WorldWideScience

Sample records for ctfs continue ongoing

  1. CTFS-ForestGEO: a worldwide network monitoring forests in an era of global change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J. [Smithsonian Tropical Research Inst. (STRI), Panama (Panama). Center for Tropical Forest Science. Forest Global Earth Observatory; Smithsonian Conservation Biology Inst. (SCBI), Front Royal, VA (United States). National Zoological Park. Conservation Ecology Center; Davies, Stuart J. [Smithsonian Tropical Research Inst. (STRI), Panama (Panama). Center for Tropical Forest Science. Forest Global Earth Observatory; National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC (United States). Dept. of Botany; Bennett, Amy C. [Smithsonian Conservation Biology Inst. (SCBI), Front Royal, VA (United States). National Zoological Park. Conservation Ecology Center; Gonzalez-Akre, Erika B. [Smithsonian Conservation Biology Inst. (SCBI), Front Royal, VA (United States). National Zoological Park. Conservation Ecology Center; Muller-Landau, Helene C. [Smithsonian Tropical Research Inst. (STRI), Panama (Panama). Center for Tropical Forest Science. Forest Global Earth Observatory; Joseph Wright, S. [Smithsonian Tropical Research Inst. (STRI), Panama (Panama). Center for Tropical Forest Science. Forest Global Earth Observatory; Abu Salim, Kamariah [Univ. of Brunei Darussalam, Bandar Seri Begawan (Brunei). Faculty of Science. Environmental and Life Sciences; Almeyda Zambrano, Angélica M. [Smithsonian Conservation Biology Inst. (SCBI), Front Royal, VA (United States). National Zoological Park. Conservation Ecology Center; Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Stanford Woods Inst. for the Environment; Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States). Dept. of Geography; Alonso, Alfonso [Smithsonian Conservation Biology Inst., Washington, DC (United States). National Zoological Park. Center for Conservation Education and Sustainability; Baltzer, Jennifer L. [Wilfrid Laurier Univ., Waterloo, ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology; Basset, Yves [Smithsonian Tropical Research Inst. (STRI), Panama (Panama). Center for Tropical Forest Science. Forest Global Earth Observatory; Bourg, Norman A. [Smithsonian Conservation Biology Inst. (SCBI), Front Royal, VA (United States). National Zoological Park. Conservation Ecology Center; Broadbent, Eben N. [Smithsonian Conservation Biology Inst. (SCBI), Front Royal, VA (United States). National Zoological Park. Conservation Ecology Center; Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Stanford Woods Inst. for the Environment; Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States). Dept. of Geography; Brockelman, Warren Y. [Mahidol Univ., Bangkok (Thailand). Dept. of Biology; Bunyavejchewin, Sarayudh [Dept. of National Parks, Wildlife and Plant Conservation, Bangkok (Thailand). Research Office; Burslem, David F. R. P. [Univ. of Aberdeen (United Kingdom). School of Biological Sciences; Butt, Nathalie [Univ. of Queensland, St. Lucia (Australia). School of Biological Sciences; Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom). School of Geography and the Environment. Environmental Change Inst.; Cao, Min [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Kunming (China). Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden. Key Lab. of Tropical Forest Ecology; Cardenas, Dairon [Sinchi Amazonic Inst. of Scientific Research, Bogota (Colombia); Chuyong, George B. [Univ. of Buea (Cameroon). Dept. of Botany and Plant Physiology; Clay, Keith [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Biology; Cordell, Susan [USDA Forest Service, Hilo, HI (United States). Inst. of Pacific Islands Forestry; Dattaraja, Handanakere S. [Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore (India). Centre for Ecological Sciences; Deng, Xiaobao [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Kunming (China). Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden. Key Lab. of Tropical Forest Ecology; Detto, Matteo [Smithsonian Tropical Research Inst. (STRI), Panama (Panama). Center for Tropical Forest Science. Forest Global Earth Observatory; Du, Xiaojun [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China). Inst. of Botany; Duque, Alvaro [Univ. Nacional de Colombia, Medellin (Colombia). Dept. de Ciencias Forestales; Erikson, David L. [National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC (United States). Dept. of Botany

    2014-09-25

    Global change is impacting forests worldwide, threatening biodiversity and ecosystem services, including climate regulation. Understanding how forests respond is critical to forest conservation and climate protection. This review describes an international network of 59 long-term forest dynamic research sites useful for characterizing forest responses to global change. The broad suite of measurements made at the CTFS-ForestGEO sites make it possible to investigate the complex ways in which global change is impacting forest dynamics. ongoing research across the network is yielding insights into how and why the forests are changing, and continued monitoring will provide vital contributions to understanding worldwide forest diversity and dynamics in a era of global change

  2. Continuously on-going hindcast simulations for impact applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Ivonne; Geyer, Beate

    2016-04-01

    Observations for e.g. temperature, precipitation, radiation, or wind are often used as meteorological forcing for different impact models, like e.g. crop models, urban models, economic models and energy system models. To assess a climate signal, the time period covered by the observation is often too short, they have gaps in between, and are inhomogeneous over time, due to changes in the measurements itself or in the near surrounding. Thus output from global and regional climate models can close the gap and provide homogeneous and physically consistent time series of meteorological parameters. CORDEX evaluation runs performed for the IPCC-AR5 provide a good base for the regional scale. However, with respect to climate services, continuously on-going hindcast simulations are required for regularly updated applications. In this study two projects are presented where hindcast-simulations optimized for a region of interest are performed continuously. The hindcast simulation performed by HZG covering Europe includes the EURO-CORDEX domain with a wider extend to the north to cover the ice edge. The simulation under consideration of the coastDat-experiences is available for the period of 1979 - 2015, prolonged ongoing and fulfills the customer's needs with respect of output variables, levels, intervals and statistical measures. CoastDat - customers are dealing e.g. with naval architecture, renewable energies, offshore wind farming, shipping emissions, coastal flood risk and others. The evaluation of the hindcast is done for Europe by using the EVAL-tool of the CCLM community and by comparison with HYRAS - data for Germany and neighbouring countries. The Climate Research group at the national Austrian weather service, ZAMG, is focusing on high mountain regions and, especially on the Alps. The hindcast-simulation is forced by ERA-interim and optimized for the Alpine Region. One of the main tasks is to capture strong precipitation events which often occur during summer when

  3. CTFS/ForestGEO: A global network to monitor forest interactions with a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Teixeira, K. J.; Muller-Landau, H.; McMahon, S.; Davies, S. J.

    2013-12-01

    Forests are an influential component of the global carbon cycle and strongly influence Earth's climate. Climate change is altering the dynamics of forests globally, which may result in significant climate feedbacks. Forest responses to climate change entail both short-term ecophysiological responses and longer-term directional shifts in community composition. These short- and long-term responses of forest communities to climate change may be better understood through long-term monitoring of large forest plots globally using standardized methodology. Here, we describe a global network of forest research plots (CTFS/ForestGEO) of utility for understanding forest responses to climate change and consequent feedbacks to the climate system. CTFS/ForestGEO is an international network consisting of 51 sites ranging in size from 2-150 ha (median size: 25 ha) and spanning from 25°S to 52°N latitude. At each site, every individual > 1cm DBH is mapped and identified, and recruitment, growth, and mortality are monitored every 5 years. Additional measurements include aboveground productivity, carbon stocks, soil nutrients, plant functional traits, arthropod and vertebrates monitoring, DNA barcoding, airborne and ground-based LiDAR, micrometeorology, and weather monitoring. Data from this network are useful for understanding how forest ecosystem structure and function respond to spatial and temporal variation in abiotic drivers, parameterizing and evaluating ecosystem and earth system models, aligning airborne and ground-based measurements, and identifying directional changes in forest productivity and composition. For instance, CTFS/ForestGEO data have revealed that solar radiation and night-time temperature are important drivers of aboveground productivity in moist tropical forests; that tropical forests are mixed in terms of productivity and biomass trends over the past couple decades; and that the composition of Panamanian forests has shifted towards more drought

  4. Self-Leadership Change Project: The Continuation of an Ongoing Experiential Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, James I.; Kern, Dave; Tewari, Jitendra; Jones, Kenneth E.; Beemraj, Eshwar Prasad; Ettigi, Chaitra Ashok

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The self-leadership change project (SLCP) is an ongoing program for senior level students at a regional university designed to provide hands-on experience in building self-management skills, which is considered a pre-requisite by many leaders and scholars (e.g. Drucker, 1996; Schaetti et al., 2008). The paper aims to discuss this issue.…

  5. The impact of continuous and ongoing professional development on the nursing process of taking care of neurological patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopacević, Lenka; Mihelcić, Vesna Bozan; Antić, Sonja; Demarin, Vida

    2013-03-01

    Nurses distinguish continuous professional development intended for career improvement and personal development from continuous professional development intended for improvement of skills and knowledge. Too many requests are put in front of an individual unacceptably stretching it onto the life outside work. Students have various expectations from their education. Factors that motivate nurses to study are to improve knowledge, patient care and professional relations. Factors connected to personal development include boost of confidence and embracing of other values. Motivation for additional education is also connected to the change of work, practice improvement, self-confidence improvement, nursing career plans, and necessary intellectual stimulation. The reasons for which nurses decide to undertake further education are also desire for maintenance of clinical competence, but also enjoyment in studying itself. An employer who expects from nurses to opt for such a type of education or stimulate it is another common reason.

  6. Watchful Waiting in Continuous-Flow Left Ventricular Assist Device Patients With Ongoing Hemolysis Is Associated With an Increased Risk for Cerebrovascular Accident or Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Allison P; Saeed, Omar; Willey, Joshua Z; Levin, Charles J; Fried, Justin A; Patel, Snehal R; Sims, Daniel B; Nguyen, Jenni D; Shin, Julia J; Topkara, Veli K; Colombo, Paolo C; Goldstein, Daniel J; Naka, Yoshifumi; Takayama, Hiroo; Uriel, Nir; Jorde, Ulrich P

    2016-05-01

    Management of hemolysis in the setting of suspected device thrombosis in continuous-flow left ventricular assist device patients varies widely, ranging from watchful waiting with intensified antithrombotic therapy to early surgical device exchange. The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of hemolysis events treated with surgical interventions versus medical management alone. A retrospective review of Heartmate II continuous-flow left ventricular assist device patients at 2 centers from January 2009 to September 2014 was completed. Patients were categorized as surgical management if hemolysis refractory to intensification of standard antithrombotic therapy was treated surgically. The primary end point was the first occurrence of cerebrovascular accident (CVA) or death. Sixty-four hemolysis events occurred in 49/367 patients implanted with Heartmate II continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices. Of 49 primary hemolysis events, 24 were treated with surgical interventions. After surgical treatment, 1 patient died and 2 experienced CVAs, as compared with 3 deaths and 9 CVAs in the 25 patients who remained on intensified antithrombotic therapy alone. The 1-year freedom from CVA or death was 87.5% and 49.5% in the surgical and medical cohorts, respectively (P=0.027). Resolution of a primary hemolysis event without CVA or death occurred in 21/24 patients treated with surgical interventions and in 13/25 who remained on medical therapy alone. A similar association between treatment and outcome was noted in the 15 recurrent hemolysis events. Hemolysis refractory to intensification of antithrombotic therapy identifies continuous-flow left ventricular assist device patients at major risk for CVA and death. Early device exchange should be considered to minimize these risks. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. The Ongoing and Open-Ended Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    This case study explores a novel form of classroom simulation that differs from published examples in two important respects. First, it is ongoing. While most simulations represent a single learning episode embedded within a course, the ongoing simulation is a continuous set of interrelated events and decisions that accompany learning throughout…

  8. The Ongoing Catastrophe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kublitz, Anja

    intimacy, however, never seemed intimate but rather excessive: the sweets too sweet, the colours too bright, and the laughter too high-pitched. The stark contrast between the light chit-chat and the ongoing suffering of the individual women made these public get together not only pleasant but also...

  9. Semi-continuous ultrasonic sounding and changes of ultrasonic signal characteristics as a sensitive tool for the evaluation of ongoing microstructural changes of experimental mortar bars tested for their ASR potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokajíček, T; Kuchařová, A; Petružálek, M; Šachlová, Š; Svitek, T; Přikryl, R

    2016-09-01

    Semi-continuous ultrasonic sounding of experimental mortar bars used in the accelerated alkali silica reactivity laboratory test (ASTM C1260) is proposed as a supplementary measurement technique providing data that are highly sensitive to minor changes in the microstructure of hardening/deteriorating concrete mixture. A newly designed, patent pending, heating chamber was constructed allowing ultrasonic sounding of mortar bars, stored in accelerating solution without necessity to remove the test specimens from the bath during the measurement. Subsequent automatic data analysis of recorded ultrasonic signals proved their high correlation to the measured length changes (expansion) and their high sensitivity to microstructural changes. The changes of P-wave velocity, and of the energy, amplitude, and frequency of ultrasonic signal, were in the range of 10-80%, compared to 0.51% change of the length. Results presented in this study thus show that ultrasonic sounding seems to be more sensitive to microstructural changes due to ongoing deterioration of concrete microstructure by alkali-silica reaction than the dimensional changes.

  10. Managing Ongoing EVSE Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, Cabell [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-05

    The costs associated with EVSE begin with picking the best location and unit for the job, but they continue with electricity and network charges through the life of your vehicle. This presentation tells how to balance electricity demand charges and network management costs through smart planning at your program's inception.

  11. The Ongoing Catastrophe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kublitz, Anja

    2015-01-01

    were expelled from their homeland. However, according to my interlocutors, al-Nakba never stopped, but continues in the present. To understand this phenomenon, I suggest that it is conducive to think of al-Nakba as a reverse national myth, a figure of un-becoming, which is replicated in the present. I...... argue that, unlike the spectacular catastrophes in Palestine and later in Lebanon, life in the Danish camps is characterized by minor mundane catastrophes that are each so small that they barely register or elicit a moral response, but nevertheless erode the lives of my interlocutors....

  12. Ongoing incestuous abuse during adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Warwick

    2013-01-01

    Individual cases of adult incestuous abuse have surfaced repeatedly in the lay and professional literature of the past 1.5 centuries without it occasioning systematic investigation, such as the reporting of a case series of individuals subjected to such extreme abuse. Yet substantial numbers of patients with dissociative identity disorder at the time of presentation report incestuous abuse continuing into the adult years, and for many the abuse is ongoing. Data relating to a series of 10 such incestuously abused women are presented. These patients were sexually abused from a very early age (typically from before age 3), with the manipulation of their sexual response a key component in conditioning an enduring sexualized attachment. Shame and fear were also used to ensure compliance and silence. The women, when able to speak of it, describe the induction by their paternal abuser of orgasm at an early age, typically around the age of 6. The women have high indices of self-harm and suicidality and are prone to placing themselves in dangerous reenactment scenarios. The average duration of incestuous abuse for this group of women was 31 years, and the average estimate of total episodes of sexual abuse was 3,320. Most women do not feel that they own their body and experience being "fused" to their father. Their mother was reported as an active participant in the sexual abuse or as having done nothing to protect their daughter despite seeing obvious evidence of incest. The fathers, despite a propensity to use or threaten violence, were generally outwardly productively employed, financially comfortable, and stably married and half had close church involvement. However, suicide and murder occurred within the 1st- or 2nd-degree relatives of these women at a high frequency. All 10 had been sexually abused by various groupings of individuals connected to their fathers.

  13. [Ongoing Health Education in Brazil:education or ongoing management?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Cristiane Lopes Simão

    2016-03-01

    The scope of this study was to analyze the concept and principles of Ongoing Health Education (OHE) - the Brazilian acronym is PNEPS. The methodology was based on the analysis of documents from the Ministry of Health and related scientific articles. It was revealed that the concept of OHE transcends its pedagogical significance and is undergoing a service restructuring process in the face of the new demands of the model. Precisely at the time in which jobs are increasingly unstable and precarious, the Ministry of Health engages in discourse regarding innovative management, focusing on the issue of OHE. The idea is not one of ongoing education, but of ongoing management. Rather than being an instrument for radical transformation, OHE becomes an attractive ideology due to its appearance as a pedagogical novelty.

  14. Continuous auditing & continuous monitoring : Continuous value?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hillo, Rutger; Weigand, Hans; Espana, S; Ralyte, J; Souveyet, C

    2016-01-01

    Advancements in information technology, new laws and regulations and rapidly changing business conditions have led to a need for more timely and ongoing assurance with effectively working controls. Continuous Auditing (CA) and Continuous Monitoring (CM) technologies have made this possible by obtain

  15. Continuous auditing & continuous monitoring : Continuous value?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hillo, Rutger; Weigand, Hans; Espana, S; Ralyte, J; Souveyet, C

    2016-01-01

    Advancements in information technology, new laws and regulations and rapidly changing business conditions have led to a need for more timely and ongoing assurance with effectively working controls. Continuous Auditing (CA) and Continuous Monitoring (CM) technologies have made this possible by obtain

  16. Continuous auditing & continuous monitoring : Continuous value?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hillo, Rutger; Weigand, Hans; Espana, S; Ralyte, J; Souveyet, C

    2016-01-01

    Advancements in information technology, new laws and regulations and rapidly changing business conditions have led to a need for more timely and ongoing assurance with effectively working controls. Continuous Auditing (CA) and Continuous Monitoring (CM) technologies have made this possible by

  17. Universal patterns underlying ongoing wars and terrorism

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, N F; Restrepo, J A; Becerra, O; Bohorquez, J C; Suárez, N; Restrepo, E M; Zarama, R; Johnson, Neil F.; Spagat, Mike; Restrepo, Jorge A.; Becerra, Oscar; Bohorquez, Juan Camilo; Suarez, Nicolas; Restrepo, Elvira Maria; Zarama, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    We report a remarkable universality in the patterns of violence arising in three high-profile ongoing wars, and in global terrorism. Our results suggest that these quite different conflict arenas currently feature a common type of enemy, i.e. the various insurgent forces are beginning to operate in a similar way regardless of their underlying ideologies, motivations and the terrain in which they operate. We provide a microscopic theory to explain our main observations. This theory treats the insurgent force as a generic, self-organizing system which is dynamically evolving through the continual coalescence and fragmentation of its constituent groups.

  18. Ongoing Projects on Serious Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Vaz de Carvalho

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This number of the EAI Transactions on Serious Games is dedicated to a set of ongoing research and development projects in this area. The selected articles represent very well the diversity of approaches, contexts and objectives that foster and render highly dynamic this area of study. In Europe, several funding programmes like the 7th Framework Programme, the Lifelong Learning Programme and the most recent Horizon 2020 made specific provisions to support Serious Games projects. At the same time, enterprises are recognizing more and more the potential of SG to train and to motivate their workforce and are therefore joining forces with the academy and SG producers to design specific SG. Serious Games became one of the most interesting “places to be” due to its growing scientific and practitioner community. We can say that the motivating and addictive character of games has been successfully transmitted to the research and development of Serious Games.

  19. Anencephaly: An Ongoing Investigation in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Sara

    2016-03-01

    : In the spring of 2012, a nurse in Washington State detected a cluster of babies born with anencephaly-a fatal condition in which infants are born without parts of the brain or skull. The resulting investigation initially confirmed a rate of anencephaly between January 2010 and January 2013 of 8.4 per 10,000 live births-more than four times the national average. As of November 2015, cases of anencephaly in Washington State have continued to increase, with the current rate estimated at 9.5 per 10,000 live births. While no distinct cause has yet been determined, neural tube defects-including anencephaly-are known to have multiple causes, including folic acid deficit, genetic variants in the folate pathway, and exposure to a variety of environmental and occupational toxins. This article describes many of these risk factors and explores the findings of Washington's ongoing investigation.

  20. Epilepsy genetics: the ongoing revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesca, G; Depienne, C

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsies have long remained refractory to gene identification due to several obstacles, including a highly variable inter- and intrafamilial expressivity of the phenotypes, a high frequency of phenocopies, and a huge genetic heterogeneity. Recent technological breakthroughs, such as array comparative genomic hybridization and next generation sequencing, have been leading, in the past few years, to the identification of an increasing number of genomic regions and genes in which mutations or copy-number variations cause various epileptic disorders, revealing an enormous diversity of pathophysiological mechanisms. The field that has undergone the most striking revolution is that of epileptic encephalopathies, for which most of causing genes have been discovered since the year 2012. Some examples are the continuous spike-and-waves during slow-wave sleep and Landau-Kleffner syndromes for which the recent discovery of the role of GRIN2A mutations has finally confirmed the genetic bases. These new technologies begin to be used for diagnostic applications, and the main challenge now resides in the interpretation of the huge mass of variants detected by these methods. The identification of causative mutations in epilepsies provides definitive confirmation of the clinical diagnosis, allows accurate genetic counselling, and sometimes permits the development of new appropriate and specific antiepileptic therapies. Future challenges include the identification of the genetic or environmental factors that modify the epileptic phenotypes caused by mutations in a given gene and the understanding of the role of somatic mutations in sporadic epilepsies.

  1. Ongoing Mars Missions: Extended Mission Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurek, Richard; Diniega, Serina; Crisp, Joy; Fraeman, Abigail; Golombek, Matt; Jakosky, Bruce; Plaut, Jeff; Senske, David A.; Tamppari, Leslie; Thompson, Thomas W.; Vasavada, Ashwin R.

    2016-10-01

    Many key scientific discoveries in planetary science have been made during extended missions. This is certainly true for the Mars missions both in orbit and on the planet's surface. Every two years, ongoing NASA planetary missions propose investigations for the next two years. This year, as part of the 2016 Planetary Sciences Division (PSD) Mission Senior Review, the Mars Odyssey (ODY) orbiter project submitted a proposal for its 7th extended mission, the Mars Exploration Rover (MER-B) Opportunity submitted for its 10th, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) for its 4th, and the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover and the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MVN) orbiter for their 2nd extended missions, respectively. Continued US participation in the ongoing Mars Express Mission (MEX) was also proposed. These missions arrived at Mars in 2001, 2004, 2006, 2012, 2014, and 2003, respectively. Highlights of proposed activities include systematic observations of the surface and atmosphere in twilight (early morning and late evening), building on a 13-year record of global mapping (ODY); exploration of a crater rim gully and interior of Endeavour Crater, while continuing to test what can and cannot be seen from orbit (MER-B); refocused observations of ancient aqueous deposits and polar cap interiors, while adding a 6th Mars year of change detection in the atmosphere and the surface (MRO); exploration and sampling by a rover of mineralogically diverse strata of Mt. Sharp and of atmospheric methane in Gale Crater (MSL); and further characterization of atmospheric escape under different solar conditions (MVN). As proposed, these activities follow up on previous discoveries (e.g., recurring slope lineae, habitable environments), while expanding spatial and temporal coverage to guide new detailed observations. An independent review panel evaluated these proposals, met with project representatives in May, and made recommendations to NASA in June 2016. In this

  2. Methylated spirit burns: an ongoing problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansbeken, J R H; Vloemans, A F P M; Tempelman, F R H; Breederveld, R S

    2012-09-01

    Despite many educational campaigns we still see burns caused by methylated spirit every year. We undertook a retrospective study to analyse the impact of this problem. We retrospectively collected data of all patients with burns caused by methylated spirit over twelve years from 1996 to 2008. Our main endpoints were: incidence, age, mechanism of injury, total body surface area (TBSA) burned, burn depth, need for surgery and length of hospital stay. Ninety-seven patients with methylated spirit burns were included. During the study period there was no decrease in the number of patients annually admitted to the burn unit with methylated spirit burns. 28% of the patients (n=27) were younger than eighteen years old, 15% (n=15) were ten years old or younger. The most common cause of burns was carelessness in activities involving barbecues, campfires and fondues. Mean TBSA burned was 16% (SD 12.4). 70% (n=68) had full thickness burns. 66% (n=64) needed grafting. Mean length of hospital stay was 23 days (SD 24.7). The use of methylated spirit is an ongoing problem, which continues to cause severe burns in adults and children. Therefore methylated spirit should be banned in households. We suggest sale only in specialised shops, clear labelling and mandatory warnings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  3. Bioequivalence accomplishments, ongoing initiatives, and remaining challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, M N

    2014-02-01

    Although bioequivalence (BE) concepts date back to the late 1960s, there has been a steady evolution in the tools applied to the assessment of product comparability. Despite these advancements, we continue to face a multitude of unresolved challenges. Several of these challenges are unique to veterinary medicine due to issues such as multiple species approvals, unique dosage forms (e.g., intramammary infusion and medicated premixes), physiological challenges (e.g., limitations in blood volume and stress reactions), and the need to evaluate product equivalence for products intended to release drug over a duration of months. Thus, while in some instances, we can adopt advancements implemented by our human health counterparts but in other situations, we need to pioneer our own method for resolving these challenges. The purpose of this manuscript is to provide an update on recent advances, achievements, and ongoing initiatives associated with the assessment of product BE in veterinary medicine. This review reflects the highlights of a presentation given at the 2012 meeting of the European Association for Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology. Published (2013). This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  4. Ongoing Model Development Analyzing Glass Fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molnar, G.; Bojtar, I.; Nielsen, Jens Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Present subject deals with an ongoing experimental and numerical analysis of inplane loaded glass plates. The main goal of the investigation is to develop a hybrid – discrete and finite element – model which could follow the fracture process in annealed and in tempered glass. Measurements...

  5. Placental Development in Ongoing Pregnancy and Miscarriage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.D. Reus (Averil)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In this thesis three-dimensional ultrasound, three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasound, virtual reality and histologic examination of the chorionic villous vascularization were used to investigate early placental development in normal ongoing pregnancy as well as misca

  6. Ongoing Model Development Analyzing Glass Fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molnar, G.; Bojtar, I.; Nielsen, Jens Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Present subject deals with an ongoing experimental and numerical analysis of inplane loaded glass plates. The main goal of the investigation is to develop a hybrid – discrete and finite element – model which could follow the fracture process in annealed and in tempered glass. Measurements...... an overview of the structure of the research and a summary of current status archived so far....

  7. EIDA Next Generation: ongoing and future developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strollo, Angelo; Quinteros, Javier; Sleeman, Reinoud; Trani, Luca; Clinton, John; Stammler, Klaus; Danecek, Peter; Pedersen, Helle; Ionescu, Constantin

    2015-04-01

    The European Integrated Data Archive (EIDA; http://www.orfeus-eu.org/eida/eida.html) is the distributed Data Centre system within ORFEUS, providing transparent access and services to high quality, seismic data across (currently) 9 large data archives in Europe. EIDA is growing, in terms of the number of participating data centres, the size of the archives, the variability of the data in the archives, the number of users, and the volume of downloads. The on-going success of EIDA is thus providing challenges that are the driving force behind the design of the next generation (NG) of EIDA, which is expected to be implemented within EPOS IP. EIDA ORFEUS must cope with further expansion of the system and more complex user requirements by developing new techniques and extended services. The EIDA NG is being designed to work on standard FDSN web services and two additional new web services: Routing Service and QC (quality controlled) service. This presentation highlights the challenges EIDA needs to address during the EPOS IP and focuses on these 2 new services. The Routing Service can be considered as the core of EIDA NG. It was designed to assist users and clients to locate data within a federated, decentralized data centre (e.g. EIDA). A detailed, FDSN-compliant specification of the service has been developed. Our implementation of this service will run at every EIDA node, but is also capable of running on a user's computer, allowing anyone to define virtual or integrate existing data centres. This (meta)service needs to be queried in order to locate the data. Some smart clients (in a beta status) have been also provided to offer the user an integrated view of the whole EIDA, hiding the complexity of its internal structure. The service is open and able to be queried by anyone without the need of credentials or authentication. The QC Service is developed to cope with user requirements to query for relevant data only. The web service provides detailed information on the

  8. Eye-movements and ongoing task processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, David T; Meleger, Alec; Schneider, Jeffrey C; Snyder, Jim; Dorvlo, Atsu S S; Al-Adawi, Samir

    2003-06-01

    This study tests the relation between eye-movements and thought processing. Subjects were given specific modality tasks (visual, gustatory, kinesthetic) and assessed on whether they responded with distinct eye-movements. Some subjects' eye-movements reflected ongoing thought processing. Instead of a universal pattern, as suggested by the neurolinguistic programming hypothesis, this study yielded subject-specific idiosyncratic eye-movements across all modalities. Included is a discussion of the neurolinguistic programming hypothesis regarding eye-movements and its implications for the eye-movement desensitization and reprocessing theory.

  9. The Fukushima nuclear disaster is ongoing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Andrew R

    2016-07-01

    The 5th anniversary of the Fukushima disaster and the 30th anniversary of the Chernobyl disaster, the two most catastrophic nuclear accidents in history, both occurred recently. Images of Chernobyl are replete with the international sign of radioactive contamination (a circle with three broad spokes radiating outward in a yellow sign). In contrast, ongoing decontamination efforts at Fukushima lack international warnings about radioactivity. Decontamination workers at Fukushima appear to be poorly protected against radiation. It is almost as if the effort is to make the Fukushima problem disappear. A more useful response would be to openly acknowledge the monumental problems inherent in managing a nuclear plant disaster. Lessons from Chernobyl are the best predictors of what the Fukushima region of Japan is coping with in terms of health and environmental problems following a nuclear catastrophe.

  10. Ongoing challenges in the management of malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokwaro, Gilbert

    2009-10-12

    This article gives an overview of some of the ongoing challenges that are faced in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of malaria. Malaria causes approximately 881,000 deaths every year, with nine out of ten deaths occurring in sub-Saharan Africa. In addition to the human burden of malaria, the economic burden is vast. It is thought to cost African countries more than US$12 billion every year in direct losses. However, great progress in malaria control has been made in some highly endemic countries. Vector control is assuming a new importance with the significant reductions in malaria burden achieved using combined malaria control interventions in countries such as Zanzibar, Zambia and Rwanda. The proportion of patients treated for malaria who have a confirmed diagnosis is low in Africa compared with other regions of the world, with the result that anti-malarials could be used to treat patients without malaria, especially in areas where progress has been made in reducing the malaria burden and malaria epidemiology is changing. Inappropriate administration of anti-malarials could contribute to the spread of resistance and incurs unnecessary costs. Parasite resistance to almost all commonly used anti-malarials has been observed in the most lethal parasite species, Plasmodium falciparum. This has presented a major barrier to successful disease management in malaria-endemic areas. ACT (artemisinin-based combination therapy) has made a significant contribution to malaria control and to reducing disease transmission through reducing gametocyte carriage. Administering ACT to infants and small children can be difficult and time consuming. Specially formulating anti-malarials for this vulnerable population is vital to ease administration and help ensure that an accurate dose is received. Education of healthworkers and communities about malaria prevention, diagnosis and treatment is a vital component of effective case management, especially as diagnostic policies change

  11. The Rare Cancer Network: ongoing studies and future strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Ozsahin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Rare Cancer Network (RCN was formed in the early 1990’s to create a global network that could pool knowledge and resources in the studies of rare malignancies whose infrequency prevented both their study with prospective clinical trials. To date, the RCN has initiated 74 studies resulting in 46 peer reviewed publications. The First International Symposium of the Rare Cancer Network took place in Nice in March of 2014. Status updates and proposals for new studies were heard for fifteen topics. Ongoing studies continue for cardiac sarcomas, thyroid cancers, glomus tumors, and adult medulloblastomas. New proposals were presented at the symposium for primary hepatic lymphoma, solitary fibrous tumors, Rosai-Dorfman disease, tumors of the ampulla of Vater, salivary gland tumors, anorectal melanoma, midline nuclear protein in testes carcinoma, pulmonary lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma of the trachea, osteosarcomas of the mandible, and extra-cranial hemangiopericytoma. This manuscript presents the abstracts of those proposals and updates on ongoing studies, as well a brief summary of the vision and future of the RCN.

  12. Ongoing Space Nuclear Systems Development in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Bragg-Sitton; J. Werner; S. Johnson; Michael G. Houts; Donald T. Palac; Lee S. Mason; David I. Poston; A. Lou Qualls

    2011-10-01

    Reliable, long-life power systems are required for ambitious space exploration missions. Nuclear power and propulsion options can enable a bold, new set of missions and introduce propulsion capabilities to achieve access to science destinations that are not possible with more conventional systems. Space nuclear power options can be divided into three main categories: radioisotope power for heating or low power applications; fission power systems for non-terrestrial surface application or for spacecraft power; and fission power systems for electric propulsion or direct thermal propulsion. Each of these areas has been investigated in the United States since the 1950s, achieving various stages of development. While some nuclear systems have achieved flight deployment, others continue to be researched today. This paper will provide a brief overview of historical space nuclear programs in the U.S. and will provide a summary of the ongoing space nuclear systems research, development, and deployment in the United States.

  13. Dry needling versus acupuncture: the ongoing debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kehua; Ma, Yan; Brogan, Michael S

    2015-12-01

    Although Western medical acupuncture (WMA) is commonly practised in the UK, a particular approach called dry needling (DN) is becoming increasingly popular in other countries. The legitimacy of the use of DN by conventional non-physician healthcare professionals is questioned by acupuncturists. This article describes the ongoing debate over the practice of DN between physical therapists and acupuncturists, with a particular emphasis on the USA. DN and acupuncture share many similarities but may differ in certain aspects. Currently, little information is available from the literature regarding the relationship between the two needling techniques. Through reviewing their origins, theory, and practice, we found that DN and acupuncture overlap in terms of needling technique with solid filiform needles as well as some fundamental theories. Both WMA and DN are based on modern biomedical understandings of the human body, although DN arguably represents only one subcategory of WMA. The increasing volume of research into needling therapy explains its growing popularity in the musculoskeletal field including sports medicine. To resolve the debate over DN practice, we call for the establishment of a regulatory body to accredit DN courses and a formal, comprehensive educational component and training for healthcare professionals who are not physicians or acupuncturists. Because of the close relationship between DN and acupuncture, collaboration rather than dispute between acupuncturists and other healthcare professionals should be encouraged with respect to education, research, and practice for the benefit of patients with musculoskeletal conditions who require needling therapy.

  14. Consequences of ongoing retrotransposition in mammalian genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxwell PH

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Patrick H Maxwell Department of Biological Sciences, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY, USA Abstract: Retrotransposons can have significant influences on gene expression and genome stability through their ability to integrate reverse-transcript copies of their sequences at new genomic locations by retrotransposition. These elements have been long known to retrotranspose in mammalian germ cells to give rise to inherited insertion alleles, but more recent work has also shown that retrotransposition can occur in mammalian somatic cells, particularly in brain tissue and tumors. Retrotransposition makes appreciable contributions to spontaneous disease-causing alleles in humans and a more significant contribution to spontaneous mutations in mice. Genome-wide studies have found high levels of polymorphic retrotransposon insertions in human populations that are consistent with ongoing retrotransposition. Many insertions do not disrupt exons, but insertions into introns or flanking genes can alter gene expression patterns, generate truncated or antisense gene transcripts, alter splicing patterns, or result in premature polyadenylation of gene transcripts. Furthermore, the very high genomic copy numbers of these elements can lead to nonallelic homologous recombination events that produce gene deletions/duplications and genome rearrangements, and can also lead to evolution of particular insertions or types of elements to have cellular functions through exaptation. Mobility of these elements occurs despite multiple epigenetic mechanisms to restrict their expression. While the potential for retrotransposons to significantly influence mammalian health and cellular functions is clear, substantial research efforts will be needed to fully elucidate the actual contributions of natural levels of mobility of endogenous elements to the health and development of humans and other mammals. Keywords: retrotransposon, human, mouse, mutations, epigenetics

  15. Ongoing dengue epidemic - Angola, June 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    On April 1, 2013, the Public Health Directorate of Angola announced that six cases of dengue had been reported to the Ministry of Health of Angola (MHA). As of May 31, a total of 517 suspected dengue cases had been reported and tested for dengue with a rapid diagnostic test (RDT). A total of 313 (60.5%) specimens tested positive for dengue, including one from a patient who died. All suspected cases were reported from Luanda Province, except for two from Malanje Province. Confirmatory diagnostic testing of 49 specimens (43 RDT-positive and six RDT-negative) at the CDC Dengue Branch confirmed dengue virus (DENV) infection in 100% of the RDT-positive specimens and 50% of the RDT-negative specimens. Only DENV-1 was detected by molecular diagnostic testing. Phylogenetic analysis indicated this virus has been circulating in the region since at least 1968, strongly suggesting that dengue is endemic in Angola. Health-care professionals throughout Angola should be aware of the ongoing epidemic, the recommended practices for clinical management of dengue patients, and the need to report cases to MHA. Persons in Angola should seek medical care for acute febrile illness to reduce the risk for developing complications. Laboratory-confirmed dengue also has been reported from seven countries on four continents among persons who had recently traveled to Luanda, including 79 persons from Portugal. Angola is the third of four African countries to report a dengue outbreak in 2013. Persons returning from Africa with acute febrile illness should seek medical care, including testing for DENV infection, and suspected cases should be reported to public health authorities.

  16. Ongoing Threats to Emerging Financial Entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryce Alexander LYNCH

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the twenty-first century the pace of technological advancement shows no signs of stopping. Old technologies are being discarded as obsolete or are transformed in ways that nobody could have foreseen even a half-decade ago. Along with these radical changes come vulnerabilities and threats to infrastructure, including informational and financial which must be considered and protected. This is not to say that basic security measures must continue to be neglected in favor of rapid development and deployment to provide a Minimum Viable Product to customers; basic security protocols become all the more important under these circumstances. Improving faster are attacks against the new infrastructure; technique and technology tend to change along generally accepted sets of rules while attackers follow no rules or guidelines. This fundamental asymmetry leaves defenders at a distinct advantage in several ways, including ethical concerns (“There are some lines we will not cross” versus “By any means necessary”, monetary considerations (“Return on investment” versus “The resources aren’t ours to begin with, so who cares” and pragmatism (“We exist to make money to improve shareholder value” versus “Because it’s there”. That said, measurable, repeatable, and effective countermeasures exist which can be deployed on an enterprise-wide basis to help level the playing field by deterring attackers. This paper will discuss these threats along with active and passive countermeasures for same.

  17. New insights in the ongoing surge of the Austfonna icecap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberger, T.; Dunse, T.; Kääb, A.; Hagen, J. O.; Schuler, T.; Reijmer, C.

    2014-12-01

    Basin-3, a major drainage basin of the Austfonna icecap in NE-Svalbard switched to full surge mode in autumn 2012 after a multiannual, stepwise acceleration of its northern branch. A time series of velocity maps from repeat TerraSAR-X acquisitions revealed a maximum speed at the terminus of >18 m d-1 around the turn of the year 2012. The frontal ablation of Basin-3 was estimated to 4.2±1.6 Gt a-1 between April 2012 and May 2013, tripling the total dynamic mass loss from the largest icecap in the Eurasian arctic. Today, TerraSAR-X, Radarsat-2 and GPS data show that the surge is still ongoing. While the speed at the calving front dropped to 10 m d-1 until July 2014, areas further inland continued to accelerate after the climax, and 10 m d-1 were also measured ~20 km inland in summer 2014. This development will be further investigated by exploiting a time series of velocity maps based on Radarsat-2 Fine Beam data starting from July 2014, which will, other than the TerraSAR-X data, cover almost the entire fast flowing part of the basin. By combining both datasets we will extend the estimation of the frontal ablation and related sea-level rise contribution of the Basin-3 surge.

  18. Turtles to Terabytes: The Ongoing Revolution in Volcano Geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzurisin, D.

    2015-12-01

    Volcano geodesy is in the midst of a revolution. GPS and InSAR, together with extensive ground-based sensor networks, have enabled major advances in understanding how and why volcanoes deform. Surveying techniques that produced a few bytes of information per benchmark per year have been replaced by continuously operating deformation networks and imaging radar satellites that generate terabytes of data at resolutions unattainable only a few decades ago. These developments have enabled more detailed assessments of volcano hazards, more accurate forecasts of volcanic activity, and better insights into how volcanoes behave over a variety of spatial and temporal scales. Forty years ago, repeated leveling surveys showed that the floor of the Yellowstone caldera had risen more than 70 cm in the past 5 decades. Today a network of GPS stations tracks surface movements continuously with millimeter-scale accuracy and the entire deformation field is imaged frequently by a growing number of SAR satellites, revealing a far more complex style of deformation than was recognized previously. At Mount St. Helens, the 1980-1986 eruption taught us that a seemingly quiescent volcano can suddenly become overtly restless, and that accurate eruption predictions are possible at least in some limited circumstances given sufficient observations. The lessons were revisited during the volcano's 2004-2008 eruption, during which a new generation of geodetic sensors and methods detected a range of co-eruptive changes that enabled new insights into the volcano's magma storage and transport system. These examples highlight volcano deformation styles and scales that were unknown just a few decades ago but now have been revealed by a growing number of data types and modeling methods. The rapid evolution that volcano geodesy is currently experiencing provides an ongoing challenge for geodesists, while also demonstrating that geodetic unrest is common, widespread, and illuminating. Vive la révolution!

  19. Buyer-Seller Interaction Patterns During Ongoing Service Exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. van der Valk (Wendy)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis dissertation focuses on the ongoing interactions that take place between buyers and sellers of business services after the contract has been signed. This ongoing interaction is important since services are produced and consumed simultaneously; therefore, both buyer and seller have t

  20. The ongoing Digitalization of an Introductory Programming Course

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørmark, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    This paper is about the ongoing digitalization of a C programming course. The paper describes our considerations about the use of video resources, as well as other digital learning resources. In particular, we discuss the ongoing transition from using a number of supplementary videos (in...

  1. Environmental impact of ongoing sources of metal contamination on remediated sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, Anna Sophia, E-mail: anna.knox@srn.doe.gov [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Paller, Michael H., E-mail: michael.paller@srnl.doe.gov [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Milliken, Charles E., E-mail: charles.milliken@srnl.doe.gov [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Redder, Todd M., E-mail: tredder@limno.com [LimnoTech, Ann Arbor, Minnesota 48108 (United States); Wolfe, John R., E-mail: jwolfe@limno.com [LimnoTech, Ann Arbor, Minnesota 48108 (United States); Seaman, John, E-mail: seaman@srel.uga.edu [Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, University of Georgia, Aiken, SC 29802 (United States)

    2016-09-01

    A challenge to all remedial approaches for contaminated sediments is the continued influx of contaminants from uncontrolled sources following remediation. We investigated the effects of ongoing contamination in mesocosms employing sediments remediated by different types of active and passive caps and in-situ treatment. Our hypothesis was that the sequestering agents used in active caps and in situ treatment will bind elements (arsenic, chromium, cadmium, cobalt, copper, nickel, lead, selenium, and zinc) from ongoing sources thereby reducing their bioavailability and protecting underlying remediated sediments from recontamination. Most element concentrations in surface water remained significantly lower in mesocosms with apatite and mixed amendment caps than in mesocosms with passive caps (sand), uncapped sediment, and spike solution throughout the 2520 h experiment. Element concentrations were significantly higher in Lumbriculus variegatus from untreated sediment than in Lumbriculus from most active caps. Pearson correlations between element concentrations in Lumbriculus and metal concentrations in the top 2.5 cm of sediment or cap measured by diffusive gradient in thin films (DGT) sediment probes were generally strong (as high as 0.98) and significant (p < 0.05) for almost all tested elements. Metal concentrations in both Lumbriculus and sediment/cap were lowest in apatite, mixed amendment, and activated carbon treatments. These findings show that some active caps can protect remediated sediments by reducing the bioavailable pool of metals/metalloids in ongoing sources of contamination. - Graphical abstract: Conventional methods of remediating contaminated sediments may be inadequate for the protection of benthic organisms when ongoing sources of contamination are present. However, sediment caps with chemically active sequestering agents have the ability to reduce the bioavailable pool of metals in ongoing sources of contamination (red dots), reduce toxicity to

  2. Risk Stratification in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: An Ongoing Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omry-Orbach, Gal

    2016-01-28

    Thyroid cancer is an increasingly common malignancy, with a rapidly rising prevalence worldwide. The social and economic ramifications of the increase in thyroid cancer are multiple. Though mortality from thyroid cancer is low, and most patients will do well, the risk of recurrence is not insignificant, up to 30%. Therefore, it is important to accurately identify those patients who are more or less likely to be burdened by their disease over years and tailor their treatment plan accordingly. The goal of risk stratification is to do just that. The risk stratification process generally starts postoperatively with histopathologic staging, based on the AJCC/UICC staging system as well as others designed to predict mortality. These do not, however, accurately assess the risk of recurrence/persistence. Patients initially considered to be at high risk may ultimately do very well yet be burdened by frequent unnecessary monitoring. Conversely, patients initially thought to be low risk, may not respond to their initial treatment as expected and, if left unmonitored, may have higher morbidity. The concept of risk-adaptive management has been adopted, with an understanding that risk stratification for differentiated thyroid cancer is dynamic and ongoing. A multitude of variables not included in AJCC/UICC staging are used initially to classify patients as low, intermediate, or high risk for recurrence. Over the course of time, a response-to-therapy variable is incorporated, and patients essentially undergo continuous risk stratification. Additional tools such as biochemical markers, genetic mutations, and molecular markers have been added to this complex risk stratification process such that this is essentially a continuum of risk. In recent years, additional considerations have been discussed with a suggestion of pre-operative risk stratification based on certain clinical and/or biologic characteristics. With the increasing prevalence of thyroid cancer but stable mortality

  3. Kilauea's Ongoing Eruption: 25th Year Brings Major Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, T. R.

    2007-12-01

    2007 marks the 25th year of nearly continuous eruption on Kilauea's east rift zone. Episodic high lava fountains, which built the Pu`u `O`o cone during the first three years of the eruption, ended in 1986. Activity then migrated downrift and the Kupaianaha shield was formed by passive effusion of lava. The change in eruptive style resulted in a switch at Pu`u `O`o from cone construction to cone collapse that has been ongoing for the last two decades. Activity at Kupaianaha ceased in 1992, and the eruption resumed at Pu`u `O`o. The eruptive style established at Kupaianaha continued, however, with continuous effusion from vents on the southwest flank of the Pu`u `O`o cone. The last 15 years have been characterized by the formation of relatively stable tube systems---broken only by a brief fissure eruption uprift of Pu`u `O`o in 1997---that have carried lava from the flank vents to the ocean about 9 km away. The Prince Kuhio Kalanianaole (PKK) tube, the most recent of these tube systems to develop, was active from March 2004 to June 2007. The PKK flow was emplaced almost entirely on older flows of this eruption and entered the ocean in several locations over a span of 6 km. The "Father's Day" intrusion of June 17--19, 2007, robbed the supply of magma to Pu`u `O`o and, thus, the active flow field. The floor of the Pu`u `O`o crater dropped 80--100 m, the PKK tube system drained, and the active flows and ocean entry quickly stagnated. On June 19, a short-lived fissure eruption broke out low on the east flank of Kane Nui o Hamo, about 6 km uprift of Pu`u `O`o, burying only 0.22 hectares. The eruption at Kilauea paused from June 20 through July 1 or 2, when lava returned to Pu`u `O`o and began refilling the collapsed crater. Near midnight on July 20--21, after at least 19 days of lava lake growth, the lava pond within the Pu`u `O`o crater drained suddenly when a series of fissures opened on the east flank of the cone and propagated ~2 km downrift. The new activity, dubbed

  4. Continuous Platform Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Fiil

    low risks and investments but also with relatively fuzzy results. When looking for new platform projects, it is important to make sure that the company and market is ready for the introduction of platforms, and to make sure that people from marketing and sales, product development, and downstream......, but continuous product family evolution challenges this strategy. The concept of continuous platform development is based on the fact that platform development should not be a one-time experience but rather an ongoing process of developing new platforms and updating existing ones, so that product family...

  5. Academic Momentum at University/College: Exploring the Roles of Prior Learning, Life Experience, and Ongoing Performance in Academic Achievement across Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Andrew J.; Wilson, Rachel; Liem, Gregory Arief D.; Ginns, Paul

    2014-01-01

    In the context of "academic momentum," a longitudinal study of university students (N = 904) showed high school achievement and ongoing university achievement predicted subsequent achievement through university. However, the impact of high school achievement diminished, while additive effects of ongoing university achievement continued.…

  6. Ongoing Slow Fluctuations in V1 Impact on Visual Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlschläger, Afra M; Glim, Sarah; Shao, Junming; Draheim, Johanna; Köhler, Lina; Lourenço, Susana; Riedl, Valentin; Sorg, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The human brain's ongoing activity is characterized by intrinsic networks of coherent fluctuations, measured for example with correlated functional magnetic resonance imaging signals. So far, however, the brain processes underlying this ongoing blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal orchestration and their direct relevance for human behavior are not sufficiently understood. In this study, we address the question of whether and how ongoing BOLD activity within intrinsic occipital networks impacts on conscious visual perception. To this end, backwardly masked targets were presented in participants' left visual field only, leaving the ipsi-lateral occipital areas entirely free from direct effects of task throughout the experiment. Signal time courses of ipsi-lateral BOLD fluctuations in visual areas V1 and V2 were then used as proxies for the ongoing contra-lateral BOLD activity within the bilateral networks. Magnitude and phase of these fluctuations were compared in trials with and without conscious visual perception, operationalized by means of subjective confidence ratings. Our results show that ipsi-lateral BOLD magnitudes in V1 were significantly higher at times of peak response when the target was perceived consciously. A significant difference between conscious and non-conscious perception with regard to the pre-target phase of an intrinsic-frequency regime suggests that ongoing V1 fluctuations exert a decisive impact on the access to consciousness already before stimulation. Both effects were absent in V2. These results thus support the notion that ongoing slow BOLD activity within intrinsic networks covering V1 represents localized processes that modulate the degree of readiness for the emergence of visual consciousness.

  7. Estimating soil moisture from satellite microwave observations: Past and ongoing projects, and relevance to GCIP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owe, M.; Van de Griend, A. A.; de Jeu, R.; de Vries, J. J.; Seyhan, E.; Engman, E. T.

    1999-08-01

    On the basis of a series of studies conducted in Botswana and preliminary results from an ongoing study in Spain, developments in microwave remote sensing by satellite, which can be used to monitor near-real-time surface moisture and also study long-term soil moisture climatology, are described. A progression of methodologies beginning with single-polarization studies and leading to both dual polarization and multiple frequency techniques are described. Continuing analysis of a 9 year data set of satellite-derived surface moisture in Spain is ongoing. Preliminary results from this study appear to provide some evidence of long-term desertification in certain parts of this region. The methodologies developed during these investigations can be applied easily to other regions such as the GCIP area and could provide useful databases for simulation and validation studies. Additionally, they have strong potential for global applications such as climate change studies.

  8. Fast adjustments of ongoing movements in spastic hemiparesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiel, E. van; Meulenbroek, R.G.J.; Smeets, J.B.J.; Hulstijn, W.

    2002-01-01

    The present study focuses on the ability of participants with spastic hemiparesis caused by cerebral palsy to adjust an ongoing movement. Typical symptoms associated with the disorder would lead one to expect that people with spastic hemiparesis would be unable to adjust their movements quickly and

  9. Overview of ongoing cohort and dietary studies in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weihe, Pál; Bjerregaard, Peter; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva

    2016-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the ongoing cohort and dietary studies underlying the assessment of population health in the Arctic. The emphasis here is on a description of the material, methods and results or preliminary results for each study. Detailed exposure information is available in an...

  10. Fast adjustments of ongoing movements in spastic hemiparesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiel, E. van; Meulenbroek, R.G.J.; Smeets, J.B.J.; Hulstijn, W.

    2002-01-01

    The present study focuses on the ability of participants with spastic hemiparesis caused by cerebral palsy to adjust an ongoing movement. Typical symptoms associated with the disorder would lead one to expect that people with spastic hemiparesis would be unable to adjust their movements quickly and

  11. Trauma-Focused CBT for Youth Who Experience Ongoing Traumas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Judith A.; Mannarino, Anthony P.; Murray, Laura K.

    2011-01-01

    Many youth experience ongoing trauma exposure, such as domestic or community violence. Clinicians often ask whether evidence-based treatments containing exposure components to reduce learned fear responses to historical trauma are appropriate for these youth. Essentially the question is, if youth are desensitized to their trauma experiences, will…

  12. Examples of Important Ongoing Research Topics for Offshore Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Bredmose, Henrik; Schløer, Signe

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to address some challenges related to offshore wind energy. A first example shows some results from an ongoing project on accurate computation of wave loads on monopole foundations. The effects of wave nonlinearity and bottom slope are examined and detailed CFD computation...

  13. Trauma-Focused CBT for Youth Who Experience Ongoing Traumas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Judith A.; Mannarino, Anthony P.; Murray, Laura K.

    2011-01-01

    Many youth experience ongoing trauma exposure, such as domestic or community violence. Clinicians often ask whether evidence-based treatments containing exposure components to reduce learned fear responses to historical trauma are appropriate for these youth. Essentially the question is, if youth are desensitized to their trauma experiences, will…

  14. Deformation patterns on Kythnos, Western Cyclades; ongoing work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, A. Hugh N.; Grasemann, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    Kythnos lies between Kea and Serifos in the Western Cyclades; on the former island, top-SSW directed D2 extensional deformation has essentially fully overprinted the top-SW HP D1 deformation whilst, on the latter, the D2 reworking is restricted to a very narrow zone directly underlying the West Cycladic Detachment System. Kythnos shows an intermediate degree of reworking, with a gradual change in stretching lineation orientation from dominantly SW-directed in the north of the island to SSW-directed in the south, where the Western Cycladic Detachment System is exposed, although the gradient in lineation directions is neither smooth nor perfect. Further, at a single outcrop, in both domains, there is a tendency (but not a rule) for stretching directions within pelitic rocks (which are parallel to contemporary crenulations) to have a more southerly azimuth than that observed in quartz-rich rocks, both metasedimentary and concordant/discordant veins. The opposite has not been observed. The map of de Smeth (1975) shows two marble horizons; a lower blue-grey marble (BGM) with minor amounts of muscovite/quartz and an upper yellow-brown marble (YBM) with large amounts of muscovite/quartz; these are separated by pelites. On the east side of southern Kythnos, the BGM is thick (perhaps > 10 m in places) and is clearly overlain by pelitic schists and then the YBM, the last forming the structurally highest part of the central-southern part of the island. However, NE of Aghios Dimitrios, (S. Kythnos) good exposures clearly show that the BGM thins from west to east and eventually, at the west coast NW of Ag. Dimitrios, it becomes a thin layer of carbonate within yellow quartz mylonites; essentially it is YBM, although de Smeth mapped this still as BGM. Some 3.5 km further north, however, de Smeth mapped exactly the same high-strain lithology as YBM. This band of high strain rocks (YBM) crops-out intermittently along the west side of the island and is likely a continuation of the

  15. UP states protect ongoing cortical activity from thalamic inputs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendon O Watson

    Full Text Available Cortical neurons in vitro and in vivo fluctuate spontaneously between two stable membrane potentials: a depolarized UP state and a hyperpolarized DOWN state. UP states temporally correspond with multineuronal firing sequences which may be important for information processing. To examine how thalamic inputs interact with ongoing cortical UP state activity, we used calcium imaging and targeted whole-cell recordings of activated neurons in thalamocortical slices of mouse somatosensory cortex. Whereas thalamic stimulation during DOWN states generated multineuronal, synchronized UP states, identical stimulation during UP states had no effect on the subthreshold membrane dynamics of the vast majority of cells or on ongoing multineuronal temporal patterns. Both thalamocortical and corticocortical PSPs were significantly reduced and neuronal input resistance was significantly decreased during cortical UP states -- mechanistically consistent with UP state insensitivity. Our results demonstrate that cortical dynamics during UP states are insensitive to thalamic inputs.

  16. Implementation of Sustainability in Ongoing Supply Chain Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørsfeldt, Liliyana Makarowa; Meulengracht Jensen, Peter; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    2012-01-01

    The need to take the sustainable agenda beyond its technological outset and include operational and supply chain practices is well-established, but still very little has happened and the supply chain and operational logics have remained largely unaffected. This paper asks why this may be the case...... and investigates what happens in the translation from ambitious strategic goals to operational practices. To do this an exploratory case study is presented detailing the efforts of a large Danish manufacturing company to introduce an ambitious sustainability agenda in its ongoing supply chain operations. The study...... aims to develop a deeper un-derstanding of the, inter-functional coordination and operational practices related to introducing the sustainable agenda in the supply chain. The study points to a lack of tangible environmental performance measurements related to day-to-day practice in the ongoing supply...

  17. Magma accumulation or second boiling - Investigating the ongoing deformation field at Montserrat, West Indies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collinson, Amy; Neuberg, Jurgen; Pascal, Karen

    2016-04-01

    For over 20 years, Soufriere Hills Volcano, Montserrat has been in a state of volcanic unrest. Intermittent periods of dome building have been punctuated by explosive eruptions and dome collapse events, endangering the lives of the inhabitants of the island. The last episode of active magma extrusion was in February 2010, and the last explosive event (ash venting) in March 2012. Despite a lack of eruptive activity recently, the volcano continues to emit significant volumes of SO2 and shows an ongoing trend of island inflation. Through the aid of three-dimensional numerical modelling, using a finite element method, we explore the potential sources of the ongoing island inflation. We consider both magmatic (dykes and chamber) and tectonic sources. Whilst a magmatic source suggests the possibility for further eruption, a tectonic source may indicate cessation of volcanic activity. We show that a magmatic source is the most likely scenario, and illustrate the effect of different sources (shapes, characters and depths) on the surface displacement. Furthermore, through the inclusion of topographic data, we investigate how the topography may affect the displacement pattern at the surface. We investigate the conflicting scenarios of magma chamber resupply versus second boiling - crystallisation-induced degassing. Based on numerical modelling results, we suggest the required pressurisation is too high for crystallisation-induced degassing to be the dominant process - thereby suggesting magma accumulation may be ongoing. However, we show that second boiling may be a contributing factor, particularly when taking into account the local tectonics and regional stretching.

  18. Ongoing quality control in digital radiography: Report of AAPM Imaging Physics Committee Task Group 151.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A Kyle; Heintz, Philip; Geiser, William; Goldman, Lee; Jerjian, Khachig; Martin, Melissa; Peck, Donald; Pfeiffer, Douglas; Ranger, Nicole; Yorkston, John

    2015-11-01

    Quality control (QC) in medical imaging is an ongoing process and not just a series of infrequent evaluations of medical imaging equipment. The QC process involves designing and implementing a QC program, collecting and analyzing data, investigating results that are outside the acceptance levels for the QC program, and taking corrective action to bring these results back to an acceptable level. The QC process involves key personnel in the imaging department, including the radiologist, radiologic technologist, and the qualified medical physicist (QMP). The QMP performs detailed equipment evaluations and helps with oversight of the QC program, the radiologic technologist is responsible for the day-to-day operation of the QC program. The continued need for ongoing QC in digital radiography has been highlighted in the scientific literature. The charge of this task group was to recommend consistency tests designed to be performed by a medical physicist or a radiologic technologist under the direction of a medical physicist to identify problems with an imaging system that need further evaluation by a medical physicist, including a fault tree to define actions that need to be taken when certain fault conditions are identified. The focus of this final report is the ongoing QC process, including rejected image analysis, exposure analysis, and artifact identification. These QC tasks are vital for the optimal operation of a department performing digital radiography.

  19. Ongoing quality control in digital radiography: Report of AAPM Imaging Physics Committee Task Group 151

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, A. Kyle, E-mail: kyle.jones@mdanderson.org; Geiser, William [Department of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Heintz, Philip [Department of Radiology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87104 (United States); Goldman, Lee [Hartford Hospital, Hartford, Connecticut 06102 (United States); Jerjian, Khachig [Hoag Memorial Hospital, Newport Beach, California 92658 (United States); Martin, Melissa [Therapy Physics, Inc., Gardena, California 90248 (United States); Peck, Donald [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States); Pfeiffer, Douglas [Boulder Community Foothills Hospital, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); Ranger, Nicole [Landauer, Inc., Glenwood, Illinois 60425 (United States); Yorkston, John [Carestream Health, Inc., Rochester, New York 14615 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Quality control (QC) in medical imaging is an ongoing process and not just a series of infrequent evaluations of medical imaging equipment. The QC process involves designing and implementing a QC program, collecting and analyzing data, investigating results that are outside the acceptance levels for the QC program, and taking corrective action to bring these results back to an acceptable level. The QC process involves key personnel in the imaging department, including the radiologist, radiologic technologist, and the qualified medical physicist (QMP). The QMP performs detailed equipment evaluations and helps with oversight of the QC program, the radiologic technologist is responsible for the day-to-day operation of the QC program. The continued need for ongoing QC in digital radiography has been highlighted in the scientific literature. The charge of this task group was to recommend consistency tests designed to be performed by a medical physicist or a radiologic technologist under the direction of a medical physicist to identify problems with an imaging system that need further evaluation by a medical physicist, including a fault tree to define actions that need to be taken when certain fault conditions are identified. The focus of this final report is the ongoing QC process, including rejected image analysis, exposure analysis, and artifact identification. These QC tasks are vital for the optimal operation of a department performing digital radiography.

  20. Control of HIV-1 in Elite Suppressors despite Ongoing Replication and Evolution in Plasma Virus▿

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connell, Karen A; Brennan, Timothy P.; Bailey, Justin R.; Ray, Stuart C.; Robert F. Siliciano; Blankson, Joel N.

    2010-01-01

    A subset of HIV-1-infected patients known as elite controllers or suppressors (ES) control the virus naturally. We have previously demonstrated sequence discordance between proviral and plasma gag clones in ES, much of which can be attributed to selective pressure from the host (J. R. Bailey, T. M. Williams, R. F. Siliciano, and J. N. Blankson, J. Exp. Med. 203:1357-1369, 2006). However, it is not clear whether ongoing viral replication continues in ES once the control of viremia has been est...

  1. Linear superposition of sensory-evoked and ongoing cortical hemodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Saka

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Modern non-invasive brain imaging techniques utilise changes in cerebral blood flow, volume and oxygenation that accompany brain activation. However, stimulus-evoked hemodynamic responses display considerable inter-trial variability even when identical stimuli are presented and the sources of this variability are poorly understood. One of the sources of this response variation could be ongoing spontaneous hemodynamic fluctuations. To investigate this issue, 2-dimensional optical imaging spectroscopy was used to measure cortical hemodynamics in response to sensory stimuli in anaesthetised rodents Pre-stimulus cortical hemodynamics displayed spontaneous periodic fluctuations and as such, data from individual stimulus presentation trials were assigned to one of four groups depending on the phase angle of pre-stimulus hemodynamic fluctuations and averaged. This analysis revealed that sensory evoked cortical hemodynamics displayed distinctive response characteristics and magnitudes depending on the phase angle of ongoing fluctuations at stimulus onset. To investigate the origin of this phenomenon, ‘null-trails’ were collected without stimulus presentation. Subtraction of phase averaged ‘null trials’ from their phase averaged stimulus-evoked counterparts resulted in four similar time series that resembled the mean stimulus-evoked response. These analyses suggest that linear superposition of evoked and ongoing cortical hemodynamic changes may be a property of the structure of inter-trial variability.

  2. Ongoing clinical trials of the pleiotropic effects of statins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Davignon

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Jean Davignon1, Lawrence A Leiter21Clinical Research Institute of Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada; 2Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, St Michael’s Hospital, Toronto, ON, CanadaBackground: The multiple effects (ie, pleiotropic effects of statins have received increasing recognition and may have clinical applicability across a broad range of cardiovascular and noncardiovascular conditions. Objective: To determine the relevance and significance of ongoing clinical trials of the pleiotropic effects of statins, focusing on nonlipid effects. Method: Ongoing trials were identified through personal communication, reports presented at scientific meetings (2000–2004, and queries made to AstraZeneca, Bristol-Myers Squibb Co, Merck & Co, Novartis, and Pfizer, manufacturers of the currently marketed statins. Published trials and other source material were identified through electronic searches on MEDLINE (1990–2003, abstract books, and references identified from bibliographies of pertinent articles. Eligible studies were the clinical trials of statins currently under way in which primary or secondary outcomes included the statins’ nonlipid (ie, pleiotropic effect(s. Data were extracted and trial quality was assessed by the authors. Results: Of the 22 ongoing trials of the nonlipid effects of statins identified, 10 assessed inflammatory markers and plaque stabilization, 4 assessed oxidized low density lipoprotein/vascular oxidant stress, 3 assessed end-stage renal disease, 3 assessed fibrinogen/viscosity, 2 assessed endothelial function, 2 assessed acute coronary syndrome, 2 assessed aortic stenosis progression, and 1 each assessed hypertension, osteoporosis, ischemic burden, Alzheimer’s disease, multiple sclerosis, and stroke (outcomes often overlapped. Conclusion: Given the excellent safety and tolerability of statins as a class, full exploration of their pleiotropic effects has the potential to provide additional benefits to many patients

  3. Offsetting Ongoing Methane Emissions --- An Alternative to Emission Equivalence Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clisby, N.; Enting, I. G.; Lauder, A.; Carter, J.; Cowie, A.; Henry, B.; Raupach, M. R.

    2012-12-01

    The Global Warming Potential (GWP) has been widely adopted as a metric for comparing the climate impact of different greenhouse gases. As has been frequently noted, there are many problems with using GWPs to define emission equivalence in spite of the use of GWPs for this purpose in contexts such as the Kyoto Protocol. We propose that for methane, rather than define emission equivalence, the appropriate comparison is between ongoing emissions of 0.9 to 1.0 kg of CH4 per year and one-off emissions of 1 tonne of carbon. This approach represents an approximate solution to the inverse problem of defining a forcing equivalent index (FEI) that gives exact equivalence of radiative forcing over a range of timescales. In our approach, if ongoing methane emissions are offset by a one-off carbon removal that is built up with 40-year e-folding time, then the result is close to radiatively neutral over periods from years to centuries. In contrast, the GWP provides radiative equivalence (in integrated terms) only at a single time, with large discrepancies at other times. Our approach also follows from consideration of greenhouse gas stabilisation, since stabilising atmospheric CO2 requires an approximate cap on total emissions, while stabilising methane requires stabilisation of ongoing emissions. Our quantitative treatment recognises that, on time scales of centuries, removal of 1 tonne of carbon only lowers the atmospheric carbon content by 0.3 to 0.35 tonnes. We discuss the implications for rangeland grazing systems. In the absence of effective mitigation techniques for methane from rangeland systems, this approach may provide an attractive offset mechanism in spite of requiring that woody vegetation be established and maintained over about 15% of the landscape, or an equivalent amount of carbon storage in soil.

  4. Ongoing outbreak of invasive listeriosis, Germany, 2012 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppitsch, Werner; Prager, Rita; Halbedel, Sven; Hyden, Patrick; Pietzka, Ariane; Huhulescu, Steliana; Lohr, Dorothee; Schönberger, Katharina; Aichinger, Elisabeth; Hauri, Anja; Stark, Klaus; Vygen, Sabine; Tietze, Erhard; Allerberger, Franz; Wilking, Hendrik

    2015-01-01

    Listeriosis patient isolates in Germany have shown a new identical pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern since 2012 (n = 66). Almost all isolates (Listeria monocytogenes serotype 1/2a) belonged to cases living in southern Germany, indicating an outbreak with a so far unknown source. Case numbers in 2015 are high (n = 28). No outbreak cases outside Germany have been reported. Next generation sequencing revealed the unique cluster type CT1248 and confirmed the outbreak. Investigations into the source are ongoing.

  5. On the Ongoing Evolution of Very High Frequency Power Supplies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Toke Meyer; Kamby, Peter

    2013-01-01

    in radio frequency transmission equipment helps to overcome those. However those circuits were not designed to meet the same requirements as power converters. This paper summarizes the contributions in recent years in application of very high frequency (VHF) technologies in power electronics, describes......The ongoing demand for smaller and lighter power supplies is driving the motivation to increase the switching frequencies of power converters. Drastic increases however come along with new challenges, namely the increase of switching losses in all components. The application of power circuits used...

  6. Overview of ongoing cohort and dietary studies in the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pál Weihe

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article gives an overview of the ongoing cohort and dietary studies underlying the assessment of population health in the Arctic. The emphasis here is on a description of the material, methods and results or preliminary results for each study. Detailed exposure information is available in an article in this journal, whereas another paper describes the effects associated with contaminant exposure in the Arctic. The cohort descriptions have been arranged geographically, beginning in Norway and moving east to Finland, Sweden, Russia and the other Arctic countries and ultimately to the Faroe Islands. No cohort studies have been reported for Alaska or Iceland.

  7. Overview of ongoing cohort and dietary studies in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weihe, Pál; Bjerregaard, Peter; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva; Dudarev, Alexey; Halling, Jónrit; Hansen, Solrunn; Muckle, Gina; Nøst, Therese; Odland, Jon Øyvind; Petersen, Maria Skaalum; Rautio, Arja; Veyhe, Anna Sofía; Wennberg, Maria; Bergdahl, Ingvar

    2016-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the ongoing cohort and dietary studies underlying the assessment of population health in the Arctic. The emphasis here is on a description of the material, methods and results or preliminary results for each study. Detailed exposure information is available in an article in this journal, whereas another paper describes the effects associated with contaminant exposure in the Arctic. The cohort descriptions have been arranged geographically, beginning in Norway and moving east to Finland, Sweden, Russia and the other Arctic countries and ultimately to the Faroe Islands. No cohort studies have been reported for Alaska or Iceland. PMID:27974135

  8. Preparedness for ongoing Ebola virus infection: how to welcome it?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sora Yasri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of Ebola virus infection is the big global concern. Preparedness for ongoing Ebola virus infection is the topic that should be discussed. In fact, it is necessary to set up a biosecurity system to protect against the present Ebola outbreak. The medical personnel have to prepare for fighting the problem. The management of the present outbreak requires international collaboration and control of cross-border disease transmission is also the big challenge. The good case study is the Hajj scenario.

  9. Litigation Provides Clues to Ongoing Challenges in Implementing Insurance Parity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Kelsey N; Huskamp, Haiden A; Goldman, Howard H; Rutkow, Lainie; Barry, Colleen L

    2017-08-11

    Over the past twenty-five years, thirty-seven states and the US Congress have passed mental health and substance use disorder (MH/SUD) parity laws to secure nondiscriminatory insurance coverage for MH/SUD services in the private health insurance market and through certain public insurance programs. However, in the intervening years, litigation has been brought by numerous parties alleging violations of insurance parity. We examine the critical issues underlying these legal challenges as a framework for understanding the areas in which parity enforcement is lacking, as well as ongoing areas of ambiguity in the interpretation of these laws. We identified all private litigation involving federal and state parity laws and extracted themes from a final sample of thirty-seven lawsuits. The primary substantive topics at issue include the scope of services guaranteed by parity laws, coverage of certain habilitative therapies such as applied behavioral analysis for autism spectrum disorders, credentialing standards for MH/SUD providers, determinations regarding the medical necessity of MH/SUD services, and the application of nonquantitative treatment limitations under the 2008 federal parity law. Ongoing efforts to achieve nondiscriminatory insurance coverage for MH/SUDs should attend to the major issues subject to private legal action as important areas for facilitating and monitoring insurer compliance. Copyright © 2017 by Duke University Press.

  10. Inadequate description of educational interventions in ongoing randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pino Cécile

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The registration of clinical trials has been promoted to prevent publication bias and increase research transparency. Despite general agreement about the minimum amount of information needed for trial registration, we lack clear guidance on descriptions of non-pharmacologic interventions in trial registries. We aimed to evaluate the quality of registry descriptions of non-pharmacologic interventions assessed in ongoing randomized controlled trials (RCTs of patient education. Methods On 6 May 2009, we searched for all ongoing RCTs registered in the 10 trial registries accessible through the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. We included trials evaluating an educational intervention (that is, designed to teach or train patients about their own health and dedicated to participants, their family members or home caregivers. We used a standardized data extraction form to collect data related to the description of the experimental intervention, the centers, and the caregivers. Results We selected 268 of 642 potentially eligible studies and appraised a random sample of 150 records. All selected trials were registered in 4 registers, mainly ClinicalTrials.gov (61%. The median [interquartile range] target sample size was 205 [100 to 400] patients. The comparator was mainly usual care (47% or active treatment (47%. A minority of records (17%, 95% CI 11 to 23% reported an overall adequate description of the intervention (that is, description that reported the content, mode of delivery, number, frequency, duration of sessions and overall duration of the intervention. Further, for most reports (59%, important information about the content of the intervention was missing. The description of the mode of delivery of the intervention was reported for 52% of studies, the number of sessions for 74%, the frequency of sessions for 58%, the duration of each session for 45% and the overall duration for 63

  11. Ongoing Analysis of Jupiter's Equatorial Hotspots and Plumes from Cassini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, D. S.; Showmwn, A. P.; Vasavada, A. R.; Simon-Miller, A. A.

    2012-01-01

    We present updated results from our ongoing analysis of Cassini observations of Jupiter's equatorial meteorology. For two months preceding the spacecraft's closest approach of the planet, the ISS instrument onboard Cassini regularly imaged the atmosphere of Jupiter. We created time-lapse movies from this period that show the complex activity and interactions of the equatorial atmosphere. During this period, hot spots exhibited significant variations in size and shape over timescales of days and weeks. Some of these changes appear to be a result of interactions with passing vortex systems in adjacent latitudes. Strong anticyclonic gyres to the southeast of the dark areas converge with flow from the west and appear to circulate into a hot spot at its southwestern corner.

  12. Review of EGFR TKIs in metastatic NSCLC, including ongoing trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara eMelosky

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI in the treatment of patients with advanced metastatic non-small cell lung cancer. Most of these recent trials were conducted in patients with EGFR mutation-positive tumours. As our knowledge of the EGFR mutation and its resistant pathways develops, the complexity of the situation expands. This article briefly reviews the pivotal trials leading to approval of EGFR TKIs in the first-line setting for patients with EGFR mutation-positive non-small cell lung carcinomas. It discusses the historical use of EGFR TKIs after the first line setting in unselected patients and briefly describes ongoing trials.

  13. Asymptomatic moyamoya disease: literature review and ongoing AMORE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Recent development of a non-invasive magnetic resonance examination has increased the opportunity to identify asymptomatic patients with moyamoya disease who have experienced no cerebrovascular events. However, their clinical features, prognosis, and treatment strategy are still unclear because of small number of subjects and short follow-up periods. Therefore, we have designed Asymptomatic Moyamoya Registry (AMORE) study in Japan. The objectives of this nation-wide, multi-center prospective study are to clarify long-term prognosis of asymptomatic patients with moyamoya disease and to determine the risk factors that cause ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke in them. In this article, we review the published data on asymptomatic moyamoya disease and report the on-going multi-center prospective cohort study, AMORE study. We would like to emphasize the importance to determine the clinical features, prognosis, and treatment strategies of asymptomatic moyamoya disease in very near future.

  14. Planned and ongoing projects (pop) database: development and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Claudia; Erdös, Judit; Warmuth, Marisa; Hinterreiter, Gerda; Krämer, Peter; Chalon, Patrice

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to present the development, structure and results of a database on planned and ongoing health technology assessment (HTA) projects (POP Database) in Europe. The POP Database (POP DB) was set up in an iterative process from a basic Excel sheet to a multifunctional electronic online database. The functionalities, such as the search terminology, the procedures to fill and update the database, the access rules to enter the database, as well as the maintenance roles, were defined in a multistep participatory feedback loop with EUnetHTA Partners. The POP Database has become an online database that hosts not only the titles and MeSH categorizations, but also some basic information on status and contact details about the listed projects of EUnetHTA Partners. Currently, it stores more than 1,200 planned, ongoing or recently published projects of forty-three EUnetHTA Partners from twenty-four countries. Because the POP Database aims to facilitate collaboration, it also provides a matching system to assist in identifying similar projects. Overall, more than 10 percent of the projects in the database are identical both in terms of pathology (indication or disease) and technology (drug, medical device, intervention). In addition, approximately 30 percent of the projects are similar, meaning that they have at least some overlap in content. Although the POP DB is successful concerning regular updates of most national HTA agencies within EUnetHTA, little is known about its actual effects on collaborations in Europe. Moreover, many non-nationally nominated HTA producing agencies neither have access to the POP DB nor can share their projects.

  15. Outcomes in registered, ongoing randomized controlled trials of patient education.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Pino

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With the increasing prevalence of chronic noncommunicable diseases, patient education is becoming important to strengthen disease prevention and control. We aimed to systematically determine the extent to which registered, ongoing randomized controlled trials (RCTs evaluated an educational intervention focus on patient-important outcomes (i.e., outcomes measuring patient health status and quality of life. METHODS: On May 6, 2009, we searched for all ongoing RCTs registered in the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry platform. We used a standardized data extraction form to collect data and determined whether the outcomes assessed were 1 patient-important outcomes such as clinical events, functional status, pain, or quality of life or 2 surrogate outcomes, such as biological outcome, treatment adherence, or patient knowledge. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We selected 268 of the 642 potentially eligible studies and assessed a random sample of 150. Patient-important outcomes represented 54% (178 of 333 of all primary outcomes and 46% (286 of 623 of all secondary outcomes. Overall, 69% of trials (104 of 150 used at least one patient-important outcome as a primary outcome and 66% (99 of 150 as a secondary outcome. Finally, for 31% of trials (46 of 150, primary outcomes were only surrogate outcomes. The results varied by medical area. In neuropsychiatric disorders, patient important outcomes represented 84% (51 of 61 of primary outcomes, as compared with 54% (32 of 59 in malignant neoplasm and 18% (4 of 22 in diabetes mellitus trials. In addition, only 35% assessed the long-term impact of interventions (i.e., >6 months. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need to improve the relevance of outcomes and to assess the long term impact of educational interventions in RCTs.

  16. Continuation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philip G. Jessop

    2003-07-30

    OAK B262 In the first 8 months of this grant, the PI and his team have developed new hydrogenation catalysts for CO2 fixation, screened a series of ligands for their ability to dissolve in CO2, and invented a new and environmentally benign system for recovering and recycling homogeneous catalysts using CO2 and liquid polymers. The team has also begun work on two projects: (a) the evaluation of the effect of secondary interactions between ligands and CO2 on the insertion of CO2 into M-H bonds, and (b) the design and testing of promoters or catalysts for the insertion of CO2 into C-H bonds. Ongoing research is primarily focusing on these last two projects.

  17. 4-D noise-based seismology at volcanoes: Ongoing efforts and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenguier, Florent; Rivet, Diane; Obermann, Anne; Nakata, Nori; Boué, Pierre; Lecocq, Thomas; Campillo, Michel; Shapiro, Nikolai

    2016-07-01

    Monitoring magma pressure buildup at depth and transport to surface is a key point for improving volcanic eruption prediction. Seismic waves, through their velocity dependence to stress perturbations, can provide crucial information on the temporal evolution of the mechanical properties of volcanic edifices. In this article, we review past and ongoing efforts for extracting accurate information of temporal changes of seismic velocities at volcanoes continuously in time using records of ambient seismic noise. We will first introduce the general methodology for retrieving accurate seismic velocity changes from seismic noise records and discuss the origin of seismic velocity temporal changes in rocks. We will then discuss in a second part how noise-based monitoring can improve our knowledge about magmatic activity at a long (years) to a short (days) time scale taking example from Piton de la Fournaise volcano (La Réunion). We will also mention ongoing efforts for operational noise-based seismic monitoring on volcanoes. Further, we will discuss perspectives for improving the spatial localization of detected velocity changes at depth with a special focus on the use of dense seismic arrays. In the last part, we will finally explore the complex response of volcanic regions to seismic shaking with an example from Japan and show how imaging seismic velocity susceptibility allows characterizing the state of pressurized fluids in volcanic regions.

  18. Geoengineering:Basic science and ongoing research efforts in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Long; GAO Chao-Chao; ZHAO Li-Yun

    2015-01-01

    Geoengineering (also called climate engineering), which refers to large-scale intervention in the Earth's climate system to counteract greenhouse gas-induced warming, has been one of the most rapidly growing areas of climate research as a potential option for tackling global warming. Here, we provide an overview of the scientific background and research progress of proposed geoengineering schemes. Geo-engineering can be broadly divided into two categories:solar geoengineering (also called solar radiation management, or SRM), which aims to reflect more sunlight to space, and carbon dioxide removal (CDR), which aims to reduce the CO2 content in the atmosphere. First, we review different proposed geoengineering methods involved in the solar radiation management and carbon dioxide removal schemes. Then, we discuss the fundamental science underlying the climate response to the carbon dioxide removal and solar radiation management schemes. We focus on two basic issues:1) climate response to the reduction in solar irradiance and 2) climate response to the reduction in atmospheric CO2. Next, we introduce an ongoing geoengineering research project in China that is supported by National Key Basic Research Program. This research project, being the first coordinated geoengineering research program in China, will systematically investigate the physical mechanisms, climate impacts, and risk and governance of a few targeted geoengineering schemes. It is expected that this research program will help us gain a deep under-standing of the physical science underlying geoengineering schemes and the impacts of geoengineering on global climate, in particular, on the Asia monsoon region.

  19. Milieu matters: Evidence that ongoing lifestyle activities influence health behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Rob; Norman, Paul; Sheeran, Paschal

    2017-01-01

    Health behaviors occur within a milieu of lifestyle activities that could conflict with health actions. We examined whether cognitions about, and performance of, other lifestyle activities augment the prediction of health behaviors, and whether these lifestyle factors are especially influential among individuals with low health behavior engagement. Participants (N = 211) completed measures of past behavior and cognitions relating to five health behaviors (e.g., smoking, getting drunk) and 23 lifestyle activities (e.g., reading, socializing), as well as personality variables. All behaviors were measured again at two weeks. Data were analyzed using neural network and cluster analyses. The neural network accurately predicted health behaviors at follow-up (R2 = .71). As hypothesized, lifestyle cognitions and activities independently predicted health behaviors over and above behavior-specific cognitions and previous behavior. Additionally, lifestyle activities and poor self-regulatory capability were more influential among people exhibiting unhealthy behaviors. Considering ongoing lifestyle activities can enhance prediction and understanding of health behaviors and offer new targets for health behavior interventions.

  20. Milieu matters: Evidence that ongoing lifestyle activities influence health behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Rob; Norman, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Health behaviors occur within a milieu of lifestyle activities that could conflict with health actions. We examined whether cognitions about, and performance of, other lifestyle activities augment the prediction of health behaviors, and whether these lifestyle factors are especially influential among individuals with low health behavior engagement. Participants (N = 211) completed measures of past behavior and cognitions relating to five health behaviors (e.g., smoking, getting drunk) and 23 lifestyle activities (e.g., reading, socializing), as well as personality variables. All behaviors were measured again at two weeks. Data were analyzed using neural network and cluster analyses. The neural network accurately predicted health behaviors at follow-up (R2 = .71). As hypothesized, lifestyle cognitions and activities independently predicted health behaviors over and above behavior-specific cognitions and previous behavior. Additionally, lifestyle activities and poor self-regulatory capability were more influential among people exhibiting unhealthy behaviors. Considering ongoing lifestyle activities can enhance prediction and understanding of health behaviors and offer new targets for health behavior interventions. PMID:28662120

  1. Sandia's mentoring program : an ongoing success.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewer, Soila

    2003-12-01

    This report summarizes the Mentoring Program at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), which has been an on-going success since its inception in 1995. The Mentoring Program provides a mechanism to develop a workforce able to respond to changing requirements and complex customer needs. The program objectives are to enhance employee contributions through increased knowledge of SNL culture, strategies, and programmatic direction. Mentoring is a proven mechanism for attracting new employees, retaining employees, and developing leadership. It helps to prevent the loss of corporate knowledge from attrition and retirement, and it increases the rate and level of contributions of new managers and employees, also spurring cross-organizational teaming. The Mentoring Program is structured as a one-year partnership between an experienced staff member or leader and a less experienced one. Mentors and mentees are paired according to mutual objectives and interests. Support is provided to the matched pairs from their management as well as division program coordinators in both New Mexico and California locations. In addition, bi-monthly large-group training sessions are held.

  2. Biomarkers for the prediction of acute ongoing arterial plaque rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo YL

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Yuan-Lin Guo, Jian-Jun Li Division of Dyslipidemia, State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Fu Wai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Disease, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, People's Republic of China Abstract: Acute coronary syndrome (ACS is the main cause of mortality for coronary artery disease (CAD. Accordingly, earlier detection and diagnosis might be a key point for reducing the mortality in patients with ACS. One promising strategy is biomarker measurement in patients with ACS. Biomarkers are generally considered to be plasma measurements of molecules, proteins, or enzymes that provide independent diagnostic and prognostic values that can reflect underlying disease state and condition, especially repeated measurements. Nowadays, the most widely used biomarkers to identify or predict ACS are high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP and high sensitivity troponin T/I (hs-TnT/I. The aim of the present review was principally to summarize recent evidence regarding some new biomarkers by which we could directly predict acute ongoing arterial plaque rupture, which may help to identify at-risk patients earlier than hs-CRP or hs-TnT/I. Keywords: matrix metalloproteinase-9, lipoprotein associated phospholipase A2, myeloperoxidase, soluble lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1, pregnancy-associated plasma protein A, placental growth factor, acute coronary syndrome

  3. Geoengineering: Basic science and ongoing research efforts in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Cao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Geoengineering (also called climate engineering, which refers to large-scale intervention in the Earth's climate system to counteract greenhouse gas-induced warming, has been one of the most rapidly growing areas of climate research as a potential option for tackling global warming. Here, we provide an overview of the scientific background and research progress of proposed geoengineering schemes. Geoengineering can be broadly divided into two categories: solar geoengineering (also called solar radiation management, or SRM, which aims to reflect more sunlight to space, and carbon dioxide removal (CDR, which aims to reduce the CO2 content in the atmosphere. First, we review different proposed geoengineering methods involved in the solar radiation management and carbon dioxide removal schemes. Then, we discuss the fundamental science underlying the climate response to the carbon dioxide removal and solar radiation management schemes. We focus on two basic issues: 1 climate response to the reduction in solar irradiance and 2 climate response to the reduction in atmospheric CO2. Next, we introduce an ongoing geoengineering research project in China that is supported by National Key Basic Research Program. This research project, being the first coordinated geoengineering research program in China, will systematically investigate the physical mechanisms, climate impacts, and risk and governance of a few targeted geoengineering schemes. It is expected that this research program will help us gain a deep understanding of the physical science underlying geoengineering schemes and the impacts of geoengineering on global climate, in particular, on the Asia monsoon region.

  4. Hydrothermal conditions of South Eastern Siberia under the ongoing warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voropay, N. N.; Maksyutova, E. V.; Riazanova, A. A.

    2016-11-01

    A great increase in air temperature has been observed since 1976. Siberia is a region with most severe ongoing climate change. To monitor the extreme weather events is important. To evaluate moisture conditions we used the D.A. Ped index (Si). Monthly air temperature and precipitation data from 19 weather stations of South Eastern Siberia (50-60° N 90-120° E) were used for the index calculation during the vegetation period. During 1976-2010 the number of droughts in the study region was more than the number of excessive moisture periods. The maximal statistically significant trend (0.4-0.6 per 10 years) in Eastern Siberia was observed in May. The characteristics of the winter-spring period preceding the vegetation season were analyzed. Significant positive trends exist in the study area for the May temperature (0.5-0.9 °C per 10 years) and the May sum of positive temperatures (14-28 °C per 10 years). There are tendencies to increase the number of days with temperatures above zero in March (1-3 days per 10 years) and the sum of positive temperatures in April (5-16 °C per 10 years). The stable transition of air temperature over 0 °C shifts into early dates by 1-7 days every 10 years.

  5. The ongoing impact of modular localization on particle theory

    CERN Document Server

    Schroer, Bert

    2014-01-01

    Modular localization is the concise conceptual formulation of causal localization in the setting of local quantum physics. Unlike QM it does not refer to individual operators but rather to ensembles of observables which share the same localization region, as a result it explains the probabilistic aspects of QFT in terms of the impure KMS nature arising from the local restriction of the pure vacuum. Whereas it played no important role in the perturbation theory of low spin particles, it becomes indispensible for interactions which involve higher spin s fields, where is leads to the replacement of the operator (BRST) gauge theory setting in Krein space by a new formulation in terms of stringlocal fields in Hilbert space. The main purpose of this paper is to present new results which lead to a rethinking of important issues of the Standard Model concerning massive gauge theories and the Higgs mechanism. We place these new findings into the broader context of ongoing conceptual changes within QFT which already le...

  6. The On-Going Role-Play in Suggestopedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateva, Galya

    1997-01-01

    Defines continuous role playing in foreign language teaching suggestopedia (as practiced in Bulgaria); discusses how to achieve and sustain it; and considers its advantages, disadvantages and relevance. The article notes that the balancing role of the teacher is crucial to the techniques employed in the classroom dialogs. (10 references) (CK)

  7. The ongoing challenge of restorative justice in South Africa: How ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-03-19

    Mar 19, 2014 ... As long as the poverty gap between rich and poor widens, even if some of the nouveaux riches are .... Africa are black and most lack any access to wage income ... of poverty and inequality continue to bear a persistent racial.

  8. The On-Going Role-Play in Suggestopedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateva, Galya

    1997-01-01

    Defines continuous role playing in foreign language teaching suggestopedia (as practiced in Bulgaria); discusses how to achieve and sustain it; and considers its advantages, disadvantages and relevance. The article notes that the balancing role of the teacher is crucial to the techniques employed in the classroom dialogs. (10 references) (CK)

  9. Continuity theory

    CERN Document Server

    Nel, Louis

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a detailed, self-contained theory of continuous mappings. It is mainly addressed to students who have already studied these mappings in the setting of metric spaces, as well as multidimensional differential calculus. The needed background facts about sets, metric spaces and linear algebra are developed in detail, so as to provide a seamless transition between students' previous studies and new material. In view of its many novel features, this book will be of interest also to mature readers who have studied continuous mappings from the subject's classical texts and wish to become acquainted with a new approach. The theory of continuous mappings serves as infrastructure for more specialized mathematical theories like differential equations, integral equations, operator theory, dynamical systems, global analysis, topological groups, topological rings and many more. In light of the centrality of the topic, a book of this kind fits a variety of applications, especially those that contribute to ...

  10. Recurrences and Ongoing Complaints of Diverticulitis; Results of a Survey among Gastroenterologists and Surgeons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, M. A W; Draaisma, W. A.; Consten, E. C J; Broeders, I. A M J

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to investigate the current opinion of gastroenterologists and surgeons on treatment strategies for patients, with recurrences or ongoing complaints of diverticulitis. Background: Treatment of recurrences and ongoing complaints remains a point of debate. No randomized trial

  11. Early markers of ongoing action-effect learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruge, Hannes; Krebs, Ruth M; Wolfensteller, Uta

    2012-01-01

    Acquiring knowledge about the relationship between stimulus conditions, one's own actions, and the resulting consequences or effects, is one prerequisite for intentional action. Previous studies have shown that such contextualized associations between actions and their effects (S-R-E associations) can be picked up very quickly. The present study examined how such weakly practiced associations might affect overt behavior during the process of initial learning and during subsequent retrieval, and how these two measures are inter-related. We examined incidental (S-)R-E learning in the context of trial-and-error S-R learning and in the context of instruction-based S-R learning. Furthermore, as a control condition, common outcome (CO) learning blocks were included in which all responses produced one common sound effect, hence precluding differential (S-)R-E learning. Post-learning retrieval of R-E associations was tested by re-using previously produced sound effects as novel imperative stimuli combined with actions that were either compatible or incompatible with the previously encountered R-E mapping. The central result was that the size of the compatibility effect could be predicted by the size of relative response slowing during ongoing learning in the preceding acquisition phase, both in trial-and-error learning and in instruction-based learning. Importantly, this correlation was absent for the CO control condition, precluding accounts based on unspecific factors. Instead, the results suggest that differential outcomes are "actively" integrated into action planning and that this takes additional planning time. We speculate that this might be especially true for weakly practiced (S-)R-E associations before an initial goal-directed action mode transitions into a more stimulus-based action mode.

  12. Early markers of ongoing action-effect learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes eRuge

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Acquiring knowledge about the relationship between stimulus conditions, one’s own actions, and the resulting consequences or effects, is one prerequisite for intentional action. Previous studies have shown that such contextualized associations between actions and their effects (S-R-E associations can be picked up very quickly. The present study examined how such weakly practiced associations might affect overt behavior during the process of initial learning and during subsequent retrieval, and how these two measures are inter-related. We examined incidental (S-R-E learning in the context of trial-and-error S-R learning and in the context of instruction-based S-R learning. Furthermore, as a control condition, common outcome (CO learning blocks were included in which all responses produced one common sound effect, hence precluding differential (S-R-E learning. Post-learning retrieval of R-E associations was tested by re-using previously produced sound effects as novel imperative stimuli combined with actions that were either compatible or incompatible with the previously encountered R-E mapping. The central result was that the size of the compatibility effect could be predicted by the size of relative response slowing during ongoing learning in the preceding acquisition phase, both in trial-and-error learning and in instruction-based learning. Importantly, this correlation was absent for the common outcome control condition, precluding accounts based on unspecific factors. Instead, the results suggest that differential outcomes are ‘actively’ integrated into action planning and that this takes additional planning time. We speculate that this might be especially true for weakly practiced (S-R-E associations before an initial goal-directed action mode transitions into a more stimulus-based action mode.

  13. Rootstock breeding in Prunus species: Ongoing efforts and new challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Gainza

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The current global agricultural challenges imply the need to generate new technologies and farming systems. In this context, rootstocks are an essential component in modern agriculture. Most currently used are those clonally propagated and there are several ongoing efforts to develop this type of plant material. Despite this tendency, lesser number of rootstock breeding programs exists in comparison to the large number of breeding programs for scion cultivars. In the case of rootstocks, traits evaluated in new selection lines are quite different: From the agronomic standpoint vigor is a key issue in order to establish high-density orchards. Other important agronomic traits include compatibility with a wide spectrum of cultivars from different species, good tolerance to root hypoxia, water use efficiency, aptitude to extract or exclude certain soil nutrients, and tolerance to soil or water salinity. Biotic stresses are also important: Resistance/tolerance to pests and diseases, such as nematodes, soil-borne fungi, crown gall, bacterial canker, and several virus, viroids, and phytoplasms. In this sense, the creation of new rootstocks at Centro de Estudios Avanzados en Fruticultura (CEAF offers an alternative to stone fruit crop, particularly in Chile, where just a few alternatives are commercially available, and there are site-specific problems. The implementation of molecular markers in order to give support to the phenotypic evaluation of plant breeding has great potential assisting the selection of new genotypes of rootstocks. Marker-Assisted Selection (MAS can shorten the time required to obtain new cultivars and can make the process more cost-effective than selection based exclusively on phenotype, but more basic research is needed to well understood the molecular and physiological mechanisms behind the studied trait.

  14. The Ongoing Impact of Modular Localization on Particle Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroer, Bert

    2014-08-01

    Modular localization is the concise conceptual formulation of causal localization in the setting of local quantum physics. Unlike QM it does not refer to individual operators but rather to ensembles of observables which share the same localization region, as a result it explains the probabilistic aspects of QFT in terms of the impure KMS nature arising from the local restriction of the pure vacuum. Whereas it played no important role in the perturbation theory of low spin particles, it becomes indispensible for interactions which involve higher spin s≥1 fields, where is leads to the replacement of the operator (BRST) gauge theory setting in Krein space by a new formulation in terms of stringlocal fields in Hilbert space. The main purpose of this paper is to present new results which lead to a rethinking of important issues of the Standard Model concerning massive gauge theories and the Higgs mechanism. We place these new findings into the broader context of ongoing conceptual changes within QFT which already led to new nonperturbative constructions of models of integrable QFTs. It is also pointed out that modular localization does not support ideas coming from string theory, as extra dimensions and Kaluza-Klein dimensional reductions outside quasiclassical approximations. Apart from hologarphic projections on null-surfaces, holograhic relations between QFT in different spacetime dimensions violate the causal completeness property, this includes in particular the Maldacena conjecture. Last not least, modular localization sheds light onto unsolved problems from QFT's distant past since it reveals that the Einstein-Jordan conundrum is really an early harbinger of the Unruh effect.

  15. Bullying behaviors in children and adolescents: an ongoing story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artemis Kimon Tsitsika

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Bullying is a universal problem which continues to be a serious threat to physical and emotional health of children and adolescents. This article highlights the prevalence, the common characteristics of bullies and victims, as well as the short- and long-term impact of bullying involvement. Key areas highlighted include the efficacy of bullying prevention programs, which can help health care providers to assess and provide interventions to children and adolescents affected by bullying.

  16. Avionics Architectures for Exploration: Ongoing Efforts in Human Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goforth, Montgomery B.; Ratliff, James E.; Hames, Kevin L.; Vitalpur, Sharada V.; Woodman, Keith L.

    2014-01-01

    The field of Avionics is advancing far more rapidly in terrestrial applications than in spaceflight applications. Spaceflight Avionics are not keeping pace with expectations set by terrestrial experience, nor are they keeping pace with the need for increasingly complex automation and crew interfaces as we move beyond Low Earth Orbit. NASA must take advantage of the strides being made by both space-related and terrestrial industries to drive our development and sustaining costs down. This paper describes ongoing efforts by the Avionics Architectures for Exploration (AAE) project chartered by NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Program to evaluate new avionic architectures and technologies, provide objective comparisons of them, and mature selected technologies for flight and for use by other AES projects. The AAE project team includes members from most NASA centers, and from industry. It is our intent to develop a common core avionic system that has standard capabilities and interfaces, and contains the basic elements and functionality needed for any spacecraft. This common core will be scalable and tailored to specific missions. It will incorporate hardware and software from multiple vendors, and be upgradeable in order to infuse incremental capabilities and new technologies. It will maximize the use of reconfigurable open source software (e.g., Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC's) Core Flight Software (CFS)). Our long-term focus is on improving functionality, reliability, and autonomy, while reducing size, weight, and power. Where possible, we will leverage terrestrial commercial capabilities to drive down development and sustaining costs. We will select promising technologies for evaluation, compare them in an objective manner, and mature them to be available for future programs. The remainder of this paper describes our approach, technical areas of emphasis, integrated test experience and results as of mid-2014, and future plans. As a part of the AES

  17. Ongoing contact activation in patients with hereditary angioedema.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joke Konings

    Full Text Available Hereditary angioedema (HAE is predominantly caused by a deficiency in C1 esterase inhibitor (C1INH (HAE-C1INH. C1INH inhibits activated factor XII (FXIIa, activated factor XI (FXIa, and kallikrein. In HAE-C1INH patients the thrombotic risk is not increased even though activation of the contact system is poorly regulated. Therefore, we hypothesized that contact activation preferentially leads to kallikrein formation and less to activation of the coagulation cascade in HAE-C1INH patients. We measured the levels of C1INH in complex with activated contact factors in plasma samples of HAE-C1INH patients (N=30, 17 during remission and 13 during acute attack and healthy controls (N=10. We did not detect differences in enzyme-inhibitor complexes between samples of controls, patients during remission and patients during an acute attack. Reconstitution with C1INH did not change this result. Next, we determined the potential to form enzyme-inhibitory complexes after complete in vitro activation of the plasma samples with a FXII trigger. In all samples, enzyme-C1INH levels increased after activation even in patients during an acute attack. However, the levels of FXIIa-C1INH, FXIa-C1INH and kallikrein-C1INH were at least 52% lower in samples taken during remission and 70% lower in samples taken during attack compared to samples from controls (p<0.05. Addition of C1INH after activation led to an increase in levels of FXIIa-C1INH and FXIa-C1INH (p<0.05, which were still lower than in controls (p<0.05, while the levels of kallikrein-C1INH did not change. These results are consistent with constitutive activation and attenuated depletion of the contact system and show that the ongoing activation of the contact system, which is present in HAE-C1INH patients both during remission and during acute attacks, is not associated with preferential generation of kallikrein over FXIa.

  18. Continuation calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram Geron

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Programs with control are usually modeled using lambda calculus extended with control operators. Instead of modifying lambda calculus, we consider a different model of computation. We introduce continuation calculus, or CC, a deterministic model of computation that is evaluated using only head reduction, and argue that it is suitable for modeling programs with control. It is demonstrated how to define programs, specify them, and prove them correct. This is shown in detail by presenting in CC a list multiplication program that prematurely returns when it encounters a zero. The correctness proof includes termination of the program. In continuation calculus we can model both call-by-name and call-by-value. In addition, call-by-name functions can be applied to call-by-value results, and conversely.

  19. Cancer care coordination: building a platform for the development of care coordinator roles and ongoing evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freijser, Louise; Naccarella, Lucio; McKenzie, Rosemary; Krishnasamy, Meinir

    2015-01-01

    Continuity of care is integral to the quality and safety of care provided to people with cancer and their carers. Further evidence is required to examine the contribution Nurse Cancer Care Coordinator (NCCC) roles make in improving the continuity. The aim of the present study was to clarify the assumptions underpinning the NCCC roles and provide a basis for ongoing evaluation. The project comprised a literature review and a qualitative study to develop program logic. The participants who were purposively sampled included policy makers, practitioners, patient advocates, and researchers. Both the literature and participant reports found that NCCC roles are diverse and responsive to contextual influences to coordinate care at the individual (patient), organisational, and systems levels. The application of the program logic for the development of NCCC roles was explored. The conceptualisation of NCCC roles was also examined in relation to Boundary Spanning and Relational Coordination theory. Further research is required to examine how NCCCs contribute to improving equity, safety, quality and coordination of care. The project has implications for research, policy and practice, and makes explicit existing assumptions to provide a platform for further development and evaluation of these roles.

  20. The development of an ongoing monitoring and evaluation system in a NORC service organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska; Frank, Julia K

    2009-02-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the development, utilization and utility of an ongoing evaluation of a system of coordinated services to persons living in two naturally occurring retirement communities (NORCs). The evaluation system includes service provision, service utilization and client satisfaction. It identifies trends in provided services and determines how services are utilized. A continuous monitoring system for reporting and quality improvement was developed with the four service agencies associated with the service provision system. The monthly data from each agency are compiled and distributed in the form of a report. The evaluation project was successful in tailoring the reporting system to each agency. Multiple issues arose with staff compliance in utilization of the system, but, overall, the system evaluation presents detailed feedback on the services provided and helps with continuing development, testing of new delivery models, planning, maximizing resource utilization, customer service, and attaining and sustaining funding. A system evaluation of an organization that provides services to a community is vital to optimizing frequency and quality of services. There are many ways to implement system evaluations. However, the use of electronic-based records increases the likelihood of maintaining and utilizing the system.

  1. Geodetic Observations of Ongoing Unrest at Santorini Caldera, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, A. V.; Stiros, S. C.; Moschas, F.; Saltogianni, V.; Feng, L.; Psimoulis, P.; Jiang, Y.; Karakas, O.; Polster, S.

    2012-12-01

    After approximately 60 years of seismic quiescence within Santorini caldera, in January 2011 the volcano reawakened with a significant seismic swarm and rapidly expanding near-radial deformation. Using a combination of 10 continuous and 22 campaign GPS stations with observations beginning in 2006, we've captured the onset, and 3D shape of surface deformation. Deformation primarily radiates from inside the northern half of the caldera, with episodic growth periods lasting several months at a time. As of this writing, the caldera has expanded laterally about 185 mm, and uplifted at least 80 mm (with the maximum uplift likely occurring under the submerged caldera floor—unobservable by GPS). We will discuss the current geodetic evolution including continuous and 4 GPS campaigns during the period of unrest, exploring new numerical models to address the accompanying stress evolution of the system. We recognize that only anelastic inflation models including volumetric addition and viscoelastic relaxation or discrete dislocation will allow such growth to occur without a long-term stress increase. While observations of the current deformation sequence are unprecedented at Santorini, it is not certain that they mark the early stages of a process leading to an eruption given that other similar calderas have experienced comparable activity without eruption.

  2. Ongoing movement of the hermit warbler X Townsend's warbler hybrid zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meade Krosby

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Movements of hybrid zones - areas of overlap and interbreeding between species - are difficult to document empirically. This is true because moving hybrid zones are expected to be rare, and because movement may proceed too slowly to be measured directly. Townsend's warblers (Dendroica townsendi hybridize with hermit warblers (D. occidentalis where their ranges overlap in Washington and Oregon. Previous morphological, behavioral, and genetic studies of this hybrid zone suggest that it has been steadily moving into the geographical range of hermit warblers, with the more aggressive Townsend's warblers replacing hermit warblers along ∼2000 km of the Pacific coast of Canada and Alaska. Ongoing movement of the zone, however, has yet to be empirically demonstrated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We compared recently sampled hybrid zone specimens to those collected 10-20 years earlier, to test directly the long-standing hypothesis of hybrid zone movement between these species. Newly sampled specimens were more Townsend's-like than historical specimens, consistent with ongoing movement of the zone into the geographical range of hermit warblers. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: While movement of a hybrid zone may be explained by several possible mechanisms, in this case a wealth of existing evidence suggests that movement is being driven by the competitive displacement of hermit warblers by Townsend's warblers. That no ecological differences have been found between these species, and that replacement of hermit warblers by Townsend's warblers is proceeding downward in latitude and elevation - opposite the directions of range shifts predicted by recent climate change - further support that this movement is not being driven by alternative environmental factors. If the mechanism of competitive displacement is correct, whether this process will ultimately lead to the extinction of hermit warblers will depend on the continued maintenance of the

  3. Atmospheric sulfur loading by the ongoing Nornahraun eruption, North Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thordarson, Thorvaldur; Hartley, Margaret

    2015-04-01

    The ongoing Nornahraun fissure eruption has maintained a 1-4 km-high, gas-charged and sulfur-rich eruption plume since the onset of eruption on 31 August 2014 and had discharged ~1 km3 of lava at the end of 2014. During this time (i.e. September through December 2014), the SO2 emissions have produced significant volcanic pollution across Iceland with several short-lived events where the SO2 concentrations have exceeded toxic levels [1]. Although measurements of SO2 concentrations and fluxes is relatively straightforward at specific sites or localities within Iceland, it has been challenging to obtain good ground- or satellite-based time series measurements of the SO2 flux released by the magma upon venting. These difficulties arise because: (i) the eruption site is remote and nested in the centre of the Icelandic highland, thus these measurements are hampered by access and by weather conditions, (ii) the plume is confined to the lower troposphere where the conversion rate of SO2 to H2SO4 aerosols is very rapid, or hours (?) to days [2] and (iii) the plume is commonly obscured by clouds due of its low rise heights. The empirical sulphur emission method of Thordarson et al (2003) is an alternative way to obtain estimates on the total as well as temporal atmospheric SO2-loading by the Nornahraun eruption. We use the TiO2/FeO value of 0.156, obtained via microprobe analyses of groundmass glass in tephra grains, to calculate initial (1420 ppm) and degassed (435 ppm) S values for the Nornahraun magma. These values compare well with measured groundmass values (425 ppm = degassed S content) and melt inclusion values (~1400 ppm = initial S content of the magma). The difference in the above listed values represents the amount of S released into the atmosphere at the vents and indicates a 5.3 kg SO2-loading by each cubic meter of erupted magma. This implies a total atmospheric SO2-mass-loading of 5 million tons (= 5 terragrams) by the Nornahraun event during the first 4

  4. Ongoing drought-induced uplift in the western United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsa, Adrian Antal; Agnew, Duncan Carr; Cayan, Daniel R.

    2014-01-01

    The western United States has been experiencing severe drought since 2013. The solid earth response to the accompanying loss of surface and near-surface water mass should be a broad region of uplift. We use seasonally adjusted time series from continuously operating global positioning system stations to measure this uplift, which we invert to estimate mass loss. The median uplift is 5 millimeters (mm), with values up to 15 mm in California’s mountains. The associated pattern of mass loss, ranging up to 50 centimeters (cm) of water equivalent, is consistent with observed decreases in precipitation and streamflow. We estimate the total deficit to be ~240 gigatons, equivalent to a 10-cm layer of water over the entire region, or the annual mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet.

  5. Are the Schools We HAVE the Schools We NEED in Ghana? A Contribution to the Ongoing Debate on Ghana's Education Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbemabiese, Padmore E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to contribute to the ongoing discussion on Ghana's education reform initiatives in the light of contemporary socioeconomic constraints, and linguistic and diversity issues. The Ghanaian education system today faces inadequate financial resources (for education programs) combined with the continuous unprecedented demand…

  6. Ongoing Dynamics and Evolution of Neptune's Ring-Moon System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showalter, Mark R.; de Pater, Imke; Lissauer, Jack J.; French, Robert S.

    2017-06-01

    We report results derived from observations of the Neptune system using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) during August 2016. These observations entail repeated, extremely long exposures through the broadest available filter on the WFC3/UVIS instrument to reveal details of Neptune's faint rings and small, inner moons. The work complements similar observations performed by HST in 2004-2005 and 2009. A principal goal was the recovery of the small moon S/2004 N 1 (henceforth N14), which was first reported in 2009. New images show the moon clearly and make it possible to obtain accurate orbital elements for the first time. A complete analysis of all data 2004-2016 reveals that the mean motion n = 378.90616 +/- 0.00003 degrees per day, corresponding to a semimajor axis a = 105,283 km. Eccentricity and inclination are quite small, with e < 0.001 and i < 0.1 degrees. (This result accounts for the local Laplace Plane tilt of ~ 0.4 degrees). N14 has a physical radius R = 13-15 km, assuming its albedo is 0.09 +/- 0.01, which is the range of Neptune's other inner moons. It orbits interior to the much larger moon Proteus (a = 117,647 km; R = 210 km). Tides are believed to have caused Proteus to spiral outward significantly since its origin, and we find that N14 orbits within the radial zone likely crossed by Proteus. We suggest that N14 may have originated as debris ejected from an impact into Proteus; Proteus subsequently continued to evolve outward but the debris accreted into N14 and remains at its original point of origin. Naiad, the innermost of Neptune's moons, is now orbiting ~ 120 degrees ahead of its published orbital elements. This represents only a 1-sigma correction from its mean motion as derived from Voyager data, but it indicates that later, purported detections of Naiad with the Keck telescope were almost certainly misidentifications. The arcs in the Adams ring show that trends reported previously have continued: the two leading arcs are no longer visible

  7. ASASSN-17fp rebrightening event and ongoing monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.

    2017-05-01

    ASASSN-17fp, discovered on 2017 April 28 and classified as a helium dwarf nova, was observed to be in outburst again on May 16 after fading 2.5 magnitudes from its original outburst. Dr. Tom Marsh (University of Warwick) and Dr. Elme Breedt (University of Cambridge) requested immediate time-series coverage. Dr. Breedt wrote: "The transient was identified as a helium dwarf nova (also known as an AMCVn star) from a spectrum taken by the PESSTO survey and reported in ATel #10334. Since then, we have been observing the target using the New Technology Telescope on La Silla in Chile. We measured a photometric period of 51 minutes in the first few nights during which the object was bright at g=16.03 (Marsh et al., ATel #10354), and then it faded to about g 18. However last night [ May 16] it brightened back to g 16 again, apparently starting a second outburst. Time series observations during this bright state would be very valuable to determine whether the 51 min period we saw in earlier data returns, and whether it is the orbital period of the binary or related to the distortion of the accretion disc in outburst (superhumps). If the 51 min signal is the orbital period or close to it, this would be the helium dwarf nova with the longest orbital period known. Multiple successive outbursts are not uncommon in binaries like this..." Observers should continue to monitor ASASSN-17fp with nightly snapshots for two weeks after it fades, in case it rebrightens again. It appears to have faded, according to an observation in the AAVSO International Database by F.-J. Hambsch (HMB, Mol, Belgium), who observed it remotely from Chile on 2017 May 24.2252 UT at magnitude 19.944 CV ± 0.595. Continue nightly snapshots through June 6 at least, and if it brightens again, resume time series. Finder charts with sequence may be created using the AAVSO Variable Star Plotter (https://www.aavso.org/vsp). Observations should be submitted to the AAVSO International Databa! se. See full Alert Notice

  8. Efficacy, safety and tolerability of ongoing statin plus ezetimibe versus doubling the ongoing statin dose in hypercholesterolemic Taiwanese patients: an open-label, randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Chih-Chieh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C is associated with reduced risk for major coronary events. Despite statin efficacy, a considerable proportion of statin-treated hypercholesterolemic patients fail to reach therapeutic LDL-C targets as defined by guidelines. This study compared the efficacy of ezetimibe added to ongoing statins with doubling the dose of ongoing statin in a population of Taiwanese patients with hypercholesterolemia. Methods This was a randomized, open-label, parallel-group comparison study of ezetimibe 10 mg added to ongoing statin compared with doubling the dose of ongoing statin. Adult Taiwanese hypercholesterolemic patients not at optimal LDL-C levels with previous statin treatment were randomized (N = 83 to ongoing statin + ezetimibe (simvastatin, atorvastatin or pravastatin + ezetimibe at doses of 20/10, 10/10 or 20/10 mg or doubling the dose of ongoing statin (simvastatin 40 mg, atorvastatin 20 mg or pravastatin 40 mg for 8 weeks. Percent change in total cholesterol, LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and triglycerides, and specified safety parameters were assessed at 4 and 8 weeks. Results At 8 weeks, patients treated with statin + ezetimibe experienced significantly greater reductions compared with doubling the statin dose in LDL-C (26.2% vs 17.9%, p = 0.0026 and total cholesterol (20.8% vs 12.2%, p = 0.0003. Percentage of patients achieving treatment goal was greater for statin + ezetimibe (58.6% vs doubling statin (41.2%, but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.1675. The safety and tolerability profiles were similar between treatments. Conclusion Ezetimibe added to ongoing statin therapy resulted in significantly greater lipid-lowering compared with doubling the dose of statin in Taiwanese patients with hypercholesterolemia. Studies to assess clinical outcome benefit are ongoing. Trial registration Registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00652327

  9. Efficacy, safety and tolerability of ongoing statin plus ezetimibe versus doubling the ongoing statin dose in hypercholesterolemic Taiwanese patients: an open-label, randomized clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Chih-Chieh; Lai Wen-Ter; Shih Kuang-Chung; Lin Tsung-Hsien; Lu Chieh-Hua; Lai Hung-Jen; Hanson Mary E; Hwang Juey-Jen

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is associated with reduced risk for major coronary events. Despite statin efficacy, a considerable proportion of statin-treated hypercholesterolemic patients fail to reach therapeutic LDL-C targets as defined by guidelines. This study compared the efficacy of ezetimibe added to ongoing statins with doubling the dose of ongoing statin in a population of Taiwanese patients with hypercholesterolemia. Methods This was a rand...

  10. Ongoing Development of a Series Bosch Reactor System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abney, Morgan B; Mansell, J. Matthew; Stanley, Christine; Edmunson, Jennifer; DuMez, Samuel J.; Chen, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Future manned missions to deep space or planetary surfaces will undoubtedly incorporate highly robust, efficient, and regenerable life support systems that require minimal consumables. To meet this requirement, NASA continues to explore a Bosch-based carbon dioxide reduction system to recover oxygen from CO2. In order to improve the equivalent system mass of Bosch systems, we seek to design and test a "Series Bosch" system in which two reactors in series are optimized for the two steps of the reaction, as well as to explore the use of in situ materials as carbon deposition catalysts. Here we report recent developments in this effort including assembly and initial testing of a Reverse Water-Gas Shift reactor (RWGSr) and initial testing of two gas separation membranes. The RWGSr was sized to reduce CO2 produced by a crew of four to carbon monoxide as the first stage in a Series Bosch system. The gas separation membranes, necessary to recycle unreacted hydrogen and CO2, were similarly sized. Additionally, we report results of preliminary experiments designed to determine the catalytic properties of Martian regolith simulant for the carbon formation step.

  11. Marine actinomycetes: an ongoing source of novel bioactive metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramani, Ramesh; Aalbersberg, William

    2012-12-20

    Actinomycetes are virtually unlimited sources of novel compounds with many therapeutic applications and hold a prominent position due to their diversity and proven ability to produce novel bioactive compounds. There are more than 22,000 known microbial secondary metabolites, 70% of which are produced by actinomycetes, 20% from fungi, 7% from Bacillus spp. and 1-2% by other bacteria. Among the actinomycetes, streptomycetes group are considered economically important because out of the approximately more than 10,000 known antibiotics, 50-55% are produced by this genus. The ecological role of actinomycetes in the marine ecosystem is largely neglected and various assumptions meant there was little incentive to isolate marine strains for search and discovery of new drugs. The search for and discovery of rare and new actinomycetes is of significant interest to drug discovery due to a growing need for the development of new and potent therapeutic agents. Modern molecular technologies are adding strength to the target-directed search for detection and isolation of bioactive actinomycetes, and continued development of improved cultivation methods and molecular technologies for accessing the marine environment promises to provide access to this significant new source of chemical diversity with novel/rare actinomycetes including new species of previously reported actinomycetes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Past experience shapes ongoing neural patterns for language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Lara J.; Chen, Jen-Kai; Delcenserie, Audrey; Genesee, Fred; Klein, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Early experiences may establish a foundation for later learning, however, influences of early language experience on later neural processing are unknown. We investigated whether maintenance of neural templates from early language experience influences subsequent language processing. Using fMRI, we scanned the following three groups performing a French phonological working memory (PWM) task: (1) monolingual French children; (2) children adopted from China before age 3 who discontinued Chinese and spoke only French; (3) Chinese-speaking children who learned French as a second language but maintained Chinese. Although all groups perform this task equally well, brain activation differs. French monolinguals activate typical PWM brain regions, while both Chinese-exposed groups also activate regions implicated in cognitive control, even the adoptees who were monolingual French speakers at testing. Early exposure to a language, and/or delayed exposure to a subsequent language, continues to influence the neural processing of subsequently learned language sounds years later even in highly proficient, early-exposed users. PMID:26624517

  13. Ongoing Development of a Series Bosch Reactor System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abney, Morgan; Mansell, Matt; DuMez, Sam; Thomas, John; Cooper, Charlie; Long, David

    2013-01-01

    Future manned missions to deep space or planetary surfaces will undoubtedly require highly robust, efficient, and regenerable life support systems that require minimal consumables. To meet this requirement, NASA continues to explore a Bosch-based carbon dioxide reduction system to recover oxygen from CO2. In order to improve the equivalent system mass of Bosch systems, we seek to design and test a "Series Bosch" system in which two reactors in series are optimized for the two steps of the reaction, as well as to explore the use of in situ materials as carbon deposition catalysts. Here we report recent developments in this effort including assembly and initial testing of a Reverse Water-Gas Shift reactor (RWGSr) and initial testing of two gas separation membranes. The RWGSr was sized to reduce CO2 produced by a crew of four to carbon monoxide as the first stage in a Series Bosch system. The gas separation membranes, necessary to recycle unreacted hydrogen and CO2, were similarly sized. Additionally, we report results of preliminary experiments designed to determine the catalytic properties of Martian and Lunar regolith simulant for the carbon deposition step.

  14. Long-tailed distribution of synaptic strength reveals origin and functional roles of ongoing fluctuation in cortical circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramae, Jun-nosuke

    2016-06-01

    Neurons in the cortical circuit continuous to generate irregular spike firing with extremely low firing rate (about 1-2 Hz) even when animals neither receive any external stimuli nor they do not show any significant motor movement. The ongoing activity is often called neuronal noise because measured spike trains are often highly irregular and also spike timings are highly asynchronous among neurons. Many experiments imply that neural networks themselves must generate the noisy activity as an intrinsic property of cortical circuit. However, how a network of neurons sustains the irregular spike firings with low firing rate remains unclear. Recently, by focusing on long-tailed distribution of amplitude of synaptic connections or EPSP (Excitatory Post-Synaptic Potential), we successfully revealed that due to coexistence of a few extremely strong synaptic connections and majority of weak synapses, nonlinear dynamics of population of spiking neurons can have a nontrivial stable state that corresponding to the intrinsic ongoing fluctuation of the cortical circuit. We also found that due to the fluctuation fidelity of spike transmission between neurons are optimized. Here, we report our recent findings of the ongoing fluctuation from viewpoints of mathematical and computational side.

  15. The Ongoing Accomplishment of the Mobile Telecommunication: An Ethnomethodological Study of “Talking on a Mobile Phone”

    OpenAIRE

    Chia-Rong Tsao

    2015-01-01

    This paper attempts to explore the practices of “talking on a mobile phone” through the ethnomethodological approach. Instead of paying attention to the influences of the prevalence of mobile phones, this paper focuses on the ongoing accomplishment of the practices of cellphone-using. This paper contends that the mobile phone users accomplish the practices of “talking on a mobile phone” continuously by methods such as “reading hermeneutically”, “embodying”, “the documentary method of interpre...

  16. An ongoing large submarine landslide at the Japan trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, S.; Kasaya, T.; Miura, S.; Kawamura, K.

    2013-12-01

    This paper deals with an active submarine landslide on a landward trench slope in the Japan trench. Studied area is located on the upper terrace ranging from 400 to 1200 m in water depth, off Sendai, northeast Japan. We have surveyed in detail the seabed topography using a multi narrow beam (hereafter MBES) and a subbottom profiler (hereafter SBP) during the cruise MR12-E02 of R/V Mirai. The survey lines were 12 lines in N-S, and 3 lines in E-W, and situated in the region from 141°45'E, 37°40'N to 142°33'E, 38°32'N. Moreover, we used multi-channel seismic profile by the cruise KR04-10 of R/V Kairei in the interpretation of the SBP results. In general, horseshoe-shaped depressions of about 100 km wide along the trench slope are arrayed along the Japan trench. It has thought that they were formed by large submarine landslides, but we could not understand critically the relationship between the depressions and the submarine landslides. Based on the survey results, we found signals of an active submarine landslide in the depression as follows. 1) We observed arcuate-shaped lineaments, which are sub-parallel to a horseshoe-shaped depression. The lineaments concentrate in the south region from 38°N at about 20 km wide. These lineaments are formed by deformation structures as anticlines, synclines and normal fault sense displacements. 2) Most of the synclines and anticlines are not buried to form the lineaments. 3) Normal faults cutting about 1 km deep are observed in a multi-channel seismic profile. The normal faults are located just below the arcuate-shaped lineaments, and are tilted eastward being the downslope direction. It indicates a large submarine landslide. We concluded that the arcuate-shaped lineaments were generated by surface sediment movement with the submarine landsliding. We think that the submarine landslide of about 20 km wide and about 1 km thick move continuously down the landward trench slope. This would be the formation process of the horseshoe

  17. Early discharge care with ongoing follow-up support may reduce hospital readmissions in COPD.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lawlor, Maria

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Early discharge care and self-management education, although effective in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), do not typically reduce hospital re-admission rates for exacerbations of the disease. We hypothesized that a respiratory outreach programme that comprises early discharge care followed by continued rapid-access out-patient support would reduce the need for hospital readmission in these patients. METHODS: Two hundred and forty-six patients, acutely admitted with exacerbations of COPD, were recruited to the respiratory outreach programme that included early discharge care, follow-up education, telephone support and rapid future access to respiratory out-patient clinics. Sixty of these patients received self-management education also. Emergency department presentations and admission rates were compared at six and 12 months after, compared to prior to, participation in the programme for the same patient cohort. RESULTS: The frequency of both emergency department presentations and hospital admissions was significantly reduced after participation in the programme. CONCLUSIONS: Provision of a respiratory outreach service that includes early discharge care, followed by education, telephone support and ongoing rapid access to out-patient clinics is associated with reduced readmission rates in COPD patients.

  18. An experimental analysis of ongoing verbal behavior: reinforcement, verbal operants, and superstitious behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigland, S

    1996-01-01

    Four adult humans were asked to asked to "find" and talk about a particular topic to a person in an adjoining room, and were instructed that they would hear a short beep (the only form of reply from the other person) when they were talking about the topic, or were "close" to the topic. In Session 1, the experimenter in the adjoining room presented the beeps in the manner of shaping, or the differential reinforcement of successive approximations, "toward" the designated topic. In Session 2, the same conditions were in effect but the experimenter was unable to hear the subject and the beeps were presented noncontingently in a way that roughly matched the frequency and distribution of presentations in Session 1. In Session 3, shaping conditions were again in effect but with a different topic than that designated for Session 1. Audio recordings were transcribed in a way that was designed to show the progress of shaping over time. These and additional forms of supporting data and accompanying rationale are presented and discussed in detail. Issues raised by the methodology and results of the experiment include the nature of the verbal operant, superstitious verbal behavior, and a variety of methodological issues relevant to the experimental analysis of ongoing or continuous verbal behavior.

  19. Initial versus ongoing education: Perspectives of people with type 1 diabetes in 13 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, David; Golay, Alain

    2017-05-01

    To understand the perspectives of people with type 1 diabetes with regards to the diabetes education they receive within the health system. Grounded Theory was used for the collection and analysis of data from interviews with 101 people with type 1 diabetes from 13 countries. There are two aspects to education, namely initial education received when diagnosed and the ongoing education people continue to receive. Within these two categories content and process of diabetes education are important as are factors linked to the healthcare worker and setting. Tangible elements are the "what" that is delivered and are the different skills and information needed for people to manage their diabetes. Process elements are the "how" this is delivered. Finally intangible elements are those, which were found to be specific to certain contexts and health professionals. These could be the hardest to replicate, but possibly the most important. Health systems can provide the tangible elements and organize themselves to have processes in place to deliver education. The challenge is how can the intangible elements be seen as important and developed and delivered to improve management, but also meet the needs of people with diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Ongoing outbreak of dengue serotype-3 in Solomon Islands, January to May 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Nogareda

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In January 2013, clinicians in Honiara, Solomon Islands noted several patients presenting with dengue-like illness. Serum from three cases tested positive for dengue by rapid diagnostic test. Subsequent increases in cases were reported, and the outbreak was confirmed as being dengue serotype-3 by further laboratory tests. This report describes the ongoing outbreak investigation, findings and response. Methods: Enhanced dengue surveillance was implemented in the capital, Honiara, and in the provinces. This included training health staff on dengue case definitions, data collection and reporting. Vector surveillance was also conducted. Results: From 3 January to 15 May 2013, 5254 cases of suspected dengue were reported (101.8 per 10 000 population, including 401 hospitalizations and six deaths. The median age of cases was 20 years (range zero to 90, and 86% were reported from Honiara. Both Aedes aegyti and Aedes albopictus were identified in Honiara. Outbreak response measures included clinical training seminars, vector control activities, implementation of diagnostic and case management protocols and a public communication campaign. Discussion: This was the first large dengue outbreak documented in Solomon Islands. Factors that may have contributed to this outbreak include a largely susceptible population, the presence of a highly efficient dengue vector in Honiara, a high-density human population with numerous breeding sites and favourable weather conditions for mosquito proliferation. Although the number of cases has plateaued since 1 April, continued enhanced nationwide surveillance and response activities are necessary.

  1. Monitoring changes in seismic velocity related to an ongoing rapid inflation event at Okmok volcano, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennington, Ninfa; Haney, Matt; De Angelis, Silvio; Thurber, Clifford; Freymueller, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Okmok is one of the most active volcanoes in the Aleutian Arc. In an effort to improve our ability to detect precursory activity leading to eruption at Okmok, we monitor a recent, and possibly ongoing, GPS-inferred rapid inflation event at the volcano using ambient noise interferometry (ANI). Applying this method, we identify changes in seismic velocity outside of Okmok’s caldera, which are related to the hydrologic cycle. Within the caldera, we observe decreases in seismic velocity that are associated with the GPS-inferred rapid inflation event. We also determine temporal changes in waveform decorrelation and show a continual increase in decorrelation rate over the time associated with the rapid inflation event. Themagnitude of relative velocity decreases and decorrelation rate increases are comparable to previous studies at Piton de la Fournaise that associate such changes with increased production of volatiles and/ormagmatic intrusion within the magma reservoir and associated opening of fractures and/or fissures. Notably, the largest decrease in relative velocity occurs along the intrastation path passing nearest to the center of the caldera. This observation, along with equal amplitude relative velocity decreases revealed via analysis of intracaldera autocorrelations, suggests that the inflation sourcemay be located approximately within the center of the caldera and represent recharge of shallow magma storage in this location. Importantly, there is a relative absence of seismicity associated with this and previous rapid inflation events at Okmok. Thus, these ANI results are the first seismic evidence of such rapid inflation at the volcano.

  2. 7 CFR 25.403. - Ongoing 2-year work plan requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ongoing 2-year work plan requirement. 25.403. Section... COMMUNITIES Post-Designation Requirements § 25.403. Ongoing 2-year work plan requirement. (a) Each Empowerment Zone and Enterprise Community shall prepare and submit annually, work plans for the subsequent...

  3. The Use of Process Energy Characteristics to Predict Energy Performance Indicators on an Ongoing Basis

    OpenAIRE

    Izabela Sadowska

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents possible uses of process energy characteristics for ongoing monitoring of energy indicators. The method of ongoing monitoring of indicators consists in comparison of indicators determined on the basis of the processes’ energy characteristics. The method is primarily applicable in early detection and elimination of excessive and irrational energy consumption and in adjustments of the current energy management.

  4. Heterogeneous source components of intraplate basalts from NE China induced by the ongoing Pacific slab subduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huan; Xia, Qun-Ke; Ingrin, Jannick; Deloule, Etienne; Bi, Yao

    2017-02-01

    The subduction of oceanic slabs is widely accepted to be a main reason for chemical heterogeneities in the mantle. However, determining the contributions of slabs in areas that have experienced multiple subduction events is often difficult due to possible overlapping imprints. Understanding the temporal and spatial variations of source components for widespread intraplate small volume basalts in eastern China may be a basis for investigating the influence of the subducted Pacific slab, which has long been postulated but never confirmed. For this purpose, we investigated the Chaihe-aershan volcanic field (including more than 35 small-volume Quaternary basaltic volcanoes) in NE China and measured the oxygen isotopes and water content of clinopyroxene (cpx) phenocrysts using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), respectively. The water content of magma was then estimated based on the partition coefficient of H2O between cpx and the basaltic melt. The δ18O of cpx phenocrysts (4.28‰ to 8.57‰) and H2O content of magmas (0.19 wt.%-2.70 wt.%) show large variations, reflecting the compositional heterogeneity of the mantle source. The δ18O values and H2O content within individual samples also display considerable variation, suggesting the mixing of magmas and that the magma mixing occurred shortly before the eruption. The relation between the δ18O values of cpx phenocrysts and the H2O/Ce ratio, Ba/Th ratio and Eu anomaly of whole rocks demonstrates the contributions of three components to the mantle source (hydrothermally altered upper oceanic crust and marine sediments, altered lower gabbroic oceanic crust, and ambient mantle). The proportions of these three components have varied widely over time (∼1.37 Ma to ∼0.25 Ma). The Pacific slab is constantly subducted under eastern Asia and continuously transports recycled materials to the deep mantle. The temporal heterogeneity of the source components may be caused

  5. Posttraumatic stress disorder under ongoing threat: a review of neurobiological and neuroendocrine findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iro Fragkaki

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although numerous studies have investigated the neurobiology and neuroendocrinology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD after single finished trauma, studies on PTSD under ongoing threat are scarce and it is still unclear whether these individuals present similar abnormalities. Objective: The purpose of this review is to present the neurobiological and neuroendocrine findings on PTSD under ongoing threat. Ongoing threat considerably affects PTSD severity and treatment response and thus disentangling its neurobiological and neuroendocrine differences from PTSD after finished trauma could provide useful information for treatment. Method: Eighteen studies that examined brain functioning and cortisol levels in relation to PTSD in individuals exposed to intimate partner violence, police officers, and fire fighters were included. Results: Hippocampal volume was decreased in PTSD under ongoing threat, although not consistently associated with symptom severity. The neuroimaging studies revealed that PTSD under ongoing threat was not characterized by reduced volume of amygdala or parahippocampal gyrus. The neurocircuitry model of PTSD after finished trauma with hyperactivation of amygdala and hypoactivation of prefrontal cortex and hippocampus was also confirmed in PTSD under ongoing threat. The neuroendocrine findings were inconsistent, revealing increased, decreased, or no association between cortisol levels and PTSD under ongoing threat. Conclusions: Although PTSD under ongoing threat is characterized by abnormal neurocircuitry patterns similar to those previously found in PTSD after finished trauma, this is less so for other neurobiological and in particular neuroendocrine findings. Direct comparisons between samples with ongoing versus finished trauma are needed in future research to draw more solid conclusions before administering cortisol to patients with PTSD under ongoing threat who may already exhibit increased endogenous

  6. CTFS-ForestGEO: A worldwide network monitoring forests in an era of global change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson-Teixeira, K.J.; Davies, S.J.; Bennett, A.C.; Gonzalez-Akre, E.B.; Muller-Landau, H.C.; Wright, S.J.; Abu Salim, K.; Almeyda Zambrano, A.M.; Jansen, P.A.; Ouden, den J.

    2015-01-01

    Global change is impacting forests worldwide, threatening biodiversity and ecosystem services including climate regulation. Understanding how forests respond is critical to forest conservation and climate protection. This review describes an international network of 59 long-term forest dynamics rese

  7. The relation of ongoing brain activity, evoked neural responses, and cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Sadaghiani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Ongoing brain activity has been observed since the earliest neurophysiological recordings and is found over a wide range of temporal and spatial scales. It is characterized by remarkably large spontaneous modulations. Here, we review evidence for the functional role of these ongoing activity fluctuations and argue that they constitute an essential property of the neural architecture underlying cognition. The role of spontaneous activity fluctuations is probably best understood when considering both their spatiotemporal structure and their functional impact on cognition. We first briefly argue against a ‘segregationist’ view on ongoing activity, both in time and space, countering this view with an emphasis on integration within a hierarchical spatiotemporal organization of intrinsic activity. We then highlight the flexibility and context-sensitivity of intrinsic functional connectivity that suggest its involvement in functionally relevant information processing. This role in information processing is pursued by reviewing how ongoing brain activity interacts with afferent and efferent information exchange of the brain with its environment. We focus on the relationship between the variability of ongoing and evoked brain activity, and review recent reports that tie ongoing brain activity fluctuations to variability in human perception and behavior. Finally, these observations are discussed within the framework of the free-energy principle which – applied to human brain function - provides a theoretical account for a non-random, coordinated interaction of ongoing and evoked activity in perception and behaviour.

  8. Classification of Innovation Objectives Set for Continuing Professional Teacher Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyunnikov, Yurii S.

    2017-01-01

    The present demand for teachers, showing advanced aptitude for innovations, is an important reason for promotion of innovative practices in the continuous teacher training. For the on-going development of a continuous training system preparing teachers for innovative activities, it is necessary to have a complete taxonomy of practical objectives.…

  9. The Implementation of School Based Continuous Assessment (CA) in Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapambwe, William M.

    2010-01-01

    In Zambia, continuous assessment (CA) is defined as an on-going, diagnostic, classroom-based process that uses a variety of assessment tools to measure learner performance (MOE, 2005:5). Over the years, examinations have been used for selection and certification, without formal considerations on school-based continuous assessment as a component in…

  10. Correlating structure and function of drug-metabolizing enzymes: progress and ongoing challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Eric F; Connick, J Patrick; Reed, James R; Backes, Wayne L; Desai, Manoj C; Xu, Lianhong; Estrada, D Fernando; Laurence, Jennifer S; Scott, Emily E

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes a symposium sponsored by the American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics at Experimental Biology held April 20-24 in Boston, MA. Presentations discussed the status of cytochrome P450 (P450) knowledge, emphasizing advances and challenges in relating structure with function and in applying this information to drug design. First, at least one structure of most major human drug-metabolizing P450 enzymes is known. However, the flexibility of these active sites can limit the predictive value of one structure for other ligands. A second limitation is our coarse-grain understanding of P450 interactions with membranes, other P450 enzymes, NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase, and cytochrome b5. Recent work has examined differential P450 interactions with reductase in mixed P450 systems and P450:P450 complexes in reconstituted systems and cells, suggesting another level of functional control. In addition, protein nuclear magnetic resonance is a new approach to probe these protein/protein interactions, identifying interacting b5 and P450 surfaces, showing that b5 and reductase binding are mutually exclusive, and demonstrating ligand modulation of CYP17A1/b5 interactions. One desired outcome is the application of such information to control drug metabolism and/or design selective P450 inhibitors. A final presentation highlighted development of a CYP3A4 inhibitor that slows clearance of human immunodeficiency virus drugs otherwise rapidly metabolized by CYP3A4. Although understanding P450 structure/function relationships is an ongoing challenge, translational advances will benefit from continued integration of existing and new biophysical approaches.

  11. Rapid ongoing decline of Baird's tapir in Cusuco National Park, Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Niall P; Wheeler, Phil M; Coles, Tim; Bruford, Michael W

    2012-12-01

    During the International Tapir Symposium 16-21 Oct 2011, the conservation of Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii) in Honduras received a boost with the signing of a memorandum of understanding between the Minister Director of the Honduran Institute of Conservation and Forestry (ICF) and the Tapir Specialist Group (TSG). Despite this agreement, accelerating levels of hunting and habitat loss continue to pose a threat to Baird's tapir in Honduras. An ongoing study in Cusuco National Park in northwestern Honduras has been monitoring changes in population dynamics of Baird's tapir since 2006 through the collection of occupancy data. The study has identified an increase in hunting pressure, coinciding with a drastic decline in the encounter rate with Baird's tapir spoor. Here, we examine the significance of a range of demographic variables on Baird's tapir occupancy in Cusuco National Park using the software PRESENCE, and simulate the effects of different management strategies on the future dynamics of the population using the stochastic simulation software VORTEX. The predictions of the theoretical population models are compared to observed changes in occupancy levels. We found that non-intervention resulted in the local extinction of Baird's tapir within a very short time frame, but that various intervention models enabled the population to recover to near carrying capacity. Occupancy and extinction probability were shown to respond markedly to the increase in hunting pressure; and occupancy models supported the future population predictions generated by VORTEX. Our study suggests that immediate intervention is required to reduce hunting pressure to near historical levels to prevent the imminent local extinction of the species.

  12. 78 FR 5409 - Ongoing Equivalence Verifications of Foreign Food Regulatory Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... (SRT), which structures the criteria used to assess each component of initial and on-going equivalence... to standardize its collection of information. This standardization improves the quality of...

  13. An ongoing six-year innovative osteoporosis disease management program: challenges and success in an IPA physician group environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Ann; Hittell, Jodi; Beardsley, Carrie; Noh, Charles; Stoukides, Cheryl A; Kaul, Alan F

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this ongoing comprehensive osteoporosis disease management initiative is to provide the adult primary care physicians' (PCPs) offices with a program enabling them to systematically identify and manage their population for osteoporosis. For over six years, Hill Physicians Medical Group (Hill Physicians) has implemented multiple strategies to develop a best practice for identifying and treating members who were candidates for osteoporosis therapy. Numerous tools were used to support this disease management effort, including: evidence-based clinical practice guidelines, patient education sessions, the Simple Calculated Osteoporosis Risk Estimation (SCORE) questionnaire tool, member specific reports for PCPs, targeted member mailings, office-based Peripheral Instantaneous X-ray Imaging (PIXI) test and counseling, dual x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan guidelines, and web-based Electronic Simple Calculated Osteoporosis Risk Estimation (eSCORE) questionnaire tools. Hill Physicians tabulated results for patients who completed 2649 SCORE tests, screened 978 patients with PIXI tests, and identified 338 osteopenic and 124 osteoporotic patients. The preliminary results of this unique six-year ongoing educational initiative are slow but promising. New physician offices express interest in participating and those offices that have participated in the program continue to screen for osteoporosis. Hill Physicians' message is consistent and is communicated to the physicians repeatedly in different ways in accordance with the principles of educational outreach. Physicians who have conducted the program have positive feedback from their patients and office staff and have begun to communicate their experience to their peers.

  14. The maintenance of established remote contextual fear memory requires ERK5 MAP kinase and ongoing adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Wei Pan

    Full Text Available Adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation has been implicated in several forms of hippocampus-dependent memory. However, its role in the persistence of remote memory is unknown. Furthermore, whether the hippocampus plays a role in maintaining remote contextual memories is controversial. Here we used an inducible gene-specific approach for conditional deletion of erk5 in the adult neurogenic regions of the mouse brain to specifically impair adult neurogenesis. The erk5 gene was conditionally deleted under three different experimental conditions: prior to training for contextual fear, 6 days after training, or 5 weeks after training, We present evidence that remote memory was impaired under all three conditions. These data demonstrate that ongoing adult neurogenesis is required both for the initial establishment and the continued maintenance of remote contextual fear memory, even after the remote memory has transferred into extra-hippocampal regions of the brain 5 weeks after training.

  15. ONGOING INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECT THAT DRUGSTORE BEETLES HAVE ON CELOTEX ASSEMBLIES FOUND WITHIN RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loftin, B.

    2009-06-08

    During normal operations at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Hanford, WA, drugstore beetles were found within the fiberboard subassemblies of two 9975 Shipping Packages. The Department of Energy's Packaging Certification Program (EM-60) directed a thorough investigation to determine if the drugstore beetles were causing damage that would be detrimental to the safety performance of the Celotex. The Savannah River National Laboratory is continuing to conduct the investigation with entomological expertise being provided by Clemson University. The outcome from the investigation conducted over the previous year was that no discernible damage had been caused by the drugstore beetles. One of the two packages has been essentially untouched over the past year and has only been opened to visually inspect for additional damage. This paper will provide details and results of the ongoing investigation of that package.

  16. Parental Origin of the Retained X Chromosome in Monosomy X Miscarriages and Ongoing Pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, Maribel; Stergiotou, Iosifina; Pauta, Montse; Marquès, Borja; Badenas, Cèlia; Soler, Anna; Yaron, Yuval; Borrell, Antoni

    2017-10-05

    To assess the distribution of the parental origin of the retained X chromosome in monosomy X, either in miscarriages or in ongoing pregnancies. The parental origin of the X chromosome was determined in monosomy X pregnancies, either miscarriages or ongoing pregnancies. Microsatellite marker patterns were compared between maternal and fetal samples by quantitative fluorescence polymerase chain reaction. Distributions of maternally and paternally derived X chromosome were assessed in miscarriages and in ongoing pregnancies using two-tailed Fisher exact test. Forty monosomy X pregnancies were included in the study: 26 miscarried at 5-16 weeks, and 14 ongoing pregnancies were diagnosed at 11-20 weeks. The retained X chromosome was maternally derived in 67% of the cases. In miscarriages, maternal and paternal X chromosome were retained in a similar proportion (54% [95% CI: 35-73%] vs. 46% [95% CI: 27-65%]), while in ongoing pregnancies, the maternal rate was 13 times higher (93% [95% CI: 79-100%)] vs. 7% [95% CI: 0-20%]). The retained X chromosome in individuals with monosomy X should theoretically be maternally derived in 2/3 of the cases. Our study suggests a preferential early miscarriage in pregnancies with a retained paternally derived X chromosome. This may explain the observation that 75-90% of individuals with monosomy X retain the maternal X chromosome. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Update: Ongoing Zika Virus Transmission - Puerto Rico, November 1, 2015-April 14, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirlikov, Emilio; Ryff, Kyle R; Torres-Aponte, Jomil; Thomas, Dana L; Perez-Padilla, Janice; Munoz-Jordan, Jorge; Caraballo, Elba V; Garcia, Myriam; Segarra, Marangely Olivero; Malave, Graciela; Simeone, Regina M; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K; Reyes, Lourdes Romero; Alvarado-Ramy, Francisco; Harris, Angela F; Rivera, Aidsa; Major, Chelsea G; Mayshack, Marrielle; Alvarado, Luisa I; Lenhart, Audrey; Valencia-Prado, Miguel; Waterman, Steve; Sharp, Tyler M; Rivera-Garcia, Brenda

    2016-05-06

    Zika virus is a flavivirus transmitted primarily by Aedes species mosquitoes, and symptoms of infection can include rash, fever, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis (1).* Zika virus infection during pregnancy is a cause of microcephaly and other severe brain defects (2). Infection has also been associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome (3). In December 2015, Puerto Rico became the first U.S. jurisdiction to report local transmission of Zika virus, with the index patient reporting symptom onset on November 23, 2015 (4). This report provides an update to the epidemiology of and public health response to ongoing Zika virus transmission in Puerto Rico. During November 1, 2015-April 14, 2016, a total of 6,157 specimens from suspected Zika virus-infected patients were evaluated by the Puerto Rico Department of Health (PRDH) and CDC Dengue Branch (which is located in San Juan, Puerto Rico), and 683 (11%) had laboratory evidence of current or recent Zika virus infection by one or more tests: reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or immunoglobulin M (IgM) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Zika virus-infected patients resided in 50 (64%) of 78 municipalities in Puerto Rico. Median age was 34 years (range = 35 days-89 years). The most frequently reported signs and symptoms were rash (74%), myalgia (68%), headache (63%), fever (63%), and arthralgia (63%). There were 65 (10%) symptomatic pregnant women who tested positive by RT-PCR or IgM ELISA. A total of 17 (2%) patients required hospitalization, including 5 (1%) patients with suspected Guillain-Barré syndrome. One (Zika virus infection (including blood donor screening), implementation of enhanced surveillance systems, and prevention activities focused on pregnant women. Vector control activities include indoor and outdoor residual spraying and reduction of mosquito breeding environments focused around pregnant women's homes. Residents of and travelers to Puerto Rico should continue to employ mosquito

  18. Participatory Continuing Design: "Living with" Videoconferencing in Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aanestad, Margunn; Driveklepp, Anne Merete; Sørli, Hilde; Hertzum, Morten

    2017-01-01

    While much research emphasizes design-before-use, we here study design-in-use. The notion of participatory continuing design is introduced to draw attention to the ongoing work of incorporating information and communication technology into work processes in healthcare institutions. Through an empirical case study of how telemedicine, in the form of videoconferencing, was taken up in a rehabilitation hospital in Norway, the nature of such ongoing experimentation, learning, and redesign is described. When contrasted with traditional design-before-use practices, participatory continuing design differs in terms of its timing, object, process, outcome, and participants. We offer recommendations for how such processes can be supported in healthcare organizations.

  19. NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System - Many Mechanisms for On-Going Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.

    2012-12-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System has been serving a broad user community since August 1994. As a long-lived multi-mission system serving multiple scientific disciplines and a diverse user community, EOSDIS has been evolving continuously. It has had and continues to have many forms of community input to help with this evolution. Early in its history, it had inputs from the EOSDIS Advisory Panel, benefited from the reviews by various external committees and evolved into the present distributed architecture with discipline-based Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs), Science Investigator-led Processing Systems and a cross-DAAC search and data access capability. EOSDIS evolution has been helped by advances in computer technology, moving from an initially planned supercomputing environment to SGI workstations to Linux Clusters for computation and from near-line archives of robotic silos with tape cassettes to RAID-disk-based on-line archives for storage. The network capacities have increased steadily over the years making delivery of data on media almost obsolete. The advances in information systems technologies have been having an even greater impact on the evolution of EOSDIS. In the early days, the advent of the World Wide Web came as a game-changer in the operation of EOSDIS. The metadata model developed for the EOSDIS Core System for representing metadata from EOS standard data products has had an influence on the Federal Geographic Data Committee's metadata content standard and the ISO metadata standards. The influence works both ways. As ISO 19115 metadata standard has developed in recent years, EOSDIS is reviewing its metadata to ensure compliance with the standard. Improvements have been made in the cross-DAAC search and access of data using the centralized metadata clearing house (EOS Clearing House - ECHO) and the client Reverb. Given the diversity of the Earth science disciplines served by the DAACs, the DAACs have developed a

  20. Ongoing interpretations of accomplishments in smoking cessation : Positive and negative self-efficacy interpretations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, A; Ten Wolde, G

    2005-01-01

    Smokers and ex-smokers are considered to make ongoing interpretations of their accomplishments in terms of their ability to refrain from smoking. We assessed positive self-efficacy interpretations (PSEint) and negative self-efficacy interpretations (NSEint) as the frequencies with which smokers and

  1. Factors contributing to ongoing intimate partner abuse: childhood betrayal trauma and dependence on one's perpetrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Rebecca L; Deprince, Anne P

    2013-05-01

    Identifying the factors that contribute to ongoing intimate partner abuse (IPA) among survivors of childhood abuse is essential to developing appropriate interventions. The current study assessed prospectively whether childhood betrayal trauma (BT) history and women's potential dependence on their perpetrators (unemployment, number of children below 13) increased women's risk of ongoing victimization, while controlling for trauma-related symptoms (PTSD, depression, dissociation). Women survivors of IPA (N = 190) from an urban U.S. city were recruited based on an IPA incident reported to the police. At the initial interview, women reported on childhood betrayal trauma experiences, their employment status, number of children, and current trauma-related symptoms. Women returned 6 months later and reported on ongoing events of victimization (physical, sexual, psychological aggression, and injury) in their relationships with the initial IPA perpetrator. Results showed that higher levels of childhood BT were associated with ongoing victimization over the course of 6 months. Women's unemployment status predicted greater physical and sexual aggression and injuries. Higher levels of depression and lower levels of PTSD symptoms were also associated with increases in physical, sexual, and psychological aggression, and bodily injury. The findings have important implications for interventions by demonstrating the need to process women's betrayal trauma experiences, target depression symptoms, and increase women's economic opportunities to prevent further victimization.

  2. Assessing ongoing sources of dissolved-phase polychlorinated biphenyls in a contaminated stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Viet D.; Walters, David M.; Lee, Cindy M.

    2013-01-01

    Few studies assess the potential of ongoing sources of “fresh” polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to aquatic systems when direct discharge to the environment has been eliminated. In the present study, the authors used single-layered, low-density polyethylene samplers (PEs) to measure total PCB concentrations, congener profiles, and enantiomeric fractions (EFs) in a contaminated stream and to provide multiple lines of evidence for assessing ongoing inputs of PCB. Concentrations were well above background levels that have been monitored for years. Concentrations significantly increased with distance, the farthest downstream PE concentrations being almost five times greater than those at 79 m downstream of a historical point source. The PCBs in the PEs at 79 m downstream of the contamination source were dominated by low KOW congeners, similar to those in the mixture of Aroclors 1016 and 1254 (4:1 v/v) historically released from the former capacitor manufacturer. The only two chiral congeners detected in the PEs downstream were PCBs 91 and 95. The EF values were nonracemic for PCB 91, while the values were either racemic or near racemic for PCB 95. Increased PCB concentrations with distance and a congener composition of predominantly low-weight congeners in the PEs at 79 m downstream of the plant site suggested an ongoing PCB source from the plant site. Chiral signatures suggested aerobic biotransformation of dissolved PCBs but did not shed any light on possible ongoing PCB inputs.

  3. Supporting the Thesis Writing Process of International Research Students through an Ongoing Writing Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linda Y.; Vandermensbrugghe, Joelle

    2011-01-01

    Evidence from research suggests writing support is particularly needed for international research students who have to tackle the challenges of thesis writing in English as their second language in Western academic settings. This article reports the development of an ongoing writing group to support the thesis writing process of international…

  4. A Collaborative, Ongoing University Strategic Planning Framework: Process, Landmines, and Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Susan E. Kogler; Thomas, Edward G.; Keller, Lawrence F.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the strategic planning process at Cleveland State University, a large metropolitan state university in Ohio. A faculty-administrative team used a communicative planning approach to develop a collaborative, ongoing, bottom-up, transparent strategic planning process. This team then spearheaded the process through plan…

  5. 77 FR 26674 - Enhancement of Electricity Market Surveillance and Analysis Through Ongoing Electronic Delivery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... relating to physical and virtual offers and bids, market awards, resource outputs, marginal cost estimates... pricing. Such data will facilitate the Commission's development and evaluation of its policies and.... Web-Based Delivery 45 F. Data Requested 49 G. Implementation Timeline and Phasing 64 H. Ongoing...

  6. Aftershocks of Chile's Earthquake for an Ongoing, Large-Scale Experimental Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Lorenzo; Trevino, Ernesto; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Mendive, Susana; Reyes, Joaquin; Godoy, Felipe; Del Rio, Francisca; Snow, Catherine; Leyva, Diana; Barata, Clara; Arbour, MaryCatherine; Rolla, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation designs for social programs are developed assuming minimal or no disruption from external shocks, such as natural disasters. This is because extremely rare shocks may not make it worthwhile to account for them in the design. Among extreme shocks is the 2010 Chile earthquake. Un Buen Comienzo (UBC), an ongoing early childhood program in…

  7. 13 CFR 126.501 - What are a qualified HUBZone SBC's ongoing obligations to SBA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What are a qualified HUBZone SBC's... ADMINISTRATION HUBZONE PROGRAM Maintaining HUBZone Status § 126.501 What are a qualified HUBZone SBC's ongoing obligations to SBA? A qualified HUBZone SBC must immediately notify SBA of any material change that...

  8. Supporting the Thesis Writing Process of International Research Students through an Ongoing Writing Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linda Y.; Vandermensbrugghe, Joelle

    2011-01-01

    Evidence from research suggests writing support is particularly needed for international research students who have to tackle the challenges of thesis writing in English as their second language in Western academic settings. This article reports the development of an ongoing writing group to support the thesis writing process of international…

  9. Assessing the Impact of Ongoing National Terror: Social Workers in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ron, Pnina; Shamai, Michal

    2011-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to explore the connections between social workers' personal and professional exposure to national terror in Israel and their professional and personal distress experienced due to ongoing terror attacks. Data were collected from 406 social workers from Israel who worked in agencies that provide help to victims of…

  10. Adolescents' Mental Health Outcomes According to Different Types of Exposure to Ongoing Terror Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun-Lewensohn, Orna; Celestin-Westreich, Smadar; Celestin, Leon-Patrice; Verte, Dominique; Ponjaert-Kristoffersen, Ingrid

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of several types of exposure to terror attacks on adolescents' psychological outcomes in the context of ongoing terror. A total of 913 adolescents (51 girls) aged 12 to 18 years (12-13.6 = 33%; 13.7-15.6 = 38%; 15.7-18 = 28%) took part in the study. Detailed data were collected concerning objective, subjective…

  11. Aftershocks of Chile's Earthquake for an Ongoing, Large-Scale Experimental Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Lorenzo; Trevino, Ernesto; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Mendive, Susana; Reyes, Joaquin; Godoy, Felipe; Del Rio, Francisca; Snow, Catherine; Leyva, Diana; Barata, Clara; Arbour, MaryCatherine; Rolla, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation designs for social programs are developed assuming minimal or no disruption from external shocks, such as natural disasters. This is because extremely rare shocks may not make it worthwhile to account for them in the design. Among extreme shocks is the 2010 Chile earthquake. Un Buen Comienzo (UBC), an ongoing early childhood program in…

  12. Preliminary results of an ongoing study of the Nicobar megapode Megapodius nicobariensis Blyth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sankaran, R.; Sivakumar, K.

    1999-01-01

    Data collected during an ongoing study on incubation mounds and the social organization of the Nicobar megapode Megapodius nicobariensis Blyth, 1846, are reviewed. Microbial decomposition of organic matter in mounds is likely to be the major source of heat production within incubation mounds of the

  13. Q fever in the Netherlands: a concise overview and implications of the largest ongoing outbreak.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delsing, C.E.; Kullberg, B.J.

    2008-01-01

    Two outbreaks of Q fever were reported in the Netherlands in 2007 and 2008. The ongoing 2008 outbreak in the south-eastern part of the Netherlands is the largest community outbreak ever described, with 808 cases reported until August 2008. The changing epidemiology of Q fever is most likely related

  14. Lateralization of noise-burst trains based on onset and ongoing interaural delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyman, Richard L; Balakrishnan, Uma; Zurek, Patrick M

    2010-07-01

    The lateralization of 250-ms trains of brief noise bursts was measured using an acoustic pointing technique. Stimuli were designed to assess the contribution of the interaural time delay (ITD) of the onset binaural burst relative to that of the ITDs in the ongoing part of the train. Lateralization was measured by listeners' adjustments of the ITD of a pointer stimulus, a 50-ms burst of noise, to match the lateral position of the target train. Results confirmed previous reports of lateralization dominance by the onset burst under conditions in which the train is composed of frozen tokens and the ongoing part contains multiple ambiguous interaural delays. In contrast, lateralization of ongoing trains in which fresh noise tokens were used for each set of two alternating (left-leading/right-leading) binaural pairs followed the ITD of the first pair in each set, regardless of the ITD of the onset burst of the entire stimulus and even when the onset burst was removed by gradual gating. This clear lateralization of a long-duration stimulus with ambiguous interaural delay cues suggests precedence mechanisms that involve not only the interaural cues at the beginning of a sound, but also the pattern of cues within an ongoing sound.

  15. A Collaborative, Ongoing University Strategic Planning Framework: Process, Landmines, and Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Susan E. Kogler; Thomas, Edward G.; Keller, Lawrence F.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the strategic planning process at Cleveland State University, a large metropolitan state university in Ohio. A faculty-administrative team used a communicative planning approach to develop a collaborative, ongoing, bottom-up, transparent strategic planning process. This team then spearheaded the process through plan…

  16. Consequences of ongoing civil conflict in Somalia: evidence for public health responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha-Sapir, Debarati; Ratnayake, Ruwan

    2009-08-01

    Debarati Guha-Sapir and Ruwan Ratnayake use field data to demonstrate the severe vulnerability faced by much of the Somalian population due to ongoing conflict, and call for concerted public health interventions and access to food aid especially in southern Somalia.

  17. Quality Matters™: An Educational Input in an Ongoing Design-Based Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adair, Deborah; Shattuck, Kay

    2015-01-01

    Quality Matters (QM) has been transforming established best practices and online education-based research into an applicable, scalable course level improvement process for the last decade. In this article, the authors describe QM as an ongoing design-based research project and an educational input for improving online education.

  18. From Further to Higher Education: Transition as an On-Going Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tett, Lyn; Cree, Viviene E; Christie, Hazel

    2017-01-01

    This paper argues that transition is not a one-off event that occurs when students first enter universities but is an on-going process that is repeated over time. We draw on qualitative data from a longitudinal project on "non-traditional" students who entered a research-intensive university in Scotland direct from further education…

  19. Assessing the Impact of Ongoing National Terror: Social Workers in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ron, Pnina; Shamai, Michal

    2011-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to explore the connections between social workers' personal and professional exposure to national terror in Israel and their professional and personal distress experienced due to ongoing terror attacks. Data were collected from 406 social workers from Israel who worked in agencies that provide help to victims of…

  20. Adolescents' Mental Health Outcomes According to Different Types of Exposure to Ongoing Terror Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun-Lewensohn, Orna; Celestin-Westreich, Smadar; Celestin, Leon-Patrice; Verte, Dominique; Ponjaert-Kristoffersen, Ingrid

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of several types of exposure to terror attacks on adolescents' psychological outcomes in the context of ongoing terror. A total of 913 adolescents (51 girls) aged 12 to 18 years (12-13.6 = 33%; 13.7-15.6 = 38%; 15.7-18 = 28%) took part in the study. Detailed data were collected concerning objective, subjective…

  1. Generalized lymphadenopathy as a marker of ongoing inflammation in prolonged cholestatic hepatitis A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhya, Ashis; Chandy, George M

    2002-08-01

    Extrahepatic manifestations of hepatitis A are very unusual. We describe a case of prolonged cholestatic hepatitis A in a patient with generalized lymphadenopathy. With normalization of transaminases, there was an accompanying reduction in size of these lymph nodes. Lymphadenopathy reflects ongoing hepatic inflammation in prolonged cholestatic hepatitis A.

  2. Transient inflammation-induced ongoing pain is driven by TRPV1 sensitive afferents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercado Ramon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tissue injury elicits both hypersensitivity to evoked stimuli and ongoing, stimulus-independent pain. We previously demonstrated that pain relief elicits reward in nerve-injured rats. This approach was used to evaluate the temporal and mechanistic features of inflammation-induced ongoing pain. Results Intraplantar Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA produced thermal hyperalgesia and guarding behavior that was reliably observed within 24 hrs and maintained, albeit diminished, 4 days post-administration. Spinal clonidine produced robust conditioned place preference (CPP in CFA treated rats 1 day, but not 4 days following CFA administration. However, spinal clonidine blocked CFA-induced thermal hyperalgesia at both post-CFA days 1 and 4, indicating different time-courses of ongoing and evoked pain. Peripheral nerve block by lidocaine administration into the popliteal fossa 1 day following intraplantar CFA produced a robust preference for the lidocaine paired chamber, indicating that injury-induced ongoing pain is driven by afferent fibers innervating the site of injury. Pretreatment with resiniferatoxin (RTX, an ultrapotent capsaicin analogue known to produce long-lasting desensitization of TRPV1 positive afferents, fully blocked CFA-induced thermal hypersensitivity and abolished the CPP elicited by administration of popliteal fossa lidocaine 24 hrs post-CFA. In addition, RTX pretreatment blocked guarding behavior observed 1 day following intraplantar CFA. In contrast, administration of the selective TRPV1 receptor antagonist, AMG9810, at a dose that reversed CFA-induced thermal hyperalgesia failed to reduce CFA-induced ongoing pain or guarding behavior. Conclusions These data demonstrate that inflammation induces both ongoing pain and evoked hypersensitivity that can be differentiated on the basis of time course. Ongoing pain (a is transient, (b driven by peripheral input resulting from the injury, (c dependent on TRPV1 positive

  3. Expectations and positive emotional feelings accompany reductions in ongoing and evoked neuropathic pain following placebo interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Gitte L; Finnerup, Nanna B; Grosen, Kasper; Pilegaard, Hans K; Tracey, Irene; Benedetti, Fabrizio; Price, Donald D; Jensen, Troels S; Vase, Lene

    2014-12-01

    Research on placebo analgesia and nocebo hyperalgesia has primarily included healthy subjects or acute pain patients, and it is unknown whether these effects can be obtained in ongoing pain in patients with chronic pain caused by an identifiable nerve injury. Eighteen patients with postthoracotomy neuropathic pain were exposed to placebo and nocebo manipulations, in which they received open and hidden administrations of pain-relieving (lidocaine) or pain-inducing (capsaicin) treatment controlled for the natural history of pain. Immediately after the open administration, patients rated their expected pain levels on a mechanical visual analogue scale (M-VAS). They also reported their emotional feelings via a quantitative/qualitative experiential method. Subsequently, patients rated their ongoing pain levels on the M-VAS and underwent quantitative sensory testing of evoked pain (brush, pinprick, area of hyperalgesia, wind-up-like pain). There was a significant placebo effect on both ongoing (P=.009 to .019) and evoked neuropathic pain (P=.0005 to .053). Expected pain levels accounted for significant amounts of the variance in ongoing (53.4%) and evoked pain (up to 34.5%) after the open lidocaine administration. Furthermore, patients reported high levels of positive and low levels of negative emotional feelings in the placebo condition compared with the nocebo condition (P⩽.001). Pain increases during nocebo were nonsignificant (P=.394 to 1.000). To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate placebo effects in ongoing neuropathic pain. It provides further evidence for placebo-induced reduction in hyperalgesia and suggests that patients' expectations coexist with emotional feelings about treatments. Copyright © 2014 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Behavioral and neurochemical analysis of ongoing bone cancer pain in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remeniuk, Bethany; Sukhtankar, Devki; Okun, Alec; Navratilova, Edita; Xie, Jennifer Y; King, Tamara; Porreca, Frank

    2015-10-01

    Cancer-induced bone pain is described as dull, aching ongoing pain. Ongoing bone cancer pain was characterized after intratibial injection of breast cancer cells in rats. Cancer produced time-dependent bone remodeling and tactile hypersensitivity but no spontaneous flinching. Conditioned place preference (CPP) and enhanced dopamine (DA) release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell was observed after peripheral nerve block (PNB) selectively in tumor-bearing rats revealing nociceptive-driven ongoing pain. Oral diclofenac reversed tumor-induced tactile hypersensitivity but did not block PNB-induced CPP or NAc DA release. Tumor-induced tactile hypersensitivity, and PNB-induced CPP and NAc DA release, was blocked by prior subcutaneous implantation of a morphine pellet. In sham rats, morphine produced a modest but sustained increase in NAc DA release. In contrast, morphine produced a transient 5-fold higher NAc DA release in tumor bearing rats compared with sham morphine rats. The possibility that this increased NAc DA release reflected the reward of pain relief was tested by irreversible blockade of rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) μ-opioid receptors (MORs). The rACC MOR blockade prevented the morphine-induced transient increased NAc DA release in tumor bearing rats but did not affect morphine-induced effects in sham-operated animals. Consistent with clinical experience, ongoing cancer pain was controlled by morphine but not by a dose of diclofenac that reversed evoked hypersensitivity. Additionally, the intrinsic reward of morphine can be dissociated from the reward of relief of cancer pain by blockade of rACC MOR. This approach allows mechanistic and therapeutic assessment of ongoing cancer pain with likely translation relevance.

  5. Using Principles of Quality and Safety Education for Nurses in School Nurse Continuing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Ruth K.; Sprague-McRae, Julie

    2014-01-01

    School nurses require ongoing continuing education in a number of areas. The Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) framework can be utilized in considering school nurses' roles and developing continuing education. Focusing on neurology continuing education, the QSEN framework is illustrated with the example of concussion management…

  6. An Ongoing Observational Study of Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Greater Boston Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrifield, A.; Prinn, R. G.; Ono, S.

    2012-12-01

    Observations of greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations and their relationship to atmospheric conditions in major cities are an important component of current efforts to understand the effects of urbanization on anthropogenic sources of GHGs. One-minute CO2 mixing ratio measurements in the city of Cambridge, MA have been determined from air samples collected from an intake mounted at on the roof of MIT's Green building (99.0 m) since July 3, 2012. Atmospheric CO2 concentrations are governed by a diurnal cycle with July hourly average mixing ratios ranging from a minimum of 390.22 ± 9.22 ppm at 4:00PM to a maximum of 412.89 ± 16.78 ppm at 6:00AM. Occasional plume events, with mixing ratios exceeding 500 ppm, are seen in preliminary records especially in the morning hours (6:00AM-12:00PM). Small CO2 detectors also have been deployed at other locations on MIT's campus to determine CO2 mixing ratios to within 30 ppm at different elevations. These detectors provide a cost effective way to determine the spatial extent of plume events. To assess overall levels of GHGs in the Boston area, corresponding CO and N2O concentrations, obtained with a continuous wave, quantum cascade tunable infrared laser absorption spectrometer are used to determine source signatures during plume events. The potential exists to establish a baseline diurnal signal in the CO and N2O records similar to that of CO2 in the ongoing measurements. Further analyses will look to determine the existence and extent of an urban GHG dome over the city of Boston. Some unique source signatures are identified on the basis of their characteristic N2O-CO-CO2 ratios; this information will be used to evaluate the location of significant anthropogenic sources of GHGs in conjunction with wind direction and traffic flow data. Preliminary N2O/CO2 ratios, averaged over six hour periods, fall between (7.31 ± 0.31)*10-4 in the morning (6:00AM-12:00PM) and (8.34 ± 0.13)*10-4 in the evening (6:00PM - 12:00AM) are slightly

  7. Diagnose and adios: practical tips for the ongoing evaluation and care of TAC patients taking indomethacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanders, Laura B; Ailani, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Paroxysmal hemicrania and hemicrania continua are primary headache disorders characterized by unilateral attacks of severe pain around the orbit with associated autonomic features. They are unique in their absolute response to indomethacin. Diagnosis is made when patients with suspected paroxysmal hemicrania or hemicrania continua have the resolution of headache with therapeutic doses of indomethacin. Once diagnosis is made, limited data exists on the ongoing management of these patients. For patients who do not tolerate indomethacin, or wish to come off medication, there remain few options. This article will discuss the diagnosis of paroxysmal hemicrania and hemicrania continua and the ongoing management of patients on indomethacin, as well as options for patients who do not tolerate or need to come off indomethacin.

  8. An ongoing measles outbreak in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2014 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hukic, M; Ravlija, J; Karakas, S; Mulaomerovic, M; Dedeic Ljubovic, A; Salimović-Besic, I; Seremet, M; Ahmetagic, S; Comor, A; Feric, E

    2015-03-05

    Between January 2014 and the beginning of February 2015, the Federal Institute of Public Health in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina has reported 3,804 measles cases. Notable transmission has been observed in three Central Bosnia Canton municipalities: Bugojno, Fojnica and Travnik. Most cases were unvaccinated 2,680 (70%) or of unknown vaccination status 755 (20%). Health authorities have been checking vaccination records and performing necessary prevention measures. The epidemic is still ongoing.

  9. Sharing State Mental Health Data for Research: Building Toward Ongoing Learning in Mental Health Care Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David A; Rupp, Agnes

    2015-09-01

    With the rise of "big data," the opportunities to use administrative and clinical data to evaluate impact of state level program initiatives are greatly expanded. The National Institute of Mental Health has in recent years supported research studies pooling data across states to address state-relevant questions. This commentary summarizes these activities and describes future platforms that may enhance ongoing work in this area.

  10. Ongoing liver inflammation in patients with chronic hepatitis C and sustained virological response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsch, Christoph; Efinger, Mira; von Wagner, Michael; Herrmann, Eva; Zeuzem, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Background Novel direct-acting antiviral DAA combination therapies tremendously improved sustained virologic response (SVR) rates in patients with chronic HCV infection. SVR is typically accompanied by normalization of liver enzymes, however, hepatic inflammation, i.e. persistently elevated aminotransferase levels may persist despite HCV eradication. Aim: To investigate prevalence and risk factors for ongoing hepatic inflammation after SVR in two large patient cohorts. Methods This post-hoc analysis was based on prospectively collected demographic and clinical data from 834 patients with SVR after HCV treatment with either PegIFN- or DAA-based treatment regimens from the PRAMA trial (n = 341) or patients treated at our outpatient clinic (n = 493). Results We observed an unexpected high prevalence of post-SVR inflammation, including patients who received novel IFN-free DAA-based therapies. Up to 10% of patients had ongoing elevation of aminotransferase levels and another 25% showed aminotransferase activity above the so-called healthy range. Several baseline factors were independently associated with post-SVR aminotransferase elevation. Among those, particularly male gender, advanced liver disease and markers for liver steatosis were strongly predictive for persistent ALT elevation. The use of IFN-based antiviral treatment was independently correlated with post-SVR inflammation, further supporting the overall benefit of IFN-free combination regimens. Conclusion This is the first comprehensive study on a large patient cohort investigating the prevalence and risk factors for ongoing liver inflammation after eradication of HCV. Our data show a high proportion of patients with ongoing hepatic inflammation despite HCV eradication with potential implications for the management of approximately one third of all patients upon SVR. PMID:28196130

  11. The effect of aborting ongoing movements on end point position estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itaguchi, Yoshihiro; Fukuzawa, Kazuyoshi

    2013-11-01

    The present study investigated the impact of motor commands to abort ongoing movement on position estimation. Participants carried out visually guided reaching movements on a horizontal plane with their eyes open. By setting a mirror above their arm, however, they could not see the arm, only the start and target points. They estimated the position of their fingertip based solely on proprioception after their reaching movement was stopped before reaching the target. The participants stopped reaching as soon as they heard an auditory cue or were mechanically prevented from moving any further by an obstacle in their path. These reaching movements were carried out at two different speeds (fast or slow). It was assumed that additional motor commands to abort ongoing movement were required and that their magnitude was high, low, and zero, in the auditory-fast condition, the auditory-slow condition, and both the obstacle conditions, respectively. There were two main results. (1) When the participants voluntarily stopped a fast movement in response to the auditory cue (the auditory-fast condition), they showed more underestimates than in the other three conditions. This underestimate effect was positively related to movement velocity. (2) An inverted-U-shaped bias pattern as a function of movement distance was observed consistently, except in the auditory-fast condition. These findings indicate that voluntarily stopping fast ongoing movement created a negative bias in the position estimate, supporting the idea that additional motor commands or efforts to abort planned movement are involved with the position estimation system. In addition, spatially probabilistic inference and signal-dependent noise may explain the underestimate effect of aborting ongoing movement.

  12. Thermal Filters for the ATHENA X-IFU: Ongoing Activities Toward the Conceptual Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbera, Marco; Argan, A.; Bozzo, E.; Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Ciaravella, A.; Collura, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Gatti, F.; Jimenez Escobar, A.; Lo Cicero, U.; Lotti, S.; Macculi, C.; Mineo, T.; Nuzzo, F.; Paltani, S.; Parodi, G.; Piro, L.; Rauw, G.; Sciortino, L.; Sciortino, S.; Villa, F.

    2016-08-01

    ATHENA is the L2 mission selected by ESA to pursue the science theme "Hot and Energetic Universe." One of the two focal plane instruments is the X-ray Integral Field Unit, an array of TES microcalorimeters operated at T RF electromagnetic interferences on TES sensors and SQUID electronics, and to protect the detector from contamination. This paper reviews the ongoing activities driving the design of the X-IFU thermal filters.

  13. Molecular targeted therapy for pancreatic adenocarcinoma: A review of completed and ongoing late phase clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquera, Catalina; Maglic, Dino; Zervos, Emmanuel E

    2016-12-01

    Molecular targeted therapy is widely utilized and effective in a number of solid tumors. In pancreatic adenocarcinoma, targeted therapy has been extensively evaluated; however, survival improvement of this aggressive disease using a targeted strategy has been minimal. The purpose of this study is to review therapeutic molecular targets in completed and ongoing later phase (II and III) clinical trials to have a better understanding of the rationale and progress towards targeted molecular therapies for pancreatic cancer. The PubMed database and the NCDI clinical trial website (www.clinicaltrials.gov) were queried to identify phase II and III completed and published (PubMed) and ongoing (clinicaltrials.gov) trials using the keywords: pancreatic cancer and molecular targeted therapy. The search engines were further limited by adding Phase II or III, active enrollment and North American. A total of 14 completed and published phase II/III clinical trials and 17 ongoing trials were identified. Evaluated strategies included inhibition of growth factor receptors (EGFR, PDGFR, VGFR, IGF-1R), tyrosine kinase inhibitors, MEK1/2, mTOR blockade and PI3K and HER2-neu pathway inhibitors. Only one trial conducted by the National Cancer Institute of Canada and the PANTAR trial have demonstrated a survival improvement from EGFR inhibition using erlotinib. These trials ultimately led to FDA approval of erlotinib/Tarceva in advanced stage disease. It remains unclear whether new combinations of cytotoxic chemotherapy or immunotherapy plus molecular targeted therapy will be beneficial in management of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Despite a number of phase II and III trials, to date, only erlotinib has emerged as an approved targeted therapy in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. There are several ongoing late phase trials evaluating a number of targets, the results of which will become available over the next 1 to 2 years. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. When and Whom to Join: The Expansion of Ongoing Violent Interstate Conflicts

    OpenAIRE

    Bayer, Reşat; Joyce, Kyle A.; Ghosn, Faten

    2014-01-01

    The opportunity and willingness framework has received much attention in research on interstate conflict expansion. This framework is extended here by examining when and what side third parties join during ongoing conflicts. It is maintained that without examining both timing and side selection, understanding of conflict expansion is limited. The timing and side joined in interstate disputes between 1816 and 2001 are analysed using a competing risks duration model. The findings contribute nov...

  15. Ongoing liver inflammation in patients with chronic hepatitis C and sustained virological response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsch, Christoph; Efinger, Mira; von Wagner, Michael; Herrmann, Eva; Zeuzem, Stefan; Welzel, Tania M; Lange, Christian M

    2017-01-01

    Novel direct-acting antiviral DAA combination therapies tremendously improved sustained virologic response (SVR) rates in patients with chronic HCV infection. SVR is typically accompanied by normalization of liver enzymes, however, hepatic inflammation, i.e. persistently elevated aminotransferase levels may persist despite HCV eradication. Aim: To investigate prevalence and risk factors for ongoing hepatic inflammation after SVR in two large patient cohorts. This post-hoc analysis was based on prospectively collected demographic and clinical data from 834 patients with SVR after HCV treatment with either PegIFN- or DAA-based treatment regimens from the PRAMA trial (n = 341) or patients treated at our outpatient clinic (n = 493). We observed an unexpected high prevalence of post-SVR inflammation, including patients who received novel IFN-free DAA-based therapies. Up to 10% of patients had ongoing elevation of aminotransferase levels and another 25% showed aminotransferase activity above the so-called healthy range. Several baseline factors were independently associated with post-SVR aminotransferase elevation. Among those, particularly male gender, advanced liver disease and markers for liver steatosis were strongly predictive for persistent ALT elevation. The use of IFN-based antiviral treatment was independently correlated with post-SVR inflammation, further supporting the overall benefit of IFN-free combination regimens. This is the first comprehensive study on a large patient cohort investigating the prevalence and risk factors for ongoing liver inflammation after eradication of HCV. Our data show a high proportion of patients with ongoing hepatic inflammation despite HCV eradication with potential implications for the management of approximately one third of all patients upon SVR.

  16. Differential effects of ongoing EEG beta and theta power on memory formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Sebastian; Schneider, Signe Luisa

    2017-01-01

    Recently, elevated ongoing pre-stimulus beta power (13–17 Hz) at encoding has been associated with subsequent memory formation for visual stimulus material. It is unclear whether this activity is merely specific to visual processing or whether it reflects a state facilitating general memory formation, independent of stimulus modality. To answer that question, the present study investigated the relationship between neural pre-stimulus oscillations and verbal memory formation in different sensory modalities. For that purpose, a within-subject design was employed to explore differences between successful and failed memory formation in the visual and auditory modality. Furthermore, associative memory was addressed by presenting the stimuli in combination with background images. Results revealed that similar EEG activity in the low beta frequency range (13–17 Hz) is associated with subsequent memory success, independent of stimulus modality. Elevated power prior to stimulus onset differentiated successful from failed memory formation. In contrast, differential effects between modalities were found in the theta band (3–7 Hz), with an increased oscillatory activity before the onset of later remembered visually presented words. In addition, pre-stimulus theta power dissociated between successful and failed encoding of associated context, independent of the stimulus modality of the item itself. We therefore suggest that increased ongoing low beta activity reflects a memory promoting state, which is likely to be moderated by modality-independent attentional or inhibitory processes, whereas high ongoing theta power is suggested as an indicator of the enhanced binding of incoming interlinked information. PMID:28192459

  17. The unimodal distribution of sub-threshold, ongoing activity in cortical networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anat eYaron-Jakoubovitch

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of the subthreshold, ongoing-activity in cortical neurons has been the focus of numerous studies. This activity, described as spontaneous slow waves in membrane potential, has been observed in a span of species in diverse cortical and subcortical areas. We here characterized membrane potential fluctuations in motor and the frontal association cortices cortical neurons of ketamine-xylazine anesthetized rats. We recorded from 95 neurons from a range of cortical depths to unravel the network and cellular mechanisms that shape the subthreshold ongoing spontaneous activity of these neurons. We define a unitary event that generates the sub-threshold ongoing activity: Giant Synaptic Potentials (GSPs. These events have a duration of 87 ± 50 ms and an amplitude of 19 ± 6.4 mV. They occur at a frequency of 3.7 ± 0.8 Hz and involve an increase in conductance change of 22 ± 21%. GSPs are mainly due to excitatory activity that occurs throughout all cortical layers, unaffected by the intrinsic properties of the cells. Indeed, blocking the GABAA receptors, a procedure that had a profound effect on cortical activity, did not alter these unitary events. We propose that this unitary event is composed of individual, excitatory synaptic potentials that appear at different levels of synchrony and that the level of synchrony determines the shape of the subthreshold activity.

  18. The Importance of On-Going Maintenance in Preserving the Heritage Listed Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.A. Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance is not only important in ensuring the condition and physical of the old building to operate safely and effectively, but it also for an activity that is important in determining the life long of the building, so that it can be preserve and be inherit by the next generation. The need of maintenance is not only on repairing but more towards prevention method. According to the previous study, maintenance is done reactively; this further will cost serious problems in future. Therefore maintenance need good planning from the early stage and is followed with on-going implementation from time to time by all those who are responsible in it. In conjunction with this, this paper is to discuss about the importance of on-going maintenance in order to manage the old building after it has been gazette as heritage listed. At the end of the discussion, several strategies have been put forward in order to stimulate the practice of on-going maintenance as an initiative to encourage the culture of maintenance and also help to increase the quality process in a more effective maintenance management.

  19. Ongoing Deformation of Sinkholes in Wink, Texas, Observed by Time-Series Sentinel-1A SAR Interferometry (Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Woo Kim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Spatiotemporal deformation of existing sinkholes and the surrounding region in Wink, TX are probed using time-series interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR methods with radar images acquired from the Sentinel-1A satellite launched in April 2014. The two-dimensional deformation maps, calculated using InSAR observations from ascending and descending tracks, reveal that much of the observed deformation is vertical. Our results indicate that the sinkholes are still influenced by ground depression, implying that the sinkholes continue to expand. Particularly, a region 1 km northeast of sinkhole #2 is sinking at a rate of up to 13 cm/year, and its aerial extent has been enlarged in the past eight years when compared with a previous survey. Furthermore, there is a high correlation between groundwater level and surficial subsidence during the summer months, representing the complicated characteristics of sinkhole deformation under the influence of successive roof failures in underlying cavities. We also modeled the sinkhole deformation in a homogenous elastic half-space with two dislocation sources, and the ground depression above cavities could be numerically analyzed. Measurements of ongoing deformation in sinkholes and assessments of the stability of the land surface at sinkhole-prone locations in near real-time, are essential for mitigating the threat posed to people and property by the materialization of sinkholes.

  20. Discretization of Continuous Frame

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Fattahi; H Javanshiri

    2012-05-01

    In this paper we consider the notion of continuous frame of subspaces and define a new concept of continuous frame, entitled continuous atomic resolution of identity, for arbitrary Hilbert space $\\mathcal{H}$ which has a countable reconstruction formula. Among the other results, we characterize the relationship between this new concept and other known continuous frames. Finally, we state and prove the assertions of the stability of perturbation in this concept.

  1. Continuous Markovian Logics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardare, Radu Iulian; Cardelli, Luca; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2012-01-01

    Continuous Markovian Logic (CML) is a multimodal logic that expresses quantitative and qualitative properties of continuous-time labelled Markov processes with arbitrary (analytic) state-spaces, henceforth called continuous Markov processes (CMPs). The modalities of CML evaluate the rates of the ...

  2. Plants under continuous light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velez Ramirez, A.I.; Ieperen, van W.; Vreugdenhill, D.; Millenaar, F.F.

    2011-01-01

    Continuous light is an essential tool for understanding the plant circadian clock. Additionally, continuous light might increase greenhouse food production. However, using continuous light in research and practice has its challenges. For instance, most of the circadian clock-oriented experiments wer

  3. Attention and temporal expectations modulate power, not phase, of ongoing alpha oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Diepen, Rosanne M; Cohen, Michael X; Denys, Damiaan; Mazaheri, Ali

    2015-08-01

    The perception of near-threshold visual stimuli has been shown to depend in part on the phase (i.e., time in the cycle) of ongoing alpha (8-13 Hz) oscillations in the visual cortex relative to the onset of that stimulus. However, it is currently unknown whether the phase of the ongoing alpha activity can be manipulated by top-down factors such as attention or expectancy. Using three variants of a cross-modal attention paradigm with constant predictable stimulus onsets, we examined if cues signaling to attend to either the visual or the auditory domain influenced the phase of alpha oscillations in the associated sensory cortices. Importantly, intermixed in all three experiments, we included trials without a target to estimate the phase at target presentation without contamination from the early evoked responses. For these blank trials, at the time of expected target and distractor onset, we examined (1) the degree of the uniformity in phase angles across trials, (2) differences in phase angle uniformity compared with a pretarget baseline, and (3) phase angle differences between visual and auditory target conditions. Across all three experiments, we found that, although the cues induced a modulation in alpha power in occipital electrodes, neither the visual condition nor the auditory cue condition induced any significant phase-locking across trials during expected target or distractor presentation. These results suggest that, although alpha power can be modulated by top-down factors such as attention and expectation, the phase of the ongoing alpha oscillation is not under such control.

  4. Loads and loads and loads: The influence of prospective load, retrospective load, and ongoing task load in prospective memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beat eMeier

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In prospective memory tasks different kinds of load can occur. Adding a prospective memory task can impose a load on ongoing task performance. Adding ongoing task load can affect prospective memory performance. The existence of multiple target events increases prospective load and adding complexity to the to-be-remembered action increases retrospective load. In two experiments, we systematically examined the effects of these different types of load on prospective memory performance. Results showed an effect of prospective load on costs in the ongoing task for categorical targets (Experiment 2, but not for specific targets (Experiment 1. Retrospective load and ongoing task load both affected remembering the retrospective component of the prospective memory task. We suggest that prospective load can enhance costs in the ongoing task due to additional monitoring requirements. Retrospective load and ongoing task load seem to impact the division of resources between the ongoing task and retrieval of the retrospective component, which may affect disengagement from the ongoing task. In general, the results demonstrate that the different types of load affect prospective memory differentially.

  5. Interpretation of ongoing thermal response tests of vertical (BHE) borehole heat exchangers with predictive uncertainty based stopping criterion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Søren Erbs; Alberdi Pagola, Maria

    2015-01-01

    A method for real-time interpretation of ongoing thermal response tests of vertical borehole heat exchangers is presented. The method utilizes a statistically based stopping criterion for ongoing tests. The study finds minimum testing times for synthetic and actual TRTs to be in the interval 12–2...

  6. Interpretation of ongoing thermal response tests of vertical (BHE) borehole heat exchangers with predictive uncertainty based stopping criterion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Søren Erbs; Alberdi Pagola, Maria

    2015-01-01

    A method for real-time interpretation of ongoing thermal response tests of vertical borehole heat exchangers is presented. The method utilizes a statistically based stopping criterion for ongoing tests. The study finds minimum testing times for synthetic and actual TRTs to be in the interval 12–2...

  7. The contribution of ancestry, chance, and past and ongoing selection to adaptive evolution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amitabh Joshi; Robinson B. Castillo; Laurence D. Mueller

    2003-12-01

    The relative contributions of ancestry, chance, and past and ongoing selection to variation in one adaptive (larval feeding rate) and one seemingly nonadaptive (pupation height) trait were determined in populations of Drosophila melanogaster adapting to either low or high larval densities in the laboratory. Larval feeding rates increased rapidly in response to high density, and the effects of ancestry, past selection and chance were ameliorated by ongoing selection within 15–20 generations. Similarly, in populations previously kept at high larval density, and then switched to low larval density, the decline of larval feeding rate to ancestral levels was rapid (15–20 generations) and complete, providing support for a previously stated hypothesis regarding the costs of faster feeding in Drosophila larvae. Variation among individuals was the major contributor to variation in pupation height, a trait that would superficially appear to be nonadaptive in the environmental context of the populations used in this study because it did not diverge between sets of populations kept at low versus high larval density for many generations. However, the degree of divergence among populations ($F_{\\text{ST}}$) for pupation height was significantly less than expected for a selectively neutral trait, and we integrate results from previous studies to suggest that the variation for pupation height among populations is constrained by stabilizing selection, with a flat, plateau-like fitness function that, consequently, allows for substantial phenotypic variation within populations. Our results support the view that the genetic imprints of history (ancestry and past selection) in outbreeding sexual populations are typically likely to be transient in the face of ongoing selection and recombination. The results also illustrate the heuristic point that different forms of selection—for example directional versus stabilizing selection—acting on a trait in different populations may

  8. Measuring data quality for ongoing improvement a data quality assessment framework

    CERN Document Server

    Sebastian-Coleman, Laura

    2013-01-01

    The Data Quality Assessment Framework shows you how to measure and monitor data quality, ensuring quality over time. You'll start with general concepts of measurement and work your way through a detailed framework of more than three dozen measurement types related to five objective dimensions of quality: completeness, timeliness, consistency, validity, and integrity. Ongoing measurement, rather than one time activities will help your organization reach a new level of data quality. This plain-language approach to measuring data can be understood by both business and IT and provides pra

  9. The impact of ongoing national terror on the community of hospital nurses in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ron, Pnina; Shamai, Michal

    2014-04-01

    The main goal of this study was to explore the connections between the exposure of nurses in Israel to national terror and the levels of distress experienced due to ongoing terror attacks. The data were collected from 214 nurses from various parts of Israel who work in three types of heath services (mainly hospital departments) and provide help to victims of terror. The nurses reported very high levels of burnout, high levels of stress and medium-to high levels of intrusive memories. Levels of exposure were associated with burnout, intrusive memories and level of stress. More professional attention should be given to hospital nurses who provide care for trauma patients.

  10. Continued pollution from mining at Maarmorilik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voigt, Steen

    2008-01-01

    Almost 20 years after the closure of the lead and zinc mine at Maarmorilik in the municipality of Uummannaq in North West Greenland pollution of surrounding fiords and land stretches with the metals continues, all though in a much lesser degree than earlier. This shows a new report by the Danish ...... National Environmental Research Institute (NERI), University of Aarhus. NERI is in charge of the ongoing environmental monitoring of the area. The Greenland Homerule finances the monitoring through its Bureau of Minerals and Petroleum......Almost 20 years after the closure of the lead and zinc mine at Maarmorilik in the municipality of Uummannaq in North West Greenland pollution of surrounding fiords and land stretches with the metals continues, all though in a much lesser degree than earlier. This shows a new report by the Danish...

  11. Equality in Healthcare: The Formation and Ongoing Legacy of an LGBT Advisory Council.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, William; Fullerton, Chelsea; Keller, Ronald

    2015-12-01

    This article provides a broad overview of the literature on lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) health disparities and workplace discrimination, as well as the context that led to the formation of an institutional LGBT Advisory Council. The Council was developed in order to demonstrate our ongoing commitment to LGBT inclusion and to improve the lived experiences for both LGBT patients and staff. A retrospective approach is utilized to explore the LGBT Advisory Council's journey to spearhead advocacy efforts at our institution. The Council's accomplishments include taking a leadership role in obtaining nationally recognized designations such as the Healthcare Equality Index and the Magnet Exemplar for Cultural Sensitivity, as well as adding sexual orientation, gender identity, and gender expression fields to our institution's electronic medical record system. Additionally, the Council guides and promotes ongoing house-wide cultural sensitivity staff training efforts. Most recently, the Council marched as a contingency in the world's largest Pride March for the first time in institutional history. It is our hope that our Council will become an inspiration and exemplar for similar groups to form at healthcare institutions and organizations across the nation. Allowing LGBT members of each individual healthcare community the agency to determine the direction of advocacy efforts is incredibly important; however, this must be coupled with an organizational commitment on behalf of leadership to follow through on these initiatives and to provide them with the resources they need in order to be successful.

  12. Epilepsy, scuba diving and risk assessment. Near misses and the need for ongoing vigilance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, David; Lippmann, John

    2013-03-01

    There is ongoing debate about the safety of scuba diving for individuals with a history of epilepsy. An in-water seizure is highly likely to be fatal. Recommendations for fitness to dive vary with some regarding epilepsy as an absolute contraindication to diving (South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society) and others permitting diving under strict criteria (United Kingdom Sport Diving Medical Committee) with diving to be postponed for a period of three to five years without seizures. Long-term follow up of people with epilepsy shows that at least one-third will have a recurrence and that the risk remains elevated for many years. We present three cases where individuals with a history of epilepsy (or likely epilepsy) almost fell through the cracks of health risk assessment, two with near-fatal consequences. These cases inform the on-going debate about fitness to dive for those with current or past epilepsy, and highlight the importance of education for doctors, dive professionals and divers about the risks associated with epilepsy and diving.

  13. Microglial cystatin F expression is a sensitive indicator for ongoing demyelination with concurrent remyelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jianmei; Tanaka, Kenji F; Shimizu, Takahiro; Bernard, Claude C A; Kakita, Akiyoshi; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Pfeiffer, Steven E; Ikenaka, Kazuhiro

    2011-05-01

    Demyelination coincides with numerous changes of gene expression in the central nervous system (CNS). Cystatin F, which is a papain-like lysosomal cysteine proteinase inhibitor that is normally expressed by immune cells and not in the brain, is massively induced in the CNS during acute demyelination. We found that microglia, which are monocyte/macrophage-lineage cells in the CNS, express cystatin F only during demyelination. By using several demyelinating animal models and the spinal cord tissues from multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, we examined spatiotemporal expression pattern of cystatin F by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. We found that the timing of cystatin F induction matches with ongoing demyelination, and the places with cystatin F expression overlapped with the remyelinating area. Most interestingly, cystatin F induction ceased in chronic demyelination, in which remyelinating ability was lost. These findings demonstrate that the expression of cystatin F indicates the occurrence of ongoing demyelination/remyelination and the absence of cystatin F expression indicates the cessation of remyelination in the demyelinating area.

  14. The CCL-K11 ongoing key comparison. Final report for the year 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matus, Michael; Gavalyugov, Veselin; Tamakyarska, Denita; Alqahtani, Nasser; Alfohaid, Mohammad; Moona, Girija; Sharma, Rina; Hapiddin, Asep; Mohamad Boynawan, Ahmad; Ranusawud, Monludee; Tonmueanwai, Anusorn; Hong, Feng-Lei; Ishikawa, Jun; Robertsson, Lennart

    2017-01-01

    Lasers from four national metrological institutes (NMIs) were compared in 2014 as part of the CCL-K11 ongoing key comparison, initiated by the 13th meeting of the Comité Consultative des Longuers (CCL) in 2007. The absolute frequency of R(127) 11-5 transitions of molecular iodine was measured for these lasers following the technical protocol for CCL-K11. The results of these measurements are compiled in the present report. The comparison reports, as communicated by each participant, are included as appendices. This document constitutes the sixth final report for the ongoing key comparison CCL-K11. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCL, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  15. Pulsed Out of Awareness: EEG Alpha oscillations represent a pulsed inhibition of ongoing cortical processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Elliott Mathewson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Alpha oscillations are ubiquitous in the brain, but their role in cortical processing remains a matter of debate. Recently, evidence has begun to accumulate in support of a role for alpha oscillations in attention selection and control. Here we first review evidence that 8-12 Hz oscillations in the brain have a general inhibitory role in cognitive processing, with an emphasis on their role in visual processing. Then, we summarize the evidence in support of our recent proposal that alpha represents a pulsed inhibition of ongoing neural activity. The phase of the ongoing EEG can influence evoked activity and subsequent processing, and we propose that alpha exerts its inhibitory role through alternating microstates of inhibition and excitation. Finally, we discuss evidence that this pulsed inhibition can be entrained to rhythmic stimuli in the environment, such that preferential processing occurs for stimuli at predictable moments. The entrainment of preferential phase may provide a mechanism for temporal attention in the brain. This pulsed inhibitory account of alpha has important implications for many common cognitive phenomena, such as the attentional blink, and seems to indicate that our visual experience may at least some times be coming through in waves.

  16. Tipping Points and the Accommodation of the Abuser: Ongoing Incestuous Abuse during Adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warwick Middleton

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Until recently the widespread reality of ongoing incestuous abuse during adulthood had attracted no systematic research. The scientific literature was limited to the occasional case study and brief anecdotal references. This minimal literature was supplemented by biographical works written by or about victims of this form of abuse, and by press reports. With the advent of the Josef Fritzl case there was a very marked increase in the press reporting of such abuse, which in turn provided a reference point for more fine-grained data collection and scientific reporting. This paper introduces the subject of prolonged incest via the lens of organised abuse, summarises research on incestuous abuse and draws on multiple clinical examples to elucidate the mechanisms by which such abuse merges with, or develops into, variations of organised abuse, including that centred on the family, on prostitution, or on that involving abuse networks. The abuse practices, the net-working, and the ploys used to avoid prosecution practiced by the father perpetrating ongoing incestuous abuse during adulthood have much in common with other variants of organised sexual abuse.

  17. An ongoing collaborative teacher training through action research. A way of changing classroom practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl A. Barba-Martín

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing education training for teachers can be done through different models that could only report or also accompany the process of implementing innovations. The training through reflection processes is presented as essential to make changes in the classroom; also, if it is done collectively with other teachers or between centers, transformations will not only occur in the classroom, but in the whole context. One way leading to a collaborative ongoing education is through action research groups, considering a set of ethical practices whose characteristics allow participants to be trained according to their needs, and through support with other teachers, in order to transform the context. The research we present here is framed in a Teaching Innovation Project, University of Valladolid, through which teachers from three schools that have been trained in inclusive education through action research implementing in their classrooms interactive groups. This collaborative process played by teachers themselves has changed the thinking of teachers, their classroom and their educational contexts in which they work.

  18. Continuity in Discrete Sets

    CERN Document Server

    Burgin, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Continuous models used in physics and other areas of mathematics applications become discrete when they are computerized, e.g., utilized for computations. Besides, computers are controlling processes in discrete spaces, such as films and television programs. At the same time, continuous models that are in the background of discrete representations use mathematical technology developed for continuous media. The most important example of such a technology is calculus, which is so useful in physics and other sciences. The main goal of this paper is to synthesize continuous features and powerful technology of the classical calculus with the discrete approach of numerical mathematics and computational physics. To do this, we further develop the theory of fuzzy continuous functions and apply this theory to functions defined on discrete sets. The main interest is the classical Intermediate Value theorem. Although the result of this theorem is completely based on continuity, utilization of a relaxed version of contin...

  19. On barely continuous functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Stephens

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available The term barely continuous is a topological generalization of Baire-1 according to F. Gerlits of the Mathematical Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, and thus worthy of further study. This paper compares barely continuous functions and continuous functions on an elementary level. Knowing how the continuity of the identity function between topologies on a given set yields the lattice structure for those topologies, the barely continuity of the identity function between topologies on a given set is investigated and used to add to the structure of that lattice. Included are certain sublattices generated by the barely continuity of the identity function between those topologies. Much attention is given to topologies on finite sets.

  20. Cutting Out Continuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick; Hutton, Graham

    2016-01-01

    In the field of program transformation, one often transforms programs into continuation-passing style to make their flow of control explicit, and then immediately removes the resulting continuations using defunctionalisation to make the programs first-order. In this article, we show how these two...... transformations can be fused together into a single transformation step that cuts out the need to first introduce and then eliminate continuations. Our approach is calculational, uses standard equational reasoning techniques, and is widely applicable....

  1. Comparative genomics of eukaryotic small nucleolar RNAs reveals deep evolutionary ancestry amidst ongoing intragenomic mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoeppner Marc P

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Small nucleolar (snoRNAs are required for posttranscriptional processing and modification of ribosomal, spliceosomal and messenger RNAs. Their presence in both eukaryotes and archaea indicates that snoRNAs are evolutionarily ancient. The location of some snoRNAs within the introns of ribosomal protein genes has been suggested to belie an RNA world origin, with the exons of the earliest protein-coding genes having evolved around snoRNAs after the advent of templated protein synthesis. Alternatively, this intronic location may reflect more recent selection for coexpression of snoRNAs and ribosomal components, ensuring rRNA modification by snoRNAs during ribosome synthesis. To gain insight into the evolutionary origins of this genetic organization, we examined the antiquity of snoRNA families and the stability of their genomic location across 44 eukaryote genomes. Results We report that dozens of snoRNA families are traceable to the Last Eukaryotic Common Ancestor (LECA, but find only weak similarities between the oldest eukaryotic snoRNAs and archaeal snoRNA-like genes. Moreover, many of these LECA snoRNAs are located within the introns of host genes independently traceable to the LECA. Comparative genomic analyses reveal the intronic location of LECA snoRNAs is not ancestral however, suggesting the pattern we observe is the result of ongoing intragenomic mobility. Analysis of human transcriptome data indicates that the primary requirement for hosting intronic snoRNAs is a broad expression profile. Consistent with ongoing mobility across broadly-expressed genes, we report a case of recent migration of a non-LECA snoRNA from the intron of a ubiquitously expressed non-LECA host gene into the introns of two LECA genes during the evolution of primates. Conclusions Our analyses show that snoRNAs were a well-established family of RNAs at the time when eukaryotes began to diversify. While many are intronic, this association is not

  2. Ongoing change of site conditions important for sustainable forest management planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidló, András; Horváth, Adrienn; Gulyás, Krisztina; Gálos, Borbála

    2016-04-01

    Observed tree mortality of the last decades has shown that the vulnerable forest ecosystems are especially affected by the recurrent, long lasting droughts, heat waves and their consequences. From all site conditions climate is changing the fastest, in this way it can be the largest threatening factor in the 21st century. Beyond climate, soil characteristics are playing an important influencing role. Until now, silvicultural technologies and species preferences of many countries are prescribed by binding regulation based on climate conditions that are assumed to be constant over time. Therefore the aim of our research was to investigate the ongoing and projected change of site conditions that are considered to be of primary importance in terms of tree species selection. For a case study region in Hungary (Keszthely Mountains, near to Lake Balaton) long-term climate tendencies have been determined for the period 1961-2100, as well as a detailed soil sample analysis has been carried out including ~100 sites. Results show a 0.5 degree increase of temperature and a 6-7 % decrease of the precipitation amount for the summer months in the last decades. For the future, significant warming and drying of summers is expected. Decrease of the summer precipitation sum can exceed 25 % until the end of the century, probability of extreme hot days may increase. These tendencies together with the unfavourable soil conditions and biotic damages can be the reason of the ongoing forest dieback. One of the characteristic soil type of the region is rendzina with a thin topsoil layer and an unfavourable water holding capacity. These properties are limiting the amount of available water for plants, especially in case of intense precipitation events. Black pine stands planted on rendzinas after many years of grazing; therefore erosion may have played a significant role. Not only microclimate conditions but also soil types show a large diversity within a relatively small distance. However

  3. Let Continuous Outcome Variables Remain Continuous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enayatollah Bakhshi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The complementary log-log is an alternative to logistic model. In many areas of research, the outcome data are continuous. We aim to provide a procedure that allows the researcher to estimate the coefficients of the complementary log-log model without dichotomizing and without loss of information. We show that the sample size required for a specific power of the proposed approach is substantially smaller than the dichotomizing method. We find that estimators derived from proposed method are consistently more efficient than dichotomizing method. To illustrate the use of proposed method, we employ the data arising from the NHSI.

  4. Detecting and quantifying ongoing decay of organic archaeological remains - a discussion of different approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiesen, Henning

    2015-01-01

    . Thus, for the management of archaeological sites it is necessary to develop tools and methods that allow us to discover ongoing decay as fast as possible. Furthermore, in order to prioritize between excavation, in situ preservation and mitigation the decay rate should be evaluated on a quantitative...... are well protected and are not undergoing rapid decay, and it requires a detailed knowledge of decay processes and rates. For instance it is well established that the presence of water is of paramount importance for the preservation of organic material, and there are several examples where archaeological...... remains in wetlands have been preserved under waterlogged conditions for thousands of years, only to be degraded within a few years or decades after drainage of the wetland. What is less clear is the importance of the water quality, and exactly how much water is necessary to prevent or minimize decay...

  5. A Kenyan Cloud School. Massive Open Online & Ongoing Courses for Blended and Lifelong Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Jobe

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This research describes the predicted outcomes of a Kenyan Cloud School (KCS, which is a MOOC that contains all courses taught at the secondary school level in Kenya. This MOOC will consist of online, ongoing subjects in both English and Kiswahili. The KCS subjects offer self-testing and peer assessment to maximize scalability, and digital badges to show progress and completion to recognize and validate non-formal learning. The KCS uses the Moodle LMS with responsive web design to increase ubiquitous access from any device. Access is free and open, and the KCS intends to be a contextualized open educational resource for formal secondary institutions to support blended learning and a free source of non-formal education for lifelong learning. The expected outcomes are that this effort will reduce secondary school dropout rates, improve test scores, become a quality resource for blended learning, as well as validate and recognize lifelong learning in Kenya.

  6. Ongoing Technology and Developing Trend of Ar-blowing Purging Plug

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    An introduction of the ongoing technology of ar-gon-blowing purging plugs in China was presented in this work.Gel powders were used as starting materials to enhance the high temperature mechanical properties of the purging plugs.Composite purging plug adopting ex-trusion formed gas-purging bar and slit had its surface structural design improved,which enhanced the resist-ances to thermal shock and molten steel penetration,prolonging the service life.In addition,the safety Was greatly improved by upgrading the framework and pro-duction process,enhancing the resistance to breakout.It is indicated that the developing trend is to produce pur-ging plugs of longer service life and better gas purging rate with different starting materials and structure de-signs to meet the requirements of various metallurgical processes.

  7. Patterns of emotion-specific appraisal, coping, and cardiovascular reactivity during an ongoing emotional episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrald, Mary M; Tomaka, Joe

    2002-08-01

    The authors examined emotion-specific patterns of appraisal, coping, and cardiovascular reactivity during real ongoing emotional episodes. In this study, 109 participants performed a neutral opinion-expression task, where a confederate elicited anger, shame, or pride using verbal and nonverbal behavior. The authors assessed cognitive appraisals, emotional reactions, coping, outcomes (state self-esteem and outcome satisfaction), and cardiovascular reactivity. Results indicated substantial and theoretically consistent differences between the 3 emotions (and differences from a nonemotion condition) for cognitive appraisals, self-reported coping, behavioral coping, self-esteem, and cardiovascular reactivity. The results are discussed in relation to their implications for emotion theory and for psychological and physical health. Overall, the results suggest that researchers can study emotion-related issues using authentic emotional reactions.

  8. Ongoing rubella outbreak in Bosnia and Herzegovina, March-July 2009--preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novo, A; Huebschen, J M; Muller, C P; Tesanovic, M; Bojanic, J

    2009-10-01

    Between 24 March and 31 July 2009, 342 clinically diagnosed cases of rubella were notified in five municipalities in Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Fourteen cases were laboratory-confirmed by positive IgG against rubella virus. Four virus isolates were obtained and identified as genotype 2B strains, with one isolate differing by a single mutation in the region of the E1 gene. This ongoing outbreak revealed gaps in the immunisation programme during the war in BiH (1992-1995) and highlights the need to revise legislation to permit immunisation of children above 14 years of age with measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) vaccine and to introduce supplemental immunisation activities.

  9. Excessive centrosome abnormalities without ongoing numerical chromosome instability in a Burkitt's lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cin Paola

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Numerical and structural centrosome abnormalities are detected in various human malignancies and have been implicated in the formation of multipolar mitoses, chromosome missegregation, and chromosomal instability. Despite this association between centrosome abnormalities and cancerous growth, a causative role of centrosome aberrations in generating chromosomal instability and aneuploidy has not been universally established. We report here excessive numerical and structural centrosome abnormalities in a malignant Burkitt's lymphoma harboring the characteristic t(8;14 chromosomal translocation. Using conventional karyotyping and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, we detected no signs of ongoing numerical chromosome instability, although the tumor displayed sporadic multipolar metaphases. These findings demonstrate that centrosome abnormalities are not a universal surrogate marker for chromosomal instability in malignant tumors. Moreover, our results suggest a model in which additional cellular alterations may be required to promote centrosome-related mitotic defects in tumor cells.

  10. Self-organization of a recurrent network under ongoing synaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Takaaki

    2015-02-01

    We investigated the organization of a recurrent network under ongoing synaptic plasticity using a model of neural oscillators coupled by dynamic synapses. In this model, the coupling weights changed dynamically, depending on the timing between the oscillators. We determined the phase coupling function of the oscillator model, Γ(ϕ), using conductance-based neuron models. Furthermore, we examined the effects of the Fourier zero mode of Γ(ϕ), which has a critical role in the case of spike-time-dependent plasticity-organized recurrent networks. Heterogeneous layered clusters with different frequencies emerged from homogeneous populations as the Fourier zero mode increased. Our findings may provide new insights into the self-assembly mechanisms of neural networks related to synaptic plasticity.

  11. High Pressure - High Temperature Polymorphism in Ta: Resolving an Ongoing Experimental Controversy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkovsky, L; Chen, S P; Preston, D L; Belonoshko, A B; Rosengren, A; Mikhaylushkin, A S; Simak, S I; Moriarty, J A

    2010-04-07

    Phase diagrams of refractory metals remain essentially unknown. Moreover, there is an ongoing controversy over the high pressure (P) melting temperatures of these metals: results of diamond anvil cell (DAC) and shock wave experiments differ by at least a factor of two. From an extensive ab initio study on tantalum we discovered that the body-centered cubic phase, its physical phase at ambient conditions, transforms to another solid phase, possibly hexagonal omega phase, at high temperature (T). Hence the sample motion observed in DAC experiments is not due to melting but internal stresses accompanying a solid-solid transformation, as explained in more detail in our work. In view of our results on tantalum and previous work on molybdenum, as well as other published data, it is highly plausible that high-PT polymorphism is a general feature of Groups V and VI refractory metals.

  12. Strongyloidiasis in a young French woman raises concern about possible ongoing autochthonous transmission in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Duvignaud

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Strongyloidiasis is one of the most common geohelminth infections in tropical and subtropical areas. Accurate diagnosis remains challenging, leading to an overall underestimation of strongyloidiasis prevalence. The possibility of ongoing autochthonous transmission in some temperate areas and especially in southern Europe is still debated, and data supporting this hypothesis are scarce. The case of a young French woman, who had travelled frequently to Spain and had acquired Strongyloides stercoralis infection as revealed by gastrointestinal symptoms and hypereosinophilia, is reported here. Physicians should keep in mind the risk of being infected in some areas of southern Europe, even if low, in order to avoid the life-threatening manifestations of strongyloidiasis favoured by pathological or therapeutic immunosuppression.

  13. Ongoing functional evolution of the bacterial atrazine chlorohydrolase AtzA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Sajid; Changey, Frédérique; Oakeshott, John G; Scott, Colin; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice

    2014-02-01

    Triazine herbicides such as atrazine and simazine which were heavily used in the latter half of the twentieth century constituted a rich new source of nitrogen for soil microbes. An atzA dechlorinase active against both atrazine and simazine was isolated from various soil bacteria from diverse locations in the mid 1990s. We have surveyed the atzA genes from eight triazine-degrading Aminobacter aminovorans strains isolated from French agricultural soils recurrently exposed to triazines in 2000. Six amino acid differences from the original isolate were each found in more than one of the A. aminovorans strains. Three of these in particular (V92L, A170T and A296T) were recovered from a majority of the isolates and from locations separated by up to 900 km, so may reflect ongoing selection for the new function. Two of the latter (A170T and A296T) were indeed found to confer higher specificity for simazine, albeit not atrazine, and greater affinity for a metal ion required for activity, than did the original variant. In contrast, we found that ongoing maintenance of the original atzA-containing isolate in laboratory culture for 12 years in a medium containing high concentrations of atrazine has led to the fixation of another amino acid substitution that substantially reduces activity for the triazines. The high concentrations of atrazine in the medium may have relaxed the selection for a highly efficient triazine dechlorinase activity, and that there is some, as yet uncharacterised, counter selection against the activity of this enzyme under these conditions.

  14. Ongoing in vivo immunoglobulin class switch DNA recombination in chronic lymphocytic leukemia B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerutti, Andrea; Zan, Hong; Kim, Edmund C; Shah, Shefali; Schattner, Elaine J; Schaffer, András; Casali, Paolo

    2002-12-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) results from the expansion of malignant CD5(+) B cells that usually express IgD and IgM. These leukemic cells can give rise in vivo to clonally related IgG(+) or IgA(+) elements. The requirements and modalities of this process remain elusive. Here we show that leukemic B cells from 14 of 20 CLLs contain the hallmarks of ongoing Ig class switch DNA recombination (CSR), including extrachromosomal switch circular DNAs and circle transcripts generated by direct S micro -->Sgamma, S micro -->Salpha, and S micro -->Sepsilon as well as sequential Sgamma-->Salpha and Sgamma-->Sepsilon CSR. Similar CLL B cells express transcripts for activation-induced cytidine deaminase, a critical component of the CSR machinery, and contain germline I(H)-C(H) and mature V(H)DJ(H)-C(H) transcripts encoded by multiple Cgamma, Calpha, and Cepsilon genes. Ongoing CSR occurs in only a fraction of the CLL clone, as only small proportions of CD5(+)CD19(+) cells express surface IgG or IgA and lack IgM and IgD. In vivo class-switching CLL B cells down-regulate switch circles and circle transcripts in vitro unless exposed to exogenous CD40 ligand and IL-4. In addition, CLL B cells that do not class switch in vivo activate the CSR machinery and secrete IgG, IgA, or IgE upon in vitro exposure to CD40 ligand and IL-4. These findings indicate that in CLL at least some members of the malignant clone actively differentiate in vivo along a pathway that induces CSR. They also suggest that this process is elicited by external stimuli, including CD40 ligand and IL-4, provided by bystander immune cells.

  15. Extraction and characterization of essential discharge patterns from multisite recordings of spiking ongoing activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Storchi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neural activation patterns proceed often by schemes or motifs distributed across the involved cortical networks. As neurons are correlated, the estimate of all possible dependencies quickly goes out of control. The complex nesting of different oscillation frequencies and their high non-stationariety further hamper any quantitative evaluation of spiking network activities. The problem is exacerbated by the intrinsic variability of neural patterns. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our technique introduces two important novelties and enables to insulate essential patterns on larger sets of spiking neurons and brain activity regimes. First, the sampling procedure over N units is based on a fixed spike number k in order to detect N-dimensional arrays (k-sequences, whose sum over all dimension is k. Then k-sequences variability is greatly reduced by a hierarchical separative clustering, that assigns large amounts of distinct k-sequences to few classes. Iterative separations are stopped when the dimension of each cluster comes to be smaller than a certain threshold. As threshold tuning critically impacts on the number of classes extracted, we developed an effective cost criterion to select the shortest possible description of our dataset. Finally we described three indexes (C,S,R to evaluate the average pattern complexity, the structure of essential classes and their stability in time. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We validated this algorithm with four kinds of surrogated activity, ranging from random to very regular patterned. Then we characterized a selection of ongoing activity recordings. By the S index we identified unstable, moderatly and strongly stable patterns while by the C and the R indices we evidenced their non-random structure. Our algorithm seems able to extract interesting and non-trivial spatial dynamics from multisource neuronal recordings of ongoing and potentially stimulated activity. Combined with time-frequency analysis of

  16. Modulation of ongoing EMG by different classes of low-threshold mechanoreceptors in the human hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, P A; Macefield, V G

    2001-12-15

    1. We have previously demonstrated that the input from single FA I and SA II cutaneous mechanoreceptors in the glabrous skin of the human hand is sufficiently strong to modulate ongoing EMG of muscles acting on the digits. Some unresolved issues have now been addressed. 2. Single cutaneous (n = 60), joint (n = 2) and muscle spindle (n = 34) afferents were recorded via tungsten microelectrodes inserted into the median and ulnar nerves at the wrist. Spike-triggered averaging was used to investigate synaptic coupling between these afferents and muscles acting on the digits. The activity of 37 % of FA I (7/19), 20 % of FA II (1/5) and 52 % of SA II afferents (11/21) evoked a reflex response. The discharge from muscle spindles, 15 SA I and two joint afferents did not modulate EMG activity. 3. Two types of reflex responses were encountered: a single excitatory response produced by irregularly firing afferents, or a cyclic modulation evoked by regularly discharging afferents. Rhythmic stimulation of one FA I afferent generated regularly occurring bursts which corresponded to the associated cyclic EMG response. 4. Selectively triggering from the first or last spike of each burst of one FA I afferent altered the averaged EMG profile, suggesting that afferent input modulates the associated EMG and not vice versa. 5. The discharge from single FA I, FA II and SA II afferents can modify ongoing voluntary EMG in muscles of the human hand, presumably via a spinally mediated oligosynaptic pathway. Conversely, we saw no evidence of such modulation by SA I, muscle spindle or joint afferents.

  17. Residential Continuing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, Cyril O.

    The theme of this discursive essay is residential continuing education: its definition, its development along somewhat different lines in Europe and in America, and its practice in university centers in the United States. Continuing education includes any learning or teaching program that is based on the assumptions that the learners have studied…

  18. On continued fraction algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, Ionica

    2010-01-01

    Is there a good continued fraction approximation between every two bad ones? What is the entropy of the natural extension for alpha-Rosen fractions? How do you find multi-dimensional continued fractions with a guaranteed quality in polynomial time? These, and many more, questions are answered in thi

  19. On continued fraction algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, Ionica

    2010-01-01

    Is there a good continued fraction approximation between every two bad ones? What is the entropy of the natural extension for alpha-Rosen fractions? How do you find multi-dimensional continued fractions with a guaranteed quality in polynomial time? These, and many more, questions are answered in thi

  20. Effects of ongoing task context and target typicality on prospective memory performance: the importance of associative cueing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowinski, Jessica Lang; Dismukes, Key R.

    2005-01-01

    Two experiments examined whether prospective memory performance is influenced by contextual cues. In our automatic activation model, any information available at encoding and retrieval should aid recall of the prospective task. The first experiment demonstrated an effect of the ongoing task context; performance was better when information about the ongoing task present at retrieval was available at encoding. Performance was also improved by a strong association between the prospective memory target as it was presented at retrieval and the intention as it was encoded. Experiment 2 demonstrated boundary conditions of the ongoing task context effect, which implicate the association between the ongoing and prospective tasks formed at encoding as the source of the context effect. The results of this study are consistent with predictions based on automatic activation of intentions.

  1. Ongoing outbreak of an acute muscular Sarcocystis-like illness among travellers returning from Tioman Island, Malaysia, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, D H; Freedman, D O; Neumayr, A; Parola, P

    2012-11-08

    As of 4 November, 2012, 100 patients with an acute muscular Sarcocystis-like illness associated with travel to Tioman Island, Malaysia, have been identified. Thirty-five travelled there mostly during July and August 2011 and 65 mostly during July and August 2012, suggesting an ongoing outbreak. Epidemiological investigations are ongoing. Public health agencies and practicing clinicians should be aware of this rarely-reported disease in humans and consider it as differential diagnosis in travellers returning from Tioman Island.

  2. Development of practice principles for the management of ongoing suicidal ideation in young people diagnosed with major depressive disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, Simon M.; Simmons, Magenta B; Alan P. Bailey; Alexandra G Parker; Hetrick, Sarah E; Davey, Christopher G; Mark Phelan; Simon Blaikie; Jane Edwards

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: There is a lack of clear guidance regarding the management of ongoing suicidality in young people experiencing major depressive disorder. This study utilised an expert consensus approach in identifying practice principles to complement relevant clinical guidelines for the treatment of major depressive disorder in young people. The study also sought to outline a broad treatment framework for clinical intervention with young people experiencing ongoing suicidal ideation. Methods: In...

  3. Continue Service Improvement at CERN Computing Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso Lopez, M.; Everaerts, L.; Meinhard, H.; Baehler, P.; Haimyr, N.; Guijarro, J. M.

    2014-06-01

    Using the framework of ITIL best practises, the service managers within CERN-IT have engaged into a continuous improvement process, mainly focusing on service operation. This implies an explicit effort to understand and improve all service management aspects in order to increase efficiency and effectiveness. We will present the requirements, how they were addressed and share our experiences. We will describe how we measure, report and use the data to continually improve both the processes and the services being provided. The focus is not the tool or the process, but the results of the continuous improvement effort from a large team of IT experts providing services to thousands of users, supported by the tool and its local team. This is not an initiative to address user concerns in the way the services are managed but rather an on-going working habit of continually reviewing, analysing and improving the service management processes and the services themselves, having in mind the currently agreed service levels and whose results also improve the experience of the users about the current services.

  4. Continuous Markovian Logics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardare, Radu Iulian; Cardelli, Luca; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2012-01-01

    Continuous Markovian Logic (CML) is a multimodal logic that expresses quantitative and qualitative properties of continuous-time labelled Markov processes with arbitrary (analytic) state-spaces, henceforth called continuous Markov processes (CMPs). The modalities of CML evaluate the rates...... characterizes stochastic bisimilarity and it supports the definition of a quantified extension of the satisfiability relation that measures the "compatibility" between a model and a property. In this context, the metaproperties allows us to prove two robustness theorems for the logic stating that one can...

  5. Results of the Ongoing Monitoring of the Position of a Geostationary Telecommunication Satellite by the Method of Spatially Separated Basis Receiving of Digital Satellite Television Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushuev, F.; Kaliuzhnyi, M.; Sybiryakova, Y.; Shulga, O.; Moskalenko, S.; Balagura, O.; Kulishenko, V.

    2016-10-01

    The results of the ongoing monitoring of the position of geostationary telecommunication satellite Eutelsat-13B (13° East) are presented in the article. The results were obtained using a radio engineering complex (RC) of four stations receiving digital satellite television and a data processing centre. The stations are located in Kyiv, Mukachevo, Kharkiv and Mykolaiv. The equipment of each station allows synchronous recording (by the GPS) of fragments of DVB-S signal from the quadrature detector output of the satellite television receiver. Samples of the complex signal are archived and sent to the data processing center through the Internet. Here three linearly independent slant range differences (Δr) for three pairs of the stations are determined as a result of correlation processing of received signals. Every second measured values of Δr are used to calculate Cartesian coordinates (XYZ) of the satellite in the coordinate system WGS84 by multilateration method. The time series of Δr, X, Y and Z obtained during continuous observations from March to May 2015 are presented in the article. Single-measurement errors of Δr, X, Y and Z are equal to 2.6 m, 3540 m, 705 m and 455 m, respectively. The complex is compared with known analogues. Ways of reduction of measurement errors of satellite coordinates are considered. The radio engineering complex could be considered a prototype of a system of independent ongoing monitoring of the position of geostationary telecommunication satellites.

  6. Participatory continuing design: “Living with” videoconferencing in rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanestad, Margunn; Driveklepp, Anne Merete; Sørli, Hilde

    2017-01-01

    an empirical case study of how telemedicine, in the form of videoconferencing, was taken up in a rehabilitation hospital in Norway, the nature of such ongoing experimentation, learning, and redesign is described. When contrasted with traditional design-before-use practices, participatory continuing design...... differs in terms of its timing, object, process, outcome, and participants. We offer recommendations for how such processes can be supported in healthcare organizations....

  7. Ectopic lymphoid structures support ongoing production of class-switched autoantibodies in rheumatoid synovium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Humby

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Follicular structures resembling germinal centres (GCs that are characterized by follicular dendritic cell (FDC networks have long been recognized in chronically inflamed tissues in autoimmune diseases, including the synovium of rheumatoid arthritis (RA. However, it is debated whether these ectopic structures promote autoimmunity and chronic inflammation driving the production of pathogenic autoantibodies. Anti-citrullinated protein/peptide antibodies (ACPA are highly specific markers of RA, predict a poor prognosis, and have been suggested to be pathogenic. Therefore, the main study objectives were to determine whether ectopic lymphoid structures in RA synovium: (i express activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID, the enzyme required for somatic hypermutation and class-switch recombination (CSR of Ig genes; (ii support ongoing CSR and ACPA production; and (iii remain functional in a RA/severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID chimera model devoid of new immune cell influx into the synovium. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using immunohistochemistry (IHC and quantitative Taqman real-time PCR (QT-PCR in synovial tissue from 55 patients with RA, we demonstrated that FDC+ structures invariably expressed AID with a distribution resembling secondary lymphoid organs. Further, AID+/CD21+ follicular structures were surrounded by ACPA+/CD138+ plasma cells, as demonstrated by immune reactivity to citrullinated fibrinogen. Moreover, we identified a novel subset of synovial AID+/CD20+ B cells outside GCs resembling interfollicular large B cells. In order to gain direct functional evidence that AID+ structures support CSR and in situ manufacturing of class-switched ACPA, 34 SCID mice were transplanted with RA synovium and humanely killed at 4 wk for harvesting of transplants and sera. Persistent expression of AID and Igamma-Cmu circular transcripts (identifying ongoing IgM-IgG class-switching was observed in synovial grafts expressing FDCs/CD21L

  8. Nocturnal continuous glucose monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Christiane; Kristensen, Peter Lommer; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik;

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background: A reliable method to detect biochemical nocturnal hypoglycemia is highly needed, especially in patients with recurrent severe hypoglycemia. We evaluated reliability of nocturnal continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in patients with type 1 diabetes at high risk of severe...

  9. Continuous-time signals

    CERN Document Server

    Shmaliy, Yuriy

    2006-01-01

    Gives a modern description of continuous-time deterministic signals Signal formation techniquesTime vs. frequency and frequency vs. time analysisCorrelation and energy analysisNarrowband signals and sampling.

  10. Continuous ethanol fermentors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-08-03

    A continuous EtOH fermentor was developed. In the 1st stage of the fermentor, EtOH fermentation medium is contacted with an EtOH-producing bacterium (e.g. Zymomonas mobilis) attached to a carrier material (e.g., vermiculite powder) and with brewers' bottom yeast in the 2nd stage. This system does not require any special cell separator for continuous operation.

  11. Continuous Time Model Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Carl Chiarella; Shenhuai Gao

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces an easy to follow method for continuous time model estimation. It serves as an introduction on how to convert a state space model from continuous time to discrete time, how to decompose a hybrid stochastic model into a trend model plus a noise model, how to estimate the trend model by simulation, and how to calculate standard errors from estimation of the noise model. It also discusses the numerical difficulties involved in discrete time models that bring about the unit ...

  12. Ensuring IT service continuity in the face of increasing threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Vishwanath

    2014-01-01

    How is IT service continuity related to business continuity management? Is it just a glorified disaster recovery procedure? Will IT service continuity help increase the assurance of IT services from the business owner to the customer? This paper is an attempt at answering these and many such questions. It is presented as a case study of IT service continuity management implementation at Emirates Group IT, Dubai. It takes the reader through the need for the process as felt by the business, through the learning acquired during implementation, to the practices deployed for managing the process on an ongoing basis. It provides a detailed view of the kind of pitfalls that could be encountered during implementation of the IT service continuity management process in a large-scale enterprise.

  13. The ongoing evolution of the core curriculum of a clinical fellowship in pathology informatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M Quinn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Partners HealthCare system′s Clinical Fellowship in Pathology Informatics (Boston, MA, USA faces ongoing challenges to the delivery of its core curriculum in the forms of: (1 New classes of fellows annually with new and varying educational needs and increasingly fractured, enterprise-wide commitments; (2 taxing electronic health record (EHR and laboratory information system (LIS implementations; and (3 increasing interest in the subspecialty at the academic medical centers (AMCs in what is a large health care network. In response to these challenges, the fellowship has modified its existing didactic sessions and piloted both a network-wide pathology informatics lecture series and regular "learning laboratories". Didactic sessions, which had previously included more formal discussions of the four divisions of the core curriculum: Information fundamentals, information systems, workflow and process, and governance and management, now focus on group discussions concerning the fellows′ ongoing projects, updates on the enterprise-wide EHR and LIS implementations, and directed questions about weekly readings. Lectures are given by the informatics faculty, guest informatics faculty, current and former fellows, and information systems members in the network, and are open to all professional members of the pathology departments at the AMCs. Learning laboratories consist of small-group exercises geared toward a variety of learning styles, and are driven by both the fellows and a member of the informatics faculty. The learning laboratories have created a forum for discussing real-time and real-world pathology informatics matters, and for incorporating awareness of and timely discussions about the latest pathology informatics literature. These changes have diversified the delivery of the fellowship′s core curriculum, increased exposure of faculty, fellows and trainees to one another, and more equitably distributed teaching responsibilities among

  14. The ongoing evolution of the core curriculum of a clinical fellowship in pathology informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Andrew M; Klepeis, Veronica E; Mandelker, Diana L; Platt, Mia Y; Rao, Luigi K F; Riedlinger, Gregory; Baron, Jason M; Brodsky, Victor; Kim, Ji Yeon; Lane, William; Lee, Roy E; Levy, Bruce P; McClintock, David S; Beckwith, Bruce A; Kuo, Frank C; Gilbertson, John R

    2014-01-01

    The Partners HealthCare system's Clinical Fellowship in Pathology Informatics (Boston, MA, USA) faces ongoing challenges to the delivery of its core curriculum in the forms of: (1) New classes of fellows annually with new and varying educational needs and increasingly fractured, enterprise-wide commitments; (2) taxing electronic health record (EHR) and laboratory information system (LIS) implementations; and (3) increasing interest in the subspecialty at the academic medical centers (AMCs) in what is a large health care network. In response to these challenges, the fellowship has modified its existing didactic sessions and piloted both a network-wide pathology informatics lecture series and regular "learning laboratories". Didactic sessions, which had previously included more formal discussions of the four divisions of the core curriculum: Information fundamentals, information systems, workflow and process, and governance and management, now focus on group discussions concerning the fellows' ongoing projects, updates on the enterprise-wide EHR and LIS implementations, and directed questions about weekly readings. Lectures are given by the informatics faculty, guest informatics faculty, current and former fellows, and information systems members in the network, and are open to all professional members of the pathology departments at the AMCs. Learning laboratories consist of small-group exercises geared toward a variety of learning styles, and are driven by both the fellows and a member of the informatics faculty. The learning laboratories have created a forum for discussing real-time and real-world pathology informatics matters, and for incorporating awareness of and timely discussions about the latest pathology informatics literature. These changes have diversified the delivery of the fellowship's core curriculum, increased exposure of faculty, fellows and trainees to one another, and more equitably distributed teaching responsibilities among the entirety of the

  15. Continuous parallel coordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Julian; Weiskopf, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Typical scientific data is represented on a grid with appropriate interpolation or approximation schemes,defined on a continuous domain. The visualization of such data in parallel coordinates may reveal patterns latently contained in the data and thus can improve the understanding of multidimensional relations. In this paper, we adopt the concept of continuous scatterplots for the visualization of spatially continuous input data to derive a density model for parallel coordinates. Based on the point-line duality between scatterplots and parallel coordinates, we propose a mathematical model that maps density from a continuous scatterplot to parallel coordinates and present different algorithms for both numerical and analytical computation of the resulting density field. In addition, we show how the 2-D model can be used to successively construct continuous parallel coordinates with an arbitrary number of dimensions. Since continuous parallel coordinates interpolate data values within grid cells, a scalable and dense visualization is achieved, which will be demonstrated for typical multi-variate scientific data.

  16. Space geodetic monitoring of engineered structures: The ongoing destabilization of the Mosul dam, Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milillo, Pietro; Bürgmann, Roland; Lundgren, Paul; Salzer, Jacqueline; Perissin, Daniele; Fielding, Eric; Biondi, Filippo; Milillo, Giovanni

    2016-12-06

    We present a detailed survey of the ongoing destabilization process of the Mosul dam. The dam is located on the Tigris river and is the biggest hydraulic structure in Iraq. From a geological point of view the dam foundation is poor due to a site geology formed by alternating strata of highly soluble materials including gypsum, anhydrite, marl and limestone. Here we present the first multi-sensor cumulative deformation map for the dam generated from space-based interferometric synthetic aperture radar measurements from the Italian constellation COSMO-SkyMed and the European sensor Sentinel-1a over the period 2014-2016 that we compare to an older dataset spanning 2004-2010 acquired with the European Envisat satellite. We found that deformation was rapid during 2004-2010, slowed in 2012-2014 and increased since August 2014 when grouting operations stopped due to the temporary capture of the dam by the self proclaimed Islamic State. We model the inferred deformation using a Markov chain Monte Carlo approach to solve for change in volume for simple tensile dislocations. Results from recent and historical geodetic datasets suggests that the volume dissolution rate remains constant when the equivalent volume of total concrete injected during re-grouting operations is included in the calculations.

  17. The ongoing cognitive processing of exclusionary social events: evidence from event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Themanson, Jason R; Schreiber, Jennifer A; Larsen, Amanda D; Dunn, Kaitlin R; Ball, Aaron B; Khatcherian, Stephanie M

    2015-01-01

    Exclusionary social events are known to cause alterations in neural activity and attention-related processes. However, the precise nature of these neural adjustments remains unknown as previous research has been limited to examining social interactions and exclusionary events as unitary phenomena. To address this limitation, we assessed neural activity during both inclusionary and exclusionary social interactions by examining event-related brain potentials at multiple points within each social event. Our results show an initial enhancement of anterior cingulate cortex -related activation, indexed by the anterior N2, in response to specific exclusionary events followed by an enhanced attentional orienting response, indexed by the P3a, to later segments of each exclusionary event. Decreases in this P3a activation from social inclusion to social exclusion were associated with self-reported increases in anxiety, negative affect, and feelings of depression from inclusion to exclusion. Together, these findings provide novel insights into the dynamic and ongoing neural processes associated with attentional allocation toward social exclusion and the nature of the relationships between neural and behavioral reactions to exclusionary social interactions.

  18. Developing laboratory research techniques for an ongoing research program in a high school classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adornato, Philip

    Incorporating research into a high school classroom is an excellent way to teach students fundamental concepts in science. One program that incorporates this approach is the Waksman Student Scholar Program (WSSP), which allows high school students, teachers and Rutgers professors to work side by side on an ongoing molecular biology research program. Students in the program first isolated plasmid clones from bacteria that contain cDNA fragments of genes from the Brine Shrimp Artemia franciscana. They then determined the size of the DNA by performing molecular biology experiments. Students then analyzed the DNA sequence and after review from WSSP staff and high school teachers, the student's sequences were published in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database. This was often the last step in the project the students performed. However, if the project were being conducted in a research lab instead of a high school, the cDNA clone would often be further analyzed. In the past, safety, convenience, and affordability have limited the availability of these experiments in a high school setting. Although additional bioinformatic experiments could easily be performed in the high school, there is a strong need for additional "wet lab" experiments to keep the students engaged and motivated to work on the project. I have worked on developing three experimental modules that can be performed in a high school setting. These experiments were tested with the students and teachers of the WSSP. This work will expand the scope of experiments that can be performed in a high school environment.

  19. Dynamic synchronization of ongoing neuronal activity across spinal segments regulates sensory information flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Hernández, E; Chávez, D; Rudomin, P

    2015-05-15

    Previous studies on the correlation between spontaneous cord dorsum potentials recorded in the lumbar spinal segments of anaesthetized cats suggested the operation of a population of dorsal horn neurones that modulates, in a differential manner, transmission along pathways mediating Ib non-reciprocal postsynaptic inhibition and pathways mediating primary afferent depolarization and presynaptic inhibition. In order to gain further insight into the possible neuronal mechanisms that underlie this process, we have measured changes in the correlation between the spontaneous activity of individual dorsal horn neurones and the cord dorsum potentials associated with intermittent activation of these inhibitory pathways. We found that high levels of neuronal synchronization within the dorsal horn are associated with states of incremented activity along the pathways mediating presynaptic inhibition relative to pathways mediating Ib postsynaptic inhibition. It is suggested that ongoing changes in the patterns of functional connectivity within a distributed ensemble of dorsal horn neurones play a relevant role in the state-dependent modulation of impulse transmission along inhibitory pathways, among them those involved in the central control of sensory information. This feature would allow the same neuronal network to be involved in different functional tasks.

  20. Impact of Insulin Resistance on Silent and Ongoing Myocardial Damage in Normal Subjects: The Takahata Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taro Narumi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Insulin resistance (IR is part of the metabolic syndrome (Mets that develops after lifestyle changes and obesity. Although the association between Mets and myocardial injury is well known, the effect of IR on myocardial damage remains unclear. Methods and Results. We studied 2200 normal subjects who participated in a community-based health check in the town of Takahata in northern Japan. The presence of IR was assessed by homeostasis model assessment ratio, and the serum level of heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP was measured as a maker of silent and ongoing myocardial damage. H-FABP levels were significantly higher in subjects with IR and Mets than in those without metabolic disorder regardless of gender. Multivariate logistic analysis showed that the presence of IR was independently associated with latent myocardial damage (odds ratio: 1.574, 95% confidence interval 1.1–2.3 similar to the presence of Mets. Conclusions. In a screening of healthy subjects, IR and Mets were similarly related to higher H-FABP levels, suggesting that there may be an asymptomatic population in the early stages of metabolic disorder that is exposed to myocardial damage and might be susceptible to silent heart failure.

  1. Gaps in the HD169142 protoplanetary disk revealed by polarimetric imaging: Signs of ongoing planet formation?

    CERN Document Server

    Quanz, Sascha P; Buenzli, Esther; Garufi, Antonio; Schmid, Hans Martin; Wolf, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    We present H-band VLT/NACO polarized light images of the Herbig Ae/Be star HD169142 probing its protoplanetary disk as close as ~0.1" to the star. Our images trace the face-on disk out to ~1.7" (~250 AU) and reveal distinct sub-structures for the first time: 1) the inner disk (<20 AU) appears to be depleted in scattering dust grains; 2) an unresolved disk rim is imaged at ~25 AU; 3) an annular gap extends from ~40 - 70 AU; 4) local brightness asymmetries are found on opposite sides of the annular gap. We discuss different explanations for the observed morphology among which ongoing planet formation is a tempting - but yet to be proven - one. Outside of ~85 AU the surface brightness drops off roughly r^{-3.3}, but describing the disk regions between 85-120 AU / 120-250 AU separately with power-laws r^{-2.6} / r^{-3.9} provides a better fit hinting towards another discontinuity in the disk surface. The flux ratio between the disk integrated polarized light and the central star is ~4.1 * 10^{-3}. Finally, com...

  2. Notes from the Field: Ongoing Cholera Outbreak - Kenya, 2014-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Githuka; Rotich, Jacob; Kigen, Hudson; Catherine, Kiama; Waweru, Bonface; Boru, Waqo; Galgalo, Tura; Githuku, Jane; Obonyo, Mark; Curran, Kathryn; Narra, Rupa; Crowe, Samuel J; O'Reilly, Ciara E; Macharia, Daniel; Montgomery, Joel; Neatherlin, John; De Cock, Kevin M; Lowther, Sara; Gura, Zeinab; Langat, Daniel; Njeru, Ian; Kioko, Jackson; Muraguri, Nicholas

    2016-01-29

    On January 6, 2015, a man aged 40 years was admitted to Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, with acute watery diarrhea. The patient was found to be infected with toxigenic Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1, serotype Inaba. A subsequent review of surveillance reports identified four patients in Nairobi County during the preceding month who met either of the Kenya Ministry of Health suspected cholera case definitions: 1) severe dehydration or death from acute watery diarrhea (more than four episodes in 12 hours) in a patient aged ≥5 years, or 2) acute watery diarrhea in a patient aged ≥2 years in an area where there was an outbreak of cholera. An outbreak investigation was immediately initiated. A confirmed cholera case was defined as isolation of V. cholerae O1 or O139 from the stool of a patient with suspected cholera or a suspected cholera case that was epidemiologically linked to a confirmed case. By January 15, 2016, a total of 11,033 suspected or confirmed cases had been reported from 22 of Kenya's 47 counties (Table). The outbreak is ongoing.

  3. Ongoing spontaneous activity controls access to consciousness: a neuronal model for inattentional blindness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislas Dehaene

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Even in the absence of sensory inputs, cortical and thalamic neurons can show structured patterns of ongoing spontaneous activity, whose origins and functional significance are not well understood. We use computer simulations to explore the conditions under which spontaneous activity emerges from a simplified model of multiple interconnected thalamocortical columns linked by long-range, top-down excitatory axons, and to examine its interactions with stimulus-induced activation. Simulations help characterize two main states of activity. First, spontaneous gamma-band oscillations emerge at a precise threshold controlled by ascending neuromodulator systems. Second, within a spontaneously active network, we observe the sudden "ignition" of one out of many possible coherent states of high-level activity amidst cortical neurons with long-distance projections. During such an ignited state, spontaneous activity can block external sensory processing. We relate those properties to experimental observations on the neural bases of endogenous states of consciousness, and particularly the blocking of access to consciousness that occurs in the psychophysical phenomenon of "inattentional blindness," in which normal subjects intensely engaged in mental activity fail to notice salient but irrelevant sensory stimuli. Although highly simplified, the generic properties of a minimal network may help clarify some of the basic cerebral phenomena underlying the autonomy of consciousness.

  4. Attenuated geophysical signatures associated with ongoing remediation efforts at Wurtsmith Air Force Base, Oscoda, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che-Alota, V.; Atekwana, E. A.; Sauck, W. A.; Nolan, J. T.; Slater, L. D.

    2007-12-01

    Previous geophysical investigations (1996, 1997, 2003, and 2004) conducted at the decommissioned Wurtsmith Air Force Base former Fire Training Cell (FT-02) showed a clearly defined high conductivity anomaly associated with hydrocarbon contaminants in the vadose zone and ground water near the source area. The source of the geophysical anomalies was attributed to biogeochemical modifications of the contaminated zone resulting from intrinsic bioremediation. During these previous surveys, ground penetrating radar (GPR) data showed a zone of attenuated GPR reflections extending from the vadose zone to below the water table. Self potential data (SP) data defined a positive anomaly coincident with the hydrochemically defined plume, while electrical resistivity data showed anomalously high conductivity within the zone of impact. In 2007, another integrated geophysical study of the site was conducted. GPR, SP, electrical resistivity, and induced polarization surveys were conducted with expectations of achieving similar results as the past surveys. However, preliminary assessment of the data shows a marked decrease in electrical conductivity and SP response over the plume. GPR data still showed the attenuated signals, but the zone of attenuation was only observed below the water table. We attribute the attenuation of the observed geophysical anomalies to ongoing soil vapor extraction initiated in 2003. Significant removal of the contaminant mass by the vapor extraction system has altered the subsurface biogeochemical conditions and these changes were documented by the 2007 geophysical and geochemical data. The results of this study show that the attenuation of the contaminant plume is detectable with geophysical methods.

  5. A Principle for Describing and Verifying Brain Mechanisms Using Ongoing Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, David

    2017-01-01

    Not even the most informed scientist can setup a theory that takes all brain signals into account. A neuron not only receives neuronal short range and long range input from all over the brain but a neuron also receives input from the extracellular space, astrocytes and vasculature. Given this complexity, how does one describe and verify a typical brain mechanism in vivo? Common to most described mechanisms is that one focuses on how one specific input signal gives rise to the activity in a population of neurons. This can be an input from a brain area, a population of neurons or a specific cell type. All remaining inputs originating from all over the brain are lumped together into one background input. The division into two inputs is attractive since it can be used to quantify the relative importance of either input. Here we have chosen to extract the specific and the background input by means of recording and inhibiting the specific input. We summarize what it takes to estimate the two inputs on a single trial level. The inhibition should not only be strong but also fast and the specific input measurement has to be tailor-made to the inhibition. In essence, we suggest ways to control electrophysiological experiments in vivo. By applying those controls it may become possible to describe and verify many brain mechanisms, and it may also allow the study of the integration of spontaneous and ongoing activity, which in turn governs cognition and behavior. PMID:28174523

  6. Ongoing cell death and immune influences on regeneration in the vestibular sensory organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warchol, M. E.; Matsui, J. I.; Simkus, E. L.; Ogilive, J. M.

    2001-01-01

    Hair cells in the vestibular organs of birds have a relatively short life span. Mature hair cells appear to die spontaneously and are then quickly replaced by new hair cells that arise from the division of epithelial supporting cells. A similar regenerative mechanism also results in hair cell replacement after ototoxic damage. The cellular basis of hair cell turnover in the avian ear is not understood. We are investigating the signaling pathways that lead to hair cell death and the relationship between ongoing cell death and cell production. In addition, work from our lab and others has demonstrated that the avian inner ear contains a resident population of macrophages and that enhanced numbers of macrophages are recruited to sites of hair cells lesions. Those observations suggest that macrophages and their secretory products (cytokines) may be involved in hair cell regeneration. Consistent with that suggestion, we have found that treatment with the anti-inflammatory drug dexamethasone reduces regenerative cell proliferation in the avian ear, and that certain macrophage-secreted cytokines can influence the proliferation of vestibular supporting cells and the survival of statoacoustic neurons. Those results suggest a role for the immune system in the process of sensory regeneration in the inner ear.

  7. An ongoing role for structural sarcomeric components in maintaining Drosophila melanogaster muscle function and structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander D Perkins

    Full Text Available Animal muscles must maintain their function while bearing substantial mechanical loads. How muscles withstand persistent mechanical strain is presently not well understood. The basic unit of muscle is the sarcomere, which is primarily composed of cytoskeletal proteins. We hypothesized that cytoskeletal protein turnover is required to maintain muscle function. Using the flight muscles of Drosophila melanogaster, we confirmed that the sarcomeric cytoskeleton undergoes turnover throughout adult life. To uncover which cytoskeletal components are required to maintain adult muscle function, we performed an RNAi-mediated knockdown screen targeting the entire fly cytoskeleton and associated proteins. Gene knockdown was restricted to adult flies and muscle function was analyzed with behavioural assays. Here we analyze the results of that screen and characterize the specific muscle maintenance role for several hits. The screen identified 46 genes required for muscle maintenance: 40 of which had no previously known role in this process. Bioinformatic analysis highlighted the structural sarcomeric proteins as a candidate group for further analysis. Detailed confocal and electron microscopic analysis showed that while muscle architecture was maintained after candidate gene knockdown, sarcomere length was disrupted. Specifically, we found that ongoing synthesis and turnover of the key sarcomere structural components Projectin, Myosin and Actin are required to maintain correct sarcomere length and thin filament length. Our results provide in vivo evidence of adult muscle protein turnover and uncover specific functional defects associated with reduced expression of a subset of cytoskeletal proteins in the adult animal.

  8. Online Teaching Efficacy: A Product of Professional Development and Ongoing Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Sally; Idleman, Lynda

    2017-08-22

    The purpose of the pilot study was to investigate the perceptions of online teaching efficacy of nursing faculty who teach courses in which 51% or more of the content is offered online. Bandura's psychological construct of self-efficacy served as the conceptual framework. The research survey was administered to nursing faculty in a state university system located in the southeastern United States of America, plus two private universities. The Michigan Nurse Educator's Sense of Efficacy for Online Teaching Scale, which contains 32 items that measure how nurse educators judge their current capabilities for teaching online nursing courses, was used to gather data. Overall, the scores reflected that faculty perceived themselves as quite a bit efficacious on a scale that ranged from 1 to 9. As nursing educators received more support in designing and implementing online courses, their efficacy increased. It is critical that faculty are supported on an ongoing basis to increase and develop online teaching skills in order to teach high-quality courses in online programs. Faculty members must also be recognized for their work, time, and commitment required to be effective online educators. The findings of this study revealed those participants who had a number of professional development supports and release time to develop online courses have a greater sense of efficacy.

  9. Multifactorial effects of vildagliptin added to ongoing metformin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strózik, Agnieszka; Stęposz, Arkadiusz; Basiak, Marcin; Drożdż, Magdalena; Okopień, Bogusław

    2015-02-01

    To assess the efficacy of a vildagliptin and metformin combination therapy to a metformin monotherapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Sixty-one patients with diabetes inadequately controlled by a metformin monotherapy were randomized to treatment with a combination therapy of vildagliptin 100mg and a metformin versus metformin monotherapy. This was a 12-week randomized parallel group study. During the study we assessed parameters of glycemic and lipid metabolism as well as the treatment effects on the release of proinflammatory and antiinflammatory cytokines. Compared with baseline values we observed a significant improvement of glycaemic parameters such as HbA1c, FPG, PPG, FPI, HOMA-IR and HOMA-β index as well as decrease of TCh, TG and LDL and an increase of HDL with the greatest extent of vildagliptin plus a low-dose metformin therapy group. A metformin combination therapy significantly decreased such inflamation parameters as hs-CRP, ox-LDL, TNF-α and IL-1β levels relative to monotherapies. All treatments were well tolerated and there was no incidence of hypoglycaemia. Vildagliptin added to an ongoing metformin therapy allows to achieve better metabolic control parameters in comparison with a metformin monotherapy and the combination treatment is well tolerated and has a low risk of serious adverse effects. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  10. New Insights on Retrieval-Induced and Ongoing Memory Consolidation: Lessons from Arc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pascal Morin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The mainstream view on the neurobiological mechanisms underlying memory formation states that memory traces reside on the network of cells activated during initial acquisition that becomes active again upon retrieval (reactivation. These activation and reactivation processes have been called “conjunctive trace.” This process implies that singular molecular events must occur during acquisition, strengthening the connection between the implicated cells whose synchronous activity must underlie subsequent reactivations. The strongest experimental support for the conjunctive trace model comes from the study of immediate early genes such as c-fos, zif268, and activity-regulated cytoskeletal-associated protein. The expressions of these genes are reliably induced by behaviorally relevant neuronal activity and their products often play a central role in long-term memory formation. In this review, we propose that the peculiar characteristics of Arc protein, such as its optimal expression after ongoing experience or familiar behavior, together with its versatile and central functions in synaptic plasticity could explain how familiarization and recognition memories are stored and preserved in the mammalian brain.

  11. Propeller peregrinations: Ongoing observations of disk-embedded migration in Saturn's rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiscareno, Matthew S.; Cassini Imaging Team

    2016-10-01

    The "propeller" moons within Saturn's rings are the first objects ever to have their orbits tracked while embedded in a disk, rather than moving through empty space (Tiscareno et al. 2010, ApJL). The km-sized "giant propellers" whose orbits have been tracked in the outer-A ring, as well as their smaller 0.1-km-sized brethren swarming in the mid-A ring, are not seen directly; rather, their locations are inferred by means of the propeller-shaped disturbances they create in the surrounding ring material (Tiscareno et al. 2006, Nature; Sremcevic et al. 2007, Nature; Tiscareno et al. 2008, AJ). The orbits of giant propellers are primarily Keplerian, but with clear excursions of up to several degrees longitude over a decade of observations. Most theories that have been proposed to explain the non-Keplerian motion of propeller moons (e.g., Pan et al. 2012, MNRAS; Tiscareno 2013, P&SS) rely on gravitational and/or collisional interactions between the moon and the surrounding disk, and thus hold out the prospect for directly observing processes that are important in protoplanetary scenarios and other disk systems. We will review the current dynamical models and report on recent ongoing observations by the Cassini imaging camera.

  12. Incorporating person centred care principles into an ongoing comprehensive cancer management program: An experiential account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vallath Nandini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research indicates a definite positive impact on treatment outcomes when an integrative approach that focuses on symptom control and quality of life is provided along with the standard therapeutic regimens. However implementation or practice of this approach is not seen widely due to the culture of medical training and practice. This article presents the initial development of a program for incorporating integrative care principles into an ongoing comprehensive cancer care program at a tertiary centre. The key purpose of the program being to develop, facilitate, and establish comprehensive and holistic processes including palliative care principles, that would positively enhance the quantity and quality of life of the person with disease, as well as create an environment that reflects and sustains this approach. The vision, objectives, goals, strategies, activities and results within the 7 months of implementation are documented. The new learnings gained during the process have also been noted in the hope that the model described may be used to conceptualize similar care giving facilities in other centres.

  13. Space geodetic monitoring of engineered structures: The ongoing destabilization of the Mosul dam, Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milillo, Pietro; Bürgmann, Roland; Lundgren, Paul; Salzer, Jacqueline; Perissin, Daniele; Fielding, Eric; Biondi, Filippo; Milillo, Giovanni

    2016-12-01

    We present a detailed survey of the ongoing destabilization process of the Mosul dam. The dam is located on the Tigris river and is the biggest hydraulic structure in Iraq. From a geological point of view the dam foundation is poor due to a site geology formed by alternating strata of highly soluble materials including gypsum, anhydrite, marl and limestone. Here we present the first multi-sensor cumulative deformation map for the dam generated from space-based interferometric synthetic aperture radar measurements from the Italian constellation COSMO-SkyMed and the European sensor Sentinel-1a over the period 2014-2016 that we compare to an older dataset spanning 2004-2010 acquired with the European Envisat satellite. We found that deformation was rapid during 2004-2010, slowed in 2012-2014 and increased since August 2014 when grouting operations stopped due to the temporary capture of the dam by the self proclaimed Islamic State. We model the inferred deformation using a Markov chain Monte Carlo approach to solve for change in volume for simple tensile dislocations. Results from recent and historical geodetic datasets suggests that the volume dissolution rate remains constant when the equivalent volume of total concrete injected during re-grouting operations is included in the calculations.

  14. Ischaemic memory imaging using metabolic radiopharmaceuticals: overview of clinical settings and ongoing investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshinaga, Keiichiro [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Molecular Imaging, Sapporo (Japan); Naya, Masanao [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Sapporo (Japan); Shiga, Tohru; Suzuki, Eriko; Tamaki, Nagara [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sapporo (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    ''Ischaemic memory'' is defined as a prolonged functional and/or biochemical alteration remaining after a particular episode of severe myocardial ischaemia. The biochemical alteration has been reported as metabolic stunning. Metabolic imaging has been used to detect the footprint left by previous ischaemic episodes evident due to delayed recovery of myocardial metabolism (persistent dominant glucose utilization with suppression of fatty acid oxidation). β-Methyl-p-[{sup 123}I]iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) is a single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) radiotracer widely used for metabolic imaging in clinical settings in Japan. In patients with suspected coronary artery disease but no previous myocardial infarction, BMIPP has shown acceptable diagnostic accuracy. In particular, BMIPP plays an important role in the identification of prior ischaemic insult in patients arriving at emergency departments with acute chest pain syndrome. Recent data also show the usefulness of {sup 123}I-BMIPP SPECT for predicting cardiovascular events in patients undergoing haemodialysis. Similarly, SPECT or PET imaging with {sup 18}F-FDG injected during peak exercise or after exercise under fasting conditions shows an increase in FDG uptake in postischaemic areas. This article will overview the roles of ischaemic memory imaging both under established indications and in ongoing investigations. (orig.)

  15. Depth distribution of radiocesium in Fukushima paddy fields and implications for ongoing decontamination works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepage, H.; Evrard, O.; Onda, Y.; Lefèvre, I.; Laceby, J. P.; Ayrault, S.

    2014-09-01

    Large quantities of radiocesium were deposited across a 3000 km2 area northwest of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant after the March 2011 accident. Although many studies have investigated the fate of radiocesium in soil in the months following the accident, the potential migration of this radioactive contaminant in rice paddy fields requires further examination after the typhoons that occurred in this region. Such investigations will help minimize potential human exposure in rice paddy fields or transfer of radioactive contaminants from soils to rice. Radionuclide activity concentrations and organic content were analysed in 10 soil cores sampled from paddy fields in November 2013, 20 km north of the Fukushima power plant. Our results demonstrate limited depth migration of radiocesium with the majority concentrated in the uppermost layers of soils (maintenance (grass cutting - 97% of 137Cs in the upper 5 cm) and farming operations (tilling - 83% of 137Cs in the upper 5 cm). As this area is exposed to erosive events, ongoing decontamination works may increase soil erodibility. We therefore recommend the rapid removal of the uppermost - contaminated - layer of the soil after removing the vegetation to avoid erosion of contaminated material during the subsequent rainfall events. Remediation efforts should be concentrated on soils characterised by radiocesium activities > 10 000 Bq kg-1 to prevent the contamination of rice. Further analysis is required to clarify the redistribution of radiocesium eroded on river channels.

  16. ALMA and VLA Observations: Evidence for Ongoing Low-mass Star Formation near Sgr A*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusef-Zadeh, F.; Cotton, W.; Wardle, M.; Royster, M. J.; Kunneriath, D.; Roberts, D. A.; Wootten, A.; Schödel, R.

    2017-01-01

    Using the VLA, we recently detected a large number of protoplanetary disk (proplyd) candidates lying within a couple of light years of the massive black hole Sgr A*. The bow-shock appearance of proplyd candidates point toward the young massive stars located near Sgr A*. Similar to Orion proplyds, the strong UV radiation from the cluster of massive stars at the Galactic center is expected to photoevaporate and photoionize the circumstellar disks around young, low mass stars, thus allowing detection of the ionized outflows from the photoionized layer surrounding cool and dense gaseous disks. To confirm this picture, ALMA observations detect millimeter emission at 226 GHz from five proplyd candidates that had been detected at 44 and 34 GHz with the VLA. We present the derived disk masses for four sources as a function of the assumed dust temperature. The mass of protoplanetary disks from cool dust emission ranges between 0.03 - 0.05 M⊙. These estimates are consistent with the disk masses found in star forming sites in the Galaxy. These measurements show the presence of on-going star formation with the implication that gas clouds can survive near Sgr A* and the relative importance of high vs low-mass star formation in the strong tidal and radiation fields of the Galactic center.

  17. Investigation of exposure to Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) magnetic and electric fields: Ongoing animal studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, L.E.

    1994-03-01

    There is now convincing evidence from a large number of laboratories, that exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic and electric fields produces biological responses in animals. Many of the observed effects appear to be directly or indirectly associated with the neural or neuroendocrine systems. Such effects include increased neuronal excitability, chemical and hormonal changes in the nervous system, altered behavioral responses, some of which are related to sensing the presence of the field, and changes in endogenous biological rhythms. Additional indices of general physiological status appear relatively unaffected by exposure, although effects have occasionally been described in bone growth and fracture repair, reproduction and development, and immune system function. A major current emphasis in laboratory research is to determine whether or not the reported epidemiological studies that suggest an association between EMF exposure and risk of cancer are supported in studies using animal models. Three major challenges exist for ongoing research: (1) knowledge about the mechanisms underlying observed bioeffects is incomplete, (2) researchers do not as yet understand what physical aspects of exposure produce biological responses, and (3) health consequences resulting from ELF exposure are unknown. Although no animal studies clearly demonstrate deleterious effects of ELF fields, several are suggestive of potential health impacts. From the perspective of laboratory animal studies, this paper will discuss biological responses to ELF magnetic and/or electric field exposures.

  18. Influence of Ongoing Task Difficulty and Motivation Level on Children's Prospective Memory in a Chinese Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Pi-Guo; Han, Lei; Bian, Yu-Long; Tian, Yu; Xu, Min-Xia; Gao, Feng-Qiang

    2017-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM) is the process associated with the task of realizing delayed intentions in the future. Researchers distinguish two types of PM, namely time-based PM (tbPM) and event-based PM (ebPM). Experiment 1 investigated the developmental trajectory of 3- to 5-year-old preschool children's PM ability, and the occurrence of delayed retrieval (children execute the PM task in a larger window of opportunity) in both tbPM and ebPM tasks. Results revealed that the 5-year-old children outperformed the 3- and 4-year-old children in PM. Moreover, delayed retrieval was more likely to occur in tbPM task than in ebPM task. In Experiment 2, the influence of ongoing task (OT) difficulty on PM performance was investigated with a sample of 5-year-old children. Results revealed no significant effect of OT difficulty on PM performance. In Experiment 3, we improved children's motivation level to complete the OT, then explored the influence of OT difficulty on children's PM performance. Results revealed that the effect of OT difficulty on PM performance became significant after increasing the children's motivation to complete the OT. These results provide insights into the mechanism of attentional resource allocation in PM tasks and have crucial educational and social implications.

  19. Annex III-evaluation of past and ongoing enhanced oil recovery projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    The Infill Drilling Predictive Model (IDPM) was developed by Scientific Software-Intercomp (SSI) for the Bartlesville Project Office (BPO) of the United States Department of Energy (DOE). The model and certain adaptations thereof were used in conjunction with other models to support the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission`s (IOGCC) 1993 state-by-state assessment of the potential domestic reserves achievable through the application of Advanced Secondary Recovery (ASR) and Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) techniques. Funding for this study was provided by the DOE/BPO, which additionally provided technical support. The IDPM is a three-dimensional (stratified, five-spot), two-phase (oil and water) model which uses a minimal amount of reservoir and geologic data to generate production and recovery forecasts for ongoing waterflood and infill drilling projects. The model computes water-oil displacement and oil recovery using finite difference solutions within streamtubes. It calculates the streamtube geometries and uses a two-dimensional reservoir simulation to track fluid movement in each streamtube slice. Thus the model represents a hybrid of streamtube and numerical simulators.

  20. Molecular evidence for ongoing complementarity and horizontal gene transfer in endosymbiotic systems of mealybugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio eLópez-Madrigal

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular bacterial supply of essential amino acids is common among sap-feeding insects, thus complementing the scarcity of nitrogenous compounds in plant phloem. This is also the role of the two mealybug endosymbiotic systems whose genomes have been sequenced. In the nested endosymbiotic system from Planococcus citri (Pseudococcinae, Candidatus Tremblaya princeps and Candidatus Moranella endobia cooperate to synthesize essential amino acids, while in Phenacoccus avenae (Phenacoccinae this function is performed by its single endosymbiont Candidatus Tremblaya phenacola. However, little is known regarding the evolution of essential amino acid supplementation strategies in other mealybug systems. To address this knowledge gap, we screened for the presence of six selected loci involved in essential amino acid biosynthesis in five additional mealybug species. We found evidence of ongoing complementarity among endosymbionts from insects of subfamily Pseudococcinae, as well as horizontal gene transfer affecting endosymbionts from insects of family Phenacoccinae, providing a more comprehensive picture of the evolutionary history of these endosymbiotic systems. Additionally, we report two diagnostic motifs to help identify invasive mealybug species.

  1. Treatment of maladaptive aggression in youth: CERT guidelines II. Treatments and ongoing management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotto Rosato, Nancy; Correll, Christoph U; Pappadopulos, Elizabeth; Chait, Alanna; Crystal, Stephen; Jensen, Peter S

    2012-06-01

    To develop guidelines for management and treatment of maladaptive aggression in youth in the areas of psychosocial interventions, medication treatments, and side-effect management. Evidence was assembled and evaluated in a multistep process, including systematic reviews of published literature; an expert survey of recommended practices; a consensus conference of researchers, policymakers, clinicians, and family advocates; and review by the steering committee of successive drafts of the recommendations. The Center for Education and Research on Mental Health Therapeutics Treatment of Maladaptive Aggression in Youth guidelines reflect a synthesis of the available evidence, based on this multistep process. This article describes the content, rationale, and evidence for 11 recommendations. Key treatment principles include considering psychosocial interventions, such as evidence-based parent and child skills training as the first line of treatment; targeting the underlying disorder first following evidence-based guidelines; considering individual psychosocial and medical factors, including cardiovascular risk in the selection of agents if medication treatment (ideally with the best evidence base) is initiated; avoiding the use of multiple psychotropic medications simultaneously; and careful monitoring of treatment response, by using structured rating scales, as well as close medical monitoring for side effects, including metabolic changes. Treatment of children with maladaptive aggression is a "moving target" requiring ongoing assimilation of new evidence as it emerges. Based on the existing evidence, the Treatment of Maladaptive Aggression in Youth guidelines provide a framework for management of maladaptive aggression in youth, appropriate for use by primary care clinicians and mental health providers.

  2. Business Associations, Conservative Networks, and the Ongoing Republican War over Medicaid Expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel-Fernandez, Alexander; Skocpol, Theda; Lynch, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    A major component of the Affordable Care Act involves the expansion of state Medicaid programs to cover the uninsured poor. In the wake of the 2012 Supreme Court decision upholding and modifying reform legislation, states can decide whether to expand Medicaid-and twenty states are still not proceeding as of August 2015. What explains state choices about participation in expansion, including governors' decisions to endorse expansion or not as well as final state decisions? We tackle this puzzle, focusing closely on outcomes and battles in predominantly Republican-led states. Like earlier scholars, we find that partisan differences between Democrats and Republicans are central, but we go beyond earlier analyses to measure added effects from two dueling factions within the Republican coalition: statewide business associations and cross-state networks of ideologically conservative organizations. Using both statistical modeling and case studies, we show that GOP-leaning or GOP-dominated states have been most likely to embrace the expansion when organized business support outweighs pressures from conservative networks. Our findings help make sense of ongoing state-level debates over a core part of health reform and shed new light on mounting policy tensions within the Republican Party.

  3. The ongoing dome emplacement and destruction cyclic process at Popocatépetl volcano, Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Vazquez, Angel; De la Cruz-Reyna, Servando; Mendoza-Rosas, Ana Teresa

    2016-09-01

    The ongoing eruptive activity of Popocatépetl volcano has been characterized by emplacement and subsequent destruction of a succession of lava domes. Between the onset of the current eruption in 1994 and the time of this submission, 38 episodes of lava dome formation and removal have been identified. Each dome has showed particular features related to the magma extrusion process. Among other manifestations, dome-emplacement events have been usually accompanied by relatively low-intensity, protracted explosions referred to as exhalations. After variable times of residence, emplacements have ended in partial or total destruction of the domes by strong vulcanian explosions that produced sizeable ash plumes, with most of them also ejecting incandescent debris onto the volcano flanks. Here, we present a detailed account for the observed activity related to the domes' growth and destruction, related seismic monitoring signals, and morphological features of the domes based on 19 years of visual observations and image analysis. We then discuss a model for the process of dome growth and destruction and its hazard implications.

  4. Are ongoing cumulative chronic stressors associated with optimism and pessimism in the second half of life?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palgi, Yuval

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between ongoing cumulative chronic stressors (OCCSs) and optimism and pessimism during the second half of life. The sample comprised of 7166 participants who completed the 2006 Health and Retirement Study's (HRS) psychosocial questionnaire. The association between OCCSs and optimism and pessimism was evaluated among the individuals in the second half of life. The number of OCCSs was associated with both optimism and pessimism. However, the interaction between OCCSs and age was associated with pessimism alone. The relationship between "very upsetting" OCCSs and pessimism was significant among midlife and young old, but not among old-old participants. A larger number of OCCSs in the second half of life has a deleterious association with optimism and pessimism; however, it may be that the large sample allowed small effects to become significant. Nevertheless, the association between OCCSs and pessimism is regulated by age. Old-old participants maintain a stable level of pessimism, which is not related to the number of "very upsetting" OCCSs that they reported. Implications of the results are discussed.

  5. High virus-to-cell ratios indicate ongoing production of viruses in deep subsurface sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Tim; Kallmeyer, Jens; Cypionka, Heribert; Engelen, Bert

    2014-07-01

    Marine sediments cover two-thirds of our planet and harbor huge numbers of living prokaryotes. Long-term survival of indigenous microorganisms within the deep subsurface is still enigmatic, as sources of organic carbon are vanishingly small. To better understand controlling factors of microbial life, we have analyzed viral abundance within a comprehensive set of globally distributed subsurface sediments. Phages were detected by electron microscopy in deep (320 m below seafloor), ancient (∼14 Ma old) and the most oligotrophic subsurface sediments of the world's oceans (South Pacific Gyre (SPG)). The numbers of viruses (10(4)-10(9) cm(-3), counted by epifluorescence microscopy) generally decreased with sediment depth, but always exceeded the total cell counts. The enormous numbers of viruses indicate their impact as a controlling factor for prokaryotic mortality in the marine deep biosphere. The virus-to-cell ratios increased in deeper and more oligotrophic layers, exhibiting values of up to 225 in the deep subsurface of the SPG. High numbers of phages might be due to absorption onto the sediment matrix and a diminished degradation by exoenzymes. However, even in the oldest sediments, microbial communities are capable of maintaining viral populations, indicating an ongoing viral production and thus, viruses provide an independent indicator for microbial life in the marine deep biosphere.

  6. A Model for the University Operating as a Center for the Formation of a Local Environment for Adult Ongoing Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina I. Ukraintseva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper features the results of a study conducted as part of the project ‘The Development of Universities as Centers for the Formation of a Local Environment for the Ongoing Education of the Adult Population of a City’, undertaken by Sochi State University in 2016 as an assignment commissioned by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation. The paper examines, via a comparative-pedagogical approach, the theoretical and practical foundations of putting together a local environment for adult ongoing education and provides a rationale for the role of universities in the development and operation of a municipal system of ongoing education. The authors share the results of an analysis and systematization of the major trends in adult ongoing education by reference to the current best practices employed domestically and internationally. Based on the findings of a theoretical analysis of relevant research and a problem analysis of the activity of institutions of higher learning operating in local markets for educational services, the authors single out several models for the formation by universities of a municipal educational environment for adult ongoing education and draw a conclusion about the need to develop a more comprehensive, integrative, and consistent model. The paper brings forward a new model for the university operating as a center for the formation of a local environment for adult ongoing education, characterizes its specific components (objective-and-function, content, structural-logistical, instrumental-technological, and organizational-managerial, establishes the prospects for it as a tool for managing the education system, and sets out the key strategies for putting together a local educational environment for adult ongoing education.

  7. Parafoveal-Foveal Overlap Can Facilitate Ongoing Word Identification during Reading: Evidence from Eye Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angele, Bernhard; Tran, Randy; Rayner, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Readers continuously receive parafoveal information about the upcoming word in addition to the foveal information about the currently fixated word. Previous research (Inhoff, Radach, Starr, & Greenberg, 2000) showed that the presence of a parafoveal word that was similar to the foveal word facilitated processing of the foveal word. We used the…

  8. Introduction to Continuous Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasson, Niclas; Evgrafov, Anton; Patriksson, Michael

    optimal solutions for continuous optimization models. The main part of the mathematical material therefore concerns the analysis and linear algebra that underlie the workings of convexity and duality, and necessary/sufficient local/global optimality conditions for continuous optimization problems. Natural...... algorithms are then developed from these optimality conditions, and their most important convergence characteristics are analyzed. The book answers many more questions of the form “Why?” and “Why not?” than “How?”. We use only elementary mathematics in the development of the book, yet are rigorous throughout...

  9. 2015 Workshop on Continuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    his volume contains the papers presented at WoC 2015, the Workshop on Continuations held at ETAPS 2015. There were four submissions. Each of them was reviewed by, on the average, three PC members. The committee decided to accept three papers. The program also includes one invited talk. It also...... documents the depth, variety, and richness of continuations with four distilled tutorials. Thanks are due to the local organizers of ETAPS 2015 for the infras- tructure and to the general chairman of WoC 2015, Ugo de'Liguoro, for initiating this workshop and making it happen...

  10. LIVING ON THE EDGE: TIMING OF RAND FLORA DISJUNCTIONS CONGRUENT WITH ONGOING ARIDIFICATION IN AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa ePokorny

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Rand Flora is a well-known floristic pattern in which unrelated plant lineages show similar disjunct distributions in the continental margins of Africa and adjacent islands —Macaronesia-northwest Africa, Horn of Africa-Southern Arabia, Eastern Africa, and Southern Africa. These lineages are now separated by environmental barriers such as the arid regions of the Sahara and Kalahari Deserts or the tropical lowlands of Central Africa. Alternative explanations for the Rand Flora pattern range from vicariance and climate-driven extinction of a widespread pan-African flora to independent dispersal events and speciation in situ. To provide a temporal framework for this pattern, we used published data from nuclear and chloroplast DNA to estimate the age of disjunction of 17 lineages that span 12 families and 9 orders of angiosperms. We further used these estimates to infer diversification rates for Rand Flora disjunct clades in relation to their higher-level encompassing lineages. Our results indicate that most disjunctions fall within the Miocene and Pliocene periods, coinciding with the onset of a major aridification trend, still ongoing, in Africa. Age of disjunctions seemed to be related to the climatic affinities of each Rand Flora lineage, with subtropical taxa dated earlier (e.g., Sideroxylon and those with more xeric affinities (e.g., Campylanthus diverging later. We did not find support for significant decreases in diversification rates in most groups, with the exception of older subtropical lineages (e.g., Sideroxylon, Hypericum, or Canarina, but some lineages (e.g., Cicer, Campylanthus showed a long temporal gap between stem and crown ages, suggestive of extinction. In all, the Rand Flora pattern seems to fit the definition of biogeographic pseudocongruence, with the pattern arising at different times in response to the increasing aridity of the African continent, with interspersed periods of humidity allowing range expansions.

  11. Choices of Stent and Cerebral Protection in the Ongoing ACST-2 Trial: A Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waard, D D; Halliday, A; de Borst, G J; Bulbulia, R; Huibers, A; Casana, R; Bonati, L H; Tolva, V

    2017-05-01

    Several plaque and lesion characteristics have been associated with an increased risk for procedural stroke during or shortly after carotid artery stenting (CAS). While technical advancements in stent design and cerebral protection devices (CPD) may help reduce the procedural stroke risk, and anatomy remains important, tailoring stenting procedures according to plaque and lesion characteristics might be a useful strategy in reducing stroke associated with CAS. In this descriptive report of the ongoing Asymptomatic Carotid Surgery Trial-2 (ACST-2), it was assessed whether choice for stent and use or type of CPD was influenced by plaque and lesion characteristics. Trial patients who underwent CAS between 2008 and 2015 were included in this study. Chi-square statistics were used to study the effects of plaque echolucency, ipsilateral preocclusive disease (90-99%), and contralateral high-grade stenosis (>50%) or occlusion of the carotid artery on interventionalists' choice for stent and CPD. Differences in treatment preference between specialties were also analysed. In this study, 831 patients from 88 ACST-2 centres were included. Almost all procedures were performed by either interventional radiologists (50%) or vascular surgeons (45%). Plaque echolucency, ipsilateral preocclusive disease (90-99%), and significant contralateral stenosis (>50%) or occlusion did not affect the choice of stent or either the use of cerebral protection and type of CPD employed (i.e., filter/flow reversal). Vascular surgeons used a CPD significantly more often than interventional radiologists (98.6% vs. 76.3%; p < .001), but this choice did not appear to be dependent on patient characteristics. In ACST-2, plaque characteristics and severity of stenosis did not primarily determine interventionalists' choice of stent or use or type of CPD, suggesting that other factors, such as vascular anatomy or personal and centre preference, may be more important. Stent and CPD use was highly

  12. [Summary of ongoing activities on environmental noise and health at the WHO regional office for Europe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Héroux, M E; Braubach, M; Dramac, D; Korol, N; Paunovic, E; Zastenskaya, I

    2014-01-01

    The environmental noise is an important public health issue, according to recent assessment of the burden of diseases among environmental health risk factors in order of importance the environmental noise occupies the second place after air pollution. The World Health Organization (WHO) for the first time published its public health recommendations for the environmental noise in 1999 in the "WHO Guidelines for Community Noise (1999)". These recommendations found their development in WHO Night Noise Guidelines for Europe" (2009). From then onward there have been published new important data on the impact of the environmental noise on the health, that stipulated the revision of existing guidelines. Furthermore, both in the European Union (EU) Directive 2002/49/ EC and the Parma Declaration from 2010 there was pointed out the importance of renewal environmental noise recommendations. Responding to appearing interrogation, WHO Regional Office for Europe has recently initiated the process of the elaboration of new guiding principles known as "WHO Environmental Noise Guidelines for the European Region". The Guidelines will include a systematic review of most critical or important health consequences and also concentrate on health benefits of measures for the reducing noise levels. The Guidelines will consider noise coming from various noise sources such as aircraft, railroad, personal electronic devices and wind turbines. The Guidelines will also consider the particularity of such accommodations as residences, hospitals, and educational facilities. The work in the mentioned spheres is ongoing and the revised Guidelines are expected to be published in mid-2015. The Guidelines will provide up-to-date information on the health risks related to the environmental noise and evidence-based recommendations in order to support for WHO Member States in their efforts to prevent of the excessive noise and the struggle with their negative impact.

  13. The EU legislation on "GMOs" between nonsense and protectionism: An ongoing Schumpeterian chain of public choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliabue, Giovanni

    2017-01-02

    The EU regulation of agricultural biotechnology is botched and convoluted: the pseudo-concept of "Genetically Modified Organisms" has no coherent semantic or scientific content. The reasons of the paradox by which the cultivation of "GMOs" is substantially banned in Europe, while enormous quantities of recombinant-DNA cereals and legumes are imported to be used as feedstuff, are explained. The Directive 2015/412, giving Member states the choice to refuse the cultivation of genetically engineered crops at a national or local level, paves the way for a mosaic-like, Harlequinesque form of protectionism: nothing resembling a well-regulated free market. In the meantime, importation of "GMO" feed goes on at full speed all over Europe. A proposal by the Commission to adjust the rules on importation according to those for cultivation has been rejected by the Parliament.This dynamics may be seen as an ongoing "Schumpeterian" chain of public choices: the calculus of consent drives politicians more than a science-based approach to law-making.  The EU should restart from scratch with the right concept, i.e. the careful examination of the pros and cons, the costs and benefits of each new agricultural product ("GMO" or otherwise), freely cultivated and/or imported, assessed case by case, at last acknowledging that the biotech processes used to create new varieties are of no practical or legal relevance. In doing so, the EU would pursue its stated "better regulation" approach, cancelling any sectoral and sectarian regulation.

  14. Local cattle movements in response to ongoing bovine tuberculosis zonation and regulations in Michigan, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grear, Daniel A; Kaneene, John B; Averill, James J; Webb, Colleen T

    2014-06-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) is an ongoing management issue in the state of Michigan with eradication from livestock as the ultimate goal. Eradication has been a challenge owing to the presence of a wildlife reservoir; competing interests in managing the livestock and wildlife hosts; and many uncertainties in transmission dynamics of M. bovis. One of the cornerstones of the eradication effort has been to stop movement of infected cattle among farms by imposing strict pre-movement testing on cattle being moved within, into and out of the Modified Accredited Zone (MAZ) in northeastern Michigan. In addition to pre-movement tuberculosis testing, detailed information about the origin and destination premises of all movements within the MAZ has been recorded in Michigan. The aim of this study was to describe the farm-to-farm movements of cattle within the MAZ, report changes in the network of movements during a 6-year period when the MAZ was a constant size (2004-2009), and examine changes in cattle movement patterns when the MAZ was reduced from 11 to 5 counties in 2010. Non-slaughter cattle movement within the MAZ was characterized by predominantly local movements at a sub-county scale. Premises that shipped cattle were primarily senders or receivers, but rarely both. From 2004 to 2009, the number of cattle shipped, size of shipments, number of shipments and distance of shipments decreased; there was little change in the network patterns of interaction among individual premises; and interactions among all premises became more disconnected. After accounting for MAZ size, there were also no changes in cattle movement network patterns following the reduction of the MAZ in 2010. The movement of cattle was likely not a key risk factor in bTB spread among premises in the MAZ during the study period and the effect of zonation and movement regulations appeared to further reduce the risk of tuberculosis spread via cattle movements among farms in Michigan's MAZ.

  15. EDUSEIS Project : an On-Going Education and Adwardness Experiment in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virieux, J.; Zollo, A.; Bérenguer, J.; Picq, T.; Bobbio, A.

    2002-12-01

    Education and awardness on sciences and on natural phenomena is a concern of both researchers teachers with many social issues. A well-defined frame is critical for interaction and collaboration and should be illustrated on key examples. Observing and analysing seismic data is one of these examples because earthquakes with strong implications in our industrial society attract young people and because different area around the world may share observations, informations and activities concerning earthquakes both local if there is any and global if they are strong enough. In order to focus on doing science and on analysing data, one has to reduce efforts for collecting data (if not hiding it) while having them measuring the same physical quantities and in a format readable by different available softwares. We shall illustrate solutions we have developped in an interaction between colleges and laboratories with different specific cultural approaches of European countries. Activities ranging from metrology to interpretation and presentation should improve scientific behaviour of students as well as increase their understanding of the Earth. We shall illustrate through the diversity of European initiatives that we share common objectives. Systematic use of new technologies for collecting numbers (measurements) and for crunching them (interpretation) will retain the attention of the students and will hopefully attrack them to Sciences related to the Earth. In the present on-going process, we shall show the necessity for an European organisation and support inside the more global international interaction. Such initiatives focus on scientific training of people for making more award citizens of our society.

  16. Large-scale recovery of an endangered amphibian despite ongoing exposure to multiple stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Roland A.; Fellers, Gary M.; Kleeman, Patrick M.; Miller, David A. W.; Rosenblum, Erica Bree; Briggs, Cheryl J.

    2016-01-01

    Amphibians are one of the most threatened animal groups, with 32% of species at risk for extinction. Given this imperiled status, is the disappearance of a large fraction of the Earth’s amphibians inevitable, or are some declining species more resilient than is generally assumed? We address this question in a species that is emblematic of many declining amphibians, the endangered Sierra Nevada yellow-legged frog (Rana sierrae). Based on >7,000 frog surveys conducted across Yosemite National Park over a 20-y period, we show that, after decades of decline and despite ongoing exposure to multiple stressors, including introduced fish, the recently emerged disease chytridiomycosis, and pesticides, R. sierrae abundance increased sevenfold during the study and at a rate of 11% per year. These increases occurred in hundreds of populations throughout Yosemite, providing a rare example of amphibian recovery at an ecologically relevant spatial scale. Results from a laboratory experiment indicate that these increases may be in part because of reduced frog susceptibility to chytridiomycosis. The disappearance of nonnative fish from numerous water bodies after cessation of stocking also contributed to the recovery. The large-scale increases in R. sierrae abundance that we document suggest that, when habitats are relatively intact and stressors are reduced in their importance by active management or species’ adaptive responses, declines of some amphibians may be partially reversible, at least at a regional scale. Other studies conducted over similarly large temporal and spatial scales are critically needed to provide insight and generality about the reversibility of amphibian declines at a global scale. PMID:27698128

  17. A Widespread, Clumpy Starburst in the Isolated Ongoing Dwarf Galaxy Merger dm1647+21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privon, G. C.; Stierwalt, S.; Patton, D. R.; Besla, G.; Pearson, S.; Putman, M.; Johnson, K. E.; Kallivayalil, N.; Liss, S.; Titans, TiNy

    2017-09-01

    Interactions between pairs of isolated dwarf galaxies provide a critical window into low-mass hierarchical, gas-dominated galaxy assembly and the build-up of stellar mass in low-metallicity systems. We present the first Very Large Telescope/Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (VLT/MUSE) optical integral field unit (IFU) observations of the interacting dwarf pair dm1647+21 selected from the TiNy Titans survey. The Hα emission is widespread and corresponds to a total unobscured star formation rate (SFR) of 0.44 M ⊙ yr‑1, which is 2.7 times higher than the SFR inferred from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data. The implied specific SFR (sSFR) for the system is elevated by more than an order of magnitude above non-interacting dwarfs in the same mass range. This increase is dominated by the lower-mass galaxy, which has a sSFR enhancement of >50. Examining the spatially resolved maps of classic optical line diagnostics, we find that the interstellar medium (ISM) excitation can be fully explained by star formation. The velocity field of the ionized gas is not consistent with simple rotation. Dynamical simulations indicate that the irregular velocity field and the stellar structure is consistent with the identification of this system as an ongoing interaction between two dwarf galaxies. The widespread, clumpy enhancements in the star formation in this system point to important differences in the effect of mergers on dwarf galaxies, compared to massive galaxies; rather than the funneling of gas to the nucleus and giving rise to a nuclear starburst, starbursts in low-mass galaxy mergers may be triggered by large-scale ISM compression, and thus may be more distributed.

  18. Past and ongoing shifts in Joshua tree distribution support future modeled range contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Kenneth L.; Ironside, Kirsten; Eischeid, Jon K.; Garfin, Gregg; Duffy, Phil; Toney, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The future distribution of the Joshua tree (Yucca brevifolia) is projected by combining a geostatistical analysis of 20th-century climates over its current range, future modeled climates, and paleoecological data showing its response to a past similar climate change. As climate rapidly warmed ;11 700 years ago, the range of Joshua tree contracted, leaving only the populations near what had been its northernmost limit. Its ability to spread northward into new suitable habitats after this time may have been inhibited by the somewhat earlier extinction of megafaunal dispersers, especially the Shasta ground sloth. We applied a model of climate suitability for Joshua tree, developed from its 20th-century range and climates, to future climates modeled through a set of six individual general circulation models (GCM) and one suite of 22 models for the late 21st century. All distribution data, observed climate data, and future GCM results were scaled to spatial grids of ;1 km and ;4 km in order to facilitate application within this topographically complex region. All of the models project the future elimination of Joshua tree throughout most of the southern portions of its current range. Although estimates of future monthly precipitation differ between the models, these changes are outweighed by large increases in temperature common to all the models. Only a few populations within the current range are predicted to be sustainable. Several models project significant potential future expansion into new areas beyond the current range, but the species' Historical and current rates of dispersal would seem to prevent natural expansion into these new areas. Several areas are predicted to be potential sites for relocation/ assisted migration. This project demonstrates how information from paleoecology and modern ecology can be integrated in order to understand ongoing processes and future distributions.

  19. Clinical characteristics of persistent ectopic pregnancy after salpingostomy and influence on ongoing pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongli; Chen, Jinhong; Lu, Wen; Li, Bilan; Du, Guiqiang; Wan, Xiaoping

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assay the clinical characteristics of persistent ectopic pregnancy (PEP) and its influence on ongoing pregnancy. We retrospectively reviewed 2498 patients who received salpingostomies as primary management for ectopic pregnancies from January 2004 to December 2009, using medical records and telephone inquiries. Clinical characteristics of the 52 patients (2.08%) who were diagnosed with PEP after salpingostomy were compared with those who received satisfactory treatment. The odds ratios and 95% confidential intervals were calculated for each variable by univariate and (for significantly different factors) multivariate analysis. Preoperatively, patients with PEP after salpingostomy significantly differed from the non-PEP patients in gestational age, mass size and pelvic adhesiolysis. Serum β-human chorionic gonadotropin levels in PEP patients were monitored after surgery, which had declined by 28.31% on postoperative day (POD) 4, 40.22% on POD 7, 51.46% on POD 10 and 53.43% on POD 21. Repeat ectopic pregnancy (REP) tended to occur more frequently in PEP patients (PEP: 5 cases, 10.20%; non-PEP: 4 cases, 2.80%; P = 0.034). Multivariate analysis showed that pelvic adhesions and PEP were the strongest independent predictors of REP. Gestational age, mass size and pelvic adhesions were significantly correlated with PEP. PEP was an independent prognostic factor for REP. However, a multicenter study is needed to support and extend our findings. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  20. Relation of ongoing deformation rates to the subduction zone process in southern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauber, Jeanne; McClusky, Simon; King, Robert

    1997-11-01

    The rate and orientation of ongoing strain associated with subduction of the Pacific plate and the accretion of the Yakutat terrane to southern Alaska has been estimated at 13 sites from Global Positioning System measurements made in June 1993 and 1995. Along the Gulf of Alaska coast near Cape Yakataga, the average rate of deformation, relative to Fairbanks, was ≈38 mm/yr at N32°W. Further inland, above the region where the dip of the downgoing Pacific plate changes from about 10° to >30°, the deformation rate was ≈12mm/yr at N26°W. In the Sourdough/Paxson area, the deformation rate drops to 2-5 mm/yr and suggests a low short-term deformation rate across the Denali fault. Elastic straining of the overriding plate due to back-slip on a main thrust zone with an average dip of about 10° can account for the overall rate and distribution of short-term compressional strain across south central Alaska. Above the transitional region between unstable and stable sliding we suggest that strain associated with ≈15 mm/yr of right-lateral strike-slip occurs also. If the strain accumulated since the two 1899 earthquakes (both MW=8.1) from the offshore Pamplona fault zone to south of the Border Ranges fault (down-dip width ≈100 km) was seismically released on a single fault it would correspond to a M=8.1 earthquake.

  1. Living on the edge: timing of Rand Flora disjunctions congruent with ongoing aridification in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorny, Lisa; Riina, Ricarda; Mairal, Mario; Meseguer, Andrea S; Culshaw, Victoria; Cendoya, Jon; Serrano, Miguel; Carbajal, Rodrigo; Ortiz, Santiago; Heuertz, Myriam; Sanmartín, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    The Rand Flora is a well-known floristic pattern in which unrelated plant lineages show similar disjunct distributions in the continental margins of Africa and adjacent islands-Macaronesia-northwest Africa, Horn of Africa-Southern Arabia, Eastern Africa, and Southern Africa. These lineages are now separated by environmental barriers such as the arid regions of the Sahara and Kalahari Deserts or the tropical lowlands of Central Africa. Alternative explanations for the Rand Flora pattern range from vicariance and climate-driven extinction of a widespread pan-African flora to independent dispersal events and speciation in situ. To provide a temporal framework for this pattern, we used published data from nuclear and chloroplast DNA to estimate the age of disjunction of 17 lineages that span 12 families and nine orders of angiosperms. We further used these estimates to infer diversification rates for Rand Flora disjunct clades in relation to their higher-level encompassing lineages. Our results indicate that most disjunctions fall within the Miocene and Pliocene periods, coinciding with the onset of a major aridification trend, still ongoing, in Africa. Age of disjunctions seemed to be related to the climatic affinities of each Rand Flora lineage, with sub-humid taxa dated earlier (e.g., Sideroxylon) and those with more xeric affinities (e.g., Campylanthus) diverging later. We did not find support for significant decreases in diversification rates in most groups, with the exception of older subtropical lineages (e.g., Sideroxylon, Hypericum, or Canarina), but some lineages (e.g., Cicer, Campylanthus) showed a long temporal gap between stem and crown ages, suggestive of extinction. In all, the Rand Flora pattern seems to fit the definition of biogeographic pseudocongruence, with the pattern arising at different times in response to the increasing aridity of the African continent, with interspersed periods of humidity allowing range expansions.

  2. Geocomputation over Hybrid Computer Architecture and Systems: Prior Works and On-going Initiatives at UARK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, X.

    2015-12-01

    infrastructure remains unexplored in this domain. Within this presentation, our prior and on-going initiatives will be summarized to exemplify how we exploit multicore CPUs, GPUs, and MICs, and clusters of CPUs, GPUs and MICs, to accelerate geocomputation in different applications.

  3. Continuous Reinforced Concrete Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoang, Cao Linh; Nielsen, Mogens Peter

    1996-01-01

    This report deals with stress and stiffness estimates of continuous reinforced concrete beams with different stiffnesses for negative and positive moments e.g. corresponding to different reinforcement areas in top and bottom. Such conditions are often met in practice.The moment distribution...

  4. Continuous Personal Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emiliani, M. L.

    1998-01-01

    Suggests that continuous improvement tools used in the workplace can be applied to self-improvement. Explains the use of such techniques as one-piece flow, kanban, visual controls, and total productive maintenance. Points out misapplications of these tools and describes the use of fishbone diagrams to diagnose problems. (SK)

  5. Reparametrizations of Continuous Paths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahrenberg, Uli; Raussen, Martin

    2007-01-01

    compare it to the distributive lattice of countable subsets of the unit interval. The results obtained are used to analyse the space of traces in a topological space, i.e., the space of continuous paths up to reparametrization equivalence. This space is shown to be homeomorphic to the space of regular...

  6. Promoting Continuing Education Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Gayle A.

    This handbook is intended for use by institutions in marketing their continuing education programs. A section on "Devising Your Strategy" looks at identifying a target audience, determining the marketing approach, and developing a marketing plan and promotional techniques. A discussion of media options looks at the advantages and…

  7. Continuous venovenous haemodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bistrup, C; Pedersen, R S; Jensen, Dorte Møller

    1996-01-01

    . Standard solutions for peritoneal dialysis are administered in a single-pass manner countercurrent to the blood flow. To control the dialysate flow through the filter, two separate pumps designed for intravenous infusion are used. Anticoagulation is achieved by means of continuous heparin infusion...

  8. Continuing professional development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collin, K.; Heijden, van der B.I.J.M.; Lewis, P.

    2012-01-01

    Continuing professional development (CPD), when provided formally, is something that is easy to recognize but perhaps rather more difficult to define. Theoretical and empirical controversy surrounds the scope and understanding of the concept. Definition is made more elusive by the different conceptu

  9. Continuous Personal Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emiliani, M. L.

    1998-01-01

    Suggests that continuous improvement tools used in the workplace can be applied to self-improvement. Explains the use of such techniques as one-piece flow, kanban, visual controls, and total productive maintenance. Points out misapplications of these tools and describes the use of fishbone diagrams to diagnose problems. (SK)

  10. A Preliminary Introduction to the OTAM: Exploring Users’ Perceptions of their on-going Interaction with Adopted Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirlee-ann Knight

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A common criticism directed at Davis’ (1986; 1989 Technology Acceptance Model relates to its failure to adequately frame the “experienced” user’s ongoing adoption and exploitation of information technologies. Given the pervasive nature of technology into individual users’ ongoing, everyday communication and information interactions, along with the “new adopter” becoming an increasingly rare entity, the TAM is in danger of becoming a somewhat obsolete framework for investigating user-technology interaction. Presented is a critical analysis of the development and current state of the TAM, followed by a proposed addition to the existing Perceived Usefulness (PU and Perceived Ease of Use (PEoU TAM constructs. The paper contends that the inclusion of a Perception of Interaction (PoI construct allows researchers to develop an investigative framework which facilitates an exploration of users’ ongoing perceptions of the predictability of their technology interaction processes.

  11. Development of practice principles for the management of ongoing suicidal ideation in young people diagnosed with major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon M Rice

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: There is a lack of clear guidance regarding the management of ongoing suicidality in young people experiencing major depressive disorder. This study utilised an expert consensus approach in identifying practice principles to complement relevant clinical guidelines for the treatment of major depressive disorder in young people. The study also sought to outline a broad treatment framework for clinical intervention with young people experiencing ongoing suicidal ideation. Methods: In-depth focus groups were undertaken with a specialist multidisciplinary clinical team (the Youth Mood Clinic at Orygen Youth Health Clinical Program, Melbourne working with young people aged 15–25 years experiencing ongoing suicidal ideation. Each focus group was audio recorded and transcribed verbatim using orthographic conventions. Principles of grounded theory and thematic analysis were used to analyse and code the resultant data. Results: The identified codes were subsequently synthesised into eight practice principles reflecting engagement and consistency of care, ongoing risk assessment and documentation, individualised crisis planning, engaging systems of support, engendering hopefulness, development of adaptive coping, management of acute risk, and consultation and supervision. Conclusions: The identified practice principles provide a broad management framework, and may assist to improve treatment consistency and clinical management of young people experiencing ongoing suicidal ideation. The practice principles may be of use to health professionals working within a team-based setting involved in the provision of care, even if peripherally, to young people with ongoing suicidal ideation. Findings address the lack of treatment consistency and shared terminology and may provide containment and guidance to multidisciplinary clinicians working with this at-risk group.

  12. Concern and death anxiety during an ongoing terror wave: The moderating role of direct vs. indirect exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahat-Shamir, Michal; Hamama-Raz, Yaira; Ben-Ezra, Menachem; Pitcho-Prelorentzos, Shani; Zaken, Adi; David, Udi Y; Bergman, Yoav S

    2017-05-25

    The current study examined whether emotional concern over one's security situation is connected with death anxiety during an ongoing terror wave, and whether type of exposure (media exposure vs. contact with witnesses) moderates this connection. A total of 345 individuals, aged 18-70, were sampled during an ongoing wave of terror in Israel and filled out scales measuring death anxiety, concern over security situation, and type of exposure. Results indicated that increased concern was connected with enhanced death anxiety. Moreover, this connection was more pronounced among individuals exposed to the events through the media, in comparison with individuals who had first-hand contact with witnesses.

  13. Update: Ongoing Zika Virus Transmission - Puerto Rico, November 1, 2015-July 7, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Laura; Bello-Pagan, Melissa; Lozier, Matthew; Ryff, Kyle R; Espinet, Carla; Torres, Jomil; Perez-Padilla, Janice; Febo, Mitchelle Flores; Dirlikov, Emilio; Martinez, Alma; Munoz-Jordan, Jorge; Garcia, Myriam; Segarra, Marangely Olivero; Malave, Graciela; Rivera, Aidsa; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie; Rosinger, Asher; Kuehnert, Matthew J; Chung, Koo-Whang; Pate, Lisa L; Harris, Angela; Hemme, Ryan R; Lenhart, Audrey; Aquino, Gustavo; Zaki, Sherif; Read, Jennifer S; Waterman, Stephen H; Alvarado, Luisa I; Alvarado-Ramy, Francisco; Valencia-Prado, Miguel; Thomas, Dana; Sharp, Tyler M; Rivera-Garcia, Brenda

    2016-08-05

    Zika virus is a flavivirus transmitted primarily by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes, and infection can be asymptomatic or result in an acute febrile illness with rash (1). Zika virus infection during pregnancy is a cause of microcephaly and other severe birth defects (2). Infection has also been associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) (3) and severe thrombocytopenia (4,5). In December 2015, the Puerto Rico Department of Health (PRDH) reported the first locally acquired case of Zika virus infection. This report provides an update to the epidemiology of and public health response to ongoing Zika virus transmission in Puerto Rico (6,7). A confirmed case of Zika virus infection is defined as a positive result for Zika virus testing by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for Zika virus in a blood or urine specimen. A presumptive case is defined as a positive result by Zika virus immunoglobulin M (IgM) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAC-ELISA)* and a negative result by dengue virus IgM ELISA, or a positive test result by Zika IgM MAC-ELISA in a pregnant woman. An unspecified flavivirus case is defined as positive or equivocal results for both Zika and dengue virus by IgM ELISA. During November 1, 2015-July 7, 2016, a total of 23,487 persons were evaluated by PRDH and CDC Dengue Branch for Zika virus infection, including asymptomatic pregnant women and persons with signs or symptoms consistent with Zika virus disease or suspected GBS; 5,582 (24%) confirmed and presumptive Zika virus cases were identified. Persons with Zika virus infection were residents of 77 (99%) of Puerto Rico's 78 municipalities. During 2016, the percentage of positive Zika virus infection cases among symptomatic males and nonpregnant females who were tested increased from 14% in February to 64% in June. Among 9,343 pregnant women tested, 672 had confirmed or presumptive Zika virus infection, including 441 (66%) symptomatic women and 231 (34%) asymptomatic

  14. The Aftershock Risk Index - quantification of aftershock impacts during ongoing strong-seismic sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Andreas; Daniell, James; Khazai, Bijan; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2016-04-01

    The occurrence and impact of strong earthquakes often triggers the long-lasting impact of a seismic sequence. Strong earthquakes are generally followed by many aftershocks or even strong subsequently triggered ruptures. The Nepal 2015 earthquake sequence is one of the most recent examples where aftershocks significantly contributed to human and economic losses. In addition, rumours about upcoming mega-earthquakes, false predictions and on-going cycles of aftershocks induced a psychological burden on the society, which caused panic, additional casualties and prevented people from returning to normal life. This study shows the current phase of development of an operationalised aftershock intensity index, which will contribute to the mitigation of aftershock hazard. Hereby, various methods of earthquake forecasting and seismic risk assessments are utilised and an integration of the inherent aftershock intensity is performed. A spatio-temporal analysis of past earthquake clustering provides first-hand data about the nature of aftershock occurrence. Epidemic methods can additionally provide time-dependent variation indices of the cascading effects of aftershock generation. The aftershock hazard is often combined with the potential for significant losses through the vulnerability of structural systems and population. A historical database of aftershock socioeconomic effects from CATDAT has been used in order to calibrate the index based on observed impacts of historical events and their aftershocks. In addition, analytical analysis of cyclic behaviour and fragility functions of various building typologies are explored. The integration of many different probabilistic computation methods will provide a combined index parameter which can then be transformed into an easy-to-read spatio-temporal intensity index. The index provides daily updated information about the probability of the inherent seismic risk of aftershocks by providing a scalable scheme fordifferent aftershock

  15. On-going scientific and development projects involving rare-isotope beams at ATLAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Benjamin

    2016-09-01

    The ATLAS Facility, located at Argonne National Laboratory, provides both radioactive and stable ion beams at energies around the Coulomb barrier (Uranium, the facility also holds the capability to produce radioactive beams using the two-accelerator method, an in-flight production facility, or through the collection of spontaneous fission fragments at the CARIBU facility. The in-flight technique, in particular, is utilized to produce short-lived beams that are typically one to two-nucleons away from stability, and lighter than mass 40. The CARIBU facility, however, provides access to very neutron-rich isotopes, ranging from the vicinity of doubly-magic 132Sn, to regions of large deformation near A 150 . CARIBU beams are available in both stopped and re-accelerated fashions, and therefore, measurement techniques involving trapping or stopping of the ions, as well as reactions requiring beam energies at or beyond the Coulomb barrier, are possible. In this presentation, highlights from various scientific results which have hinged on radioactive beams produced at ATLAS are to be shown. Also, introductions to, and descriptions of, the on-going technical initiatives aimed at enhancing the radioactive ion-beam production at ATLAS will be given. Finally, exciting future avenues for rare-isotope research, made possible because of the new initiative, is to be discussed. For example, installation of an electron beam ion source (EBIS) has recently been completed to increase both the purity and intensities of re-accelerated CARIBU beams. In addition, expansion of the isotopes produced in-flight, both mass and isospin, is going to occur with the construction of a dedicated separator, AIRIS. AIRIS is designed to highly suppress the intense un-reacted primary beam ( 1 p μA), while still providing generous transport of the radioactive in-flight beams to nearly all experimental stations. Finally, in an attempt to reach tera incognita below 208Pb, development of a modified gas

  16. Observed response of vulnerable forest ecosystems to ongoing site condition changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidló, András; Gulyás, Krisztina; Gálos, Borbála; Horváth, Adrienn

    2017-04-01

    the existing forest stands are still a knowledge gap and the topic of the ongoing research. The research is supported by the "Agroclimate-2" (VKSZ_12-1-2013-0034) joint EU-national research project and by the ÚNKP-16-4-3 New National Excellence Program of the Ministry of Human Capacities. Keywords: climate extremes, changing site conditions, water stress

  17. Continuous coal processing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryason, P. R.

    1980-06-01

    A coal pump is provided in which solid coal is heated in the barrel of an extruder under pressure to a temperature at which the coal assumes plastic properties. The coal is continuously extruded, without static zones, using, for example, screw extrusion preferably without venting through a reduced diameter die to form a dispersed spray. As a result, the dispersed coal may be continuously injected into vessels or combustors at any pressure up to the maximum pressure developed in the extrusion device. The coal may be premixed with other materials such as desulfurization aids or reducible metal ores so that reactions occur, during or after conversion to its plastic state. Alternatively, the coal may be processed and caused to react after extrusion, through the die, with, for example, liquid oxidizers, whereby a coal reactor is provided.

  18. Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-09-01

    Fiber-reinforced ceramic composites demonstrate the high-temperature stability of ceramics--with an increased fracture toughness resulting from the fiber reinforcement of the composite. The material optimization performed under the continuous fiber ceramic composites (CFCC) included a series of systematic optimizations. The overall goals were to define the processing window, to increase the robustinous of the process, to increase process yield while reducing costs, and to define the complexity of parts that could be fabricated.

  19. Safety Campaign Continues

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    If you see this poster, stop and read it! This is the third poster produced by TIS Division as part of its information campaign on health and safety in the workplace. It provides statistics on occupational accidents at CERN. You will see that, as in the rest of Europe, falls, slips and trips continue to be the main cause of accident. So, eyes open and take care! For more information : http://safety.cern.ch/

  20. Health care-associated infection reporting: the need for ongoing reliability and validity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perla, Rocco J; Peden, Carol J; Goldmann, Donald; Lloyd, Robert

    2009-10-01

    Government-mandated reporting of health care-associated infections (HAIs) and new reimbursement regulations place a premium on accurate and reliable detection of HAIs. This commentary addresses the challenges and opportunities of having consistent, well-defined, and continuous methods in place to ensure the reliability and validity of HAI detection and reporting. In addition, such procedures could support the development and expertise of infection preventionists. A Web-based clinical vignette model is suggested for improving HAI reporting for hospitals participating in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Healthcare Safety Network.

  1. Pluto confidential an insider account of the ongoing battles over the status of Pluto

    CERN Document Server

    Maran, Stephen P

    2009-01-01

    When the International Astronomical Union (IAU) adopted a new definition of a ""planet"" in August 2006, Pluto became a dwarf planet, drawing a divisive line in science and public opinions. The controversy of whether Pluto is a planet continues years later, and passion about the decision remains, pitting scientist against scientist and invoking sentiments and nostalgia from the rest of the world.With the IAU definition, the future of space objects is forever changed. Learn how this resolution came to be and what it means for astronomy, who implemented it and who is against it, and

  2. Trajectories of Resilience, Resistance, and Distress during Ongoing Terrorism: The Case of Jews and Arabs in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobfoll, Stevan E.; Palmieri, Patrick A.; Johnson, Robert J.; Canetti-Nisim, Daphna; Hall, Brian J.; Galea, Sandro

    2009-01-01

    This is the 1st longitudinal examination of trajectories of resilience and resistance (rather than ill-being) among a national sample under ongoing threat of mass casualty. The authors interviewed a nationally representative sample of Jews and Arabs in Israel (N = 709) at 2 times during a period of terrorist and rocket attacks (2004?2005). The…

  3. The efficacy of psychosocial interventions for adults in contexts of ongoing man-made violence - A systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleber, Rolf; de Jong, K; Knipscheer, Jeroen; Ford, N.

    2014-01-01

    Compared to psychosocial programs implemented in post-conflict settings those executed in areas of ongoing conflicts may have different effects. Their evidence of efficacy has never been systematically reviewed. We searched PubMed, PsychInfo and the Dutch Tropical Institute Literature Portal from

  4. Pre-impact forest composition and ongoing tree mortality associated with sudden oak death in the Big Sur region; California

    Science.gov (United States)

    F.W. Davis; M.I. Borchert,; R.K. Meentemeyer; A. Flint; D.M. Rizzo

    2010-01-01

    Mixed-evergreen forests of central coastal California are being severely impacted by the recently introduced plant pathogen, Phytophthora ramorum. We collected forest plot data using a multi-scale sampling design to characterize pre-infestation forest composition and ongoing tree mortality along environmental and time-since-fire gradients. Vegetation pattern was...

  5. Preparation and Ongoing Support for Early Childhood Instructional Coaches: A Case Study Exploration of an Instructional Coaching Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard Agnamba, Lindsey Tara

    2012-01-01

    This study gathers current information about the preparation and ongoing support of instructional coaches who provide professional development to early childhood educators. The case study of one large, urban District early childhood instructional coaching program will be explored with two objectives: to identify strengths and areas of need in the…

  6. A Successful Approach to Improving High School Mathematics Education: COME ON (California's Outstanding Math Educators' Ongoing Network)

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. John, Mark; Heenan, Barbara; Tambe, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    The California's Outstanding Math Educators' Ongoing Network (COME ON) initiative is a unique and innovative effort to support high school mathematics teachers in California. It serves as a living example of a successful model that addresses an issue critical to all of mathematics education K-18--how to sustain and strengthen those most directly…

  7. The MOOC and Learning Analytics Innovation Cycle (MOLAC): A Reflective Summary of Ongoing Research and Its Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drachsler, H.; Kalz, M.

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with the interplay between learning analytics and massive open online courses (MOOCs) and provides a conceptual framework to situate ongoing research in the MOOC and learning analytics innovation cycle (MOLAC framework). The MOLAC framework is organized on three levels: On the micro-level, the data collection and analytics…

  8. The efficacy of psychosocial interventions for adults in contexts of ongoing man-made violence - A systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleber, Rolf; de Jong, K; Knipscheer, Jeroen; Ford, N.

    2014-01-01

    Compared to psychosocial programs implemented in post-conflict settings those executed in areas of ongoing conflicts may have different effects. Their evidence of efficacy has never been systematically reviewed. We searched PubMed, PsychInfo and the Dutch Tropical Institute Literature Portal from in

  9. Continuous brightening of IGR J17473-2721

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldovin Saavedra, C.; Chenevez, Jérôme; Kuulkers, E.

    2008-01-01

    Renewed accretion activity has been reported by Swift/XRT (ATel #1459), XTE/PCA (ATel #1460) and INTEGRAL/IBIS/ISGRI (ATel #1461) from the RXTE transient IGR J17473-2721 (= XTE J1747-274; ATels #467, #498) after the detection of an X-ray burst by SuperAGILE (ATel #1445). From the on-going Galacti...... bulge monitoring program (see ATels #1385, #1461) we report that the transient continues to brighten as seen with IBIS/ISGRI and JEM-X.......Renewed accretion activity has been reported by Swift/XRT (ATel #1459), XTE/PCA (ATel #1460) and INTEGRAL/IBIS/ISGRI (ATel #1461) from the RXTE transient IGR J17473-2721 (= XTE J1747-274; ATels #467, #498) after the detection of an X-ray burst by SuperAGILE (ATel #1445). From the on-going Galactic...

  10. Central Sensitization and Neuropathic Features of Ongoing Pain in a Rat Model of Advanced Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havelin, Joshua; Imbert, Ian; Cormier, Jennifer; Allen, Joshua; Porreca, Frank; King, Tamara

    2016-03-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) pain is most commonly characterized by movement-triggered joint pain. However, in advanced disease, OA pain becomes persistent, ongoing and resistant to treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The mechanisms underlying ongoing pain in advanced OA are poorly understood. We recently showed that intra-articular (i.a.) injection of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) into the rat knee joint produces concentration-dependent outcomes. Thus, a low dose of i.a. MIA produces NSAID-sensitive weight asymmetry without evidence of ongoing pain and a high i.a. MIA dose produces weight asymmetry and NSAID-resistant ongoing pain. In the present study, palpation of the ipsilateral hind limb of rats treated 14 days previously with high, but not low, doses of i.a. MIA produced expression of the early oncogene, FOS, in the spinal dorsal horn. Inactivation of descending pain facilitatory pathways using a microinjection of lidocaine within the rostral ventromedial medulla induced conditioned place preference selectively in rats treated with the high dose of MIA. Conditioned place preference to intra-articular lidocaine was blocked by pretreatment with duloxetine (30 mg/kg, intraperitoneally at -30 minutes). These observations are consistent with the likelihood of a neuropathic component of OA that elicits ongoing, NSAID-resistant pain and central sensitization that is mediated, in part, by descending modulatory mechanisms. This model provides a basis for exploration of underlying mechanisms promoting neuropathic components of OA pain and for the identification of mechanisms that might guide drug discovery for treatment of advanced OA pain without the need for joint replacement. Difficulty in managing advanced OA pain often results in joint replacement therapy in these patients. Improved understanding of mechanisms driving NSAID-resistant ongoing OA pain might facilitate development of alternatives to joint replacement therapy. Our findings suggest

  11. Broad-band spectroscopy of the ongoing large eruption of the luminous blue variable R71

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehner, A.; Baade, D.; Rivinius, T.; Lennon, D. J.; Martayan, C.; Stahl, O.; Štefl, S.

    2013-07-01

    Aims: The luminous blue variable (LBV) R71 is currently undergoing an eruption, which differs photometrically and spectroscopically from its last outburst in the 1970s. Valuable information on the physics of LBV eruptions can be gained by analyzing the spectral evolution during this eruption and by comparing R71's present appearance to its previous outburst and its quiescent state. Methods: An ongoing monitoring program with VLT/X-shooter will secure key spectral data ranging from visual to near-infrared wavelengths. Here we present the first spectra obtained in 2012 and compare them to archival VLT/UVES and MPG/ESO-2.2 m/FEROS spectra from 2002 to 2011. The discussed data include pre-eruption spectra in 2002 and 2005, a spectrum of the transitionary phase between quiescent and eruptive state in 2007, and spectra of the eruption in 2011-2012. Information on R71's 1970s outburst is taken from the literature. Results: The 2011-2012 spectra are dominated by strong neutral and singly ionized metal absorption lines likely formed in a large "pseudo-photosphere". We find an unusually low apparent temperature of R71 of only Teff,2012 ~ 6 650 K; the star resembles a late F supergiant. R71's visual lightcurve had a maximum in 2012 with mV,2012 ~ 8.7 mag. Given the uncertainty in the extinction toward R71, this corresponds to a bolometric luminosity of Mbol,2012 ~ - 9.8 mag to - 10.3 mag. R71's 2011-2012 spectra do not show H i and Fe ii P Cyg profiles, which were present during its last outburst in the 1970s and which are normally observed during LBV outbursts. Low-excitation forbidden emission lines and Fe i P Cyg-like profiles from a slowly expanding nebula became apparent in late 2012. These lines originate likely in the rarefied region above the pseudo-photosphere up to 13 AU from the star. Conclusions: The rise in R71's visual magnitude and the low apparent temperature of its pseudo-photosphere during the current eruption are unprecedented for this star. R71 most likely

  12. Continuous Integration in CFMGR

    CERN Document Server

    Frohlingsdorf, David

    2017-01-01

    Cfmgr is a managing tool for network devices. At the moment there is no way to automatically check the working behaviour of the tool, meaning that a lot of effort is spend into manually testing the tool after an update. During my stay at CERN I developed a black-box testing framework for Cfmgr according to Continuous Integration practices and successfully deployed the framework using Jenkins and Docker. This report discusses in detail how the framework works and how it can be configured, and equally gives a broad problem description and outlines future work directions.

  13. Ethanol by continuous fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    EtOH is produced by continuous fermentation of molasses. Thus, molasses diluted to 20/sup 0/ Brix was inoculated with bakers' yeast and fermented at 32/sup 0/. When the medium reached 4% EtOH, it was circulated through a centrifuge. The concentrated yeast was recycled to the fermentor and the supernatant was sent to a still. After distillation, the still residue was returned to the fermentor. When the initial charge was entirely fermented, 13 kg molasses of 40/sup 0/ Brix was added to the fermentor per hour, and the yield of EtOH was 1.7 kg/100 L-hour.

  14. Continuous Reinforced Concrete Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoang, Cao Linh; Nielsen, Mogens Peter

    1996-01-01

    This report deals with stress and stiffness estimates of continuous reinforced concrete beams with different stiffnesses for negative and positive moments e.g. corresponding to different reinforcement areas in top and bottom. Such conditions are often met in practice.The moment distribution...... at the limit state of serviceability is in some simple cases determined by setting up the statical and the compatibility conditions.With these moment distributions, the maximum deflection and the reinforcement stresses at the span middle and at a support are calculated.The results are compared with results...

  15. Continuous Shearlet Tight Frames

    KAUST Repository

    Grohs, Philipp

    2010-10-22

    Based on the shearlet transform we present a general construction of continuous tight frames for L2(ℝ2) from any sufficiently smooth function with anisotropic moments. This includes for example compactly supported systems, piecewise polynomial systems, or both. From our earlier results in Grohs (Technical report, KAUST, 2009) it follows that these systems enjoy the same desirable approximation properties for directional data as the previous bandlimited and very specific constructions due to Kutyniok and Labate (Trans. Am. Math. Soc. 361:2719-2754, 2009). We also show that the representation formulas we derive are in a sense optimal for the shearlet transform. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  16. Continuous system modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellier, Francois E.

    1991-01-01

    A comprehensive and systematic introduction is presented for the concepts associated with 'modeling', involving the transition from a physical system down to an abstract description of that system in the form of a set of differential and/or difference equations, and basing its treatment of modeling on the mathematics of dynamical systems. Attention is given to the principles of passive electrical circuit modeling, planar mechanical systems modeling, hierarchical modular modeling of continuous systems, and bond-graph modeling. Also discussed are modeling in equilibrium thermodynamics, population dynamics, and system dynamics, inductive reasoning, artificial neural networks, and automated model synthesis.

  17. Continuous steel production and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peaslee, Kent D.; Peter, Jorg J.; Robertson, David G. C.; Thomas, Brian G.; Zhang, Lifeng

    2009-11-17

    A process for continuous refining of steel via multiple distinct reaction vessels for melting, oxidation, reduction, and refining for delivery of steel continuously to, for example, a tundish of a continuous caster system, and associated apparatus.

  18. Continuously adjustable Pulfrich spectacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Ken; Karpf, Ron

    2011-03-01

    A number of Pulfrich 3-D movies and TV shows have been produced, but the standard implementation has inherent drawbacks. The movie and TV industries have correctly concluded that the standard Pulfrich 3-D implementation is not a useful 3-D technique. Continuously Adjustable Pulfrich Spectacles (CAPS) is a new implementation of the Pulfrich effect that allows any scene containing movement in a standard 2-D movie, which are most scenes, to be optionally viewed in 3-D using inexpensive viewing specs. Recent scientific results in the fields of human perception, optoelectronics, video compression and video format conversion are translated into a new implementation of Pulfrich 3- D. CAPS uses these results to continuously adjust to the movie so that the viewing spectacles always conform to the optical density that optimizes the Pulfrich stereoscopic illusion. CAPS instantly provides 3-D immersion to any moving scene in any 2-D movie. Without the glasses, the movie will appear as a normal 2-D image. CAPS work on any viewing device, and with any distribution medium. CAPS is appropriate for viewing Internet streamed movies in 3-D.

  19. Continuing medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, D

    1987-04-01

    With the rapid advances in medical science and increasing complexities of patient care, the need for continuing medical education (CME) is widely accepted by the profession. CME follows general and higher professional training, and should be a life long process. Teaching hospitals and postgraduate professional institutions play vital roles in organising, promoting, and monitoring this activity. CME directorates should be established. University authorities must recognise the important role of medical teachers in postgraduate and continuing medical education, and the staff establishment and terms of service should be held regularly. Medical libraries should have easy borrowing facilities. Self-assessment and audio-visual material are particularly helpful to the busy practitioner and inexpensive local or regional journals of quality can provide pertinent and up-to-date information. All charges for attending scientific meetings and educational material should be tax deductible or subsidized. The effectiveness of CME is difficult to assess and participation is almost impossible to enforce. Much depends on the standard of medical practice wanted by society. Recertification of general practitioners or specialists poses many problems. On the other hand, completion of self-assessment programmes, active participation at medical meetings, contributions to scientific literature, and membership of medical societies with built-in peer review could be monitored and regularly used to evaluate professional status.

  20. Landsat Data Continuity Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2012-01-01

    The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) is a partnership formed between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to place the next Landsat satellite in orbit in January 2013. The Landsat era that began in 1972 will become a nearly 41-year global land record with the successful launch and operation of the LDCM. The LDCM will continue the acquisition, archiving, and distribution of multispectral imagery affording global, synoptic, and repetitive coverage of the Earth's land surfaces at a scale where natural and human-induced changes can be detected, differentiated, characterized, and monitored over time. The mission objectives of the LDCM are to (1) collect and archive medium resolution (30-meter spatial resolution) multispectral image data affording seasonal coverage of the global landmasses for a period of no less than 5 years; (2) ensure that LDCM data are sufficiently consistent with data from the earlier Landsat missions in terms of acquisition geometry, calibration, coverage characteristics, spectral characteristics, output product quality, and data availability to permit studies of landcover and land-use change over time; and (3) distribute LDCM data products to the general public on a nondiscriminatory basis at no cost to the user.

  1. Enhancing Mass Lesion of the Sphenoid: Atypical Presentation of Ongoing Pneumatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Vallabhaneni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sinus pneumatization is a complex variable process that begins in early life and continues for many years. We present a case of a 6-year-old boy with progressive headaches and neurologic symptoms suggestive of intracranial pathology. The presence of enhancing tissue within the sphenoid sinus created a diagnostic dilemma which leads to a transsphenoidal biopsy. Knowledge of imaging characteristics associated with incomplete pneumatization can help differentiate it from more ominous skull base pathology and prevent unnecessary testing. We describe four-year imaging follow-up in a patient with incomplete pneumatization of the sphenoid sinus presenting as an enhancing mass lesion with subsequent follow-up imaging demonstrating gradual regression and increased aeration of the sphenoid sinus.

  2. Dental ethics case 6. Stalled payment for ongoing orthodontic treatment--balancing responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyal, L; Naidoo, S

    2010-10-01

    It is not always easy for an orthodontist to strike the right balance between a caring, supportive and patient-centered approach, and the need to make a living and to run a profitable business in order to achieve this. Striving to act ethically and professionally at all times will help find this elusive balance and ultimately it will be more rewarding and professionally satisfying. Especially when dealing with children whose lives may be dramatically affected by the interruption or cessation of treatment, orthodontists have a duty to reassure themselves about the financial stability of their contractual relationships with patients or parents. Having consistent financial policies and flexible payment options may assist in this regard. Even in the face of non-payment of fees, treatments that have begun must in some form continue if their cessation would compromise the best interests of patients.

  3. Current and Ongoing Internet Crime Tendencies and Techniques. Preventive Legislation Measures in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Postolache

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Internet crime techniques that pilfer from victims millions each year continue to plague the Internet through a range of methods. Trends and techniques identified by many organizations along with itsdescription are followed by preventative measures that will support you in being informed prior to entering into dealings and transactions over the Internet. Techniques as Auction Fraud, Counterfeit Cashier's Check, Credit Card Fraud, Debt Elimination, Parcel Courier Email Scheme, Employment/Business Opportunities,Escrow Services Fraud, Identity Theft, Internet Extortion, Investment Fraud, Lotteries, Nigerian Letter or "419", Phishing/Spoofing, Ponzi/Pyramid, Reshipping, Spam, Third Party Receiver of Funds are clarified in this paper and, also the internet crime prevention and legislative measures are treated, too.

  4. Beyond the Numbers: Data Use for Continuous Improvement of Programs Serving Disconnected Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Austin; Lerner, Jennifer Brown; Browning, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    This publication is a series of in-depth case studies to examine how three programs which serve a disconnected youth population are utilizing data as a tool for continuous program improvement and ongoing accountability. The report features the following programs: (1) Roca, an organization in Massachusetts which engages the highest-risk youth in…

  5. CBLIB 2014: a benchmark library for conic mixed-integer and continuous optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, Henrik Alsing

    2016-01-01

    The Conic Benchmark Library is an ongoing community-driven project aiming to challenge commercial and open source solvers on mainstream cone support. In this paper, 121 mixed-integer and continuous second-order cone problem instances have been selected from 11 categories as representative...

  6. Quasi-continuous magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sims, J.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Naumovich, G.J.; Hoang, T.A.; Dent, P.C. [Everson Electric Co., Bethlehem, PA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The National High Magnetic Field Laboratory is completing a quasi-continuous magnet which will sustain a constant field of 60 T for 100 ms in a 32-mm 77 K bore. This magnet consists of 9 mechanically independent, nested, liquid nitrogen-cooled coils which are individually reinforced by high-strength stainless steel outer shells. The coils were wound from rectangular large cross-section, high-strength, high-conductivity copper conductor insulated wtih polyimide and fiberglass tapes. After winding, the coils were inserted into closely fitted, stainless steel reinforcing shells and impregnated with epoxy resin. Design, analysis, material, fabrication and operational issues for this class of magnets are reviewed. Fabrication and quality assurance testing of the 60 T coil set are covered in detail. Future growth of and possible links from this technology to other magnet systems are discussed. Needed improvements in design, analysis, materials, and fabrication are outlined.

  7. [Continuous-infusion ketamine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, P G; Caggese, G; Di Fabio, A; Di Nino, G F; Cocchi, V

    1980-08-01

    An investigation was made of the employment of ketamin as the sole anaesthetic in general surgery, using continuous infusion of a 1% solution for both induction and maintenance in 118 cases. ECG was monitored and arterial pressure was measured invasively. Central venous pressure was also determined in 10 cases. Changes in serum enzyme values during and after surgery were examined in 35 patients. Blood samples were withdrawn before induction, after the return to consciousness, and 24 hr after the operation. Side-effects were common, but slight. Five patients suffered from nightmares, but these were persons with marked imaginative activity and a melancholic nature. Cardiocirculatory function was satisfactory. In particular, peripheral perfusion was excellent in all cases.

  8. Knowledge and Continuous Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boer, Harry; Caffyn, S.; Corso, M.

    1999-01-01

    proposes a model to describe and explain how companies can gain a substantive competitive advantage by extending their innovation efforts to other phases of the product life cycle and by facilitating knowledge transfer and learning both within the company and with other partner organisations. The model......Competition today is forcing companies to increase their effectiveness through exploiting synergy and learning in product innovation. Literature, however, is still mainly focused on how product development projects, seen largely as isolated efforts, should be organised and managed. This article...... is based on collaborative research by the authors, based on their involvement in the Euro-Australian co-operation project CIMA (Euro-Australian co-operation centre for Continuous Improvement and innovation MAnagement)....

  9. Spaces of continuous functions

    CERN Document Server

    Groenewegen, G L M

    2016-01-01

    The space C(X) of all continuous functions on a compact space X carries the structure of a normed vector space, an algebra and a lattice. On the one hand we study the relations between these structures and the topology of X, on the other hand we discuss a number of classical results according to which an algebra or a vector lattice can be represented as a C(X). Various applications of these theorems are given. Some attention is devoted to related theorems, e.g. the Stone Theorem for Boolean algebras and the Riesz Representation Theorem. The book is functional analytic in character. It does not presuppose much knowledge of functional analysis; it contains introductions into subjects such as the weak topology, vector lattices and (some) integration theory.

  10. Continuous Culture Microbioreactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäpper, Daniel

    . The advance of miniature online measuring techniques makes it possible to measure at least the basic culture variables such as dissolved oxygen (DO), cell density (OD) and pH continuously and without disturbing the cultivation. Online measurements are at this scale very susceptible to the presence of bubbles...... focus was put on the single-use aspect. This includes both being cheap in fabrication and in operation, and also requires the reactor to be sterilizable by industrial methods. It consists entirely of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and contains two optical sensor spots for the measurement of DO and p.......2 mm height. The reactor chamber is a cylinder with 8 mm diameter and 2 mm height resulting in a culture volume of 100 L. The uidic connections are done by piercing the reactor side walls with needles|the PDMS will tightly enclose the needle to prevent leakage. The reactor chamber is sealed with a semi...

  11. Financial strain is a significant correlate of sleep continuity disturbances in late-life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Martica; Buysse, Daniel J; Nofzinger, Eric A; Reynolds, Charles F; Thompson, Wesley; Mazumdar, Sati; Monk, Timothy H

    2008-02-01

    Although psychological stress has been associated with disturbed sleep in younger populations, little is known about the stress-sleep relationship in late-life. In the present study, we evaluated relationships among a chronic stressor, ongoing financial strain, and sleep in a heterogenous sample (n=75) of community-dwelling elders (mean age=74.0 years). Self-report measures included ongoing financial strain, mental health, physical health and subjective sleep quality. Sleep duration, continuity, and architecture were measured by polysomnography (PSG). Analysis of variance and regression were used to test the hypothesis that ongoing financial strain is a significant correlate of disturbed sleep in the elderly. Covariates included age, sex, mental health and physical health. Analyses revealed that ongoing financial strain is a significant correlate of PSG-assessed sleep latency, wakefulness after sleep onset, and sleep efficiency. After adjusting for the effects of age, sex, mental health, and physical health on sleep, ongoing financial strain was associated with lower sleep efficiency (p<.01). Our results show that chronic stress, as measured by ongoing financial strain, is a significant correlate of sleep disturbances in the elderly, even after adjusting for factors known to impact sleep in late-life.

  12. Unhealthy habits persist: The ongoing presence of modifiable risk factors for disease in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szoeke, Cassandra; Dang, Christa; Lehert, Philippe; Hickey, Martha; Morris, Meg E; Dennerstein, Lorraine; Campbell, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Vascular disease remains a leading cause of death. There are several vascular risk factors identified that can mitigate development of disease in ageing. We examine reported rates of modifiable risk factors in women responding to an online health questionnaire advertised by popular media. A sample of 26 620 women aged over 18 was examined in 2015 with a cross-sectional health questionnaire. The questionnaire included self-reported health, mood, lifestyle and vascular risk factors. There remains high rates of modifiable risk factors present in women. The vast majority of women (80%) reported not eating enough fruit and vegetables. Compared to the guidelines for health, the majority did not perform enough weekly physical activity (70%) and more than half the participants were overweight (54%). Sufficient fruit, vegetables, fish, legumes and physical activity were reported in less than 30% of women! Women continue to report low rates of physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake and higher BMI than recommended for good health, despite worldwide health promotion activities aimed at changing these lifestyle factors. Programs to support healthy living need to be reviewed and revised to reduce the burden of vascular disease and dementia in women. Previous guidelines are not having the important impact they should, particularly in women.

  13. Diagnosis of Clostridium difficile Infection: an Ongoing Conundrum for Clinicians and for Clinical Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Karen C.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Clostridium difficile is a formidable nosocomial and community-acquired pathogen, causing clinical presentations ranging from asymptomatic colonization to self-limiting diarrhea to toxic megacolon and fulminant colitis. Since the early 2000s, the incidence of C. difficile disease has increased dramatically, and this is thought to be due to the emergence of new strain types. For many years, the mainstay of C. difficile disease diagnosis was enzyme immunoassays for detection of the C. difficile toxin(s), although it is now generally accepted that these assays lack sensitivity. A number of molecular assays are commercially available for the detection of C. difficile. This review covers the history and biology of C. difficile and provides an in-depth discussion of the laboratory methods used for the diagnosis of C. difficile infection (CDI). In addition, strain typing methods for C. difficile and the evolving epidemiology of colonization and infection with this organism are discussed. Finally, considerations for diagnosing C. difficile disease in special patient populations, such as children, oncology patients, transplant patients, and patients with inflammatory bowel disease, are described. As detection of C. difficile in clinical specimens does not always equate with disease, the diagnosis of C. difficile infection continues to be a challenge for both laboratories and clinicians. PMID:23824374

  14. Israeli adolescents with ongoing exposure to terrorism: suicidal ideation, posttraumatic stress disorder, and functional impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemtob, Claude M; Pat-Horenczyk, Ruth; Madan, Anita; Pitman, Seth R; Wang, Yanping; Doppelt, Osnat; Burns, Kelly Dugan; Abramovitz, Robert; Brom, Daniel

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we examined the relationships among terrorism exposure, functional impairment, suicidal ideation, and probable partial or full posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) from exposure to terrorism in adolescents continuously exposed to this threat in Israel. A convenience sample of 2,094 students, aged 12 to 18, was drawn from 10 Israeli secondary schools. In terms of demographic factors, older age was associated with increased risk for suicidal ideation, OR = 1.33, 95% CI [1.09, 1.62], p terrorism was associated with increased risk for each of the measured outcomes including probable partial or full PTSD, functional impairment, and suicidal ideation. When age, gender, level of exposure to terrorism, probable partial or full PTSD, and functional impairment were examined together, only terrorism exposure and functional impairment were associated with suicidal ideation. This study underscores the importance and feasibility of examining exposure to terrorism and functional impairment as risk factors for suicidal ideation. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  15. The phase of ongoing EEG oscillations predicts the amplitude of peri-saccadic mislocalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLelland, Douglas; Lavergne, Louisa; VanRullen, Rufin

    2016-01-01

    Our constant eye movements mean that updating processes, such as saccadic remapping, are essential for the maintenance of a stable spatial representation of the world around us. It has been proposed that, rather than continually update a full spatiotopic map, only the location of a few key objects is updated, suggesting that the process is linked to attention. At the same time, mounting evidence links attention to oscillatory neuronal processes. We therefore hypothesized that updating processes should themselves show oscillatory characteristics, inherited from underlying attentional processes. To test this, we carried out a combined psychophysics and EEG experiment in human participants, using a saccadic mislocalization task as a behaviourally measureable proxy for spatial updating, and simultaneously recording 64-channel EEG. We then used a time-frequency analysis to test for a correlation between oscillation phase and perceptual outcome. We found a significant phase-dependence of mislocalization in a time-frequency region from around 400 ms prior to saccade initiation and peaking at around 7 Hz, principally apparent over occipital electrodes. Thus the degree of perceived mislocalization is correlated with the phase of a theta-frequency oscillation prior to saccade onset. We conclude that spatial updating processes are indeed linked to rhythmic processes in the brain. PMID:27403937

  16. Management Considerations for Ongoing Pregnancies Complicated by Trisomy 13 and 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotters-Katz, Sarah K; Kuller, Jeffrey A; Grace, Matthew R; Laifer, Steven A; Strauss, Robert A

    2016-05-01

    Pregnancies complicated by trisomy 13 (T13) or trisomy 18 (T18) present unique challenges for obstetric management. From the initial diagnosis, the task of counseling these women and families is difficult because fetal and neonatal outcomes vary depending on the phenotype and degree of intervention chosen by the family. A literature review was performed using PubMed to gather information regarding obstetric management and outcomes of pregnancies complicated by T13 and T18. Spontaneous abortion and in uterofetal demise occur at rates well above those seen in chromosomally normal pregnancies. In addition, infants with T13 or T18 frequently have structural anomalies, which lead to worse prognoses and long-term survival. In cases in which a woman and her family desire to continue the pregnancy, multidisciplinary consultation with obstetrics, social work, genetics, and pediatrics can optimize care of both the fetus and the mother. Most commonly, prenatal care does not differ from routine. A detailed delivery plan should be generated, specifically discussing interventions for the patient and her fetus. When managing pregnancies complicated by T13 and T18, active, open, and frequent communication between the patient, her family, and a multidisciplinary health care team throughout the pregnancy is crucial.

  17. Ongoing ethical issues concerning authorship in biomedical journals: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornhaber, Rachel Anne; McLean, Loyola M; Baber, Rodney J

    2015-01-01

    Health professionals publishing within the field of health sciences continue to experience issues concerning appropriate authorship, which have clinical, ethical, and academic implications. This integrative review sought to explore the key issues concerning authorship from a bioethical standpoint, aiming to explore the key features of the authorship debate. Studies were identified through an electronic search, using the PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and Scopus databases of peer-reviewed research, published between 2009 and 2014, limited to English language research, with search terms developed to reflect the current issues of authorship. From among the 279 papers identified, 20 research papers met the inclusion criteria. Findings were compiled and then arranged to identify themes and relationships. The review incorporated a wide range of authorship issues encompassing equal-credited authors, honorary (guest/gift) and ghost authorship, perception/experiences of authorship, and guidelines/policies. This review suggests that the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors' (ICMJE) recommended guidelines for authorship are not reflected in current authorship practices within the domain of health sciences in both low-and high-impact-factor journals. This devaluing of the true importance of authorship has the potential to affect the validity of authorship, diminish the real contributions of the true authors, and negatively affect patient care.

  18. Three decades of recurrent declines and recoveries in corals belie ongoing change in fish assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, T.; Galzin, R.; Kulbicki, M.; Lison de Loma, T.; Claudet, J.

    2016-03-01

    Coral reefs are increasingly being altered by a myriad of anthropogenic activities and natural disturbances. Long-term studies offer unique opportunities to understand how multiple and recurrent disturbances can influence coral reef resilience and long-term dynamics. While the long-term dynamics of coral assemblages have been extensively documented, the long-term dynamics of coral reef fish assemblages have received less attention. Here, we describe the changes in fish assemblages on Tiahura reef, Moorea, from 1979 to 2011. During this 33-yr period, Tiahura was exposed to multiple disturbances (crown-of-thorns seastar outbreaks and cyclones) that caused recurrent declines and recoveries of coral cover and changes in the dominant coral genera. These shifts in coral composition were associated with long-term cascading effects on fish assemblages. The composition and trophic structure of fish assemblages continuously shifted without returning to their initial composition, whereas fish species richness remained stable, albeit with a small increase over time. We detected nonlinear responses of fish density when corals were most degraded. When coral cover dropped below 10 % following a severe crown-of-thorns sea star outbreak, the density of most fish trophic groups sharply decreased. Our study shows that historical contingency may potentially be an important but largely underestimated factor explaining the contemporary structure of reef fish assemblages and suggests that temporal stability in their structure and function should not necessarily be the target of management strategies that aim at increasing or maintaining coral reef resilience.

  19. Guiding transcranial brain stimulation by EEG/MEG to interact with ongoing brain activity and associated functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thut, Gregor; Bergmann, Til Ole; Fröhlich, Flavio

    2017-01-01

    Non-invasive transcranial brain stimulation (NTBS) techniques have a wide range of applications but also suffer from a number of limitations mainly related to poor specificity of intervention and variable effect size. These limitations motivated recent efforts to focus on the temporal dimension...... of NTBS with respect to the ongoing brain activity. Temporal patterns of ongoing neuronal activity, in particular brain oscillations and their fluctuations, can be traced with electro- or magnetoencephalography (EEG/MEG), to guide the timing as well as the stimulation settings of NTBS. These novel, online...... and offline EEG/MEG-guided NTBS-approaches are tailored to specifically interact with the underlying brain activity. Online EEG/MEG has been used to guide the timing of NTBS (i.e., when to stimulate): by taking into account instantaneous phase or power of oscillatory brain activity, NTBS can be aligned...

  20. Radical university-industry innovation – research design and preliminary findings from an on-going qualitative case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gertsen, Frank; Nielsen, René Nesgaard

    This paper reports from an on-going pilot project investigating university-industry collaboration on the development of radical innovation. There is evidence in the literature that such collaboration increases the likelihood of radical innovation. A conceptual framework is presented and it is arg......This paper reports from an on-going pilot project investigating university-industry collaboration on the development of radical innovation. There is evidence in the literature that such collaboration increases the likelihood of radical innovation. A conceptual framework is presented....... Some preliminary findings are presented and briefly discussed, including the role of the university’s formal set-up to deal with IPR/commercialisation and the researchers’ personal networking with industry as well as challenges concerning the sharing of IPR/commercialisation outcomes....

  1. A Systemic Review of Resistance Mechanisms and Ongoing Clinical Trials in ALK-rearranged Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khashayar eEsfahani

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The identification of oncogenic driver driver mutations in non-small cell lung cancer has led to a paradigm shift and the development of specific molecular treatments. Tumors harboring a rearranged EML4-ALK fusion oncogene are highly sensitive to therapy with ALK-targeted inhibitors. Crizotinib is the first approved treatment for advanced lung tumors containing this genetic abnormality. In this mini review, we discuss the existing data on crizotinib as well as ongoing trials involving this medication. A brief overview of the known resistance mechanisms to criztotinib will also be presented followed by a summary of the ongoing trials involving next-generation ALK inhibitors or other targeted therapies in patients with ALK+ NSCLC.

  2. EDITORIAL: Ongoing climatic change in Northern Eurasia: justification for expedient research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groisman, Pavel; Soja, Amber J.

    2009-12-01

    A brief overview of the ongoing climatic and environmental changes in Northern Eurasia serves as an editorial introduction to this, the second, special Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI) focus issue of Environmental Research Letters. Climatic changes in Northern Eurasia over the last hundred years are reflected in numerous atmospheric and terrestrial variables. Many of these are noticeably significant above the confidence level for 'weather' or other (fire regime, ecosystem change) noise and thus should be further investigated in order to adapt to their impacts. In this focus issue, we introduce assorted studies of different aspects of contemporary change in Northern Eurasia. Most of these have been presented at one of the NEESPI workshops (for more information see neespi.org) and/or American Geophysical Union and European Geosciences Union NEESPI open sessions during the past year. These studies are diverse, representing the diversity of climates and ecosystems across Northern Eurasia. Some of these are focused on smaller spatial scales and/or address only specific aspects of the global change implications across the subcontinent. But the feeling (and observational evidence) that these changes have already been quite rapid and can have global implications inspires us to bring this suite of papers to the readers' attention. See the PDF for the full text of the editorial. Focus on Climatic and Environmental Change in Northern Eurasia Contents Preface Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative Pavel Groisman and Amber J Soja Editorial Siberia integrated regional study: Multidisciplinary investigations of interrelation between Siberia environment dynamics and global climate change E P Gordov and E A Vaganov Studies of the energy and water cycles in Northern Eurasia Comparison and evaluation of gridded radiation products across northern Eurasia T J Troy and E F Wood Reanalysis data underestimate significant changes in growing

  3. An Ongoing Investigation of Science Literacy: Results of a 22-Year Study Probing Students' Knowledge and Attitude Towards Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impey, C.; Buxner, S.; Antonellis, J.; CATS

    2013-04-01

    This talk presents findings related to our ongoing work investigating students' knowledge and attitudes towards science and technology. We present an overview of research studies and findings including a comparison of the science literacy measures of University of Arizona students compared to national studies, conceptions related to astrology, views of radiation, and students' pseudoscience and religious beliefs. We discuss implications for instructors and researchers interested in improving students' science literacy scores and diagnosing alternative beliefs.

  4. Evolution of accreditation in continuing nursing education in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Tanya D; Lacey-Haun, Lora

    2008-11-01

    There is widespread agreement that nurses must acquire and maintain the specialized knowledge needed to provide highly skilled care and to demonstrate their competence to the public, their employers, their profession, and patients on an ongoing basis throughout their work lives. Nurses report that continuing nursing education is the third most vital component of nursing skill building. Nurses from states that mandate continuing nursing education, as well as those from states that do not, rank continuing nursing education just after their workplace experience and their basic nursing education in importance. A wide range of organizations create and disseminate continuing nursing education to nurses in states with and without mandated continuing nursing education requirements. Although there is no governmental standard for the field, nursing monitors education across work-life stages. The National Council of State Boards of Nursing monitors nursing licensure and continuing nursing education. The credentialing arm of the American Nurses Association, the American Nurses Credentialing Center, acting in synch with national organizations that call for accreditation standards in the health care professions, provides review and accreditation of providers and approvers of continuing nursing education on a national basis and is, itself, internationally certified by International Standards for a Sustainable World.

  5. Long-term ongoing pregnancy rate and mode of conception after a positive and negative post-coital test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessel, Marloes; Brandes, Monique; de Bruin, Jan Peter; Bots, Rob S G M; Kremer, Jan A M; Nelen, Willianne L D M; Hamilton, Carl J C M

    2014-09-01

    Many fertility clinics have decided to abolish the post-coital test. Yet, it is a significant factor in prognostic models that predict the spontaneous pregnancy rate within one year. The aim of this study was to evaluate (1) the long-term outcome of infertile couples with a positive or a negative post-coital test during their fertility work-up and (2) the contribution of the different modes of conception. Retrospective cohort study. Three fertility clinics in the Netherlands, of which two are secondary care training hospitals and is a one tertiary care academic training hospital. 2476 newly referred infertile couples, where a post-coital test was performed in 1624 couples. After basic fertility work-up, couples were treated according to the national treatment protocols. Spontaneous and overall ongoing pregnancy rate. The spontaneous and overall ongoing pregnancy rates after three years were 37.7 and 77.5% after a positive post-coital test compared with 26.9 and 68.8% after a negative test (p post-coital test is still associated with a higher spontaneous and a higher overall ongoing pregnancy rate, even in couples with severe male factor infertility. © 2014 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  6. Workshop: Patient Self-Management: Update of Ongoing Studies in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigendal; André

    1998-01-01

    Anti-vitamin K (AVK) therapy (e.g., warfarin) requires regular blood tests for adequate dosing of the drug. The therapeutic window for these drugs is narrow, with a risk of bleeding if the dose is too high and of thrombotic complications if the dose is too low. Moreover, the required dose to achieve an optimal level of anticoagulation is individual and depends on such factors as the general health of the patient, food intake, and concomitant medication. Although control requires regular monitoring, most patients are reluctant to visit an anticoagulation clinic (ACC) more than 6-12 times yearly because each visit costs the patient both money and time. The development of prothrombin time (PT) monitors that are simple to operate and highly portable has made self-management possible for large groups of patients on long-term AVK therapy. Self-management increases the safety of AVK therapy through frequent testing (3-4 times per month) and timely dose adjustments when they are indicated. The concept of self-management of AVK therapy was introduced in Germany a decade ago with great success. Swedish patient education in self-management was started in September 1996. As of May 1997, 38 patients have completed the training program, 37 of whom have continued with self-management. Experience with the first seven groups of patients has convinced us that self-management is possible and has great potential. Randomized controlled studies are needed to determine the cost effectiveness of self-management with regard to a reduction in bleeding and thrombotic complications.

  7. Oral Antibiotic Use for Otitis Media with Effusion: Ongoing Opportunities for Quality Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roditi, Rachel E; Liu, C Carrie; Bellmunt, Angela M; Rosenfeld, Richard M; Shin, Jennifer J

    2016-05-01

    (1) To evaluate the probability of antibiotic administration associated with ICD-9 diagnosis of otitis media with effusion (OME) in the absence of acute otitis media, (2) to determine whether usage varies according to visit setting, and (3) to ascertain if practice gaps are such that future practice changes might be measured. Cross-sectional analysis of an administrative database. Ambulatory visits in the United States. National Ambulatory and Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Surveys, 2005-2010; univariate, multivariate, and stratified analyses of antibiotic usage were performed. The study population was restricted to children without acute or unspecified otitis media. The primary outcome was the probability of oral antibiotic administration when OME was diagnosed. The impact of the location of service and subspecialty care was also analyzed. Data from 1,390,404,196 pediatric visits demonstrated that oral antibiotics were administered for 32% of visits with an OME diagnosis, even in the absence of acute otitis media (odds ratio, 4.31; 95% confidence interval: 2.88-6.44; P < .001). The highest antibiotic administration was seen in the emergency department (risk difference, 37.1%; number needed to harm, 3). No significant increased risk of antibiotic usage was seen during otolaryngology visits. Diagnoses of infections at nonotologic sites were associated with a 1.98 to 26.60 increase in odds of oral antibiotic administration. Oral antibiotics continue to be administered in children with OME in the absence of acute infection, with risk varying by location of service. There is a potential opportunity for quality improvement through reducing antibiotic administration for pediatric OME. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  8. Is freezing in the vaccine cold chain an ongoing issue? A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Celina M; George, Anupa M; Sawadogo, Adama; Schreiber, Benjamin

    2017-04-19

    Vaccine exposure to temperatures below recommended ranges in the cold chain may decrease vaccine potency of freeze-sensitive vaccines leading to a loss of vaccine investments and potentially places children at risk of contracting vaccine preventable illnesses. This literature review is an update to one previously published in 2007 (Matthias et al., 2007), analyzing the prevalence of vaccine exposure to temperatures below recommendations throughout various segments of the cold chain. Overall, 45 studies included in this review assess temperature monitoring, of which 29 specifically assess 'too cold' temperatures. The storage segments alone were evaluated in 41 articles, 15 articles examined the transport segment and 4 studied outreach sessions. The sample size of the studies varied, ranging from one to 103 shipments and from three to 440 storage units. Among reviewed articles, the percentage of vaccine exposure to temperatures below recommended ranges during storage was 33% in wealthier countries and 37.1% in lower income countries. Vaccine exposure to temperatures below recommended ranges occurred during shipments in 38% of studies from higher income countries and 19.3% in lower income countries. This review highlights continuing issues of vaccine exposure to temperatures below recommended ranges during various segments of the cold chain. Studies monitoring the number of events vaccines are exposed to 'too cold' temperatures as well as the duration of these events are needed. Many reviewed studies emphasize the lack of knowledge of health workers regarding freeze damage of vaccines and how this has an effect on temperature monitoring. It is important to address this issue by educating vaccinators and cold chain staff to improve temperature maintenance and supply chain management, which will facilitate the distribution of potent vaccines to children. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Entanglement Continuous Unitary Transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Sahin, S; Orus, R

    2016-01-01

    Continuous unitary transformations are a powerful tool to extract valuable information out of quantum many-body Hamiltonians, in which the so-called flow equation transforms the Hamiltonian to a diagonal or block-diagonal form in second quantization. Yet, one of their main challenges is how to approximate the infinitely-many coupled differential equations that are produced throughout this flow. Here we show that tensor networks offer a natural and non-perturbative truncation scheme in terms of entanglement. The corresponding scheme is called "entanglement-CUT" or eCUT. It can be used to extract the low-energy physics of quantum many-body Hamiltonians, including quasiparticle energy gaps. We provide the general idea behind eCUT and explain its implementation for finite 1d systems using the formalism of matrix product operators, and we present proof-of-principle results for the spin-1/2 1d quantum Ising model in a transverse field. Entanglement-CUTs can also be generalized to higher dimensions and to the thermo...

  10. Continuous home oxygen therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega Ruiz, Francisco; Díaz Lobato, Salvador; Galdiz Iturri, Juan Bautista; García Rio, Francisco; Güell Rous, Rosa; Morante Velez, Fátima; Puente Maestu, Luis; Tàrrega Camarasa, Julia

    2014-05-01

    Oxygen therapy is defined as the therapeutic use of oxygen and consists of administering oxygen at higher concentrations than those found in room air, with the aim of treating or preventing hypoxia. This therapeutic intervention has been shown to increase survival in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and respiratory failure. Although this concept has been extended by analogy to chronic respiratory failure caused by respiratory and non-respiratory diseases, continuous oxygen therapy has not been shown to be effective in other disorders. Oxygen therapy has not been shown to improve survival in patients with COPD and moderate hypoxaemia, nor is there consensus regarding its use during nocturnal desaturations in COPD or desaturations caused by effort. The choice of the oxygen source must be made on the basis of criteria such as technical issues, patient comfort and adaptability and cost. Flow must be adjusted to achieve appropriate transcutaneous oxyhaemoglobin saturation correction. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Entanglement continuous unitary transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Serkan; Schmidt, Kai Phillip; Orús, Román

    2017-01-01

    Continuous unitary transformations are a powerful tool to extract valuable information out of quantum many-body Hamiltonians, in which the so-called flow equation transforms the Hamiltonian to a diagonal or block-diagonal form in second quantization. Yet, one of their main challenges is how to approximate the infinitely-many coupled differential equations that are produced throughout this flow. Here we show that tensor networks offer a natural and non-perturbative truncation scheme in terms of entanglement. The corresponding scheme is called “entanglement-CUT” or eCUT. It can be used to extract the low-energy physics of quantum many-body Hamiltonians, including quasiparticle energy gaps. We provide the general idea behind eCUT and explain its implementation for finite 1d systems using the formalism of matrix product operators. We also present proof-of-principle results for the spin-(1/2) 1d quantum Ising model and the 3-state quantum Potts model in a transverse field. Entanglement-CUTs can also be generalized to higher dimensions and to the thermodynamic limit.

  12. Developing effective warning systems: Ongoing research at Ruapehu volcano, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Graham S.; Johnston, David M.; Paton, Douglas; Christianson, Amy; Becker, Julia; Keys, Harry

    2008-05-01

    PurposeThis paper examines the unique challenges to volcanic risk management associated with having a ski area on an active volcano. Using a series of simulated eruption/lahar events at Ruapehu volcano, New Zealand, as a context, a model of risk management that integrates warning system design and technology, risk perceptions and the human response is explored. Principal resultsDespite increases in the observed audibility and comprehension of the warning message, recall of public education content, and people's awareness of volcanic risk, a persistent minority of the public continued to demonstrate only moderate awareness of the correct actions to take during a warning and failed to respond effectively. A relationship between level of staff competence and correct public response allowed the level of public response to be used to identify residual risk and additional staff training needs. The quality of staff awareness, action and decision-making has emerged as a critical factor, from detailed staff and public interviews and from exercise observations. Staff actions are especially important for mobilising correct public response at Ruapehu ski areas due to the transient nature of the visitor population. Introduction of education material and staff training strategies that included the development of emergency decision-making competencies improved knowledge of correct actions, and increased the proportion of people moving out of harm's way during blind tests. Major conclusionsWarning effectiveness is a function of more than good hazard knowledge and the generation and notification of an early warning message. For warning systems to be effective, these factors must be complemented by accurate knowledge of risk and risk management actions. By combining the Ruapehu findings with those of other warning system studies in New Zealand, and internationally, a practical five-step model for effective early warning systems is discussed. These steps must be based upon sound and

  13. Ongoing Horizontal and Vertical Transmission of Virulence Genes and papA Alleles among Escherichia coli Blood Isolates from Patients with Diverse-Source Bacteremia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James R.; O'Bryan, Timothy T.; Kuskowski, Michael; Maslow, Joel N.

    2001-01-01

    The phylogenetic distributions of multiple putative virulence factors (VFs) and papA (P fimbrial structural subunit) alleles among 182 Escherichia coli blood isolates from patients with diverse-source bacteremia were defined. Phylogenetic correspondence among these strains, the E. coli Reference (ECOR) collection, and other collections of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) was assessed. Although among the 182 bacteremia isolates phylogenetic group B2 predominated, exhibited the greatest concentration of individual VFs, and contained the largest number of familiar virulent clones, other phylogenetic groups exhibited greater concentrations of certain VFs than did group B2 and included several additional virulent clones. Certain of the newly detected VF genes, e.g., fyuA (yersiniabactin; 76%) and focG (F1C fimbriae; 25%), were as prevalent or more prevalent than their more familiar traditional counterparts, e.g., iut (aerobactin; 57%) and sfaS (S fimbriae; 14%), thus possibly offering additional useful targets for preventive interventions. Considerable diversity of VF profiles was observed at every level within the phylogenetic tree, including even within individual lineages. This suggested that many different pathways can lead to extraintestinal virulence in E. coli and that the evolution of ExPEC, which involves extensive horizontal transmission of VFs and continuous remodeling of pathogenicity-associated islands, is a highly active, ongoing process. PMID:11500406

  14. Suppression of Ongoing Experimental Arthritis by a Chinese Herbal Formula (Huo-Luo-Xiao-Ling Dan Involves Changes in Antigen-Induced Immunological and Biochemical Mediators of Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Hua Yang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is one of the major autoimmune diseases of global prevalence. The use of the anti-inflammatory drugs for the treatment of RA is associated with severe adverse reactions and toxicity. This limitation has necessitated the search for novel therapeutic products. We report here a traditional Chinese medicine-based herbal formula, Huo luo xiao ling dan (HLXL, which has potent antiarthritic activity as validated in the rat adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA model. HLXL (2.3 g/Kg was fed to Lewis (RT.11 rats daily by gavage beginning at the onset of arthritis and then continued through the observation period. HLXL inhibited the severity of ongoing AA. This suppression of arthritis was associated with significant alterations in the T cell proliferative and cytokine responses as well as the antibody response against the disease-related antigen, mycobacterial heat-shock protein 65 (Bhsp65. There was a reduction in the level of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-17 and IL-1β but enhancement of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 level. In addition, there was inhibition of both the anti-Bhsp65 antibody response and the serum level of nitric oxide. Thus, HLXL is a promising CAM modality for further testing in RA patients.

  15. Geodetic Characterization of Santorini Caldera From Continuous GPS Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, G. T.; Newman, A. V.; Psimoulis, P.; Stiros, S.

    2007-12-01

    Santorini Caldera, in the southern Aegean, is part of a well developed, and very active volcanic system fueled by subduction along the Hellenic arc. The caldera is partially submerged, with only pieces of caldera wall, flanks, and central post-caldera lavas exposed above the sea level comprising a grouping of five small islands. The system had its most recent caldera-forming event around 1650 B.C. in a massive series of Plinean eruptions that expelled some 60 km3 of volcanic material, burying the previous island surface. The system remains active with ongoing smaller pyroclastic and phreatic eruptions, forming the central islets atop of the submerged caldera floor. In late-spring 2006, with UNAVCO field support and support form the Santorini Volcano Observatory, a network of two continuous GPS monuments spanning the caldera was established, and completion of a third monument is planned for this coming year. Additionally, 18 existing and new geodetic markers were first established with GPS across the 5-island group in 2006. These locations cover the caldera rim and flanks, and the central volcanic flows. Preliminary data from the two continuous GPS sites suggest that deformation across the caldera is currently minimal, and below the detection threshold for the 1.5 year continuous network. Through continuing analysis of the continuous network, along with additional campaign measurements, we hope to establish the temporal character and spatial extent of potential deformation in the volcanic complex, and determine if there exists any significant transient deformation associated with ongoing magma movement or edifice cooling. Monitoring such a rate over time may be useful for early hazard awareness and mitigation during regional volcanic crises.

  16. Periodic review and continuous ordering

    OpenAIRE

    Prak, Dennis R.J.; Teunter, Ruud; Riezebos, Jan

    2014-01-01

    There exist many inventory control studies that consider either continuous review & continuous ordering, or periodic review & periodic ordering. Mixtures of the two are hardly ever studied. However, the model with periodic review and continuous ordering is highly relevant in practice, as information on the actual inventory level is not always up to date while making ordering decisions. This paper will therefore consider this case of periodic review and continuous ordering. Assuming zero fixed...

  17. Continuous evaluation of evolving behavioral intervention technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, David C; Cheung, Ken; Schueller, Stephen M; Hendricks Brown, C; Duan, Naihua

    2013-10-01

    Behavioral intervention technologies (BITs) are web-based and mobile interventions intended to support patients and consumers in changing behaviors related to health, mental health, and well-being. BITs are provided to patients and consumers in clinical care settings and commercial marketplaces, frequently with little or no evaluation. Current evaluation methods, including RCTs and implementation studies, can require years to validate an intervention. This timeline is fundamentally incompatible with the BIT environment, where technology advancement and changes in consumer expectations occur quickly, necessitating rapidly evolving interventions. However, BITs can routinely and iteratively collect data in a planned and strategic manner and generate evidence through systematic prospective analyses, thereby creating a system that can "learn." A methodologic framework, Continuous Evaluation of Evolving Behavioral Intervention Technologies (CEEBIT), is proposed that can support the evaluation of multiple BITs or evolving versions, eliminating those that demonstrate poorer outcomes, while allowing new BITs to be entered at any time. CEEBIT could be used to ensure the effectiveness of BITs provided through deployment platforms in clinical care organizations or BIT marketplaces. The features of CEEBIT are described, including criteria for the determination of inferiority, determination of BIT inclusion, methods of assigning consumers to BITs, definition of outcomes, and evaluation of the usefulness of the system. CEEBIT offers the potential to collapse initial evaluation and postmarketing surveillance, providing ongoing assurance of safety and efficacy to patients and consumers, payers, and policymakers.

  18. Periodic review and continuous ordering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prak, Dennis; Teunter, Ruud; Riezebos, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Many inventory control studies consider either continuous review and continuous ordering, or periodic review and periodic ordering. Mixtures of the two are hardly ever studied. However, the model with periodic review and continuous ordering is highly relevant in practice, as information on the actua

  19. Periodic review and continuous ordering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prak, Dennis R.J.; Teunter, Ruud; Riezebos, Jan

    2014-01-01

    There exist many inventory control studies that consider either continuous review & continuous ordering, or periodic review & periodic ordering. Mixtures of the two are hardly ever studied. However, the model with periodic review and continuous ordering is highly relevant in practice, as information

  20. Periodic review and continuous ordering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prak, Dennis R.J.; Teunter, Ruud; Riezebos, Jan

    2014-01-01

    There exist many inventory control studies that consider either continuous review & continuous ordering, or periodic review & periodic ordering. Mixtures of the two are hardly ever studied. However, the model with periodic review and continuous ordering is highly relevant in practice, as information

  1. Periodic review and continuous ordering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prak, Dennis; Teunter, Ruud; Riezebos, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Many inventory control studies consider either continuous review and continuous ordering, or periodic review and periodic ordering. Mixtures of the two are hardly ever studied. However, the model with periodic review and continuous ordering is highly relevant in practice, as information on the

  2. Coded continuous wave meteor radar

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The concept of coded continuous wave meteor radar is introduced. The radar uses a continuously transmitted pseudo-random waveform, which has several advantages: coding avoids range aliased echoes, which are often seen with commonly used pulsed specular meteor radars (SMRs); continuous transmissions maximize pulse compression gain, allowing operation with significantly lower peak transmit power; the temporal resolution can be changed after ...

  3. Factors associated with the effectiveness of continuing education in long-term care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolee, Paul; Esbaugh, Jacquelin; Aylward, Sandra; Cathers, Tamzin; Harvey, David P; Hillier, Loretta M; Keat, Nancy; Feightner, John W

    2005-06-01

    This article examines factors within the long-term-care work environment that impact the effectiveness of continuing education. In Study 1, focus group interviews were conducted with staff and management from urban and rural long-term-care facilities in southwestern Ontario to identify their perceptions of the workplace factors that affect transfer of learning into practice. Thirty-five people were interviewed across six focus groups. In Study 2, a Delphi technique was used to refine our list of factors. Consensus was achieved in two survey rounds involving 30 and 27 participants, respectively. Management support was identified as the most important factor impacting the effectiveness of continuing education. Other factors included resources (staff, funding, space) and the need for ongoing expert support. Organizational support is necessary for continuing education programs to be effective and ongoing expert support is needed to enable and reinforce learning.

  4. The Continuing Fall of SN 1987A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwek, Eli; Arendt, Richard; Bouchet, Patrice; Danziger, John; Frank, Kari; Gehrz, Robert; Park, Sangwook; Woodward, Charles

    2016-08-01

    We propose to use a total of 0.8 hr to obtain 3.6 and 4.5 micron photometry of SNR 1987A at four final epochs between 10900 and 11500 days after the explosion. SN 1987A has been monitored at approximately 6 month intervals throughout the Spitzer mission. The latest IRAC data clearly show that at 3.6 and 4.5 micron, the SN emission has peaked and is now in decline. Continued observation of SN 1987A will allow us to track the decline as the blast wave moves completely past the equatorial ring (ER). The rate at which new dust is swept up should be dropping to zero, and as the presently swept up dust is gradually destroyed (or cools) the emission should continue to fade. The dust traced at these wavelengths is thought to be collisionally-heated by the SN blast wave that also gives rise to the soft X-ray emission from the ER. Early in the mission, the intensity of the mid-IR emission (24 micron) was generally well correlated with that of the X-ray emission. However, the 3.6 and 4.5 micron emission are no longer tracking the brightness of the soft X-ray emission. These differences could stem from a variety of causes, including the sputtering of the dust or changes in the morphology of the ER. Ongoing X-ray observations of the remnant are taking place. Supplementing these with IR observations is essential for determining the spatial distribution, nature, and evolution of this hot dust component. Additionally, the observations may still reveal the appearance of a new emission component from the SN ejecta which is currently interacting with the reverse shock. These observations will complete the record of Spitzer's observations of SN 1987A, spanning more than 15 years from launch to end of mission.

  5. Ongoing characterization of the forced electron beam induced arc discharge ion source for the selective production of exotic species facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzolaro, M., E-mail: mattia.manzolaro@lnl.infn.it; Andrighetto, A.; Monetti, A.; Scarpa, D.; Rossignoli, M.; Vasquez, J.; Corradetti, S.; Calderolla, M.; Prete, G. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Viale dell’Universita’ 2 - 35020 Legnaro, Padova,Italy (Italy); Meneghetti, G. [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Padova, Via Venezia 1 - 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    An intense research and development activity to finalize the design of the target ion source system for the selective production of exotic species (SPES) facility (operating according to the isotope separation on line technique) is at present ongoing at Legnaro National Laboratories. In particular, the characterization of ion sources in terms of ionization efficiency and transversal emittance is currently in progress, and a preliminary set of data is already available. In this work, the off-line ionization efficiency and emittance measurements for the SPES forced electron beam induced arc discharge ion source in the case of a stable Ar beam are presented in detail.

  6. Exoplanets: The Hunt Continues!

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-04-01

    Swiss Telescope at La Silla Very Successful Summary The intensive and exciting hunt for planets around other stars ( "exoplanets" ) is continuing with great success in both hemispheres. Today, an international team of astronomers from the Geneva Observatory and other research institutes [1] is announcing the discovery of no less than eleven new, planetary companions to solar-type stars, HD 8574, HD 28185, HD 50554, HD 74156, HD 80606, HD 82943, HD 106252, HD 141937, HD 178911B, HD 141937, among which two new multi-planet systems . The masses of these new objects range from slightly less than to about 10 times the mass of the planet Jupiter [2]. The new detections are based on measured velocity changes of the stars [3], performed with the CORALIE spectrometer on the Swiss 1.2-m Leonard Euler telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory , as well as with instruments on telescopes at the Haute-Provence Observatory and on the Keck telescopes on Mauna Kea (Hawaii, USA). Some of the new planets are unusual: * a two-planet system (around the star HD 82943) in which one orbital period is nearly exactly twice as long as the other - cases like this (refered to as "orbital resonance") are well known in our own solar system; * another two-planet system (HD 74156), with a Jupiter-like planet and a more massive planet further out; * a planet with the most elongated orbit detected so far (HD 80606), moving between 5 and 127 million kilometers from the central star; * a giant planet moving in an orbit around its Sun-like central star that is very similar to the one of the Earth and whose potential satellites (in theory, at least) might be "habitable". At this moment, there are 63 know exoplanet candidates with minimum masses below 10 Jupiter masses, and 67 known objects with minimum masses below 17 Jupiter masses. The present team of astronomers has detected about half of these. PR Photo 13a/01 : Radial-velocity measurements of HD 82943, a two-planet system . PR Photo 13b/01 : Radial

  7. Continuous downstream processing of biopharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungbauer, Alois

    2013-08-01

    Continuous manufacturing has been applied in many different industries but has been pursued reluctantly in biotechnology where the batchwise process is still the standard. A shift to continuous operation can improve productivity of a process and substantially reduce the footprint. Continuous operation also allows robust purification of labile biomolecules. A full set of unit operations is available to design continuous downstream processing of biopharmaceuticals. Chromatography, the central unit operation, is most advanced in respect to continuous operation. Here, the problem of 'batch' definition has been solved. This has also paved the way for implementation of continuous downstream processing from a regulatory viewpoint. Economic pressure, flexibility, and parametric release considerations will be the driving force to implement continuous manufacturing strategies in future.

  8. Reservoir continuous process improvement six sigma methodology implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wannamaker, A.L.

    1996-12-01

    The six sigma methodology adopted by AlliedSignal Inc. for implementing continuous improvement activity was applied to a new manufacturing assignment for Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T). The responsibility for reservoir development/production was transferred from Rocky Flats to FM&T. Pressure vessel fabrication was new to this facility. No fabrication history for this type of product existed in-house. Statistical tools such as process mapping, failure mode and effects analysis, and design of experiments were used to define and fully characterize the machine processes to be used in reservoir production. Continuous improvement with regard to operating efficiencies and product quality is an ongoing activity at FM&T.

  9. Continuous Materiality: Through a Hierarchy of Computational Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jichen Zhu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The legacy of Cartesian dualism inherent in linguistic theory deeply influences current views on the relation between natural language, computer code, and the physical world. However, the oversimplified distinction between mind and body falls short of capturing the complex interaction between the material and the immaterial. In this paper, we posit a hierarchy of codes to delineate a wide spectrum of continuous materiality. Our research suggests that diagrams in architecture provide a valuable analog for approaching computer code in emergent digital systems. After commenting on ways that Cartesian dualism continues to haunt discussions of code, we turn our attention to diagrams and design morphology. Finally we notice the implications a material understanding of code bears for further research on the relation between human cognition and digital code. Our discussion concludes by noticing several areas that we have projected for ongoing research.

  10. Arrhythmias following Revascularization Procedures in the Course of Acute Myocardial Infarction: Are They Indicators of Reperfusion or Ongoing Ischemia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersan Tatli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The most important step in the treatment of ST elevation myocardial infarction is to sustain myocardial blood supply as soon as possible. The two main treatment methods used today to provide myocardial reperfusion are thrombolytic therapy and percutaneous coronary intervention. In our study, reperfusion arrhythmias were investigated as if they are indicators of coronary artery patency or ongoing ischemia after revascularization. Methods. 151 patients with a diagnosis of acute ST elevation myocardial infarction were investigated. 54 patients underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention and 97 patients were treated with thrombolytic therapy. The frequency of reperfusion arrythmias following revascularization procedures in the first 48 hours after admission was examined. The relation between reperfusion arrhythmias, ST segment regression, coronary artery patency, and infarct related artery documented by angiography were analyzed. Results. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in the frequency of reperfusion arrhythmias (P=0.355. Although angiographic vessel patency was higher in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention, there was no significant difference between the patency rates of each group with and without reperfusion arrythmias. Conclusion. Our study suggests that recorded arrhythmias following different revascularization procedures in acute ST elevation myocardial infarction may not always indicate vessel patency and reperfusion. Ongoing vascular occlusion and ischemia may lead to various arrhythmias which may not be distinguished from reperfusion arrhythmias.

  11. Transmission of Zika Virus Through Sexual Contact with Travelers to Areas of Ongoing Transmission - Continental United States, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Susan L; Russell, Kate; Hennessey, Morgan; Williams, Charnetta; Oster, Alexandra M; Fischer, Marc; Mead, Paul

    2016-03-04

    Zika virus is a flavivirus closely related to dengue, West Nile, and yellow fever viruses. Although spread is primarily by Aedes species mosquitoes, two instances of sexual transmission of Zika virus have been reported, and replicative virus has been isolated from semen of one man with hematospermia. On February 5, 2016, CDC published recommendations for preventing sexual transmission of Zika virus. Updated prevention guidelines were published on February 23. During February 6-22, 2016, CDC received reports of 14 instances of suspected sexual transmission of Zika virus. Among these, two laboratory-confirmed cases and four probable cases of Zika virus disease have been identified among women whose only known risk factor was sexual contact with a symptomatic male partner with recent travel to an area with ongoing Zika virus transmission. Two instances have been excluded based on additional information, and six others are still under investigation. State, territorial, and local public health departments, clinicians, and the public should be aware of current recommendations for preventing sexual transmission of Zika virus, particularly to pregnant women. Men who reside in or have traveled to an area of ongoing Zika virus transmission and have a pregnant partner should abstain from sexual activity or consistently and correctly use condoms during sex with their pregnant partner for the duration of the pregnancy.

  12. Guiding transcranial brain stimulation by EEG/MEG to interact with ongoing brain activity and associated functions: A position paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thut, Gregor; Bergmann, Til Ole; Fröhlich, Flavio; Soekadar, Surjo R; Brittain, John-Stuart; Valero-Cabré, Antoni; Sack, Alexander T; Miniussi, Carlo; Antal, Andrea; Siebner, Hartwig Roman; Ziemann, Ulf; Herrmann, Christoph S

    2017-05-01

    Non-invasive transcranial brain stimulation (NTBS) techniques have a wide range of applications but also suffer from a number of limitations mainly related to poor specificity of intervention and variable effect size. These limitations motivated recent efforts to focus on the temporal dimension of NTBS with respect to the ongoing brain activity. Temporal patterns of ongoing neuronal activity, in particular brain oscillations and their fluctuations, can be traced with electro- or magnetoencephalography (EEG/MEG), to guide the timing as well as the stimulation settings of NTBS. These novel, online and offline EEG/MEG-guided NTBS-approaches are tailored to specifically interact with the underlying brain activity. Online EEG/MEG has been used to guide the timing of NTBS (i.e., when to stimulate): by taking into account instantaneous phase or power of oscillatory brain activity, NTBS can be aligned to fluctuations in excitability states. Moreover, offline EEG/MEG recordings prior to interventions can inform researchers and clinicians how to stimulate: by frequency-tuning NTBS to the oscillation of interest, intrinsic brain oscillations can be up- or down-regulated. In this paper, we provide an overview of existing approaches and ideas of EEG/MEG-guided interventions, and their promises and caveats. We point out potential future lines of research to address challenges. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Continuous verification using multimodal biometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Terence; Zhang, Sheng; Janakiraman, Rajkumar; Kumar, Sandeep

    2007-04-01

    Conventional verification systems, such as those controlling access to a secure room, do not usually require the user to reauthenticate himself for continued access to the protected resource. This may not be sufficient for high-security environments in which the protected resource needs to be continuously monitored for unauthorized use. In such cases, continuous verification is needed. In this paper, we present the theory, architecture, implementation, and performance of a multimodal biometrics verification system that continuously verifies the presence of a logged-in user. Two modalities are currently used--face and fingerprint--but our theory can be readily extended to include more modalities. We show that continuous verification imposes additional requirements on multimodal fusion when compared to conventional verification systems. We also argue that the usual performance metrics of false accept and false reject rates are insufficient yardsticks for continuous verification and propose new metrics against which we benchmark our system.

  14. CONTINUITY OF DYNAMIC-SYSTEMS - THE CONTINUOUS-TIME CASE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NIEUWENHUIS, JW; WILLEMS, JC

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study continuity of the parametrization of continuous-time linear time-invariant differential systems having a finite-dimensional state space. We show that convergence of the behavior of such systems corresponds to convergence of the coefficients of a set of associate

  15. The Ongoing Catastrophe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kublitz, Anja

    for the girl talk is centred on catastrophes or Nakbas, as they are referred to in Arabic. Not only al-Nakba of 1948 when the Palestinians were displaced from their homeland, but also the many recurring wars and the individual catastrophes that involve dead family members, rapes, loss of children and abusive...

  16. The Ongoing Binomial Revolution

    CERN Document Server

    Goss, David

    2011-01-01

    The Binomial Theorem has long been essential in mathematics. In one form or another it was known to the ancients and, in the hands of Leibniz, Newton, Euler, Galois, and others, it became an essential tool in both algebra and analysis. Indeed, Newton early on developed certain binomial series (see Section \\ref{newton}) which played a role in his subsequent work on the calculus. From the work of Leibniz, Galois, Frobenius, and many others, we know of its essential role in algebra. In this paper we rapidly trace the history of the Binomial Theorem, binomial series, and binomial coefficients, with emphasis on their decisive role in function field arithmetic. We also explain conversely how function field arithmetic is now leading to new results in the binomial theory via insights into characteristic $p$ $L$-series.

  17. Ecommerce: Ongoing Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Mohammed

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines some of the challenges of online marketing, including the importance of adding online marketing to corporation budgets. A review of the pros and cons of social networking on the Internet, when used as a marketing tool by companies is presented. In addition, new forms of Internet shoppers and new niches for companies are identified

  18. Ongoing developments in ASAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Mary G.

    2004-11-01

    As optical and illumination systems increase in complexity, it is important that the tools used to design and analyze these systems provide better and more efficient methods for the engineer to correctly model the systems to achieve the most accurate results possible. Important considerations include better interoperability between different analytical tools sharing the total calculation as well as providing more robust interchange between the CAD and optical environments. Several new features in the Advanced Systems Analysis Program (ASAP) are directed at achieving these goals.

  19. Ongoing Documentating Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Thomas C.

    In school district research and evaluation there are constant reminders of the inadequacies of the reductionist positivist paradigm. There is a pressing need to move beyond this outmoded approach, not so much by rejecting experimental inquiry but rather by letting it assume a meaningful role as a specific form of naturalistic inquiry, emphasizing…

  20. THE DEFENSIVE NATURE OF BENEFIT FINDING DURING ONGOING TERRORISM: AN EXAMINATION OF A NATIONAL SAMPLE OF ISRAELI JEWS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Brian J; Hobfoll, Stevan E; Canetti, Daphna; Johnson, Robert J; Galea, Sandro

    2009-01-01

    A study examining the effects of terrorism on a national sample of 1,136 Jewish adults was conducted in Israel via telephone surveys, during the Second Intifada. The relationship between reports of positive changes occurring subsequent to terrorism exposure (i.e., Benefit finding), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity, and negative outgroup attitudes toward Palestinian citizens of Israel (PCI) was examined. Benefit finding was related to greater PTSD symptom severity. Further, Benefit finding was related to greater threat perception of PCI and ethnic exclusionism of PCI. Findings were consistent with hypotheses derived from theories of outgroup bias and support the anxiety buffering role of social affiliation posited by terror management theory. This study suggests that benefit finding may be a defensive coping strategy when expressed under the conditions of ongoing terrorism and external threat.

  1. Ongoing disease activity and changing categories in a long-term nordic cohort study of juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordal, Ellen; Zak, Marek; Aalto, Kristiina

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to describe disease characteristics, long-term course and outcome of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) in a population-based setting. METHODS: Consecutive cases of JIA from defined geographical areas of Denmark, Finland, Sweden and Norway with disease onset...... repeated visits with last visit more than seven years after disease onset (median 98 months, range 84-147). Changes in ILAR category occurred in 10.8% of the children, in addition to extended oligoarthritis developing in 34.8% of the oligoarticular group. Disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARD......), including biologic medications, were used in 58.0% of the children during the observation period. Ongoing disease activity was mostly mild, but 22.9% developed some JIA-related damage. At the last follow-up, remission off medication was found in 42.4% of the children, 8.9% were in remission on medication...

  2. Conserved hypothetical protein Rv1977 in Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains contains sequence polymorphisms and might be involved in ongoing immune evasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yi; Liu, Haican; Wang, Xuezhi; Li, Guilian; Qiu, Yan; Dou, Xiangfeng; Wan, Kanglin

    2015-01-01

    Host immune pressure and associated parasite immune evasion are key features of host-pathogen co-evolution. A previous study showed that human T cell epitopes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are evolutionarily hyperconserved and thus it was deduced that M. tuberculosis lacks antigenic variation and immune evasion. Here, we selected 151 clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from China, amplified gene encoding Rv1977 and compared the sequences. The results showed that Rv1977, a conserved hypothetical protein, is not conserved in M. tuberculosis strains and there are polymorphisms existed in the protein. Some mutations, especially one frameshift mutation, occurred in the antigen Rv1977, which is uncommon in M.tb strains and may lead to the protein function altering. Mutations and deletion in the gene all affect one of three T cell epitopes and the changed T cell epitope contained more than one variable position, which may suggest ongoing immune evasion.

  3. Ongoing evaluation of ease-of-use and usefulness of wireless tablet computers within an ambulatory care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kevin C; Wong, Frances L; Martin, Lee Ann; Edmiston, Dave

    2009-01-01

    This ongoing research is to assess user acceptance of wireless convertible tablet portable computers in their support of patient care within the clinic environment and to determine their impact on workload reduction for the information staff. A previous publication described our initial experience with a limited wireless environment. There, we tested the premise that wireless convertible tablet computers were equivalent to desktop computers in their support of user tasks. Feedback from users demonstrated that convertible tablet computers were not able to replace desktop computers. Poor network access was a weakness as well as the "cognitive overhead" encountered due to technical problems. This paper describes our further experience with a centre-wide wireless implementation while using a new wireless device. The new tablets, which have some unique functions that existing desktop computers do not provide, have been well received by the clinicians.

  4. The future for follow-up of gynaecological cancer in Europe. Summary of available data and overview of ongoing trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leeson, Simon C.; Beaver, Kinta; Ezendam, Nicole P.M.

    2017-01-01

    is currently in progress in Europe, in order to make tentative recommendations for a model of follow-up. The evidence base for traditional hospital based follow-up is limited. Alternative models have been reported for other cancer types but there are few evaluations of alternative approaches for gynaecological...... cancers. We identified five ongoing European studies; four were focused on endometrial cancer patients and one feasibility study included all gynaecological cancers. Only one study had reached the reporting stage. Alternative models included nurse-led telephone follow-up and comparisons of more intensive...... versus less intensive regimes. Outcomes included survival, quality of life, psychological morbidity, patient satisfaction and cost effectiveness of service. More work is needed on alternative strategies for all gynaecological cancer types. New models will be likely to include risk stratification...

  5. Procedure for matching synfuel users with potential suppliers. Appendix B. Proposed and ongoing synthetic fuel production projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-08-07

    To assist the Department of Energy, Office of Fuels Conversion (OFC), in implementing the synthetic fuel exemption under the Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act (FUA) of 1978, Resource Consulting Group, Inc. (RCG), has developed a procedure for matching prospective users and producers of synthetic fuel. The matching procedure, which involves a hierarchical screening process, is designed to assist OFC in: locating a supplier for a firm that wishes to obtain a synthetic fuel exemption; determining whether the fuel supplier proposed by a petitioner is technically and economically capable of meeting the petitioner's needs; and assisting the Synthetic Fuels Corporation or a synthetic fuel supplier in evaluating potential markets for synthetic fuel production. A data base is provided in this appendix on proposed and ongoing synthetic fuel production projects to be used in applying the screening procedure. The data base encompasses a total of 212 projects in the seven production technologies.

  6. Indigenous Peoples, States and Higher Education. Lessons from Latin American experiences and their potential for ongoing processes in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Mato

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past three decades a significant number of indigenous and/or intercultural universities and other higher education institutions (HEIs have been created in several Latin American countries. Additionally, “conventional” universities and other HEIs have established degrees, diplomas, and various types of special programs aimed at the inclusion of indigenous people. Some of these educational modalities have been created by indigenous peoples’ organizations and /or leaders, others by universities and other “conventional” HEIs, sometimes through partnerships between these types of institutions and indigenous organizations, while other initiatives have been driven by States. In Argentina these processes are comparatively newer than in several other countries in the region. This article presents an overview of the types of experiences being developed in several Latin American countries, highlights their main achievements and challenges, and suggests some potentially useful lessons for ongoing processes in Argentina.

  7. Effect of triceps surae and quadriceps muscle fatigue on the mechanics of landing in stepping down in ongoing gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, F A; Gobbi, L T B; Lee, Y J; Pijnappels, M; van Dieën, J H

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of muscle fatigue of triceps surae and quadriceps muscles in stepping down in ongoing gait. We expected that the subjects would compensate for muscle fatigue to prevent potential loss of balance in stepping down. A total of 10 young participants walked over a walkway at a self-selected velocity to step down a height difference of 10-cm halfway. Five trials were performed before and after a muscle fatigue protocol. Participants performed two fatigue protocols: one for ankle muscle fatigue and another for knee muscle fatigue. Kinematics of and ground reaction forces on the leading leg were recorded. Fatigue did not cause a change in the frequency of heel or toe landing. Our results indicate that in stepping down fatigue effects are compensated by redistributing work to unfatigued muscle groups and by gait changes aimed at enhancing balance control, which was however only partially successful.

  8. Ongoing effects of no-take marine reserves on commercially exploited coral trout populations on the Great Barrier Reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ian; Cheal, Alistair J; Emslie, Michael J; Logan, Murray; Sweatman, Hugh

    2012-08-01

    Networks of no-take marine reserves (NTMRs) are widely used for managing marine resources. Because they restrict fishing, managers need to monitor reserves to reassure stakeholders that they are achieving the intended results. In 2004, the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Marine Park was rezoned and the area of NTMRs was greatly increased. Using manta tow we assessed the effectiveness of the new NTMRs in conserving coral trout (Plectropomus and Variola spp.), the principle targets of the GBR reef line fishery. Over a six year period, we sampled regional groups of matched pairs of similar reefs, ones closed to fishing under the rezoning and ones that remained open. Coral trout populations were significantly higher in NTMRs. While coral trout populations declined on reefs open to fishing, stocks were maintained in NTMRs, highlighting the ongoing benefits of marine reserves.

  9. THE TRANSFORMATIVE POWER OF THE EU-UKRAINE DCFTA: EVIDENCE FROM THE ONGOING DEREGULATION REFORM IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryna Rabinovych

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The lack of genuine transformative power in the region was repeatedly distinguished as a major weakness of the Eastern Partnership (EaP in Ukraine. However, the intensity and comprehensiveness of ongoing reform processes cause the need to revise the transformative power of the initiative in general and specific incentives in particular. Thus, the paper aims to assess the transformative power of the EU-Ukraine DCFTA, based on the evidence from the deregulation reform that represents an important prerequisite for the intensification of the EU-Ukraine economic relations. The study focuses on the general economic aspects of deregulation and combines ’black letter law’ approach with an empirical insight into the reform’s implementation. The results of the study show that the EU-Ukraine DCFTA holds significant transformative power with regard to the deregulation of Ukraine’s economy and invite for further reconsideration of the EaP incentives’ impact in target states.

  10. The Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications Program of the National Human Genome Research Institute: reflections on an ongoing experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Jean E; Boyer, Joy T; Sun, Kathie Y; Rothenberg, Karen H; Lockhart, Nicole C; Guyer, Mark S

    2014-01-01

    For more than 20 years, the Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications (ELSI) Program of the National Human Genome Research Institute has supported empirical and conceptual research to anticipate and address the ethical, legal, and social implications of genomics. As a component of the agency that funds much of the underlying science, the program has always been an experiment. The ever-expanding number of issues the program addresses and the relatively low level of commitment on the part of other funding agencies to support such research make setting priorities especially challenging. Program-supported studies have had a significant impact on the conduct of genomics research, the implementation of genomic medicine, and broader public policies. The program's influence is likely to grow as ELSI research, genomics research, and policy development activities become increasingly integrated. Achieving the benefits of increased integration while preserving the autonomy, objectivity, and intellectual independence of ELSI investigators presents ongoing challenges and new opportunities.

  11. The repository commission. A historic chance to solve an ongoing conflict; Die Endlagerkommission als historische Chance zur Loesung eines Dauerkonfliktes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleemann, Ulrich [Kommission Lagerung hoch radioaktiver Abfallstoffe, Berlin (Germany); Struktur- und Genehmigungsdirektion Nord, Koblenz (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Germany's Commission on the Disposal of High-level Radioactive Waste, which was set up in compliance with the country's Repository Site Selection Act, has been tasked with drawing up criteria for a site selection process and evaluating the act by mid-2016. Lessons can be learned from the failed Asse and Gorleben repository projects, and the selection process should take these into account. Transparency and widespread public participation are crucial to reaching a broad consensus on the issue of permanent disposal. The commission must also produce a plan for avoiding and correcting errors during the selection process. Key elements of a selection process already exist or can be adapted to reflect the current state of the art with relatively little effort. Working from this basis, it should be possible to achieve a result that can end the ongoing conflict surrounding permanent disposal.

  12. Reinforcement and punishment of substance abuse during ongoing interactions: a conversational test of inconsistent nurturing as control theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, Ashley P; Dailey, Rene M; Le Poire, Beth A

    2008-01-01

    This study is the first to examine inconsistent nurturing as control (INC) theory during ongoing interpersonal influence episodes between substance-abusive individuals and their romantic partners. This study sought to determine how nonverbal (i.e., kinesic and vocalic) and verbal reinforcement and punishment of substance-abusive behavior during actual interactions influenced substance-abusive individuals' recidivism and perceptions of non-using partners' persuasive effectiveness. The findings reveal that consistent verbal punishment of substance abuse (e.g., threats, nagging) predicted lower relapse, while verbal reinforcement (e.g., telling the partner they are more fun when they use) predicted higher relapse. With regard to nonverbal communication, vocalic punishment and vocalic reinforcement predicted relapse and persuasive effectiveness. Results suggest the combination of behaviors resemble intermittent reinforcement and punishment and should actually strengthen the substance-abusive behavior the partner is trying to curtail.

  13. Continuous Media Tasks Scheduling Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myungryun Yoo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors propose modified proportional share scheduling algorithm considering the characteristics of continuous media such as its continuity and time dependency. Proposed scheduling algorithm shows graceful degradation of performance in overloaded situation and decreases the number of context switching. Proposed scheduling algorithm is evaluated using several numerical tests under various conditions, especially overloaded situation.

  14. Continuous supersonic plasma wind tunnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S.A.; Jensen, Vagn Orla; Nielsen, P.

    1968-01-01

    The B field configuration of a Q-device has been modified into a magnetic Laval nozzle. Continuous supersonic plasma flow is observed with M≈3......The B field configuration of a Q-device has been modified into a magnetic Laval nozzle. Continuous supersonic plasma flow is observed with M≈3...

  15. Continuing Education: Facing the Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, Marianne

    1986-01-01

    Examines a number of issues facing the Australian library and information services community in the area of continuing education, including recommendations of the Library Association of Australia, the cost of continuing education activities, the role and responsibility of schools of library and information studies, and notions of coordination.…

  16. Rational Exponentials and Continued Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, J. K.

    2012-01-01

    Using continued fraction expansions, we can approximate constants, such as pi and e, using an appropriate integer n raised to the power x[superscript 1/x], x a suitable rational. We review continued fractions and give an algorithm for producing these approximations.

  17. ONGOING ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHIC ACTIVITY ASSOCIATED WITH CORTICAL AROUSAL IN TRANSGENIC PDAPP MICE (hAPP V717F).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Percio, Claudio; Drinkenburg, Wilhelmus; Lopez, Susanna; Limatola, Cristina; Bastlund, Jesper F; Christensen, Ditte Zerlang; Pedersen, Jan T; Forloni, Gianluigi; Frasca, Angelisa; Noè, Francesco M; Bentivoglio, Marina; Fabene, Paolo F; Bertini, Giuseppe; Colavito, Valeria; Dix, Sophie; Ferri, Raffaele; Bordet, Regis; Richardso, Jill C; Babiloni, Claudio

    2017-07-04

    It has been shown that theta (6-10 Hz) and delta (1-6 Hz) ongoing electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms revealed variations in the cortical arousal in C57 Wild Type (WT) mice during cage exploration (active condition) compared to awake quiet behavior (passive condition; IMI PharmaCog project, www.pharmacog.eu). Test if these EEG rhythms might be abnormal in old PDAPP mice modeling Alzheimer's disease (AD) with a hAPP Indiana V717F mutation (They show abnormal neural transmission, cognitive deficits, and brain accumulation of Aβ1-42). Ongoing EEG rhythms were recorded by a frontoparietal bipolar channel in 15 PDAPP and 23 WT C57 male mice (mean age of 22.8 months ±0.4 and 0.3 standard error, respectively). EEG absolute power (density) was calculated. Frequency and amplitude of individual delta and theta frequency (IDF and ITF) peaks were considered during passive and active states in the wakefulness. Compared with the WT group, the PDAPP group showed higher frequency of the IDF during the passive condition and lower frequency of the ITF during the active state. Furthermore, the WT but not PDAPP group showed significant changes in the frontoparietal EEG power (IDF, ITF) during active over passive state. PDAPP mice were characterized by less changes in the brain arousal during an active state as revealed by frontoparietal EEG rhythms. Future studies will have to cross-validate the present results on large animal groups, clarify the neurophysiological underpinning of the effect, and test if the disease modifying drugs against AD amyloidosis normalize those candiate EEG biomarkers in PDAPP mice. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Non-invasive prediction of blastocyst implantation, ongoing pregnancy and live birth, by mass spectrometry lipid fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Edson; Braga, Daniela P A F; Setti, Amanda Souza; Montanni, Daniela A; Cabral, Elaine Cristina; Eberlin, Marcos N; Turco, Edson G Lo; Iaconelli, Assumpto

    2016-12-01

    To identify lipid markers of blastocyst implantation and ongoing pregnancy by day three culture medium mass spectrometry (MS) fingerprinting. For this study, 33 culture media samples were harvested on day three, from 22 patients undergoing day five embryo transfers. All embryos achieved the blastocyst stage and were split into groups based on their implantation (Negative Implantation, n= 14 and Positive Implantation, n= 19). The positive implantation cycles resulted in successful ongoing pregnancies. The lipid extraction was performed by the Bligh-Dyer protocol and mass spectra were obtained with a direct infusion into a Q-Tof mass spectrometer. The data obtained was analyzed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Square Discrimination Analysis (PLS-DA). The statistical analysis was performed using the Metabo-Analyst 2.0. The variable importance in the projection (VIP) plot of the PLS-DA provided a list of four ions, in the positive mode, with an area under the curve (AUC) of 73.5%; and eight ions, in the negative mode, with and AUC of 72.0%. For both positive and negative modes, possible biomarkers for the negative implantation were identified by the lipidmaps: phosphoethanolamine, dicarboxylic acids, glycerophosphoglycerol, glycerophosphocholine, glicerophosphoinositol, phosphoethanolamine and unsaturated fat acids. The other ions were not identified. These lipids are involved in the GPI anchor biosynthesis and synthesis of lycerophospholipids and phosphate inositol. MS fingerprinting is useful to identify blastocysts that fail to implant, and therefore this technique could be incorporated into the laboratory routine, adjunct to morphology evaluation to identify embryos that should not be transferred.

  19. Non-invasive prediction of blastocyst implantation, ongoing pregnancy and live birth, by mass spectrometry lipid fingerprinting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges Jr., Edson; Braga, Daniela P.A.F.; Setti, Amanda Souza; Montanni, Daniela A.; Cabral, Elaine Cristina; Eberlin, Marcos N.; Turco, Edson G. Lo; Iaconelli Jr, Assumpto

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify lipid markers of blastocyst implantation and ongoing pregnancy by day three culture medium mass spectrometry (MS) fingerprinting. Methods For this study, 33 culture media samples were harvested on day three, from 22 patients undergoing day five embryo transfers. All embryos achieved the blastocyst stage and were split into groups based on their implantation (Negative Implantation, n= 14 and Positive Implantation, n= 19). The positive implantation cycles resulted in successful ongoing pregnancies. The lipid extraction was performed by the Bligh-Dyer protocol and mass spectra were obtained with a direct infusion into a Q-Tof mass spectrometer. The data obtained was analyzed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Square Discrimination Analysis (PLS-DA). The statistical analysis was performed using the Metabo-Analyst 2.0. Results The variable importance in the projection (VIP) plot of the PLS-DA provided a list of four ions, in the positive mode, with an area under the curve (AUC) of 73.5%; and eight ions, in the negative mode, with and AUC of 72.0%. For both positive and negative modes, possible biomarkers for the negative implantation were identified by the lipidmaps: phosphoethanolamine, dicarboxylic acids, glycerophosphoglycerol, glycerophosphocholine, glicerophosphoinositol, phosphoethanolamine and unsaturated fat acids. The other ions were not identified. These lipids are involved in the GPI anchor biosynthesis and synthesis of lycerophospholipids and phosphate inositol. Conclusion MS fingerprinting is useful to identify blastocysts that fail to implant, and therefore this technique could be incorporated into the laboratory routine, adjunct to morphology evaluation to identify embryos that should not be transferred. PMID:28050958

  20. Assessing the potential for an ongoing arms race within and between the sexes: selection and heritable variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friberg, Urban; Lew, Timothy A; Byrne, Phillip G; Rice, William R

    2005-07-01

    In promiscuous species, sexual selection generates two opposing male traits: offense (acquiring new mates and supplanting stored sperm) and defense (enforcing fidelity on one's mates and preventing sperm displacement when this fails). Coevolution between these traits requires both additive genetic variation and associated natural selection. Previous work with Drosophila melanogaster found autosomal genetic variation for these traits among inbred lines from a mixture of populations, but only nonheritable genetic variation was found within a single outbred population. These results do not support ongoing antagonistic coevolution between offense and defense, nor between either of these male traits and female reproductive characters. Here we use a new method (hemiclonal analysis) to study genomewide genetic variation in a large outbred laboratory population of D. melanogaster. Hemiclonal analysis estimates the additive genetic variation among random, genomewide haplotypes taken from a large, outbred, locally adapted laboratory population and determines the direction of the selection gradient on this variation. In contrast to earlier studies, we found low but biologically significant heritable variation for defensive and offensive offspring production as well as all their components (P1, fidelity, P2, and remating). Genetic correlations between these traits were substantially different from those reported for inbred lines. A positive genetic correlation was found between defense and offense, demonstrating that some shared genes influence both traits. In addition to this common variation, evidence for unique genetic variation for each trait was also found, supporting an ongoing coevolutionary arms race between defense and offense. Reproductive conflict between males can strongly influence female fitness. Correspondingly, we found genetic variation in both defense and offense that affected female fitness. No evidence was found for intersexual conflict in the context of

  1. Deep X-ray Observations of an Ongoing Merger and 400 Myr of AGN Activity in Cygnus A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Michael W.; De Vries, Martijn; Nulsen, Paul; Snios, Bradford; Birkinshaw, Mark; Worrall, Diana; Duffy, Ryan; Halbesma, Timo; Donnert, Julius; Hardcastle, Martin

    2017-08-01

    We present a detailed spatial and spectral analysis of the large-scale X-ray emission associated with the merging cluster of galaxies containing the powerful Cygnus A radio galaxy. Using a new 1 Msec exposure from the ongoing Chandra XVP project, we have mapped the large-scale structure, temperature and abundance of the ICM in a 1 Mpc x 1 Mpc region surrounding Cygnus A. This new, deep exposure resolves unprecedented detail in the jets, lobes, and cocoon shock associated with Cygnus A, and provides new insights into the emission mechanisms that produce these features as well as implications for the ongoing activity of the central AGN. On larger scales, these new data reveal complex and dramatic temperature, pressure, entropy and metallicity structure in the ICM surrounding Cygnus A. We confirm the presence of large-scale X-ray emission associated with the two merging cluster components seen previously in lower resolution data. The temperature structure on the scale of the merger exhibits an asymmetric enhancement to the NW consistent with projected hotter gas from the merger shock. Using the derived density and temperature profiles in the two merging sub-cluster components as inputs, we have constructed a grid of hydro-dynamical simulations to constrain the geometry of the merger system. These models imply a pre-merger system with a 1:1 mass ratio at the virial radius with an inclination toward the line of sight of 35-45 deg. In addition to the merger-induced temperature asymmetry, we find evidence for additional surface brightness and temperature features indicative of previous outburst activity in Cygnus A over the past 400 Myr. Based on the location and strength of these features, we derive the energy associated with these previous outbursts and place constraints on the growth of the black hole in Cygnus A over that timescale.

  2. Investigating ongoing brain oscillations and their influence on conscious perception – network states and the window to consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp eRuhnau

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In cognitive neuroscience, prerequisites of consciousness are of high interest. Within recent years it has become more commonly understood that ongoing brain activity, mainly measured with electrophysiology, can predict whether an upcoming stimulus is consciously perceived. One approach to investigate the relationship between ongoing brain activity and conscious perception is to conduct near-threshold (NT experiments and focus on the pre-stimulus period. The current review will, in the first part, summarize main findings of pre-stimulus research from NT experiments, mainly focusing on the alpha band (8-14 Hz. It is probable that the most prominent finding is that local (mostly sensory areas show enhanced excitatory states prior to detection of upcoming NT stimuli, as putatively reflected by decreased alpha band power. However, the view of a solely local excitability change seems to be too narrow. In a recent paper, using a somatosensory NT task, Weisz et al. (2014 replicated the common alpha finding and, furthermore, conceptually embedded this finding into a more global framework called ‘Windows to Consciousness’ (Win2Con. In this review, we want to further elaborate on the crucial assumption of ‘open windows’ to conscious perception, determined by pre-established pathways connecting sensory and higher order areas. Methodologically, connectivity and graph theoretical analyses are applied to source-imaging magnetoencephalographic data to uncover brain regions with strong network integration as well as their connection patterns. Sensory regions with stronger network integration will more likely distribute information when confronted with weak NT stimuli, favoring its subsequent conscious perception. First experimental evidence confirms our aforementioned ‘open window’ hypothesis. We therefore emphasize that future research on prerequisites of consciousness needs to move on from investigating solely local excitability to a more global

  3. An ongoing process: A qualitative study of how the alcohol-dependent free themselves of addiction through progressive abstinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che Hui-Lian

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most people being treated for alcoholism are unable to successfully quit drinking within their treatment programs. In few cases do we know the full picture of how abstinence is achieved in Taiwan. We tracked processes of abstinence in alcohol-dependency disorders, based on study evidence and results. This research explores the process of recovery from the viewpoint of the alcohol-dependent. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted in two different settings, using purpose sampling, during 2003-2004. The data were analyzed using content analysis. Participants were 32 adults, purposefully selected from an Alcoholics Anonymous group and a psychiatric hospital in North Taiwan. Results We found that the abstinence process is an ongoing process, in which the alcohol-dependent free themselves of addiction progressively. This process never ends or resolves in complete recovery. We have identified three stages in the struggle against alcoholism: the Indulgence, Ambivalence and Attempt (IAA cycle, in which the sufferer is trapped in a cycle of attempting to give up and failing; the Turning Point, in which a Personal Nadir is reached, and the Ongoing Process of abstinence, in which a constant effort is made to remain sober through willpower and with the help of support groups. We also discuss Influencing Factors that can derail abstinence attempts, pushing the sufferer back into the IAA cycle. Conclusion This study provides important points of reference for alcohol and drug service workers and community healthcare professionals in Taiwan, casting light on the abstinence process and providing a basis for intervention or rehabilitation services.

  4. DNA damage-processing in E. coli: on-going protein synthesis is required for fixation of UV-induced lethality and mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Amanda; Raymer, Jenny; Bockrath, R

    2002-10-01

    UV irradiation of E. coli produces photoproducts in the DNA genome. In consequence, some bacteria lose viability (colony-forming ability) or remain viable as mutant cells. However, the end-points of viability inactivation (lethality) or mutation are determined by cellular processes that act on the UV-damaged DNA. We have investigated the in vivo time course for processes that deal with cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) which can be specifically removed by photoreactivation (PR). At different times during post-UV incubation, samples were challenged with PR and assayed for viability or mutation. We used excision-defective E. coli B/r cells and worked under yellow light to avoid background PR. During post-UV incubation (0-100min) in fully supplemented defined medium, inactivation and mutation were initially significantly reversed by PR but the extent of this reversal decreased during continued incubation defining "fixation" of lethality or mutation, respectively. In contrast, if protein synthesis was restricted during the post-UV incubation, no fixation developed. When chloramphenicol was added to inhibit protein synthesis after 30min of supplemented post-UV incubation, at a time sufficient for expression of UV-induced protein(s), fixation of lethality or mutation was still annulled (no change in the effectiveness of PR developed). Lethality fixation did progress when protein synthesis was restricted and the cells were incubated in the presence of puromycin or were either clpP or clpX defective. We discuss these and related results to suggest (1) on-going protein synthesis is required in the fixation process for lethality and mutation to sustain an effective level of a hypothetical protein sensitive to ClpXP proteolysis and (2) this protein plays a critical role in the process leading to exchange between Pol III activity and alternative polymerase activities required as each cell deals with damage in template DNA.

  5. Completely Continuous and Weakly Completely Continuous Abstract Segal Algebras

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fatemeh Abtahi

    2013-11-01

    Let $\\mathcal{A}$ be a Banach algebra. It is obtained a necessary and sufficient condition for the complete continuity and also weak complete continuity of symmetric abstract Segal algebras with respect to $\\mathcal{A}$, under the condition of the existence of an approximate identity for $\\mathcal{B}$, bounded in $\\mathcal{A}$. In addition, a necessary condition for the weak complete continuity of $\\mathcal{A}$ is given. Moreover, the applications of these results about some group algebras on locally compact groups are obtained.

  6. Continued professional competence and portfolios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Michelle; Delarose, Teresa; King, Cecil A; Leske, Jane; Sapnas, Kathryn G; Schroeter, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    It is traditionally assumed that licensure of healthcare professionals means that they are minimally competent. Many nursing specialty organizations offer examinations and other processes for certification, suggesting that certification is associated with continued competency. Can standardized examination for certification and continuing education for recertification ensure continued competency? Continuing education and testing provide a limited picture of an individual's knowledge and/or skill acquisition in a limited area at one point in time. However, portfolios promote critical thinking, self-assessment, and individual accountability. A portfolio is a portable mechanism for evaluating competencies that may otherwise be difficult to assess. This article summarizes some of the literature addressing portfolios, including aspects of portfolio development process, the value of portfolios versus continuing education for competency assessment, evidence associated with portfolio usage, and suggestions for organizing nursing portfolios.

  7. Continuous cofinal maps on ultrafilters

    CERN Document Server

    Dobrinen, Natasha

    2011-01-01

    An ultrafilter $\\mathcal{U}$ on a countable base {\\em has continuous Tukey reductions} if whenever an ultrafilter $\\mathcal{V}$ is Tukey reducible to $\\mathcal{U}$, then every monotone cofinal map $f:\\mathcal{U}\\ra\\mathcal{V}$ is continuous when restricted to some cofinal subset of $\\mathcal{U}$. In the first part of the paper, we give mild conditions under which the property of having continuous Tukey reductions is inherited under Tukey reducibility. In particular, if $\\mathcal{U}$ is Tukey reducible to a p-point then $\\mathcal{U}$ has continuous Tukey reductions. In the second part, we show that any countable iteration of Fubini products of p-points has Tukey reductions which are continuous with respect to its topological Ramsey space of $\\vec{\\mathcal{U}}$-trees.

  8. One Small Step at a Time: Implementing Continuous Quality Improvement in Child and Youth Mental Health Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chovil, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    Continuous quality improvement (CQI) is increasingly being adopted by health care, including child and youth mental health services. As part of the commitment to ongoing quality improvement, child and youth mental health teams in the Fraser region in British Columbia undertook CQI projects over a one year period (2007-2008). The projects covered a…

  9. THE THEOLOGICAL INTERPRETATION OF THE BOOK OF EXODUS AS NARRATIVES CONCERNING ORIGIN AND MIGRATION AS AN ONGOING NEGOTIATION OF IDENTITY BY THE TIV PEOPLE OF NIGERIA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jonathan Weor

    2012-01-01

    ... text that would be informed by the African context and circumstance, this article argues that the Tiv people of Nigeria read and interpret Exodus as an ongoing identity negotiation and not merely...

  10. Utilization of In-Situ Resources and Transported Materials for Infrastructure and Hardware Manufacturing on the Moon - Ongoing Developments by ESA Materials Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pambaguian, L.; Makaya, A.; Lafont, U.

    2016-11-01

    This contribution presents a review of completed and ongoing activities led by the European Space Agency's Materials Scientist on the use of in-situ resources and transported materials to enable exploration and settlement activities on the Moon.

  11. Protein design using continuous rotamers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Gainza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimizing amino acid conformation and identity is a central problem in computational protein design. Protein design algorithms must allow realistic protein flexibility to occur during this optimization, or they may fail to find the best sequence with the lowest energy. Most design algorithms implement side-chain flexibility by allowing the side chains to move between a small set of discrete, low-energy states, which we call rigid rotamers. In this work we show that allowing continuous side-chain flexibility (which we call continuous rotamers greatly improves protein flexibility modeling. We present a large-scale study that compares the sequences and best energy conformations in 69 protein-core redesigns using a rigid-rotamer model versus a continuous-rotamer model. We show that in nearly all of our redesigns the sequence found by the continuous-rotamer model is different and has a lower energy than the one found by the rigid-rotamer model. Moreover, the sequences found by the continuous-rotamer model are more similar to the native sequences. We then show that the seemingly easy solution of sampling more rigid rotamers within the continuous region is not a practical alternative to a continuous-rotamer model: at computationally feasible resolutions, using more rigid rotamers was never better than a continuous-rotamer model and almost always resulted in higher energies. Finally, we present a new protein design algorithm based on the dead-end elimination (DEE algorithm, which we call iMinDEE, that makes the use of continuous rotamers feasible in larger systems. iMinDEE guarantees finding the optimal answer while pruning the search space with close to the same efficiency of DEE.Software is available under the Lesser GNU Public License v3. Contact the authors for source code.

  12. Intermittent redesign of continuous controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawthrop, Peter J.; Wang, Liuping

    2010-08-01

    The reverse-engineering idea developed by Maciejowski in the context of model-based predictive control is applied to the redesign of continuous-time compensators as intermittent controllers. Not only does this give a way of designing constrained input and state versions of continuous-time compensators but also provides a method for turning continuous-time compensators into event-driven versions. The procedure is illustrated by three examples: an event-driven PID controller relevant to the human balance control problem, a constrained version of the classical mechanical vibration absorber of den Hartog and an event driven and constrained vibration absorber.

  13. Continuous cofinal maps on ultrafilters

    OpenAIRE

    Dobrinen, Natasha

    2011-01-01

    An ultrafilter $\\mathcal{U}$ on a countable base {\\em has continuous Tukey reductions} if whenever an ultrafilter $\\mathcal{V}$ is Tukey reducible to $\\mathcal{U}$, then every monotone cofinal map $f:\\mathcal{U}\\ra\\mathcal{V}$ is continuous when restricted to some cofinal subset of $\\mathcal{U}$. In the first part of the paper, we give mild conditions under which the property of having continuous Tukey reductions is inherited under Tukey reducibility. In particular, if $\\mathcal{U}$ is Tukey ...

  14. Thermodynamics with Continuous Information Flow

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Horowitz, Jordan M; Esposito, Massimiliano

    2014-01-01

    .... We show that many important results previously derived for nonautonomous Maxwell demons can be recovered from our formalism and use a cycle decomposition to analyze the continuous information flow...

  15. Continuous Delivery and Quality Monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    After introducing Continuous Delivery, I will switch the topic and try to answer the question how much should we invest in quality and how to do it efficiently. My observations reveal that software quality is often considered as the slo...

  16. Competitive Strategy in Continuing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baden, Clifford

    1987-01-01

    Reviews strategic variables available to those planning continuing education marketing programs. Discusses generic competitive strategies: (1) overall cost leadership, (2) differentiation, and (3) specialization. Mentions several potential problems. (CH)

  17. Competitive Strategy in Continuing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baden, Clifford

    1987-01-01

    Reviews strategic variables available to those planning continuing education marketing programs. Discusses generic competitive strategies: (1) overall cost leadership, (2) differentiation, and (3) specialization. Mentions several potential problems. (CH)

  18. The Engineering Societies & Continuing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Professional Engineer, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Gives a description of what the major engineering societies (ASCE, ASME, AICHE, and IEEE) are doing in the area of continuing education. The description includes the short courses, their costs, duration, type and scope of the content. (GA)

  19. The Engineering Societies & Continuing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Professional Engineer, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Gives a description of what the major engineering societies (ASCE, ASME, AICHE, and IEEE) are doing in the area of continuing education. The description includes the short courses, their costs, duration, type and scope of the content. (GA)

  20. Asymmetric reactions in continuous flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Yin Mak

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available An overview of asymmetric synthesis in continuous flow and microreactors is presented in this review. Applications of homogeneous and heterogeneous asymmetric catalysis as well as biocatalysis in flow are discussed.

  1. Continuous smearing of Wilson Loops

    CERN Document Server

    Lohmayer, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Continuum smearing was introduced in section 4.1 of JHEP03, 064 (2006) as a meaningful continuum analogue of the well known set of lattice techniques by the same name. Here we apply continuous smearing in continuous space-time to Wilson loops in order to clarify what it does in the context of field theory and also in the context of the loop calculus of the Makeenko-Migdal equation.

  2. Continuous-Energy Data Checks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeck, Wim [Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety Institute, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Conlin, Jeremy Lloyd [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); McCartney, Austin Paul [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Parsons, Donald Kent [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-25

    The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of all Quality Assurance tests that have to be performed on a nuclear data set to be transformed into an ACE formatted nuclear data file. The ACE file is capable of containing different types of data such as continuous energy neutron data, thermal scattering data, etc. Within this report, we will limit ourselves to continuous energy neutron data.

  3. Business continuity 2014: From traditional to integrated Business Continuity Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ee, Henry

    As global change continues to generate new challenges and potential threats to businesses, traditional business continuity management (BCM) slowly reveals its limitations and weak points to ensuring 'business resiliency' today. Consequently, BCM professionals also face the challenge of re-evaluating traditional concepts and introducing new strategies and industry best practices. This paper points to why traditional BCM is no longer sufficient in terms of enabling businesses to survive in today's high-risk environment. It also looks into some of the misconceptions about BCM and other stumbling blocks to establishing effective BCM today. Most importantly, however, this paper provides tips based on the Business Continuity Institute's (BCI) Good Practices Guideline (GPG) and the latest international BCM standard ISO 22301 on how to overcome the issues and challenges presented.

  4. Continuous Approximations of a Class of Piecewise Continuous Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danca, Marius-F.

    In this paper, we provide a rigorous mathematical foundation for continuous approximations of a class of systems with piecewise continuous functions. By using techniques from the theory of differential inclusions, the underlying piecewise functions can be locally or globally approximated. The approximation results can be used to model piecewise continuous-time dynamical systems of integer or fractional-order. In this way, by overcoming the lack of numerical methods for differential equations of fractional-order with discontinuous right-hand side, unattainable procedures for systems modeled by this kind of equations, such as chaos control, synchronization, anticontrol and many others, can be easily implemented. Several examples are presented and three comparative applications are studied.

  5. The NASA Continuous Risk Management Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorny, Frank M.

    2004-01-01

    As an intern this summer in the GRC Risk Management Office, I have become familiar with the NASA Continuous Risk Management Process. In this process, risk is considered in terms of the probability that an undesired event will occur and the impact of the event, should it occur (ref., NASA-NPG: 7120.5). Risk management belongs in every part of every project and should be ongoing from start to finish. Another key point is that a risk is not a problem until it has happened. With that in mind, there is a six step cycle for continuous risk management that prevents risks from becoming problems. The steps are: identify, analyze, plan, track, control, and communicate & document. Incorporated in the first step are several methods to identify risks such as brainstorming and using lessons learned. Once a risk is identified, a risk statement is made on a risk information sheet consisting of a single condition and one or more consequences. There can also be a context section where the risk is explained in more detail. Additionally there are three main goals of analyzing a risk, which are evaluate, classify, and prioritize. Here is where a value is given to the attributes of a risk &e., probability, impact, and timeframe) based on a multi-level classification system (e.g., low, medium, high). It is important to keep in mind that the definitions of these levels are probably different for each project. Furthermore the risks can be combined into groups. Then, the risks are prioritized to see what risk is necessary to mitigate first. After the risks are analyzed, a plan is made to mitigate as many risks as feasible. Each risk should be assigned to someone in the project with knowledge in the area of the risk. Then the possible approaches to choose from are: research, accept, watch, or mitigate. Next, all risks, mitigated or not, are tracked either individually or in groups. As the plan is executed, risks are re-evaluated, and the attribute values are adjusted as necessary. Metrics

  6. The NASA Continuous Risk Management Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorny, Frank M.

    2004-01-01

    As an intern this summer in the GRC Risk Management Office, I have become familiar with the NASA Continuous Risk Management Process. In this process, risk is considered in terms of the probability that an undesired event will occur and the impact of the event, should it occur (ref., NASA-NPG: 7120.5). Risk management belongs in every part of every project and should be ongoing from start to finish. Another key point is that a risk is not a problem until it has happened. With that in mind, there is a six step cycle for continuous risk management that prevents risks from becoming problems. The steps are: identify, analyze, plan, track, control, and communicate & document. Incorporated in the first step are several methods to identify risks such as brainstorming and using lessons learned. Once a risk is identified, a risk statement is made on a risk information sheet consisting of a single condition and one or more consequences. There can also be a context section where the risk is explained in more detail. Additionally there are three main goals of analyzing a risk, which are evaluate, classify, and prioritize. Here is where a value is given to the attributes of a risk &e., probability, impact, and timeframe) based on a multi-level classification system (e.g., low, medium, high). It is important to keep in mind that the definitions of these levels are probably different for each project. Furthermore the risks can be combined into groups. Then, the risks are prioritized to see what risk is necessary to mitigate first. After the risks are analyzed, a plan is made to mitigate as many risks as feasible. Each risk should be assigned to someone in the project with knowledge in the area of the risk. Then the possible approaches to choose from are: research, accept, watch, or mitigate. Next, all risks, mitigated or not, are tracked either individually or in groups. As the plan is executed, risks are re-evaluated, and the attribute values are adjusted as necessary. Metrics

  7. Archaeogeophysical data acquisition and analysis at Tel Burna, Israel: a valuable opportunity for ongoing ground-truth investigation and collaboration (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincus, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    , acquired in a zigzag east-west direction, proceeding south. The area extended from the present excavation border to the north and east. The following paper will discuss the method of data acquisition, post-processing, and analysis of the results. The final conclusions of the survey show a continuation of several key walls to the east, a valuable sub-surface tracing of the limestone bedrock, and the limit to which the archaeological material is present spatially in Area B to the north. These results play a major role in determining where to focus excavation efforts in the 2014 excavation season. This unique collaboration with the archaeological team and ongoing opportunity for archaeological ground-truthing will be documented and published as the site develops. As there is a limited presence of such data within the corpus of published archaeogeophysical research, we look forward to further investigations at the site in the coming years.

  8. Dietary antioxidants: Do they have a role to play in the ongoing fight against abnormal glucose metabolism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avignon, Antoine; Hokayem, Marie; Bisbal, Catherine; Lambert, Karen

    2012-07-01

    Overfeeding, an increased intake of saturated fatty acids, and sugary foods are key dietary changes that have occurred in recent decades in addition to the emergence of the obesity epidemic. In addition to an increase in energy storage as fat, these dietary changes are accompanied by an increase in mitochondrial macronutrient oxidation, leading to an excessive free radical production and, hence, oxidative stress. The latter has long been considered a central mechanism linking nutrient overload, insulin resistance, the metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. However, food, through fruit and vegetable consumption, also can be a great source of antioxidants that protect the body against oxidative damage and insulin resistance and thus help cope with the metabolic backlash of the energy-dense Westernized diet. Experimental data are in favor of the beneficial role conveyed by antioxidants in glucose metabolism, but clinical data in humans remain controversial. This review therefore aimed to sort out any underlying discrepancies and provide an overall clear view of the role of antioxidants in the ongoing fight against abnormal glucose metabolism.

  9. Wastewater treatment with submerged fixed bed biofilm reactor systems--design rules, operating experiences and ongoing developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, S; Koeser, H

    2007-01-01

    Wastewater treatment systems using bio-films that grow attached to a support media are an alternative to the widely used suspended growth activated sludge process. Different fixed growth biofilm reactors are commercially used for the treatment of municipal as well as industrial wastewater. In this paper a fairly new fixed growth biofilm system, the submerged fixed bed biofilm reactor (SFBBR), is discussed. SFBBRs are based on aerated submerged fixed open structured plastic media for the support of the biofilm. They are generally operated without sludge recirculation in order to avoid clogging of the support media and problems with the control of the biofilm. Reactor and process design considerations for these reactors are reviewed. Measures to ensure the development and maintenance of an active biofilm are examined. SFBBRs have been applied successfully to small wastewater treatment plants where complete nitrification but no high degree of denitrification is necessary. For the pre-treatment of industrial wastewater the use of SFBBRs is advantageous, especially in cases of wastewater with high organic loading or high content of compounds with low biodegradability. Performance data from exemplary commercial plants are given. Ongoing research and development efforts aim at achieving a high simultaneous total nitrogen (TN) removal of aerated SFBBRs and at improving the efficiency of TN removal in anoxic SFBBRs.

  10. Primary human cervical carcinoma cells require human papillomavirus E6 and E7 expression for ongoing proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaldi, Thomas G; Almstead, Laura L; Bellone, Stefania; Prevatt, Edward G; Santin, Alessandro D; DiMaio, Daniel

    2012-01-05

    Repression of human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 and E7 oncogenes in established cervical carcinoma cell lines causes senescence due to reactivation of cellular tumor suppressor pathways. Here, we determined whether ongoing expression of HPV16 or HPV18 oncogenes is required for the proliferation of primary human cervical carcinoma cells in serum-free conditions at low passage number after isolation from patients. We used an SV40 viral vector expressing the bovine papillomavirus E2 protein to repress E6 and E7 in these cells. To enable efficient SV40 infection and E2 gene delivery, we first incubated the primary cervical cancer cells with the ganglioside GM1, a cell-surface receptor for SV40 that is limiting in these cells. Repression of HPV in primary cervical carcinoma cells caused them to undergo senescence, but the E2 protein had little effect on HPV-negative primary cells. These data suggest that E6 and E7 dependence is an inherent property of human cervical cancer cells. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Primary human cervical carcinoma cells require human papillomavirus E6 and E7 expression for ongoing proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magaldi, Thomas G.; Almstead, Laura L. [Department of Genetics, Yale School of Medicine, P.O. Box 208005, New Haven, CT 06520-8005 (United States); Bellone, Stefania [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, Yale School of Medicine, P.O. Box 208063, New Haven, CT 06520-8063 (United States); Prevatt, Edward G. [Department of Genetics, Yale School of Medicine, P.O. Box 208005, New Haven, CT 06520-8005 (United States); Santin, Alessandro D. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, Yale School of Medicine, P.O. Box 208063, New Haven, CT 06520-8063 (United States); Yale Comprehensive Cancer Center, P.O. Box 208028, New Haven, CT 06520-8028 (United States); DiMaio, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.dimaio@yale.edu [Department of Genetics, Yale School of Medicine, P.O. Box 208005, New Haven, CT 06520-8005 (United States); Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale School of Medicine, P.O. Box 208040, New Haven, CT 06520-8040 (United States); Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale School of Medicine, P.O. Box 208024 (United States); Yale Comprehensive Cancer Center, P.O. Box 208028, New Haven, CT 06520-8028 (United States)

    2012-01-05

    Repression of human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 and E7 oncogenes in established cervical carcinoma cell lines causes senescence due to reactivation of cellular tumor suppressor pathways. Here, we determined whether ongoing expression of HPV16 or HPV18 oncogenes is required for the proliferation of primary human cervical carcinoma cells in serum-free conditions at low passage number after isolation from patients. We used an SV40 viral vector expressing the bovine papillomavirus E2 protein to repress E6 and E7 in these cells. To enable efficient SV40 infection and E2 gene delivery, we first incubated the primary cervical cancer cells with the ganglioside GM1, a cell-surface receptor for SV40 that is limiting in these cells. Repression of HPV in primary cervical carcinoma cells caused them to undergo senescence, but the E2 protein had little effect on HPV-negative primary cells. These data suggest that E6 and E7 dependence is an inherent property of human cervical cancer cells.

  12. Probiotic characters of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus are a result of the ongoing gene acquisition and genome minimization evolutionary trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papizadeh, Moslem; Rohani, Mahdi; Nahrevanian, Hossein; Javadi, Abdolreza; Pourshafie, Mohammad Reza

    2017-08-18

    Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus are the main probiotic genera. Collectively, these two genera harbor over 200 species among which are many strains have been introduced as probiotics. These health-promoting microbes confer health benefits upon the host and so used in food productions and as supplements. Considering the economic importance of probiotics, the biochemistry, genomics, phylogeny and physiology of such genera have been exhaustively studied. According to the genomic data, the probiotic capabilities are strain specific which may be a result of the niche-specialization of the genomes of these bacteria to certain ecological niches like gastrointestinal tract of a diverse range of animals. These microbes have a wide distribution but the culture-based studies and either genomics data suggest selective affinity of some Lactobacillus and either Bifidobacterium species to certain ecological niches. An ongoing genome degradation, which is thought to be a result of passage through an evolutionary bottleneck, is the major trend in the evolution of lactobacilli. Further, evolutionary events resulted into two categories of lactobacilli: habitat generalists and habitat specialists. In place, the main trend in the evolution of bifidobacteria tend to be the gene acquisition. However, probiotic features are the results of a co-evolutionary relationship between these bacteria and their hosts and the aforementioned evolutionary tends have driven the evolution of these probiotic genera. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cell-Associated Viral Burden Provides Evidence of Ongoing Viral Replication in Aviremic HIV-2-Infected Patients▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Rui S.; Tendeiro, Rita; Foxall, Russell B.; Baptista, António P.; Cavaleiro, Rita; Gomes, Perpétua; Camacho, Ricardo; Valadas, Emília; Doroana, Manuela; Lucas, Margarida; Antunes, Francisco; Victorino, Rui M. M.; Sousa, Ana E.

    2011-01-01

    Viremia is significantly lower in HIV-2 than in HIV-1 infection, irrespective of disease stage. Nevertheless, the comparable proviral DNA burdens observed for these two infections indicate similar numbers of infected cells. Here we investigated this apparent paradox by assessing cell-associated viral replication. We found that untreated HIV-1-positive (HIV-1+) and HIV-2+ individuals, matched for CD4 T cell depletion, exhibited similar gag mRNA levels, indicating that significant viral transcription is occurring in untreated HIV-2+ patients, despite the reduced viremia (undetectable to 2.6 × 104 RNA copies/ml). However, tat mRNA transcripts were observed at significantly lower levels in HIV-2+ patients, suggesting that the rate of de novo infection is decreased in these patients. Our data also reveal a direct relationship of gag and tat transcripts with CD4 and CD8 T cell activation, respectively. Antiretroviral therapy (ART)-treated HIV-2+ patients showed persistent viral replication, irrespective of plasma viremia, possibly contributing to the emergence of drug resistance mutations, persistent hyperimmune activation, and poor CD4 T cell recovery that we observed with these individuals. In conclusion, we provide here evidence of significant ongoing viral replication in HIV-2+ patients, further emphasizing the dichotomy between amount of plasma virus and cell-associated viral burden and stressing the need for antiretroviral trials and the definition of therapeutic guidelines for HIV-2 infection. PMID:21159859

  14. The rise of governmentality in the Italian National Health System: physiology or pathology of a decentralized and (ongoing) federalist system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lega, Federico; Sargiacomo, Massimo; Ianni, Luca

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, we aim to discuss the implications and lessons that can be learnt from the ongoing process of federalism affecting the Italian National Health System (INHS). Many countries are currently taking decisions concerning the decentralization or re-centralization of their health-care systems, with several key issues that are illustrated in the recent history of the INHS. The decentralization process of INHS has produced mixed results, as some regions took advantage of it to strengthen their systems, whereas others were not capable of developing an effective steering role. We argue that the mutual reinforcement of the decentralization and recentralization processes is not paradoxical, but is actually an effective way for the State to maintain control over the equity and efficiency of its health-care system while decentralizing at a regional level. In this perspective, we provide evidence backing up some of the assumptions made in previous works as well as new food-for thought - specifically on how governmentality and federalism should meet - to reshape the debate on decentralization in health care.

  15. Influence of Ongoing Task Difficulty and Motivation Level on Children’s Prospective Memory in a Chinese Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Pi-guo; Han, Lei; Bian, Yu-long; Tian, Yu; Xu, Min-xia; Gao, Feng-qiang

    2017-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM) is the process associated with the task of realizing delayed intentions in the future. Researchers distinguish two types of PM, namely time-based PM (tbPM) and event-based PM (ebPM). Experiment 1 investigated the developmental trajectory of 3- to 5-year-old preschool children’s PM ability, and the occurrence of delayed retrieval (children execute the PM task in a larger window of opportunity) in both tbPM and ebPM tasks. Results revealed that the 5-year-old children outperformed the 3- and 4-year-old children in PM. Moreover, delayed retrieval was more likely to occur in tbPM task than in ebPM task. In Experiment 2, the influence of ongoing task (OT) difficulty on PM performance was investigated with a sample of 5-year-old children. Results revealed no significant effect of OT difficulty on PM performance. In Experiment 3, we improved children’s motivation level to complete the OT, then explored the influence of OT difficulty on children’s PM performance. Results revealed that the effect of OT difficulty on PM performance became significant after increasing the children’s motivation to complete the OT. These results provide insights into the mechanism of attentional resource allocation in PM tasks and have crucial educational and social implications. PMID:28203212

  16. Coded continuous wave meteor radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierinen, Juha; Chau, Jorge L.; Pfeffer, Nico; Clahsen, Matthias; Stober, Gunter

    2016-03-01

    The concept of a coded continuous wave specular meteor radar (SMR) is described. The radar uses a continuously transmitted pseudorandom phase-modulated waveform, which has several advantages compared to conventional pulsed SMRs. The coding avoids range and Doppler aliasing, which are in some cases problematic with pulsed radars. Continuous transmissions maximize pulse compression gain, allowing operation at lower peak power than a pulsed system. With continuous coding, the temporal and spectral resolution are not dependent on the transmit waveform and they can be fairly flexibly changed after performing a measurement. The low signal-to-noise ratio before pulse compression, combined with independent pseudorandom transmit waveforms, allows multiple geographically separated transmitters to be used in the same frequency band simultaneously without significantly interfering with each other. Because the same frequency band can be used by multiple transmitters, the same interferometric receiver antennas can be used to receive multiple transmitters at the same time. The principles of the signal processing are discussed, in addition to discussion of several practical ways to increase computation speed, and how to optimally detect meteor echoes. Measurements from a campaign performed with a coded continuous wave SMR are shown and compared with two standard pulsed SMR measurements. The type of meteor radar described in this paper would be suited for use in a large-scale multi-static network of meteor radar transmitters and receivers. Such a system would be useful for increasing the number of meteor detections to obtain improved meteor radar data products.

  17. Mothers' Continuing Bond With the Baby: The Case of Feticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leichtentritt, Ronit D; Mahat-Shamir, Michal

    2017-04-01

    The nature of the ongoing bond maintained by the bereaved with the deceased has attracted considerable attention, but studies have generally ignored postdeath relationships when loss occurs in utero. The goal of this research was to reach an interpretive understanding of the continuing bond experience among Israeli mothers who underwent feticide, examining the strategies they use in maintaining a postdeath relationship with a child they did not know, whose death they chose and witnessed, within a social context that ignores their loss and forces them to silence their grief. The results highlight two themes: (a) strategies for relinquishing connection with the baby and (b) strategies for maintaining a postdeath relationship. These processes partially correspond with two theoretical views that shed light on interpretation of the results: the dual process of coping with bereavement and relational dialectic theory. Implications of the results to the practice of health providers are outlined.

  18. Staff turnover: occasional friend, frequent foe, and continuing frustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, C R

    1999-09-01

    Turnover appears to be a relatively simple concept. However, considerable confusion results when discussing turnover because of differences in how it is defined--what is counted, how it is counted, and how the rate of turnover is expressed. Turnover is also costly, although not enough attention is paid to turnover's cost because so much of it is indirect and thus not readily visible. There are a variety of causes of turnover, some which can be corrected and some which cannot be avoided. Reducing or otherwise controlling turnover requires continuing management attention to its causes and constant recognition of what can and should be controlled and what cannot be controlled. Ongoing attention to turnover is an essential part of the department manager's role.

  19. A Dynamic Continuation-Passing Style for Dynamic Delimited Continuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biernacki, Dariusz; Danvy, Olivier; Millikin, Kevin Scott

    2005-01-01

    -passing style.' We show that the new machine operates more efficiently than the definitional one and that the notion of computation induced by the corresponding evaluator takes the form of a monad. We also present new examples and a new simulation of dynamic delimited continuations in terms of static ones....

  20. REVISED k-ε TURBULENCE MODEL IN ELECTROMAGNETIC CONTINUOUS CASTING OF MELT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.F. Huo; B.K. Li

    2003-01-01

    The research is motivated by the ongoing the electromagnetic continuous casting of molten metal. The revised k-ε model considering the effect of magnetic field application was derived. The specific model equations for the electromagnetic braking were used to calculate the velocity distribution in the continuous casting mold of steel. The results show that the revised k-ε model considering the effect of magnetic field application tends to suppress the production of turbulence and difference between the conventional and revised k-ε model is small.

  1. Formal Verification of Continuous Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Christoffer

    2012-01-01

    and the verification procedures should be algorithmically synthesizable. Autonomous control plays an important role in many safety-critical systems. This implies that a malfunction in the control system can have catastrophic consequences, e.g., in space applications where a design flaw can result in large economic...... losses. Furthermore, a malfunction in the control system of a surgical robot may cause death of patients. The previous examples involve complex systems that are required to operate according to complex specifications. The systems cannot be formally verified by modern verification techniques, due......The purpose of this thesis is to develop a method for verifying timed temporal properties of continuous dynamical systems, and to develop a method for verifying the safety of an interconnection of continuous systems. The methods must be scalable in the number of continuous variables...

  2. Distributed synthesis in continuous time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermanns, Holger; Krčál, Jan; Vester, Steen

    2016-01-01

    . Indeed, the explicit continuous time enables players to communicate their states by delaying synchronisation (which is unrestricted for non-urgent models). In general, the problems are undecidable already for two players in the quantitative case and three players in the qualitative case. The qualitative......We introduce a formalism modelling communication of distributed agents strictly in continuous-time. Within this framework, we study the problem of synthesising local strategies for individual agents such that a specified set of goal states is reached, or reached with at least a given probability....... The flow of time is modelled explicitly based on continuous-time randomness, with two natural implications: First, the non-determinism stemming from interleaving disappears. Second, when we restrict to a subclass of non-urgent models, the quantitative value problem for two players can be solved in EXPTIME...

  3. Discrete and Continuous Linearizable Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Lafortune, S; Ramani, A

    1998-01-01

    We study the projective systems in both continuous and discrete settings. These systems are linearizable by construction and thus, obviously, integrable. We show that in the continuous case it is possible to eliminate all variables but one and reduce the system to a single differential equation. This equation is of the form of those singled-out by Painlevé in his quest for integrable forms. In the discrete case, we extend previous results of ours showing that, again by elimination of variables, the general projective system can be written as a mapping for a single variable. We show that this mapping is a member of the family of multilinear systems (which is not integrable in general). The continuous limit of multilinear mappings is also discussed.

  4. Continuous biodisel productions: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamenković Ivica S.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuous biodiesel production on laboratory and industrial scale was analyzed, with focus on their advantages and disadvantages. Attention was paid to specific characteristics of industrial processes in order to point out the advanced technologies. The well-known base-catalyzed continuous biodiesel production processes are related to problems caused by the immiscibility of the reactants (alcohol and oil, application of relatively high operating temperature (usually the boiling temperature of alcohol or one near it and obtained yield of methyl ester yields lower than desired. One way to overcome these problems is to employ special reactor design favoring the emulsion process and increasing the overall rate of biodiesel production process, even at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The second way is to apply heterogeneous catalysts in continuous processes, which will probably be the optimal approach to economically justified and environmentally friendly biodiesel production.

  5. Does continuing education improve physical therapists' effectiveness in treating neck pain? A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Joshua A; Fritz, Julie M; Brennan, Gerard P; Magel, Jake

    2009-01-01

    Physical therapists often attend continuing education (CE) courses to improve their overall clinical performance and patient outcomes. However, evidence suggests that CE courses may not improve the outcomes for patients receiving physical therapy for the management of neck pain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of an ongoing educational intervention for improving the outcomes for patients with neck pain. The study participants were 19 physical therapists who attended a 2-day CE course focusing on the management of neck pain. All patients treated by the therapists in this study completed the Neck Disability Index (NDI) and a pain rating scale at the initial examination and at their final visit. Therapists from 11 clinics were invited to attend a 2-day CE course on the management of neck pain. After the CE course, the therapists were randomly assigned to receive either ongoing education consisting of small group sessions and an educational outreach session or no further education. Clinical outcomes achieved by therapists who received ongoing education and therapists who did not were compared for both pretraining and posttraining periods. The effects of receiving ongoing education were examined by use of linear mixed-model analyses with time period and group as fixed factors; improvements in disability and pain as dependent variables; and age, sex, and the patient's initial NDI and pain rating scores as covariates. Patients treated by therapists who received ongoing education experienced significantly greater reductions in disability during the study period (pretraining to posttraining) than those treated by therapists who did not receive ongoing training (mean difference=4.2 points; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.69, 7.7). Changes in pain did not differ for patients treated by the 2 groups of therapists during the study period (mean difference=0.47 point; 95% CI=-0.11, 1.0). Therapists in the ongoing education group also used fewer

  6. Circulating biologically active oxidized phospholipids show on-going and increased oxidative stress in older male mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinbo Liu

    2013-01-01

    Significance: Oxidatively modified phospholipids are increased in the circulation during common, mild oxidant stresses of aging, or in male compared to female animals. Turnover of these biologically active phospholipids by rapid transport into liver and kidney is unchanged, so circulating levels reflect continuously increased production.

  7. Is Social Work Evidence-Based? Does Saying So Make It So? Ongoing Challenges in Integrating Research, Practice and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambrill, Eileen

    2016-01-01

    The integration of research and practice is of concern in all helping professions. Has social work become an evidence-based profession as some claim? Characteristics of current-day social work are presented that dispute this view, related continuing concerns are suggested, and promising developments (mostly outside social work) are described that…

  8. Continuous lengths of oxide superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Donald M.; List, III, Frederick A.

    2000-01-01

    A layered oxide superconductor prepared by depositing a superconductor precursor powder on a continuous length of a first substrate ribbon. A continuous length of a second substrate ribbon is overlaid on the first substrate ribbon. Sufficient pressure is applied to form a bound layered superconductor precursor powder between the first substrate ribbon and the second substrate ribbon. The layered superconductor precursor is then heat treated to establish the oxide superconducting phase. The layered oxide superconductor has a smooth interface between the substrate and the oxide superconductor.

  9. Approximation of continuously differentiable functions

    CERN Document Server

    Llavona, JG

    1986-01-01

    This self-contained book brings together the important results of a rapidly growing area.As a starting point it presents the classic results of the theory. The book covers such results as: the extension of Wells'' theorem and Aron''s theorem for the fine topology of order m; extension of Bernstein''s and Weierstrass'' theorems for infinite dimensional Banach spaces; extension of Nachbin''s and Whitney''s theorem for infinite dimensional Banach spaces; automatic continuity of homomorphisms in algebras of continuously differentiable functions, etc.

  10. LANL continuity of operations plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senutovitch, Diane M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-22

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is a premier national security research institution, delivering scientific and engineering solutions for the nation's most crucial and complex problems. Our primary responsibility is to ensure the safety, security, and reliability of the nation's nuclear stockpile. LANL emphasizes worker safety, effective operational safeguards and security, and environmental stewardship, outstanding science remains the foundation of work at the Laboratory. In addition to supporting the Laboratory's core national security mission, our work advances bioscience, chemistry, computer science, earth and environmental sciences, materials science, and physics disciplines. To accomplish LANL's mission, we must ensure that the Laboratory EFs continue to be performed during a continuity event, including localized acts of nature, accidents, technological or attack-related emergencies, and pandemic or epidemic events. The LANL Continuity of Operations (COOP) Plan documents the overall LANL COOP Program and provides the operational framework to implement continuity policies, requirements, and responsibilities at LANL, as required by DOE 0 150.1, Continuity Programs, May 2008. LANL must maintain its ability to perform the nation's PMEFs, which are: (1) maintain the safety and security of nuclear materials in the DOE Complex at fixed sites and in transit; (2) respond to a nuclear incident, both domestically and internationally, caused by terrorist activity, natural disaster, or accident, including mobilizing the resources to support these efforts; and (3) support the nation's energy infrastructure. This plan supports Continuity of Operations for Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This plan issues LANL policy as directed by the DOE 0 150.1, Continuity Programs, and provides direction for the orderly continuation of LANL EFs for 30 days of closure or 60 days for a pandemic/epidemic event. Initiation of COOP operations may

  11. Continuing progress toward controlled intracellular delivery of semiconductor quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breger, Joyce; Delehanty, James B; Medintz, Igor L

    2015-01-01

    The biological applications of luminescent semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) continue to grow at a nearly unabated pace. This growth is driven, in part, by their unique photophysical and physicochemical properties which have allowed them to be used in many different roles in cellular biology including: as superior fluorophores for a wide variety of cellular labeling applications; as active platforms for assembly of nanoscale sensors; and, more recently, as a powerful tool to understand the mechanisms of nanoparticle mediated drug delivery. Given that controlled cellular delivery is at the intersection of all these applications, the latest progress in delivering QDs to cells is examined here. A brief discussion of relevant considerations including the importance of materials preparation and bioconjugation along with the continuing issue of endosomal sequestration is initially provided for context. Methods for the cellular delivery of QDs are then highlighted including those based on passive exposure, facilitated strategies that utilize peptides or polymers and fully active modalities such as electroporation and other mechanically based methods. Following on this, the exciting advent of QD cellular delivery using multiple or combined mechanisms is then previewed. Several recent methods reporting endosomal escape of QD materials in cells are also examined in detail with a focus on the mechanisms by which access to the cytosol is achieved. The ongoing debate over QD cytotoxicity is also discussed along with a perspective on how this field will continue to evolve in the future. PMID:25154379

  12. Emergency preparedness activities during an ongoing seismic swarm: the experience of the 2011-2012 Pollino (Southern Italy) sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, A.; Mucciarelli, M.; Chiauzzi, L.; De Costanzo, G.; Loperte, G.

    2012-04-01

    Facing natural disasters effects can be a very difficult task lacking suitable activities and tools to preventively prepare the involved community (people, authorities, professionals, …) to the expected events. Therefore, a suite of preventive actions should be carried out to mitigate natural risks, in particular working to reduce the territorial vulnerability with respect to the specific natural hazard at hand, and to increase people response capacity. In fact, building social capacity helps to increase the risk perception and the people capacity to adapt to and cope with natural hazards. Since October 2011 a seismic swarm is affecting the Pollino mountain range, Southern Italy. At present the sequence is still ongoing, with more than 500 events with M>1, at least 40 well perceived by the population and a maximum magnitude at 3.6. The area mainly affected by the seismic sequence includes 12 villages, with a total population of about 50.000 inhabitants and, according to the current seismic hazard map it has high seismicity level. Such area was hit by a magnitude Ml=5.7 event in 1998 that produced macroseismic intensity not higher that VII-VIII degree of MCS scale and caused one dead, some injured and widespread damage in at least six municipalities. During the sequence, the National Department of Civil Protection (DPC) and the Civil Protection of Basilicata Region decided to put in action some measures aimed at verifying and enhancing emergency preparedness. These actions have been carried out with a constant and fruitful collaboration among the main stakeholders involved (scientific community, local and national governmental agencies, civil protection volunteers, etc) trough the following main activities: 1. collaboration between scientific community and the local and national offices of Civil Protection especially in the relationship with local authorities (e.g. mayors, which are civil protection authorities in their municipality); 2. interaction between DPC

  13. Loss of social resources predict incident posttraumatic stress disorder during ongoing political violence within the Palestinian Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Brian J.; Murray, Sarah M.; Galea, Sandro; Canetti, Daphna; Hobfoll, Stevan E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure to ongoing political violence and stressful conditions increases the risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in low resource contexts. However, much of our understanding of the determinants of PTSD in these contexts comes from cross-sectional data. Longitudinal studies that examine factors associated with incident PTSD may be useful to the development of effective prevention interventions and the identification of those who may be most at-risk for the disorder. Methods A 3-stage cluster random stratified sampling methodology was used to obtain a representative sample of 1196 Palestinian adults living in Gaza, the West Bank and East Jerusalem. Face-to-face interviews were at two time points conducted 6-months apart. Logistic regression analyses were conducted on a restricted sample of 643 people who did not have PTSD at baseline and who completed both interviews. Results The incidence of PTSD was 15.0% over a 6-month period. Results of adjusted logistic regression models demonstrated that talking to friends and family about political circumstances (aOR=0.78, p=.01) was protective, and female sex (aOR=1.76, p=.025), threat perception of future violence (aOR=1.50, p=.002), poor general health (aOR=1.39, p=.005), exposure to media (aOR=1.37, p=.002), and loss of social resources (aOR=1.71, p=.006) were predictive of incident cases of PTSD. Conclusions A high incidence of PTSD was documented during a 6-month follow-up period among Palestinian residents of Gaza, the West Bank, and East Jerusalem. Interventions that promote health and increase and forestall loss to social resources could potentially reduce the onset of PTSD in communities affected by violence. PMID:25398199

  14. Loss of social resources predicts incident posttraumatic stress disorder during ongoing political violence within the Palestinian Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Brian J; Murray, Sarah M; Galea, Sandro; Canetti, Daphna; Hobfoll, Stevan E

    2015-04-01

    Exposure to ongoing political violence and stressful conditions increases the risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in low-resource contexts. However, much of our understanding of the determinants of PTSD in these contexts comes from cross-sectional data. Longitudinal studies that examine factors associated with incident PTSD may be useful to the development of effective prevention interventions and the identification of those who may be most at-risk for the disorder. A 3-stage cluster random stratified sampling methodology was used to obtain a representative sample of 1,196 Palestinian adults living in Gaza, the West Bank and East Jerusalem. Face-to-face interviews were conducted at two time points 6-months apart. Logistic regression analyses were conducted on a restricted sample of 643 people who did not have PTSD at baseline and who completed both interviews. The incidence of PTSD was 15.0 % over a 6-month period. Results of adjusted logistic regression models demonstrated that talking to friends and family about political circumstances (aOR = 0.78, p = 0.01) was protective, and female sex (aOR = 1.76, p = 0.025), threat perception of future violence (aOR = 1.50, p = 0.002), poor general health (aOR = 1.39, p = 0.005), exposure to media (aOR = 1.37, p = 0.002), and loss of social resources (aOR = 1.71, p = 0.006) were predictive of incident cases of PTSD. A high incidence of PTSD was documented during a 6-month follow-up period among Palestinian residents of Gaza, the West Bank, and East Jerusalem. Interventions that promote health and increase and forestall loss to social resources could potentially reduce the onset of PTSD in communities affected by violence.

  15. Guillain-Barré Syndrome During Ongoing Zika Virus Transmission - Puerto Rico, January 1-July 31, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirlikov, Emilio; Major, Chelsea G; Mayshack, Marrielle; Medina, Nicole; Matos, Desiree; Ryff, Kyle R; Torres-Aponte, Jomil; Alkis, Rebecca; Munoz-Jordan, Jorge; Colon-Sanchez, Candimar; Salinas, Jorge L; Pastula, Daniel M; Garcia, Myriam; Segarra, Marangely Olivero; Malave, Graciela; Thomas, Dana L; Rodríguez-Vega, Gloria M; Luciano, Carlos A; Sejvar, James; Sharp, Tyler M; Rivera-Garcia, Brenda

    2016-09-02

    Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is a postinfectious autoimmune disorder characterized by bilateral flaccid limb weakness attributable to peripheral nerve damage (1). Increased GBS incidence has been reported in countries with local transmission of Zika virus, a flavivirus transmitted primarily by certain Aedes species mosquitoes (2). In Puerto Rico, three arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are currently circulating: Zika, dengue, and chikungunya. The first locally acquired Zika virus infection in Puerto Rico was reported in December 2015 (3). In February 2016, the Puerto Rico Department of Health (PRDH), with assistance from CDC, implemented the GBS Passive Surveillance System (GBPSS) to identify new cases of suspected GBS (4). Fifty-six suspected cases of GBS with onset of neurologic signs during January 1-July 31, 2016, were identified. Thirty-four (61%) patients had evidence of Zika virus or flavivirus infection; the median age of these patients was 55 years (range = 21-88 years), and 20 (59%) patients were female. These 34 patients were residents of seven of eight PRDH public health regions. All 34 patients were hospitalized and treated with intravenous immunoglobulin G (IVIg), the standard treatment for GBS; 21 (62%) required intensive care unit admission, including 12 (35%) who required endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation. One patient died of septic shock after treatment for GBS. Additionally, 26 cases of neurologic conditions other than GBS were reported through GBPSS, including seven (27%) in patients with evidence of Zika virus or flavivirus infection. Residents of and travelers to Puerto Rico and countries with active Zika virus transmission should follow recommendations for prevention of Zika virus infections.* Persons with signs or symptoms consistent with GBS should promptly seek medical attention. Health care providers in areas with ongoing local transmission seeing patients with neurologic illnesses should consider GBS and report

  16. Coexisting methane and oxygen excesses in nitrate-limited polar water (Fram Strait during ongoing sea ice melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Damm

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Summer sea ice cover in the Arctic Ocean has undergone a reduction in the last decade exposing the sea surface to unforeseen environmental changes. Melting sea ice increases water stratification and induces nutrient limitation, which is also known to play a crucial role in methane formation in oxygenated surface water. We report on a hotspot of methane formation in the marginal ice zone in the western Fram Strait. Our study is based on measurements of oxygen, methane, DMSP, nitrate and phosphate concentrations as well as on phytoplankton composition and light transmission, conducted along the 79° N oceanographic transect. We show that between the eastern Fram Strait, where Atlantic water enters from the south and the western Fram Strait, where Polar water enters from the north, different nutrient limitation occurs and consequently different bloom conditions were established. Ongoing sea ice melting enhances the environmental differences and initiates regenerated production in the western Fram Strait. In a unique biogeochemical feedback process, methane production occurs despite an oxygen excess. We postulate that DMSP (dimethylsulfoniopropionate released from sea ice may serve as a precursor for methane formation. Thus, feedback effects on cycling pathways of methane are likely, with DMSP catabolism in high latitudes possibly contributing to a warming effect on the earth's climate. This process could constitute an additional component in biogeochemical cycling in a seasonal ice-free Arctic Ocean. The metabolic activity (respiration of unicellular organisms explains the presence of anaerobic conditions in the cellular environment. Therefore we present a theoretical model which explains the maintenance of anaerobic conditions for methane formation inside bacterial cells, despite enhanced oxygen concentrations in the environment.

  17. Assuring safety without animal testing: Unilever's ongoing research programme to deliver novel ways to assure consumer safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westmoreland, Carl; Carmichael, Paul; Dent, Matt; Fentem, Julia; MacKay, Cameron; Maxwell, Gavin; Pease, Camilla; Reynolds, Fiona

    2010-01-01

    Assuring consumer safety without the generation of new animal data is currently a considerable challenge. However, through the application of new technologies and the further development of risk-based approaches for safety assessment, we remain confident it is ultimately achievable. For many complex, multi-organ consumer safety endpoints, the development, evaluation and application of new, non-animal approaches is hampered by a lack of biological understanding of the underlying mechanistic processes involved. The enormity of this scientific challenge should not be underestimated. To tackle this challenge a substantial research programme was initiated by Unilever in 2004 to critically evaluate the feasibility of a new conceptual approach based upon the following key components: 1.Developing new, exposure-driven risk assessment approaches. 2.Developing new biological (in vitro) and computer-based (in silico) predictive models. 3.Evaluating the applicability of new technologies for generating data (e.g. "omics", informatics) and for integrating new types of data (e.g. systems approaches) for risk-based safety assessment. Our research efforts are focussed in the priority areas of skin allergy, cancer and general toxicity (including inhaled toxicity). In all of these areas, a long-term investment is essential to increase the scientific understanding of the underlying biology and molecular mechanisms that we believe will ultimately form a sound basis for novel risk assessment approaches. Our research programme in these priority areas consists of in-house research as well as Unilever-sponsored academic research, involvement in EU-funded projects (e.g. Sens-it-iv, Carcinogenomics), participation in cross-industry collaborative research (e.g. Colipa, EPAA) and ongoing involvement with other scientific initiatives on non-animal approaches to risk assessment (e.g. UK NC3Rs, US "Human Toxicology Project" consortium).

  18. On-going electroencephalographic rhythms related to cortical arousal in wild-type mice: the effect of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Percio, Claudio; Drinkenburg, Wilhelmus; Lopez, Susanna; Infarinato, Francesco; Bastlund, Jesper Frank; Laursen, Bettina; Pedersen, Jan T; Christensen, Ditte Zerlang; Forloni, Gianluigi; Frasca, Angelisa; Noè, Francesco M; Bentivoglio, Marina; Fabene, Paolo Francesco; Bertini, Giuseppe; Colavito, Valeria; Kelley, Jonathan; Dix, Sophie; Richardson, Jill C; Babiloni, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    Resting state electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms reflect the fluctuation of cortical arousal and vigilance in a typical clinical setting, namely the EEG recording for few minutes with eyes closed (i.e., passive condition) and eyes open (i.e., active condition). Can this procedure be back-translated to C57 (wild type) mice for aging studies? On-going EEG rhythms were recorded from a frontoparietal bipolar channel in 85 (19 females) C57 mice. Male mice were subdivided into 3 groups: 25 young (4.5-6 months), 18 middle-aged (12-15 months), and 23 old (20-24 months) mice to test the effect of aging. EEG power density was compared between short periods (about 5 minutes) of awake quiet behavior (passive) and dynamic exploration of the cage (active). Compared with the passive condition, the active condition induced decreased EEG power at 1-2 Hz and increased EEG power at 6-10 Hz in the group of 85 mice. Concerning the aging effects, the passive condition showed higher EEG power at 1-2 Hz in the old group than that in the others. Furthermore, the active condition exhibited a maximum EEG power at 6-8 Hz in the former group and 8-10 Hz in the latter. In the present conditions, delta and theta EEG rhythms reflected changes in cortical arousal and vigilance in freely behaving C57 mice across aging. These changes resemble the so-called slowing of resting state EEG rhythms observed in humans across physiological and pathological aging. The present EEG procedures may be used to enhance preclinical phases of drug discovery in mice for understanding the neurophysiological effects of new compounds against brain aging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Coexisting methane and oxygen excesses in nitrate-limited polar water (Fram Strait) during ongoing sea ice melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damm, E.; Thoms, S.; Kattner, G.; Beszczynska-Möller, A.; Nöthig, E. M.; Stimac, I.

    2011-05-01

    Summer sea ice cover in the Arctic Ocean has undergone a reduction in the last decade exposing the sea surface to unforeseen environmental changes. Melting sea ice increases water stratification and induces nutrient limitation, which is also known to play a crucial role in methane formation in oxygenated surface water. We report on a hotspot of methane formation in the marginal ice zone in the western Fram Strait. Our study is based on measurements of oxygen, methane, DMSP, nitrate and phosphate concentrations as well as on phytoplankton composition and light transmission, conducted along the 79° N oceanographic transect. We show that between the eastern Fram Strait, where Atlantic water enters from the south and the western Fram Strait, where Polar water enters from the north, different nutrient limitation occurs and consequently different bloom conditions were established. Ongoing sea ice melting enhances the environmental differences and initiates regenerated production in the western Fram Strait. In a unique biogeochemical feedback process, methane production occurs despite an oxygen excess. We postulate that DMSP (dimethylsulfoniopropionate) released from sea ice may serve as a precursor for methane formation. Thus, feedback effects on cycling pathways of methane are likely, with DMSP catabolism in high latitudes possibly contributing to a warming effect on the earth's climate. This process could constitute an additional component in biogeochemical cycling in a seasonal ice-free Arctic Ocean. The metabolic activity (respiration) of unicellular organisms explains the presence of anaerobic conditions in the cellular environment. Therefore we present a theoretical model which explains the maintenance of anaerobic conditions for methane formation inside bacterial cells, despite enhanced oxygen concentrations in the environment.

  20. Continuous Lunches Are Not Free

    OpenAIRE

    Vose, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Stemming from a paper of Auger and Teytaud, there is a common misconception that for continuous domains No Free Lunch (NFL) does not hold. However, Rowe, Vose, and Wright have demonstrated that NFL holds for arbitrary domains and co-domains. This paper resolves the apparent contradiction.

  1. Marketing Continuing Education for Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA.

    This guide presents an overview of marketing and its potential value in continuing education programs for nurses. The first portion of the guide briefly discusses the concept of marketing. It contains definitions of key marketing concepts (product, place, price, and promotion), discussion of the basic tenets of marketing (consumer needs…

  2. China Continues Its FY Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SunQing

    2004-01-01

    China will continue its FY program by launching FY-2C atop LM-3A launch vehicle probably in October 2004. The geostationary meteorological satellite FY2C will be deployed to replace FY-2B launched on June 25, 2000.

  3. Workload Control with Continuous Release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phan, B. S. Nguyen; Land, M. J.; Gaalman, G. J. C.

    2009-01-01

    Workload Control (WLC) is a production planning and control concept which is suitable for the needs of make-to-order job shops. Release decisions based on the workload norms form the core of the concept. This paper develops continuous time WLC release variants and investigates their due date

  4. Continuous supersonic plasma wind tunnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S.A.; Jensen, Vagn Orla; Nielsen, P.

    1969-01-01

    The normal magnetic field configuration of a Q device has been modified to obtain a 'magnetic Laval nozzle'. Continuous supersonic plasma 'winds' are obtained with Mach numbers ~3. The magnetic nozzle appears well suited for the study of the interaction of supersonic plasma 'winds' with either...

  5. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholze, Alexandra; Lamwers, Stephanie; Tepel, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is linked to increased cardiovascular risk. This risk can be reduced by nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) treatment. As OSA is associated with an increase of several vasoconstrictive factors, we investigated whether nCPAP influences the digital volume...

  6. Continuous Non-malleable Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faust, Sebastian; Mukherjee, Pratyay; Nielsen, Jesper Buus

    2014-01-01

    is based on the inner product function, collision-resistant hashing and non-interactive zero-knowledge proofs of knowledge and requires an untamperable common reference string. We apply continuous non-malleable codes to protect arbitrary cryptographic primitives against tampering attacks. Previous...

  7. Midwives' Motivation for Continuing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laszlo, Halldora; Strettle, Robert J.

    1996-01-01

    Responses from 83 of 120 British midwives showed that motivation for continuing education was strongest in regard to professional competence and innate desire for knowledge, less in regard to legal requirements for practice. Strongest motivators were internal and learning related. Social integration was the least important aspect of continuing…

  8. Unconditional Continuous Variable Dense Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Ralph, T C

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the conditions under which unconditional dense coding can be achieved using continuous variable entanglement. We consider the effect of entanglement impurity and detector efficiency and discuss experimental verification. We conclude that the requirements for a strong demonstration are not as stringent as previously thought and are within the reach of present technology.

  9. Connecting the Dots: Rediscovering Continuity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camenga, Kristin A.; Yates, Rebekah B. Johnson

    2014-01-01

    The topic of continuity is typically not introduced until calculus and then reexamined in real analysis. Recognizing the connections between secondary school mathematics and the advanced mathematics studied at the college level allows teachers to better identify mathematical concepts in student ideas, motivate students by piquing their curiosity,…

  10. For Time-Continuous Optimisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinrich, Mary Katherine; Ayres, Phil

    2016-01-01

    Strategies for optimisation in design normatively assume an artefact end-point, disallowing continuous architecture that engages living systems, dynamic behaviour, and complex systems. In our Flora Robotica investigations of symbiotic plant-robot bio-hybrids, we re- quire computational tools...

  11. In the interest of continuity

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2009-01-01

    Every five years a new Management takes over the fifth floor of the Main Building. The arrival of a new Director-General comes with a desire to change the managerial style. Whilst not contesting the current need for this, we would like to remind you that continuity in the Organization is ensured by the personnel and its Staff Association representatives.

  12. For Time-Continuous Optimisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinrich, Mary Katherine; Ayres, Phil

    2016-01-01

    Strategies for optimisation in design normatively assume an artefact end-point, disallowing continuous architecture that engages living systems, dynamic behaviour, and complex systems. In our Flora Robotica investigations of symbiotic plant-robot bio-hybrids, we re- quire computational tools...

  13. Connecting the Dots: Rediscovering Continuity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camenga, Kristin A.; Yates, Rebekah B. Johnson

    2014-01-01

    The topic of continuity is typically not introduced until calculus and then reexamined in real analysis. Recognizing the connections between secondary school mathematics and the advanced mathematics studied at the college level allows teachers to better identify mathematical concepts in student ideas, motivate students by piquing their curiosity,…

  14. Pythagorean Approximations and Continued Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Javier

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we will show that the Pythagorean approximations of [the square root of] 2 coincide with those achieved in the 16th century by means of continued fractions. Assuming this fact and the known relation that connects the Fibonacci sequence with the golden section, we shall establish a procedure to obtain sequences of rational numbers…

  15. Coded continuous wave meteor radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vierinen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The concept of coded continuous wave meteor radar is introduced. The radar uses a continuously transmitted pseudo-random waveform, which has several advantages: coding avoids range aliased echoes, which are often seen with commonly used pulsed specular meteor radars (SMRs; continuous transmissions maximize pulse compression gain, allowing operation with significantly lower peak transmit power; the temporal resolution can be changed after performing a measurement, as it does not depend on pulse spacing; and the low signal to noise ratio allows multiple geographically separated transmitters to be used in the same frequency band without significantly interfering with each other. The latter allows the same receiver antennas to be used to receive multiple transmitters. The principles of the signal processing are discussed, in addition to discussion of several practical ways to increase computation speed, and how to optimally detect meteor echoes. Measurements from a campaign performed with a coded continuous wave SMR are shown and compared with two standard pulsed SMR measurements. The type of meteor radar described in this paper would be suited for use in a large scale multi-static network of meteor radar transmitters and receivers. This would, for example, provide higher spatio-temporal resolution for mesospheric wind field measurements.

  16. Coded continuous wave meteor radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierinen, J.; Chau, J. L.; Pfeffer, N.; Clahsen, M.; Stober, G.

    2015-07-01

    The concept of coded continuous wave meteor radar is introduced. The radar uses a continuously transmitted pseudo-random waveform, which has several advantages: coding avoids range aliased echoes, which are often seen with commonly used pulsed specular meteor radars (SMRs); continuous transmissions maximize pulse compression gain, allowing operation with significantly lower peak transmit power; the temporal resolution can be changed after performing a measurement, as it does not depend on pulse spacing; and the low signal to noise ratio allows multiple geographically separated transmitters to be used in the same frequency band without significantly interfering with each other. The latter allows the same receiver antennas to be used to receive multiple transmitters. The principles of the signal processing are discussed, in addition to discussion of several practical ways to increase computation speed, and how to optimally detect meteor echoes. Measurements from a campaign performed with a coded continuous wave SMR are shown and compared with two standard pulsed SMR measurements. The type of meteor radar described in this paper would be suited for use in a large scale multi-static network of meteor radar transmitters and receivers. This would, for example, provide higher spatio-temporal resolution for mesospheric wind field measurements.

  17. Coded continuous wave meteor radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, J. L.; Vierinen, J.; Pfeffer, N.; Clahsen, M.; Stober, G.

    2016-12-01

    The concept of a coded continuous wave specular meteor radar (SMR) is described. The radar uses a continuously transmitted pseudorandom phase-modulated waveform, which has several advantages compared to conventional pulsed SMRs. The coding avoids range and Doppler aliasing, which are in some cases problematic with pulsed radars. Continuous transmissions maximize pulse compression gain, allowing operation at lower peak power than a pulsed system. With continuous coding, the temporal and spectral resolution are not dependent on the transmit waveform and they can be fairly flexibly changed after performing a measurement. The low signal-to-noise ratio before pulse compression, combined with independent pseudorandom transmit waveforms, allows multiple geographically separated transmitters to be used in the same frequency band simultaneously without significantly interfering with each other. Because the same frequency band can be used by multiple transmitters, the same interferometric receiver antennas can be used to receive multiple transmitters at the same time. The principles of the signal processing are discussed, in addition to discussion of several practical ways to increase computation speed, and how to optimally detect meteor echoes. Measurements from a campaign performed with a coded continuous wave SMR are shown and compared with two standard pulsed SMR measurements. The type of meteor radar described in this paper would be suited for use in a large-scale multi-static network of meteor radar transmitters and receivers. Such a system would be useful for increasing the number of meteor detections to obtain improved meteor radar data products, such as wind fields. This type of a radar would also be useful for over-the-horizon radar, ionosondes, and observations of field-aligned-irregularities.

  18. Continuous sampling of MSWI dioxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Pao-Chen; Chang, Shu-Hao; Buekens, Alfons; Chang, Moo-Been

    2016-02-01

    Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) is generally considered as a well-controlled source of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), in brief dioxins. Start-up conditions continue, however, to be problematic. A self-developed continuous sampler was specially designed and built to fulfill the various sampling criteria of U.S. EPA Method 23 and monitor the trends of dioxins emissions during diverse operating conditions. In the MSWI plant investigated, a 98.1% TEQ PCDD/F removal efficiency was achieved in normal operation using activated carbon injection + bag filtration (ACI + BF) and the corresponding PCDD/F emission remains well below the standard set by Taiwan EPA (0.1 ng I-TEQ/Nm(3) @ 11% O2). During start-up, however, continuous sampling indicates that this limit value is reached only after 12 and 9 days, respectively for the 1st (2011) and 2nd test campaign (2012). Only 15 days after start-up the PCDD/F emissions shrunk to the levels typically measured during normal operation. The PCDD/F emissions from the 1st and 2nd continuous sampling campaigns were 5.4 and 5.5 mg I-TEQ, respectively. Short-term PCDD/F sampling such as the U.S. EPA Method 23 is less adapted to monitor these transient PCDD/F emissions representatively and accurately, due to a steady decrease of PCDD/F emissions after start-up. This self-developed continuous sampler effectively enhances the ease and reliability of emission data collecting during transient conditions of MSWI.

  19. Importance of Knowledge Continuity in Business Continuity Management

    OpenAIRE

    Hana Urbancová; Kateřina Venclová

    2013-01-01

    At present, the real generator of wealth in society, as well as in the economy as a whole, is knowledge. Knowledge that is critical and precious for an organization (whose loss would represent a threat for the organisation) and that is valuable for competitors needs to be treated with care. Knowledge continuity management is, also, applied to preserve critical knowledge in an organisation in situations where its holder leaves to join a competitor or to retire. The article aims to identify the...

  20. In vitro assessment of recombinant, mutant immunoglobulin G anti-D devoid of hemolytic activity for treatment of ongoing hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Leif K; Green, Trine H; Sandlie, Inger

    2008-01-01

    A specific treatment for ongoing hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) due to anti-D would be very attractive. One approach could be administration to the mother of nonhemolytic anti-D, which by crossing the placenta can block the binding of hemolytic maternal anti-D.......A specific treatment for ongoing hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) due to anti-D would be very attractive. One approach could be administration to the mother of nonhemolytic anti-D, which by crossing the placenta can block the binding of hemolytic maternal anti-D....

  1. Remote sensing research for spatial assessment of woody structure in African savannahs & woodlands –past, on-going, and future work by the CSIR

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mathieu, Renaud SA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available ASSESSMENT OF WOODY STRUCTURE IN AFRICAN SAVANNAHS & WOODLANDS – PAST, ON-GOING, AND FUTURE WORK BY THE CSIR MATHIEU R.1,, NAIDOO L.1, CHO M.1, WESSELS K.2, ASNER G.P3 1Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Natural Resources... products for effective savanna & woodland management • This research is on-going and is a key area of interest for the CSIR Ecosystems Earth Observation unit Box 2: LiDAR Studies and Examples Box 4: Multi-angle optical technique • E.g. Coarse scale Multi...

  2. Considerations and benefits of implementing an online database tool for business continuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackinnon, Susanne; Pinette, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    In today's challenging climate of ongoing fiscal restraints, limited resources and complex organisational structures there is an acute need to investigate opportunities to facilitate enhanced delivery of business continuity programmes while maintaining or increasing acceptable levels of service delivery. In 2013, Health Emergency Management British Columbia (HEMBC), responsible for emergency management and business continuity activities across British Columbia's health sector, transitioned its business continuity programme from a manual to automated process with the development of a customised online database, known as the Health Emergency Management Assessment Tool (HEMAT). Key benefits to date include a more efficient business continuity input process, immediate situational awareness for use in emergency response and/or advanced planning and streamlined analyses for generation of reports.

  3. Overview of past, ongoing and future efforts of the integrated modeling of global change for Northern Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monier, Erwan; Kicklighter, David; Sokolov, Andrei; Zhuang, Qianlai; Melillo, Jerry; Reilly, John

    2016-04-01

    Northern Eurasia is both a major player in the global carbon budget (it includes roughly 70% of the Earth's boreal forest and more than two-thirds of the Earth's permafrost) and a region that has experienced dramatic climate change (increase in temperature, growing season length, floods and droughts) over the past century. Northern Eurasia has also undergone significant land-use change, both driven by human activity (including deforestation, expansion of agricultural lands and urbanization) and natural disturbances (such as wildfires and insect outbreaks). These large environmental and socioeconomic impacts have major implications for the carbon cycle in the region. Northern Eurasia is made up of a diverse set of ecosystems that range from tundra to forests, with significant areas of croplands and pastures as well as deserts, with major urban areas. As such, it represents a complex system with substantial challenges for the modeling community. In this presentation, we provide an overview of past, ongoing and possible future efforts of the integrated modeling of global change for Northern Eurasia. We review the variety of existing modeling approaches to investigate specific components of Earth system dynamics in the region. While there are a limited number of studies that try to integrate various aspects of the Earth system (through scale, teleconnections or processes), we point out that there are few systematic analyses of the various feedbacks within the Earth system (between components, regions or scale). As a result, there is a lack of knowledge of the relative importance of such feedbacks, and it is unclear how policy relevant current studies are that fail to account for these feedbacks. We review the role of Earth system models, and their advantages/limitations compared to detailed single component models. We further introduce the human activity system (global trade, economic models, demographic model and so on), the need for coupled human/earth system models

  4. Anti-mullerian hormone is higher in seizure-free women with epilepsy compared to those with ongoing seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Cynthia L; Pennell, Page B; French, Jacqueline A; Davis, Anne; Lau, Connie; Llewellyn, Nichelle; Kaufman, Benjamin; Bagiella, Emilia; Kirshenbaum, Ariel

    2016-11-01

    and BMI, the association with AMH was also present (p=0.017). AMH concentrations of the Sz+ group and HCs did not differ. In this exploratory analysis, seizure freedom was associated with higher AMH concentrations compared to women with ongoing seizures and to HCs. Future studies should further investigate the mechanism of the association of AMH with seizure occurrence, whether AMH could have a direct seizure-protective neuroactive hormone effect, as well as implications of AMH concentrations as a biomarker for ovarian reserve in women with epilepsy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Targeting Ongoing DNA Damage in Multiple Myeloma: Effects of DNA Damage Response Inhibitors on Plasma Cell Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Belén Herrero

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Human myeloma cell lines (HMCLs and a subset of myeloma patients with poor prognosis exhibit high levels of replication stress (RS, leading to DNA damage. In this study, we confirmed the presence of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs in several HMCLs by measuring γH2AX and RAD51 foci and analyzed the effect of various inhibitors of the DNA damage response on MM cell survival. Inhibition of ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein (ATR, the main kinase mediating the response to RS, using the specific inhibitor VE-821 induced more cell death in HMCLs than in control lymphoblastoid cells and U266, an HMCL with a low level of DNA damage. The absence of ATR was partially compensated by ataxia telangiectasia-mutated protein (ATM, since chemical inhibition of both kinases using VE-821 and KU-55933 significantly increased the death of MM cells with DNA damage. We found that ATM and ATR are involved in DSB repair by homologous recombination (HR in MM. Inhibition of both kinases resulted in a stronger inhibition that may underlie cell death induction, since abolition of HR using two different inhibitors severely reduced survival of HMCLs that exhibit DNA damage. On the other hand, inhibition of the other route involved in DSB repair, non-homologous end joining (NHEJ, using the DNA-PK inhibitor NU7441, did not affect MM cell viability. Interestingly, we found that NHEJ inhibition did not increase cell death when HR was simultaneously inhibited with the RAD51 inhibitor B02, but it clearly increased the level of cell death when HR was inhibited with the MRE11 inhibitor mirin, which interferes with recombination before DNA resection takes place. Taken together, our results demonstrate for the first time that MM cells with ongoing DNA damage rely on an intact HR pathway, which thereby suggests therapeutic opportunities. We also show that inhibition of HR after the initial step of end resection might be more appropriate for inducing MM cell death, since it

  6. Can the C-14 urea breath test reflect the extent and degree of ongoing helicobacter pylori infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Seok Tae; Sohn, Myung Hee; Lee, Seung Ok; Lee, Soo Taik; Jeong, Myung Ja [Chonbuk National Univ., Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-02-01

    The C-14 urea breath test (C-14 UBT) is the most specific noninvasive method to detect Helicobacter (H) pylori infection. We investigated if the C-14 UBT can reflect the presence and degree of H. pylori detected by gastroduodenoscopic biopsies (GBx). One hundred fifty patients (M:F=83:67,age 48.6{+-}11.2 yrs) underwent C-14 UBT, rapid urease test (CLO test) and GBx on the same day. For the C-14 UBT, a single breath sample was collected at 10 minutes after ingestion of C-14 urea (137 KBq) capsule and counting was done in a liquid scintillation counter for 1 minute, and the results were classified as positive ({>=}200 dpm), intermediate ( 50 {approx} 199 dpm) or negative ( < 50 dpm). The results of CLO tests were classified as positive or negative according to color change. The results of GBx on giemsa stain were graded 0 (normal) to 4(diffuse) according to the distribution of H. pylori by the Wyatt method. We compared C-14 UBT results with GBx grade as a gold standard. In the assessment of the presence of H. pylori infection, the C-14 UBT global performance yielded sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and accuracy of 92.5%, 88.4%, 97.1%, 88.4% and 91.3%, respectively. However, the CLO test had sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy of 83.2%, 81.4%, 91.8%, 81.4% and 82.7%, respectively. The quantitative values of the C-14 UBT were 45 {+-} 27 dpm in grade 0, 707 {+-}584 dpm in grade 1, 1558{+-}584 dpm in grade 2, 1851{+-}604 dpm in grade 3, and 2719 {+-} 892 dpm in grade 4. A significant correlation (r=0.848, p<0.01) was found between C-14 UBT and the grade of distribution of H. pylori infection on GBx with giemsa stain. We conclude that the C-14 UBT is a highly accurate, simple and noninvasive method for the diagnosis of ongoing H. pylori infection and reflects the degree of bacterial distribution.

  7. Black holes by analytic continuation

    CERN Document Server

    Amati, Daniele

    1997-01-01

    In the context of a two-dimensional exactly solvable model, the dynamics of quantum black holes is obtained by analytically continuing the description of the regime where no black hole is formed. The resulting spectrum of outgoing radiation departs from the one predicted by the Hawking model in the region where the outgoing modes arise from the horizon with Planck-order frequencies. This occurs early in the evaporation process, and the resulting physical picture is unconventional. The theory predicts that black holes will only radiate out an energy of Planck mass order, stabilizing after a transitory period. The continuation from a regime without black hole formation --accessible in the 1+1 gravity theory considered-- is implicit in an S matrix approach and provides in this way a possible solution to the problem of information loss.

  8. Personal continuous route pattern mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian YE; Ling CHEN; Gen-cai CHEN

    2009-01-01

    In the daily life, people often repeat regular routes in certain periods. In this paper, a mining system is developed to find the continuous route patterns of personal past trips. In order to count the diversity of personal moving status, the mining system employs the adaptive GPS data recording and five data filters to guarantee the clean trips data. The mining system uses a client/server architecture to protect personal privacy and to reduce the computational load. The server conducts the main mining procedure but with insufficient information to recover real personal routes. In order to improve the scalability of sequential pattern mining, a novel pattern mining algorithm, continuous route pattern mining (CRPM), is proposed. This algorithm can tolerate the different disturbances in real routes and extract the frequent patterns. Experimental results based on nine persons' trips show that CRPM can extract more than two times longer route patterns than the traditional route pattern mining algorithms.

  9. Continuous-variable quantum games

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Hui; Du Jiangfeng; Massar, Serge

    2002-12-30

    We investigate the quantization of games in which the players can access to a continuous set of classical strategies, making use of continuous-variable quantum systems. For the particular case of the Cournot's duopoly, we find that, even though the two players both act as 'selfishly' in the quantum game as they do in the classical game, they are found to virtually cooperate due to the quantum entanglement between them. We also find that the original Einstein-Podolksy-Rosen state contributes to the best profits that the two firms could ever attain. Moreover, we propose a practical experimental setup for the implementation of such quantum games.

  10. PIPER Continuous Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Mark O.; Shirron, Peter J.; Canavan, Edgar R.; James, Bryan L.; Sampson, Michael A.; Letmate, Richard V.

    2017-01-01

    We report upon the development and testing of a 4-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) capable of continuous cooling at 0.100 Kelvin. This cooler is being built to cool the detector array aboard NASA's Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) observatory. The goal of this balloon mission is to measure the primordial gravitational waves that should exist if the theory of cosmological inflation is correct. At altitude, the ADR will hold the array of transition-edge sensors at 100 mK continuously while periodically rejecting heat to a 1.2 K pumped helium bath. During testing on ground, the array is held at the same temperature but heat is rejected to a 4.2 K helium bath indicating the flexibility in this coolers design.

  11. Monolithic Continuous-Flow Bioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanopoulos, Gregory; Kornfield, Julia A.; Voecks, Gerald A.

    1993-01-01

    Monolithic ceramic matrices containing many small flow passages useful as continuous-flow bioreactors. Ceramic matrix containing passages made by extruding and firing suitable ceramic. Pores in matrix provide attachment medium for film of cells and allow free movement of solution. Material one not toxic to micro-organisms grown in reactor. In reactor, liquid nutrients flow over, and liquid reaction products flow from, cell culture immobilized in one set of channels while oxygen flows to, and gaseous reaction products flow from, culture in adjacent set of passages. Cells live on inner surfaces containing flowing nutrient and in pores of walls of passages. Ready access to nutrients and oxygen in channels. They generate continuous high yield characteristic of immobilized cells, without large expenditure of energy otherwise incurred if necessary to pump nutrient solution through dense biomass as in bioreactors of other types.

  12. Quantum teleportation with continuous measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greplova, Eliska; Mølmer, Klaus; Andersen, Christian Kraglund

    2016-10-01

    We propose a scheme for quantum teleportation between two qubits, coupled sequentially to a cavity field. An implementation of the scheme is analyzed with superconducting qubits and a transmission line resonator, where measurements are restricted to continuous probing of the field leaking from the resonator rather than instantaneous projective Bell state measurement. We show that the past quantum state formalism S. Gammelmark, B. Julsgaard, and K. Mølmer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 160401 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.160401 can be successfully applied to estimate what would have been the most likely Bell measurement outcome conditioned on our continuous signal record. This information determines which local operation on the target qubit yields the optimal teleportation fidelity. Our results emphasize the significance of applying a detailed analysis of quantum measurements in feedforward protocols in nonideal leaky quantum systems.

  13. BRST theory for continuous spin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, Anders K. H.

    2013-10-01

    Some puzzling aspects of higher spin field theory in Minkowski space-time, such as the tracelessness constraints and the search for an underlying physical principle, are discussed. A connecting idea might be provided by the recently much researched continuous spin representations of the Poincaré group. The Wigner equations, treated as first class constraints, yields to a four-constraint BRST formulation. The resulting field theory, generalizing free higher spin field theory, is one among a set of higher spin theories that can be related to previous work on unconstrained formulations. In particular, it is conjectured that the unconstrained higher spin theory of Francia and Sagnotti is a limit of a continuous spin theory. Furthermore, a simple analysis of the constraint structure reveals a hint of a physical rationale behind the trace constraints.

  14. BRST Theory for Continuous Spin

    CERN Document Server

    Bengtsson, Anders K H

    2013-01-01

    Some puzzling aspects of higher spin field theory in Minkowski space-time, such as the tracelessness constraints and the search for an underlying physical principle, are discussed. A connecting idea might be provided by the recently much researched continuous spin representations of the Poincar\\'e group. The Wigner equations, treated as first class constraints, yields to a four-constraint BRST formulation. The resulting field theory, generalizing free higher spin field theory, is one among a set of higher spin theories that can be related to previous work on unconstrained formulations. In particular, it is conjectured that the unconstrained higher spin theory of Francia and Sagnotti is a limit of a continuous spin theory. Furthermore, a simple analysis of the constraint structure reveals a hint of a physical rationale behind the trace constraints.

  15. Continuous-Variable Entanglement Swapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Marshall

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a very brief overview of entanglement swapping as it relates to continuous-variable quantum information. The technical background required is discussed and the natural link to quantum teleportation is established before discussing the nature of Gaussian entanglement swapping. The limitations of Gaussian swapping are introduced, along with the general applications of swapping in the context of to quantum communication and entanglement distribution. In light of this, we briefly summarize a collection of entanglement swapping schemes which incorporate a non-Gaussian ingredient and the benefits of such schemes are noted. Finally, we motivate the need to further study and develop such schemes by highlighting requirements of a continuous-variable repeater.

  16. Dental Continuing Education Preference Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    the 63A9Ds and 34.9% for the 63A00s, selected Comprehensive Dentistry as their specialty preference. For the 63A9Ds, orthodontics , periodontics, and...prosthodontics were the next most frequently selected specialties. For the 63A00s, it was orthodontics , prosthodontics, and endodontics. Nearly 10% of...education. International Dental Journal , 28(2): 149-153, 1978. 7. Haroth, R.W. & Halpern, D.F. Maryland Continuing Dental Education Survey: "Your

  17. Analytic continuation of Toeplitz operators

    OpenAIRE

    Bommier-Hato, H.; Engliš, M. (Miroslav); Youssfi, E.-H.

    2015-01-01

    Generalizing results of Rossi and Vergne for the holomorphic discrete series on symmetric domains, on the one hand, and of Chailuek and Hall for Toeplitz operators on the ball, on the other hand, we establish existence of analytic continuation of weighted Bergman spaces, in the weight (Wallach) parameter, as well as of the associated Toeplitz operators (with sufficiently nice symbols), on any smoothly bounded strictly pseudoconvex domain. Still further extension to Sobolev spaces of holomorph...

  18. Topological Photonics for Continuous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveirinha, Mario

    Photonic crystals have revolutionized light-based technologies during the last three decades. Notably, it was recently discovered that the light propagation in photonic crystals may depend on some topological characteristics determined by the manner how the light states are mutually entangled. The usual topological classification of photonic crystals explores the fact that these structures are periodic. The periodicity is essential to ensure that the underlying wave vector space is a closed surface with no boundary. In this talk, we prove that it is possible calculate Chern invariants for a wide class of continuous bianisotropic electromagnetic media with no intrinsic periodicity. The nontrivial topology of the relevant continuous materials is linked with the emergence of edge states. Moreover, we will demonstrate that continuous photonic media with the time-reversal symmetry can be topologically characterized by a Z2 integer. This novel classification extends for the first time the theory of electronic topological insulators to a wide range of photonic platforms, and is expected to have an impact in the design of novel photonic systems that enable a topologically protected transport of optical energy. This work is supported in part by Fundacao para a Ciencia e a Tecnologia Grant Number PTDC/EEI-TEL/4543/2014.

  19. nter-Regional Medical Cooperation in the Caribbean: Lessons from the Ongoing Cooperation between Martinique, St Lucia, and Dominica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Resiere

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Martinique was accepted as an associate member by the Council of Ministers of the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States. This membership constitutes a major asset in bringing Martiniquais closer to the other Caribbean populations and should play a key role as it relates to regional cooperation especially in the domain of healthcare. It is urgent for professionals in the Caribbean to discuss the possibilities of improving relationships between countries in training, development and continuous medical education. Cooperation between the French Caribbean departments and surrounding countries appears to be quite indispensable.

  20. Continuing professional development in nursing in Australia: current awareness, practice and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsikitis, Mary; McAllister, Margaret; Sharman, Rachael; Raith, Lisa; Faithfull-Byrne, Annette; Priaulx, Rae

    2013-08-01

    Australian nurses and midwives are expected to compile a professional development portfolio during their annual registration process. This study aimed to ascertain the current understanding, practice and future continuing professional development (CPD) needs of nurses and midwives employed in a regional area of Queensland, Australia. Perceived barriers and incentives for CPD were also measured. 289 public and private hospital nurses and midwives responded to the survey. Results showed that participants understood the new requirements, valued ongoing learning, preferred education to occur within work hours, and considered their workplaces as accepting of change. Approximately two-thirds of participants believed CPD should be shared between them and their employers. Barriers to undertaking CPD included understaffing, and the concern that CPD would interfere with time outside work. Organisational support positively influenced attitudes to CPD. This study highlights the importance of supportive management in encouraging their workforce to embrace ongoing learning and change.