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Sample records for ctf k-1654b underground

  1. Work plan, health and safety plan, and quality assurance project plan for hazardous waste removal at the CTF K-1654B underground collection tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panter, M.S.; Burman, S.N.; Landguth, D.C.; Uziel, M.S.

    1991-10-01

    The Central Training Facility (CTF), located on Bear Creek Road approximately two miles south of the K-25 Site, is utilized for training security personnel at Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, Tennessee. At the request of the CTF staff, this plan has been developed for the removal of the waste contents in the facility's 500-gal septic tank and associated distribution box. The septic tank and distribution box were historically located beneath the K-1654B trailer and adjacent to the K-1654A Indoor Firing Range. Recently, however, the K-1654B trailer was removed to accommodate the objectives of this work plan as well as future construction activities planned at CTF. The purpose of this plan is to develop and assign responsibilities, establish personnel protection requirements and mandatory safety procedures, and provide for contingencies that may arise while operations are being conducted by ORNL/MAD at the CTF K-1654B underground collection tank site. This document addresses requirements of 29 CFR 1910.120, Final Rule, with respect to aspects of health and safety applicable to an underground collection tank waste removal.

  2. Work plan, health and safety plan, and quality assurance project plan for hazardous waste removal at the CTF K-1654B underground collection tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panter, M.S.; Burman, S.N.; Landguth, D.C.; Uziel, M.S.

    1991-10-01

    The Central Training Facility (CTF), located on Bear Creek Road approximately two miles south of the K-25 Site, is utilized for training security personnel at Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, Tennessee. At the request of the CTF staff, this plan has been developed for the removal of the waste contents in the facility`s 500-gal septic tank and associated distribution box. The septic tank and distribution box were historically located beneath the K-1654B trailer and adjacent to the K-1654A Indoor Firing Range. Recently, however, the K-1654B trailer was removed to accommodate the objectives of this work plan as well as future construction activities planned at CTF. The purpose of this plan is to develop and assign responsibilities, establish personnel protection requirements and mandatory safety procedures, and provide for contingencies that may arise while operations are being conducted by ORNL/MAD at the CTF K-1654B underground collection tank site. This document addresses requirements of 29 CFR 1910.120, Final Rule, with respect to aspects of health and safety applicable to an underground collection tank waste removal.

  3. CTF Theory Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avramova, Maria N. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Salko, Robert K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-05-25

    Coolant-Boiling in Rod Arrays|Two Fluids (COBRA-TF) is a thermal/ hydraulic (T/H) simulation code designed for light water reactor (LWR) vessel analysis. It uses a two-fluid, three-field (i.e. fluid film, fluid drops, and vapor) modeling approach. Both sub-channel and 3D Cartesian forms of 9 conservation equations are available for LWR modeling. The code was originally developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory in 1980 and had been used and modified by several institutions over the last few decades. COBRA-TF also found use at the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) by the Reactor Dynamics and Fuel Management Group (RDFMG) and has been improved, updated, and subsequently re-branded as CTF. As part of the improvement process, it was necessary to generate sufficient documentation for the open-source code which had lacked such material upon being adopted by RDFMG. This document serves mainly as a theory manual for CTF, detailing the many two-phase heat transfer, drag, and important accident scenario models contained in the code as well as the numerical solution process utilized. Coding of the models is also discussed, all with consideration for updates that have been made when transitioning from COBRA-TF to CTF. Further documentation outside of this manual is also available at RDFMG which focus on code input deck generation and source code global variable and module listings.

  4. CTF3 Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, Ronald D

    2003-03-13

    The design of CLIC is based on a two-beam scheme, where short pulses of high power 30 GHz RF are extracted from a drive beam running parallel to the main beam. The 3rd generation CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) will demonstrate the generation of the drive beam with the appropriate time structure, the extraction of 30 GHz RF power from this beam, as well as acceleration of a probe beam with 30 GHz RF cavities. The project makes maximum use of existing equipment and infrastructure of the LPI complex, which became available after the closure of LEP.

  5. Kali Linux CTF blueprints

    CERN Document Server

    Buchanan, Cameron

    2014-01-01

    Taking a highly practical approach and a playful tone, Kali Linux CTF Blueprints provides step-by-step guides to setting up vulnerabilities, in-depth guidance to exploiting them, and a variety of advice and ideas to build and customising your own challenges. If you are a penetration testing team leader or individual who wishes to challenge yourself or your friends in the creation of penetration testing assault courses, this is the book for you. The book assumes a basic level of penetration skills and familiarity with the Kali Linux operating system.

  6. CTF Void Drift Validation Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salko, Robert K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gosdin, Chris [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Avramova, Maria N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gergar, Marcus [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2015-10-26

    This milestone report is a summary of work performed in support of expansion of the validation and verification (V&V) matrix for the thermal-hydraulic subchannel code, CTF. The focus of this study is on validating the void drift modeling capabilities of CTF and verifying the supporting models that impact the void drift phenomenon. CTF uses a simple turbulent-diffusion approximation to model lateral cross-flow due to turbulent mixing and void drift. The void drift component of the model is based on the Lahey and Moody model. The models are a function of two-phase mass, momentum, and energy distribution in the system; therefore, it is necessary to correctly model the ow distribution in rod bundle geometry as a first step to correctly calculating the void distribution due to void drift.

  7. CTF Validation and Verification Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salko, Robert K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Blyth, Taylor S. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Dances, Christopher A. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Magedanz, Jeffrey W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Jernigan, Caleb [Holtec International, Marlton, NJ (United States); Kelly, Joeseph [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Rockville, MD (United States); Toptan, Aysenur [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Gergar, Marcus [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Gosdin, Chris [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Avramova, Maria [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Palmtag, Scott [Core Physics, Inc., Cary, NC (United States); Gehin, Jess C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-05-25

    Coolant-Boiling in Rod Arrays- Two Fluids (COBRA-TF) is a Thermal/Hydraulic (T/H) simulation code designed for Light Water Reactor (LWR) analysis. It uses a two-fluid, three-field (i.e. fluid film, fluid drops, and vapor) modeling approach. Both sub-channel and 3D Cartesian forms of nine conservation equations are available for LWR modeling. The code was originally developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory in 1980 and has been used and modified by several institutions over the last several decades. COBRA-TF is also used at the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) by the Reactor Dynamics and Fuel Management Group (RDFMG), and has been improved, updated, and subsequently became the PSU RDFMG version of COBRA-TF (CTF). One part of the improvement process includes validating the methods in CTF. This document seeks to provide a certain level of certainty and confidence in the predictive capabilities of the code for the scenarios it was designed to model--rod bundle geometries with operating conditions that are representative of prototypical Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR)s and Boiling Water Reactor (BWR)s in both normal and accident conditions. This is done by modeling a variety of experiments that simulate these scenarios and then presenting a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the results that demonstrates the accuracy to which CTF is capable of capturing specific quantities of interest.

  8. Beam stability at CTF3

    CERN Document Server

    Persson, T

    2012-01-01

    The two-beam acceleration tested at CTF3 imposes very tight tolerances on the drive beam stability. A description of the specialized monitoring tool developed to identify the drifts and jitter in the machine is presented. It compares all the relevant signals in an on-line manner to help the operator to identify drifts and to log data for off-line analysis. The main sources for the drifts of the drive beam have been identified and their causes are described. A feedback applied to the RF was implemented to reduce the effects. It works by changing the waveform for the pulse compression to compensate for the drifts.

  9. CTF User's Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avramova, Maria [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Blyth, Taylor S. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Salko, Robert K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This document describes how to make a CTF input deck. A CTF input deck is organized into Card Groups and Cards. A Card Group is a collection of Cards. A Card is de ned as a line of input. Each Card may contain multiple data. A Card is terminated by making a new line.

  10. CTF3 Injector Profile Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Bal, C; Burger, S; Lefèvre, T; CERN. Geneva. AB Department

    2004-01-01

    The electron gun of the CLIC Test Facility 3 (CTF3) produces 15.6µs long pulses with an energy of 140keV and a current that can be as high as 9A. For the nominal beam operation a 5.4A beam current is generated and sent downstream into the bunching system and the rest of the accelerator. The corresponding beam charge will induce a thermal load that most of the materials, considered as radiators, would not withstand. With this problem in mind, we have built a beam imaging system, installed just after the gun and equipped with two screens. The first one is a phosphorescent screen which yields a high signal and can be for low beam currents. The second screen, a thin graphite foil, is used as a forward OTR radiator and can stand the full beam intensity. Moreover, the time resolution of OTR is very good, in the femtosecond range. This allows the observation of the evolution in time of the beam size during the pulse by using a gated camera. We present in this paper the first results obtained using this system.

  11. CTF Preprocessor User's Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avramova, Maria [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Salko, Robert K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-05-26

    This document describes how a user should go about using the CTF pre- processor tool to create an input deck for modeling rod-bundle geometry in CTF. The tool was designed to generate input decks in a quick and less error- prone manner for CTF. The pre-processor is a completely independent utility, written in Fortran, that takes a reduced amount of input from the user. The information that the user must supply is basic information on bundle geome- try, such as rod pitch, clad thickness, and axial location of spacer grids|the pre-processor takes this basic information and determines channel placement and connection information to be written to the input deck, which is the most time-consuming and error-prone segment of creating a deck. Creation of the model is also more intuitive, as the user can specify assembly and water-tube placement using visual maps instead of having to place them by determining channel/channel and rod/channel connections. As an example of the bene t of the pre-processor, a quarter-core model that contains 500,000 scalar-mesh cells was read into CTF from an input deck containing 200,000 lines of data. This 200,000 line input deck was produced automatically from a set of pre-processor decks that contained only 300 lines of data.

  12. CTF3 Drive Beam Injector Optimisation

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2082899; Doebert, S

    2015-01-01

    In the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) the RF power for the acceleration of the Main Beam is extracted from a high-current Drive Beam that runs parallel to the main linac. The main feasibility issues of the two-beam acceleration scheme are being demonstrated at CLIC Test Facility 3 (CTF3). The CTF3 Drive Beam injector consists of a thermionic gun followed by the bunching system and two accelerating structures all embedded in solenoidal magnetic field and a magnetic chicane. Three sub-harmonic bunchers (SHB), a prebuncher and a travelling wave buncher constitute the bunching system. The phase coding process done by the sub-harmonic bunching system produces unwanted satellite bunches between the successive main bunches. The beam dynamics of the CTF3 Drive Beam injector is reoptimised with the goal of improving the injector performance and in particular decreasing the satellite population, the beam loss in the magnetic chicane and the beam emittance in transverse plane compare to the original model based on P. Ur...

  13. 6th CTF3 Collaboration Meeting

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    The sixth CTF3 collaboration meeting was held at CERN from the 1st to the 2nd November 2000. This meeting was devoted to the CTF3 combiner ring, delay loop and transfer lines, with the participation of members of the CLIC study group at CERN and of collaborators from INFN-Frascati. The CTF3 status has been summarized by the project leader, and several members of the INFN-Frascati group have presented an overview of the design activity of the different components. Working group sessions have been held on beam optics, on diagnostics and equipment and on RF deflectors. The main conclusions from the working groups have been reported at the end of the meeting. Issues that have been addressed include prototype design and construction (RF deflectors, path-length tuning wigglers, extraction kicker and vacuum chamber sections) and deadlines for component specifications. The impedance budget for the ring, delay loop and transfer lines, its impact on the choice of beam-position monitors and the problem of beam stability...

  14. CTF3 Drive Beam Accelerating Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, E

    2002-01-01

    The 3 GHz drive beam accelerator of the CLIC Test Facility CTF3, currently under construction at CERN, will be equipped with 16 novel SICA (Slotted Iris – Constant Aperture) accelerating structures. The slotted irises couple out the potentially disruptive induced transverse HOM energy to integrated silicon carbide loads (dipole mode Q's below 20). The use of nose cones for detuning allows a constant inner aperture (34 mm). The structures will be 1.2 m long and consist of 34 cells. A first 6 cell prototype structure has been tested successfully up to power levels of 100 MW (nominal: 30 MW), corresponding to surface electric field levels of 180 MV/m.

  15. Measuring the longitudinal bunch profile at CTF3

    CERN Document Server

    Dabrowski, A E; Bettoni, S; Braun†, H H; Corsini, R; Döbert, S; Egger, D; Lefevre, T; Rabiller, A; Shaker, H; Soby, L; Skowronski, P K; Tecker, F; Velasco, M

    2010-01-01

    The CLIC Test Facility 3 (CTF3) is being built and commissioned by an international collaboration in order to test the feasibility of the proposed Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) two-beam acceleration scheme. The monitoring and control of the bunch length throughout the CTF3 complex is important since this affects the efficiency and the stability of the final RF power production process. Bunch length diagnostics therefore form an essential component of the beam instrumentation at CTF3. This paper presents longitudinal profile measurements based on Streak camera and non-destructive RF power and microwave spectrometry techniques.

  16. CLIC CTF3 for open days

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    (subt french) CLIC – the Compact Linear Collider – is a study for a future accelerator that reaches unprecedented energies for electrons and their antimatter twins, positrons. It uses a novel two-beam acceleration scheme in which the electrons and positrons are propelled to high energy by an additional high current electron beam, the so-called Drive Beam. In order to generate this high current Drive Beam, a long train of electron bunches is accelerated, parts of the train delayed in a Delay Loop and Combiner Rings, and interleaved by transversely deflecting radio-frequency cavities. The CLIC Test Facility CTF3, which is shown in the movie, examines the new technologies envisioned by the CLIC design, in particular the Drive Beam generation and the two-beam acceleration. It is a scaled-down version of the CLIC facility, and it has demonstrated the feasibility of the novel scheme.

  17. CLIC CTF3 for open days

    CERN Multimedia

    CLIC

    2013-01-01

    CLIC – the Compact Linear Collider – is a study for a future accelerator that reaches unprecedented energies for electrons and their antimatter twins, positrons. It uses a novel two-beam acceleration scheme in which the electrons and positrons are propelled to high energy by an additional high current electron beam, the so-called Drive Beam. In order to generate this high current Drive Beam, a long train of electron bunches is accelerated, parts of the train delayed in a Delay Loop and Combiner Rings, and interleaved by transversely deflecting radio-frequency cavities. The CLIC Test Facility CTF3, which is shown in the movie, examines the new technologies envisioned by the CLIC design, in particular the Drive Beam generation and the two-beam acceleration. It is a scaled-down version of the CLIC facility, and it has demonstrated the feasibility of the novel scheme.

  18. CTF3 Design Report Preliminary Phase

    CERN Document Server

    Allard, D; Bernard, M; Bertuzzi, J P; Bienvenu, G; Bonzano, R; Bossart, Rudolf; Braun, H; Bravin, Enrico; Borburgh, J; Buttkus, J; Chazarenc, E; Chaput, R; Chohan, V; Cloye, J J; Corsini, R; Coudert, G; Damiani, M; Deghaye, S; Delahaye, J P; Di Maio, F; Dobers, T; Dubief, P; Dupuy, B; Durieu, L; Ferrari, A; Garvey, Terence; Geschonke, Günther; Hansen, J; Hellgren, H; Hourican, M; Lamidon, M; Le Duff, J; Lefèvre, T; Lewis, J H; Lindroos, J; Mahner, E; McMonagle, G; Monteiro, J; Mourier, J; Mouton, B; Odier, P; Otto, T; Pearce, P; Pittin, R; Poehler, M; Potier, J P; Raich, U; Rettig, M; Rinolfi, Louis; Risselada, Thys; Riva, R; Rossat, G; Royer, P; Sermeus, L; Setas, K; Simonet, G; Sladen, Jonathan P H; Søby, L; Tanner, L; Tecker, F A; Thomi, J C; Wilson, Ian H; Yvon, G

    2001-01-01

    The design of CLIC is based on a two-beam scheme, where the short pulses of high power 30 GHz RF are extracted from a drive beam running parallel to the main beam. The 3rd generation CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) will demonstrate the generation of the drive beam with the appropriate time structure, the extraction of 30 GHz RF power from this beam, as well as acceleration of a probe beam with 30 GHz RF cavities. The project makes maximum use of existing equipment and infrastructure of the LPI complex, which became available after the closure of LEP. In the first stage of the project, the "Preliminary Phase", the existing LIL linac and the EPA ring, both modified to suit the new requirements, are used to investigate the technique of frequency multiplication by means of interleaving bunches from subsequent trains. This report describes the design of this phase.

  19. The CLIC feasibility demonstration in CTF3

    CERN Document Server

    Skowroński, P K; Bettoni, S; Constance, B; Corsini, R; Divall Csatari, M; Dabrowski, A E; Doebert, S; Dubrovskiy, A; Kononenko, O; Olvegaard, M; Persson, T; Rabiller, A; Tecker, F; Farabolini, W; Lillestol, R L; Adli, E; Palaia, A; Ruber, R

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the CLIC Test Facility CTF3 is to demonstrate the feasibility issues of the CLIC two-beam technology: the efficient generation of a very high current drive beam, used as the power source to accelerate the main beam to multi-TeV energies with gradients of over 100 MeV/m, and stable drive beam deceleration. Results of successful beam acceleration with over 100 MeV/m energy gain are shown. Measurements of drive beam deceleration over a chain of Power Extraction Structures (PETS) are presented. The achieved RF power levels, the stability of the power production and of the deceleration are discussed. Finally, we give an overview of the remaining issues to be addressed by the end of 2011.

  20. CTF: Computer security competitions for learning and fun

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    CTF hacking competitions condense practical security knowledge in short and measurable challenges, in short: education, fun, prizes and fame! This talk is an introduction to these type of competitions from a player perspective over the years.

  1. Identification of RFC(Ctf18p, Ctf8p, Dcc1p): an alternative RFC complex required for sister chromatid cohesion in S. cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, M L; Gygi, S P; Aebersold, R; Hieter, P

    2001-05-01

    We have identified and characterized an alternative RFC complex RFC(Ctf18p, Ctf8p, Dcc1p) that is required for sister chromatid cohesion and faithful chromosome transmission. Ctf18p, Ctf8p, and Dcc1p interact physically in a complex with Rfc2p, Rfc3p, Rfc4p, and Rfc5p but not with Rfc1p or Rad24p. Deletion of CTF18, CTF8, or DCC1 singly or in combination (ctf18Deltactf8Deltadcc1Delta) leads to sensitivity to microtubule depolymerizing drugs and a severe sister chromatid cohesion defect. Furthermore, temperature-sensitive mutations in RFC4 result in precocious sister chromatid separation. Our results highlight a novel function of the RFC proteins and support a model in which sister chromatid cohesion is established at the replication fork via a polymerase switching mechanism and a replication-coupled remodeling of chromatin.

  2. Stable interaction between the human proliferating cell nuclear antigen loader complex Ctf18-replication factor C (RFC) and DNA polymerase {epsilon} is mediated by the cohesion-specific subunits, Ctf18, Dcc1, and Ctf8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Takeshi; Takano, Ryuji; Takeo, Satoshi; Taniguchi, Rina; Ogawa, Kaori; Ohashi, Eiji; Tsurimoto, Toshiki

    2010-11-05

    One of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen loader complexes, Ctf18-replication factor C (RFC), is involved in sister chromatid cohesion. To examine its relationship with factors involved in DNA replication, we performed a proteomics analysis of Ctf18-interacting proteins. We found that Ctf18 interacts with a replicative DNA polymerase, DNA polymerase ε (pol ε). Co-immunoprecipitation with recombinant Ctf18-RFC and pol ε demonstrated that their binding is direct and mediated by two distinct interactions, one weak and one stable. Three subunits that are specifically required for cohesion in yeast, Ctf18, Dcc1, and Ctf8, formed a trimeric complex (18-1-8) and together enabled stable binding with pol ε. The C-terminal 23-amino acid stretch of Ctf18 was necessary for the trimeric association of 18-1-8 and was required for the stable interaction. The weak interaction was observed with alternative loader complexes including Ctf18-RFC(5), which lacks Dcc1 and Ctf8, suggesting that the common loader structures, including the RFC small subunits (RFC2-5), are responsible for the weak interaction. The two interaction modes, mediated through distinguishable structures of Ctf18-RFC, both occurred through the N-terminal half of pol ε, which includes the catalytic domain. The addition of Ctf18-RFC or Ctf18-RFC(5) to the DNA synthesis reaction caused partial inhibition and stimulation, respectively. Thus, Ctf18-RFC has multiple interactions with pol ε that promote polymorphic modulation of DNA synthesis. We propose that their interaction alters the DNA synthesis mode to enable the replication fork to cooperate with the establishment of cohesion.

  3. Space nuclear thermal propulsion: Evaluation of PIPET at the INEL's CTF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Thomas J.

    1993-01-01

    The scope of the report is to evaluate the feasibility and provide a rough order of magnitude (ROM) estimate of cost and schedule for testing the PIPET Reactors in the Contained Test Facility (CTF). The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: PIPET Facility requirements; existing CTF Facilities; CTF background; CTR report assumptions; ETS size information; ETS component arrangement evaluation; proposed ETS configuration; the cost evaluation results; and CTF schedule.

  4. Conserved interaction of Ctf18-RFC with DNA polymerase ε is critical for maintenance of genome stability in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okimoto, Hiroko; Tanaka, Seiji; Araki, Hiroyuki; Ohashi, Eiji; Tsurimoto, Toshiki

    2016-05-01

    Human Ctf18-RFC, a PCNA loader complex, interacts with DNA polymerase ε (Polε) through a structure formed by the Ctf18, Dcc1 and Ctf8 subunits. The C-terminal stretch of Ctf18, which is highly conserved from yeast to human, is necessary to form the Polε-capturing structure. We found that in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Ctf18, Dcc1 and Ctf8 formed the same structure through the conserved C-terminus and interacted specifically with Polε. Thus, the specific interaction of Ctf18-RFC with Polε is a conserved feature between these proteins. A C-terminal deletion mutant of Ctf18 (ctf18(ΔC) ) exhibited the same high sensitivity to hydroxyurea as the complete deletion strain (ctf18Δ) or ATPase-deficient mutant (ctf18(K189A) ), but was somewhat less sensitive to methyl methanesulfonate than either of them. These phenotypes were also observed in dcc1Δ and ctf8Δ, predicted to be deficient in the interaction with Polε. Furthermore, both plasmid loss and gross chromosomal rearrangement (GCR) rates were increased in ctf18(ΔC) cells to the same extent as in ctf18Δ cells. These results indicate that the Ctf18-RFC/Polε interaction plays a crucial role in maintaining genome stability in budding yeast, probably through recruitment of this PCNA loader to the replication fork.

  5. Cryogenic piping material selection for the Component Test Facility (CTF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Cyr, William W.

    1991-01-01

    The anticipated high cost of the 8500 psi cryogenic and 15,000 psi gas piping systems used in the CTF at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center led to the consideration of high-strength materials for these piping systems. Based on years of satisfactory service using austenitic stainless steels in cryogenic applications, particularly for hydrogen service, consideration was limited to the austenitic stainless steels. Attention was focused on alternatives to the 304/304L grades of stainless steel traditionally used in these applications. This paper discusses the various considerations that resulted in the decision to continue using 304/304L for the cryogenic piping and the selection of the nitrogen-strengthened 21Cr-6Ni-9Mn alloy (UNS S21903) for the high-pressure gas systems at the CTF.

  6. VERA 3.6 - CTF User's Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avramova, Maria [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Toptan, Aysenur [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Porter, Nathan [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Blyth, Taylor S. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Dances, Christopher A. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Gomez, Ana [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Salko, Robert K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wysocki, Aaron J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jernigan, Caleb [Holtec International, Marlton, NJ (United States); Kelly, Joeseph [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Rockville, MD (United States)

    2017-04-01

    This document describes how to make a CTF input deck. A CTF input deck is organized into Card Groups and Cards. A Card Group is a collection of Cards. A Card is de ned as a line of input. Each Card may contain multiple data. A Card is terminated by making a new line. This document has been organized so that each Card Group is discussed in its own dedicated chapter. Each card is discused in its own dedicated section. Each data in the card is discussed in its own block. The block gives information about the data, including the number of the input, the title, a description of the meaning of the data, units, data type, and so on. An example block is shown below to discuss the meaning of each entry in the block.

  7. Beam Dynamics for the CTF3 Preliminary Phase

    CERN Document Server

    Corsini, R; Rinolfi, Louis; Risselada, Thys; Royer, P; Tecker, F A

    2001-01-01

    In the framework of the CLIC RF power source studies, the new scheme of electron pulse compression and bunch frequency multiplication, using injection by RF deflectors into an isochronous ring, will be tested at CERN during the CTF3 preliminary phase. The present LPI complex will be modified in order to allow a test of this scheme at low charge. The design of the new front-end, of the modified linac, of the matched transfer line, and of the isochronous ring lattice is presented here.The results of the related beam dynamics studies are also discussed.

  8. In-situ Vibration Measurements of the CTF2 Quadrupoles

    CERN Document Server

    Coosemans, Williame

    2004-01-01

    The Compact LInear Collider (CLIC), presently under study at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), aims at colliding high energy â€ワnanobeams” at a luminosity of 1035 cm-2s-1. Vibrations of the lattice elements, if not properly corrected, can result in a loss in performance by creating both unacceptable emittance growth in the linear accelerator and relative beam-beam offsets at the interaction point. Of particular concern are the vibrations induced by the accelerator environment. For example, the circulating water used to cool the lattice quadrupoles will increase magnet vibration levels. In the framework of the CLIC stability study, in-situ measurements of quadrupole vibrations have been performed at the CLIC Test Facility 2 (CTF2) with all accelerator equipment switched on. Since the CTF2 quadrupoles and their alignment support structures are realistic prototypes of those to be used in the CLIC linac, the measurements provide a realistic estimate of the CLIC magnet vibrations in a...

  9. The PHIN photoinjector for the CTF3 Drive beam

    CERN Document Server

    Losito, R; Braun, H; Champault, N; Chevallay, E; Divall, M; Fedosseev, V; Hirst, G; Kumar, A; Kurdi, G; Martin, W; Masi, A; Mercier, B; Musgrave, I; Prevost, C; Ross, I; Roux, R; Springate, E; Suberlucq, Guy

    2006-01-01

    A new photoinjector for the CTF3 drive beam has been designed and is now being constructed by a collaboration among LAL, CCLRC and CERN within PHIN, the second Joint Research Activity of CARE. The photoinjector will provide a train of 2332 pulses at 1.5 GHz with a complex timing structure (sub-trains of 212 pulses spaced from one another by 333 ps or 999 ps) to allow the frequency multiplication scheme, which is one of the features of CLIC, to be tested in CTF3. Each pulse of 2.33 nC will be emitted by a Cs2Te photocathode deposited by a co-evaporation process to allow high quantum efficiency in operation (>3% for a minimum of 40 h). The 3 GHz, 2 1/2 cell RF gun has a 2 port coupler to minimize emittance growth due to asymmetric fields, racetrack profile of the irises and two solenoids to keep the emittance at the output below 20 p.mm.mrad. The laser has to survive very high average powers both within the pulse train (15 kW) and overall (200 W before pulse slicing). Challenging targets are also for amplitude ...

  10. CTF4 (CHL15) mutants exhibit defective DNA metabolism in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouprina, N; Kroll, E; Bannikov, V; Bliskovsky, V; Gizatullin, R; Kirillov, A; Shestopalov, B; Zakharyev, V; Hieter, P; Spencer, F

    1992-12-01

    We have analyzed the CTF4 (CHL15) gene, earlier identified in two screens for yeast mutants with increased rates of mitotic loss of chromosome III and artificial circular and linear chromosomes. Analysis of the segregation properties of circular minichromosomes and chromosome fragments indicated that sister chromatid loss (1:0 segregation) is the predominant mode of chromosome destabilization in ctf4 mutants, though nondisjunction events (2:0 segregation) also occur at an increased rate. Both inter- and intrachromosomal mitotic recombination levels are elevated in ctf4 mutants, whereas spontaneous mutation to canavanine resistance was not elevated. A genomic clone of CTF4 was isolated and used to map its physical and genetic positions on chromosome XVI. Nucleotide sequence analysis of CTF4 revealed a 2.8-kb open reading frame with a 105-kDa predicted protein sequence. The CTF4 DNA sequence is identical to that of POB1, characterized as a gene encoding a protein that associates in vitro with DNA polymerase alpha. At the N-terminal region of the protein sequence, zinc finger motifs which define potential DNA-binding domains were found. The C-terminal region of the predicted protein displayed similarity to sequences of regulatory proteins known as the helix-loop-helix proteins. Data on the effects of a frameshift mutation suggest that the helix-loop-helix domain is essential for CTF4 function. Analysis of sequences upstream of the CTF4 open reading frame revealed the presence of a hexamer element, ACGCGT, a sequence associated with many DNA metabolism genes in budding yeasts. Disruption of the coding sequence of CTF4 did not result in inviability, indicating that the CTF4 gene is nonessential for mitotic cell division. However, ctf4 mutants exhibit an accumulation of large budded cells with the nucleus in the neck. ctf4 rad52 double mutants grew very slowly and produced extremely high levels (50%) of inviable cell division products compared with either single mutant

  11. Design of the Modulator the CTF3 Tail Clipper Kicker

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, M J; Ravida, G; Ueda, A

    2007-01-01

    The goal of the present CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) is to demonstrate the technical feasibility of specific key issues in the CLIC scheme. The extracted beam from the combiner ring (CR), of 35 A in magnitude and 140 ns duration, is sent to the new CLic EXperimental area (CLEX) facility. A Tail Clipper (TC) is required, in the CR to CLEX transfer line, to allow the duration of the extracted beam pulse to be adjusted. It is proposed to use a stripline kicker for the tail clipper, with each of the deflector plates driven to equal but opposite potential. The tail clipper kick must have a fast rise-time, of not more than 5 ns, in order to minimize uncontrolled beam loss. Several different options are being investigated to meet the demanding specifications for the modulator of the tail clipper. This paper discusses options considered for the fast, high voltage, semiconductor switches and shows results of initial tests on the switches.

  12. Measuring the Bunch Frequency Multiplication at CTF3

    CERN Document Server

    Bettoni, S; Corsini, R; Dabrowski, A; Doebert, S; Egger, D; Ferrari, A; Lefevre, T; Rabiller, A; Skowronski, PK; Soby, L; Tecker, F; Welsch, CP

    2010-01-01

    The CLIC Test Facility 3 (CTF3) is being built and commissioned by an international collaboration to test the feasibility of the proposed Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) drive beam generation scheme. Central to this scheme is the use of RF deflectors to inject bunches into a delay loop and a combiner ring, in order to transform the initial bunch frequency of 1.5 GHz from the LINAC to a final bunch frequency of 12 GHz. The optimization procedure relies on several steps. The active length of each ring is carefully adjusted to within less than millimetre accuracy using a wiggler magnet. The transverse optics of the machine must be set up in a way to ensure beam isochronicity. Diagnostics based on optical Streak camera and RF power measurements have been designed to measure the longitudinal behaviour of the beam during the combination. This paper presents their performance and recent measurements

  13. Effect of p95HER2/611CTF on the response to trastuzumab and chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra-Palau, Josep Lluís; Morancho, Beatriz; Peg, Vicente; Escorihuela, Marta; Scaltriti, Maurizio; Vicario, Rocio; Zacarias-Fluck, Mariano; Pedersen, Kim; Pandiella, Atanasio; Nuciforo, Paolo; Serra, Violeta; Cortés, Javier; Baselga, José; Perou, Charles M; Prat, Aleix; Rubio, Isabel T; Arribas, Joaquín

    2014-11-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancers are currently treated with trastuzumab, an anti-HER2 antibody. About 30% of these tumors express a group of HER2 fragments collectively known as p95HER2. Our previous work indicated that p95HER2-positive tumors are resistant to trastuzumab monotherapy. However, recent results showed that tumors expressing the most active of these fragments, p95HER2/611CTF, respond to trastuzumab plus chemotherapy. To clarify this discrepancy, we analyzed the response to chemotherapy of cell lines transfected with p95HER2/611CTF and patient-derived xenografts (n = 7 mice per group) with different levels of the fragment. All statistical tests were two-sided. p95HER2/611CTF-negative and positive tumors showed different responses to various chemotherapeutic agents, which are particularly effective on p95HER2/611CTF-positive cells. Furthermore, chemotherapy sensitizes p95HER2/611CTF-positive patient-derived xenograft tumors to trastuzumab (mean tumor volume, trastuzumab alone: 906 mm(3), 95% confidence interval = 1274 to 538 mm(3); trastuzumab+doxorubicin: 259 mm(3), 95% confidence interval = 387 to 131 mm(3); P chemotherapy in p95HER2/611CTF-positive cells. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. L3.PHI.CTF.P10.02-rev2 Coupling of Subchannel T/H (CTF) and CRUD Chemistry (MAMBA1D)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salko, Robert K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Palmtag, Scott [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Collins, Benjamin S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kendrick, Brian [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Seker, Jeffrey [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, PA (United States)

    2015-05-15

    The purpose of this milestone is to create a preliminary capability for modeling light water reactor (LWR) thermal-hydraulic (T/H) and CRUD growth using the CTF subchannel code and the subgrid version of the MAMBA CRUD chemistry code, MAMBA1D. In part, this is a follow-on to Milestone L3.PHI.VCS.P9.01, which is documented in Report CASL-U-2014-0188-000, titled "Development of CTF Capability for Modeling Reactor Operating Cycles with Crud Growth". As the title suggests, the previous milestone set up a framework for modeling reactor operation cycles with CTF. The framework also facilitated coupling to a CRUD chemistry capability for modeling CRUD growth throughout the reactor operating cycle. To demonstrate the capability, a simple CRUD \\surrogate" tool was developed and coupled to CTF; however, it was noted that CRUD growth predictions by the surrogate were not considered realistic. This milestone builds on L3.PHI.VCS.P9.01 by replacing this simple surrogate tool with the more advanced MAMBA1D CRUD chemistry code. Completing this task involves addressing unresolved tasks from Milestone L3.PHI.VCS.P9.01, setting up an interface to MAMBA1D, and extracting new T/H information from CTF that was not previously required in the simple surrogate tool. Speci c challenges encountered during this milestone include (1) treatment of the CRUD erosion model, which requires local turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) (a value that CTF does not calculate) and (2) treatment of the MAMBA1D CRUD chimney boiling model in the CTF rod heat transfer solution. To demonstrate this new T/H, CRUD modeling capability, two sets of simulations were performed: (1) an 18 month cycle simulation of a quarter symmetry model of Watts Bar and (2) a simulation of Assemblies G69 and G70 from Seabrook Cycle 5. The Watts Bar simulation is merely a demonstration of the capability. The simulation of the Seabrook cycle, which had experienced CRUD-related fuel rod failures, had actual CRUD-scrape data to compare with

  15. Underground Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadlock, Charles R

    2013-01-01

    The movement of groundwater in underground aquifers is an ideal physical example of many important themes in mathematical modeling, ranging from general principles (like Occam's Razor) to specific techniques (such as geometry, linear equations, and the calculus). This article gives a self-contained introduction to groundwater modeling with…

  16. Underground Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-09

    underground explosions has led to significant progress in the development of geomechanics a science studying mechanical properties of rocks and rock...mining industry. One way to improve methods of fragmentation by explosives involves utilizing the geomechanical properties of the rock massif, in...Geomekhanika krupnomasshtabnykh vzryvov ( Geomechanics of large explosions), Nedra, Moscow, 319 pp. [This book in available in electronic format

  17. New functions of Ctf18-RFC in preserving genome stability outside its role in sister chromatid cohesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellon, Lionel; Razidlo, David F; Gleeson, Olive; Verra, Lauren; Schulz, Danae; Lahue, Robert S; Freudenreich, Catherine H

    2011-02-10

    Expansion of DNA trinucleotide repeats causes at least 15 hereditary neurological diseases, and these repeats also undergo contraction and fragility. Current models to explain this genetic instability invoke erroneous DNA repair or aberrant replication. Here we show that CAG/CTG tracts are stabilized in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by the alternative clamp loader/unloader Ctf18-Dcc1-Ctf8-RFC complex (Ctf18-RFC). Mutants in Ctf18-RFC increased all three forms of triplet repeat instability--expansions, contractions, and fragility--with effect over a wide range of allele lengths from 20-155 repeats. Ctf18-RFC predominated among the three alternative clamp loaders, with mutants in Elg1-RFC or Rad24-RFC having less effect on trinucleotide repeats. Surprisingly, chl1, scc1-73, or scc2-4 mutants defective in sister chromatid cohesion (SCC) did not increase instability, suggesting that Ctf18-RFC protects triplet repeats independently of SCC. Instead, three results suggest novel roles for Ctf18-RFC in facilitating genomic stability. First, genetic instability in mutants of Ctf18-RFC was exacerbated by simultaneous deletion of the fork stabilizer Mrc1, but suppressed by deletion of the repair protein Rad52. Second, single-cell analysis showed that mutants in Ctf18-RFC had a slowed S phase and a striking G2/M accumulation, often with an abnormal multi-budded morphology. Third, ctf18 cells exhibit increased Rad52 foci in S phase, often persisting into G2, indicative of high levels of DNA damage. The presence of a repeat tract greatly magnified the ctf18 phenotypes. Together these results indicate that Ctf18-RFC has additional important functions in preserving genome stability, besides its role in SCC, which we propose include lesion bypass by replication forks and post-replication repair.

  18. New functions of Ctf18-RFC in preserving genome stability outside its role in sister chromatid cohesion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel Gellon

    Full Text Available Expansion of DNA trinucleotide repeats causes at least 15 hereditary neurological diseases, and these repeats also undergo contraction and fragility. Current models to explain this genetic instability invoke erroneous DNA repair or aberrant replication. Here we show that CAG/CTG tracts are stabilized in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by the alternative clamp loader/unloader Ctf18-Dcc1-Ctf8-RFC complex (Ctf18-RFC. Mutants in Ctf18-RFC increased all three forms of triplet repeat instability--expansions, contractions, and fragility--with effect over a wide range of allele lengths from 20-155 repeats. Ctf18-RFC predominated among the three alternative clamp loaders, with mutants in Elg1-RFC or Rad24-RFC having less effect on trinucleotide repeats. Surprisingly, chl1, scc1-73, or scc2-4 mutants defective in sister chromatid cohesion (SCC did not increase instability, suggesting that Ctf18-RFC protects triplet repeats independently of SCC. Instead, three results suggest novel roles for Ctf18-RFC in facilitating genomic stability. First, genetic instability in mutants of Ctf18-RFC was exacerbated by simultaneous deletion of the fork stabilizer Mrc1, but suppressed by deletion of the repair protein Rad52. Second, single-cell analysis showed that mutants in Ctf18-RFC had a slowed S phase and a striking G2/M accumulation, often with an abnormal multi-budded morphology. Third, ctf18 cells exhibit increased Rad52 foci in S phase, often persisting into G2, indicative of high levels of DNA damage. The presence of a repeat tract greatly magnified the ctf18 phenotypes. Together these results indicate that Ctf18-RFC has additional important functions in preserving genome stability, besides its role in SCC, which we propose include lesion bypass by replication forks and post-replication repair.

  19. Rokibaar Underground = Rock bar Underground

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Rokibaari Underground (Küütri 7, Tartu) sisekujundus, mis pälvis Eesti Sisearhitektide Liidu 2007. a. eripreemia. Sisearhitekt: Margus Mänd (Tammat OÜ). Margus Männist, tema tähtsamad tööd. Plaan, 5 värv. vaadet, foto M. Männist

  20. Rokibaar Underground = Rock bar Underground

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Rokibaari Underground (Küütri 7, Tartu) sisekujundus, mis pälvis Eesti Sisearhitektide Liidu 2007. a. eripreemia. Sisearhitekt: Margus Mänd (Tammat OÜ). Margus Männist, tema tähtsamad tööd. Plaan, 5 värv. vaadet, foto M. Männist

  1. OTR studies for the high charge CTF3 beam

    CERN Document Server

    Bravin, Enrico; Vermare, C

    2003-01-01

    The CTF3 (CLIC Test Facility 3) will produce 1.56µs long intense electron pulses. The unbunched 5.4A beam of the injector will have a transverse beam size ~1mm. After the buncher the current is reduced to 3.5A and the transverse size varies between a few hundred micrometers and one millimetre along the length of the linac. Calculations indicate that these beam parameters will impose an unbearable thermal load for the intercepting screens currently in use (scintillators and aluminium OTR foils). Graphite and SiC have been investigated as possible alternative materials for the OTR radiators. The possibility of replacing scintillating screens with OTR targets at the low energies of the injector has also been considered. A possible limitation in the use of such high temperature radiators has been identified; ions released from the heated target could focus further the beam with the risk of damaging the target itself and/or blowing up the beam. This would also affect the emittance measurement and would hinder any...

  2. Update on beam loss monitoring at CTF3 for CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Devlin, L J; Effinger, E; Holzer, E B; del Busto, E N; Mallows, S; Branger, E

    2013-01-01

    The primary role of the beam loss monitoring (BLM) system for the compact linear collider (CLIC) study is to work within the machine protection system. Due to the size of the CLIC facility, a BLM that covers large distances along the beam line is highly desirable, in particular for the CLIC drive beam decelerators, which would alternatively require some ~40,000 localised monitors. Therefore, an optical fibre BLM system is currently under investigation which can cover large sections of beam line at a time. A multimode fibre has been installed along the Test Beam Line at the CLIC test facility (CTF3) where the detection principle is based on the production of Cherenkov photons within the fibre resulting from beam loss and their subsequent transport along the fibre where they are then detected at the fibre ends using silicon photomultipliers. Several additional monitors including ACEMs, PEP-II and diamond detectors have also been installed. In this contribution the first results from the BLMs are presented, comp...

  3. Development and Assessment of CTF for Pin-resolved BWR Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salko, Robert K [ORNL; Wysocki, Aaron J [ORNL; Collins, Benjamin S [ORNL; Avramova, Maria [North Carolina State University (NCSU), Raleigh; Gosdin, Chris [Pennsylvania State University

    2017-01-01

    CTF is the modernized and improved version of the subchannel code, COBRA-TF. It has been adopted by the Consortium for Advanced Simulation for Light Water Reactors (CASL) for subchannel analysis applications and thermal hydraulic feedback calculations in the Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications Core Simulator (VERA-CS). CTF is now jointly developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and North Carolina State University. Until now, CTF has been used for pressurized water reactor modeling and simulation in CASL, but in the future it will be extended to boiling water reactor designs. This required development activities to integrate the code into the VERA-CS workflow and to make it more ecient for full-core, pin resolved simulations. Additionally, there is a significant emphasis on producing high quality tools that follow a regimented software quality assurance plan in CASL. Part of this plan involves performing validation and verification assessments on the code that are easily repeatable and tied to specific code versions. This work has resulted in the CTF validation and verification matrix being expanded to include several two-phase flow experiments, including the General Electric 3 3 facility and the BWR Full-Size Fine Mesh Bundle Tests (BFBT). Comparisons with both experimental databases is reasonable, but the BFBT analysis reveals a tendency of CTF to overpredict void, especially in the slug flow regime. The execution of these tests is fully automated, analysis is documented in the CTF Validation and Verification manual, and the tests have become part of CASL continuous regression testing system. This paper will summarize these recent developments and some of the two-phase assessments that have been performed on CTF.

  4. Development and Testing of CTF to Support Modeling of BWR Operating Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salko, Robert K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wysocki, Aaron [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Collins, Benjamin S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Godfrey, Andrew T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gosdin, Chris [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Avramova, Maria [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2016-01-29

    This milestone supports developing and assessing COBRA-TF (CTF) for the modeling of boiling water reactors (BWRs). This is achieved in three stages. First, a new preprocessor utility that is capable of handling BWR-specic design elements (e.g., channel boxes and large water rods) is developed. A previous milestone (L3:PHI.CTF.P12.01) led to the development of this preprocessor capability for single assembly models. This current milestone expands this utility so that it is applicable to multi-assembly BWR models that can be modeled in either serial or parallel. The second stage involves making necessary modications to CTF so that it can execute these new models. Specically, this means implementing an outer-iteration loop, specic to BWR models, that equalizes the pressure loss over all assemblies in the core (which are not connected due to the channel boxes) by adjusting inlet mass ow rate. A third stage involves assessing the standard convergence metrics that are used by CTF to determine when a simulation is steady-state. The nal stage has resulted in the implementation of new metrics in the code that give a better indication of how steady the solution is at convergence. This report summarizes these eorts and provides a demonstration of CTF's BWR-modeling capabilities. CASL-U-2016-1030-000

  5. Underground Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galis, Vasilis; Summerton, Jane

    ) in the transport sector. We will show how the use of alternative technologies by activist groups provides temporary spatial asylum to groups of immigrants without papers. REVA Spotter, for example, is a tool, a manifesto and a peaceful mean of resistance to the REVA policing methods through continuous Facebook...... infrastructural "underground" consisting of assemblages of technologies, activists, immigrants without papers, texts and emails, homes, smart phones and computers. Investigating the embedded politics of contested spatial arrangements as characteristic of specific societies one can discover not only the uses...

  6. Supporting Education... Building Canada: Child Poverty and Schools. Background Material for Parliamentarians and Staff. CTF Hill Day 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadian Teachers' Federation (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Canadian Teachers' Federation (CTF) is an active member of various coalitions and networks working to enhance the well-being of Canadian children and youth, including the National Alliance for Children and Youth and Campaign 2000. Among CTF's priorities is to support teachers and teachers' organizations as strong advocates for social justice,…

  7. RF Pulse compression stabilization at the CTF3 CLIC test facility

    CERN Document Server

    Dubrovskiy, Alexey

    2010-01-01

    In the CTF3 accelerator, the RF produced by each of ten 3 GHz klystrons goes through waveguides, RF pulse compressors and splitters. The RF phase and power transformation of these devices depend on their temperature. The quantitative effect of the room temperature variation on the RF was measured. It is the major source of undesired changes during the CTF3 operation. An RF phaseloop and a compressor temperature stabilization are developed to suppress the phase fluctuation and the power profile change due to the temperature variation. The implementation is transparent for operators, it does not limit anyhow the flexibility of RF manipulations. Expected and measured suppression characteristics will be given.

  8. Beam Dynamics for the Preliminary Phase of the New CLIC Test Facility (CTF3)

    CERN Document Server

    Corsini, R; Rinolfi, Louis; Risselada, Thys; Royer, P; Tecker, F A

    2001-01-01

    In the framework of the CLIC (Compact Linear Collider) RF power source studies, the scheme of electron pulse compression and bunch frequency mulitiplication, using injection by RF deflectors into an isochronous ring, will be tested, at low charge, during the preliminary phase of the new CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) at CERN. In this paper, we describe the beam dynamics studies made in order to assess the feasibility of the bunch combination experiment, as well as the related beam measurements performed on the LEP Pre-Injector complex (LPI) before its transformation into CTF3

  9. CTF3 Probe Beam LINAC Commissioning and Operations

    CERN Document Server

    Farabolini, W; Curtoni, A; Girardot, P; Peauger, F; Simon, C S; Chevallay, E; Divall Csatari, M; Lebas, N; Petrarca, M; Palaia, A; Ruber, R J M Y; Ziemann, V G

    2010-01-01

    The probe beam LINAC, CAL­IFES, of the CLIC Test Fa­cil­i­ty (CTF3) has been de­vel­oped by CEA Saclay, LAL Orsay and CERN to de­liv­er trains of short bunch­es (0.75 ps) spaced by 0.666 ps at an en­er­gy around 170 MeV with a charge of 0.6 nC to the TBTS (Two-beam Test Stand) in­tend­ed to test the high gra­di­ent CLIC ac­cel­er­at­ing struc­tures. Based on 3 for­mer LIL ac­cel­er­at­ing struc­tures and on a newly de­vel­oped RF pho­to-in­jec­tor, the whole ac­cel­er­a­tor is pow­ered with a sin­gle 3 GHz klystron de­liv­er­ing puls­es of 45 MW through a RF pulse com­pres­sion cav­i­ty and a net­work of waveg­uides, split­ters, phase-shifters and an at­ten­u­a­tor. We re­late here re­sults col­lect­ed dur­ing the var­i­ous com­mis­sion­ing and op­er­a­tion pe­ri­ods which led to nom­i­nal per­for­mances and sta­ble beam char­ac­ter­is­tics de­liv­ered to the TBTS. Progress has been made in the laser sys­tem for beam charge and sta...

  10. Underground logistics

    CERN Document Server

    Foraz, K; CERN. Geneva. TS Department

    2005-01-01

    More than 80’000 tons of materials have to be transported and installed down into the LHC tunnel. The magnet assemblies which represent about 50’000 tons, will be transported according to the master schedule between March 2005 and November 2006. Considering that these about 1’800 cryo-magnets will be transported at a maximum speed of 3 km/h in a narrow tube (where installation works and hardware commissioning activities are ongoing) this duration of 21 months is a real challenge. This paper aims at describing: - the information flows between the different people involved in the logistics attached to the cryo-magnets, - the organization chosen within the Installation Coordination group, - the problems encountered so far and the solutions adopted. The coordination process with other underground transport and activities, mainly for the QRL will also be presented.

  11. Mechanical Link between Cohesion Establishment and DNA Replication: Ctf7p/Eco1p, a Cohesion Establishment Factor, Associates with Three Different Replication Factor C Complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Kenna, Margaret A.; Skibbens, Robert V.

    2003-01-01

    CTF7/ECO1 is an essential yeast gene required for the establishment of sister chromatid cohesion. The findings that CTF7/ECO1, POL30 (PCNA), and CHL12/CTF18 (a replication factor C [RFC] homolog) genetically interact provided the first evidence that the processes of cohesion establishment and DNA replication are intimately coupled—a link now confirmed by other studies. To date, however, it is unknown how Ctf7p/Eco1p function is coupled to DNA replication or whether Ctf7p/Eco1p physically asso...

  12. A simplified dynamic model for existing buildings using CTF and thermal network models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Xinhua; Wang, Shengwei [Department of Building Services Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (China)

    2008-09-15

    An alternative simplified building model is developed to describe existing building system aiming at providing performance benchmark for performance evaluation and diagnosis at building level and performance prediction for air-conditioning system optimal control. This model combines detailed physical models of building envelopes and a thermal network model of building internal mass. The detailed physical models are the CTF (Conduction Transfer Function) models of building envelopes based on the easily available detailed physical properties of exterior walls and roof. The thermal network model is the 2R2C model, and its parameters are estimated and optimized using genetic algorithm with short-term monitored operation data. The parameter optimization of the simplified building internal mass model (2R2C) and the simplified dynamic building model (i.e., CTF+2R2C model) are validated in a high-rising commercial office building under various weather conditions. This CTF+2R2C model is an alternative modeling approach for simulating the overall building dynamic thermal performance when CTF model is chosen to model the building envelope. (author)

  13. Common genetic variation in the human CTF1 locus, encoding cardiotrophin-1, determines insulin sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Z Lutz

    Full Text Available AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Recently, cardiotrophin-1, a member of the interleukin-6 family of cytokines was described to protect beta-cells from apoptosis, to improve glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and insulin resistance, and to prevent streptozotocin-induced diabetes in mice. Here, we studied whether common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the CTF1 locus, encoding cardiotrophin-1, influence insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity in humans. METHODS: We genotyped 1,771 German subjects for three CTF1 tagging SNPs (rs1046276, rs1458201, and rs8046707. The subjects were metabolically characterized by an oral glucose tolerance test. Subgroups underwent magnetic resonance (MR imaging/spectroscopy and hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamps. RESULTS: After appropriate adjustment, the minor allele of CTF1 SNP rs8046707 was significantly associated with decreased in vivo measures of insulin sensitivity. The other tested SNPs were not associated with OGTT-derived sensitivity parameters, nor did the three tested SNPs show any association with OGTT-derived parameters of insulin release. In the MR subgroup, SNP rs8046707 was nominally associated with lower visceral adipose tissue. Furthermore, the SNP rs1458201 showed a nominal association with increased VLDL levels. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, this study, even though preliminary and awaiting further confirmation by independent replication, provides first evidence that common genetic variation in CTF1 could contribute to insulin sensitivity in humans. Our SNP data indicate an insulin-desensitizing effect of cardiotrophin-1 and underline that cardiotrophin-1 represents an interesting target to influence insulin sensitivity.

  14. BAF Complex Is Closely Related to and Interacts with NF1/CTF and RNA Polymerase Ⅱ in Gene Transcriptional Activation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Hui ZHAO; Xue-Qing BA; Xiao-Guang WANG; Xiao-Juan ZHU; Li WANG; Xian-Lu ZENG

    2005-01-01

    Brg- or hBrm-associated factor (BAF) complexes, a chromatin-remodeling complex family of mammalian cells, facilitate transcriptional activity by remodeling nucleosome structure. Brg 1 is the core subunit of Brg-associated factor complexes. In the present study, we investigated the spatial relationship between Brg1 and nuclear factor 1 (NF1/CTF) and RNA polymerase Ⅱ (RNAP Ⅱ) upon gene transcriptional activation in vivo by employing immuno-gold labeling. The data showed that Brg1 was closely co-localized with NF1/CTF and RNAP Ⅱ in HeLa cells. Moreover, the co-immunoprecipitation assay further revealed that Brg1 can be isolated together with NF1/CTF and RNAP Ⅱ in the ConA-stimulated, but not the resting,T lymphocyte. The combined results suggested that BAF complexes can interact with NF1/CTF and RNAP Ⅱ, and this interaction is closely dependent on the activation of gene transcription.

  15. Functional characterization of kinetochore protein, Ctf19 in meiosis I: an implication of differential impact of Ctf19 on the assembly of mitotic and meiotic kinetochores in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Gunjan D; Agarwal, Meenakshi; Ghosh, Santanu K

    2014-03-01

    Meiosis is a specialized cell division process through which chromosome numbers are reduced by half for the generation of gametes. Kinetochore, a multiprotein complex that connects centromeres to microtubules, plays essential role in chromosome segregation. Ctf19 is the key central kinetochore protein that recruits all the other non-essential proteins of the Ctf19 complex in budding yeast. Earlier studies have shown the role of Ctf19 complex in enrichment of cohesin around the centromeres both during mitosis and meiosis, leading to sister chromatid cohesion and meiosis II disjunction. Here we show that Ctf19 is also essential for the proper execution of the meiosis I specific unique events, such as non-homologous centromere coupling, homologue pairing, chiasmata resolution and proper orientation of homologues and sister chromatids with respect to the spindle poles. Additionally, this investigation reveals that proper kinetochore function is required for faithful chromosome condensation in meiosis. Finally, this study suggests that absence of Ctf19 affects the integrity of meiotic kinetochore differently than that of the mitotic kinetochore. Consequently, absence of Ctf19 leads to gross chromosome missegregation during meiosis as compared with mitosis. Hence, this study reports for the first time the differential impact of a non-essential kinetochore protein on the mitotic and meiotic kinetochore ensembles and hence chromosome segregation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. A new cellular model of pathological TDP-43: The neurotoxicity of stably expressed CTF25 of TDP-43 depends on the proteasome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Duan, W; Guo, Y; Li, Z; Han, H; Zhang, S; Yuan, P; Li, C

    2014-12-05

    The C-terminal fragments-25(CTF25) of TDP-43 is a fragment of TAR DNA-binding protein 43kDa (TDP-43), which is involved in RNA metabolism, neurite outgrowth, and neuronal development and stress granules. Not until recently did evidence suggest that CTF25 might play an important role in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) pathogenesis. However, mechanical details on CTF25 causing motor neuron degeneration still remain unknown. To study the toxicity of CTF25 of TDP-43, we established a cellular model stably expressing CTF25 of TDP-43. Herein, we found that stably expressed CTF25 could induce significant oxidative stress and was mainly degraded by the proteasome pathway in cells. Furthermore, the neurotoxicity of CTF25 of TDP-43 was dependent on proteasome activity. In addition, electron microscopy showed mitochondrial swelling and cristae dilation in cells expressing CTF25 and that CTF25 aggregates were characterized by filamentous bundles and electron dense granular material. In conclusion, the new cellular model mimics classical toxic TDP-43 cellular model and interestingly the toxicity of CTF25 is dependent on the proteasome.

  17. The Ctf18RFC clamp loader is essential for telomere stability in telomerase-negative and mre11 mutant alleles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honghai Gao

    Full Text Available The function of the replication clamp loaders in the semi-conservative telomere replication and their relationship to telomerase- and recombination mechanisms of telomere addition remains ambiguous. We have investigated the variant clamp loader Ctf18 RFC (Replication Factor C. To understand the role of Ctf18 at the telomere, we first investigated genetic interactions after loss of Ctf18 and TLC1 (the yeast telomerase RNA. We find that the tlc1Δ ctf18Δ double mutant confers a rapid >1000-fold decrease in viability. The rate of loss was similar to the kinetics of cell death in rad52Δ tlc1Δ cells. However, the Ctf18 pathway is distinct from Rad52, required for the repair of DSBs, as demonstrated by the synthetic lethality of rad52▵ tlc1Δ ctf18Δ triple mutants. These data suggest that each mutant elicits non-redundant defects acting on the same substrate. Second, interactions of the yeast hyper-recombinational mutant, mre11A470T, with ctf18▵ confer a synergistic cold sensitivity. The phenotype of these double mutants ultimately results in telomere loss and the generation of recombinational survivors. We observed a similar synergism between single mutants that led to hypersensitivity to the DNA alkylating agent, methane methyl sulphonate (MMS, the replication fork inhibitor hydroxyurea (HU, and to a failure to separate telomeres of sister chromatids. Hence, ctf18Δ and mre11A470T act in different pathways on telomere substrates for multiple phenotypes. The mre11A470T cells also displayed a DNA damage response (DDR at 15°C but not at 30°C while ctf18Δ mutants conferred a constitutive DDR activity. Both the 15°C DDR pattern and growth rate were reversible at 30°C and displayed telomerase activity in vivo. We hypothesize that Ctf18 confers protection against stalling and/or breaks at the replication fork in cells that either lack, or are compromised for, telomerase activity. This Ctf18-based function is likely to contribute another level

  18. The Ctf18 RFC-like complex positions yeast telomeres but does not specify their replication time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraga, Shin-ichiro; Robertson, E Douglas; Donaldson, Anne D

    2006-04-05

    Chromosome ends in Saccharomyces cerevisiae are positioned in clusters at the nuclear rim. We report that Ctf18, Ctf8, and Dcc1, the subunits of a Replication Factor C (RFC)-like complex, are essential for the perinuclear positioning of telomeres. In both yeast and mammalian cells, peripheral nuclear positioning of chromatin during G1 phase correlates with late DNA replication. We find that the mislocalized telomeres of ctf18 cells still replicate late, showing that late DNA replication does not require peripheral positioning during G1. The Ku and Sir complexes have been shown to act through separate pathways to position telomeres, but in the absence of Ctf18 neither pathway can act fully to maintain telomere position. Surprisingly CTF18 is not required for Ku or Sir4-mediated peripheral tethering of a nontelomeric chromosome locus. Our results suggest that the Ctf18 RFC-like complex modifies telomeric chromatin to make it competent for normal localization to the nuclear periphery.

  19. Experimental Verifiction of the CLIC two beam Acceleration Technology in CTF3

    CERN Document Server

    Constance, B; Barranco, J; Corsini, R; Doebert, S; Dubrovskiy, A; Skowronski, P; Tecker, F; Farabolini, W; Persson, T; Lillestol, R; Ikarios, E; Jacewicz, M; Palaia, A; Ruber, R

    2013-01-01

    The Compact Linear Collider international collaboration is pursuing an extensive R&D program towards a multi- TeV electron-positron collider. In particular, the development of two-beam acceleration technology is the focus of the CLIC test facility CTF3. In this paper we summarise the most recent results obtained at CTF3: the results of the studies on the drive beam generation are presented, the achieved two beam acceleration performance is reported and the measured breakdown rates and related observations are summarised. The stability of deceleration process performed over 12 subsequent modules and the comparison of the obtained results with the theoretical expectations are discussed. We also outline and discuss the future experimental program.

  20. Review of the Drive Beam Stabilization in the CLIC Test Facility CTF3

    CERN Document Server

    Dubrovskiy, A; Skowronski, P; Tecker, F; Persson, T

    2013-01-01

    CTF3 is a Test Facility focusing on beam-based studies of the key concepts of the Compact Linear Collider CLIC. Over the past several years many aspects of the CLIC two-beam acceleration scheme were studied in CTF3, including the crucial issue of drive beam stability. The main sources of drifts and instabilities have been identified and mitigated, helping to improve the machine performance and showing significant progress towards the experimental demonstration of the very stringent requirements on current, energy and phase stability needed in CLIC. In this paper, the more effective techniques and feed-backs are summarized. The latest measurements on beam stability are reported and their relevance to CLIC is discussed.

  1. CARE-JRA2* Activities on Photo-Injectors and CLIC Test Facility (CTF3)

    CERN Document Server

    Rinolfi, Louis

    2005-01-01

    In the frame of the CARE project, there is a Joint Research Activity (JRA2) called PHIN (PHoto-INjectors). The main objective of this JRA is to perform Research and Development on charge-production by interaction of a laser pulse with material within RF fields and improve or extend existing infrastructures. Another activity of PHIN is the coordination of the activities of various Institutes concerning photo-injectors. A brief review of the work of the eight European laboratories involved in PHIN is presented. One of these R&D topics is the construction of a photo-injector for the CLIC Test Facility (CTF3). In this context the status of CTF3 and its main goals - the demonstration of the feasibility of the key issues of the CLIC two-beam acceleration scheme - is also presented.

  2. Design of Phase Feed Forward System in CTF3 and Performance of Fast Beam Phase Monitors

    CERN Document Server

    Skowronski, P K; Ghigo, A; Marcellini, F; Burrows, PN; Christian, GB; Perry, C; Gerbershagen, A; Roberts, J; Ikarios, E

    2013-01-01

    The CLIC two beam acceleration technology requires a drive beam phase stability better than 0.3 deg rms at 12 GHz, corresponding to a timing stability below 50 fs rms. For this reason the CLIC design includes a phase stabilization feed-forward system. It relies on precise beam phase measurements and their subsequent correction in a chicane with the help of fast kickers. A prototype of such a system is being installed in the CLIC Test Facility CTF3. In this paper its design and implementation is described in detail. Additionally, the performance of the precision phase monitor prototypes installed at the end of the CTF3 linac, as measured with the drive beam, is presented.

  3. Development and Implementation of CFD-Informed Models for the Advanced Subchannel Code CTF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blyth, Taylor S. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Avramova, Maria [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2017-04-01

    The research described in this PhD thesis contributes to the development of efficient methods for utilization of high-fidelity models and codes to inform low-fidelity models and codes in the area of nuclear reactor core thermal-hydraulics. The objective is to increase the accuracy of predictions of quantities of interests using high-fidelity CFD models while preserving the efficiency of low-fidelity subchannel core calculations. An original methodology named Physics- based Approach for High-to-Low Model Information has been further developed and tested. The overall physical phenomena and corresponding localized effects, which are introduced by the presence of spacer grids in light water reactor (LWR) cores, are dissected in corresponding four building basic processes, and corresponding models are informed using high-fidelity CFD codes. These models are a spacer grid-directed cross-flow model, a grid-enhanced turbulent mixing model, a heat transfer enhancement model, and a spacer grid pressure loss model. The localized CFD-models are developed and tested using the CFD code STAR-CCM+, and the corresponding global model development and testing in sub-channel formulation is performed in the thermal- hydraulic subchannel code CTF. The improved CTF simulations utilize data-files derived from CFD STAR-CCM+ simulation results covering the spacer grid design desired for inclusion in the CTF calculation. The current implementation of these models is examined and possibilities for improvement and further development are suggested. The validation experimental database is extended by including the OECD/NRC PSBT benchmark data. The outcome is an enhanced accuracy of CTF predictions while preserving the computational efficiency of a low-fidelity subchannel code.

  4. Underground Layout Configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Linden

    2003-09-25

    The purpose of this analysis was to develop an underground layout to support the license application (LA) design effort. In addition, the analysis will be used as the technical basis for the underground layout general arrangement drawings.

  5. Underground pipeline corrosion

    CERN Document Server

    Orazem, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Underground pipelines transporting liquid petroleum products and natural gas are critical components of civil infrastructure, making corrosion prevention an essential part of asset-protection strategy. Underground Pipeline Corrosion provides a basic understanding of the problems associated with corrosion detection and mitigation, and of the state of the art in corrosion prevention. The topics covered in part one include: basic principles for corrosion in underground pipelines, AC-induced corrosion of underground pipelines, significance of corrosion in onshore oil and gas pipelines, n

  6. Away-Day: a Review of the Preparation of the CTF3 Design

    CERN Document Server

    1998-01-01

    Schedule: The route to CLIC and objectives of the brainstorming session (moderator: J.P. Delahaye)The various possible phases of the Test Facility (moderator: I. Wilson)Constraints from the LPI: schedule-building-components (moderator: J.P. Potier)The injector system based on thermoionic gun (moderator: L. Rinolfi)Possible option of photo-injector (moderators: G. Suberlucq - S. Hutchins)Trade off between energy and current in CTF3 (moderator: R. Corsini)The RF power source of the drive beam accelerator (moderator: P. Pearce)RF pulse compression for the drive beam accelerator (moderator: Y. Syratchev)The drive beam accelerator (moderator: L. Thorndahl)Beam dynamics in drive beam accelerator (moderators: G. Guignard - D. Schulte)The combiner ring and delay loop (moderator: R. Corsini)The 30 GHz modules of the drive beam decelerator and main beam accelerator (moderator: W. Wuensch)Possible tests in CTF2 in preparation for CTF3 (moderator: H. Braun) Conclusion programme of work (moderator: J.P. Delahaye)

  7. High-fidelity multiphysics simulation of BWR assembly with coupled TORT-TD/CTF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magedanz, J. [Dept. of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Pennsylvania State Univ., Reber Building, Univ. Park, PA 16802 (United States); Perin, Y. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit GRS mbH, Forschungsinstitute, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Avramova, M. [Dept. of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Pennsylvania State Univ., Reber Building, Univ. Park, PA 16802 (United States); Pautz, A.; Puente-Espel, F.; Seubert, A.; Sureda, A.; Velkov, K.; Zwermann, W. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit GRS mbH, Forschungsinstitute, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    This paper describes the application of the coupled codes TORT-TD and CTF to the pin-by-pin modeling of a BWR fuel assembly with thermal-hydraulic feedback. TORT-TD, developed at GRS, is a time-dependent three dimensional discrete ordinates code. CTF is the PSU's improved version of the subchannel code COBRA-TF, which uses a two-fluid, three-field model to represent two-phase flow with entrained droplets, and is commonly applied to evaluate LWR safety margins. The coupled codes system TORT-TD/CTF, already applied to several PWR cases involving MOX, was adapted from PWR to BWR applications. The purpose of the research described in this paper is to verify the coupling for modeling two-phase flow at the pin cell level. Using an ATRIUM-10 assembly, the system's steady-state capabilities were tested on two cases: one without control blade insertion and another with partially inserted blades. The influence of the neutron absorber on local axial and radial parameters is presented. The description of an inlet flow reduction transient is an example for the time-dependent capability of the coupled system. (authors)

  8. Underground laboratory in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Heshengc

    2012-09-01

    The underground laboratories and underground experiments of particle physics in China are reviewed. The Jinping underground laboratory in the Jinping mountain of Sichuan, China is the deepest underground laboratory with horizontal access in the world. The rock overburden in the laboratory is more than 2400 m. The measured cosmic-ray flux and radioactivities of the local rock samples are very low. The high-purity germanium experiments are taking data for the direct dark-matter search. The liquid-xenon experiment is under construction. The proposal of the China National Deep Underground Laboratory with large volume at Jinping for multiple discipline research is discussed.

  9. Underground laboratories in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Shin Ted, E-mail: linst@mails.phys.sinica.edu.tw [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 China (China); Yue, Qian, E-mail: yueq@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Particle and Radiation Imaging (Ministry of Education) and Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 China (China)

    2015-08-17

    Deep underground laboratories in Asia have been making huge progress recently because underground sites provide unique opportunities to explore the rare-event phenomena for the study of dark matter searches, neutrino physics and nuclear astrophysics as well as the multi-disciplinary researches based on the low radioactive environments. The status and perspectives of Kamioda underground observatories in Japan, the existing Y2L and the planned CUP in Korea, India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) in India and China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL) in China will be surveyed.

  10. Underground laboratories in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shin Ted; Yue, Qian

    2015-08-01

    Deep underground laboratories in Asia have been making huge progress recently because underground sites provide unique opportunities to explore the rare-event phenomena for the study of dark matter searches, neutrino physics and nuclear astrophysics as well as the multi-disciplinary researches based on the low radioactive environments. The status and perspectives of Kamioda underground observatories in Japan, the existing Y2L and the planned CUP in Korea, India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) in India and China JinPing Underground Laboratory (CJPL) in China will be surveyed.

  11. Role of Ctf3 and COMA subcomplexes in meiosis: Implication in maintaining Cse4 at the centromere and numeric spindle poles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Meenakshi; Mehta, Gunjan; Ghosh, Santanu K

    2015-03-01

    During mitosis and meiosis, kinetochore, a conserved multi-protein complex, connects microtubule with the centromere and promotes segregation of the chromosomes. In budding yeast, central kinetochore complex named Ctf19 has been implicated in various functions and is believed to be made up of three biochemically distinct subcomplexes: COMA, Ctf3 and Iml3-Chl4. In this study, we aimed to identify whether Ctf3 and COMA subcomplexes have any unshared function at the kinetochore. Our data suggests that both these subcomplexes may work as a single functional unit without any unique functions, which we tested. Analysis of severity of the defects in the mutants suggests that COMA is epistatic to Ctf3 subcomplex. Interestingly, we noticed that these subcomplexes affect the organization of mitotic and meiotic kinetochores with subtle differences and they promote maintenance of Cse4 at the centromeres specifically during meiosis which is similar to the role of Mis6 (Ctf3 homolog) in fission yeast during mitosis. Interestingly, analysis of ctf3Δ and ctf19Δ mutants revealed a novel role of Ctf19 complex in regulation of SPB cohesion and duplication in meiosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. First Results from Commissioning of the Phin Photo Injector for CTF3

    CERN Document Server

    Petrarca, M; Chevallay, E; Doebert, S; Elsener, K; Fedosseev, V; Geschonke, G; Losito, R; Masi, A; Mete, O; Rinolfi, L; Dabrowski, A; Divall, M; Champault, N; Bienvenu, G; Jore, M; Mercier, B M; Prevost, C; Roux, R; Vicario, C

    2010-01-01

    Installation of the new photo-injector for the CTF3 drive beam (PHIN) has been completed on a stand-alone test bench. The photo-injector operates with a 2.5 cell RF gun at 3 GHz, using a Cs2Te photocathode illuminated by a UV laser beam. The test bench is equipped with transverse beam diagnostic as well as a 90-degree spectrometer. A grid of 100 micrometer wide slits can be inserted for emittance measurements. The laser used to trigger the photo-emission process is a Nd:YLF system consisting of an oscillator and a preamplifier operating at 1.5 GHz and two powerful amplifier stages. The infrared radiation produced is frequency quadrupled in two stages to obtain the UV. A Pockels cell allows adjusting the length of the pulse train between 50 nanoseconds and 50 microseconds. The nominal train length for CTF3 is 1.272 microseconds (1908 bunches). The first electron beam in PHIN was produced in November 2008. In this paper, results concerning the operation of the laser system and measurements performed to characte...

  13. Online optimisation of the CLIC Drive Beam bunch train recombination at CTF3

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2082483; Tecker, Frank

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) design is the leading alternative for a future multi-TeV "e^+e^−" linear collider. One of the key aspects of the design is the use of a Drive Beam as power source for the acceleration of the colliding beams. This work is focused on the optimisation of the set-up and the operations of the CLIC Drive Beam recombination at the CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) at CERN. The main effects that may affect the beam quality during the recombination are studied, with emphasis on orbit, transverse dynamics and beam energy effects. A custom methodology is used to analyse the problem, both from a theoretical and a numerical point of view. The aim is to provide first-order orbit and transverse optics constraints, which can be used as guidelines during the set-up of the beam recombination process. The developed techniques are applied at the CTF3, and the results are reported. The non-linear beam energy effects have been investigated by means of MAD-X simulations. The results show that these effe...

  14. Development of a Beam-based Phase Feedforward Demonstration at the CLIC Test Facility (CTF3)

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2083344; Christian, Glenn

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is a proposal for a future linear electron--positron collider that could achieve collision energies of up to 3~TeV. In the CLIC concept the main high energy beam is accelerated using RF power extracted from a high intensity drive beam, achieving an accelerating gradient of 100~MV/m. This scheme places strict tolerances on the drive beam phase stability, which must be better than $0.2^\\circ$ at 12~GHz. To achieve the required phase stability CLIC proposes a high bandwidth (${>}17.5$~MHz), low latency drive beam ``phase feedforward'' (PFF) system. In this system electromagnetic kickers, powered by 500~kW amplifiers, are installed in a chicane and used to correct the phase by deflecting the beam on to longer or shorter trajectories. A prototype PFF system has been installed at the CLIC Test Facility, CTF3; the design, operation and commissioning of which is the focus of this work. Two kickers have been installed in the pre-existing chicane in the TL2 transfer line at CTF3 for t...

  15. DEEP UNDERGROUND NEUTRINO EXPERIMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Robert J. [Fermilab

    2016-03-03

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) collaboration will perform an experiment centered on accelerator-based long-baseline neutrino studies along with nucleon decay and topics in neutrino astrophysics. It will consist of a modular 40-kt (fiducial) mass liquid argon TPC detector located deep underground at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in South Dakota and a high-resolution near detector at Fermilab in Illinois. This conguration provides a 1300-km baseline in a megawatt-scale neutrino beam provided by the Fermilab- hosted international Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility.

  16. Validation of CTF Droplet Entrainment and Annular/Mist Closure Models using Riso Steam/Water Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wysocki, Aaron J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Salko, Robert K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This report summarizes the work done to validate the droplet entrainment and de-entrainment models as well as two-phase closure models in the CTF code by comparison with experimental data obtained at Riso National Laboratory. The Riso data included a series of over 250 steam/water experiments that were performed in both tube and annulus geometries over a range of various pressures and outlet qualities. Experimental conditions were set so that the majority of cases were in the annular/mist ow regime. Measurements included liquid lm ow rate, droplet ow rate, lm thickness, and two-phase pressure drop. CTF was used to model 180 of the tubular geometry cases, matching experimental geometry, outlet pressure, and outlet ow quality to experimental values. CTF results were compared to the experimental data at the outlet of the test section in terms of vapor and entrained liquid ow fractions, pressure drop per unit length, and liquid lm thickness. The entire process of generating CTF input decks, running cases, extracting data, and generating comparison plots was scripted using Python and Matplotlib for a completely automated validation process. All test cases and scripting tools have been committed to the COBRA-TF master repository and selected cases have been added to the continuous testing system to serve as regression tests. The dierences between the CTF- and experimentally-calculated ow fraction values were con- sistent with previous calculations by Wurtz, who applied the same entrainment correlation to the same data. It has been found that CTF's entrainment/de-entrainment predictive capability in the annular/mist ow regime for this particular facility is comparable to the licensed industry code, COBRAG. While lm and droplet predictions are generally good, it has been found that accuracy is diminished at lower ow qualities. This nding is consistent with the noted deciencies in the Wurtz entrainment model employed by CTF. The CTF predicted two-phase pressure drop in

  17. A conserved Polϵ binding module in Ctf18-RFC is required for S-phase checkpoint activation downstream of Mec1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rodríguez, Luis J; De Piccoli, Giacomo; Marchesi, Vanessa; Jones, Richard C; Edmondson, Ricky D; Labib, Karim

    2015-10-15

    Defects during chromosome replication in eukaryotes activate a signaling pathway called the S-phase checkpoint, which produces a multifaceted response that preserves genome integrity at stalled DNA replication forks. Work with budding yeast showed that the 'alternative clamp loader' known as Ctf18-RFC acts by an unknown mechanism to activate the checkpoint kinase Rad53, which then mediates much of the checkpoint response. Here we show that budding yeast Ctf18-RFC associates with DNA polymerase epsilon, via an evolutionarily conserved 'Pol ϵ binding module' in Ctf18-RFC that is produced by interaction of the carboxyl terminus of Ctf18 with the Ctf8 and Dcc1 subunits. Mutations at the end of Ctf18 disrupt the integrity of the Pol ϵ binding module and block the S-phase checkpoint pathway, downstream of the Mec1 kinase that is the budding yeast orthologue of mammalian ATR. Similar defects in checkpoint activation are produced by mutations that displace Pol ϵ from the replisome. These findings indicate that the association of Ctf18-RFC with Pol ϵ at defective replication forks is a key step in activation of the S-phase checkpoint.

  18. The underground macroeconomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Dinu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Like Physics, which cannot yet explain 96% of the substance in the Universe, so is Economics, unprepared to understand and to offer a rational explicative model to the underground economy.

  19. Orpheus in the Underground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puskás Dániel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In my study I deal with descents to the underworld and hell in literature in the 20th century and in contemporary literature. I will focus on modem literary reinterpretations of the myth of Orpheus, starting with Rilke’s Orpheus. Eurydice. Hermes. In Seamus Heaney’s The Underground. in the Hungarian Istvan Baka’s Descending to the Underground of Moscow and in Czesław Miłosz’s Orpheus and Eurydice underworld appears as underground, similarly to the contemporary Hungarian János Térey’s play entitled Jeramiah. where underground will also be a metaphorical underworld which is populated with the ghosts of the famous deceased people of Debrecen, and finally, in Péter Kárpáti’s Everywoman the grave of the final scene of the medieval Everyman will be replaced with a contemporary underground station. I analyse how an underground station could be parallel with the underworld and I deal with the role of musicality and sounds in the literary works based on the myth of Orpheus.

  20. RF-Breakdown kicks at the CTF3 two-beam test stand

    CERN Document Server

    Palaia, Andrea; Muranaka, Tomoko; Ruber, Roger; Ziemann, V; Farabolini, W

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of the effects of RF-breakdown on the beam in CLIC prototype accelerator structures is one of the key aspects of the CLIC two-beam acceleration scheme being addressed at the Two-beam Test Stand (TBTS) at CTF3. RF-breakdown can randomly cause energy loss and transverse kicks to the beam. Transverse kicks have been measured by means of a screen intercepting the beam after the accelerator structure. In correspondence of a RFbreakdown we detect a double beam spot which we interpret as a sudden change of the beam trajectory within a single beam pulse. To time-resolve such effect, the TBTS has been equipped with five inductive Beam Position Monitors (BPMs) and a spectrometer line to measure both relative changes of the beam trajectory and energy losses. Here we discuss the methodology used and we present the latest results of such measurements

  1. Stabilization of the Beam Intensity in the Linac at the CTF3 CLIC Test Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Dubrovskiy, A; Bathe, BN; Srivastava, S

    2013-01-01

    A new electron beam stabilization system has been introduced in CTF3 in order to open new possibilities for CLIC beam studies in ultra-stable conditions and to provide a sustainable tool to keep the beam intensity and energy at its reference values for long term operations. The stabilization system is based on a pulse-to-pulse feedback control of the electron gun to compensate intensity deviations measured at the end of the injector and at the beginning of the linac. Thereby it introduces negligible beam distortions at the end of the linac and it significantly reduces energy deviations. A self-calibration mechanism has been developed to automatically configure the feedback controller for the optimum performance. The residual intensity jitter of 0.045% of the stabilized beam was measured whereas the CLIC requirement is 0.075%.

  2. The CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) which allowed the first electron beam recombination in order to multiply the RF frequency from 3 GHz up to 15 GHz.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    Photo 0210005_11: The CTF3 linac accelerates an electron beam up to 350 MeV. Photo 0210005_1: At the front, the yellow dipole is used for the spectrometer line. At the back, a doublet of blue quadrupole for the matching. Photo 0210005_03: The CTF3 transfer line between the electron linac and the isochronous ring. Photo 0210005_04: One arc of the EPA isochronous ring. Photo 0210005_06: The CTF3 bunching system. The first RF wave guide feeds the Pre-Buncher while the second RF wave guide feeds the Buncher. They provide a bunched electron beam at 4 MeV. The blue magnet is a solenoid around the Buncher. Photo 0210005_07: A LIL accelerating structure used for CTF3. It is 4.5 meters long and provides an energy gain of 45 MeV. One can see 3 quadrupoles around the RF structure.

  3. Cytoplasmic location of α1A voltage-gated calcium channel C-terminal fragment (Cav2.1-CTF aggregate is sufficient to cause cell death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Takahashi

    Full Text Available The human α1A voltage-dependent calcium channel (Cav2.1 is a pore-forming essential subunit embedded in the plasma membrane. Its cytoplasmic carboxyl(C-tail contains a small poly-glutamine (Q tract, whose length is normally 4∼19 Q, but when expanded up to 20∼33Q, the tract causes an autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative disorder, spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6. A recent study has shown that a 75-kDa C-terminal fragment (CTF containing the polyQ tract remains soluble in normal brains, but becomes insoluble mainly in the cytoplasm with additional localization to the nuclei of human SCA6 Purkinje cells. However, the mechanism by which the CTF aggregation leads to neurodegeneration is completely elusive, particularly whether the CTF exerts more toxicity in the nucleus or in the cytoplasm. We tagged recombinant (rCTF with either nuclear-localization or nuclear-export signal, created doxycyclin-inducible rat pheochromocytoma (PC12 cell lines, and found that the CTF is more toxic in the cytoplasm than in the nucleus, the observations being more obvious with Q28 (disease range than with Q13 (normal-length. Surprisingly, the CTF aggregates co-localized both with cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB and phosphorylated-CREB (p-CREB in the cytoplasm, and Western blot analysis showed that the quantity of CREB and p-CREB were both decreased in the nucleus when the rCTF formed aggregates in the cytoplasm. In human brains, polyQ aggregates also co-localized with CREB in the cytoplasm of SCA6 Purkinje cells, but not in other conditions. Collectively, the cytoplasmic Cav2.1-CTF aggregates are sufficient to cause cell death, and one of the pathogenic mechanisms may be abnormal CREB trafficking in the cytoplasm and reduced CREB and p-CREB levels in the nuclei.

  4. CASPAR - Nuclear Astrophysics Underground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strieder, Frank; Robertson, Daniel; Couder, Manoel; Greife, Uwe; Wells, Doug; Wiescher, Michael

    2015-10-01

    The work of the LUNA Collaboration at the Laboratori Nationali del Gran Sasso demonstrated the research potential of an underground accelerator for the field of nuclear astrophysics. Several key reactions could be studied at LUNA, some directly at the Gamow peak for solar hydrogen burning. The CASPAR (Compact Accelerator System for Performing Astrophysical Research) Collaboration will implement a high intensity 1 MV accelerator at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) and overcome the current limitation at LUNA. The installation of the accelerator in the recently rehabilitated underground cavity at SURF started in Summer 2015 and first beam should be delivered by the end of the year. This project will primarily focus on the neutron sources for the s-process, e.g. 13C(α , n) 16O and 22Ne(α , n) 25Mg , and lead to unprecedented measurements compared to previous studies. A detailed overview of the science goals of CASPAR will be presented.

  5. Underground gasification of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koranda, J.

    1986-11-01

    A brief history is given of research in Czechoslovakia, which took 3 main factors into account: environmental protection, geological situation and need to produce gas for use both within the plant and elsewhere. In order to assess economic viability, model studies were performed on following mines: Podlesice (North Bohemia), Vatovce (South Slovakia), Syrenov (East Moravia), Zukovsky Hrbet (Ostrava-Karvina), Stonovska (Ostrava-Karvina) and Merkur (North Bohemia). Figures given in tabular form show that underground gasification at these sites would be cheaper than importing natural gas. Problems are discussed associated with underground gasification and it is concluded that research must be conducted into drilling techniques, drill design, methods of cutting through coal seam between shafts, underground generator design, methods of gasifying several seams with one shaft and methods of dealing with residual pillars.

  6. Underground physics with DUNE

    CERN Document Server

    Kudryavtsev, Vitaly A

    2016-01-01

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) is a project to design, construct and operate a next-generation long-baseline neutrino detector with a liquid argon (LAr) target capable also of searching for proton decay and supernova neutrinos. It is a merger of previous efforts of the LBNE and LBNO collaborations, as well as other interested parties to pursue a broad programme with a staged 40 kt LAr detector at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) 1300 km from Fermilab. This programme includes studies of neutrino oscillations with a powerful neutrino beam from Fermilab, as well as proton decay and supernova neutrino burst searches. In this paper we will focus on the underground physics with DUNE.

  7. Effect of Carthami Tinctorii Fructus Herbal-acupuncture Solution(CTF-HAS on Gene Expression in HepG2 carcinomar cells by Proteomic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Kyung-min

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective : It has long been known about the osteogenic effect of CTF-HAS on bone tissues. However, it has not been determined the effect of CTF-HAS on cancer cells. The purpose of this study is to screen the CTF-HAS mediated differentially expressed genes in cancer cells such as HepG2 hepatoma cells lines. Methods : CTF-HAS was prepared by boiling and stored at -70℃ until use. For proteomic analysis, total protein was analyzed by 2D gel electrophoresis and Q-TOF mass spectrometer. Results : In proteomic analysis, three spots were identified by 2D-gel electrophoresis and Q-TOF analysis. One down-regulated protein was heat shock 70kDa protein 5 and up-regulated proteins were chaperonin and 2-phospho -pyruvate-hydratase α-enolase by 1.5mg/㎖ of CTF-HAS. Discussion : Proteomic ananlysis approach were performed to screen the differential expression genes. The screened genes will be used for the better understanding in therapeutic effect of CTF-HAS on cancer field.

  8. Contrasting effects of Elg1-RFC and Ctf18-RFC inactivation in the absence of fully functional RFC in fission yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiyoung; Robertson, Kathryn; Mylonas, Katie J L; Gray, Fiona C; Charapitsa, Iryna; MacNeill, Stuart A

    2005-01-01

    Proliferating cell nuclear antigen loading onto DNA by replication factor C (RFC) is a key step in eukaryotic DNA replication and repair processes. In this study, the C-terminal domain (CTD) of the large subunit of fission yeast RFC is shown to be essential for its function in vivo. Cells carrying a temperature-sensitive mutation in the CTD, rfc1-44, arrest with incompletely replicated chromosomes, are sensitive to DNA damaging agents, are synthetically lethal with other DNA replication mutants, and can be suppressed by mutations in rfc5. To assess the contribution of the RFC-like complexes Elg1-RFC and Ctf18-RFC to the viability of rfc1-44, genes encoding the large subunits of these complexes have been deleted and overexpressed. Inactivation of Ctf18-RFC by the deletion of ctf18+, dcc1+ or ctf8+ is lethal in an rfc1-44 background showing that full Ctf18-RFC function is required in the absence of fully functional RFC. In contrast, rfc1-44 elg1Delta cells are viable and overproduction of Elg1 in rfc1-44 is lethal, suggesting that Elg1-RFC plays a negative role when RFC function is inhibited. Consistent with this, the deletion of elg1+ is shown to restore viability to rfc1-44 ctf18Delta cells.

  9. Development of a Bunch Frequency Monitor for the Preliminary Phase of the CLIC Test Facility CTF3

    CERN Document Server

    Caspers, Friedhelm; Ferrari, A; Rinolfi, Louis; Royer, P; Rydberg, A; Tecker, F A

    2003-01-01

    In the framework of the CLIC RF power source studies, the feasibility of the electron bunch train combination by injection with RF deflectors into an isochronous ring has been successfully demonstrated in the preliminary phase of CTF3. A new method, based on beam frequency spectrum analysis, was experimented to monitor this scheme. A coaxial pick-up and its read-out electronics were designed and mounted in the CTF3 ring to allow comparison of the amplitudes of five harmonics of the fundamental beam frequency (3 GHz) while combining the bunch trains. The commissioning of the monitor was a successful proof of principle for this new method, despite the short length of the bunch trains and the presence of parasitic signals associated to high-order waveguide modes propagating with the beam inside the pipe.

  10. Underground Storage Tanks in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Underground storage tank (UST) sites which store petroleum in Iowa. Includes sites which have been reported to DNR, and have active or removed underground storage...

  11. The CTF3 team who performed the first electron beam recombination in an isochronous ring at CERN.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    Photo 0210004_1: Part of CTF3 collaboration. From left to right: T. Ekelof (Uppsala), A. Gallo (LNF), P. Royer (Lausanne), F. Tecker (CERN), L. Rinolfi (CERN), A. Ferrari (Uppsala), R. Corsini (CERN), S. Quaglia, (LNF). Photo 0210004_2: A. Ferrari (left), T. Ekelof (middle) and A. Rydberg (right), from Uppsala University, Sweden, standing where the phase monitor HR.PHM60 is installed. Photo 0210004_4: A. Gallo (LNF) standing in front of the RF deflector designed by INFN-Frascati. Photo 0210004_7: The team who designed the CTF3 complex starting from the existing LEP Pre-Injector. From left to right L. Rinolfi, A. Ferrari, F. Tecker (standing up) and R. Corsini, P. Royer (kneeling down) in front of the electron transfer line between the linac and the combiner ring. Photo 0210004_9: The CTF3 team who performed the first electron beam recombination in an isochronous ring at CERN. From left to right, L. Rinolfi, P. Royer, F. Tecker, R. Corsini standing up in front of the two RF deflectors built at CERN and working...

  12. Comparative Analysis of CTF and Trace Thermal-Hydraulic Codes Using OECD/NRC PSBT Benchmark Void Distribution Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Avramova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The international OECD/NRC PSBT benchmark has been established to provide a test bed for assessing the capabilities of thermal-hydraulic codes and to encourage advancement in the analysis of fluid flow in rod bundles. The benchmark was based on one of the most valuable databases identified for the thermal-hydraulics modeling developed by NUPEC, Japan. The database includes void fraction and departure from nucleate boiling measurements in a representative PWR fuel assembly. On behalf of the benchmark team, PSU in collaboration with US NRC has performed supporting calculations using the PSU in-house advanced thermal-hydraulic subchannel code CTF and the US NRC system code TRACE. CTF is a version of COBRA-TF whose models have been continuously improved and validated by the RDFMG group at PSU. TRACE is a reactor systems code developed by US NRC to analyze transient and steady-state thermal-hydraulic behavior in LWRs and it has been designed to perform best-estimate analyses of LOCA, operational transients, and other accident scenarios in PWRs and BWRs. The paper presents CTF and TRACE models for the PSBT void distribution exercises. Code-to-code and code-to-data comparisons are provided along with a discussion of the void generation and void distribution models available in the two codes.

  13. FUSION NUCLEAR SCIENCE FACILITY (FNSF) BEFORE UPGRADE TO COMPONENT TEST FACILITY (CTF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Yueng Kay Martin [ORNL; Canik, John [ORNL; Diem, Stephanie J [ORNL; Milora, Stanley L [ORNL; Park, J. M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Sontag, Aaron C [ORNL; Fogarty, P. J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Lumsdaine, Arnold [ORNL; Murakami, Masanori [ORNL; Burgess, Thomas W [ORNL; Cole, Michael J [ORNL; Katoh, Yutai [ORNL; Korsah, Kofi [ORNL; Patton, Bradley D [ORNL; Wagner, John C [ORNL; Yoder, III, Graydon L [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The compact (R0~1.2-1.3m) Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) is aimed at providing a fully integrated, continuously driven fusion nuclear environment of copious fusion neutrons. This facility would be used to test, discover, and understand the complex challenges of fusion plasma material interactions, nuclear material interactions, tritium fuel management, and power extraction. Such a facility properly designed would provide, initially at the JET-level plasma pressure (~30%T2) and conditions (e.g., Hot-Ion H-Mode, Q<1)), an outboard fusion neutron flux of 0.25 MW/m2 while requiring a fusion power of ~19 MW. If and when this research is successful, its performance can be extended to 1 MW/m2 and ~76 MW by reaching for twice the JET plasma pressure and Q. High-safety factor q and moderate-plasmas are used to minimize or eliminate plasma-induced disruptions, to deliver reliably a neutron fluence of 1 MW-yr/m2 and a duty factor of 10% presently anticipated for the FNS research. Success of this research will depend on achieving time-efficient installation and replacement of all internal components using remote handling (RH). This in turn requires modular designs for the internal components, including the single-turn toroidal field coil center-post. These device goals would further dictate placement of support structures and vacuum weld seals behind the internal and shielding components. If these goals could be achieved, the FNSF would further provide a ready upgrade path to the Component Test Facility (CTF), which would aim to test, for 6 MW-yr/m2 and 30% duty cycle, the demanding fusion nuclear engineering and technologies for DEMO. This FNSF-CTF would thereby complement the ITER Program, and support and help mitigate the risks of an aggressive world fusion DEMO R&D Program. The key physics and technology research needed in the next decade to manage the potential risks of this FNSF are identified.

  14. Global Pursuits: The Underground Railroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Arts: The Art Education Magazine for Teachers, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This brief article describes Charles T. Webber's oil on canvas painting, "The Underground Railroad, 1893." The subject of this painting is the Underground Railroad, which today has become an American legend. The Underground Railroad was not a systematic means of transportation, but rather a secretive process that allowed fugitive slaves…

  15. RF power source for the compact linear collider test facility (CTF3)

    CERN Document Server

    McMonagle, G; Brown, Peter; Carron, G; Hanni, R; Mourier, J; Rossat, G; Syratchev, I V; Tanner, L; Thorndahl, L

    2004-01-01

    The CERN CTF3 facility will test and demonstrate many vital components of CLIC (Compact Linear Collider). This paper describes the pulsed RF power source at 2998.55 MHz for the drive-beam accelerator (DBA), which produces a beam with an energy of 150 MeV and a current of 3.5 Amps. Where possible, existing equipment from the LEP preinjector, especially the modulators and klystrons, is being used and upgraded to achieve this goal. A high power RF pulse compression system is used at the output of each klystron, which requires sophisticated RF phase programming on the low level side to achieve the required RF pulse. In addition to the 3 GHz system two pulsed RF sources operating at 1.5 GHz are being built. The first is a wide-band, low power, travelling wave tube (TWT) for the subharmonic buncher (SHB) system that produces a train of "phase coded" subpulses as part of the injector scheme. The second is a high power narrow band system to produce 20 MW RF power to the 1.5 GHz RF deflectors in the delay loop situate...

  16. Design, Manufacturing and Testing of the CTF3 Tail Clipper Kicker

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, M J; Ravida, G; Rodriguez, I; Toral, F

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the present CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) is to demonstrate the technical feasibility of specific key issues of the CLIC scheme. The extracted drive beam from the combiner ring (CR), a pulse of 35 A magnitude and 140 ns duration, is sent to the new CLic EXperimental area (CLEX). A Tail Clipper (TC) kicker is required, in the CR to CLEX transfer line, to allow the duration of the beam pulse to be adjusted: the unwanted bunches are kicked into a collimator. The TC must have a fast field rise-time, of not more than 5 ns, in order to minimize uncontrolled beam loss. Striplines are used for the TC: to establish the required fields, the applied pulse wave front must fully propagate along the striplines. To reduce the wave front propagation time, the overall length of the stripline assembly is sub-divided into 4 sections. The TC has been designed with the aid of detailed numerical modelling: the stripline cross-section and coaxial-to-stripline transitions were carefully optimized using a 3D code. The results...

  17. Design, Testing and Operation of the Modulator for the CTF3 Tail Clipper Kicker

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, M J; Ravida, G

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the present CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) is to demonstrate the technical feasibility of specific key issues in the CLIC scheme. The extracted drive beam from the combiner ring (CR, of 35 A magnitude and 140 ns duration, is sent to the new CLic EXperimental area (CLEX). A Tail Clipper (TC) is required, in the CR to CLEX transfer line, to allow the duration of the extracted beam pulse to be adjusted. Fours sets of striplines are used for the tail clipper, each consisting of a pair of deflector plates driven to equal potential but opposite polarity. The tail clipper kick must have a fast field risetime, of not more than 5 ns, in order to minimize uncontrolled beam loss. High voltage MOSFETs have been chosen to meet the demanding specifications for the semiconductor switches for the modulator of the tail clipper. This paper discusses the design of the modulator; measurement data obtained during testing and operation of the tail clipper is presented and analyzed.

  18. Monte Carlo Simulations of Beam Losses in the Test Beam Line of CTF3

    CERN Document Server

    Nebot Del Busto, E; Branger, E; Holzer, E B; Doebert, S; Lillestol, R L; Welsch, C P

    2013-01-01

    The Test Beam Line (TBL) of the CLIC Test Facility 3 (CTF3) aims to validate the drive beam deceleration concept of CLIC, in which the RF power requested to boost particles to multi-TeV energies is obtained via deceleration of a high current and low energy drive beam (DB). Despite a TBL beam energy (150-80 MeV) significantly lower than the minimum nominal energy of the CLIC DB (250 MeV), the pulse time structure of the TBL provides the opportunity to measure beam losses with CLIC-like DB timing conditions. In this contribution, a simulation study on the detection of beam losses along the TBL for the commissioning of the recently installed beam loss monitoring system is presented. The most likely loss locations during stable beam conditions are studied by considering the beam envelope defined by the FODO lattice as well as the emittance growth due to the deceleration process. Moreover, the optimization of potential detector locations is discussed. Several factors are considered, namely: the distance to the bea...

  19. LUNA: Nuclear astrophysics underground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (Italy)

    2015-02-24

    Underground nuclear astrophysics with LUNA at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso spans a history of 20 years. By using the rock overburden of the Gran Sasso mountain chain as a natural cosmic-ray shield very low signal rates compared to an experiment on the surface can be tolerated. The cross sectons of important astrophysical reactions directly in the stellar energy range have been successfully measured. In this proceeding we give an overview over the key accomplishments of the experiment and an outlook on its future with the expected addition of an additional accelerator to the underground facilities, enabling the coverage of a wider energy range and the measurement of previously inaccessible reactions.

  20. Monitoring underground movements

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    On 16 September 2015 at 22:54:33 (UTC), an 8.3-magnitude earthquake struck off the coast of Chile. 11,650 km away, at CERN, a new-generation instrument – the Precision Laser Inclinometer (PLI) – recorded the extreme event. The PLI is being tested by a JINR/CERN/ATLAS team to measure the movements of underground structures and detectors.   The Precision Laser Inclinometer during assembly. The instrument has proven very accurate when taking measurements of the movements of underground structures at CERN.    The Precision Laser Inclinometer is an extremely sensitive device capable of monitoring ground angular oscillations in a frequency range of 0.001-1 Hz with a precision of 10-10 rad/Hz1/2. The instrument is currently installed in one of the old ISR transfer tunnels (TT1) built in 1970. However, its final destination could be the ATLAS cavern, where it would measure and monitor the fine movements of the underground structures, which can affect the precise posi...

  1. Modelling the role of CtfA/B in reverse shift continuous culture experiments of Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Graeme J; King, John R

    2016-06-01

    In continuous phosphate-limited conditions, under pH control from high pH (pH ≳ 5.2) to low pH (pH ≲ 5.2), the metabolism of the Gram-positive bacterium Clostridium acetobutylicum,switches from acid to solvent production. Three main enzymes are responsible for the shift, acetoacetate decarboxylase (Adc), alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhE1/2) and a CoA-transferase (CtfA/B), which are produced in increased quantities during solventogenesis. A two-population model, Millat et al. (2013) and fitted to such 'forward'-shift data, can explain this, as well as observed changes in optical density immediately following the shift: an acidogenic subpopulation is washed out and a solventogenic subpopulation grows in its place, each with distinct physiologies and proteomes. We fit this model to a 'reverse'-shift experiment, where the pH is increased from solventogenic to acidogenic conditions. We find corresponding changes in reaction rates, with AdhE1 and Adc production falling, as in the 'forward' experiments; however, for CtfA/B, the best fit surprisingly arises from the same level of production in both conditions. We propose experiments that would test whether this is a model artefact or accurately reflects cultures shifted in this reverse direction, and, if true, may suggest that over-expressing CtfA/B in both solventogenic and acidogenic conditions could improve the efficiency of fermentation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. 30 CFR 75.343 - Underground shops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground shops. 75.343 Section 75.343... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.343 Underground shops. (a) Underground...-3 through § 75.1107-16, or be enclosed in a noncombustible structure or area. (b) Underground shops...

  3. RP delves underground

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2011-01-01

    The LHC’s winter technical stop is rapidly approaching. As in past years, technical staff in their thousands will be flocking to the underground areas of the LHC and the Linac2, Booster, PS and SPS injectors. To make sure they are protected from ionising radiation, members of the Radiation Protection Group will perform an assessment of the levels of radioactivity in the tunnels as soon as the beams have stopped.   Members of the Radiation Protection Group with their precision instruments that measure radioactivity. At 7-00 a.m. on 8 December the LHC and all of the upstream accelerators will begin their technical stop. At 7-30 a.m., members of the Radiation Protection Group will enter the tunnel to perform a radiation mapping, necessary so that the numerous teams can do their work in complete safety. “Before we proceed underground, we always check first to make sure that the readings from the induced radioactivity monitors installed in the tunnels are all normal,&rdqu...

  4. Going Underground in Singapore

    CERN Multimedia

    John Osborne (GS/SEM)

    2010-01-01

    Singapore has plans to build a massive Underground Science City (USC) housing R&D laboratories and IT data centres. A delegation involved in the planning to build the subterranean complex visited CERN on 18 October 2010 to learn from civil engineers and safety experts about how CERN plans and constructs its underground facilities.   The delegation from Singapore. The various bodies and corporations working on the USC project are currently studying the feasibility of constructing up to 40 caverns (60 m below ground) similar in size to an LHC experiment hall, in a similar type of rock. Civil engineering and geotechnical experts are calculating the maximum size of the cavern complex that can be safely built. The complex could one day accommodate between 3000 and 5000 workers on a daily basis, so typical issues of size and number of access shafts need to be carefully studied. At first glance, you might not think the LHC has much in common with the USC project; as Rolf Heuer pointed out: &ldq...

  5. Analysis of replication profiles reveals key role of RFC-Ctf18 in yeast replication stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabbé, Laure; Thomas, Aubin; Pantesco, Véronique; De Vos, John; Pasero, Philippe; Lengronne, Armelle

    2010-11-01

    Maintenance of genome integrity relies on surveillance mechanisms that detect and signal arrested replication forks. Although evidence from budding yeast indicates that the DNA replication checkpoint (DRC) is primarily activated by single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), studies in higher eukaryotes have implicated primer ends in this process. To identify factors that signal primed ssDNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we have screened a collection of checkpoint mutants for their ability to activate the DRC, using the repression of late origins as readout for checkpoint activity. This quantitative analysis reveals that neither RFC(Rad24) and the 9-1-1 clamp nor the alternative clamp loader RFC(Elg1) is required to signal paused forks. In contrast, we found that RFC(Ctf18) is essential for the Mrc1-dependent activation of Rad53 and for the maintenance of paused forks. These data identify RFC(Ctf18) as a key DRC mediator, potentially bridging Mrc1 and primed ssDNA to signal paused forks.

  6. Underground space planning in Helsinki

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ilkka Vhaho

    2014-01-01

    This paper gives insight into the use of underground space in Helsinki, Finland. The city has an under-ground master plan (UMP) for its whole municipal area, not only for certain parts of the city. Further, the decision-making history of the UMP is described step-by-step. Some examples of underground space use in other cities are also given. The focus of this paper is on the sustainability issues related to urban underground space use, including its contribution to an environmentally sustainable and aesthetically acceptable landscape, anticipated structural longevity and maintaining the opportunity for urban development by future generations. Underground planning enhances overall safety and economy effi-ciency. The need for underground space use in city areas has grown rapidly since the 21st century;at the same time, the necessity to control construction work has also increased. The UMP of Helsinki reserves designated space for public and private utilities in various underground areas of bedrock over the long term. The plan also provides the framework for managing and controlling the city’s underground con-struction work and allows suitable locations to be allocated for underground facilities. Tampere, the third most populated city in Finland and the biggest inland city in the Nordic countries, is also a good example of a city that is taking steps to utilise underground resources. Oulu, the capital city of northern Finland, has also started to‘go underground’. An example of the possibility to combine two cities by an 80-km subsea tunnel is also discussed. A new fixed link would generate huge potential for the capital areas of Finland and Estonia to become a real Helsinki-Tallinn twin city.

  7. Underground space planning in Helsinki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilkka Vähäaho

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives insight into the use of underground space in Helsinki, Finland. The city has an underground master plan (UMP for its whole municipal area, not only for certain parts of the city. Further, the decision-making history of the UMP is described step-by-step. Some examples of underground space use in other cities are also given. The focus of this paper is on the sustainability issues related to urban underground space use, including its contribution to an environmentally sustainable and aesthetically acceptable landscape, anticipated structural longevity and maintaining the opportunity for urban development by future generations. Underground planning enhances overall safety and economy efficiency. The need for underground space use in city areas has grown rapidly since the 21st century; at the same time, the necessity to control construction work has also increased. The UMP of Helsinki reserves designated space for public and private utilities in various underground areas of bedrock over the long term. The plan also provides the framework for managing and controlling the city's underground construction work and allows suitable locations to be allocated for underground facilities. Tampere, the third most populated city in Finland and the biggest inland city in the Nordic countries, is also a good example of a city that is taking steps to utilise underground resources. Oulu, the capital city of northern Finland, has also started to ‘go underground’. An example of the possibility to combine two cities by an 80-km subsea tunnel is also discussed. A new fixed link would generate huge potential for the capital areas of Finland and Estonia to become a real Helsinki-Tallinn twin city.

  8. Underground pumped hydroelectric storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, R. D.; Doherty, T. J.; Kannberg, L. D.

    1984-07-01

    Underground pumped hydroelectric energy storage was conceived as a modification of surface pumped storage to eliminate dependence upon fortuitous topography, provide higher hydraulic heads, and reduce environmental concerns. A UPHS plant offers substantial savings in investment cost over coal-fired cycling plants and savings in system production costs over gas turbines. Potential location near load centers lowers transmission costs and line losses. Environmental impact is less than that for a coal-fired cycling plant. The inherent benefits include those of all pumped storage (i.e., rapid load response, emergency capacity, improvement in efficiency as pumps improve, and capacity for voltage regulation). A UPHS plant would be powered by either a coal-fired or nuclear baseload plant. The economic capacity of a UPHS plant would be in the range of 1000 to 3000 MW. This storage level is compatible with the load-velocity requirements of a greater metropolitan area with population of 1 million or more.

  9. Synthetic lethal genetic interactions that decrease somatic cell proliferation in Caenorhabditis elegans identify the alternative RFC CTF18 as a candidate cancer drug target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLellan, Jessica; O'Neil, Nigel; Tarailo, Sanja; Stoepel, Jan; Bryan, Jennifer; Rose, Ann; Hieter, Philip

    2009-12-01

    Somatic mutations causing chromosome instability (CIN) in tumors can be exploited for selective killing of cancer cells by knockdown of second-site genes causing synthetic lethality. We tested and statistically validated synthetic lethal (SL) interactions between mutations in six Saccharomyces cerevisiae CIN genes orthologous to genes mutated in colon tumors and five additional CIN genes. To identify which SL interactions are conserved in higher organisms and represent potential chemotherapeutic targets, we developed an assay system in Caenorhabditis elegans to test genetic interactions causing synthetic proliferation defects in somatic cells. We made use of postembryonic RNA interference and the vulval cell lineage of C. elegans as a readout for somatic cell proliferation defects. We identified SL interactions between members of the cohesin complex and CTF4, RAD27, and components of the alternative RFC(CTF18) complex. The genetic interactions tested are highly conserved between S. cerevisiae and C. elegans and suggest that the alternative RFC components DCC1, CTF8, and CTF18 are ideal therapeutic targets because of their mild phenotype when knocked down singly in C. elegans. Furthermore, the C. elegans assay system will contribute to our knowledge of genetic interactions in a multicellular animal and is a powerful approach to identify new cancer therapeutic targets.

  10. ATLAS solenoid operates underground

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    A new phase for the ATLAS collaboration started with the first operation of a completed sub-system: the Central Solenoid. Teams monitoring the cooling and powering of the ATLAS solenoid in the control room. The solenoid was cooled down to 4.5 K from 17 to 23 May. The first current was established the same evening that the solenoid became cold and superconductive. 'This makes the ATLAS Central Solenoid the very first cold and superconducting magnet to be operated in the LHC underground areas!', said Takahiko Kondo, professor at KEK. Though the current was limited to 1 kA, the cool-down and powering of the solenoid was a major milestone for all of the control, cryogenic, power and vacuum systems-a milestone reached by the hard work and many long evenings invested by various teams from ATLAS, all of CERN's departments and several large and small companies. Since the Central Solenoid and the barrel liquid argon (LAr) calorimeter share the same cryostat vacuum vessel, this achievement was only possible in perfe...

  11. Underground Facilities, Technological Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Spooner, N

    2010-01-01

    This report gives a summary overview of the status of international under- ground facilities, in particular as relevant to long-baseline neutrino physics and neutrino astrophysics. The emphasis is on the technical feasibility aspects of creating the large underground infrastructures that will be needed in the fu- ture to house the necessary detectors of 100 kton to 1000 kton scale. There is great potential in Europe to build such a facility, both from the technical point of view and because Europe has a large concentration of the necessary engi- neering and geophysics expertise. The new LAGUNA collaboration has made rapid progress in determining the feasibility for a European site for such a large detector. It is becoming clear in fact that several locations are technically fea- sible in Europe. Combining this with the possibility of a new neutrino beam from CERN suggests a great opportunity for Europe to become the leading centre of neutrino studies, combining both neutrino astrophysics and neutrino beam stu...

  12. Science underground (Los Alamos, 1982)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieto, M.M.; Haxton, W.C.; Hoffman, C.M.; Kolb, E.W.; Sandberg, V.D.; Toevs, J.W. (eds.)

    1983-01-01

    Topics covered include solar neutrinos, proton decay, cosmic rays, geophysics, gravity waves, double beta decay, and possible future research directions with underground detectors. Abstracts of individual items from the conference were prepared separately for the data base. (GHT)

  13. Environmental benefits of underground coal gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-qin; Liu, Jun-hua; Yu, Li

    2002-04-01

    Environmental benefits of underground coal gasification are evaluated. The results showed that through underground coal gasification, gangue discharge is eliminated, sulfur emission is reduced, and the amount of ash, mercury, and tar discharge are decreased. Moreover, effect of underground gasification on underground water is analyzed and CO2 disposal method is put forward.

  14. Environmental benefits of underground coal gasification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Environmental benefits of underground coal gasification are evaluated. The results showed that through underground coal gasification,gangue discharge is eliminated, sulfur emission is reduced, and the amount of ash, mercury, and tar discharge are decreased. Moreover, effect of underground gasification on underground water is analyzed and CO2 disposal method is put forward.

  15. Operational Performance and Improvements to the RF Power Sources for the Compact Linear Collider Test Facility (CTF3) at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    McMonagle, Gerard

    2006-01-01

    The CERN CTF3 facility is being used to test and demonstrate key technical issues for the CLIC (Compact Linear Collider) study. Pulsed RF power sources are essential elements in this test facility. Klystrons at S-band (29998.55 GHz), in conjunction with pulse compression systems, are used to power the Drive Beam Accelerator (DBA) to achieve an electron beam energy of 150 MeV. The L-Band RF system, includes broadband Travelling Wave Tubes (TWTs) for beam bunching with 'phase coded' sub pulses in the injector and a narrow band high power L-Band klystron powering the transverse 1.5GHz RF deflector in the Delay Loop immediately after the DBA. This paper describes these different systems and discusses their operational performance.

  16. Operational performance and improvements to the rf power sources for the Compact Linear Collider Test Facility (CTF3) at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    McMonagle, Gerard

    2006-01-01

    The CERN CTF3 facility is being used to test and demonstrate key technical issues for the CLIC (Compact Linear Collider) study. Pulsed RF power sources are essential elements in this test facility. Klystrons at S-band (29998.55 GHz), in conjunction with pulse compression systems, are used to power the Drive Beam Accelerator (DBA) to achieve an electron beam energy of 150 MeV. The L-Band RF system, includes broadband Travelling Wave Tubes (TWTs) for beam bunching with 'phase coded' sub pulses in the injector and a narrow band high power L-Band klystron powering the transverse 1.5 GHz RF deflector in the Delay Loop immediately after the DBA. This paper describes these different systems and discusses their operational performance.

  17. LUNA: Nuclear Astrophysics Deep Underground

    CERN Document Server

    Broggini, Carlo; Guglielmetti, Alessandra; Menegazzo, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear astrophysics strives for a comprehensive picture of the nuclear reactions responsible for synthesizing the chemical elements and for powering the stellar evolution engine. Deep underground in the Gran Sasso laboratory the cross sections of the key reactions of the proton-proton chain and of the Carbon-Nitrogen-Oxygen (CNO) cycle have been measured right down to the energies of astrophysical interest. The salient features of underground nuclear astrophysics are summarized here. The main results obtained by LUNA in the last twenty years are reviewed, and their influence on the comprehension of the properties of the neutrino, of the Sun and of the Universe itself are discussed. Future directions of underground nuclear astrophysics towards the study of helium and carbon burning and of stellar neutron sources in stars are pointed out.

  18. Underground Nuclear Astrophysics in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weiping

    Underground Nuclear Astrophysics in China (JUNA) will take the advantage of the ultra-low background in Jinping underground lab. High current accelerator with an ECR source and detectors will be set up. We plan to study directly a number of nuclear reactions important to hydrostatic stellar evolution at their relevant stellar energies, such as 25Mg(p,γ)26Al, 19F(p,α)16O, 13C(α,n)16O and 12C(α,γ)16O.

  19. Logistics background study: underground mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanslovan, J. J.; Visovsky, R. G.

    1982-02-01

    Logistical functions that are normally associated with US underground coal mining are investigated and analyzed. These functions imply all activities and services that support the producing sections of the mine. The report provides a better understanding of how these functions impact coal production in terms of time, cost, and safety. Major underground logistics activities are analyzed and include: transportation and personnel, supplies and equipment; transportation of coal and rock; electrical distribution and communications systems; water handling; hydraulics; and ventilation systems. Recommended areas for future research are identified and prioritized.

  20. Beam Tests of a Prototype Stripline Beam Position Monitoring System for the Drive Beam of the CLIC Two-beam Module at CTF3

    CERN Document Server

    Benot-Morell, Alfonso; Nappa, Jean-Marc; Vilalte, Sebastien; Wendt, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    In collaboration with LAPP and IFIC, two units of a prototype stripline Beam Position Monitor (BPM) for the CLIC Drive Beam (DB), and its associated readout electronics have been successfully installed and tested in the Two-Beam-Module (TBM) at the CLIC Test Facility 3 (CTF3) at CERN. This paper gives a short overview of the BPM system and presents the performance measured under different Drive Beam configurations.

  1. RecQL4 is required for the association of Mcm10 and Ctf4 with replication origins in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Jun-Sub; Park, Soon-Young; Cho, Won-Ho; Bae, Sung-Ho; Hurwitz, Jerard; Lee, Joon-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Though RecQL4 was shown to be essential for the initiation of DNA replication in mammalian cells, its role in initiation is poorly understood. Here, we show that RecQL4 is required for the origin binding of Mcm10 and Ctf4, and their physical interactions and association with replication origins are controlled by the concerted action of both CDK and DDK activities. Although RecQL4-dependent binding of Mcm10 and Ctf4 to chromatin can occur in the absence of pre-replicative complex, their association with replication origins requires the presence of the pre-replicative complex and CDK and DDK activities. Their association with replication origins and physical interactions are also targets of the DNA damage checkpoint pathways which prevent initiation of DNA replication at replication origins. Taken together, the RecQL4-dependent association of Mcm10 and Ctf4 with replication origins appears to be the first important step controlled by S phase promoting kinases and checkpoint pathways for the initiation of DNA replication in human cells.

  2. Partial BACE1 reduction in a Down syndrome mouse model blocks Alzheimer-related endosomal anomalies and cholinergic neurodegeneration: role of APP-CTF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ying; Rigoglioso, Andrew; Peterhoff, Corrinne M; Pawlik, Monika; Sato, Yutaka; Bleiwas, Cynthia; Stavrides, Philip; Smiley, John F; Ginsberg, Stephen D; Mathews, Paul M; Levy, Efrat; Nixon, Ralph A

    2016-03-01

    β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) and amyloid beta peptide (Aβ) are strongly implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis, although recent evidence has linked APP-βCTF generated by BACE1 (β-APP cleaving enzyme 1) to the development of endocytic abnormalities and cholinergic neurodegeneration in early AD. We show that partial BACE1 genetic reduction prevents these AD-related pathological features in the Ts2 mouse model of Down syndrome. Partially reducing BACE1 by deleting one BACE1 allele blocked development of age-related endosome enlargement in the medial septal nucleus, cerebral cortex, and hippocampus and loss of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-positive medial septal nucleus neurons. BACE1 reduction normalized APP-βCTF elevation but did not alter Aβ40 and Aβ42 peptide levels in brain, supporting a critical role in vivo for APP-βCTF in the development of these abnormalities. Although ameliorative effects of BACE1 inhibition on β-amyloidosis and synaptic proteins levels have been previously noted in AD mouse models, our results highlight the additional potential value of BACE1 modulation in therapeutic targeting of endocytic dysfunction and cholinergic neurodegeneration in Down syndrome and AD.

  3. Leaking Underground Storage Tank (LUST) Trust Fund

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 1986, Congress created the Leaking Underground Storage Tank (LUST) Trust Fund to address releases from federally regulated underground storage tanks (USTs) by amending Subtitle I of the Solid Waste Disposal Act.

  4. Fight Against Underground Policies Intensifies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUZHUOQIONG

    2004-01-01

    On May 27, the China Insurance Regulatory Commission (CIRC)called in the chief representatives of foreign life insurers with branches in Hong Kong and Macao for a meeting andasked the companies to get more disciplined and help the government to combat underground policies.

  5. An embedded underground navigation system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hlophe, K

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available GPS. Our research interest is focused on using a lowcost off-the-shelf inertial measurement unit (IMU) to improve the Active Beacon Positioning System (ABPS) developed here at the CSIR. This paper proposes a novel pose estimator, for underground mines...

  6. High Temperature Superconducting Underground Cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrell, Roger, A.

    2010-02-28

    The purpose of this Project was to design, build, install and demonstrate the technical feasibility of an underground high temperature superconducting (HTS) power cable installed between two utility substations. In the first phase two HTS cables, 320 m and 30 m in length, were constructed using 1st generation BSCCO wire. The two 34.5 kV, 800 Arms, 48 MVA sections were connected together using a superconducting joint in an underground vault. In the second phase the 30 m BSCCO cable was replaced by one constructed with 2nd generation YBCO wire. 2nd generation wire is needed for commercialization because of inherent cost and performance benefits. Primary objectives of the Project were to build and operate an HTS cable system which demonstrates significant progress towards commercial progress and addresses real world utility concerns such as installation, maintenance, reliability and compatibility with the existing grid. Four key technical areas addressed were the HTS cable and terminations (where the cable connects to the grid), cryogenic refrigeration system, underground cable-to-cable joint (needed for replacement of cable sections) and cost-effective 2nd generation HTS wire. This was the world’s first installation and operation of an HTS cable underground, between two utility substations as well as the first to demonstrate a cable-to-cable joint, remote monitoring system and 2nd generation HTS.

  7. Slavery and the Underground Railroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Nancy Comfort

    2000-01-01

    Presents a bibliography of sources to help children understand slavery and the Underground Railroad and recommends a combination of fiction and nonfiction for a better understanding. Includes picture books, biographies of people who played prominent roles during the time of slavery, nonfiction books for older readers, and videotape. (LRW)

  8. 30 CFR 57.4761 - Underground shops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground shops. 57.4761 Section 57.4761... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Ventilation Control Measures § 57.4761 Underground shops. To confine or prevent the spread of...

  9. 49 CFR 192.325 - Underground clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Underground clearance. 192.325 Section 192.325... Lines and Mains § 192.325 Underground clearance. (a) Each transmission line must be installed with at least 12 inches (305 millimeters) of clearance from any other underground structure not associated with...

  10. 47 CFR 32.2422 - Underground cable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Underground cable. 32.2422 Section 32.2422... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2422 Underground cable. (a) This account shall include the original cost of underground cable installed in conduit and of...

  11. Risk management in large scale underground infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmholt, K.A.; Courage, W.M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Underground infrastructures can fail due to ground movements. Due to the underground nature this is difficult to detect above ground. In a collaboration of multiple research institutes a new approach has been developed to estimate the probability of failure using underground position sensors. A Proo

  12. Effects of the beam loading in the rf deflectors of the CLIC test facility CTF3 combiner ring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Alesini

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the impact of the rf deflectors beam loading on the transverse beam dynamics of the CTF3 combiner ring. A general expression for the single-passage wake field is obtained. Different approximated formulas are derived applying linearization of the rf deflector dispersion curve either on a limited or an unlimited frequency range. A dedicated tracking code has been written to study the multibunch multiturn effects on the transverse beam dynamics. The numerical simulations reveal that the beam emittance growth due to the wake field in the rf deflectors is a small fraction of the design emittance if the trains are injected perfectly on axis. Nevertheless in case of injection errors the final emittance growth strongly depends on the betatron phase advance between the rf deflectors. If the finite bunch length is included in the tracking code, the scenario for the central part of the bunches does not change. However, for some particular injection errors, the tails of the bunches can increase the total transverse bunch emittances.

  13. rf deflector design of the CLIC test facility CTF3 delay loop and beam loading effect analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Alesini

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Beam injection and extraction in the delay loop of the CLIC Test Facility 3 (CTF3 for recombination of adjacent bunch trains, is performed by a specially designed rf deflector. A standing wave structure has been chosen for this purpose. Three possible solutions have been investigated, and a comparative analysis is presented. All of them satisfy the essential requirements of the system up to the maximum foreseen energy with the existing klystron. The final design of the rf deflector consists of two identical cavities connected to the rf power source through a hybrid junction that equally splits the power and isolates the klystron from reflections. The rf deflector design, the results of electromagnetic simulations, and the low level rf measurements are illustrated. The impact of beam loading in the rf deflectors on the transverse beam dynamics is also analyzed. The general expression of the single passage transverse wakefield is obtained and a dedicated tracking code has been written to study the multibunch multiturn effects. A complete analysis for different machine parameters and injection errors is presented and discussed. These numerical simulations indicate a tolerable beam emittance growth due to the transverse wakefield in the rf deflectors.

  14. Underground spaces/cybernetic spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Novljan

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A modern city space is a space where in the vertical and horizontal direction dynamic, non-linear processes exist, similar as in nature. Alongside the “common” city surface, cities have underground spaces as well that are increasingly affecting the functioning of the former. It is the space of material and cybernetic communication/transport. The psychophysical specifics of using underground places have an important role in their conceptualisation. The most evident facts being their limited volume and often limited connections to the surface and increased level of potential dangers of all kinds. An efficient mode for alleviating the effects of these specific features are artistic interventions, such as: shape, colour, lighting, all applications of the basic principles of fractal theory.

  15. Road construction in underground mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benke, L.; Benkovics, I.

    1985-01-01

    The need and reasons of road construction for rubber-tyre vehicles in various mine sections are examined. A detailed analysis is given of the direct and indirect influences of underground haulage ways and transport roads on the parameters of mine performance. The various mine road construction technologies are overviewed. Experiences are presented with road construction in the Mecsek Ore Mines Company, Plant 3, Hungary. The cost factors of four construction technologies are compared.

  16. The Underground Economy in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleopatra Sendroiu

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Underground economic activities exist in most countries around the world, and they usually have the same causes: inadequate tax systems, excessive state interference in the economy and the lack of coordination in establishing economic policies. Through this paper, we aim to offer certain recommendations, which, in our opinion, would lead to solving the issue of inadequate allocation of resources and would also contribute to restoration of the worldwide economy.

  17. First ATLAS Events Recorded Underground

    CERN Multimedia

    Teuscher, R

    As reported in the CERN Bulletin, Issue No.30-31, 25 July 2005 The ATLAS barrel Tile calorimeter has recorded its first events underground using a cosmic ray trigger, as part of the detector commissioning programme. This is not a simulation! A cosmic ray muon recorded by the barrel Tile calorimeter of ATLAS on 21 June 2005 at 18:30. The calorimeter has three layers and a pointing geometry. The light trapezoids represent the energy deposited in the tiles of the calorimeter depicted as a thick disk. On the evening of June 21, the ATLAS detector, now being installed in the underground experimental hall UX15, reached an important psychological milestone: the barrel Tile calorimeter recorded the first cosmic ray events in the underground cavern. An estimated million cosmic muons enter the ATLAS cavern every 3 minutes, and the ATLAS team decided to make good use of some of them for the commissioning of the detector. Although only 8 of the 128 calorimeter slices ('superdrawers') were included in the trigg...

  18. Underground storage of carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Shoichi [Univ. of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    Desk studies on underground storage of CO{sub 2} were carried out from 1990 to 1991 fiscal years by two organizations under contract with New Energy and Indestrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO). One group put emphasis on application of CO{sub 2} EOR (enhanced oil recovery), and the other covered various aspects of underground storage system. CO{sub 2} EOR is a popular EOR method in U.S. and some oil countries. At present, CO{sub 2} is supplied from natural CO{sub 2} reservoirs. Possible use of CO{sub 2} derived from fixed sources of industries is a main target of the study in order to increase oil recovery and storage CO{sub 2} under ground. The feasibility study of the total system estimates capacity of storage of CO{sub 2} as around 60 Gton CO{sub 2}, if worldwide application are realized. There exist huge volumes of underground aquifers which are not utilized usually because of high salinity. The deep aquifers can contain large amount of CO{sub 2} in form of compressed state, liquefied state or solution to aquifer. A preliminary technical and economical survey on the system suggests favorable results of 320 Gton CO{sub 2} potential. Technical problems are discussed through these studies, and economical aspects are also evaluated.

  19. Urban underground network expansion planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozic, Z. [Sinclair Knight Merz Pty Ltd., Perth (Australia); Hobson, E. [HI Consulting Services Pty Ltd., Adelaide (Australia)

    1997-03-01

    The authors describe a three step approach to expansion planning of high voltage (HV) urban underground distribution networks. Although the techniques are specifically oriented to underground systems, they are equally applicable to overhead system design. The fundamental engineering problem is how to connect individual high voltage to low voltage substations (HV/LV SS) and zone HV SS into a future urban underground network. The problem is to rearrange the HV network to minimise the cost of expansion subject to provision of an alternative supply, specified load transfer among the neighbouring zone SS, and other general planning constraints such as feeder capacity, voltage regulation, operational requirements and losses. A review of the current state of the art of distribution expansion planning is provided. The normal manual approach is discussed together with more recent research into computer methods. Three lines of computer research are identified and classified as radially constrained, security constrained and utilisation of travelling salesman/vehicle routing problem algorithms (TSP/VRP). The TSP/VRP line of research has been extended here to produce practical techniques for the assistance of network planners. (Author)

  20. The stress and underground environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chama, A.

    2009-04-01

    Currently,the program of prevention in occupational health needs mainly to identify occupational hazards and strategy of their prevention.Among these risks,the stress represents an important psycho-social hazard in mental health,which unfortunately does not spare no occupation.My Paper attempts to highlight and to develop this hazard in its different aspects even its regulatory side in underground environment as occupational environment.In the interest of better prevention ,we consider "the information" about the impact of stress as the second prevention efficient and no expensive to speleologists,hygienists and workers in the underground areas. In this occasion of this event in Vienna,we also highlight the scientific works on the stress of the famous viennese physician and endocrinologist Doctor Hans Selye (1907-1982),nicknamed "the father of stress" and note on relation between biological rhythms in this underground area and psychological troubles (temporal isolation) (Jurgen Aschoff’s works and experiences out-of time).

  1. Multi-dimensional boron transport modeling in subchannel approach: Part II. Validation of CTF boron tracking model and adding boron precipitation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozdemir, Ozkan Emre, E-mail: ozdemir@psu.edu; Avramova, Maria N., E-mail: mna109@psu.edu

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Validation of implemented multi-dimensional subchannel boron transport model. • Extension of boron transport model to entrained droplets. • Implementation of boron precipitation model. • Testing of the boron precipitation model under transient condition. - Abstract: The risk of small-break loss of coolant accident (SB-LOCA) and other reactivity initiated transients caused by boron dilution in the light water reactors (LWRs), and the complications of tracking the soluble boron concentration experimentally inside the primary coolant have stimulated the interest in computational studies for accurate boron tracking simulations in nuclear reactors. In Part I of this study, the development and implementation of a multi-dimensional boron transport model with modified Godunov scheme based on a subchannel approach within the COBRA-TF (CTF) thermal-hydraulic code was presented. The modified Godunov scheme approach with a physical diffusion term was determined to provide the most accurate and precise solution. Current paper extends these conclusions and presents the model validation studies against experimental data from the Rossendorf coolant mixing model (ROCOM) test facility. In addition, the importance of the two-phase flow characteristics in modeling boron transient are emphasized, especially during long-term cooling period after the loss of coolant accident (LOCA) condition in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). The CTF capabilities of boron transport modeling are further improved based on the three-field representation of the two-phase flow utilized in the code. The boron transport within entrained droplets is modeled, and a model for predicting the boron precipitation under transient conditions is developed and tested. It is aimed to extend the applicability of CTF to reactor transient simulations, and particularly to a large-break loss of coolant accident (LB-LOCA) analysis.

  2. Chl12 (Ctf18) Forms a Novel Replication Factor C-Related Complex and Functions Redundantly with Rad24 in the DNA Replication Checkpoint Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Naiki, Takahiro; Kondo, Tae; Nakada, Daisuke; Matsumoto, Kunihiro; Sugimoto, Katsunori

    2001-01-01

    RAD24 has been identified as a gene essential for the DNA damage checkpoint in budding yeast. Rad24 is structurally related to subunits of the replication factor C (RFC) complex, and forms an RFC-related complex with Rfc2, Rfc3, Rfc4, and Rfc5. The rad24Δ mutation enhances the defect of rfc5-1 in the DNA replication block checkpoint, implicating RAD24 in this checkpoint. CHL12 (also called CTF18) encodes a protein that is structurally related to the Rad24 and RFC proteins. We show here that a...

  3. A Psychosocial Approach to Understanding Underground Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun H. Lee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available With a growing need for usable land in urban areas, subterranean development has been gaining attention. While construction of large underground complexes is not a new concept, our understanding of various socio-cultural aspects of staying underground is still at a premature stage. With projected emergence of underground built environments, future populations may spend much more of their working, transit, and recreational time in underground spaces. Therefore, it is essential to understand the challenges and advantages that such environments have to improve the future welfare of users of underground spaces. The current paper discusses various psycho-social aspects of underground spaces, the impact they can have on the culture shared among the occupants, and possible solutions to overcome some of these challenges.

  4. A Psychosocial Approach to Understanding Underground Spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun H; Christopoulos, George I; Kwok, Kian W; Roberts, Adam C; Soh, Chee-Kiong

    2017-01-01

    With a growing need for usable land in urban areas, subterranean development has been gaining attention. While construction of large underground complexes is not a new concept, our understanding of various socio-cultural aspects of staying underground is still at a premature stage. With projected emergence of underground built environments, future populations may spend much more of their working, transit, and recreational time in underground spaces. Therefore, it is essential to understand the challenges and advantages that such environments have to improve the future welfare of users of underground spaces. The current paper discusses various psycho-social aspects of underground spaces, the impact they can have on the culture shared among the occupants, and possible solutions to overcome some of these challenges.

  5. A Psychosocial Approach to Understanding Underground Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun H.; Christopoulos, George I.; Kwok, Kian W.; Roberts, Adam C.; Soh, Chee-Kiong

    2017-01-01

    With a growing need for usable land in urban areas, subterranean development has been gaining attention. While construction of large underground complexes is not a new concept, our understanding of various socio-cultural aspects of staying underground is still at a premature stage. With projected emergence of underground built environments, future populations may spend much more of their working, transit, and recreational time in underground spaces. Therefore, it is essential to understand the challenges and advantages that such environments have to improve the future welfare of users of underground spaces. The current paper discusses various psycho-social aspects of underground spaces, the impact they can have on the culture shared among the occupants, and possible solutions to overcome some of these challenges. PMID:28400744

  6. Seismic response and stability of underground rock caverns: a case study of Baihetan underground cavern complex

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cui, Zhen; Sheng, Qian; Leng, Xianlun; Chen, Jian

    2016-01-01

    The seismic stability of the underground cavern complex, which houses the Baihetan hydropower plant in Yunnan Province, China, currently the world's 2nd largest underground rock cavern group, is studied in this article...

  7. Aguamilpa underground penstocks: Excavation phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez, F. (Comision Federal de Electricidad, Tepic, Nayarit (Mexico))

    1994-01-01

    The Aguamilpa hydroelectric project is one of a number of hydroelectric schemes currently being constructed along the course of the Santiago River in western Mexico. Aguamilpa will cost US$750 million and includes a 187-m concrete-faced rockfill dam, spillway and diversion tunnels, and a 960 MW underground powerhouse. The underground works include the penstocks, the powerhouse and surge chamber caverns, and the tailrace tunnel. In the initial design, most of the tunnelling work was to have been of a permanent nature. However, as the date of completion was brought forward to June 1993, it became necessary to open up more working faces and, as such, a number of temporary tunnels were started. The sequence of underground penstock excavation is described along with the construction methods developed and the equipment employed. It was originally intended to excavate the upper and lower ends of the penstocks and then raise-bore an initial pilot hole along the whole length. This hole would then be reamed out to the full diameter. To achieve faster completion, it was decided to excavate the lower portion of the penstocks from special access tunnels and to gain access to the top of the penstocks via geological exploration and drainage galleries. The horizontal parts of the penstocks were excavated by drill-and-blast methods, and the sloping parts were constructed by raise-boring a pilot hole and then using drill-and-blast to enlarge the hole in several stages to the full profile. Installation of steel liner sections will proceed upward and outward from the lower elbow section. 3 refs., 17 figs., 7 tabs.

  8. The ANDES Deep Underground Laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Bertou, X

    2013-01-01

    ANDES (Agua Negra Deep Experiment Site) is a unique opportunity to build a deep underground laboratory in the southern hemisphere. It will be built in the Agua Negra tunnel planned between Argentina and Chile, and operated by the CLES, a Latin American consortium. With 1750m of rock overburden, and no close- by nuclear power plant, it will provide an extremely radiation quiet environment for neutrino and dark matter experiments. In particular, its location in the southern hemisphere should play a major role in understanding dark matter modulation signals.

  9. Design fires in underground mines

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Rickard

    2010-01-01

    This report deals with the issue on design fires in underground mines. The main purposes of the report are: -          Describe different approaches to describe design fires. -          Develop suitable design fires for different systems, mines, warehouses, workshops etc. -          Discuss the position of the design fires with respect to adjacent installations, egress, interruptions in the production etc. -          Discuss the influence of ventilation on the fire growth and its influence wh...

  10. Third symposium on underground mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    The Third Symposium on Underground Mining was held at the Kentucky Fair and Exposition Center, Louisville, KY, October 18--20, 1977. Thirty-one papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. The topics covered include mining system (longwall, shortwall, room and pillar, etc.), mining equipment (continuous miners, longwall equipment, supports, roof bolters, shaft excavation equipment, monitoring and control systems. Maintenance and rebuilding facilities, lighting systems, etc.), ventilation, noise abatement, economics, accidents (cost), dust control and on-line computer systems. (LTN)

  11. 30 CFR 75.804 - Underground high-voltage cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground high-voltage cables. 75.804 Section... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Underground High-Voltage Distribution § 75.804 Underground high-voltage cables. (a) Underground high-voltage cables used in resistance...

  12. The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawatzki, Julia [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department E15, James-Franck-Strasse 1, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) is a next-generation medium-baseline reactor neutrino experiment located in southern China, close to Kaiping. The construction of the 700 m deep underground facility already started and the experiment is scheduled to start data-taking in 2020, and is expected to operate for at least 20 years. The 20 kt liquid scintillator detector will detect low-energy neutrinos with an unprecedented energy resolution of 3% (at 1 MeV). The primary experimental goal is the determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy at 3σ significance from the measurement of the reactor neutrino energy spectrum. Two nuclear power plants: Yangjiang and Taishan are located at a distance of ∝ 53 km from the detector. Moreover, JUNO will measure the solar neutrino mixing parameters and the atmospheric neutrino squared-mass splitting with a precision < 1%. In addition, supernova neutrinos, geo-neutrinos, sterile neutrinos as well as solar and atmospheric neutrinos can be studied. This talk reviews the status of the project and highlight important scientific objectives.

  13. Underground storage tank management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    The Underground Storage Tank (UST) Management Program at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was established to locate UST systems in operation at the facility, to ensure that all operating UST systems are free of leaks, and to establish a program for the removal of unnecessary UST systems and upgrade of UST systems that continue to be needed. The program implements an integrated approach to the management of UST systems, with each system evaluated against the same requirements and regulations. A common approach is employed, in accordance with Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) regulations and guidance, when corrective action is mandated. This Management Plan outlines the compliance issues that must be addressed by the UST Management Program, reviews the current UST inventory and compliance approach, and presents the status and planned activities associated with each UST system. The UST Management Plan provides guidance for implementing TDEC regulations and guidelines for petroleum UST systems. (There are no underground radioactive waste UST systems located at Y-12.) The plan is divided into four major sections: (1) regulatory requirements, (2) implementation requirements, (3) Y-12 Plant UST Program inventory sites, and (4) UST waste management practices. These sections describe in detail the applicable regulatory drivers, the UST sites addressed under the Management Program, and the procedures and guidance used for compliance with applicable regulations.

  14. Earthquake damage to underground facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, H.R.; Hustrulid, W.A. Stephenson, D.E.

    1978-11-01

    The potential seismic risk for an underground nuclear waste repository will be one of the considerations in evaluating its ultimate location. However, the risk to subsurface facilities cannot be judged by applying intensity ratings derived from the surface effects of an earthquake. A literature review and analysis were performed to document the damage and non-damage due to earthquakes to underground facilities. Damage from earthquakes to tunnels, s, and wells and damage (rock bursts) from mining operations were investigated. Damage from documented nuclear events was also included in the study where applicable. There are very few data on damage in the subsurface due to earthquakes. This fact itself attests to the lessened effect of earthquakes in the subsurface because mines exist in areas where strong earthquakes have done extensive surface damage. More damage is reported in shallow tunnels near the surface than in deep mines. In mines and tunnels, large displacements occur primarily along pre-existing faults and fractures or at the surface entrance to these facilities.Data indicate vertical structures such as wells and shafts are less susceptible to damage than surface facilities. More analysis is required before seismic criteria can be formulated for the siting of a nuclear waste repository.

  15. Rmi1 functions in S phase-mediated cohesion establishment via a pathway involving the Ctf18-RFC complex and Mrc1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Mong Sing; Seki, Masayuki; Tada, Shusuke; Enomoto, Takemi

    2012-10-26

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae RecQ helicase (Sgs1) combines with DNA topoisomerase III (Top3) and RecQ-mediated genome instability 1 (Rmi1) to form an evolutionarily conserved complex that is required for processing homologous recombination intermediates and restarting collapsed replication forks. It was previously reported that Rmi1 contributes to sister chromatid cohesion; however, the underlying molecular mechanism has been unclear. In the present study, Rmi1 was found to be enriched at the region close to an early-firing replication origin when replication forks were arrested near their origins in the presence of hydroxyurea. Genetic analyses revealed that Rmi1 promoted sister chromatid cohesion in a process that was distinct from both the cohesion establishment pathway involving Ctf4, Csm3, and Chl1 and the pathway involving the acetylation of Smc3. On the other hand, Rmi1 seemed to function in a pathway involving the Ctf18-RFC complex and Mrc1, which were previously predicted to regulate leading-strand DNA replication.

  16. Resource Recovery from Flooded Underground Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butte, Montana has been the site of hard rock mining activities for over a century. Over 400 hundred underground mines were developed and over 10,000 miles of underground mine workings were created. During active mining, groundwater was removed from the workings by large-scale pu...

  17. Resource Recovery of Flooded Underground Mine Workings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butte, Montana has been the site of hard rock mining activities for over a century. Over 400 hundred underground mines were developed and over 10,000 miles of underground mine workings were created. During active mining, groundwater was removed from the workings by large-scale pu...

  18. UNDERGROUND ECONOMY, INFLUENCES ON NATIONAL ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CEAUȘESCU IONUT

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research is to improve the understanding of nature underground economy by rational justification of the right to be enshrined a reality that, at least statistically, can no longer be neglected. So, we propose to find the answer to the question: has underground economy to stand-alone?

  19. 30 CFR 57.20031 - Blasting underground in hazardous areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blasting underground in hazardous areas. 57... MINES Miscellaneous § 57.20031 Blasting underground in hazardous areas. In underground areas where... removed to safe places before blasting....

  20. Overview of the European Underground Facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Pandola, L

    2011-01-01

    Deep underground laboratories are the only places where the extremely low background radiation level required for most experiments looking for rare events in physics and astroparticle physics can be achieved. Underground sites are also the most suitable location for very low background gamma-ray spectrometers, able to assay trace radioactive contaminants. Many operational infrastructures are already available worldwide for science, differing for depth, dimension and rock characteristics. Other underground sites are emerging as potential new laboratories. In this paper the European underground sites are reviewed, giving a particular emphasis on their relative strength and complementarity. A coordination and integration effort among the European Union underground infrastructures was initiated by the EU-funded ILIAS project and proved to be very effective.

  1. Transport model of underground sediment in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jichao, Sun; Guangqian, Wang

    2013-01-01

    Studies about sediment erosion were mainly concentrated on the river channel sediment, the terrestrial sediment, and the underground sediment. The transport process of underground sediment is studied in the paper. The concept of the flush potential sediment is founded. The transport equation with stable saturated seepage is set up, and the relations between the flush potential sediment and water sediment are discussed. Flushing of underground sediment begins with small particles, and large particles will be taken away later. The pore ratio of the soil increases gradually. The flow ultimately becomes direct water seepage, and the sediment concentration at the same position in the water decreases over time. The concentration of maximal flushing potential sediment decreases along the path. The underground sediment flushing model reflects the flushing mechanism of underground sediment.

  2. Locomotive track detection for underground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhonglei; Lang, Wenhui; Li, Xiaoming; Wei, Xing

    2017-08-01

    In order to improve the PC-based track detection system, this paper proposes a method to detect linear track for underground locomotive based on DSP + FPGA. Firstly, the analog signal outputted from the camera is sampled by A / D chip. Then the collected digital signal is preprocessed by FPGA. Secondly, the output signal of FPGA is transmitted to DSP via EMIF port. Subsequently, the adaptive threshold edge detection, polar angle and radius constrain based Hough transform are implemented by DSP. Lastly, the detected track information is transmitted to host computer through Ethernet interface. The experimental results show that the system can not only meet the requirements of real-time detection, but also has good robustness.

  3. Toxic hazards of underground excavation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.; Chitnis, V.; Damasian, M.; Lemm, M.; Popplesdorf, N.; Ryan, T.; Saban, C.; Cohen, J.; Smith, C.; Ciminesi, F.

    1982-09-01

    Inadvertent intrusion into natural or man-made toxic or hazardous material deposits as a consequence of activities such as mining, excavation or tunnelling has resulted in numerous deaths and injuries in this country. This study is a preliminary investigation to identify and document instances of such fatal or injurious intrusion. An objective is to provide useful insights and information related to potential hazards due to future intrusion into underground radioactive-waste-disposal facilities. The methodology used in this study includes literature review and correspondence with appropriate government agencies and organizations. Key categories of intrusion hazards are asphyxiation, methane, hydrogen sulfide, silica and asbestos, naturally occurring radionuclides, and various mine or waste dump related hazards.

  4. Radionuclide behavior at underground environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Phil Soo; Park, Chung Kyun; Keum, Dong Kwon; Cho, Young Hwan; Kang, Moon Ja; Baik, Min Hoon; Hahn, Kyung Won; Chun, Kwan Sik; Park, Hyun Soo

    2000-03-01

    This study of radionuclide behavior at underground environment has been carried out as a part of the study of high-level waste disposal technology development. Therefore, the main objectives of this project are constructing a data-base and producing data for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste, and verification of the objectivity of the assessment through characterization of the geochemical processes and experimental validation of the radionuclide migration. The various results from the this project can be applicable to the preliminary safety and performance assessments of the established disposal concept for a future high-level radioactive waste repository. Providing required data and technical basis for assessment methodologies could be a direct application of the results. In a long-term view, the results can also be utilized as a technical background for the establishment of government policy for high-level radioactive waste disposal.

  5. The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Grassi, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) is a large and high precision liquid scintillator detector under construction in the south of China. With its 20 kt target mass, it aims to achieve an unprecedented 3% energy resolution at 1 MeV. Its main goal is to study the disappearance of reactor antineutrino to determine the neutrino mass ordering, and to precisely measure the mixing parameters $\\theta_{12}$, $\\Delta m^2_{12}$, and $\\Delta m ^2_{ee}$. It also aims to detect neutrinos emitted from radioactive processes taking place within the inner layers of the Earth (geonutrinos), as well as neutrinos produced during rare supernova bursts. Neutrinos emitted in solar nuclear reactions could also be observed, if stringent radiopurity requirements on the scintillator are met. This manuscript provides some highlights of JUNO's Physics Programme, and describes the detector design, as well as the ongoing detector R&D.

  6. Underground gasification of coal pillars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koranda, J.; Haas, K. (Ustav pro Vyzkum a Vyuziti Paliv, Prague (Czechoslovakia))

    1989-10-01

    Gives details of a feasibility study of underground gasification of the remaining non-extractable pillars at the Merkur coal mine, Tusimice. Briefly describes geological conditions and explains calculation of amount of heat held in coal pillars: seam is on average 11.7 m thick and generator area contains 7,182,300 t of coal with mean ash content of 29.71% and calorific value of 10.49 MJ/kg. Assuming losses of 15%, generator should be able to produce about 70,000 m{sup 3}/h of gas, equal to a lifetime of 20 years for coal pillars at the Merkur mine. Reviews gasification techniques and describes design of underground generator, which is to produce 70,000 m{sup 3}/h of gas at pressure of 0.4-0.45 MPa, temperature 350 C, humidity up to 0.25 kg/m{sup 3}. Describes equipment for compressing, cleaning and cooling gas and construction of access roads for positioning equipment and pipelines. It would not be viable to transport the type of gas produced over long distances; it should be used within the immediate area, e.g. at the Prunerov II power plant 2 km away. Concludes by calculating manpower required to operate gasification scheme (122) and cost benefit of scheme, which should provide gas at 31.1 Crowns per GJ (town gas currently costs 46.4 Crowns per GJ and imported natural gas costs 35.58 Crowns per GJ). 4 refs.

  7. Capital Subsidies and the Underground Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busato, Francesco; Chiarini, Bruno; Angelis, Pasquale de

    to offset the specific costs usually stressed by literature on underground production, such as those suggested by Loayza (1994) andAnderberg et al. (2003). Investigating the effects of different fiscal policy interventions,we find that taxation is a critical parameter to define the size of capital...... allocation in the underground production. In fact, a strong and inverse relationship is found, and tax reduction is the best policy to reduce the convenience to produce underground. Wealso confirm the depressing effect on investment of taxation (see, for instance, Summers,1981), so that tax reduction has...

  8. Radiometric surveys in underground environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochiolo, Massimo; Chiozzi, Paolo; Verdoya, Massimo; Pasquale, Vincenzo

    2010-05-01

    Due to their ability to travel through the air for several metres, gamma-rays emitted from natural radioactive elements can be successfully used in surveys carried out both with airborne and ground equipments. Besides the concentration of the radio-elements contained in rocks and soils and the intrinsic characteristics of the gamma-ray detector, the detected count rate depends on the solid angle around the spectrometer. On a flat outcrop, ground spectrometry detects the radiation ideally produced by a cylindrical mass of rock of about two metres in diameter and thickness of about half a meter. Under these geometrical conditions, the natural radioactivity can be easily evaluated. With operating conditions different from the standard ones, such as at the edge of an escarpment, the count rate halves because of the missing material, whereas in the vicinity of a rock wall the count rate will increase. In underground environment, the recorded count rate may even double and the in situ assessment of the concentration of radio-elements may be rather difficult, even if the ratios between the different radio-elements may not be affected. We tested the applicability of gamma-ray spectrometry for rapid assessment of the potential hazard levels related to radon and radiation dose rate in underground environment. A mine shaft, located in a zone of uranium enrichment in Liguria (Italy), has been investigated. A preliminary ground radiometric survey was carried out to define the extent of the ore deposit. Then, the radiometric investigation was focussed on the mine shaft. Due to rock mass above the shaft vault, the background gamma radiation can be considered of negligible influence on measurements. In underground surveys, besides deviations from a flat geometry, factors controlling radon exhalation, emanation and stagnation, such as fractures, water leakage and the presence of ventilation, should be carefully examined. We attempted to evaluate these control factors and collected

  9. Depleted argon from underground sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Back, H.O.; /Princeton U.; Alton, A.; /Augustana U. Coll.; Calaprice, F.; Galbiati, C.; Goretti, A.; /Princeton U.; Kendziora, C.; /Fermilab; Loer, B.; /Princeton U.; Montanari, D.; /Fermilab; Mosteiro, P.; /Princeton U.; Pordes, S.; /Fermilab

    2011-09-01

    Argon is a powerful scintillator and an excellent medium for detection of ionization. Its high discrimination power against minimum ionization tracks, in favor of selection of nuclear recoils, makes it an attractive medium for direct detection of WIMP dark matter. However, cosmogenic {sup 39}Ar contamination in atmospheric argon limits the size of liquid argon dark matter detectors due to pile-up. The cosmic ray shielding by the earth means that Argon from deep underground is depleted in {sup 39}Ar. In Cortez Colorado a CO{sub 2} well has been discovered to contain approximately 500ppm of argon as a contamination in the CO{sub 2}. In order to produce argon for dark matter detectors we first concentrate the argon locally to 3-5% in an Ar, N{sub 2}, and He mixture, from the CO{sub 2} through chromatographic gas separation. The N{sub 2} and He will be removed by continuous cryogenic distillation in the Cryogenic Distillation Column recently built at Fermilab. In this talk we will discuss the entire extraction and purification process; with emphasis on the recent commissioning and initial performance of the cryogenic distillation column purification.

  10. Leaking Underground Storage Tank Sites in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Leaking Underground Storage Tank (LUST) sites where petroleum contamination has been found. There may be more than one LUST site per UST site.

  11. Region 6 Underground Injection Control (UIC) Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is now a storage and retrieval application. Permit information and enforcement information of Underground Injection Wells are scanned and stored as a part of...

  12. Underground Storage Tanks - Storage Tank Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Storage Tank Location is a DEP primary facility type, and its sole sub-facility is the storage tank itself. Storage tanks are aboveground or underground, and are...

  13. The underground municipal information system (UMIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Mulder, E.F.J.; Baardman, B.A.M. [Geological Survey of the Netherlands, Haarlem (Netherlands); Ten Kate, A.M. [Schiedamseweg, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    1998-12-31

    As part of the general trend towards digital storage of spatial data, Dutch municipalities are currently showing increased interest in digital storage and retrieval of underground geo scientific data. To meet this demand, the Geological Survey of the Netherlands has developed the Underground Municipal Information System (UMIS). This System consists of a database of underground data, a related Geographical Information System, and several modules for the preduction of thematic maps (showing foundation depth, potential settlement, subsurface distribution of aggregates, groundwater conditions, potential pathways for underground spreading of pollution sources, etc.). The Geological Survey is currently advertising UMIS among Dutch municipalities and cities abroad by distributing a free demonstration CD (in Dutch), presentations, and publications. Once UMIS is installed in a municipality, more Urban Geological research can be conducted by incorporating economic and legislative aspects in thematic geo scientific maps and by strengthening geo scientific aspects in Decision Support System.

  14. Systematic classification of hazards in underground mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryncarz, T.

    1983-01-01

    Hazards in underground coal mines are analyzed. A general definition of a hazard is given as a physical process or interaction between environment and men which can harm miners. The following classification of mine environment is given: lithosphere, atmosphere, and so-called technosphere (equipment, machines and processes associated with mining operations in underground mines). It is stated that the traditional classification of hazards in underground mining which divides the hazards into two groups: natural hazards and other hazards, is not precise. The hazards classification proposed by the author uses three criteria: criterion of mining environment (lithosphere, atmosphere and technosphere), criterion of physical process development (mechanical process, thermal process), and criterion of process intensity (slow or rapid flow). The classification, presented in a table, covers all hazards in underground mining such as rock bursts, water influx, fires, dusts, rock falls etc. Practical use of the classification system in coal mining is discussed. 3 references.

  15. The First Great Migration: The Underground Railroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodstein, Carol

    1990-01-01

    Describes the Underground Railroad, a loosely organized system used by runaway Southern slaves to reach freedom in the North. Discusses the role of "conductors," who acted as guides and offered shelter along the route. (FMW)

  16. Improving underground ventilation conditions in coal mines

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meyer, CF

    1993-11-01

    Full Text Available projects could be initiated by miningtek in co-operation with different mines. This report deals with the findings of this project and also deals with the future of research within Miningtek with regard to underground ventilation....

  17. 30 CFR 57.4460 - Storage of flammable liquids underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Storage of flammable liquids underground. 57... AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES... liquids underground. (a) Flammable liquids shall not be stored underground, except— (1) Small quantities...

  18. 30 CFR 57.4561 - Stationary diesel equipment underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stationary diesel equipment underground. 57... AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES... underground. Stationary diesel equipment underground shall be— (a) Supported on a noncombustible base; and (b...

  19. 30 CFR 57.4463 - Liquefied petroleum gas use underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Liquefied petroleum gas use underground. 57... AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES... gas use underground. Use of liquefied petroleum gases underground shall be limited to maintenance work...

  20. 30 CFR 57.4462 - Storage of combustible liquids underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Storage of combustible liquids underground. 57... AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES... combustible liquids underground. The requirements of this standard apply to underground areas only. (a...

  1. 30 CFR 57.4461 - Gasoline use restrictions underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gasoline use restrictions underground. 57.4461... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire... underground. If gasoline is used underground to power internal combustion engines— (a) The mine shall be...

  2. Studies with the human cohesin establishment factor, ChlR1. Association of ChlR1 with Ctf18-RFC and Fen1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, Andrea; Shin, Jae-Ho; Kim, Do-Hyung; Bermudez, Vladimir P; Kelman, Zvi; Seo, Yeon-Soo; Hurwitz, Jerard

    2008-07-25

    Human ChlR1 (hChlR1), a member of the DEAD/DEAH subfamily of helicases, was shown to interact with components of the cohesin complex and play a role in sister chromatid cohesion. In order to study the biochemical and biological properties of hChlR1, we purified the protein from 293 cells and demonstrated that hChlR1 possesses DNA-dependent ATPase and helicase activities. This helicase translocates on single-stranded DNA in the 5' to 3' direction in the presence of ATP and, to a lesser extent, dATP. Its unwinding activity requires a 5'-singlestranded region for helicase loading, since flush-ended duplex structures do not support unwinding. The helicase activity of hChlR1 is capable of displacing duplex regions up to 100 bp, which can be extended to 500 bp by RPA or the cohesion establishment factor, the Ctf18-RFC (replication factor C) complex. We show that hChlR1 interacts with the hCtf18-RFC complex, human proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and hFen1. The interactions between Fen1 and hChlR1 stimulate the flap endonuclease activity of Fen1. Selective depletion of either hChlR1 or Fen1 by targeted small interfering RNA treatment results in the precocious separation of sister chromatids. These findings are consistent with a role of hChlR1 in the establishment of sister chromatid cohesion and suggest that its action may contribute to lagging strand processing events important in cohesion.

  3. Spectrum of underground coal gasification in Tianjin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Yongsheng; Bai Xiaohong [Tianjin Urban Construction Inst. (China)

    1997-12-31

    A feasibility study on underground coal gasification in Tianjin is conducted and a program for exploitation of these coal reserves with UCG techniques is suggested. Some issues, such as the coal resources in Tianjin, the geological features of the selected for UCG trial, the characteristics of local coal deposits and the coal quality are discussed. A proposal for a combination of the production of coalbed methane and underground coal gas was summarized.

  4. Underground infrastructure damage for a Chicago scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dey, Thomas N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bos, Rabdall J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-25

    Estimating effects due to an urban IND (improvised nuclear device) on underground structures and underground utilities is a challenging task. Nuclear effects tests performed at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) during the era of nuclear weapons testing provides much information on how underground military structures respond. Transferring this knowledge to answer questions about the urban civilian environment is needed to help plan responses to IND scenarios. Explosions just above the ground surface can only couple a small fraction of the blast energy into an underground shock. The various forms of nuclear radiation have limited penetration into the ground. While the shock transmitted into the ground carries only a small fraction of the blast energy, peak stresses are generally higher and peak ground displacement is lower than in the air blast. While underground military structures are often designed to resist stresses substantially higher than due to the overlying rocks and soils (overburden), civilian structures such as subways and tunnels would generally only need to resist overburden conditions with a suitable safety factor. Just as we expect the buildings themselves to channel and shield air blast above ground, basements and other underground openings as well as changes of geology will channel and shield the underground shock wave. While a weaker shock is expected in an urban environment, small displacements on very close-by faults, and more likely, soils being displaced past building foundations where utility lines enter could readily damaged or disable these services. Immediately near an explosion, the blast can 'liquefy' a saturated soil creating a quicksand-like condition for a period of time. We extrapolate the nuclear effects experience to a Chicago-based scenario. We consider the TARP (Tunnel and Reservoir Project) and subway system and the underground lifeline (electric, gas, water, etc) system and provide guidance for planning this scenario.

  5. 30 CFR 72.630 - Drill dust control at underground areas of underground mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... dust control at underground areas of underground mines. (a) Dust resulting from drilling in rock shall... condition. Dust collectors approved under Part 33—Dust Collectors for Use in Connection with Rock Drilling... the purpose of this section. (c) Water control. Water used to control dust from drilling rock shall...

  6. 40 CFR 280.230 - Operating an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... underground storage tank or underground storage tank system. (a) Operating an UST or UST system prior to...) Operating an UST or UST system after foreclosure. The following provisions apply to a holder who, through..., the purchaser must decide whether to operate or close the UST or UST system in accordance...

  7. Underground nuclear astrophysics at the Dresden Felsenkeller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bemmerer, Daniel; Ilgner, Christoph; Junghans, Arnd R.; Mueller, Stefan; Rimarzig, Bernd; Schwengner, Ronald; Szuecs, Tamas; Wagner, Andreas [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany); Cowan, Thomas E.; Gohl, Stefan; Grieger, Marcel; Reinicke, Stefan; Roeder, Marko; Schmidt, Konrad; Stoeckel, Klaus; Takacs, Marcell P.; Wagner, Louis [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany); Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany); Reinhardt, Tobias P.; Zuber, Kai [Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Favored by the low background underground, accelerator-based experiments are an important tool to study nuclear astrophysics reactions involving stable charged particles. This technique has been used with great success at the 0.4 MV LUNA accelerator in the Gran Sasso laboratory in Italy. However, the nuclear reactions of helium and carbon burning and the neutron source reactions for the astrophysical s-process require higher beam energies, as well as the continuation of solar fusion studies. As a result, NuPECC strongly recommended the installation of one or more higher-energy underground accelerators. Such a project is underway in Dresden. A 5 MV Pelletron accelerator is currently being refurbished by installing an ion source on the high voltage terminal, enabling intensive helium beams. The preparation of the underground site is funded, and the civil engineering project is being updated. The science case, operational strategy and project status are reported.

  8. Underground pipe inspection device and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germata, Daniel Thomas [Wadsworth, IL

    2009-02-24

    A method and apparatus for inspecting the walls of an underground pipe from inside the pipe in which an inspection apparatus having a circular planar platform having a plurality of lever arms having one end pivotably attached to one side of the platform, having a pipe inspection device connected to an opposite end, and having a system for pivoting the lever arms is inserted into the underground pipe, with the inspection apparatus oriented with the planar platform disposed perpendicular to the pipe axis. The plurality of lever arms are pivoted toward the inside wall of the pipe, contacting the inside wall with each inspection device as the apparatus is conveyed along a length of the underground pipe.

  9. The Mimetic Principle in the Underground Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Voicu

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available There has been in the recent years an increased preoccupation at international level for the research of the mechanism of development of the underground economy. The numerous vain attempts to measure the dimension of the underground economy persuaded us to embark on a qualitative research of this economic phenomenon. In our investigation on the roots of the underground economy we drew very close to the psychological and sociological aspects of the phenomenon itself. The process of humanizing that has at its origin components of the mimetic principle, like acquisitive mimesis, prompt us to ponder over J.M. Keynes’ words: „The avoidance of taxes is the only intellectual ambition that one feels rewarded for.”

  10. Master plan of Mizunami underground research laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    In June 1994, the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan reformulated the Long-Term Programme for Research, Development and Utilisation of Nuclear Energy (LTP). The LTP (item 7, chapter 3) sets out the guidelines which apply to promoting scientific studies of the deep geological environment, with a view to providing a sound basis for research and development programmes for geological disposal projects. The Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has been conducting scientific studies of the deep geological environment as part of its Geoscientific Research Programme. The LTP also emphasised the importance of deep underground research facilities in the following terms: Deep underground research facilities play an important role in research relating to geological disposal. They allow the characteristics and features of the geological environment, which require to be considered in performance assessment of disposal systems, to be investigated in situ and the reliability of the models used for evaluating system performance to be developed and refined. They also provide opportunities for carrying out comprehensive research that will contribute to an improved overall understanding of Japan's deep geological environment. It is recommended that more than one facility should be constructed, considering the range of characteristics and features of Japan's geology and other relevant factors. It is important to plan underground research facilities on the basis of results obtained from research and development work already carried out, particularly the results of scientific studies of the deep geological environment. Such a plan for underground research facilities should be clearly separated from the development of an actual repository. JNC's Mizunami underground research laboratory (MIU) Project will be a deep underground research facility as foreseen by the above provisions of the LTP. (author)

  11. Public outreach at the Soudan Underground Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gran, Richard

    2016-04-01

    There are many facets to the outreach program at the Soudan Underground Laboratory, currently host to the MINOS neutrino oscillation experiment and the Cryogenic Dark Matter experiment, plus a number of smaller experiments in the Low Background Counting Facility. The main focus is on twice daily public tours, operated in coordination with the Soudan Underground State Park and Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, who also operate undergound tours of the historical iron mining area. Another important component is the undergraduate interns and high school teachers who lead the tours. They also participate in the operation and/or analysis of the experiments hosted at the mine.

  12. Black Hills State University Underground Campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mount, Brianna J; Thomas, Keenan J; Oliver-Mallory, Kelsey C; Lesko, Kevin T; Schnee, Richard W; Henning, Reyco; MacLellan, Ryan F; Guerra, Marcelo B B; Busch, Matthew; Christofferson, Cabot-Ann D; Wilkerson, J F; Xu, Wenqin; Mei, Dongming

    2017-08-01

    The Black Hills State University Underground Campus (BHUC) houses a low background counting facility on the 4850' level of the Sanford Underground Research Facility. There are currently four ultra-low background, high-purity germanium detectors installed in the BHUC and it is anticipated four more detectors will be installed within a year. In total, the BHUC will be able to accommodate up to twelve detectors with space inside a class 1000 cleanroom, an automated liquid nitrogen fill system, on-site personnel assistance and other required utilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Underground Nuclear Astrophysics Experiment JUNA in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W. P.

    Underground Nuclear Astrophysics Experiment in China (JUNA) will take the advantage of the ultra-low background in Jinping underground lab. A 400 kV high current accelerator with an ECR source and γ , neutron and charged particle detectors will be set up. We plan to study directly a number of nuclear reactions important to hydrostatic stellar evolution near their Gamow window energies such as 25Mg(p, γ )26Al, 19F(p, α )16O, 13C(α , n)16O, and 12C(α , γ )16O, by the end of 2019.

  14. Overview of Opportunities in Underground Nuclear Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nigel

    2016-09-01

    The field of deep underground nuclear physics is within an exciting and burgeoning phase, demonstrated by the recent award of the 2105 Nobel Prize in physics for the observation of neutrino oscillations and neutrino flavor change, with new detector systems in construction and deployment to further develop this scientific field. This talk will overview the current status of the fields within deep underground nuclear physics, focusing on the study of astrophysical neutrino sources, the intrinsic nature of the neutrino, and nuclear astrophysics. The opportunities available in these fields in the near-future will also be discussed.

  15. Capital Subsidies and the Underground Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busato, Francesco; Chiarini, Bruno; Angelis, Pasquale de

    In this paper we investigate the effects of different fiscal policies on the firm choice to produce underground. We consider a tax evading firm operating simultaneously both in the regular and in the underground economy. We suggest that such a kind of firm, referred to as moonlighting firm, is able......, in this specifictypology of firm, some unexpected effects, causing, together with a positive investment process, also an increase in the share of irregularity. This finding could explain, in amicroeconomic framework, the evidence of Italian southern regions, where high incentivesare combined with high irregularity ratios....

  16. Assessment of condition of underground collector lines situated inside the technological complexes of underground storage facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Misany

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of status of underground gas pipeline systems operating for several decades becomes a decisive factor of the decision making for their further safe and reliable operation. The decision becomes crucial especially in cases when piping is installed within a facility without the cathodic protection. The evaluation and inspection of underground gas manifolds requires a specific approach tailored for the respective manifolds.In 2003 NAFTA, the company initiated an extensive plan of the underground gas manifolds diagnostics and evaluation. The results were presented within the Working Committee WOC2 at the 23rd World Gas Congress in Amsterdam.

  17. Energy Policy Act of 2005 and Underground Storage Tanks (USTs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Energy Policy Act of 2005 significantly affected federal and state underground storage tank programs, required major changes to the programs, and is aimed at reducing underground storage tank releases to our environment.

  18. EAS selection in the EMMA underground array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarkamo, J.; Bezrukov, L.; Enqvist, T.

    2013-01-01

    The first measurements of the Experiment with MultiMuon Array (EMMA) have been analyzed for the selection of the Extensive Air Showers (EAS). Test data were recorded with an underground muon tracking station and a satellite station separated laterally by 10 metres. Events with tracks distributed...

  19. Wages, unemployment, and the underground economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolm, Ann-Sofie; Larsen, Birthe

    2003-01-01

    the impact of higher punishmentrates and a higher audit rate on labour market performance. We findthat a higher punishment rate reduces the size of the informal sectorand reduces unemployment. A higher audit rate has an ambiguousimpact on unemployment, and may actually increase the size of theunderground...... economy.JEL-codes: H26Keywords: Tax evasion, underground economy, matching, bargaining,unemployment....

  20. Underground Energy Storage Program. 1983 annual summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannberg, L.D.

    1984-06-01

    The Underground Energy Storage Program approach, structure, history, and milestones are described. Technical activities and progress in the Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage and Compressed Air Energy Storage components of the program are then summarized, documenting the work performed and progress made toward resolving and eliminating technical and economic barriers associated with those technologies. (LEW)

  1. Nõukogudemaa underground bootleg'id / Margus Paju

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paju, Margus

    2008-01-01

    DVDst "Päratrusti pärand" - ENSV Riikliku Kultuurijäätmete Töötlemise Artelli "Päratrust" kultusfilmide kogumikust. Mustvalged underground-lühimängufilmid "Tsarli läheb Tallinna", "Tsaar Muhha", "Neurootiline pärastlõuna", "Kalkar", "Päratee" jt. aastatest 1980 -1983, filmid on taashelindatud 2007. aastal

  2. A Comprehensive Study of Underground Animals Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klokov, A. V.; Zapasnoy, A. S.; Mironchev, A. S.; Yakubov, V. P.; Shipilova, S. S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a method of studying the natural habitats of underground animals by the example of zokor. The purpose of the research is to find habitation of animals using unmanned aircraft and investigate networks of tunnels and burrows with ground penetrating radar "OKO-2". Geolocation data were processed by techniques developed by the authors.

  3. Modeling of long High Voltage AC Underground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsdottir, Unnur Stella; Bak, Claus Leth; Wiechowski, W. T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the work and findings of a PhD project focused on accurate high frequency modelling of long High Voltage AC Underground cables. The project is cooperation between Aalborg University and Energinet.dk. The objective of the project is to investigate the accuracy of most up to date...

  4. Nõukogudemaa underground bootleg'id / Margus Paju

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paju, Margus

    2008-01-01

    DVDst "Päratrusti pärand" - ENSV Riikliku Kultuurijäätmete Töötlemise Artelli "Päratrust" kultusfilmide kogumikust. Mustvalged underground-lühimängufilmid "Tsarli läheb Tallinna", "Tsaar Muhha", "Neurootiline pärastlõuna", "Kalkar", "Päratee" jt. aastatest 1980 -1983, filmid on taashelindatud 2007. aastal

  5. 29 CFR 1926.800 - Underground construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Geology: Geological studies of the jobsite, particularly involving the soil type and its permeability; (3... atmosphere in all underground work areas shall be tested quantitatively for carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide... shall be operated at the face with the sensor(s) placed as high and close to the front of the...

  6. Underground navigation and localisation using RFID tags

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    James, S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the major issues in the field of mobile robotics is localisation and navigation in an unknown environment. These tasks become even more challenging in an underground environment where no GPS signals or stationary landmark towers are available...

  7. Underground mining robot: a CSIR project

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Green, JJ

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) in South Africa is currently developing a robot for the inspection of the ceiling (hanging-wall) in an underground gold mine. The robot autonomously navigates the 30 meter long by 3 meter...

  8. Lighting underground%"照亮"地下

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶英

    2009-01-01

    本文介绍利用地震角度偏移法实现照亮地下的理论构想,并做了大量的研究工作,说明地震波角度偏移法在地下空间探测中的巨大作用和应用前景.研究中利用仿生学眼睛的功能,阐述了照亮地下的理论和方法技术,特别研究了眼睛的形觉、光觉、色觉、立体觉与地下空问探测的对比关系.最后结合研究的实测结果说明照亮地下理论的可实现性及效果.%This paper introduces the theory conceive of lighting underground by the seismic angle offset method, and explains great affect and application prospect by doing lots of research work. Making use of bionics eye function elaborate theory, method and technology of lighting underground, it specially performs comparison between shape sense, light sense, color sense, three-dimensional sense of eyes and underground space detection. Finally, it combines research fruit to show feasibility and effectiveness of the lighting underground theory.

  9. Freedom Train: Building an Underground Railroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Wayne

    1999-01-01

    Describes an activity called the "Freedom Train": a simulation for eighth grade students that enables them to gain an understanding of the importance and dangers of the Underground Railroad. Explains that the project encourages students to work cooperatively while also reinforcing their research and map skills. Provides follow-up…

  10. Harriet Tubman and the Underground Railroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Mary; Ruthsdotter, Mary

    Suitable for elementary level students, this study unit helps increase students' comprehension of the risks involved in a black person's flight from slavery and of Harriet Tubman's success in leading more than 300 slaves to freedom via the Underground Railroad. Five activity suggestions are followed by a reading on the life of Harriet Tubman.…

  11. A Walk on the Underground Railroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Anthony

    2001-01-01

    Describes one historian's search for information on the Underground Railroad, retracing on foot one of the routes formerly traveled by fugitives, seeking historical societies and libraries in each town, and interviewing descendants of slaves. He also had himself boxed up and smuggled onto a train to simulate the situation of one fugitive. A…

  12. Evaluation of the feasibility, economic impact, and effectiveness of underground nuclear power plants. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-05-01

    Information on underground nuclear power plants is presented concerning underground nuclear power plant concepts; public health impacts; technical feasibility of underground concepts; economic impacts of underground construction; and evaluation of related issues.

  13. 76 FR 51970 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Underground...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ... AGENCY Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Underground... Drinking Water/Drinking Water Protection Division/Underground Injection Control Program, Mailcode: 4606M... owners and operators of underground injection wells, State Underground Injection Control (UIC) primacy...

  14. Underground physics and the barometric pumping effect observed for thermal neutron flux underground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenkin, Yu. V.; Alekseenko, V. V.; Gromushkin, D. M.; Sulakov, V. P.; Shchegolev, O. B.

    2017-05-01

    It is known that neutron background is a major problem for low-background experiments carrying out underground, such as dark matter search, double-beta decay searches and other experiments known as Underground Physics. We present here some results obtained with the en-detector of 0.75 m2, which is running for more than 4 years underground at a depth of 25 m water equivalent in Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University. Some spontaneous increases in thermal neutron flux up to a factor of 3 were observed in delayed anti-correlation with barometric pressure. The phenomenon can be explained by the radon barometric pumping effect resulting in similar effect in neutron flux being produced in (α, n)-reactions by alpha-decays of radon and its daughters in surrounding rock. This is the first demonstration of the barometric pumping effect observed in thermal neutron flux underground.

  15. Assessment of CTF Boiling Transition and Critical Heat Flux Modeling Capabilities Using the OECD/NRC BFBT and PSBT Benchmark Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Avramova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few years, the Pennsylvania State University (PSU under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC has prepared, organized, conducted, and summarized two international benchmarks based on the NUPEC data—the OECD/NRC Full-Size Fine-Mesh Bundle Test (BFBT Benchmark and the OECD/NRC PWR Sub-Channel and Bundle Test (PSBT Benchmark. The benchmarks’ activities have been conducted in cooperation with the Nuclear Energy Agency/Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (NEA/OECD and the Japan Nuclear Energy Safety (JNES Organization. This paper presents an application of the joint Penn State University/Technical University of Madrid (UPM version of the well-known sub-channel code COBRA-TF (Coolant Boiling in Rod Array-Two Fluid, namely, CTF, to the steady state critical power and departure from nucleate boiling (DNB exercises of the OECD/NRC BFBT and PSBT benchmarks. The goal is two-fold: firstly, to assess these models and to examine their strengths and weaknesses; and secondly, to identify the areas for improvement.

  16. Underground Physics in Spain; La Fisica subterranea en Espana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puimedon Santolaria, J.

    2005-07-01

    Underground laboratories provide the low background environment necessary to the search for extremely rare phenomena like neutrino oscillations, double deta decay or dark matter. There are only four underground infrastructures available in the Europe Union, one of them is in Spain: the Canfranc Underground Laboratory. (Author)

  17. 30 CFR 57.4505 - Fuel lines to underground areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel lines to underground areas. 57.4505... NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4505 Fuel lines to underground areas. Fuel...

  18. 30 CFR 57.4161 - Use of fire underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of fire underground. 57.4161 Section 57... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Prohibitions/precautions/housekeeping § 57.4161 Use of fire underground. Fires shall not...

  19. 30 CFR 57.14160 - Mantrip trolley wire hazards underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mantrip trolley wire hazards underground. 57... METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL... wire hazards underground. Mantrips shall be covered if there is danger of persons contacting the...

  20. Entrepreneurial Opportunity in Denmark’s Underground Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezaei, Shahamak; Dana, L-P; Vang, Jan

    Based on interviews with immigrants to Denmark, meetings with stakeholders and with experts in the field, this article addresses issues regarding the underground economy in Denmark. What circumstances and factors characterise specific sectors or breaches to the ones in which undocumented immigrants...... participate in underground economic activities? Is the underground economy a pull factor for irregular/undocumented migration?...

  1. 30 CFR 816.79 - Protection of underground mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection of underground mining. 816.79... ACTIVITIES § 816.79 Protection of underground mining. No surface mining activities shall be conducted closer than 500 feet to any point of either an active or abandoned underground mine, except to the extent that...

  2. Investigating movement of heat and water generators at work underground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zholudyev S.V.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The problems of coal excavation and environement protection are priority for Ukraine. Underground coal gasification (UCG and underground coal incineration (UCI are combining excavation with simultaneous underground processing in entire technological process, capable to solve this problem. Using an intermediate heat carrier - ground water may optimisating of these processes.

  3. 30 CFR 57.4260 - Underground self-propelled equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground self-propelled equipment. 57.4260... Prevention and Control Firefighting Equipment § 57.4260 Underground self-propelled equipment. (a) Whenever self-propelled equipment is used underground, a fire extinguisher shall be on the equipment....

  4. 29 CFR 1926.903 - Underground transportation of explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground transportation of explosives. 1926.903 Section... Explosives § 1926.903 Underground transportation of explosives. (a) All explosives or blasting agents in... explosives or blasting agents taken to an underground loading area shall not exceed the amount estimated to...

  5. Underground gasification and combustion brown with the use of groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zholudyev S.V.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The problems of coal excavation and environement protection are priority for Ukraine. Underground coal gasification (UCG and underground coal incineration (UCI are combining excavation with simultaneous underground processing in entire technological process, capable to solve this problem. Using an intermediate heat carrier - ground water may optimisating of these processes.

  6. Polysubstance Use Patterns in Underground Rave Attenders: A Cluster Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Calderon, Fermin; Lozano, Oscar M.; Vidal, Claudio; Ortega, Josefa Gutierrez; Vergara, Esperanza; Gonzalez-Saiz, Francisco; Bilbao, Izaskun; Caluente, Marta; Cano, Tomas; Cid, Francisco; Dominguez, Celia; Izquierdo, Emcarni; Perez, Maria I.

    2011-01-01

    Drug use in mainstream rave parties has been widely documented in a large number of studies. However, not much is known about drug use in underground raves. The purpose of this study is to find out the polysubstance use patterns at underground raves. Two hundred and fifty-two young people between the ages of 18 and 30 who went to underground raves…

  7. 47 CFR 32.6422 - Underground cable expense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Underground cable expense. 32.6422 Section 32.6422 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM... Underground cable expense. (a) This account shall include expenses associated with underground cable....

  8. 78 FR 48591 - Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines; Proposed Rules #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No. 153... 30 CFR Part 75 RIN 1219-AB84 Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and... alternatives in underground coal mines. The U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit...

  9. 78 FR 68783 - Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... Safety and Health Administration 30 CFR Part 75 RIN 1219-AB84 Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal... training for miners to deploy and use refuge alternatives in underground coal mines. The U.S. Court of... in underground coal mines. On January 13, 2009, the United Mine Workers of America (UMWA)...

  10. Underground Storage Tanks - UST_IDEM_IN: Underground Storage Tanks in Indiana (Indiana Department of Environmental Management, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — UST_IDEM_IN is a point shapefile that contains regulated underground storage tank locations (including leaking underground storage tanks) in Indiana, provided by...

  11. NUMERICAL ANALYSES OF THE UNDERGROUND EXPLOITATION OF DIMENSION STONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Kovačević-Zelić

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Underground exploitation of dimension stone is spreading lately for three main reasons; economy, organisation and environment. Moreover, underground openings can be used for many purposes. Underground exploitation is different from surface quarrying only in the first stage, the removal of top slice, descending slices are worked as in conventional quarries. In underground stone quarries, stability problems require adequate studies in order to avoid expensive artificial support measures, The article presents numerical analyses of an underground stone quarry made using of the finite difference code FLAC (the paper is published in Croatian.

  12. Stability analysis of underground engineering based on multidisciplinary design optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Rong; ZHOU Ke-ping; GAO Feng

    2008-01-01

    Aiming at characteristics of underground engineering,analyzed the feasibility of Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) used in underground engineering,and put forward a modularization-based MDO method and the idea of MDO to resolve problems in stability analysis,proving the validity and feasibility of using MDO in underground engineering.Characteristics of uncertainty,complexity and nonlinear become bottle-neck to carry on underground engineering stability analysis by MDO.Therefore,the application of MDO in underground engineering stability analysis is still at a stage of exploration,which need some deep research.

  13. Stability analysis of underground engineering based on multidisciplinary design optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Rong; ZHOU Ke-ping; GAO Feng

    2008-01-01

    Aiming at characteristics of underground engineering, analyzed the feasibility of Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) used in underground engineering, and put forward a modularization-based MDO method and the idea of MDO to resolve problems in stability analysis, proving the validity and feasibility of using MDO in underground engi-neering. Characteristics of uncertainty, complexity and nonlinear become bottle-neck to carry on underground engineering stability analysis by MDO. Therefore, the application of MDO in underground engineering stability analysis is still at a stage of exploration, which need some deep research.

  14. Underground nuclear astrophysics studies with CASPAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robertson Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The drive of low-energy nuclear astrophysics laboratories is to study the reactions of importance to stellar burning processes and elemental production through stellar nucleosynthesis, over the energy range of astrophysical interest. As laboratory measurements approach the stellar burning window, the rapid drop off of cross-sections is a significant barrier and drives the need to lower background interference. The natural background suppression of underground accelerator facilities enables the extension of current experimental data to lower energies. An example of such reactions of interest are those thought to be sources of neutrons for the s-process, the major production mechanism for elements above the iron peak. The reactions 13C(α,n16O and 22Ne(α,n25Mg are the proposed initial focus of the new nuclear astrophysics accelerator laboratory (CASPAR currently under construction at the Sanford Underground Research Facility, Lead, South Dakota

  15. Underground nuclear astrophysics studies with CASPAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Daniel; Couder, Manoel; Greife, Uwe; Strieder, Frank; Wiescher, Michael

    2016-02-01

    The drive of low-energy nuclear astrophysics laboratories is to study the reactions of importance to stellar burning processes and elemental production through stellar nucleosynthesis, over the energy range of astrophysical interest. As laboratory measurements approach the stellar burning window, the rapid drop off of cross-sections is a significant barrier and drives the need to lower background interference. The natural background suppression of underground accelerator facilities enables the extension of current experimental data to lower energies. An example of such reactions of interest are those thought to be sources of neutrons for the s-process, the major production mechanism for elements above the iron peak. The reactions 13C(α,n)16O and 22Ne(α,n)25Mg are the proposed initial focus of the new nuclear astrophysics accelerator laboratory (CASPAR) currently under construction at the Sanford Underground Research Facility, Lead, South Dakota

  16. Gel fire suppressants for controlling underground heating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Sheng-gen; XUE Sheng

    2011-01-01

    One of the major safety issues in coal mining is heatings and the resultant spontaneous combustion in underground coal mines.CSIRO researchers have developed a number of polymer gels suitable for controlling heatings in coal mines.These gels were developed to meet strict selection criteria including easy preparation,no or low toxicity,controllable gelation time,adaptable to mine water chemistry,adjustable viscosity,relatively long gel life,thermally and chemically stable and low cost.The HPAM-Aluminum Citrate gel system was identified to be the most favourable gel system for fire suppression in underground coal mines.These gels can be applied to the areas undergoing coal heating or gas leakage at a controllable gelation time and impermeable gel barriers can be formed in the areas to block ingress of air.

  17. Underground void filling by cemented mill tailings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Choudhary Bhanwar Singh; Kumar Santosh

    2013-01-01

    Underground mining always create voids. These voids can cause subsidence of surface. So it is always a demand to fill the void in such a manner that the effect of underground mining can be minimized. Void filling using mill tailings especially in metal mining is one of the best techniques. The tailings produced in milling process have traditionally been disposed in tailing ponds creating a waste disposal and environ-mental problems in terms of land degradation, air and water pollution, etc. This disposal practice is more acute in the metal milling industry where the fine grinding, required for value liberation, results in the production of very fine tailings in large percentage. This paper includes discussions on the effectiveness of different paste mixes with varying cement contents in paste backfilling operations. The results revealed that material composition and use of super plasticizer strongly influenced the strength of cemented backfill.

  18. Reliability assessment of underground shaft closure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fossum, A.F. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Munson, D.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The intent of the WIPP, being constructed in the bedded geologic salt deposits of Southeastern New Mexico, is to provide the technological basis for the safe disposal of radioactive Transuranic (TRU) wastes generated by the defense programs of the United States. In determining this technological basis, advanced reliability and structural analysis techniques are used to determine the probability of time-to-closure of a hypothetical underground shaft located in an argillaceous salt formation and filled with compacted crushed salt. Before being filled with crushed salt for sealing, the shaft provides access to an underground facility. Reliable closure of the shaft depends upon the sealing of the shaft through creep closure and recompaction of crushed backfill. Appropriate methods are demonstrated to calculate cumulative distribution functions of the closure based on laboratory determined random variable uncertainty in salt creep properties.

  19. Underground nuclear astrophysics: Why and how

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, A.; Laubenstein, M. [Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, INFN, Assergi (AQ) (Italy); Caciolli, A. [Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Padova (Italy); INFN, Padova (Italy); Fueloep, Zs.; Gyuerky, Gy. [Institute for Nuclear Research (MTA Atomki), Debrecen (Hungary); Napolitani, E. [Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Padova (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, INFN, Legnaro (Italy); Rigato, V. [Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, INFN, Legnaro (Italy); Roca, V. [Universita di Napoli ' ' Federico II' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica, Napoli (Italy); INFN, Napoli (Italy); Szuecs, T. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden - Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    The goal of nuclear astrophysics is to measure cross-sections of nuclear physics reactions of interest in astrophysics. At stars temperatures, these cross-sections are very low due to the suppression of the Coulomb barrier. Cosmic-ray-induced background can seriously limit the determination of reaction cross-sections at energies relevant to astrophysical processes and experimental setups should be arranged in order to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. Placing experiments in underground sites, however, reduces this background opening the way towards ultra low cross-section determination. LUNA (Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics) was pioneer in this sense. Two accelerators were mounted at the INFN National Laboratories of Gran Sasso (LNGS) allowing to study nuclear reactions close to stellar energies. A summary of the relevant technology used, including accelerators, target production and characterisation, and background treatment is given. (orig.)

  20. Thermal-noise-limited underground interferometer CLIO

    CERN Document Server

    Agatsuma, Kazuhiro; Fujimoto, Masa-Katsu; Kawamura, Seiji; Kuroda, Kazuaki; Miyakawa, Osamu; Miyoki, Shinji; Ohashi, Masatake; Suzuki, Toshikazu; Takahashi, Ryutaro; Tatsumi, Daisuke; Telada, Souichi; Uchiyama, Takashi; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro

    2009-01-01

    We report on the current status of CLIO (Cryogenic Laser Interferometer Observatory), which is a prototype interferometer for LCGT (Large scale Cryogenic Gravitational-wave Telescope). LCGT is a Japanese next-generation interferometric gravitational wave detector featuring the use of cryogenic mirrors and a quiet underground site. The main purpose of CLIO is to demonstrate a reduction of the mirror thermal noise by cooling the sapphire mirrors. CLIO is located in an underground site of the Kamioka mine, 1000 m deep from the mountain top, to verify its advantages. After a few years of commissioning work, we have achieved a thermal-noise-limited sensitivity at room temperature. One of the main results of noise hunting was the elimination of thermal noise caused by a conductive coil-holder coupled with a pendulum through magnets.

  1. Underground nuclear astrophysics: why and how

    CERN Document Server

    Best, A; Fülöp, Zs; Gyürky, Gy; Laubenstein, M; Napolitani, E; Rigato, V; Roca, V; Szücs, T

    2016-01-01

    The goal of nuclear astrophysics is to measure cross sections of nuclear physics reactions of interest in astrophysics. At stars temperatures, these cross sections are very low due to the suppression of the Coulomb barrier. Cosmic ray induced background can seriously limit the determination of reaction cross sections at energies relevant to astrophysical processes and experimental setups should be arranged in order to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. Placing experiments in underground sites, however, reduces this background opening the way towards ultra low cross section determination. LUNA (Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics) was pioneer in this sense. Two accelerators were mounted at the INFN National Laboratories of Gran Sasso (LNGS) allowing to study nuclear reactions close to stellar energies. A summary of the relevant technology used, including accelerators, target production and characterisation, and background treatment is given.

  2. Rotary steerable motor system for underground drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, William E. (Durham, CT); Perry, Carl A. (Middletown, CT); Wassell, Mark E. (Kingwood, TX); Barbely, Jason R. (Middletown, CT); Burgess, Daniel E. (Middletown, CT); Cobern, Martin E. (Cheshire, CT)

    2010-07-27

    A preferred embodiment of a system for rotating and guiding a drill bit in an underground bore includes a drilling motor and a drive shaft coupled to drilling motor so that drill bit can be rotated by the drilling motor. The system further includes a guidance module having an actuating arm movable between an extended position wherein the actuating arm can contact a surface of the bore and thereby exert a force on the housing of the guidance module, and a retracted position.

  3. Rotary steerable motor system for underground drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, William E.; Perry, Carl A.; Wassell, Mark E.; Barbely, Jason R.; Burgess, Daniel E.; Cobern, Martin E.

    2008-06-24

    A preferred embodiment of a system for rotating and guiding a drill bit in an underground bore includes a drilling motor and a drive shaft coupled to drilling motor so that drill bit can be rotated by the drilling motor. The system further includes a guidance module having an actuating arm movable between an extended position wherein the actuating arm can contact a surface of the bore and thereby exert a force on the housing of the guidance module, and a retracted position.

  4. Heavy context dependence --- decisions of underground soldiers

    CERN Document Server

    Kułakowski, K; Krawczyk, M J

    2015-01-01

    An attempt is made to simulate the disclosure of underground soldiers in terms of theory of networks. The coupling mechanism between the network nodes is the possibility that a disclosed soldier is going to disclose also his acquaintances. We calculate the fraction of disclosed soldiers as dependent on the fraction of those who, once disclosed, reveal also their colleagues. The simulation is immersed in the historical context of the Polish Home Army under the communist rule in 1946-49.

  5. Rotary steerable motor system for underground drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, William E.; Perry, Carl A.; Wassell, Mark E.; Barbely, Jason R.; Burgess, Daniel E.; Cobern, Martin E.

    2010-07-27

    A preferred embodiment of a system for rotating and guiding a drill bit in an underground bore includes a drilling motor and a drive shaft coupled to drilling motor so that drill bit can be rotated by the drilling motor. The system further includes a guidance module having an actuating arm movable between an extended position wherein the actuating arm can contact a surface of the bore and thereby exert a force on the housing of the guidance module, and a retracted position.

  6. Underground Muon Physics with the MACRO experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Sioli, M

    2000-01-01

    Underground muon events detected by the MACRO experiment at Gran Sasso havebeen studied for different purposes. The studies include the vertical muonintensity measurement, multiplicity distribution, lateral and angular muondistribution and searches for substructures inside muon bundles. These analyseshave contributed to bring new insights in cosmic ray physics, in particular inthe framework of primary cosmic ray composition studies. Moreover, thisactivity allows the testing and tuning of Monte Carlo simulations, inparticular for aspects associated with models of hadronic interactions and muonpropagation through the rock.

  7. Giant CMS magnet goes underground at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "Scientists of the US CMS collaboration joined colleagues around the world in announcing today (February 28) that the heaviest piece of the Compact Muon Solenoid particle detector has begun the momentous journey into its experimental cavern 100 meters underground. A huge gantry crne is slowly lowering the CMS detector's preassembled central section into place in the Large Hadron Collider accelerator at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland." (1 page)

  8. Underground Nuclear Astrophysics - from LUNA to CASPAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strieder, Frank; Caspar Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    It is in the nature of astrophysics that many of the processes and objects are physically inaccessible. Thus, it is important that those aspects that can be studied in the laboratory are well understood. Nuclear reactions are such quantities that can be partly measured in the laboratory. These reactions influence the nucleosynthesis of the elements in the Big Bang as well as in all objects formed thereafter, and control the associated energy generation and evolution of stars. Since 20 years LUNA (Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics) has been measuring cross sections relevant for hydrogen burning in the Gran Sasso Laboratory and demonstrated the research potential of an underground accelerator facility. Unfortunately, the number of reactions is limited by the energy range accessible with the 400 kV LUNA accelerator. The CASPAR (Compact Accelerator System for Performing Astrophysical Research) Collaboration will implement a high intensity 1 MV accelerator at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) and overcome the current limitation at LUNA. This project will primarily focus on the neutron sources for the so-called s-process, e.g. 13 C(α , n) 16 O and 22 Ne(α , n) 25 Mg , and lead to unprecedented measurements compared to previous studies.

  9. Groundwater Pollution from Underground Coal Gasification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In situ coal gasification poses a potential environmental risk to groundwater pollution although it depends mainly on local hydrogeological conditions.In our investigation, the possible processes of groundwater pollution originating from underground coal gasification (UCG) were analyzed.Typical pollutants were identified and pollution control measures are proposed.Groundwater pollution is caused by the diffusion and penetration of contaminants generated by underground gasification processes towards surrounding strata and the possible leaching of underground residue by natural groundwater flow after gasification.Typical organic pollutants include phenols, benzene, minor components such as PAHs and heterocyclics.Inorganic pollutants involve cations and anions.The natural groundwater flow after gasification through the seam is attributable to the migration of contaminants, which can be predicted by mathematical modeling.The extent and concentration of the groundwater pollution plume depend primarily on groundwater flow velocity, the degree of dispersion and the adsorption and reactions of the various contaminants.The adsorption function of coal and surrounding strata make a big contribution to the decrease of the contaminants over time and with the distance from the burn cavity.Possible pollution control measures regarding UCG include identifying a permanently, unsuitable zone, setting a hydraulic barrier and pumping contaminated water out for surface disposal.Mitigation measures during gasification processes and groundwater remediation after gasification are also proposed.

  10. Intelligent Scheduling for Underground Mobile Mining Equipment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Song

    Full Text Available Many studies have been carried out and many commercial software applications have been developed to improve the performances of surface mining operations, especially for the loader-trucks cycle of surface mining. However, there have been quite few studies aiming to improve the mining process of underground mines. In underground mines, mobile mining equipment is mostly scheduled instinctively, without theoretical support for these decisions. Furthermore, in case of unexpected events, it is hard for miners to rapidly find solutions to reschedule and to adapt the changes. This investigation first introduces the motivation, the technical background, and then the objective of the study. A decision support instrument (i.e. schedule optimizer for mobile mining equipment is proposed and described to address this issue. The method and related algorithms which are used in this instrument are presented and discussed. The proposed method was tested by using a real case of Kittilä mine located in Finland. The result suggests that the proposed method can considerably improve the working efficiency and reduce the working time of the underground mine.

  11. Modelling of Train Noise in Underground Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, J.

    1996-08-01

    TNS, a computer model for predicting the temporal and spatial distribution of train noise in underground stations, is developed. The train is regarded as a series of sections, and the train noise distribution in a station is calculated by inputting the sound attenuation from a train section source in the underground system (i.e., the station and tunnel). This input can be obtained by physical scale modelling. The prediction by TNS in an underground station in London shows good agreement with site measurements. A series of computations in the station demonstrates that: (1) the overall level of the train noise in the area near the end walls is slightly less than the other areas; (2) some conventional architectural acoustic treatments in the station are effective when a train is still in the tunnel but not as helpful when the train is already in the station; and (3) train noise has a significant effect on the speech intelligibility of public address systems as measured by the Speech Transmission Index (STI).

  12. Estimating the capital cost of underground car parking projects

    OpenAIRE

    Bastos, Mónica; Ribeiro, F. Loforte; Teixeira, José M. Cardoso

    2005-01-01

    Underground parking projects are expansive. The capital cost of underground parking project has been, and still is, one of the promoter's main economic concerns. Therefore, the capital cost estimation is an essential taskin the early stages pf underground parking projcts. In this context, the promoters mainly use cost estimation models, most of them produced by methodologies with lack of precision and with low performances. Over the last yeras Portugal has embarked ona a large programme of...

  13. Cascade recursion models of computing the temperatures of underground layers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN; Liqun; BI; Siwen; SONG; Shixin

    2006-01-01

    An RBF neural network was used to construct computational models of the underground temperatures of different layers, using ground-surface parameters and the temperatures of various underground layers. Because series recursion models also enable researchers to use above-ground surface parameters to compute the temperatures of different underground layers, this method provides a new way of using thermal infrared remote sensing to monitor the suture zones of large areas of blocks and to research thermal anomalies in geologic structures.

  14. Personal Dosimetry Enhancement for Underground Workplaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Thinová

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Personal dosimetry for underground workers mainly concerns measurement of the concentration of radon (and its daughters and the correct application of the data in dose calculation, using a biokinetic model for lung dosimetry. A conservative approach for estimating the potential dose in caves (or underground is based on solid state alpha track detector measurements. The obtained dataset is converted into an annual effective dose in agreement with the ICRP recommendations using the “cave factor”, the value of which depends on the spectrum of aerosol particles, or on the proportional representation of the unattached and the attached fraction and on the equilibrium factor. The main difference between apartments and caves is the absence of aerosol sources, high humidity, low ventilation rate and the uneven surface in caves. A more precisely determined dose value would have a significant impact on radon remedies or on restricting the time workers stay underground. In order to determine  how the effective dose is calculated, it is necessary to divide these areas into distinct categories by the following measuring procedures: continual radon measurement (to capture the differences in EERC between working hours and night-time, and also between daily and seasonal radon concentration variations; regular measurements of radon and its daughters to estimate the equilibrium factor and the presence of 218Po; regular indoor air flow measurements to study the location of the radon supply and its transfer among individual areas of the cave; natural radioactive element content evaluation in subsoils and in water inside/outside, a study of the radon sources in the cave; aerosol particle-size spectrum measurements to determine the free fraction; monitoring the behaviour of guides and workers to record the actual time spent in the cave, in relation to the continuously monitored levels of Rn concentration. 

  15. 100-N Area underground storage tank closures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowley, C.A.

    1993-08-01

    This report describes the removal/characterization actions concerning underground storage tanks (UST) at the 100-N Area. Included are 105-N-LFT, 182-N-1-DT, 182-N-2-DT, 182-N-3-DT, 100-N-SS-27, and 100-N-SS-28. The text of this report gives a summary of remedial activities. In addition, correspondence relating to UST closures can be found in Appendix B. Appendix C contains copies of Unusual Occurrence Reports, and validated sampling data results comprise Appendix D.

  16. Bioclimatic underground architecture: Development and principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojić Jasmina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The principal idea of paper lies in analyzing contemporary architectural challenges, concerning climate changes, global warming, renewable energy deficiency and population growth. The relevant examples and principles of sustainable and selfsustainable architecture development throughout history are presented. Underground structures as passive solar systems, vegetation used as insulation, ventilation and isolation are given as one of possible solutions for this global phenomenon. By studying the model of Nature, certain solutions imitating systems and laws of flora and fauna are given that will insure the necessary savings of non-renewable energy during the building construction and their later energy consumption.

  17. Underground coal gasification. Gasificacion subterranea del carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Amor, G.; Obis, A. (ITGE, Madrid (Spain))

    1990-07-01

    In spite of the low price of both oil and gas, underground coal gasification is still an attractive option because of the possibility for exploiting coal which it would be uneconomic to mine by conventional methods. New technology has recently made gasification into a reality and methods have been developed to gasify both deep and superficial inclined seams. Recent tests in nearly level seams in the USA have been successful so that the process has become competitive in spite of current oil prices. 3 figs.

  18. temperature distribution in underground cable system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rerak Monika

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a mathematical model of heat transfer in the underground cable system. The computations were performed for flat formation of power cables buried in the ground at a depth of 2 meters. The model allows determining the two-dimensional temperature distribution in the soil, thermal backfill and power cables. The simulations studied the effect of soil thermal conductivity on the maximum temperature of the cable conductor. Furthermore, the effect of thermal backfill soil conductivity on the cable conductor temperature was studied. Numerical analyses were performed based on a program written in MATLAB.

  19. Thermal analysis of underground power cable system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rerak, Monika; Ocłoń, Paweł

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents the application of Finite Element Method in thermal analysis of underground power cable system. The computations were performed for power cables buried in-line in the ground at a depth of 2 meters. The developed mathematical model allows determining the two-dimensional temperature distribution in the soil, thermal backfill and power cables. The simulations studied the effect of soil and cable backfill thermal conductivity on the maximum temperature of the cable conductor. Also, the effect of cable diameter on the temperature of cable core was studied. Numerical analyses were performed based on a program written in MATLAB.

  20. Forest as Underground-Closed Dendrocenoecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Sannikov

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available As a result of quantitative «microecosystem» analysis of structural and functional relationships between biogeocenosis components in coniferous forests, the leading role of stand-edificator's root competition factor has been identified in determining the undergrowth and lower layer plant’s growth, compared with its «light» competition. Considering the dominant role of a tree stand root competition in the formation of other forest biogeocenosis components, new definition of «forest» as «underground-closed dendrocenoecosystem» have been proposed.

  1. Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory: Status and Prospectives

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yu-Feng

    2016-01-01

    The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) is a 20 kton liquid scintillator (LS) detector, which is planed to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and measure the oscillation parameters at the sub-percent level using reactor antineutrino oscillations. As a multipurpose neutrino experiment, JUNO is also capable of measuring supernova burst neutrinos, the diffuse supernova neutrino background, geo-neutrinos, solar neutrinos and atmospheric neutrinos. After a brief introduction to the physics motivation, we discuss the status of the JUNO project, including the design of the detector systems. Finally the latest civil progress and future prospectives are also highlighted.

  2. Low energy neutron background in deep underground laboratories

    CERN Document Server

    Best, Andreas; Junker, Matthias; Kratz, Karl-Ludwig; Laubenstein, Matthias; Long, Alexander; Nisi, Stefano; Smith, Karl; Wiescher, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The natural neutron background influences the maximum achievable sensitivity in most deep underground nuclear, astroparticle and double-beta decay physics experiments. Reliable neutron flux numbers are an important ingredient in the design of the shielding of new large-scale experiments as well as in the analysis of experimental data. Using a portable setup of He-3 counters we measured the thermal neutron flux at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility, the Soudan Underground Laboratory, on the 4100 ft and the 4850 ft levels of the Sanford Underground Research Facility, at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory. Absolute neutron fluxes at these laboratories are presented.

  3. Advancing Underground Nuclear Astrophysics with CASPAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Daniel; Couder, Manoel; Greife, Uwe; Strieder, Frank; Wells, Doug; Wiescher, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The advancement of experimental nuclear astrophysics techniques and the requirement of astrophysical network models for further nuclear data over greater energy ranges, has led to the requirement for the better understanding of nuclear reactions in stellar burning regimes. For those reactions of importance to stellar burning processes and elemental production through stellar nucleosynthesis, the energy range of astrophysical interest is always problematic to probe. As reaction measurements approach the burning window of interest, the rapid drop off in cross-section hampers laboratory investigation. The natural background suppression of underground accelerator facilities enables the extension of current experimental data to lower energies. An example of such reactions of interest are those thought to be sources of neutrons for the s-process, the major production mechanism for elements above the iron peak. The reactions 13 C(α,n)16 O and 22 Ne(α,n)25 Mg are the proposed initial focus of the new nuclear astrophysics accelerator laboratory (CASPAR) currently under construction at the Sanford Underground Research Facility, Lead, SD. With thanks to funding provided by South Dakota Science and Technology Authority and the NSF under Grant Number PHY-1419765.

  4. Exploration for the Newlands underground mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, T. [MIM Holdings Limited, Brisbane, QLD (Australia); Seedsman, R. [Coffey Partners International Ltd., (Australia); Whitby, K. [McElroy Bryan Geological Services Pty Ltd., (Australia); Bowen Basin Geologists Group, QLD (Australia); Geological Society of Australia Inc., Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    1995-10-01

    The Newlands Coal Pty Ltd open cut coal mining operations are located approximately 200 km by road west of Mackay, in Central Queensland. The issues of increasing depth of overburden and limited overburden, coal quality and its impact on yield are effecting the operational costs and future strategies of the mine . The longer term future of Newlands is dependent on the viability of an underground mine down-dip in the main deposit. This paper discusses the exploration programs and how the geological and geotechnical issues have been incorporated into the mine plan. A number of longwall panel layouts were considered giving due respect to the known faults encountered. The current layout has panels which run approximately North-South and average 1800 m in length with a 250 m face width. Panels have been limited in the South by the Ironbark and Blackbutt faults. In the North, the panel lengths are limited by the Ramp 3 fault. Not all faults present will have been located. In order to gain a better understanding of the geology, Newlands plan to extend the exploration underground using a continuous miner and shuttle cars. Mine plans are dynamic and change as additional information comes to hand. The exploration program has emphasized the need for a flexible approach to mine planning. (author). 4 figs.

  5. Roles of the checkpoint sensor clamp Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 (911)-complex and the clamp loaders Rad17-RFC and Ctf18-RFC in Schizosaccharomyces pombe telomere maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khair, Lyne; Chang, Ya-Ting; Subramanian, Lakxmi; Russell, Paul; Nakamura, Toru M

    2010-06-01

    While telomeres must provide mechanisms to prevent DNA repair and DNA damage checkpoint factors from fusing chromosome ends and causing permanent cell cycle arrest, these factors associate with functional telomeres and play critical roles in the maintenance of telomeres. Previous studies have established that Tel1 (ATM) and Rad3 (ATR) kinases play redundant but essential roles for telomere maintenance in fission yeast. In addition, the Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 (911) and Rad17-RFC complexes work downstream of Rad3 (ATR) in fission yeast telomere maintenance. Here, we investigated how 911, Rad17-RFC and another RFC-like complex Ctf18-RFC contribute to telomere maintenance in fission yeast cells lacking Tel1 and carrying a novel hypomorphic allele of rad3 (DBD-rad3), generated by the fusion between the DNA binding domain (DBD) of the fission yeast telomere capping protein Pot1 and Rad3. Our investigations have uncovered a surprising redundancy for Rad9 and Hus1 in allowing Rad1 to contribute to telomere maintenance in DBD-rad3 tel1 cells. In addition, we found that Rad17-RFC and Ctf18-RFC carry out redundant telomere maintenance functions in DBD-rad3 tel1 cells. Since checkpoint sensor proteins are highly conserved, genetic redundancies uncovered here may be relevant to telomere maintenance and detection of DNA damage in other eukaryotes.

  6. Inter-disciplinary Interactions in Underground Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. S.; Bettini, A.

    2010-12-01

    Many of underground facilities, ranging from simple cavities to fully equipped laboratories, have been established worldwide (1) to evaluate the impacts of emplacing nuclear wastes in underground research laboratories (URLs) and (2) to measure rare physics events in deep underground laboratories (DULs). In this presentation, we compare similarities and differences between URLs and DULs in focus of site characterization, in quantification of quietness, and in improvement of signal to noise ratios. The nuclear waste URLs are located primarily in geological medium with potentials for slow flow/transport and long isolation. The URL medium include plastic salt, hard rock, soft clay, volcanic tuff, basalt and shale, at over ~500 m where waste repositories are envisioned to be excavated. The majority of URLs are dedicated facilities excavated after extensive site characterization. The focuses are on fracture distributions, heterogeneity, scaling, coupled processes, and other fundamental issues of earth sciences. For the physics DULs, the depth/overburden thickness is the main parameter that determines the damping of cosmic rays, and that, consequently, should be larger than, typically, 800m. Radioactivity from rocks, neutron flux, and radon gas, depending on local rock and ventilation conditions (largely independent of depth), are also characterized at different sites to quantify the background level for physics experiments. DULs have been constructed by excavating dedicated experimental halls and service cavities near to a road tunnel (horizontal access) or in a mine (vertical access). Cavities at shallower depths are suitable for experiments on neutrinos from artificial source, power reactors or accelerators. Rocks stability (depth dependent), safe access, and utility supply are among factors of main concerns for DULs. While the focuses and missions of URLs and DULs are very different, common experience and lessons learned may be useful for ongoing development of new

  7. Connected Cities: Guide to good practice underground space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Hoeven, F.D.; Hobma, W.

    2007-01-01

    This guide to good practice underground space is developed within the framework of the EU-funded INTERREG IIIC project ‘Connected Cities’. It focuses on how a strategic use of underground space can facilitate sustainable modes of transportation and mobility in urban and rural areas. Twelve strategic

  8. Underground haulage by diesel and storage battery locomotive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    The operation and maintenance of underground locomotives which operate on conventional or asymmetrical rails are covered. The transport of persons underground or in walkable outlets to the surface by locomotive haulage is also included in this code. Training of personnel, design requirements, signalling and communications, safety devices, ventilation, operation, brake testing and maintenance are all discussed.

  9. Urban Underground Pipelines Mapping Using Ground Penetrating Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaw, S. W.; M, Hashim

    2014-02-01

    Underground spaces are now being given attention to exploit for transportation, utilities, and public usage. The underground has become a spider's web of utility networks. Mapping of underground utility pipelines has become a challenging and difficult task. As such, mapping of underground utility pipelines is a "hit-and-miss" affair, and results in many catastrophic damages, particularly in urban areas. Therefore, this study was conducted to extract locational information of the urban underground utility pipeline using trenchless measuring tool, namely ground penetrating radar (GPR). The focus of this study was to conduct underground utility pipeline mapping for retrieval of geometry properties of the pipelines, using GPR. In doing this, a series of tests were first conducted at the preferred test site and real-life experiment, followed by modeling of field-based model using Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD). Results provide the locational information of underground utility pipelines associated with its mapping accuracy. Eventually, this locational information of the underground utility pipelines is beneficial to civil infrastructure management and maintenance which in the long term is time-saving and critically important for the development of metropolitan areas.

  10. The Stranger Within: Dostoevsky's Underground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Peter

    2013-01-01

    In Fyodor Dostoevsky's influential novel "Notes from underground", we find one of the most memorable characters in nineteenth century literature. The Underground Man, around whom everything else in this book revolves, is in some respects utterly repugnant: he is self-centred, obsessive and cruel. Yet he is also highly intelligent,…

  11. Magneto-Inductive Underground Communications in a District Heating System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meybodi, Soroush Afkhami; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2011-01-01

    Feasibility of underground data communications is investigated by employing magnetic induction as the key technology at physical layer. Realizing an underground wireless sensor network for a district heating plant motivates this research problem. The main contribution of the paper is to find...

  12. Permanent Closure of the TAN-664 Underground Storage Tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley K. Griffith

    2011-12-01

    This closure package documents the site assessment and permanent closure of the TAN-664 gasoline underground storage tank in accordance with the regulatory requirements established in 40 CFR 280.71, 'Technical Standards and Corrective Action Requirements for Owners and Operators of Underground Storage Tanks: Out-of-Service UST Systems and Closure.'

  13. 78 FR 58264 - Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: Request for information...) on Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines. This extension gives interested parties additional... for Underground Coal Mines. The RFI comment period had been scheduled to close on October 7, 2013....

  14. 78 FR 73471 - Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: Request for information...) on Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines. This extension gives interested parties additional... Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines. The RFI comment period was originally scheduled to close on October...

  15. Indiana Underground Railroad Folklore: Western Route and Daviess County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Lois G.

    Materials for teaching a unit about the Underground Railroad (the system set up to assist fleeing, runaway slaves heading north) in Indiana are presented. Specifically, the Western Route that passed through Daviess County in Indiana is examined. The materials provide background on the Underground Railroad and the Western Route, plans for teaching…

  16. An empirical study of the underground economy in the Kingdom of Belgium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezaei, Shahamak; Goli, Marco; Dana, Léo-Paul

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the underground economy in Belgium. Although several government initiatives are attempting to combat underground economic activities, we found illegal foreign workers identifying opportunities and fulfilling market needs. Underground employment thus thrives in a variety...

  17. 75 FR 22763 - Office of Postsecondary Education; Overview Information: Underground Railroad Educational and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ... Office of Postsecondary Education; Overview Information: Underground Railroad Educational and Cultural... I. Funding Opportunity Description Purpose of Program: The purpose of the Underground Railroad Educational and Cultural (URR) Program is to preserve the Underground Railroad's legacy and to demonstrate how...

  18. Quantum cryptography over underground optical fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, R.J.; Luther, G.G.; Morgan, G.L.; Peterson, C.G.; Simmons, C.

    1996-05-01

    Quantum cryptography is an emerging technology in which two parties may simultaneously generated shared, secret cryptographic key material using the transmission of quantum states of light whose security is based on the inviolability of the laws of quantum mechanics. An adversary can neither successfully tap the key transmissions, nor evade detection, owing to Heisenberg`s uncertainty principle. In this paper the authors describe the theory of quantum cryptography, and the most recent results from their experimental system with which they are generating key material over 14-km of underground optical fiber. These results show that optical-fiber based quantum cryptography could allow secure, real-time key generation over ``open`` multi-km node-to-node optical fiber communications links between secure ``islands.``

  19. Hazard index for underground toxic material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.F.; Cohen, J.J.; McKone, T.E.

    1980-06-01

    To adequately define the problem of waste management, quantitative measures of hazard must be used. This study reviews past work in the area of hazard indices and proposes a geotoxicity hazard index for use in characterizing the hazard of toxic material buried underground. Factors included in this index are: an intrinsic toxicity factor, formulated as the volume of water required for dilution to public drinking-water levels; a persistence factor to characterize the longevity of the material, ranging from unity for stable materials to smaller values for shorter-lived materials; an availability factor that relates the transport potential for the particular material to a reference value for its naturally occurring analog; and a correction factor to accommodate the buildup of decay progeny, resulting in increased toxicity.

  20. A Fast Neutron Spectrometer for Underground Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, Thomas; Beise, Elizabeth; Breuer, Herbert; Erwin, Dylan; Bass, Christopher; Heimbach, Craig; Nico, Jeff

    2010-02-01

    The characterization of the fast neutron fluence has become a critical issue for experiments that require extreme low-background environments, such as neutrino-less double-beta decay, dark matter searches, and solar neutrino experiments. In such experiments, fast neutrons may be the dominant and a potentially irreducible background, thus necessitating precise information about the fast neutron fluence and energy spectrum. The most reasonable approach to addressing the problem is through the complete characterization of the neutrons through both site-specific measurement and benchmarking of simulation codes. We will discuss the progress toward the development of a large-volume, segmented detector consisting of plastic scintillator and ^3He proportional counters. The detector will be placed in an underground environment to measure the fast neutron flux and energy spectrum. A prototype detector has been constructed and testing is in progress. We will discuss the status of the project and present data from the prototype detector. )

  1. MODELING UNDERGROUND STRUCTURE VULNERABILITY IN JOINTED ROCK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. SWIFT; D. STEEDMAN

    2001-02-01

    The vulnerability of underground structures and openings in deep jointed rock to ground shock attack is of chief concern to military planning and security. Damage and/or loss of stability to a structure in jointed rock, often manifested as brittle failure and accompanied with block movement, can depend significantly on jointed properties, such as spacing, orientation, strength, and block character. We apply a hybrid Discrete Element Method combined with the Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics approach to simulate the MIGHTY NORTH event, a definitive high-explosive test performed on an aluminum lined cylindrical opening in jointed Salem limestone. Representing limestone with discrete elements having elastic-equivalence and explicit brittle tensile behavior and the liner as an elastic-plastic continuum provides good agreement with the experiment and damage obtained with finite-element simulations. Extending the approach to parameter variations shows damage is substantially altered by differences in joint geometry and liner properties.

  2. The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Akerib, D S; Bedikian, S; Bernard, E; Bernstein, A; Bolozdynya, A; Bradley, A; Byram, D; Cahn, S B; Camp, C; Carmona-Benitez, M C; Carr, D; Chapman, J J; Chiller, A; Chiller, C; Clark, K; Classen, T; Coffey, T; Curioni, A; Dahl, E; Dazeley, S; de Viveiros, L; Dobi, A; Dragowsky, E; Druszkiewicz, E; Edwards, B; Faham, C H; Fiorucci, S; Gaitskell, R J; Gibson, K R; Gilchriese, M; Hall, C; Hanhardt, M; Holbrook, B; Ihm, M; Jacobsen, R G; Kastens, L; Kazkaz, K; Knoche, R; Kyre, S; Kwong, J; Lander, R; Larsen, N A; Lee, C; Leonard, D S; Lesko, K T; Lindote, A; Lopes, M I; Lyashenko, A; Malling, D C; Mannino, R; Marquez, Z; McKinsey, D N; Mei, D -M; Mock, J; Moongweluwan, M; Morii, M; Nelson, H; Neves, F; Nikkel, J A; Pangilinan, M; Parker, P D; Pease, E K; Pech, K; Phelps, P; Rodionov, A; Roberts, P; Shei, A; Shutt, T; Silva, C; Skulski, W; Solovov, V N; Sofka, C J; Sorensen, P; Spaans, J; Stiegler, T; Stolp, D; Svoboda, R; Sweany, M; Szydagis, M; Taylor, D; Thomson, J; Tripathi, M; Uvarov, S; Verbus, J R; Walsh, N; Webb, R; White, D; White, J T; Whitis, T J; Wlasenko, M; Wolfs, F L H; Woods, M; Zhang, C

    2012-01-01

    The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) collaboration has designed and constructed a dual-phase xenon detector, in order to conduct a search for Weakly Interacting Massive Particles(WIMPs), a leading dark matter candidate. The goal of the LUX detector is to clearly detect (or exclude) WIMPS with a spin independent cross section per nucleon of $2\\times 10^{-46}$ cm$^{2}$, equivalent to $\\sim$1 event/100 kg/month in the inner 100-kg fiducial volume (FV) of the 370-kg detector. The overall background goals are set to have $<$1 background events characterized as possible WIMPs in the FV in 300 days of running. This paper describes the design and construction of the LUX detector.

  3. NECESSITY FOR UNDERGROUND RESEARCH LABORATORY IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Želimir Vejnović

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear power plant (NPP Krško has a license to operate until 2023, and under the current agreement between the Republic of Slovenia and the Republic of Croatia, countries are bound to dispose one half of radioactive waste produced during the operation time and after decommissioning of NPP each. Safe long-term management of high level radioactive waste and spent fuel represents one of the most important issues of the modern world. The best way to provide practical demonstration of repository’s safety, which will be one of convincing arguments in the process of licensing future repository, is developed underground research laboratory (URL. Existence of URL open to international co-operation would certainly improve the international recognition and credibility of Croatian programme, as well as allow dissemination of scientific research results to a broader scientific community (the paper is published in Croatian.

  4. System for fracturing an underground geologic formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Jonathan L.; Tappan, Bryce C.; Seitz, Gerald J.; Bronisz, Lawrence E.

    2017-03-14

    An explosive system for fracturing an underground geologic formation adjacent to a wellbore can comprise a plurality of explosive units comprising an explosive material contained within the casing, and detonation control modules electrically coupled to the plurality of explosive units and configured to cause a power pulse to be transmitted to at least one detonator of at least one of the plurality of explosive units for detonation of the explosive material. The explosive units are configured to be positioned within a wellbore in spaced apart positions relative to one another along a string with the detonation control modules positioned adjacent to the plurality of explosive units in the wellbore, such that the axial positions of the explosive units relative to the wellbore are at least partially based on geologic properties of the geologic formation adjacent the wellbore.

  5. DEALING WITH TOPOLOGICAL RELATIONS IN UNDERGROUND NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lacroix

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten years ago, 25 people died and more than 150 were seriously injured in Ghislenghien (Belgium because of construction damage to a high pressure gas pipeline. Urban networks are invisible because usually buried between 1 and 1.5 meter underground. They should be identified to prevent such accidents which involve workers and public as well. Rural and urban districts, networks concessionary and contractors; everyone could benefit from their networks becoming safer. To develop software which evaluates the risks in managing both uncertainties and topology is the focus of attention. That’s the reason why we firstly propose to determine the topological relationships between networks; secondly we propose to compute the risks taking into account the various uncertainties such as the security radius or the coordinates accuracy, before giving the different required standards for an artificial intelligence tool in order to obtain high security level.

  6. Civil Engineering Construction of Underground Works

    CERN Document Server

    Rammer, H

    1999-01-01

    For the first time at CERN, new shafts and caverns will be excavated inside a surface building. The LHC civil engineering construction for the ATLAS experiment has been designed such that the experimental hall will be completed to the extent that it can provide a secure, weatherproof and sound insulated covering to the shaft excavation area. The construction of the two access shafts and the experimental cavern will follow and will be carried out inside the building. This unconventional method of working allows the excavation of the Molasse rock in the dry, which is essential for this type of rock, and ensures reduced environmental pollution by noise and dust. The paper will present the technical infrastructure required for this particular construction method, explain its advantages and disadvantages, and compare it with a conventional method of underground excavations to be used on the same work site for the construction of the service cavern.

  7. System for fracturing an underground geologic formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mace, Jonathan L.; Tappan, Bryce C.; Seitz, Gerald J.; Bronisz, Lawrence E.

    2017-03-14

    An explosive system for fracturing an underground geologic formation adjacent to a wellbore can comprise a plurality of explosive units comprising an explosive material contained within the casing, and detonation control modules electrically coupled to the plurality of explosive units and configured to cause a power pulse to be transmitted to at least one detonator of at least one of the plurality of explosive units for detonation of the explosive material. The explosive units are configured to be positioned within a wellbore in spaced apart positions relative to one another along a string with the detonation control modules positioned adjacent to the plurality of explosive units in the wellbore, such that the axial positions of the explosive units relative to the wellbore are at least partially based on geologic properties of the geologic formation adjacent the wellbore.

  8. Surface effects of underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, B.M.; Drellack, S.L. Jr.; Townsend, M.J.

    1997-06-01

    The effects of nuclear explosions have been observed and studied since the first nuclear test (code named Trinity) on July 16, 1945. Since that first detonation, 1,053 nuclear tests have been conducted by the US, most of which were sited underground at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The effects of underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) on their surroundings have long been the object of much interest and study, especially for containment, engineering, and treaty verification purposes. One aspect of these explosion-induced phenomena is the disruption or alteration of the near-surface environment, also known as surface effects. This report was prepared at the request of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), to bring together, correlate, and preserve information and techniques used in the recognition and documentation of surface effects of UNEs. This report has several main sections, including pertinent background information (Section 2.0), descriptions of the different types of surface effects (Section 3.0), discussion of their application and limitations (Section 4.0), an extensive bibliography and glossary (Section 6.0 and Appendix A), and procedures used to document geologic surface effects at the NTS (Appendix C). Because a majority of US surface-effects experience is from the NTS, an overview of pertinent NTS-specific information also is provided in Appendix B. It is not within the scope of this report to explore new relationships among test parameters, physiographic setting, and the types or degree of manifestation of surface effects, but rather to compile, summarize, and capture surface-effects observations and interpretations, as well as documentation procedures and the rationale behind them.

  9. Underground design Laxemar, Layout D2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-11-15

    Laxemar candidate area is located in the province of Smaaland, some 320 km south of Stockholm. The area is located close to the shoreline of the Baltic Sea and is within the municipality of Oskarshamn, and immediately west of the Oskarshamn nuclear power plant and the Central interim storage facility for spent fuel (Clab). The easternmost part (Simpevarp subarea) includes the Simpevarp peninsula, which hosts the power plants and the Clab facility. The island of Aespoe, containing the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory is located some three kilometres northeast of the central parts of Laxemar. The Laxemar subarea covers some 12.5 km2, compared with the Simepvarp subarea, which is approximately 6.6 km2. The Laxemar candidate area has been investigated in stages, referred to as the initial site investigations (ISI) and the complete site investigations (CSI). These investigations commenced in 2002 and were completed in 2008. During the site investigations, several studies and design steps (D0, D1 and D2) were carried out to ensure that sufficient space was available for the 6,000-canister layout within the target volume at a depth of approximately 500 m. The findings from design Step D2 for the underground facilities including the access ramp, shafts, rock caverns in a Central Area, transport tunnels, and deposition tunnels and deposition holes are contained in this report. The layout for these underground excavations at the deposition horizon requires an area of 5.7 km2, and the total rock volume to be excavated is 3,008 x 103 m3 using a total tunnel length of approximately 115 km. The behaviour of the underground openings associated with this layout is expected to be similar to the behaviour of other underground openings in the Scandinavian shield at similar depths. The dominant mode of instability is expected to be structurally controlled wedge failure. Stability of the openings will be achieved with traditional underground rock support and by orienting the openings

  10. Wiener filtering with a seismic underground array at the Sanford Underground Research Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Coughlin, Michael; Christensen, Nelson; Dergachev, Vladimir; DeSalvo, Riccardo; Kandhasamy, Shivaraj; Mandic, Vuk

    2014-01-01

    A seismic array has been deployed at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in the former Homestake mine, South Dakota, to study the underground seismic environment. This includes exploring the advantages of constructing a third-generation gravitational-wave detector underground. A major noise source would be Newtonian noise, which is induced by fluctuations in the local gravitational field. The hope is that a combination of a low-noise seismic environment and coherent noise subtraction using seismometers in the vicinity of the detector could suppress the Newtonian noise to required levels. In this paper, we use Wiener filtering techniques to subtract coherent noise in a seismic array in the form of oceanic microseisms. We achieve more than an order of magnitude noise cancellation between about 0.05-0.5 Hz. We examine the variation in the Wiener filter coefficients over the course of the day, showing how local activities impact the filter. We also study the variation in coefficients over the course of a mo...

  11. Occurrence of radon in the Polish underground tourist routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Olszewski

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are about 200 underground tourist routes in Poland. There are caves, mines or underground structures. This paper presents the results of the research intended to identify the extent of the occurrence of radon concentrations in underground areas of tourist routes. Material and Methods: We conducted the measurement of periodic concentrations of radon (1–2 months in the summer using type Tastrak trace detectors. We determined the average concentrations of radon in air in 66 underground tourist routes in Poland. Results: The research results comprise 259 determinations of average radon concentrations in 66 routes. The arithmetic average of the results was 1610 Bqm–3, and the maximum measured concentration was over 20 000 Bqm–3. The minimum concentration was 100 Bqm–3 (threshold method considering the arithmetic average of the measurements. It was found that in 67% of the routes, the average concentration of radon has exceeded 300 Bqm–3 and in 22 underground routes it exceeded 1000 Bqm–3. Conclusions: Radon which occurs in many Polish underground tourist routes may be an organizational, legal and health problem. It is necessary to develop a program of measures to reduce radon concentrations in underground routes, especially routes located in the former mines. Med Pr 2015;66(4:557–563

  12. Evaluation of urban underground space resources using digitalization technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hehua Zhu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Exploitation and utilization of urban underground space resources is gaining increasing attention in cities’ sustainable development. Due to the attributes of fragility and irreversibility, urban underground space resources can be extremely vulnerable to damage and it is often difficult in restoring their original state once damaged. Therefore, scientific and reasonable evaluation of urban underground space resources is of vital importance in urban planning and development. This paper first describes the content and methods for the evaluation of urban underground space resources, and introduces the digitalization technologies to handle the problems of strong subjectivity, low efficiency and rough precision encountered when using traditional evaluation tools. Then, the related concepts and main technologies for digitalization were demonstrated and an intelligent GIS-based engineering geology system was built. Based on the drilling information in Changzhou City, stratum standardization and 3D modeling of strata, underground structures and pipelines were conducted in the built intelligent system. Finally, with the help of spatial overlay analysis in the GIS-based platform and a combination of other digitalization technologies, the urban underground space resources of Changzhou City were evaluated. Maps of geological suitability were produced, which provide scientific guidance and reference for the exploitation and planning of urban underground space resources in Changzhou City. In addition, site selection for key projects was conducted based on the evaluation results using this platform.

  13. Muon simulation codes MUSIC and MUSUN for underground physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kudryavtsev, V A

    2008-01-01

    The paper describes two Monte Carlo codes dedicated to muon simulations: MUSIC (MUon SImulation Code) and MUSUN (MUon Simulations UNderground). MUSIC is a package for muon transport through matter. It is particularly useful for propagating muons through large thickness of rock or water, for instance from the surface down to underground/underwater laboratory. MUSUN is designed to use the results of muon transport through rock/water to generate muons in or around underground laboratory taking into account their energy spectrum and angular distribution.

  14. Muon simulation codes MUSIC and MUSUN for underground physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryavtsev, V. A.

    2009-03-01

    The paper describes two Monte Carlo codes dedicated to muon simulations: MUSIC (MUon SImulation Code) and MUSUN (MUon Simulations UNderground). MUSIC is a package for muon transport through matter. It is particularly useful for propagating muons through large thickness of rock or water, for instance from the surface down to underground/underwater laboratory. MUSUN is designed to use the results of muon transport through rock/water to generate muons in or around underground laboratory taking into account their energy spectrum and angular distribution.

  15. Analysis of an Underground Structure Settlement Risk due to Tunneling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vahdatirad, Mohammad Javad; Ghodrat, Hadi; Firouzianbandpey, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    The tunnel of the Tabriz urban railway line 2 (TURL2), Iran, will pass through an underground commercial center on its way. Too little distance between the tunnel crown and the underground structure foundation will probably cause collapse or excessive settlement during the tunnel construction based...... of the underground commercial center structure settlement is estimated using both empirical and numerical methods. The settlement risk level of the commercial center structure is determined based on presented definitions about risk classification of various types of structures. Consequently, tunneling processes...

  16. Underground nuclear energy complexes - technical and economic advantages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, Carl W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kunze, Jay F [IDAHO STATE UNIV; Giraud, Kellen M [BABECOCK AND WILCOX; Mahar, James M [IDAHO STATE UNIV

    2010-01-01

    Underground nuclear power plant parks have been projected to be economically feasible compared to above ground instalIations. This paper includes a thorough cost analysis of the savings, compared to above ground facilities, resulting from in-place entombment (decommissioning) of facilities at the end of their life. reduced costs of security for the lifetime of the various facilities in the underground park. reduced transportation costs. and reduced costs in the operation of the waste storage complex (also underground). compared to the fair share of the costs of operating a national waste repository.

  17. Seismic wave interaction with underground cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Felix M.; Esterhazy, Sofi; Perugia, Ilaria; Bokelmann, Götz

    2016-04-01

    Realization of the future Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) will require ensuring its compliance, making the CTBT a prime example of forensic seismology. Following indications of a nuclear explosion obtained on the basis of the (IMS) monitoring network further evidence needs to be sought at the location of the suspicious event. For such an On-Site Inspection (OSI) at a possible nuclear test site the treaty lists several techniques that can be carried out by the inspection team, including aftershock monitoring and the conduction of active seismic surveys. While those techniques are already well established, a third group of methods labeled as "resonance seismometry" is less well defined and needs further elaboration. A prime structural target that is expected to be present as a remnant of an underground nuclear explosion is a cavity at the location and depth the bomb was fired. Originally "resonance seismometry" referred to resonant seismic emission of the cavity within the medium that could be stimulated by an incident seismic wave of the right frequency and observed as peaks in the spectrum of seismic stations in the vicinity of the cavity. However, it is not yet clear which are the conditions for which resonant emissions of the cavity could be observed. In order to define distance-, frequency- and amplitude ranges at which resonant emissions could be observed we study the interaction of seismic waves with underground cavities. As a generic model for possible resonances we use a spherical acoustic cavity in an elastic full-space. To solve the forward problem for the full elastic wave field around acoustic spherical inclusions, we implemented an analytical solution (Korneev, 1993). This yields the possibility of generating scattering cross-sections, amplitude spectrums and synthetic seismograms for plane incident waves. Here, we focus on the questions whether or not we can expect resonant responses in the wave field scattered from the cavity. We show

  18. Modelling Underground Coal Gasification—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md M. Khan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The technical feasibility of underground coal gasification (UCG has been established through many field trials and laboratory-scale experiments over the past decades. However, the UCG is site specific and the commercialization of UCG is being hindered due to the lack of complete information for a specific site of operation. Since conducting UCG trials and data extraction are costly and difficult, modeling has been an important part of UCG study to predict the effect of various physical and operating parameters on the performance of the process. Over the years, various models have been developed in order to improve the understanding of the UCG process. This article reviews the approaches, key concepts, assumptions, and limitations of various forward gasification UCG models for cavity growth and product gas recovery. However, emphasis is given to the most important models, such as packed bed models, the channel model, and the coal slab model. In addition, because of the integral part of the main models, various sub-models such as drying and pyrolysis are also included in this review. The aim of this study is to provide an overview of the various simulation methodologies and sub-models in order to enhance the understanding of the critical aspects of the UCG process.

  19. Underground tank assembly with internal bladder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strock, D.J.

    1987-03-10

    An underground tank assembly is described for storing motor fuels, such as gasoline or diesel fuel, comprising: a collapsible primary tank comprising a flexible bladder for containing a motor fuel, the primary tank being moveable from a collapsed generally empty position to an inflated generally full position; a substantially rigid secondary tank substantially surrounding and enclosing the primary tank for secondary containment of an leakage of motor fuel from the primary tank, the secondary tank having a top, a bottom, and end walls extending between and connecting the top and bottom; the bladder having a bottom portion positioned adjacent the bottom of the secondary tank; and conduit means extending through the top of the rigid secondary tank to a position in proximity to the bottom portion of the flexible bladder. The conduit means includes an inlet conduit with an inlet upright portion for filing the flexible bladder with motor fuel and an outlet conduit with an outlet upright portion for withdrawing the motor fuel from the flexible bladder. The outlet upright portion of the outlet conduit is positioned within the interior of and is substantially concentrically and coaxially surrounded by the inlet upright portion of the inlet conduit. The outlet conduit and the inlet conduit both are positioned in proximity to one of the end walls of the rigid secondary tank.

  20. Advanced geophysical underground coal gasification monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellors, Robert; Yang, X.; White, J. A.; Ramirez, A.; Wagoner, J.; Camp, D. W.

    2014-07-01

    Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) produces less surface impact, atmospheric pollutants and greenhouse gas than traditional surface mining and combustion. Therefore, it may be useful in mitigating global change caused by anthropogenic activities. Careful monitoring of the UCG process is essential in minimizing environmental impact. Here we first summarize monitoring methods that have been used in previous UCG field trials. We then discuss in more detail a number of promising advanced geophysical techniques. These methods – seismic, electromagnetic, and remote sensing techniques – may provide improved and cost-effective ways to image both the subsurface cavity growth and surface subsidence effects. Active and passive seismic data have the promise to monitor the burn front, cavity growth, and observe cavity collapse events. Electrical resistance tomography (ERT) produces near real time tomographic images autonomously, monitors the burn front and images the cavity using low-cost sensors, typically running within boreholes. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) is a remote sensing technique that has the capability to monitor surface subsidence over the wide area of a commercial-scale UCG operation at a low cost. It may be possible to infer cavity geometry from InSAR (or other surface topography) data using geomechanical modeling. The expected signals from these monitoring methods are described along with interpretive modeling for typical UCG cavities. They are illustrated using field results from UCG trials and other relevant subsurface operations.

  1. Sidereal variations deep underground in Tasmania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humble, J. E.; Fenton, A. G.; Fenton, K. B.

    1985-01-01

    Data from the deep underground vertically directed muon telescopes at Poatina, Tasmania, have been used since 1972 for a number of investigations, including the daily intensity variations, atmospheric influences, and checking for possible effects due to the interplanetary magnetic field. These telescopes have a total sensitive area of only 3 square meters, with the result that the counting rate is low (about 1680 events per hour) and the statistical errors on the results are rather large. Consequently, it was decided several years ago to construct larger detectors for this station. The first of these telescopes has been in operation for two complete years, and the results from it are presented. Results from the new, more stable equipment at Poatina appear to confirm the existence of a first harmonic in the daily variations in sidereal time reported earlier, and are consistent with small or non-existent first harmonics in solar and anti-sidereal time. All the second harmonics appear to be small, if not zero at these energies.

  2. Global Development of Commercial Underground Coal Gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinderman, M. S.

    2017-07-01

    Global development of Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) is considered here in light of latest trends of energy markets and environmental regulations in the countries that have been traditional proponents of UCG. The latest period of UCG development triggered by initial success of the Chinchilla UCG project (1997-2006) has been characterized by preponderance of privately and share-market funded developments. The deceleration of UCG commercialization has been in part caused by recent significant decrease of world oil, gas and coal prices. Another substantial factor was lack of necessary regulations governing extraction and conversion of coal by UCG method in the jurisdictions where the UCG projects were proposed and developed. Along with these objective causes there seem to have been more subjective and technical reasons for a slowdown or cancelation of several significant UCG projects, including low efficiency, poor environmental performance, and inability to demonstrate technology at a sufficient scale and/or at a competitive cost. Latest proposals for UCG projects are briefly reviewed.

  3. James Henry Greathead and the London Underground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Wright

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the origins and early history of the device known as the ‘Greathead Shield’, an important innovation in Victorian engineering crucial to constructing the London Underground. The aim is to explore the basis on which, many years later, a South African engineer, James Henry Greathead, was accorded prominent public acknowledgment, in the form of a statue, for ‘inventing’ the Shield. From a cultural studies perspective, how is the meaning of ‘invention’ to be understood, given that several other brilliant engineers were involved? The question is adjudicated using the notion of cultural ‘extelligence’, seen in relation to several contemporary and historical accounts, including Greathead’s own record of his achievements in the proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers and presented in The City and South London Railway (1896, edited by James Forrest. The paper was first delivered at the conference on ‘Novelty and Innovation in the Nineteenth Century’ held at the North-West University in May 2016.

  4. Indian Country Leaking Underground Storage Tanks, Region 9, 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains point features that represent Leaking Underground Storage Tanks in US EPA Region 9 Indian Country. This dataset contains facility name and...

  5. Inspecting Underground Storage Tanks - 2005 Energy Policy Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    these grant guidelines implement the inspection provisions in Sections 9005(c)(1) and 9005(c)(2) of the Solid Waste Disposal Act, enacted by the Underground Storage Tank Compliance Act, part of the Energy Policy Act of 2005.

  6. VT VEC Primary Overhead and Underground Distribution Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) Vermont Electric Cooperative, Inc. (VEC) Primary Overhead and Underground Distribution Lines. VEC’s Distribution lines were drawn from pole to...

  7. Underground coal gasification - the acceptable face of coal mining?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dryburgh, P.

    2009-11-15

    There is growing interest in underground coal gasification, whereby energy is accessed from coal in a cleaner way than traditional combustion methods. The paper looks at the benefits of UCG. 1 fig., 1 photo.

  8. Public Record About Underground Storage Tanks - 2005 Energy Policy Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    These grant guidelines implement the public record provision in Section 9002(d) of the Solid Waste Disposal Act, enacted by the Underground Storage Tank Compliance Act, part of the Energy Policy Act of 2005.

  9. Effect of population and level of industrialization on underground ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-02-19

    Feb 19, 2008 ... case study. Underground waters of ... part of this study is to determine the effect of population and level of ... mental means were compared using the DUNCAN new multiple range test ..... Mortality of nitrate fertilizer workers.

  10. Report on technical feasibility of underground pumped hydroelectric storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, T. J.

    1982-03-01

    The technical and economic aspects of constructing a very high head underground hydroelectric pumped storage were examined at a prefeasibility level. Excavation of existing caverns in the West Rutland Vermont marble quarry would be used to construct the underground space. A plant capacity of 1200 MW and 12 h of continuous capacity were chosen as plant operating conditions. The site geology, plant design, and electrical and mechanical equipment required were considered. It was concluded that the cost of the 1200 MW underground pumped storage hydro electric project at this site, even with the proposed savings from marketable material, amount to between $581 and $595 per kilowatt of installed capacity on a January 1982 pricing level. It was concluded that the West Rutland underground pumped storage facility is uneconomic at this time.

  11. Shallow Melting and Underground Drainage in Utopia Planitia, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costard, F.; Sejourne, A.; Kargel, J.; Soare, R.

    2012-03-01

    Based on the identification of sinuous and elongated pits in Utopia Planitia, we suggest that shallow melting and underground drainage are possible. We test that hypothesis using a thermal model that comprises a thick insulating dusty layer.

  12. 30 CFR 75.822 - Underground high-voltage longwall cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground high-voltage longwall cables. 75... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Underground High-Voltage Distribution High-Voltage Longwalls § 75.822 Underground high-voltage longwall cables. In addition to the high...

  13. 30 CFR 75.1904 - Underground diesel fuel tanks and safety cans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground diesel fuel tanks and safety cans... COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1904 Underground diesel fuel tanks and safety cans. (a) Diesel fuel tanks used underground shall...

  14. 30 CFR 75.1104 - Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease... COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1104 Underground storage, lubricating oil and grease. Underground storage places for lubricating oil and grease...

  15. 78 FR 79009 - Proposed Information Collection; Radiation Sampling and Exposure Records (Pertains to Underground...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... (Pertains to Underground Metal and Nonmetal Mines) AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor... other underground mining commodities. Radon is radioactive gas. It diffuses into the underground mine... underground mines where the readings are 0.1 WL to 0.3 WL. Mine operators are required to keep records of all...

  16. 30 CFR 75.802 - Protection of high-voltage circuits extending underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... underground. 75.802 Section 75.802 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Underground High-Voltage Distribution § 75.802 Protection of high-voltage circuits extending underground. (a) Except as...

  17. 30 CFR 75.313 - Main mine fan stoppage with persons underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Main mine fan stoppage with persons underground... COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.313 Main mine fan stoppage with persons underground. (a) If a main mine fan stops while anyone is underground...

  18. 30 CFR 75.811 - High-voltage underground equipment; grounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-voltage underground equipment; grounding... COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Underground High-Voltage Distribution § 75.811 High-voltage underground equipment; grounding. Frames, supporting structures...

  19. Radon exposure in selected underground touring routes in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olszewski, J.; Chruscielewski, W.; Jankowski, J. [Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Dept. of Radiation Protection, Lodz (Poland)

    2006-07-01

    The radioactive elements abounding in the natural environment cause that the whole human population is exposed to radiation. In Poland, mean gamma radiation dose power is 45.4 n Gy h{sup -1}, while atmospheric radon concentration is 4.4 Bq m{sup -3} [1]. In closed rooms, where radon tends to accumulate, the concentrations may be many times higher.Underground touring routes located in caves, mines, ancient cellars, vaults may accumulate radon at concentrations several thousand times exceeding its atmospheric levels. Studies on natural radioactivity in underground touring routes, with particular reference to caves, have continued worldwide since the 80's. Current register of underground touring routes in Poland comprises over 30 items, which include caves (e.g. Niedzwiedzia), mines (Wieliczka), cellars and underground stores (Opatow City vaults) and military objects (underground factories of Walim). The Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine has for several years already continued determinations of periodical mean radon concentrations in four underground touring routes (starting date in parentheses): Niedzwiedzia Cave (1995); Kowary Drifts closed uranium mine (2001); closed uranium mine in Kletno (2004); Zloty Stok closed gold mine (2004); Osowka underground city in Gluszyca (2004).The results of our determinations of radon concentrations at five selected touring routes lead to the following conclusions. 1. The exposure in the Kowary Drifts touring route is at the level of 5% of the recommended maximum annual admissible limit of 20 mSv. 2. It is assessed that workers of the touring routes where exposures are estimated from the measured concentrations and the time spent underground may receive doses ranging from 0.01 to 5 mSv. (N.C.)

  20. Underground-Energy-Storage Program, 1982 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannberg, L.D.

    1983-06-01

    Two principal underground energy storage technologies are discussed--Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage (STES) and Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES). The Underground Energy Storage Program objectives, approach, structure, and milestones are described, and technical activities and progress in the STES and CAES areas are summarized. STES activities include aquifer thermal energy storage technology studies and STES technology assessment and development. CAES activities include reservoir stability studies and second-generation concepts studies. (LEW)

  1. Underground haulage by diesel and storage battery locomotive. [United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    This code sets up a national standard of practice and attainment in the operation and maintenance of underground locomotives which operate on conventional or asymmetrical rails. The transport of persons underground or in walkable outlets to the surface by locomotive haulage is also covered by this code. Requirements and recommendations cover appointment and training of personnel, duties of appointed personnel, design requirements, signalling and communications, safety devices, ventilation determinations, operation, brake testing, and maintenance.

  2. Classification of Target Buried in the Underground by Radar Polarimetry

    OpenAIRE

    Moriyama, Toshifumi; Nakamura, Masafumi; Yamaguchi, Yoshio; Yamada, Hiroyoshi; Boerner, Wolfgang-M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses the classification of targets buried in the underground by radar polarimetry. The subsurface radar is used for the detection of objects buried beneath the ground surface, such as gas pipes, cables and cavities, or in archeological exploration operation. In addition to target echo, the subsurface radar receives various other echoes, because the underground is inhomogeneous medium. Therefore, the subsurface radar needs to distinguish these echoes. In order to enhance the di...

  3. Basic equations of channel model for underground coal gasification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The underground coal gasification has advantages of zero rubbish, nonpollution, low cost and high safety. According to the characteristics of the gasification, the channel model of chemical fluid mechanics is used to set up the fluid equations and chemical equations by some reasonable suppositions in this paper, which lays a theoretical foundation on requirements of fluid movement rules in the process of underground coal gasification.

  4. Localization of Sound Sources in Underground Parking Lots

    OpenAIRE

    Dong Myung Lee; Moo Kyung Jung; Chang Yong Choi; Hongchi Shi

    2014-01-01

    We present a localization of sound sources algorithm for underground parking lots and a compensation algorithm for enhancing localization of sound sources based on the least-squares method (LSM). The proposed localization of sound sources system is designed for the underground parking lots in apartments. The sound location algorithm is referred to as LOCSS, and the localization algorithm enhanced with the compensation algorithm is referred to as LOCSS+LCALSM. We also present the performance c...

  5. Magneto-Inductive Underground Communications in a District Heating System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meybodi, Soroush Afkhami; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2011-01-01

    Feasibility of underground data communications is investigated by employing magnetic induction as the key technology at physical layer. Realizing an underground wireless sensor network for a district heating plant motivates this research problem. The main contribution of the paper is to find the ...... the optimal design for transmitter and receiver coil antennas, assuming predefined wire gauge and length at both sides. Analytical results show that the transmitter coil should have the smallest possible radius while the converse is true for the receiver coil....

  6. Simulation of Daylighting Conditions in a Virtual Underground City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Merli Alcini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available From the Piranesi fantastic architectures to the animation movies and video games of the last thirty years, a new design approach has been introduced and developed: the design of the virtual space. Designing the "virtual" means experiencing a multidisciplinary approach where architecture, engineering, and urban planning meet the new horizons of information and communication technology. This study is focused on virtual space, which is an underground city. Mankind have always made and used underground environments: the possibilities of unlimited spaces to potential development, the reduced needs for raw materials for the construction and the protection from outdoor weather are some of the reasons that prompted humans to the realization of underground spaces in the past. These reasons and the availability of innovative technologies could encourage a breakthrough in the realization of new underground environments. A recent example is represented by the Underground City of Montreal (RÉSO. We present the architectural design of a virtual underground city, which is called Arch[ane], and its evaluation. The underground city is modular and the studied module is composed of eight floors with a total depth of 400 m and dimensions of 800 m × 800 m. The study comprises the evaluation of the effect of sunlight on each eight floors of the city. Daylighting simulations were performed considering different cities at different latitudes, days, and hours. The results have shown that the particular design of the underground city with skylights gives significant values of illuminance at a certain depth. Furthermore, the simulation results show how huge can be the potentialities of software to simulate extremely big environments.

  7. Design, construction and initial state of the underground openings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-12-15

    The report is included in a set of Production reports, presenting how the KBS-3 repository is designed, produced and inspected. The set of reports is included in the safety report for the KBS-3 repository and repository facility. The report provides input on the initial state of the underground openings for the assessment of the long-term safety, SR-Site. The initial state refers to the properties of the underground openings at final disposal, backfilling or closure. In addition, the report provides input to the operational safety report, SR-Operation, on how the underground openings shall be constructed and inspected. The report presents the design premises and the methodology applied to design the underground openings and adapt them the to the site conditions so that they conform to the design premises. It presents the reference design at Forsmark and its conformity to the design premises. It also describes the reference methods to be applied to construct and inspect the different kinds of underground openings. Finally, the initial state of the underground openings and its conformity to the design premises is presented

  8. Stability analysis of underground openings for extraction of natural stone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmen Fifer Bizjak

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Extraction of natural stone is usually carried out in surface quarries. Underground excavation is not a frequently used method. Due to the restrictive environmental legislature and limited stores of natural stone, underground extraction has become quite an interestingalternative. Dimensions of underground openings are determined with stability analyses.Prior to starting a numerical analysis of a large underground opening it is very important to determine the mechanism of failure and set up a proper numerical model. The continuum method is usually used in rock mechanics. A disadvantage of this calculation is that it cannotbe applied to a large number of joints. Other methods are preferred, such as the numerical discrete method, which allows joint systems to be involved into calculations. The most probable failure of rock with several joint systems is block sliding. In the example of themarble of Hotavlje both methods were used. It was established that the continuum method is convenient for the global stability prediction of the underground opening. Further discretemethod enable the block stability calculation. The analytical block analysis is still accurate for the a stability calculation of single block. The prerequisite for a good numerical analysis is sufficient quality data on geomechanical properties of rock. In-situ tests, laboratory tests and geotechnical measurements on the site are therefore necessary. Optimum dimensions of underground chambers in the Quarry of Hotavlje were calculated by using several numericalmodels, and the maximum chamber width of 12 m was obtained.

  9. Coal Mines, Abandoned - COAL_MINE_UNDERGROUND_IN: Underground Coal Mines in Indiana (Indiana Geological Survey, 1:24,000, Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — COAL_UND, the predecessor of COAL_MINE_UNDERGROUND_IN, is a polygon-based ESRI ArcView shapefile that shows the location and extent of underground coal mines in the...

  10. Underground Coal Gasification - Experience of ONGC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, P. K.

    2017-07-01

    Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) is expected to be game changer for nation like ours that requires large amounts of energy but have few natural resources other than coal. ONGC, being an integrated energy company and due to synergy between E & P operations and UCG, envisaged opportunities in UCG business. Its first campaign on UCG started in 1980s. With its initiative, a National Committee for UCG was constituted with representatives from Ministry of Petroleum, Dept. of Coal, CSIR, CMPDIL, State of Gujarat and ONGC for experimenting a pilot. It was decided in mid-1986 to carry out a UCG pilot in Sobhasan area of Mehsana district which was to be funded by OIDB. Two information wells were drilled to generate geological, geophysical, geo-hydrological data and core/coal samples. 3-D seismic survey data of Mehsana area was processed and interpreted and geological model was prepared. Basic designing of pilot project, drilling and completion, strategy of process wells and designing of surface facilities were carried out. The project could not be pursued further due to escalation in cost and contractual difficulty with design consultant. ONGC second UCG campaign commenced with signing of an agreement of collaboration (AOC) with Skochinsky Institute of Mining (SIM), Russia on 25th November 2004 for Underground Coal Gasification (UCG). In parallel, MOUs were signed with major coal and power companies, namely, Gujarat Industries Power Company Ltd (GIPCL), Gujarat Mineral Development Corporation Ltd (GMDC), Coal India Ltd (CIL), Singareni Colliery Company Ltd (SCCL) and NLC India Ltd. Under the AOC, suitability study was carried out for different sites belonging to MOU companies. Only Vastan mine block, Nani Naroli, Surat, Gujarat was found to be suitable for UCG. Therefore, subsequent stages of detailed characterization & pilot layout, detailed engineering design were taken up for Vastan site. After enormous efforts for quite long since 2006, in the absence of UCG policy

  11. Digital Underground (Shh. It's really Applied Geophysics!)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdoo, B. G.

    2003-12-01

    Digital Underground (Geology/Physics 241) at Vassar College is an applied geophysics course designed for a liberal arts curriculum, and has nothing to do with Shock G and Tupac Shakur. Applied geophysics courses have a history of using geophysical methods on environmental contamination-type applications (underground storage tanks, leach fields, etc.). Inspired in large part by the Keck Geology Consortium project run by Franklin and Marshall College geophysicist (Robert Sternberg) and archaeologist (James Delle) in an old slave village in Jamaica in 1999, this class examines the history of slavery in New York's Hudson Valley region by way of its forgotten African-American graveyards. This multidisciplinary approach to an issue draws students from across the curriculum- we have had our compliments of geologists and physicists, along with students from sociology, environmental studies, history, and Africana studies. The name of the class and content are designed to attract a non-traditional student of geophysics.- The project-based nature of the class appeals to student yearning for an out-of-classroom experience. The uncontrolled nature of the class demonstrates the complications that occur in real-word situations. The class has in the past broken itself into two teams- a surveying team and an archival research team. Archival research is done (usually by the social scientists in the class) to add a human dimension to the geophysical. The surveying equipment used in delineating these forgotten graveyards includes a Total Station surveyor, an electrical resistivity meter, a magnetometer, and a ground penetrating radar. All students must have a rudimentary understanding of the physics behind the equipment (to the level of where they can explain it to the general public), and the methods used by those studying the archives. This is a project-based class, where the instructor acts as a project manager, and the students make the decisions regarding the survey itself. Every

  12. Steam jacket dynamics in underground coal gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Christopher; Kempka, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) has the potential to increase the world-wide hydrocarbon reserves by utilization of deposits not economically mineable by conventional methods. In this context, UCG involves combusting coal in-situ to produce a high-calorific synthesis gas, which can be applied for electricity generation or chemical feedstock production. Apart from high economic potentials, in-situ combustion may cause environmental impacts such as groundwater pollution by by-product leakage. In order to prevent or significantly mitigate these potential environmental concerns, UCG reactors are generally operated below hydrostatic pressure to limit the outflow of UCG process fluids into overburden aquifers. This pressure difference effects groundwater inflow into the reactor and prevents the escape of product gas. In the close reactor vicinity, fluid flow determined by the evolving high reactor temperatures, resulting in the build-up of a steam jacket. Numerical modeling is one of the key components to study coupled processes in in-situ combustion. We employed the thermo-hydraulic numerical simulator MUFITS (BINMIXT module) to address the influence of reactor pressure dynamics as well as hydro-geological coal and caprock parameters on water inflow and steam jacket dynamics. The US field trials Hanna and Hoe Creek (Wyoming) were applied for 3D model validation in terms of water inflow matching, whereby the good agreement between our modeling results and the field data indicates that our model reflects the hydrothermal physics of the process. In summary, our validated model allows a fast prediction of the steam jacket dynamics as well as water in- and outflows, required to avoid aquifer contamination during the entire life cycle of in-situ combustion operations.

  13. Detecting and identifying underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiliopoulos, S. [Australian Geological Survey Organisation, Anzac Park, Canberra, ACT (Australia). Department of Primary Industry

    1996-12-31

    The monitoring of underground nuclear explosions involves, first determining that the signals have originated from a test site and if so, then a pattern recognition analysis is undertaken to determine whether the signals originate from an explosion rather than an earthquake. In this we are aided by seismic observations of previous explosions from each test site. To determine the origin of a signal use is first made of the two seismic arrays in central Australia. Each of these arrays consists of 20 spatially separated sensors (seismometers), and each of which can provide a preliminary estimate of the location of the source. In practice this is done automatically by inserting delays into the output of each of the sensors to compensate for a seismic signal taking a finite time to cross the array, and then adding the output of each sensor to form what are called `array beams`. When the correct delays for a particular azimuth and wavespeed (corresponding to a particular source location) have been inserted, the signals recorded by each sensor will be in phase and the energy in the array beam will be a maximum. Because the seismic background noise at each sensor is not correlated, this beam forming also improves the signal-to-noise ratio. In this sense a seismic array is equivalent to other arrays of sensors - e.g. a radar antenna. Having determined that a signal originates from somewhere near a test site a more precise location can be obtained from the times that the signal arrives at different seismic stations

  14. Current experiences in applied underground coal gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Justyn

    2010-05-01

    The world is experiencing greater stress on its ability to mine and exploit energy resources such as coal, through traditional mining methods. The resources available by extraction from traditional mining methods will have a finite time and quantity. In addition, the high quality coals available are becoming more difficult to find substantially increasing exploration costs. Subsequently, new methods of extraction are being considered to improve the ability to unlock the energy from deep coals and improve the efficiency of the exploitation of the resources while also considering the mitigation of global warming. Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) is a leading commercial technology that is able to maximize the exploitation of the deep coal through extraction of the coal as a syngas (CO and H2) in situ. The syngas is then brought to the surface and efficiently utilized in any of combined cycle power generation, liquid hydrocarbon transport fuel production, fertilizer production or polymer production. Commercial UCG has been successfully operating for more than 50 years at the Yerostigaz facility in Angren, Uzbekistan. Yerostigaz is the only remaining UCG site in the former Soviet Union. Linc Energy currently owns 91.6% of this facility. UCG produces a high quality synthetic gas (syngas), containing carbon monoxide, hydrogen and methane. UCG produced syngas can be economically used for a variety of purposes, including: the production of liquid fuels when combined with Gas to Liquids (GTL) technology power generation in gas turbine combined cycle power stations a feedstock for different petrochemical processes, for example producing chemicals or other gases such as hydrogen, methane, ammonia, methanol and dimethyl ether Linc Energy has proven the combined use of UCG to Gas to Liquids (GTL) technologies. UCG to GTL technologies have the ability to provide energy alternatives to address increasing global demand for energy products. With these technologies, Linc Energy is

  15. MINING SECURITY PIPE© (TSM© WITH UNDERGROUND GPS GLOBAL© (RSPG© ESCAPE SECURITY DEVICE IN UNDERGROUND MINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Barrionuevo GIMÉNEZ

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available TSM is escape pipe in case of collapse of terrain. The TSM is a passive security tool placed underground to connect the work area with secure area (mining gallery mainly. TSM is light and hand able pipe made with aramid (Kevlar, carbon fibre, or other kind of new material. The TSM will be placed as a pipe line network with many in/out entrances/exits to rich and connect problem work areas with another parts in a safe mode. Different levels of instrumentation could be added inside such as micro-led escape way suggested, temperature, humidity, level of oxygen, etc.. The open hardware and software like Arduino will be the heart of control and automation system.

  16. Underground physics without underground labs: large detectors in solution-mined salt caverns

    CERN Document Server

    Monreal, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    A number of current physics topics, including long-baseline neutrino physics, proton decay searches, and supernova neutrino searches, hope to someday construct huge (50 kiloton to megaton) particle detectors in shielded, underground sites. With today's practices, this requires the costly excavation and stabilization of large rooms in mines. In this paper, we propose utilizing the caverns created by the solution mining of salt. The challenge is that such caverns must be filled with pressurized fluid and do not admit human access. We sketch some possible methods of installing familiar detector technologies in a salt cavern under these constraints. Some of the detectors discussed are also suitable for deep-sea experiments, discussed briefly. These sketches appear challenging but feasible, and appear to force few major compromises on detector capabilities. This scheme offers avenues for enormous cost savings on future detector megaprojects.

  17. Henderson Deep Underground Science and Engineering Lab: Unearthing the secrets of the Universe, underground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, C. K.; Husep Collaboration

    2011-12-01

    The Henderson Mine near Empire, Colorado is proposed to be the site to host a Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL), which will have a rich program for forefront research in physics, biology, geosciences, and mining engineering. The mine is owned by the Climax Molybdenum Company (CMC). It is located about 50 miles west of Denver and is easily accessible via major highways. The mine is modern and has extensive infrastructure with reserve capacity well-suited to the demands of DUSEL. CMC owns all land required for DUSEL, including the tailings site. It also has all environmental and mining permits required for DUSEL excavation, core drilling, and rock disposal. The mine owners are enthusiastic supporters of this initiative. In support of the Henderson DUSEL project, the State of Colorado has pledged substantial funding for surface construction.

  18. THE JOSEF REGIONAL UNDERGROUND RESEARCH CENTRE (JOSEF URC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Pacovská

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The Josef Gallery, located in the central Bohemia region of the Czech Republic was first excavated in 1981 as an exploration complex for the potential mining of gold. In 2007, the gallery was substantially reconstructed to house the Josef Underground Educational Facility (Josef UEF, which subsequently became an autonomous workplace under the direction of the Czech Technical University in Prague. At the beginning of 2010, the UEF was renamed the Josef Regional Underground Research Centre (Josef URC which, along with the extensive underground complex, features modern above-ground facilities. One of the most important roles of this research center is to provide practical in-situ instruction in the fields of geotechnical engineering, geology, geochemistry, radiochemistry and radioecology. The training of future experts in this authentic underground setting involves the participation of several other Czech universities and numerous experienced specialists from outside the academic sphere. The IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency has added the Josef URC to its prestigious list of international training canters involved in the “Training in and Demonstration of Waste Disposal Technologies in Underground Research Facilities – A Network of Centers of Excellence” project.

  19. Statistical Analysis of Resistivity Anomalies Caused by Underground Caves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frid, V.; Averbach, A.; Frid, M.; Dudkinski, D.; Liskevich, G.

    2017-03-01

    Geophysical prospecting of underground caves being performed on a construction site is often still a challenging procedure. Estimation of a likelihood level of an anomaly found is frequently a mandatory requirement of a project principal due to necessity of risk/safety assessment. However, the methodology of such estimation is not hitherto developed. Aiming to put forward such a methodology the present study (being performed as a part of an underground caves mapping prior to the land development on the site area) consisted of application of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) together with statistical analysis utilized for the likelihood assessment of underground anomalies located. The methodology was first verified via a synthetic modeling technique and applied to the in situ collected ERT data and then crossed referenced with intrusive investigations (excavation and drilling) for the data verification. The drilling/excavation results showed that the proper discovering of underground caves can be done if anomaly probability level is not lower than 90 %. Such a probability value was shown to be consistent with the modeling results. More than 30 underground cavities were discovered on the site utilizing the methodology.

  20. Acquiring underground infrastructure's as-built information for cities' sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaw, S. W.

    2014-02-01

    The rapid progress of urbanization around the world has lead to an issue of urban land shortage. As such, the urban infrastructure, especially the utilities infrastructure, were buried underground for space saving and better design of urban landscape. However, this has created difficulties in locating these infrastructures from ground surface since they are invisible to the naked eye. Therefore, this paper offers a method to secure as-built information of the underground utility feature without excavation. This is done by utilizing digital image processing, a series of experiments conducted on preferred test site and real model simulation. By securing these underground utilities as-built information, it can contribute to the sustainability of cities through better urban planning. Moreover, the significant findings achieved in this study also eligible to pinpoint that ground penetrating radar (GPR) backscatter with appropritate treatment can yield unique backscatter signature which functional for identification of the types of underground utility without proving excavation. Thereby, good agreement between the backscatter reflections of GPR with respective underground utility not only serves as input which can channelled into a city's planning, but also uncovers the immense potential of GPR backscatter in reporting the "feature information" of the objects.

  1. Prediction of Underground Argon Content for Dark Matter Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Mei, D -M; Spaans, J; Koppang, M; Hime, A; Keller, C; Gehman, C M

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the use of physical models to evaluate the production of $^{39}$Ar and $^{40}$Ar underground. Considering both cosmogenic $^{39}$Ar production and radiogenic $^{40}$Ar production in situ and from external sources, we can derive the ratio of $^{39}$Ar to $^{40}$Ar in underground sources. We show for the first time that the $^{39}$Ar production underground is dominated by stopping negative muon capture on $^{39}$K and ($\\alpha,n)$ induced subsequent $^{39}$K(n,p)$^{39}$Ar reactions. The production of $^{39}$Ar is shown as a function of depth. We demonstrate that argon depleted in $^{39}$Ar can be obtained only if the depth of the underground resources is greater than 500 m.w.e. below the surface. The depletion factor depends strongly on both radioactivity level and potassium content in the rock. We measure the radioactivity concentration and potassium concentration in the rock for a potential site of an underground argon source in South Dakota. Depending on the probability of $^{39...

  2. Status and prospects of a deep underground laboratory in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, K. J.; Cheng, J. P.; Chen, Y. H.; Li, Y. J.; Shen, M. B.; Wu, S. Y.; Yue, Q.

    2010-01-01

    An excellent candidate location for a deep underground laboratory with more than 2500 m of rock overburden has been identified at Sichuan Province in China. It can be accessed through a road tunnel of length 17.5 km, and is supported by services and amenities near the entrance provided by the local Ertan Hydropower Plant. The particle physics community in China is actively pursuing the construction of an underground laboratory at this location, under the leadership of Tsinghua University. Memorandum has been signed with Ertan Hydropower Plant which permits access to and construction of the underground laboratory — China JinPing Deep Underground Laboratory (CJPL). The basic features of this underground site, as well as the status and schedules of the construction of the first laboratory cavern are presented. The immediate goal is to have the first experiment operational in 2010, deploying an Ultra-Low-Energy Germanium detector for WIMP dark matter searches, with emphasis on the mass range of 1-10 GeV. The conceptual design of the experiment, as well as the future plans and prospects of the laboratory, will be surveyed.

  3. THE GENERATING AND COMPLEMENTARY EFFECTS OF THE UNDERGROUND ECONOMY PHENOMENON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corneliu Sorin BAICU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available For a comprehensive understanding of the informal sector, an analysis addressing the relationships and links between the morphology and etiology of the underground economy, on the one hand, and its effects on the economic, social or legal, on the other hand is required. The double identity, that of cause phenomenon and effect phenomenon, that the underground economy has, gives it a special status in explaining certain phenomena which vitiates the economic and social life. The generating and complementary effects of the underground area covered in this study are analyzed in terms of the following vectors of analysis: tax evasion, illegal work and money laundering. Tax evasion represents the central core of the underground economy and faithfully expresses the fiscal monetary policies ,the fiscal mortality and the degree of compliance of the taxpayer. Undeclared work is an indicator of the labor market in the informal economy and is a good barometer for analyzing the demand and supply of labor in the visible economy. Money laundering defines the level of economic and financial crime and reflects the level of illegal use of capital on the black market. Tax evasion, money laundering and illegal work can only develop on a framework provided by illicit markets for goods, services and labor. Beyond the, unidirectional or bidirectional relationships between phenomena, the paper consists in a plea for an interdependent, multi-causal analysis of the phenomena and operating mechanisms of the relationships within and outside the underground economy.

  4. Displacement Parameter Inversion for a Novel Electromagnetic Underground Displacement Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanying Shentu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Underground displacement monitoring is an effective method to explore deep into rock and soil masses for execution of subsurface displacement measurements. It is not only an important means of geological hazards prediction and forecasting, but also a forefront, hot and sophisticated subject in current geological disaster monitoring. In previous research, the authors had designed a novel electromagnetic underground horizontal displacement sensor (called the H-type sensor by combining basic electromagnetic induction principles with modern sensing techniques and established a mutual voltage measurement theoretical model called the Equation-based Equivalent Loop Approach (EELA. Based on that work, this paper presents an underground displacement inversion approach named “EELA forward modeling-approximate inversion method”. Combining the EELA forward simulation approach with the approximate optimization inversion theory, it can deduce the underground horizontal displacement through parameter inversion of the H-type sensor. Comprehensive and comparative studies have been conducted between the experimentally measured and theoretically inversed values of horizontal displacement under counterpart conditions. The results show when the measured horizontal displacements are in the 0–100 mm range, the horizontal displacement inversion discrepancy is generally tested to be less than 3 mm under varied tilt angles and initial axial distances conditions, which indicates that our proposed parameter inversion method can predict underground horizontal displacement measurements effectively and robustly for the H-type sensor and the technique is applicable for practical geo-engineering applications.

  5. UNDERGROUND LITERATURE IN TURKEY AND THE TRACES OF UNDERGROUND LITERATURE IN HAKAN GÜNDAY’S NOVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evren KARATAŞ

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Today, one of the sources which feeds the literature is underground culture. It is known that the underground effects have been reflected to the literature field by the Gothic literature since 18th century. Gothic literature is based on fear which is one of the most basic and primitive emotions of people. Fear and evil are the two indispensable elements of underground culture. Looking at the centuries-long adventure of literature, it is seen that the literature is also benefited from “evil” concept. Literature has been predicated on the good/evil contrast for many years and given its messages on behalf of goodness. But the evil has become a dominant element with the underground literature, and the badness concept has began to be questioned again through the opponent and anarchist heroes. In the underground literature understanding, the evil is not the opposite of good now, it is just a new way of life. Traces of underground literature began to form in the political and social crisis environment of Turkey after 1980 and it was taken its place as a significant movement in the 1990’s. Today H. Günday has been accepted as one of the important representatives of underground literature in Turkey by critics. In this study, three novels of H. Günday as Kinyas and Kayra (2000, Zargana (2002, Piç (2003 which were written between 2000-2003. And carry the main dynamics of underground literature are selected as a sample and in the results of the data obtained, the underground values which Günday presented as a character property of novel persons are reported in the headings of inability to accord in life/inability to give meaning to the existence, the idealization of death, prefererred loneliness, anti-socialization and opposition against institutions, lack of the feeling of belonging to somewhere or something, ignorance of moral rules, the violence trend-dependence and the opposition to the civilization.

  6. Glimos Instructions for CMS Underground Guiding - in french

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Dupont, Niels; Brodski, Michael

    2016-01-01

    In this presentation in french, the basic safety rules for CMS underground visits are explained. The trainees are taught how to plan/organize a CMS underground visit along important safety aspects of the CMS underground (Point 5). Content owners and presenters (CMS safety team) : Niels Dupont (in french), Michael Brodski (in german), William Esposito (in english) A pdf document on the subject is available as material from the indico event page. (TO BE DONE from https://twiki.cern.ch/Edutech/CMSGlimosInstructions!)   Tell us what you think via e-learning.support at cern.ch More tutorials in the e-learning collection of the CERN Document Server (CDS) http://cds.cern.ch/collection/E-learning%20modules?ln=en All info about the CERN rapid e-learning project is linked from http://twiki.cern.ch/ELearning  

  7. Glimos Instructions for CMS Underground Guiding - in english

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Dupont, Niels; Esposito, William

    2016-01-01

    In this presentation in english, the basic safety rules for CMS underground visits are explained. The trainees are taught how to plan/organize a CMS underground visit along important safety aspects of the CMS underground (Point 5). Content owners and presenters (CMS safety team) : Niels Dupont (in french), Michael Brodski (in german), William Esposito (in english) A pdf document on the subject is available as material from the indico event page. (TO BE DONE from https://twiki.cern.ch/Edutech/CMSGlimosInstructions!)   Tell us what you think via e-learning.support at cern.ch More tutorials in the e-learning collection of the CERN Document Server (CDS) http://cds.cern.ch/collection/E-learning%20modules?ln=en All info about the CERN rapid e-learning project is linked from http://twiki.cern.ch/ELearning  

  8. An overview of world history of underground coal gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovšek, Damjan; Nadvežnik, Jakob; Medved, Milan

    2017-07-01

    We will give an overview of the activities in the field of underground coal gasification in the world through history. Also we will have a detailed presentation of the most successful and the most recent research and development projects. The currency and scope of the study of coal gasification processes are linked through recent history to the price of crude oil. We will show how by changing oil prices always changes the interest for investment in research in the field of coal gasification. Most coal-producing countries have developed comprehensive programs that include a variety of studies of suitable coal fields, to assess the feasibility and design pilot and commercial projects of underground coal gasification. The latest technologies of drilling in oil and gas industry now enable easier, simpler and more economically viable process underground coal gasification. The trend of increasing research in this area will continue forward until the implementation of commercial projects.

  9. Distributed Source Localization in Wireless Underground Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Hongyang; Wang, Chen

    2011-01-01

    Node localization plays an important role in many practical applications of wireless underground sensor networks (WUSNs), such as finding the locations of earthquake epicenters, underground explosions, and microseismic events in mines. It is more difficult to obtain the time-difference-of-arrival (TDOA) measurements in WUSNs than in terrestrial wireless sensor networks because of the unfavorable channel characteristics in the underground environment. The robust Chinese remainder theorem (RCRT) has been shown to be an effective tool for solving the phase ambiguity problem and frequency estimation problem in wireless sensor networks. In this paper, the RCRT is used to robustly estimate TDOA or range difference in WUSNs and therefore improves the ranging accuracy in such networks. After obtaining the range difference, distributed source localization algorithms based on a diffusion strategy are proposed to decrease the communication cost while satisfying the localization accuracy requirement. Simulation results c...

  10. Underground metabolism: network-level perspective and biotechnological potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notebaart, Richard A; Kintses, Bálint; Feist, Adam M; Papp, Balázs

    2017-08-21

    A key challenge in molecular systems biology is understanding how new pathways arise during evolution and how to exploit them for biotechnological applications. New pathways in metabolic networks often evolve by recruiting weak promiscuous activities of pre-existing enzymes. Here we describe recent systems biology advances to map such 'underground' activities and to predict and analyze their contribution to new metabolic functions. Underground activities are prevalent in cellular metabolism and can form novel pathways that either enable evolutionary adaptation to new environments or provide bypass to genetic lesions. We also illustrate the potential of integrating computational models of underground metabolism and experimental approaches to study the evolution of novel metabolic phenotypes and advance the field of biotechnology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. High Voltage AC underground cable systems for power transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Claus Leth; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a first of two presenting a review of research results in underground cable transmission obtained by the Department of Energy Technology, Aalborg University ET/AAU and Danish TSO Energinet.dk within the last 6 years. The main core of the results are obtained by PhD students research......This paper is a first of two presenting a review of research results in underground cable transmission obtained by the Department of Energy Technology, Aalborg University ET/AAU and Danish TSO Energinet.dk within the last 6 years. The main core of the results are obtained by PhD students...... researching electrical engineering topics related to using underground cables for power transmission at EHV level and including the 420 kV level. The research topics were laid down by ET/AAU and Energinet.dk in the DANPAC (DANish Power systems with AC Cables) research project. The main topics are discussed...

  12. Study on effects of longwall mining on the underground water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Wen-bing; Syd S. Peng

    2007-01-01

    It is very important for secure mining under water bodies to study the effects of Iongwall mining on the underground water. In order to study this problem, piezometers for monitoring underground water levels were established in an American coalmine. Large amounts of pre-mining and post-mining monitoring data were collected. Based on the data,the effects of Iongwall mining on the underground water was studied. The results demonstrate that when the piezometer monitoring wells have an interburden thickness less than 72.7 m, the groundwater level decreases immediately to immeasurable levels and go dry after undermining. The height of the fractured zone in is 72.7~85.3 m in this geological and mining conditions. The results also show that the calculated value of fractured zone by the empirical formulae used in China is smaller than the actual results. Therefore, it is not always safe to use them in analysis of mining under water bodies.

  13. WASTAGE OF UNDERGROUND WATER - STEPS TOWARDS A TRAP?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibabrata Pattanayak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Underground water is used indiscriminately for the purposes like agriculture, serving purposes of urban people, cold drink and mineral water manufacturing etc. As a matter of policy, the rural areas are supplied with underground water in India without considering the factors like actual requirement of water in a particular area, season of scarcity of water etc. It is very common to see the ever open taps of water supplying lines in rural India thronging water continuously and nobody is there to use it. The discharge rate of underground water is far more than the charging rate. This may lead to a very serious condition of water scarcity in near future. Various steps like holding of rain water in the water bodies, selection of crop with requirement of lesser amount of water during the dry months as well as use of Forward Osmosis (FO technology for Cold drinks or Bottled Drinking Water manufacturing from the sea water are advocated.

  14. Evacuation of aged persons from inundated underground space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishigaki, T; Asai, Y; Nakahata, Y; Shimada, H; Baba, Y; Toda, K

    2010-01-01

    Underground is an important space that supports function of cities, such as subways, shopping malls and basement parking. However in consequence a new type of disaster, the "urban flood" menaces these spaces. In the last decade, urban floods struck Tokyo, Nagoya and Fukuoka. When underground inundation occurs, people must evacuate to the ground as soon as possible. But, when such an inundation situation happens, aged persons may not be able to evacuate quickly to ground level. In this paper, the method of safety assessment for aged persons is discussed on the experimental results and flood simulation data in an underground space. As a criterion of the safety evacuation, the specific force per unit width is used in this study. From the result of experiments, it is difficult to implement safety evacuation when the specific force per unit width is over 0.100 m(2) for the aged male.

  15. Detection of underground pipeline based on Golay waveform design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jingjing; Xu, Dazhuan

    2017-08-01

    The detection of underground pipeline is an important problem in the development of the city, but the research about it is not mature at present. In this paper, based on the principle of waveform design in wireless communication, we design an acoustic signal detection system to detect the location of underground pipelines. According to the principle of acoustic localization, we chose DSP-F28335 as the development board, and use DA and AD module as the master control chip. The DA module uses complementary Golay sequence as emission signal. The AD module acquisiting data synchronously, so that the echo signals which containing position information of the target is recovered through the signal processing. The test result shows that the method in this paper can not only calculate the sound velocity of the soil, but also can locate the location of underground pipelines accurately.

  16. Underground storage systems for high-pressure air and gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beam, B. H.; Giovannetti, A.

    1975-01-01

    This paper is a discussion of the safety and cost of underground high-pressure air and gas storage systems based on recent experience with a high-pressure air system installed at Moffett Field, California. The system described used threaded and coupled oil well casings installed vertically to a depth of 1200 ft. Maximum pressure was 3000 psi and capacity was 500,000 lb of air. A failure mode analysis is presented, and it is shown that underground storage offers advantages in avoiding catastrophic consequences from pressure vessel failure. Certain problems such as corrosion, fatigue, and electrolysis are discussed in terms of the economic life of such vessels. A cost analysis shows that where favorable drilling conditions exist, the cost of underground high-pressure storage is approximately one-quarter that of equivalent aboveground storage.

  17. Muon tomography used to study underground rock structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseyev, A.

    1985-08-01

    A method called muon tomography has been developed to study underground rock structure. The flow of cosmic rays, penetrating the Earth's atmosphere produces a downpour of various elementary particles, including muons. They are capable of penetrating for kilometers into the Earth's depths. These particles can be used as a source for x-raying underground rock and also foundations of engineering structures. Instruments used for such measurements have been given the name of muon telescopes. Usually they are installed in a tunnel beneath the object to be studied, and the object's density is measured with high accuracy according to the intensity of radiation falling on detectors. Muons help to detect hollow spaces in underground rock masses which form as a result of the washing out of soluble rock by ground water, such as in limestone. The recording principle is the same: if such hollow spaces are present in the zone of visibility of a muon telescope, the flow of recorded particles increases immediately.

  18. Geotechnical basis for underground energy storage in hard rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquhar, O. C.

    1982-03-01

    Underground pumped hydroelectric storage requires the excavation of caverns in hard rock. Hard rock caverns, also, are one option for compressed air stoage. Preliminary design studies for both technologies at a specific site were completed. The geotechnical aspects of these storage systems are discussed from a generic viewpoint. Information about effective use of hard rock openings, including tunnels and shafts, comes mainly from other types of underground projects. These are power houses for hydroelectric and conventional pumped storage schemes, as well as transportation facilities and mines. Rock strength, support, instrumentation, costs, management, and experimental work are among the items considered. Mapping of geologic structures, rock fragmentation, and rock mass properties is also discussed. The general conclusions are that rock types favorable for underground energy storage are present at suitable depths in many areas and that they can be identified by adequate geotechnical exploration prior to detailed design.

  19. Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory - Preliminary Design Report

    CERN Document Server

    Lesko, Kevin T; Alonso, Jose; Bauer, Paul; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Chinowsky, William; Dangermond, Steve; Detwiler, Jason A; De Vries, Syd; DiGennaro, Richard; Exter, Elizabeth; Fernandez, Felix B; Freer, Elizabeth L; Gilchriese, Murdock G D; Goldschmidt, Azriel; Grammann, Ben; Griffing, William; Harlan, Bill; Haxton, Wick C; Headley, Michael; Heise, Jaret; Hladysz, Zbigniew; Jacobs, Dianna; Johnson, Michael; Kadel, Richard; Kaufman, Robert; King, Greg; Lanou, Robert; Lemut, Alberto; Ligeti, Zoltan; Marks, Steve; Martin, Ryan D; Matthesen, John; Matthew, Brendan; Matthews, Warren; McConnell, Randall; McElroy, William; Meyer, Deborah; Norris, Margaret; Plate, David; Robinson, Kem E; Roggenthen, William; Salve, Rohit; Sayler, Ben; Scheetz, John; Tarpinian, Jim; Taylor, David; Vardiman, David; Wheeler, Ron; Willhite, Joshua; Yeck, James

    2011-01-01

    The DUSEL Project has produced the Preliminary Design of the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL) at the rehabilitated former Homestake mine in South Dakota. The Facility design calls for, on the surface, two new buildings - one a visitor and education center, the other an experiment assembly hall - and multiple repurposed existing buildings. To support underground research activities, the design includes two laboratory modules and additional spaces at a level 4,850 feet underground for physics, biology, engineering, and Earth science experiments. On the same level, the design includes a Department of Energy-shepherded Large Cavity supporting the Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment. At the 7,400-feet level, the design incorporates one laboratory module and additional spaces for physics and Earth science efforts. With input from some 25 science and engineering collaborations, the Project has designed critical experimental space and infrastructure needs, including space for a suite of multi...

  20. Grounding Effect on Common Mode Interference of Underground Inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHENG Qiang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available For the neutral point not grounded characteristics of underground power supply system in coal mine, this paper studied common mode equivalent circuit of underground PWM inverter, and extracted parasitic parameters of interference propagation path. The author established a common mode and differential mode model of underground inverter. Taking into account the rise time of PWM, the simulation results of conducted interference by Matlab software is compared with measurement spectrum on the AC side and motor side of converter, the difference is consistent showing that the proposed method has some validity. After Comparison of calculation results by Matlab simulation ,it can be concluded that ungrounded neutral of transformer could redue common mode current in PWM system, but not very effective, the most efficient way is to increase grounding  impedance of  inverter and motor.

  1. Control Surveys for Underground Construction of the Superconducting Super Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greening, W.J.Trevor; Robinson, Gregory L.; /Measurment Science Inc.; Robbins, Jeffrey S.; Ruland, Robert E.; /SLAC

    2005-08-16

    Particular care had to be taken in the design and implementation of the geodetic control systems for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) due to stringent accuracy requirements, the demanding tunneling schedule, long duration and large size of the construction effort of the project. The surveying requirements and the design and implementation of the surface and underground control scheme for the precise location of facilities which include approximately 120 km of bored tunnel are discussed. The methodology used for the densification of the surface control networks, the technique used for the transfer of horizontal and vertical control into the underground facilities, and the control traverse scheme employed in the tunnels is described.

  2. Underground gas storage in Germany; Untertage-Gasspeicherung in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2011-11-15

    The safe natural gas supply of Germany is guaranteed by imports, domestic delivery and underground natural gas storage facilities. More than 80 % of the consumed natural gas is imported. Due to new natural gas storage facilities as well as due to the extension of existing natural gas storage facilities, the storage of natural gas in Germany experiences an upward trend for years. The contribution under consideration reports on the status of the underground natural gas storage of crude oil products and petroleum products in Germany on the basis of the data of the Lower Saxony State Office for Mining, Energy and Geology (Hannover, Federal Republic of Germany).

  3. Optimization Design and Application of Underground Reinforced Concrete Bifurcation Pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Su

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Underground reinforced concrete bifurcation pipe is an important part of conveyance structure. During construction, the workload of excavation and concrete pouring can be significantly decreased according to optimized pipe structure, and the engineering quality can be improved. This paper presents an optimization mathematical model of underground reinforced concrete bifurcation pipe structure according to real working status of several common pipe structures from real cases. Then, an optimization design system was developed based on Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm. Furthermore, take the bifurcation pipe of one hydropower station as an example: optimization analysis was conducted, and accuracy and stability of the optimization design system were verified successfully.

  4. Underground haulage by diesel and storage battery locomotive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    This code sets up a national standard of practice and attainment in the operation of maintenance of underground locomotives which operate on conventional and asymmetrical rails. The transport of persons underground or in walkable outlets to the surface by locomotive haulage is also covered by this code. Manriding in walkable outlets is excluded from this code. The Code is in 10 sections plus appendices, the sections being: scope and definitions, appointment and training of personnel, duties of appointed personnel, design requirements, signalling and communications, safety devices, ventilation determinations, operation, brake testing, maintenance.

  5. THE INFLUENCE OF INSTITUTIONAL STRATEGIES ON THE UNDERGROUND ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Tudurachi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The fight against shadow economy must be addressed not only as a permanent concern of economic analysts and decision-makers, but rather as a problematic ethical-moral nature affecting economic and interpersonal relations, as strategic and operational object. The authors attempt outline an institutional management strategy geared towards underground economy combating has as objective the strands establishment without having exhaustiveness claim. We make a case for extending the implementation of a coherent program, strategic and operational, and its adoption as a way of institutional management in the context it really wants to launch a concerted offensive to combat the underground economy.

  6. High Voltage AC underground cable systems for power transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Claus Leth; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a second of two presenting a review of research results in underground cable transmission obtained by the Department of Energy Technology, Aalborg University ET/AAU and Danish TSO Energinet.dk within the last six years. The main core of the results are obtained by PhD students...... researching electrical engineering topics related to using underground cables for power transmission at EHV level and including the 420 kV level. The research topics were laid down by ET/AAU and Energinet.dk in the DANPAC (DANish Power systems with Ac Cables) research project. The main topics are discussed...

  7. Rock massif observation from underground coal gasification point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sasvári

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The Underground coal gasification (UCG of the coal seams is determined by suitable geological structure of the area. The assumption of the qualitative changes of the rock massif can be also enabled by application of geophysical methods (electric resisting methods and geoelectric tomography. This article shows the example of evaluating possibilities of realization of the underground coal gasification in the area of the Upper Nitra Coal Basin in Cíge¾ and Nováky deposits, and recommend the needs of cooperation among geological, geotechnical and geophysical researchers.

  8. Progress of Jinping Underground laboratory for Nuclear Astrophysics experiment JUNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weiping

    2015-08-01

    Direct measurement of the cross sections for the key nuclear reactions in hydrostatic stellar evolution within Gamow window, which makes use of low background at deep underground laboratory, is crucial to solve key scientific questions in nuclear astrophysics. JUNA project aims at direct measurement of (α,γ), (α,n) reactions in hydrostatic helium burning and (p, γ), (p, α) reactions in hydrostatic hydrogen burning based on Jinping deep underground laboratory in China. The progress of experimental techniques, which include the accelerator system with high stability and high intensity, the detector system, and the shielding material with low background, will be presented.

  9. Sudden stratospheric warmings seen in MINOS deep underground muon data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osprey, S.; /Oxford U.; Barnett, J.; /Oxford U.; Smith, J.; /Oxford U.; Adamson, P.; /Fermilab; Andreopoulos, C.; /Rutherford; Arms, K.E.; /Minnesota U.; Armstrong, R.; /Indiana U.; Auty, D.J.; /Sussex U.; Ayres, D.S.; /Argonne; Baller, B.; /Fermilab; Barnes, P.D., Jr.; /LLNL, Livermore /Oxford U.

    2009-01-01

    The rate of high energy cosmic ray muons as measured underground is shown to be strongly correlated with upper-air temperatures during short-term atmospheric (10-day) events. The effects are seen by correlating data from the MINOS underground detector and temperatures from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts during the winter periods from 2003-2007. This effect provides an independent technique for the measurement of meteorological conditions and presents a unique opportunity to measure both short and long-term changes in this important part of the atmosphere.

  10. Simulations of explosion-induced damage to underground rock chambers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A numerical approach is presented to study the explosion-induced pressure load on an underground rock chamber wall and its resultant damage to the rock chamber.Numerical simulations are carried out by using a modified version of the commercial software AUTODYN.Three different criteria,i.e.a peak particle velocity (PPV) criterion,an effective strain (ES) criterion,and a damage criterion,are employed to examine the explosion-induced damaged zones of the underground rock chamber.The results show that the charg...

  11. ArDM: first results from underground commissioning

    CERN Document Server

    Badertscher, A; Bourgeois, N; Cantini, C; Curioni, A; Daniel, M; Degunda, U; Di Luise, S; Epprecht, L; Gendotti, A; Horikawa, S; Knecht, L; Lussi, D; Maire, G; Montes, B; Murphy, S; Natterer, G; Nikolics, K; Nguyen, K; Periale, L; Ravat, S; Resnati, F; Romero, L; Rubbia, A; Santorelli, R; Sergiampietri, F; Sgalaberna, D; Viant, T; Wu, S

    2013-01-01

    The Argon Dark Matter experiment is a ton-scale double phase argon Time Projection Chamber designed for direct Dark Matter searches. It combines the detection of scintillation light together with the ionisation charge in order to discriminate the background (electron recoils) from the WIMP signals (nuclear recoils). After a successful operation on surface at CERN, the detector was recently installed in the underground Laboratorio Subterr\\'aneo de Canfranc, and the commissioning phase is ongoing. We describe the status of the installation and present first results from data collected underground with the detector filled with gas argon at room temperature.

  12. Control Surveys for Underground Construction of the Superconducting Super Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greening, W.J.Trevor; Robinson, Gregory L.; /Measurment Science Inc.; Robbins, Jeffrey S.; Ruland, Robert E.; /SLAC

    2005-08-16

    Particular care had to be taken in the design and implementation of the geodetic control systems for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) due to stringent accuracy requirements, the demanding tunneling schedule, long duration and large size of the construction effort of the project. The surveying requirements and the design and implementation of the surface and underground control scheme for the precise location of facilities which include approximately 120 km of bored tunnel are discussed. The methodology used for the densification of the surface control networks, the technique used for the transfer of horizontal and vertical control into the underground facilities, and the control traverse scheme employed in the tunnels is described.

  13. 77 FR 26755 - Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for... final decision allows the continued underground injection by Diamond Shamrock, of the specific...

  14. 78 FR 76294 - Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for... underground injection by Mosaic, of the specific restricted hazardous wastes identified in this exemption...

  15. 30 CFR 784.25 - Return of coal processing waste to abandoned underground workings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of the mine void to be filled, method of constructing underground retaining walls, influence of the... water underground, treatment of water if released to surface streams, and the effect on the hydrologic...

  16. Engineering rock mechanics practices in the underground powerhouse at Jinping I hydropower station

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aiqing Wu Jimin Wang Zhong Zhou Shuling Huang Xiuli Ding Zhihong Dong Yuting Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Based on the analyses of data obtained from the underground powerhouse at Jinping I hydropower station, a comprehensive review of engineering rock mechanics practice in the underground powerhouse is first conducted...

  17. 75 FR 70241 - Compatibility of Underground Storage Tank Systems With Biofuel Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... AGENCY Compatibility of Underground Storage Tank Systems With Biofuel Blends AGENCY: Environmental... tank (UST) compatibility requirement as it applies to UST systems storing gasoline containing greater... underground storage tank systems greater clarity in demonstrating compatibility of their tank systems...

  18. A Corrosion Risk Assessment Model for Underground Piping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Koushik; Fraser, Douglas R.

    2009-01-01

    The Pressure Systems Manager at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) has embarked on a project to collect data and develop risk assessment models to support risk-informed decision making regarding future inspections of underground pipes at ARC. This paper shows progress in one area of this project - a corrosion risk assessment model for the underground high-pressure air distribution piping system at ARC. It consists of a Corrosion Model of pipe-segments, a Pipe Wrap Protection Model; and a Pipe Stress Model for a pipe segment. A Monte Carlo simulation of the combined models provides a distribution of the failure probabilities. Sensitivity study results show that the model uncertainty, or lack of knowledge, is the dominant contributor to the calculated unreliability of the underground piping system. As a result, the Pressure Systems Manager may consider investing resources specifically focused on reducing these uncertainties. Future work includes completing the data collection effort for the existing ground based pressure systems and applying the risk models to risk-based inspection strategies of the underground pipes at ARC.

  19. Effective goaf gas capture design at Ravensworth Underground Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miles Brown; Scott Hobden

    2014-01-01

    This paper highlights a reliable goaf gas capture system developed and used at Ravensworth Under-ground Mine since its trial in 2009. The method utilises horizontal holes drilled from underground sites and connected to an underground gas pipeline. This system incorporates a gas suction and flaring plant designed specifically for this method. The current method has captured effectively a total longwall, and adjacent goaf gas accounts for over 85%. The design of the holes drilled has been the success of the gas flow reliability. The flow is extraordinarily consistent and predictable. The management of the under-ground pipeline determines the overall reliability of flow. The design has resulted in Ravensworth Man-agement being confident to remove a gas bearing bleeder roadway and still manage the existing tailgate roadway for allowing access as required. The reduction of CO2 equivalent emissions recorded is approx-imately 0.35 ? 106 tons annually. This design has further improvements to be added to allow use at any other site with gas in the overlying strata.

  20. Feasibility Study Contract Signed for Underground Gas Storage in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ On December 22, 2005, CNPC and Gazprom signed the feasibility study service contract on constructing the underground gas storage in Ren 11 reservoir of CNPC's Renqiu Oilfield. According to the contract terms, Gazprom will provide feasibility study services on the construction of the gas storage for CNPC. CNPC Vice President Zhou Jiping attended the signing ceremony held in Beijing.

  1. PLASTIC LIMIT ANALYSIS OF DISCONTINUOUS LINING UNDERGROUND PRESSURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙春安

    1999-01-01

    Discontinuous lining is a special form of support in underground excavation. Based on the method of plastic limit analysis, it is found the upper and the lower bound solution of the pressure of circular discontinuous lining and discussed support parameter of discontinuous lining and its applicable conditions, which provides theoretical basis for the design and calculation of discontinuous lining.

  2. Enhanced-hydrogen gas production through underground gasification of lignite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shu-qin; WANG Yuan-yuan; ZHAO Ke; YANG Ning

    2009-01-01

    Underground coal gasification is one of the clean technologies of in-situ coal utilization. Hydrogen production from underground gasification of lignite was investigated in this study based on simulation experiments. Pyrolysis of lignite, gasification activity, oxygen-steam gasification and the effect of groundwater influx were studied. As well, the advantages of lignite for stable underground gasification were analyzed. The results indicate that lignite has a high activity for gasification. Coal pyrolysis is an important source of hydrogen emission. Under special heating conditions, hydrogen is released from coal seams at temperatures above 350 ℃ and reaches its maximum value between 725 and 825 ℃. Gas with a hydrogen concentration of 40% to 50% can be continuously obtained by oxygen-steam injection at an optimum ratio of steam to oxygen, while lignite properties will ensure stable gasification. Groundwater influx can be utilized for hydrogen preparation under certain geological conditions through pressure control. Therefore, enhanced-hydrogen gas production through underground gasification of lignite has experimentally been proved.

  3. The depth-sensitivity relation (DSR) for underground laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hime, Andrew

    2005-04-01

    Muon-induced background constrains the sensitivity of next generation underground low energy neutrino and dark matter experiments. Muon-induced background sources are (1) fast neutrons produced in the detector and surrounding materials (rock and shield materials) with a hard energy spectrum; (2) cosmogenic radioactivity created in the detector and surrounding materials; (3) stopping negative muon capture on nuclei produces neutrons and radioactive isotopes in the detector and surrounding materials; and (4) muons hit the detector due to a finite veto efficiency. Understanding and reducing these four muon-induced sources of background are essential to dark matter, double beta decay and θ13 experiments. An effective way to reduce such background is to increase the depth of the experimental site. Therefore, it is essential to study DSR for underground experiments. We proposed a unified approach to study muons, the muon-induced neutron flux, energy spectrum, angular distribution, multiplicity and lateral distribution with respect to the muon track for six underground laboratories. This study provides a comprehensive understanding of the muon-induced background level for underground laboratories and hence the reduction methods.

  4. Construction experiences from underground works at Forsmark. Compilation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Anders [Vattenfall Power Consultant AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Christiansson, Rolf [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-02-15

    The main objective with this report, the Construction Experience Compilation Report (CECR), is to compile experiences from the underground works carried out at Forsmark, primarily construction experiences from the tunnelling of the two cooling water tunnels of the Forsmark nuclear power units 1, 2 and 3, and from the underground excavations of the undersea repository for low and intermediate reactor waste, SFR. In addition, a brief account is given of the operational experience of the SFR on primarily rock support solutions. The authors of this report have separately participated throughout the entire construction periods of the Forsmark units and the SFR in the capacity of engineering geologists performing geotechnical mapping of the underground excavations and acted as advisors on tunnel support; Anders Carlsson participated in the construction works of the cooling water tunnels and the open cut excavations for Forsmark 1, 2 and 3 (geotechnical mapping) and the Forsmark 3 tunnel (advise on tunnel support). Rolf Christiansson participated in the underground works for the SFR (geotechnical mapping, principal investigator for various measurements and advise on tunnel support and grouting). The report is to a great extent based on earlier published material as presented in the list of references. But it stands to reason that, during the course of the work with this report, unpublished notes, diaries, drawings, photos and personal recollections of the two authors have been utilised in order to obtain such a complete compilation of the construction experiences as possible.

  5. NUMERICAL MANIFOLD METHOD AND ITS APPLICATION IN UNDERGROUND POENINGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芝银; 李云鹏

    1998-01-01

    A brief introduction is made for the Numerical Manifold Method and its analysingprocess in rock mechanics. Some aspects of the manifold method are improved in implementingprocess according to the practice of excavating underground openings. Corresponding formulasare given and a computer program of the Numerical Manifold Method has been completed in thispaper.

  6. 30 CFR 75.1712-10 - Underground sanitary facilities; maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... a clean and sanitary condition. Holding tanks shall be serviced and cleaned when full and in no case... recharging. Transfer tanks and transfer equipment used underground shall be equipped with suitable fittings to permit complete drainage of holding tanks without spillage and allow for the...

  7. A simple statistical signal loss model for deep underground garage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Huan Cong; Gimenez, Lucas Chavarria; Kovacs, Istvan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we address the channel modeling aspects for a deep-indoor scenario with extreme coverage conditions in terms of signal losses, namely underground garage areas. We provide an in-depth analysis in terms of path loss (gain) and large scale signal shadowing, and a propose simple...

  8. Risk-based underground pipeline safety management considering corrosion effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seolin; Lee, Gunhak; Ahmed, Usama; Lee, Yongkyu; Na, Jonggeol; Han, Chonghun

    2017-08-18

    Due to the long term usage and irregular maintenance for corrosion checks, catastrophic accidents have been increasing in underground pipelines. In this study, a new safety management methodology of underground pipeline, risk-based pipeline management, is introduced reflecting corrosion effect. First, principle of the risk-based pipeline management is presented compared with an original method, qualitative measure. It is distinguished from the qualitative measure by reflecting societal risk and corrosion in safety management of underground pipeline. And then, it is applied to an existing underground propylene pipeline in Ulsan Industrial Complex, South Korea. The consequence analysis is based on real information, and the frequency analysis reflects degree of corrosion. For calculation of corrosion rate, direct current voltage gradient (DCVG) and close interval potential survey (CIPS) are conducted. As a result of applying the risk-based pipeline management, risk integral is reduced by 56.8% compared to the qualitative measure. Finally, sensitivity analysis is conducted on variables, which affect the risk of the pipeline. This study would contribute to introduce quantitative measure to pipeline management and increase safety of pipeline. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. 30 CFR 75.340 - Underground electrical installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... electrical installations. (a) Underground transformer stations, battery charging stations, substations... temperature in the noncombustible structure reaches 165 °F; or (B) The carbon monoxide concentration reaches... calibrated with a known concentration of carbon monoxide and air sufficient to activate the closing door,...

  10. Coal properties and system operating parameters for underground coal gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, L. [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China)

    2008-07-01

    Through the model experiment for underground coal gasification, the influence of the properties for gasification agent and gasification methods on underground coal gasifier performance were studied. The results showed that pulsating gasification, to some extent, could improve gas quality, whereas steam gasification led to the production of high heating value gas. Oxygen-enriched air and backflow gasification failed to improve the quality of the outlet gas remarkably, but they could heighten the temperature of the gasifier quickly. According to the experiment data, the longitudinal average gasification rate along the direction of the channel in the gasifying seams was 1.212 m/d, with transverse average gasification rate 0.069 m/d. Experiment indicated that, for the oxygen-enriched steam gasification, when the steam/oxygen ratio was 2:1, gas compositions remained stable, with H{sub 2} + CO content virtually standing between 60% and 70% and O{sub 2} content below 0.5%. The general regularities of the development of the temperature field within the underground gasifier and the reasons for the changes of gas quality were also analyzed. The 'autopneumatolysis' and methanization reaction existing in the underground gasification process were first proposed.

  11. The Maintenance of The London Underground Tube Tunnel Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gleig Frazer

    2004-01-01

    It is helpful to have a brief history of London Underground when considering any aspect of its maintenance or future development. The system has developed over more than 100 years and only comparatively recently come under the control of a single organisation. This partly explains the complexity that has resulted from differences in construction between lines. A brief History is accordingly appended to this presentation as Appendix B. The recent History outlines how Tube Lines have come to be involved with London Underground and explains a little of the reason for our existence. We are required to maintain and improve London Underground assets. Our performance has to be measurable and it follows that we need to know the current condition "value" of those assets. A large part of London Underground's infrastructure is tube tunnels some of which have not been fully assessed since they were first constructed in the 19th Century. They used materials whose physical and durability properties were not, at the time, fully understood; and they were designed on a very empirical basis if they were "designed" at all. Some shafts and other elements of the Tunnel Asset appeared to have been forgotten or lost when the Public Private Partnership (PPP) instigation procedures began in earnest in 1998. A major part of our current maintenance programme is thus to ascertain and agree the current condition and extent of approximately 178kilometres of tube tunnel asset that we are required to maintain and improve.

  12. Second-Grade Journeys on the Underground Railroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump-Stenberg, Linda; Beilke, Patricia F.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a curriculum used in a second grade classroom to expose the predominantly white students to the culture and experiences of African Americans through a study of slavery and the Underground Railroad. Includes a bibliography of African folk tales and literature related to the African American experience. (SLD)

  13. Most Used Rock Mass Classifications for Underground Opening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Jbori A’ssim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Rock mass characterization is an integral part of rock engineering practice. The empirical design methods based on rock mass classifications systems provide quick assessments of the support requirements for underground excavations at any stage of a project, even if the available geotechnical data are limited. The underground excavation industry tends to lean on empirical approaches such as rock mass classification methods, which provide a rapid means of assessing rock mass quality and support requirements. Approach: There were several classifications systems used in underground construction design. This study reviewed and summarized the must used classification methods in the mining and tunneling systems. Results: The method of this research was collected of the underground excavations classifications method with its parameters calculations procedures for each one, trying to find the simplest, less costs and more efficient method. Conclusion: The study concluded with reference to errors that may arise in particular conditions and the choice of rock mass classification depend on the sensitivity of the projects, costs and the efficient.

  14. Material for dust and flame filters in underground mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, E.; Hoelter, H.

    1980-01-24

    It is proposed to improve ceramic fibres (with a silica content of more than 80%) for use in underground filters. The temperature resistance is increased, above all, if the glass fibres receive a silica coating. A pretreatment with silane is advantageous.

  15. Underground fire hazard detection through carbon-monoxide monitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, A.K.; Rajwar, D.P.; Ghosh, A.K.

    1987-08-01

    Early underground fire detection could be possible by monitoring continuously the CO concentration at the face of coal mines. Several techniques for CO monitoring are discussed, including utilizing semi-conductor catalysts and electrochemical transducers. The operating principles of electrochemical sensors are explained together with effect other gases have on the system. 14 refs., 1 fig.

  16. Slowly does it as giant magnet goes underground at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Ormrod, Gill

    2007-01-01

    "At 5:00 am GMT this morning (28th February 2007) the heaviest piece of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) particle detector began a momentous journey into its experimental cavern, 100 metres underground at CERN, Geneva." (1,5 page)

  17. Second-Grade Journeys on the Underground Railroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump-Stenberg, Linda; Beilke, Patricia F.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a curriculum used in a second grade classroom to expose the predominantly white students to the culture and experiences of African Americans through a study of slavery and the Underground Railroad. Includes a bibliography of African folk tales and literature related to the African American experience. (SLD)

  18. Underground Management: An Examination of World War II Resistance Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-24

    occupied countries... Secondly, once a suitable clima -e of opinion had been set up, SOE was to establish a nucleus of trained men who would be able...in underground organizacions is almost invariably a crime punishable by de-ch, recruitment poses an extreme hazard to both the established members of

  19. Underground test area subproject waste management plan. Revision No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS), located in southern Nevada, was the site of 928 underground nuclear tests conducted between 1951 and 1992. The tests were performed as part of the Atomic Energy Commission and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons testing program. The NTS is managed by the DOE Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV). Of the 928 tests conducted below ground surface at the NTS, approximately 200 were detonated below the water table. As an unavoidable consequence of these testing activities, radionuclides have been introduced into the subsurface environment, impacting groundwater. In the few instances of groundwater sampling, radionuclides have been detected in the groundwater; however, only a very limited investigation of the underground test sites and associated shot cavities has been conducted to date. The Underground Test Area (UGTA) Subproject was established to fill this void and to characterize the risk posed to human health and the environment as a result of underground nuclear testing activities at the NTS. One of its primary objectives is to gather data to characterize the deep aquifer underlying the NTS.

  20. Hyperspectral reflectance of vegetation affected by underground hydrocarbon gas seepage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noomen, M.F.

    2007-01-01

    Anomalous concentrations of natural gas in the soil may be sourced from leaking underground gas pipelines or from natural microseepages. Due to the explosive nature of hydrocarbon gases, early detection of these gases is essential to avoid dangerous situations. It is known that natural gas in the

  1. Classification of dangers for personnel in underground mine operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryncarz, T.

    1983-01-01

    As noted by the author, in Polish literature on mining, the dangers for personnel in underground operations are classified into natural and others; this separation is very approximate. It does not promote strict scientific analysis of the production dangers in mines. The concept ''danger in underground mining operations'' posed by the author is based on physical process of human interaction with the environment, where this process can have a harmful influence on the human body. A classification is proposed of dangers in underground mining operations depending on the three groups of factors: factors of the environment (lithosphere, atmosphere, technosphere); factors of the type of process (mechanical, thermal, substantial and other processes); factors determined by the nature of occurrence of the process (slow flow, sharp flow). A ''matrix of dangers'' is presented based on the indicated approach to the classification. Use of the matrix makes it possible to evaluate on a strictly scientific basis the factors of production danger in underground conditions and to develop effective measures to guarantee safety of personnel in the mines.

  2. Analysis of underground fires in Polish hard coal mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WACHOWICZ Jan

    2008-01-01

    In the period of the first twenty years after World War II the number of fires in Polish hard coal mines reached annually the value of several thousands of cases. About 80% of fires constituted spontaneous fires. Investigations into the development of new methods of fire hazard prediction and implementation of new methods and means of fire prevention as well as the introduction of prohibition concerning the use of products manufactured of combustible organic materials in underground mine workings re-duced considerably the hazard of underground fire rise. The worked out at the Central Mining Institute (GIG) new method of un-derground fire prediction allows the correct selection of fire prevention means. The introduction into common use of fire-resistant conveyor belts, the main factor giving rise to spontaneous fires, and methods of assessment of their fire resistance eliminated prac-tically the fire hazard. These activities contributed in an efficient way to the reduction of the number of underground fires to a sa-tisfactory level.

  3. Underground storage tank 511-D1U1 closure plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancieri, S.; Giuntoli, N.

    1993-09-01

    This document contains the closure plan for diesel fuel underground storage tank 511-D1U1 and appendices containing supplemental information such as staff training certification and task summaries. Precision tank test data, a site health and safety plan, and material safety data sheets are also included.

  4. An Innovative Summer Institute for Teachers: Examining the Underground Railroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallmer, Denise

    2002-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the summer institute which she planned through her involvement with the Institute for Freedom Studies at Northern Kentucky University, whose purpose is to promote interdisciplinary research, teaching and community outreach grounded in the study of the Underground Railroad. The purpose of the institute was to…

  5. The Underground Railroad: Developing a Literary Track to Slave Narrative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Wande Knox

    This paper offers a method of bringing to third-grade students an understanding of African-American contributions to the United States, the experience of slavery, and the struggle for freedom on the secretive Underground Railroad. The paper contains a list of eight primary sources to be used. Its lessons focus specifically on the skills necessary…

  6. Exploring a Common Past: Researching and Interpreting the Underground Railroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Although the Underground Railroad has been an integral part of U.S. history and folklore for well over 150 years, the recent past has seen an increased public interest in the identification of historic sites associated with the experiences of fugitive slaves. This booklet is part of a National Park Service initiative to design research methods…

  7. Reserch process geomigration during underground gasification and coal combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zholudyev S.V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of subsoil water in the over- and subcoal deposits during underground combustion of brown coal can vary under coals thermal development product and pollution. Analysis of the substances-contaminants migratory in water is one of the main issues of further implementation of technologies UCG and UCC.

  8. Roof Rockmass Characterization in an Illinois Underground Coal Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osouli, Abdolreza; Shafii, Iman

    2016-08-01

    Among all United States underground coal fields, those in Illinois have the highest rate of roof fall events due to their weak and severely moisture sensitive roof rock units. Rockmass characterization is the key initial step in designing safe and economical roof control measures in underground coal mines. In this study, a performance-based roof rockmass characterization is investigated. The geologic conditions as well as underground mine geographic specifications, roof fall analysis, mining method, utilized supplemental roof control measures, and geotechnical properties of roof rock units were considered to link the roof performance to rockmass characterization. The coal mine roof rating (CMRR) rockmass characterization method was used to evaluate the roof conditions and roof support design for an underground coal mine located in the Illinois Coal Basin. The results of several mine visit mappings, laboratory test results, and geotechnical issues and concerns are presented and discussed. The roof support designs are analyzed based on the rockmass characterization and are compared with the observed performance. This study shows that (1) CMRR index is a reasonable method for characterizing roof rockmass; (2) moisture sensitivity and bedding strengths in the horizontal direction are essential parameters for roof support design in mines with weak roof conditions; and (3) the applicability of the analysis of roof bolt system for roof support design of the studied mine is questionable.

  9. 40 CFR 144.12 - Prohibition of movement of fluid into underground sources of drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... underground sources of drinking water. 144.12 Section 144.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Program Requirements § 144.12 Prohibition of movement of fluid into underground sources of drinking water... underground sources of drinking water, if the presence of that contaminant may cause a violation of...

  10. 30 CFR 905.783 - Underground mining permit applications-Minimum requirements for information on environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground mining permit applications-Minimum... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE CALIFORNIA § 905.783 Underground mining permit applications—Minimum requirements for information on environmental resources. (a) Part 783 of this chapter, Underground Mining...

  11. 30 CFR 922.783 - Underground mining permit applications-minimum requirements for information on environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground mining permit applications-minimum... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.783 Underground mining permit applications—minimum requirements for information on environmental resources. Part 783 of this chapter, Underground Mining Permit...

  12. 30 CFR 903.783 - Underground mining permit applications-Minimum requirements for information on environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground mining permit applications-Minimum... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.783 Underground mining permit applications—Minimum requirements for information on environmental resources. (a) Part 783 of this chapter, Underground Mining...

  13. 30 CFR 937.783 - Underground mining permit applications-minimum requirements for information on environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground mining permit applications-minimum... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.783 Underground mining permit applications—minimum requirements for information on environmental resources. Part 783 of this chapter, Underground Mining Permit...

  14. 76 FR 8782 - Underground Construction Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Underground Construction Standard; Extension of the Office of... requirements specified in its Standard on Underground Construction (29 CFR 1926.800). DATES: Comments must be... information (29 U.S.C. 657). Seven paragraphs in the Underground Construction Standard (``the Standard''), 29...

  15. 30 CFR 921.783 - Underground mining permit applications-minimum requirements for information on environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground mining permit applications-minimum... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MASSACHUSETTS § 921.783 Underground mining permit applications—minimum requirements for information on environmental resources. Part 783 of this chapter, Underground...

  16. 77 FR 47668 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Underground...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ...; Underground Retorts ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Labor (DOL) is submitting the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) sponsored information collection request (ICR) titled, ``Underground Retorts... from shale in underground metal and nonmetal I-A and I-B mines (those that operate in a combustible ore...

  17. 30 CFR 819.21 - Auger mining: Protection of underground mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auger mining: Protection of underground mining... STANDARDS-AUGER MINING § 819.21 Auger mining: Protection of underground mining. Auger holes shall not extend closer than 500 feet (measured horizontally) to any abandoned or active underground mine workings, except...

  18. 49 CFR 236.74 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... underground wire. 236.74 Section 236.74 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire shall be protected from mechanical injury. The insulation shall not be punctured for test purposes. Splice in underground wire shall have insulation...

  19. 30 CFR 57.11059 - Respirable atmosphere for hoist operators underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... underground. 57.11059 Section 57.11059 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Travelways and Escapeways Escapeways-Underground Only § 57.11059 Respirable atmosphere for...

  20. 77 FR 17099 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Diesel-Powered Equipment for Underground...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... Equipment for Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: Request...-Powered Equipment in Underground Coal Mines. OMB last approved this information collection request (ICR... Administration (MSHA) requires mine operators to provide important safety protections to underground coal miners...

  1. 77 FR 25366 - Underground Storage Tank Program: Approved State Program for the State of Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 282 Underground Storage Tank Program: Approved State Program for the State of Oregon... Agency (EPA) to grant approval to any State to operate its underground storage tank program in the State... statutory and regulatory provisions. This rule codifies the prior approval of Oregon's underground storage...

  2. 30 CFR 75.1106 - Welding, cutting, or soldering with arc or flame underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... flame underground. 75.1106 Section 75.1106 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1106 Welding, cutting, or soldering with arc or flame underground. All welding, cutting, or...

  3. 30 CFR 939.783 - Underground mining permit applications-minimum requirements for information on environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground mining permit applications-minimum... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.783 Underground mining permit applications—minimum requirements for information on environmental resources. Part 783 of this chapter, Underground Mining Permit...

  4. 76 FR 30971 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Underground...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ...; Underground Construction Standard ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Labor (DOL) is submitting the..., ``Underground Construction Standard,'' to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and approval for... INFORMATION: Underground construction employers are required to certify hoist inspections; post various...

  5. 30 CFR 780.27 - Reclamation plan: Surface mining near underground mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... underground mining. 780.27 Section 780.27 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... RECLAMATION AND OPERATION PLAN § 780.27 Reclamation plan: Surface mining near underground mining. For surface mining activities within the proposed permit area to be conducted within 500 feet of an underground mine...

  6. 30 CFR 933.783 - Underground mining permit applications-minimum requirements for information on environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground mining permit applications-minimum... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH CAROLINA § 933.783 Underground mining permit applications—minimum requirements for information on environmental resources. Part 783 of this chapter, Underground...

  7. 77 FR 32665 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Hollister Underground...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ...] Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Hollister Underground Mine...) has prepared a Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Hollister Underground Mine Project... comments will be considered, the BLM must receive written comments on the Hollister Underground Mine...

  8. 30 CFR 912.783 - Underground mining permit applications-minimum requirements for information on environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground mining permit applications-minimum... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.783 Underground mining permit applications—minimum requirements for information on environmental resources. Part 783 of this chapter, Underground Mining Permit...

  9. 49 CFR 234.241 - Protection of insulated wire; splice in underground wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... underground wire. 234.241 Section 234.241 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... of insulated wire; splice in underground wire. Insulated wire shall be protected from mechanical injury. The insulation shall not be punctured for test purposes. A splice in underground wire shall have...

  10. 30 CFR 910.783 - Underground mining permit applications-minimum requirements for information on environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground mining permit applications-minimum... MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.783 Underground mining permit applications—minimum requirements for information on environmental resources. Part 783 of this chapter, Underground Mining Permit...

  11. 30 CFR 57.22401 - Underground retorts (I-A and I-B mines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground retorts (I-A and I-B mines). 57... METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Underground Retorts § 57.22401...

  12. APPRAISAL OF THE POPULATION THREAT RISK BY CARBON LEAKAGE PRODUCED BY UNDERGROUND COAL GASIFICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Šofranko, Marian; Škvareková, Erika; Laciak, Marek

    2013-01-01

    The UCG /underground coal gasification/ technology could increase energy production resulting in improving the economic situation. Even if the risk of accidents may occur in the both coal gasification and underground mining, the other parameters suggest that the coal gasification method is much safer that the underground mining.

  13. 76 FR 70075 - Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION... addressing Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines. This... Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines. MSHA conducted hearings on October 18, October...

  14. 30 CFR 75.1907 - Diesel-powered equipment intended for use in underground coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... underground coal mines. 75.1907 Section 75.1907 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1907 Diesel-powered equipment intended for use in underground coal mines. (a) As...

  15. 77 FR 4834 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ... Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration. ACTION: Notice of... Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines DATES: Submit comments on or before April 2, 2012. ADDRESSES: Comments... Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines. OMB Number: 1219-0146. Affected Public: Business or other...

  16. Evaluation of the underground soil thermal storage properties in Libya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nassar, Y.; ElNoaman, A.; Abutaima, A.; Yousif, S.; Salem, A. [Solar Energy Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Sebha University, P.O. Box 68, Brack (Libya)

    2006-04-15

    Experimental investigation was conducted of temperature distribution through the underground soil of Tripoli (Capital of Libya). The aim of the experiment is to monitor the temperature variation of the underground soil under a depth of 4m and around the year, in order to know the thermal capacity ability of the soil to be used as a seasonal thermal storage. The measurements covered two types of systems: the first one is dry soil and the second is dry soil covered by a glass sheet. The measurements indicate that, at a depth of 4m, the average temperatures for the dry and dry-glass covered systems are 21, 46{sup o}C, with maximum temperatures of 21.5 and 47{sup o}C during December and January, and the minimum temperatures occurred in May and June, are reached values of 19, 44{sup o}C, respectively. The temperatures for the two systems were almost constant through the year and fluctuating with a monthly period of 2p/12. Results show that, the underground thermal capacity can be used as a source of heating and cooling of buildings leading to reduce the energy consumption in this application. Furthermore, for industrial and domestic heating processes, one can utilize the dry-glass covered system to cover a significant part of the heating load. Anyhow, the experimental study may not applicable everywhere, so an analytical presentation for the system will be necessary to save money and efforts. The first step to put the analytical model in reality is to get the thermal properties of the underground soil, and this is the aim of the present study. The paper described the followed procedure during theoretical-heat transfer approach. The thermal properties were presented as a function of the ground depth, furthermore, the paper presented the measured temperatures of the two systems for Tripoli underground soil. [Author].

  17. Construction experiences from underground works at Oskarshamn. Compilation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Anders (Vattenfall Power Consultant AB, Stockholm (SE)); Christiansson, Rolf (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (SE))

    2007-12-15

    The main objective with this report is to compile experiences from the underground works carried out at Oskarshamn, primarily construction experiences from the tunnelling of the cooling water tunnels of the Oskarshamn nuclear power units 1,2 and 3, from the underground excavations of Clab 1 and 2 (Central Interim Storage Facility for Spent Nuclear Fuel), and Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. In addition, an account is given of the operational experience of Clab 1 and 2 and of the Aespoe HRL on primarily scaling and rock support solutions. This report, as being a compilation report, is in its substance based on earlier published material as presented in the list of references. Approximately 8,000 m of tunnels including three major rock caverns with a total volume of about 550,000 m3 have been excavated. The excavation works of the various tunnels and rock caverns were carried out during the period of 1966-2000. In addition, minor excavation works were carried out at the Aespoe HRL in 2003. The depth location of the underground structures varies from near surface down to 450 m. As an overall conclusion it may be said that the rock mass conditions in the area are well suited for underground construction. This conclusion is supported by the experiences from the rock excavation works in the Simpevarp and Aespoe area. These works have shown that no major problems occurred during the excavation works; nor have any stability or other rock engineering problems of significance been identified after the commissioning of the Oskarshamn nuclear power units O1, O2 and O3, BFA, Clab 1 and 2, and Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. The underground structures of these facilities were built according to plan, and since than been operated as planned. Thus, the quality of the rock mass within the construction area is such that it lends itself to excavation of large rock caverns with a minimum of rock support

  18. Estimation and Comparison of Underground Economy in Croatia and European Union Countries: Fuzzy Logic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Marsic

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to address this issue in three ways. First, we review existing estimates of the size of the underground economy. Second, we apply a novel calculation method for estimation: fuzzy logic. Third, we calculated and compared underground economy index for 25 European Union countries and compared it, with special focus on Croatian underground economy index. Results indicated that Croatia has the thirteenth largest underground economy among measured members of the European Union. This study is the first of its kind with recent data to measure the size of underground economy in European Union countries by employing fuzzy logic approach.

  19. Research on communication system of underground safety management based on leaky feeder cable

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jian-hong; ZHANG Tao; CHENG Yun-cai; ZHANG Han

    2007-01-01

    According to the current working status of underground safety management and production scheduling, the importance and existed problem of underground mine radio communication were summarized, and the basic principle and classification of leaky feeder cable were introduced and the characteristics of cable were analyzed specifically in depth, and the application model of radio communication system for underground mine safety management was put forward. Meanwhile, the research explanation of the system component, function and evaluation was provided. The discussion result indicates that communication system of underground mine safety management which is integrated two-way relay amplifier and other equipment has many communication functions, and underground mine mobile communication can be achieved well.

  20. Analysis of an Underground Vertical Electrically Small Wire Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuwei Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem considered is a vertical electrically small wire antenna located underground, which transmits electromagnetic signals to the ground. Getting Green’s function of the vertical dipole underground was the first step to calculate this issue. A quasistatic situation was considered to make an approximation on Sommerfeld integral for easy solution. The method of moments was used to solve the current distribution on the antenna surface at different frequencies, which laid a good foundation for obtaining the electric field of the antenna. Then the axial and radial components of the electric field with the radial distance on the ground were investigated, as well as the voltage received on the ground. Furthermore, the influence of the frequency and stratum parameters on current and electric field was studied to understand the variation clearly.

  1. Underground gas storage in Germany; Untertage-Gasspeicherung in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2010-11-15

    The safe natural gas supply of Germany is guaranteed by imports, domestic delivery and underground natural gas storage facilities. More than 80 % of the consumed natural gas is imported. Due to new natural gas storage facilities as well as due to the extension of existing natural gas storage facilities, the storage of natural gas in Germany experiences an upward trend for years. This development especially experienced an enormous upswing in the last two years. The contribution under consideration reports on the status of the underground natural gas storage of crude oil products and petroleum products in Germany on the basis of the data of the Lower Saxony State Office for Mining, Energy and Geology (Hannover, FRG).

  2. Laplace Synthesis Validation through Measurements on Underground Transmission Cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uribe-Campos Felipe Alejandro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Underground cable electrical parameters ZY as well as their modal propagation characteristics are highly frequency dependent which in certain cases turns its analysis difficult. To perform electromagnetic transient studies of cables the calculation of electrical parameters is essential to obtain the waves propagation solution through the multiconductor system. At the same time this requires to solve the inverse Laplace transform on a numerical form. Although the analytic Laplace transform has an indisputable accuracy, the application of its numerical version up-to-date has not been completely accepted. A complete methodology is developed in this work to guide analyst engineers or graduate students in the calculation of electromagnetic transients of underground cable systems. Finally, to help the validation of the numerical inverse Laplace transform a scaled prototype experiment is performed in the laboratory in which a transient step-response at the remote end of an energized conductor is measured.

  3. Ground engineering principles and practices for underground coal mining

    CERN Document Server

    Galvin, J M

    2016-01-01

    This book teaches readers ground engineering principles and related mining and risk management practices associated with underground coal mining. It establishes the basic elements of risk management and the fundamental principles of ground behaviour and then applies these to the essential building blocks of any underground coal mining system, comprising excavations, pillars, and interactions between workings. Readers will also learn about types of ground support and reinforcement systems and their operating mechanisms. These elements provide the platform whereby the principles can be applied to mining practice and risk management, directed primarily to bord and pillar mining, pillar extraction, longwall mining, sub-surface and surface subsidence, and operational hazards. The text concludes by presenting the framework of risk-based ground control management systems for achieving safe workplaces and efficient mining operations. In addition, a comprehensive reference list provides additional sources of informati...

  4. Noise measurements in Omerler underground colliery and suggestions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sensogut, C.; Eralp, H. [Selcuk Universitesi, Kampus-Konya (Turkey)

    1998-12-31

    People who have been exposed to an excessive noise level over a long period may have a permanent hearing loss. Additionally, due to the noise in workings, the warnings from the alarm devices may be hindered resulting in the prevention of an effective competence for communication. Therefore, it also causes a series of problems in terms of labour, health and safety. Sources of noise encountered in underground collieries were researched in a lignite mine for a period of two months together with the noise intensity both for health and safety aspects. Noise measurements taken between April and June 1997 from Omerler Underground Colliery, Western Lignite Corporation, Turkish Coal Enterprises are given in detail together with the suggestions made to the mine management. 10 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. 3D Cosmic Ray Muon Tomography from an Underground Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardincerri, Elena; Rowe, Charlotte; Schultz-Fellenz, Emily; Roy, Mousumi; George, Nicolas; Morris, Christopher; Bacon, Jeffrey; Durham, Matthew; Morley, Deborah; Plaud-Ramos, Kenie; Poulson, Daniel; Baker, Diane; Bonneville, Alain; Kouzes, Richard

    2017-05-01

    We present an underground cosmic ray muon tomographic experiment imaging 3D density of overburden, part of a joint study with differential gravity. Muon data were acquired at four locations within a tunnel beneath Los Alamos, New Mexico, and used in a 3D tomographic inversion to recover the spatial variation in the overlying rock-air interface, and compared with a priori knowledge of the topography. Densities obtained exhibit good agreement with preliminary results of the gravity modeling, which will be presented elsewhere, and are compatible with values reported in the literature. The modeled rock-air interface matches that obtained from LIDAR within 4 m, our resolution, over much of the model volume. This experiment demonstrates the power of cosmic ray muons to image shallow geological targets using underground detectors, whose development as borehole devices will be an important new direction of passive geophysical imaging.

  6. Numerical Investigation of Rockfall Impacts on Muckpiles for Underground Portals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effeindzourou, Anna; Giacomini, Anna; Thoeni, Klaus; Sloan, Scott W.

    2017-06-01

    Small-scale waste rock piles or muckpiles are commonly used as energy absorption barriers in various surface mining applications. This paper numerically investigates the impact behaviour of blocks on muckpiles used as cushion layer on top of underground portal entries. A three-dimensional discrete element model is implemented into the open-source framework YADE and validated using full-scale experimental data. The model allows estimating the energy absorption capacity of the muckpile and the impact forces acting on the portal structure. It also provides valuable information on the rebound characteristics which are useful for the definition of the potential safety areas in the vicinity of an underground entry. In order to show its capabilities, the model is applied to a large number of cases representing potential design conditions. The influence of block mass, impact velocity and absorbing cushion thickness on the forces at the base of the muckpile and the rebound trajectories after impact are investigated.

  7. Progress of Jinping Underground laboratory for Nuclear Astrophysics (JUNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu WeiPing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Jinping Underground lab for Nuclear Astrophysics (JUNA will take the advantage of the ultralow background in Jinping underground lab, high current accelerator based on an ECR source and highly sensitive detector to study directly a number of crucial reactions to the hydrostatic stellar evolution for the first time at their relevant stellar energies. In its first phase, JUNA aims at the direct measurements of 25Mg(p,γ26Al, 19F(p,α16O, 13C(α,n16O and 12C(α,γ16O. The experimental setup, which include the accelerator system with high stability and high intensity, the detector system, and the shielding material with low background, will be established during the above research. The current progress of JUNA will be given.

  8. Ventilation and air-conditioning concept for CNGS underground areas

    CERN Document Server

    Lindroos, J

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the CNGS project is to prove the existence of neutrino oscillation by generating an intense neutrino beam from CERN in the direction of the Gran Sasso laboratory in Italy, where two large neutrino detectors are built to detect the neutrinos. All the components for producing the neutrino beam will be situated in the underground tunnels, service galleries and chambers. The ventilation and air-conditioning systems installed in these underground areas have multiple tasks. Depending on the operating mode and structure to be air-conditioned, the systems are required to provide fresh air, cool the machine, dehumidify areas housing sensible equipment or assure the smoke removal in a case of a fire. This paper presents the technical solutions foreseen to meet these requirements.

  9. Sealing of underground workings and deep boreholes by polymer solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stryczek, S.; Postawa, J.; Capik, M.; Beres, J.

    1988-05-01

    Describes application and properties of Solakryl ASM 10 and Marwit S 50 polymers for rock sealing purposes in Polish underground black coal mines. Polymer powders are mixed with water and injected into boreholes to prevent spontaneous fire propagation, stop gas release from coal seams, improve mine ventilation and prevent water influx. Diagrams for gelation performance, polymerization time and solution viscosity are provided. Solutions are also mixed with filler (fly ash, gypsum) if voids and crevices are of larger volume. Density and viscosity values of polymer solution and filler mixtures relevant for pumping procedures are given. A time function for optimum Marwit concentration and volume swelling during water absorption is also derived. AzNII-cone analysis was applied for assessing solution pumpability. Examples of successful solution injection during shaft sinking by rock freezing and during fire fighting in an underground coal mine are given. 5 refs.

  10. Underground metabolism: network-level perspective and biotechnological potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Notebaart, Richard A; Kintses, Bálint; Feist, Adam

    2018-01-01

    A key challenge in molecular systems biology is understanding how new pathways arise during evolution and how to exploit them for biotechnological applications. New pathways in metabolic networks often evolve by recruiting weak promiscuous activities of pre-existing enzymes. Here we describe recent...... systems biology advances to map such ‘underground’ activities and to predict and analyze their contribution to new metabolic functions. Underground activities are prevalent in cellular metabolism and can form novel pathways that either enable evolutionary adaptation to new environments or provide bypass...... to genetic lesions. We also illustrate the potential of integrating computational models of underground metabolism and experimental approaches to study the evolution of novel metabolic phenotypes and advance the field of biotechnology....

  11. Energy-Efficient Routing Algorithm for WSNs in Underground mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Wang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs technology has been used for security monitoring to provide a safe working environment for Underground mining miners. But, energy consumption is an important issue in the design of routing protocol in wireless sensor networks. For the problems of coal mine chain-type network topology, unbalanced information flow and energy consumption among nodes is serious uneven, we proposed a Liner Energy-Balanced Uneven Cluster Routing Protocol Algorithm for Underground Mining. The cluster head election mechanism of the algorithm considered the distance between nodes and base station node, nodes energy and nodes density. At the same time, the algorithm reduces the amount of computation when candidate nodes campaigning. We evaluate LEBUC and the results show that LEBUC effectively graded the wireless sensor network of coal mine’s "hot zone" problem and reduces network traffic and energy consumption. It extends the survival time of the network significantly.

  12. Development of a Testbed for Wireless Underground Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet C. Vuran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Underground Sensor Networks (WUSNs constitute one of the promising application areas of the recently developed wireless sensor networking techniques. WUSN is a specialized kind of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN that mainly focuses on the use of sensors that communicate through soil. Recent models for the wireless underground communication channel are proposed but few field experiments were realized to verify the accuracy of the models. The realization of field WUSN experiments proved to be extremely complex and time-consuming in comparison with the traditional wireless environment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that proposes guidelines for the development of an outdoor WUSN testbed with the goals of improving the accuracy and reducing of time for WUSN experiments. Although the work mainly aims WUSNs, many of the presented practices can also be applied to generic WSN testbeds.

  13. Underground water quality model inversion of genetic algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Ruijie; LI Xin

    2009-01-01

    The underground water quality model with non-linear inversion problem is ill-posed, and boils down to solving the minimum of nonlinear function. Genetic algorithms are adopted in a number of individuals of groups by iterative search to find the optimal solution of the problem, the encoding strings as its operational objective, and achieving the iterative calculations by the genetic operators. It is an effective method of inverse problems of groundwater, with incomparable advantages and practical significances.

  14. Method of drilling a borehole through cavernous underground formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huizinga, R.J.; Stewart, R.B.

    1981-07-15

    To pass a cavern in an underground formation through which a borehole is being drilled, a cementing tube is lowered through the hole and into the cavern. A lightweight cement slurry (such as a foam cement slurry) is introduced into the cavern to build up a cement column extending between the floor and the ceiling of the cavity at a location where the borehole should pass the cavity. 6 claims.

  15. Proceedings of the 5th underground coal conversion symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-05-01

    The 5th underground coal conversion symposium was held at Alexandria, Virginia, June 18--21, 1979. Thirty-three papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. Seven papers were also abstracted for Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis. Seven papers had been entered previously from other sources. The symposium was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Division of Fossil Fuel Extraction. (LTN)

  16. Observation of the Moon Shadow in Deep Underground Muon Flux

    CERN Document Server

    Cobb, J H; Allison, W W M; Alner, G J; Ayres, D S; Barrett, W L; Bode, C; Border, P M; Brooks, C B; Cotton, R J; Courant, H; Demuth, D M; Fields, T H; Gallagher, H R; García-García, C; Goodman, M C; Gran, R; Joffe-Minor, T M; Kafka, T; Kasahara, S M; Leeson, W; Lichtfield, P J; Longley, N P; Mann, W A; Milburn, R H; Miller, W H; Moon, C; Mualem, L M; Napier, A; Oliver, W P; Pearce, G F; Peterson, E A; Petyt, D A; Price, L E; Ruddick, K; Sánchez, M; Sankey, P; Schneps, J; Schub, M H; Seidlein, R; Stassinakis, A; Thron, J L; Vasilev, V; Villaume, G; Wakely, S P; West, N; Wall, D

    1999-01-01

    A shadow of the moon, with a statistical significance of $5\\sigma$, has been observed in the underground muon flux at a depth of 2090 mwe using the Soudan 2 detector. The angular resolution of the detector is well described by a Gaussian with $\\sigma \\le 0.3^{\\circ}$. The position of the shadow confirms the alignment of the detector to better than $0.15^{\\circ}$. This alignment has remained stable during 10 years of data taking from 1989 through 1998.

  17. Ways of solution of an underground fire-fighting problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulgakov, Y.F.; Gryadustchiy, B.A. [RESPIRATOR, Research-and-Manufacturing Association on Mine Rescue Work, Donetsk (Ukraine)

    2001-07-01

    The risk of fire in belt conveyors in underground coal mines is high. To fight fires on drives of conveyors, an automatic powder and foam system has been developed in the Ukraine. The powder is intended for fighting the flame phase of the fire, and foam is used for cooling the driving drums. The paper explains how to calculate the required foam quantity and describes experiments to determine the installation parameters of this fire fighting systems. 1 ref.

  18. Pressurized cabin for use in underground mining and tunnelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gresch, H.; Igelbuescher, H.; Hoelter, H.

    1989-11-08

    A pressurized cabin preferably made from steel, contains electrical apparatus such as switchgear in an underground mine or tunnel working. To protect the apparatus the cabin is connected to a source of compressed air, conveniently that supplying ventilation, to create excess pressure in the cabin. A compressor and a compressed-air storage vessel are provided in the cabin and are brought into operation with the aid of a pressure-sensitive valve in an emergency to maintain the excess pressure.

  19. Time variations in the deep underground muon flux

    CERN Document Server

    Cecchini, S; Dekhissi, H; Derkaoui, J; Giacomelli, G; Giorgini, M; Maaroufi, F; Mandrioli, G; Margiotta, A; Moussa, A; Patrizii, L; Sioli, M; Sirri, G; Spurio, M; Togo, V

    2009-01-01

    More than 35 million high-energy muons collected with the MACRO detector at the underground Gran Sasso Laboratory have been used to search for flux variations of different nature. Two kinds of studies were carried out: a search for the occurrence of clusters of events and a search for periodic variations. Different analysis methods, including the Scan Statistics test and the Lomb-Scargle spectral analysis have been applied to the data.

  20. Observation of the moon shadow in deep underground muon flux.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, W. W. M.; Alner, G. J.; Ayres, D. S.; Cobb, J. H.; Fields, T. H.; Goodman, M. C.; Joffe-Minor, T.; Marshak, M. L.; Price, L. E.; Seidlein, R.; Soudan 2 Collaboration; Thron, J. L.

    1999-06-22

    A shadow of the moon, with a statistical significance of 5{sigma}, has been observed in the underground muon flux at a depth of 2090 mwe using the Soudan 2 detector. The angular resolution of the detector is well described by a Gaussian with {sigma} {le}0.3{degree}. The position of the shadow confirms the alignment of the detector to better than 0.15{degree}. This alignment has remained stable during 10 years of data taking from 1989 through 1998.

  1. Overview of the Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO)

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yu-Feng

    2014-01-01

    The medium baseline reactor antineutrino experiment, Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO), which is being planed to be built at Jiangmen in South China, can determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and improve the precision of three oscillation parameters by one order of magnitude. The sensitivity potential on these measurements is reviewed and design concepts of the central detector are illustrated. Finally, we emphasize on the technical challenges we meet and the corresponding R&D efforts.

  2. Proceedings of second annual underground coal gasification symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuck, L Z [ed.

    1976-01-01

    The Second Annual Underground Coal Gasification Symposium was sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Research Center of the US Energy Research and Development Administration and held at Morgantown, WV, August 10-12, 1976. Fifty papers of the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. While the majority of the contribution involved ERDA's own work in this area, there were several papers from universities, state organizations, (industrial, engineering or utility companies) and a few from foreign countries. (LTN)

  3. Wireless device for activation of an underground shock wave absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikhradze, M.; Akhvlediani, I.; Bochorishvili, N.; Mataradze, E.

    2011-10-01

    The paper describes the mechanism and design of the wireless device for activation of energy absorber for localization of blast energy in underground openings. The statistics shows that the greatest share of accidents with fatal results associate with explosions in coal mines due to aero-methane and/or air-coal media explosion. The other significant problem is terrorist or accidental explosions in underground structures. At present there are different protective systems to reduce the blast energy. One of the main parts of protective Systems is blast Identification and Registration Module. The works conducted at G. Tsulukidze Mining Institute of Georgia enabled to construct the wireless system of explosion detection and mitigation of shock waves. The system is based on the constant control on overpressure. The experimental research continues to fulfill the system based on both threats, on the constant control on overpressure and flame parameters, especially in underground structures and coal mines. Reaching the threshold value of any of those parameters, the system immediately starts the activation. The absorber contains a pyrotechnic device ensuring the discharge of dispersed water. The operational parameters of wireless device and activation mechanisms of pyrotechnic element of shock wave absorber are discussed in the paper.

  4. Radium removal from mine waters in underground treatment installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalupnik, Stanislaw; Wysocka, Malgorzata

    2008-10-01

    The underground mining of hard coal is widespread in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (southern Poland). In deep mines, inflows of highly mineralised waters containing radium isotopes are numerous. These waters cause severe damage to the natural environment due to the salinity, but additionally radioactive pollution occurs. The region is densely populated, therefore mitigation methods are very important. The method of radium removal has been applied in full technical scale in two coal mines with very good results--in one of the mines radium-bearing waters are treated at the rate of approximately 0.1 m3 s(-1), while in another mine salty waters are purified at the rate of 0.1 m3 s(-1). The purification takes place in special underground galleries without any contact of the mining crew with the radioactive deposits produced during the process. As a result, release of radium is significantly lower, more than 200 MBq of 226Ra and 228Ra remains underground each day.

  5. Image quality improvement for underground radar by block migration method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Gwangsu; Kawanaka, Akira; Takagi, Mikio

    1993-11-01

    Techniques have been developed which have been imaging optically opaque regions using an electromagnetic wave radar in order to estimate the location of the objects in those regions. One important application of these techniques is the detection of buried pipes and cables. In the case of underground radar, its image quality often becomes low because the nature of the soil is not uniform and an electromagnetic wave is attenuated in soil. Hence, the method which improves the quality of the radar images is required. In this paper, we point out that the quality of underground images can be improved significantly by means of the block migration method. In this method LOT (Lapped Orthogonal Transform) was applied. LOT is a new block transform method in which basis functions overlap in adjacent blocks, and it has a fast computation algorithm. In addition to above, we propose a method of estimating dielectric constant in soil using the processed images. The result of applying the block migration method to the underground radar images are presented. It points out the good capability for the image quality improvement and the application of LOT can improve the influence by blocking and the processing time. Also the dielectric constant in each block can be estimated accurately.

  6. Nonlinear flow model for well production in an underground formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Guo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Fluid flow in underground formations is a nonlinear process. In this article we modelled the nonlinear transient flow behaviour of well production in an underground formation. Based on Darcy's law and material balance equations, we used quadratic pressure gradients to deduce diffusion equations and discuss the origins of nonlinear flow issues. By introducing an effective-well-radius approach that considers skin factor, we established a nonlinear flow model for both gas and liquid (oil or water. The liquid flow model was solved using a semi-analytical method, while the gas flow model was solved using numerical simulations because the diffusion equation of gas flow is a stealth function of pressure. For liquid flow, a series of standard log-log type curves of pressure transients were plotted and nonlinear transient flow characteristics were analyzed. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were used to compare the solutions of the linear and nonlinear models. The effect of nonlinearity upon pressure transients should not be ignored. For gas flow, pressure transients were simulated and compared with oil flow under the same formation and well conditions, resulting in the conclusion that, under the same volume rate production, oil wells demand larger pressure drops than gas wells. Comparisons between theoretical data and field data show that nonlinear models will describe fluid flow in underground formations realistically and accurately.

  7. Noise propagation characteristics of underground equipment in coal mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Gen-yin; WEI Zhi-yong; XU Ming; ZHU Yan-yan

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of the survey of underground noise in Jinggezhuang and Donghuantuo mines,Kailuan Group,noise radiation intensity,noise propagation properties and noise frequency-spectrum characteristics of underground equipment were studied at different work conditions.The result indicates that the noise source intensity surpasses the noise limit requirement of 85 dBA completely.Nearly 70% noise sources exceed the noise limit of 90 dBA,and some are over 100 dBA.Noise attenuation in semi-free field environment on the ground is significantly different from underground far-field environment of noise source in coal mines.Noise of these regions,where staffs are long and highly concentrated,exceeds 85 dBA,the basic noise limit.The noise frequency-spectrum presents the wideband characteristics.Especially in the main frequency of the language communication 500,1 000 and 2 000 Hz,the octave band of noise performs obviously.

  8. Close-range photogrammetry in underground mining ground control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Donovan J.; Chambers, Amy J.; Raffaldi, Michael J.; Finley, Seth A.; Powers, Mark J.

    2016-09-01

    Monitoring underground mine deformation and support conditions has traditionally involved visual inspection and geotechnical instrumentation. Monitoring displacements with conventional instrumentation can be expensive and time-consuming, and the number of locations that can be effectively monitored is generally limited. Moreover, conventional methods typically produce vector rather than tensor descriptions of geometry changes. Tensor descriptions can provide greater insight into hazardous ground movements, particularly in recently excavated openings and in older workings that have been negatively impacted by high stress concentrations, time-dependent deformation, or corrosion of ground support elements. To address these issues, researchers with the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Spokane Mining Research Division are developing and evaluating photogrammetric systems for ground control monitoring applications in underground mines. This research has demonstrated that photogrammetric systems can produce millimeter-level measurements that are comparable to conventional displacement-measuring instruments. This paper provides an overview of the beneficial use of close-range photogrammetry for the following three ground control applications in underground mines: monitoring the deformation of surface support, monitoring rock mass movement, and monitoring the corrosion of surface support. Preliminary field analyses, case studies, limitations, and best practices for these applications are also discussed.

  9. Correlation survey for shaft deepening in Digwadih underground coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahuguna, P.P. [Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad (India). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2003-02-01

    While deepening a shaft of an underground mine, it is essential to maintain the verticality of the shaft for the smooth working of cages. The position of the center of the shaft should be known throughout the shaft and needs to be transferred at various levels in the mine. The conventional correlation survey technique makes use of plumb wires suspended from the top of the shaft in order to transfer the position of a point and that of the direction of a plumb plane from the surface to the pit bottom in the underground. To locate the position of the center of the shaft at other levels, a theodolite traverse from the pit bottom to other levels is run through connecting drifts and galleries near to the desired point. The method is tedious, cumbersome, time-consuming, and less accurate. This present paper describes an exercise taken up for the first time in India to transfer the center of a mine shaft from the surface to different seams in the underground mine with the help of modern instruments and techniques using a laser beam, gyro-theodolite, and total station. The results are discussed. The method is found to be easy, accurate, and less time-consuming.

  10. Underground structure characterization using motor vehicles as passive seismic sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzma, H. A.; Liu, Y.; Zhao, Y.; Rector, J.; Vaidya, S.

    2009-12-01

    The ability to detect and characterize underground voids will be critical to the success of On-Site Inspections (OSI) as mandated by the nuclear Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). OSIs may be conducted in order to successfully locate the Ground Zero of underground tests as well as infrastructure related to testing. Recently, our team has shown the potential of a new technique to detect underground objects using the amplitude of seismic surface waves generated by motor vehicles. In an experiment conducted in June, 2009 we were able to detect an abandoned railroad tunnel by recognizing a clear pattern in the surface waves scattered by the tunnel, using a signal generated by driving a car on a dirt road across the tunnel. Synthetic experiments conducted using physically realistic wave-equation models further suggest that the technique can be readily applied to detecting underground features: it may be possible to image structures of importance to OSI simply by laying out an array of geophones (or using an array already in place for passive listening for event aftershocks) and driving vehicles around the site. We present evidence from a set of field experiments and from synthetic modeling and inversion studies to illustrate adaptations of the technique for OSI. Signature of an abandoned underground railroad tunnel at Donner Summit, CA. To produce this image, a line of geophones was placed along a dirt road perpendicular to the tunnel (black box) and a single car was driven along the road. A normalized mean power-spectrum is displayed on a log scale as a function of meters from the center of the tunnel. The top of the tunnel was 18m below ground surface. The tunnel anomaly is made up of a shadow (light) directly above the tunnel and amplitude build-up (dark) on either side of the tunnel. The size of the anomaly (6 orders of magnitude) suggests that the method can be extended to find deep structures at greater distances from the source and receivers.

  11. Progress in the field of underground gasification. Report on the 3rd symposium on underground gasification in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckervordersandforth, C.P. (Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany, F.R.). Lehrstuhl und Inst. fuer Eisenhuettenkunde)

    1978-06-01

    The underground gasification programme in the USA is described. The individual concepts within the ERDA (linked vertical well process, packed bed concept, long wall generator concept, steeply dipping beds), essentially differentiate from each other in the method in which the natural permeability of the coal is increased. Projects not within ERDA (Texas utilities project (brown coal gasification), Texas AM-project and Alberta Research Council project) arepresented briefly.

  12. Simulation Study and Probe on UWB Wireless Communication in Underground Coal Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan-fen; WANG Zheng-gang; YU Hong-zhen

    2006-01-01

    From an analysis of the status of coal mine underground wireless communication, the application of UWB wireless communication system to underground coal mine is proposed. The basic composition of an UWB communication system and application in underground coal mines are introduced. The analyses show that, because of the transmission power being non-limitted in underground coal mines, the use of UWB in coal mines cannot only realize wireless access services of short distance high rate application for transmission of video monitoring signals, but also realize wireless access services of long distance low rate applications for mobile telephones in underground coal mines and parameters of working conditions monitoring, etc. It is emphasized on the simulation of a TH-PPM UWB communication system with traditional underground broadband model and ground CM1, CM3 model. It is shown that the traditional underground broadband model and ground CM1, CM3 models are not applicable to the UWB communication system in underground coal mines. It is necessary to conduct research on the propagation characteristics of UWB in coal mine tunnels, given the characteristics of the underground environment and to find the appropriate UWB model for underground coal mines.

  13. The Underground Laboratory in South Korea : facilities and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeongduk

    2017-01-01

    We have developed underground physics programs for last 15 years in South Korea. The scientific and technical motivation for this initiative was the lack of local facility of a large accelerator in Korea. Thanks to the large underground electric power generator in Yangyang area, we could construct a deep underground laboratory (Yangyang Laboratory, Y2L) and has performed some pioneering experiments for dark matter search and double beta decay experiments. Since year of 2013, a new research center in the Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Center for Underground Physics (CUP), is approved by the government and Y2L laboratory is managed by CUP. Due to the limited space in Y2L, we are proposing to construct a new deep underground laboratory where we can host larger scale experiments of next generation. The site is in an active iron mine, and will be made in 1100 meter underground with a space of about 2000 m2 by the end of 2019. I will describe the status and future plan for this underground laboratory. CUP has two main experimental programs. (1) Identification of dark matter : The annual modulation signal of DAMA/LIBRA experiment has been contradictory to many other experiments such as XENON100, LUX, and Super CDMS. Yale University and CUP (COSINE-100) experimentalists agreed to do an experiment together at the Y2L and recently commissioned a 100kg scale low background NaI(Tl) crystal experiment. In future, we will develop NaI(Tl) crystals with lower internal backgrounds and try to run identical detectors at both north and south hemisphere. Low mass WIMP search is also planned with a development of low temperature sensors coupled with highly scintillating crystals. (2) Neutrinoless double beta decay search : The mass of the lightest neutrino and the Majorana nature of the neutrinos are not determined yet. Neutrinoless double beta decay experiment can answer both of the questions directly, and ultra-low backgrounds and excellent energy resolution are critical to

  14. Evaluation and analysis of underground brine resources in the southern coastal area of Laizhou Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, M.; Zhu, H. T.; Feng, J.; Zhao, Q. S.

    2016-08-01

    The southern coastal districts of Laizhou Bay are some of the most important areas for underground brine exploitation in Shandong Province. Recently, these areas have been gradually developed by the underground brine mining industry. Such economic interest has led to brine exploitation so that underground brine resources are running out. Based on this phenomenon, this study describes the supply, runoff and draining conditions of the area by collecting and organizing the background information of the studied area. Hydrogeological parameters are then calculated according to pumping tests, and the amount of sustainable resources in the coastal areas of the Southern Bank of Laizhou Bay are then calculated based on the uniform distribution of wells. Under the circumstances of underground brine mining, the exploitation potential of the underground brine is evaluated in accordance with the calculation results of exploitation quantum. Finally, suggestions are provided for the sustainable exploitation of underground brine in the area.

  15. A Testbed of Magnetic Induction-based Communication System for Underground Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Xin; Akyildiz, Ian F

    2015-01-01

    Wireless underground sensor networks (WUSNs) can enable many important applications such as intelligent agriculture, pipeline fault diagnosis, mine disaster rescue, concealed border patrol, crude oil exploration, among others. The key challenge to realize WUSNs is the wireless communication in underground environments. Most existing wireless communication systems utilize the dipole antenna to transmit and receive propagating electromagnetic (EM) waves, which do not work well in underground environments due to the very high material absorption loss. The Magnetic Induction (MI) technique provides a promising alternative solution that could address the current problem in underground. Although the MI-based underground communication has been intensively investigated theoretically, to date, seldom effort has been made in developing a testbed for the MI-based underground communication that can validate the theoretical results. In this paper, a testbed of MI-based communication system is designed and implemented in a...

  16. Advanced underground Vehicle Power and Control: The locomotive Research Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vehicle Projects LLC

    2003-01-28

    Develop a fuelcell mine locomotive with metal-hydride hydrogen storage. Test the locomotive for fundamental limitations preventing successful commercialization of hydride fuelcells in underground mining. During Phase 1 of the DOE-EERE sponsored project, FPI and its partner SNL, completed work on the development of a 14.4 kW fuelcell power plant and metal-hydride energy storage. An existing battery-electric locomotive with similar power requirements, minus the battery module, was used as the base vehicle. In March 2001, Atlas Copco Wagner of Portland, OR, installed the fuelcell power plant into the base vehicle and initiated integration of the system into the vehicle. The entire vehicle returned to Sandia in May 2001 for further development and integration. Initial system power-up took place in December 2001. A revision to the original contract, Phase 2, at the request of DOE Golden Field Office, established Vehicle Projects LLC as the new prime contractor,. Phase 2 allowed industry partners to conduct surface tests, incorporate enhancements to the original design by SNL, perform an extensive risk and safety analysis, and test the fuelcell locomotive underground under representative production mine conditions. During the surface tests one of the fuelcell stacks exhibited reduced power output resulting in having to replace both fuelcell stacks. The new stacks were manufactured with new and improved technology resulting in an increase of the gross power output from 14.4 kW to 17 kW. Further work by CANMET and Hatch Associates, an engineering consulting firm specializing in safety analysis for the mining industry, both under subcontract to Vehicle Projects LLC, established minimum requirements for underground testing. CANMET upgraded the Programmable Logic Control (PLC) software used to monitor and control the fuelcell power plant, taking into account locomotive operator's needs. Battery Electric, a South Africa manufacturer, designed and manufactured (at no cost

  17. Fracture development around deep underground excavations: Insights from FDEM modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Lisjak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past twenty years, there has been a growing interest in the development of numerical models that can realistically capture the progressive failure of rock masses. In particular, the investigation of damage development around underground excavations represents a key issue in several rock engineering applications, including tunnelling, mining, drilling, hydroelectric power generation, and the deep geological disposal of nuclear waste. The goal of this paper is to show the effectiveness of a hybrid finite-discrete element method (FDEM code to simulate the fracturing mechanisms associated with the excavation of underground openings in brittle rock formations. A brief review of the current state-of-the-art modelling approaches is initially provided, including the description of selecting continuum- and discontinuum-based techniques. Then, the influence of a number of factors, including mechanical and in situ stress anisotropy, as well as excavation geometry, on the simulated damage is analysed for three different geomechanical scenarios. Firstly, the fracture nucleation and growth process under isotropic rock mass conditions is simulated for a circular shaft. Secondly, the influence of mechanical anisotropy on the development of an excavation damaged zone (EDZ around a tunnel excavated in a layered rock formation is considered. Finally, the interaction mechanisms between two large caverns of an underground hydroelectric power station are investigated, with particular emphasis on the rock mass response sensitivity to the pillar width and excavation sequence. Overall, the numerical results indicate that FDEM simulations can provide unique geomechanical insights in cases where an explicit consideration of fracture and fragmentation processes is of paramount importance.

  18. Wireless system for explosion detection in underground structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikhradze, M.; Bochorishvili, N.; Akhvlediani, I.; Kukhalashvili, D.; Kalichava, I.; Mataradze, E.

    2009-06-01

    Considering the growing threat of terrorist or accidental explosions in underground stations, underground highway and railway sections improvement of system for protecting people from explosions appears urgent. Current automatic protective devices with blast identification module and blast damping absorbers of various designs as their basic elements cannot be considered effective. Analysis revealed that low reliability of blast detection and delayed generation of start signal for the activation of an absorber are the major disadvantages of protective devices. Besides the transmission of trigger signal to an energy absorber through cable communication reduces the reliability of the operation of protective device due to a possible damage of electric wiring under blast or mechanical attack. This paper presents the outcomes of the studies conducted to select accurate criteria for blast identification and to design wireless system of activation of defensive device. The results of testing of blast detection methods (seismic, EMP, optical, on overpressure) showed that the proposed method, which implies constant monitoring of overpressure in terms of its reliability and response speed, best meets the requirements. Proposed wireless system for explosions identification and activation of protective device consists of transmitter and receiver modules. Transmitter module contains sensor and microprocessor equipped with blast identification software. Receiver module produces activation signal for operation of absorber. Tests were performed in the underground experimental base of Mining Institute. The time between the moment of receiving signal by the sensor and activation of absorber - 640 microsecond; distance between transmitter and receiver in direct tunnel - at least 150m; in tunnel with 900 bending - 50m. This research is sponsored by NATO's Public Diplomacy Division in the framework of "Science for Peace".

  19. Alternative utilization of underground spaces with abandoned mine openings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, So Keul; Cho, Won Jai; Han, Kong Chang; Choi, Sung Oong [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Utilization of the openings of the abandoned mines could be planned by the principal parameters such as location and geotechnical impact. The local governments have not only to lead the each stage of the utilization project from the very beginning of conceptual design up to the construction stage, but also to promote the project for the development of public purpose. The possible tentative candidates for the utilization of the abandoned mine openings which are supported by the local governments could be summarized as follows. a. The Gahak mine of Kwangmyung, Kyunggi: The mine caverns which have been served as the storage of the pickled fishes, could be reexcavated by taking into consideration the geotechnical parameters for the public use such as: 1) Training center for the youth, 2) Fermentation and storehouse of marine products, 3) Sightseeing resort, 4) Sports and leisure complex, 5) Underground parking lot, 6) Underground shopping mall and chilled room storage, 7) Library, concert hall and museum. b. Hamtae mine of Taebaek, Kangwon: The Hambaek main haulage way and its shaft should be investigated in detail in order to find out a possible use as the underground challenging park of the coal mining operation. c. Mines of Boryung and Hongsung, Chungnam: Lots of mine caverns have been used as the storehouse for the pickled shrimp. However, they have to be promoted to a large scale industries. d. Imgok mine of Kwangju and Palbong mine of Jeongeup, Chunbuk: Mine caverns which have been used as the storehouse of pickles, need a detailed investigation for alternative promotion. e. Yongho mine of Pusan Dalsung mine of Taegu: Both of the mines are located near metropolitan communities. Reconstruction of the old mine caverns of the Yongho mine is highly recommended for a public use. The caverns of the Dalsung mine could be utilized as the storage facilities. Detailed geotechnical survey and sit investigation could be suggested to design the recommended facilities for both

  20. Rome: sinkhole events and network of underground cavities (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisio, Stefania; Ciotoli, Giancarlo

    2016-04-01

    The anthropogenic sinkholes in the city of Rome are closely linked to the network of underground cavities produced by human activities in more than two thousand years of history. Over the past fifteen years the increased frequency of intense rainfall events, favors sinkhole formation. The risk assessment induced by anthropogenic sinkhole is really difficult. However, a susceptibility of the territory to sinkholes can be more easily determined as the probability that an event may occur in a given space, with unique geological-morphological characteristics, and in an infinite time. A sinkhole susceptibility map of the Rome territory, up to the ring road, has been constructed by using Geographically Weighted Regression technique and geostatistics. The spatial regression model includes the analysis of more than 2700 anthropogenic sinkholes (recorded from 1875 to 2015), as well as geological, morphological, hydrological and predisposing anthropogenic characteristics of the study area. The numerous available data (underground cavities, the ancient entrances to the quarry, bunkers, etc.) facilitate the creation of a series of maps. The density map of the cavity, updated to 2015, showed that more than 20 km2 of the Roman territory are affected by underground cavities. The census of sinkholes (over 2700) shows that over 30 km2 has been affected by sinkholes. The final susceptibility map highlights that inside the Ring Road about 40 km2 of the territory (about 11%) have a very high probability of triggering a sinkhole event. The susceptibility map was also compared with the data of ground subsidence (InSAR) to obtain a predictive model.

  1. Status and Growth of Underground Science at WIPP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempe, Norbert T.

    2008-10-01

    The science community is increasingly taking advantage of research opportunities in the government-owned Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), 655m underground near Carlsbad, NM. Discoveries so far include viable bacteria, cellulose, and DNA in 250 million-year old salt, preserved in an ultra-low background-radiation setting. Supplementing the overburden's shielding against cosmic radiation, terrestrial background from the host formation is less than five percent that of average crustal rock. In the past, WIPP accommodated development and testing of neutral current detectors for the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory and dark matter research, and it currently hosts two experiments pursuing neutrino-less double-beta decay. That scientists can listen to whispers from the universe in proximity to megacuries of radioactive waste lends, of course, credibility to the argument that WIPP itself is very safe. Almost a century of regional petroleum and potash extraction history and more than three decades of WIPP studies have generated a comprehensive body of knowledge on geology, mining technology, rock mechanics, geochemistry, and other disciplines relevant to underground science. Existing infrastructure is being used and can be expanded to fit experimental needs. WIPP's exemplary safety and regulatory compliance culture, low excavating and operating cost, and the high probability of the repository operating at least another 40 years make its available underground space attractive for future research and development. Recent proposals include low-photon energy counting to study internal dose received decades ago, investigations into ultra-low radiation dose response in cell cultures and laboratory animals (e.g., hormesis vs. linear no-threshold) and detectors for dark matter, solar and supernova neutrinos, and proton decay. Additional proposals compatible with WIPP's primary mission are welcome.

  2. AMSA Floxal nitrogen generator in underground inerting applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sajimom, J. [Air Liquide Australia (Australia)

    2005-07-01

    In November 1998, Mining Technologies Australia (MTA) contracted with Air Liquide Australia to build, own and maintain two mobile Floxal nitrogen gas on-site generators. The nitrogen gas generators were to be used in conjunction with highwall mining operations conducted by MTA. In 1999, Roche Mining acquired MTA's highwall mining business. Subsequently, Roche Mining has access to these Floxal systems. The design purpose of the Floxal system was to provide a source of inert gas to the cutting head of the highwall mining system. Since highwall mining activities are conducted on an as required basis, there are often periods of time when the Floxal systems are not utilized. In these periods, Roche has provided the service of these Floxal systems to customers who require substantial amounts of nitrogen gas for underground inerting. In this capacity, these systems have operated at various sites including an extended nine-month period with Blair Athol Coal (BAC). Both units are in operation at the Dartbrook Mine in NSW. Currently these units are designed to produce 500 m{sup 3} per hour of inert gas, as they were purpose built for use in highwall applications. Recently Air Liquide Australia has designed and engineered a bigger unit which can produce 1934 m{sup 3} per hour of inert gas to meet the specific needs of underground mines. By using membrane technology inert gas concentrations of up to 99.9% can be achieved. Included in this paper is an overview of the 1934 m{sup 3}/hr Floxal on-site nitrogen gas generation system that Air Liquide Australia has developed to meet the specific requirements of underground coal mines. 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF UNDERGROUND COMPOSITE STRUCTURES UNDER EXPLOSION LOADING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓兵; 薛大为; 赵玉祥

    2004-01-01

    In selecting rational types of underground structures resisting explosion, in order to improve stress states of the structural section and make full use of material strength of each part of the section, the research method of composite structures is presented. Adopting the analysis method of micro-section free body, equilibrium equations, constraint equations and deformation coordination equations are given. Making use of the concept of generalized work and directly introducing Lagrange multiplier specific in physical meaning, the validity of the constructed generalized functional is proved by using variation method. The rational rigidity matching relationship of composite structure section is presented through example calculations.

  4. Low background Ge spectrometry at Gran Sasso underground laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preusse, W. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Lab. Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (Italy); Bucci, C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Lab. Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (Italy); Arpesella, C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Lab. Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (Italy)

    1997-03-01

    Under the shelter of 1400 m limestone rock the Gran Sasso underground laboratories in the Apennines (110 km north-east of Rome at a turn-off inside the Gran Sasso motorway tunnel) were designed for running large experiments in the field of neutrino, particle and astrophysics by international collaborations. These experiments have in common the basic requirement to be capable to detect very rare events like e.g. neutrino interactions and double beta decays. Due to this their permanent demands for selecting radiopure materials have led to the equipping of a Ge detector laboratory - at present with 6 large detectors. (orig./DG)

  5. The Compact Accelerator System for Performing Astrophysical Research Underground - CASPAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Daniel; Couder, Manoel; Greife, Uwe; Wells, Doug; Wiescher, Michael

    2014-03-01

    An accelerator laboratory (CASPAR) to be installed at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) is being constructed by a collaboration lead by South Dakota School of Mines and Technology. The study of alpha induced reactions of astrophysical interest in a quasi-background free environment is the goal of the laboratory. Specifically, neutron producing reactions for the s-process will be investigated. This process is responsible for the nucleosynthesis of half of the the elements heavier than iron. An outline of CASPAR, its timeline and scientific goals will be presented.

  6. A simple statistical signal loss model for deep underground garage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Huan Cong; Gimenez, Lucas Chavarria; Kovacs, Istvan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we address the channel modeling aspects for a deep-indoor scenario with extreme coverage conditions in terms of signal losses, namely underground garage areas. We provide an in-depth analysis in terms of path loss (gain) and large scale signal shadowing, and a propose simple...... propagation model which can be used to predict cellular signal levels in similar deep-indoor scenarios. The proposed frequency-independent floor attenuation factor (FAF) is shown to be in range of 5.2 dB per meter deep....

  7. A new versatile underground gamma-ray spectrometry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutter, Guillaume; Hult, Mikael; Marissens, Gerd; Andreotti, Erica; Rosengård, Ulf; Misiaszek, Marcin; Yüksel, Ayhan; Sahin, Namik

    2013-11-01

    The newest development in IRMM's underground analytical facility is a large lead shield lined with copper that is versatile and can host several detectors of different types. The characteristics and the background performance of the shield are described for four different detector configurations involving HPGe-detectors and NaI-detectors. The shield has been designed to swap detectors, while still maintaining a low background. This enables testing of detectors for other experiments and optimisation of detection limits for specific radionuclides in different projects.

  8. Underground tests of quantum mechanics. Whispers in the cosmic silence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curceanu, C.; Bartalucci, S.; Bassi, A.; Bazzi, M.; Bertolucci, S.; Berucci, C.; Bragadireanu, A. M.; Cargnelli, M.; Clozza, A.; De Paolis, L.; Di Matteo, S.; Donadi, S.; Egger, J.-P.; Guaraldo, C.; Iliescu, M.; Laubenstein, M.; Marton, J.; Milotti, E.; Pichler, A.; Pietreanu, D.; Piscicchia, K.; Scordo, A.; Shi, H.; Sirghi, D.; Sirghi, F.; Sperandio, L.; Vazquez Doce, O.; Zmeskal, J.

    2017-08-01

    By performing X-rays measurements in the “cosmic silence” of the underground laboratory of Gran Sasso, LNGS-INFN, we test a basic principle of quantum mechanics: the Pauli Exclusion Principle (PEP), for electrons. We present the achieved results of the VIP experiment and the ongoing VIP2 measurement aiming to gain two orders of magnitude improvement in testing PEP. We also use a similar experimental technique to search for radiation (X and gamma) predicted by continuous spontaneous localization models, which aim to solve the “measurement problem”.

  9. Underground diesel use - fuel for thought. [USA - Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J.A.L.; Knight, D.L.; Roberts, W.K.; Knight, T.J. (Kerr-McGee Coal Corp., Oklahoma City, OK (United States))

    1993-08-01

    Describes the use of diesel equipment at the Galatia Mine, Saline County, IL (USA). The Galatia Mine is a dual-seam underground mine. Diesel equipment covered includes: personnel vehicles; diesel forklifts; diesel front-end loaders; service vehicles; maintenance; boom trucks; fuel and lube vehicles; mobile ramcar rock duster; rock grader; diesel bolters; and a portable diesel generator. The use of diesel equipment for longwall set up and recovery and diesel equipment maintenance, ventilation and emission control is also discussed. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Early Ideas in Underground Coal Gasification and Their Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Y. Klimenko

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article follows the development of early UCG (underground coal gasification ideas. Historical facts are discussed mainly from the technological perspective and early experiments in UCG are analyzed. Our search for the first successful UCG experiment brings to light a new finding, which was commonly overlooked in previous reviews. We also outline the key role that engineer and inventor A. G. Betts played in introducing technologies utilizing unmined coal; his original ideas are visible in the first successful UCG experiments and in modern UCG technology.

  11. A new setup for the underground study of capture reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Casella, C; Lemut, A; Limata, B; Bemmerer, D; Bonetti, R; Broggini, C; Campajola, L; Cocconi, P; Corvisiero, P; Cruz, J; D'Onofrio, A; Formicola, A; Fülöp, Z; Gervino, G; Gialanella, L; Guglielmetti, A; Gustavino, C; Gyürky, G; Loiano, A; Imbriani, G; Jesus, A P; Junker, M; Musico, P; Ordine, A; Parodi, F; Parolin, M; Pinto, J V; Prati, P; Ribeiro, J P; Roca, V; Rogalla, D; Rolfs, C; Romano, M; Rossi-Alvarez, C; Rottura, A; Schuemann, F; Somorjai, E; Strieder, F; Terrasi, F; Trautvetter, H P; Vomiero, A; Zavatarelli, S

    2002-01-01

    For the study of astrophysically relevant capture reactions in the underground laboratory LUNA a new setup of high sensitivity has been implemented. The setup includes a windowless gas target, a 4 pi BGO summing crystal, and beam calorimeters. The setup has been recently used to measure the d(p,gamma) sup 3 He cross-section for the first time within its solar Gamow peak, i.e. down to 2.5 keV c.m. energy. The features of the optimized setup are described.

  12. Cosmic Ray Sun Shadow in Soudan 2 Underground Muon Flux

    CERN Document Server

    Allison, W W M; Ayres, D S; Barrett, W L; Bode, C; Border, P M; Brooks, C B; Cobb, J H; Cotton, R J; Courant, H; Demuth, D M; Fields, T H; Gallagher, H R; García-García, C; Goodman, M C; Gran, R; Joffe-Minor, T M; Kafka, T; Kasahara, S M; Leeson, W; Lichtfield, P J; Longley, N P; Mann, W A; Marshak, M L; Milburn, R H; Miller, W H; Mualem, L M; Napier, A; Oliver, W P; Pearce, G F; Peterson, E A; Petyt, D A; Price, L E; Ruddick, K; Sánchez, M; Schneps, J; Schub, M H; Seidlein, R; Stassinakis, A; Thron, J L; Vasilev, V; Villaume, G; Wakely, S P; West, N; Wall, D

    1999-01-01

    The absorption of cosmic rays by the sun produces a shadow at the earth. The angular offset and broadening of the shadow are determined by the magnitude and structure of the interplanetary magnetic field (IPMF) in the inner solar system. We report the first measurement of the solar cosmic ray shadow by detection of deep underground muon flux in observations made during the entire ten-year interval 1989 to 1998. The sun shadow varies significantly during this time, with a $3.3\\sigma$ shadow observed during the years 1995 to 1998.

  13. Storage of Residual Fuel Oil in Underground Unlined Rock Caverns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    Francaise des Petroles BP, Elf Union, Shell Francaise, and Compagnie Francaise de Raffinage (Total). The company and its subsidiaries were formed with...DEC 80 D C BANKS UNCLASSIFIED WES/NP/S4.-8O-19 ti. LE VEL MISCELLANEOUS PAPER GL-80-19 31 STORAGE OF RESIDUAL FUEL OIL IN UNDERGROUND UNLINED ROCK...Ruimaia.~ indl a riiirI( le ol Air in1 wi r’ hve en coIit’Icted to enc1ouraige muiliriershnpl I[I the i 5kRM. 1) By Innf t-Ii .fi’ I ’I.]%- I "W

  14. Cosmic muon flux measurements at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalousis, L. N.; Guarnaccia, E.; Link, J. M.; Mariani, C.; Pelkey, R.

    2014-08-01

    In this article, the results from a series of muon flux measurements conducted at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility (KURF), Virginia, United States, are presented. The detector employed for these investigations, is made of plastic scintillator bars readout by wavelength shifting fibers and multianode photomultiplier tubes. Data was taken at several locations inside KURF, spanning rock overburden values from ~ 200 to 1450 m.w.e. From the extracted muon rates an empirical formula was devised, that estimates the muon flux inside the mine as a function of the overburden. The results are in good agreement with muon flux calculations based on analytical models and MUSIC.

  15. Cosmic Muon Flux Measurements at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Kalousis, L N; Link, J M; Mariani, C; Pelkey, R

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the results from a series of muon flux measurements conducted at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility (KURF), Virginia, United States, are presented. The detector employed for these investigations, is made of plastic scintillator bars readout by wavelength shifting fibers and multianode photomultiplier tubes. Data was taken at several locations inside KURF, spanning rock overburden values from ~ 200 to 1450 m.w.e. From the extracted muon rates an empirical formula was devised, that estimates the muon flux inside the mine as a function of the overburden. The results are in good agreement with muon flux calculations based on analytical models and MUSIC.

  16. An integrated localization system for robots in underground environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, C.H.; Han, D.G.; Xiong, Y.L. [Huazhong University of Science & Technology, Wuhan (China)

    2009-07-01

    An integrated localization system mainly based on a strap-down inertial measurement unit and a digital compass is designed for exploring and rescuing task in coal mines and tunnels. After a system model was founded, a filtering algorithm combining a wavelet-based pre-filter with unscented Kalman filters was developed for reckoning tracks of robots and localizing it. Based on this research, an integrated localization system for robots in underground environments can be developed to explore some regions and rescue people. Although errors of localization exist, performance of the integrated system should be improved if some sensors and landmarks or maps of tunnels are introduced.

  17. Human detection for underground autonomous mine vehicles using thermal imaging

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dickens, JS

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available precludes its use in a GPS deprived underground environment. RFID tags are popular for collision avoidance systems owing to their very low false alarm rates. Each miner has an RFID tag embedded in their cap-lamp. A transmitter mounted on the vehicle... by the objects being imaged, in this case people. The long wavelength (7-14 ?m) of thermal IR allows it to penetrate dust and smoke [6]. The IR spectrum can be divided into four main regions. The main regions are near- infrared, short-wavelength, mid...

  18. Augmented reality for underground pipe inspection and maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Shaun W.; Pretlove, John R. G.

    1998-12-01

    The University of Surrey is engaged in developing augmented reality systems and teleoperation techniques for enhanced visual analysis and task performance in hostile environments. One particular current project in the UK is addressing the development of stereo vision systems, augmented reality, image processing techniques and specialist robotic vehicles which may be used for the future examination and maintenance of underground sewage pipes. This paper describes the components of the stereo vision and augmented reality system and illustrates some preliminary results of the use of the stereo robotic system mounted on a mobile laboratory vehicle and calibrated using a pin-hole camera model.

  19. With low development costs, a small underground mine can pay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brezovec, D.

    1986-09-01

    Ron Laswell's Rebbird mine, Ind., is a small family-run underground mine with a 2-million-recoverable-ton reserve. Laswell Coal workers have driven the slope shaft with equipment that is now being used to mine the coal and have raised two vertical ventilation shafts themselves. The mine, operating in a 54-in-thick seam is projected for a five-year life and is expected to yield an annual production of 150,000 tons. Describes the mining equipment and the development of the mine.

  20. Time correlations of high energy muons in an underground detector

    CERN Document Server

    Becherini, Y; Chiarusi, T; Cozzi, M; Dekhissi, H; Derkaoui, J; Esposito, L S; Giacomelli, G; Giglietto, N; Giorgini, M; Maaroufi, F; Mandrioli, G; Manzoor, S; Margiotta, A; Moussa, A

    2005-01-01

    We present the result of a search for correlations in the arrival times of high energy muons collected from 1995 till 2000 with the streamer tube system of the complete MACRO detector at the underground Gran Sasso Lab. Large samples of single muons (8.6 million), double muons (0.46 million) and multiple muons with multiplicities from 3 to 6 (0.08 million) were selected. These samples were used to search for time correlations of cosmic ray particles coming from the whole upper hemisphere or from selected space cones. The results of our analyses confirm with high statistics a random arrival time distribution of high energy cosmic rays.