test the results of the current study and assess causality between cumulative keyboard strokes and

  19. Efficacy of kinesiotaping in patients with the initial signs of carpal tunnel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Mikhaylyuk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS is one of the most common tunnel neuropathies. Early symptoms are often limited by periodic and slight discomfort in the area of innervation of a median nerve on the hand, so the patients are not willing to be treated invasively. Thus, a noninvasive therapy, such as kinesiotaping, could be perspective.Objective. Assessment of the efficiency of a kinesiotaping monotheraphy of patients on initial stage of CTS.Materials and methods. We included 120 patients with the initial stage of CTS: 51 men and 69 women aged from 24 till 54 years old. The main group included 70 people, and the control group – 50 patients. The main group was treated within 2 months by kinesiotaping only, control group was observed without any therapeutic intervention.Results. 60 % of the patients from the main group reported beneficial effect of kinesiotaping on clinical symptoms of the CTS.Conclusions. Kinesiotaping monotherapy at initial stages of CTS in our cohort relieves subjective symptoms in the majority of patients. To recommend kinesiotaping as an effective and safe method on initial stages of CTS to patients unwilling to undergo standard invasive treatment methods, a larger multicenter study is needed.

  20. SU-E-J-241: Creation of Ventilation CT From Daily 4D CTs Or 4D Conebeam CTs Acquired During IGRT for Thoracic Cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tai, A; Ahunbay, E; Li, X

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a method to create ventilation CTs from daily 4D CTs or 4D KV conebeam CTs (4DCBCT) acquired during image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) for thoracic tumors, and to explore the potential for using the ventilation CTs as a means for early detection of lung injury during radiation treatment. Methods: 4DCT acquired using an in-room CT (CTVision, Siemens) and 4DCBCT acquired using the X-ray Volume Imaging (XVI) system (Infinity, Elekta) for representative lung cancer patients were analyzed. These 4D data sets were sorted into 10 phase images. A newly-available deformable image registration tool (ADMIRE, Elekta) is used to deform the phase images at the end of exhale (EE) to the phase images at the end of inhale (EI). The lung volumes at EI and EE were carefully contoured using an intensity-based auto-contour tool and then manually edited. The ventilation images were calculated from the variations of CT numbers of those voxels masked by the lung contour at EI between the registered phase images. The deformable image registration is also performed between the daily 4D images and planning 4DCT, and the resulting deformable field vector (DFV) is used to deform the planning doses to the daily images by an in-house Matlab program. Results: The ventilation images were successfully created. The tide volumes calculated using the ventilation images agree with those measured through volume difference of contours at EE and EI, indicating the accuracy of ventilation images. The association between the delivered doses and the change of lung ventilation from the daily ventilation CTs is identified. Conclusions: A method to create the ventilation CT using daily 4DCTs or 4D KV conebeam CTs was developed and demonstrated

  1. Facilitatory and inhibitory pain mechanisms are altered in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Soon

    Full Text Available Preliminary evidence from studies using quantitative sensory testing suggests the presence of central mechanisms in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS as apparent by widespread hyperalgesia. Hallmarks of central mechanisms after nerve injuries include nociceptive facilitation and reduced endogenous pain inhibition. Methods to study nociceptive facilitation in CTS so far have been limited to quantitative sensory testing and the integrity of endogenous inhibition remains unexamined. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate changes in facilitatory and inhibitory processing in patients with CTS by studying hypersensitivity following experimentally induced pain (facilitatory mechanisms and the efficacy of conditioned pain modulation (CPM, inhibitory mechanisms. Twenty-five patients with mild to moderate CTS and 25 age and sex matched control participants without CTS were recruited. Increased pain facilitation was evaluated via injection of hypertonic saline into the upper trapezius. Altered pain inhibition through CPM was investigated through cold water immersion of the foot as the conditioning stimulus and pressure pain threshold over the thenar and hypothenar eminence bilaterally as the test stimulus. The results demonstrated that patients with CTS showed a greater duration (p = 0.047, intensity (p = 0.044 and area (p = 0.012 of pain in response to experimentally induced pain in the upper trapezius and impaired CPM compared to the control participants (p = 0.006. Although typically considered to be driven by peripheral mechanisms, these findings indicate that CTS demonstrates characteristics of altered central processing with increased pain facilitation and reduced endogenous pain inhibition.

  2. Impact of distal median neuropathy on handwriting performance for patients with carpal tunnel syndrome in office and administrative support occupations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Li-Chieh; Hsu, Hsiao-Man; Wu, Po-Ting; Lin, Sheng-Che; Hsu, Hsiu-Yun; Jou, I-Ming

    2014-06-01

    This study investigates the handwriting performance of patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and healthy controls in office and administrative support occupations, adopting both biomechanical and functional perspectives. This work also explores how surgical intervention altered the performance of the CTS patients. Fourteen CTS patients and 14 control subjects were recruited to complete a self-reported survey and participate in sensory tests, hand strength, dexterity and handwriting tasks using a custom force acquisition pen along with motion capture technology. Based on the results of these, the sensory measurements, along with functional and biomechanical parameters, were used to determine the differences between the groups and also reveal any improvements that occurred in the CTS group after surgical intervention. The CTS patients showed significantly poorer hand sensibility and dexterity than the controls, as well as excessive force exertion of the digits and pen tip, and less efficient force adjustment ability during handwriting. After surgery and sensory recovery, the hand dexterity and pen tip force of the CTS patients improved significantly. The force adjustment abilities of the digits also increased, but these changes were not statistically significant. This study provides the objective measurements and novel apparatus that can be used to determine impairments in the handwriting abilities of office or administrative workers with CTS. The results can also help clinicians or patients to better understand the sensory-related deficits in sensorimotor control of the hand related to CTS, and thus develop and implement more suitable training or adaptive protocols.

  3. A comparison of data sources for the surveillance of work-related carpal tunnel syndrome in Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Letitia; Wellman, Helen; Hart, James; Cleary, Robert; Gardstein, Betsey M; Sciuchetti, Paul

    2004-09-01

    This study examined whether a state surveillance system for work-related carpal tunnel syndrome (WR-CTS) based on workers' compensation claims (Sentinel Event Notification System for Occupational Risks, SENSOR) and the Annual Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses (SOII) identified the same industries, occupations, sources of injury, and populations for intervention. Trends in counts, rates, and female/male ratios of WR-CTS during 1994-1997, and age distributions were compared across three data sources: SENSOR, Massachusetts SOII, and National SOII. SENSOR and National SOII data on WR-CTS were compared by industry, occupation, and injury source. Due to small sample size and subsequent gaps in available information, state SOII data on WR-CTS were of little use in identifying specific industries and occupations for intervention. SENSOR and National SOII data on the frequency of WR-CTS cases identified many similar occupations and industries, and both surveillance systems pointed to computer use as a risk factor for WR-CTS. Some high rate industries identified by SENSOR were not identified using National SOII rates even when national findings were restricted to take into account the distribution of the Massachusetts workforce. Use of national SOII data on rates of WR-CTS for identifying state industry priorities for WR-CTS prevention should be undertaken with caution. Options for improving state SOII data and use of other state data systems should be pursued.

  4. Infrared thermography based on artificial intelligence as a screening method for carpal tunnel syndrome diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesensek Papez, B; Palfy, M; Mertik, M; Turk, Z

    2009-01-01

    This study further evaluated a computer-based infrared thermography (IRT) system, which employs artificial neural networks for the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) using a large database of 502 thermal images of the dorsal and palmar side of 132 healthy and 119 pathological hands. It confirmed the hypothesis that the dorsal side of the hand is of greater importance than the palmar side when diagnosing CTS thermographically. Using this method it was possible correctly to classify 72.2% of all hands (healthy and pathological) based on dorsal images and > 80% of hands when only severely affected and healthy hands were considered. Compared with the gold standard electromyographic diagnosis of CTS, IRT cannot be recommended as an adequate diagnostic tool when exact severity level diagnosis is required, however we conclude that IRT could be used as a screening tool for severe cases in populations with high ergonomic risk factors of CTS.

  5. The Prevalence of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome in Latino Poultry Processing Workers and Other Latino Manual Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Michael S.; Walker, Francis O.; Blocker, Jill N.; Schulz, Mark R.; Arcury, Thomas A.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Mora, Dana; Chen, Haiying; Marín, Antonio J.; Quandt, Sara A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in Latino poultry processing workers. Methods Symptoms and nerve conduction studies were used to prospectively assess 287 Latino poultry processing workers and 226 Latinos in other manual labor occupations. Results The prevalence of CTS was higher in poultry processing (8.7%) compared to non-poultry manual workers (4.0%, p poultry workers was 2.51 (95% CI of 1.80 to 3.50) compared to non-poultry workers. Within the poultry workers, those who performed packing, sanitation, and chilling had a trend toward less CTS than those who performed tasks requiring more repetitive and strenuous hand movements. Discussion Latino poultry processing workers have a high prevalence of CTS, which likely results from the repetitive and strenuous nature of the work. PMID:22258161

  6. A repeated carpal tunnel syndrome due to tophaceous gout in flexor tendon: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hui; Chen, Qiang; Shen, Hui

    2017-03-01

    Gouty tophi is a rare cause of CTS. We first report a unique case of repeated CTS with gouty tophi in flexor tendon. In the previous literature, the symptoms cases of CTS were gradually increased. We report a 44-year-old male porter presented with mass on his left distal forearm combined a repeated carpal tunnel syndrome for 5 years. He felt numbness in fingers and his left palmar. The CTS symptoms had been eased through rest and dugs medication. It recurred twice. Monosodium urate crystal deposits were found in surgery. Histologic findings confirmed the diagnosis of gout. We removed partial of gouty tophus and retained the integrity of the tendon. Two years after the surgery, the patient had not experienced any symptom recurrence. Early diagnosis and control of gout are necessary to avoid irreversible complications. The surgery combined with decreasing trioxypurine treatment can improve the treatment outcome of gouty tophus.

  7. A repeated carpal tunnel syndrome due to tophaceous gout in flexor tendon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hui; Chen, Qiang; Shen, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Gouty tophi is a rare cause of CTS. We first report a unique case of repeated CTS with gouty tophi in flexor tendon. In the previous literature, the symptoms cases of CTS were gradually increased. Patient concerns: We report a 44-year-old male porter presented with mass on his left distal forearm combined a repeated carpal tunnel syndrome for 5 years. He felt numbness in fingers and his left palmar. The CTS symptoms had been eased through rest and dugs medication. It recurred twice. Diagnoses: Monosodium urate crystal deposits were found in surgery. Histologic findings confirmed the diagnosis of gout. Interventions: We removed partial of gouty tophus and retained the integrity of the tendon. Outcomes: Two years after the surgery, the patient had not experienced any symptom recurrence. Lessons: Early diagnosis and control of gout are necessary to avoid irreversible complications. The surgery combined with decreasing trioxypurine treatment can improve the treatment outcome of gouty tophus. PMID:28248892

  8. Association Between Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Carpal Tunnel Syndrome in Pooled Occupational Cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegmann, Kurt T; Thiese, Matthew Steven; Kapellusch, Jay; Merryweather, Andrew S; Bao, Stephen; Silverstein, Barbara; Wood, Eric M; Kendall, Richard; Wertsch, Jacqueline; Foster, James; Garg, Arun; Drury, David L

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to ascertain if cardiovascular (CVD) risk factors are carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) risk factors. Analysis of pooled baseline data from two large prospective cohort studies (n = 1824) assessed the relationships between a modified Framingham Heart Study CVD risk score both CTS and abnormal nerve conduction study prevalence. Quantified job exposures, personal and psychosocial confounders were statistically controlled. Odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for individual risk scores. There was a strong relationship between CVD risk score and both CTS and abnormal nerve conduction study after adjustment for confounders, with odds ratios as high as 4.16 and 7.35, respectively. Dose responses were also observed. In this workplace population, there is a strong association between CVD risk scores and both CTS and abnormal nerve conduction study that persisted after controlling for confounders. These data suggest a potentially modifiable disease mechanism.

  9. Ultrasonographic diagnostics of pain in the lateral cubital compartment and proximal forearm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Dębek

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Pain in the lateral compartment of the elbow joint and decreased strength of the extensor muscle constitute a fairly common clinical problem. These symptoms, occurring in such movements as inverting and converting the forearm, pushing, lifting and pulling, mostly affect people who carry out daily activities with an intense use of wrist, e.g. work on computer. Strains in this area often result from persistent overload and degeneration processes of the common extensor tendon and the radial collateral ligament. Similar symptoms resulting from the compression of deep branch of the radial nerve in radial nerve tunnel should be remembered as well. It happens that both conditions occur simultaneously. A proper diagnosis is essential in undertaking an effective treatment. Ultrasonography is a non-invasive method and the application of high-end apparatus with heads of frequencies exceeding 12 MHz allows for a precise evaluation of joint structures, tendons and nerves. In case of the so-called tennis elbow, the examination allows for evaluation of the degree and extent of injury to the radial collateral ligament and common extensor tendon, in addition to the presence of blood vessels in inflicted area. Administration of autologous blood platelets concentrate containing growth factors, used in treatment of tennis elbow, is performed under ultrasound image control conditions. This allows for a precise incision of scar whilst keeping a healthy (unaffected tissue margin to form fine channels enabling the penetration of growth factors. Post-surgery medical check-up allows for the evaluation of treatment effectiveness. In radial nerve tunnel syndrome, the ultrasound examination can reveal abnormalities in the deep branch of the radial nerve and within the anatomical structures adjacent to the nerve in the radial nerve tunnel. Furthermore, the ultrasound examination allows for detection of other articular and extraarticular pathologies, which affect the

  10. Effects of traditional cupping therapy in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalsen, Andreas; Bock, Silke; Lüdtke, Rainer; Rampp, Thomas; Baecker, Marcus; Bachmann, Jürgen; Langhorst, Jost; Musial, Frauke; Dobos, Gustav J

    2009-06-01

    We investigated the effectiveness of cupping, a traditional method of treating musculoskeletal pain, in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in an open randomized trial. n = 52 outpatients (58.5 +/- 8.0 years) with neurologically confirmed CTS were randomly assigned to either a verum (n = 26) or a control group (n = 26). Verum patients were treated with a single application of wet cupping, and control patients with a single local application of heat within the region overlying the trapezius muscle. Patients were followed up on day 7 after treatment. The primary outcome, severity of CTS symptoms (VAS), was reduced from 61.5 +/- 20.5 to 24.6 +/- 22.7 mm at day 7 in the cupping group and from 67.1 +/- 20.2 to 51.7 +/- 23.9 mm in the control group [group difference -24.5mm (95%CI -36.1; -2.9, P cupping therapy may be effective in relieving the pain and other symptoms related to CTS. The efficacy of cupping in the long-term management of CTS and related mechanisms remains to be clarified. The results of a randomized trial on the clinical effects of traditional cupping therapy in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome are presented. Cupping of segmentally related shoulder zones appears to alleviate the symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome.

  11. Tunneling works. Tunnel koji

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higo, M [Hazam Gumi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1991-10-25

    A mountain tunneling method for rock-beds used to be applied mainly to construction works in the mountains under few restrictions by environmental problems. However, construction works near residential sreas have been increasing. There are such enviromental problems due to tunneling works as vibration, noise, lowering of ground-water level, and influences on other structures. This report mainly describes the measurement examples of vibration and noise accompanied with blasting and the effects of the measures to lessen such influences. When the tunneling works for the railroad was carried out on the natural ground mainly composed of basalt, vibration of the test blasting was measured at three stations with piezoelectric accelerometers. Then, ordinary blasting, mutistage blasting, and ABM blasting methods were used properly besed on the above results, and only a few complaints were made. In the different works, normal noise and low-frequency sound were mesured at 22 stations around the pit mouth. As countermeasures for noise, sound-proof sheets, walls, and single and double doors were installed and foundto be effective. 1 ref., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Hypothyroidism and carpal tunnel syndrome: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiri, Rahman

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to assess the magnitude of the association between hypothyroidism and carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Eighteen studies were included in a random-effects meta-analysis. A meta-analysis of the studies that did not control their estimates for any confounder showed an association between a thyroid disease (hypo- or hyperthyroidism) and CTS (N = 9,573, effect size [ES] = 1.32 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-1.68) and between hypothyroidism and CTS (N = 64,531, ES = 2.15 [95% CI, 1.64-2.83]). When a meta-analysis limited to the studies that controlled their estimates for some potential confounders, the association between a thyroid disease and CTS disappeared (N = 4,799, ES = 1.17 [95% CI, 0.71-1.92], I(2) = 0%), and the effect size for hypothyroidism largely attenuated (N = 71,133, ES = 1.44 [95% CI, 1.27-1.63], I(2) = 0%). Moreover, there was evidence of publication bias. This meta-analysis found only a modest association between hypothyroidism and CTS. Confounding and publication bias may still account for part of the remaining excess risk. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. DISPLASIA CUBITAL, PRESENTACIÓN CLÍNICA Y RESULTADOS EN UNA SERIE RETROSPECTIVA DE DIEZ AÑOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Vergara Amador

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes. La displasia cubital es una alteración en el desarrollo embriológico del lado cubital del antebrazo y la mano. Las deformidades comprometen manos, muñecas y codos; sólo el 11% de los pacientes tienen dedos completos y hasta el 38% de los casos cursan con sindactilias. Objetivo. Describir el perfil epidemiológico y las características clínicas, radiológicas y el tratamiento y los resultados en 14 niños. Material y métodos. Es un estudio descriptivo tipo serie de casos, retrospectivo 14 niños (18 miembros superiores, se evaluaron las características clínicas y radiológicas. Resultados. El compromiso bilateral fue del 28.5 %. Los tipos II y IV de Bayne fueron los predominantes con un 66.5%. Las cirugías múltiples fueron el 41%. Funcionalmente no fue posible homogeneizar un instrumento pre y posoperatorio. El tipo de pinza mejoró de lateral a bidigital o tridigital en el 72.2% de los pacientes, indicador de un progreso funcional significativo. El 84% presentó prensión buena y mejoría en las actividades básicas cotidianas. Conclusión. No existe una clasificación que pueda integrar la diversidad de anomalías. A pesar que la clasificación de Bayne engloba a una gran cantidad de ellos, hay unas difíciles de encasillar como algunos casos con similitud a focomelias y deficiencias transversas del antebrazo. El manejo es específico para cada caso en particular. Sabemos que el compromiso del codo y del primer metacarpiano, son determinantes en el pronóstico funcional. La mejoría de la pinza fue lograda en el 72.2% de los casos llevados a cirugía.

  14. Diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome: interobserver reliability of the blinded scratch-collapse test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, Robin D.; Becker, Stéphanie J. E.; Ring, David C.

    2014-01-01

    The reliability of the scratch-collapse test for diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) has not been tested by independent investigators. This study measured the reliability of the scratch-collapse test comparing the treating hand surgeon and blinded evaluators. We performed a prospective

  15. Progression of carpal tunnel syndrome according to electrodiagnostic testing in nonoperatively treated patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Suchtelen, Mark; Becker, Stéphanie J. E.; Gruber, Jillian S.; Ring, David

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the null hypothesis that nonoperatively treated patients would not show disease progression of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) over time according to median nerve distal motor latency (DML) on two electrodiagnostic tests. This retrospective study analyzed sixty-two adult

  16. Prevalence, course and determinants of carpal tunnel syndrome symptoms during pregnancy : A prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meems, M.; Truijens, S. E. M.; Spek, V.; Visser, L. H.; Pop, V. J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence, severity and relation to fluid retention of self-reported pregnancy-related carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) symptoms in a large sample of pregnant women. Design A prospective longitudinal cohort study. Setting Dutch women who became pregnant between January 2013

  17. Carpal tunnel syndrome - Part I (anatomy, physiology, etiology and diagnosis,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Chammas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS is defined by compression of the median nerve in the wrist. It is the commonest of the compressive syndromes and its most frequent cause is idiopathic. Even though spontaneous regression is possible, the general rule is that the symptoms will worsen. The diagnosis is primarily clinical, from the symptoms and provocative tests. Elec-troneuromyographic examination may be recommended before the operation or in cases of occupational illnesses.

  18. CTS and CZTS for solar cells made by pulsed laser deposition and pulsed electron deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ettlinger, Rebecca Bolt

    This thesis concerns the deposition of thin films for solar cells using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and pulsed electron deposition (PED). The aim was to deposit copper tin sulfide (CTS) and zinc sulfide (ZnS) by pulsed laser deposition to learn about these materials in relation to copper zinc tin...... time. We compared the results of CZTS deposition by PLD at DTU in Denmark to CZTS made by PED at IMEM-CNR, where CIGS solar cells have successfully been fabricated at very low processing temperatures. The main results of this work were as follows: Monoclinic-phase CTS films were made by pulsed laser...... deposition followed by high temperature annealing. The films were used to understand the double band gap that we and other groups observed in the material. The Cu-content of the CTS films varied depending on the laser fluence (the laser energy per pulse and per area). The material transfer from...

  19. Bilateral hand/wrist heat and cold hyperalgesia, but not hypoesthesia, in unilateral carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Llave-Rincón, Ana Isabel; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Fernández-Carnero, Josué; Padua, Luca; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Pareja, Juan A

    2009-10-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate bilaterally warm/cold detection and heat/cold pain thresholds over the hand/wrist in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). A total of 25 women with strictly unilateral CTS (mean 42 +/- 10 years), and 20 healthy matched women (mean 41 +/- 8 years) were recruited. Warm/cold detection and heat/cold pain thresholds were assessed bilaterally over the carpal tunnel and the thenar eminence in a blinded design. Self-reported measures included both clinical pain history (intensity, location and area) and Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire. No significant differences between groups for both warm and cold detection thresholds in either carpal tunnel or thenar eminence (P > 0.5) were found. Further, significant differences between groups, but not between sides, for both heat and cold pain thresholds in both the carpal tunnel and thenar eminence were found (all P < 0.001). Heat pain thresholds (P < 0.01) were negatively correlated, whereas cold pain thresholds (P < 0.001) were positively correlated with hand pain intensity and duration of symptoms. Our findings revealed bilateral thermal hyperalgesia (lower heat pain and reduced cold pain thresholds) but not hypoesthesia (normal warm/cold detection thresholds) in patients with strictly unilateral CTS when compared to controls. We suggest that bilateral heat and cold hyperalgesia may reflect impairments in central nociceptive processing in patients with unilateral CTS. The bilateral thermal hyperalgesia associated with pain intensity and duration of pain history supports a role of generalized sensitization mechanisms in the initiation, maintenance and spread of pain in CTS.

  20. High-resolution MRI predicts steroid injection response in carpal tunnel syndrome patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, Takatoshi; Oki, Hodaka; Kinoshita, Shunsuke; Yamashita, Yoshiko; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Hayashida, Yoshiko; Korogi, Yukunori [University of Occupational and Environmental Health School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Kitakyushu (Japan); Oshige, Takahisa; Sakai, Akinori [University of Occupational and Environmental Health School of Medicine, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kitakyushu (Japan); Matsuyama, Atsushi; Hisaoka, Masanori [University of Occupational and Environmental Health School of Medicine, Department of Pathology and Oncology, Kitakyushu (Japan)

    2014-03-15

    To correlate median nerve T2 signal and shape at the carpal tunnel with steroid injection (SI) response in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) patients. One hundred and sixty-three CTS wrists of 92 consecutive patients who were scheduled to undergo SI were prospectively evaluated with 3-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and a nerve conduction study. All patients underwent axial high-resolution T2-weighted MRI (in-plane resolution of 0.25 x 0.25 mm). The CTS wrists were classified into three groups according to the nerve T2 signal and the flattening ratio at the hook of hamate level: group 1, high and oval; group 2, high and flat; group 3, low and flat. Clinical response to SI was evaluated at 6 months after injection. One hundred and thirteen of the 163 wrists (69.3 %) responded well to SI. The percentage of improvement was 81.7 % (49/60) in group 1, 69.9 % (51/73) in group 2, and 43.3 % (13/30) in group 3 (P < 0.01). On stepwise logistic regression analysis high-resolution MRI was the only significant independent factor for SI response in CTS patients (P < 0.01). High-resolution MRI correlates well with SI response in CTS patients and seems useful for predicting SI response. (orig.)

  1. Blood Flow Changes in Subsynovial Connective Tissue on Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography in Patients With Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Before and After Surgical Decompression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motomiya, Makoto; Funakoshi, Tadanao; Ishizaka, Kinya; Nishida, Mutsumi; Matsui, Yuichiro; Iwasaki, Norimasa

    2017-11-24

    Although qualitative alteration of the subsynovial connective tissue in the carpal tunnel is considered to be one of the most important factors in the pathophysiologic mechanisms of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), little information is available about the microcirculation in the subsynovial connective tissue in patients with CTS. The aims of this study were to use contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (US) to evaluate blood flow in the subsynovial connective tissue proximal to the carpal tunnel in patients with CTS before and after carpal tunnel release. The study included 15 volunteers and 12 patients with CTS. The blood flow in the subsynovial connective tissue and the median nerve was evaluated preoperatively and at 1, 2, and 3 months postoperatively using contrast-enhanced US. The blood flow in the subsynovial connective tissue was higher in the patients with CTS than in the volunteers. In the patients with CTS, there was a significant correlation between the blood flow in the subsynovial connective tissue and the median nerve (P = .01). The blood flow in both the subsynovial connective tissue and the median nerve increased markedly after carpal tunnel release. Our results suggest that increased blood flow in the subsynovial connective tissue may play a role in the alteration of the microcirculation within the median nerve related to the pathophysiologic mechanisms of CTS. The increase in the blood flow in the subsynovial connective tissue during the early postoperative period may contribute to the changes in intraneural circulation, and these changes may lead to neural recovery. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  2. Long-term symptomatic, functional, and work outcomes of carpal tunnel syndrome among construction workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evanoff, Bradley; Gardner, Bethany T; Strickland, Jaime R; Buckner-Petty, Skye; Franzblau, Alfred; Dale, Ann Marie

    2016-05-01

    The long-term outcomes of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) including symptoms, functional status, work disability, and economic impact are unknown. We conducted a retrospective study of 234 active construction workers with medical claims for CTS and 249 workers without CTS claims; non-cases were matched on age, trade, and insurance eligibility. We conducted telephone interviews with cases and non-cases and collected administrative data on work hours. Compared to non-cases, CTS cases were more likely to report recurrent hand symptoms, decreased work productivity/quality, decreased performance of physical work demands, and greater functional limitations. Surgical cases showed larger improvements on multiple outcomes than non-surgical cases. Minimal differences in paid work hours were seen between cases and non-cases in the years preceding and following CTS claims. Persistent symptoms and functional impairments were present several years after CTS diagnosis. Long-term functional limitations shown by this and other studies indicate the need for improved prevention and treatment. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Preliminary Calculations of Shutdown Dose Rate for the CTS Diagnostics System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinkby, Esben Bryndt; Nonbøl, Erik; Lauritzen, Bent

    2015-01-01

    DTU and IST 2 are partners in the design of a collective Thomson Scattering (CTS) diagnostics for ITER through a contract with F4E. The CTS diagnostic utilizes probing radiation of ~60 GHz emitted into the plasma and, using a mirror, collects the scattered radiation by an array of receivers. Having...... on supplying input which affect the system design. Examples include: - Heatloads on plasma facing mirrors and preliminary stress and thermal analysis - Port plug cooling requirements and it's dependence on system design (in particular blanket cut-out) - Shutdown dose-rate calculations (relative analysis...

  4. Activation in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis and sympathetic nervous system in women with carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Díaz-Rodríguez, Lourdes; Salom-Moreno, Jaime; Galiano-Castillo, Noelia; Valverde-Herreros, Lis; Martínez-Martín, Javier; Pareja, Juan A

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the differences in salivary cortisol (hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical [HPA] axis), α-amylase activity (sympathetic nervous system [SNS]), and immunoglobulin A (IgA; immune system) concentrations between women with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and healthy women. A cross-sectional study. Activation of HPA, SNS, and immune system in CTS has not been clearly determined. One hundred two women (age: 45 ± 7 years) with electrodiagnostic and clinical diagnosis of CTS and 102 matched healthy women. The intensity of the pain was assessed with a Numerical Pain Rating Scale (0-10), and disability was determined with Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire. Salivary cortisol concentration, α-amylase activity, salivary flow rate, and IgA concentration were collected from nonstimulated saliva. Women with CTS exhibited lower salivary flow rate (P  0.2) were found between groups as a total. Women with severe CTS exhibited lower salivary flow rate (P < 0.001), higher α-amylase activity (P = 0.002), and higher cortisol concentration (P = 0.03) than healthy women and than those with minimal/moderate CTS (P < 0.05). Within women with CTS, significant positive associations between α-amylase activity and the intensity of pain were found: the highest the level of pain, the higher the α-amylase activity, i.e., higher SNS activation. These results suggest that women with severe CTS exhibit changes in activation in the HPA axis and SNS but not in the humoral immune system. Activation of the SNS was associated with the intensity of pain. Future studies are needed to elucidate the direction of this relationship. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Diagnostic utility of F waves in clinically diagnosed patients of carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Anand G; Gargate, Ashwini R

    2013-01-01

    Sensory nerve conduction velocity (SNCV) of median nerve measured across the carpal tunnel, difference between distal sensory latencies (DSLs) of median and ulnar nerves and difference between distal motor latencies (DMLs) of median and ulnar nerves are commonly used nerve conduction parameters for diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). These are having high degree of sensitivity and specificity. Study of median nerve F-wave minimal latency (FWML) and difference between F-wave minimal latencies (FWMLs) of median and ulnar nerves have also been reported to be useful parameters for diagnosis of CTS. However, there is controversy regarding superiority of F-wave study for diagnosis of CTS. So the aim of present study was to compare sensitivity and specificity of median FWML and difference between FWMLs of median and ulnar nerves with that of above mentioned electrophysiological parameters and to find out which parameters are having more sensitivity and specificity, for early diagnosis of CTS. Median and ulnar nerves sensory and motor conduction, median and ulnar nerves F-wave studies were carried out bilaterally in 125 clinically diagnosed patients of carpal tunnel syndrome. These parameters were also studied in 45 age matched controls. Difference between DSLs of median and ulnar nerves, median SNCV and difference between DMLs of median and ulnar nerves were having highest sensitivity and specificity while median FWML and difference between FWMLs of median and ulnar nerves was having lowest sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of CTS. So in conclusion F-wave study is not superior parameter for diagnosis of CTS.

  6. Prevalent involvement of thenar motor fibres in vineyard workers with carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondelli, M; Baldasseroni, A; Aretini, A; Ginanneschi, F; Padua, L

    2010-08-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) has a high prevalence in agricultural workers, especially those engaged in vineyards. We postulated that vineyard CTS was electrophysiologically different from CTS of other subjects. We performed a retrospective cross-sectional electrophysiological study of two cohorts of consecutive patients with CTS, the first consisting of vineyard workers and the second, of other unselected types of workers, housewives and pensioners. Thirty-three vineyard workers (mean age 46.8years, 42% women) and 205 patients with other occupations (mean age 53.7years; 66% women) were enrolled. All patients underwent sensory and motor neurography of the median and ulnar nerves. Differences in demographic and electrophysiological findings between groups were calculated and multiple linear regression analysis was performed to eliminate the influence of potential confounding factors (age, sex, BMI, clinical severity of CTS) on the results of univariate difference analysis. Univariate analysis showed that DML was longer and compound muscle action potential amplitude of the median nerve, recorded from the abductor pollicis brevis muscle, was smaller in vineyard workers than in the other CTS patients. These differences remained significant after adjusting the results for confounding factors. The vineyard workers showed a different pattern of CTS than the other patients: thenar motor fibres were more affected, presumably due to chronic compression on the thenar branch. This suggests an association between "common" CTS and thenar mononeuropathy. Occupational physiologists should clarify the mechanisms of neuromuscular engagement in particular jobs and ergonomists design suitable working tools, because many "individual" risk factors are difficult to change, but workplace-related risk factors can be modified. Copyright 2010 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Carpal tunnel syndrome assessed with diffusion tensor imaging: Comparison with electrophysiological studies of patients and healthy volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chien-Kuo; Jou, I-Ming; Huang, Han-Wei; Chen, Pei-Yin; Tsai, Hong-Ming; Liu, Yi-Sheng; Lin, Chou-Ching K.

    2012-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to investigate the applicability of parameters derived from diffusion tension imaging (DTI) in diagnosing carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Forty subjects were recruited, of which 19 were normal controls and 21 belonged to the CTS group. DTI of median nerves evaluated at 4 levels of the wrist (distal radius, pisiform bone, middle portion of the carpal tunnel, and hamate bone) and conventional MRI of the wrist was performed in normal and CTS subjects in two finger postures (extension and flexion). Fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were derived from DTI, and parameters related to abnormal hyperintensity of the median nerve were derived from conventional MRI. Electrophysiological tests, including nerve conduction velocity and F wave were also performed for comparison. The results of FA and ADC measurements did not depend on the measuring location and finger posture. Mean FA was decreased while mean ADC was increased by CTS. FA and ADC at the middle portion of the carpal tunnel was 0.47 ± 0.05 and 1.37 ± 0.12 (×10 −3 mm 2 /s) for the control group and 0.42 ± 0.04 and 1.50 ± 0.15 (×10 −3 mm 2 /s) for the CTS group, respectively. The linear correlations of FA and ADC versus electrophysiological indicators of CTS were significant (R 2 ranged from 0.09 to 0.36), indicating FA and ADC from DTI had significant correlation with the existence and severity of CTS.

  8. ClpE from Lactococcus lactis promotes repression of CtsR-dependent gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varmanen, P.; Vogensen, F.K.; Hammer, Karin

    2003-01-01

    ATPase (ClpE) in Lactococcus lactis is required for such a decrease in expression of a gene negatively regulated by the heat shock regulator (CtsR). Northern blot analysis showed that while a shift to a high temperature in wild-type cells resulted in a temporal increase followed by a decrease...

  9. TH-A-BRF-03: Evaluation of Synthetic CTs Generated Using MR-SIM Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J; Glide-Hurst, C; Doemer, A; Wen, N; Chett, I [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To describe and evaluate a novel algorithm for generating synthetic CT images from MR-SIM data for dose calculations in MR-only treatment planning. Methods: A voxel-based weighted summation method was implemented to generate synthetic CT (synCT) images. MR data were acquired using Philips 1.0T Panorama high-field open MR-SIM. Retrospective patient data from seven prostate patients and one brain patient (three lesions) enrolled in an IRB-approved study were used. 3D T1-weighted fast field echo and 3D T2-weighted turbo spin echo sequences were utilized for all patients. A 3D balanced turbo field echo sequence using spectral presaturation with inversion recovery was acquired for prostate patients, but 3D ultra-short echo time (UTE)-DIXON was instead acquired for the brain patient to amplify bone signal for semi-automatic bone segmentation. Weight optimization was performed using a training subset of patients. HU value differences between planning CT and synCTs were analyzed using mean absolute error (MAE). Original patient CT-based treatment plans were mapped onto synCTs, dose was recalculated using original leaf motion and MU values, and DRRs were generated. Dosevolume metrics and gamma analysis were used for dosimetric evaluation. Results: Average whole-body MAE of synCTs across all patients was 75+12 HU. In prostate cancer patients, average HU difference between planning and synCTs was 0.9±1.0% for soft tissue structures and 4.3±2.5% for bony structures. DRRs were generated from synCTs and qualitatively showed good geometric agreement with planning CT-generated DRRs. D99, mean dose, and maximum dose to CTV calculated using the synCT remained within 1.2% of planning CT-based dose calculations. All gamma analysis evaluated at 2%/2mm dose difference/distance to agreement) pass rates were greater than 95% with an average of 99.9±0.1% for prostate patients and 98.4±2.2% for three brain lesions. Conclusion: SynCTs were generated with clinically acceptable

  10. Observation of short time-scale spectral emissions at millimeter wavelengths with the new CTS diagnostic on the FTU tokamak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruschi, A.; Alessi, E.; Bin, W.

    2017-01-01

    On the FTU tokamak, the collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostic was renewed for investigating the possible excitation of parametric decay instabilities (PDI) by electron cyclotron (EC) or CTS probe beams in presence of magnetic islands and measure their effects on the EC power absorption...

  11. Association Between Manual Loading and Newly Developed Carpal Tunnel Syndrome in Subjects With Physical Disabilities: A Follow-Up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Nung; Chiu, Chun-Chieh; Huang, Shih-Wei; Hsu, Wen-Yen; Liou, Tsan-Hon; Chen, Yi-Wen; Chang, Kwang-Hwa

    2017-10-01

    To identify the association between body composition and newly developed carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and to search for the best probabilistic cutoff value of associated factors to predict subjects with physical disabilities developing new CTS. Longitudinal. University-affiliated medical center. Subjects with physical disabilities (N=47; mean age ± SD, 42.1±7.7y). Not applicable. Median and ulnar sensory nerve conduction velocity (SNCV) were measured at the initial and follow-up tests (interval >2y). Total and regional body composition were measured with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry at the initial test. Leg lean tissue percentage was calculated to delineate each participant's manual loading degree during locomotion. Leg lean tissue percentage is the lean tissue mass of both legs divided by body weight. Based on median SNCV changes, we divided all participants into 3 groups: subjects with bilateral CTS (median SNCV value normative ulnar SNCV value >37.8m/s) in the initial test (n=10), subjects with newly developed CTS in the follow-up test (n=8), and subjects without additional CTS in the follow-up test (n=27). Eight of 35 subjects not having bilateral CTS initially developed new CTS (8.8% per year; mean follow-up period, 2.6y). Leg lean tissue percentage was associated with the probability of newly developed CTS (adjusted odds ratio, .64; P12% were less likely to have developed new CTS at the follow-up test (sensitivity, .75; specificity, .85; area under the curve, .88; Pphysical disabilities. Therefore, a preventive program for those subjects at risk can start early. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The carpal tunnel syndrome in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leti Acciaro, A; Pilla, F; Faldini, C; Adani, R

    2017-12-21

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in children represents a complex challenge for the hand surgeon because of its rarity, poor patient cooperation, frequently associated malformation syndromes and mental retard, atypical symptoms and nuanced and poor sensitivity of instrumental tests. The most frequently associated causes with the CTS in children are rare congenital malformations and diseases, requiring an overall assessment of the young patient and a high degree of suspicion for the potentially associated canalicular syndrome. On the other hand, the associated syndromes may be the main ally for a diagnosis that starts from the knowledge of the literature and the surgeon's suspicion by observing the child wailing. Early diagnosis and decompression treatment is mandatory. The authors report a case series of 26 children and analyze the etiology and diagnostic algorithms. Patient assessment was based on complete clinical examination and medical history collection of these young patients with the involvement of the family and educators. In all 26 patients treated, along an average period of 23 months (minimum 12, maximum 30), no signs of recurrence or persistence of median nerve disturbances were recorded. In conclusion, we believe that anamnesis, a careful physical examination and analysis of instrumental examinations, should be accompanied by a thorough knowledge of rare diseases in the context of congenital malformations. The carpal tunnel syndrome, while well known and treated by each orthopedic surgeon, reveals a mysterious aspect in the context of the "fabulous" world of childhood illnesses, even more difficult than rare congenital diseases.

  13. Kinesiotaping as an alternative treatment method for carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geler Külcü, Duygu; Bursali, Canan; Aktaş, İlknur; Bozkurt Alp, Selin; Ünlü Özkan, Feyza; Akpinar, Pınar

    2016-06-23

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common entrapment neuropathy. Conservative treatment choices are not always satisfactory. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of kinesiotaping (KT) on pain level, grip strength, and functional status compared with that of placebo KT and orthotic device (OD) in patients with CTS. In this randomized, placebo-controlled study, participants were allocated into one of three groups: an experimental KT group (Group 1), a placebo KT group (Group 2), and an OD group (Group 3). Visual analogue scale (VAS) and Douleur Neuropathique 4 (DN4) scores, dynamometric grip strength measures, and the Boston CTS questionnaire (BQ) were the outcome measures. All groups significantly improved in terms of VAS scores (P < 0.05), DN4 scores (P < 0.05), and BQ scores (P < 0.05). Grip strength improved in Group 3 (P = 0.001). There was a significant difference among the groups with respect to BQ scores (P < 0.05). KT application for the treatment of CTS should be an alternative treatment choice.

  14. Time course and predictors of median nerve conduction after carpal tunnel release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotman, Mitchell B; Enkvetchakul, Bobby V; Megerian, J Thomas; Gozani, Shai N

    2004-05-01

    To identify predictors of outcome and of electrophysiologic recovery in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) treated by endoscopic carpal tunnel release using a nerve conduction testing system (NC-Stat; NEUROMetrix, Inc, Waltham, MA). Validity of the automated nerve conduction testing system was shown by comparing presurgical distal motor latencies (DMLs) against a reference obtained by referral to an electromyography laboratory. The DML was evaluated in 48 patients with CTS. Measurements were obtained within 1 hour of surgery and at 2 weeks, 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months after carpal tunnel release. Presurgical and postsurgical DMLs were then compared and correlated with variables and possible predictors of outcome including age, body mass index, gender, and presurgical DMLs. The automated nerve conduction testing system DMLs matched those of reference electromyography/nerve conduction study values with high correlation. Sensitivity of the automated nerve conduction testing system when compared with a standardized CTS case definition was 89%, with a specificity of 95%. A significant correlation was found between the DML before release and the DML 1 hour after release. Moreover, maximal postsurgical DML improvement was highly dependent on the presurgical DML, with no improvement shown for the 6-ms group. Among the clinical variables of age, gender, and body mass index only age was mildly predictive of postrelease DML changes at 6 months. No other correlations between clinical variables and postsurgical DMLs were significant. In addition the predictive value of age was lost when combined with the presurgical DML in a multivariate analysis. Postsurgical changes in the median nerve DML were highly dependent on the prerelease latency. The sensitivity and specificity of a nerve conduction monitoring system in detecting and aiding in the diagnosis of CTS is useful in the long-term management of patients with CTS and can aid in determining the level of improvement

  15. [Etiological factors of carpal tunnel syndrome in subjects occupationally exposed to monotype wrist movements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewańska, Magdalena; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta

    2014-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common neuropathy of upper limbs and a leading cause of upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders, in terms of work exposure, repetitive and forceful exertions of the hand and use of vibrating hand tools. The aim of the study was to evaluate etiological factors of carpal tunnel syndrome in subjects occupationally exposed to monotype movements in wrist. We conducted the retrospective analysis of 300 patients (261 women, 39 men), mean age 52 years (standard deviation: +/-6.93) hospitalized with the suspicion of occupational CTS. The study revealed high percentage (68.7%) of diseases and systemic factors involved in the pathogenesis of CTS in the analyzed population, especially obesity (32%), thyroid diseases (28.7%), hormone replacement therapy and/or oophorectomy (16.3%) and diabetes mellitus (12%). In 111 patients the coexistence of at least a couple of potential etiological factors of the neuropathy was recognized. Clinical analysis and occupational exposure allowed to diagnose occupational carpal tunnel syndrome in 18 (6%) patients only. The undeniable long-term (20(.2+/-9.3 years) occupational exposure to repetitive, forceful movements in the wrist was observed in this group. The results of our study indicated that non-occupational etiological factors of CTS predominated and in 37% of patients at least several factors were found. The analysis showed the high prevalence of CTS in workers employed in various sectors of industry, including so called "blue collar" workers. Our study confirmed the multifactorial etiology of carpal tunnel syndrome, however, occupational agents contributed to only 6% of cases.

  16. Etiological factors of carpal tunnel syndrome in subjects occupationally exposed to monotype wrist movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Lewańska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS is the most common neuropathy of upper limbs and a leading cause of upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders, in terms of work exposure, repetitive and forceful exertions of the hand and use of vibrating hand tools. The aim of the study was to evaluate etiological factors of carpal tunnel syndrome in subjects occupationally exposed to monotype movements in wrist. Material and Methods: We conducted the retrospective analysis of 300 patients (261 women, 39 men, mean age 52 years (standard deviation: ±6.93 hospitalized with the suspicion of occupational CTS. Results: The study revealed high percentage (68.7% of diseases and systemic factors involved in the pathogenesis of CTS in the analyzed population, especially obesity (32%, thyroid diseases (28.7%, hormone replacement therapy and/or oophorectomy (16.3% and diabetes mellitus (12%. In 111 patients the coexistence of at least a couple of potential etiological factors of the neuropathy was recognized. Clinical analysis and occupational exposure allowed to diagnose occupational carpal tunnel syndrome in 18 (6% patients only. The undeniable long-term (20.2±9.3 years occupational exposure to repetitive, forceful movements in the wrist was observed in this group. Conclusion: The results of our study indicated that non-occupational etiological factors of CTS predominated and in 37% of patients at least several factors were found. The analysis showed the high prevalence of CTS in workers employed in various sectors of industry, including so called "blue collar" workers. Our study confirmed the multifactorial etiology of carpal tunnel syndrome, however, occupational agents contributed to only 6% of cases. Med Pr 2014;65(2:261–270

  17. Transverse plane tendon and median nerve motion in the carpal tunnel: ultrasound comparison of carpal tunnel syndrome patients and healthy volunteers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margriet H M van Doesburg

    Full Text Available The median nerve and flexor tendons are known to translate transversely in the carpal tunnel. The purpose of this study was to investigate these motions in differential finger motion using ultrasound, and to compare them in healthy people and carpal tunnel syndrome patients.Transverse ultrasounds clips were taken during fist, index finger, middle finger and thumb flexion in 29 healthy normal subjects and 29 CTS patients. Displacement in palmar-dorsal and radial-ulnar direction was calculated using Analyze software. Additionally, the distance between the median nerve and the tendons was calculated.We found a changed motion pattern of the median nerve in middle finger, index finger and thumb motion between normal subjects and CTS patients (p<0.05. Also, we found a changed motion direction in CTS patients of the FDS III tendon in fist and middle finger motion, and of the FDS II and flexor pollicis longus tendon in index finger and thumb motion, respectively (p<0.05. The distance between the median nerve and the FDS II or FPL tendon is significantly greater in patients than in healthy volunteers for index finger and thumb motion, respectively (p<0.05.Our results suggest a changed motion pattern of the median nerve and several tendons in carpal tunnel syndrome patients compared to normal subjects. Such motion patterns may be useful in distinguishing affected from unaffected individuals, and in studies of the pathomechanics of carpal tunnel syndrome.

  18. Comparative Anatomy of the Subsynovial Connective Tissue in the Carpal Tunnel of the Rat, Rabbit, Dog, Baboon, and Human

    OpenAIRE

    Ettema, Anke M.; Zhao, Chunfeng; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C.

    2006-01-01

    The tenosynovium in the human carpal tunnel is connected to the flexor tendons and the median nerve by the subsynovial connective tissue (SSCT). The most common histological finding in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), a compression neuropathy of the median nerve, is noninflammatory fibrosis of the SSCT. The relationship, if any, between the fibrosis and nerve pathology is unknown, although some have speculated that a change in the SSCT volume or stiffness might be the source of the compression. ...

  19. Correlating nerve conduction studies and clinical outcome measures on carpal tunnel syndrome: lessons from a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrijver, H.M.; Gerritsen, A.A.M.; Strijers, R.L.; Uitdehaag, B.M.J.; Scholten, R.J.P.M.; de Vet, H.C.W.; Bouter, L.M.

    2005-01-01

    The reported relationships between nerve conduction studies (NCS) and outcome measures in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) are weak to moderate. However, selection of patients may have confounded nonrandomized studies. NCS have potentially great value in selecting patients for a specific treatment and

  20. Two-point discrimination and kinesthetic sense disorders in productive age individuals with carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolny, Tomasz; Saulicz, Edward; Linek, Paweł; Myśliwiec, Andrzej

    2016-06-16

    The aim of this study was to evaluate two-point discrimination (2PD) sense and kinesthetic sense dysfunctions in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) patients compared with a healthy group. The 2PD sense, muscle force, and kinesthetic differentiation (KD) of strength; the range of motion in radiocarpal articulation; and KD of motion were assessed. The 2PD sense assessment showed significantly higher values in all the examined fingers in the CTS group than in those in the healthy group (p<0.01). There was a significant difference in the percentage value of error in KD of pincer and cylindrical grip (p<0.01) as well as in KD of flexion and extension movement in the radiocarpal articulation (p<0.01) between the studied groups. There are significant differences in the 2PD sense and KD of strength and movement between CTS patients compared with healthy individuals.

  1. MD-CTS: An integrated terminology reference of clinical and translational medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Will Ray

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available New vocabularies are rapidly evolving in the literature relative to the practice of clinical medicine and translational research. To provide integrated access to new terms, we developed a mobile and desktop online reference—Marshfield Dictionary of Clinical and Translational Science (MD-CTS. It is the first public resource that comprehensively integrates Wiktionary (word definition, BioPortal (ontology, Wiki (image reference, and Medline abstract (word usage information. MD-CTS is accessible at http://spellchecker.mfldclin.edu/. The website provides a broadened capacity for the wider clinical and translational science community to keep pace with newly emerging scientific vocabulary. An initial evaluation using 63 randomly selected biomedical words suggests that online references generally provided better coverage (73%-95% than paper-based dictionaries (57–71%.

  2. Prevalence and Work-Relatedness of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome in the Working Population, United States, 2010 National Health Interview Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckhaupt, Sara E.; Dahlhamer, James M.; Ward, Brian W.; Sweeney, Marie H.; Sestito, John P.; Calvert, Geoffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Patterns of prevalence and work-relatedness of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) among workers offer clues about risk factors and targets for prevention. Methods Data from an occupational health supplement to the 2010 National Health Interview Survey were used to estimate the prevalence of self-reported clinician-diagnosed CTS overall and by demographic characteristics. The proportion of these cases self-reported to have been attributed to work by clinicians was also examined overall and by demographic characteristics. In addition, the distribution of industry and occupation (I&O) categories to which work-related cases of CTS were attributed was compared to the distribution of I&O categories of employment among current/recent workers. Results Data were available for 27,157 adults, including 17,524 current/recent workers. The overall lifetime prevalence of clinician-diagnosed CTS among current/recent workers was 6.7%. The 12-month prevalence was 3.1%, representing approximately 4.8 million workers with current CTS; 67.1% of these cases were attributed to work by clinicians, with overrepresentation of certain I&O categories. Conclusions CTS affected almost 5 million U.S. workers in 2010, with prevalence varying by demographic characteristics and I&O. PMID:22495886

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of carpal tunnel syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hachisuka, Hiroki; Kimori, Kenji; Tsuge, Kenya; Murakami, Tsuneji

    2006-01-01

    In many reports, the severity of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is evaluated by subjective symptoms and nerve conduction findings of the median nerve. However, nerve conduction studies are complicated and the patients occasionally experience pain. In this report, we quantified a morphological change in the median nerve by using MRI, and reviewed a new noninvasive method of CTS evaluation. The survey was carried out on 55 idiopathic CTS patients (45 females and 10 males). The affected areas were 33 right hands and 22 left hands. The average age of the patients was 59 years. We used Philips Gyroscan Intera 1.5 Tesla MRI. T2 weighted axial image of the carpal canal sliced by width of 1 mm was used to measure a minimum axis/maximum axis (median nerve compression rate; MNCR). Simultaneously, we measured the nerve conduction velocity and terminal latency of the motor and sensory nerves; we evaluated the thumb motor disturbance by Hamada's classification and sensory disturbance by Semmes-Weinstein test. The statistical correlations between these items and MNCR were analyzed. MNCR had a significant correlation with all items, particularly with motor nerve conduction velocity and latency, and Hamada's classification. There have been some trials regarding the application of MRI findings for CTS evaluation. In these reports, they measured the cross section of the median nerve or brightness of the median nerve, flexor tendon, or intrinsic muscle. However, it is difficult to measure an MRI cross section or brightness in common practice. MNCR has a statistical correlation with the nerve conduction study, is easy to measure, and noninvasive. MNCR is useful as an objective evaluation method of CTS severity. (author)

  4. Altered brain morphometry in carpal tunnel syndrome is associated with median nerve pathology☆☆☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Yumi; Kettner, Norman; Sheehan, James; Kim, Jieun; Cina, Stephen; Malatesta, Cristina; Gerber, Jessica; McManus, Claire; Mezzacappa, Pia; Morse, Leslie R.; Audette, Joseph; Napadow, Vitaly

    2013-01-01

    Objective Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a common median nerve entrapment neuropathy characterized by pain, paresthesias, diminished peripheral nerve conduction velocity (NCV) and maladaptive functional brain neuroplasticity. We evaluated structural reorganization in brain gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) and whether such plasticity is linked to altered median nerve function in CTS. Methods We performed NCV testing, T1-weighted structural MRI, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in 28 CTS and 28 age-matched healthy controls (HC). Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) contrasted regional GM volume for CTS versus HC. Significant clusters were correlated with clinical metrics and served as seeds to define associated WM tracts using DTI data and probabilistic tractography. Within these WM tracts, fractional anisotropy (FA), axial (AD) and radial (RD) diffusivity were evaluated for group differences and correlations with clinical metrics. Results For CTS subjects, GM volume was significantly reduced in contralesional S1 (hand-area), pulvinar and frontal pole. GM volume in contralesional S1 correlated with median NCV. NCV was also correlated with RD and was negatively correlated with FA within U-fiber cortico-cortical association tracts identified from the contralesional S1 VBM seed. Conclusions Our study identified clear morphometric changes in the CTS brain. This central morphometric change is likely secondary to peripheral nerve pathology and altered somatosensory afference. Enhanced axonal coherence and myelination within cortico-cortical tracts connecting primary somatosensory and motor areas may accompany peripheral nerve deafferentation. As structural plasticity was correlated with NCV and not symptomatology, the former may be a better determinant of appropriate clinical intervention for CTS, including surgery. PMID:23799199

  5. Severity of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome and Diagnostic Accuracy of Hand and Body Anthropometric Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondelli, Mauro; Farioli, Andrea; Mattioli, Stefano; Aretini, Alessandro; Ginanneschi, Federica; Greco, Giuseppe; Curti, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the diagnostic properties of hand/wrist and body measures according to validated clinical and electrophysiological carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) severity scales. Methods We performed a prospective case-control study. For each case, two controls were enrolled. Two five-stage clinical and electrophysiological scales were used to evaluate CTS severity. Anthropometric measurements were collected and obesity indicators and hand/wrist ratios were calculated. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC), sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios were calculated separately by gender. Results We consecutively enrolled 370 cases and 747 controls. The wrist-palm ratio, waist-hip-height ratio and waist-stature ratio showed the highest proportion of cases with abnormal values in the severe stages of CTS for clinical and electrophysiological severity scales in both genders. Accuracy tended to increase with CTS severity for females and males. In severe stage, most of the indexes presented moderate accuracy in both genders. Among subjects with severe CTS, the wrist-palm ratio presented the highest AUC for hand measures in the clinical and electrophysiological severity scales both in females (AUC 0.83 and 0.76, respectively) and males (AUC 0.91 and 0.82, respectively). Among subjects with severe CTS, the waist-stature ratio showed the highest AUC for body measures in the clinical and electrophysiological severity scales both in females (AUC 0.78 and 0.77, respectively) and males (AUC 0.84 and 0.76, respectively). The results of waist-hip-height ratio AUC were similar. Conclusions Wrist-palm ratio, waist-hip-height ratio and waist-stature ratio could contribute to support the diagnostic hypothesis of severe CTS that however has to be confirmed by nerve conduction study. PMID:27768728

  6. Severity of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome and Diagnostic Accuracy of Hand and Body Anthropometric Measures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Mondelli

    Full Text Available To study the diagnostic properties of hand/wrist and body measures according to validated clinical and electrophysiological carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS severity scales.We performed a prospective case-control study. For each case, two controls were enrolled. Two five-stage clinical and electrophysiological scales were used to evaluate CTS severity. Anthropometric measurements were collected and obesity indicators and hand/wrist ratios were calculated. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC, sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios were calculated separately by gender.We consecutively enrolled 370 cases and 747 controls. The wrist-palm ratio, waist-hip-height ratio and waist-stature ratio showed the highest proportion of cases with abnormal values in the severe stages of CTS for clinical and electrophysiological severity scales in both genders. Accuracy tended to increase with CTS severity for females and males. In severe stage, most of the indexes presented moderate accuracy in both genders. Among subjects with severe CTS, the wrist-palm ratio presented the highest AUC for hand measures in the clinical and electrophysiological severity scales both in females (AUC 0.83 and 0.76, respectively and males (AUC 0.91 and 0.82, respectively. Among subjects with severe CTS, the waist-stature ratio showed the highest AUC for body measures in the clinical and electrophysiological severity scales both in females (AUC 0.78 and 0.77, respectively and males (AUC 0.84 and 0.76, respectively. The results of waist-hip-height ratio AUC were similar.Wrist-palm ratio, waist-hip-height ratio and waist-stature ratio could contribute to support the diagnostic hypothesis of severe CTS that however has to be confirmed by nerve conduction study.

  7. Diagnosis and treatment of hand-arm vibration syndrome and its relationship to carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkiner, Sonja

    2003-07-01

    Hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) is a condition associated with the use of vibrating tools that occurs mainly in men. It consists primarily of 'occupational' Raynaud disease and digital polyneuropathy. Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is also associated with hand transmitted vibration exposure and can coexist with HAVS. This article examines recent papers on causation, diagnosis, relationship to CTS and treatment. A Medline search was conducted, as was a search of UK, USA and Australian government occupational health and safety websites. Published papers that were single case studies or of poor design were not included. There are no 'gold standard' diagnostic tests for HAVS. It can mimic CTS in temperate climates and can occur with CTS. This is the diagnostic challenge when a male worker presents with apparent CTS symptoms. If he has worked with vibrating tools for many years, a diagnosis of HAVS or co-diagnosis of HAVS should be considered before a diagnosis of pure CTS is made. Nonwork risk factors for HAVS are predisposition, smoking, and exposure to vibration outside work. Cessation of exposure (and smoking) and redeployment is a critical part of treatment due to the dose response relationship of HAVS. This contrasts with adequately treated CTS, where the vast majority of workers can return to pre-injury duties. In severe cases, calcium antagonists are also used, but treatment is often ineffective. Few workplaces in Australia manage vibration risk or conduct screening to identify workers with early HAVS who should be redeployed. Local doctors have an important opportunity to diagnose HAVS and to make recommendations to the workplace on redeployment as part of treatment before symptoms become irreversible.

  8. Sensory-Motor Index is Useful Parameter in Electroneurographical Diagnosis of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Perić

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available It was performed electroneurographic (ENG studies with surface electrodes and examined nervus medianus (NM in 60 patients (38 females, average age of 50,28 years (X+/-SD=50,28+/-11, with clinical diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS and at least one border or discrete abnormal value of conventional electrophysiological tests. It was also examined 57 healthy individuals (33 females as control group, average age of 45,65 years (X+/-SD=45,65+/-9,68. The sensitivity and specificity of sensory-motor index (SMI, terminal latency index(TLI and residual latency (RL were calculated and compared. SMI is determinate by using following formula: distal distance (DD (in cm/distal motor latency (DML (in ms + sensory conduction velocity (SCV (in m/s/motor conduction velocity (MCV (in m/s of NM. SCV of NM was measured by antidromic technique in segment wrist-index finger and MCV of NM in forearm segment above wrist. SMI mean value of control group was 3,45 (X+/-SD=3,45+/-0,45 with lower limit of normal value 2,82 and in patients with CTS 2,13 (X+/-SD=2,13 +/-0,37. The sensitivity of SMI in patients with CTS was 98,51%. SMI is useful parameter in electroneurographical diagnosis of CTS and it's determination is easy and fast and specially important in cases with border or discrete abnormal values of other NM electrophysiological parameters, when SMI values can indicate incipient phase of CTS evolution. In rare cases (about 1% of CTS with selective NM motor axons affection, SMI may have normal value (false negative result, but DML is always prolonged in this cases. SMI is not dependent on age and DD values in patients with CTS and control subjects.

  9. Personal risk factors for carpal tunnel syndrome in female visual display unit workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccò, Matteo; Cattani, Silvia; Signorelli, Carlo

    2016-11-18

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common nerve entrapment syndrome, which since the beginning of the seventies has been linked to the keyboard and visual display unit (VDU). The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and personal factors associated with CTS in female VDU workers in Italy. Participants in this study were female adult subjects, working ≥ 20 h/week (N = 631, mean age 38.14±7.81 years, mean working age 12.9±7.24 years). Signs and symptoms were collected during compulsory occupational medical surveillance. The binary logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios for the factors of interest. Diagnosis of CTS was reported in 48 cases (7.6%, 11 of them or 1.7% after a surgical correction) for the incidence of 5.94/1000 person-years. In general, signs and symptoms of CTS were associated with the following demographic factors: previous trauma of upper limb (adjusted odds ratio (ORa) = 8.093, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.347-27.904), history (> 5 years) of oral contraceptives therapy/hormone replacement therapy (ORa = 3.77, 95% CI: 1.701-8.354) and cervical spine signs/symptoms (ORa = 4.565, 95% CI: 2.281-9.136). The prevalence of CTS was similar to the estimates for the general population of Italy. Among personal risk factors, hormone therapy, previous trauma of the upper limb and signs/symptoms of the cervical spine appeared to be associated with a higher risk of CTS syndrome. Eventually, the results reinforce interpretation of CTS in VDU workers as a work-related musculoskeletal disorder rather than a classical occupational disease. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2016;29(6):927-936. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  10. Personal risk factors for carpal tunnel syndrome in female visual display unit workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Riccò

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS is the most common nerve entrapment syndrome, which since the beginning of the seventies has been linked to the keyboard and visual display unit (VDU. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and personal factors associated with CTS in female VDU workers in Italy. Material and Methods: Participants in this study were female adult subjects, working ≥ 20 h/week (N = 631, mean age 38.14±7.81 years, mean working age 12.9±7.24 years. Signs and symptoms were collected during compulsory occupational medical surveillance. The binary logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios for the factors of interest. Results: Diagnosis of CTS was reported in 48 cases (7.6%, 11 of them or 1.7% after a surgical correction for the incidence of 5.94/1000 person-years. In general, signs and symptoms of CTS were associated with the following demographic factors: previous trauma of upper limb (adjusted odds ratio (ORa = 8.093, 95% confidence interval (CI: 2.347–27.904, history (> 5 years of oral contraceptives therapy/hormone replacement therapy (ORa = 3.77, 95% CI: 1.701–8.354 and cervical spine signs/symptoms (ORa = 4.565, 95% CI: 2.281–9.136. Conclusions: The prevalence of CTS was similar to the estimates for the general population of Italy. Among personal risk factors, hormone therapy, previous trauma of the upper limb and signs/symptoms of the cervical spine appeared to be associated with a higher risk of CTS syndrome. Eventually, the results reinforce interpretation of CTS in VDU workers as a work-related musculoskeletal disorder rather than a classical occupational disease. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2016;29(6:927–936

  11. Screening for Acromegaly in Patients with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Prospective Study (ACROCARP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoicas, F; Kleindienst, A; Mayr, B; Buchfelder, M; Megele, R; Schöfl, C

    2016-07-01

    Early diagnosis of acromegaly prevents irreversible comorbidities and facilitates surgical cure. Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is common in acromegaly and patients have often undergone surgery for CTS prior to the diagnosis of acromegaly. We hypothesized that screening CTS-patients for acromegaly could facilitate active case-finding. We prospectively enrolled 196 patients [135 women, 56.9 (range 23-103) years] who presented with CTS for surgery. Patients were asked about 6 symptoms suggestive of acromegaly using a questionnaire calculating a symptom score (0-6 points), and insulin-like-growth factor 1 (IGF-1) was measured. If IGF-1 was increased, IGF-1 measurement was repeated, and random growth hormone (GH) and/or an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with assessment of GH-suppression were performed. The mean symptom score was 1.7±1.3 points. Three patients reported the maximal symptom score of 6 points, but none of them had an increased IGF-1. There was no correlation between the symptom score and IGF-1-SDS (standard deviation score) (r=0.026; p=0.71). Four patients had an IGF-1>2 SDS. In 2 patients acromegaly was ruled out using random GH and OGTT. One patient had normal IGF-1 and random GH at follow-up. One patient refused further diagnostics. In this prospective cohort of patients with CTS, the observed frequency of acromegaly was at most 0.51% (95% CI 0.03 to 2.83%). In this prospective study, none of the 196 patients with CTS had proven acromegaly. Thus, we see no evidence to justify general screening of patients with CTS for acromegaly. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Subjective symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome correlate more with psychological factors than electrophysiological severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firosh Khan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS is the most common entrapment neuropathy and is one of the most common requests for electrodiagnosis. We aimed to note the relationship of subjective symptom severity of CTS, with objective electrophysiological severity and psychological status of patients. Patients and Methods: One hundred and forty-four consecutive patients of CTS referred to neurophysiology laboratory of a tertiary care hospital over 1 year were prospectively studied. Boston CTS Assessment Questionnaire (BCTSAQ and visual analog scale (VAS were used to assess subjective symptom severity. Psychological status was assessed by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Electrophysiological severity of CTS was estimated by median motor distal latency and median to ulnar peak sensory latency difference across the wrist. Each parameter in both hands was scored from 0 to 3 depending on the severity grade, and a composite electrophysiological severity score (CEPSS was calculated for each patient by summing up the scores in both hands. Statistical analysis was done by Spearman's rank correlation test. Results: There was significant correlation of BCTSAQ with VAS (P = 0.001, HADS anxiety score (P < 0.001, and HADS depression score (P = 0.01. CEPSS had no significant correlation with VAS (P = 0.103, HADS anxiety score (P = 0.211, or HADS depression score (P = 0.55. CEPSS had a borderline correlation with BCTSAQ (P = 0.048. Conclusions: While the subjective symptoms of CTS are well correlated with psychological factors, their correlation with objective electrophysiological severity is weak. Hence, prompt treatment of psychological comorbidity is important in symptomatic management of CTS; decision about surgical intervention should be based on electrophysiological severity rather than symptom severity.

  13. Seasonal distribution and demographical characteristics of carpal tunnel syndrome in 1039 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Irênio; Becker, Jefferson; Ehlers, João Arthur; Kapczinski, Flávio; Nora, Daniel Bocchese

    2004-09-01

    To describe the demographic characteristics of gender, age, and presence of repetitive movements, intake of alcohol and non-steroid anti-inflammatories (NSAI), medical specialties that referred patients to nerve conduction studies and electromyography (NCS-EMG), school attainment, and seasonal distribution in patients with a neurophysiological diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. A series of 1039 patients (1549 hands) with neurophysiologically defined CTS was studied. Patients were referred for NCS-EMG in 3 universities and 2 private services, from August 2001 to January 2003. All patients completed a questionnaire containing demographic information. The diagnosis of CTS was established following a pre-established protocol, with defined diagnostic criteria. Around one fourth of patients had already performed NCS-EMG; the greatest frequency of CTS was observed in women (5.6:1) and in patients above the age of 40. Most patients reported performing repetitive movements in their daily routine (69.7%); 12.9% reported use of NSAI and 14.9% regular intake of alcoholic beverages. A greater frequency of CTS was observed in the months of July and August, when compared to the other months of the year. Around 2/3 of the study population had completed at least secondary school. Most requests of nerve conduction studies did not provide a diagnostic hypothesis (59.9%) and neurophysiologic studies were requested mostly by traumatology/orthopedics (71.1%). We have concluded that, in our environment, CTS shows some demographical characteristics that are similar to what the literature describes. Also, we have found that most of our sample concluded at least secondary school, and was referred to neurophysiologic studies by orthopedists. To be pointed out is the seasonal distribution of CTS, which demonstrates a significant association with winter months.

  14. A prospective study of carpal tunnel syndrome: workplace and individual risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Susan; Deddens, James A; Crombie, Ken; Jin, Yan; Wurzelbacher, Steve; Ramsey, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To quantify the risk for carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) from workplace physical factors, particularly hand activity level and forceful exertion, while taking into account individual factors including age, gender, body mass index (BMI), and pre-existing medical conditions. Methods Three healthcare and manufacturing workplaces were selected for inclusion on the basis of range of exposure to hand activity level and forceful exertion represented by their jobs. Each study participants job tasks were observed and evaluated ’ onsite and videotaped for further analysis, including frequency and duration of exertion and postural deviation. Individual health assessment entailed electrodiagnostic testing of median and ulnar nerves, physical examination and questionnaires at baseline with annual follow-up for 2 years. Results The incidence of dominant hand CTS during the study was 5.11 per 100 person-years (29 cases). Adjusted HRs for dominant hand CTS were as follows: working with forceful exertion ≥20% but job strain. Conclusions Workplace and individual risk factors both contribute to the risk for CTS. Time spent in forceful exertion can be a greater risk for CTS than obesity if the job exposure is high. Preventive workplace efforts should target forceful exertions. PMID:23788614

  15. Intradermal therapy (mesotherapy) for the treatment of acute pain in carpal tunnel syndrome: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conforti, Giorgio; Capone, Loredana; Corra, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    The carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common cause of severe hand pain. In this study we treated acute pain in CTS patients by means of local intradermal injections of anti-inflammatory drugs (mesotherapy). In twenty-five patients (forty-five hands), CTS diagnosis was confirmed by clinical and neurophysiological examination prior to mesotherapy. A mixture containing lidocaine 10 mg, ketoprophen lysine-acetylsalycilate 80 mg, xantinol nicotinate 100 mg, cyanocobalamine 1,000 mcg plus injectable water was used. Sites of injection were three parallel lines above the transverse carpal ligament and two v-shaped lines, one at the base of the thenar eminence, and the other at the base of the hypothenar eminence. The day after the treatment, all but four patients reported a significant reduction in pain and paresthesias. After 12 months, 17 patients had a complete pain relief, eight patients reported recurrence of pain and sensory symptoms and four out of them underwent surgical treatment. With the obvious limits of a small-size open-label study, our results suggest that mesotherapy can temporary relieve pain and paresthesias in most CTS patients and in some cases its effect seems to be long-lasting. Further controlled studies are needed to confirm our preliminary findings and to compare mesotherapy to conventional approaches for the treatment of CTS.

  16. Identification of Subgroups of Women with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome with Central Sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Fernández-Muñoz, Juan J; Navarro-Pardo, Esperanza; da-Silva-Pocinho, Ricardo F; Ambite-Quesada, Silvia; Pareja, Juan A

    2016-09-01

    Identification of subjects with different sensitization mechanisms can help to identify better therapeutic strategies for carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). The aim of the current study was to identify subgroups of women with CTS with different levels of sensitization. A total of 223 women with CTS were recruited. Self-reported variables included pain intensity, function, disability, and depression. Pressure pain thresholds (PPT) were assessed bilaterally over median, ulnar, and radial nerves, C5-C6 joint, carpal tunnel, and tibialis anterior to assess widespread pressure pain hyperalgesia. Heat (HPT) and cold (CPT) pain thresholds were also bilaterally assessed over the carpal tunnel and the thenar eminence to determine thermal pain hyperalgesia. Pinch grip force between the thumb and the remaining fingers was calculated to determine motor assessment. Subgroups were determined according to the status on a previous clinical prediction rule: PPT over the affected C5-C6 joint 66 points. The ANOVA showed that women within group 1 (positive rule, n = 60) exhibited bilateral widespread pressure hyperalgesia (P < 0.001) and bilateral thermal thresholds (P < 0.001) than those within group 2 (negative rule, n = 162). Women in group 1 also exhibited higher depression than those in group 2 (P = 0.023). No differences in self-reported variables were observed. This study showed that a clinical prediction rule originally developed for identifying women with CTS who are likely to respond favorably to manual physical therapy was able to identify women exhibiting higher widespread pressure hyper-sensitivity and thermal hyperalgesia. This subgroup of women with CTS exhibiting higher sensitization may need specific therapeutic programs. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Work-related carpal tunnel syndrome treatment: a cross-sectional study among 106 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Aouatef

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective is to assess the influence of sociodemographic, professional and clinical variables on the choice of treatment of work-related carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS. An exhaustive and trans-sectional study was conducted over a period of eight years, from 1st January 2006 to 31 December 2013 in the Department of Occupational Medicine at University Hospital of Mahdia, Tunisia. The study population was represented by patients with work-related carpal tunnel syndrome. Data collection was based on a questionnaire sheet, describing social, occupational and medical characteristics of patients. The study population was characterized by a large female dominance, representing 95.3% with an average age of 42±7.8 years. Patients medically treated represented 38.7% and 61.3% had had surgical treatment. After binary logistic regression, surgical indication of CTS was significantly correlated to diabetes (p=0.017, other musculoskeletal disorders (p=0.02, functional signs of CTS (acrocyanosis p=0.05; muscle weakness p=0.015; radiating pain p=0.01; painful discomfort of the hand, the forearm or arm p=0.027 and to the atrophy of thenar muscles (p=0.018. According to this study, the choice of therapy for occupational CTS depends only on clinical data. More detailed studies will be needed to refine these results.

  18. Recognition tunneling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lindsay, S.; He, J.; Sankey, O.; Hapala, Prokop; Jelínek, Pavel; Zhang, P.; Chang, S.; Huang, S.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 26 (2010), 262001/1-262001/12 ISSN 0957-4484 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/0545 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : STM * tunneling current * molecular electronics * DFT calculations Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.644, year: 2010

  19. A randomized, controlled trial of magnetic therapy for carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baute, Vanessa; Keskinyan, Vahakn S; Sweeney, Erica R; Bowden, Kayla D; Gordon, Allison; Hutchens, Janet; Cartwright, Michael S

    2018-03-07

    Magnet therapy has been proposed as a treatment for neurologic conditions. In this this trial we assessed the feasibility and efficacy of a magnet inserted into a wristband for carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Twenty-two patients with mild to moderate CTS were randomized to wear a high-dose or low-dose "sham" magnetic wristband for 6 weeks. The primary outcome was the Symptom Severity Scale (SSS) of the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire. Secondary measures were nerve conduction studies (NCS), median nerve ultrasound, and compliance. Compliance for both groups was >90%. Improvements in the mean SSS, NCS, and median nerve ultrasound did not reach statistical significance. Magnet therapy via wristband is well-tolerated. Further investigations in larger populations are needed to determine efficacy. Muscle Nerve, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Tunnel - history of

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-11-01

    This book introduces history of tunnel in ancient times, the middle ages and modern times, survey of tunnel and classification of bedrock like environment survey of position, survey of the ground, design of tunnel on basic thing of the design, and design of tunnel of bedrock, analysis of stability of tunnel and application of the data, construction of tunnel like lattice girder and steel fiber reinforced shot crete, and maintenance control and repair of tunnel.

  1. Education, night splinting and exercise versus usual care on recovery and conversion to surgery for people awaiting carpal tunnel surgery : A protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lewis, Karina J.; Ross, Leo; Coppieters, Michel W.; Vicenzino, Bill; Schmid, Annina B.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a prevalent upper limb condition that results in significant individual and socioeconomic costs. Large patient numbers, long outpatient waiting times and traditional referral pathways in public health systems create delays in accessing treatment for this

  2. Accelerated life tests of specimen heat pipe from Communication Technology Satellite (CTS) project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tower, L. K.; Kaufman, W. B.

    1977-01-01

    A gas-loaded variable conductance heat pipe of stainless steel with methanol working fluid identical to one now on the CTS satellite was life tested in the laboratory at accelerated conditions for 14 200 hours, equivalent to about 70 000 hours at flight conditions. The noncondensible gas inventory increased about 20 percent over the original charge. The observed gas increase is estimated to increase operating temperature by about 2.2 C, insufficient to harm the electronic gear cooled by the heat pipes in the satellite. Tests of maximum heat input against evaporator elevation agree well with the manufacturer's predictions.

  3. The History of Science from a science-technology-society perspective (CTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katiuska Pérez Bejerano

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the many goals of scientific training under CTS is to contribute to improving public understanding of the nature of science. It emphasizes the article in the possibilities of the history of science on this issue clarifying and illustrating through the history of chemistry as you can put scientific knowledge in context unraveled the complex relationship science - society links with the philosophical, ethical, political positions. This will help form a more responsible citizen, with a deeper awareness of their own activity, which takes sides with the problems affecting the world and their community.

  4. Usefulness of additional nerve conduction techniques in mild carpal tunnel syndrome Utilidade de técnicas adicionais de condução nervosa para o dignóstico de síndrome do túnel do carpo leve

    OpenAIRE

    João Aris Kouyoumdjian; Maria P. A. Morita; Amalia F. P. Molina

    2002-01-01

    This study was done to assess the percentage of abnormality in additional nerve conduction techniques after normal median distal latency (routine) in mild carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Bilateral nerve conduction studies were carried out in 116 consecutive symptomatic CTS patients (153 hands). Mild cases were based on normal routine (< 3.7 ms, peak-measured, 14 cm) and at least one technique abnormal of the following: sensory median-radial difference (MR); sensory median-ulnar difference (MU4)...

  5. Carpal tunnel syndrome - Part II (treatment,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Chammas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The treatments for non-deficit forms of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS are corticoid infiltration and/or a nighttime immobilization brace. Surgical treatment, which includes sectioning the retinaculum of the flexors (retinaculotomy, is indicated in cases of resistance to conservative treatment in deficit forms or, more frequently, in acute forms. In minimally invasive techniques (endoscopy and mini-open, and even though the learning curve is longer, it seems that functional recovery occurs earlier than in the classical surgery, but with identical long-term results. The choice depends on the surgeon, patient, severity, etiology and availability of material. The results are satisfactory in close to 90% of the cases. Recovery of strength requires four to six months after regression of the pain of pillar pain type. This surgery has the reputation of being benign and has a complication rate of 0.2–0.5%.

  6. Pain, depression and sleep disorders in patients with diabetic and nondiabetic carpal tunnel syndrome: a vicious cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nermin Tanik

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS is a condition involving nerve entrapment that often leads to chronic neuropathic pain. We aimed to evaluate sleep quality and related parameters in diabetic and non-diabetic CTS patients. Method This study included a total of 366 patients with chronic CTS. These patients’ sleep quality was evaluated using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI and depression using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. The severity of neuropathic pain was evaluated using the Douleur Neuropathique-4 (DN4 questionnaire and a visual analogue scale (VAS. Results In the non-diabetic patient group, the total PSQI score was found to affect BDI and VAS, while in the diabetic patient group, the duration of symptoms affected VAS, BDI and fasting glucose levels. Conclusion For diabetic patients, hyperglycemia depression and chronification of neuropathic pain may lead to deterioration of sleep quality. Therefore, consideration of these parameters in the treatment may break a vicious cycle.

  7. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a passing cramp? It could be carpal tunnel syndrome. The carpal tunnel is a narrow passageway of ... three times more likely to have carpal tunnel syndrome than men. Early diagnosis and treatment are important ...

  8. High-frequency ultrasound in carpal tunnel syndrome: assessment of patient eligibility for surgical treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Kapuścińska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS is the most common entrapment neuropathy and a frequent cause of sick leaves because of work-related hand overload. That is why an early diagnosis and adequate treatment (conservative or surgical are essential for optimal patient management. Aim: The aim of the study is to assess the usefulness of high-frequency ultrasound in CTS for the assessment of patient eligibility for surgical treatment. Material and methods: The study involved 62 patients (50 women and 12 men, aged 28–70, mean age 55.2 with scheduled surgeries of CTS on the basis of clinical symptoms, physical examination performed by a neurosurgeon and a positive result of EMG testing. The ultrasound examinations of the wrist were performed in all these patients. On the basis of the collected data, the author has performed multiple analyses to confi rm the usefulness of ultrasound imaging in assessing patient eligibility for surgical treatment of CTS. Results: US examinations showed evidence of median nerve compression at the level of the carpal tunnel in all of the examined patients. This was further confi rmed during surgical procedures. The mean value of the cross-sectional area at the proximal part of the pisiform bone was 17.45 mm2 (min. 12 mm2 , max. 31 mm2 . Nerve hypoechogenicity proximal to the nerve compression site was visible in all 62 patients (100%. Increased nerve vascularity on the transverse section was present in 50 patients (80.65%. Conclusions: Ultrasonography with the use of high-frequency transducers is a valuable diagnostic tool both for assessing patient eligibility for surgical treatment of CTS, and in postoperative assessment of the treatment efficacy.

  9. Effectiveness of PELOID therapy in carpal tunnel syndrome: A randomized controlled single blind study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metin Ökmen, Burcu; Kasapoğlu Aksoy, Meliha; Güneş, Aygül; Eröksüz, Riza; Altan, Lale

    2017-08-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome(CTS) is the most common neuromuscular cause of upper extremity disability. We aimed to investigate the effectiveness of peloid therapy in patients with CTS. This randomized, controlled, single-blind study enrolled 70 patients between the ages of 30 to 65 who had a diagnosis of either mild, mild-to-moderate, or moderate CTS. The patients were randomized into two groups using random number table. In the first group, (Group 1)( n = 35), patients were given splint (every night for 6 weeks) + peloid treatment(five consecutive days a week for 2 weeks) and in the second group, (Group 2)( n = 28), patients received splint treatment(every night for 6 weeks) alone. The patients were assessed by using visual analog scale(VAS) for pain, electroneuromyography(ENMG), the Boston Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Questionnaire(BCTSQ), hand grip strength(HGS), finger grip strength(FGS), and Short Form-12(SF-12). The data were obtained before treatment(W0), immediately after treatment(W2), and one month after treatment(W6). Both in Group 1 and 2, there was a statistically significant improvement in all the evaluation parameters at W2 and W6 when compared to W0( p < 0.05). Comparison of the groups with each other revealed significantly better results for VAS, BCTSQ, mSNCV, SF-12 in Group 1 than in Group 2 at W2( p < 0.05). There was also a statistically significant difference in favor of Group 1 for VAS, BCTSQ, FGS and MCS at W6 when compared to W0 ( p < 0.05). The results of our study demonstrated that in patients with CTS; peloid + splint treatment was more effective than splint treatment alone in pain, functionality and life quality both at after treatment(W2) and one month after treatment (W6). We may suggest peloid as a supplementary therapeutic agent in CTS.

  10. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) expression is increased in the subsynovial connective tissues of patients with idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikenji, Takako; Gingery, Anne; Zhao, Chunfeng; Passe, Sandra M; Ozasa, Yasuhiro; Larson, Dirk; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C

    2014-01-01

    Non-inflammatory fibrosis of the subsynovial connective tissue (SSCT) is a hallmark of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). The etiology of this finding and its relationship to the development of CTS remain poorly understood. Recent studies have found that transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) plays a central role in fibrosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of TGF-β and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), a downstream mediator of TGF-β, in the pathogenesis of CTS. We compared SSCT specimens from 26 idiopathic CTS patients with specimens from 10 human cadaver controls with no previous diagnosis of CTS. Immunohistochemistry was performed to determine levels TGF-β1, CTGF, collagen 1(Col1) and collagen 3 (Col3) expression. TGF-β1 (p tissue. In addition, a strong positive correlation was found between TGF-β1 and CTGF, (R(2) = 0.80, p < 0.01) and a moderate positive correlation between Col3 and TGF-β1 (R(2) = 0.49, p < 0.01). These finding suggest that there is an increased expression of TGF-β and CTGF, a TGF-β regulated protein, and that this TGF-β activation may be responsible for SSCT fibrosis in CTS patients. © 2013 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging in carpal tunnel syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Akimasa; Fujisawa, Kouzou; Tsujii, Masaya; Hirata, Hitoshi; Uchida, Atsumasa

    2005-01-01

    Electrodiagnostic studies are highly sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). However, conduction velocities do not correlate with symptom severity or treatment outcomes. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed tenosynovial thickening within the carpal tunnel as the most constant finding in CTS; it is encountered in more than 95% of the patients. The purpose of the present study is to analyze the relationship between subjective symptoms and MRI findings, and to identify clinical evaluations that reflect subjective symptom severity. The subject group comprised 48 females with CTS. Patients were divided into 4 groups based on their symptom duration (A: lesser than 3 months, B: 4 to 6 months, C: 7 to 12 months, D: more than 13 months). All patients were preoperatively assessed for subjective symptom severity by using a Likert scale, sensory conduction velocity (SCV), and compound muscle action potential (CMAP). In addition, all patients underwent MRI examination for the evaluation of flexor tenosynovial thickening represented by palmar bowing of the flexor retinaculum (PBFR). Fourteen healthy females with comparable demographics served as the controls. Relationships were estimated using Spearman rank score or Mann-Whitney's U test. Regarding subjective symptoms, pain severity decreased significantly in the order A>B>C; it did not decrease significantly in D. Paresthesia did not show any significant difference among the groups. PBFR was significantly higher in all the groups as compared to the control, and similar to pain severity, it decreased significantly in the order A>B>C; it did not decrease significantly in D. Statistical analysis established a close correlation between pain severity and PBFR. However, pain severity did not show any correlation with either electrophysiology or functional status. In contrast to electrophysiology or objective functional status assessment, flexor tenosynovial thickening shows a close correlation

  12. Triggering of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Symptoms in Patients Using Urban Public Transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Saboya Lenzi, Luiz Guilherme; Fernandes, Carlos Henrique; Myiamoto Meirelles, Lia; Baptista Gomes Dos Santos, João; Faloppa, Flávio; Raduan Neto, Jorge

    2016-09-01

    Background: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common compressive neuropathy found in clinical practice. Recent studies evaluated which external factors could be involved in the CTS symptoms, including prolonged exposure to vibration, especially in the upper limb. This study investigated signs and symptoms in patients with CTS after using urban transport on (1) both upper limbs, (2) how long before these symptoms appear, and (3) the hands position or body reaction during the act of pressing the safety bars. Methods: The study was conducted from July 2012 to April 2013. A total of 205 (178 women and 27 men) patients were evaluated. CTS was diagnosed in 285 hands. All participants answered a questionnaire formulated by the authors. The questionnaire was applied by researchers who were single-blinded and not involved in the research. Results: Most of the participants (87%) were women, but there was no statistical significance in age between groups (women = 51.24 ± 8.47 years, men = 51.10 ± 6.52 years, P > .05). The symptoms appeared significantly in the first 15 minutes after boarding when compared with patients who had no symptoms during the journey. There was no difference between hands position along the journey and the onset of symptoms. Conclusions: The onset of symptoms in patients with CTS using urban public transportation most commonly occurred in the first 15 minutes after boarding. Public transport vibration seems to be, at least in part, directly related to the development of symptoms. Questionnaires for the assessment of paresthesia symptoms during the use of public transport may be useful for CTS diagnosis.

  13. Tunneling technologies for the collider ring tunnels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frobenius, P.

    1989-01-01

    The Texas site chosen for the Superconducting Super Collider has been studied, and it has been determined that proven, conventional technology and accepted engineering practice are suitable for constructing the collider tunnels. The Texas National Research Laboratory Commission report recommended that two types of tunneling machines be used for construction of the tunnels: a conventional hard rock tunnel boring machine (TBM) for the Austin chalk and a double shielded, rotary TBM for the Taylor marl. Since the tunneling machines usually set the pace for the project, efficient planning, operation, and coordination of the tunneling system components will be critical to the schedule and cost of the project. During design, tunneling rate prediction should be refined by focusing on the development of an effective tunneling system and evaluating its capacity to meet or exceed the required schedules. 8 refs., 13 figs

  14. Computer use and carpal tunnel syndrome: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiri, Rahman; Falah-Hassani, Kobra

    2015-02-15

    Studies have reported contradictory results on the role of keyboard or mouse use in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). This meta-analysis aimed to assess whether computer use causes CTS. Literature searches were conducted in several databases until May 2014. Twelve studies qualified for a random-effects meta-analysis. Heterogeneity and publication bias were assessed. In a meta-analysis of six studies (N=4964) that compared computer workers with the general population or other occupational populations, computer/typewriter use (pooled odds ratio (OR)=0.72, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.58-0.90), computer/typewriter use ≥1 vs. computer/typewriter use ≥4 vs. computer/typewriter use (pooled OR=1.34, 95% CI 1.08-1.65), mouse use (OR=1.93, 95% CI 1.43-2.61), frequent computer use (OR=1.89, 95% CI 1.15-3.09), frequent mouse use (OR=1.84, 95% CI 1.18-2.87) and with years of computer work (OR=1.92, 95% CI 1.17-3.17 for long vs. short). There was no evidence of publication bias for both types of studies. Studies that compared computer workers with the general population or several occupational groups did not control their estimates for occupational risk factors. Thus, office workers with no or little computer use are a more appropriate comparison group than the general population or several occupational groups. This meta-analysis suggests that excessive computer use, particularly mouse usage might be a minor occupational risk factor for CTS. Further prospective studies among office workers with objectively assessed keyboard and mouse use, and CTS symptoms or signs confirmed by a nerve conduction study are needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Demographic Characteristics of Our Patients with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Umay

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Carpal tunnel (CTS is the most common trap neuropathy but, still fully understood the cause of this and effective factors. In this study was aimed to the evaluation demographic features of the cases with CTS admitted to our electroneuromyography (ENMG laboratory. Material and Methods: In the study, 119 patients with CTS to evaluate our ENMG laboratory were received. All patients age, sex, dominant and affected hand, duration of education, marital status, height, weight, additional diseases, occupational, hand and wrist repetitive motion made, use of computer and smoking status was assessed. Patients’ body mass index (BMI was calculated. Results: 102 cases (85.7% females, mean age was 46.32 years ± 12: 18. While in 115 (96.6% cases using the right hand is dominant, in 85 cases (76.6% with bilateral involvement were at hand. While the rate of patient who between five to eight year duration of education had was 47.1%, 84% patients were married. Also, BMI were determined as 29.33± 3.01. According to the state in 22 patients with additional diseases, diabetes mellitus in 22, hypothyroidism in 4, also 1 patient had arthritis. The majority of our patients (70.6% housewives formed. The 67.2% rate of repetetive activities as making crafts, the computer usage at a rate of 11.8% had history. The rate of smoking was 19.3%.  Conclusions:  As a result, CTS, especially in middle-aged housewives and obese is a common syndrome. Despite many reasons to be reported in the etiology of idiopathic 85%. At a rate of 25.4% of women in our society is considered paid work, especially in terms of determining the etiology of the more detailed studies are needed to ousewives.

  16. An ergonomics study on the evaluation of carpal tunnel syndrome among Chikan embroidery workers of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangopadhyay, Somnath; Chakrabarty, Sabarni; Sarkar, Krishnendu; Dev, Samrat; Das, Tamal; Banerjee, Sunetra

    2015-01-01

    Chikan embroidery is a popular handicraft in India that involves hand-intensive stitching while seated in a static posture with the upper back curved and the head bent over the fabric. Women perform most Chikan embroidery. The aim of this study was to analyze the repetitive nature of this work among female Chikan embroiderers by measuring the prevalence of upper extremity discomfort and carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). The Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire was used to analyze the extent of upper extremity pain symptomology. The repetitive nature of Chikan embroidery work was evaluated using the Assessment of Repetitive Tasks of the upper limbs tool (ART). Motor nerve conduction studies of median and ulnar nerves were performed with embroidery workers and a control group to determine the risk of CTS. Among embroidery workers, the prevalence of wrist pain was 68% and forearm pain was 60%. The embroiderers also commonly reported Tingling and numbness in the hands and fingertips. The ART analysis found that Chikan embroidery is a highly repetitive task and nerve conduction studies showed that the embroidery workers were more likely to experience CTS than women in the control group. Chikan embroidery is a hand-intensive occupation involving repetitive use of hands and wrists and this study population is at risk of experiencing CTS. Future research should explore the potential benefits of ergonomics measures including incorporating breaks, stretching exercises, and the use of wrist splints to reduce repetitive strain and the probability of developing CTS.

  17. An ergonomics study on the evaluation of carpal tunnel syndrome among Chikan embroidery workers of West Bengal, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangopadhyay, Somnath; Chakrabarty, Sabarni; Sarkar, Krishnendu; Dev, Samrat; Das, Tamal; Banerjee, Sunetra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chikan embroidery is a popular handicraft in India that involves hand-intensive stitching while seated in a static posture with the upper back curved and the head bent over the fabric. Women perform most Chikan embroidery. Objectives: The aim of this study was to analyze the repetitive nature of this work among female Chikan embroiderers by measuring the prevalence of upper extremity discomfort and carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Methods: The Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire was used to analyze the extent of upper extremity pain symptomology. The repetitive nature of Chikan embroidery work was evaluated using the Assessment of Repetitive Tasks of the upper limbs tool (ART). Motor nerve conduction studies of median and ulnar nerves were performed with embroidery workers and a control group to determine the risk of CTS. Results: Among embroidery workers, the prevalence of wrist pain was 68% and forearm pain was 60%. The embroiderers also commonly reported Tingling and numbness in the hands and fingertips. The ART analysis found that Chikan embroidery is a highly repetitive task and nerve conduction studies showed that the embroidery workers were more likely to experience CTS than women in the control group. Conclusions: Chikan embroidery is a hand-intensive occupation involving repetitive use of hands and wrists and this study population is at risk of experiencing CTS. Future research should explore the potential benefits of ergonomics measures including incorporating breaks, stretching exercises, and the use of wrist splints to reduce repetitive strain and the probability of developing CTS. PMID:25658674

  18. Association between the catechol-o-methyltransferase val158met polymorphism with susceptibility and severity of carpal tunnel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkol İnal E

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS is the most common entrapment neuropathy of the upper extremity. In this study, we aimed to clarify the relationships between the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT gene Val158Met (rs4680 polymorphism and development, functional and clinical status of CTS. Ninety-five women with electro diagnostically confirmed CTS and 95 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. The functional and clinical status of the patients was measured by the Turkish version of the Boston Questionnaire and intensity of pain related to the past 2 weeks was evaluated on a visual analog scale (VAS. The Val158Met polymorphism was determined using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP, method. We divided patients according to the genotypes of the Val158Met polymorphism as Val/Val, Val/Met and Met/Met. There were not any significant differences in terms of Val158Met polymorphisms between patients and healthy controls (p >0.05. We also did not find any relationships between the Val158Met polymorphism and CTS (p >0.05. In conclusion, although we did not find any relationships between CTS and the Val158Met polymorphism, we could not generalize this result to the general population. Future studies are warranted to conclude precise associations.

  19. Ultrasound-Guided Carpal Tunnel Release Using Dynamic Expansion of the Transverse Safe Zone in a Patient With Postpolio Syndrome: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Troy; Lueders, Daniel; Chang, Kate; Yang, Lynda

    2018-03-06

    The prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in patients with postpolio syndrome occurs at a rate of 22%. Irrespective of those with CTS, 74% of postpolio patients weight bear through their arms for ambulation or transfers. As open carpal tunnel release is performed along the weight-bearing region of the wrist, their functional independence may be altered while recovering. This case demonstrates that ultrasound-guided carpal tunnel release was successfully performed in a patient with postpolio syndrome allowing him to immediately weight bear through his hands after the procedure so he could recover at home. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Fraude e responsabilidade nas pesquisas CTS: a investigação das aparências

    OpenAIRE

    Stange, Simone Moraes; Hayashi, Carlos Roberto Massao

    2015-01-01

    Na contemporaneidade, percebe-se o elevado índice de cotejamento da informação com os processos acadêmicos de investigação. A era digital disponibiliza uma ampla área de atuação entre culturas, teorias e modos de pensamento, democratizando o acesso aos pensamentos e ideias, viabilizando a disseminação do conhecimento e, também, possibilitando a promoção de práticas inconsequentes baseadas no plágio. O texto constitui um artigo de revisão de literatura no domínio CTS que analisa as condições d...

  1. CLIC transfer structure (CTS) simulations using open-quotes MAFIAclose quotes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millich, A.

    1993-01-01

    In the two-beam accelerator scheme of CLIC the Transfer Structure serves the purpose of extracting 30 GHz power from the drive beam. The purpose of the 3D simulations of the 30 GHz CTS using the MAFIA set of codes has been to assist the designers in the choice of the final dimensions by appreciating the sensitivity of the RF characteristics to the mechanical parameters. The results of the frequency domain analysis have allowed plotting of the dispersion curves of the waveguides and appreciation the relative importance of higher modes. The time domain investigations have produced results on the shape and magnitude of the beam-induced longitudinal and transverse wake fields and of the loss factors

  2. Summary of the CTS Transient Event Counter data after one year of operation. [Communication Technology Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, N. J.; Klinect, V. W.; Gore, J. V.

    1977-01-01

    The environmental charging of satellite surfaces during geomagnetic substorms is the apparent cause of a significant number of anomalous events occurring on geosynchronous satellites since the early 1970's. Electromagnetic pulses produced in connection with the differential charging of insulators can couple into the spacecraft harness and cause electronic switching anomalies. An investigation conducted to determine the response of the spacecraft surfaces to substorm particle fluxes makes use of a harness transient detector. The harness transient detector, called the Transient Event Counter (TEC) was built and integrated into the Canadian-American Communications Technology Satellite (CTS). A description of the TEC and its operational characteristics is given and the obtained data are discussed. The data show that the satellite surfaces appear to be charged to the point that discharges occur and that the discharge-induced transients couple into the wire harnesses.

  3. debates, encrucijadas y críticas desde el enfoque CTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Pérez Jiménez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La educación ha asumido la incorporación de las Tecnologías de la Información y Comunicación (TIC, presuponiendo la transformación sustancial del currículum, la formación permanente de docentes, y la adecuación social-estructural de la escuela como escenario pedagógico. Este trabajo busca analizar las posibilidades de desarrollo socio-cultural de la educación, desde la perspectiva de las oportunidades locales de accesibilidad y aprovechamiento de los recursos telemáticos, enfatizando la construcción de identidades individuales y colectivas sustentadas en representaciones sobre aspectos tecnocientíficos, que permitan la integración de conocimientos disciplinares y saberes sociales en las acciones pedagógicas. Su estructura da cuenta de la organización de una serie de presupuestos conductores del discurso emancipatorio, el cual busca asidero en el marco de las racionalidades educativas a la luz de los desarrollos tecnocientíficos actuales. Se discute la vinculación entre ciencia, tecnología y sociedad (CTS, la alianza entre la educación y las TIC, así como los retos que se plantean como resultado de esta dialéctica, y la valoración del enfoque CTS como clave para la reformulación de una educación democrática orientada a la legitimación de las ciudadanías sociales. Finalmente, se subraya la necesidad de un proyecto político-educativo sustentado en el sentido ético-social para la democratización de las TIC

  4. Fraude e responsabilidade nas pesquisas CTS: a investigação das aparências

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Moraes Stange

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Na contemporaneidade, percebe-se o elevado índice de cotejamento da informação com os processos acadêmicos de investigação. A era digital disponibiliza uma ampla área de atuação entre culturas, teorias e modos de pensamento, democratizando o acesso aos pensamentos e ideias, viabilizando a disseminação do conhecimento e, também, possibilitando a promoção de práticas inconsequentes baseadas no plágio. O texto constitui um artigo de revisão de literatura no domínio CTS que analisa as condições de possibilidade da ciência e do sujeito por ela constituído no debate sobre as noções de fraude e de responsabilidade que os mesmos possuem. A pesquisa tem o objetivo de elucidar quais são as implicações que o plágio prescreve para a linha de atuação da ciência e da tecnologia. Logo, o trabalho divide-se em três momentos: inicialmente, buscar-se-á explicitar os conceitos de ética, de responsabilidade e de plágio, construindo aparato para os dois momentos seguintes, o levantamento das principais consequências do fim da autonomia e da autoria científica, na demonstração do descrédito dos sujeitos cognitivos e, no terceiro momento, apresentar as possibilidades de repensar instrumentos de reordenamento das práticas acadêmicas que busquem, significativamente, serem apropriadas de modo autêntico, inovador e baseada no desenvolvimento social das pesquisas em CTS.

  5. Diagnostic Value of Ultrasound Compared to Electro Diagnosis in Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mansour Rayegani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS is one of the main causes of disability. The diagnosis of CTS confirm by electrodiagnostic tests. Sonography is an alternative method for diagnosis of CTS that can investigate anatomy and probable pathology. The aim of this study is to investigate the multiple sonographic diagnostic criteria and compare its diagnostic value with electrodiagnosis. Materials and Methods:In this descriptive-cross sectional study, 84 wrists (42 patients with CTS and 42 individuals without any clinical signs in upper limb were investigated. Symptomatic patients underwent clinical examination, standard electrodiagnostic evaluation of upper limb and sonographic investigation of median nerve in forearm and wrist. The control group underwent sonographic investigation. Results: Cross Sectional Area (CSA of Median nerve at distal wrist crease, at the level of Hamate hook and Trapezium, the amount of flexor retinaculum bowing, ratio of CSA at the forearm to distal wrist crease and ratio of CSA at the Pisiform level to distal wrist crease had significant difference in the case group compared to the control group (P-value

  6. The value of ultrasonographic measurement in carpal tunnel syndrome in patients with negative electrodiagnostic tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyuncuoglu, Hasan Rifat; Kutluhan, Suleyman; Yesildag, Ahmet; Oyar, Orhan; Guler, Kezban; Ozden, Ahmet

    2005-01-01

    The diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is mainly based on clinical findings and electrodiagnostic tests (EDT). However, EDT results do not support clinical findings in some cases. It has been recently suggested that ultrasonography (US) can be used to diagnose CTS. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether US has a diagnostic value for CTS in patients with negative EDT findings or not. EDT was performed on 319 wrists with clinical CTS findings in electrophysiology laboratory. Median and ulnar nerve conduction velocities were measured in all cases and electromyography was performed in patient with tenar atrophy and having suspicion involvement of brachial plexus as EDT. Fifty-nine wrists with negative EDT (study group) and 30 wrists from 15 healthy individuals (control group) were examined using US. The mean of cross-sectional areas (CSAs) measurements were found 8.83 ± 3.05 mm 2 by tracing method (TM) and 8.51 ± 3.13 mm 2 by ellipsoid formula (EF) in study group, and 7.63 ± 1.52 mm 2 by TM and 7.66 ± 1.42 mm 2 by EF in control group. The differences between study group and control group according to both TM and EF were significant (t-test p = 0.0079, p = 0.0460, respectively). In study group, CSAs were larger than 10.5 mm 2 in 18 (30.51%) and 16 (27.12%) wrists according to TM and EF findings, respectively, and in only one wrist (3.33%) in control group by both TM and EF. The differences of ultrasonographic CTS numbers between study group and control group were significant (p = 0.0024 by TM, p = 0.0086 by EF). We confirmed the usefulness of quantitative US assessment in the diagnosis of CTS in the patients with negative EDT findings. If EDT findings are inadequate to confirm the CTS in the patients with clinical CTS, US studies may be helpful to diagnose

  7. Effectiveness of manual therapy versus surgery in pain processing due to carpal tunnel syndrome: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, C; Cleland, J; Palacios-Ceña, M; Fuensalida-Novo, S; Alonso-Blanco, C; Pareja, J A; Alburquerque-Sendín, F

    2017-08-01

    People with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) exhibit widespread pressure pain and thermal pain hypersensitivity as a manifestation of central sensitization. The aim of our study was to compare the effectiveness of manual therapy versus surgery for improving pain and nociceptive gain processing in people with CTS. The trial was conducted at a local regional Hospital in Madrid, Spain from August 2014 to February 2015. In this randomized parallel-group, blinded, clinical trial, 100 women with CTS were randomly allocated to either manual therapy (n = 50), who received three sessions (once/week) of manual therapies including desensitization manoeuvres of the central nervous system, or surgical intervention (n = 50) group. Outcomes including pressure pain thresholds (PPT), thermal pain thresholds (HPT or CPT), and pain intensity which were assessed at baseline, and 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after the intervention by an assessor unaware of group assignment. Analysis was by intention to treat with mixed ANCOVAs adjusted for baseline scores. At 12 months, 95 women completed the follow-up. Patients receiving manual therapy exhibited higher increases in PPT over the carpal tunnel at 3, 6 and 9 months (all, p < 0.01) and higher decrease of pain intensity at 3 month follow-up (p < 0.001) than those receiving surgery. No significant differences were observed between groups for the remaining outcomes. Manual therapy and surgery have similar effects on decreasing widespread pressure pain sensitivity and pain intensity in women with CTS. Neither manual therapy nor surgery resulted in changes in thermal pain sensitivity. The current study found that manual therapy and surgery exhibited similar effects on decreasing widespread pressure pain sensitivity and pain intensity in women with carpal tunnel syndrome at medium- and long-term follow-ups investigating changes in nociceptive gain processing after treatment in carpal tunnel syndrome. © 2017 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  8. Genes that are involved in high hydrostatic pressure treatments in a Listeria monocytogenes Scott A ctsR deletion mutant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne pathogen of significant threat to public health. High Hydrostatic Pressure (HHP) treatment can be used to control L. monocytogenes in food. The CtsR (class three stress gene repressor) protein negatively regulates the expression of class III heat shock genes....

  9. Test Review: Reynolds, C. R., Voress, J. V., Kamphaus, R. W. (2015), "Mathematics Fluency and Calculation Tests (MFaCTs) review." PRO-ED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marbach, Joshua

    2017-01-01

    The Mathematics Fluency and Calculation Tests (MFaCTs) are a series of measures designed to assess for arithmetic calculation skills and calculation fluency in children ages 6 through 18. There are five main purposes of the MFaCTs: (1) identifying students who are behind in basic math fact automaticity; (2) evaluating possible delays in arithmetic…

  10. Intraneural blood flow analysis during an intraoperative Phalen's test in carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yayama, Takafumi; Kobayashi, Shigeru; Awara, Kousuke; Takeno, Kenichi; Miyazaki, Tsuyoshi; Kubota, Masafumi; Negoro, Kohei; Baba, Hisatoshi

    2010-08-01

    Phalen's test has been one of the most significant of clinical signs when making a clinical diagnosis of idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). However, it is unknown whether intraneural blood flow changes during Phalen's test in patients with CTS. In this study, an intraoperative Phalen's test was conducted in patients with CTS to observe the changes in intraneural blood flow using a laser Doppler flow meter. During Phalen's test, intraneural blood flow showed a sharp decrease, which lasted for 1 min. Intraneural blood flow decreased by 56.7%-100% (average, 78.0%) in the median nerve relative to the blood flow before the test. At 1 min after completing the test, intraneural blood flow returned to the baseline value. After carpal tunnel release, there was no marked decrease in intraneural blood flow. This study demonstrated that the blood flow in the median nerve is reduced when Phalen's test is performed in vivo. Copyright 2010 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Duration of symptomatology and median segmental sensory latency in 993 carpal tunnel syndrome hands (668 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOUYOUMDJIAN JOAO ARIS

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available According to median sensory nerve action potential onset-latency to index finger in a 140 mm fixed distance, 993 carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS hands from 668 patients were grouped into MIld (3.0 to 3.5 ms, 384 hands, MOderate (3.6 to 4.4 ms, 332 hands, SEvere (> 4.4 ms, 135 hands and UNrecordable (142 hands and correlated with CTS symptomatology duration. All patients have sensory antidromic median-radial latency difference (MRD e > or = 1.0 ms without any doubt about CTS diagnosis. Patients with systemic disease, trauma or previous surgery were excluded. There is a remarkable cumulative percentage increase from 1 to 12 months in group UN (3.5% to 38.7%, 11 folds, much less than the group MI (13.8% to 54.6%, 3.9 folds. There is also a remarkable non-cumulative percentage increase in group UN, from 1 to 4-12 months; the group MI had a relatively uniform distribution in all symptomatic duration groups from 1 to > 60 months. The conclusion is that median nerve compression at carpal tunnel can lead to unrecordable potentials in a relatively short period from 1 to 12 months of evolution, suggesting acute/subacute deterioration. Electrophysiological evaluation must be done periodically in patients that underwent clinical treatment, since cumulative 38.7% of group UN was found in 12 months period.

  12. Efficacy of paraffin wax bath for carpal tunnel syndrome: a randomized comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordahan, Banu; Karahan, Ali Yavuz

    2017-12-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most frequently diagnosed neuropathy of upper extremity entrapment neuropathies. We aimed to investigate the effectiveness of paraffin therapy in patients with CTS. Seventy patients diagnosed with mild or moderate CTS were randomly divided into two groups as splint treatment (during the night and day time as much as possible for 3 weeks) alone and splint (during the night and day time as much as possible for 3 weeks) + paraffin treatment (five consecutive days a week for 3 weeks). Clinical and electrophysiological assessments were performed before and 3 weeks after treatment. The patients were assessed by using visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, electroneuromyography (ENMG), and Boston Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Questionnaire (BCTSQ). The significant improvement was found in VAS scores in both groups when compared with pretreatment values ( p 0.05), whereas a significant improvement was noted in the BCTQ symptom severity scale score in the splint group ( p 0.05), and the difference in these parameters between the groups was statistically significant ( p Paraffin treatment with splint increases the recovery in functional and electrophysiological parameters.

  13. Ultrasonographic median nerve cross-section areas measured by 8-point 'inching test' for idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome: a correlation of nerve conduction study severity and duration of clinical symptoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shu-Fang; Lu, Cheng-Hsien; Huang, Chi-Ren; Chuang, Yao-Chung; Tsai, Nai-Wen; Chang, Chiung-Chih; Chang, Wen-Neng

    2011-01-01

    Incremental palmar stimulation of the median nerve sensory conduction at the wrist, the 'inching test', provides an assessment with reference to segments proximal and distal to the entrapment. This study used high-resolution ultrasonography (US) to measure the median nerve's cross-section areas (CSAs) like the 'inching test' and to correlate with the nerve conduction study (NCS) severity and duration of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Two hundred and twelve (212) 'CTS-hands' from 135 CTS patients and 50 asymptomatic hands ('A-hands') from 25 control individuals were enrolled. The median nerve CSAs were measured at the 8-point marked as i4, i3, i2, i1, w, o1, o2, and 03 in inching test. The NCS severities were classified into six groups based on motor and sensory responses (i.e., negative, minimal, mild, moderate, severe, and extreme). Results of US studies were compared in terms of NCS severity and duration of clinical CTS symptoms. There was significantly larger CSA of the NCS negative group of 'CTS-hands' than of 'A-hands'. The cut-off values of the CSAs of the NCS negative CTS group were 12.5 mm 2 , 11.5 mm 2 and 10.1 mm 2 at the inlet, wrist crease, and outlet, respectively. Of the 212 'CTS-hands', 32 were NCS negative while 40 had minimal, 43 mild, 85 moderate, 10 severe, and two extreme NCS severities. The CSAs of 'CTS-hands' positively correlated with different NCS severities and with the duration of CTS symptoms. By duration of clinical symptoms, 12 of the 212 'CTS-hands' were in the 1 month group; 82 in >1 month and ≤12 months group, and 118 in >12 months group. In 'inching test', segments i4-i3 and i3-i2 were the most common 'positive-site'. The corresponding CSAs measured at i4 and i3, but not at i2, were significantly larger than those measured at points that were not 'positive-site'. Using the 8-point measurement of the median

  14. Early response of local steroid injection versus mini incision technique in treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awan, A.S.; Khan, A.; Afridi, S.A.; Khan, R.S.

    2015-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is one of the commonest peripheral neuropathies which effects mainly middle aged women. Different techniques are being tried to decrease the post-operative pain in patients operated for CTS. The objective of this study was to compare effectiveness of local injection of steroid and mini incision technique in the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome. Methods: This randomized control trial was conducted at department of Orthopedics and department of Neurosurgery, Ayub Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad from Aug 2011 to Feb 2013. A total of 116 patients of CTS were randomly allocated to either of the two groups. Fifty-eight Patient in Group A were subjected to local steroid injection and the same number of patient in Group B underwent mini incision technique. All patients of were advised to report to the OPD after one month to determine intervention effectiveness in terms of improvement in at least one grade of pain. Results: In this study mean age of the patients was 32.8 ± 5.1 years. Female gender was in dominance with 99 (86.3%) cases. In this study we compared the effectiveness of local steroid injection and mini incision technique in the treatment of carpel tunnel syndrome. We found out that the steroid injection was effective in 69.0% cases while mini incision technique was effective in 56.9% cases. The difference being statistically insignificant with a p-value of 0.17. Conclusion: The difference in pain after 1 month of the intervention was not statistically significant. (author)

  15. The Value of Median Nerve Sonography as a Predictor for Short- and Long-Term Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Prospective Long-Term Follow-Up Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Marschall

    Full Text Available To investigate the prognostic value of B-mode and Power Doppler (PD ultrasound of the median nerve for the short- and long-term clinical outcomes of patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS.Prospective study of 135 patients with suspected CTS seen 3 times: at baseline, then at short-term (3 months and long-term (15-36 months follow-up. At baseline, the cross-sectional area (CSA of the median nerve was measured with ultrasound at 4 levels on the forearm and wrist. PD signals were graded semi-quantitatively (0-3. Clinical outcomes were evaluated at each visit with the Boston Questionnaire (BQ and the DASH Questionnaire, as well as visual analogue scales for the patient's assessment of pain (painVAS and physician's global assessment (physVAS. The predictive values of baseline CSA and PD for clinical outcomes were determined with multivariate logistic regression models.Short-term and long-term follow-up data were available for 111 (82.2% and 105 (77.8% patients, respectively. There was a final diagnosis of CTS in 84 patients (125 wrists. Regression analysis revealed that the CSA, measured at the carpal tunnel inlet, predicted short-term clinical improvement according to BQ in CTS patients undergoing carpal tunnel surgery (OR 1.8, p = 0.05, but not in patients treated conservatively. Neither CSA nor PD assessments predicted short-term improvement of painVAS, physVAS or DASH, nor was any of the ultrasound parameters useful for the prediction of long-term clinical outcomes.Ultrasound assessment of the median nerve at the carpal tunnel inlet may predict short-term clinical improvement in CTS patients undergoing carpal tunnel release, but long-term outcomes are unrelated to ultrasound findings.

  16. Ergonomic positioning or equipment for treating carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Denise; Page, Matthew J; Marshall, Shawn C; Massy-Westropp, Nicola

    2012-01-18

    Non-surgical treatment, including ergonomic positioning or equipment, are sometimes offered to people experiencing mild to moderate symptoms from carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). The effectiveness and duration of benefit from ergonomic positioning or equipment interventions for treating CTS are unknown. To assess the effects of ergonomic positioning or equipment compared with no treatment, a placebo or another non-surgical intervention in people with CTS. We searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register (14 June 2011), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2011, Issue 2, in The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE (1966 to June 2011), EMBASE (1980 to June 2011), CINAHL Plus (1937 to June 2011), and AMED (1985 to June 2011). We also reviewed the reference lists of randomised or quasi-randomised trials identified from the electronic search. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing ergonomic positioning or equipment with no treatment, placebo or another non-surgical intervention in people with CTS. Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, extracted data and assessed risk of bias of included studies. We calculated risk ratios (RR) and mean differences (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the primary and secondary outcomes. We pooled results of clinically and statistically homogeneous trials, where possible, to provide estimates of the effect of ergonomic positioning or equipment. We included two trials (105 participants) comparing ergonomic versus placebo keyboards. Neither trial assessed the primary outcome (short-term overall improvement) or adverse effects of interventions. In one small trial (25 participants) an ergonomic keyboard significantly reduced pain after 12 weeks (MD -2.40; 95% CI -4.45 to -0.35) but not six weeks (MD -0.20; 95% CI -1.51 to 1.11). In this same study, there was no difference between ergonomic and standard keyboards in hand function at six or 12 weeks or palm

  17. Spatial-temporal features of thermal images for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estupinan Roldan, Kevin; Ortega Piedrahita, Marco A.; Benitez, Hernan D.

    2014-02-01

    Disorders associated with repeated trauma account for about 60% of all occupational illnesses, Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) being the most consulted today. Infrared Thermography (IT) has come to play an important role in the field of medicine. IT is non-invasive and detects diseases based on measuring temperature variations. IT represents a possible alternative to prevalent methods for diagnosis of CTS (i.e. nerve conduction studies and electromiography). This work presents a set of spatial-temporal features extracted from thermal images taken in healthy and ill patients. Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifiers test this feature space with Leave One Out (LOO) validation error. The results of the proposed approach show linear separability and lower validation errors when compared to features used in previous works that do not account for temperature spatial variability.

  18. Carpal Tunnel Release in Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad H Ebrahimzadeh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS is a compression neuropathy that causes paresthesia, pain or numbness in the territory of median nerve. The aim of this study is to compare the open surgery outcome and patients` satisfaction in carpal tunnel syndrome among diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Methods: In a retrospective cohort study from April 2011 to June 2012, patients suffered from carpal tunnel syndrome at least 6 months, without response to conservative treatment, who had the inclusion and exclusion criteria, were evaluated by the usage of MHQ and WHOQOL-BREEF tests, one month before surgery and three months after that. Carpal tunnel decompression surgery was performed by two surgeons, experienced in hand surgery, which used the same surgical method. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS 19.0. Results: 24 of patient (34.2% were male and 46 (65.8% were female and there was no significant difference between two groups (P>0.05. MHQ total score before and after surgery was respectively 50.22±7.13 and 63.49±11.28 and this difference was significant (P

  19. Is the Control of Applied Digital Forces During Natural Five-digit Grasping Affected by Carpal Tunnel Syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Tsun; Jou, I-Ming; Lin, Chien-Ju; Chieh, Hsiao-Feng; Kuo, Li-Chieh; Su, Fong-Chin

    2015-07-01

    The impaired sensory function of the hand induced by carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is known to disturb dexterous manipulations. However, force control during daily grasping configuration among the five digits has not been a prominent focus of study. Because grasping is so important to normal function and use of a hand, it is important to understand how sensory changes in CTS affect the digit force of natural grasp. We therefore examined the altered patterns of digit forces applied during natural five-digit grasping in patients with CTS and compared them with those seen in control subjects without CTS. We hypothesized that the patients with CTS will grasp by applying larger forces with lowered pair correlations and more force variability of the involved digits than the control subjects. Specifically, we asked: (1) Is there a difference between patients with CTS and control subjects in applied force by digits during lift-hold-lower task? (2) Is there a difference in force correlation coefficient of the digit pairs? (3) Are there force variability differences during the holding phase? We evaluated 15 female patients with CTS and 15 control subjects matched for age, gender, and hand dominance. The applied radial forces (Fr) of the five digits were recorded by respective force transducers on a cylinder simulator during the lift-hold-lower task with natural grasping. The movement phases of the task were determined by a video-based motion capture system. The applied forces of the thumb in patients with CTS (7 ± 0.8 N; 95% CI, 7.2-7.4 N) versus control subjects (5 ± 0.8 N; 95% CI, 5.1-5.3 N) and the index finger in patients with CTS (3 ± 0.3 N; 95% CI, 3.2-3.3 N) versus control subjects (2 ± 0.3 N; 95% CI, 2.2-2.3 N) observed throughout most of the task were larger in the CTS group (p ranges 0.035-0.050 for thumb and 0.016-0.050 for index finger). In addition, the applied force of the middle finger in patients with CTS (1 ± 0.1 N; 95% CI, 1.3-1.4

  20. Incidence rates of in-hospital carpal tunnel syndrome in the general population and possible associations with marital status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melani Carla

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS is a socially relevant condition associated with biomechanical risk factors. We evaluated age-sex-specific incidence rates of in-hospital cases of CTS in central/northern Italy and explored relations with marital status. Methods Seven regions were considered (overall population, 14.9 million over 3–6-year periods between 1997 and 2002 (when out-of-hospital CTS surgery was extremely rare. Incidence rates of in-hospital cases of CTS were estimated based on 1 codified demographic, diagnostic and intervention data in obligatory discharge records from all Italian public/private hospitals, archived (according to residence on regional databases; 2 demographic general population data for each region. We compared (using the χscore test age-sex-specific rates between married, unmarried, divorced and widowed subsets of the general population. We calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs for married/unmarried men and women. Results Age-standardized incidence rates (per 100,000 person-years of in-hospital cases of CTS were 166 in women and 44 in men (106 overall. Married subjects of both sexes showed higher age-specific rates with respect to unmarried men/women. SIRs were calculated comparing married vs unmarried rates of both sexes: 1.59 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.57–1.60 in women, and 1.42 (95% CI, 1.40–1.45 in men. As compared with married women/men, widows/widowers both showed 2–3-fold higher incidence peaks during the fourth decade of life (beyond 50 years of age, widowed subjects showed similar trends to unmarried counterparts. Conclusion This large population-based study illustrates distinct age-related trends in men and women, and also raises the question whether marital status could be associated with CTS in the general population.

  1. Organizational and psychosocial risk factors for carpal tunnel syndrome: a cross-sectional study of French workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigouin, Pascal; Ha, Catherine; Bodin, Julie; Le Manac'h, Audrey Petit; Descatha, Alexis; Goldberg, Marcel; Roquelaure, Yves

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the organizational and psychosocial risk factors for carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in workers exposed to various levels of work-related constraints, with a special focus on factors related to the work organization. From 3,710 workers, representative of a French region's working population, trained occupational physicians diagnosed a total of 156 cases of CTS between 2002 and 2005. Diagnoses were established by standardized physical examination, while personal factors and work exposure were assessed by self-administered questionnaires. Statistical associations between CTS and personal and work-related factors were analyzed for each gender using logistic regression modeling. Among the factors related to work organization, working with temporary workers was associated with CTS for women (OR = 1.99, 95 % CI 1.23-3.25), but not for men. Task rotation during the job (OR = 2.45 95 % CI 1.41-4.24) and work pace dependent on quantified targets (OR = 1.93 95 % CI 1.08-3.46) were associated with CTS only for men. The work-related psychosocial factors highlighted by the logistic modeling were high psychological demand for women (OR = 1.90, 95 % CI 1.17-3.09) and low skill discretion (OR = 1.77, 95 % CI 1.01-3.11) for men. This study has identified some psychosocial factors and factors related to work organization associated with clinically diagnosed and symptom-only cases of CTS as well as personal and biomechanical factors. However, due to the cross-sectional design of the study, no causal conclusion could be drawn and longitudinal studies are necessary to confirm these results.

  2. Incidence rates of in-hospital carpal tunnel syndrome in the general population and possible associations with marital status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattioli, Stefano; Baldasseroni, Alberto; Curti, Stefania; Cooke, Robin M T; Bena, Antonella; de Giacomi, Giovanna; dell'Omo, Marco; Fateh-Moghadam, Pirous; Melani, Carla; Biocca, Marco; Buiatti, Eva; Campo, Giuseppe; Zanardi, Francesca; Violante, Francesco S

    2008-10-28

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a socially relevant condition associated with biomechanical risk factors. We evaluated age-sex-specific incidence rates of in-hospital cases of CTS in central/northern Italy and explored relations with marital status. Seven regions were considered (overall population, 14.9 million) over 3-6-year periods between 1997 and 2002 (when out-of-hospital CTS surgery was extremely rare). Incidence rates of in-hospital cases of CTS were estimated based on 1) codified demographic, diagnostic and intervention data in obligatory discharge records from all Italian public/private hospitals, archived (according to residence) on regional databases; 2) demographic general population data for each region. We compared (using the chiscore test) age-sex-specific rates between married, unmarried, divorced and widowed subsets of the general population. We calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) for married/unmarried men and women. Age-standardized incidence rates (per 100,000 person-years) of in-hospital cases of CTS were 166 in women and 44 in men (106 overall). Married subjects of both sexes showed higher age-specific rates with respect to unmarried men/women. SIRs were calculated comparing married vs unmarried rates of both sexes: 1.59 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.57-1.60) in women, and 1.42 (95% CI, 1.40-1.45) in men. As compared with married women/men, widows/widowers both showed 2-3-fold higher incidence peaks during the fourth decade of life (beyond 50 years of age, widowed subjects showed similar trends to unmarried counterparts). This large population-based study illustrates distinct age-related trends in men and women, and also raises the question whether marital status could be associated with CTS in the general population.

  3. Ensino de conceitos químicos em um enfoque CTS a partir de saberes populares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Luiz Zanotto

    Full Text Available Resumo: O presente artigo objetiva apresentar resultados de um estudo realizado sobre a utilização de saberes populares como ponto de partida para o ensino de conceitos químicos, articulando os diversos saberes sob o enfoque CTS. O trabalho foi realizado com 30 alunos da 3ª série do ensino médio de um colégio da rede estadual de ensino, da região sul do Paraná, Brasil. A abordagem metodológica foi a qualitativa, de natureza interpretativa, com observação participante. A coleta de dados se deu por meio de questionários, apresentação e discussão dos resultados das pesquisas bibliográficas, elaboração e análise de mapas conceituais, produção de infográficos (historinhas. A pesquisa demonstrou que a utilização dos saberes populares se constituiu num fator motivador e de apoio para a aprendizagem, possibilitando a contextualização dos conteúdos, tornando o ensino de Química mais atraente e significativo, facilitando, dessa maneira, a criação de estruturas cognitivas e mudanças de perfil conceitual.

  4. Observed Differences between Males and Females in Surgically Treated Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Among Non-manual Workers: A Sensitivity Analysis of Findings from a Large Population Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farioli, Andrea; Curti, Stefania; Bonfiglioli, Roberta; Baldasseroni, Alberto; Spatari, Giovanna; Mattioli, Stefano; Violante, Francesco Saverio

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Objectives We aimed at assessing whether differences among males and females in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) epidemiology might be attributable to segregation with respect to occupational biomechanical exposures or differential access to care by sex. Methods We analysed surgically treated cases of CTS occurring among non-manual workers in Tuscany between 1997 and 2000. We conducted a Monte Carlo simulation to estimate the difference in occupational biomechanical exposures between males and females necessary to explain the observed incidence rate ratios. We also accounted for the sex-specific probability of receiving surgery after the diagnosis of CTS, as women were reported to be more likely to undergo surgery in a subset of our study population. We quantified the hypothetical biomechanical overload through the hand activity level (HAL) metric proposed by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. To quantify the effect of HAL on CTS risk, we assumed a prior distribution based on findings from two large cohort studies of industrial workers. Results After adjustment for the probability of receiving surgery, women showed a 4-fold incidence of CTS as compared with men. To explain this association among non-manual workers, women should have an average value of HAL at least 5 points higher. Conclusions Our analysis does not support the hypothesis that the difference in CTS incidence between males and females is entirely attributable to occupational risk factors or to differential access to surgery. The causal pathway between sex and CTS might include more determinants such as hormonal factors, anthropometric characteristics, and non-occupational exposure to biomechanical overload (e.g. household tasks). PMID:29579135

  5. Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) is a continuous flow wind-tunnel facility capable of speeds up to Mach 1.2 at stagnation pressures up to one atmosphere. The TDT...

  6. Quantum theory of tunneling

    CERN Document Server

    Razavy, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    In this revised and expanded edition, in addition to a comprehensible introduction to the theoretical foundations of quantum tunneling based on different methods of formulating and solving tunneling problems, different semiclassical approximations for multidimensional systems are presented. Particular attention is given to the tunneling of composite systems, with examples taken from molecular tunneling and also from nuclear reactions. The interesting and puzzling features of tunneling times are given extensive coverage, and the possibility of measurement of these times with quantum clocks are critically examined. In addition by considering the analogy between evanescent waves in waveguides and in quantum tunneling, the times related to electromagnetic wave propagation have been used to explain certain aspects of quantum tunneling times. These topics are treated in both non-relativistic as well as relativistic regimes. Finally, a large number of examples of tunneling in atomic, molecular, condensed matter and ...

  7. Road and Railroad Tunnels

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Tunnels in the United States According to the HSIP Tiger Team Report, a tunnel is defined as a linear underground passageway open at both ends. This dataset is based...

  8. Hypersonic Tunnel Facility (HTF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Hypersonic Tunnel Facility (HTF) is a blow-down, non-vitiated (clean air) free-jet wind tunnel capable of testing large-scale, propulsion systems at Mach 5, 6,...

  9. Translation and Validation of the Persian Version the Boston Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassankhani, Golnaz Ghayyem; Moradi, Ali; Birjandinejad, Ali; Vahedi, Ehsan; Kachooei, Amir R; Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad H

    2018-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is recognized as the most common type of neuropathies. Questionnaires are the method of choice for evaluating patients with CTS. Boston Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (BCTS) is one of the most famous questionnaires that evaluate the functional and symptomatic aspects of CTS. This study was performed to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Persian version of BCTS questionnaire. First, both parts of the original questionnaire (Symptom Severity Scale and Functional Status Scale) were translated into Persian by two expert translators. The translated questionnaire was revised after merging and confirmed by an orthopedic hand surgeon. The confirmed questionnaire was interpreted back into the original language (English) to check for any possible content inequality between the original questionnaire and its final translated version. The final Persian questionnaire was answered by 10 patients suffering from CTS to elucidate its comprehensibility; afterwards, it was filled by 142 participants along with the Persian version of the Quick-DASH questionnaire. After 2 to 6 days, the translated questionnaire was refilled by some of the previous patients who had not received any substantial medical treatment during that period. Among all 142 patients, 13.4 % were male and 86.6 % were female. The reliability of the questionnaire was tested using Cronbach's alpha and Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Cronbach's alpha was 0.859 for symptom severity scale (SSS) and 0.878 for functional status scale (FSS). Also, ICCs were calculated as 0.538 for SSS and 0.773 for FSS. In addition, construct validity of SSS and FSS against QuickDASH were 0.641 and 0.701, respectively. Based on our results, the Persian version of the BCTQ is valid and reliable. Level of evidence: II.

  10. A study of interpolation method in diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Ashraf

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The low correlation between the patients′ signs and symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS and results of electrodiagnostic tests makes the diagnosis challenging in mild cases. Interpolation is a mathematical method for finding median nerve conduction velocity (NCV exactly at carpal tunnel site. Therefore, it may be helpful in diagnosis of CTS in patients with equivocal test results. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate interpolation method as a CTS diagnostic test. Settings and Design: Patients with two or more clinical symptoms and signs of CTS in a median nerve territory with 3.5 ms ≤ distal median sensory latency <4.6 ms from those who came to our electrodiagnostic clinics and also, age matched healthy control subjects were recruited in the study. Materials and Methods: Median compound motor action potential and median sensory nerve action potential latencies were measured by a MEDLEC SYNERGY VIASIS electromyography and conduction velocities were calculated by both routine method and interpolation technique. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-square and Student′s t-test were used for comparing group differences. Cut-off points were calculated using receiver operating characteristic curve. Results: A sensitivity of 88%, specificity of 67%, positive predictive value (PPV and negative predictive value (NPV of 70.8% and 84.7% were obtained for median motor NCV and a sensitivity of 98.3%, specificity of 91.7%, PPV and NPV of 91.9% and 98.2% were obtained for median sensory NCV with interpolation technique. Conclusions: Median motor interpolation method is a good technique, but it has less sensitivity and specificity than median sensory interpolation method.

  11. Efficacy of Manual Therapy Including Neurodynamic Techniques for the Treatment of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolny, Tomasz; Saulicz, Edward; Linek, Paweł; Shacklock, Michael; Myśliwiec, Andrzej

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this randomized trial was to compare the efficacy of manual therapy, including the use of neurodynamic techniques, with electrophysical modalities on patients with mild and moderate carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). The study included 140 CTS patients who were randomly assigned to the manual therapy (MT) group, which included the use of neurodynamic techniques, functional massage, and carpal bone mobilizations techniques, or to the electrophysical modalities (EM) group, which included laser and ultrasound therapy. Nerve conduction, pain severity, symptom severity, and functional status measured by the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire were assessed before and after treatment. Therapy was conducted twice weekly and both groups received 20 therapy sessions. A baseline assessment revealed group differences in sensory conduction of the median nerve (P < .01) but not in motor conduction (P = .82). Four weeks after the last treatment procedure, nerve conduction was examined again. In the MT group, median nerve sensory conduction velocity increased by 34% and motor conduction velocity by 6% (in both cases, P < .01). There was no change in median nerve sensory and motor conduction velocities in the EM. Distal motor latency was decreased (P < .01) in both groups. A baseline assessment revealed no group differences in pain severity, symptom severity, or functional status. Immediately after therapy, analysis of variance revealed group differences in pain severity (P < .01), with a reduction in pain in both groups (MT: 290%, P < .01; EM: 47%, P < .01). There were group differences in symptom severity (P < .01) and function (P < .01) on the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire. Both groups had an improvement in functional status (MT: 47%, P < .01; EM: 9%, P < .01) and a reduction in subjective CTS symptoms (MT: 67%, P < .01; EM: 15%, P < .01). Both therapies had a positive effect on nerve conduction, pain reduction, functional status, and subjective symptoms in

  12. Proton tunneling in solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, J.

    1998-10-01

    The tunneling rate of the proton and its isotopes between interstitial sites in solids is studied theoretically. The phonons and/or the electrons in the solid have two effects on the tunneling phenomenon. First, they suppress the transfer integral between two neighbouring states. Second, they give rise to a finite lifetime of the proton state. Usually the second effect is large and the tunneling probability per unit time (tunneling rate) can be defined. In some cases, however, a coherent tunneling is expected and actually observed. (author)

  13. Proton tunneling in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, J.

    1998-01-01

    The tunneling rate of the proton and its isotopes between interstitial sites in solids is studied theoretically. The phonons and/or the electrons in the solid have two effects on the tunneling phenomenon. First, they suppress the transfer integral between two neighbouring states. Second, they give rise to a finite lifetime of the proton state. Usually the second effect is large and the tunneling probability per unit time (tunneling rate) can be defined. In some cases, however, a coherent tunneling is expected and actually observed. (author)

  14. Combination of inquiry learning model and computer simulation to improve mastery concept and the correlation with critical thinking skills (CTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugraha, Muhamad Gina; Kaniawati, Ida; Rusdiana, Dadi; Kirana, Kartika Hajar

    2016-02-01

    Among the purposes of physics learning at high school is to master the physics concepts and cultivate scientific attitude (including critical attitude), develop inductive and deductive reasoning skills. According to Ennis et al., inductive and deductive reasoning skills are part of critical thinking. Based on preliminary studies, both of the competence are lack achieved, it is seen from student learning outcomes is low and learning processes that are not conducive to cultivate critical thinking (teacher-centered learning). One of learning model that predicted can increase mastery concepts and train CTS is inquiry learning model aided computer simulations. In this model, students were given the opportunity to be actively involved in the experiment and also get a good explanation with the computer simulations. From research with randomized control group pretest-posttest design, we found that the inquiry learning model aided computer simulations can significantly improve students' mastery concepts than the conventional (teacher-centered) method. With inquiry learning model aided computer simulations, 20% of students have high CTS, 63.3% were medium and 16.7% were low. CTS greatly contribute to the students' mastery concept with a correlation coefficient of 0.697 and quite contribute to the enhancement mastery concept with a correlation coefficient of 0.603.

  15. Diagnostic strategies using physical examination are minimally useful in defining carpal tunnel syndrome in population-based research studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descatha, A; Dale, A-M; Franzblau, A; Coomes, J; Evanoff, B

    2010-02-01

    We evaluated the utility of physical examination manoeuvres in the prediction of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in a population-based research study. We studied a cohort of 1108 newly employed workers in several industries. Each worker completed a symptom questionnaire, a structured physical examination and nerve conduction study. For each hand, our CTS case definition required both median nerve conduction abnormality and symptoms classified as "classic" or "probable" on a hand diagram. We calculated the positive predictive values and likelihood ratios for physical examination manoeuvres in subjects with and without symptoms. The prevalence of CTS in our cohort was 1.2% for the right hand and 1.0% for the left hand. The likelihood ratios of a positive test for physical provocative tests ranged from 2.0 to 3.3, and those of a negative test from 0.3 to 0.9. The post-test probability of positive testing was study found that physical examination, alone or in combination with symptoms, was not predictive of CTS in a working population. We suggest using specific symptoms as a first-level screening tool, and nerve conduction study as a confirmatory test, as a case definition strategy in research settings.

  16. Associations of cardiovascular risk factors, carotid intima-media thickness and manifest atherosclerotic vascular disease with carpal tunnel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liira Helena

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of atherosclerosis in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS has not previously been addressed in population studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of cardiovascular risk factors, carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT, and clinical atherosclerotic diseases with CTS. Methods In this cross sectional study, the target population consisted of subjects aged 30 or over who had participated in the national Finnish Health Survey in 2000-2001. Of the 7977 eligible subjects, 6254 (78.4% were included in our study. Carotid IMT was measured in a sub-sample of subjects aged 45 to 74 (N = 1353. Results Obesity (adjusted odds ratio (OR 2.4, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.1-5.4, high LDL cholesterol (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.6-9.1 for >190 vs. 200 vs. Conclusions Our findings suggest an association between CTS and cardiovascular risk factors in young people, and carotid IMT and clinical atherosclerotic vascular disease in older people. CTS may either be a manifestation of atherosclerosis, or both conditions may share similar risk factors.

  17. Treatment of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome in pregnancy with Polarized Polychromatic Non-coherent Light (Bioptron Light): A Preliminary, Prospective, Open Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrios, Stasinopoulos; Stasinopoulos, Loannis

    2017-12-31

    The aim of this trial was to assess the efficacy of polarized polychromatic noncoherent light (Bioptron light) in the treatment of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) in pregnancy. An uncontrolled experimental study was conducted in pregnant patients with CTS who visited our clinic from January 2006 to January 2010. Bioptron light (480-3400 nm; 95% polarization; 40 mW/cm 2 ; and 2.4 J/cm 2 ) was administered perpendicular to the carpal tunnel area. The irradiation time for each session was 6 min at an operating distance of 5-10 cm from the carpal tunnel area, twice each day, five days per week for 2 weeks. Pain and paraesthesia using a visual analogue scale (VAS) and finger pinch strength were evaluated at the end of treatment (week 2) and 1-month (week 6) after the end of treatment. The Student'sttest was used and p values Bioptron light is a reliable, safe, and effective treatment option in pregnant patients with CTS. Controlled clinical trials are needed to establish the absolute and relative effectiveness of this intervention.

  18. Quantum tunneling time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.S.; Lai, C.H.; Oh, C.H.; Kwek, L.C.

    2004-01-01

    We present a calculation of quantum tunneling time based on the transition duration of wave peak from one side of a barrier to the other. In our formulation, the tunneling time comprises a real and an imaginary part. The real part is an extension of the phase tunneling time with quantum corrections whereas the imaginary time is associated with energy derivatives of the probability amplitudes

  19. Charge Islands Through Tunneling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Daryl C.

    2002-01-01

    It has been recently reported that the electrical charge in a semiconductive carbon nanotube is not evenly distributed, but rather it is divided into charge "islands." This paper links the aforementioned phenomenon to tunneling and provides further insight into the higher rate of tunneling processes, which makes tunneling devices attractive. This paper also provides a basis for calculating the charge profile over the length of the tube so that nanoscale devices' conductive properties may be fully exploited.

  20. Josephson tunneling and nanosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Ovchinnikov, Yurii; Kresin, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    Josephson tunneling between nanoclusters is analyzed. The discrete nature of the electronic energy spectra, including their shell ordering, is explicitly taken into account. The treatment considers the two distinct cases of resonant and non-resonant tunneling. It is demonstrated that the current density greatly exceeds the value discussed in the conventional theory. Nanoparticles are shown to be promising building blocks for nanomaterials-based tunneling networks.

  1. About tunnelling times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olkhovsky, V.S.; Recami, E.

    1991-08-01

    In this paper, first we critically analyse the main theoretical definitions and calculations of the sub-barrier tunnelling and reflection times. Secondly, we propose a new, physically sensible definition of such durations, on the basis of a recent general formalism (already tested for other types of quantum collisions). At last, we discuss some results regarding temporal evolution of the tunnelling processes, and in particular the ''particle'' speed during tunnelling. (author). 36 refs, 1 fig

  2. Microsystem Aeromechanics Wind Tunnel

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Microsystem Aeromechanics Wind Tunnel advances the study of fundamental flow physics relevant to micro air vehicle (MAV) flight and assesses vehicle performance...

  3. Assessing the Value of High-Quality Care for Work-Associated Carpal Tunnel Syndrome in a Large Integrated Health Care System: Study Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, Craig; Asch, Steven; Hanson, Mark; Avins, Andrew; Levitan, Barbara; Roth, Carol; Robbins, Michael; Dworsky, Michael; Seabury, Seth; Nuckols, Teryl

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about quality of care for occupational health disorders, although it may affect worker health and workers' compensation costs. Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a common work-associated condition that causes substantial disability. To describe the design of a study that is assessing quality of care for work-associated CTS and associations with clinical outcomes and costs. Prospective observational study of 477 individuals with new workers' compensation claims for CTS without acute trauma who were treated at 30 occupational health clinics from 2011 to 2013 and followed for 18 months. Timing of key clinical events, adherence to 45 quality measures, changes in scores on the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire and 12-item Short Form Health Survey Version 2 (SF-12v2), and costs associated with medical care and disability. Two hundred sixty-seven subjects (56%) received a diagnosis of CTS and had claims filed around the first visit to occupational health, 104 (22%) received a diagnosis before that visit and claim, and 98 (21%) received a diagnosis or had claims filed after that visit. One hundred seventy-eight (37%) subjects had time off work, which started around the time of surgery in 147 (83%) cases and lasted a median of 41 days (interquartile range = 42 days). The timing of diagnosis varied, but time off work was generally short and related to surgery. If associations of quality of care with key medical, economic, and quality-of-life outcomes are identified for work-associated CTS, systematic efforts to evaluate and improve quality of medical care for this condition are warranted.

  4. [Clinical auxiliary diagnosis value of high frequency ultrasonographic measurements of the thickness of transverse carpal ligaments in carpal tunnel syndrome patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, L; Chen, F M; Wang, L; Zhang, P X; Jiang, X R

    2016-04-18

    To evaluate the meaning and value of high-frequency ultrasound in the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). In this study, 48 patients (unilateral hand) with CTS were analyzed. The thickness of transverse carpal ligaments at the pisiform bone was measured using high-frequency ultrasound. Open carpal tunnel release procedure was performed in the 48 CTS patients, and the thickness of transverse carpal ligaments at the hamate hook bone measured using vernier caliper under direct vision. The accuracy of thickness of transverse carpal ligaments was evaluated using high-frequency ultrasound. high-frequency ultrasound measurement of thickness of transverse carpal ligaments at the hamate hook bone and pisiform bone, and determination of the diagnostic threshold measurement index using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, sensitivity and specificity were performed and the correlation between the thickness of transverse carpal ligaments and nerve conduction study (NCS) analyzed. The thickness of transverse carpal ligaments in the CTS patients were (0.42±0.08) cm (high-frequency ultrasound) and (0.41±0.06) cm (operation) at hamate hook bone, and there was no significant difference between the two ways (t=0.672, P>0.05). The optimal cut-off value of the transverse carpal ligaments at hamate hook bone was 0.385 cm, the sensitivity 0.775, and the specificity 0.788. The optimal cut-off value of the transverse carpal ligaments at the pisiform bone was 0.315 cm, the sensitivity 0.950, and the specificity 1.000. The transverse carpal ligaments thickness and wrist-index finger sensory nerve conduction velocity (SCV), wrist-middle finger SCV showed a negative correlation. High frequency ultrasound measurements of thickness of transverse carpal ligaments is a valuable method for the diagnosis of CTS.

  5. Effectiveness of Surgical and Postsurgical Interventions for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome-A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huisstede, Bionka M; van den Brink, Janneke; Randsdorp, Manon S; Geelen, Sven J; Koes, Bart W

    2017-05-31

    To present an evidence-based overview of the effectiveness of surgical and postsurgical interventions for carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). The Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PEDro were searched for relevant systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) up to April 8, 2016. Two reviewers independently applied the inclusion criteria to select potential studies. Two reviewers independently extracted the data and assessed the methodologic quality. A best-evidence synthesis was performed to summarize the results. Four systematic reviews and 33 RCTs were included. Surgery versus nonsurgical interventions, timing of surgery, and various surgical techniques and postoperative interventions were studied. Corticosteroid injection was more effective than surgery (strong evidence, short-term). Surgery was more effective than splinting or anti-inflammatory drugs plus hand therapy (moderate evidence, midterm and long-term). Manual therapy was more effective than surgical treatment (moderate evidence, short-term and midterm). Within surgery, corticosteroid irrigation of the median nerve before skin closure as additive to CTS release or the direct vision plus tunneling technique was more effective than standard open CTS release (moderate evidence, short-term). Furthermore, short was more effective than long bulky dressings, and a sensory retraining program was more effective than no program after surgery (moderate evidence, short-term). For all other interventions only conflicting, limited, or no evidence was found. Surgical treatment seems to be more effective than splinting or anti-inflammatory drugs plus hand therapy in the short-term, midterm, and/or long-term to treat CTS. However there is strong evidence that a local corticosteroid injection is more effective than surgery in the short-term, and moderate evidence that manual therapy is more effective than surgery in the short-term and midterm. There is no unequivocal evidence that suggests one

  6. Validity of F-wave minimal latency of median and ulnar nerves for diagnosis and severity assessment of carpal tunnel syndrome in type II diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.; Habib, S.S.; Omar, S.A.; Drees, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Type II diabetes mellitus is a common problem and is sometimes associated with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) due to compression of median nerve at wrist. Electrophysiological tests are frequently used for its diagnosis. In this work, F-wave minimal latency (FWML) difference between median and ulnar nerve and F-ratio is used to facilitate the diagnosis and severity of CTS in type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: Thirty control cases were selected who were physically fit for normal electrophysiological values. Thirty-two patients with a long history of type II diabetes mellitus were studied for electro-diagnostic tests. All patients had clinical evidence of CTS. Among all diabetics about 20 cases had poor glycaemic control (HbA1c>7.5). F-wave minimal latency (FWML) were measured in median and ulnar nerves and F-ratio of median nerve were also noted. The mean values in different groups were compared using t-test and p greater or equal to 0.05 was considered significant. Results: In control group, the ulnar FWML was either equal or slightly longer that the median FWML value. In CTS group with type II diabetes mellitus the FWML value of median nerve were significantly longer than FWML of the ulnar nerve. Moreover, in uncontrolled diabetic patients the FWML values was very much longer than controlled group. Similarly the F-ratio of median nerve was significantly low. Conclusion: In addition to the specific criteria for CTS diagnosis, the parameters like FWML difference in median and ulnar nerve with reduced F-ratio of median nerve can be useful in establishing the diagnosis and severity of CTS in type II diabetes mellitus. (author)

  7. Bilateral deficits in fine motor control and pinch grip force are not associated with electrodiagnostic findings in women with carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Llave-Rincón, Ana Isabel; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Pérez-de-Heredia-Torres, Marta; Martínez-Perez, Almudena; Valenza, Marie Carmen; Pareja, Juan A

    2011-06-01

    : The aim of this study was to analyze the differences in deficits in fine motor control and pinch grip force between patients with minimal, moderate/mild, or severe carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and healthy age- and hand dominance-matched controls. : A case-control study was conducted. The subtests of the Purdue Pegboard Test (one-hand and bilateral pin placements and assemblies) and pinch grip force between the thumb and the remaining four fingers of the hand were bilaterally evaluated in 66 women with minimal (n = 16), moderate (n = 16), or severe (n = 34) CTS and in 20 age- and hand-matched healthy women. The differences among the groups were analyzed using different mixed models of analysis of variance. : A two-way mixed analysis of variance revealed significant differences between groups, not depending on the presence of unilateral or bilateral symptoms (side), for the one-hand pin placement subtest: patients showed bilateral lower scores compared with controls (P < 0.001), without differences among those with minimal, moderate, or severe CTS (P = 0.946). The patients also exhibited lower scores in bilateral pin placement (P < 0.001) and assembly (P < 0.001) subtests, without differences among them. The three-way analysis of variance revealed significant differences among groups (P < 0.001) and fingers (P < 0.001), not depending on the presence of unilateral/bilateral symptoms (P = 0.684), for pinch grip force: patients showed bilateral lower pinch grip force in all fingers compared with healthy controls, without differences among those with minimal, moderate, or severe CTS. : The current study revealed similar bilateral deficits in fine motor control and pinch grip force in patients with minimal, moderate, or severe CTS, supporting that fine motor control deficits are a common feature of CTS not associated with electrodiagnostic findings.

  8. Which nerve conduction parameters can predict spontaneous electromyographic activity in carpal tunnel syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia-Wei; Lee, Wei-Ju; Liao, Yi-Chu; Chang, Ming-Hong

    2013-11-01

    We investigate electrodiagnostic markers to determine which parameters are the best predictors of spontaneous electromyographic (EMG) activity in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). We enrolled 229 patients with clinically proven and nerve conduction study (NCS)-proven CTS, as well as 100 normal control subjects. All subjects were evaluated using electrodiagnostic techniques, including median distal sensory latencies (DSLs), sensory nerve action potentials (SNAPs), distal motor latencies (DMLs), compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs), forearm median nerve conduction velocities (FMCVs) and wrist-palm motor conduction velocities (W-P MCVs). All CTS patients underwent EMG examination of the abductor pollicis brevis (APB) muscle, and the presence or absence of spontaneous EMG activities was recorded. Normal limits were determined by calculating the means ± 2 standard deviations from the control data. Associations between parameters from the NCS and EMG findings were investigated. In patients with clinically diagnosed CTS, abnormal median CMAP amplitudes were the best predictors of spontaneous activity during EMG examination (p95% (positive predictive rate >95%). If the median CMAP amplitude was higher than the normal limit (>4.9 mV), the rate of no spontaneous EMG activity was >94% (negative predictive rate >94%). An abnormal SNAP amplitude was the second best predictor of spontaneous EMG activity (p<0.001; OR 4.13; 95% CI 2.16-7.90), and an abnormal FMCV was the third best predictor (p=0.01; OR 2.10; 95% CI 1.20-3.67). No other nerve conduction parameters had significant power to predict spontaneous activity upon EMG examination. The CMAP amplitudes of the APB are the most powerful predictors of the occurrence of spontaneous EMG activity. Low CMAP amplitudes are strongly associated with spontaneous activity, whereas high CMAP amplitude are less associated with spontaneous activity, implying that needle EMG examination should be recommended for the detection of

  9. Regulating drug release from pH- and temperature-responsive electrospun CTS-g-PNIPAAm/poly(ethylene oxide) hydrogel nanofibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Huihua; Li, Biyun; Liang, Kai; Lou, Xiangxin; Zhang, Yanzhong

    2014-01-01

    Temperature- and pH-responsive polymers have been widely investigated as smart drug release systems. However, dual-sensitive polymers in the form of nanofibers, which is advantageous in achieving rapid transfer of stimulus to the smart polymeric structures for regulating drug release behavior, have rarely been explored. In this study, chitosan-graft-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (CTS-g-PNIPAAm) copolymer was synthesized by using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide (EDC) and N-hydroxy succinimide (NHS) as grafting agents to graft carboxyl-terminated PNIPAAm (PNIPAAm-COOH) chains onto the CTS biomacromolecules, and then CTS-g-PNIPAAm with or without bovine serum albumin (BSA) was fabricated into nanofibers through electrospinning using poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO, 10 wt%) as a fiber-forming facilitating additive. The BSA laden CTS-g-PNIPAAm/PEO hydrogel nanofibers were tested to determine their drug release profiles by varying pH and temperature. Finally, cytotoxicity of the CTS-g-PNIPAAm/PEO hydrogel nanofibers was evaluated by assaying the L929 cell proliferation using the MTT method. It was found that the synthesized CTS-g-PNIPAAm possessed a temperature-induced phase transition and lower critical solution temperature (LCST) at 32° C in aqueous solutions. The rate of BSA release could be well modulated by altering the environmental pH and temperature of the hydrogel nanofibers. The CTS-g-PNIPAAm/PEO hydrogel nanofibers supported L929 cell growth, indicative of appropriate cytocompatibility. Our current work could pave the way towards developing multi-stimuli responsive nanofibrous smart materials for potential applications in the fields of drug delivery and tissue engineering. (paper)

  10. Scanning tunneling microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binnig, G.; Rohrer, H.

    1983-01-01

    Based on vacuum tunneling, a novel type of microscope, the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) was developed. It has an unprecedented resolution in real space on an atomic scale. The authors review the important technical features, illustrate the power of the STM for surface topographies and discuss its potential in other areas of science and technology. (Auth.)

  11. Electron tunneling in chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamaraev, K.I.; Khajrutdinov, R.F.; Zhdanov, V.P.; Molin, Yu.N.

    1985-01-01

    Results of experimental and theoretical investigations are outlined systematically on electron tunnelling in chemical reactions. Mechanism of electron transport to great distances is shown to be characteristic to chemical compounds of a wide range. The function of tunnel reactions is discussed for various fields of chemistry, including radiation chemistry, electrochemistry, chemistry of solids, chemistry of surface and catalysis

  12. ASYMMETRY OF SOMATOSENSORY CORTICAL PLASTICITY IN PATIENT WITH BILATERAL CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikmat Hadoush

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Following peripheral nerve lesion, the adult somatosensory system showedcortical reorganizational abilities.Previous studies identified the digits' somatotopy map changes and somatosensory cortical plasticity in response to the Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS that affected the dominant hand only. Objective: Answering the remained question is that what the extent of the cortical plasticity would be in left and right somatosensory cortices in response to CTS affecting the right and left hands simultaneously. Methods: Cortical representations activated by tactile stimulation of median nerve (index and ulnar nerve (little of both dominant and non-dominant hands were evaluated by Magnetoencephalography (MEG systemfor healthy participants and patient with bilateral moderate CTS. index – little fingers'somatotopy map and inter-digit cortical distance was then mapped and calculated for each participant on the real MRI data and the 3D brain surface image. Results: in healthy participants, index – little inter-digit somatosensory cortical distance of right hand (dominant was significantly larger than the index – little inter-digitsomatosensory cortical distance of left hand (11.2±2.1mm vs.7.0±2.9mm, P = 0.006. However, in patient with bilateral CTS, the index – little inter-digit somatosensory cortical distance of righthand (dominant was significantly smaller than the index – little inter-digit somatosensory cortical distance of left hand (5.8mm vs. 7.4mm. Conclusion: our data could be interpreted as the hand use – dependency served more median nerve – cortical territory from the ulnar nerve invasion in the right somatotopy map (left hand than the left somatotopy map of the right hand.

  13. Sonography and electrodiagnosis in carpal tunnel syndrome diagnosis, an analysis of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seror, P.

    2008-01-01

    We present a review of the international literature concerning sonography for the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Analysis of the results and comparison with electrodiagnostic data provide a sensible albeit personal view on the relevance of sonography and whether it competes or is complementary to electrodiagnosis (EDX). Although EDX is considered as the gold standard for CTS diagnosis, one author chose surgical results to define CTS. The normal and threshold mean values for sonography are particularly variable from one study to another. The standard deviation (S.D.), when compared to mean values, makes normal and abnormal data overlap considerably and produces many false negatives when the specificity is high, and many false positives when the sensitivity is high. In fact, sonography is non-interpretable in only 10 to 15% of the population, and it affirms the median nerve lesion at the wrist in 55% of cases when EDX does it in more than 90% with common tests. Further more the specificity of sonography leads to a false positive diagnosis in 1 case out of 5 versus 1 out of 40 with EDX. The main conclusion is that there is no competition but rather a complementarity between sonography and EDX: sonography is certainly an efficient imaging technique but cannot replace proper EDX performed for upper limb paresthesiae. Namely, sonography can answer only one out of the 8 questions a complete EDX answer: Are sonographic images compatible with a median nerve lesion at the wrist? The answer to this solely question can be obtain with a partial EDX using a single conduction test (motor or sensitive), then duration and cost will be comparable to sonography but will be both more sensitive and specific. Finally, one must kept in mind that the final aim of all examinations in CTS is to determine the cause(s) of upper limb paresthesiae, not simply if there is a median nerve lesion at wrist or not

  14. Which surgery should be offered for carpal tunnel syndrome in a patient who was previously treated for recurrence on the contralateral side? Preliminary study of 13 patients with the Canaletto® implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, I; Seigle-Murandi, F; Gouzou, S; Fabacher, T; Facca, S; Hidalgo Diaz, J J; Liverneaux, P

    2017-12-01

    There are no published studies on the management of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) patients who have already been operated for recurrent CTS on the contralateral side. The aim of this study was to evaluate 13 patients with CTS who underwent primary release using a Canaletto ® implant. The 13 patients had all been operated for recurrent CTS previously. On the contralateral side, they all had subjective signs, and two of them already had complications. All were operated with the Canaletto ® implant according to Duché's technique, in a mean of 20minutes. After a mean 19.3-month follow-up, paresthesia, pain, and QuickDASH scores were significantly improved, even in one patient who underwent revision at another facility. This preliminary study suggests that use of a Canaletto ® implant as first-line treatment for CTS in patients who already underwent revision surgery on the other side is a simple and safe technique, without worsening of symptoms. These findings should be assessed with a prospective randomized controlled trial. Copyright © 2017 SFCM. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Dor e parestesias nos membros superiores e diagnóstico da síndrome do túnel do carpo Pain and numbness in the arms and hands and carpal tunnel syndrome diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Ribeiro Nogueira Barbosa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Nós avaliamos a freqüência e localização de dor e parestesias em pacientes com síndrome do túnel do carpo (STC e em indivíduos da população geral, pareados por gênero e idade. Determinamos a sensibilidade e a especificidade desses sintomas para o diagnóstico de STC. Dor foi um sintoma comum nos dois grupos de pacientes. Parestesia ocorreu com mais freqüência em pacientes com STC (p75% quando são localizadas nas mãos.We studied the frequency and localization of pain and numbness in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS, in comparison with individuals of the general population, matched for sex and age, and we determined the sensitivity and the specificity of these symptoms for the CTS diagnosis. Pain was a common symptom in the two groups of patients. Numbness occurred more frequently in CTS group (p<0.05. In CTS patients, pain complaints were present in neck (42.8%, arms (36.8% and hands (82.8%. Among controls, pain was more common in head (11.4%, trunk (37.1%, legs (22.8%. In our casuistics, in relation to the CTS diagnosis, the presence of pain and numbness have low sensitivity and high specificity when they occur in the arms, and high sensitivity and specificity when they occur in the hands.

  16. Tunnel fire dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ingason, Haukur; Lönnermark, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This book covers a wide range of issues in fire safety engineering in tunnels, describes the phenomena related to tunnel fire dynamics, presents state-of-the-art research, and gives detailed solutions to these major issues. Examples for calculations are provided. The aim is to significantly improve the understanding of fire safety engineering in tunnels. Chapters on fuel and ventilation control, combustion products, gas temperatures, heat fluxes, smoke stratification, visibility, tenability, design fire curves, heat release, fire suppression and detection, CFD modeling, and scaling techniques all equip readers to create their own fire safety plans for tunnels. This book should be purchased by any engineer or public official with responsibility for tunnels. It would also be of interest to many fire protection engineers as an application of evolving technical principles of fire safety.

  17. Estudio anatómico de la transferencia de los nervios accesorio y toracodorsal al nervio cubital en el gato Anatomic study of spinal accesory and thoracodorsal nerves transfer to ulnar nerve in cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. Martínez-Méndez

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Las lesiones del plexo braquial son una de las patologías más graves y con mayor número de secuelas del miembro superior. En el momento actual las transferencias nerviosas se encuentran en primera línea del armamento terapéutico para reconstruir funciones proximales del miembro superior. En el estudio que presentamos se realizaron 20 transferencias nerviosas al nervio cubital del gato común, tomando bien el nervio accesorio del espinal (10 casos o bien el nervio toracodorsal (10 casos. Como grupo control se utilizó el lado contralateral al intervenido. Durante el año siguiente, se evaluó la reinervación mediante estudios electromiográficos, histológicos de nervio y músculo, así como histoquímicos de médula espinal. Tras el análisis de los resultados encontramos que las motoneuronas de ambos nervios donantes son capaces de conseguir reinervaciones parciales del territorio cubital.A brachial plexus injury is one of the most severe pathologies of the upper limb, and also has severe sequels. In the actual state of the art, nerve transfers are being used as first line of therapeutic approach in the reconstruction of proximal functions of the upper limb. In this study 20 nerve transfers were made to the ulnar nerve of the cat, using the spinal accessory nerve (10 cases or the thoracodorsal nerve (10 cases. The opposite side was used as control. During next year, reinnervation was assessed by electromyography, nerve and muscle histology and histochemical evaluation of the spinal cord. We found that motoneurons of both donor nerves are able to make partial reinervation of the ulnar nerve territory.

  18. Traditional Medicine Collection Tracking System (TM-CTS): a database for ethnobotanically driven drug-discovery programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Eric S J; Erickson, Sean D; Tolopko, Andrew N; Cao, Shugeng; Craycroft, Jane A; Scholten, Robert; Fu, Yanling; Wang, Wenquan; Liu, Yong; Zhao, Zhongzhen; Clardy, Jon; Shamu, Caroline E; Eisenberg, David M

    2011-05-17

    Ethnobotanically driven drug-discovery programs include data related to many aspects of the preparation of botanical medicines, from initial plant collection to chemical extraction and fractionation. The Traditional Medicine Collection Tracking System (TM-CTS) was created to organize and store data of this type for an international collaborative project involving the systematic evaluation of commonly used Traditional Chinese Medicinal plants. The system was developed using domain-driven design techniques, and is implemented using Java, Hibernate, PostgreSQL, Business Intelligence and Reporting Tools (BIRT), and Apache Tomcat. The TM-CTS relational database schema contains over 70 data types, comprising over 500 data fields. The system incorporates a number of unique features that are useful in the context of ethnobotanical projects such as support for information about botanical collection, method of processing, quality tests for plants with existing pharmacopoeia standards, chemical extraction and fractionation, and historical uses of the plants. The database also accommodates data provided in multiple languages and integration with a database system built to support high throughput screening based drug discovery efforts. It is accessed via a web-based application that provides extensive, multi-format reporting capabilities. This new database system was designed to support a project evaluating the bioactivity of Chinese medicinal plants. The software used to create the database is open source, freely available, and could potentially be applied to other ethnobotanically driven natural product collection and drug-discovery programs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Traditional Medicine Collection Tracking System (TM-CTS): A Database for Ethnobotanically-Driven Drug-Discovery Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Eric S. J.; Erickson, Sean D.; Tolopko, Andrew N.; Cao, Shugeng; Craycroft, Jane A.; Scholten, Robert; Fu, Yanling; Wang, Wenquan; Liu, Yong; Zhao, Zhongzhen; Clardy, Jon; Shamu, Caroline E.; Eisenberg, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Aim of the study. Ethnobotanically-driven drug-discovery programs include data related to many aspects of the preparation of botanical medicines, from initial plant collection to chemical extraction and fractionation. The Traditional Medicine-Collection Tracking System (TM-CTS) was created to organize and store data of this type for an international collaborative project involving the systematic evaluation of commonly used Traditional Chinese Medicinal plants. Materials and Methods. The system was developed using domain-driven design techniques, and is implemented using Java, Hibernate, PostgreSQL, Business Intelligence and Reporting Tools (BIRT), and Apache Tomcat. Results. The TM-CTS relational database schema contains over 70 data types, comprising over 500 data fields. The system incorporates a number of unique features that are useful in the context of ethnobotanical projects such as support for information about botanical collection, method of processing, quality tests for plants with existing pharmacopoeia standards, chemical extraction and fractionation, and historical uses of the plants. The database also accommodates data provided in multiple languages and integration with a database system built to support high throughput screening based drug discovery efforts. It is accessed via a web-based application that provides extensive, multi-format reporting capabilities. Conclusions. This new database system was designed to support a project evaluating the bioactivity of Chinese medicinal plants. The software used to create the database is open source, freely available, and could potentially be applied to other ethnobotanically-driven natural product collection and drug-discovery programs. PMID:21420479

  20. New receiving line for the remote-steering antenna of the 140 GHz CTS diagnostics in the FTU Tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arcangelo, O.; Bin, W.; Bruschi, A.; Cappelli, M.; Fanale, F.; Gittini, G.; Pallotta, F.; Rocchi, G.; Tudisco, O.; Garavaglia, S.; Granucci, G.; Moro, A.; Tuccillo, A. A.

    2018-01-01

    A new receiving antenna for collecting signals of the Collective Thomson Scattering (CTS) diagnostics in FTU Tokamak has been recently installed. The squared corrugated section and the precisely defined length make it possible to receive from different directions by remotely steering the receiving mirrors. This type of Remote-Steering (RS) antennas, being studied on FTU for the DEMO Electron Cyclotron Heating (ECH) system launch, is already installed on the W7- X stellarator and will be tested in the next campaign. The transmission of the signal from the antenna in the tokamak hall to the CTS diagnostics hall will be mainly realized by means of oversized circular corrugated waveguides carrying the hybrid HE11 (quasi-gaussian) waveguide mode, with inclusion of a special smooth-waveguide section and a short run of reduced-size square-corrugated waveguide through the tokamak bio-shield. The coupling between different waveguide types is made with ellipsoidal focusing mirrors, using quasi-optical matching formulas between the gaussian-shaped beams in input and output to the waveguides. In this work, after a complete study of feasibility of the overall line, a design for the receiving line will be proposed, in order to realize an executive layout to be used as a guideline for the commissioning phase.

  1. SU-G-JeP2-08: Image-Guided Radiation Therapy Using Synthetic CTs in Brain Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, R.G.; Glide-Hurst, C. [Wayne State School of Medicine, Detroit, MI (United States); Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Kim, J.; Zheng, W.; Chetty, I.J. [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Synthetic-CTs(synCTs) are essential for MR-only treatment planning. However, the performance of synCT for IGRT must be carefully assessed. This work evaluated the accuracy of synCT and synCT-generated DRRs and determined their performance for IGRT in brain cancer radiation therapy. Methods: MR-SIM and CT-SIM images were acquired of a novel anthropomorphic phantom and a cohort of 12 patients. SynCTs were generated by combining an ultra-short echo time (UTE) sequence with other MRI datasets using voxel-based weighted summation. For the phantom, DRRs from synCT and CT were compared via bounding box and landmark analysis. Planar (MV/KV) and volumetric (CBCT) IGRT performance were evaluated across several platforms. In patients, retrospective analysis was conducted to register CBCTs (n=34) to synCTs and CTs using automated rigid registration in the treatment planning system using whole brain and local registration techniques. A semi-automatic registration program was developed and validated to rigidly register planar MV/KV images (n=37) to synCT and CT DRRs. Registration reproducibility was assessed and margin differences were characterized using the van Herk formalism. Results: Bounding box and landmark analysis of phantom synCT DRRs were within 1mm of CT DRRs. Absolute 2D/2D registration shift differences ranged from 0.0–0.7mm for phantom DRRs on all treatment platforms and 0.0–0.4mm for volumetric registrations. For patient planar registrations, mean shift differences were 0.4±0.5mm (range: −0.6–1.6mm), 0.0±0.5mm, (range: −0.9–1.2mm), and 0.1±0.3mm (range: −0.7–0.6mm) for the superior-inferior(S-I), left-right(L–R), and anterior-posterior(A-P) axes, respectively. Mean shift differences in volumetric registrations were 0.6±0.4mm (range: −0.2–1.6mm), 0.2±0.4mm (range: −0.3–1.2mm), and 0.2±0.3mm (range: −0.2–1.2mm) for S-I, L–R, and A–P axes, respectively. CT-SIM and synCT derived margins were within 0.3mm. Conclusion

  2. SU-G-JeP2-08: Image-Guided Radiation Therapy Using Synthetic CTs in Brain Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.G.; Glide-Hurst, C.; Kim, J.; Zheng, W.; Chetty, I.J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Synthetic-CTs(synCTs) are essential for MR-only treatment planning. However, the performance of synCT for IGRT must be carefully assessed. This work evaluated the accuracy of synCT and synCT-generated DRRs and determined their performance for IGRT in brain cancer radiation therapy. Methods: MR-SIM and CT-SIM images were acquired of a novel anthropomorphic phantom and a cohort of 12 patients. SynCTs were generated by combining an ultra-short echo time (UTE) sequence with other MRI datasets using voxel-based weighted summation. For the phantom, DRRs from synCT and CT were compared via bounding box and landmark analysis. Planar (MV/KV) and volumetric (CBCT) IGRT performance were evaluated across several platforms. In patients, retrospective analysis was conducted to register CBCTs (n=34) to synCTs and CTs using automated rigid registration in the treatment planning system using whole brain and local registration techniques. A semi-automatic registration program was developed and validated to rigidly register planar MV/KV images (n=37) to synCT and CT DRRs. Registration reproducibility was assessed and margin differences were characterized using the van Herk formalism. Results: Bounding box and landmark analysis of phantom synCT DRRs were within 1mm of CT DRRs. Absolute 2D/2D registration shift differences ranged from 0.0–0.7mm for phantom DRRs on all treatment platforms and 0.0–0.4mm for volumetric registrations. For patient planar registrations, mean shift differences were 0.4±0.5mm (range: −0.6–1.6mm), 0.0±0.5mm, (range: −0.9–1.2mm), and 0.1±0.3mm (range: −0.7–0.6mm) for the superior-inferior(S-I), left-right(L–R), and anterior-posterior(A-P) axes, respectively. Mean shift differences in volumetric registrations were 0.6±0.4mm (range: −0.2–1.6mm), 0.2±0.4mm (range: −0.3–1.2mm), and 0.2±0.3mm (range: −0.2–1.2mm) for S-I, L–R, and A–P axes, respectively. CT-SIM and synCT derived margins were within 0.3mm. Conclusion

  3. Central sensitization does not identify patients with carpal tunnel syndrome who are likely to achieve short-term success with physical therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Cleland, Joshua A; Ortega-Santiago, Ricardo; de-la-Llave-Rincon, Ana Isabel; Martínez-Perez, Almudena; Pareja, Juan A

    2010-11-01

    The aim of the current study was to identify whether hyperexcitability of the central nervous system is a prognostic factor for individuals with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) likely to experience rapid and clinical self-reported improvement following a physical therapy program including soft tissue mobilization and nerve slider neurodynamic interventions. Women presenting with clinical and electrophysiological findings of CTS were involved in a prospective single-arm trial. Participants underwent a standardized examination and then a physical therapy session. The physical therapy sessions included both soft tissue mobilization directed at the anatomical sites of potential median nerve entrapment and a passive nerve slider neurodynamic technique targeted to the median nerve. Pressure pain thresholds (PPT) over the median, radial and ulnar nerves, C5-C6 zygapophyseal joint, carpal tunnel and tibialis anterior muscle were assessed bilaterally. Additionally, thermal detection and pain thresholds were measured over the carpal tunnel and thenar eminence bilaterally to evaluate central nervous system excitability. Subjects were classified as responders (having achieved a successful outcome) or non-responders based on self-perceived recovery. Variables were entered into a stepwise logistic regression model to determine the most accurate variables for determining prognosis. Data from 72 women were included in the analysis, of which 35 experienced a successful outcome (48.6%). Three variables including PPT over the C5-C6 joint affected side 66 points were identified. If 2 out of 3 variables were present (LR + 14.8), the likelihood of success increased from 48.6 to 93.3%. We identified 3 factors that may be associated with a rapid clinical response to both soft tissue mobilization and nerve slider neurodynamic techniques targeted to the median nerve in women presenting with CTS. Our results support that widespread central sensitization may not be present in women with CTS who

  4. Ultrafast scanning tunneling microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botkin, D.A. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    I have developed an ultrafast scanning tunneling microscope (USTM) based on uniting stroboscopic methods of ultrafast optics and scanned probe microscopy to obtain nanometer spatial resolution and sub-picosecond temporal resolution. USTM increases the achievable time resolution of a STM by more than 6 orders of magnitude; this should enable exploration of mesoscopic and nanometer size systems on time scales corresponding to the period or decay of fundamental excitations. USTM consists of a photoconductive switch with subpicosecond response time in series with the tip of a STM. An optical pulse from a modelocked laser activates the switch to create a gate for the tunneling current, while a second laser pulse on the sample initiates a dynamic process which affects the tunneling current. By sending a large sequence of identical pulse pairs and measuring the average tunnel current as a function of the relative time delay between the pulses in each pair, one can map the time evolution of the surface process. USTM was used to measure the broadband response of the STM`s atomic size tunnel barrier in frequencies from tens to hundreds of GHz. The USTM signal amplitude decays linearly with the tunnel junction conductance, so the spatial resolution of the time-resolved signal is comparable to that of a conventional STM. Geometrical capacitance of the junction does not appear to play an important role in the measurement, but a capacitive effect intimately related to tunneling contributes to the measured signals and may limit the ultimate resolution of the USTM.

  5. DASH (disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand) evaluation of QOL for carpal tunnel syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Akimasa; Kawamoto, Masataka; Fujisawa, Kouzou; Tsujii, Masaya; Hirata, Hitoshi

    2006-01-01

    The questionnaire on the disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand is a region-specific, self-administered outcome instrument that is developed as a measure of self-rate upper extremity disability and symptoms. Last year, the Japanese version of disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH) was cross-culturally adapted. The main purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between DASH and clinical assessment (findings of MRI and electrodiagnostic parameters). The subjects comprised 41 patients (6 males and 35 females) with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), except for cases with other upper extremity disorders. These subjects prospectively completed DASH 1 (disability module), DASH 2 (symptom module), and DASH (disability and symptom module) before the release of the open carpal tunnel. The patients were divided into 3 groups based on the symptom duration (A: shorter than 3 months, B: 4-11 months, C: longer than 12 months). All patients were preoperatively assessed with regard to sensory conduction velocity (SCV) and compound muscle action potential (CMAP). In addition, all patients underwent MRI in order to evaluate the flexor tenosynovial swelling represented by palmar bowing of the flexor retinaculum (PBFR). The relationships were estimated using the Spearman rank score, unpaired t tests, and Bonferroni tests. DASH 2 scores indicated greater responsiveness than DASH 1, which reflected the character of CTS. DASH 1 scores were higher in patients who were affected in their dominant hand than in those whose nondominant hand was affected. The DASH scores decreased significantly in groups A and B, with the exception of C. However, DASH did not show any correlation either with the parameters, age, or MRI assessment. DASH can be used for the research of preoperative outcomes related to CTS. It also has the advantage of being useful in assessing and comparing the outcome for various other hand disorders. (author)

  6. Tunnel magnetoresistance in alumina, magnesia and composite tunnel barrier magnetic tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schebaum, Oliver; Drewello, Volker; Auge, Alexander; Reiss, Guenter; Muenzenberg, Markus; Schuhmann, Henning; Seibt, Michael; Thomas, Andy

    2011-01-01

    Using magnetron sputtering, we have prepared Co-Fe-B/tunnel barrier/Co-Fe-B magnetic tunnel junctions with tunnel barriers consisting of alumina, magnesia, and magnesia-alumina bilayer systems. The highest tunnel magnetoresistance ratios we found were 73% for alumina and 323% for magnesia-based tunnel junctions. Additionally, tunnel junctions with a unified layer stack were prepared for the three different barriers. In these systems, the tunnel magnetoresistance ratios at optimum annealing temperatures were found to be 65% for alumina, 173% for magnesia, and 78% for the composite tunnel barriers. The similar tunnel magnetoresistance ratios of the tunnel junctions containing alumina provide evidence that coherent tunneling is suppressed by the alumina layer in the composite tunnel barrier. - Research highlights: → Transport properties of Co-Fe-B/tunnel barrier/Co-Fe-B magnetic tunnel junctions. → Tunnel barrier consists of MgO, Al-Ox, or MgO/Al-Ox bilayer systems. → Limitation of TMR-ratio in composite barrier tunnel junctions to Al-Ox values. → Limitation indicates that Al-Ox layer is causing incoherent tunneling.

  7. Tunneling current between graphene layers

    OpenAIRE

    Poklonski, Nikolai A.; Siahlo, Andrei I.; Vyrko, Sergey A.; Popov, Andrey M.; Lozovik, Yurii E.

    2013-01-01

    The physical model that allows to calculate the values of the tunneling current be-tween graphene layers is proposed. The tunneling current according to the pro-posed model is proportional to the area of tunneling transition. The calculated value of tunneling conductivity is in qualitative agreement with experimental data.

  8. Progression of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome According to Electrodiagnostic Testing in Nonoperatively Treated Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark van Suchtelen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background:  This study tested the null hypothesis that nonoperatively treated patients would not show disease progression of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS over time according to median nerve distal motor latency (DML on two electrodiagnostic tests.   Methods:  This retrospective study analyzed sixty-two adult nonoperatively treated patients who were diagnosed with CTS confirmed by a minimum of two electrodiagnostic tests at our institution between December 2006 and  tober 2012. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test was conducted to test the difference between electrodiagnostic measurements between the first and last test. Results: The mean time between the first and last electrodiagnostic test was 26±12 months (range, 12 to 55 months. The only electrodiagnostic measurement that increased significantly was the difference between median and ulnar DML on the same side (r=0.19, P =0.038. The time between the electrodiagnostic tests was significantly longer for patients with at least 10% worsening of the DML at the second test compared to cases of which the DML did not worsen or improve a minimum of 10% (P =0.015.  Conclusions: There is evidence that—on average—idiopathic median neuropathy at the carpal tunnel slowly progresses over time, and this can be measured with electrodiagnostics, but studies with a much longer interval between lectrodiagnostic tests may be needed to determine if it always progresses.

  9. The effect of polarized polychromatic noncoherent light (bioptron) therapy on patients with carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeissadat, Seyed Ahmad; Rayegani, Seyed Mansoor; Rezaei, Sajad; Sedighipour, Leyla; Bahrami, Mohammad Hasan; Eliaspour, Dariush; Karimzadeh, Afshin

    2014-01-01

    To study the effects of Polarized Polychromatic Noncoherent Light (Bioptron) therapy on patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). This study was designed as a randomized clinical trial. Forty four patients with mild or moderate CTS (confirmed by clinical and electrodiagnostic studies) were assigned randomly into two groups (intervention and control goups). At the beginning of the study, both groups received wrist splinting for 8 weeks. Bioptron light was applied for the intervention group (eight sessions, for 3/weeks). Bioptron was applied perpendicularly to the wrist from a 10 centimeter sdistance. Pain severity and electrodiagnostic measurements were compared from before to 8 weeks after initiating each treatment. Eight weeks after starting the treatments, the mean of pain severity based on Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) scores decreased significantly in both groups. Median Sensory Nerve Action Potential (SNAP) latency decreased significantly in both groups. However, other electrophysiological findings (median Compound Motor Action Potential (CMAP) latency and amplitude, also SNAP amplitude) did not change after the therapy in both groups. There was no meaningful difference between two groups regarding the changes in the pain severity. Bioptron with the above mentioned parameters led to therapeutic effects equal to splinting alone in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. However, applying Bioptron with different therapeutic protocols and light parameters other than used in this study, perhaps longer duration of therapy and long term assessment may reveal different results favoring Bioptron therapy.

  10. Vacuum phonon tunneling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altfeder, Igor; Voevodin, Andrey A; Roy, Ajit K

    2010-10-15

    Field-induced phonon tunneling, a previously unknown mechanism of interfacial thermal transport, has been revealed by ultrahigh vacuum inelastic scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Using thermally broadened Fermi-Dirac distribution in the STM tip as in situ atomic-scale thermometer we found that thermal vibrations of the last tip atom are effectively transmitted to sample surface despite few angstroms wide vacuum gap. We show that phonon tunneling is driven by interfacial electric field and thermally vibrating image charges, and its rate is enhanced by surface electron-phonon interaction.

  11. Quantum tunneling with friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokieda, M.; Hagino, K.

    2017-05-01

    Using the phenomenological quantum friction models introduced by P. Caldirola [Nuovo Cimento 18, 393 (1941), 10.1007/BF02960144] and E. Kanai [Prog. Theor. Phys. 3, 440 (1948), 10.1143/ptp/3.4.440], M. D. Kostin [J. Chem. Phys. 57, 3589 (1972), 10.1063/1.1678812], and K. Albrecht [Phys. Lett. B 56, 127 (1975), 10.1016/0370-2693(75)90283-X], we study quantum tunneling of a one-dimensional potential in the presence of energy dissipation. To this end, we calculate the tunneling probability using a time-dependent wave-packet method. The friction reduces the tunneling probability. We show that the three models provide similar penetrabilities to each other, among which the Caldirola-Kanai model requires the least numerical effort. We also discuss the effect of energy dissipation on quantum tunneling in terms of barrier distributions.

  12. Wind Tunnel Testing Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NASA Ames Research Center is pleased to offer the services of our premier wind tunnel facilities that have a broad range of proven testing capabilities to customers...

  13. INCAS TRISONIC WIND TUNNEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin MUNTEANU

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The 1.2 m x 1.2 m Trisonic Blowdown Wind Tunnel is the largest of the experimental facilities at the National Institute for Aerospace Research - I.N.C.A.S. "Elie Carafoli", Bucharest, Romania. The tunnel has been designed by the Canadian company DSMA (now AIOLOS and since its commissioning in 1978 has performed high speed aerodynamic tests for more than 120 projects of aircraft, missiles and other objects among which the twin jet fighter IAR-93, the jet trainer IAR-99, the MIG-21 Lancer, the Polish jet fighter YRYDA and others. In the last years the wind tunnel has been used mostly for experimental research in European projects such as UFAST. The high flow quality parameters and the wide range of testing capabilities ensure the competitivity of the tunnel at an international level.

  14. The ISI Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    DP /etc/tunnelvisa p zephyr dark -star TCP /etc/tunnelvisa p zephyr dak’star ICMP /etc/tunnelvisa p zephyr quark MDP /etc/tunnelvisa p zephyr quark ...drax-net-yp 128.9.32.2 1 route add quark -net-yp 128.9.32.3 1 route add vlsi-net-yp 128.9.32.4 1 route add darkstar-net-yp 128.9.32.3 1 route add rocky...TCP /etc/tunnel-visa p zephyr quark ICMP /etc/tunnel-visa p zephyr drax tTI)P /etc/tunnel-visa p zephyr drax TCP /etc/tunnel_visa p zephyr drax ICMP

  15. Wind Tunnel Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This ARDEC facility consists of subsonic, transonic, and supersonic wind tunnels to acquire aerodynamic data. Full-scale and sub-scale models of munitions are fitted...

  16. Water Tunnel Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NETL’s High-Pressure Water Tunnel Facility in Pittsburgh, PA, re-creates the conditions found 3,000 meters beneath the ocean’s surface, allowing scientists to study...

  17. Measurements of the fast-ion distribution function at ASDEX upgrade by collective Thomson scattering (CTS) using active and passive views

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Stejner Pedersen, Morten; Rasmussen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    , the measured spectra agree quantitatively with the synthetic spectra in periods with and without NBI heating. For the discharges investigated, the central velocity distribution of neutral beam ions can be described by classical slowing down. These results will have a major impact on ITER physics exploration...... independent heterodyne receiver systems enables subtraction of the additional part from the total spectrum, revealing the resulting CTS spectrum. Here we present CTS measurements from the plasma centre obtained in L-mode and H-mode plasmas with and without neutral beam injection (NBI). For the first time...

  18. The Beginner's Guide to Wind Tunnels with TunnelSim and TunnelSys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Thomas J.; Galica, Carol A.; Vila, Anthony J.

    2010-01-01

    The Beginner's Guide to Wind Tunnels is a Web-based, on-line textbook that explains and demonstrates the history, physics, and mathematics involved with wind tunnels and wind tunnel testing. The Web site contains several interactive computer programs to demonstrate scientific principles. TunnelSim is an interactive, educational computer program that demonstrates basic wind tunnel design and operation. TunnelSim is a Java (Sun Microsystems Inc.) applet that solves the continuity and Bernoulli equations to determine the velocity and pressure throughout a tunnel design. TunnelSys is a group of Java applications that mimic wind tunnel testing techniques. Using TunnelSys, a team of students designs, tests, and post-processes the data for a virtual, low speed, and aircraft wing.

  19. Tunnelling of a molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvis, P.D.; Bulte, D.P.

    1998-01-01

    A quantum-mechanical description of tunnelling is presented for a one-dimensional system with internal oscillator degrees of freedom. The 'charged diatomic molecule' is frustrated on encountering a barrier potential by its centre of charge not being coincident with its centre of mass, resulting in transitions amongst internal states. In an adiabatic limit, the tunnelling of semiclassical coherent-like oscillator states is shown to exhibit the Hartman and Bueuttiker-Landauer times t H and t BL , with the time dependence of the coherent state parameter for the tunnelled state given by α(t) = α e -iω(t+Δt) , Δt = t H - it BL . A perturbation formalism is developed, whereby the exact transfer matrix can be expanded to any desired accuracy in a suitable limit. An 'intrinsic' time, based on the oscillator transition rate during tunnelling, transmission or reflection, is introduced. In simple situations the resulting intrinsic tunnelling time is shown to vanish to lowest order. In the general case a particular (nonzero) parametrisation is inferred, and its properties discussed in comparison with the literature on tunnelling times for both wavepackets and internal clocks. Copyright (1998) CSIRO Australia

  20. Mini transverse versus longitudinal incision in carpal tunnel syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korkmaz, M.; Cepoglu, M.C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of mini-transverse compared with mini-longitudinal incision for carpal tunnel release (CTR) with reference to postoperative functional capacity, symptom severity and complication rate. Study Design: Analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Cumhuriyet University Medical Faculty, Department of Orthopaedics, Tokat State Hospital, Department of Orthopaedics and Medical Park Tokat Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, from January 2007 to January 2009. Methodology: This study included 93 hands of 79 patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), which were operated between 2007 and 2009. Patients were divided according to incision types into Group-1 (undergoing mini-longitudinal incision) and Group-2 (undergoing mini-transverse incision). Patients were evaluated initially and at 3 weeks after treatment according to symptom severity and functional status of Boston Questionnaire (BQ). Demographic and clinical data were analyzed and compared statistically between two groups. Results: Statistically significant differences were observed in BQ symptom and functional scores between the pre- and postoperative period (p < 0.0001). BQ symptom and functional scores at postoperative period were better in Group-1 than Group-2 (p = 0.044 and p = 0.023 respectively). The scar hypersensitivity (p = 0.258) and tenderness (p = 1.00) associated with the incision sites were not statistically different. Conclusion: Longitudinal incision is more effective on symptom and functional conditions than transverse incision. However, there was less scar formation with transverse incision. (author)

  1. Ultrasound-Guided Versus Landmark-Guided Local Corticosteroid Injection for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaei-Ghazani, Arash; Roomizadeh, Peyman; Forogh, Bijan; Moeini-Taba, Seyed-Mohammad; Abedini, Amin; Kadkhodaie, Mona; Jahanjoo, Fateme; Eftekharsadat, Bina

    2018-04-01

    To review the literature and assess the comparative effectiveness of ultrasound-guided versus landmark-guided local corticosteroid injections in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE (PubMed), Embase (Ovid), and Web of Science (from inception to February 1, 2017). Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing ultrasound-guided injection with landmark-guided injection in patients with CTS were included. Two authors independently screened abstracts and full texts. The outcomes of interest were Symptom Severity Scale (SSS) and Functional Status Scale (FSS) scores of the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire and 4 electrodiagnostic parameters, including compound muscle action potential (CMAP), sensory nerve action potential (SNAP), distal motor latency (DML), and distal sensory latency (DSL). Overall, 569 abstracts were retrieved and checked for eligibility; finally, 3 RCTs were included (181 injected hands). Pooled analysis showed that ultrasound-guided injection was more effective in SSS improvement (mean difference [MD], -.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], -.59 to -.32; P.99), DML (MD, .05; 95% CI, -.30 to .39; P=.80), or DSL (MD, .00; 95% CI, -.65 to .65; P>.99). This review suggested that ultrasound-guided injection was more effective than landmark-guided injection in symptom severity improvement in patients with CTS; however, no significant differences were observed in functional status or electrodiagnostic improvements between the 2 methods. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of Wall Interference Effects in a Two-Dimensional Transonic Wind Tunnel by Subsonic Linear Theory,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-02-01

    tests were conducted on two geometrica lly similar models of each of two aerofoil sections -—t he NA CA 00/ 2 and the BGK- 1 sections -and covered a...and slotted-wall tes t sections are corrected for wind tunnel wall interference efJ~cts by the application of classical linearized theory. For the...solid wall results , these corrections appear to produce data which are very close to being free of the effects of interference. In the case of

  3. Pattern of severity on the basis of elecro-diagonostic studies in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhlaque, U.; Waheed, A.; Ali, W.L.; Afzal, S.

    2014-01-01

    To study the pattern of severity in patients with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) presented at electro-diagnostic clinic at Armed Forces Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine (AFIRM), Rawalpindi. Study Design: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Place and Duration of study: Elctro-diagnostic Department of Armed Forces Institute of rehabilitation Medicine (AFIRM), Rawalpindi for 6 months from 1st July 2012 to 31st Dec 2012. Subjects and Methods: One hundred and fifty hands from 96 patients, both male and female were sampled according to inclusion criteria by non-probability purposive sampling. Never conduction studies (both motor and sensory studies) were performed using Xeltec electrodiagnostic machine. In patients with normal standard testing but with positive clinical features comparison testing was performed. Results were interpreted and graded according to severity. Results: Out of total 150 hands, 38 hands (25.3%) had minimal CTS, (20.7%) had mild, 56 (37.3%) had moderate, while 21 (14%) severe CTS. Four 2.7%) patients had extensive lesion. Out of all 96 patients 54 (56.25%) had bilateral disease and rest 42 (43.75%) had unilateral disease. Conclusion: The study showed that the most frequent grade at the time of presentation to electro diagnostic clinic is moderate followed by minimal. Since in a large fraction of symptomatic population standard tests were normal, comparison testing is important for early diagnosis. (author)

  4. Single Electron Tunneling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, Steven T.

    2005-01-01

    Financial support for this project has led to advances in the science of single-electron phenomena. Our group reported the first observation of the so-called ''Coulomb Staircase'', which was produced by tunneling into ultra-small metal particles. This work showed well-defined tunneling voltage steps of width e/C and height e/RC, demonstrating tunneling quantized on the single-electron level. This work was published in a now well-cited Physical Review Letter. Single-electron physics is now a major sub-field of condensed-matter physics, and fundamental work in the area continues to be conducted by tunneling in ultra-small metal particles. In addition, there are now single-electron transistors that add a controlling gate to modulate the charge on ultra-small photolithographically defined capacitive elements. Single-electron transistors are now at the heart of at least one experimental quantum-computer element, and single-electron transistor pumps may soon be used to define fundamental quantities such as the farad (capacitance) and the ampere (current). Novel computer technology based on single-electron quantum dots is also being developed. In related work, our group played the leading role in the explanation of experimental results observed during the initial phases of tunneling experiments with the high-temperature superconductors. When so-called ''multiple-gap'' tunneling was reported, the phenomenon was correctly identified by our group as single-electron tunneling in small grains in the material. The main focus throughout this project has been to explore single electron phenomena both in traditional tunneling formats of the type metal/insulator/particles/insulator/metal and using scanning tunneling microscopy to probe few-particle systems. This has been done under varying conditions of temperature, applied magnetic field, and with different materials systems. These have included metals, semi-metals, and superconductors. Amongst a number of results, we have

  5. Early Identification of Transformation in the Proficiency Level of Critical Thinking Skills (CTS) for the First Semester Associate Degree Nursing (ADN) Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swing, Velmarie K.

    2014-01-01

    Critical thinking (CT) in the new nursing graduate continues to be a topic of concern in the academic and acute care settings. While research studies have analyzed critical thinking skills (CTS) at the beginning and end of nursing programs, few have focused on early program evaluation of CT. In this non-experimental, explanatory, quantitative…

  6. TEMA SOCIOCIENTÍFICO "CACHAÇA" EM AULAS PRÁTICAS DE QUÍMICA NA EDUCAÇÃO PROFISSIONAL: UMA ABORDAGEM CTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Míriam Stassun dos Santos

    2012-01-01

    importance of the teacher in the conduct of discussions, in the strategies involving students in discussions and experiencing real situations was evident. We emphasized the insertion of TS in the Chemistry curricula as a fundamental condition to develop CTS education and humanist in professional education courses, with the creation of new possibilities.

  7. Resonant tunnel magnetoresistance in a double magnetic tunnel junction

    KAUST Repository

    Useinov, Arthur; Useinov, Niazbeck Kh H; Tagirov, Lenar R.; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2011-01-01

    We present quasi-classical approach to calculate a spin-dependent current and tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) in double magnetic tunnel junctions (DMTJ) FML/I/FMW/I/FMR, where the magnetization of the middle ferromagnetic metal layer FMW can

  8. Endoscopic release for carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliadis, Haris S; Georgoulas, Petros; Shrier, Ian; Salanti, Georgia; Scholten, Rob J P M

    2014-01-31

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common compressive neuropathy of the upper extremity. It is caused by increased pressure on the median nerve between the transverse carpal ligament and the carpal bones. Surgical treatment consists of the release of the nerve by cutting the transverse carpal ligament. This can be done either with an open approach or endoscopically. To assess the effectiveness and safety of the endoscopic techniques of carpal tunnel release compared to any other surgical intervention for the treatment of CTS. More specifically, to evaluate the relative impact of endoscopic techniques in relieving symptoms, producing functional recovery (return to work and return to daily activities) and reducing complication rates. This review fully incorporates the results of searches conducted up to 5 November 2012, when we searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE and EMBASE. There were no language restrictions. We reviewed the reference lists of relevant articles and contacted trial authors. We also searched trial registers for ongoing trials. We performed a preliminary screen of searches to November 2013 to identify any additional recent publications. We included any randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs comparing endoscopic carpal tunnel release (ECTR) with any other surgical intervention for the treatment of CTS. We used standard methodological procedures expected by the Cochrane Collaboration. Twenty-eight studies (2586 hands) were included. Twenty-three studies compared ECTR to standard open carpal tunnel release (OCTR), five studies compared ECTR with OCTR using a modified incision, and two studies used a three-arm design to compare ECTR, standard OCTR and modified OCTR.At short-term follow-up (three months or less), only one study provided data for overall improvement. We found no differences on the Symptom Severity Scale (SSS) (scale zero to five) (five studies, standardised mean

  9. Acute effect of topical menthol on chronic pain in slaughterhouse workers with carpal tunnel syndrome: triple-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus Due; Brandt, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    Topical menthol gels are classified "topical analgesics" and are claimed to relieve minor aches and pains of the musculoskeletal system. In this study we investigate the acute effect of topical menthol on carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). We screened 645 slaughterhouse workers and recruited 10...... participants with CTS and chronic pain of the arm/hand who were randomly distributed into two groups to receive topical menthol (Biofreeze) or placebo (gel with a menthol scent) during the working day and 48 hours later the other treatment (crossover design). Participants rated arm/hand pain intensity during...... the last hour of work (scale 0-10) immediately before 1, 2, and 3 hours after application. Furthermore, global rating of change (GROC) in arm/hand pain was assessed 3 hours after application. Compared with placebo, pain intensity and GROC improved more following application of topical menthol (P = 0...

  10. Interaction between groundwater and TBM (Tunnel Boring Machine) excavated tunnels

    OpenAIRE

    Font Capó, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    A number of problems, e.g. sudden inflows are encountered during tunneling under the piezometric level, especially when the excavation crosses high transmissivity areas. These inflows may drag materials when the tunnel crosses low competent layers, resulting in subsidence, chimney formation and collapses. Moreover, inflows can lead to a decrease in head level because of aquifer drainage. Tunnels can be drilled by a tunnel boring machine (TBM) to minimize inflows and groundwater impacts, restr...

  11. Personal and occupational risk factors for carpal tunnel syndrome in meat processing industry workers in Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccò, Matteo; Signorelli, Carlo

    2017-03-24

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a musculoskeletal condition that often impairs the fitness to work. Our aim is to retrospectively evaluate the association between physical exposures in meat processing industry in Northern Italy and the CTS, taking into account non-occupational factors. A cross-sectional study was performed to include 434 workers (236 males, 198 females, 37.0±10.6 years old, working age: 12.6±10.8 years) from meat processing industries. Signs and symptoms were collected at the compulsory occupational medical surveillance. Occupational risk factors were assessed through a questionnaire and direct assessment by investigators. Adjusted odds ratios (ORadj) for factors of interest were estimated through binary logistic regression. Diagnosis of the CTS was reported for 61 out of 434 subjects (14.1%) for an incidence of 11.3/1000 person- years. In general, signs and symptoms for the CTS were associated with the following demographic factors: smoking history (OR = 1.909, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.107-3.293), previous traumas of the upper limb (OR = 3.533, 95% CI: 1.743-7.165), hypothyroidism status (OR = 7.897, 95% CI: 2.917-21.38) and, in the case of female participants only, previous pregnancies (OR = 2.807, 95% CI: 1.200-6.566) as well as a personal history of oral contraceptive therapy and/or steroidal replacement therapy (OR = 11.57, 95% CI: 4.689-28.56). The carpal tunnel syndrome cases were associated with the following occupational factors (> 4 h/day): forceful hand exertion (ORadj = 3.548, 95% CI: 1.379-9.131), repeated trauma of the hand (ORadj = 3.602, 95% CI: 1.248- 10.395), repeated movements of the wrist (ORadj = 2.561, 95% CI: 1.100-5.960). Increasing levels of hand activity and force were associated with the increased CTS prevalence among participants. Recommendations have to be provided in order to reduce occupational exposure to these risk factors and improve medical surveillance. Med Pr 2017;68(2):199-209. This work is available

  12. Personal and occupational risk factors for carpal tunnel syndrome in meat processing industry workers in Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Riccò

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS is a musculoskeletal condition that often impairs the fitness to work. Our aim is to retrospectively evaluate the association between physical exposures in meat processing industry in Northern Italy and the CTS, taking into account non-occupational factors. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed to include 434 workers (236 males, 198 females, 37.0±10.6 years old, working age: 12.6±10.8 years from meat processing industries. Signs and symptoms were collected at the compulsory occupational medical surveillance. Occupational risk factors were assessed through a questionnaire and direct assessment by investigators. Adjusted odds ratios (ORadj for factors of interest were estimated through binary logistic regression. Results: Diagnosis of the CTS was reported for 61 out of 434 subjects (14.1% for an incidence of 11.3/1000 person- years. In general, signs and symptoms for the CTS were associated with the following demographic factors: smoking history (OR = 1.909, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.107–3.293, previous traumas of the upper limb (OR = 3.533, 95% CI: 1.743–7.165, hypothyroidism status (OR = 7.897, 95% CI: 2.917–21.38 and, in the case of female participants only, previous pregnancies (OR = 2.807, 95% CI: 1.200–6.566 as well as a personal history of oral contraceptive therapy and/or steroidal replacement therapy (OR = 11.57, 95% CI: 4.689–28.56. The carpal tunnel syndrome cases were associated with the following occupational factors (> 4 h/day: forceful hand exertion (ORadj = 3.548, 95% CI: 1.379–9.131, repeated trauma of the hand (ORadj = 3.602, 95% CI: 1.248– 10.395, repeated movements of the wrist (ORadj = 2.561, 95% CI: 1.100–5.960. Conclusions: Increasing levels of hand activity and force were associated with the increased CTS prevalence among participants. Recommendations have to be provided in order to reduce occupational exposure to these risk factors and

  13. The effect of symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome on ultrasonographic median nerve measures before and after wheelchair propulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impink, Bradley G; Collinger, Jennifer L; Boninger, Michael L

    2011-09-01

    To quantify median nerve characteristics before and after strenuous wheelchair propulsion and relate them to symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). We hypothesized that persons with and without symptoms of CTS would have significantly different nerve characteristics at baseline and after propulsion. A repeated-measures design was used to obtain ultrasound images of the median nerve at 3 levels of the wrist (radius, pisiform, and hamate) before and after wheelchair propulsion. Investigators were blinded to subject history related to CTS. The 2007 and 2008 National Veterans Wheelchair Games and the Human Engineering Research Laboratories. Fifty-four participants between the ages of 18 and 65 years with a nonprogressive disability who used a manual wheelchair as their primary means of mobility completed this study. Participants completed questionnaires regarding demographics and the presence and severity of symptoms of CTS. Ultrasound images of the median nerve were obtained before and after a 15-minute strenuous wheelchair-propulsion task. Baseline values and post-propulsion changes were determined for median nerve cross-sectional area, flattening ratio, and swelling ratio. Differences in median nerve variables between symptomatic and asymptomatic groups were assessed. No significant differences between symptom groups were identified at baseline; however, persons with symptoms of CTS showed a significantly different percent change from baseline compared with the asymptomatic participants for cross-sectional area at pisiform (P = .014) and flattening ratio at hamate (P = .022), and they showed a strong trend toward a difference in swelling ratio (P = .0502). For each of these variables, the change in the symptomatic group was in the opposite direction of the change in the asymptomatic group. We found several median nerve responses to wheelchair propulsion associated with symptoms of CTS. These responses occurred even though no baseline ultrasound difference was

  14. Seepage into PEP tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidner, H.

    1990-01-01

    The current rate of seepage into the PEP tunnel in the vicinity of IR-10 is very low compared to previous years. Adequate means of handling this low flow are in place. It is not clear whether the reduction in the flow is temporary, perhaps due to three consecutive dry years, or permanent due to drainage of a perched water table. During PEP construction a large amount of effort was expended in attempts to seal the tunnel, with no immediate effect. The efforts to ''manage'' the water flow are deemed to be successful. By covering equipment to protect it from dripping water and channeling seepage into the drainage gutters, the seepage has been reduced to a tolerable nuisance. There is no sure, safe procedure for sealing a leaky shotcreted tunnel

  15. Uncooled tunneling infrared sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Thomas W. (Inventor); Kaiser, William J. (Inventor); Podosek, Judith A. (Inventor); Vote, Erika C. (Inventor); Muller, Richard E. (Inventor); Maker, Paul D. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    An uncooled infrared tunneling sensor in which the only moving part is a diaphragm which is deflected into contact with a micromachined silicon tip electrode prepared by a novel lithographic process. Similarly prepared deflection electrodes employ electrostatic force to control the deflection of a silicon nitride, flat diaphragm membrane. The diaphragm exhibits a high resonant frequency which reduces the sensor's sensitivity to vibration. A high bandwidth feedback circuit controls the tunneling current by adjusting the deflection voltage to maintain a constant deflection of the membrane. The resulting infrared sensor can be miniaturized to pixel dimensions smaller than 100 .mu.m. An alternative embodiment is implemented using a corrugated membrane to permit large deflection without complicated clamping and high deflection voltages. The alternative embodiment also employs a pinhole aperture in a membrane to accommodate environmental temperature variation and a sealed chamber to eliminate environmental contamination of the tunneling electrodes and undesireable accoustic coupling to the sensor.

  16. Instabilities in thin tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konkin, M.K.; Adler, J.G.

    1978-01-01

    Tunnel junctions prepared for inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy are often plagued by instabilities in the 0-500-meV range. This paper relates the bias at which the instability occurs to the barrier thickness

  17. Tunneling in axion monodromy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Jon; Cottrell, William; Shiu, Gary; Soler, Pablo [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin,Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2016-10-06

    The Coleman formula for vacuum decay and bubble nucleation has been used to estimate the tunneling rate in models of axion monodromy in recent literature. However, several of Coleman’s original assumptions do not hold for such models. Here we derive a new estimate with this in mind using a similar Euclidean procedure. We find that there are significant regions of parameter space for which the tunneling rate in axion monodromy is not well approximated by the Coleman formula. However, there is also a regime relevant to large field inflation in which both estimates parametrically agree. We also briefly comment on the applications of our results to the relaxion scenario.

  18. LEP tunnel monorail

    CERN Multimedia

    1985-01-01

    A monorail from CERN's Large Electron Positron collider (LEP, for short). It ran around the 27km tunnel, transporting equipment and personnel. With its 27-kilometre circumference, LEP was the largest electron-positron accelerator ever built and ran from 1989 to 2000. During 11 years of research, LEP's experiments provided a detailed study of the electroweak interaction. Measurements performed at LEP also proved that there are three – and only three – generations of particles of matter. LEP was closed down on 2 November 2000 to make way for the construction of the Large Hadron Collider in the same tunnel.

  19. Excavating a transfer tunnel

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2000-01-01

    The transfer tunnel being dug here will take the 450 GeV beam from the SPS and inject it into the LHC where the beam energies will be increased to 7 TeV. In order to transfer this beam from the SPS to the LHC, two transfer tunnels are used to circulate the beams in opposite directions. When excavated, the accelerator components, including magnets, beam pipes and cryogenics will be installed and connected to both the SPS and LHC ready for operation to begin in 2008.

  20. Gap anisotropy and tunneling currents. [MPS3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarides, N.; Sørensen, Mads Peter

    1996-01-01

    The tunneling Hamiltonian formalism is applied to calculate the tunnelingcurrents through a small superconducting tunnel junction. The formalism isextended to nonconstant tunneling matrix elements. The electrodes of thejunction are assumed to......The tunneling Hamiltonian formalism is applied to calculate the tunnelingcurrents through a small superconducting tunnel junction. The formalism isextended to nonconstant tunneling matrix elements. The electrodes of thejunction are assumed to...

  1. Breaking through the tranfer tunnel

    CERN Document Server

    Laurent Guiraud

    2001-01-01

    This image shows the tunnel boring machine breaking through the transfer tunnel into the LHC tunnel. Proton beams will be transferred from the SPS pre-accelerator to the LHC at 450 GeV through two specially constructed transfer tunnels. From left to right: LHC Project Director, Lyn Evans; CERN Director-General (at the time), Luciano Maiani, and Director for Accelerators, Kurt Hubner.

  2. Control of tunneling in heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volokhov, V M; Tovstun, C A; Ivlev, B

    2007-01-01

    A tunneling current between two rectangular potential wells can be effectively controlled by applying an external ac field. A variation of the ac frequency by 10% may lead to the suppression of the tunneling current by two orders of magnitude, which is a result of quantum interference under the action of the ac field. This effect of destruction of tunneling can be used as a sensitive control of tunneling current across nanosize heterostructures

  3. Pressure pain sensitivity topographical maps reveal bilateral hyperalgesia of the hands in patients with unilateral carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Madeleine, Pascal; Martínez-Perez, Almudena; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo; Pareja, Juan A

    2010-08-01

    To assess topographical pressure pain sensitivity maps of the hand in patients with unilateral carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) as compared with healthy subjects. A total of 20 women with CTS (ages 32-52 years) and 20 healthy matched women (ages 32-51 years) were recruited. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were measured bilaterally over 30 locations of the palm of each hand by an assessor blinded to the subjects' conditions. Patients showed lower PPTs in both hands in all of the measurement points as compared with controls (P < 0.001 for all). PPTs were lower in those points over the proximal phalanx of the fingers and the thenar eminency as compared with those points located over the distal phalanx of the fingers (P < 0.001). CTS patients showed lower PPT levels in dermatomes C6, C7, and C8 when compared with healthy controls (P < 0.001 for all), but without differences between dermatomes (P = 0.4). PPT was negatively correlated with both hand pain intensity and duration of symptoms (P < 0.001 for all). Our findings revealed bilateral generalized pressure pain hyperalgesia in unilateral CTS because lower PPT levels were found in all of the points. The pressure pain hyperalgesia was not uniformly distributed since PPTs were lower in points over the proximal phalanx of the fingers and the thenar eminency as compared with those points located over the distal phalanx of the fingers. The decrease in PPT levels was associated with the intensity and the duration of the pain symptoms, supporting a role of both peripheral and central sensitization mechanisms in this pain condition.

  4. Ivar Giaever, Tunneling, and Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    dropdown arrow Site Map A-Z Index Menu Synopsis Ivar Giaever, Tunneling, and Superconductors Resources with in Superconductors Measured by Electron Tunneling; Physical Review Letters, Vol. 5 Issue 4: 147 - 148 ; August 15, 1960 Electron Tunneling Between Two Superconductors; Physical Review Letters, Vol. 5 Issue 10

  5. Scanning tunneling microscope nanoetching method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun-Zhong; Reifenberger, Ronald G.; Andres, Ronald P.

    1990-01-01

    A method is described for forming uniform nanometer sized depressions on the surface of a conducting substrate. A tunneling tip is used to apply tunneling current density sufficient to vaporize a localized area of the substrate surface. The resulting depressions or craters in the substrate surface can be formed in information encoding patterns readable with a scanning tunneling microscope.

  6. Physics of optimal resonant tunneling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Racec, P.N.; Stoica, T.; Popescu, C.; Lepsa, M.I.; Roer, van de T.G.

    1997-01-01

    The optimal resonant tunneling, or the complete tunneling transparence of a biased double-barrier resonant-tunneling (DBRT) structure, is discussed. It is shown that its physics does not rest on the departure from the constant potential within the barriers and well, due to the applied electric

  7. Effects of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome on adaptation of multi-digit forces to object mass distribution for whole-hand manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Wei

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS is a compression neuropathy of the median nerve that results in sensorimotor deficits in the hand. Until recently, the effects of CTS on hand function have been studied using mostly two-digit grip tasks. The purpose of this study was to investigate the coordination of multi-digit forces as a function of object center of mass (CM during whole-hand grasping. Methods Fourteen CTS patients and age- and gender-matched controls were instructed to grasp, lift, hold, and release a grip device with five digits for seven consecutive lifts while maintaining its vertical orientation. The object CM was changed by adding a mass at different locations at the base of the object. We measured forces and torques exerted by each digit and object kinematics and analyzed modulation of these variables to object CM at object lift onset and during object hold. Our task requires a modulation of digit forces at and after object lift onset to generate a compensatory moment to counteract the external moment caused by the added mass and to minimize object tilt. Results We found that CTS patients learned to generate a compensatory moment and minimized object roll to the same extent as controls. However, controls fully exploited the available degrees of freedom (DoF in coordinating their multi-digit forces to generate a compensatory moment, i.e., digit normal forces, tangential forces, and the net center of pressure on the finger side of the device at object lift onset and during object hold. In contrast, patients modulated only one of these DoFs (the net center of pressure to object CM by modulating individual normal forces at object lift onset. During object hold, however, CTS patients were able to modulate digit tangential force distribution to object CM. Conclusions Our findings suggest that, although CTS did not affect patients’ ability to perform our manipulation task, it interfered with the modulation of specific grasp

  8. Tunneling path toward spintronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao Guoxing; Moodera, Jagadeesh S; Muenzenberg, Markus

    2011-01-01

    The phenomenon of quantum tunneling, which was discovered almost a century ago, has led to many subsequent discoveries. One such discovery, spin polarized tunneling, was made 40 years ago by Robert Meservey and Paul Tedrow (Tedrow and Meservey 1971 Phys. Rev. Lett. 26 192), and it has resulted in many fundamental observations and opened up an entirely new field of study. Until the mid-1990s, this field developed at a steady, low rate, after which a huge increase in activity suddenly occurred as a result of the unraveling of successful spin tunneling between two ferromagnets. In the past 15 years, several thousands of papers related to spin polarized tunneling and transport have been published, making this topic one of the hottest areas in condensed matter physics from both fundamental science and applications viewpoints. Many review papers and book chapters have been written in the past decade on this subject. This paper is not exhaustive by any means; rather, the emphases are on recent progress, technological developments and informing the reader about the current direction in which this topic is moving.

  9. Magnetic Fluxtube Tunneling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlburg, Russell B.; Antiochos,, Spiro K.; Norton, D.

    1996-01-01

    We present numerical simulations of the collision and subsequent interaction of two initially orthogonal, twisted, force free field magnetic fluxtubes. The simulations were carried out using a new three dimensional explicit parallelized Fourier collocation algorithm for solving the viscoresistive equations of compressible magnetohydrodynamics. It is found that, under a wide range of conditions, the fluxtubes can 'tunnel' through each other. Two key conditions must be satisfied for tunneling to occur: the magnetic field must be highly twisted with a field line pitch much greater than 1, and the magnetic Lundquist number must be somewhat large, greater than or equal to 2880. This tunneling behavior has not been seen previously in studies of either vortex tube or magnetic fluxtube interactions. An examination of magnetic field lines shows that tunneling is due to a double reconnection mechanism. Initially orthogonal field lines reconnect at two specific locations, exchange interacting sections and 'pass' through each other. The implications of these results for solar and space plasmas are discussed.

  10. Tunnel nitrogen spill experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ageyev, A.I.; Alferov, V.N.; Mulholland, G.T.

    1983-01-01

    The Energy Saver Safety Analysis Report (SAR) found the tunnel oxygen deficiency considerations emphasized helium spills. These reports concluded the helium quickly warms and because of its low denisty, rises to the apex of the tunnel. The oxygen content below the apex and in all but the immediate vicinity of the helium spill is essentially unchanged and guarantees an undisturbed source of oxygen especially important to fallen personnel. In contrast nitrogen spills warm slower than helium due to the ratio of the enthalpy changes per unit volume spilled spread more uniformly across the tunnel cross-section when warmed because of the much smaller density difference with air, and generally provides a greater hazard than helium spills as a result. In particular there was concern that personnel that might fall to the floor for oxygen deficiency or other reasons might find less, and not more, oxygen with dire consequences. The SAR concluded tunnel nitrogen spills were under-investigated and led to this work

  11. The scanning tunneling microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvan, F.

    1986-01-01

    A newly conceived microscope, based on a pure quantum phenomenon, is an ideal tool to study atom by atom the topography and properties of surfaces. Applications are presented: surface ''reconstruction'' of silicon, lamellar compound study, etc... Spectroscopy by tunnel effect will bring important information on electronic properties; it is presented with an application on silicon [fr

  12. Supramolecular tunneling junctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wimbush, K.S.

    2012-01-01

    In this study a variety of supramolecular tunneling junctions were created. The basis of these junctions was a self-assembled monolayer of heptathioether functionalized ß-cyclodextrin (ßCD) formed on an ultra-flat Au surface, i.e., the bottom electrode. This gave a well-defined hexagonally packed

  13. Monitoring pilot projects on bored tunnelling : The Second Heinenoord Tunnel and the Botlek Rail Tunnel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, K.J.; De Boer, F.; Admiraal, J.B.M.; Van Jaarsveld, E.P.

    1999-01-01

    Two pilot projects for bored tunnelling in soft soil have been undertaken in the Netherlands. The monitoring was commissioned under the authority of the Centre for Underground Construction (COB). A description of the research related to the Second Heinenoord Tunnel and the Botlek Rail Tunnel will be

  14. Measuring fire size in tunnels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Xiaoping; Zhang, Qihui

    2013-01-01

    A new measure of fire size Q′ has been introduced in longitudinally ventilated tunnel as the ratio of flame height to the height of tunnel. The analysis in this article has shown that Q′ controls both the critical velocity and the maximum ceiling temperature in the tunnel. Before the fire flame reaches tunnel ceiling (Q′ 1.0), Fr approaches a constant value. This is also a well-known phenomenon in large tunnel fires. Tunnel ceiling temperature shows the opposite trend. Before the fire flame reaches the ceiling, it increases very slowly with the fire size. Once the flame has hit the ceiling of tunnel, temperature rises rapidly with Q′. The good agreement between the current prediction and three different sets of experimental data has demonstrated that the theory has correctly modelled the relation among the heat release rate of fire, ventilation flow and the height of tunnel. From design point of view, the theoretical maximum of critical velocity for a given tunnel can help to prevent oversized ventilation system. -- Highlights: • Fire sizing is an important safety measure in tunnel design. • New measure of fire size a function of HRR of fire, tunnel height and ventilation. • The measure can identify large and small fires. • The characteristics of different fire are consistent with observation in real fires

  15. Nossa alimentação: análise de uma sequência didática estruturada segundo referenciais do Movimento CTS

    OpenAIRE

    Santana, Tainam Amorim; Solino, Ana Paula; Teixeira, Paulo Marcelo Marini

    2015-01-01

    Analisamos os resultados de uma pesquisa de intervenção que envolveu a aplicação de uma sequência didática desenvolvida junto a alunos da 3ª série do ensino médio no campo das temáticas ligadas ao processo digestivo humano e educação alimentar. O trabalho foi balizado pelos pressupostos do Movimento CTS. Os dados foram coletados ao longo de todo o processo e a análise desenvolvida por meio das seguintes categorias: i) articulação da tríade CTS; ii) metodologia de ensino e recursos didáticos u...

  16. Carpal tunnel syndrome assessment with diffusion tensor imaging. Value of fractional anisotropy and apparent diffusion coefficient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klauser, A.S.; Kremser, C. [Medical University of Innsbruck, Department of Radiology, Innsbruck (Austria); Abd Ellah, M. [Medical University of Innsbruck, Department of Radiology, Innsbruck (Austria); Assiut University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, South Egypt Cancer Institute, Assiut (Egypt); Taljanovic, M. [University of Arizona, College of Medicine, Banner- University Medical Center, Department of Medical Imaging, Tucson (United States); Schmidle, G.; Gabl, M. [Medical University of Innsbruck, Department for Trauma Surgery, Innsbruck (Austria); Cartes-Zumelzu, F.; Steiger, R.; Gizewski, E.R. [Medical University of Innsbruck, Department of Neuroradiology, Neuroimaging core facility, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2018-03-15

    To quantitatively assess carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) with DTI by evaluating two approaches to determine cut-off values. In forty patients with CTS diagnosis confirmed by nerve conduction studies (NCs) and 14 healthy subjects (mean age 58.54 and 57.8 years), cross-sectional area (CSA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) at single and multiple levels with intraobserver agreement were evaluated. Maximum and mean CSA and FA showed significant differences between healthy subjects and patients (12.85 mm{sup 2} vs. 28.18 mm{sup 2}, p < 0.001, and 0.613 vs. 0.524, p=0.007, respectively) (10.12 mm{sup 2} vs. 19.9 mm{sup 2}, p<0.001 and 0.617 vs. 0.54, p=0.003, respectively), but not maximum and mean ADC (p > 0.05). For cut-off values, mean and maximum CSA showed the same sensitivity and specificity (93.3 %). However, mean FA showed better sensitivity than maximum FA (82.6 % vs. 73.9 %), but lower specificity (66.7 % vs. 80 %), and significant correlation for maximum CSA, 97 % (p < 0.01), with good correlation for maximum ADC and FA, 84.5 % (p < 0.01) and 62 % (p=0.056), respectively. CSA and FA showed significant differences between healthy subjects and patients. Single measurement at maximum CSA is suitable for FA determination. (orig.)

  17. Tunnel boring machine applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, K.K.; McDonald, R.; Saunders, R.S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that characterization of Yucca Mountain for a potential repository requires construction of an underground Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF). Mechanical excavating methods have been proposed for construction of the ESF as they offer a number of advantages over drilling and blasting at the Yucca Mountain site, including; less ground disturbance and therefore a potential for less adverse effects on the integrity of the site, creation of a more stable excavation cross section requiring less ground support, and an inherently safer and cleaner working environment. The tunnel boring machine (TBM) provides a proven technology for excavating the welded and unwelded Yucca Mountain tuffs. The access ramps and main underground tunnels form the largest part of the ESF underground construction work, and have been designed for excavation by TBM

  18. Programmable ferroelectric tunnel memristor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy eQuindeau

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We report an analogously programmable memristor based on genuine electronic resistive switching combining ferroelectric switching and electron tunneling. The tunnel current through an 8 unit cell thick epitaxial Pb(Zr[0.2]Ti[0.8]O[3] film sandwiched between La[0.7]Sr[0.3]MnO[3] and cobalt electrodes obeys the Kolmogorov-Avrami-Ishibashi model for bidimensional growth with a characteristic switching time in the order of 10^-7 seconds. The analytical description of switching kinetics allows us to develop a characteristic transfer function that has only one parameter viz. the characteristic switching time and fully predicts the resistive states of this type of memristor.

  19. Hawking Radiation As Tunneling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parikh, Maulik K.; Wilczek, Frank

    2000-01-01

    We present a short and direct derivation of Hawking radiation as a tunneling process, based on particles in a dynamical geometry. The imaginary part of the action for the classically forbidden process is related to the Boltzmann factor for emission at the Hawking temperature. Because the derivation respects conservation laws, the exact spectrum is not precisely thermal. We compare and contrast the problem of spontaneous emission of charged particles from a charged conductor

  20. Tunnel blasting - recent developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, T.E.

    1999-05-01

    While tunnelling machines are more efficient than previously, there are still areas where blasting is a more efficient method of advance. Drilling and design methods are increasingly sophisticated, as is choice of explosive. Explosive deployment must be carefully calculated so as to avoid desensitisation. Nitroglycerine may be used as slurries; bulk mixing on site of ANFO is also practised in mining in the UK. Electric detonators, Nonel tubes, and electronic detonators are also increasingly employed.

  1. The beam dump tunnels

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    In these images workers are digging the tunnels that will be used to dump the counter-circulating beams. Travelling just a fraction under the speed of light, the beams at the LHC will each carry the energy of an aircraft carrier travelling at 12 knots. In order to dispose of these beams safely, a beam dump is used to extract the beam and diffuse it before it collides with a radiation shielded graphite target.

  2. Primary Tunnel Junction Thermometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pekola, Jukka P.; Holmqvist, Tommy; Meschke, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    We describe the concept and experimental demonstration of primary thermometry based on a four-probe measurement of a single tunnel junction embedded within four arrays of junctions. We show that in this configuration random sample specific and environment-related errors can be avoided. This method relates temperature directly to Boltzmann constant, which will form the basis of the definition of temperature and realization of official temperature scales in the future

  3. The transcription factor Ace2 and its paralog Swi5 regulate ethanol production during static fermentation through their targets Cts1 and Rps4a in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yao; Du, Jie; Xu, Guoqiang; Jiang, Linghuo

    2016-05-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the most widely used fermentation organism for ethanol production. However, the gene expression regulatory networks behind the ethanol fermentation are still not fully understood. Using a static fermentation model, we examined the ethanol yields on biomass of deletion mutants for 77 yeast genes encoding nonessential transcription factors, and found that deletion mutants for ACE2 and SWI5 showed dramatically increased ethanol yields. Overexpression of ACE2 or SWI5 in wild type cells reduced their ethanol yields. Furthermore, among the 34 target genes regulated by Ace2 and Swi5, deletion of CTS1,RPS4a,SIC1,EGT2,DSE2, or SCP160 led to increased ethanol yields, with the former two showing higher effects. Overexpression of CTS1 or RPS4a in both ace2/ace2 and swi5/swi5 mutants reduced their ethanol yields. In contrast, deletion of MCR1 or HO significantly decreased ethanol yields, with the former one showing the highest effect. Therefore, Ace2 and Swi5 are two negative regulators of ethanol yield during static fermentation of yeast cells, and both CTS1 and RPS4a are major effectors mediating these two transcription factors in regulating ethanol production. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Hydrodynamic optical soliton tunneling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprenger, P.; Hoefer, M. A.; El, G. A.

    2018-03-01

    A notion of hydrodynamic optical soliton tunneling is introduced in which a dark soliton is incident upon an evolving, broad potential barrier that arises from an appropriate variation of the input signal. The barriers considered include smooth rarefaction waves and highly oscillatory dispersive shock waves. Both the soliton and the barrier satisfy the same one-dimensional defocusing nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation, which admits a convenient dispersive hydrodynamic interpretation. Under the scale separation assumption of nonlinear wave (Whitham) modulation theory, the highly nontrivial nonlinear interaction between the soliton and the evolving hydrodynamic barrier is described in terms of self-similar, simple wave solutions to an asymptotic reduction of the Whitham-NLS partial differential equations. One of the Riemann invariants of the reduced modulation system determines the characteristics of a soliton interacting with a mean flow that results in soliton tunneling or trapping. Another Riemann invariant yields the tunneled soliton's phase shift due to hydrodynamic interaction. Soliton interaction with hydrodynamic barriers gives rise to effects that include reversal of the soliton propagation direction and spontaneous soliton cavitation, which further suggest possible methods of dark soliton control in optical fibers.

  5. Resonant Tunneling Spin Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, David Z.

    2007-01-01

    The resonant tunneling spin pump is a proposed semiconductor device that would generate spin-polarized electron currents. The resonant tunneling spin pump would be a purely electrical device in the sense that it would not contain any magnetic material and would not rely on an applied magnetic field. Also, unlike prior sources of spin-polarized electron currents, the proposed device would not depend on a source of circularly polarized light. The proposed semiconductor electron-spin filters would exploit the Rashba effect, which can induce energy splitting in what would otherwise be degenerate quantum states, caused by a spin-orbit interaction in conjunction with a structural-inversion asymmetry in the presence of interfacial electric fields in a semiconductor heterostructure. The magnitude of the energy split is proportional to the electron wave number. Theoretical studies have suggested the possibility of devices in which electron energy states would be split by the Rashba effect and spin-polarized currents would be extracted by resonant quantum-mechanical tunneling.

  6. Kinesio taping in conservative treatment of mild-to-moderate cases of carpal tunnel syndrome = Kinesio taping w leczeniu zachowawczym łagodnego i umiarkowanego przebiegu zespołu cieśni nadgarstka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Kocjan

    2016-09-01

    SUMMARY             Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS is the most common peripheral neuropathy. Severe cases are usually treated surgically, while conservative treatment is recommended in mild to moderate cases. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of kinesiotaping (KT on pain level, hand functional status, and carpal joint range of movement compared with that of „wait and see” group in mild-to-moderate cases of CTS. In this randomized study, 32 participants (38 hands of ages between 35-50 years with clinical and electrodiagnostic evidence of carpal tunnel syndrome were allocated into one of two groups: (1 experimental Kinesiotaping group (KG, tape applied with 40% tension from hand to medial epicondyle, and (2 Control Group („wait and see” - without tape applied. Following measures were used in the present study: BCTQ, DASH and VAS scale. In any of the groups reported no statistically significant improvement in the analyzed variables. In conclusion, there is no evidence on the efficacy of KT application for the treatment of CTS.

  7. ANASTOMOSIS ENTRE LA RAMA PROFUNDA DEL NERVIO CUBITAL Y EL NERVIO MEDIANO EN LA MANO. Anastomosis between the deep branch of the ulnar nerve and the median nerve in the hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E Criado del Río

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La anastomosis de Riche-Cannieu (ARC es una variación anatómica formada entre la rama tenar del nervio mediano (NM y la rama profunda del nervio cubital (NC. Debido a la importancia clínica y electromiográfica su descripción anatómica es de gran interés, ya que debido a esta variación anatómica existen distintas formas de inervación motora a nivel de la mano. Materiales y Métodos: Se realizaron disecciones cadavéricas en 38 manos (19 cadáveres de ambos sexos formolizados en solución al 5 %, de entre 50 y 70 años de edad. Se utilizó instrumental y técnicas convencionales de disección. Resultados: En la rama profunda del NC no se evidenciaron variaciones y finalizaba su recorrido en el músculo aductor del pulgar. En el 86,84%  de los casos emerge una rama que se anastomosa con el NM de diferentes formas. Esta rama anastomótica, en el 50% de las manos, era una arcada nerviosa de considerable calibre entre el NC y NM, que daba ramas motoras a los músculos de la eminencia tenar. Discusión: El conocimiento de esta anastomosis es muy importante ya que, en casos de lesión del nervio mediano o cubital, puede causar confusión clínica, quirúrgica y en los hallazgos electromiográficos. Debido a su alta frecuencia fue considerada un rasgo anatómico normal. Introduction: The Riche-Cannieu anastomosis (RCA is an anatomic variation formed between the thenar branch of the median nerve and the deep branch of the ulnar nerve. Its anatomical description is of great interest because of its clinical and electromyographic relevance. Due to the RCA, there are various types of hand motor innervation. Materials and Methods: Thirty eight hands from 19 corpses (formolized in a 5% solution whose ages ranged from 50 to 70 years old were dissected. Conventional instruments and techn-iques were used. Results: The pathway of the deep branch of the ulnar nerve did not show variations and ended at the adductor pollicis muscle. In 86

  8. Submucosal tunneling techniques: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobara, Hideki; Mori, Hirohito; Rafiq, Kazi; Fujihara, Shintaro; Nishiyama, Noriko; Ayaki, Maki; Yachida, Tatsuo; Matsunaga, Tae; Tani, Johji; Miyoshi, Hisaaki; Yoneyama, Hirohito; Morishita, Asahiro; Oryu, Makoto; Iwama, Hisakazu; Masaki, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    Advances in endoscopic submucosal dissection include a submucosal tunneling technique, involving the introduction of tunnels into the submucosa. These tunnels permit safer offset entry into the peritoneal cavity for natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery. Technical advantages include the visual identification of the layers of the gut, blood vessels, and subepithelial tumors. The creation of a mucosal flap that minimizes air and fluid leakage into the extraluminal cavity can enhance the safety and efficacy of surgery. This submucosal tunneling technique was adapted for esophageal myotomy, culminating in its application to patients with achalasia. This method, known as per oral endoscopic myotomy, has opened up the new discipline of submucosal endoscopic surgery. Other clinical applications of the submucosal tunneling technique include its use in the removal of gastrointestinal subepithelial tumors and endomicroscopy for the diagnosis of functional and motility disorders. This review suggests that the submucosal tunneling technique, involving a mucosal safety flap, can have potential values for future endoscopic developments.

  9. D1-3: Marshfield Dictionary of Clinical and Translational Science (MD-CTS): An Online Reference for Clinical and Translational Science Terminology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finamore, Joe; Ray, William; Kadolph, Chris; Rastegar-Mojarad, Majid; Ye, Zhan; Jacqueline, Bohne; Tachinardi, Umberto; Mendonça, Eneida; Finnegan, Brian; Bartkowiak, Barbara; Weichelt, Bryan; Lin, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims New terms are rapidly appearing in the literature and practice of clinical medicine and translational research. To catalog real-world usage of medical terms, we report the first construction of an online dictionary of clinical and translational medicinal terms, which are computationally generated in near real-time using a big data approach. This project is NIH CTSA-funded and developed by the Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation in conjunction with University of Wisconsin - Madison. Currently titled Marshfield Dictionary of Clinical and Translational Science (MD-CTS), this application is a Google-like word search tool. By entering a term into the search bar, MD-CTS will display that term’s definition, usage examples, contextual terms, related images, and ontological information. A prototype is available for public viewing at http://spellchecker.mfldclin.edu/. Methods We programmatically derived the lexicon for MD-CTS from scholarly communications by parsing through 15,156,745 MEDLINE abstracts and extracting all of the unique words found therein. We then ran this list through several filters in order to remove words that were not relevant for searching, such as common English words and numeric expressions. We then loaded the resulting 1,795,769 terms into SQL tables. Each term is cross-referenced with every occurrence in all abstracts in which it was found. Additional information is aggregated from Wiktionary, Bioportal, and Wikipedia in real-time and displayed on-screen. From this lexicon we created a supplemental dictionary resource (updated quarterly) to be used in Microsoft Office® products. Results We evaluated the utility of MD-CTS by creating a list of 100 words derived from recent clinical and translational medicine publications in the week of July 22, 2013. We then performed comparative searches for each term with Taber’s Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary, Stedman’s Medical Dictionary, Dorland’s Illustrated Medical Dictionary, Medical

  10. Semiclassical description of resonant tunneling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogomolny, E.B.; Rouben, D.C.

    1996-01-01

    A semiclassical formula is calculated for the tunneling current of electrons trapped in a potential well which can tunnel into and across a wide quantum well. The tunneling current is measured at the second interface of this well and the calculations idealized an experimental situation where a strong magnetic field tilted with respect to an electric field was used. It is shown that the contribution to the tunneling current, due to trajectories which begin at the first interface and end on the second, is dominant for periodic orbits which hit both walls of the quantum well. (author)

  11. Acute Effect of Topical Menthol on Chronic Pain in Slaughterhouse Workers with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: Triple-Blind, Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Sundstrup

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Topical menthol gels are classified “topical analgesics” and are claimed to relieve minor aches and pains of the musculoskeletal system. In this study we investigate the acute effect of topical menthol on carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS. We screened 645 slaughterhouse workers and recruited 10 participants with CTS and chronic pain of the arm/hand who were randomly distributed into two groups to receive topical menthol (Biofreeze or placebo (gel with a menthol scent during the working day and 48 hours later the other treatment (crossover design. Participants rated arm/hand pain intensity during the last hour of work (scale 0–10 immediately before 1, 2, and 3 hours after application. Furthermore, global rating of change (GROC in arm/hand pain was assessed 3 hours after application. Compared with placebo, pain intensity and GROC improved more following application of topical menthol (P=0.026 and P=0.044, resp.. Pain intensity of the arm/hand decreased by −1.2 (CI 95%: −1.7 to −0.6 following topical menthol compared with placebo, corresponding to a moderate effect size of 0.63. In conclusion, topical menthol acutely reduces pain intensity during the working day in slaughterhouse workers with CTS and should be considered as an effective nonsystemic alternative to regular analgesics in the workplace management of chronic and neuropathic pain.

  12. Engineers win award for Swiss tunnel

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    A Derby engineering consultancy has won the Tunnelling Industry Award 2003 for Excellence in Tunnel Design, offered by the British Tunnelling Society, for its work on the LHC in Geneva, Switzerland (1/2 page).

  13. Thermovoltages in vacuum tunneling investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann, D. H.; Rettenberger, Armin; Grand, Jean Yves; Läuger, K.; Leiderer, Paul; Dransfeld, Klaus; Möller, Rolf

    1995-01-01

    By heating the tunneling tip of a scanning tunneling microscope the thermoelectric properties of a variable vacuum barrier have been investigated. The lateral variation of the observed thermovoltage will be discussed for polycrystalline gold, stepped surfaces of silver, as well as for copper islands on silver.

  14. The effectiveness of the low-power laser and kinesiotaping in the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome, a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güner, A; Altan, L; Kasapoğlu Aksoy, M

    2018-05-01

    In mild and moderate cases of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), the conservative approach is suggested. The purpose of this study is to assess and compare the effect of low-power laser versus the combination of low-power laser and kinesiotaping on pain, muscle strength, functionality, and electrophysiologic parameters in the patients with CTS. The study was planned as single-blind, prospective, randomized control. 64 hands diagnosed with CTS were included in the study. The patients were randomly divided into three groups by closed envelope method. Low-power laser therapy was applied to Group 1 (21 hands), kinesiotaping and low-power laser therapy in group 2 (22 hands), sham laser therapy in Group 3 (21 hands). All patients were assessed by visual numeric pain scale (VNS), hand grip strength (HGS), finger pinch strength (FPS), the Boston Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Questionnaire (BCTSQ), before treatment, after treatment (3rd week), and after (12th week) 3 months the treatment with the same physician. Motor and sensory nerve conduction studies were performed with electroneuromyography (ENMG) before the treatment (0th week) and at the end of the 12th week. Comparison of the group 1 with the group 3 showed significantly better improvement in the former in VNS, BCTSQ at 3rd week and 12th week compared to 0th week, and in FPS and HGS at 3rd week. Comparison of the group 2 with the group 3 showed significantly better improvement in the former VNS, BCTSQ, FPS and HGS at 3rd and 12th week compared to 0th week. When Group 1 and Group 2 were compared there was no statistically significant difference in any parameters in the 3rd week, but there was a statistically significant difference in favor of group 2 in FPS and HGS parameters at the 12th week. We have found that the kinesiotaping method applied with low-power laser treatment does not provide any additional benefit to the low-power laser treatment in the short term, however, in the long term, the increase in the HGS and FPS has

  15. Magnetic tunnel junctions with monolayer hexagonal boron nitride tunnel barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piquemal-Banci, M.; Galceran, R.; Bouzehouane, K.; Anane, A.; Petroff, F.; Fert, A.; Dlubak, B.; Seneor, P. [Unité Mixte de Physique, CNRS, Thales, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, Palaiseau 91767 (France); Caneva, S.; Martin, M.-B.; Weatherup, R. S.; Kidambi, P. R.; Robertson, J.; Hofmann, S. [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB21PZ (United Kingdom); Xavier, S. [Thales Research and Technology, 1 avenue Augustin Fresnel, Palaiseau 91767 (France)

    2016-03-07

    We report on the integration of atomically thin 2D insulating hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) tunnel barriers into Co/h-BN/Fe magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs). The h-BN monolayer is directly grown by chemical vapor deposition on Fe. The Conductive Tip Atomic Force Microscopy (CT-AFM) measurements reveal the homogeneity of the tunnel behavior of our h-BN layers. As expected for tunneling, the resistance depends exponentially on the number of h-BN layers. The h-BN monolayer properties are also characterized through integration into complete MTJ devices. A Tunnel Magnetoresistance of up to 6% is observed for a MTJ based on a single atomically thin h-BN layer.

  16. Copper tin sulfide (CTS) absorber thin films obtained by co-evaporation: Influence of the ratio Cu/Sn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles, V., E-mail: victor.robles@ciemat.es; Trigo, J.F.; Guillén, C.; Herrero, J.

    2015-09-05

    Highlights: • Copper tin sulfide (CTS) thin films were grown by co-evaporation at different Cu/Sn atomic ratios. • Smooth Cu{sub 2}SnS{sub 3} layers with large grains are obtained at Cu/Sn ⩾ 1.5 and T ⩾ 350 °C. • At 450 °C, the cubic Cu{sub 2}SnS{sub 3} phase changes to tetragonal phase. • Cu{sub 2}SnS{sub 3} presents suitable optical and electrical properties for use as photovoltaic absorbers. - Abstract: Copper tin sulfide thin films have been grown on soda-lime glass substrates from the elemental constituents by co-evaporation. The synthesis was performed at substrate temperatures of 350 °C and 450 °C and different Cu/Sn ratios, adjusting the deposition time in order to obtain thicknesses above 1000 nm. The evolution of the morphological, structural, chemical, optical and electrical properties has been analyzed as a function of the substrate temperature and the Cu/Sn ratio. For the samples with Cu/Sn ⩽ 1, Cu{sub 2}Sn{sub 3}S{sub 7} and Cu{sub 2}SnS{sub 3} have been observed by XRD. Increasing the Cu/Sn to 1.5, the Cu{sub 2}SnS{sub 3} phase was the majority, being the formation completed at Cu/Sn ratio around 2. The increment of the substrate temperature leads to a change of cubic structure to tetragonal of the Cu{sub 2}SnS{sub 3} phase. The chemical treatment with KCN was effective to eliminate CuS excess detected in the samples with Cu/Sn > 2.2. The samples with Cu{sub 2}SnS{sub 3} structure show a band gap energy increasing from 0.9 to 1.25 eV and an electrical resistivity decreasing from 7 ∗ 10{sup −2} Ω cm to 3 ∗ 10{sup −3} Ω cm when the Cu/Sn atomic ratio increases from 1.5 to 2.2.

  17. SU-D-BRA-04: Fractal Dimension Analysis of Edge-Detected Rectal Cancer CTs for Outcome Prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, H; Wang, J; Hu, W; Shen, L; Wan, J; Zhou, Z; Zhang, Z

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To extract the fractal dimension features from edge-detected rectal cancer CTs, and to examine the predictability of fractal dimensions to outcomes of primary rectal cancer patients. Methods: Ninety-seven rectal cancer patients treated with neo-adjuvant chemoradiation were enrolled in this study. CT images were obtained before chemoradiotherapy. The primary lesions of the rectal cancer were delineated by experienced radiation oncologists. These images were extracted and filtered by six different Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) filters with different filter values (0.5–3.0: from fine to coarse) to achieve primary lesions in different anatomical scales. Edges of the original images were found at zero-crossings of the filtered images. Three different fractal dimensions (box-counting dimension, Minkowski dimension, mass dimension) were calculated upon the image slice with the largest cross-section of the primary lesion. The significance of these fractal dimensions in survival, recurrence and metastasis were examined by Student’s t-test. Results: For a follow-up time of two years, 18 of 97 patients had experienced recurrence, 24 had metastasis, and 18 were dead. Minkowski dimensions under large filter values (2.0, 2.5, 3.0) were significantly larger (p=0.014, 0.006, 0.015) in patients with recurrence than those without. For metastasis, only box-counting dimensions under a single filter value (2.5) showed differences (p=0.016) between patients with and without. For overall survival, box-counting dimensions (filter values = 0.5, 1.0, 1.5), Minkowski dimensions (filter values = 0.5, 1.5, 2.0, 2,5) and mass dimensions (filter values = 1.5, 2.0) were all significant (p<0.05). Conclusion: It is feasible to extract shape information by edge detection and fractal dimensions analysis in neo-adjuvant rectal cancer patients. This information can be used to prognosis prediction

  18. Spin tunnelling in mesoscopic systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We study spin tunnelling in molecular magnets as an instance of a mesoscopic phenomenon, with special emphasis on the molecule Fe8. We show that the tunnel splitting between various pairs of Zeeman levels in this molecule oscillates as a function of applied magnetic field, vanishing completely at special points in the ...

  19. Hawking temperature from tunnelling formalism

    OpenAIRE

    Mitra, P.

    2007-01-01

    It has recently been suggested that the attempt to understand Hawking radiation as tunnelling across black hole horizons produces a Hawking temperature double the standard value. It is explained here how one can obtain the standard value in the same tunnelling approach.

  20. Tunneling Ionization of Diatomic Molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensmark, Jens Søren Sieg

    2016-01-01

    When a molecule is subject to a strong laser field, there is a probability that an electron can escape, even though the electrons are bound by a large potential barrier. This is possible because electrons are quantum mechanical in nature, and they are therefore able to tunnel through potential...... barriers, an ability classical particles do not possess. Tunnelling is a fundamental quantum mechanical process, a process that is distinctly non-classical, so solving this tunnelling problem is not only relevant for molecular physics, but also for quantum theory in general. In this dissertation the theory...... of tunneling ionizaion of molecules is presented and the results of numerical calculations are shown. One perhaps surprising result is, that the frequently used Born-Oppenheimer approximation breaks down for weak fields when describing tunneling ionization. An analytic theory applicable in the weak-field limit...

  1. Tunneling from the past horizon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Subeom; Yeom, Dong-han

    2018-04-01

    We investigate a tunneling and emission process of a thin-shell from a Schwarzschild black hole, where the shell was initially located beyond the Einstein-Rosen bridge and finally appears at the right side of the Penrose diagram. In order to obtain such a solution, we should assume that the areal radius of the black hole horizon increases after the tunneling. Hence, there is a parameter range such that the tunneling rate is exponentially enhanced, rather than suppressed. We may have two interpretations regarding this. First, such a tunneling process from the past horizon is improbable by physical reasons; second, such a tunneling is possible in principle, but in order to obtain a stable Einstein-Rosen bridge, one needs to restrict the parameter spaces. If such a process is allowed, this can be a nonperturbative contribution to Einstein-Rosen bridges as well as eternal black holes.

  2. Expression of the stress-response regulators CtsR and HrcA in the uropathogen Staphylococcus saprophyticus during heat shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Ciro César; de Oliveira, Lorayne Lauria; de Carvalho Rodrigues, Deivid; Ürményi, Turán Peter; Laport, Marinella Silva; Giambiagi-deMarval, Marcia

    2017-08-01

    The uropathogen Staphylococcus saprophyticus is an ubiquitous bacterium but little is known about mechanisms that allow its persistence in diverse environments. Here we evaluated S. saprophyticus growth and survival during heat shock, the expression of stress response regulators ctsR and hrcA through qRT-PCR and heat shock protein synthesis through 35 S-Met metabolic labeling. S. saprophyticus does not tolerate temperatures much higher than the optimal 37 °C, as its growth is greatly affected at 42 °C, though viability is maintained up to 48 °C. At 42 °C, the expression of ctsR and hrcA repressor genes approximately triple when compared to 37 °C and continue to increase together with temperature till 48 °C. Expression of hrcA peaks after 20 min of heat shock and decreases significantly after 30 min, indicating that heat stress response regulated by this gene may last 20-30 min. An increase in temperature is accompanied by the synthesis of at least eight proteins, three of which are likely the chaperones DnaK, GroEL and ClpB. In silico analysis indicate that the groEL gene may be regulated by HrcA, clpB by CtsR and dnaK by both repressors. This is the first work to discuss heat stress response in S. saprophyticus and a step forward in the understanding of mechanisms that make this a widespread and emergent pathogen.

  3. Fluctuation Dominated Josephson Tunneling with a Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naaman, O.; Teizer, W.; Dynes, R. C.

    2001-01-01

    We demonstrate Josephson tunneling in vacuum tunnel junctions formed between a superconducting scanning tunneling microscope tip and a Pb film, for junction resistances in the range 50--300 k Omega. We show that the superconducting phase dynamics is dominated by thermal fluctuations, and that the Josephson current appears as a peak centered at small finite voltage. In the presence of microwave fields (f=15.0 GHz) the peak decreases in magnitude and shifts to higher voltages with increasing rf power, in agreement with theory

  4. Tunneling junction as an open system. Normal tunneling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Y.

    1978-01-01

    The method of the tunneling Hamiltonian is reformulated in the case of normal tunneling by introducing two independent particle baths. Due to the baths, it becomes possible to realize a final stationary state where the electron numbers of the two electrodes in the tunneling system are maintained constant and where there exists a stationary current. The effect of the bath-system couplings on the current-voltage characteristics of the junction is discussed in relation to the usual expression of the current as a function of voltage. (Auth.)

  5. Frequency driven inversion of tunnel magnetoimpedance and observation of positive tunnel magnetocapacitance in magnetic tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parui, Subir; Ribeiro, Mário; Atxabal, Ainhoa; Llopis, Roger; Bedoya-Pinto, Amilcar; Sun, Xiangnan; Casanova, Fèlix; Hueso, Luis E.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance for modern computation of non-volatile high-frequency memories makes ac-transport measurements of magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) crucial for exploring this regime. Here, we demonstrate a frequency-mediated effect in which the tunnel magnetoimpedance reverses its sign in a classical Co/Al 2 O 3 /NiFe MTJ, whereas we only observe a gradual decrease in the tunnel magnetophase. Such effects are explained by the capacitive coupling of a parallel resistor and capacitor in the equivalent circuit model of the MTJ. Furthermore, we report a positive tunnel magnetocapacitance effect, suggesting the presence of a spin-capacitance at the two ferromagnet/tunnel-barrier interfaces. Our results are important for understanding spin transport phenomena at the high frequency regime in which the spin-polarized charge accumulation due to spin-dependent penetration depth at the two interfaces plays a crucial role.

  6. Frequency driven inversion of tunnel magnetoimpedance and observation of positive tunnel magnetocapacitance in magnetic tunnel junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parui, Subir, E-mail: s.parui@nanogune.eu, E-mail: l.hueso@nanogune.eu; Ribeiro, Mário; Atxabal, Ainhoa; Llopis, Roger [CIC nanoGUNE, 20018 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain); Bedoya-Pinto, Amilcar [CIC nanoGUNE, 20018 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain); Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, D-06120 Halle (Germany); Sun, Xiangnan [CIC nanoGUNE, 20018 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain); National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, 100190 Beijing (China); Casanova, Fèlix; Hueso, Luis E., E-mail: s.parui@nanogune.eu, E-mail: l.hueso@nanogune.eu [CIC nanoGUNE, 20018 Donostia-San Sebastian (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, 48011 Bilbao (Spain)

    2016-08-01

    The relevance for modern computation of non-volatile high-frequency memories makes ac-transport measurements of magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) crucial for exploring this regime. Here, we demonstrate a frequency-mediated effect in which the tunnel magnetoimpedance reverses its sign in a classical Co/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/NiFe MTJ, whereas we only observe a gradual decrease in the tunnel magnetophase. Such effects are explained by the capacitive coupling of a parallel resistor and capacitor in the equivalent circuit model of the MTJ. Furthermore, we report a positive tunnel magnetocapacitance effect, suggesting the presence of a spin-capacitance at the two ferromagnet/tunnel-barrier interfaces. Our results are important for understanding spin transport phenomena at the high frequency regime in which the spin-polarized charge accumulation due to spin-dependent penetration depth at the two interfaces plays a crucial role.

  7. Tunneling of Atoms, Nuclei and Molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertulani, C.A.

    2015-01-01

    This is a brief review of few relevant topics on tunneling of composite particles and how the coupling to intrinsic and external degrees of freedom affects tunneling probabilities. I discuss the phenomena of resonant tunneling, different barriers seen by subsystems, damping of resonant tunneling by level bunching and continuum effects due to particle dissociation. (author)

  8. Computational Multiqubit Tunnelling in Programmable Quantum Annealers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-25

    ARTICLE Received 3 Jun 2015 | Accepted 26 Nov 2015 | Published 7 Jan 2016 Computational multiqubit tunnelling in programmable quantum annealers...state itself. Quantum tunnelling has been hypothesized as an advantageous physical resource for optimization in quantum annealing. However, computational ...qubit tunnelling plays a computational role in a currently available programmable quantum annealer. We devise a probe for tunnelling, a computational

  9. 78 FR 46117 - National Tunnel Inspection Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... busiest vehicular tunnel in the world. The Fort McHenry Tunnel handles a daily traffic volume of more than... vehicular, transit, and rail tunnels in the New York City metropolitan area. Although it is still too early... congestion along alternative routes, and save users both dollars and fuel. If these tunnels were closed due...

  10. Een systeem voor classificatie van korte tunnels.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    The most difficult problems in the lighting of tunnels occur in daylight and in particular in the entrance of the tunnel, while drivers approaching the tunnel must be able to look into the tunnel from the outside to detect the road course and eventual obstacles. A classification should The made on

  11. Tunnel fire testing and modeling the Morgex North tunnel experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Borghetti, Fabio; Gandini, Paolo; Frassoldati, Alessio; Tavelli, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    This book aims to cast light on all aspects of tunnel fires, based on experimental activities and theoretical and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses. In particular, the authors describe a transient full-scale fire test (~15 MW), explaining how they designed and performed the experimental activity inside the Morgex North tunnel in Italy. The entire organization of the experiment is described, from preliminary evaluations to the solutions found for management of operational difficulties and safety issues. This fire test allowed the collection of different measurements (temperature, air velocity, smoke composition, pollutant species) useful for validating and improving CFD codes and for testing the real behavior of the tunnel and its safety systems during a diesel oil fire with a significant heat release rate. Finally, the fire dynamics are compared with empirical correlations, CFD simulations, and literature measurements obtained in other similar tunnel fire tests. This book will be of interest to all ...

  12. Apparent tunneling in chemical reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Niels Engholm; Hansen, Flemming Yssing; Billing, G. D.

    2000-01-01

    A necessary condition for tunneling in a chemical reaction is that the probability of crossing a barrier is non-zero, when the energy of the reactants is below the potential energy of the barrier. Due to the non-classical nature (i.e, momentum uncertainty) of vibrational states this is, however......, not a sufficient condition in order to establish genuine tunneling as a result of quantum dynamics. This proposition is illustrated for a two-dimensional model potential describing dissociative sticking of N-2 on Ru(s). It is suggested that the remarkable heavy atom tunneling, found in this system, is related...

  13. Tunneling progress on the Yucca Mountain Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansmire, W.H.; Munzer, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    The current status of tunneling progress on the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) is presented in this paper. The Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), a key part of the YMP, has been long in development and construction is ongoing. This is a progress report on the tunneling aspects of the ESF as of January 1, 1996. For purposes of discussion in this summary, the tunneling has progressed in four general phases. The paper describes: tunneling in jointed rock under low stress; tunneling through the Bow Ridge Fault and soft rock; tunneling through the Imbricate Fault Zone; and Tunneling into the candidate repository formation

  14. Tunnel magnetoresistance in asymmetric double-barrier magnetic tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Useinov, N.Kh.; Petukhov, D.A.; Tagirov, L.R.

    2015-01-01

    The spin-polarized tunnel conductance and tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) through a planar asymmetric double-barrier magnetic tunnel junction (DBMTJ) have been calculated using quasi-classical model. In DBMTJ nanostructure the magnetization of middle ferromagnetic metal layer can be aligned parallel or antiparallel with respect to the fixed magnetizations of the top and bottom ferromagnetic electrodes. The transmission coefficients of an electron to pass through the barriers have been calculated in terms of quantum mechanics. The dependencies of tunnel conductance and TMR on the applied voltage have been calculated in case of non-resonant transmission. Estimated in the framework of our model, the difference between the spin-channels conductances at low voltages was found relatively large. This gives rise to very high magnitude of TMR. - Highlights: • The spin-polarized conductance through the junction is calculated. • Dependencies of the tunnel conductance vs applied bias are shown. • Bias voltage dependence of tunnel magnetoresistance for the structure is shown

  15. Tunneling through landsliding zone; Jisuberi chitainai no tunnel seko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konbu, A; Hatabu, K; Kano, T [Tekken Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-08-01

    At the new tunnel construction site of the Shirakata tunnel on the Obama line in Yamaguchi Prefecture, a landsliding occurred at about 60 meters to the upper portion obliquely to the right hand side of the shaft when the excavation progressed to about 10 meters from the starting side. The landslide caused displacement at the shaft opening and change in the supports. As a result of the re-investigation, it was confirmed that the slide face went through the tunnel cross section. The measures taken were removal of the upper soil and an adoption of the all ground fastening (AGF) method (injection type long tip fastening method) as an auxiliary construction to stop loosening of the natural ground associated with the tunnel excavation. The result was a completion of tunneling the landsliding zone without a problem. This paper reports the AGF method adopted in the above construction, together with the construction works and natural ground conditions. The AGF method is about the same as the pipe roof method with regard to the natural ground accepting mechanism and the materials used. The difference is building an improved body in a limited area in the natural ground around the steel pipes by injecting the fixing material. The use of this method caused no problems in subsidence and displacement in the surrounding ground, and completed the tunneling construction without an unusual event. 1 ref., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Cross-cultural measurement equivalence of the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS2 Portuguese version used to identify violence within couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Leite Moraes

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Following a previous evaluation of concept, item and semantic equivalences, this paper assesses the measurement equivalence between a Portuguese version of Revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS2 and the original instrument conceived in English. The CTS2 has been widely used to tap violence between couples. An intra-observer reliability evaluation involved 165 replications carried out within a 24-48 hour period. Kappa point-estimates were above 0.75 for all scales except sexual coercion. The analysis of internal consistency concerned 768 subjects with complete sets of items. Kuder-Richardson-20 estimates ranged from 0.65 to 0.86. Results were similar to those found in the original instrument in English for the negotiation, psychological aggression and physical violence scales, yet not so for the sexual coercion and injury scales. Factor analysis identified factors with a recognizable correspondence to the underlying dimensions, although a few inconsistencies were detected. For the assessment of construct validity (n = 528 associations between the instrument's scales were evaluated, as well as the relationships between violence and putative underlying dimensions. Overall, the findings suggest that the version can be used in the Brazilian context, although further investigation should be carried out to unveil some important remaining issues.

  17. FUNDAMENTAL TUNNELING PROCESSES IN MOSa SOLAR CELLS

    OpenAIRE

    Balberg , I.; Hanak , J.; Weakliem , H.; Gal , E.

    1981-01-01

    In previous studies of tunneling through a MOSa tunnel junction, where Sa was a-Si : H, it was shown that their characteristics resemble those of MOSc devices where Sc was crystalline silicon. In the present work we would like to report a demonstration of fundamental tunneling processes in such tunnel junctions. In particular, the transition from semiconductor controlled regime to tunneling controlled regime can be clearly distinguished. The present results represent one of the rare cases whe...

  18. Destructive quantum interference in spin tunneling problems

    OpenAIRE

    von Delft, Jan; Henley, Christopher L.

    1992-01-01

    In some spin tunneling problems, there are several different but symmetry-related tunneling paths that connect the same initial and final configurations. The topological phase factors of the corresponding tunneling amplitudes can lead to destructive interference between the different paths, so that the total tunneling amplitude is zero. In the study of tunneling between different ground state configurations of the Kagom\\'{e}-lattice quantum Heisenberg antiferromagnet, this occurs when the spi...

  19. 13th Australian tunnelling conference. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    The theme of the conference was 'Engineering in a changing environment'. Topics covered include Australian tunnelling projects, design and development of ground support, tunnelling, international projects, fire and life safety, mining projects, risk management in tunnelling, and tunnel boring machine tunnelling. Papers of particular interest to the coal industry are: improving roadway development in underground coal mine (G. Lewis and G. Gibson), and polymer-based alternative to steel mesh for coal mine strata reinforcement (C. Lukey and others).

  20. An Association between Carpal Tunnel Syndrome and Migraine Headaches—National Health Interview Survey, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huay-Zong Law, MD

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: This study is the first to demonstrate an association between CTS and migraine headache. Longitudinal and genetic studies with physician verification of migraine headaches and CTS are needed to further define this association.

  1. Tunnelling instability via perturbation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graffi, S. (Bologna Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Matematica); Grecchi, V. (Moderna Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Matematica); Jona-Lasinio, G. (Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Lab. de Physique Theorique et Hautes Energies)

    1984-10-21

    The semiclassical limit of low lying states in a multiwell potential is studied by rigorous perturbative techniques. In particular tunnelling instability and localisation of wave functions is obtained in a simple way under small deformations of symmetric potentials.

  2. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy - image interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maca, F.

    1998-01-01

    The basic ideas of image interpretation in Scanning Tunneling Microscopy are presented using simple quantum-mechanical models and supplied with examples of successful application. The importance is stressed of a correct interpretation of this brilliant experimental surface technique

  3. Electron tunneling in proteins program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagras, Muhammad A; Stuchebrukhov, Alexei A

    2016-06-05

    We developed a unique integrated software package (called Electron Tunneling in Proteins Program or ETP) which provides an environment with different capabilities such as tunneling current calculation, semi-empirical quantum mechanical calculation, and molecular modeling simulation for calculation and analysis of electron transfer reactions in proteins. ETP program is developed as a cross-platform client-server program in which all the different calculations are conducted at the server side while only the client terminal displays the resulting calculation outputs in the different supported representations. ETP program is integrated with a set of well-known computational software packages including Gaussian, BALLVIEW, Dowser, pKip, and APBS. In addition, ETP program supports various visualization methods for the tunneling calculation results that assist in a more comprehensive understanding of the tunneling process. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Tunneling Plasmonics in Bilayer Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Z; Iwinski, E G; Ni, G X; Zhang, L M; Bao, W; Rodin, A S; Lee, Y; Wagner, M; Liu, M K; Dai, S; Goldflam, M D; Thiemens, M; Keilmann, F; Lau, C N; Castro-Neto, A H; Fogler, M M; Basov, D N

    2015-08-12

    We report experimental signatures of plasmonic effects due to electron tunneling between adjacent graphene layers. At subnanometer separation, such layers can form either a strongly coupled bilayer graphene with a Bernal stacking or a weakly coupled double-layer graphene with a random stacking order. Effects due to interlayer tunneling dominate in the former case but are negligible in the latter. We found through infrared nanoimaging that bilayer graphene supports plasmons with a higher degree of confinement compared to single- and double-layer graphene, a direct consequence of interlayer tunneling. Moreover, we were able to shut off plasmons in bilayer graphene through gating within a wide voltage range. Theoretical modeling indicates that such a plasmon-off region is directly linked to a gapped insulating state of bilayer graphene, yet another implication of interlayer tunneling. Our work uncovers essential plasmonic properties in bilayer graphene and suggests a possibility to achieve novel plasmonic functionalities in graphene few-layers.

  5. Shaft and tunnel sealing considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelsall, P.C.; Shukla, D.K.

    1980-01-01

    Much of the emphasis of previous repository sealing research has been placed on plugging small diameter boreholes. It is increasingly evident that equal emphasis should now be given to shafts and tunnels which constitute more significant pathways between a repository and the biosphere. The paper discusses differences in requirements for sealing shafts and tunnels as compared with boreholes and the implications for seal design. Consideration is given to a design approach for shaft and tunnel seals based on a multiple component design concept, taking into account the requirements for retrievability of the waste. A work plan is developed for the future studies required to advance shaft and tunnel sealing technology to a level comparable with the existing technology for borehole sealing

  6. Organic tunnel field effect transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Tietze, Max Lutz; Lussem, Bjorn; Liu, Shiyi

    2017-01-01

    Various examples are provided for organic tunnel field effect transistors (OTFET), and methods thereof. In one example, an OTFET includes a first intrinsic layer (i-layer) of organic semiconductor material disposed over a gate insulating layer

  7. Bijzondere belastingen in tunnels : Eindrapport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, D.J.; Weerheijm, J.; Vervuurt, A.; Burggraaf, H.; Roekaerts, D.; Meijers, P.

    2009-01-01

    Verkeerstunnels en overkapte wegen (landtunnels) komen de milieukundige en stedenbouwkundige inpassing ten goede en maken meervoudig ruimtegebruik in de stad mogelijk. Het aantal tunnels en overkappingen groeit dan ook. Dit maakt het vervoer van explosiegevaarlijke stoffen en onder hoge druk

  8. Free Surface Water Tunnel (FSWT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: The Free Surface Water Tunnel consists of the intake plenum, the test section and the exit plenum. The intake plenum starts with a perforated pipe that...

  9. Direct, coherent and incoherent intermediate state tunneling and scanning tunnel microscopy (STM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbritter, J.

    1997-01-01

    Theory and experiment in tunneling are still qualitative in nature, which hold true also for the latest developments in direct-, resonant-, coherent- and incoherent-tunneling. Those tunnel processes have recently branched out of the field of ''solid state tunnel junctions'' into the fields of scanning tunnel microscopy (STM), single electron tunneling (SET) and semiconducting resonant tunnel structures (RTS). All these fields have promoted the understanding of tunneling in different ways reaching from the effect of coherence, of incoherence and of charging in tunneling, to spin flip or inelastic effects. STM allows not only the accurate measurements of the tunnel current and its voltage dependence but, more importantly, the easy quantification via the (quantum) tunnel channel conductance and the distance dependence. This new degree of freedom entering exponentially the tunnel current allows an unique identification of individual tunnel channels and their quantification. In STM measurements large tunnel currents are observed for large distances d > 1 nm explainable by intermediate state tunneling. Direct tunneling with its reduced tunnel time and reduced off-site Coulomb charging bridges distances below 1 nm, only. The effective charge transfer process with its larger off-site and on-site charging at intermediate states dominates tunnel transfer in STM, biology and chemistry over distances in the nm-range. Intermediates state tunneling becomes variable range hopping conduction for distances larger than d > 2 nm, for larger densities of intermediate states n 1 (ε) and for larger temperatures T or voltages U, still allowing high resolution imaging

  10. Quantum resonances in physical tunneling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieto, M.M.; Truax, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    It has recently been emphasized that the probability of quantum tunneling is a critical function of the shape of the potential. Applying this observation to physical systems, we point out that in principal information on potential surfaces can be obtained by studying tunneling rates. This is especially true in cases where only spectral data is known, since many potentials yield the same spectrum. 13 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  11. Tunnelling without barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.

    1987-01-01

    The evolution in flat and curved space-time of quantum fields in theories with relative flat potential and its consequences are considered. It is shown that bubble nucleation, a quantum mechanical tunnelling process, may occur in flat space-time, having a bounce solution, even if V(phi) has no barrier. It is shown that bubble nucleation can also occur in curved space-time even though there is no bounce solution in the standard formalism for the bubble nucleation rate in curved space-time. Additionally, bubbles can nucleate during the slow rolling period on the potential in flat and curved space-time, in this case also there is no bounce solution. It is known in the new inflationary scenario that energy density perturbations caused by quantum fluctuations of the scalar field can satisfy the presently observed bounds on density perturbations. Bubble nucleation during the slow rolling period also gives rise to density perturbations. For a model potential density perturbations by bubbles are calculated at the horizon reentering. By applying the bound from the almost isotropic microwave black body radiation on these density perturbations, a constraint on the model potential is obtained. Finally, some further implications on the galaxy formation and applications in more realistic potential are discussed

  12. Scanning Tunneling Optical Resonance Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Sheila; Wilt, Dave; Raffaelle, Ryne; Gennett, Tom; Tin, Padetha; Lau, Janice; Castro, Stephanie; Jenkins, Philip; Scheiman, Dave

    2003-01-01

    Scanning tunneling optical resonance microscopy (STORM) is a method, now undergoing development, for measuring optoelectronic properties of materials and devices on the nanoscale by means of a combination of (1) traditional scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) with (2) tunable laser spectroscopy. In STORM, an STM tip probing a semiconductor is illuminated with modulated light at a wavelength in the visible-to-near-infrared range and the resulting photoenhancement of the tunneling current is measured as a function of the illuminating wavelength. The photoenhancement of tunneling current occurs when the laser photon energy is sufficient to excite charge carriers into the conduction band of the semiconductor. Figure 1 schematically depicts a proposed STORM apparatus. The light for illuminating the semiconductor specimen at the STM would be generated by a ring laser that would be tunable across the wavelength range of interest. The laser beam would be chopped by an achromatic liquid-crystal modulator. A polarization-maintaining optical fiber would couple the light to the tip/sample junction of a commercial STM. An STM can be operated in one of two modes: constant height or constant current. A STORM apparatus would be operated in the constant-current mode, in which the height of the tip relative to the specimen would be varied in order to keep the tunneling current constant. In this mode, a feedback control circuit adjusts the voltage applied to a piezoelectric actuator in the STM that adjusts the height of the STM tip to keep the tunneling current constant. The exponential relationship between the tunneling current and tip-to-sample distance makes it relatively easy to implement this mode of operation. The choice of method by which the photoenhanced portion of the tunneling current would be measured depends on choice of the frequency at which the input illumination would be modulated (chopped). If the frequency of modulation were low enough (typically tunneling current

  13. Electronic noise of superconducting tunnel junction detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jochum, J.; Kraus, H.; Gutsche, M.; Kemmather, B.; Feilitzsch, F. v.; Moessbauer, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    The optimal signal to noise ratio for detectors based on superconducting tunnel junctions is calculated and compared for the cases of a detector consisting of one single tunnel junction, as well as of series and of parallel connections of such tunnel junctions. The influence of 1 / f noise and its dependence on the dynamical resistance of tunnel junctions is discussed quantitatively. A single tunnel junction yields the minimum equivalent noise charge. Such a tunnel junction exhibits the best signal to noise ratio if the signal charge is independent of detector size. In case, signal charge increases with detector size, a parallel or a series connection of tunnel junctions would provide the optimum signal to noise ratio. The equivalent noise charge and the respective signal to noise ratio are deduced as functions of tunnel junction parameters such as tunneling time, quasiparticle lifetime, etc. (orig.)

  14. Theory of superconducting tunneling without the tunneling Hamiltonian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, G.B.

    1987-01-01

    When a tunneling barrier is nearly transparent, the standard tunneling (or transfer) Hamiltonian approximation fails. The author describes the theory which is necessary for calculating the tunneling current in these cases, and illustrate it by comparing theory and experiment on superconductor/insulator/superconductor (SIS) junctions have ultra-thin tunnel barriers. This theory accurately explains the subgap structure which appears in the dynamical resistance of such SIS junctions, including many observed details which no previous theory has reproduced. The expression for the current through an SIS junction with an ultrathin barrier is given by I(t) = Re{Sigma/sub n/ J/sub n/ (omega/sub o/)e/sup in omega/o/sup t/} where omega/sub o/ = 2eV/h is the Josephson frequency, V is the bias voltage, and the J/sub n/ are voltage dependent coefficients, one for each positive or negative integer, n, and n=0. The relative sign of the terms involving cos(n omega/sub o/t) and sin(n omega/sub o/t) agrees with experiment, in contrast to previous theories of Josephson tunneling

  15. Improved multidimensional semiclassical tunneling theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Albert F

    2013-12-12

    We show that the analytic multidimensional semiclassical tunneling formula of Miller et al. [Miller, W. H.; Hernandez, R.; Handy, N. C.; Jayatilaka, D.; Willets, A. Chem. Phys. Lett. 1990, 172, 62] is qualitatively incorrect for deep tunneling at energies well below the top of the barrier. The origin of this deficiency is that the formula uses an effective barrier weakly related to the true energetics but correctly adjusted to reproduce the harmonic description and anharmonic corrections of the reaction path at the saddle point as determined by second order vibrational perturbation theory. We present an analytic improved semiclassical formula that correctly includes energetic information and allows a qualitatively correct representation of deep tunneling. This is done by constructing a three segment composite Eckart potential that is continuous everywhere in both value and derivative. This composite potential has an analytic barrier penetration integral from which the semiclassical action can be derived and then used to define the semiclassical tunneling probability. The middle segment of the composite potential by itself is superior to the original formula of Miller et al. because it incorporates the asymmetry of the reaction barrier produced by the known reaction exoergicity. Comparison of the semiclassical and exact quantum tunneling probability for the pure Eckart potential suggests a simple threshold multiplicative factor to the improved formula to account for quantum effects very near threshold not represented by semiclassical theory. The deep tunneling limitations of the original formula are echoed in semiclassical high-energy descriptions of bound vibrational states perpendicular to the reaction path at the saddle point. However, typically ab initio energetic information is not available to correct it. The Supporting Information contains a Fortran code, test input, and test output that implements the improved semiclassical tunneling formula.

  16. Superconducting tunneling with the tunneling Hamiltonian. II. Subgap harmonic structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, G.B.

    1987-01-01

    The theory of superconducting tunneling without the tunneling Hamiltonian is extended to treat superconductor/insulator/superconductor junctions in which the transmission coefficient of the insulating barrier approaches unity. The solution for the current in such junctions is obtained by solving the problem of a particle hopping in a one-dimensional lattice of sites, with forward and reverse transfer integrals that depend on the site. The results are applied to the problem of subgap harmonic structure in superconducting tunneling. The time-dependent current at finite voltage through a junction exhibiting subgap structure is found to have terms that oscillate at all integer multiples of the Josephson frequency, n(2eV/h). The amplitudes of these new, and as yet unmeasured, ac current contributions as a function of voltage are predicted

  17. Typical Underwater Tunnels in the Mainland of China and Related Tunneling Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kairong Hong

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the past decades, many underwater tunnels have been constructed in the mainland of China, and great progress has been made in related tunneling technologies. This paper presents the history and state of the art of underwater tunnels in the mainland of China in terms of shield-bored tunnels, drill-and-blast tunnels, and immersed tunnels. Typical underwater tunnels of these types in the mainland of China are described, along with innovative technologies regarding comprehensive geological prediction, grouting-based consolidation, the design and construction of large cross-sectional tunnels with shallow cover in weak strata, cutting tool replacement under limited drainage and reduced pressure conditions, the detection and treatment of boulders, the construction of underwater tunnels in areas with high seismic intensity, and the treatment of serious sedimentation in a foundation channel of immersed tunnels. Some suggestions are made regarding the three potential great strait-crossing tunnels—the Qiongzhou Strait-Crossing Tunnel, Bohai Strait-Crossing Tunnel, and Taiwan Strait-Crossing Tunnel—and issues related to these great strait-crossing tunnels that need further study are proposed. Keywords: Underwater tunnel, Strait-crossing tunnel, Shield-bored tunnel, Immersed tunnel, Drill and blast

  18. Current noise in tunnel junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frey, Moritz; Grabert, Hermann [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Strasse 3, 79104, Freiburg (Germany)

    2017-06-15

    We study current fluctuations in tunnel junctions driven by a voltage source. The voltage is applied to the tunneling element via an impedance providing an electromagnetic environment of the junction. We use circuit theory to relate the fluctuations of the current flowing in the leads of the junction with the voltage fluctuations generated by the environmental impedance and the fluctuations of the tunneling current. The spectrum of current fluctuations is found to consist of three parts: a term arising from the environmental Johnson-Nyquist noise, a term due to the shot noise of the tunneling current and a third term describing the cross-correlation between these two noise sources. Our phenomenological theory reproduces previous results based on the Hamiltonian model for the dynamical Coulomb blockade and provides a simple understanding of the current fluctuation spectrum in terms of circuit theory and properties of the average current. Specific results are given for a tunnel junction driven through a resonator. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Superconducting tunnel-junction refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melton, R.G.; Paterson, J.L.; Kaplan, S.B.

    1980-01-01

    The dc current through an S 1 -S 2 tunnel junction, with Δ 2 greater than Δ 1 , when biased with eV 1 +Δ 2 , will lower the energy in S 1 . This energy reduction will be shared by the phonons and electrons. This device is shown to be analogous to a thermoelectric refrigerator with an effective Peltier coefficient π* approx. Δ 1 /e. Tunneling calculations yield the cooling power P/sub c/, the electrical power P/sub e/ supplied by the bias supply, and the cooling efficiency eta=P/sub c//P/sub e/. The maximum cooling power is obtained for eV= +- (Δ 2 -Δ 1 ) and t 1 =T 1 /T/sub c/1 approx. 0.9. Estimates are made of the temperature difference T 2 -T 1 achievable in Al-Pb and Sn-Pb junctions with an Al 2 O 3 tunneling barrier. The performance of this device is shown to yield a maximum cooling efficiency eta approx. = Δ 1 /(Δ 2 -Δ 1 ) which can be compared with that available in an ideal Carnot refrigerator of eta=T 1 /(T 2 -T 1 ). The development of a useful tunnel-junction refrigerator requires a tunneling barrier with an effective thermal conductance per unit area several orders of magnitude less than that provided by the A1 2 O 3 barrier in the Al-Pb and Sn-Pb systems

  20. TunnelVision: LHC Tunnel Photogrammetry System for Structural Monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Fallas, William

    2014-01-01

    In this document an algorithm to detect deformations in the LHC Tunnel of CERN is presented. It is based on two images, one represents the ideal state of the tunnel and the other one the actual state. To find the differences between both, the algorithm is divided in three steps. First, an image enhancement is applied to make easier the detection. Second, two different approaches to reduce noise are applied to one or both images. And third, it is defined a group of characteristics about the type of deformation desired to detect. Finally, the conclusions show the effectiveness of the algorithm in the experimental results.

  1. Configurações curriculares mediante o enfoque CTS: desafios a serem enfrentados na educação de jovens e adultos Curricular configurations through the CTS approach: challenges to be faced in EJA (the education of youths and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Muenchen

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, são analisados desafios a serem enfrentados no âmbito de intervenções curriculares que buscam enfocar interações entre Ciência-Tecnologia-Sociedade (CTS, mediante a abordagem de temáticas contemporâneas, marcadas pela componente científico-tecnológica. Tais encaminhamentos estão balizados por uma aproximação entre pressupostos do educador brasileiro Freire (1987 e referenciais ligados ao denominado movimento CTS. No âmbito destas intervenções situa-se o problema investigado: Quais os possíveis desafios a serem enfrentados/investigados quando se buscam configurações curriculares que contemplem o enfoque CTS por meio da abordagem de problemas de relevância social junto à Educação de Jovens e Adultos (EJA? Os objetivos da pesquisa são: identificar e discutir posicionamentos de professores da EJA quanto à utilização de temas/problemas de relevância social em suas aulas, e identificar e discutir estrangulamentos a serem enfrentados nas instituições escolares. Esta pesquisa é de cunho qualitativo e os instrumentos utilizados foram: registros escritos, sob a forma de diários; questionário e entrevista. Como síntese dos resultados da investigação, foram definidas quatro categorias, as quais constituem desafios a serem enfrentados: a superação do reducionismo metodológico, ou seja, ao professor atribui-se o papel de "vencer programas"; b o trabalho interdisciplinar; c suposta resistência dos alunos à abordagem temática, e d desenvolvimento de temas polêmicos que envolvem conflitos/contradições locais. No presente trabalho, são discutidas as categorias "a" e "d".In this work, challenges are analyzed to be faced with the range of curricular interventions which aim to approach the interaction between Science, Technology and Society (CTS through the setting down of contemporary themes, notably science and technology. Such curricular routings are marked by the approximation of the presuppositions

  2. Salt stress-induced transcription of σB- and CtsR-regulated genes in persistent and non-persistent Listeria monocytogenes strains from food processing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringus, Daina L; Ivy, Reid A; Wiedmann, Martin; Boor, Kathryn J

    2012-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that can persist in food processing environments. Six persistent and six non-persistent strains from fish processing plants and one persistent strain from a meat plant were selected to determine if expression of genes in the regulons of two stress response regulators, σ(B) and CtsR, under salt stress conditions is associated with the ability of L. monocytogenes to persist in food processing environments. Subtype data were also used to categorize the strains into genetic lineages I or II. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to measure transcript levels for two σ(B)-regulated genes, inlA and gadD3, and two CtsR-regulated genes, lmo1138 and clpB, before and after (t=10 min) salt shock (i.e., exposure of exponential phase cells to BHI+6% NaCl for 10 min at 37°C). Exposure to salt stress induced higher transcript levels relative to levels under non-stress conditions for all four stress and virulence genes across all wildtype strains tested. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of induction data revealed that transcript levels for one gene (clpB) were induced at significantly higher levels in non-persistent strains compared to persistent strains (p=0.020; two-way ANOVA). Significantly higher transcript levels of gadD3 (p=0.024; two-way ANOVA) and clpB (p=0.053; two-way ANOVA) were observed after salt shock in lineage I strains compared to lineage II strains. No clear association between stress gene transcript levels and persistence was detected. Our data are consistent with an emerging model that proposes that establishment of L. monocytogenes persistence in a specific environment occurs as a random, stochastic event, rather than as a consequence of specific bacterial strain characteristics.

  3. Hybrid inflation exit through tunneling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbrecht, Bjoern; Konstandin, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    For hybrid inflationary potentials, we derive the tunneling rate from field configurations along the flat direction towards the waterfall regime. This process competes with the classically rolling evolution of the scalar fields and needs to be strongly subdominant for phenomenologically viable models. Tunneling may exclude models with a mass scale below 10 12 GeV, but can be suppressed by small values of the coupling constants. We find that tunneling is negligible for those models, which do not require fine tuning in order to cancel radiative corrections, in particular for GUT-scale SUSY inflation. In contrast, electroweak scale hybrid inflation is not viable, unless the inflaton-waterfall field coupling is smaller than approximately 10 -11

  4. Quantum mechanical tunneling in chemical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamura, Hiroki

    2016-01-01

    Quantum mechanical tunneling plays important roles in a wide range of natural sciences, from nuclear and solid-state physics to proton transfer and chemical reactions in chemistry and biology. Responding to the need for further understanding of multidimensional tunneling, the authors have recently developed practical methods that can be applied to multidimensional systems. Quantum Mechanical Tunneling in Chemical Physics presents basic theories, as well as original ones developed by the authors. It also provides methodologies and numerical applications to real molecular systems. The book offers information so readers can understand the basic concepts and dynamics of multidimensional tunneling phenomena and use the described methods for various molecular spectroscopy and chemical dynamics problems. The text focuses on three tunneling phenomena: (1) energy splitting, or tunneling splitting, in symmetric double well potential, (2) decay of metastable state through tunneling, and (3) tunneling effects in chemical...

  5. Tunnel Boring Machine Performance Study. Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    Full face tunnel boring machine "TBM" performance during the excavation of 6 tunnels in sedimentary rock is considered in terms of utilization, penetration rates and cutter wear. The construction records are analyzed and the results are used to inves...

  6. Transit time for resonant tunneling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Calderon, G.; Rubio, A.

    1990-09-01

    This work considers properties of the partial widths in one dimensional elastic resonant tunneling in order to propose a transit-time τ tr = (h/2π)/Γ n T res ) where Γ n is the elastic width and T res the transmission coefficient at resonance energy. This time is interpreted as an average over the resonance energy width. It is shown that the tunneling current density integrated across a sharp resonance is inversely proportional to τ tr . This transit time may be much larger than the values predicted by other definitions. (author). 20 refs

  7. Spin tunnelling in mesoscopic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Anupam

    2001-02-01

    We study spin tunnelling in molecular magnets as an instance of a mesoscopic phenomenon, with special emphasis on the molecule Fe8. We show that the tunnel splitting between various pairs of Zeeman levels in this molecule oscillates as a function of applied magnetic field, vanishing completely at special points in the space of magnetic fields, known as diabolical points. This phenomena is explained in terms of two approaches, one based on spin-coherent-state path integrals, and the other on a generalization of the phase integral (or WKB) method to difference equations. Explicit formulas for the diabolical points are obtained for a model Hamiltonian.

  8. Tunneling field effect transistor technology

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, Mansun

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a single-source reference to the state-of-the art in tunneling field effect transistors (TFETs). Readers will learn the TFETs physics from advanced atomistic simulations, the TFETs fabrication process and the important roles that TFETs will play in enabling integrated circuit designs for power efficiency. · Provides comprehensive reference to tunneling field effect transistors (TFETs); · Covers all aspects of TFETs, from device process to modeling and applications; · Enables design of power-efficient integrated circuits, with low power consumption TFETs.

  9. Inelastic scattering in resonant tunneling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wingreen, Ned S.; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel; Wilkins, John W.

    1989-01-01

    The exact resonant-tunneling transmission probability for an electron interacting with phonons is presented in the limit that the elastic coupling to the leads is independent of energy. The phonons produce transmission sidebands but do not affect the integrated transmission probability or the esc......The exact resonant-tunneling transmission probability for an electron interacting with phonons is presented in the limit that the elastic coupling to the leads is independent of energy. The phonons produce transmission sidebands but do not affect the integrated transmission probability...

  10. Molecular series-tunneling junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Kung-Ching; Hsu, Liang-Yan; Bowers, Carleen M; Rabitz, Herschel; Whitesides, George M

    2015-05-13

    Charge transport through junctions consisting of insulating molecular units is a quantum phenomenon that cannot be described adequately by classical circuit laws. This paper explores tunneling current densities in self-assembled monolayer (SAM)-based junctions with the structure Ag(TS)/O2C-R1-R2-H//Ga2O3/EGaIn, where Ag(TS) is template-stripped silver and EGaIn is the eutectic alloy of gallium and indium; R1 and R2 refer to two classes of insulating molecular units-(CH2)n and (C6H4)m-that are connected in series and have different tunneling decay constants in the Simmons equation. These junctions can be analyzed as a form of series-tunneling junctions based on the observation that permuting the order of R1 and R2 in the junction does not alter the overall rate of charge transport. By using the Ag/O2C interface, this system decouples the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO, which is localized on the carboxylate group) from strong interactions with the R1 and R2 units. The differences in rates of tunneling are thus determined by the electronic structure of the groups R1 and R2; these differences are not influenced by the order of R1 and R2 in the SAM. In an electrical potential model that rationalizes this observation, R1 and R2 contribute independently to the height of the barrier. This model explicitly assumes that contributions to rates of tunneling from the Ag(TS)/O2C and H//Ga2O3 interfaces are constant across the series examined. The current density of these series-tunneling junctions can be described by J(V) = J0(V) exp(-β1d1 - β2d2), where J(V) is the current density (A/cm(2)) at applied voltage V and βi and di are the parameters describing the attenuation of the tunneling current through a rectangular tunneling barrier, with width d and a height related to the attenuation factor β.

  11. Watertightness of concrete tunnel structures

    OpenAIRE

    Glerum, A.

    1982-01-01

    The Netherlands are situated in the delta. of the rivers Rhine, Meuse and Scheldt. Therefore the ground mainly consists.of sediments, such as sand, clay and silt. In certain regions peat layers of varying thickness are found. The high permeability of some of these materials and the fact that the groundwater table is generally only 1 m below ground level, make an adequate watertightness one of the main features of tunnel engineering in the Netherlands. Tunnels in Holland are both of the immers...

  12. Enhanced tunneling through nonstationary barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palomares-Baez, J. P.; Rodriguez-Lopez, J. L.; Ivlev, B.

    2007-01-01

    Quantum tunneling through a nonstationary barrier is studied analytically and by a direct numerical solution of Schroedinger equation. Both methods are in agreement and say that the main features of the phenomenon can be described in terms of classical trajectories which are solutions of Newton's equation in complex time. The probability of tunneling is governed by analytical properties of a time-dependent perturbation and the classical trajectory in the plane of complex time. Some preliminary numerical calculations of Euclidean resonance (an easy penetration through a classical nonstationary barrier due to an underbarrier interference) are presented

  13. Drill and blast tunnelling; Konvensjonell drift av tunneler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roenn, Paal-Egil

    1997-12-31

    This thesis treats drill and blast tunnelling. The rapid technological advance necessitates revised and updated design criteria, quality requirements and quality control. In situ blast experiments were carried out in order to test new methods and improve the basis for calculation and design. The main topics of the experiments were (1) longer rounds and increased drillhole diameter, (2) emulsion slurry as explosives in tunnelling, and (3) electronic detonators in contour blasting. The experiments show that it is technically feasible to blast rounds of up to 8.6 m length. Using current technology, the economical optimum round length is substantially shorter. Dust, low visibility, noise and toxic fumes are occupational environmental strains for the tunnel workers. Several of the environmental factors are strongly influenced by the type of explosives used. For example, emulsion slurry resulted in 4 to 5 times better visibility than Anolit and the concentration of respirable dust and total dust was reduced by 30-50 %. Electronic detonators were tested and found to give a higher percentage of remaining drillholes in the contour than Nonel detonators. The thesis includes a chapter on economic design of hydropower tunnels. 42 refs., 83 figs., 45 tabs.

  14. Spin-dependent tunnelling in magnetic tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsymbal, Evgeny Y; Mryasov, Oleg N; LeClair, Patrick R

    2003-01-01

    The phenomenon of electron tunnelling has been known since the advent of quantum mechanics, but continues to enrich our understanding of many fields of physics, as well as creating sub-fields on its own. Spin-dependent tunnelling (SDT) in magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) has recently aroused enormous interest and has developed in a vigorous field of research. The large tunnelling magnetoresistance (TMR) observed in MTJs garnered much attention due to possible applications in non-volatile random-access memories and next-generation magnetic field sensors. This led to a number of fundamental questions regarding the phenomenon of SDT. In this review article we present an overview of this field of research. We discuss various factors that control the spin polarization and magnetoresistance in MTJs. Starting from early experiments on SDT and their interpretation, we consider thereafter recent experiments and models which highlight the role of the electronic structure of the ferromagnets, the insulating layer, and the ferromagnet/insulator interfaces. We also discuss the role of disorder in the barrier and in the ferromagnetic electrodes and their influence on TMR. (topical review)

  15. Characterization of magnetic tunnel junction test pads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Kjær, Daniel; Nielsen, Peter Folmer

    2015-01-01

    We show experimentally as well as theoretically that patterned magnetic tunnel junctions can be characterized using the current-in-plane tunneling (CIPT) method, and the key parameters, the resistance-area product (RA) and the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR), can be determined. The CIPT method...

  16. Tunnel Face Stability & New CPT Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broere, W.

    2001-01-01

    Nearly all tunnels bored in soft soils have encountered problems with the stability of the tunnel face. In several cases these problems led to an extended stand-still of the boring process. A better understanding of the face stability, and of the soil conditions around the tunnel boring machine, can

  17. Tunneling into quantum wires: regularization of the tunneling Hamiltonian and consistency between free and bosonized fermions

    OpenAIRE

    Filippone, Michele; Brouwer, Piet

    2016-01-01

    Tunneling between a point contact and a one-dimensional wire is usually described with the help of a tunneling Hamiltonian that contains a delta function in position space. Whereas the leading order contribution to the tunneling current is independent of the way this delta function is regularized, higher-order corrections with respect to the tunneling amplitude are known to depend on the regularization. Instead of regularizing the delta function in the tunneling Hamiltonian, one may also obta...

  18. Macroscopic quantum tunneling in Josephson tunnel junctions and Coulomb blockade in single small tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleland, A.N.

    1991-04-01

    Experiments investigating the process of macroscopic quantum tunneling in a moderately-damped, resistively shunted, Josephson junction are described, followed by a discussion of experiments performed on very small capacitance normal-metal tunnel junctions. The experiments on the resistively-shunted Josephson junction were designed to investigate a quantum process, that of the tunneling of the Josephson phase variable under a potential barrier, in a system in which dissipation plays a major role in the dynamics of motion. All the parameters of the junction were measured using the classical phenomena of thermal activation and resonant activation. Theoretical predictions are compared with the experimental results, showing good agreement with no adjustable parameters; the tunneling rate in the moderately damped (Q ∼ 1) junction is seen to be reduced by a factor of 300 from that predicted for an undamped junction. The phase is seen to be a good quantum-mechanical variable. The experiments on small capacitance tunnel junctions extend the measurements on the larger-area Josephson junctions from the region in which the phase variable has a fairly well-defined value, i.e. its wavefunction has a narrow width, to the region where its value is almost completely unknown. The charge on the junction becomes well-defined and is predicted to quantize the current through the junction, giving rise to the Coulomb blockade at low bias. I present the first clear observation of the Coulomb blockade in single junctions. The electrical environment of the tunnel junction, however, strongly affects the behavior of the junction: higher resistance leads are observed to greatly sharpen the Coulomb blockade over that seen with lower resistance leads. I present theoretical descriptions of how the environment influences the junctions; comparisons with the experimental results are in reasonable agreement

  19. Earth Pressure on Tunnel Crown

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars

    Two different analyses have been carried out in order to find the vertical earth pressure, or overburden pressure, at the crown of a tunnel going through a dike. Firstly, a hand calculation is performed using a simple dispersion of the stresses over depth. Secondly, the finite‐element program...

  20. Introduction to scanning tunneling microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, C Julian

    2008-01-01

    The scanning tunneling and the atomic force microscope, both capable of imaging individual atoms, were crowned with the Physics Nobel Prize in 1986, and are the cornerstones of nanotechnology today. This is a thoroughly updated version of this 'bible' in the field.

  1. Installation in the SPS tunnel

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The SPS tunnel is 6910 m in circumference and has a cross section of 4 m inner diameter. It is situated at an elevation of 400 m above sea level at a depth below the surface varying between 23 and 65 m. Its walls are lined with a concrete shell of about 30 cm thickness. See also 7410043X

  2. Principles of electron tunneling spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, E L

    2012-01-01

    Electron tunnelling spectroscopy as a research tool has strongly advanced understanding of superconductivity. This book explains the physics and instrumentation behind the advances illustrated in beautiful images of atoms, rings of atoms and exotic states in high temperature superconductors, and summarizes the state of knowledge that has resulted.

  3. Time tunnels meet warped passages

    CERN Multimedia

    Kushner, David

    2006-01-01

    "Just in time for its 40th anniversary, the classic sci-fi television show "The time tunnel" is out on DVD. The conceit is something every engineer can relate to: a pulled plug. Scientists in an underground lab are working on a secret government experiment in time travel. (1 page)

  4. Zero energy Tunnel-concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dzhusupova, R.

    2012-01-01

    Creating a zero energy environment is a hot topic. The developments in this field are based on the concept of the "Trias Energetica": reducing energy consumption, using renewable energy sources, and efficiently using fossil fuels. A zero energy concept can also be applied to road tunnels to improve

  5. Travelling inside the SPS tunnel

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The golf cart proved to be a very useful form of transport around the 7 km circumference of the machine. It could carry four passengers and pull light equipment in its trailer. Here Peter Zettwoch is the driver along a mock-up tunnel for installation tests. (see photo 7401011X and Photo Archive 7401018)

  6. A Seamless Ubiquitous Telehealthcare Tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sao-Jie Chen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Mobile handheld devices are rapidly using to implement healthcare services around the World. Fundamentally, these services utilize telemedicine technologies. A disconnection of a mobile telemedicine system usually results in an interruption, which is embarrassing, and reconnection is necessary during the communication session. In this study, the Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP is adopted to build a stable session tunnel to guarantee seamless switching among heterogeneous wireless communication standards, such as Wi-Fi and 3G. This arrangement means that the telemedicine devices will not be limited by a fixed wireless connection and can switch to a better wireless channel if necessary. The tunnel can transmit plain text, binary data, and video streams. According to the evaluation of the proposed software-based SCTP-Tunnel middleware shown, the performance is lower than anticipated and is slightly slower than a fixed connection. However, the transmission throughput is still acceptable for healthcare professionals in a healthcare enterprise or home care site. It is necessary to build more heterogeneous wireless protocols into the proposed tunnel-switching scheme to support all possible communication protocols. In addition, SCTP is another good choice for promoting communication in telemedicine and healthcare fields.

  7. Tunnel Vision in Environmental Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alan

    1982-01-01

    Discusses problem-solving styles in environmental management and the specific deficiencies in these styles that might be grouped under the label "tunnel vision," a form of selective attention contributing to inadequate problem-formulation, partial solutions to complex problems, and generation of additional problems. Includes educational…

  8. Management of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooar, Pekka A; Doherty, William J; Murray, Jayson N; Pezold, Ryan; Sevarino, Kaitlyn S

    2018-03-15

    The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) has developed Appropriate Use Criteria (AUC) for Management of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome. Evidence-based information, in conjunction with the clinical expertise of physicians, was used to develop the criteria to improve patient care and obtain best outcomes while considering the subtleties and distinctions necessary in making clinical decisions. To provide the evidence foundation for this AUC, the AAOS Evidence-Based Medicine Unit provided the writing panel and voting panel with the 2016 AAOS Clinical Practice Guideline titled Management of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guideline. The Management of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome AUC clinical patient scenarios were derived from indications typical of patients with suspected carpal tunnel syndrome in clinical practice, as well as from current evidence-based clinical practice guidelines and supporting literature to identify the appropriateness of treatments. The 135 patient scenarios and 6 treatments were developed by the writing panel, a group of clinicians who are specialists in this AUC topic. Next, a separate, multidisciplinary, voting panel (made up of specialists and nonspecialists) rated the appropriateness of treatment of each patient scenario using a 9-point scale to designate a treatment as Appropriate (median rating, 7 to 9), May Be Appropriate (median rating, 4 to 6), or Rarely Appropriate (median rating, 1 to 3).

  9. Tunneling time, what is its meaning?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, C R; Orlando, G; Vampa, G; Brabec, T

    2015-01-01

    The tunnel time ionization dynamics for bound systems in laser fields are investigated. Numerical analysis for a step function switch-on of the field allows for the tunnel time to be defined as the time it takes the ground state to develop the under-barrier wavefunction components necessary to achieve the static field ionization rate. A relation between the tunnel time and the Keldysh time is established. The definition of the tunnel time is extended to time varying fields and experimental possibilities for measuring the tunnel time are discussed

  10. Dirac particle tunneling from black rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Qingquan

    2008-01-01

    Recent research shows that Hawking radiation can be treated as a quantum tunneling process, and Hawking temperatures of Dirac particles across the horizon of a black hole can be correctly recovered via the fermion tunneling method. In this paper, motivated by the fermion tunneling method, we attempt to apply the analysis to derive Hawking radiation of Dirac particles via tunneling from black ring solutions of 5-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton gravity theory. Finally, it is interesting to find that, as in the black hole case, fermion tunneling can also result in correct Hawking temperatures for the rotating neutral, dipole, and charged black rings.

  11. Experimental Evidence for Quantum Tunneling Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camus, Nicolas; Yakaboylu, Enderalp; Fechner, Lutz; Klaiber, Michael; Laux, Martin; Mi, Yonghao; Hatsagortsyan, Karen Z.; Pfeifer, Thomas; Keitel, Christoph H.; Moshammer, Robert

    2017-07-01

    The first hundred attoseconds of the electron dynamics during strong field tunneling ionization are investigated. We quantify theoretically how the electron's classical trajectories in the continuum emerge from the tunneling process and test the results with those achieved in parallel from attoclock measurements. An especially high sensitivity on the tunneling barrier is accomplished here by comparing the momentum distributions of two atomic species of slightly deviating atomic potentials (argon and krypton) being ionized under absolutely identical conditions with near-infrared laser pulses (1300 nm). The agreement between experiment and theory provides clear evidence for a nonzero tunneling time delay and a nonvanishing longitudinal momentum of the electron at the "tunnel exit."

  12. Axonal degeneration in association with carpal tunnel syndrome Degeneração axonal na síndrome do túnel do carpo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Ribeiro Caetano

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Median nerve entrapment in the palm to wrist segment is known as carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS. Electromyography is the best evaluation test to confirm the disease, as it shows a median reduced conduction velocity and/or conduction block; however, the usual CTS electrodiagnostic tests do not separate segmental demyelination alone from segmental demyelination plus secondary axonal degeneration. We studied 100 hands from CTS patients (classified as mild, moderate, and severe, and 50 hands from normal subjects. The median palmar sensory nerve action potential (SNAP amplitude was measured and compared between the two groups. It would be expected that SNAP was normal if no axonal degeneration had occurred. The results showed that in mild CTS group and part of moderate CTS group SNAP amplitude was normal, whereas in severe CTS group, and part of moderate group SNAP amplitude was reduced, proving that axonal degeneration was involved. As it is well stated that axonal lesions have worse prognosis than segmental demyelinating ones, this simple test may help to preditic the CTS outcome and treatment.A compressão do nervo mediano no segmento punho-palma produz uma entidade clínica conhecida como síndrome do túnel do carpo (STC. A eletroneuromiografia é o exame de escolha para o diagnóstico da STC, através da identificação de diminuição de velocidade e/ou bloqueio de condução quando estudamos a neurocondução do nervo mediano, no trecho do punho. Entretanto, as técnicas comumente usadas não conseguem separar a lesão em mielínica focal com ou sem degeneração axonal secundária. Avaliamos 100 mãos de pacientes com STC e comparamos com 50 mãos de um grupo controle. Medimos a amplitude do potencial de ação do nervo sensitivo do mediano, com estímulo na palma e captação no dedo, e comparamos entre os grupos controle e de pacientes (o grupo de STC foi subdividido em leve, moderado e grave. Era esperado que a amplitude do potencial

  13. Automated Boundary Conditions for Wind Tunnel Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Jan-Renee

    2018-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations of models tested in wind tunnels require a high level of fidelity and accuracy particularly for the purposes of CFD validation efforts. Considerable effort is required to ensure the proper characterization of both the physical geometry of the wind tunnel and recreating the correct flow conditions inside the wind tunnel. The typical trial-and-error effort used for determining the boundary condition values for a particular tunnel configuration are time and computer resource intensive. This paper describes a method for calculating and updating the back pressure boundary condition in wind tunnel simulations by using a proportional-integral-derivative controller. The controller methodology and equations are discussed, and simulations using the controller to set a tunnel Mach number in the NASA Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel are demonstrated.

  14. Tunneling Flight Time, Chemistry, and Special Relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Jakob; Pollak, Eli

    2017-09-07

    Attosecond ionization experiments have not resolved the question "What is the tunneling time?". Different definitions of tunneling time lead to different results. Second, a zero tunneling time for a material particle suggests that the nonrelativistic theory includes speeds greater than the speed of light. Chemical reactions, occurring via tunneling, should then not be considered in terms of a nonrelativistic quantum theory calling into question quantum dynamics computations on tunneling reactions. To answer these questions, we define a new experimentally measurable paradigm, the tunneling flight time, and show that it vanishes for scattering through an Eckart or a square barrier, irrespective of barrier length or height, generalizing the Hartman effect. We explain why this result does not lead to experimental measurement of speeds greater than the speed of light. We show that this tunneling is an incoherent process by comparing a classical Wigner theory with exact quantum mechanical computations.

  15. Macroscopic quantum tunneling in Josephson tunnel junctions and Coulomb blockade in single small tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleland, A.N.

    1991-01-01

    Experiments investigated the process of macroscopic quantum tunneling in a moderately-damped, resistively shunted, Josephson junction are described, followed by a discussion of experiments performed on very-small-capacitance normal-metal tunnel junctions. The experiments on the resistively-shunted Josephson junction were designed to investigate a quantum process, that of the tunneling of the Josephson-phase variable under a potential barrier, in a system in which dissipation plays a major role in the dynamics of motion. All the parameters of the junction were measured using the classical phenomena of thermal activation and resonant activation. Theoretical predictions are compared with the experimental results, showing good agreement with no adjustable parameters. The experiments on small-capacitance tunnel junctions extend the measurements on the large-area Josephson junctions from the region in which the phase variable has a fairly well-defined value, i.e. its wave function has a narrow width, to the region where its value is almost completely unknown. The charge on the junction becomes well-defined and is predicted to quantize the current through the junction, giving rise to the Coulomb blockade at low bias

  16. Resonant tunnel magnetoresistance in a double magnetic tunnel junction

    KAUST Repository

    Useinov, Arthur

    2011-08-09

    We present quasi-classical approach to calculate a spin-dependent current and tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) in double magnetic tunnel junctions (DMTJ) FML/I/FMW/I/FMR, where the magnetization of the middle ferromagnetic metal layer FMW can be aligned parallel or antiparallel with respect to the fixed magnetizations of the left FML and right FMR ferromagnetic electrodes. The transmission coefficients for components of the spin-dependent current, and TMR are calculated as a function of the applied voltage. As a result, we found a high resonant TMR. Thus, DMTJ can serve as highly effective magnetic nanosensor for biological applications, or as magnetic memory cells by switching the magnetization of the inner ferromagnetic layer FMW.© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011.

  17. The Third Quantization: To Tunnel or Not to Tunnel?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariam Bouhmadi-López

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of the third quantization, we consider the possibility that an initially recollapsing baby universe can enter a stage of near de Sitter inflation by tunnelling through a Euclidean wormhole that connects the recollapsing and inflationary geometries. We present the solutions for the evolution of the scale factor in the Lorentzian and Euclidean regions as well as the probability that the baby universe indeed crosses the wormhole when it reaches its maximum size.

  18. Manual therapy intervention in the treatment of patients with carpal tunnel syndrome: median nerve mobilization versus medical treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faten I Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion CTS improves after median nerve mobilization, which is better than conventional medical treatment. It provides support for the use of manual therapy in conservative management of CTS with satisfactory Results .

  19. The value of quantitative MRI using 1.5 T magnet in diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Fouad Abdel Baki Allam

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: Quantitative 1.5 T MRI is an accurate diagnostic tool in CTS. The increase in MN ADC value from proximal to distal with an ADC ratio cutoff value of 1 is highly accurate in diagnosing CTS.

  20. Clinical Usefulness of Oral Supplementation with Alpha-Lipoic Acid, Curcumin Phytosome, and B-Group Vitamins in Patients with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Undergoing Surgical Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Pajardi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the clinical usefulness of oral supplementation with a combination product containing alpha-lipoic acid, curcumin phytosome, and B-group vitamins in 180 patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS, scheduled to undergo surgical decompression of the median nerve. Patients in Group A (n=60 served as controls and did not receive any treatment either before or after surgery. Patients in Group B (n=60 received oral supplementation twice a day for 3 months both before and after surgery (totaling 6 months of supplementation. Patients in Group C (n=60 received oral supplementation twice a day for 3 months before surgery only. Patients in Group B showed significantly lower nocturnal symptoms scores compared with Group A subjects at both 40 days and 3 months after surgery (both P values <0.05. Moreover, patients in Group B had a significantly lower number of positive Phalen’s tests at 3 months compared with the other study groups (P<0.05. We conclude that oral supplementation with alpha-lipoic acid, curcumin phytosome, and B-group vitamins twice a day both before and after surgery is safe and effective in CTS patients scheduled to undergo surgical decompression of the median nerve.

  1. Klein tunneling phenomenon with pair creation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, G. Z.; Zhou, C. T.; Fu, L. B.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we study the Klein tunneling phenomenon with electron-positron pair creation process. Pairs can be created from the vacuum by a supercritical single-well potential (for electrons). In the time region, the time-dependent growth pattern of the created pairs can be characterized by four distinct regimes which can be considered as four different statuses of the single well. We find that if positrons penetrate the single well by Klein tunneling in different statuses, the total number of the tunneling positrons will be different. If Klein tunneling begins at the initial stage of the first status i.e. when the sing well is empty, the tunneling process and the total number of tunneling positrons are similar to the traditional Klein tunneling case without considering the pair creation process. As the tunneling begins later, the total tunneling positron number increases. The number will finally settle to an asymptotic value when the tunneling begins later than the settling-down time t s of the single well which has been defined in this paper.

  2. Seismic scanning tunneling macroscope - Theory

    KAUST Repository

    Schuster, Gerard T.

    2012-09-01

    We propose a seismic scanning tunneling macroscope (SSTM) that can detect the presence of sub-wavelength scatterers in the near-field of either the source or the receivers. Analytic formulas for the time reverse mirror (TRM) profile associated with a single scatterer model show that the spatial resolution limit to be, unlike the Abbe limit of λ/2, independent of wavelength and linearly proportional to the source-scatterer separation as long as the point scatterer is in the near-field region; if the sub-wavelength scatterer is a spherical impedance discontinuity then the resolution will also be limited by the radius of the sphere. Therefore, superresolution imaging can be achieved as the scatterer approaches the source. This is analogous to an optical scanning tunneling microscope that has sub-wavelength resolution. Scaled to seismic frequencies, it is theoretically possible to extract 100 Hz information from 20 Hz data by imaging of near-field seismic energy.

  3. Single-contact tunneling thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksymovych, Petro

    2016-02-23

    A single-contact tunneling thermometry circuit includes a tunnel junction formed between two objects. Junction temperature gradient information is determined based on a mathematical relationship between a target alternating voltage applied across the junction and the junction temperature gradient. Total voltage measured across the junction indicates the magnitude of the target alternating voltage. A thermal gradient is induced across the junction. A reference thermovoltage is measured when zero alternating voltage is applied across the junction. An increasing alternating voltage is applied while measuring a thermovoltage component and a DC rectification voltage component created by the applied alternating voltage. The target alternating voltage is reached when the thermovoltage is nullified or doubled by the DC rectification voltage depending on the sign of the reference thermovoltage. Thermoelectric current and current measurements may be utilized in place of the thermovoltage and voltage measurements. The system may be automated with a feedback loop.

  4. Spin tunneling in magnetic molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kececioglu, Ersin

    In this thesis, we will focus on spin tunneling in a family of systems called magnetic molecules such as Fe8 and Mn12. This is comparatively new, in relation to other tunneling problems. Many issues are not completely solved and/or understood yet. The magnetic molecule Fe 8 has been observed to have a rich pattern of degeneracies in its magnetic spectrum. We focus on these degeneracies from several points of view. We start with the simplest anisotropy Hamiltonian to describe the Fe 8 molecule and extend our discussion to include higher order anisotropy terms. We give analytical expressions as much as we can, for the degeneracies in the semi-classical limit in both cases. We reintroduce jump instantons to the instanton formalism. Finally, we discuss the effect of the environment on the molecule. Our results, for all different models and techniques, agree well with both experimental and numerical results.

  5. Tunneling magnetoresistance in Si nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Montes Muñoz, Enrique

    2016-11-09

    We investigate the tunneling magnetoresistance of small diameter semiconducting Si nanowires attached to ferromagnetic Fe electrodes, using first principles density functional theory combined with the non-equilibrium Green\\'s functions method for quantum transport. Silicon nanowires represent an interesting platform for spin devices. They are compatible with mature silicon technology and their intrinsic electronic properties can be controlled by modifying the diameter and length. Here we systematically study the spin transport properties for neutral nanowires and both n and p doping conditions. We find a substantial low bias magnetoresistance for the neutral case, which halves for an applied voltage of about 0.35 V and persists up to 1 V. Doping in general decreases the magnetoresistance, as soon as the conductance is no longer dominated by tunneling.

  6. Underwater piercing of a tunnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solvik, O.

    1984-11-01

    Norwegian consultants and contractors have been confronted with the task of blasting a final penetrating passage that will open the way for the water in a reservoir to flow through the hydropower turbines. Norway has almost certainly led in this area because of its special topographical and geological conditions. The glacial activities have created a number of natural and very deep lakes forming cheap reservoirs. Piercings at depths up to about 100 m have been performed. Problems tend to increase with depth, but unsuccessful penetration can occur at any depth. Secondary effects to consider include the danger of slides when the water level is lowered, wave erosion along the lowered new shoreline, erosion at all streams and rivers flowing into the lake and groundwater erosion in the newly exposed dry shoreline. Methods of penetration can be roughly divided into two categories: penetration against the open tunnel shaft (open system); and penetration against the closed tunnel shaft (closed system). 6 figures.

  7. Seismic scanning tunneling macroscope - Theory

    KAUST Repository

    Schuster, Gerard T.; Hanafy, Sherif M.; Huang, Yunsong

    2012-01-01

    We propose a seismic scanning tunneling macroscope (SSTM) that can detect the presence of sub-wavelength scatterers in the near-field of either the source or the receivers. Analytic formulas for the time reverse mirror (TRM) profile associated with a single scatterer model show that the spatial resolution limit to be, unlike the Abbe limit of λ/2, independent of wavelength and linearly proportional to the source-scatterer separation as long as the point scatterer is in the near-field region; if the sub-wavelength scatterer is a spherical impedance discontinuity then the resolution will also be limited by the radius of the sphere. Therefore, superresolution imaging can be achieved as the scatterer approaches the source. This is analogous to an optical scanning tunneling microscope that has sub-wavelength resolution. Scaled to seismic frequencies, it is theoretically possible to extract 100 Hz information from 20 Hz data by imaging of near-field seismic energy.

  8. Tunneling of a coupled system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avishai, Y.

    1985-01-01

    We consider tunneling through a potential barrier V(x) in the presence of a coupling term W(x,y). Let H(y) be the internal Hamiltonian associated with the coordinate y and let E 0 (x) be the ground state energy of the operator H(x;y) = H(y) + W(x,y) in which x is a parameter. Our result for the tunneling probability (in the WKB approximation) is P = exp(2i ∫ k 0 (x)dx) where, at energy E, k 0 (x) = [E-E 0 (x)-V(x)]sup(1/2)/(h/2π) is the local wave number in the presence of coupling. (orig.)

  9. Concepções de professores de química sobre ciência, tecnologia, sociedade e suas inter-relações: um estudo preliminar para o desenvolvimento de abordagens CTS em sala de aula Chemistry teachers' conceptions about Science, Technology, Society and relationships among them: a preliminar study to develop a CTS approach in classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth do Nascimento Firme

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo investigar como um processo formativo pode contribuir para ressignificar concepções de professores de química sobre Ciência, Tecnologia, Sociedade e de suas inter-relações, partindo do pressuposto de que tais concepções são importantes para a implementação de abordagens CTS no ensino de ciências. Participaram da pesquisa três professores de química que atuam em escolas públicas e particulares de PE. A metodologia envolveu atividades como entrevistas individuais e encontros com os professores. A análise das entrevistas revelou concepções dos professores não compatíveis com aquelas esperadas para uma proposta didática na perspectiva CTS, apontando para a necessidade de envolvimento dos professores em uma discussão sobre suas concepções. No sentido de promover essa discussão foram realizados encontros docentes, nos quais foi identificada uma tendência de construção de novos posicionamentos pelos professores, o que revela a importância de um processo formativo para a adoção de abordagens CTS em sala de aula.This work aimed to investigate how a formative process can contribute to provide new meaning for chemistry teachers' conceptions about Science, Technology, Society and relationships among them, considering these conceptions are important to implement STS approaches for science teaching. Three teachers of chemistry from different public and private schools were involved in this research. Individual interviews were performed with teachers e their conceptions also were analysed from discussions in a workshop. Data analysis revealed some teachers' conceptions seem not be compatible with those required for STS approach, and showed that is crucial to involve teachers in discussions about their conceptions. For this, workshops were performed and discussions pointed out a tendency for construction of new ideas by teachers, highlighting the importance of previous formative process for STS

  10. Seismic prediction ahead of tunnel constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetschny, S.; Bohlen, T.; Nil, D. D.; Giese, R.

    2007-12-01

    To increase safety and efficiency of tunnel constructions, online seismic exploration ahead of a tunnel can become a valuable tool. Within the \\it OnSite project founded by the BMBF (German Ministry of Education and Research) within \\it GeoTechnologien a new forward looking seismic imaging technique is developed to e.g. determine weak and water bearing zones ahead of the constructions. Our approach is based on the excitation and registration of \\it tunnel surface waves. These waves are excited at the tunnel face behind the cutter head of a tunnel boring machine and travel into drilling direction. Arriving at the front face they generate body waves (mainly S-waves) propagating further ahead. Reflected S-waves are back- converted into tunnel surface waves. For a theoretical description of the conversion process and for finding optimal acquisition geometries it is of importance to study the propagation characteristics of tunnel surface waves. 3D seismic finite difference modeling and analytic solutions of the wave equation in cylindric coordinates revealed that at higher frequencies, i.e. if the tunnel diameter is significantly larger than the wavelength of S-waves, these surface waves can be regarded as Rayleigh-waves circulating the tunnel. For smaller frequencies, i.e. when the S-wavelength approaches the tunnel diameter, the propagation characteristics of these surface waves are then similar to S- waves. Field measurements performed by the GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, Germany at the Gotthard Base Tunnel (Switzerland) show both effects, i.e. the propagation of Rayleigh- and body-wave like waves along the tunnel. To enhance our understanding of the excitation and propagation characteristics of tunnel surface waves the transition of Rayleigh to tube-waves waves is investigated both analytically and by numerical simulations.

  11. Use of Levosimendan in Cardiac Surgery: An Update After the LEVO-CTS, CHEETAH, and LICORN Trials in the Light of Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarracino, Fabio; Heringlake, Matthias; Cholley, Bernard; Bettex, Dominique; Bouchez, Stefaan; Lomivorotov, Vladimir V; Rajek, Angela; Kivikko, Matti; Pollesello, Piero

    2018-01-01

    Levosimendan is a calcium sensitizer and adenosine triphosphate-dependent potassium channel opener, which exerts sustained hemodynamic, symptomatic, and organ-protective effects. It is registered for the treatment of acute heart failure, and when inotropic support is considered appropriate. In the past 15 years, levosimendan has been widely used in clinical practice and has also been tested in clinical trials to stabilize at-risk patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Recently, 3 randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter studies (LICORN, CHEETAH, and LEVO-CTS) have been published reporting on the perioperative use of levosimendan in patients with compromised cardiac ventricular function. Taken together, many smaller trials conducted in the past suggested beneficial outcomes with levosimendan in perioperative settings. By contrast, the latest 3 studies were neutral or inconclusive. To understand the reasons for such dissimilarity, a group of experts from Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, and Russia, including investigators from the 3 most recent studies, met to discuss the study results in the light of both the previous literature and current clinical practice. Despite the fact that the null hypothesis could not be ruled out in the recent multicenter trials, we conclude that levosimendan can still be viewed as a safe and effective inodilator in cardiac surgery.

  12. CURRÍCULO TEMÁTICO FUNDAMENTADO EM FREIRE-CTS: ENGAJAMENTO DE PROFESSORES DE FÍSICA EM FORMAÇÃO INICIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caetano Castro Roso

    Full Text Available Este trabalho resultou da reflexão sobre vivência de professores (as de física, em formação inicial, com a abordagem temática fundamentada em Freire-CTS. Buscamos responder à pergunta: como professores (as em formação inicial posicionam-se frente à possibilidade de realizar encaminhamentos curriculares pautados pela abordagem temática durante seu estágio curricular e/ou no decorrer da sua atuação profissional? Utilizamos a Análise Textual Discursiva para analisar questionários respondidos por esses professores (as ao final do trabalho. Como resultados, identificamos três categorias articuladas ao currículo: (i da fragmentação disciplinar à interdisciplinaridade, (ii temas da realidade dos estudantes como ponto de partida e (iii abordagem temática: reconfiguração curricular ou nova metodologia? Ao final, sinalizamos desafios e potencialidades de currículos temáticos.

  13. CURRÍCULO TEMÁTICO FUNDAMENTADO EM FREIRE-CTS: ENGAJAMENTO DE PROFESSORES DE FÍSICA EM FORMAÇÃO INICIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caetano Castro Roso

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo resulta de la reflexión acerca de la vivencia de maestros de física en formación inicial, con abordaje temático fundamentado en Freire-CTS (Ciencia-Tecnología-Sociedad. Buscamos contestar a la pregunta: ¿Cómo maestros y maestras en formación inicial se posicionan frente a la posibilidad de realizar referencias curriculares alineadas por el abordaje temático durante su pasantía curricular y/o a lo largo de su actuación profesional? Utilizamos el Análisis Textual Discursivo para analizar cuestionarios respondidos por eses maestros y maestras al final del trabajo. Como resultados, identificamos tres categorias articuladas al currículo: (i de la fragmentación disciplinaria a la interdisciplinaridad, (ii temas de la realidad de los estudiantes como punto de partida y (iii abordaje temático: ¿reconfiguración curricular o nueva metodología? Al final, señalamos desafíos y posibilidades de currículos temáticos.

  14. Digging the CNGS decay tunnel

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loiez

    2002-01-01

    Products of the collision between a proton beam and a graphite target will pass through a horn containing an electric field that will produce a focused beam. These particles will decay into muon neutrinos within the tunnel that is being constructed in these images. The neutrinos will then travel 730 km to Gran Sasso in Italy where huge detectors will observe the beam to study a process called neutrino oscillation.

  15. Dissipative Effect and Tunneling Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samyadeb Bhattacharya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The quantum Langevin equation has been studied for dissipative system using the approach of Ford et al. Here, we have considered the inverted harmonic oscillator potential and calculated the effect of dissipation on tunneling time, group delay, and the self-interference term. A critical value of the friction coefficient has been determined for which the self-interference term vanishes. This approach sheds new light on understanding the ion transport at nanoscale.

  16. Variability in ACL tunnel placement: observational clinical study of surgeon ACL tunnel variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Brian R; Ramme, Austin J; Wright, Rick W; Brophy, Robert H; McCarty, Eric C; Vidal, Armando R; Parker, Richard D; Andrish, Jack T; Amendola, Annunziato

    2013-06-01

    Multicenter and multisurgeon cohort studies on anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction are becoming more common. Minimal information exists on intersurgeon and intrasurgeon variability in ACL tunnel placement. Purpose/ The purpose of this study was to analyze intersurgeon and intrasurgeon variability in ACL tunnel placement in a series of The Multicenter Orthopaedic Outcomes Network (MOON) ACL reconstruction patients and in a clinical cohort of ACL reconstruction patients. The hypothesis was that there would be minimal variability between surgeons in ACL tunnel placement. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Seventy-eight patients who underwent ACL reconstruction by 8 surgeons had postoperative imaging with computed tomography, and ACL tunnel location and angulation were analyzed using 3-dimensional surface processing and measurement. Intersurgeon and intrasurgeon variability in ACL tunnel placement was analyzed. For intersurgeon variability, the range in mean ACL femoral tunnel depth between surgeons was 22%. For femoral tunnel height, there was a 19% range. Tibial tunnel location from anterior to posterior on the plateau had a 16% range in mean results. There was only a small range of 4% for mean tibial tunnel location from the medial to lateral dimension. For intrasurgeon variability, femoral tunnel depth demonstrated the largest ranges, and tibial tunnel location from medial to lateral on the plateau demonstrated the least variability. Overall, surgeons were relatively consistent within their own cases. Using applied measurement criteria, 85% of femoral tunnels and 90% of tibial tunnels fell within applied literature-based guidelines. Ninety-one percent of the axes of the femoral tunnels fell within the boundaries of the femoral footprint. The data demonstrate that surgeons performing ACL reconstructions are relatively consistent between each other. There is, however, variability of average tunnel placement up to 22% of mean condylar depth

  17. Tunneling beyond the Fermilab site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, S.; Elwyn, A.; Lach, J.; Read, A.

    1983-01-01

    An accelerator that crosses the Fermilab site boundary must have a minimum effect on the surrounding environment and the people residing in the area. Unobstructed public access should be allowed above the ring except in relatively few areas such as the injection, dump, and experimental regions. The accelerator should be a benign and unobtrusive neighbor not only when it is completed but also in the construction period. For these reasons underground tunneling for all or most of the ring seems attractive. In this note we look into some questions raised by tunneling beyond the Fermilab site. Most of our discussion is of general applicability. However, we will use as examples two specific ring configurations. The examples have not been optimized from the point of view of physics output or accelerator technology but are just specific examples which allow us to study questions of tunneling. One is a ring of 5 km radius (5 TeV) tangent to the Tevatron and entirely east of the Fox River and fed by a beam from the Tevatron which crosses under the river. We assume that each of these machines will have 100 beam fills per year and we scale the maximum intensities with the accelerator radii. Thus we assume that there will be 1.0 E14 protons in each beam of the 20 TeV machine and 2.5 E13 for the 5 TeV machine

  18. New vision of magnetic tunnelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, Jonathan R. [Amherst College, Amhurst, MA (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Recent experiments support the idea that crystal defects may be responsible for the quantum tunnelling of magnetic moments in molecular magnets at low temperatures. The magnetic moment of a typical bar magnet will never spontaneously reverse direction. However, thermal fluctuations can flip the moment of a magnetic particle just a few nanometres across. The particle can be cooled to nearly absolute zero to suppress this process, but the moment may still find a way to reverse via quantum tunnelling. Quantum tunnelling of magnetization has been the subject of decades of research. Until a few years ago, however, there had only been circumstantial evidence for the phenomenon. This is because most systems of small magnetic particles are hard to characterize - the particles have a variety of shapes, sizes and other properties, making it difficult to compare data with theory. Some real progress was made a few years ago through research into high-spin single-molecule magnets. With dimensions of about a nanometre, these magnets are usually composed of a magnetic core that is surrounded by organic complexes. When they crystallize into a regular lattice, the organic ions keep neighbouring magnets well separated so that they interact only weakly. Ideally all the molecules are identical because they have been built chemically, which means that they can be characterized precisely and that any data can be analysed quantitatively. The most studied of these molecules is manganese-12 acetate (Mn{sub 12}). Within each molecule, the spins of the eight Mn{sup 3+} ions (each with S=2) are antiparallel to the spins of the four Mn{sup 4+} ions (each with S=3/2), giving Mn{sub 12} a total spin of S=10. Or, to put it another way, the magnetic moment of Mn{sub 12} is 20 times larger than that of the electron. Now Eugene Chudnovsky of Lehman College in New York and Dmitry Garanin of the University of Mainz in Germany have suggested a new mechanism for producing tunnelling in Mn{sub 12

  19. Chaos regularization of quantum tunneling rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecora, Louis M.; Wu Dongho; Lee, Hoshik; Antonsen, Thomas; Lee, Ming-Jer; Ott, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Quantum tunneling rates through a barrier separating two-dimensional, symmetric, double-well potentials are shown to depend on the classical dynamics of the billiard trajectories in each well and, hence, on the shape of the wells. For shapes that lead to regular (integrable) classical dynamics the tunneling rates fluctuate greatly with eigenenergies of the states sometimes by over two orders of magnitude. Contrarily, shapes that lead to completely chaotic trajectories lead to tunneling rates whose fluctuations are greatly reduced, a phenomenon we call regularization of tunneling rates. We show that a random-plane-wave theory of tunneling accounts for the mean tunneling rates and the small fluctuation variances for the chaotic systems.

  20. Fiber coupled ultrafast scanning tunneling microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keil, Ulrich Dieter Felix; Jensen, Jacob Riis; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    1997-01-01

    We report on a scanning tunneling microscope with a photoconductive gate in the tunneling current circuit. The tunneling tip is attached to a coplanar transmission line with an integrated photoconductive switch. The switch is illuminated through a fiber which is rigidly attached to the switch...... waveguide. The measurements show that the probe works as a transient voltage detector in contact and a capacitively coupled transient field detector in tunneling mode. We do not measure the transient voltage change in the ohmic tunneling current. In this sense, the spatial resolution for propagating...... substrate. By using a firmly attached fiber we achieve an excellent reproducibility and unconstrained positioning of the tip. We observe a transient signal with 2.9 ps pulse width in tunneling mode and 5 ps in contact mode. The instrument is applied to investigating the mode structure on a coplanar...

  1. In-mine (tunnel-to-tunnel) electrical resistance tomography in South African platinum mines

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Schoor, Abraham M

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The applicability of tunnel-to-tunnel electrical resistance tomography (ERT) for imaging disruptive geological structures ahead of mining, in an igneous platinum mining environment is assessed. The geophysical targets of interest are slump...

  2. Tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance in Co/AIOx/Al tunnel junctions with fcc Co (111) electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Kai; Tran, T. Lan Ahn; Brinks, Peter; Brinks, P.; Sanderink, Johannes G.M.; Bolhuis, Thijs; van der Wiel, Wilfred Gerard; de Jong, Machiel Pieter

    2013-01-01

    Tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance (TAMR) has been characterized in junctions comprised of face-centered cubic (fcc) Co (111) ferromagnetic electrodes grown epitaxially on sapphire substrates, amorphous AlOx tunnel barriers, and nonmagnetic Al counterelectrodes. Large TAMR ratios have been

  3. RITD – Wind tunnel testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukka, Harri; Harri, Ari-Matti; Aleksashkin, Sergei; Koryanov, Valeri; Schmidt, Walter; Heilimo, Jyri; Finchenko, Valeri; Martynov, Maxim; Ponomarenko, Andrey; Kazakovtsev, Victor; Arruego, Ignazio

    2015-04-01

    An atmospheric re-entry and descent and landing system (EDLS) concept based on inflatable hypersonic decelerator techniques is highly promising for the Earth re-entry missions. We developed such EDLS for the Earth re-entry utilizing a concept that was originally developed for Mars. This EU-funded project is called RITD - Re-entry: Inflatable Technology Development - and it was to assess the bene¬fits of this technology when deploying small payloads from low Earth orbits to the surface of the Earth with modest costs. The principal goal was to assess and develope a preliminary EDLS design for the entire relevant range of aerodynamic regimes expected to be encountered in Earth's atmosphere during entry, descent and landing. The RITD entry and descent system utilizes an inflatable hypersonic decelerator. Development of such system requires a combination of wind tunnel tests and numerical simulations. This included wind tunnel tests both in transsonic and subsonic regimes. The principal aim of the wind tunnel tests was the determination of the RITD damping factors in the Earth atmosphere and recalculation of the results for the case of the vehicle descent in the Mars atmosphere. The RITD mock-up model used in the tests was in scale of 1:15 of the real-size vehicle as the dimensions were (midsection) diameter of 74.2 mm and length of 42 mm. For wind tunnel testing purposes the frontal part of the mock-up model body was manufactured by using a PolyJet 3D printing technology based on the light curing of liquid resin. The tail part of the mock-up model body was manufactured of M1 grade copper. The structure of the mock-up model placed th center of gravity in the same position as that of the real-size RITD. The wind tunnel test program included the defining of the damping factor at seven values of Mach numbers 0.85; 0.95; 1.10; 1.20; 1.25; 1.30 and 1.55 with the angle of attack ranging from 0 degree to 40 degrees with the step of 5 degrees. The damping characteristics of

  4. PUREX Storage Tunnels dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    This report is part of a dangerous waste permit application for the storage of wastes from the Purex process at Hanford. Appendices are presented on the following: construction drawings; HSW-5638, specifications for disposal facility for failed equipment, Project CA-1513-A; HWS-8262, specification for Purex equipment disposal, Project CGC 964; storage tunnel checklist; classification of residual tank heels in Purex storage tunnels; emergency plan for Purex facility; training course descriptions; and the Purex storage tunnels engineering study

  5. MISTY ECHO tunnel dynamics experiment data report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.S.; Luke, B.A.; Long, J.W.; Lee, J.G.

    1992-04-01

    Tunnel damage resulting from seismic loading is an important issue for the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository. The tunnel dynamics experiment was designed to obtain and document ground motions, permanent displacements, observable changes in fracture patterns, and visible damage at ground motion levels of interest to the Yucca Mountain Project. Even though the maximum free-field loading on this tunnel was 28 g, the damage observed was minor. Fielding details, data obtained, and supporting documentation are reported

  6. Theoretical approach to the scanning tunneling microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguera, C.

    1990-01-01

    Within a one-electron approach, based on a Green's-function formalism, a nonperturbative expression for the tunneling current is obtained and used to discuss which spectroscopic information may be deduced from a scanning-tunneling-microscope experiment. It is shown up to which limits the voltage dependence of the tunneling current reproduces the local density of states at the surface, and how the reflection coefficients of the electronic waves at the surface may modify it

  7. Quantum tunneling and field electron emission theories

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Shi-Dong

    2013-01-01

    Quantum tunneling is an essential issue in quantum physics. Especially, the rapid development of nanotechnology in recent years promises a lot of applications in condensed matter physics, surface science and nanodevices, which are growing interests in fundamental issues, computational techniques and potential applications of quantum tunneling. The book involves two relevant topics. One is quantum tunneling theory in condensed matter physics, including the basic concepts and methods, especially for recent developments in mesoscopic physics and computational formulation. The second part is the f

  8. Energy Efficiency of Tunnel Boring Machines.

    OpenAIRE

    Grishenko, Vitaly

    2014-01-01

    Herrenknecht AG is a German world-leading Tunnel Boring Machines manufacturer showing strong awareness and concern regarding environmental issues. The company supports research on the Energy Efficiency (EE) of their products, aimed at the development of intelligent design for a green Tunnel Boring Machine. The aim of this project is to produce a ’status quo’ report on EE of three types of Tunnel Boring Machines (Hardrock, EPB and Mixshield TBM). In the framework of this research 39 projects a...

  9. Climatic wind tunnel for wind engineering tasks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuznetsov, Sergeii; Pospíšil, Stanislav; Král, Radomil

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 112, 2-B (2015), s. 303-316 ISSN 1897-628X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-12892S Keywords : climatic tunnel * wind tunnel * atmospheric boundary layer * flow resistance * wind tunnel contraction Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering https://suw.biblos.pk.edu.pl/resources/i5/i6/i6/i7/i6/r56676/KuznetsovS_ClimaticWind.pdf

  10. Nuclear fission as a macroscopic quantum tunneling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takigawa, N.

    1995-01-01

    We discuss nuclear fission from the point of view of a macroscopic quantum tunneling, one of whose major interests is to study the effects of environments on the tunneling rate of a macroscopic variable. We show that a vibrational excitation of the fissioning nucleus significantly enhances the fission rate. We show this effect by two different methods. The one is to treat the vibrational excitation as an environmental degree of freedom, the other treats the fission as a two dimensional quantum tunneling. (author)

  11. Femtosecond tunneling response of surface plasmon polaritons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keil, Ulrich Dieter Felix; Ha, Taekjip; Jensen, Jacob Riis

    1998-01-01

    We obtain femtosecond (200 fs) time resolution using a scanning tunneling microscope on surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) generated by two 100 fs laser beams in total internal reflection geometry. The tunneling gap dependence of the signal clearly indicates the tunneling origin of the signal...... and suggests that nanometer spatial resolution can be obtained together with femtosecond temporal resolution. This fast response, in contrast to the picosecond decay time of SPPs revealed by differential reflectivity measurements, can be attributed to a coherent superposition of SPPs rectified at the tunneling...

  12. PUREX Storage Tunnels dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    The PUREX Storage Tunnels are a mixed waste storage unit consisting of two underground railroad tunnels: Tunnel Number 1 designated 218-E-14 and Tunnel Number 2 designated 218-E-15. The two tunnels are connected by rail to the PUREX Plant and combine to provide storage space for 48 railroad cars (railcars). The PUREX Storage Tunnels provide a long-term storage location for equipment removed from the PUREX Plant. Transfers into the PUREX Storage Tunnels are made on an as-needed basis. Radioactively contaminated equipment is loaded on railcars and remotely transferred by rail into the PUREX Storage Tunnels. Railcars act as both a transport means and a storage platform for equipment placed into the tunnels. This report consists of part A and part B. Part A reports on amounts and locations of the mixed water. Part B permit application consists of the following: Facility Description and General Provisions; Waste Characteristics; Process Information; Groundwater Monitoring; Procedures to Prevent Hazards; Contingency Plan; Personnel Training; Exposure Information Report

  13. Enhanced MRI in carpal tunnel syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Katsuhiko; Nakane, Takashi; Kobayashi, Shigeru; Asai, Takahiro; Wada, Kunio; Yoshizawa, Hidezo

    1998-01-01

    In this study, we performed contrast-enhanced MRI in patients with idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome and examined the morphologic change in the carpal tunnel. In the transverse section of the opening of carpal tunnel where scaphoid and pisiform bones are figured out, we measured and examined 4 items, viz. the soft carpal tunnel volume, flat rate of median nerve, position of median nerve and thickness of palmer ligaments composing the base of carpal tunnel, with an image analyzer attached to the MRI apparatus. Whereas the average carpal tunnel volume in 12 hands of normal controls was 166.8 mm 2 , that in 74 hands of carpal tunnel syndrome was 207.2 mm 2 , a significant increase compared with the normal controls. The flat rate of median nerve was 46% in the controls, but that was 37.5% in the carpal tunnel syndrome, a significant flattening was noted. We connected the peaks of the scaphoid node and pisiform bone with a line and named it standard line. When we observed the position of median nerve in the carpal tunnel, the nerve in 9 of 12 hands, 75%, lay below the standard line in the controls, but the nerve in 65 of 74 hands, 87.8%, lay above the standard line in the carpal tunnel syndrome, clearly showing that the median nerve had shifted to the palmar side. Regarding these morphologic changes of the carpal tunnel, the internal pressure of the carpal tunnel is considered to be raised with swelling of the soft tissues mainly composing the inside of carpal tunnel, thus the area of cross section of carpal tunnel to be increased, the median nerve to be shifted to the palmar side and the median nerve to be compressed by the transverse carpal ligament at that time. Although we can observe these morphological changes readily in MRI images, these images show only the results of carpal tunnel syndrome after all, and do not specify the direct causes. However, we believe that these facts are important factors in the manifestation of idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome. (author)

  14. Relativistic tunneling through two successive barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunardi, Jose T.; Manzoni, Luiz A.

    2007-01-01

    We study the relativistic quantum mechanical problem of a Dirac particle tunneling through two successive electrostatic barriers. Our aim is to study the emergence of the so-called generalized Hartman effect, an effect observed in the context of nonrelativistic tunneling as well as in its counterparts and which is often associated with the possibility of superluminal velocities in the tunneling process. We discuss the behavior of both the phase (or group) tunneling time and the dwell time, and show that in the limit of opaque barriers the relativistic theory also allows the emergence of the generalized Hartman effect. We compare our results with the nonrelativistic ones and discuss their interpretation

  15. Tunnelling in Dante's Inferno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuuchi, Kazuyuki [Manipal Centre for Natural Sciences, Manipal University, Dr.T.M.A. Pai Planetarium Building, Madhav Nagar, Manipal, Karnataka 576104 (India); Sperling, Marcus, E-mail: kazuyuki.furuuchi@manipal.edu, E-mail: marcus.sperling@univie.ac.at [Fakultät für Physik, Universität Wien, Boltzmanngasse 5, A-1090 Wien (Austria)

    2017-05-01

    We study quantum tunnelling in Dante's Inferno model of large field inflation. Such a tunnelling process, which will terminate inflation, becomes problematic if the tunnelling rate is rapid compared to the Hubble time scale at the time of inflation. Consequently, we constrain the parameter space of Dante's Inferno model by demanding a suppressed tunnelling rate during inflation. The constraints are derived and explicit numerical bounds are provided for representative examples. Our considerations are at the level of an effective field theory; hence, the presented constraints have to hold regardless of any UV completion.

  16. Tunneling with dissipation in open quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamyan, G.G.; Antonenko, N.V.; Scheid, W.

    1997-01-01

    Based on the general form of the master equation for open quantum systems the tunneling is considered. Using the path integral technique a simple closed form expression for the tunneling rate through a parabolic barrier is obtained. The tunneling in the open quantum systems strongly depends on the coupling with environment. We found the cases when the dissipation prohibits tunneling through the barrier but decreases the crossing of the barrier for the energies above the barrier. As a particular application, the case of decay from the metastable state is considered

  17. Fire safety assessment of tunnel structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gkoumas, Konstantinos; Giuliani, Luisa; Petrini, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    .g. structural and non structural, organizational, human behavior). This is even more truth for the fire safety design of such structures. Fire safety in tunnels is challenging because of the particular environment, bearing in mind also that a fire can occur in different phases of the tunnel’s lifecycle. Plans...... for upgrading fire safety provisions and tunnel management are also important for existing tunnels. In this study, following a brief introduction of issues regarding the above mentioned aspects, the structural performance of a steel rib for a tunnel infrastructure subject to fire is assessed by means...

  18. Resonant tunneling of electrons in quantum wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krive, I.V.; Shekhter, R.I.; Jonson, M.; Krive, I.V.

    2010-01-01

    We considered resonant electron tunneling in various nanostructures including single wall carbon nanotubes, molecular transistors and quantum wires formed in two-dimensional electron gas. The review starts with a textbook description of resonant tunneling of noninteracting electrons through a double-barrier structure. The effects of electron-electron interaction in sequential and resonant electron tunneling are studied by using Luttinger liquid model of electron transport in quantum wires. The experimental aspects of the problem (fabrication of quantum wires and transport measurements) are also considered. The influence of vibrational and electromechanical effects on resonant electron tunneling in molecular transistors is discussed.

  19. Tunnelling in Dante's Inferno

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuuchi, Kazuyuki; Sperling, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    We study quantum tunnelling in Dante's Inferno model of large field inflation. Such a tunnelling process, which will terminate inflation, becomes problematic if the tunnelling rate is rapid compared to the Hubble time scale at the time of inflation. Consequently, we constrain the parameter space of Dante's Inferno model by demanding a suppressed tunnelling rate during inflation. The constraints are derived and explicit numerical bounds are provided for representative examples. Our considerations are at the level of an effective field theory; hence, the presented constraints have to hold regardless of any UV completion.

  20. Electronic tunneling currents at optical frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faris, S. M.; Fan, B.; Gustafson, T. K.

    1975-01-01

    Rectification characteristics of nonsuperconducting metal-barrier-metal junctions as deduced from electronic tunneling theory have been observed experimentally for optical frequency irradiation of the junction.

  1. Temporal trend of carpal tunnel release surgery: a population-based time series analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naif Fnais

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Carpal tunnel release (CTR is among the most common hand surgeries, although little is known about its pattern. In this study, we aimed to investigate temporal trends, age and gender variation and current practice patterns in CTR surgeries. METHODS: We conducted a population-based time series analysis among over 13 million residents of Ontario, who underwent operative management for carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS from April 1, 1992 to March 31, 2010 using administrative claims data. RESULTS: The primary analysis revealed a fairly stable procedure rate of approximately 10 patients per 10,000 population per year receiving CTRs without any significant, consistent temporal trend (p = 0.94. Secondary analyses revealed different trends in procedure rates according to age. The annual procedure rate among those age >75 years increased from 22 per 10,000 population at the beginning of the study period to over 26 patients per 10,000 population (p<0.01 by the end of the study period. CTR surgical procedures were approximately two-fold more common among females relative to males (64.9% vs. 35.1 respectively; p<0.01. Lastly, CTR procedures are increasingly being conducted in the outpatient setting while procedures in the inpatient setting have been declining steadily - the proportion of procedures performed in the outpatient setting increased from 13% to over 30% by 2010 (p<0.01. CONCLUSION: Overall, CTR surgical-procedures are conducted at a rate of approximately 10 patients per 10,000 population annually with significant variation with respect to age and gender. CTR surgical procedures in ambulatory-care facilities may soon outpace procedure rates in the in-hospital setting.

  2. The Effectiveness of Limited Dynamic Wrist Splints on the Symptoms, Function, and Strength of Women with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Controlled Trial Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Marjan Jaladat

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Splinting is the most common conservative method of treating patients with mild and moderate Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the limited dynamic wrist splint on the symptoms, function, and strength of women with CTS. In this controlled trial study, the subjects wore a splint of a new design called the “limited dynamic wrist splint”, which allowed the wrist motion in the range (between 15-degree flexion and 15-degree extension that exerts minimum pressure on the median nerve and prevents extra pressure on the nerve by limiting the range of motions out of the allowed range. Methods: In this study, 24 women diagnosed with mild to moderate CTS were initially evaluated on the basis of the Boston questionnaire, the dexterity test of the Purdue pegboard, grip and pinch strength, distal sensory latency, and sensory nerve conduction velocity. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups, control and treatment. Both groups received routine rehabilitation treatment for six weeks. The treatment group received the limited dynamic wrist splint for about six to eight hours a day. After six weeks, the initial examinations were repeated. The SPSS-16, independent t, and paired t-tests were used for data analysis. Results: All the variables in the treatment and the control groups showed improvement. The function test of the Boston questionnaire, the Purdue pegboard test, and the pinch strength were significantly improved in the treatment group. The “severity of the symptoms” test of the Boston questionnaire and the pinch strength in the control group showed a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05. In a comparison of the two groups, the function test of the Boston questionnaire showed a significant difference. Conclusion: This study showed that the use of the limited dynamic wrist splint for about six weeks for six to eight hours a day could have a significant effect on the

  3. Lowest order in inelastic tunneling approximation : efficient scheme for simulation of inelastic electron tunneling data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossen, E.T.R.; Flipse, C.F.J.; Cerda, J.I.

    2013-01-01

    We have developed an efficient and accurate formalism which allows the simulation at the ab initio level of inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy data under a scanning tunneling microscope setup. It exploits fully the tunneling regime by carrying out the structural optimization and vibrational

  4. Probing spin-polarized tunneling at high bias and temperature with a magnetic tunnel transistor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, B.G.; Banerjee, T.; Min, B.C.; Sanderink, Johannes G.M.; Lodder, J.C.; Jansen, R.

    2005-01-01

    The magnetic tunnel transistor (MTT) is a three terminal hybrid device that consists of a tunnel emitter, a ferromagnetic (FM) base, and a semiconductor collector. In the MTT with a FM emitter and a single FM base, spin-polarized hot electrons are injected into the base by tunneling. After

  5. Resonant tunneling via spin-polarized barrier states in a magnetic tunnel junction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, R.; Lodder, J.C.

    2000-01-01

    Resonant tunneling through states in the barrier of a magnetic tunnel junction has been analyzed theoretically for the case of a spin-polarized density of barrier states. It is shown that for highly spin-polarized barrier states, the magnetoresistance due to resonant tunneling is enhanced compared

  6. Adaptação transcultural para o português do instrumento "Revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS2" utilizado para identificar violência entre casais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moraes Claudia Leite

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo enfoca a avaliação da equivalência transcultural entre o instrumento Revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS2, concebido em inglês e usado para identificar a violência entre casais, e uma versão em português a ser proposta para uso no Brasil. Além de uma ampla revisão bibliográfica, a avaliação da equivalência conceitual e de itens, envolveu discussões de grupos de especialistas sobre a existência e pertinência em nosso meio dos conceitos teóricos subjacentes e dos itens componentes do instrumento. A avaliação da equivalência semântica constou das seguintes etapas: duas traduções e respectivas retraduções; uma avaliação subseqüente da equivalência de significado referencial e geral (conotativo entre as retraduções e o original; novos encontros com especialistas para a definição de uma versão-síntese e a pré-testagem desta, realizada em 774 mulheres. Constatou-se boa equivalência conceitual de itens e semântica, entre a versão final em português e o original, bem como uma excelente aceitabilidade. Apesar de encorajadores, os resultados obtidos devem ser revistos à luz de avaliações psicométricas futuras.

  7. Giant electrode effect on tunnelling electroresistance in ferroelectric tunnel junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Rohit; Petraru, Adrian; Meuffels, Paul; Vavra, Ondrej; Ziegler, Martin; Kim, Seong Keun; Jeong, Doo Seok; Pertsev, Nikolay A; Kohlstedt, Hermann

    2014-11-17

    Among recently discovered ferroelectricity-related phenomena, the tunnelling electroresistance (TER) effect in ferroelectric tunnel junctions (FTJs) has been attracting rapidly increasing attention owing to the emerging possibilities of non-volatile memory, logic and neuromorphic computing applications of these quantum nanostructures. Despite recent advances in experimental and theoretical studies of FTJs, many questions concerning their electrical behaviour still remain open. In particular, the role of ferroelectric/electrode interfaces and the separation of the ferroelectric-driven TER effect from electrochemical ('redox'-based) resistance-switching effects have to be clarified. Here we report the results of a comprehensive study of epitaxial junctions comprising BaTiO(3) barrier, La(0.7)Sr(0.3)MnO(3) bottom electrode and Au or Cu top electrodes. Our results demonstrate a giant electrode effect on the TER of these asymmetric FTJs. The revealed phenomena are attributed to the microscopic interfacial effect of ferroelectric origin, which is supported by the observation of redox-based resistance switching at much higher voltages.

  8. More about tunnelling times and superluminal tunnelling (Hartmann effect)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olkhovsky, V.S.; Recami, E.; Raciti, F.; Zaichenko, A.

    1995-05-01

    Aims of the present paper are: i) presenting and analysing the results of various numerical calculations on the penetration and return times Pen >, Ret >, during tunnelling inside a rectangular potential barrier, for various penetration depths x f ; ii) putting forth and discussing suitable definitions, besides of the mean values, also of the variances (or dispersions) D τT and D τR for the time durations of transmission and reflection processes; iii)mentioning, moreover, that our definition T > for the average transmission time results to constitute an improvement of the ordinary dwell- time formula; iv) commenting, at last, on the basis of the new numerical results, upon some recent criticism by C.R. Leavens. The paper stresses that numerical evaluations confirm that the approach implied, and implies, the existence of the Hartmann effect: an effect that in these days (due to the theoretical connections between tunnelling and evanescent-wave propagation) is receiving - at Cologne, Berkeley, Florence and Vienna - indirect, but quite interesting, experimental verification

  9. Interaction Driven Interband Tunneling of Bosons in the Triple Well

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Lushuai; Brouzos, Ioannis; Zöllner, Sascha; Schmelcher, Peter

    2010-01-01

    We study the tunneling of a small ensemble of strongly repulsive bosons in a one-dimensional triple-well potential. The usual treatment within the single-band approximation suggests suppression of tunneling in the strong interaction regime. However, we show that several windows of enhanced tunneling are opened in this regime. This enhanced tunneling results from higher band contributions, and has the character of interband tunneling. It can give rise to various tunneling processes, such as si...

  10. CURRENT ASSET TUNNELING AND FIRM PERFORMANCE IN AN EMERGING MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Ratna Candra Sari; Zaki Baridwan

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the effect of current asset tunneling on firm performance from the emerging market perspective. Although tunneling activities is a common practices by businesses especially in Indonesia, there exist obstacles in the measurement of tunneling activity because it is difficult to proof the existence of such practices. In this study, we measure tunneling by using accounts receivables and develop tunneling detection criteria. In addition, this study examines the effect of tunnel...

  11. Quantum tunnelling in condensed media

    CERN Document Server

    Kagan, Yu

    1992-01-01

    The essays in this book deal with of the problem of quantum tunnelling and related behavior of a microscopic or macroscopic system, which interacts strongly with an ""environment"" - this being some form of condensed matter. The ""system"" in question need not be physically distinct from its environment, but could, for example, be one particular degree of freedom on which attention is focussed, as in the case of the Josephson junction studied in several of the papers. This general problem has been studied in many hundreds, if not thousands, of articles in the literature, in contexts as diverse

  12. Quantum tunneling beyond semiclassical approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Rabin; Majhi, Bibhas Ranjan

    2008-01-01

    Hawking radiation as tunneling by Hamilton-Jacobi method beyond semiclassical approximation is analysed. We compute all quantum corrections in the single particle action revealing that these are proportional to the usual semiclassical contribution. We show that a simple choice of the proportionality constants reproduces the one loop back reaction effect in the spacetime, found by conformal field theory methods, which modifies the Hawking temperature of the black hole. Using the law of black hole mechanics we give the corrections to the Bekenstein-Hawking area law following from the modified Hawking temperature. Some examples are explicitly worked out.

  13. Tunnelling from Goedel black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerner, Ryan; Mann, R. B.

    2007-01-01

    We consider the spacetime structure of Kerr-Goedel black holes, analyzing their parameter space in detail. We apply the tunnelling method to compute their temperature and compare the results to previous calculations obtained via other methods. We claim that it is not possible to have the closed timelike curve (CTC) horizon in between the two black hole horizons and include a discussion of issues that occur when the radius of the CTC horizon is smaller than the radius of both black hole horizons

  14. Josephson tunnel junction microwave attenuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koshelets, V. P.; Shitov, S. V.; Shchukin, A. V.

    1993-01-01

    A new element for superconducting electronic circuitry-a variable attenuator-has been proposed, designed, and successfully tested. The principle of operation is based on the change in the microwave impedance of a superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) Josephson tunnel junction when dc biased...... at different points in the current-voltage characteristic. Both numerical calculations based on the Tien-Gordon theory and 70-GHz microwave experiments have confirmed the wide dynamic range (more than 15-dB attenuation for one stage) and the low insertion loss in the ''open'' state. The performance of a fully...

  15. POPULATION Total Population CTs 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  16. Computational Wind Tunnel: A Design Tool for Rotorcraft, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Rotorcraft engineers traditionally use the wind tunnel to evaluate and finalize designs. Insufficient correlation between wind tunnel results and flight tests, have...

  17. Tunneling of electrons through semiconductor superlattices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Tunneling of electrons through semiconductor superlattices. C L ROY. Department of Physics and Meteorology, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302, India. Abstract. The purpose of the present paper is to report a study of tunneling of electrons through semicon- ductor superlattices (SSL); specially, we have ...

  18. 49 CFR 177.810 - Vehicular tunnels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... through any urban vehicular tunnel used for mass transportation. [Amdt. 177-52, 46 FR 5316, Jan. 19, 1981... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vehicular tunnels. 177.810 Section 177.810 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...

  19. Energy saving in tunnel entrance lighting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A. & Swart, L.

    1993-01-01

    Tunnel entrances may present themselves during the day as a "black hole" in which no details can be perceived. In order to ensure safe and comfortable driving at high speeds, the entrance zone must be lit to a high luminance level. Modern tunnel lighting technology is focused on two aspects:

  20. Object-Based Attention and Cognitive Tunneling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarmasz, Jerzy; Herdman, Chris M.; Johannsdottir, Kamilla Run

    2005-01-01

    Simulator-based research has shown that pilots cognitively tunnel their attention on head-up displays (HUDs). Cognitive tunneling has been linked to object-based visual attention on the assumption that HUD symbology is perceptually grouped into an object that is perceived and attended separately from the external scene. The present research…

  1. Transport of dangerous goods through road tunnels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, N O; Lacroix, Didier; Amundsen, F.H.

    1999-01-01

    A paper which describes the work of an OECD research group. The group has suggested a grouping of dangerous materials, a quantitative risk assessment model and a decision support model which should allow tunnel operators to determine if a given material should be allowed throug a given tunnel...

  2. A Supermagnetic Tunnel Full of Subatomic Action

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    Last year, before the gigantic hadron supercollider at CERN research facility was installed underground, a photographer captured this picture of a 1,950 metric ton tunnel containing giant magnets that will be placed in a tunnel and kept at near-zero temperatures.

  3. Spin tunneling and manipulation in nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, E Ya; Ban, Yue; Gulyaev, L V; Khomitsky, D V

    2012-09-01

    The results for joint effects of tunneling and spin-orbit coupling on spin dynamics in nanostructures are presented for systems with discrete and continuous spectra. We demonstrate that tunneling plays the crucial role in the spin dynamics and the abilities of spin manipulation by external electric field. This result can be important for design of nanostructures-based spintronics devices.

  4. Aeronautical Wind Tunnels, Europe and Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-01

    User Fees Contact Information Dr. Surjatin Wiriadidjaja, UPT-LAGG, BPP Teknologi, Puspiptek, Serpong, Tangerang 15310, Indonesia. Tel: (62) 21 756...of the tunnel, FFA T1500 Transonic Wind Tunnel Circuit (Sweden) manufactured by The Swedish Defense Research Agency (FOI). 2.4 m Transonic Wind

  5. Tunnel widening in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clatworthy, M G; Annear, P; Bulow, J U

    1999-01-01

    We report a prospective series evaluating the incidence and degree of tunnel widening in a well-matched series of patients receiving a hamstring or patella tendon graft for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficiency. We correlated tunnel widening with clinical factors, knee scores, KT-1000 and i...

  6. Flow-Based Detection of DNS Tunnels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellens, W.; Żuraniewski, P.; Sperotto, A.; Schotanus, H.; Mandjes, M.; Meeuwissen, E.

    2013-01-01

    DNS tunnels allow circumventing access and security policies in firewalled networks. Such a security breach can be misused for activities like free web browsing, but also for command & control traffic or cyber espionage, thus motivating the search for effective automated DNS tunnel detection

  7. Flow-based detection of DNS tunnels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellens, W.; Zuraniewski, P.; Schotanus, H.; Mandjes, M.R.H.; Meeuwissen, E.; Doyen, Guillaume; Waldburger, Martin; Celeda, Pavel; Sperotto, Anna; Stiller, Burkhard

    DNS tunnels allow circumventing access and security policies in firewalled networks. Such a security breach can be misused for activities like free web browsing, but also for command & control traffic or cyber espionage, thus motivating the search for effective automated DNS tunnel detection

  8. Flow-based detection of DNS tunnels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellens, W.; Zuraniewski, P.W.; Sperotto, A.; Schotanus, H.A.; Mandjes, M.; Meeuwissen, H.B.

    2013-01-01

    DNS tunnels allow circumventing access and security policies in firewalled networks. Such a security breach can be misused for activities like free web browsing, but also for command & control traffic or cyber espionage, thus motivating the search for effective automated DNS tunnel detection

  9. On the directional selectivity of tunneling experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beuermann, G.; Goettingen Univ.

    1981-01-01

    Using realistic parameters in a simplified model the directional selectivity of tunneling experiments is discussed. Although perfect surfaces and barriers are assumed, quasiparticles coming from a wide solid angle may contribute essentially to the tunnel current. This must be taken into consideration in the case of gap anisotropy. (orig.)

  10. Road tunnels safety according to European legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedor KÁLLAY

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with safety of European road tunnels in accordance with actual European legislation. Standards and recommendations of European Commission, PIARC and other professional bodies of the European Union define minimal technological requirements for equipment and operation of the tunnels in scope of Trans-European Road Network.

  11. Time-resolved scanning tunnelling microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Houselt, Arie; Zandvliet, Henricus J.W.

    2010-01-01

    Scanning tunneling microscopy has revolutionized our ability to image, study, and manipulate solid surfaces on the size scale of atoms. One important limitation of the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) is, however, its poor time resolution. Recording a standard image with a STM typically takes

  12. Temporary closure of the tunnel

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2005-01-01

    Owing to major maintenance work, the tunnel linking the various parts of the CERN site will be closed from Monday 4 July to Sunday 24 July 2005 The Host State authorities have given authorisation for persons employed by CERN or the Institutes to travel and for goods belonging to these entities to be transported between the various parts of the site via Gate E (Charles de Gaulle) while this work is being carried out, subject to strict compliance with the Rules for the Use of the Tunnel (see http://dsu.web.cern.ch/dsu/dsum/hsr/DOCUMENTS/8200980415.pdf). Gate E will thus be open between 7.00 a.m. and 7.00 p.m. from Monday to Friday during the period concerned. The rules governing the use of Gate E to enter the Meyrin site between 7.30 a.m. and 9.00 a.m. or to leave the site between 5.00 p.m. and 6.30 p.m. (see http://dsu.web.cern.ch/dsu/dsum/hsr/DOCUMENTS/12222_041027.pdf)) will remain unaffected by this temporary authorisation. Relations with the Host States Service and TS-FM Group

  13. Concept development for HLW disposal research tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queon, S. K.; Kim, K. S.; Park, J. H.; Jeo, W. J.; Han, P. S.

    2003-01-01

    In order to dispose high-level radioactive waste in a geological formation, it is necessary to assess the safety of a disposal concept by excavating a research tunnel in the same geological formation as the host rock mass. The design concept of a research tunnel depends on the actual disposal concept, repository geometry, experiments to be carried at the tunnel, and geological conditions. In this study, analysis of the characteristics of the disposal research tunnel, which is planned to be constructed at KAERI site, calculation of the influence of basting impact on neighbor facilities, and computer simuation for mechanical stability analysis using a three-dimensional code, FLAC3D, had been carried out to develop the design concept of the research tunnel

  14. MR imaging of the carpal tunnel syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elias, D.; Lind, J.; Blair, S.; Light, T.; Wisniewski, R.; Moncado, R.

    1987-01-01

    MR is an ideal noninvasive means to image the structures forming the carpal tunnel in both normal and pathologic conditions. The carpal tunnel syndrome is a frequently encountered entity caused by compression of the median nerve as it passes through the carpal tunnel. This may result from a variety of conditions including edema from acute chronic trauma, rheumatoid tenosynovitis, degenerative joint disease or soft-tissue masses. This exhibit demonstrates the optimal MR imaging techniques to display the structures of the carpal tunnel. The normal anatomy is reviewed and variations in normal anatomy that may predispose to disease are included. Examples of the morphologic changes demonstrated in 20 patients diagnosed with carpal tunnel syndrome are displayed. The exhibit also reviews the findings in 20 postoperative cases

  15. Quantum tunneling in the adiabatic Dicke model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Gang; Chen Zidong; Liang Jiuqing

    2007-01-01

    The Dicke model describes N two-level atoms interacting with a single-mode bosonic field and exhibits a second-order phase transition from the normal to the superradiant phase. The energy levels are not degenerate in the normal phase but have degeneracy in the superradiant phase, where quantum tunneling occurs. By means of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation and the instanton method in quantum field theory, the tunneling splitting, inversely proportional to the tunneling rate for the adiabatic Dicke model, in the superradiant phase can be evaluated explicitly. It is shown that the tunneling splitting vanishes as exp(-N) for large N, whereas for small N it disappears as √(N)/exp(N). The dependence of the tunneling splitting on the relevant parameters, especially on the atom-field coupling strength, is also discussed

  16. Tunneling Anomalous and Spin Hall Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos-Abiague, A; Fabian, J

    2015-07-31

    We predict, theoretically, the existence of the anomalous Hall effect when a tunneling current flows through a tunnel junction in which only one of the electrodes is magnetic. The interfacial spin-orbit coupling present in the barrier region induces a spin-dependent momentum filtering in the directions perpendicular to the tunneling current, resulting in a skew tunneling even in the absence of impurities. This produces an anomalous Hall conductance and spin Hall currents in the nonmagnetic electrode when a bias voltage is applied across the tunneling heterojunction. If the barrier is composed of a noncentrosymmetric material, the anomalous Hall conductance and spin Hall currents become anisotropic with respect to both the magnetization and crystallographic directions, allowing us to separate this interfacial phenomenon from the bulk anomalous and spin Hall contributions. The proposed effect should be useful for proving and quantifying the interfacial spin-orbit fields in metallic and metal-semiconductor systems.

  17. High Surface Area Tunnels in Hexagonal WO₃.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wanmei; Yeung, Michael T; Lech, Andrew T; Lin, Cheng-Wei; Lee, Chain; Li, Tianqi; Duan, Xiangfeng; Zhou, Jun; Kaner, Richard B

    2015-07-08

    High surface area in h-WO3 has been verified from the intracrystalline tunnels. This bottom-up approach differs from conventional templating-type methods. The 3.67 Å diameter tunnels are characterized by low-pressure CO2 adsorption isotherms with nonlocal density functional theory fitting, transmission electron microscopy, and thermal gravimetric analysis. These open and rigid tunnels absorb H(+) and Li(+), but not Na(+) in aqueous electrolytes without inducing a phase transformation, accessing both internal and external active sites. Moreover, these tunnel structures demonstrate high specific pseudocapacitance and good stability in an H2SO4 aqueous electrolyte. Thus, the high surface area created from 3.67 Å diameter tunnels in h-WO3 shows potential applications in electrochemical energy storage, selective ion transfer, and selective gas adsorption.

  18. Snow and ice blocking of tunnels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lia, Leif

    1998-12-31

    Hydroelectric power development in cold regions causes much concern about operational reliability and dam safety. This thesis studies the temperature distribution in tunnels by means of air temperature measurements in six tunnel spillways and five diversion tunnels. The measurements lasted for two consecutive winters. The air through flow tunnel is used as it causes cooling of both rock and water. In open spillway tunnels, frost reaches the entire tunnel. In spillway tunnels with walls, the frost zones reach about 100 m from the downstream end. In mildly-inclined diversion tunnels, a frost free zone is located in the middle of the tunnel and snow and ice problems were only observed in the inlet and outlet. Severe aufeis is accumulation is observed in the frost zones. The heat transfer from rock to air, water and ice is calculated and used in a prediction model for the calculation of aufeis build-up together with local field observation data. The water penetration of snow plugs is also calculated, based on the heat balance. It takes 20 to 50 days for water to enter the blocked tunnel. The empirical values are 30 to 60 days, but only 1 day if the temperature of the snow pack is 0{sup o}C. Sensitivity analyses are carried out for temperature variations in rock, snow, water and ice. Systematic field observation shows that it is important for hydropower companies to know about the effects of snow and ice blocking in an area. A risk analysis of dam safety is presented for a real case. Finally, the thesis proposes solutions which can reduce the snow and ice problems. 79 refs., 63 figs., 11 tabs.

  19. Influence of trap-assisted tunneling on trap-assisted tunneling current in double gate tunnel field-effect transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Jiang; Yi-Qi, Zhuang; Cong, Li; Ping, Wang; Yu-Qi, Liu

    2016-02-01

    Trap-assisted tunneling (TAT) has attracted more and more attention, because it seriously affects the sub-threshold characteristic of tunnel field-effect transistor (TFET). In this paper, we assess subthreshold performance of double gate TFET (DG-TFET) through a band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) model, including phonon-assisted scattering and acoustic surface phonons scattering. Interface state density profile (Dit) and the trap level are included in the simulation to analyze their effects on TAT current and the mechanism of gate leakage current. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61574109 and 61204092).

  20. Influence of trap-assisted tunneling on trap-assisted tunneling current in double gate tunnel field-effect transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Zhi; Zhuang Yi-Qi; Li Cong; Wang Ping; Liu Yu-Qi

    2016-01-01

    Trap-assisted tunneling (TAT) has attracted more and more attention, because it seriously affects the sub-threshold characteristic of tunnel field-effect transistor (TFET). In this paper, we assess subthreshold performance of double gate TFET (DG-TFET) through a band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) model, including phonon-assisted scattering and acoustic surface phonons scattering. Interface state density profile (D it ) and the trap level are included in the simulation to analyze their effects on TAT current and the mechanism of gate leakage current. (paper)

  1. Generation of brain pseudo-CTs using an undersampled, single-acquisition UTE-mDixon pulse sequence and unsupervised clustering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Kuan-Hao; Hu, Lingzhi; Traughber, Melanie; Stehning, Christian; Helle, Michael; Qian, Pengjiang; Thompson, Cheryl L.; Pereira, Gisele C.; Traughber, Bryan J.; Jordan, David W.; Herrmann, Karin A.; Muzic, Raymond F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: MR-based pseudo-CT has an important role in MR-based radiation therapy planning and PET attenuation correction. The purpose of this study is to establish a clinically feasible approach, including image acquisition, correction, and CT formation, for pseudo-CT generation of the brain using a single-acquisition, undersampled ultrashort echo time (UTE)-mDixon pulse sequence. Methods: Nine patients were recruited for this study. For each patient, a 190-s, undersampled, single acquisition UTE-mDixon sequence of the brain was acquired (TE = 0.1, 1.5, and 2.8 ms). A novel method of retrospective trajectory correction of the free induction decay (FID) signal was performed based on point-spread functions of three external MR markers. Two-point Dixon images were reconstructed using the first and second echo data (TE = 1.5 and 2.8 ms). R2 ∗ images (1/T2 ∗ ) were then estimated and were used to provide bone information. Three image features, i.e., Dixon-fat, Dixon-water, and R2 ∗ , were used for unsupervised clustering. Five tissue clusters, i.e., air, brain, fat, fluid, and bone, were estimated using the fuzzy c-means (FCM) algorithm. A two-step, automatic tissue-assignment approach was proposed and designed according to the prior information of the given feature space. Pseudo-CTs were generated by a voxelwise linear combination of the membership functions of the FCM. A low-dose CT was acquired for each patient and was used as the gold standard for comparison. Results: The contrast and sharpness of the FID images were improved after trajectory correction was applied. The mean of the estimated trajectory delay was 0.774 μs (max: 1.350 μs; min: 0.180 μs). The FCM-estimated centroids of different tissue types showed a distinguishable pattern for different tissues, and significant differences were found between the centroid locations of different tissue types. Pseudo-CT can provide additional skull detail and has low bias and absolute error of estimated CT

  2. Automated quantification of cerebral edema following hemispheric infarction: Application of a machine-learning algorithm to evaluate CSF shifts on serial head CTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasheng Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although cerebral edema is a major cause of death and deterioration following hemispheric stroke, there remains no validated biomarker that captures the full spectrum of this critical complication. We recently demonstrated that reduction in intracranial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF volume (∆CSF on serial computed tomography (CT scans provides an accurate measure of cerebral edema severity, which may aid in early triaging of stroke patients for craniectomy. However, application of such a volumetric approach would be too cumbersome to perform manually on serial scans in a real-world setting. We developed and validated an automated technique for CSF segmentation via integration of random forest (RF based machine learning with geodesic active contour (GAC segmentation. The proposed RF + GAC approach was compared to conventional Hounsfield Unit (HU thresholding and RF segmentation methods using Dice similarity coefficient (DSC and the correlation of volumetric measurements, with manual delineation serving as the ground truth. CSF spaces were outlined on scans performed at baseline (<6 h after stroke onset and early follow-up (FU (closest to 24 h in 38 acute ischemic stroke patients. RF performed significantly better than optimized HU thresholding (p < 10−4 in baseline and p < 10−5 in FU and RF + GAC performed significantly better than RF (p < 10−3 in baseline and p < 10−5 in FU. Pearson correlation coefficients between the automatically detected ∆CSF and the ground truth were r = 0.178 (p = 0.285, r = 0.876 (p < 10−6 and r = 0.879 (p < 10−6 for thresholding, RF and RF + GAC, respectively, with a slope closer to the line of identity in RF + GAC. When we applied the algorithm trained from images of one stroke center to segment CTs from another center, similar findings held. In conclusion, we have developed and validated an accurate automated approach to segment CSF and calculate its shifts on serial CT scans

  3. Homoepitaxial graphene tunnel barriers for spin transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam L. Friedman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tunnel barriers are key elements for both charge-and spin-based electronics, offering devices with reduced power consumption and new paradigms for information processing. Such devices require mating dissimilar materials, raising issues of heteroepitaxy, interface stability, and electronic states that severely complicate fabrication and compromise performance. Graphene is the perfect tunnel barrier. It is an insulator out-of-plane, possesses a defect-free, linear habit, and is impervious to interdiffusion. Nonetheless, true tunneling between two stacked graphene layers is not possible in environmental conditions usable for electronics applications. However, two stacked graphene layers can be decoupled using chemical functionalization. Here, we demonstrate that hydrogenation or fluorination of graphene can be used to create a tunnel barrier. We demonstrate successful tunneling by measuring non-linear IV curves and a weakly temperature dependent zero-bias resistance. We demonstrate lateral transport of spin currents in non-local spin-valve structures, and determine spin lifetimes with the non-local Hanle effect. We compare the results for hydrogenated and fluorinated tunnel and we discuss the possibility that ferromagnetic moments in the hydrogenated graphene tunnel barrier affect the spin transport of our devices.

  4. Homoepitaxial graphene tunnel barriers for spin transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Adam L.; van't Erve, Olaf M. J.; Robinson, Jeremy T.; Whitener, Keith E.; Jonker, Berend T.

    2016-05-01

    Tunnel barriers are key elements for both charge-and spin-based electronics, offering devices with reduced power consumption and new paradigms for information processing. Such devices require mating dissimilar materials, raising issues of heteroepitaxy, interface stability, and electronic states that severely complicate fabrication and compromise performance. Graphene is the perfect tunnel barrier. It is an insulator out-of-plane, possesses a defect-free, linear habit, and is impervious to interdiffusion. Nonetheless, true tunneling between two stacked graphene layers is not possible in environmental conditions usable for electronics applications. However, two stacked graphene layers can be decoupled using chemical functionalization. Here, we demonstrate that hydrogenation or fluorination of graphene can be used to create a tunnel barrier. We demonstrate successful tunneling by measuring non-linear IV curves and a weakly temperature dependent zero-bias resistance. We demonstrate lateral transport of spin currents in non-local spin-valve structures, and determine spin lifetimes with the non-local Hanle effect. We compare the results for hydrogenated and fluorinated tunnel and we discuss the possibility that ferromagnetic moments in the hydrogenated graphene tunnel barrier affect the spin transport of our devices.

  5. Signatures of unstable semiclassical trajectories in tunneling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levkov, D G; Panin, A G; Sibiryakov, S M

    2009-01-01

    It was found recently that processes of multidimensional tunneling are generally described at high energies by unstable semiclassical trajectories. We study two observational signatures related to the instability of trajectories. First, we find an additional power-law dependence of the tunneling probability on the semiclassical parameter as compared to the standard case of potential tunneling. The second signature is a substantial widening of the probability distribution over final-state quantum numbers. These effects are studied using a modified semiclassical technique which incorporates stabilization of the tunneling trajectories. The technique is derived from first principles. We obtain expressions for the inclusive and exclusive tunneling probabilities in the case of unstable semiclassical trajectories. We also investigate the 'phase transition' between the cases of stable and unstable trajectories across certain 'critical' values of energy. Finally, we derive the relation between the semiclassical probabilities of tunneling from the low-lying and highly excited initial states. This puts on firm ground a conjecture made previously in the semiclassical description of collision-induced tunneling in field theory

  6. Investigation into scanning tunnelling luminescence microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manson-Smith, S.K.

    2001-01-01

    This work reports on the development of a scanning tunnelling luminescence (STL) microscope and its application to the study of Ill-nitride semiconductor materials used in the production of light emitting devices. STL microscopy is a technique which uses the high resolution topographic imaging capabilities of the scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) to generate high resolution luminescence images. The STM tunnelling current acts as a highly localised source of electrons (or holes) which generates luminescence in certain materials. Light generated at the STM tunnelling junction is collected concurrently with the height variation of the tunnelling probe as it is scanned across a sample surface, producing simultaneous topographic and luminescence images. Due to the very localised excitation source, high resolution luminescence images can be obtained. Spectroscopic resolution can be obtained by using filters. Additionally, the variation of luminescence intensity with tunnel current and with bias voltage can provide information on recombination processes and material properties. The design and construction of a scanning tunnelling luminescence microscope is described in detail. Operating under ambient conditions, the microscope has several novel features, including a new type of miniature inertial slider-based approach motor, large solid-angle light collection optical arrangement and a tip-height regulation system which requires the minimum of operator input. (author)

  7. Tunnel effect wave energy detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, William J. (Inventor); Waltman, Steven B. (Inventor); Kenny, Thomas W. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for measuring gravitational and inertial forces, magnetic fields, or wave or radiant energy acting on an object or fluid in space provide an electric tunneling current through a gap between an electrode and that object or fluid in space and vary that gap with any selected one of such forces, magnetic fields, or wave or radiant energy acting on that object or fluid. These methods and apparatus sense a corresponding variation in an electric property of that gap and determine the latter force, magnetic fields, or wave or radiant energy in response to that corresponding variation, and thereby sense or measure such parameters as acceleration, position, particle mass, velocity, magnetic field strength, presence or direction, or wave or radiant energy intensity, presence or direction.

  8. The Thames Tideway Tunnel (3/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    Lecture 3: Insight into a pioneering project at the cutting edge of engineering: the upgrade to London’s failing sewerage system. With a growing population and heavier rainfall, the River Thames is regularly polluted in breach of European Directive requirements. Two new storage and transfer tunnels will run up to 85m deep under the river and will intercept and divert sewer overflows to a treatment facility in east London. The challenges faced by constructing a tunnel project of this size under the river and through London’s historic urban environment will set a new UK record for this type of tunnelling.

  9. Towards vortex imaging with scanning tunneling microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, Dan T.

    1994-02-01

    A low temperature, Besocke beetle type scanning tunneling microscope, with a scan range of 10 by 10 microns was built. The scanning tunneling microscope was calibrates for various temperatures and tested on several samples. Gold monolayers evaporated at 400 deg C were resolved and their dynamic behavior observed. Atomic resolution images of graphite were obtained. The scanning tunneling microscope was designed for future applications of vortex imaging in superconductors. The special design considerations for this application are discussed and the physics underlying it reviewed. (author)

  10. Scanning Tunneling Microscope For Use In Vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Phillip B.

    1993-01-01

    Scanning tunneling microscope with subangstrom resolution developed to study surface structures. Although instrument used in air, designed especially for use in vacuum. Scanning head is assembly of small, mostly rigid components made of low-outgassing materials. Includes coarse-positioning mechanical-translation stage, on which specimen mounted by use of standard mounting stub. Tunneling tip mounted on piezoelectric fine-positioning tube. Application of suitable voltages to electrodes on piezoelectric tube controls scan of tunneling tip across surface of specimen. Electronic subsystem generates scanning voltages and collects data.

  11. Hard rock tunneling using pulsed electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avery, R.T.; Brekke, T.L.; Finnie, I.

    1974-01-01

    Intense submicrosecond bursts of energetic electrons cause significant pulverization and surface spalling of a variety of rock types, the spall debris generally consisting of sand, dust, and small flakes. If carried out at rapid repetition rate this can lead to a promising technique for increasing the speed and reducing the cost of underground excavation of tunnels, mines, and storage spaces. The conceptual design features of a Pulsed Electron Tunnel Excavator capable of tunneling approximately ten times faster than conventional drill/blast methods were studied. (auth)

  12. Mechanical tunnel excavation in welded tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sperry, P.E.

    1991-01-01

    The Technical Review Board for the US high-level radioactive waste facility at Yucca Mountain has recommended maximum use of open-quotes the most modern mechanical excavation techniques...in order to reduce disturbance to the rock walls and to achieve greater economy of time and cost.close quotes Tunnels for the waste repository at Yucca Mountain can be economically constructed with mechanical excavation equipment. This paper presents the results of mechanical excavation of a tunnel in welded tuff, similar to the tuffs of Yucca Mountain. These results are projected to excavation of emplacement drifts in Yucca Mountain using a current state-of-the-art tunnel boring machine (TBM)

  13. Integrated tunneling sensor for nanoelectromechanical systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadewasser, S.; Abadal, G.; Barniol, N.

    2006-01-01

    Transducers based on quantum mechanical tunneling provide an extremely sensitive sensor principle, especially for nanoelectromechanical systems. For proper operation a gap between the electrodes of below 1 nm is essential, requiring the use of structures with a mobile electrode. At such small...... distances, attractive van der Waals and capillary forces become sizable, possibly resulting in snap-in of the electrodes. The authors present a comprehensive analysis and evaluation of the interplay between the involved forces and identify requirements for the design of tunneling sensors. Based...... on this analysis, a tunneling sensor is fabricated by Si micromachining technology and its proper operation is demonstrated. (c) 2006 American Institute of Physics....

  14. Tunneling decay of self-gravitating vortices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dupuis Éric

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate tunneling decay of false vortices in the presence of gravity, in which vortices are trapped in the false vacuum of a theory of scalar electrodynamics in three dimensions. The core of the vortex contains magnetic flux in the true vacuum, while outside the vortex is the appropriate topologically nontrivial false vacuum. We numerically obtain vortex solutions which are classically stable; however, they could decay via tunneling. To show this phenomenon, we construct the proper junction conditions in curved spacetime. We find that the tunneling exponent for the vortices is half that for Coleman-de Luccia bubbles and discuss possible future applications.

  15. Tunneling spin injection into single layer graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Pi, K; McCreary, K M; Li, Yan; Wong, Jared J I; Swartz, A G; Kawakami, R K

    2010-10-15

    We achieve tunneling spin injection from Co into single layer graphene (SLG) using TiO₂ seeded MgO barriers. A nonlocal magnetoresistance (ΔR(NL)) of 130  Ω is observed at room temperature, which is the largest value observed in any material. Investigating ΔR(NL) vs SLG conductivity from the transparent to the tunneling contact regimes demonstrates the contrasting behaviors predicted by the drift-diffusion theory of spin transport. Furthermore, tunnel barriers reduce the contact-induced spin relaxation and are therefore important for future investigations of spin relaxation in graphene.

  16. Intrinsic Tunneling in Phase Separated Manganites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh-Bhalla, G.; Selcuk, S.; Dhakal, T.; Biswas, A.; Hebard, A. F.

    2009-02-01

    We present evidence of direct electron tunneling across intrinsic insulating regions in submicrometer wide bridges of the phase-separated ferromagnet (La,Pr,Ca)MnO3. Upon cooling below the Curie temperature, a predominantly ferromagnetic supercooled state persists where tunneling across the intrinsic tunnel barriers (ITBs) results in metastable, temperature-independent, high-resistance plateaus over a large range of temperatures. Upon application of a magnetic field, our data reveal that the ITBs are extinguished resulting in sharp, colossal, low-field resistance drops. Our results compare well to theoretical predictions of magnetic domain walls coinciding with the intrinsic insulating phase.

  17. Application of fuzzy methods in tunnelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľudmila Tréfová

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Full-face tunnelling machines were used for the tunnel construction in Slovakia for boring of the exploratory galleries of highwaytunnels Branisko and Višňové-Dubná skala. A monitoring system of boring process parameters was installed on the tunnelling machinesand the acquired outcomes were processed by several theoretical approaches. Method IKONA was developed for the determination ofchanges in the rock mass strength characteristics in the line of exploratory gallery. Individual geological sections were evaluated bythe descriptive statistics and the TBM performance was evaluated by the fuzzy method. The paper informs on the procedure of the designof fuzzy models and their verification.

  18. Thermal stability of tunneling spin polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kant, C.H.; Kohlhepp, J.T.; Paluskar, P.V.; Swagten, H.J.M.; Jonge, W.J.M. de

    2005-01-01

    We present a study of the thermal stability of tunneling spin polarization in Al/AlOx/ferromagnet junctions based on the spin-polarized tunneling technique, in which the Zeeman-split superconducting density of states in the Al electrode is used as a detector for the spin polarization. Thermal robustness of the polarization, which is of key importance for the performance of magnetic tunnel junction devices, is demonstrated for post-deposition anneal temperatures up to 500 o C with Co and Co 90 Fe 10 top electrodes, independent of the presence of an FeMn layer on top of the ferromagnet

  19. Tunneling rates in electron transport through double-barrier molecular junctions in a scanning tunneling microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazin, G V; Wu, S W; Ho, W

    2005-06-21

    The scanning tunneling microscope enables atomic-scale measurements of electron transport through individual molecules. Copper phthalocyanine and magnesium porphine molecules adsorbed on a thin oxide film grown on the NiAl(110) surface were probed. The single-molecule junctions contained two tunneling barriers, vacuum gap, and oxide film. Differential conductance spectroscopy shows that electron transport occurs via vibronic states of the molecules. The intensity of spectral peaks corresponding to the individual vibronic states depends on the relative electron tunneling rates through the two barriers of the junction, as found by varying the vacuum gap tunneling rate by changing the height of the scanning tunneling microscope tip above the molecule. A simple, sequential tunneling model explains the observed trends.

  20. Influence of quasiparticle multi-tunneling on the energy flow through the superconducting tunnel junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samedov, V. V.; Tulinov, B. M.

    2011-01-01

    Superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) detector consists of two layers of superconducting material separated by thin insulating barrier. An incident particle produces in superconductor excess nonequilibrium quasiparticles. Each quasiparticle in superconductor should be considered as quantum superposition of electron-like and hole-like excitations. This duality nature of quasiparticle leads to the effect of multi-tunneling. Quasiparticle starts to tunnel back and forth through the insulating barrier. After tunneling from biased electrode quasiparticle loses its energy via phonon emission. Eventually, the energy that equals to the difference in quasiparticle energy between two electrodes is deposited in the signal electrode. Because of the process of multi-tunneling, one quasiparticle can deposit energy more than once. In this work, the theory of branching cascade processes was applied to the process of energy deposition caused by the quasiparticle multi-tunneling. The formulae for the mean value and variance of the energy transferred by one quasiparticle into heat were derived. (authors)

  1. Apparatus and method for large tunnel excavation in hard rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altseimer, J.H.; Hanold, R.J.

    1975-01-01

    A tunneling machine is described for producing large tunnels in rock by progressive detachment of the tunnel core by thermal melting a boundary kerf into the tunnel face and simultaneously forming an initial tunnel wall support by deflecting the molten materials against the tunnel walls to provide, when solidified, a continuous liner; and fragmenting the tunnel core circumscribed by the kerf by thermal stress fracturing and in which the heat required for such operations is supplied by a compact nuclear reactor. (U.S.)

  2. Meta-Analysis: Association Between Wrist Posture and Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Among Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doohee You

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: We found evidence that prolonged exposure to non-neutral wrist postures is associated with a twofold increased risk for CTS compared with low hours of exposure to non-neutral wrist postures. Workplace interventions to prevent CTS should incorporate training and engineering interventions that reduce sustained non-neutral wrist postures.

  3. Trap assisted tunneling and its effect on subthreshold swing of tunnel field effect transistors

    OpenAIRE

    Sajjad, Redwan N.; Chern, Winston; Hoyt, Judy L.; Antoniadis, Dimitri A.

    2016-01-01

    We provide a detailed study of the interface Trap Assisted Tunneling (TAT) mechanism in tunnel field effect transistors to show how it contributes a major leakage current path before the Band To Band Tunneling (BTBT) is initiated. With a modified Shockley-Read-Hall formalism, we show that at room temperature, the phonon assisted TAT current always dominates and obscures the steep turn ON of the BTBT current for common densities of traps. Our results are applicable to top gate, double gate and...

  4. Tunneling time, exit time and exit momentum in strong field tunnel ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teeny, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Tunnel ionization belongs to the fundamental processes of atomic physics. It is still an open question when does the electron tunnel ionize and how long is the duration of tunneling. In this work we solve the time-dependent Schroedinger equation in one and two dimensions and use ab initio quantum calculations in order to answer these questions. Additionally, we determine the exit momentum of the tunnel ionized electron from first principles. We find out results that are different from the assumptions of the commonly employed two-step model, which assumes that the electron ionizes at the instant of electric field maximum with a zero momentum. After determining the quantum final momentum distribution of tunnel ionized electrons we show that the two-step model fails to predict the correct final momentum. Accordingly we suggest how to correct the two-step model. Furthermore, we determine the instant at which tunnel ionization starts, which turns out to be different from the instant usually assumed. From determining the instant at which it is most probable for the electron to enter the tunneling barrier and the instant at which it exits we determine the most probable time spent under the barrier. Moreover, we apply a quantum clock approach in order to determine the duration of tunnel ionization. From the quantum clock we determine an average tunneling time which is different in magnitude and origin with respect to the most probable tunneling time. By defining a probability distribution of tunneling times using virtual detectors we relate both methods and explain the apparent discrepancy. The results found have in general an effect on the interpretation of experiments that measure the spectra of tunnel ionized electrons, and specifically on the calibration of the so called attoclock experiments, because models with imprecise assumptions are usually employed in order to interpret experimental results.

  5. Tunneling time, exit time and exit momentum in strong field tunnel ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teeny, Nicolas

    2016-10-18

    Tunnel ionization belongs to the fundamental processes of atomic physics. It is still an open question when does the electron tunnel ionize and how long is the duration of tunneling. In this work we solve the time-dependent Schroedinger equation in one and two dimensions and use ab initio quantum calculations in order to answer these questions. Additionally, we determine the exit momentum of the tunnel ionized electron from first principles. We find out results that are different from the assumptions of the commonly employed two-step model, which assumes that the electron ionizes at the instant of electric field maximum with a zero momentum. After determining the quantum final momentum distribution of tunnel ionized electrons we show that the two-step model fails to predict the correct final momentum. Accordingly we suggest how to correct the two-step model. Furthermore, we determine the instant at which tunnel ionization starts, which turns out to be different from the instant usually assumed. From determining the instant at which it is most probable for the electron to enter the tunneling barrier and the instant at which it exits we determine the most probable time spent under the barrier. Moreover, we apply a quantum clock approach in order to determine the duration of tunnel ionization. From the quantum clock we determine an average tunneling time which is different in magnitude and origin with respect to the most probable tunneling time. By defining a probability distribution of tunneling times using virtual detectors we relate both methods and explain the apparent discrepancy. The results found have in general an effect on the interpretation of experiments that measure the spectra of tunnel ionized electrons, and specifically on the calibration of the so called attoclock experiments, because models with imprecise assumptions are usually employed in order to interpret experimental results.

  6. Quantum size effects on spin-tunneling time in a magnetic resonant tunneling diode

    OpenAIRE

    Saffarzadeh, Alireza; Daqiq, Reza

    2009-01-01

    We study theoretically the quantum size effects of a magnetic resonant tunneling diode (RTD) with a (Zn,Mn)Se dilute magnetic semiconductor layer on the spin-tunneling time and the spin polarization of the electrons. The results show that the spin-tunneling times may oscillate and a great difference between the tunneling time of the electrons with opposite spin directions can be obtained depending on the system parameters. We also study the effect of structural asymmetry which is related to t...

  7. Seismic prediction ahead of tunnel construction using Rayleigh-waves

    OpenAIRE

    Jetschny, Stefan; De Nil, Denise; Bohlen, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    To increase safety and efficiency of tunnel constructions, online seismic exploration ahead of a tunnel can become a valuable tool. We developed a new forward looking seismic imaging technique e.g. to determine weak and water bearing zones ahead of the constructions. Our approach is based on the excitation and registration of tunnel surface-waves. These waves are excited at the tunnel face behind the cutter head of a tunnel boring machine and travel into drilling direction. Arriving at the fr...

  8. 7 x 10 Foot Wind Tunnel

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This wind tunnel is used for basic and applied research in aeromechanics on advanced and unique technology rotorcraft. It supports research on advanced concepts and...

  9. Engineering a de Novo Transport Tunnel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Březovský, J.; Babková, P.; Degtjarik, Oksana; Fořtová, A.; Gora, A.; Iermak, Iuliia; Řezáčová, Pavlína; Dvořák, P.; Kutá Smatanová, Ivana; Prokop, Z.; Chaloupková, R.; Damborský, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 11 (2016), s. 7597-7610 ISSN 2155-5435 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 ; RVO:68378050 Keywords : transport tunnel * protein engineering * protein design Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 10.614, year: 2016

  10. Computer graphic of LHC in the tunnel

    CERN Multimedia

    1996-01-01

    A computer-generated image of the LHC particle accelerator at CERN in the tunnel originally built for the LEP accelerator that was closed in 2000. The cross-section of an LHC superconducting dipole magnet is also seen.

  11. LEP sees the end of the tunnel

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    After 14 months, which have seen the removal of 30,000 tonnes of material from the tunnel, the LEP dismantling operation has now been completed. LHC installation, which will be subject to new safety rules, can go ahead.

  12. A century of wind tunnels since Eiffel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanetz, Bruno

    2017-08-01

    Fly higher, faster, preserve the life of test pilots and passengers, many challenges faced by man since the dawn of the twentieth century, with aviation pioneers. Contemporary of the first aerial exploits, wind tunnels, artificially recreating conditions encountered during the flight, have powerfully contributed to the progress of aeronautics. But the use of wind tunnels is not limited to aviation. The research for better performance, coupled with concern for energy saving, encourages manufacturers of ground vehicles to perform aerodynamic tests. Buildings and bridge structures are also concerned. This article deals principally with the wind tunnels built at ONERA during the last century. Somme wind tunnels outside ONERA, even outside France, are also evocated when their characteristics do not exist at ONERA.

  13. Low Speed Wind Tunnel Facility (LSWTF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: This facility consists of a large-scale, low-speed open-loop induction wind tunnel which has been modified to house a linear turbine cascade. A 125-hp...

  14. Dielectric Sensors Based on Electromagnetic Energy Tunneling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Omar; Kashanianfard, Mani; Ramahi, Omar

    2015-01-01

    We show that metallic wires embedded in narrow waveguide bends and channels demonstrate resonance behavior at specific frequencies. The electromagnetic energy at these resonances tunnels through the narrow waveguide channels with almost no propagation losses. Under the tunneling behavior, high-intensity electromagnetic fields are produced in the vicinity of the metallic wires. These intense field resonances can be exploited to build highly sensitive dielectric sensors. The sensor operation is explained with the help of full-wave simulations. A practical setup consisting of a 3D waveguide bend is presented to experimentally observe the tunneling phenomenon. The tunneling frequency is predicted by determining the input impedance minima through a variational formula based on the Green function of a probe-excited parallel plate waveguide. PMID:25835188

  15. Tunneling time in space fractional quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mohammad; Mandal, Bhabani Prasad

    2018-02-01

    We calculate the time taken by a wave packet to travel through a classically forbidden region of space in space fractional quantum mechanics. We obtain the close form expression of tunneling time from a rectangular barrier by stationary phase method. We show that tunneling time depends upon the width b of the barrier for b → ∞ and therefore Hartman effect doesn't exist in space fractional quantum mechanics. Interestingly we found that the tunneling time monotonically reduces with increasing b. The tunneling time is smaller in space fractional quantum mechanics as compared to the case of standard quantum mechanics. We recover the Hartman effect of standard quantum mechanics as a special case of space fractional quantum mechanics.

  16. Air quality assessment in Salim Slam Tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Fadel, M.; Hashisho, Z.; Saikaly, P.

    1999-01-01

    Full text.Vehicle emissions constitute a serious occupational environmental hazard particularly in confined spaces such as tunnels and underground parking garages. these emissions at elevated concentrations, can cause adverse health effects, which range from nausea and eye irritation to mutagenicity, carcinogenicity and even death. This paper presents an environmental air quality assessment in a tunnel located in a highly congested urban area. For this purpose, air samples were collected and analyzed for the presence of primary air pollutants, priority metals, and volatile organic carbons. Air quality modeling was conducted to simulate variations of pollutant concentrations in the tunnel under worst case scenarios including traffic congestion and no air ventilation. Field measurements and mathematical simulation results were used to develop a strategy for proper air quality management in tunnels

  17. Tunnel magnetoresistance in double spin filter junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saffarzadeh, Alireza

    2003-01-01

    We consider a new type of magnetic tunnel junction, which consists of two ferromagnetic tunnel barriers acting as spin filters (SFs), separated by a nonmagnetic metal (NM) layer. Using the transfer matrix method and the free-electron approximation, the dependence of the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) on the thickness of the central NM layer, bias voltage and temperature in the double SF junction are studied theoretically. It is shown that the TMR and electron-spin polarization in this structure can reach very large values under suitable conditions. The highest value of the TMR can reach 99%. By an appropriate choice of the thickness of the central NM layer, the degree of spin polarization in this structure will be higher than that of the single SF junctions. These results may be useful in designing future spin-polarized tunnelling devices

  18. Proton tunnelling in intermolecular hydrogen bonds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horsewill, A J [Nottingham Univ. (United Kingdom); Johnson, M R [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France); Trommsdorff, H P [Grenoble-1 Univ., 38 (France)

    1997-04-01

    The wavefunctions of particles extend beyond the classically accessible regions of potential energy-surfaces (PES). A manifestation of this partial delocalization is the quantum-mechanical tunneling effect which enables a particle to escape from a metastable potential-well. Tunnelling is most important for the lightest atoms, so that the determination of its contribution to proton transfer, one of the most fundamental chemical reactions, is an important issue. QENS and NMR techniques have been employed to study the motion of protons in the hydrogen bond of benzoic-acid crystals, a system which has emerged as a particularly suitable model since proton transfer occurs in a near symmetric double-well potential. The influence of quantum tunnelling was revealed and investigated in these experiments. This work provides an experimental benchmark for theoretical descriptions of translational proton-tunnelling. (author). 7 refs.

  19. TBM tunneling on the Yucca Mountain Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, J.P.; Hansmire, W.H.

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) is a scientific endeavor to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain for the first long-term, high-level nuclear waste repository in the United States. The current status of this long-term project from the construction perspective is described. A key element is construction of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Tunnel, which is being excavated with a 7.6 m (25 ft) diameter tunnel boring machine (TBM). Development of the ESF may include the excavation of over 15 km (9.3 mi) of tunnel varying in size from 3.0 to 7.6 m (10 to 25 ft). Prior to construction, extensive constructability reviews were an interactive part of the final design. The intent was to establish a constructable design that met the long-term stability requirements for radiological safety of a future repository, while maintaining flexibility for the scientific investigations and acceptable tunneling productivity

  20. Dynamical quenching of tunneling in molecular magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    José Santander, María, E-mail: maria.jose.noemi@gmail.com [Recursos Educativos Quántica, Santiago (Chile); Departamento de Física, Universidad de Santiago de Chile and CEDENNA, Avda. Ecuador 3493, Santiago (Chile); Nunez, Alvaro S., E-mail: alnunez@dfi.uchile.cl [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 487-3, Santiago (Chile); Roldán-Molina, A. [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Avenida Universidad 330, Curauma, Valparaíso (Chile); Troncoso, Roberto E., E-mail: r.troncoso.c@gmail.com [Centro para el Desarrollo de la Nanociencia y la Nanotecnología, CEDENNA, Avda. Ecuador 3493, Santiago 9170124 (Chile); Departamento de Física, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Avenida España 1680, Valparaíso (Chile)

    2015-12-15

    It is shown that a single molecular magnet placed in a rapidly oscillating magnetic field displays the phenomenon of quenching of tunneling processes. The results open a way to manipulate the quantum states of molecular magnets by means of radiation in the terahertz range. Our analysis separates the time evolution into slow and fast components thereby obtaining an effective theory for the slow dynamics. This effective theory presents quenching of the tunnel effect, in particular, stands out its difference with the so-called coherent destruction of tunneling. We support our prediction with numerical evidence based on an exact solution of Schrödinger's equation. - Highlights: • Single molecular magnets under rapidly oscillating magnetic fields is studied. • It is shown that this system displays the quenching of tunneling processes. • Our findings provide a control of quantum molecular magnets via terahertz radiation.