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Sample records for ctenopharyngodon idella electronic

  1. MERCURY INTOXICATION IN GRASS CARP (CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLA)

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    The present project was carried out to study the effects of acute and chronic mercury intoxication in Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). For acute phase experiment, 48 fish were divided into four equal groups (A, B, C and D). Groups B, C and D were given HgCl2 at sublethal dose as 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 mg/L, respectively, while group A acted as control. Skin, gills and kidneys were isolated from the fish after 48 and 96 hours for pathological studies. For chronic phase, 72 fish were divided int...

  2. THE PREVALENCE OF LERNAEID ECTOPARASITES IN GRASS CARP (CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLA

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    Z. TASAWAR, S. ZAFAR, M. H. LASHARI AND C. S. HAYAT1

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of lernaeid ectoparasites in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella. For this purpose, 597 fishes (Ctenopharyngodon idella were examined for lernaeid ectoparasites at a private fish farm located in Multan, Pakistan. Four species of the genus Lernaea i.e. L. cyprinacea, L. polymorpha, L. oryzophila, and L. lophiara were recorded. It was observed that L. polymorpha had the highest (P20 cm.

  3. MERCURY INTOXICATION IN GRASS CARP (CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLA

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    M. S. Khan, S. A. Khan, Z. I. Chaudhary, M. N. Khan,1 A. Aslam , K. Ashraf2, R. M. Ayyub and M. F. Rai.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The present project was carried out to study the effects of acute and chronic mercury intoxication in Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella. For acute phase experiment, 48 fish were divided into four equal groups (A, B, C and D. Groups B, C and D were given HgCl2 at sublethal dose as 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 mg/L, respectively, while group A acted as control. Skin, gills and kidneys were isolated from the fish after 48 and 96 hours for pathological studies. For chronic phase, 72 fish were divided into five groups (E, F, G, H and I, containing 12 fish each except group E which contained 24 fish. Groups F, G, H and I were given HgCl2 at sublethal dose of 0.3 mg/L for 4, 8, 12 and 16 days, respectively, while group E acted as control. Skin, gills and kidneys were isolated from each group (F, G, H and I after 4, 8, 12 and 16 days respectively for pathological studies. During chronic phase in the treatment groups normal histology of epidermis was disturbed with increased number of immature cells. Overall, skin layers were atrophied and withered. Histopathology of gills showed hyperplasia of epithelial cells of gill filaments, fusion of secondary lamellae giving a club shaped appearance of filaments and contraction and sloughing of respiratory epithelium in groups F, G, H and I. Histopathological examination of kidneys also showed a wide range of toxicity lesions and destruction in treatment groups (F, G, H and I. Disintegration and disorganization of cells of both renal and haemopoitic systems including dilatation of capillaries and thickening of basal lumen were observed. Mild to sever tubular epithelial degeneration, karyolysis, dilation and shrinkage of Bowman’s capsule and glomerulus were also observed. In chronic phase experiment, fish showed clinical signs including restlessness, difficult breathing, fin flickering and jerky movements. Suppressed growth rate was also observed in treatment groups (F, G, H and I. During acute phase, after 48 hours, these

  4. Mitochondrial DNA sequence of the hybrid of Squaliobarbus curriculus (♀) × Ctenopharyngodon idella (♂).

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    Liu, Qiao-Lin; Liu, Min; Xiao, Tiao-Yi; Xu, Bao-Hong; Su, Jian-Ming

    2013-08-01

    In this work, we reported the complete mitochondrial DNA sequence of the hybrid of Squaliobarbus curriculus (♀) × Ctenopharyngodon idella (♂), which was obtained by artificial hybridization. The total length of the mitochondrial genome is 16,616 bp, with the base composition of 31.15% A, 25.02% T, 27.66% C, and 16.17% G. It contains 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and a major non-coding control region (D-loop region). The arrangement of these genes is the same as that found in the teleosts. All the protein initiation codons are ATG, except for COX1 that begins with GTG. The complete mitogenome of the hybrid of S. curriculus (♀) × C. idella (♂) provides an important data set for the study in genetic mechanism.

  5. Occurrence of Bothriocephalus acheilognathi (Cestoda, Bothriocephallidea) in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella in the Changjiang River drainage

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    Xi, Bingwen; Wang, Guitang; Xie, Jun

    2011-05-01

    Bothriocephalus acheilognathi is a potentially serious pathogen in wild or cultured fish in worldwide distribution. We examined 58-farmed grass carp from Nanchang in the Changjiang (Yangtze) River drainage, from which 20.7% were found to harbor the parasite with an infection intensity of 36.9±54.7. The parasites were identified based on morphology and rDNA ITS sequence analysis. The present report represents the first record of the parasite in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella in the river drainage.

  6. Effects of sediment burial on grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes,1844), eggs

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    George, Amy E.; Chapman, Duane C.; Deters, Joseph E.; Erwin, Susannah O.; Hayer, Cari-Ann

    2015-01-01

    It is thought that grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) eggs must remain suspended in the water column in order to hatch successfully. Using sand, the effects of varying sediment levels on grass carp eggs were tested at different developmental states and temperatures. Survival was high (15–35%, depending on temperature and trial) in the unburied treatment where eggs rested on a sand bed but were not covered by sediment. Survival was lower in the partial burial (5–10%) and very low (0–4%) in the full burial treatment. In all treatments, delayed hatching (organisms remaining in membranes past the stage of hatching competence) was noted. Deformities such as missing heads and pericardial edema occurred at high rates in the partial and full burials. Eggs that come in contact with the benthos and are resuspended in the water column should be considered in embryonic drift models.

  7. Transcriptome analysis of food habit transition from carnivory to herbivory in a typical vertebrate herbivore, grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella

    OpenAIRE

    He, Shan; Liang, Xu-Fang; Li, Ling; Sun, Jian; Wen, Zheng-Yong; Cheng, Xiao-Yan; Li, Ai-Xuan; Cai, Wen-Jing; He, Yu-Hui; Wang, Ya-ping; Tao, Ya-Xiong; Yuan, Xiao-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Background Although feeding behavior and food habit are ecologically and economically important properties, little is known about formation and evolution of herbivory. Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is an ecologically appealing model of vertebrate herbivore, widely cultivated in the world as edible fish or as biological control agents for aquatic weeds. Grass carp exhibits food habit transition from carnivory to herbivory during development. However, currently little is known about the ...

  8. Insights into the Antiviral Immunity against Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella Reovirus (GCRV in Grass Carp

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    Youliang Rao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Global fish production from aquaculture has rapidly grown over the past decades, and grass carp shares the largest portion. However, hemorrhagic disease caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV results in tremendous loss of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella industry. During the past years, development of molecular biology and cellular biology technologies has promoted significant advances in the understanding of the pathogen and the immune system. Immunoprophylaxis based on stimulation of the immune system of fish has also got some achievements. In this review, authors summarize the recent progresses in basic researches on GCRV; viral nucleic acid sensors, high-mobility group box proteins (HMGBs; pattern recognition receptors (PRRs, Toll-like receptors (TLRs and retinoic acid inducible gene I- (RIG-I- like receptors (RLRs; antiviral immune responses induced by PRRs-mediated signaling cascades of type I interferon (IFN-I and IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs activation. The present review also notices the potential applications of molecule genetic markers. Additionally, authors discuss the current preventive and therapeutic strategies (vaccines, RNAi, and prevention medicine and highlight the importance of innate immunity in long term control for grass carp hemorrhagic disease.

  9. Storage of unfertilized eggs of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella, in artificial media

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    Mehrnaz Safarzadenia

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Two separate experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of artificial storage media, temperature and holding duration on the percentage of eyed embryos, hatching and malformed larvae of grass carp eggs, Ctenopharyngodon idella. Grass carp ova, outside the ovary cavity, were stored in GCACF (Grass Carp Artificial Coelomic Fluid and Dettlaff extender at 4°C and 20°C for 30, 60, 120 and 180 min. GCACF medium was made base on composition of grass carp coelomic fluid. For this work and designing the GCACF medium, ova were collected from ten females and they were filtered and coelomic fluid was separated for chemical composition analysis. This study was done with 16 treatments and one control group in three replicates. The results shown that storage duration and artificial media had significant effects on eyed embryos rate and hatching percentage (P0.05. Also, temperature had significant effects on the percentage of eyed embryos and hatching (P0.05. Eyed embryo and hatching rates decreased with increasing storage duration. Highest eyed embryo and hatching rate between treatments were observed in GCACF, 30 min storage and 4°C and lowest of them were observed in Dettlaff extender at 20°C and 180 min storage.

  10. Sox genes in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella with their implications for genome duplication and evolution

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    Tong Jingou

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Sox gene family is found in a broad range of animal taxa and encodes important gene regulatory proteins involved in a variety of developmental processes. We have obtained clones representing the HMG boxes of twelve Sox genes from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, one of the four major domestic carps in China. The cloned Sox genes belong to group B1, B2 and C. Our analyses show that whereas the human genome contains a single copy of Sox4, Sox11 and Sox14, each of these genes has two co-orthologs in grass carp, and the duplication of Sox4 and Sox11 occurred before the divergence of grass carp and zebrafish, which support the "fish-specific whole-genome duplication" theory. An estimation for the origin of grass carp based on the molecular clock using Sox1, Sox3 and Sox11 genes as markers indicates that grass carp (subfamily Leuciscinae and zebrafish (subfamily Danioninae diverged approximately 60 million years ago. The potential uses of Sox genes as markers in revealing the evolutionary history of grass carp are discussed.

  11. Induction of diploid gynogenesis in Wels catfish (Silurus glanis) using UV-irradiated grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) sperm.

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    Fopp-Bayat, Dorota

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the first successful induction of meiotic gynogenesis in Wels catfish (Silurus glanis) using heterologous sperm of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) with DNA inactivated by means of UV-irradiation at 4800 J/m(2). The cold shock at 6 degrees C (duration of 20 min) started in the nineth minute after fertilization was found as efficient in retaining the second polar body and producing meiotic diploids. Successful induction of meiotic gynogenesis was confirmed by the microsatellite DNA analysis, which revealed only maternal inheritance in gynogenetic offspring. Ploidy of gynogenetic offspring was verified by the application of active nucleoli counting analysis.

  12. A one-step molecular biology method for simple and rapid detection of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella reovirus (GCRV) HZ08 strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) primers designed against conserved regions of segment 6 (s6) gene were used for the detection of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella reovirus (GCRV) HZ08 subtype. The entire amplification could be completed within 40 min at 62...

  13. Protective roles of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella Mx isoforms against grass carp reovirus.

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    Limin Peng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Myxovirus resistance (Mx proteins are crucial effectors of the innate antiviral response against a wide range of viruses, mediated by the type I interferon (IFN-I signaling pathway. However, the antiviral activity of Mx proteins is diverse and complicated in different species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the current study, two novel Mx genes (CiMx1 and CiMx3 were identified in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella. CiMx1 and CiMx3 proteins exhibit high sequence identity (92.1%, and low identity with CiMx2 (49.2% and 49.5%, respectively from the GenBank database. The predicted three-dimensional (3D structures are distinct among the three isoforms. mRNA instability motifs also display significant differences in the three genes. The spatial and temporal expression profiles of three C. idella Mx genes and the IFN-I gene were investigated by real-time fluorescence quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR following infection with grass carp reovirus (GCRV in vivo and in vitro. The results demonstrated that all the four genes were implicated in the anti-GCRV immune response, that mRNA expression of Mx genes might be independent of IFN-I, and that CIK cells are suitable for antiviral studies. By comparing expression patterns following GCRV challenge or poly(I:C treatment, it was observed that GCRV blocks mRNA expression of the four genes. To determine the functions of Mx genes, three CiMx cDNAs were cloned into expression vectors and utilized for transfection of CIK cells. The protection conferred by each recombinant CiMx protein against GCRV infection was evaluated. Antiviral activity against GCRV was demonstrated by reduced cytopathic effect, lower virus titer and lower levels of expressed viral transcripts. The transcription of IFN-I gene was also monitored. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results indicate all three Mx genes can suppress replication of grass carp reovirus and over-expression of Mx genes mediate feedback inhibition of the IFN

  14. Molecular cloning, tissue distribution, and pharmacological characterization of melanocortin-4 receptor in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

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    Li, L; Yang, Z; Zhang, Y-P; He, S; Liang, X-F; Tao, Y-X

    2017-04-01

    Melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) plays a pivotal role in the mediation of leptin action on food intake and energy expenditure in mammals. The MC4R has also been identified in several teleosts, and its importance in the regulation of fish energy homeostasis is emerging. We herein reported on the molecular cloning, tissue distribution, and pharmacological characterization of MC4R in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), an economically and ecologically important fish. We showed that grass carp MC4R (ciMC4R) consisted of a 981 bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 326 amino acids, highly homologous (>95%) to several teleost MC4Rs. Phylogenetic and synteny analysis further indicated ciMC4R was closely related to piscine MC4Rs. Using reverse transcription PCR, we found that mc4r messenger RNA was expressed in the brain as well as various peripheral tissues in grass carp. The pharmacological properties of ciMC4R were investigated using 4 agonists, including α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH), β-MSH, [Nle(4), D-Phe(7)]-MSH (NDP-MSH), and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). We showed that all 4 ligands could bind to ciMC4R and initiate dose-dependent intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) accumulation. Grass carp MC4R had the highest affinity for NDP-MSH. Both NDP-MSH and ACTH (1-24) exhibited higher potencies compared to the other 2 endogenous agonists. The ciMC4R was constitutively active, with significantly increased basal cAMP level compared with that of human MC4R (P < 0.01). The availability of ciMC4R and its pharmacologic characteristics provide a basis for future investigation of its functional roles in regulating diverse physiological processes and novel insights into understanding the mechanism of food habit transition in grass carp.

  15. Immunomodulatory Effects of a Bioactive Compound Isolated from Dryopteris crassirhizoma on the Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella

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    Cheng Chi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated effects of compound kaempferol 3-a-L-(4-O-acetylrhamnopyranoside-7-a-L-rhamnopyranoside (SA isolated from Dryopteris crassirhizoma during immune-related gene expression in Ctenopharyngodon idella head kidney macrophages (CIHKM. The expression of immune-related genes (IL-1β, TNF-α, MyD88, and Mx1 were investigated using real-time PCR at 2 h, 8 h, 12 h, and 24 h after incubation with 1, 10, and 50 μg mL−1 of SA. Furthermore, fish were injected intraperitoneally with 100 μL of SA, and immune parameters such as lysozyme activity, complement C3, SOD, phagocytic activity, and IgM level were examined at 1, 2, and 3 weeks after injection. The differential expression of cytokines was observed after exposure to SA. IL-1β genes displayed significant expression at 2 and 8 h after exposure to 1–10 μg mL−1 of SA. SA also induced gene expression of cytokines such as MyD88, Mx1, and TNF-α. Furthermore, enhanced immune parameters in grass carp confirmed the immunomodulatory activity of SA. Interestingly, this compound has no toxic effect on CIHKM cells as tested by MTT assay. In addition, fish immunised with 10 μg mL−1 of SA exhibited maximum resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila infection. These results suggest that SA has the potential to stimulate immune responses in grass carp.

  16. Efeito do gelo clorado sobre parâmetros químicos e microbiológicos da carne de carpa capim (Ctenopharyngodon idella Effect of chlorinated ice on chemical and microbiological features of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella flesh

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    Rodrigo Scherer

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A rápida perecibilidade dos peixes provoca perdas na industrialização e comercialização desse alimento. No presente trabalho, avaliou-se a eficiência da utilização de gelo clorado para ampliar a vida-de-prateleira de carpa capim (Ctenopharyngodon idella. Foram realizadas contagens de microrganismos aeróbios mesófilos e psicrotróficos na carne, e determinada a concentração de bases voláteis totais e o pH da carne de carpas armazenadas inteiras, sob refrigeração (3±1ºC, cobertas com gelo sem cloro ou clorado (5ppm, ao longo de 20 dias. O cloro reduziu significativamente (pThe rapid spoilage of fishes causes economical losses in the processing and marketing of these products. In the present study, the efficiency of chlorinated ice to increase grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella shelf life was evaluated. Mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria count, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN and pH were evaluated in the flesh of grass carp stored refrigerated (3±1ºC for 20 days, covered with chlorinated (5ppm or non-chlorinated ice. Chlorine significantly reduced (p<0,05 mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria count in the flesh, as well as pH and the initial values of TVBN. TVBN values were low and did not exhibit great changes over the storage time. Results showed that grass carp shelf life could be extended around 3 days by using chlorinated ice. Besides, pH and TVBN values were considered unsuitable to assess grass carp spoilage.

  17. Transcriptome Analysis of the Innate Immunity-Related Complement System in Spleen Tissue of Ctenopharyngodon idella Infected with Aeromonas hydrophila.

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    Yunfei Dang

    Full Text Available The grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella is an important commercial farmed herbivorous fish species in China, but is susceptible to Aeromonas hydrophila infections. In the present study, we performed de novo RNA-Seq sequencing of spleen tissue from specimens of a disease-resistant family, which were given intra-peritoneal injections containing PBS with or without a dose of A. hydrophila. The fish were sampled from the control group at 0 h, and from the experimental group at 4, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h. 122.18 million clean reads were obtained from the normalized cDNA libraries; these were assembled into 425,260 contigs and then 191,795 transcripts. Of those, 52,668 transcripts were annotated with the NCBI Nr database, and 41,347 of the annotated transcripts were assigned into 90 functional groups. 20,569 unigenes were classified into six main categories, including 38 secondary KEGG pathways. 2,992 unigenes were used in the analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs. 89 of the putative DEGs were related to the immune system and 41 of them were involved in the complement and coagulation cascades pathway. This study provides insights into the complement and complement-related pathways involved in innate immunity, through expression profile analysis of the genomic resources in C. idella. We conclude that complement and complement-related genes play important roles during defense against A. hydrophila infection. The immune response is activated at 4 h after the bacterial injections, indicating that the complement pathways are activated at the early stage of bacterial infection. The study has improved our understanding of the immune response mechanisms in C. idella to bacterial pathogens.

  18. Serodiagnosis of grass carp reovirus infection in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella by a novel Western blot technique.

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    He, Yongxing; Jiang, Yousheng; Lu, Liqun

    2013-12-01

    Frequent outbreaks of grass carp hemorrhagic disease, caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV) infection, pose as serious threats to the production of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella. Although various nucleic acids-based diagnostic methods have been shown effective, lack of commercial monoclonal antibody against grass carp IgM has impeded the development of any reliable immunoassays in detection of GCRV infection. The present study describes the preparation and screening of monoclonal antibodies against the constant region of grass carp IgM protein, and the development of a Western blot (WB) protocol for the specific detection of antibodies against outer capsid VP7 protein of GCRV that serves as antibody-capture antigen in the immunoassay. In comparison to a conventional RT-PCR method, validity of the WB is further demonstrated by testing on clinical fish serum samples collected from a grass carp farm in Jiangxi Province during disease pandemic in 2011. In conclusion, the WB technique established in this study could be employed for specific serodiagnosis of GCRV infection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Determination of LC50 of Copper Sulfate and Lead(II Nitrate and Behavioral Responses of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella

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    Hamed NEKOUBIN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella were exposed to copper and lead for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. Experimental fishes which measured an average length of 8.2 ± 0.44 cm and weighed 4.3 ± 0.5 g. Seven groups (with three replicates of experimental fish were exposed to seven concentrations of each metal. The grass carps were kept in 21 tanks each stocked with 30 fishes were used in our experiments for each metal. The median lethal concentration (LC50 of copper to grass carp for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h were 2.422 mg/L, 2.222 mg/L, 2.006 mg/L, and 1.717 mg/L respectively. The median lethal concentration (LC50 of lead to grass carp for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h were 293.747 mg/L, 278.019 mg/L, 260.324 mg/L, and 246.455 mg/L, respectively. In addition, the behavioral changes of grass carp at different metal concentrations were determined. LC50 increased as mean exposure times decreased for both metals. Physiological responses like rapid opercular movement and frequent gulping of air was observed during the initial stages of exposure after which it became occasional. All these observations can be considered to monitor the quality of aquatic ecosystem and severity of pollution. In conclusion, copper is more toxic than lead for grass carp.

  20. Molecular cloning and mRNA expression analysis of myosin heavy chain(MyHC)from fast skeletal muscle of grass carp,Ctenopharyngodon idella

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚武英; 符贵红; 宾石玉; 蒙涛; 周瑞雪; 成嘉; 赵发兰; 张红芳; 张建社

    2010-01-01

    The myosin heavy chain(MyHC)is one of the major structural and contracting proteins of muscle.We have isolated the cDNA clone encoding MyHC of the grass carp,Ctenopharyngodon idella. The sequence comprises 5 934 bp,including a 5 814 bp open reading frame encoding an amino acid sequence of 1 937 residues.The deduced amino acid sequence showed 69%homology to rabbit fast skeletal MyHC and 73%–76%homology to the MyHCs from the mandarin fish,walleye pollack,white croaker,chum salmon,and carp.The putative sequenc...

  1. A study on the usability of pond water used for growing grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella valenciennes in salad-lettuce production

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    Raşit Zeki Eltez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aquaponics is a bio-integrated food production system that, aquaculture (fish production in intensive culture ponds and hydroponics (plant growing in water with nutrient solution plant production are made together. This study was designed in the shape of a closed system; two different feeding dose (3% and 4% of the live weight of the pool Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella Valenciennes feed with cultivation used pool water, Nutrient Film Technique (NFT in the form of the nutrient solution system designed as a lettuce-salad (Lactuca sativa group of crops to investigate the applicability of the system with the aim of cultivating the effects upon and carried out.

  2. Immunogenicity and protective role of antigenic regions from five outer membrane proteins of Flavobacterium columnare in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella

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    Luo, Zhang; Liu, Zhixin; Fu, Jianping; Zhang, Qiusheng; Huang, Bei; Nie, Pin

    2016-11-01

    Flavobacterium columnare causes columnaris disease in freshwater fish. In the present study, the antigenic regions of five outer membrane proteins (OMPs), including zinc metalloprotease, prolyl oligopeptidase, thermolysin, collagenase and chondroitin AC lyase, were bioinformatically analyzed, fused together, and then expressed as a recombinant fusion protein in Escherichia coli. The expressed protein of 95.6 kDa, as estimated by 10% sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, was consistent with the molecular weight deduced from the amino acid sequence. The purified recombinant protein was used to vaccinate the grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella. Following vaccination of the fish their IgM antibody levels were examined, as was the expression of IgM, IgD and IgZ immunoglobulin genes and other genes such as MHC Iα and MHC IIβ, which are also involved in adaptive immunity. Interleukin genes ( IL), including IL-1β, IL-8 and IL-10, and type I and type II interferon ( IFN) genes were also examined. At 3 and 4 weeks post-vaccination (wpv), significant increases in IgM antibody levels were observed in the fish vaccinated with the recombinant fusion protein, and an increase in the expression levels of IgM, IgD and IgZ genes was also detected following the vaccinations, thus indicating that an adaptive immune response was induced by the vaccinations. Early increases in the expression levels of IL and IFN genes were also observed in the vaccinated fish. At four wpv, the fish were challenged with F. columnare, and the vaccinated fish showed a good level of protection against this pathogen, with 39% relative percent survival (RPS) compared with the control group. It can be concluded, therefore, that the five OMPs, in the form of a recombinant fusion protein vaccine, induced an immune response in fish and protection against F. columnare.

  3. Toxic effects of three strobilurins (trifloxystrobin, azoxystrobin and kresoxim-methyl) on mRNA expression and antioxidant enzymes in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) juveniles.

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    Liu, Lei; Jiang, Chao; Wu, Zhuo-Qi; Gong, Yu-Xin; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2013-12-01

    The strobilurins are used widely in the world as effective fungicidal agents to control Asian soybean rust. In this study, the early life stage of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), which is one of the most important aquaculture species in China, was chosen to measure the acute toxicity of three common strobilurin-derived fungicides (trifloxystrobin (TFS), azoxystrobin (AZ) and kresoxim-methyl (KM)). As endpoints, normal developmental parameters (lethal concentration (LC₅₀) and average heart rate), expression of relative genes, and three antioxidant enzyme activities in the developing juveniles were recorded during a 48 h exposure. The results revealed that values of LC₅₀ were TFS 0.051 (0.046-0.058) mg L⁻¹, AZ 0.549 (0.419-0.771) mg L⁻¹ and KM 0.338 (0.284-0.407) mg L⁻¹ for juveniles. For the potential toxicity mechanisms, these three fungicides increased catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activity and decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, significantly inhibited expressions of three growth-related genes (IGF-1, IGF-2 and GHR) and two energy-related-genes (CCK and PYY), and caused pronounced up-regulation a stress-gene (HSP70). The present study demonstrated potential toxic effects of TFS, AZ and KM on the early development of C. idella. Overall, three strobilurins (TFS, AZ and KM) might cause serious damages to the aquatic species; therefore, their pollution supervision in water ecological environment should be strengthened.

  4. Molecular cloning and mRNA expression analysis of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) from fast skeletal muscle of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella

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    Chu, Wuying; Fu, Guihong; Bing, Shiyu; Meng, Tao; Zhou, Ruixue; Cheng, Jia; Zhao, Falan; Zhang, Hongfang; Zhang, Jianshe

    2010-03-01

    The myosin heavy chain (MyHC) is one of the major structural and contracting proteins of muscle. We have isolated the cDNA clone encoding MyHC of the grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella. The sequence comprises 5 934 bp, including a 5 814 bp open reading frame encoding an amino acid sequence of 1 937 residues. The deduced amino acid sequence showed 69% homology to rabbit fast skeletal MyHC and 73%-76% homology to the MyHCs from the mandarin fish, walleye pollack, white croaker, chum salmon, and carp. The putative sequences of subfragment-1 and the light meromyosin region showed 61.4%-80% homology to the corresponding regions of other fish MyHCs. The tissue-specific and developmental stage-specific expressions of the MyHC gene were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. The MyHC gene showed the highest expression in the muscles compared with the kidney, spleen and intestine. Developmentally, there was a gradual increase in MyHC mRNA expression from the neural formation stage to the tail bud stage. The highest expression was detected in hatching larva. Our work on the MyHC gene from the grass carp has provided useful information for fish molecular biology and fish genomics.

  5. Integrated biological control of water hyacinths, Eichhornia crassipes by a novel combination of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes, 1844), and the weevil, Neochetina spp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GOPALAKRISHNAN Ayyaru; RAJKUMAR Mayalagu; SUN Jun; PARIDA Ajay; VENMATHI MARAN Balu Alagar

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella (Cyprinidae) and weevils Neochetina spp. (Curculionidae) to control the aquatic weed, water hyacinth, is investigated in a square net cage (happas) setting at a farm in Cuddalore District, South India. This novel combination of insects and fish is found to be superior to individual treatments for controlling the weed growth within 110 d. The biomass of the weed, number of plants, percentage of flowered plants and chlorophyll contents were studied. The weed biomass is reduced from 5 kg (dayto 0.33 kg (day 110) when exposed to grass carp and weevils. The number of plants is reduced to 0.75 in grass carp and weevil exposed happas, while it is 741.5 in the control. The mean number of leaves per plant is also reduced. In addition, the chlorophyll a and b are significantly reduced in happas exposed to the combination of fish and insects when compared to the other treatments. Based on the results of this study, we consider the combined use of grass carp and weevils to be more efficient and sustainable for managing water hyacinths than the use of these organisms individually.

  6. Molecular cloning, expression and functional characterization of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor (TRAF)-interacting protein (TRIP) in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, R-H; Chang, Z-G; Sun, J; Yang, F; Nie, G-X; Ji, H

    2016-10-01

    TRIP (Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) Receptor-Associated Factor (TRAF)-Interacting Protein), a member of the TNF superfamily, plays a crucial role in the modulation of inflammation in vertebrates. However, no information about TRIP is available in teleosts. In this study, the full-length cDNA of TRIP, containing a 5'UTR of 112 bp, an ORF of 1359 bp, and a 3'UTR of 29 bp before the poly (A) tail, was cloned from grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella. The TRIP gene encoded a protein of 452 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 51.06 KD and a predicted theoretical isoelectric point (pI) of 9.11. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that TRIP mRNA was expressed in all the tissues examined in grass carp, with the highest expression in the kidney, followed by the intestine and thymus. However, lower levels of expression were also detected in fat, spleen, liver, gonad and heart. Subcellular localization and two-hybrid analysis revealed that TRIP was located in the nucleus and that it interacted with TRAF1 and TRAF2 in HEK293T cells. Furthermore, similar to TNF-α, IL-10 and TRIP mRNA expression was upregulated in the spleen of fish fed high-fat or high-carbohydrate diets, suggesting that TRIP might be associated with the response to excessive energy intake. The mRNA relative expression of TRIP was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) after hepatocyte of C. idella was treated with 2 μg/mL lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 4 h, while the expression levels of inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-10 were significantly increased (P < 0.05). Taken together, these results indicate that TRIP might play important roles in immune defense and has the potential to be used as a anti-inflammation target in grass carp.

  7. Two grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 5 genes exhibit different yet conserved functions in development and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guo-Dong; Zhou, Chun-Xue; Lin, Si-Tong; Chen, Jie; Jiang, Xia-Yun; Zou, Shu-Ming

    2017-02-01

    Insulin-like growth factor binding-protein 5 (igfbp5), the most conserved member of the IGFBP family in vertebrates, plays a critical role in controlling cell survival, growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. Here, we characterized the expression patterns of igfbp5a and igfbp5b in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), which are retained in many fish species, likely from the teleost-specific whole-genome duplication. Both igfbp5a and igfbp5b encode 268- and 263-aa peptides, respectively, which share a sequence identity of 71%. Their mRNAs are not detected in zygotes. At 14hpf, grass carp igfbp5b mRNA was detected in the somites, while igfbp5a mRNA has some possible signal around the eye and head region. At 24hpf, both igfbp5a and igfbp5b mRNA appear to be limited to the presomitic mesoderm. At 36hpf, igfbp5a mRNA was only detected in the midbrain, while igfbp5b mRNA was detected in both the midbrain and notochord. Overall, both mRNAs were expressed in most adult tissues. igfbp5a and igfbp5b were significantly upregulated in the muscle and liver after injection of 10μg per kilogram body weight of zebrafish growth hormone (zGH), while their hepatic expression was downregulated by 50μg zGH. During fasting, both igfbp5a and igfbp5b mRNAs were significantly downregulated in the muscle but upregulated in the liver. Collectively, the results suggest that the two igfbp5 genes play important but different roles in the regulation of growth and development in grass carp.

  8. Deficiency of dietary niacin impaired intestinal mucosal immune function via regulating intestinal NF-κB, Nrf2 and MLCK signaling pathways in young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lin; Li, Shun-Quan; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Pei; Zhao, Juan; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary niacin on intestinal mucosal immune and physical barrier, and relative mRNA levels of signaling molecules in the intestine of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A total of 540 young grass carp (255.63 ± 0.41 g) were fed six diets containing graded levels of niacin (3.95, 14.92, 24.98, 35.03, 44.97 and 55.01 mg/kg diet) for 8 weeks. Results observed that niacin deficiency decreased lysozyme (LA) and acid phosphatase (ACP) activities, and complement 3 (C3) content in the intestine (P niacin deficiency increased reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl (PC) contents, decreased glutathione content, and copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferases (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities in the intestine of young grass carp (P niacin deficiency decreased mRNA levels of CuZnSOD, MnSOD, GPx, CAT, GST, GR, Claudin b, Claudin 3, Claudin c, Occludin, ZO-1, Claudin 15 and NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) (P  0.05). In conclusion, niacin deficiency decreased intestinal mucosal immune and intestinal physical function, as well as regulated mRNA levels of NF-κB P65, IκBα, IKKα, IKKβ, IKKγ, Nrf2, Keap1a, p38 MAPK and MLCK in the intestine of young grass carp. Based on the broken-line model analysis of intestinal lysozyme activity, the requirement of niacin for young grass carp (255.63 ± 0.41 g) were estimated to be 39.80 mg/kg diet.

  9. Cinética de deterioração apresentada por filés de carpa-capim (Ctenopharyngodon idella embalados a vácuo sob diferentes condições de refrigeração Kinetics of deterioration presented bt vacuum packaged grass carp (Ctenopharryngodon idella fillets under different refrigeration conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Prentice

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A diversificação da oferta de produtos pesqueiros e, as práticas de aquicultura poderão incrementar o consumo destes produtos, desde que a exigência cada vez maior dos consumidores por alimentos de melhor qualidade, frescos e naturais, seja levada em consideração. O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver um estudo tecnológico visando à obtenção de um alimento minimamente processado à base de carpa-capim (Ctenopharyngodon idella, estudando os fatores que influenciam na qualidade dos filés de carpa sob embalagem com atmosfera modificada a vácuo, armazenadas a temperatura de refrigeração. Em resumo, o processamento mínimo aplicado às amostras, aliado à embalagem a vácuo permitiu aumentar a vida-útil dos filés de carpa-capim.The offer of fishery products and the Aquaculture practices will can increase consume if the exigency for fresh and high quality products would be attend. The objective of this work was obtain a MPR product with grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, studying the factors that was important in the quality and in the deterioration of the products with modified atmosphere packaging at vacuum, stored at refrigeration temperature. In short, the MPR practices applied in the products and the vacuum packaging, allowed to increase the storage time of the grass carp fillets.

  10. Trunk kidney of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) mediates immune responses against GCRV and viral/bacterial PAMPs in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lijun; Li, Qingmei; Su, Jianguo; Yang, Chunrong; Li, Yinqian; Rao, Youliang

    2013-03-01

    Trunk kidney is a vital organ for excretion in teleosts. There have been sporadic reports of processing pathogens for the immune function in trunk kidney. However, molecular processes of pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) responding to virus and viral/bacterial pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) are poorly elucidated in trunk kidney. In the present study, we investigated transcriptional profiles of twelve representative immune-related genes (TLRs (TLR3, TLR7 and TLR22); RLRs (RIG-I, MDA5 and LGP2); NLRs (NOD1 and NOD2); adapter molecules (MyD88 and IPS-1); effector molecule type I interferon (IFN-I) and immunoglobulin M (IgM)) in trunk kidney tissue of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) (designated as Ci) injection of grass carp reovirus (GCRV) utilizing quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). Furthermore, mRNA expression patterns of these genes (IgM excepted) were examined post GCRV infection and polyinosine-polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or peptidoglycan (PGN) stimulation in primary trunk kidney cells of grass carp. The relative values of CiTLR3, CiTLR22 and CiMyD88 were increased post GCRV challenge and viral/bacterial PAMPs stimulation. The mRNA transcriptions of CiTLR7 were obviously activated with GCRV challenge. Remarkably, the mRNA expressions of CiRIG-I, CiMDA5, CiLGP2 and CiIPS-1 were largely up-regulated with GCRV challenge and viral/bacterial PAMPs stimulation. Interestingly, the expression tendencies of CiNOD1 and CiNOD2 were differential not only in GCRV challenge and poly(I:C) stimulation, but also in LPS and PGN stimulation. It was demonstrated that CiIFN-I induced powerful anti-viral and anti-bacterial effects in trunk kidney. In addition, the expression of CiIgM was induced at 72 h post GCRV injection in vivo. Collectively, these results suggest that trunk kidney of grass carp serves as an important immune organ, and plays crucial roles in triggering anti-viral and anti-bacterial immune responses both

  11. Physical and Flavor Characteristics, Fatty Acid Profile, Antioxidant Status and Nrf2-Dependent Antioxidant Enzyme Gene Expression Changes in Young Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) Fillets Fed Dietary Valine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jian-Bo; Feng, Lin; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Wu, Pei; Jiang, Jun; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of dietary valine on the physical and flavor characteristics, fatty acid (FA) profile, antioxidant status and Nrf2-dependent antioxidant enzyme gene expression in the muscle of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) fed increasing levels of valine (4.3, 8.0, 10.6, 13.1, 16.9 and 19.1 g/kg) for 8 weeks. Compared with the control group, the group fed valine showed improved physical characteristics of fish fillets (increased relative shear force, hydroxyproline, protein and lipid levels and decreased cathepsin B and L activities, as well as cooking loss, were observed). Moreover, valine improved the flavor of young grass carp fillets by increasing the amino acid (AA) concentration in fish muscle (increased aspartic acid, threonine, glutamine, cystine, methionine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, lysine, histidine, arginine and valine concentrations were observed). Additionally, optimal valine supplementation increased the potential health benefits to humans by decreasing the saturated FA (C15:0 and C16:0) concentration and increasing the unsaturated FA (monounsaturated FAs (MUFAs), such as C16:1, C18:1c+t and C20:1, and polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs), such as C18:3n-3, C20:2 and C22:6) concentration. In addition, the reduced glutathione (GSH) content and the activities of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), catalase (CAT) and Selenium-dependent glutathione peroxydase (Se-GPx) increased under valine supplementation (P levels increased with dietary valine levels, possibly due to the up-regulation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), target of rapamycin (TOR) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) and the down-regulation of Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) in muscle (P antioxidant status and regulated the expression of the antioxidant enzyme genes Nrf2, Keap1, TOR and S6K1 in fish fillets.

  12. Modulation of immune response, physical barrier and related signaling factors in the gills of juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) fed supplemented diet with phospholipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lin; Chen, Yong-Po; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Pei; Zhao, Juan; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary phospholipids (PL) on the gill immune response and physical barrier of juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A total of 1080 juvenile grass carp with an average initial weight of 9.34 ± 0.03 g were fed six semi-purified diets containing 0.40% (unsupplemented control group), 1.43%, 2.38%, 3.29%, 4.37% and 5.42% PL for 2 months. Compared with the control group, optimal PL supplementation increased (P < 0.05): (1) the lysozyme activity, acid phosphatase activity, complement component 3 (C3) content, liver expressed antimicrobial peptide 1 (LEAP-1) and LEAP-2 mRNA expression; (2) the relative mRNA expression of interleukin 10, transforming growth factor β1, inhibitor factor κBα (IκBα) and target of rapamycin (TOR); (3) the activities of anti-superoxide anion (ASA), anti-hydroxyl radical (AHR), copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione content and mRNA levels of SOD1, CAT, GPx, GR and NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) genes; (4) the transcription abundance of occludin, claudin b, claudin c, claudin 12 and zonula occludens 1 genes. At the same time, appropriate PL supplementation decreased (P < 0.05): (1) tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 1β, nuclear factor κB p65 (NF-κB p65), IκB kinase β (IKKβ) and IκB kinase γ (IKKγ) mRNA expression; (2) malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl (PC) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) content and the relative mRNA expression of Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1a (Keap1a) and Keap1b; (3) the transcription abundance of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) genes. In conclusion, the positive effect of PL on gill health is associated with the improvement of the immunity, antioxidant status and tight junction barrier of fish gills. Finally, based on ACP activity, C3 content, PC content and ASA activity in the gills

  13. Physical and Flavor Characteristics, Fatty Acid Profile, Antioxidant Status and Nrf2-Dependent Antioxidant Enzyme Gene Expression Changes in Young Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) Fillets Fed Dietary Valine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Wu, Pei; Jiang, Jun; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of dietary valine on the physical and flavor characteristics, fatty acid (FA) profile, antioxidant status and Nrf2-dependent antioxidant enzyme gene expression in the muscle of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) fed increasing levels of valine (4.3, 8.0, 10.6, 13.1, 16.9 and 19.1 g/kg) for 8 weeks. Compared with the control group, the group fed valine showed improved physical characteristics of fish fillets (increased relative shear force, hydroxyproline, protein and lipid levels and decreased cathepsin B and L activities, as well as cooking loss, were observed). Moreover, valine improved the flavor of young grass carp fillets by increasing the amino acid (AA) concentration in fish muscle (increased aspartic acid, threonine, glutamine, cystine, methionine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, lysine, histidine, arginine and valine concentrations were observed). Additionally, optimal valine supplementation increased the potential health benefits to humans by decreasing the saturated FA (C15:0 and C16:0) concentration and increasing the unsaturated FA (monounsaturated FAs (MUFAs), such as C16:1, C18:1c+t and C20:1, and polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs), such as C18:3n-3, C20:2 and C22:6) concentration. In addition, the reduced glutathione (GSH) content and the activities of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), catalase (CAT) and Selenium-dependent glutathione peroxydase (Se-GPx) increased under valine supplementation (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the SOD1, CAT and Se-GPx mRNA levels increased with dietary valine levels, possibly due to the up-regulation of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), target of rapamycin (TOR) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) and the down-regulation of Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) in muscle (P < 0.05). In conclusion, valine improved the physical and flavor characteristics, FA profile, and antioxidant status and regulated the expression of the antioxidant enzyme genes Nrf2, Keap1, TOR

  14. Effect of dietary phosphorus deficiency on the growth, immune function and structural integrity of head kidney, spleen and skin in young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kang; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Wu, Pei; Liu, Yang; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Feng, Lin

    2017-04-01

    This study evaluates the effects of dietary phosphorus on the growth, immune function and structural integrity (head kidney, spleen and skin) of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) that were fed graded levels of available phosphorus (0.95-8.75 g/kg diet). Results indicated that phosphorus deficiency decreased the growth performance of young grass carp. In addition, the results first demonstrated that compared with the optimal phosphorus level, phosphorus deficiency depressed the lysozyme (LZ) and acid phosphatase (ACP) activities and the complement 3 (C3), C4 and immunoglobulin M (IgM) contents, and down-regulated the mRNA levels of antimicrobial peptides, anti-inflammatory cytokines, inhibitor of κBα (IκBα) and target of rapamycin (TOR), whereas it up-regulated pro-inflammatory cytokines, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 and NF-κB p52 mRNA levels to decrease fish head kidney and spleen immune functions. Moreover, phosphorus deficiency up-regulated the mRNA levels of Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1a (Keap1a), Fas ligand (FasL), apoptotic protease activating factor-1 (Apaf-1), Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax), caspase -2, -3, -7, -8 and -9, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and myosin light chain kinase (MLCK), whereas it depressed the glutathione (GSH) contents and antioxidant enzymes activities, and down-regulated the mRNA levels of antioxidant enzymes, NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), B-cell lymphoma protein-2 (Bcl-2), myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1) and tight junction complexes to attenuate fish head kidney and spleen structural integrity. In addition, phosphorus deficiency increased skin hemorrhage and lesions morbidity. Finally, based on the percent weight gain (PWG) and the ability to combat skin hemorrhage and lesions, the dietary available phosphorus requirements for young grass carp (254.56-898.23 g) were estimated to be 4.10 and 4.13 g/kg diet, respectively. In summary, phosphorus deficiency decreases the growth

  15. Molecular cloning and gene/protein expression of FAT/CD36 from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) and the regulation of its expression by dietary energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Juan; Liu, Wei; Gao, Weihua; Wu, Fan; Yu, Lijuan; Lu, Xing; Yang, Chang-Geng; Jiang, Ming; Wen, Hua

    2017-01-18

    Fatty acid translocase/cluster of differentiation 36 (FAT/CD36) functions as a membrane long-chain fatty acid transporter in various tissues in land animals. Not much is known about the CD36 molecule in teleost fish. Therefore, we studied CD36 in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, ciCD36). The full-length complementary DNA sequence of ciCD36 was 1976 bp, with an ORF of 468 amino acids, which had high sequence similarity to the CD36 of common carp. The messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of ciCD36 was high in the intestine, heart, liver, visceral tissue, and brain, but absent in the kidney. The protein expression of ciCD36 was high in the brain, intestine, liver, heart, muscle, eye, visceral tissue, gonad, and gill, but not in the kidney. Four groups of grass carp (16 tanks) were fed three times daily to satiation with 17.2 kJ gross energy/g diet (control, CON), 19.4 kJ gross energy/g diet (more energy supplied by proteins, HP), 19.9 kJ gross energy/g diet (more energy supplied by fat, HF), and 19.1 kJ gross energy/g diet (more energy supplied by carbohydrate, HC) for 11 weeks, respectively. At the end of the feeding experiment, the fish were fasted for 48 h, and the brain, heart, intestine, and liver were sampled and designated as the 0-h samples. The fish were then fed a single meal of the above four diets, and these tissues were collected at 8- and 24-h intervals after refeeding to analyze ciCD36 mRNA and protein expression levels. The results showed that at the transcriptional and translational levels, ciCD36 expression was significantly affected by refeeding time and the different diets (P energy in grass carp. Translational regulation might be responsible for the observed variations in ciCD36 expression.

  16. Growth and feed utilization by juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella feed with Azolla filiculoides with low lipid diet/ Desempenho e conversão alimentar de juvenis de carpa capim (Ctenopharyngodon idella alimentadas com Azolla filiculoides e ração com baixo teor lipídico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Dufech Esteves

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The total supply of fish available for human consumption will depend more of the expansion of low trophy level fish farming than of wild-caught fish. Aquatic plants used at treatment of aquaculture wastewater have been showed like an alternative to exclusive diet feed. The aquatic fern, Azolla filiculoides is an example with high level of protein. Consequently, more research on feed requirements of herbivorous fish is required. The aim of this study was to evaluate the growth performance and feed efficiency of juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella fed with three different diets using low lipid feed and water fern (Azolla filiculoides. The experiment was carried out in nine (9 tanks of 300 L capacity with three fish per tank (initial body weight = 55,43g. Feeding rate was 2.5% Fish were fed on two times a day with three treatments (R= Diet/Azolla on dry weight R= 2.5; R = 5 and R= 10. The specific growth rate (SGR = 1.39%, daily growth gain (DGG = 1.06 g / day and were significantly (p A oferta de pescado para o consumo humano dependerá mais da expansão do cultivo de peixes que se alimentam dos primeiros níveis tróficos do que daqueles oriundos da pesca extrativa. Plantas aquáticas usadas em fitotratamento de efluentes de aquacultura vêm sendo referidas como uma alternativa alimentar ao uso exclusivo de rações. A Azolla filiculoides é uma pteridófita que apresenta alto nível protéico. Assim, pesquisas sobre as exigências nutricionais de espécies herbívoras são necessárias. O objetivo principal deste estudo foi avaliar o crescimento e eficiência alimentar de juvenis de carpa capim (Ctenopharyngodon idella alimentadas com três relações (R entre ração com baixo teor lipídico e a planta aquática in natura (Azolla filiculoides. O experimento foi conduzido em nove reservatórios com capacidade de 300L e três indivíduos por unidade (Peso Inicial = 53,43g. A taxa alimentar diária foi de 2,5%, dividida em duas refei

  17. 草鱼BPI/LBP基因的克隆及特征研究%Cloning and characterization of BPI/LBP gene from grass carp,Ctenopharyngodon idella

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春荣; 苏建国; 黄腾; 彭丽敏

    2011-01-01

    【目的】克隆草鱼杀菌通透性增加蛋白/脂多糖结合蛋白(Bactericidal permeability-increasing pro-tein/LPS-binding protein,BPI/LBP)基因的cDNA全长,分析其结构特征,研究其表达规律,为进一步探明其功能奠定基础。【方法】首先用同源克隆及快速扩增cDNA末端技术(RACE),克隆草鱼BPI/LBP基因的cDNA全长,然后用生物信息学方法分析BPI/LBP基因的结构特征,最后用半定量RT-PCR检测BPI/LBP基因在草鱼不同组织(血、脑、眼%【Objective】 The full-length cDNA sequence of bactericidal permeability-increasing protein/LPS-binding protein(CiBPI/LBP) from grass carp,Ctenopharyngodon idella was cloned to study the characterization and expression profile and to lay a foundation for the functional studies.【Methods】 The CiBPI/LBP cDNA was identified from grass carp gill by homologous cloning and rapid amplification cDNA ends(RACE).The structural characterization was analyzed by bioinformatics method.The CiBPI/LBP expression pattern was examined in different tissues(blood,brain,eye,foregut,midgut,hindgut,gas blander,gill,head kidney,trunk kidney,heart,liver,muscle,skin and spleen) by semi-quantitative RT-PCR.【Result】 The CiBPI/LBP cDNA was 1 568 bp,encoding 473 amino acid(aa) residues,including signal peptide,BPI1 domain(BPI/LBP/CETP N-terminal domain) and BPI2 domain(BPI/LBP/CETP C-terminal domain).The molecular weight of the deduced protein was 51 551 u,and the isoelectric point 8.69.The amino acid sequence of CiBPI/LBP possessed 90%,73%,73%,and 72% identities with the BPI/LBPs of Cyprinus carpio,Oncorhynchus mykiss,Ictalurus punctatus and Plecoglossus altivelis altivelis respectively.CiBPI/LBP protein firstly clustered with BPI/LBP in Cyprinidae species,Cyprinus carpio in the phylogenetic analysis.CiBPI/LBP mRNA was detected in all the 15 tested tissues by semi-quantitative real-time RT-PCR,high in gill,head kidney and trunck kidney

  18. Exogenous phospholipids supplementation improves growth and modulates immune response and physical barrier referring to NF-κB, TOR, MLCK and Nrf2 signaling factors in the intestine of juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong-Po; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Pei; Zhao, Juan; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Feng, Lin

    2015-11-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary phospholipids (PL) on the growth performance, intestinal enzyme activity and immune response and intestinal physical barrier of juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A total of 1080 juvenile grass carp with an average initial weight of 9.34 ± 0.03 g were fed six semi-purified diets containing 0.40% (unsupplemented control group), 1.43%, 2.38%, 3.29%, 4.37% and 5.42% PL for 2 months. Results indicated that 3.29% PL increased lysozyme (LZ) and acid phosphatase (ACP) activities and complement component 3 (C3) content (P intestine, suggesting that optimum PL could improve fish intestinal immunity. In addition, 3.29% PL increased the activities of anti-superoxide anion (ASA), anti-hydroxyl radical, copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR), the content of glutathione (P intestine, indicating that the optimum PL could improve fish intestinal physical barrier. Finally, based on the PWG, C3 content in the DI, ACP activity in the DI, intestinal PC content and intestinal ASA activity, the optimal dietary PL levels for juvenile grass carp (9.34-87.50 g) were estimated to be 3.46%, 3.79%, 3.93%, 3.72%, and 4.12%, respectively.

  19. Changes in barrier health status of the gill for grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) during valine deficiency: Regulation of tight junction protein transcript, antioxidant status and apoptosis-related gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lin; Luo, Jian-Bo; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Wu, Pei; Jiang, Jun; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary valine on tight junction protein transcription, antioxidant status and apoptosis on grass carp gills (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Fish were fed six different experimental diets containing graded levels of valine (4.3, 8.0, 10.6, 13.1, 16.7, 19.1 g/kg). The results indicated that valine deficiency decreased Claudin b, Claudin 3, Occludin and ZO-1 transcription and increased Claudin 15 expression in the fish gill (P valine deficiency and valine supplementation did not have a significant effect on Claudin c and Claudin 12 expression in grass carp gills (P > 0.05). Valine deficiency also disrupted antioxidant status in the gill by decreasing anti-superoxide radicals and hydroxyl radical capacity, glutathione contents and the activities and mRNA levels of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) (P valine deficiency induced DNA fragmentation via the up-regulation of Caspase 3, Caspase 8 and Caspase 9 expressions (P valine deficiency impaired the structural integrity of fish gill by disrupted fish antioxidant defenses and regulating the expression of tight junction protein, cytokines, antioxidant enzymes, NF-κB p65, IκBα, TOR, Nrf2, Keap1 and apoptosis-related genes in the fish gill.

  20. The impaired intestinal mucosal immune system by valine deficiency for young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is associated with decreasing immune status and regulating tight junction proteins transcript abundance in the intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jian-Bo; Feng, Lin; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Wu, Pei; Jiang, Jun; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary valine on the growth, intestinal immune response, tight junction proteins transcript abundance and gene expression of immune-related signaling molecules in the intestine of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Six iso-nitrogenous diets containing graded levels of valine (4.3-19.1 g kg(-)(1) diet) were fed to the fish for 8 weeks. The results showed that percentage weight gain (PWG), feed intake and feed efficiency of fish were the lowest in fish fed the valine-deficient diet (P valine deficiency decreased lysozyme, acid phosphatase activities and complement 3 content in the intestine (P valine deficiency significantly decreased transcript of Occludin, Claudin b, Claudin c, Claudin 3, and ZO-1 (P valine did not have a significant effect on expression of Claudin 12 in the intestine of grass carp (P > 0.05). In conclusion, valine deficiency decreased fish growth and intestinal immune status, as well as regulated gene expression of tight junction proteins, NF-κB P65, IκBα and TOR in the fish intestine. Based on the quadratic regression analysis of lysozyme activity or PWG, the dietary valine requirement of young grass carp (268-679 g) were established to be 14.47 g kg(-1) diet (4.82 g 100 g(-1) CP) or 14.00 g kg(-1) diet (4.77 g 100 g(-1) CP), respectively.

  1. Effects of glucose, insulin and triiodothyroxine on leptin and leptin receptor expression and the effects of leptin on activities of enzymes related to glucose metabolism in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Rong-Hua; Zhou, Yi; Yuan, Xiao-Chen; Liang, Xu-Fang; Fang, Liu; Bai, Xiao-Li; Wang, Min; Zhao, Yu-Hua

    2015-08-01

    Leptin is an important regulator of appetite and energy expenditure in mammals, but its role in fish metabolism control is poorly understood. Our previous studies demonstrated that leptin has an effect on the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure as well as lipid metabolism (stimulation of lipolysis and inhibition of adipogenesis) in the grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella. To further investigate the role of leptin in fish, the effects of glucose, insulin and triiodothyroxine (T3) on the expression levels of leptin and leptin receptor (Lepr) and the effects of leptin on the activities of critical glucose metabolism enzymes in grass carp hepatocytes were evaluated in the present study. Our data indicated that leptin gene expression was induced by glucose in a dose-dependent manner, while Lepr gene expression exhibited a biphasic change. A high dose of insulin (100 ng/mL) significantly up-regulated the expression of leptin and Lepr. Leptin expression was markedly up-regulated by a low concentration of T3 but inhibited by a high concentration of T3. T3 up-regulated Lepr expression in a dose-dependent manner. Together, these data suggest that leptin had a close relationship with three factors (glucose, insulin and T3) and might participate in the regulation of glucose metabolism in grass carp. In addition, we also found that leptin affected the activities of key enzymes that are involved in glucose metabolism, which might be mediated by insulin receptor substrate-phosphoinositol 3-kinase signaling.

  2. Dietary pantothenic acid deficiency and excess depress the growth, intestinal mucosal immune and physical functions by regulating NF-κB, TOR, Nrf2 and MLCK signaling pathways in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Feng, Lin; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Pei; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Liu, Yang

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary pantothenic acid (PA) on the growth, intestinal mucosal immune and physical barrier, and relative mRNA levels of signaling molecules in the intestine of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A total of 540 grass carp (253.44 ± 0.69 g) were fed six diets with graded levels of PA (PA1, PA15, PA30, PA45, PA60 and PA75 diets) for 8 weeks. The results indicated that compared with PA deficiency (PA1 diet) and excess (PA75 diet) groups, optimal PA supplementation increased (P TOR) mRNA expression levels in some intestinal segments; (2) reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl contents, and Kelch-like ECH-associating protein 1a, Kelch-like ECH-associating protein 1b in the intestine; (3) Claudin 12, Claudin 15a and myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK) mRNA levels in some intestinal segments of grass carp. In conclusion, optimum PA promoted growth, intestinal mucosal immune and physical function, as well as regulated mRNA levels of signaling molecules NF-κB P65, TOR, Nrf2 and MLCK in grass carp intestine. Based on the quadratic regression analysis of PWG and intestinal lysozyme activity, the optimal PA levels in grass carp (253.44-745.25 g) were estimated to be 37.73 mg/kg and 41.38 mg/kg diet, respectively.

  3. Cloning and Expression Analysis of E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Nrdp1 from Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella%草鱼E3泛素连接酶Nrdp1基因cDNA克隆和表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隗黎丽; 杨竹青; 王自蕊; 熊六凤; 周秋白

    2013-01-01

    神经调节素受体降解蛋白1(neuregulin receptor degradation protein-1,Nrdpl)是一种新的E3泛素连接酶,可调节细胞增殖和凋亡等.研究采用RACE方法从草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idella)肝脏中克隆了Nrdpl的全长cDNA序列;采用半定量RT-PCR方法分析该基因在草鱼不同组织中表达情况.结果表明:该序列全长cDNA大小为1 865 bp(GenBank登录号:JX864048),其中开放阅读框为954 bp,编码318个氨基酸,预测分子量大小为36.09 ku,pH为7.0时理论等电点为5.83;5’和3’非翻译区的长度分别为291 bp和620 bp,在3’非翻译区发现2个mRNA不稳定信号(ATTTA)和1个多聚腺苷酸加尾信号(ATTAAA).该蛋白序列没有信号肽和跨膜结构,其二级结构主要以α-螺旋为主,不含β-折叠.氨基酸序列保守性分析表明,草鱼Nrdp1与斑马鱼、虹鳟及人的同源性分别为98%、94%和89%;该基因在心脏和脑中的表达量较多,在肌肉和血液中表达很少.%Nrdpl ( neuregulin receptor degradation protein - 1) is a newly defined E3 ubiquitin ligase and regulates the cell proliferation and apoptosis. In the present study, the cDNA sequence of grass carp Ctenopha-ryngodon idella Nrdp1 (gcNrdpl) consists of 1865 bp with a 291 bp 5' untranslated region (UTR) and a 620 bp 3' UTR, with an open reading frame of 954 bp encoding the 318 amino acids which is predicted to have no signal petptide and transmembrane helices. The deduced amino acid sequence of gcNrdpl showed 98% , 94% and 89% of identity to zebra fish Danio rerio, rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and human Homo sapiens Nrdpl, respectively. The domain search revealed that gcNrdpl contains a RING domain (at amino acids 18 -56) and Pfam domain (at amino acids 137 -315). Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that gcNrdpl is clustered in a same clade with zebra fish and rainbow trout Nrdpl. RT-PCR demonstrated that the mRNA is con-stitutively expressed in all the examined organs examined of healthy fish

  4. 投饲率对草鱼生长、体组成和能量收支的影响%Effects of ration levels on growth, body composition and energy budgets of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许艳; 罗伟; 王春芳

    2016-01-01

    为了建立草鱼( Ctenopharyngodon idella)的精准投喂模型管理系统,研究了不同投喂水平下草鱼的能量收支。实验在水温(27.5±2.0)℃条件下,选用初始体重(71.03±1.13) g的草鱼,共设5个不同投饲水平(饥饿、1%鱼体重(1% BW)、2% BW、4% BW和饱食),研究摄食水平对草鱼生长、鱼体组分和能量收支的影响。结果显示:随投喂水平的增加,草鱼鱼体水分减少,粗蛋白含量、粗脂肪含量和能量增加,灰分含量先减少后增加。特定生长率和热积温生长系数均随投喂水平的增加先增加再降低,在5%鱼体重时达到最大,且高于饱食投喂组。饵料转化率( FE)在投喂水平为体重2%组最高,且显著高于其他各组。干物质和能量表观消化率随投喂水平的增加而显著增加,蛋白质表观消化率在投喂水平为体重2%组显著高于其他组。生长能比例随投喂水平的增加而显著增加,而在体重2%组到饱食组间均无显著性差异;代谢能与生长能相反。在最大投喂水平下的能量收支方程为:100 C=21.72 F+4.25 U+45.85R+28.18 G或100 A=61.94R+38.06G。结果表明,5%鱼体重的投喂量为草鱼此阶段的最佳投喂水平。%A growth trial was carried out at 5 ration levels ( starvation, 1% BW, 2% BW, 4% BW and satiety) to in-vestigate the effects of ration levels on the growth, body composition and energy budget of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella (initial body weight 71. 03 ± 1. 13 g) at (27. 5 ± 2. 0)℃. The weight gain rate and the thermal-unit growth coeffi-cient both increased to maximum at 5% BW and then decreased. Feed conversion efficiency was highest in the ration level of 2% BW. Moisture contents decreased while crude protein, lipid and gross energy increased. Ash content initially de-creased and then increased with ration levels. Apparent digestibility of dry matter and energy increased with the increasing ration levels. Apparent digestibility

  5. Deficiency of dietary niacin impaired gill immunity and antioxidant capacity, and changes its tight junction proteins via regulating NF-κB, TOR, Nrf2 and MLCK signaling pathways in young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shun-Quan; Feng, Lin; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Pei; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the effects of dietary niacin on gill immunity, tight junction proteins, antioxidant system and related signaling molecules mRNA expression, young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) were fed six diets containing graded levels of niacin (3.95-55.01 mg/kg diet) for 8 weeks. The study indicated that niacin deficiency decreased lysozyme and acid phosphatase activities, and complement 3 content, and caused oxidative damage that might be partly due to the decreased copper, zinc superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase activities and reduced glutathione content in fish gills (P niacin-deficient diet group. Conversely, the mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 8, interferon γ2, and interleukin 1β), signaling molecules (nuclear factor kappa B p65, IκB kinase α, IκB kinase β, IκB kinase γ, Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1b, myosin light chain kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) were significantly increased (P niacin-deficient diet. Interestingly, the varying niacin levels of 3.95-55.01 mg/kg diet had no effect on the mRNA level of Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1a, Claudin-c and -12 in fish gills (P > 0.05). In conclusion, niacin deficiency decreased gill immunity, impaired gill antioxidant system, as well as regulated mRNA expression of gill tight junction proteins and related signaling molecules of fish.

  6. 草鱼鳃介导草鱼呼肠孤病毒免疫应答%GILL MEDIATES IMMUNE RESPONSES AFTER GRASS CARP REOVIRUS CHALLENGE IN GRASS CARP (CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李青梅; 陈利军; 饶友亮; 付小哲; 苏建国

    2014-01-01

    采用草鱼呼肠孤病毒腹腔注射草鱼,通过定量 RT-PCR 检测了12个抗病毒免疫相关基因在鳃中不同时间点的表达模式,以了解鳃对内源性病毒的免疫应答。模式识别受体基因 CiTLR3、CiTLR7、CiTLR22、CiRIG-I、CiMDA5、CiLGP2、CiNOD1和CiNOD2,以及干扰素基因CiIFN-I的表达在注射病毒后12h、24h、48h及72h基本都上调。IgM基因的表达仅在72h上调。接头分子CiMyD88和CiIPS-1基因的表达在早期下调(6h),然后逐渐上升。为了证实病毒感染的可靠性,通过RT-PCR检测了病毒VP4基因。结果表明草鱼鳃在抗病毒免疫方面发挥着重要作用。%Gill plays an important physical barrier role in defending environmental microbes. How are im-mune responses to endogenous viruses in gill? In the present study, mRNA expressions of 12 antiviral im-mune-related genes were examined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) in grass carp (Cteno-pharyngodon idella) gill after grass carp reovirus (GCRV) challenge. The relative values of CiTLR3, CiTLR7, CiTLR22, CiRIG-I, CiMDA5, CiLGP2, CiNOD1, CiNOD2 and CiIFN-I were almost up-regulated at 12h, 24h, 48h and 72h. Additionally, the mRNA expression of CiIgM was triggered at 72h. However, relative expres-sions of CiMyD88 and CiIPS-1 were down-regulated at 6h, and subsequently increased. To further verify the reliability of viral infection, VP4 gene (outer capsid protein of GCRV, segment 6) was checked by RT-PCR amplification. The results indicate that gill serves as an important immune organ, and plays crucial roles in triggering antiviral immune responses in grass carp.

  7. Dietary vitamin C deficiency depresses the growth, head kidney and spleen immunity and structural integrity by regulating NF-κB, TOR, Nrf2, apoptosis and MLCK signaling in young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hui-Jun; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Feng, Lin; Liu, Yang; Wu, Pei; Jiang, Jun; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary vitamin C on the growth, and head kidney, spleen and skin immunity, structural integrity and related signaling molecules mRNA expression levels of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A total of 540 grass carp (264.37 ± 0.66 g) were fed six diets with graded levels of vitamin C (2.9, 44.2, 89.1, 133.8, 179.4 and 224.5 mg/kg diet) for 10 weeks. Subsequently, a challenge test was conducted by injection of Aeromonas hydrophila and the survival rate recorded for 14 days. The results indicated that compared with optimal vitamin C supplementation, vitamin C deficiency (2.9 mg/kg diet) decreased lysozyme (LA) and acid phosphatase (ACP) activities, and complement 3 and complement 4 (C4) contents (P spleen), IL-12 P40, IL-15, IL-17D, nuclear factor κB p65, IκB kinases (IKKα, IKKβ, IKKγ), target of rapamycin and ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 mRNA levels (P spleen under injection fish of A. hydrophila, suggesting that vitamin C deficiency could decrease fish head kidney and spleen immunity and cause inflammation. Meanwhile, compared with optimal vitamin C supplementation, vitamin C deficiency decreased the activities and mRNA levels of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase, manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferases and glutathione reductase (P spleen under injection fish of A. hydrophila, suggesting that vitamin C deficiency could decrease fish head kidney and spleen structural integrity through depression of antioxidative ability, induction of apoptosis and disruption of tight junctional complexes. In addition, except the activities of ACP and MnSOD, and mRNA expression levels of TGF-β1, Occludin and MnSOD, the effect of vitamin C on fish head kidney, spleen and skin immunity and structural integrity other indicators model are similar under infection of A. hydrophila. Finally, the vitamin C requirement for the growth performance (PWG) of young grass carp was

  8. Vitamin E deficiency depressed fish growth, disease resistance, and the immunity and structural integrity of immune organs in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella): Referring to NF-κB, TOR and Nrf2 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jia-Hong; Feng, Lin; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Wu, Pei; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Liu, Yang

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary vitamin E on growth, disease resistance and the immunity and structural integrity of head kidney, spleen and skin in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). The fish were fed six diets containing graded levels of vitamin E (0, 45, 90, 135, 180 and 225 mg/kg diet) for 10 weeks. Subsequently, a challenge test was conducted by injection of Aeromonas hydrophila. The results showed that compared with optimal vitamin E supplementation, vitamin E deficiency caused depressed growth, poor survival rates and increased skin lesion morbidity in grass carp. Meanwhile, vitamin E deficiency decreased lysozyme and acid phosphatase activities, complement component 3 and complement component 4 contents in the head kidney, spleen and skin of grass carp (P E deficiency down-regulated antimicrobial peptides (Hepcidin, liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide-2A, -2B, β-defensin), IL-10, TGFβ1, IκBα, TOR and S6K1 mRNA levels (P E deficiency caused oxidative damage, decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities, and down-regulated the mRNA levels of antioxidant enzymes and signaling molecules Nrf2 (P E deficiency also induced apoptosis by up-regulating capase-2, -3, -7, and -8 mRNA levels in the head kidney, spleen and skin of grass carp. In conclusion, this study indicated that dietary vitamin E deficiency depressed fish growth, impaired the immune function and disturbed the structural integrity of the head kidney, spleen and skin in grass carp, but optimal vitamin E supplementation can reverse those negative effects in fish. The optimal vitamin E requirements for young grass carp (266.39-1026.63 g) to achieve optimal growth performance and disease resistance based on the percent weight gain (PWG) and skin lesion morbidity were estimated to be 116.2 and 130.9 mg/kg diet, respectively. Meanwhile, based on immune indicator (LA activity in the head kidney) and

  9. Dietary phenylalanine-improved intestinal barrier health in young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is associated with increased immune status and regulated gene expression of cytokines, tight junction proteins, antioxidant enzymes and related signalling molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lin; Li, Wen; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Jiang, Jun; Tang, Ling; Wu, Pei; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2015-08-01

    The present work evaluated the effects of dietary phenylalanine (Phe) on the intestinal immune response, tight junction proteins transcript abundance, and the gene expression of immune- and antioxidant-related signalling molecules in the intestine. In addition, the dietary Phe (and Phe + Tyr) requirement of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) was also estimated. Fish were fed fish meal-casein-gelatin based diets (302.3 g crude protein kg(-1)) containing 3.4 (basal diet), 6.1, 9.1, 11.5, 14.0 and 16.8 g Phe kg(-1) with a fixed amount of 10.7 g tyrosine kg(-1) for 8 weeks. The results showed that Phe deficiency or excess Phe reduced the lysozyme and acid phosphatase activities and complement C 3 content in the intestine (P 0.05). Gene expression of interleukin-10 (IL-10), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), target of rapamycin (TOR) and inhibitor of nuclear factor κBα (IκBα) in proximal intestine (PI), mid intestine (MI) and distal intestine (DI) increased as dietary Phe increased up to 6.1, 9.1, 11.5 and 14.0 g kg(-1), respectively (P < 0.05). However, interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and nuclear factor-κB p65 (NF-κB p65) mRNA levels showed opposite tendencies. In addition, the mRNA level of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was significantly lower in the intestinal tissue of the group fed a diet with Phe levels of 16.8 g kg(-1) than in those of other groups (P < 0.05). The expression of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) gene was increased as dietary Phe increased up to 9.1 g kg(-1) (P < 0.05). In conclusion, Phe improved intestinal immune status, and regulated gene expression of cytokines, tight junction proteins, antioxidant enzymes, NF-κB p65, IκBα, TOR, and Nrf2 in the fish intestine. Based on the quadratic regression analysis of lysozyme activity at a 95% maximum, the dietary Phe requirement of young grass carp (256-629 g) was estimated to be 8.31 g kg(-1), corresponding to 2.75 g 100 g(-1) protein.

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF CELLULOSE-DECOMPOSING BACTERIA IN THE INTESTINE OF GRASS CARP, CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLA (VAL.)%草鱼肠道纤维素降解细菌的分离与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王微微; 吴山功; 邹红; 郑英珍; 程莹寅; 王桂堂

    2014-01-01

    The microbiota in the animal digestive tracts plays an important role in the nutrition and metabolism of their host. Many cellulose-ingesting animals need the microorganisms in their digestive tracts for degrading cellulose and therefore providing the energy. For example, cellulose-decomposing bacterial population has been frequently found in the intestine of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), an herbivore fish species. However, knowledge about this type of bacteria remains unclear. In this study, we characterized the species of the cellulose-decomposing microbiota in the content and mucosa in the intestine of grass carp. We isolated and cultured the cellulolytic bacteria in the foregut, mid-gut and hindgut of the intestine using the medium with carboxymethycellulose (1%) as its sole carbon source. Entero-bacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) PCR fingerprint was utilized to identify different genotypes of the iso-lated bacteria. The cellulose-degrading activity of each strain was indicated by the ratio of the diameter of the clear zone to the diameter of the colony. We identified the genotypes of these bacteria by sequencing the 16S rRNA gene. Forty strains of cellulose-decomposing bacteria from intestinal content and mucosa of grass carp were identified. Two geno-types of the cellulose-decomposing bacteria were discovered in the content of foregut and hindgut, and in the mucosa of midgut and hindgut. Only one genotype of the cellulose-decomposing bacteria was discovered in the mucosa of foregut and midgut. The 16S rRNA sequencing analysis showed that the majority of the cellulolytic bacteria was Aeromonas which accounted for 85%of the total bacterial isolates. Enterobacter accounted for 7.5%and the“uncultured bacterium”accounted for 5%. The ability of degrading cellulose varied remarkably among different bacterial strains. High enzy-matic activity was observed in some isolates of the cellulose-degrading bacteria. The bacterial isolates with a

  11. Effects of dietary magnesium on the growth, body index, liver function and glucose metabolism of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella%镁对草鱼生长、形体、肝功能和糖代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪福保; 罗莉; 文华; 高开进; 陈任孝; 郭玉阳; 朱根廷

    2011-01-01

    A 10-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary magnesium on the growth, body index, liver function and glucose metabolism of the grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella. Purified casein-gelatin-based diets (containing 76. 9 mg mg/kg) supplemented with six levels of Mg (0, 150, 300, 600, 1200 and 2400 mg/kg, respectively) were fed to juvenile grass carps (initial weight: 10. 68 ±0. 14 g). The results showed that: the highest specific growth rate (SGR), protein efficiency ratio (PER), protein retention ( PR), weight/length (W/L) and lowest feed conversion rate (FCR) were observed for fish fed the diet containing 692. 0 mg mg/kg ( P < 0. 05 ). The optimal dietary level of magnesium significantly improved the liver function of the grass carp ( P < 0. 05 ), but the liver function was mildly impaired, and the spleen index was significantly improved in fish fed the high-Mg diets ( i. e. 1200 and 2400 mg mg/kg supplemented). With the increase of dietary magnesium, liver aspartate alanine transaminase ( GOT and GPT) showed a downward trend, while the GOT/GPT ratio was first increased and then decreased. But the liver glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity was in the opposite trend. The GOT/GPT ratio reached the maximum at 692.0 mg/kg magnesiun level (P < 0. 05 ), while GDH activity reached the minimum. The optimal dietary level of magnesium significantly improved liver malate dehydrogenase (MDH) activity and promoted hepatic glycogen deposition ( P < 0. 05 ). High-Mg diets ( = 1200 mg/kg supplemented) significantly reduced blood glucose levels of the grass carp ( P < 0. 05 ), and the other groups showed no significant difference ( P > 0. 05 ).%在以酪蛋白和明胶为蛋白源的纯化日粮(镁含量76.9 mg/kg)中添加不同水平的镁(0、150、300、600、1200和2400 mg/kg),研究镁对体重为(10.68±0.14)g的草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idella)生长、形体、肝功能和糖代谢的影响,时间为10周.结果显示:日粮中适

  12. Immunity decreases, antioxidant system damages and tight junction changes in the intestine of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) during folic acid deficiency: Regulation of NF-κB, Nrf2 and MLCK mRNA levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lei; Feng, Lin; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Pei; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu

    2016-04-01

    This investigation used the same growth trial as the previous study, which showed that folic acid deficiency retarded growth in young grass carp (the percent weight gain of Groups 1-6 were 102.32 ± 3.41%, 137.25 ± 10.48%, 179.78 ± 3.95%, 164.33 ± 3.21%, 143.35 ± 8.12% and 115.28 ± 2.66%) [1]. In the present study, we investigated the effects of dietary folic acid on the immune response, antioxidant status and tight junctions in the intestine of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A total of 540 young grass carp were fed diets containing graded levels of folic acid at 0.10, 0.47, 1.03, 1.48, 1.88 and 3.12 mg kg(-1) diet for 8 weeks. The results indicated that acid phosphatase and lysozyme activities, and the complement component 3 content in the proximal intestine (PI), mid intestine (MI) and distal intestine (DI) were decreased with folic acid deficiency (0.1 mg kg(-1)) (P Folic acid deficiency (0.1 mg kg(-1)) up-regulated interleukin 1β, interleukin 8, tumor necrosis factor α, nuclear factor κB p65 (NF-κB p65), IκB kinase α (IKK-α), IKK-β and IKK-γ gene expression, meanwhile down-regulated interleukin 10, transforming growth factor β, IκB and target of rapamycin gene expression in the PI, MI and DI (P folic acid deficiency decreased fish intestinal innate immune function may be partly contributed to the regulation of NF-κB p65 pathway. Moreover, the activities and corresponding gene expression of glutathione content, Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione s-transferases and glutathione reductase in fish intestine were depressed by deficient folic acid diet (0.1 mg kg(-1)) (P folic acid deficiency (0.1 mg kg(-1)) down-regulated NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) gene expression, up-regulated Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1a (Keap1a) and Keap1b gene expression in fish intestine (P folic acid diet damaged fish intestinal antioxidant capacity partly by regulating Nrf2/Keap1 pathway

  13. Cloning and characterization of grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idella) Toll-like receptor 9%草鱼TLR9基因全长cDNA的克隆及特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春荣; 苏建国; 彭丽敏; 董捷

    2011-01-01

    The full-length cDNA sequence of Toll-like receptor 9 ( CiTLR9 ) gene was identified from grass carp( Ctenopharyngodon idella)gill by homologous cloning and rapid amplification cDNA ends(RACE).The CiTLR9 cDNA was 3 468 bp, encoding 1 058 amino acid (aa) residues, including signal peptide, 16 leucine rich repeat (LRR) motifs, one transmembrane zone and one Toll/IL-1 receptor ( TIR ) domain. The molecular weight of the deduced protein is 121 921 u, and the isoelectric point is 8.80. The amino acid sequence of CiTLR9 possessed 85% ,82% ,55%, and 55% identity with the TLR9s of Cyprinus carpio,Danio rerio,Salrno salar and Oncorhynchus mykiss respectively. CiTLR9 protein firstly clustered with TLR9s in Cyprinidae species, Cyprinus carpio and Danio rerio in the phylogenetic analysis. CiTLR9 mRNA was detected in all the tested 15 tissues ( blood, brain, eye, foregut, midgut, hindgut, gas bladder, gill, head kidney,trunk kidney, heart, hepatopancreas, muscle, skin, spleen ) by semi-quantitative real-time RT-PCR, highly in gill,blood and head kidney. The results serve further studies on functions of TLR9 and exploitation of immunostimulators in grass carp.%采用同源克隆及快速扩增cDNA末端技术,从草鱼鳃组织中克隆了Toll样受体9(Toll like receptor 9,TLR9)基因的cDNA全长.序列分析表明,草鱼TLR9 eDNA全长3 468 bp,编码1 058个氨基酸,其中包括18个氨基酸组成的信号肽、16个富含亮氨酸重复结构域(1eucine rich repeat,LRR)、1个跨膜区和1个TIR结构域(Toll/IL-1 receptor).该蛋白的分子量为121 921 u,等电点为8.80.氨基酸序列的同源性分析显示,草鱼TLR9与鲤TLR9的同源性最高(85%),依次为斑马鱼(82%)、大西洋鲑(55%)、虹鳟(55%).在系统发生树上,草鱼TLR9首先与鲤科的鲤和斑马鱼聚类.通过半定量RT-PCR检测可知,草鱼TLR9在被检测的15个组织中都有表达,其中在鳃中的表达最高,其次为血、头肾等.这些结果为进一步深入研究TLR9

  14. 草鱼hsp70和hsp90对温度急性变化的响应%Effect of rapid temperature change on expression of hsp70 and hsp90 in grass carp(Ctenopharyngodon idella)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周鑫; 董云伟; 王芳; 董双林

    2013-01-01

    Grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idella) is one of the most important cultured fishes in China. During transportation in summer,massive mortality often occurs. As molecular chaperones,Hsps assist cells in their recovery from stress and promote cytoprotection. Limited reports described the expression of Hsps in grass carp at high temperatures, and the relationship between oxygen consumption, expression of heat shock protein and mortality needs to be investigated based on the oxygen- and capability- limited thermal tolerance theory (OCLTT) to further elucidate the thermal adaptation of this species to high temperature in view of integrated biology. In the present study,the expressions of hsp70 and hsp90 after rapid temperature increase were studied. Grass carps were acclimated at 20 t and then exposed to designated temperatures(20,22,24, 26,28,30,32,34 ℃) for 3 h heat shock. After 2 h-recovery at 20℃, liver, muscle and gill of tested fish were sampled and hsp70 and hsp90 were determined using semi-quantitive real-time PCR. Expression of hsps increased with temperature increase until 32℃ in muscle and gill, and then decreased at 34 ℃. In liver, expression of hsps kept increasing in all temperature treatments. These results indicated that hsp70 and hsp90 were sensitive to temperature increase in grass carp. Analyzed heat shock proteins data with previous results of oxygen consumption and lethal temperatures of grass carp, the physiological adaptations of grass carp could be explained by oxygen- and capability- limited thermal tolerance theory (OCLTT), which pointed out that the imbalance between oxygen demand and tissue oxygen supply ability was the primary factor which limited organisms' thermal tolerance and the ability of aerobic metabolism greatly limited the survival of organism beyond critical temperatures. With temperature increase, the maximum value of oxygen consumption in grass carp occurred at 28 ℃, and then the oxygen consumption decreased when

  15. Histological and immunohistochemical observations on the early development of head kidney in Ctenopharyngodon idella%草鱼头肾发生组织学与免疫组织化学观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷雪彬; 常藕琴; 石存斌; 付小哲; 王亚军; 吴淑勤

    2013-01-01

    Histogenesis of the head kidney was examined in the collected grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) from 1 to 103 days post hatching(dph).Histological technology was applied to learn the change of the structure of the head kidney and the changes in the distribution of IgM (immunoglobulin M) positive cells and PAS (periodic acid schiff reaction) positive cells in head kidney.The primordium of the head kidney formed at 6 dph.And in the primordium several undifferentiated hemopoietic stem cell spread among the renal tubules which were derived from the protonephridia.Then,the immune cells increased gradually due to the hemopoietic stem cells' differentiation from 7 dph to 16 dph.Between 17 dph and 103 dph,the renal tubules degenerated gradually and the lymph and haematogenous tissues sustained by the reticulo-endothelial system(RES) became the major component of the head kidney.By 65 dph,the head kidney was histologically similar to mature fishes,formed as a lymphoid-adrenergic tissue.Cells producing IgM as lymphocytes were detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) stain.A few PAS positive cells were observed by 7 dph while several IgM positive cells were occasionally first detected at 17 dph.PAS positive cells and IgM positive cells were both increased with age and finally scattered all over the head kidney.In short,the head kidney in grass carp was almost mature histologically by 65 dph;as an immune organ,the development of the head-kidney in juvenile grass carp can be divided into three stages characterized by the Ⅰ-absence of cells involved in immunity,Ⅱ-presence of cells only involved in nonspecific immunity,and Ⅲ-emergence and proliferation of cells involving in both nonspecific and specific immunity.%为研究草鱼头肾的组织发生发育,应用组织学技术,对1 ~ 103 dph(day post hatching)的草鱼头肾进行观察分析,描述了头肾的组织结构变化及免疫球蛋白M(IgM)阳性细胞及过碘酸雪夫氏(PAS)阳性细胞的

  16. Feeding ecology and food composition of the black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus and the grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella inhabiting the fish pond of Al-Abbassa fish hatchery with emphasis given to vector snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Deeb, Fatma A; Ismail, Nahed M

    2004-08-01

    Stomach contents of M. piceus and C. idella collected from earthen fish ponds at Al-Abbassa fish hatchery during different seasons were examined. Food items were analyzed by three methods; the numerical (N%) percentage of point assessment (P%) and frequency of occurrence (F%). A comparison of the different methods emphasized the importance of snails as the major food resources in the diet of M. piceus during all seasons. During winter, stomachs of the most fish samples collected from fish ponds were empty or had traces of food. The index of relative importance (I.R.I) indicated that snails were the major food category in the diet of M. piceus during summer, autumn and spring represented by 7331, 9696 and 11670 respectively. Plants were the main food item in the diet of C. idella during summer (4604), meanwhile they came 3rd in relative importance in the diet during autumn and spring. Artificial fish food came as the 2nd food item in the diet of M. piceus during summer (1398.9) and autumn (5896.3) but it completely absent in spring. It is considered the main food item in diet of C. idella during autumn (10384.3) and spring (6293.5) and being 3rd in summer (1395.5). The results showed that snails reached highest level in the diet of M. piceus during spring (about 80% of all diet, decreased during summer (about 70%) and reached lowest proportion in autumn (50%). Plants exhibited marked seasonal variation in abundance with maximum level during summer (about 41% of all diet decreased during spring (27%) and autumn (22%). Artificial fish food was the highest in the diet of M. piceus during autumn (39%), decreased in summer (22%) until disappeared during spring. It reached highest level in diet of C. idella during autumn (49%), decreased in spring (38%) and reached lowest proportion during summer (21 %).

  17. The decreased growth performance and impaired immune function and structural integrity by dietary iron deficiency or excess are associated with TOR, NF-κB, p38MAPK, Nrf2 and MLCK signaling in head kidney, spleen and skin of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yan-Lin; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Wu, Pei; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Feng, Lin

    2017-06-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary iron on the growth, and immune function and structural integrity in head kidney, spleen and skin as well as the underlying signaling of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Total 630 grass carp (242.32 ± 0.58 g) were fed diets containing graded levels of iron at 12.15 (basal diet), 35.38, 63.47, 86.43, 111.09, 136.37 mg/kg (diets 2-6 were added with ferrous fumarate) and 73.50 mg/kg (diet 7 was added with ferrous sulfate) diet for 60 days. Then, a challenge test was conducted by infection of Aeromonas hydrophila for 14 days. The results firstly showed that compared with optimal iron level, iron deficiency decreased lysozyme (LZ) and acid phosphatase (ACP) activities, complement 3 (C3), C4 and immunoglobulin M (IgM) contents and down-regulated the mRNA levels of antibacterial peptides, anti-inflammatory cytokines, inhibitor of κBα (IκBα), target of rapamycin (TOR) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1), whereas up-regulated the mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65, IκB kinases β (IKKβ) and eIF4E-binding protein (4E-BP) in head kidney and spleen of young grass carp (P integrity in head kidney and spleen of fish. Thirdly, iron deficiency increased skin hemorrhage and lesion morbidity, and impaired immune function and structural integrity in skin of fish. Fourthly, iron excess decreased growth and impaired the immune function and structural integrity in head kidney, spleen and skin of fish. Besides, in young grass carp, based on PWG and ability against skin hemorrhage and lesion, the efficacy of ferrous fumarate relative to ferrous sulfate was 140.32% and 126.48%, respectively, and the iron requirements based on PWG, ability against skin hemorrhage and lesion, ACP activities and MDA contents in head kidney and spleen were estimated to be 75.65, 87.03, 79.74, 78.93, 83.17 and 82.14 mg/kg diet (based on ferrous fumarate), respectively

  18. 草鱼天然抗性相关巨噬蛋白基因全长cDNA的克隆与表达分析%Molecular cloning, characterization and expression of natural resistance associated macrophage protein(Nramp)gene cDNA from grass carp(Ctenopharyngodon idella)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范玉顶; 徐进; 罗晓松; 周勇; 肖艺; 曾令兵

    2011-01-01

    Natural resistance associated macrophage protein (Nramp) family is a novel family of functional related proteins with innate resistance to intracellular parasites in mammals, which has the capacity of enhancing macrophages that are meant to kill pathogens. However, few reports are available about the structure and function of Nramp in lower vertebrates such as teleosts. In this study, cDNA of Nramp gene was amplified from liver of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The full-length cDNA of Nramp gene was 3 158 bp, including a 155 bp 5'terminal UTR, a 1 368 bp 3' terminal UTR and a 1 635 bp open reading frame encoding a protein with 554 amino acid residues, which contained the signature features of the Nramp protein family: 12 transmembrane (TM)domains, a consensus transport motif (CTM) with 20 amino acid residues between the transmembrane domains 8 and 9. The deduced amino acid sequence of grass carp Nramp exhibited about 62.5%-90.2% homology with 16 other vertebrate Nramp sequences. Compared with the other fish's Nramps, the unique feature of grass carp Nramp was the presence of two iron-responsive regulatory-protein-binding sites (IRE) in 3'UTR and 5'UTR. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the grass carp Nramp was clustered with other fish Nramps and was closer to Nramp2 of mammals. RT-PCR results of grass carp Nramp transcripts in different tissues indicated that the grass carp Nramp transcripts were highly abundant in head kidney and spleen and low in muscle and skin. The grass carp kidney cells (CIK) challenged with the grass carp reovirus (GCRV) could evidently elevate Nramp mRNA levels in cell cultures.%天然抗性相关巨噬蛋白(Nramp)家族是一类抑制胞内寄生菌侵染的天然免疫相关蛋白.本研究克隆了草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)Nramp基因并进行了表达分析.该基因cDNA序列全长为3158 bp,编码1个含544个

  19. Cloning and expression of Calreticulin full length cDNA in tissues of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella%草鱼钙网蛋白的克隆与组织表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李旭威; 王海英; 吴锐全; 谢骏; 郁二蒙; 吴垠; 余德光; 王广军; 龚望宝

    2012-01-01

    钙网蛋白是一种高度保守的分子伴侣蛋白,作为内质网主要的钙结合蛋白,广泛存在于真核生物细胞中,在病毒、寄生虫感染以及温度、氧气胁迫等情况下对细胞起保护作用.本试验中采用RACE方法首次克隆获得草鱼Ctenopharyngodon idellus钙网蛋白cDNA全序列,其全长为1389 bp,开放阅读框为1263bp,编码为421个氨基酸.将获得的草鱼钙网蛋白编码氨基酸序列与其它物种分别进行同源性比较,发现草鱼与斑马鱼Danio rerio、虹鳟Oncorhynchus mykiss的同源性较高,分别为86.26%、76.78%,而与人Homo sapiens、小家鼠Mus musculus的同源性为69.67%、69.19%.通过半定量RT-PCR检测可知,钙网蛋白在草鱼的肌肉、肠道、皮肤、肝胰脏、肾脏、脾脏、鳃和鳍中均有表达,其中在肝胰脏、鳍条中的表达量最高,除与皮肤中的表达量无显著差异外(P>0.05),均显著高于其它5个器官组织(P<0.05).%Calreticulin (CRT) as a highly conserved molecular chaperone protein extensively exists in eukaryotic cells, and CRT on the surface of the cell can protect cells in temperature, and oxygen stresses, pathogens and parasitic infections. The full length cDNA of calreticulin was cloned from grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus by race and per methods to ecvaluate the expression in different tissues . The gene was founf to consist of 1 389 bp with an open reading frame of 1 263 bp, encoding 421 amino acids. The amino acid sequence analysis showed that the grass carp Calreticulin had higher homology with zebra fish (86. 26% ) , and rainbow trout (76. 78% ) , and had 69.67% amino acid identity to murine and 69.19% to human CRTs. Tissue expression studies showed that CRT gene was all detected but expression was different in the tested tissues including muscle, skin, intestine, hepato-pancreas, kidney, spleen, gills and rays, but the expression in the hepatopancreas liver and fins was found maximum, significantly higher

  20. Manganese deficiency or excess caused the depression of intestinal immunity, induction of inflammation and dysfunction of the intestinal physical barrier, as regulated by NF-κB, TOR and Nrf2 signalling, in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei-Dan; Tang, Ren-Jun; Liu, Yang; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Pei; Zhao, Juan; Zhang, Yong-An; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Feng, Lin

    2015-10-01

    Intestinal mucosal immune components and mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines, tight junction proteins, antioxidant enzymes and related signalling molecules in young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) under dietary manganese (Mn) deficiency or excess were investigated. Fish were fed the diets containing graded levels of Mn [3.65-27.86 mg Mn kg(-1) diet] for 8 weeks. The results demonstrated that Mn deficiency significantly decreased the lysozyme and acid phosphatase (ACP) activities, up-regulated tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin 8 and the signalling factor nuclear factor-κB p65, and down-regulated interleukin 10 (IL-10), transforming growth factor β1, inhibitor of signalling factors κB-α and target of rapamycin mRNA levels in the proximal intestine (PI), mid intestine (MI) and distal intestine (DI). However, Mn deficiency did not change the C3 content in the PI, whereas it decreased the C3 contents in the MI and DI. Additionally, Mn depletion also resulted in significantly low mRNA levels for tight junction proteins (claudin-b, claudin-c, claudin-15, occludin and zonula occludens-1), antioxidant enzymes (MnSOD, GPx and CAT) and NF-E2-related factor-2 in the intestines of fish. Excessive Mn exhibited toxic effects similar to Mn deficiency, where optimal Mn contents reversed those indicators. In conclusion, Mn deficiency or excess causes the depression of intestinal immunity, induction of inflammation and dysfunction of the intestinal physical barrier relating to NF-κB, TOR and Nrf2 signalling in grass carp. Furthermore, quadratic regression analysis at 95% maximum response of lysozyme and acid phosphatase activities in the distal intestine of young grass carp revealed the optimum dietary Mn levels to be 8.90 and 8.99 mg kg(-1) diet, respectively.

  1. 维生素A对草鱼幼鱼生长、体成分和转氨酶活性的影响%Effects of vitamin A on growth performance,body composition and serum transaminase activities in the juvenile grass carp(Ctenopharyngodon idella)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋明; 文华; 吴凡; 刘伟; 田娟; 杨长庚

    2012-01-01

    【目的】研究VA对草鱼幼鱼生长、体成分和转氨酶活性的影响,以确定草鱼饲料中VA适宜的添加量。【方法】采用酪蛋白和脱脂豆粕为蛋白源、白糊精为糖源、玉米胚芽油和大豆油为脂肪源的半纯化饲料作为基础饲料,配制VA水平为0(对照组),810,1 620,2 520,3 224,3 980,7 950,16 386IU/kg的8组试验饲料,饲养初始体质量为(10.79±0.52)g的草鱼12周,每组3个重复,每重复40尾,试验结束后测算体质量增长率、特定生长率、饲料系数、鱼体营养成分以及血清中碱性磷酸酶(ALP)、谷丙转氨酶(GPT)和谷草转氨酶(GOT)活性等指标。【结果】对照组的草鱼幼鱼,在试验后期有8.33%出现眼球突出、尾鳍充血的症状,添加VA试验组的草鱼未出现类似症状;饲料中VA含量在0~1 620IU/kg时,体质量增长率随饲料中VA增加而显著增加(P〈0.05),饲料中VA含量〉7 950IU/kg时,体质量增长率显著降低(P〈0.05);特定生长率的变化趋势与体质量增长率类似,而饲料系数变化趋势与体质量增长率相反;VA对草鱼成活率和全鱼水分、蛋白质、脂肪、灰分含量无显著性影响(P〉0.05);饲料中缺乏VA会显著降低血清中ALP的活性,同时显著提高GPT和GOT的活性(P〈0.05)。【结论】在本试验条件下,饲料中缺乏VA会引起草鱼幼鱼眼球突出、尾鳍充血和肝功能异常,饲料中添加适量的VA会促进草鱼的生长,降低饲料系数,但过量的VA会降低草鱼幼鱼的生长速度。对草鱼体质量增长率与饲料中VA含量进行折线回归分析,可知草鱼幼鱼获得最佳生长时对VA的需要量为1 653IU/kg,同时建议饲料中VA含量不宜超过7 950IU/kg。%【Objective】 This experiment was conducted to reveal the effects of the dietary vitamin A on growth,body composition and transaminase activities in the juvenile grass carp(Ctenopharyngodon idella),to determine optimal

  2. 糖对草鱼肝脂代谢关键基因转录水平的调控研究%Effects of Carbohydrates on Transcription of Five Key Genes Involved in Lipid Metabolism in Hepatopancreas of Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙君君; 卢荣华; 常志光; 秦超彬; 杨峰; 聂国兴

    2015-01-01

    在目前集约化水产养殖模式下,草鱼肝脂质代谢紊乱问题比较严重,已引起人们的高度关注。为获知糖对草鱼肝脂代谢的影响及作用机理,本研究分别从活体和细胞水平上分析了糖对肝脂代谢5个关键基因转录水平变化的影响。采用实时荧光定量 PCR(qRT‐PCR)技术,检测了在低糖(糖含量24%)和高糖(糖含量42%)投喂条件下草鱼肝脏中固醇调节元件结合蛋白‐1c、过氧化物酶体增殖物激活受体α和乙酰辅酶A羧化酶的转录水平变化,H·E染色观察肝脏组织形态学变化;并检测了在不同浓度葡萄糖作用下,草鱼肝细胞中固醇调节元件结合蛋白‐1c、脂肪酸合酶和脂蛋白脂酶基因的表达变化。结果显示,肝组织中固醇调节元件结合蛋白‐1c、乙酰辅酶A羧化酶在高糖组中的表达量显著高于对照组和低糖组(P <0.05),过氧化物酶体增殖物激活受体α在高糖和低糖条件下变化不明显(P>0.05);H · E染色观察发现在高糖条件下草鱼肝组织出现了大量的脂肪蓄积;在其肝细胞中固醇调节元件结合蛋白‐1c、脂肪酸合酶、脂蛋白脂酶的mRNA表达量随葡萄糖浓度增加均呈先升后降趋势,分别在葡萄糖浓度为10 mmol/L和20 mmol/L时达到最高值(P <0.05)。研究结果表明,葡萄糖可能通过调节固醇调节元件结合蛋白‐1c、乙酰辅酶A羧化酶和脂蛋白脂酶等基因的表达进而调节体内糖向脂的转化过程。研究结果为丰富鱼类糖代谢调控机理提供研究资料,并有望为提高鱼类饲料糖的利用效率提供理论依据。%In current intensive aquaculture ,the hepatopancreatic lipid metabolic disorderis are serious in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) ,and has caused the attention of people .The transcriptional effects of carbohydrates on the five key genes involved in lipid metabolism in

  3. Expression pattern and transcriptional regulatory mechanism of noxa gene in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Yongyan; Lu, Xiaonan; He, Libo; Wang, Hao; Zhang, Aidi; Li, Yongming; Huang, Rong; Liao, Lanjie; Zhu, Zuoyan; Wang, Yaping

    2015-12-01

    Noxa, a pro-apoptotic protein, plays an important role in cell apoptosis. The researches about noxa gene were concentrated in mammalians, whereas the role and transcriptional regulatory mechanism of noxa in fish were still unclear. In this study, the expression pattern and transcriptional regulatory mechanism of noxa gene in grass carp were analyzed. Noxa was constitutively expressed in all the examined tissues but the relative expression level differed. After exposure to grass carp reovirus (GCRV), mRNA expression level of noxa was down-regulated at the early phase whereas up-regulated at the late phase of infection. Luciferase assays showed that the promoter region -867 ∼ +107 of noxa had high activity and the region -678 ∼ -603 was important in the response to GCRV infection. By deleting the predicted transcription factor binding sites, transcription factors FOXO1 and CEBPβ were found important for noxa in response to GCRV infection. Moreover, the noxa promoter was biotin-labeled and incubated with nuclear extracts from GCRV infected cells. Mass spectrometry analysis showed that transcription factors FOXO1 and CEBPβ were also enriched in the combined proteins. Therefore, the results suggested that transcription factors FOXO1 and CEBPβ may play an important role in the regulation of noxa. Our study would provide new insight into the transcriptional regulatory mechanism of noxa in teleost fish.

  4. Upgrading food wastes by means of bromelain and papain to enhance growth and immunity of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, W M; Lam, C L; Mo, W Y; Wong, M H

    2016-04-01

    The fast growing of global aquaculture industry accompanied with increasing pressure on the supply and price of traditional feed materials (e.g., fish meal and soy bean meal). This circumstance has urged the need to search alternative sources of feed stuff. Food waste was used as feed stuff in rearing fish which possess substantial protein and lipid. Grass carp are major species reared in Hong Kong with lower nutritional requirements; it is also an ideal species for investigating the feasibility of using food waste as fish feeds for local aquaculture industry. The growth and immunity, reflected by total protein, total immunologlobulin (IgI), and nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) activity of grass carp blood, were depressed when feeding with food waste feeds without enzymes. However, the supplementation of bromelain and papain in fish feed enhanced the efficient use of food waste by grass carp, which in turn improved the fish immunity. The present results indicated that the addition of those enzymes could enhance the feed utilization by fish and hematological parameters of grass carp, and the improvement on growth and immunity superior to the control (commercial feed) was observed with the addition of bromelain and papain supplement. Addition of 1 and 2 % mixture of bromelain and papain could significantly enhance the lipid utilization in grass carp.

  5. AGE AND SEASONAL DYNAMICS OF THE SYMBIOCENOSES OF GRASS CARP (CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLA AND SILVER CARP (HYPOPHTHALMICHTHYS MOLITRIX IN FISH PONDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Zaichenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Identification and analysis of age and seasonal dynamics of the symbiocenoses of grass carp and silver carp in fish ponds. Methodology. The work was performed at Belotserkovskoy hydrobiological station, located on the river Ros within Bila Tserkva. The objects of the study were symbiotic communities of grass carp and silver carp of different age groups (from yearlings to age-5 fish. Fish underwent partial parasitological dissection using generally accepted methods. Findings. The age and seasonal dynamics of the symbiotic communitues of grass carp and silver carp were investigated during different seasons of one year. The effect of different factors on the formation of symbiotic communities have been analyzed. Different species of symbiotic organisms were characterized by different temperature preferences (Peritrcha have the highest rates of invasion in the summer. The distribution of symbionts depend on the way of their transmission. Some species of protista, monogenea and parasitic crustaceans infect the host during their high density (wintering or spawning. Other species of symbiotic organisms infect the host by nutritional way, therefore the invasion rates increase with the intensity of feeding. The differences in symbiotic community structure of fish of different age group are related to the differences in species biology. The composition of symbiotic communities of fish of different age groups contain symbiotic organisms that do not depend on the host age (metacercaria of Diplostomum, some Protista; species that more rapidly infect fish juveniles (some species of ciliates, cestoda – B. acheilognathi and species that predominantly infect older age group (monogenea, parasitic crustaceans. Originality. For the first time, we performed complex investigations of symbiotic communities of grass carp and silver carp in view of the specificity of their biology and during different seasons. Practical value. The results of the work can be used for the development of optimum periods for pest control and prevention of epizooties as well as for controlling some species of parasites.

  6. Identification, organ expression and ligand-dependent expression levels of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shan; Liang, Xu-Fang; Qu, Chun-Mei; Huang, Wei; Shen, Dan; Zhang, Wen-Bing; Mai, Kang-Sen

    2012-03-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-dependent transcription factors belonging to the nuclear receptor family, and can regulate various genes involved in lipid metabolism. The aim of the present study was to investigate the tissue distribution patterns of PPARs and their ligand specificities in grass carp. We cloned three PPAR isotypes of the species and evaluated their organ distribution patterns using real-time PCR. Through analyzing the deduced amino acid sequences identities between the products cloned in grass carp and those described in other species, we concluded that the same type of PPAR amino acid sequences in different species were with high homology, and different subtypes of PPAR in the same species were with low homology. The mRNA constitutive expression level of PPARα predominated in the liver, but was weak in other tested tissues. PPARβ was present in all tested organs, and particularly abundant in heart, liver and muscle. PPARγ was only detected in the liver, and to a lesser extent in brain, muscle and visceral adipose tissue. Grass carp were intraperitoneally injected with 50 mg kg(-1) body mass (bw) dose of clofibrate, 42 mg kg(-1) bw dose of 2-bromo palmitate and 1 mg kg(-1) bw dose of 15-deoxy-Δ(12,14) prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2), respectively, and the relative changes of the mRNA abundance of PPARs in liver were analyzed by real-time PCR. Clofibrate was able to increase the expressions of both PPARα and β, but was not able to for PPARγ. 2-bromo palmitate could affect the expressions of both PPARβ and γ, but was not able to for PPARα. 15d-PGJ2 was able to induce PPARβ expression, but PPARα and γ were not enhanced. Consequently, these results indicate that clofibrate, 2-bromo palmitate and 15d-PGJ2 could be applied as the activators of grass carp PPARs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Molecular cloning and nutrient regulation analysis of long chain acyl-CoA synthetase 1 gene in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Han-Liang; Chen, Shuai; Xu, Jian-He; Yi, Le-Fei; Peng, Yong-Xing; Pan, Qian; Shen, Xin; Dong, Zhi-Guo; Zhang, Xia-Qing; Wang, Wen-Xiang

    2017-02-01

    Long chain acyl-CoA synthetase 1 (ACSL1), a key regulatory enzyme of fatty acid metabolism, catalyzes the conversion of long-chain fatty acids to acyl-coenzyme A. The full-length cDNAs of ACSL1a and ACSL1b were cloned from the liver of a grass carp. Both cDNAs contained a 2094bp open reading frame encoding 697 amino acids. Amino acid sequence alignment showed that ACSL1a shared 73.5% sequence identity with ACSL1b. Each of the two ACSL1s proteins had a transmembrane domain, a P-loop domain, and L-, A-, and G-motifs, which were relatively conserved in comparison to other vertebrates. Relative expression profile of ACSL1 mRNAs in different tissues indicated that ACSL1a is highly expressed in heart, mesenteric adipose, and brain tissues, whereas ACSL1b is highly expressed in heart, white muscle, foregut, and liver tissues. Nutrient regulation research showed that the expression levels of ACSL1a and ACSL1b were significantly down-regulated when 3, 6, and 9% fish oil were added in diet of grass carp as compared to the control group. However, no significant difference in the levels of ACSL1 mRNA was observed between the experimental groups. This study demonstrated the relationship between ACSL1a and ACSL1b genes in grass carp and laid a foundation for further research on ACSL family members in other species.

  8. Use of food waste as fish feeds: effects of prebiotic fibers (inulin and mannanoligosaccharide) on growth and non-specific immunity of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Wing Y; Cheng, Zhang; Choi, Wai M; Lun, Clare H I; Man, Yu B; Wong, James T F; Chen, Xun W; Lau, Stanley C K; Wong, Ming H

    2015-11-01

    The effects of inulin and mannanoligosaccharide (MOS) on the growth performance and non-specific immunity of grass carp were studied. Two doses of prebiotic fiber with 0.2 or 2% of the fibers are being mixed into fish feed pellets. Fish growth as well as selected non-specific immune parameters of grass carp were tested in a feeding trial, which lasted for 8 weeks. Fish was fed at 2.5% body mass per day. INU02, INU2, and MOS2 significantly improved relative weight gain, specific growth rate, protein efficiency ratio, and food conversion ratio of grass carp fed with food waste-based diet. In terms of non-specific immune response, grass carp showed significant improvement in all three tested parameters (total serum immunoglobin, bactericidal activity, and anti-protease activity). Adding 2% of inulin (INU2) into food waste diets seemed to be more preferable than other supplemented experimental diets (INU02, MOS02, MOS2), as it could promote growth of grass carp as well as improving the non-specific immune systems of grass carp.

  9. 草鱼幼鱼对缬氨酸需要量的研究%Research on Dietary Valine Requirement of Juvenile Grass Carp(Ctenopharyngodon idella)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗莉; 王亚哥; 李芹; 汪福保; 陈时; 刘彪; 文华

    2010-01-01

    试验选用体重(9.5±0.3)g的草鱼幼鱼,随机分成6个组,每组3个重复,每个重复20尾;以花生仁粕、酪蛋白及明胶为蛋白质源,分别饲喂缬氨酸水平为7.3~22.3 g/kg的6组等氮半精制饲料(粗蛋白质含量为32%),经70 d的生长试验研究其日粮缬氨酸的最适需求量.试验结果表明:日粮缬氨酸水平对草幼鱼的增重率、特定生长率、蛋白质效率、肌肉RNA/DNA比率、鱼体常规成分组成、消化酶活性、肝胰脏谷草-谷丙转氨酶和谷氨酸脱氢酶活性以及血液学指标都有显著的影响(P<0.05).随日粮缬氨酸水平的增加,增重率,特定生长率、蛋白质效率及肌肉RNA/DNA比率均呈先升后降趋势,均在16.3 g/kg组达到最大值(P<0.05).以增重率、特定生长率、肌肉RNA/DNA比率为基础对饲料缬氨酸水平进行二次回归分析,确定草鱼幼鱼日粮(32%粗蛋白质)缬氨酸适宜需要量分别为15.6、15.1及16.0 g/kg(日粮基础)或48.8、47.2及50.0 g/kg(日粮蛋白质基础).

  10. Angiotensin-I converting enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activity of bioactive peptides produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of skin from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yi, Jierong; De Gobba, Cristian; Skibsted, Leif Horsfelt

    2016-01-01

    Grass carp skin pieces were homogenized in water and hydrolyzed by Alcalase®, collagenase, proteinase K, and/or trypsin at their optimum conditions. Samples were taken at various degrees of hydrolysis and were evaluated for antioxidant, antimicrobial, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory...... activities. Alcalase and collagenase completely hydrolyzed the skin with different rates, and released peptides with antioxidant and angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibitory activity. These activities increased linearly with increasing degrees of hydrolysis. Subsequent incubation of the collagenase...... hydrolysates with trypsin slightly increased the antioxidant activity. Proteinase K, although only partially hydrolyzing the skin, also catalyzed the release of peptides with antioxidant and angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibitory activities. These results show that skin by-products from grass carp can...

  11. Ontogenetic development of adipose tissue in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pin; Ji, Hong; Li, Chao; Tian, Jingjing; Wang, Yifei; Yu, Ping

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the adipose tissue development process during the early stages of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) development, samples were collected from fertilized eggs to 30 days post-fertilization (dpf) of fish. Paraffin and frozen sections were taken to observe the characteristics of adipocytes in vivo by different staining methods, including hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), Oil red O, and BODIPY. The expression of lipogenesis-related genes of the samples at different time points was detected by real-time qPCR. In addition, protein expression level of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors γ (PPAR γ) was detected by immunohistochemistry. The results showed that the neutral lipid droplets accumulated first in the hepatocytes of 14-dpf fish larvae, and visceral adipocytes appeared around the hepatopancreas on 16 dpf. As grass carp grew, the adipocytes increased in number and spread to other tissues. In 20-dpf fish larvae, the intestine was observed to be covered by adipose tissue. However, there was no significant change in the average size (30.40-40.01 μm) of adipocytes during this period. Accordingly, the gene expression level of PPAR γ and CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins α (C/EBP α) was significantly elevated after fertilization for 12 days (p adipose tissue is caused by active recruitment of adipocytes as opposed to hypertrophy of the cell. In addition, our study indicated that lipogenesis-related genes might regulate the ongoing development of adipose tissue.

  12. Characterization of two heat shock proteins (Hsp70/Hsc70) from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella): evidence for their differential gene expression, protein synthesis and secretion in LPS-challenged peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Anying; Zhou, Xiaofei; Wang, Xinyan; Zhou, Hong

    2011-06-01

    Two cDNAs, encoding the stress-inducible 70-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp70) and the constitutively expressed 70-kDa heat shock cognate protein (Hsc70), were isolated from grass carp. The Hsp70 and Hsc70 cDNAs were 2250 bp and 2449 bp in length and contained 1932 bp and 1953 bp open reading frames, respectively. Tissue distribution results showed that Hsp70/Hsc70 was highly expressed in gill, kidney, head kidney and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs). Using grass carp PBLs as a cell model, effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the mRNA and protein levels of Hsp70/Hsc70 were examined. In this case, LPS increased the mRNA expression of Hsp70 in a time- and dose-dependent manner, but had no effect on Hsc70 mRNA expression. In agreement with this, LPS elevated the intracellular Hsp70 markedly, but not the Hsc70 protein levels in parallel experiments. Furthermore, Hsp70 protein was also detected in culture medium. Moreover, inhibition of LPS on Hsp70 release in a time-dependent manner was observed, indicating that there may be a dynamic balance between Hsp70 stores and Hsp70 release in grass carp PBLs following exposure to LPS. Taken together, these results not only shed new insights into the different regulations of LPS on Hsp70/Hsc70 gene expression, protein synthesis and release, but also provide a basis for further study on the functional role of Hsp70 in fish immune response.

  13. Enhanced muscle nutrient content and flesh quality, resulting from tryptophan, is associated with anti-oxidative damage referred to the Nrf2 and TOR signalling factors in young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella): Avoid tryptophan deficiency or excess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei-Dan; Wen, Hai-Lang; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Wu, Pei; Zhao, Juan; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Feng, Lin

    2016-05-15

    Flesh quality, muscle antioxidant status and related signalling molecule expressions were investigated in young grass carp fed six levels of tryptophan (Trp) for 8 weeks. The results indicated that fish fed 0.7 (deficiency) and 6.1g Trp g/kg (excess) diets exhibited lower muscle water-holding capacity, tenderness, cathepsin activity, protein levels, lipids and collagen contents. Optimal Trp reversed these negative effects, which were related to enhanced glutathione (GSH) content and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities regulated at gene transcription levels, rather than to superoxide dismutase (SOD) or catalase (CAT). The expression of signalling molecules [Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1, target of rapamycin (TOR) and ribosomal S6 protein kinase 1] involved in the NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway revealed a potential method of Trp-enhanced antioxidant defence. Collectively, the present study indicated that appropriate Trp levels improved flesh quality partly related to the enhancement of antioxidant ability through Nrf2 and TOR signalling.

  14. Construction and Characterization of Grass Carp(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)Fosmid Library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Zhen-hu; LIN Chang-you; YANG Tian-yao; JIANG Yi-nan; XIA Chun

    2010-01-01

    Grass carp(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)genomic fosmid library cotaining 129014 clones was constructed and characterized from one diploid grass carp.The average insert size of the fosmid library was determined to be 35 kb by pulsed field gel electrophoresis,which is 4.1-fold coverage of the grass carp genome.To demonstrate the probability of picking the functional genes from the library,eleven functional genes were screened by three-dimensional PCR technique.The number of positive clones of these genes was from 1 to 6.So,this library may screen any useful genes from grass carp.This grass carp genome fosmid library will be integrated in the presently ongoing efforts to determine the sequence of the grass carp genome.

  15. ENU-induced mutagenesis in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus by treating mature sperm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia-Yun Jiang

    Full Text Available N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU mutagenesis is a useful approach for genetic improvement of plants, as well as for inducing functional mutants in animal models including mice and zebrafish. In the present study, mature sperm of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus were treated with a range of ENU concentrations for 45 min, and then wild-type eggs were fertilized. The results indicated that the proportion of embryos with morphological abnormalities at segmentation stage or dead fry at hatching stage increased with increasing ENU dose up to 10 mM. Choosing a dose that was mutagenic, but provided adequate numbers of viable fry, an F1 population was generated from 1 mM ENU-treated sperm for screening purposes. The ENU-treated F1 population showed large variations in growth during the first year. A few bigger mutants with morphologically normal were generated, as compared to the controls. Analysis of DNA from 15 F1 ENU-treated individuals for mutations in partial coding regions of igf-2a, igf-2b, mstn-1, mstn-2, fst-1 and fst-2 loci revealed that most ENU-treated point mutations were GC to AT or AT to GC substitution, which led to nonsense, nonsynonymous and synonymous mutations. The average mutation rate at the examined loci was 0.41%. These results indicate that ENU treatment of mature sperm can efficiently induce point mutations in grass carp, which is a potentially useful approach for genetic improvement of these fish.

  16. History of introductions and governmental involvement in promoting the use of grass, silver, and bighead carps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerous natural resource agency and media reports have alleged that Asian carps were introduced into the wild through escapes from commercial fish farms. This presentation chronologically traces the introductions of Asian carps (grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, silver carp Hypophthalmichthys mol...

  17. Nutritional value of cabbage and kikuyu grass as food for grass carp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritional value of cabbage and kikuyu grass as food for grass carp,. Ctenopharyngodon idella Val. ... the Transkei, farming is the main economic activity. (Anon, 1980). .... Eds. Varshney, C.K. & Rzoska, J., The Hague, W. Junk.,. 315 pp.

  18. Effect of Chromium on Oxidative Damage and Antioxidant Capacity of Ctenopharyngodon idellus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ting GUO; Yuanyuan MA; Peng TIAN; Yan LIU; Lunqiang YUAN

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to investigate the effect of chromium on ox- idative damage and antioxidant capacity of Ctenopharyngodon idellus (grass carp). [Method] The grass carps were treated with hexavalent chromium (Cr^6+) solution at concentrations of 0, 7.23, 14.47, 28.94 mg/L, and then the content of malondialde- hyde (MDA), the level of total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC) and the activity of gtu- tathione-S-transferase (GST) in the hepatopancreas of grass carp were determined after 96 hours in different treatment groups. [Result] The content of MDA presented increasing trend with the increase of exposure Cr^6+ concentrations. The activity of T-AOC increased firstly, then decreased with the increasing Cr^6+ exposure concentra- tions, showing that the level of T-AOC was induced in tow and medium concentrat ions (7.23 and 14.47 mg/L), but inhibited in high concentrations (28.94 mg/L). Among the exposure groups, the level of T-AOC in medium concentration group (14.47 mg/L) was significantly higher than the control (P〈0.05). Except the low concentration groups (7.23 mg/L) of which the GST activity was slightly induced, the GST activities of the other groups all showed downward trend with increasing Cr^6+ levels, and the activity of GST in 28.94 mg/L group was significantly lower than the control group (P〈0.05). [Conclusion] Cr^6+ could cause large oxidative damage in the hepatopancreas of grass carp, thus poisoning it, and Cr^6+ may further damage the organizational structure and physiological function of grass carp.

  19. Cloning and preliminary functional studies of the JAM-A gene in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Fukuan; Su, Jianguo; Huang, Rong; Liao, Lanjie; Zhu, Zuoyan; Wang, Yaping

    2013-06-01

    Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) is a very important aquaculture species in China and other South-East Asian countries; however, disease outbreaks in this species are frequent, resulting in huge economic losses. Grass carp hemorrhage caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV) is one of the most serious diseases. Junction adhesion molecule A (JAM-A) is the mammalian receptor for reovirus, and has been well studied. However, the JAM-A gene in grass carp has not been studied so far. In this study, we cloned and elucidated the structure of the JAM-A gene in grass carp (GcJAM-A) and then studied its functions during grass carp hemorrhage. GcJAM-A is composed of 10 exons and 9 introns, and its full-length cDNA is 1833 bp long, with an 888 bp open reading frame (ORF) that encodes a 295 amino acid protein. The GcJAM-A protein is predicted to contain a typical transmembrane domain. Maternal expression pattern of GcJAM-A is observed during early embryogenesis, while zygote expression occurs at 8 h after hatching. GcJAM-A is expressed strongly in the gill, liver, intestine and kidney, while it is expressed poorly in the blood, brain, spleen and head kidney. Moreover, lower expression is observed in the gill, liver, intestine, brain, spleen and kidney of 30-month-old individuals, compared with 6-month-old. In a GcJAM-A-knockdown cell line (CIK) infected with GCRV, the expression of genes involved in the interferon and apoptosis pathways was significantly inhibited. These results suggest that GcJAM-A could be a receptor for GCRV. We have therefore managed to characterize the GcJAM-A gene and provide evidence for its role as a receptor for GCRV.

  20. Dietary taurine can improve the hypoxia-tolerance but not the growth performance in juvenile grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huijun; Tian, Lixia; Huang, Junwa; Liang, Guiying; Liu, Yongjian

    2013-10-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary taurine, as a feed additive, on the hypoxia-tolerance and growth performance of the juvenile grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus, one of the most important and intensively cultured freshwater fish, with the largest production in China. Graded levels of taurine (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2 and 2.5 g kg(-1) dry diet) were fed to grass carp juveniles (mean weight: 5.26 ± 0.03 g) for 8 weeks. The survival time during acute hypoxia increased as dietary levels of taurine increased, with the highest dose of taurine resulting in the best acute hypoxia-tolerance. The erythrocyte osmotic fragility in grass carp was significantly improved when dietary taurine level was at least 1.5 g kg(-1) diet and can be improved much more when dietary taurine level was up to 2.5 g kg(-1) diet. A significant correlation between hemolysis rate of the erythrocyte osmotic fragility test and the survival time of acute hypoxia (r = -0.873, P = 0.023 taurine may contribute to its role of enhancing acute hypoxia-tolerance in grass carp. Dietary taurine cannot improve growth performance of grass carp, but it can increase the value of mesenteric fat index, indicating that dietary taurine influences the lipid metabolism. This study provides valuable information to improve hypoxia-tolerance of grass carp.

  1. Succession and Fermentation Products of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus Hindgut Microbiota in Response to an Extreme Dietary Shift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Tong Hao

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Dietary intake affects the structure and function of microbes in host intestine. However, the succession of gut microbiota in response to changes in macronutrient levels during a long period of time remains insufficiently studied. Here, we determined the succession and metabolic products of intestinal microbiota in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus undergoing an abrupt and extreme diet change, from fish meal to Sudan grass (Sorghum sudanense. Grass carp hindgut microbiota responded rapidly to the diet shift, reaching a new equilibrium approximately within 11 days. In comparison to animal-diet samples, Bacteroides, Lachnospiraceae and Erysipelotrichaceae increased significantly while Cetobacterium decreased significantly in plant-diet samples. Cetobacterium was negatively correlated with Bacteroides, Lachnospiraceae and Erysipelotrichaceae, while Bacteroides was positively correlated with Lachnospiraceae. Predicted glycoside hydrolase and polysaccharide lyase genes in Bacteroides and Lachnospiraceae from the Carbohydrate-Active enZymes (CAZy database might be involved in degradation of the plant cell wall polysaccharides. However, none of these enzymes was detected in the grass carp genome searched against dbCAN database. Additionally, a significant decrease of short chain fatty acids levels in plant-based samples was observed. Generally, our results suggest a rapid adaption of grass carp intestinal microbiota to dietary shift, and that microbiota are likely to play an indispensable role in nutrient turnover and fermentation.

  2. 鲩鱼脂肪酸的组成及其含量的GC—MS分析%Composing of Fatty Acid of Ctenopharyngodon idellus by GC -MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小霞; 张明辉; 谢俊刚

    2012-01-01

    The composition and contents of fatty acid in Ctenopharyngodon idellus were determined by GC - MS. The fatty acid was extracted by benzene and methyl - esterified by acid and alkali combination method. The relative contents of each composition were determined by area normalization based on the total ion chromatography. Results showed that 26 kinds of fatty acids were in the Ctenopharyngodon idellus, the contents of saturated fatty acid and unsaturated fatty acid in Ctenopharyngodon idellus were 38.46% and 61.54% , respectively. The main fatty acids were linoleic acid 31.83%, o- leic acid 29.89% , and palm acid 11.36%.%采用气相色谱-质谱法分析了鲩鱼中脂肪酸的化学组成及各成分的含量。鲩鱼中的脂肪经石油醚提取、酸碱结合法甲酯化、GC—MS测定、总离子流图峰面积归一化法测定各组分相对含量。鲩鱼中检出26种脂肪酸,其中饱和脂肪酸含量为38.46%,不饱和脂肪酸61.54%。,含量较高的脂肪酸是亚麻油酸31.83%,油酸29.89%,棕榈油酸11.36%。

  3. Regulation of adipocytes lipolysis by n-3 HUFA in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pin; Li, Chao; Huang, Jiqin; Ji, Hong

    2014-10-01

    N-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 HUFA) have been shown to inhibit body fat accumulation in animals. To clarify the mechanism of this fat-lowering effect of n-3 HUFA in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), two experiments were conducted. In experiment 1, isolated grass carp mature adipocytes were incubated with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) at different concentrations for 6 h. The release of glycerol to the medium was detected, and the expression of the lipolysis-related genes was analyzed. In experiment 2, a 95-day feeding trial was conducted with two diets formulated with either lard oil (as control) or fish oil (supplying n-3 HUFA as treatment) as the main lipid source. The glycerol and free fatty acid (FFA) released from the isolated adipocytes of both groups were detected after the feeding period. The expression of select lipolysis-related genes in adipose tissue was also analyzed. The results from experiment 1 showed that the release of glycerol was significantly increased by DHA and EPA (P lipase (ATGL), hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and leptin, was also significantly elevated in the treatment group (P < 0.05). Experiment 2 demonstrated that glycerol and FFA release from the isolated adipocytes were significantly higher in the treatment group compared to the control group (P < 0.05). The expression level of ATGL, HSL, TNFα and leptin in the treatment group was significantly higher than in the control group (P < 0.05). The present results provide novel evidence that n-3 HUFAs could regulate grass carp adipocyte lipolysis in vitro or in vivo, and the effect might be in part associated with their influence on the expression of lipolysis-related genes and lipolysis-related adipokines genes.

  4. Molecular cloning of the MARCH family in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) and their response to grass carp reovirus challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Mi; Huang, Rong; Xiong, Lv; Luo, Lifei; Chen, Geng; Liao, Lanjie; Li, Yongming; He, Libo; Zhu, Zuoyan; Wang, Yaping

    2017-02-20

    Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) is an economical aquaculture species in China, and the Grass Carp Reovirus (GCRV) that causes hemorrhagic disease seriously affects the grass carp cultivation industry. Substantial evidence indicates that there is an association between the membrane-associated RING-CH family of E3 ligase (MARCH) family and immune defense in mammals, while functional studies on non-mammalian MARCH proteins are limited. In order to know the characteristics of the MARCH genes in C. idellus, eight MARCH genes (MARCH1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 11) were cloned and the open reading frames (ORF) were identified in grass carp. All MARCH proteins in grass carp contained an RING-CH domain, which is characteristic of the MARCH protein. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that different MARCH proteins gathered into their separate clusters. All eight members of the MARCH gene family were detected in all tissues sampled, but the relative expression level differed. In addition, the mRNA expression of all the MARCHs was regulated at different levels in the immune organs after a GCRV challenge, and they responded robustly in both the intestine and liver. The mRNA expression of MARCH8, MHC II, TfR, IL1RAP, EGR1, and DUSP1 in the intestine after GCRV infection was analyzed, and the results showed that MARCH8 could negatively regulate TfR, IL1RAP, EGR1, and DUSP1, which signaled via the MAPK or NF-κB-activation pathways that play vital roles in immunity. Our findings identified a novel gene family in C. idellus and provided novel evidence that MARCH genes are inducible and involved in the immune response. Moreover, MARCH8 might function to negatively regulate immune receptors in C. idellus. Therefore, the MARCH might play a vital role in regulating the immune response of C. idellus.

  5. 牛磺酸对投喂高脂饲料草鱼幼鱼生长、肌肉品质及抗氧化能力的影响%Effect of taurine on growth,muscle quality and antioxidant capacity of juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) fed with high-fat diets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王清滨; 王秋举; 杨翼羽; 董晓庆; 陈玉珂; 鞠雪; 董婧; 张东鸣

    2015-01-01

    [目的]研究牛磺酸对投喂高脂饲料草鱼幼鱼生长、肌肉品质及抗氧化能力的影响.[方法]选取平均初始体质量为(45.13±2.78)g/尾的健康草鱼幼鱼720尾,随机分成6组(每组4个重复,每个重复30尾),第1组为基础组,饲喂基础饲料(脂肪水平为5.09%),第2组为高脂组,饲喂高脂饲料(脂肪水平为8.25%),其余4组为牛磺酸添加组,分别饲喂添加200,700,1 200和1 700mg/kg牛磺酸的高脂饲料,养殖65 d后,测定草鱼体质量和体长,并采集尾静脉血样、肝胰脏和肌肉样品,用于测定草鱼幼鱼生长、肌肉品质及抗氧化能力指标.[结果](1)与基础组相比,高脂组草鱼脏体指数(VSD、肌肉粗脂肪含量、肝胰脏和血清中丙二醛(MDA)含量显著升高(P<0.05),空壳率(ESR)、肝胰脏和血清中超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性显著降低(P<0.05).(2)与高脂组相比,添加700mg/kg牛磺酸显著提高了鱼体增重率(WGR)、特定生长率(SGR)和饲料效率(FER) (P<0.05);添加1 700mg/kg牛磺酸显著降低了VSI(P<0.05);700~1 700 mg/kg牛磺酸分别显著提高了ESR,降低了肌肉中粗脂肪含量(P<0.05);在抗氧化酶活性方面,200~1 200和700~1 700 mg/kg牛磺酸分别显著提高了肝胰脏SOD和CAT活性,1 200和700 mg/kg牛磺酸分别显著提高了血清中SOD和CAT活性(P<0.05);当牛磺酸添加量分别为700~1 200,200~1 700 mg/kg时显著降低了肝胰脏、血清中MDA含量(P<0.05).[结论]在本试验条件下,投喂高脂饲料显著降低了草鱼幼鱼的肌肉品质和机体的抗氧化能力;投喂添加适宜剂量(700~1 200mg/kg)牛磺酸的高脂饲料促进了草鱼幼鱼的生长,改善了肌肉品质,提高了机体抗氧化能力.

  6. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program. Use of the White Amur for Aquatic Plant Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-01

    Martin (1979) related paper, Stanley, Miley, and Sutton(1978) discuss the possibility of naturali- Gasaway (1978) analyzed the use of the zation of...Vicksburg. Miss., Gidumal, J. L 1958. "A Survey of the Biology of pp 28-297. the Grass Carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella Keown , M. P. 1980. "Large-Scale...idella) Shireman. J. V.. Colle. D. E.. and Martin . R. G. in Missouri Streams." Transactions of the 1979. "Ecological Study of Lake Wales. American Fishery

  7. 草鱼幼鱼实用日粮中添加紫花苜蓿草粉效果评价%EVALUATION OF DRY CLOVER MEAL AS A FEED PROTEIN RESOURCE IN PRACTICAL DIETS OF JUVENILE GRASS CARP.CTENOPHARYNGODON INELLA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵华林; 钟鸣; 冯健; 罗波; 赵海祥

    2011-01-01

    实验旨在评估苜蓿草粉作为草鱼饲料的潜在蛋白原料的可能性.360尾草鱼幼鱼[(8.72±0.34)朗分成6个实验组,每个实验组3个平行组,每组20尾鱼,养殖于250 L循环水族箱中.试验日粮1、2、3、4、5添加2.5%、5%、10%、15%和20%苜蓿草粉,分别占日粮总蛋白的1.75%、3.50%、7.0%、10.5%和14%.对照组日粮以大豆粕、花生粕、棉籽粕和菜籽粕作为对照蛋白源.所有日粮为等蛋白质(粗蛋白28.5%)和等能量(15.92 mJ/kg).实验期为56d,实验各组鱼在整个试验期间,没有出现死亡.2.5%和5%苜蓿草粉日粮组(试验日粮1、2)鱼较对照组鱼生长性能与饲料效益有所提高,10%组(试验日粮3)与对照组无显著性差异,但15%和20%日粮组(试验日粮4、5)鱼较对照组鱼显著性下降(P<0.05).结果表明,苜蓿草粉在草鱼日粮中适宜添加量为7.8%.最多可以添加到10%.%In order to attain a more economically sustainable, environmentally friendly and viable production, the research interest has been directed towards the evaluation and use of unconventional protein sources. This study was conducted to evaluate the suitability of dried clover (Medicago sativa L.) meal as an alternative protein source for grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella. A 56d feeding trial was carried out on 6 triplicate groups of 20 fish (8.72±0.34) g in 250 L aquaria connected to a re-circulating system. Five test diets were formulated to contain clover meal at levels of 2.5%,5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of the diets or 1.75%, 3.5%, 7.0%, 10.5% and 14.0% of the total plant dietary protein (Diet 1, 2,3, 4 and 5) respectively and one diet acting as a control which included soybean meal, peanut meal, cottonseed meal and rapeseed meal as protein sources. All diets were isonitrogenous (28.5% crude protein) and isoenergetic (15.92 M J/kg).No mortality was observed during the whole test period. Fish in diets with 2.5% and 5% dry clover meal (Diet I and 2

  8. Effect of Sugar on the Changes in Quality of Lightly Salted Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) Fillets under Vacuum Packaging at 4°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiying; Chen, Kexin; Chen, Jingru; Fan, Hongbing; Luo, Yongkang

    2016-03-01

    To estimate the effect of a low concentration of sugar on the changes in quality of lightly salted grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) during storage under vacuum packaging at 4°C, we determined the sensory score, total viable counts, biochemical quality, and physical quality of fish fillets. Fish samples were left untreated, dry cured with 1.3% salt, or dry cured with 1.3% salt plus 1.0% sugar. Compared with untreated samples, curing treatments reduced chemical changes reflected in pH, inosine monophosphate, hypoxanthine riboside, hypoxanthine, and total volatile base nitrogen; decreased the formation of phenylethylamine, putrescine, cadaverine, and histamine; and increased the overall sensory quality of fillets (P < 0.05). Compared to dry cured with 1.3% salt samples, sugar treatment significantly inhibited (P < 0.05) the increase in pH and total volatile base nitrogen value, but it promoted microbial growth and the formation of phenylethylamine and tyramine at later stages of storage. By considering each indicator, the addition of sugar, which can improve the taste of fillets, has no significant effect on the shelf life of vacuum-packaged grass carp fillets.

  9. Molecular characterization of trypsinogens and development of trypsinogen gene expression and tryptic activities in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) and topmouth culter (Culter alburnus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Guo-Liang; Li, Yang; Gao, Ze-Xia; Wang, Huan-Ling; Wang, Wei-Min

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the gene structures and expression of trypsinogens, as well as the trypsin activities of the grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus (herbivorous) and the topmouth culter Culter alburnus (carnivorous), which are commercially important freshwater species of the family Cyprinidae in China. Isolated full-length trypsinogen cDNA clones were 869 bp and 857 bp. The deduced amino acid sequences were 242aa and 247aa long, both containing the highly conserved residues essential for serine protease catalytic and conformational maintenance. The results from isoelectric and phylogenetic analyses suggest that grass carp trypsinogen is grouped with teleost trypsinogen group I, while topmouth culter trypsinogen is grouped with group II. The expression pattern of trypsinogen mRNA was similar between these two species, appearing 2 days post-hatching (dph) and reaching peaks at 11 and 23 dph. The trypsin-specific activities in both species were detected 2 dph and reached the major peaks at 8 dph, however the minor peaks were observed at 20 dph in the grass carp and 17 dph in the topmouth culter. The trypsin-specific activity was significantly higher in the grass carp than in the topmouth culter, which may be attributed to the nature of their different nutritional habits.

  10. IDENTIFICATION AND PATHOGENICITY OF BACTERIAL PATHOGENS ISOLATED IN AN OUTBREAK ON BACTERIAL DISEASE OF CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLUS%草鱼的一种急性细菌性传染病病原的分离鉴定及致病性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李楠; 郭慧芝; 焦冉; 张书环; 刘志新; 姚卫建; 聂品

    2011-01-01

    草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)的细菌性疾病是草鱼人工养殖过程中经常出现的疾病.文章对河南一草鱼养殖场2009 年8 月出现的暴发性细菌性传染病进行了研究.该渔场饲养的草鱼成鱼和鱼苗出现了体表溃烂、局部出血,肠系膜充血、出血,腹腔积水等症状,并大量死亡.从濒死草鱼的内脏中分离到3 株细菌,经形态学、生理生化特性及16S rDNA 序列分析,鉴定为霍乱弧菌(Vibrio cholerae)、嗜水气单胞菌(Aeromonashydrophila)和柱状黄杆菌(Flavobacterium columnare).其中,从患病鱼苗体内分离到霍乱弧菌; 从成鱼分离到嗜水气单胞菌和柱状黄杆菌.回归试验证明3 株细菌均能使草鱼致死,其中霍乱弧菌和嗜水气单胞菌对草鱼的半数致死量(LD50)分别是0.15×104 cfu/g 和0.96×103 cfu/g.从草鱼中分离到致病性霍乱弧菌是首次报道.药敏试验表明,在所试的17 种抗生素中,霍乱弧菌仅对利福平、左旋氧氟沙星、链霉素、奥复星、庆大霉素等5 种抗生素敏感; 嗜水气单胞菌仅对菌必治、奥复星、庆大霉素等3 种抗生素敏感; 而柱状黄杆菌则对其中的氨苄青霉素、利福平、左旋氧氟沙星等10 种抗生素均敏感.%The grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) is very important in aquaculture in China. However, the grass carp is often infected with bacterial diseases, resulting in huge economic losses in recent years. This paper reported an acute haemorrhagic disease of Ctenopharyngodon idellus in Henan Province, China. The typical symptoms of the disease included decay of dorsal and caudal fins, congestion and hemorrhage in skin, muscle and intestine and ascites.The aim of this research was to isolate the pathogens of bacterial haemorrhagic disease in grass carp and to determine their LD50 in grass carp, and also to identify the sensitivity to antibiotics. The pathogen were isolated from gill, liver, spleen, kidney and ascites of infected grass

  11. 木糖-草鱼肽美拉德反应产物的抗氧化性%Antioxidant activity of Maillard reaction products derived from xylose and ctenopharyngodon idellus peptide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵谋明; 刘洋; 张佳男; 吴长平; 苏国万

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative deterioration of oil and protein is a common problem in the food industry, which led to trending studies of safe antioxidants with strong antioxidant activity. Ctenopharyngodon Idellus is a commercial fish, which is rich in proteins and polyunsaturated fatty acids, and is widely distributed in fresh-water throughout China,. In recent years, the Ctenopharyngodon Idellus was prepared as condiment or nourishment, however, further studies are limited. In this study, Ctenopharyngodon Idellus was hydrolyzed by three proteases (papain, PTN6.0, and Alcalase2.4 L), and the hydrolysate was isolated at two fractions of molecular weight above and below 5 kD by ultrafiltration. The fraction below 5 kD (Ctenopharyngodon Idellus peptide) was heated with or without xylose at 100℃for different times (30 min to 240 min). Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), reducing power, UV absorption, and volatile components of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) and thermal degradation products (TDPs) with different reaction times were evaluated, respectively. This study focuses on the effects of Maillard reaction on the antioxidant activity and the volatile components from Ctenopharyngodon Idellus peptide and its derivatives. The correlation between reaction products, volatile components, and their antioxidant activity were also analyzed. Results revealed that the browning intensity and UV absorption of the intermediate products of MRPs were much higher than those of TDPs. Antioxidant activity of MRPs increased with increasing heat time, while TDPs had no obvious change. In addition, MRPs showed better antioxidant activity. Reducing power and oxygen radical absorbance capacity of MRPs for 240 min was 17.77 and 3.32 times than those untreated. 51 kinds of volatile compounds were separated and identified from MRPs; among them, pyrazines, furans, pyrroles, aldehydes, ketones, and alcohols had relatively high concentration. Whereas, aldehydes were the largest content of volatile

  12. 氧化鱼油诱导草鱼 Ctenopharyngodon idellus 肝胰脏谷胱甘肽/谷胱甘肽转移酶通路的应激反应%Induced Stress of Glutathione/Glutathione Transferase Gene Pathway in Hepatopancreas of Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus by Dietary Oxidized Fish Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林秀秀; 叶元土; 蔡春芳; 吴萍; 黄雨薇; 陈科全; 李婷; 罗其刚

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile grasscarp Ctenopharyngodon idellus w ith body w eightof (74.8±1)g w ere reared in netcagesdisposed in a pond and fed five isonitrogenous and isoenergetic sem i-purified diets containing soybean oil (6S),fish oil (6F),2% oxidized fish oil (2O F),4% oxidized fish oil(4O F),and 6% oxidized fish oil(6O F)atw atertem perature of25~33℃ for72 days to study the effects ofdietary oxidized fish oilon oxidative stress pathw ay by detecting ofG SH /G STs pathw ay gene expression,G SH content,and SO D activity in hepatopancr eas of grass carp.The results show ed thatthe expression of GCLC in 6O F group w as significantly reduced (P0.05).The expression of GSR w as found to be reduced in each group,w ith significantdifference betw een 6F group and 4O F group (P0.05);各试验组 GSR 的表达活性均下调,6F 和4OF 组间显著下调(P<0.05);GSTPI 的表达活性均显著下调(P<0.05),与饲料中(EPA+DHA)含量呈线性负相关关系;除6F 组外,其余各组 MGST1的表达活性均较6S 组显著下调(P<0.05),且 MGST1的表达活性与饲料丙二醛(MDA)含量呈二项式关系,与6S 组相比,其余各组肝胰脏中 GSH 含量及 SOD 活性均显著下调(P<0.05)。氧化鱼油引起草鱼 GSH/GST 合成通路基因表达相适应,肝胰脏 GSH 合成相关基因和 MGST1的表达活性下调,而 GSTPI 的表达活性增强。GSH/GSTs 通路基因表达活性和 GSH 含量随饲料中氧化鱼油的增加呈梯度变化。

  13. Methionine Requirement of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idell) during Middle Growth Stage%生长中期草鱼蛋氨酸需要量的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐炳荣; 冯琳; 刘扬; 姜俊; 胡凯; 姜维丹; 李树红; 周小秋

    2012-01-01

    本试验通过研究饲料蛋氨酸水平对生长中期草鱼生长性能和消化吸收能力的影响,旨在确定生长中期草鱼的蛋氨酸需要量.选用平均体重为(259.00±0.48)g的草鱼900尾,随机分为6个处理(每个处理5个重复,每个重复30尾),分别饲喂蛋氨酸水平为2.19、4.72、7.18、9.67、12.21和14.69g/kg的试验饲料,试验期49 d.结果表明:与蛋氨酸水平为2.19 g/kg时相比,提高饲料中蛋氨酸水平显著地提高了生长中期草鱼的增重、摄食量、饲料效率、特定生长率和蛋白质效率(P<0.05).当蛋氨酸水平达到7.18 g/kg时,增重和特定生长率达到最大值.蛋氨酸水平显著影响生长中期草鱼的肝胰脏和肠道重量、肝胰脏和肠道蛋白质含量以及肠道长度(P<0.05),对肝体指数没有显著影响(P>0.05).当蛋氨酸水平≥4.72 g/kg时,肝胰脏和肠道重量以及肠道长度在各处理间差异不显著(P>0.05).肝胰脏和肠道蛋白质含量分别在蛋氨酸水平为9.67和12.21 g/kg时达到最大值.当蛋氨酸水平为7.18 g/kg时,肝胰脏和肠道胰蛋白酶、糜蛋白酶和脂肪酶活性均达到最大值.当蛋氨酸水平为4.72 g/kg时,肠道淀粉酶活性达到最大值,且与其他处理间差异达到显著水平(P<0.05).蛋氨酸水平显著影响各肠段Na+,K+-ATP酶、碱性磷酸酶、γ-谷氨酰转肽酶和肌酸激酶活性(P<0.05).由此得出,饲料中适宜水平的蛋氨酸可以提高生长中期草鱼的生长性能和消化吸收能力.以特定生长率为标识,当饲料胱氨酸含量为1.61 g/kg时,生长中期草鱼(259~498 g)的蛋氨酸需要量为10.41g/kg饲料或34.71 g/kg蛋白质.%This experiment was conducted to study the effects of dietary methionine level on growth performance , digestive and absorptive ability of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idell) during middle growth stage, and to determine the methionine requirement of grass carp during middle growth stage. A total of 900

  14. 草鱼cyclin G1基因的克隆、鉴定及适应性进化分析%Cloning,Identification and Adaptive Evolution Analysis of cyclin G1 Gene for Grass Crap(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海舟; 胡成钰

    2011-01-01

    本研究从草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)肝肾cDNA文库中克隆到草鱼cyclin G1基因。测序结果表明,草鱼cyclin G1全长cDNA为2118bp,使用ORF finder推译其开放阅读框为第256bp~第1155bp,编码299个aa,SMART在线软件预测其中N端第57个aa~第143个aa为细胞周期蛋白盒。同源性比对分析显示cyclin G1在鱼类中同源性极高,其中草鱼cyclin G1与斑马鱼的同源性为90%。通过PAML软件的密码子替换模型进行适应性进化分析,结果%In this research,we cloned cyclin G1 gene from the liver and kideny cDNA library in grass crap.The result of sequencing showed that the full length of cDNA of grass crap cyclin G1 was 2 118 bp,and the open reading frame was 256th~1 155th bp predicted by O

  15. Safety Concentration Assessment and Acute Toxicity of Tetrachloroethylene to Ctenopharyngodon Idellus%四氯乙烯对草鱼的急性毒性及其安全浓度评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史济月; 王桂燕; 王洋; 王国清; 张换东; 周启星

    2007-01-01

    采用环境毒理学方法中的半静水实验考察了四氯乙烯对草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)的24、48、72、96h的半数致死浓度(LC50).其目的在于评价水环境中四氯乙烯对鱼类的影响,为制定渔业水质标准提供参考数据.结果表明四氯乙烯对草鱼的毒性为高毒,四氯乙烯对草鱼24、48、72、96h的LC50及其95%的置信区间分别为43.28(41.43~45.21)、40.98(39.34~42.69)、39.60(38.20~41.06)、37.71(36.66~38.79)mg/L,其安全浓度为0.377 mg/L.

  16. Study on the adaptation changes of intestinal microbiota in Ctenopharyngodon idellus fed on different diets%草鱼肠道微生物对食物改变适应性变化的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝耀彤; 吴山功; 王桂堂; 邹红; 李文祥

    2015-01-01

    对草鱼( Ctenopharyngodon idellus)先饲喂人工饲料再饲喂苏丹草,运用PCR-DGGE的方法,比较了食物改变引起的草鱼肠道微生物菌群结构的变化过程。结果显示,饲喂同种饲料的草鱼后肠与前、中肠样品间菌群结构存在显著差异(TH0-F0=-2.268, P<0.05; TH0-M0=-2.470, P<0.05),饲喂不同种食物的相同肠段样品间菌群结构也存在着显著差异( P<0.05)。微生物多样性指数显示,后肠样品Shannon指数H′一般不低于4.25,而前、中肠样品H′均未超过4.25。对后肠样品进一步研究发现,食物改变11 d之后,后肠微生物菌群基本达到稳定。结果表明,草鱼肠道不同部位内容物菌群结构不同,后肠样品具有更高的微生物多样性,并且食物的改变会对草鱼肠道微生物菌群产生快速而显著的影响。%PCR-DGGE fingerprinting was used to reveal the adaptation process of intestinal microbiota in Ctenopharyngodon idellus fed on artificial diet and Sudan grass .DGGE profiles of foregut , midgut and hindgut samples were compared and the results showed that the bacterial communities from hindgut contents were significant differences with those from foregut and midgut contents in C.idellus fed the same diet (TH0-F0 =-2.268, P<0.05; TH0-M0 =-2.470, P<0.05).More-over, the bacterial communities of artificial feed and Sudan grass samples from the same intestinal segment (P<0.05) al-so exhibited significant differences .In addition , Shannon index ( H′) of hindgut samples was almost no less than 4.25 , while H′of foregut and midgut samples was generally no more than 4.25 .The DGGE analysis of 27 hindgut samples indi-cated that intestinal microbiota reached to stabilization at 11 days later from feeding on sundan grass instead of artificial feed.In conclusion , microbiotas in different intestinal segments were different in C.idellus and food transformation also has a

  17. 直接进样电喷雾串联质谱法测定草鱼肌肉组织中磷脂%Determination of Phospholipids from Ctenopharyngodon Idellus Muscle by Direct-injection Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王友谊; 张虹; 戴志远

    2012-01-01

    A method was developed for the determination of phospholipids from Ctenopharyngodon idellus muscle by direct-injection electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). The samples were extracted with modified Bligh Dyer method and the crude extracts were taken directly into the electrospray ionization source by syringe pump. Under the precursor ion scan and neutral loss scan) intrasource separation and identification of six classes of phospholipids including phosphatidyl choline, phosphatidyl ethanolamine, phosphatidyl inositoU phosphatidyl serine, phos-phatidyl glycerol and phosphatidic acid were achieved. The intensity of quasi-molecular ion of the phospholipids and concentration showed good linear relation in a certain range. The recoveries (67.1% -96.6%) and precision meet the requirements for analyzing biological samples. This method has been applied to analyze the molecular species and content of four class phospholipids from Cteno-pharyngodon idellus muscle. The method is simple, fast accurate, and reproducibility with excellent stability, and suitable to analyze phospholipids from various biological samples for lipidomics research.%建立了直接进样电喷雾串联质谱测定草鱼肌肉组织中磷脂的方法.以Bligh Dyer法提取总脂质,采用流动注射泵直接进样的方式将样品导人电喷雾离子源,利用串联三重四级杆质谱的母离子扫描和中性丢失扫描功能,通过扫描磷脂的特征性子离子或中性质量丢失实现对磷脂酰胆碱、磷脂酰乙醇胺、磷脂酰肌醇、磷脂酰丝氨酸、磷脂酰甘油和磷脂酸六类磷脂的源内分离和鉴定.结果显示,在-定的浓度范围内,磷脂的浓度与磷脂直接进样电喷雾电离后形成准分子离子的响应值呈现良好的线性关系,回收率(67.1%~96.6%)和精密度可以满足生物样品分析的要求.采用本方法测定了草鱼肌肉组织中磷脂酰胆碱、磷脂酰乙醇胺、磷脂

  18. Cloning and Expression of PKR Gene of Ctenopharyngodon idellus Induced by PolyI:C in vitro%PolyI:C体外诱导草鱼PKR基因的克隆与表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李景芬; 刘莉; 曹访

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The study aimed at cloning PKR gene from Ctenopharyngodon idellus induced by PolyI:C in vitro,so as to provide foundation for study on the anti-virus genes of C.idellus.[Method] By referring to the PKR gene sequences of zebra fish(AJ852023.1) and Carassius auratus(AY293929.1) in Genbank,three pairs of degenerate primers were designed with Primer Premier 5.0 software;in vitro C.idellus kidney cells(CIK) were treated with 100 μg/ml of Poly I:C for 12,36 and 48 h,and then total RNA of the cells treated was extracted for amplifying the PKR gene by RT-PCR.[Result] The PKR gene was amplified from the cells treated with Poly I:C for 36 and 48 h,but not from the cells treated for 12 h;in addition,the expression level increased with the processing time.Part of the amplified sequence of C.idellus shared the homology of 100% and 81.48% with the sequences of carp and zebra fish separately.[Conclusion] Part of the PKR gene sequence was cloned successfully from C.idellus.Moreover,we have proved that PolyI:C induction is effective for PKR protein expression,which will provide reference for treating viral diseases of C.idellus.%[目的]克隆草鱼的PKR基因,为草鱼抗病毒基因研究奠定基础。[方法]依据GenBank上斑马鱼(AJ852023.1)和鲫鱼(AY293929.1)的PKR基因序列,利用Primer Premier 5.0软件设计了3对简并引物; 采用100μg/ml PolyI:C体外分别处理草鱼肾细胞(Ctenopharyngodon indellus kidney cells,CIK)12、36、48h,并提取处理后细胞的总RNA,逆转录后用降落PCR方法扩增这3个处理时间细胞中 PKR 基因。[结果]处理12h时未扩增出PKR基因,处理36和48h时都扩增到了PKR基因,并且表达量随处理时间的增加有所升高,扩增到的部分序列与鲫鱼和斑马鱼的该段序列同源性分别为100.00%和81.48%。[结论]试验成功获得了草鱼PKR基因的部分序列,PolyI:C高效诱导草鱼PKR蛋白表达将有助于开创治疗草鱼类病毒病的一种新思路。

  19. Cloning and analysis of 5' flanking sequence of α-amylase gene from Ctenopharyngodon idellus%草鱼α-淀粉酶基因5'侧翼序列克隆与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱书礼; 李新辉; 杨计平; 李跃飞; 李捷; 帅方敏; 李琳

    2014-01-01

    应用PCR和Genome Walking技术克隆获得长度为168 bp的草鱼( Ctenopharyngodon idellus)α-淀粉酶基因外显子Ⅰ序列和2063 bp的5'侧翼序列。将草鱼α-淀粉酶基因外显子Ⅰ序列与已知几种鱼类α-淀粉酶基因外显子Ⅰ序列比对,相似度为68%~86%。将草鱼α-淀粉酶基因5'侧翼序列进行生物信息学分析,确定了其转录起始区域及转录起始位点( TSS);在TSS上游30 bp处有1个TATA-box,-58 bp处有CCAAT-box;在5'侧翼序列中还发现有GATA-1、OCT-1、GR、HNF-3、AP1和SP1等转录因子结合位点。草鱼α-淀粉酶基因5'侧翼序列的克隆,为进一步研究不同食性鱼类α-淀粉酶基因侧翼序列的差异、鱼类α-淀粉酶基因的表达、功能及调控机理奠定基础。%PCR and Genome Walking methods were applied to obtain a 168 bpα-amylase gene exon Ⅰ sequence and a 2 063 bp α-amylase gene 5'flanking sequence from grass carp( Ctenopharyngodon idellus). The sequence alignment of α-amylase gene exon Ⅰbetween grass carp and other fishes showed that the similarity was 68% ~86%. The sequence analysis of α-amylase gene 5' flanking sequence of grass carp confirmed a transcription initiation region and a transcriptional start site( TSS). There were a TATA-box at 30 bp and a CAAT-box at -58 bp. There were some transcriptional factor binding sites in theα-amylase gene 5'flanking sequence,such as GATA-1,OCT-1,GR,HNF-3,AP1 and SP1. The α-amylase gene 5' flanking sequence of grass carp was cloned successfully, which provides references for studies on differences ofα-amylase gene 5'flanking sequence between different feeding fishes,as well as on the expression,function and regulation mechanism of α-amylase gene in fishes.

  20. IDENTIFICATION OF MYLOPHARYNGODON PICEUS AND CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLUS BY PCR -RFLP ANALYSIS OF MITOCHONDRIAL DNA Cyt b GENE%利用线粒体 DNA Cytb 基因 PCR-RFLP 分析方法鉴别青鱼和草鱼

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨玲; 郝大奎; 付佩胜

    2014-01-01

    建立了一种以线粒体细胞色素 b(Cyt b)基因为标靶,应用 PCR -RFLP 技术进行草鱼和青鱼种质鉴定的分析方法。设计一对引物 QYCYT -S 和 QYCTY -A 分别对青鱼和草鱼的 Cyt b 基因进行了 PCR 扩增,并选用 BglⅠ和 EcoRⅡ两种限制性内切酶对扩增产物进行酶切分析。结果表明,草鱼和青鱼都可以扩增出1111 bp 的条带,两种酶切检验发现,草鱼扩增产物能被 BglⅠ切成247 bp 和864 bp 两个片段,而青鱼的 PCR 产物能被 EcoRⅡ切成140 bp 和971 bp 两个片段,这表明,mtDNA Cyt b 基因 BglⅠ和EcoRⅡ的酶切位点都可作为鉴定青鱼和草鱼的有效分子标记。利用 PCR -RFLP 分析 mtDNA Cyt b 基因的方法操作简单,是一种快速鉴别草鱼和青鱼的可靠方法。%A method to distinguish Mylopharyngodon piceus and Ctenopharyngodon idellus was developed based on the PCR-RFLP analysis of mitochondrial DNA(mtDNA)Cytb gene.A pair of PCR primers QYCYT-S and QYCYT-A was employed to amplify a fragment of mtDNA Cytb gene in Mylopharyngodon piceus and Ctenopharyngodon idellus.BglⅠand EcoR II restriction enzyme digestion analysis was further conducted against the PCR products.The results showed that a 1 1 1 1 bp long amplification fragment can be successfully abtained from both species.Restriction analysis showed that the amplification fragment from Mylopharyngodon piceus can be only restricted by Bgl I into two bands with the length of 247 bp and 864 bp,while the amplification fragment from Ctenopharyngodon idellus can be only restricted by EcoRⅡ into two bands with the length of 140 bp and 971 bp.The result suggests that the Bgl Ⅰand EcoR Ⅱ sensitive,restriction sites of mtDNA Cytb gene can be used as effective molecular identification markers between the two spicies of Mylopharyngodon piceus and Ctenopharyngodon idellus.This study demonstrated that the PCR -RFLP analysis of mtDNA Cytb gene is a rapid method to accurately

  1. Functional properties and quality control of protein hydrolysates from grass carp fish ( Ctenopharyngodon idellus) meat%草鱼肉蛋白酶解物功能特性及质量控制的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雪; 尤娟; 罗永康

    2011-01-01

    采用Neutrase对草鱼鱼肉蛋白进行了酶解,得到了水解度(DH)为4.72%、9.80%、13.32%的酶解产物(NH),并分析了pH与水解度对酶解产物功能特性的影响.结果表明,酶解产物的溶解性、乳化性、起泡性在pH为4时达到最低,而后随pH的增大而增加.在pH为3~8的范围内随水解度的增加,酶解产物的溶解性增加,起泡性降低.pH为4时,水解度为4.72%、9.80%、13.32%的酶解产物的热稳定性之间存在显著性差异(P<0.05),且随水解度升高而增大.在pH为3-5的范围内酶解产物的乳化性随水解度升高而降低.酶解产物的溶解性、乳化性、起泡性间存在相关性(P<0.05).%Functional properties of protein hydrolysates from grass carp fish (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) meat,hydrolyzed by Neutrase(NH) at 4.72% , 9.80% and 13.32% of degree of hydrolysis (DH) were investigated. The solubilities,emulsion activity index and foaming capacity were the lowest at pH4.With the DH rising,the solubilities of hydrolysates increased,but the foaming capacity decreased in the pH range of 3~8.The NH displayed a lower heat stability with the DH rising at pH4 (P <0.05).As the DH rise,the emulsion activity index decreased in the pH range of 3 ~ 5. And there were significant relationship between solubility, emulsion activity index and foaming capacity( P <0.05 ).

  2. Attractive effects of different light intensities on Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and Ctenopharyngodon idellus%不同光照强度对鲢、草鱼的诱集效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦孝辉; 王从锋; 刘德富; 熊锋; 汪玲珑

    2015-01-01

    We studied the attractive effects of the light source located in lock model on Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and Ctenopharyng-odon idellus at different light intensities. The results show that the mean relative time aggregation rate[R(t)]in the dark area with light source was higher than the control group(no source). R(t)in the dark area in all light-source groups increased with increasing light intensity,and so did the distance between central location of fish group and location of light source. As for the H. molitrix,there was no obvious aggregation phenomenon(P > 0. 05)in all groups. Therefore,negative phototaxis of C. idellus could be used in driving the fish to the upstream by arranging light in the downstream of the chamber,but use of light trapping or driving H. molitrix are not fea-sible.%为研究船闸中灯光诱驱鱼技术,观察了不同强度光源对鲢(Hypophthalmichthys molitrix)、草鱼(Ctenopha-ryngodon idellus)的诱集效果。结果表明,与对照组(无光源)相比,有光组的草鱼在暗区的平均相对时间聚集率[R(t)]均明显升高。随着光源强度的增加,各组中暗区的 R(t)变大,鱼的群体重心位置与光源的距离也随之变大,草鱼总体上表现出一定的负趋光性。所有组次中,鲢在2组弱光源下表现出对光照强度没有明显的选择性(P >0.05),与对照组相比无明显的诱集或驱赶效果,而在强光源条件下表现出远离光源的特性。因此,可利用草鱼的负趋光性,在闸室下游部分布置灯光将其驱赶至上游,而利用光源诱集或驱赶鲢的方案不可行。

  3. Electronics and electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, George H

    1987-01-01

    Electronics and Electronic Systems explores the significant developments in the field of electronics and electronic devices. This book is organized into three parts encompassing 11 chapters that discuss the fundamental circuit theory and the principles of analog and digital electronics. This book deals first with the passive components of electronic systems, such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors. These topics are followed by a discussion on the analysis of electronic circuits, which involves three ways, namely, the actual circuit, graphical techniques, and rule of thumb. The remaining p

  4. DAMAGE OF OXIDIZED FISH OIL ON THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF HEPATOPANCREAS OF GRASS CARP (CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLUS)%饲料氧化鱼油对草鱼肝胰脏结构和功能的损伤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈科全; 萧培珍; 叶元土; 蔡春芳; 吴萍; 黄雨薇; 吴韬; 林秀秀; 罗其刚; 张宝彤

    2016-01-01

    To investigate effects of oxidized fish oil on the structure and permeability of hepatopancreas of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), five iso-nitrogen and iso-energy diets were formulated with soybean oil, fish oil and oxi-dized fish oil at different concentrations, 6%fish oil, 6%soybean oil, 2%oxidized fish oil and 4%soybean oil, 4%oxi-dized fish oil and 2%soybean oil, 6%oxidized fish oil for a 72d experiment. Result showed that oxidized fish oil signi-ficantly increased (P<0.05) the content of ALB, GLB, MDA, GSH of grass carp serum and significantly reduced (P<0.05) the content of GSH, SOD of grass carp hepatopancreas. Oxidized fish oil significantly increased (P<0.05) the HSI, content of lipid of hepatopancreas and TG content of serum, and significantly reduced (P<0.05) the ratio of HDL and LDL at the same time. Oxidized fish oil significantly enhanced the content of TC on serum and hepatopancreas and the content of TBA on hepatopancreas (P<0.05) but significantly diminished the content of serum TBA (P<0.05). Oxi-dized fish oil caused fatty liver by disrupting the fat metabolism, mitochondrial damage of hepatopancreas by impact-ing bile acid accumulation, hepatopancreas cell fibrosis, and tissue atrophyin grass carp. In conclusion, products of oxi-dized fish oil may cause grass carp oxidative stress and decrease antioxidant capacity of grass carp hepatopancreas.%为了探讨饲料氧化鱼油对草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)肝胰脏组织结构及其功能的影响,研究以豆油、鱼油及氧化鱼油作为饲料脂肪源,分别设计鱼油组(6F)、豆油组(6S)、2%氧化鱼油(4S2OF)、4%氧化鱼油(2S4OF)及6%氧化鱼油(6OF)5组等氮、等能的半纯化饲料,在池塘网箱中养殖72d。结果显示:氧化鱼油显著增加草鱼血清ALB、GLB、MDA和GSH含量(P<0.05),显著降低肝胰脏GSH和SOD含量(P<0.05);氧化鱼油会显著增加草鱼肝胰脏指数及肝胰脏脂肪含量(P<0.05),且草

  5. EFFECTS OF DIETARY OXIDIZED FISH OIL ON THE INTESTINAL STRUCTURE AND PERMEABILITY OF GRASS CARP (CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLUS)%饲料氧化鱼油引起草鱼肠道结构损伤、通透性增加

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈科全; 萧培珍; 叶元土; 蔡春芳; 吴萍; 黄雨薇; 吴韬; 林秀秀; 罗其刚; 张宝彤

    2016-01-01

    为了探讨饲料氧化鱼油对草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)肠道组织结构及其通透性的影响,本实验以豆油、鱼油及氧化鱼油作为饲料脂肪源,分别设计鱼油组(6F)、豆油组(6S)、2%氧化鱼油(4S2OF)、4%氧化鱼油(2S4OF)及6%氧化鱼油(6OF)5组等氮、等能的半纯化饲料。经72d池塘网箱养殖后,实验结果显示:(1)氧化鱼油显著增加(P<0.05)草鱼血清和肠道MDA含量、增加肠道GSH含量(P<0.05),但随氧化产物含量上升GSH含量出现下降。(2)氧化鱼油会显著降低肠道内胆汁酸的含量(P<0.05)。(3)氧化鱼油会显著增加肠道绒毛中杯状细胞的数量(P<0.05),且随着氧化产物的增加,肠道微绒毛高度呈现先上升后下降趋势。(4)氧化鱼油会导致肠道紧密连接间隙增大,增加肠道通透性,使血清中D-乳酸及内毒素含量显著增加(P<0.05)。结果表明,饲料中鱼油氧化产物损伤了草鱼肠道组织结构,尤其是肠道上皮细胞紧密连接结构损伤严重,从而破坏了肠道黏膜的机械屏障功能,使肠道通透性显著增加,肠道细菌内毒素等发生转移。鱼油氧化产物会引起草鱼肠道氧化与抗氧化应激反应,干扰草鱼“肝-肠”正常胆汁酸循环,致使草鱼肠道胆汁酸不足。%To investigate effects of oxidized fish oil on the structure and permeability of intestine of grass carp (Cteno-pharyngodon idellus), five iso-nitrogen and iso-energy diets were formulated with soybean oil, fish oil and oxidized fish oil at different concentrations:6%fish oil, 6%soybean oil, 2%oxidized fish oil and 4%soybean oil, 4%oxidized fish oil, and 2%soybean oil, 6%oxidized fish oil, respectively. Compared with the 6%soybean oil, the oxidative product of fish oil at low level increased serum and intestine MDA and GSH content but diminished the GSH content at high level. The oxidized fish oil significantly reduced intestine bile acid content (P<0.05). The

  6. ONTOGENY OF THE DIGESTIVE TRACTS IN GRASS CARP (CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLUS), YELLOWCHECK CARP(ELOPICHTHYS BAMBUSA) AND TOPMOUTH CULTER(CULTER ALBURNUS)%草鱼、鳡和翘嘴鲌消化道组织的早期发育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮国良; 杨代勤; 王卫民

    2012-01-01

    研究仔稚鱼消化机能的发育变化对于掌握鱼类早期发育阶段的消化特点、营养需要及提高仔稚鱼成活与生长等均有重要意义.采用HE、PAS等染色方法,对草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)、鳡(Elopichthys bambusa)和翘嘴鲌(Culter alburnus)消化道组织的早期发育进行了研究,结果表明:(1)初孵仔鱼卵黄囊的相对体积以鳡的最大; (2)均在孵后2d和3d分别出现肠管和口裂,在孵后3d、4d和2d分别出现肠腔; (3)在孵后4d、7-9d和4d其肠腔内分别出现食物团,表明此时草鱼、鳡和翘嘴鲌已分别开始外源性摄食; (4)在孵后5d、6d和6d其肠道内表面分别出现黏膜褶,随后在稚鱼中其黏膜褶的高度和数量不同程度的发育; (5)草鱼和鳡的肠道分别在孵后14d和30d出现盘曲,而在翘嘴鲌的切片图中未发现其肠道的盘曲; (6)草鱼、鳡和翘嘴鲌的肠道分别于孵后17-23d、30d和24-29d出现数量较多的黏液细胞,此时标志着食性的转换和分化过程基本完善.%A thorough understanding of the temporal process of structure and function of larval and juvenile digestive systems has important values for investigating the digestive characteristics, nutritional needs of larva and juveniles, and enhancing their survival and growth. In inland aquaculture in China, grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus, yellowcheck carp Elopichthys bambusa and topmouth culter Culter albumus are economically important freshwater species that belong to the family Cyprinidae, with entirely different nutritional needs. Using the methods of histology, a comparative study among the above species in early developmental stages was conducted in our study to examine the ontogeny of digestive tracts. The results of the three species in different days post hatching (dph) showed the following: (1) yellow-check carp had the maximum relative bulk of yolk sac in newly hatched larva in the three species; (2) the intestinal tubes and oral fissures

  7. The effects of berberine hydrochloride on complement system and complement c3 in Ctenopharyngodon idellus%盐酸小檗碱对草鱼补体系统及补体 c3作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭耀宗; 周霞; 韩冰; 黄涛; 黄利挂; 李学刚

    2016-01-01

    为了探究盐酸小檗碱(berberine hydrochloride )对草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)补体 c3的作用机理,用含0、0.06%、0.12%、0.24%盐酸小檗碱饲料投喂草鱼,在第7 d、14 d 检测血清中补体 c3含量,在第14 d 检测肝脏中补体 c3 mRNA 表达量及急性感染嗜水气单胞菌(Aeromonas hydrophila)后存活情况。并进一步对盐酸小檗碱体内药代动力学和补体消耗试验进行了研究。结果显示;摄食盐酸小檗碱的草鱼血清中补体 c3含量和肝脏补体 c3 mRNA 表达量均显著性增加(P <0.05/P <0.05),草鱼的存活率与对照组相比也有显著性提高(P <0.01)。补体消耗试验结果显示,当盐酸小檗碱在血清中浓度小于5 mg/L 时与对照组相比补体消耗不显著,当盐酸小檗碱浓度大于5 mg/L 时,补体消耗达到显著性差异(P <0.05),表明此时盐酸小檗碱与补体 c3直接结合,激活补体。药代动力学实验发现,灌服盐酸小檗碱后,出现双峰现象,两峰值分别是0.243 mg/L 和0.117 mg/L,此浓度远远低于与补体 c3直接结合量最低量(5 mg/L)。结果表明,盐酸小檗碱对草鱼补体 c3的作用机理可能是通过上调补体 c3mRNA 的表达增加补体 c3数量,而非通过直接结合补体 c3来改变其活性。%To explore the effect of berberine hydrochloride on the complement c 3 of Ctenopharyngodon idellus, the level of complement c3 in serum were studied for 7 day and 14 day, the mRNA expression of c3 in the liver and resistance against acute Aeromonas hydrophila infection in C.idellus were evaluated after 14 days of feeding with berberine hydrochloride at the rate of 0, 0.06%, 0.12%, 0.24%, respectively.The pharmacokinetics in vivo and complement consumption test in vitro of berberine hydrochloride were further studied .The results showed that the complement c3 levels in serum and the mRNA expression of c3 in the liver of

  8. 饲喂蚕豆的草鱼肠道细菌群落的PCR-DGGE 分析%PCR-DGGE analysis of intestinal microecology of Ctenopharyngodon idellus fed with Vicia faba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴康; 胡俊; 黄晓声; 夏虎; 陈亮; 李男; 张学振

    2014-01-01

    为探讨饲喂蚕豆( Vicia faba)对草鱼( Ctenopharyngodon idellus)肠道菌群的影响,采用PCR-DGGE技术比较了饲喂蚕豆的草鱼(脆肉鲩组)及饲喂配合饲料的草鱼(普通草鱼组)肠道微生物菌群的异同。结果显示, DGGE图谱上出现了20条明显条带,表明脆肉鲩组及普通草鱼组肠道中均存在大量细菌群落。对这20条条带测序后,获得了其中17条条带的序列,这17条条带中有9条是尚未被培养的细菌。经分析发现,这17条条带分属于变形菌门( Proteobacteria )、放线菌门( Actinobacteria )、厚壁菌门( Firmicutes )、拟杆菌门( Bacteroidetes )及未分类的细菌,其中变形菌门为两组肠道的优势菌。实验还发现,饲喂蚕豆对肠内容物菌群的影响大于对肠壁菌群的影响。结果表明,饲喂蚕豆不改变草鱼肠道菌群的种类,但对肠道菌群的相对丰度有一定影响。%To evaluate the effect of faba bean on intestinal flora , the intestinal microbiota of crisp grass carp group ( grass carp fed with faba bean ) and grass carp group ( grass carp fed with formula feed ) were investigated using 16S rDNA PCR denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) technology.Twenty DGGE bands appearing in DGGE fingerprint re-vealed that there were numerous intestinal microbiota in the two groups .Seventeen DGGE bands were successfully se-quenced.However, nine of these bands were classified as unculturable according to the phylogenetic analysis .The domi-nant bacteria in the fore-gut and mid-gut of the two groups all belonged to Proteobacteria , and other bacteria identified be-longed to actinobacteria, firmicutes, bacteroidetes and unclassified-bacteria.The result also showed that the influence caused by faba bean on intestinal microbiota was more remarkable in intestinal content than in intestinal wall .These results suggested that feeding faba bean did not change the microbial

  9. Antioxidant activity and functional property of protein hydrolysates from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus ) meat%草鱼鱼肉蛋白酶解物抗氧化性及功能特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雪; 罗永康; 尤娟

    2011-01-01

    为全面了解水解度(DH)、蛋白酶种类对草鱼鱼肉蛋白酶解产物抗氧化性和功能特性的影响,采用木瓜蛋白酶及Alcalase 2.4L在各自最适条件下进行酶解,制备水解度为10%和20%的酶解产物,对其功能特性进行分析.结果显示:随着水解度升高酶解产物的亚铁离子螯合能力增强,但还原力和清除DPPH自由基的能力下降(P<0.05).相同水解度下与Alcalase 2.4L酶解产物相比,木瓜蛋白酶酶解产物具有较强的清除DPPH自由基能力和还原力(P<0.05).2种蛋白酶酶解产物的溶解性、乳化性、起泡性均在pH4时达到最低,而后随pH升高而增大.相同pH下随着水解度的升高酶解产物的溶解性增强,乳化性下降.相同pH及水解度下木瓜蛋白酶酶解产物的溶解性和起泡性小于Alcalase 2.4L酶解产物,但乳化性优于Alcalase 2.4L酶解产物.酶解产物的抗氧化性及功能特性受水解度及蛋白酶种类的影响.%Antioxidant activity and functional properties of protein hydrolysates from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) meat,hydrolyzed by Alcalase 2.4L(HA) and Papain (HP) with different ( 10%, 20%) degrees of hydrolysis (DH) were investigated.With the DH rising,the metal chelating activity increased while the reducing power and DPPH radical scavenging activity decreased of both HA and HP(P<0.05).At the same DH test,HP possessed a better DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power than HA did (P<0.05).The solubilities, emulsion activity index and foaming capacity were lowest at pH 4.When the DH increased, the solubilities of hydrolysates increased, but the foaming capacity decreased in the pH range of 3-8.And HP displayed higher emulsion activity index but lower solubility and foaming capacity than HA did.The result revealed that the antioxidant activity and functional property of protein hydrolysates from grass carp meat were determined by the DH and types of the enzymes.

  10. THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE PHYSIOLOGICAL BASED PHARMACOKINETIC MODEL FOR QUINOCETONE IN GRASS CARP (CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLUS)%喹烯酮在草鱼体内生理药动模型的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胥宁; 刘永涛; 杨秋红; 艾晓辉

    2015-01-01

    为了预测喹烯酮在草鱼体内药物残留, 建立其在草鱼体内生理药动学模型.通过搜集大量文献获得鱼的生理解剖参数, 采用已有的喹烯酮试验数据拟合得到药物特异性参数.基于 acslXtreme 生理药动学软件,进行模型假设、血流图设计、质量平衡方程的建立和模型拟合.喹烯酮为小分子药物, 其分布服从血流限速型, 在肝脏代谢, 从肾脏消除.喹烯酮通过口服进入肠道, 然后经肝脏代谢进入血液循环, 因此设定 5 个房室, 即肝、肾、肌肉、肠和其他组织.经过一系列的计算和调试, 最终建立喹烯酮在草体内5室生理药动模型, 成功拟合连续饲喂药物 60d之后的药物残留消除曲线, 其中肝脏中的预测结果比肾脏和肌肉高, 与实测数据一致.因此, 喹烯酮在鱼体内生理药动模型具有一定的应用价值, 将是药物残留检测的新亮点.%An effective physiological-based pharmacokinetic (PB-PK) model can be used to analogize and extrapolate the in vivo drug concentrations in different administrations and environments, as well as in different species of animals, hence it has become more and more popular in the drug residual prediction in aquatic animals. In order to predict drug residues of quinocetone in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), we established the PB-PK model of quinocetone in this study. We obtained the physiological and anatomical parameters of fish from literatures, and estimated the drug-specific parameters of quinocetone by fitting the existing data. We used the physiological pharmacokinetic soft-ware, asclXtreme, to make the model assumptions, to design the blood flow chart, to generate the mass balance equa-tions and to complete the model fitting. Quinocetone was a small molecule drug, and itsin vivo disposition was blood flow-limited. It was metabolized by the liver and excreted by the kidney. Quinocetone entered the intestine through oral administration and

  11. 提取条件对草鱼鱼油特性的影响及其脂肪酸组成分析%Effect of extraction conditions on oil qulity and fatty acids composition of fish oil extracted from Ctenopharyngodon idellus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙炳新; 苏阳; 郝婷婷; 祈岩; 冯叙桥

    2013-01-01

    The optimal extraction conditions and their effect on oil quality and fatty acid composition of fish oil extracted from the liver and fat( 1:1 )of Ctenopharyngodon idellus by using diluted alkaline hydrolysis method was investigated.The results indicated that the extraction ratio,iodic value,acid value,peroxide value and soap stock content were significantly affected by extraction conditions.The optimal extraction conditions determined by extraction ratio,iodic value,acid value,peroxide value and saponified matter content were that the volume ratio of the minced liver and fat of Ctenopharyngodon idellus and water was 1:1 ,the immersion time in water bath at 45℃ was 5min,the pH of the sample solution was adjusted to 10.0 with NaOH solution(1:1,W/V),and the sample solution was precipitated in 10mL 4% NaCl solution for 5min at 60℃, then the fish oil was obtained after centrifugation.The yield of fish oil extracted from Ctenopharyngodon idellus by the optimal extraction conditions was 84.81% ±0.56%.The results of the analysis of the prepared fish oil showed that it comprised of 22 kinds of fatty acid,i.e.l6:0,18:In-9,20:5n-3(DHA)and 22:6n-3(EPA) ,and saturated fatty acids accounted for about 30%, which stearic acid was maximum for 18.5% .unsaturated fatty acids accounted for about 60% , which oleic acid was maximum for 18.6% ,and EPA accounted for 0.7% ,DHA accounted for 0.5%.%以草鱼的肝脏和脂肪(1:1)混合物为原料,采用稀碱水解法制备草鱼鱼油,研究草鱼鱼油提取条件对其特性的影响,并分析其脂肪酸的组成.结果表明,提取条件对鱼油的提取率、碘价、酸价、过氧化值和含皂量影响很大,以它们为指标得出的最佳工艺条件为:经绞肉机绞碎后的肝脏和脂肪糜与水1∶1混合后,在45℃下水浴5min,用NaOH溶液(1:1,W/V)调至pH10.0,加入鱼糜质量分数10%的4% NaCl溶液,在60℃下盐析5min,离心分离鱼糜后,取上清液得到鱼油,在该

  12. Hard electronics; Hard electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In the fields of power conversion devices and broadcasting/communication amplifiers, high power, high frequency and low losses are desirable. Further, for electronic elements in aerospace/aeronautical/geothermal surveys, etc., heat resistance to 500degC is required. Devices which respond to such hard specifications are called hard electronic devices. However, with Si which is at the core of the present electronics, the specifications cannot fully be fulfilled because of the restrictions arising from physical values. Accordingly, taking up new device materials/structures necessary to construct hard electronics, technologies to develop these to a level of IC were examined and studied. They are a technology to make devices/IC of new semiconductors such as SiC, diamond, etc. which can handle higher temperature, higher power and higher frequency than Si and also is possible of reducing losses, a technology to make devices of hard semiconducter materials such as a vacuum microelectronics technology using ultra-micro/high-luminance electronic emitter using negative electron affinity which diamond, etc. have, a technology to make devices of oxides which have various electric properties, etc. 321 refs., 194 figs., 8 tabs.

  13. Electronic Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... New FDA Regulations Text Size: A A A Electronic Cigarettes Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery operated products designed ... more about: The latest news and events about electronic cigarettes on this FDA page Electronic cigarette basics ...

  14. The Electron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, George

    1972-01-01

    Electrons are elementary particles of atoms that revolve around and outside the nucleus and have a negative charge. This booklet discusses how electrons relate to electricity, some applications of electrons, electrons as waves, electrons in atoms and solids, the electron microscope, among other things.

  15. Hard electronics; Hard electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Hard material technologies were surveyed to establish the hard electronic technology which offers superior characteristics under hard operational or environmental conditions as compared with conventional Si devices. The following technologies were separately surveyed: (1) The device and integration technologies of wide gap hard semiconductors such as SiC, diamond and nitride, (2) The technology of hard semiconductor devices for vacuum micro- electronics technology, and (3) The technology of hard new material devices for oxides. The formation technology of oxide thin films made remarkable progress after discovery of oxide superconductor materials, resulting in development of an atomic layer growth method and mist deposition method. This leading research is expected to solve such issues difficult to be easily realized by current Si technology as high-power, high-frequency and low-loss devices in power electronics, high temperature-proof and radiation-proof devices in ultimate electronics, and high-speed and dense- integrated devices in information electronics. 432 refs., 136 figs., 15 tabs.

  16. An Experiment Study on the Energy Budget and Conversion Efficiency of Ecosystem in Ployculture of Ctenopharyngodon idellus%草鱼混养生态系统能量收支的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋颀; 田相利; 董双林; 王芳; 张振东

    2011-01-01

    采用陆基围隔实验法,对草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)、鲢鱼(Hypophythalmichthys molitrix)和鲤鱼(Cyprinus carpio)不同混养系统的能量收支和转化效率进行了研究.实验共设置7个处理组,分别为草鱼单养(G)、草鱼和鲢鱼二元混养(GS)、草鱼和鲤鱼二元混养(GC)以及草鱼、鲢鱼和鲤鱼按照不同比例放养的三元混养(GSC1、GSC2、GSC3和GSC4).研究结果表明,实验期间各系统接收的总太阳辐射能为4970 MJ·m-2;光能利用率在0.25%~0.33%之间,各处理组之间差异显著(P<0.05);光合能转化效率以草鱼单养组最低,且与GS、GSC2、GSC3和GSC4处理组之间差异显著(P<0.05);各混养组与草鱼单养组相比,总能量转化效率分别提高了43.51%、11.62%、30.16%、64.30%、38.49%和61.90%,其中,以GSC2为最高,GSC4次之;单位净产量耗饲料能以单养草鱼组最高,显著高于GS、GSC2和GSC4处理组(P<0.05);各处理组沉积能量在3.42~17.73MJ·m-2之间,各处理组间差异显著(P<0.05),各组沉积能量占总投入能量的比例分别为30.92%、12.18%、39.08%、29.43%、28.90%、28.87%和29.80%.本研究结果表明,不同食性鱼类混养系统能够提高光合能转化效率和总能量利用率,降低沉积能量,从而有效提高系统对输入能量的利用效率.%The energy budget and conversion efficiency of different ecosystems, in which Ctenopharyng odon idellus, Hypophythalmichthys molitrix and Cyprinus carpio were cultured in different mono- and poly-culture treatments, were studied in land-based enclosures. There were seven treatments; grass carp treatment (G); grass carp and silver carp treatment (GS); grass carp and common carp treatment (GC) and four treatments stocked grass carp, silver carp and common carp with different proportion (GSC1, GSC2, GSC3, GSC4). The results indicated that the solar radiation energy during the experiment was 4970 MJ m~2. The solar energy

  17. 草鱼线粒体型超氧化物歧化酶的生化遗传特性%Genetic and biochemical characteristics of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜勤; 罗琛

    2004-01-01

    , population genetics, and identification of different strains in the same species. However, the biochemical and genetic features of the mitochondrial superoxide dismutase have not been well characterized in fishes. In this study, we investigated the genetic phenotypes and biochemical features of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (fm-SOD) with polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis. Our data revealed three isoforms of fm-SOD which were named fm-SOD 1, fm-SOD 2 and fm-SOD 3 according to their positions from the positive pole to the negative pole. The combination of three isoforms of fm-SOD constitute three distinct biochemical phenotypes. Phenotype 1 was only associated with the fastest migratory isoform fm-SOD 1 and phenotype 3 with the slowest migratory isoform fm-SOD 3, while phenotype 2 was associated with all three isoforms. In the wild group of grass carp, all three phenotypes were observed, whereas in the mito-gynogenetic group, only phenotypes 1and 3 were observed. The ratio of the three phenotypes in the wild group was consistent with the 1: 2: 1 ratio ofMendelian inheritance for 2 alleles of a single locus in the autosomal chromosomes. These results suggested that: (1) the mitochondrial superoxide dismutase gene in grass carp resided in chromosomes instead of mitochondrial DNA; (2) mitochondrial superoxide dismutase was encoded by a single locus; (3) there were at least two variant alleles in grass carp and (4) the fm-SOD is composed of two subunits. In addition, the fm-SOD was sensitive to the mixture of 15% ethanol and 25 % chloroform but resistant to H2O2, indicating that the fm-SOD in grass carp is Mn-SOD [ Acta Zoologica Sinica 50(3): 389-394, 2004].

  18. Growth Responses of Fish During Chronic Exposure of Metal Mixture under Laboratory Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima Naz and Muhammad Javed

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Growth responses of five fish species viz. Catla catla, Labeo rohita, Cirrhina mrigala, Ctenopharyngodon idella and Hypophthalmichthys molitrix were determined, separately, under chronic exposure of binary mixture of metals (Zn+Ni at sub-lethal concentrations (1/3rd of LC50 for 12 weeks. Randomized complete block design (RCBD was followed to conduct this research work. The groups (10 fish each of Catla catla, Labeo rohita, Cirrhina mrigala, Ctenopharyngodon idella and Hypophthalmichthys molitrix having almost similar weights were investigated for their growth responses and metals bioaccumulation patterns in their body organs during chronic exposure of Zn+Ni mixture. The bioaccumulation of metals in the fish body organs viz. gills, liver, kidney, fins, bones, muscle and skin were also determined before and after growth trails under the stress of metals mixture. The exposure of fish to sub-lethal concentrations of mixture caused significant impacts on the average wet weight increments of five fish species. Ctenopharyngodon idella and Labeo rohita attained significantly higher weights, followed by that of Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Cirrhina mrigala and Catla catla. However, the growth of metals mixture exposed fish species was significantly lesser than that of control fish (un-stressed. Significantly variable condition factor values reflected the degree of fish well-beings that correlated directly with fish growth and metal exposure concentration. Any significant change in feed intake, due to stress, is reflected in terms of fish growth showing the impacts of metal mixture on fish growth were either additive or antagonist / synergistic. Accumulation of all the metals in fish body followed the general order: liver>kidney>gills> skin >muscle> fins >bones.

  19. Utilisation of vegetable leaves for carp production

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    The results of two sets of experiments on mono-culture of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) and mixed culture of carps (grass carp 50 : catla 20 : rohu 15 : mrigal 15) fed exclusively with vegetable leaves are reported. The experiments were conducted with two replicates each in 0.02 ha ponds of Wastewater Aquaculture Division of the Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture, Rahara during 1991-93. Monoculture of grass carp stocked at 1000/ha demonstrated an average net production of 21.0...

  20. Ambient Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Someya, Takao

    2012-10-01

    We report the recent research progress and future prospects of flexible and printed electronics, focusing on molecular electronic material-based thin-film transistors, which are expected to usher in a new era of electronics.

  1. Electron cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkov, I.; Sidorin, A.

    2004-10-01

    The brief review of the most significant and interesting achievements in electron cooling method, which took place during last two years, is presented. The description of the electron cooling facilities-storage rings and traps being in operation or under development-is given. The applications of the electron cooling method are considered. The following modern fields of the method development are discussed: crystalline beam formation, expansion into middle and high energy electron cooling (the Fermilab Recycler Electron Cooler, the BNL cooler-recuperator, cooling with circulating electron beam, the GSI project), electron cooling in traps, antihydrogen generation, electron cooling of positrons (the LEPTA project).

  2. 饲料中添加芽孢杆菌对草鱼表观消化率及消化酶活性的影响%Dietary supplement of Bacillus spp.affected apparent digestibility, digestive enzyme activity of Ctenopharyngodon idellus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲艺; 吴志新; 杨丽; 彭小云; 袁娟; 毕鹏; 刘红; 陈孝煊

    2012-01-01

    在草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)饲料中分别添加0(Ⅰ组)、1×108(Ⅱ组)、3×108(Ⅲ组)、5×108cfu/g(Ⅳ组)芽孢杆菌(Bacillus spp.)持续投喂草鱼,收集粪便测定草鱼对各营养物质的表观消化率和消化酶活性.结果表明:投喂30 d后,Ⅱ、Ⅲ组干物质、粗蛋白、粗脂肪表观消化率和Ⅳ组粗蛋白、粗脂肪表观消化率均显著高于Ⅰ组(对照组),其中Ⅱ组的表观消化率最高,且芽孢杆菌添加量与营养物质表观消化率最符合一元二次曲线方程.Ⅱ组中肠和Ⅱ、Ⅲ组肝胰脏蛋白酶活性均显著提高;Ⅱ组的前肠和后肠淀粉酶活性显著高于对照组;Ⅱ、Ⅲ组后肠脂肪酶活性均显著高于对照组.投喂60 d后,消化酶活性也有相似的结果.双因子方差分析表明:芽孢杆菌的添加量对中肠、后肠和肝胰脏蛋白酶活性,前肠、中肠和后肠淀粉酶活性,中肠和后肠脂肪酶活性均有显著影响;投喂时间对肝胰脏蛋白酶、淀粉酶活性有显著影响.%Ctenopharyngodon idellus were fed with basal diet supplemented with 0 (I), 1 X 108 (II)>3×108(III)>5×108 cfu/g(IV) Bacillus spp. Respectively for 30 days. Feces was collected to detect apparent digestibility of feed nutrients. The apparent digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and crude lipid in I group was significantly lower than the other treatment groups (P<0. 05). Quadratic curve e-quation was the best to fit the relationship between dosages of Bacillus spp. And apparent digestibility of nutrients. Protease activity of the mid-gut in II group and the hepatopancreas in II,III groups increased significantly compared with I group (P<0. 05). Amylase activity of the fore-gut and hind-gut in II,III group increased significantly compared with I group (P<0. 05). Lipase activity of the hind-gut in II,III group increased significantly compared with I group (P<0. 05). After feeding for 60 days, the similar results appeared. Two-way analysis of

  3. 不同加工方式下草鱼鱼糜制品中杂环胺生成与变化的研究%Formation and variation of heterocyclic amines in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus)surimi products by different cooking methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨洪生; 徐琦; 张美琴; 吴瑛; 吴光红

    2014-01-01

    文章研究了草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)鱼糜制品在水煮、200℃烘烤和140~200℃油炸条件下杂环胺的变化,并初步探讨了杂环胺形成机制。11种杂环胺的质量分数采用超高效液相色谱-电喷雾串联质谱法进行测定。结果表明杂环胺的种类和生成速率与加工方式有关。水煮方式下仅检出2种杂环胺,第60分钟时总量为1.78μg·kg -1;200℃烘烤方式下检出9种杂环胺,第30分钟时总量为75.78μg·kg -1;200℃油炸方式检出9种杂环胺,第8分钟时总量高达115.11μg·kg -1。在140~200℃油炸温度下杂环胺的质量分数随着油炸时间和温度的增加而显著增大(P ﹤0.05),生成杂环胺的种类也有所增加。%We investigated the effect of different cooking methods on variation of heterocyclic amines in grass carp(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)surimi products and discussed their formation mechanism. With ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray tan-dem mass spectrometry,we detected the contents of 11 kinds of heterocyclic amines. Results reveal that types of heterocyclic amines and their formation rate were related with cooking methods. Only two kinds of heterocyclic amines were detected,with 1. 78 μg·kg - 1 at the 60th minute by boiling method;nine kinds of heterocyclic amines were detected,with 75. 78 μg·kg - 1 at the 30th minute by 200℃ baking method;nine kinds of heterocyclic amines were detected,with 115. 11 μg·kg - 1 at the 8th minute by 200 ℃ frying method. At frying temperature of 100 ~ 200 ℃,the types and contents of heterocyclic amines increased significantly with increase of frying tem-perature and time.

  4. Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Michael

    1980-01-01

    Reviews technical aspects of structure determination in biological electron microscopy (EM). Discusses low dose EM, low temperature microscopy, electron energy loss spectra, determination of mass or molecular weight, and EM of labeled systems. Cites 34 references. (CS)

  5. Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Michael

    1980-01-01

    Reviews technical aspects of structure determination in biological electron microscopy (EM). Discusses low dose EM, low temperature microscopy, electron energy loss spectra, determination of mass or molecular weight, and EM of labeled systems. Cites 34 references. (CS)

  6. Understand electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    2013-01-01

    Understand Electronics provides a readable introduction to the exciting world of electronics for the student or enthusiast with little previous knowledge. The subject is treated with the minimum of mathematics and the book is extensively illustrated.This is an essential guide for the newcomer to electronics, and replaces the author's best-selling Beginner's Guide to Electronics.The step-by-step approach makes this book ideal for introductory courses such as the Intermediate GNVQ.

  7. Electronic components

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Components provides a basic grounding in the practical aspects of using and selecting electronics components. The book describes the basic requirements needed to start practical work on electronic equipment, resistors and potentiometers, capacitance, and inductors and transformers. The text discusses semiconductor devices such as diodes, thyristors and triacs, transistors and heat sinks, logic and linear integrated circuits (I.C.s) and electromechanical devices. Common abbreviations applied to components are provided. Constructors and electronics engineers will find the book useful

  8. Electronic Prescribing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Do you prescribe electronically?” For more information about electronic prescribing, call 1-800-MEDICARE (1-800-633- ... TTY users should call 1-877-486-2048 . Electronic eRx Prescribing I went to the pharmacy, and ...

  9. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrook, Harold D

    1971-01-01

    Basic Electronics is an elementary text designed for basic instruction in electricity and electronics. It gives emphasis on electronic emission and the vacuum tube and shows transistor circuits in parallel with electron tube circuits. This book also demonstrates how the transistor merely replaces the tube, with proper change of circuit constants as required. Many problems are presented at the end of each chapter. This book is comprised of 17 chapters and opens with an overview of electron theory, followed by a discussion on resistance, inductance, and capacitance, along with their effects on t

  10. Electronic Government and Electronic Participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tambouris, E.; Scholl, H.J.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.; Wimmer, M.A.; Tarabanis, K.; Gascó, M.; Klievink, A.J.; Lindgren, I.; Milano, M.; Panagiotopoulos, P.; Pardo, T.A.; Parycek, P.; Sæbø, O.

    2015-01-01

    Electronic government and electronic participation continue to transform the public sector and society worldwide and are constantly being transformed themselves by emerging information and communication technologies. This book presents papers from the 14th International Federation for Information P

  11. Electron Tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, Ane L; Rønde, Heidi S

    2013-01-01

    The photo shows a close-up of a Lichtenberg figure – popularly called an “electron tree” – produced in a cylinder of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Electron trees are created by irradiating a suitable insulating material, in this case PMMA, with an intense high energy electron beam. Upon discharge......, during dielectric breakdown in the material, the electrons generate branching chains of fractures on leaving the PMMA, producing the tree pattern seen. To be able to create electron trees with a clinical linear accelerator, one needs to access the primary electron beam used for photon treatments. We...... appropriated a linac that was being decommissioned in our department and dismantled the head to circumvent the target and ion chambers. This is one of 24 electron trees produced before we had to stop the fun and allow the rest of the accelerator to be disassembled....

  12. Electron Tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, Ane L; Rønde, Heidi S

    2013-01-01

    The photo shows a close-up of a Lichtenberg figure – popularly called an “electron tree” – produced in a cylinder of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Electron trees are created by irradiating a suitable insulating material, in this case PMMA, with an intense high energy electron beam. Upon discharge......, during dielectric breakdown in the material, the electrons generate branching chains of fractures on leaving the PMMA, producing the tree pattern seen. To be able to create electron trees with a clinical linear accelerator, one needs to access the primary electron beam used for photon treatments. We...... appropriated a linac that was being decommissioned in our department and dismantled the head to circumvent the target and ion chambers. This is one of 24 electron trees produced before we had to stop the fun and allow the rest of the accelerator to be disassembled....

  13. Electronic Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Đerić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Electronic commerce can be defined in different ways. Any definition helps to understand and explain that concept as better as possible.. Electronic commerce is a set of procedures and technologies that automate the tasks of financial transactions using electronic means. Also, according to some authors, electronic commerce is defined as a new concept, which is being developed and which includes process of buying and selling or exchanging products, services or information via computer networks, including the Internet. Electronic commerce is not limited just to buying and selling, but it also includes all pre-sales and after-sales ongoing activities along the supply chain. Introducing electronic commerce, using the Internet and Web services in business, realizes the way to a completely new type of economy - internet economy.

  14. Heavy metals toxicity and bioaccumulation patterns in the body organs of four fresh water fish species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safina Kousar and Muhammad Javed

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Various environmental pollutants, including metals can cause toxicological effects on aquatic animals especially fish species. Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine acute toxicity and bioaccumulation patterns of arsenic (As, nickel (Ni and zinc (Zn in 150-day old fish species (Labeo rohita, Cirrhina mrigala, Catla catla and Ctenopharyngodon idella, separately, in glass aquaria under constant water temperature (30oC, total hardness (300 mg L-1 and pH (7.5. Catla catla showed significantly (PNi>As. Among exposed fish species, Cirrhina mrigala exhibited significantly higher ability to amass Ni (146.8±149.1 μg g-1 and Zn (243.0±190.5 μg g-1, followed by Ctenopharyngodon idella, Labeo rohita and Catla catla at 96-h LC50. Liver showed higher tendency to accumulate Ni, followed by gills and kidney with significant differences while kidney showed higher tendency to accumulate As, followed by liver. Fins and scales exhibited significantly (P<0.05 least tendency to accumulate all the three metals. Accumulation of metals in different fish species is the function of their membrane permeability, which is highly species specific. Due to this reason different fish species showed different amount of metal accumulated in their bodies. This study also reveals that the metals, being conservative in nature have higher ability of biomagnifications.

  15. Micropower electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Keonjian, Edward

    1964-01-01

    Micropower Electronics deals with the operation of modern electronic equipment at micropower levels and the problems associated with micropower electronics. Topics covered include the relations between minimum required power density and frequency response for semiconductor triode amplifiers; physical realization of digital logic circuits; micropower microelectronic subsystems; and metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect devices for micropower logic circuitry. This book is comprised of 10 chapters and begins with an analysis of fundamental relationships and basic requirements pertinent to the ph

  16. Microfluidic electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shi; Wu, Zhigang

    2012-08-21

    Microfluidics, a field that has been well-established for several decades, has seen extensive applications in the areas of biology, chemistry, and medicine. However, it might be very hard to imagine how such soft microfluidic devices would be used in other areas, such as electronics, in which stiff, solid metals, insulators, and semiconductors have previously dominated. Very recently, things have radically changed. Taking advantage of native properties of microfluidics, advances in microfluidics-based electronics have shown great potential in numerous new appealing applications, e.g. bio-inspired devices, body-worn healthcare and medical sensing systems, and ergonomic units, in which conventional rigid, bulky electronics are facing insurmountable obstacles to fulfil the demand on comfortable user experience. Not only would the birth of microfluidic electronics contribute to both the microfluidics and electronics fields, but it may also shape the future of our daily life. Nevertheless, microfluidic electronics are still at a very early stage, and significant efforts in research and development are needed to advance this emerging field. The intention of this article is to review recent research outcomes in the field of microfluidic electronics, and address current technical challenges and issues. The outlook of future development in microfluidic electronic devices and systems, as well as new fabrication techniques, is also discussed. Moreover, the authors would like to inspire both the microfluidics and electronics communities to further exploit this newly-established field.

  17. Paper electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobjörk, Daniel; Österbacka, Ronald

    2011-05-03

    Paper is ubiquitous in everyday life and a truly low-cost substrate. The use of paper substrates could be extended even further, if electronic applications would be applied next to or below the printed graphics. However, applying electronics on paper is challenging. The paper surface is not only very rough compared to plastics, but is also porous. While this is detrimental for most electronic devices manufactured directly onto paper substrates, there are also approaches that are compatible with the rough and absorptive paper surface. In this review, recent advances and possibilities of these approaches are evaluated and the limitations of paper electronics are discussed.

  18. Electron holography

    CERN Document Server

    Tonomura, Akira

    1993-01-01

    Holography was devised for breaking through the resolution limit of electron microscopes The advent of a "coherent" field emission electron beam has enabled the use of Electron Holography in various areas of magnetic domain structures observation, fluxon observation in superconductors, and fundamental experiments in physics which have been inaccessible using other techniques After examining the fundamentals of electron holography and its applications to the afore mentioned fields, a detailed discussion of the Aharonov-Bohm effect and the related experiments is presented Many photographs and illustrations are included to elucidate the text

  19. Polymer electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Hsin-Fei, Meng

    2013-01-01

    Polymer semiconductor is the only semiconductor that can be processed in solution. Electronics made by these flexible materials have many advantages such as large-area solution process, low cost, and high performance. Researchers and companies are increasingly dedicating time and money in polymer electronics. This book focuses on the fundamental materials and device physics of polymer electronics. It describes polymer light-emitting diodes, polymer field-effect transistors, organic vertical transistors, polymer solar cells, and many applications based on polymer electronics. The book also disc

  20. Electronic Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Meredith Lindsay

    1995-01-01

    The main objective was to assist in the production of electronic images in the Electronic Photography Lab (EPL). The EPL is a new facility serving the electronic photographic needs of the Langley community. The purpose of the Electronic Photography lab is to provide Langley with access to digital imaging technology. Although the EPL has been in operation for less than one year, almost 1,000 images have been produced. The decision to establish the lab was made after careful determination of the centers needs for electronic photography. The LaRC community requires electronic photography for the production of electronic printing, Web sites, desktop publications, and its increased enhancement capabilities. In addition to general use, other considerations went into the planning of the EPL. For example, electronic photography is much less of a burden on the environment compared to conventional photography. Also, the possibilities of an on-line database and retrieval system could make locating past work more efficient. Finally, information in an electronic image is quantified, making measurements and calculations easier for the researcher.

  1. Electron Bifurcation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, John W.; Miller, Anne-Frances; Jones, Anne K.; King, Paul W.; Adams, Michael W. W.

    2016-04-01

    Electron bifurcation is the recently recognized third mechanism of biological energy conservation. It simultaneously couples exergonic and endergonic oxidation-reduction reactions to circumvent thermodynamic barriers and minimize free energy loss. Little is known about the details of how electron bifurcating enzymes function, but specifics are beginning to emerge for several bifurcating enzymes. To date, those characterized contain a collection of redox cofactors including flavins and iron-sulfur clusters. Here we discuss the current understanding of bifurcating enzymes and the mechanistic features required to reversibly partition multiple electrons from a single redox site into exergonic and endergonic electron transfer paths.

  2. Printed Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, John M. (Inventor); Lettow, John S. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Korkut, Sibel (Inventor); Chiang, Katherine S. (Inventor); Chen, Chuan-Hua (Inventor); Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Printed electronic device comprising a substrate onto at least one surface of which has been applied a layer of an electrically conductive ink comprising functionalized graphene sheets and at least one binder. A method of preparing printed electronic devices is further disclosed.

  3. Electron optics

    CERN Document Server

    Grivet, Pierre; Bertein, F; Castaing, R; Gauzit, M; Septier, Albert L

    1972-01-01

    Electron Optics, Second English Edition, Part I: Optics is a 10-chapter book that begins by elucidating the fundamental features and basic techniques of electron optics, as well as the distribution of potential and field in electrostatic lenses. This book then explains the field distribution in magnetic lenses; the optical properties of electrostatic and magnetic lenses; and the similarities and differences between glass optics and electron optics. Subsequent chapters focus on lens defects; some electrostatic lenses and triode guns; and magnetic lens models. The strong focusing lenses and pris

  4. Electronic diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Diagrams is a ready reference and general guide to systems and circuit planning and in the preparation of diagrams for both newcomers and the more experienced. This book presents guidelines and logical procedures that the reader can follow and then be equipped to tackle large complex diagrams by recognition of characteristic 'building blocks' or 'black boxes'. The goal is to break down many of the barriers that often seem to deter students and laymen in learning the art of electronics, especially when they take up electronics as a spare time occupation. This text is comprised of nin

  5. Digital electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, John

    2013-01-01

    An essential companion to John C Morris's 'Analogue Electronics', this clear and accessible text is designed for electronics students, teachers and enthusiasts who already have a basic understanding of electronics, and who wish to develop their knowledge of digital techniques and applications. Employing a discovery-based approach, the author covers fundamental theory before going on to develop an appreciation of logic networks, integrated circuit applications and analogue-digital conversion. A section on digital fault finding and useful ic data sheets completes th

  6. Electronic identity

    CERN Document Server

    de Andrade, Norberto Nuno Gomes; Argles, David

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing availability of electronic services, security and a reliable means by which identity is verified is essential.Written by Norberto Andrade the first chapter of this book provides an overview of the main legal and regulatory aspects regarding electronic identity in Europe and assesses the importance of electronic identity for administration (public), business (private) and, above all, citizens. It also highlights the role of eID as a key enabler of the economy.In the second chapter Lisha Chen-Wilson, David Argles, Michele Schiano di Zenise and Gary Wills discuss the user-cent

  7. Stretchable electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Someya, Takao

    2012-01-01

    With its comprehensive coverage this handbook and ready reference brings together some of the most outstanding scientists in the field to lay down the undisputed knowledge on how to make electronics stretchable.As such, it focuses on gathering and evaluating the materials, designs, models and technologies that enable the fabrication of fully elastic electronic devices which can sustain high strain. Furthermore, it provides a review of those specific applications that directly benefit from highly compliant electronics, including transistors, photonic devices and sensors. In addition to stre

  8. Starting electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Brindley, Keith

    2005-01-01

    Starting Electronics is unrivalled as a highly practical introduction for hobbyists, students and technicians. Keith Brindley introduces readers to the functions of the main component types, their uses, and the basic principles of building and designing electronic circuits. Breadboard layouts make this very much a ready-to-run book for the experimenter; and the use of multimeter, but not oscilloscopes, puts this practical exploration of electronics within reach of every home enthusiast's pocket. The third edition has kept the simplicity and clarity of the original. New material

  9. Polymer electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Geoghegan, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Polymer electronics is the science behind many important new developments in technology, such as the flexible electronic display (e-ink) and many new developments in transistor technology. Solar cells, light-emitting diodes, and transistors are all areas where plastic electronics is likely to, or is already having, a serious impact on our daily lives. With polymer transistors and light-emitting diodes now being commercialised, there is a clear need for a pedagogic text thatdiscusses the subject in a clear and concise fashion suitable for senior undergraduate and graduate students. The content

  10. Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Ciobotaru, Mihai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2008-01-01

    is to change the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss the most...... emerging renewable energy sources, wind energy, which by means of power electronics are changing from being a minor energy source to be acting as an important power source in the energy system. Power electronics is the enabling technology and the presentation will cover the development in wind turbine...... technology from kW to MW, discuss which power electronic solutions are most feasible and used today....

  11. Electronic Elections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    Electronic voting technology is a two edged sword. It comes with many risks but brings also many benefits. Instead of flat out rejecting the technology as uncontrollably dangerous, we advocate in this paper a different technological angle that renders electronic elections trustworthy beyond...... the usual levels of doubt. We exploit the trust that voters currently have into the democratic process and model our techniques around that observation accordingly. In particular, we propose a technique of trace emitting computations to record the individual steps of an electronic voting machine...... for a posteriori validation on an acceptably small trusted computing base. Our technology enables us to prove that an electronic elections preserves the voter’s intent, assuming that the voting machine and the trace verifier are independent....

  12. Electronic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrinidou, Eleni; Gabrielsson, Roger; Gomez, Eliot; Crispin, Xavier; Nilsson, Ove; Simon, Daniel T.; Berggren, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    The roots, stems, leaves, and vascular circuitry of higher plants are responsible for conveying the chemical signals that regulate growth and functions. From a certain perspective, these features are analogous to the contacts, interconnections, devices, and wires of discrete and integrated electronic circuits. Although many attempts have been made to augment plant function with electroactive materials, plants’ “circuitry” has never been directly merged with electronics. We report analog and digital organic electronic circuits and devices manufactured in living plants. The four key components of a circuit have been achieved using the xylem, leaves, veins, and signals of the plant as the template and integral part of the circuit elements and functions. With integrated and distributed electronics in plants, one can envisage a range of applications including precision recording and regulation of physiology, energy harvesting from photosynthesis, and alternatives to genetic modification for plant optimization. PMID:26702448

  13. ELECTRONIC SIGNATURES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10332324

    'electronic signature' means data attached to, incorporated in, or logically ... See Cwele v S 2012 4 All SA 497 (SCA); Mohlabeng v Minister of Safety and Security ... ZAKZPHC 51 (2 September 2010); Delta Finance, a Division of Wesbank, ...

  14. Electron Microprobe

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The JEOL JXA-8600 is a conventional hairpin filament thermal emission electron microprobe that is more than 20 years old. It is capable of performing qualitative and...

  15. Chemical composition of meat in two cyprinid species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerica Macovei

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The biochemical analyses of the meat were determined in two species of carps, respectively Cyprinus carpio and Ctenopharyngodon idella. We worked on four groups of 10 fishes each (two groups for C. carpio and two groups for Ct. idella. One group from both species was fed with special fodder, and the other two groups were fed with clover (Trifolium pratense and reeds (Phragmites communis for C. carpio and Ct. idella respectively. The determination was made in the laboratory of chemical analyses of the Faculty of Animal Sciences, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Iaşi and we determined the content of the meat in proteins, fat, dry substance and minerals. The characteristic chemicals of the meat were determined on the extracted sample from the lateral musculature of the body. Biochemical analysis of meat from the four carp lots shows that protein content of meat is higher in groups which received combined feed compared to group which individuals were fed with natural food. Therefore, in case of feeding fish with combined fodder the protein content of meat increases, which proves a good recovery of protein in feed. Fat content and minerals in cyprinid meat are both higher in individuals fed with combined feed compared to those fed with natural components. When fat content in meat is higher, the dry matter content in meat is higher.

  16. Electronic commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Veselková, Zdeňka

    2012-01-01

    The thesis deals with a description of electronic commerce from its beginning up to present situation in this area. It explains basic terms connected with electronic commerce and it summarizes the relevant legislation. Moreover it describes e-contracts and rights and duties of both contractual parties. The main view is the view of Internet retailer, which is reflected in the practical part focused on concrete problems of retailers.

  17. Cloning of the Pept1 gene and analysis of its expression in Cteno-pharyngodon idellus tissues%草鱼小肽转运载体 PepT1基因的克隆与表达特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯军厂; 刘臻; 鲁双庆; 聂国兴; 周玲; 孙浪

    2013-01-01

    To study the molecular mechanism of the small peptide transporter PepT1-mediated protein digestion and absorption, a full-length cDNA sequence of the PepT1 gene was cloned from Ctenopharyngodon idellus using RT-PCR and RACE techniques. The full-length cDNA sequence of PepT1 had 2762 nucleotides, including 141 nucleotides at 5′UTR and 479 nucleotides at 3′UTR. Its open reading frame had 2142 nucleotides encoding a 713-amino-acid peptide. The PepT1 gene sequences from C. idellus were most similar to those of Carassius au-ratus and Danio rerio at 77.6% and 74.0%, respectively; the deduced amino acid similarities were 78.0% and 76.7%, respectively; but the PepT1 gene sequence varied in similarity to other animals from 53.9% to 59.1%, and the deduced amino acid similarities were 60.5%—61.6%. The encoded protein molecular weight was predicted at 79.29 kD with pI at 5.87. The PepT1 protein had 11 helix trans-membrane regions; its amino acid sequence was highly homologous to those of other vertebrates. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the PepT1 gene sequence clustered with C. auratus and D. rerio as its closest neighbor. The abundances of PepT1 mRNA assayed by real-time PCR were differentially expressed by tissue type; the highest expression was in the foregut tissue and the second was in the muscle. However, PepT1 mRNA expression was relatively stable after incubation for 7 days. The PepT1 gene expressed rhythmically in the small intestine of C. idellus. Its expression was higher during the night and lower during the day. This work provides a theoretical basis for the molecular mechanism of protein digestion and absorption by the small peptide transporter PepT1, which mediates intestinal transport of small pep-tides in vivo.%  采用同源克隆和 RACE 技术克隆草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)PepT1基因的全长 cDNA 序列.该 cDNA全长为2762 bp,包含141 bp 的5′UTR 序列,479 bp 的3′UTR 序列,2142 bp 开放阅读框,编码713

  18. 草鱼过氧化氢酶全长cDNA的克隆、序列同源分析与组织表达%Full-length cDNA Cloning, Sequence Homology Analysis and Tissue Expre-ssion of a Catalase Gene from Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑清梅; 韩春艳; 温茹淑; 钟艳梅; 姚琼凤; 侯雨文

    2011-01-01

    过氧化氢酶(catalase,CAT)是生物体内抗氧化防御系统的关键酶之一,在清除过氧化氢而避免机体产生氧化应激的过程中起重要作用.本研究从草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)肝胰脏中克隆了CAT完整编码序列(complete coding sequence,CDS).该CAT序列(GenBank登陆号:FJ560431)全长2 263 bp,包括完全开放阅读框(ORF) 1 575 bp、5'非编码区(UTR) 118 bp和3' UTR 570 bp.其ORF编码525个氨基酸残基,理论分子量为59.59 kD,等电点为7.02.在草鱼CAT cDNA的终止密码子附近,其3' UTR具有长且完整的AC重复序列,与斑马鱼、鲢鱼及啮齿类动物CAT的3' UTR AC重复序列相似.序列比较表明,草鱼CAT的核苷酸及推测氨基酸序列与其它多种物种的一致性均较高,其一致性分别为93.4%~43.0%和98.1%~63.3%.同时,草鱼CAT cDNA的推测氨基酸序列具有与其它动物高度保守的特征性基序,包括亚铁血红素结合信号序列"RLFSYPDTH"、酶活性中心序列"FDRERIPERVVHAKGA"及3个催化位点残基His74、Asn147和Tyr357.此外,草鱼CAT还具有保守的亚铁血红素结合口袋与NADPH 结合位点.根据草鱼CAT基因的上述特征,推测其属于CAT基因家族中的单功能或典型CAT基因亚群.采用实时荧光定量PCR (Q-PCR)检测草鱼CAT的组织表达特征.结果显示,草鱼CAT mRNA在所检测的11种组织器官中均有表达,其中在肝中表达水平量较高,在红肌、白肌和脂肪中表达量较低.本研究结果将有助于进一步探讨鱼类CAT基因的结构与功能,并为研究其抗氧化分子机理奠定基础.%Catalase is a key enzyme in the antioxidant systems of living organisms that plays an important role in the against oxidative stress by eliminating hydrogen peroxide. The full-length catalase cDNA was cloned from hepatopancreas of grass carp {Ctenopharyngodon idellus). The gene CA T (GenBank Accession No. FJ560431) was 2 263 base-pairs (bp), including a complete protein coding region (ORF) of 1

  19. 草鱼过氧化氢酶全长cDNA的克隆、序列同源分析与组织表达%Full-length cDNA Cloning,Sequence Homology Analysis and Tissue Expression of a Catalase Gene from Grass Carp(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑清梅; 韩春艳; 温茹淑; 钟艳梅; 姚琼凤; 侯雨文

    2011-01-01

    过氧化氢酶(catalase,CAT)是生物体内抗氧化防御系统的关键酶之一,在清除过氧化氢而避免机体产生氧化应激的过程中起重要作用。本研究从草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)肝胰脏中克隆了CAT完整编码序列(complete coding sequence,CDS)。该CAT序列(GenBank登陆号:FJ560431)全长2263bp,包括完全开放阅读框(ORF)1575bp、5'非编码区(UTR)118bp和3'UTR570bp。其ORF编码525个氨基酸残基,理论分子量为59.59kD,等电点为7.02。在草鱼CAT cDNA的终止密码子附近,其3'UTR具有长且完整的AC重复序列,与斑马鱼、鲢鱼及啮齿类动物CAT的3'UTR AC重复序列相似。序列比较表明,草鱼CAT的核苷酸及推测氨基酸序列与其它多种物种的一致性均较高,其一致性分别为93.4%~43.0%和98.1%~63.3%。同时,草鱼CAT cDNA的推测氨基酸序列具有与其它动物高度保守的特征性基序,包括亚铁血红素结合信号序列"RLFSYPDTH"、酶活性中心序列"FDRERIPERVVHAKGA"及3个催化位点残基His74、Asn147和Tyr357。此外,草鱼CAT还具有保守的亚铁血红素结合口袋与NADPH结合位点。根据草鱼CAT基因的上述特征,推测其属于CAT基因家族中的单功能或典型CAT基因亚群。采用实时荧光定量PCR(Q-PCR)检测草鱼CAT的组织表达特征。结果显示,草鱼CATmRNA在所检测的11种组织器官中均有表达,其中在肝中表达水平量较高,在红肌、白肌和脂肪中表达量较低。本研究结果将有助于进一步探讨鱼类CAT基因的结构与功能,并为研究其抗氧化分子机理奠定基础。%Catalase is a key enzyme in the antioxidant systems of living organisms that plays an important role in the against oxidative stress by eliminating hydrogen peroxide.The full-length catalase cDNA was cloned from hepatopancreas of grass carp(Ctenopharyngodon idellus).The gene CAT(GenBank Accession No.FJ560431) was 2 263 base

  20. Molecular Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Karsten Stein

    This thesis includes the synthesis and characterisation of organic compounds designed for molecular electronics. The synthesised organic molecules are mainly based on two motifs, the obigo(phenyleneethynylenes) (OPE)s and tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) as shown below. These two scaffolds (OPE and TTF......) are chemically merged together to form cruciform-like structures that are an essential part of the thesis. The cruciform molecules were subjected to molecular conductance measurements to explore their capability towards single-crystal field-effect transistors (Part 1), molecular wires, and single electron......, however, was obtained by a study of a single molecular transistor. The investigated OPE5-TTF compound was captured in a three-terminal experiment, whereby manipulation of the molecule’s electronic spin was possible in different charge states. Thus, we demonstrated how the cruciform molecules could...

  1. Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Ciobotaru, Mihai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2008-01-01

    energy at the end-user should also be set up. Deregulation of energy has in the past lowered the investment in larger power plants, which means the need for new electrical power sources will be high in the near future. Two major technologies will play important roles to solve the future problems. One...... is to change the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss the most...... emerging renewable energy sources, wind energy, which by means of power electronics are changing from being a minor energy source to be acting as an important power source in the energy system. Power electronics is the enabling technology and the presentation will cover the development in wind turbine...

  2. Electron Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegbahn, Kai

    Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen's discovery of X radiation in 1895 in Wörzburg resulted in an immediate break-through not only in physics but also in Society, the latter mainly because of its sensational radiological applications. Within a short time it furthermore indirectly led to the discovery of radioactivity by Henri Becquerel. The discovery of X radiation opened the gate to modern atomic physics, and radioactivity to nuclear physics. Later on, the discovery of X-ray diffraction by Laue, Friedrich and Knipping in 1912 initiated the field of X-ray spectroscopy with its fundamental contributions to atomic and crystal structures. Secondary electrons were early observed in the scattered radiation when X-rays were hitting a sample. The development of the corresponding electron spectroscopy had to wait a much longer time for its maturity. A survey of electron spectroscopy is presented.

  3. Electronic Commerce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laird, N. [NRG Information Services Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1995-11-01

    The concept of electronic commerce in the gas industry was discussed. It was defined as the integration of communication technology, advanced information processing capability and business standards, to improve effectiveness of the business process. Examples of electronic data interchange from the automotive, airline, and banking industry were given. The objective of using this technology in the gas industry was described as the provision of one electronic facility to make seamless contractual and operational arrangements for moving natural gas across participating pipelines. The benefit of seamless integration - one readily available standard system used by several companies - was highlighted. A list of value-added services such as the free movement of bulletins, directories, nominations,and other documents was provided.

  4. Spin electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Buhrman, Robert; Daughton, James; Molnár, Stephan; Roukes, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This report is a comparative review of spin electronics ("spintronics") research and development activities in the United States, Japan, and Western Europe conducted by a panel of leading U.S. experts in the field. It covers materials, fabrication and characterization of magnetic nanostructures, magnetism and spin control in magnetic nanostructures, magneto-optical properties of semiconductors, and magnetoelectronics and devices. The panel's conclusions are based on a literature review and a series of site visits to leading spin electronics research centers in Japan and Western Europe. The panel found that Japan is clearly the world leader in new material synthesis and characterization; it is also a leader in magneto-optical properties of semiconductor devices. Europe is strong in theory pertaining to spin electronics, including injection device structures such as tunneling devices, and band structure predictions of materials properties, and in development of magnetic semiconductors and semiconductor heterost...

  5. Molecular Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Karsten Stein

    ) are chemically merged together to form cruciform-like structures that are an essential part of the thesis. The cruciform molecules were subjected to molecular conductance measurements to explore their capability towards single-crystal field-effect transistors (Part 1), molecular wires, and single electron......This thesis includes the synthesis and characterisation of organic compounds designed for molecular electronics. The synthesised organic molecules are mainly based on two motifs, the obigo(phenyleneethynylenes) (OPE)s and tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) as shown below. These two scaffolds (OPE and TTF......, however, was obtained by a study of a single molecular transistor. The investigated OPE5-TTF compound was captured in a three-terminal experiment, whereby manipulation of the molecule’s electronic spin was possible in different charge states. Thus, we demonstrated how the cruciform molecules could...

  6. Greening Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo; Søes Kokborg, Morten; Thomsen, Marianne

    Based on a literature review with focus on hazardous substances in waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) and numbers from a Danish treatment facility a flow analysis for specific substances has been conducted. Further, the accessible knowledge on human and environmental effects due...

  7. Superconducting electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogalla, Horst

    1994-01-01

    During the last decades superconducting electronics has been the most prominent area of research for small scale applications of superconductivity. It has experienced quite a stormy development, from individual low frequency devices to devices with high integration density and pico second switching

  8. Electronic Portfolios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, Alan C.

    1996-01-01

    Outlines three forms of electronic portfolio based on a student's work, a class project about a specific topic, and a class seminar on a broad topic. Discusses logistical problems of management, access, and cross-referencing; technical problems of input, access, and copying; and theoretical issues of the lack of realia, of ownership and copyright,…

  9. Electronic Money.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Tim

    Thirty years ago a cashless society was predicted for the near future; paper currency and checks would be an antiquated symbol of the past. Consumers would embrace a new alternative for making payments: electronic money. But currency is still used for 87% of payments, mainly for "nickel and dime" purchases. And checks are the payment…

  10. Electronic spectroscopies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weckhuysen, B.M.; Schoonheydt, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) in the ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared region is a versatile spectroscopic technique, as both d-d and charge transfer transitions of supported TMI can be probed. One of the advantages of electronic spectroscopy is that the obtained information is

  11. Electronic Homework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Fong-lok; Heyworth, Rex M.

    The Electronic Homework assistant system is composed of two components: the Computer Tutor and the Homework Administrator. The Computer Tutor is an intelligent tutoring system that can provide personal assistance like supplying hints, checking errors, providing remediation and prioritizing problems. The Homework Administrator is a teacher's…

  12. Greening Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo; Søes Kokborg, Morten; Thomsen, Marianne

    Based on a literature review with focus on hazardous substances in waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) and numbers from a Danish treatment facility a flow analysis for specific substances has been conducted. Further, the accessible knowledge on human and environmental effects due to po...

  13. Electronic Government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wimmer, Maria A.; Traunmüller, Roland; Grönlund, Åke

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Electronic Government, EGOV 2005, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in August 2005. The 30 revised papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions, and assess the state-of-the-art in e...

  14. Electronic detectors for electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruqi, A R; McMullan, G

    2011-08-01

    Electron microscopy (EM) is an important tool for high-resolution structure determination in applications ranging from condensed matter to biology. Electronic detectors are now used in most applications in EM as they offer convenience and immediate feedback that is not possible with film or image plates. The earliest forms of electronic detector used routinely in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were charge coupled devices (CCDs) and for many applications these remain perfectly adequate. There are however applications, such as the study of radiation-sensitive biological samples, where film is still used and improved detectors would be of great value. The emphasis in this review is therefore on detectors for use in such applications. Two of the most promising candidates for improved detection are: monolithic active pixel sensors (MAPS) and hybrid pixel detectors (of which Medipix2 was chosen for this study). From the studies described in this review, a back-thinned MAPS detector appears well suited to replace film in for the study of radiation-sensitive samples at 300 keV, while Medipix2 is suited to use at lower energies and especially in situations with very low count rates. The performance of a detector depends on the energy of electrons to be recorded, which in turn is dependent on the application it is being used for; results are described for a wide range of electron energies ranging from 40 to 300 keV. The basic properties of detectors are discussed in terms of their modulation transfer function (MTF) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) as a function of spatial frequency.

  15. Electronic Aggression

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-20

    Aggression is no longer limited to the school yard. New forms of electronic media, such as blogs, instant messaging, chat rooms, email, text messaging, and the internet are providing new arenas for youth violence to occur.  Created: 11/20/2007 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Division of Violence Prevention.   Date Released: 11/28/2007.

  16. Interacting Electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Richard M.; Reining, Lucia; Ceperley, David M.

    2016-06-01

    Preface; Part I. Interacting Electrons: Beyond the Independent-Particle Picture: 1. The many electron problem: introduction; 2. Signatures of electron correlation; 3. Concepts and models for interacting electrons; Part II. Foundations of Theory for Many-Body Systems: 4. Mean fields and auxiliary systems; 5. Correlation functions; 6. Many-body wavefunctions; 7. Particles and quasi-particles; 8. Functionals in many-particle physics; Part III. Many-Body Green's Function Methods: 9. Many-body perturbation theory: expansion in the interaction; 10. Many-body perturbation theory via functional derivatives; 11. The RPA and the GW approximation for the self-energy; 12. GWA calculations in practice; 13. GWA calculations: illustrative results; 14. RPA and beyond: the Bethe-Salpeter equation; 15. Beyond the GW approximation; 16. Dynamical mean field theory; 17. Beyond the single-site approximation in DMFT; 18. Solvers for embedded systems; 19. Characteristic hamiltonians for solids with d and f states; 20. Examples of calculations for solids with d and f states; 21. Combining Green's functions approaches: an outlook; Part IV. Stochastic Methods: 22. Introduction to stochastic methods; 23. Variational Monte Carlo; 24. Projector quantum Monte Carlo; 25. Path integral Monte Carlo; 26. Concluding remarks; Part V. Appendices: A. Second quantization; B. Pictures; C. Green's functions: general properties; D. Matsubara formulation for Green's functions for T ̸= 0; E. Time-ordering, contours, and non-equilibrium; F. Hedin's equations in a basis; G. Unique solutions in Green's function theory; H. Properties of functionals; I. Auxiliary systems and constrained search; J. Derivation of the Luttinger theorem; K. Gutzwiller and Hubbard approaches; References; Index.

  17. ELECTRON GUN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofilos, N.C.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1960-04-01

    A pulsed electron gun capable of delivering pulses at voltages of the order of 1 mv and currents of the order of 100 amperes is described. The principal novelty resides in a transformer construction which is disposed in the same vacuum housing as the electron source and accelerating electrode structure of the gun to supply the accelerating potential thereto. The transformer is provided by a plurality of magnetic cores disposed in circumferentially spaced relation and having a plurality of primary windings each inductively coupled to a different one of the cores, and a helical secondary winding which is disposed coaxially of the cores and passes therethrough in circumferential succession. Additional novelty resides in the disposition of the electron source cathode filament input leads interiorly of the transformer secondary winding which is hollow, as well as in the employment of a half-wave filament supply which is synchronously operated with the transformer supply such that the transformer is pulsed during the zero current portions of the half-wave cycle.

  18. 草鱼ghrelin基因的分子克隆与组织分布及其摄食调控作用分析%Molecular cloning, tissue distribution and food intake regulatory effects of ghrelin in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈勇; 李家乐; 沈玉帮; 傅建军; 王荣泉; 宣云峰

    2012-01-01

    ghrelin是一种在脊椎动物摄食调节过程中起重要作用的脑肠肽,具有明显的摄食促进作用.实验利用同源克隆技术获得了草鱼ghrelin基因的cDNA序列和DNA序列,其中cDNA序列全长506 bp,包括90 bp的5 '端非编码区(5’-untranslated region,5'UTR),312 bp的开放阅读框(open reading frame,ORF),以及104 bp的3’端非编码区(3’-untranslated region,3'UTR).开放阅读框编码的103个氨基酸的ghrelin前体肽,经剪切加工后形成含有19个氨基酸的成熟肽.氨基酸序列分析结果显示,草鱼ghrelin与硬骨鱼类ghrelin相似度最高,而与其他脊椎动物相似度较低,同时草鱼ghrelin成熟肽N端的“活性中心”(active core)为鲤科鱼类中常见的GTSF形式.与大多数硬骨鱼类的ghrelin基因结构相同,草鱼ghrelin基因也包括4个外显子和3个内含子.荧光定量PCR检测到ghrelin mRNA大量分布于草鱼的前肠和脾,脑、肾、肝、肌肉、皮和鳔等组织也有ghrelin mRNA分布.草鱼脑和肠中的ghrelin表达水平在摄食后下降,随着饥饿时间的延长表达水平逐步升高,最后维持在较高水平,表明ghrelin作为摄食启动信号对草鱼的摄食活动起到了促进作用.%Ghrelin is one of vital brain-gut peptides involved in feeding regulation in vertebrates, and is well known for its appetite-stimulating capacity. Nucleotide sequences of ghrelin gene were identified both at DNA and cDNA levels, using homology-based cloning techniques from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus). The 506 bp full-length ghrelin cDNA consists of a 90 bp 5'-untranslated region, a 312 bp open reading frame and a 104 bp 3'-untranslated region. The 103-amino acid prepropeptide encoded by open reading frame turns into a mature peptide with 19 amino acids after posttranslational modification, putative amino acid sequence analysis among vertebrates indicated that grass carp ghrelin showed the highest sequence homology with teleosts, and lower homology

  19. Effects of Different Concentrations of Zinc Ion on Histological Structure of Brain and Hepatopancreas and Hepatopancreatic SOD Activity in Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus%不同质量浓度 Zn2+对草鱼脑、肝胰脏组织结构及肝胰脏中超氧化物歧化酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任洪涛

    2016-01-01

    T he influences of different concentrations of zinc ion (Zn2+ ) (0 ,9 .52 ,13 .14 ,18 .30 ,25 .02 , and 34 .53 mg/L ) on histological structure of brain and hepatopancreas and superoxide dismutase (SOD ) activity in hepatopancreas were studied in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus with body weight of some 10 g at water temperature of (20 ± 1) ℃ by a hydrostatic test to seek for the accumulation and toxicity mechanism of heavy metals .It was found that the LC50 of Zn2+ to grass carp was 23 .058 mg/L in 24 h , 10 .155 mg/L in 48 h ,and 19 .317 mg/L in 96 h ,with safe concentration of 4 .068 mg/L calculated by for‐mula(48 h LC50 × 0 .3)/(24 h LC50/48 h LC50 )2 and 1 .0155 mg/L estimated by formula 96 h LC50 × 0 .1 .In the early stage of Zn2+ poisoning ,the grass carp exposed to Zn2+ had clustered brain cells with the slightly enlarged nuclei ,and as the time elapsed ,the brain cells aggregated significantly ,and the w hole brain cells were almost filled with the nuclei .The hepatopancreas cells were found to be expansion ,discrete ,nuclear reduction ,a slight overflow of the cytoplasm ,a small number of liver cell cytoplasm overflow ,and residu‐al nuclear material scattered distribution in the grass carp exposed to Zn 2+ ,thus leading to cell necrosis . With the increase in Zn2+ concentration and time ,the activity of SOD in the hepatopanceas of grass carp w as decreased .%水温(20±1)℃,采用静水测试法研究了养殖水体中不同质量浓度Zn2+(0、9.52、13.14、18.30、25.02、34.53 mg/L )对体质量约10 g的草鱼脑和肝胰脏的组织结构及肝胰脏中超氧化物歧化酶活性的影响,探讨重金属的毒性积累和毒性机制。试验结果表明,Zn2+对草鱼的24、48 h和96 h半致死质量浓度分别为23.058、19.317、10.155 mg/L ,由公式(48 h LC50×0.3)/(24 h LC50/48 h LC50)2和96 h LC50×0.1计算出安全质量浓度分别为4.068 mg/L和1.0155 mg/L。

  20. Effects of Dietary Gracilaria lemaneiformis on Growth Performance, Serum Biochemical Indices and Muscle Fatty Acid Composition of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus)%饲料中添加龙须菜对草鱼生长性能、血清生化指标及肌肉脂肪酸组成的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈明; 刘永坚; 李雅婷; 陈先权; 曾帅霖; 田丽霞

    2016-01-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of dietary Gracilaria lemaneiformis on growth performance, serum biochemical indices and muscle fatty acid composition of grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idellus) , juvenile fish at the average body weight of (15.94±0.10) g were fed six isonitrogenous and isolipid diets containing graded levels of Gracilaria lemaneiformis [ 0 ( control group ) , 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% and 5%, respectively ] for 8 weeks. Each diet fed four water tanks and each tank had 30 fish. The results showed as follows:1) there were no significant differences in weight gain rate ( WGR) , specific growth ratio ( SGR) , survival rate ( SR) and feed efficiency ( FE) of fish fed diets supplemented with different proportions of Gracilaria lemaneiformis ( P>0.05) . 2) Hepato-somatic index ( HSI) of fish in experimental groups was higher than that in control group, and the differences were significant except 5% supplementation group ( P0.05), however, there were significant differences in the contents of ash and crude lipid in whole body, crude lipid in liver and moisture in muscle ( P0.05). 5) Fatty acid composition in muscle of grass carp was affected by diets with different proportions of Gracilaria lemane-iformis. Diets supplemented with different proportions of Gracilaria lemaneiformis could significantly affect the contents of fatty acids except C14∶1, C20∶0 and C20∶2 in muscle ( P0.05)。2)各试验组的肝体指数( HSI)均高于对照组,对照组与除5%添加组外的其他试验组的差异均达到显著水平( P0.05),而饲料中不同添加比例龙须菜对全鱼粗灰分与粗脂肪、肝脏粗脂肪及肌肉水分含量有显著影响(P0.05)。5)饲料中龙须菜添加比例影响了草鱼肌肉脂肪酸的组成,除C14∶1、C20∶0、C20∶2外,其他肌肉脂肪酸的含量均受到饲料中龙须菜的添加比例的显著影响(P<0.05),其中肌肉多不饱和脂肪酸(PUFA)含量及n-3/n-6 PUFA均在3%添加组获得最高值。1%、2%

  1. EFFECTS OF MDA ON THE GROWTH PERFORMANCE, STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF HEPATOPANCREAS AND INTESTINE OF GRASS CARP (CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLUS)%饲料丙二醛对草鱼生长、肝胰脏及肠道结构和功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈科全; 萧培珍; 周亚琴; 叶元土; 蔡春芳; 吴萍; 黄雨薇; 吴韬; 林秀秀; 罗其刚; 张宝彤

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated effects of MDA on the growth performance, structure and function of hepatopancreas and intestine of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) and evaluated effects between MDA and other products of oxi-dized fish oil. Five isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were prepared with soybean oil, fish oil and different level of MDA for a 72-day experiment. The results indicated that MDA and other products of oxidized fish oil both signifi-cantly increased the FCR of grass carp and decreased the SGR and PRR of grass carp (P<0.05). Only MDA signifi-cantly decreased the LRR (P<0.05). Moreover, MDA and other products of oxidized fish oil both significantly de-creased the TBA content in serum (P<0.05), and increased the content of TC, TG and MDA and the activity of SOD in serum (P<0.05). Only MDA significantly increased ALT content and decreased the radio between HDL and LDL in serum (P<0.05). MDA and other products of oxidized fish oil both significantly increased the lipid content of hepato-pancreas (P<0.05) and stimulated the oxidative stress of hepatopancreas. MDA damaged the morphology in hepatopan-creas cell and significantly decreased the number of nucleus of hepatopancreas cell (P<0.05), which lead to the obvi-ously trend of fibrosis of the hepatopancreas cell. MDA and other products of oxidized fish oil both significantly in-creased the number of goblet cells in the microvilli (P<0.05). To the permeability, serum D-lactic acid and endotoxin significantly increased because of the defect of the tight junction, the hyperplasia and edema of villi. In conclusion, MDA decrease the growth performance of grass carp by regulating the oxidative stress and lipid metabolism. MDA and other products of oxidized fish oil affect the hepatopancreas with different mechanism. Both MDA and other products of oxidized fish oil can mediate the function of intestine.%为了探讨丙二醛(MDA)对草鱼Ctenopharyngodon idellus (74.82±1.49) g生长、肝胰脏及肠道

  2. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Tayal, DC

    2010-01-01

    The second edition of this book incorporates the comments and suggestions of my friends and students who have critically studied the first edition. In this edition the changes and additions have been made and subject matter has been rearranged at some places. The purpose of this text is to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date study of the principles of operation of solid state devices, their basic circuits and application of these circuits to various electronic systems, so that it can serve as a standard text not only for universities and colleges but also for technical institutes. This book

  3. Electronic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Kwok, H L

    2010-01-01

    The electronic properties of solids have become of increasing importance in the age of information technology. The study of solids and materials, while having originated from the disciplines of physics and chemistry, has evolved independently over the past few decades. The classical treatment of solid-state physics, which emphasized classifications, theories and fundamental physical principles, is no longer able to bridge the gap between materials advances and applications. In particular, the more recent developments in device physics and technology have not necessarily been driven by new conc

  4. Electronic Router

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crusan, Jason

    2005-01-01

    Electronic Router (E-Router) is an application program for routing documents among the cognizant individuals in a government agency or other organization. E-Router supplants a prior 14 NASA Tech Briefs, May 2005 system in which paper documents were routed physically in packages by use of paper slips, packages could be lost, routing times were unacceptably long, tracking of packages was difficult, and there was a need for much photocopying. E-Router enables a user to create a digital package to be routed. Input accepted by E-Router includes the title of the package, the person(s) to whom the package is to be routed, attached files, and comments to reviewers. Electronic mail is used to notify reviewers of needed actions. The creator of the package can, at any time, see the status of the package in the routing structure. At the end of the routing process, E-Router keeps a record of the package and of approvals and/or concurrences of the reviewers. There are commercial programs that perform the general functions of E-Router, but they are more complicated. E-Router is Web-based, easy to use, and does not require the installation or use of client software.

  5. Practical electronics handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Sinclair, Ian R

    2013-01-01

    Practical Electronics Handbook, Third Edition provides the frequently used and highly applicable principles of electronics and electronic circuits.The book contains relevant information in electronics. The topics discussed in the text include passive and active discrete components; linear and digital I.C.s; microprocessors and microprocessor systems; digital-analogue conversions; computer aids in electronics design; and electronic hardware components.Electronic circuit constructors, service engineers, electronic design engineers, and anyone with an interest in electronics will find the book ve

  6. Electronic Preprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanisch, R.

    1999-12-01

    Despite the tremendous advances in electronic publications and the increasing rapidity with which papers are now moving from acceptance into ``print,'' preprints continue to be an important mode of communication within the astronomy community. The Los Alamos e-preprint service, astro-ph, provides for rapid and cost-free (to authors and readers) dissemination of manuscripts. As the use of astro-ph has increased the number of paper preprints in circulation to libraries has decreased, and institutional preprint series appear to be waning. It is unfortunate, however, that astro-ph does not function in collaboration with the refereed publications. For example, there is no systematic tracking of manuscripts from preprint to their final, published form, and as a centralized archive it is difficult to distribute the tracking and maintenance functions. It retains documents that have been superseded or have become obsolete. We are currently developing a distributed preprint and document management system which can support both distributed collections of preprints (e.g., traditional institutional preprint series), can link to the LANL collections, can index other documents in the ``grey'' literature (observatory reports, telescope and instrument user's manuals, calls for proposals, etc.), and can function as a manuscript submission tool for the refereed journals. This system is being developed to work cooperatively with the refereed literature so that, for example, links to preprints are updated to links to the final published papers.

  7. Sustainable Management of Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    To provide information on EPAs strategy for electronics stewardship, certified electronics recyclers and the Challenge; as well as where to donate unwanted electronics, how to calculate benefits, and what's going on with electronics mgmt in their states.

  8. EDITORIAL: Synaptic electronics Synaptic electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna; Gimzewski, James K.; Vuillaume, Dominique

    2013-09-01

    Conventional computers excel in logic and accurate scientific calculations but make hard work of open ended problems that human brains handle easily. Even von Neumann—the mathematician and polymath who first developed the programming architecture that forms the basis of today's computers—was already looking to the brain for future developments before his death in 1957 [1]. Neuromorphic computing uses approaches that better mimic the working of the human brain. Recent developments in nanotechnology are now providing structures with very accommodating properties for neuromorphic approaches. This special issue, with guest editors James K Gimzewski and Dominique Vuillaume, is devoted to research at the serendipitous interface between the two disciplines. 'Synaptic electronics', looks at artificial devices with connections that demonstrate behaviour similar to synapses in the nervous system allowing a new and more powerful approach to computing. Synapses and connecting neurons respond differently to incident signals depending on the history of signals previously experienced, ultimately leading to short term and long term memory behaviour. The basic characteristics of a synapse can be replicated with around ten simple transistors. However with the human brain having around 1011 neurons and 1015 synapses, artificial neurons and synapses from basic transistors are unlikely to accommodate the scalability required. The discovery of nanoscale elements that function as 'memristors' has provided a key tool for the implementation of synaptic connections [2]. Leon Chua first developed the concept of the 'The memristor—the missing circuit element' in 1971 [3]. In this special issue he presents a tutorial describing how memristor research has fed into our understanding of synaptic behaviour and how they can be applied in information processing [4]. He also describes, 'The new principle of local activity, which uncovers a minuscule life-enabling "Goldilocks zone", dubbed the

  9. Electronic Mimosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sanjay; Datta, Meera S.; Rana, Vivek; Grover, Shailesh

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes the design of a low-cost, 2D, electromagnetic tracking device for personal computers. This interface makes use of the well-known principle of electromagnetic induction to locate the position of a transmitter in an x-y plane. This device has a ring which is worn by the user on the index finger. The computer monitor is overlaid with a transparent screen equipped with tuned electromagnetic sensors. These sensors pick up the signals transmitted by the transmitter coil on the finger. The receiver circuit extracts the envelope of the received signal and digitizes it. These digitized values of x and y axis signals are read by the computer through the standard parallel port. The system software running on the computer calculates the x and y co-ordinates of the transmitter coil and displays a cursor at that location. The transmitter also has a button which can be used like a mouse button. This keypress information is also transmitted by the electromagnetic means. The device driver for this tracker replaces the standard mouse driver. Hence most applications which use a mouse can also use this tracker. Its name `Mimosa' indicates that the user need not touch the screen (Mimosa Pudica is the Latin name of a plant whose leaves wilt when touched). Presently work is on to achieve uniform sensitivity over the entire screen and reducing transmitter power consumption. In order to demonstrate its working, a small, 3D game was written. The player has to reach a pre-defined location after traversing through a maze. The paper describes the interface electronics, system software, mechanical design and the sample application.

  10. Carbon Nanotube Electron Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Cattien V. (Inventor); Ribaya, Bryan P. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An electron gun, an electron source for an electron gun, an extractor for an electron gun, and a respective method for producing the electron gun, the electron source and the extractor are disclosed. Embodiments provide an electron source utilizing a carbon nanotube (CNT) bonded to a substrate for increased stability, reliability, and durability. An extractor with an aperture in a conductive material is used to extract electrons from the electron source, where the aperture may substantially align with the CNT of the electron source when the extractor and electron source are mated to form the electron gun. The electron source and extractor may have alignment features for aligning the electron source and the extractor, thereby bringing the aperture and CNT into substantial alignment when assembled. The alignment features may provide and maintain this alignment during operation to improve the field emission characteristics and overall system stability of the electron gun.

  11. 草鱼中国土著群体与欧美日移居群体遗传差异的线粒体序列分析%GRASS CARP (CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLUS) GENETIC STRUCTURE ANALYSIS AMONG NATIVE POPULATIONS IN CHINA AND INTRODUCED POPULATIONS IN USA, EUROPE AND JAPAN BASED ON MITOCHONDRIAL SEQUENCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋晓; 李思发; 王成辉; 徐嘉伟; 杨琴玲

    2009-01-01

    草鱼是中国的土著鱼类,自20世纪60年代以来已被移居到100多个国家和地区,主要用来控制水草或水产养殖.本研究通过线粒体D-Loop区(764bp)和COII+tRNA基因(719bp)序列分析,了解草鱼的中国土著群体(长江、珠江、黑龙江)和国外移居群体(匈牙利多瑙河、美国密西西比河、日本利根川河)之间以及各地方群体间的遗传差异.结果表明,中国土著草鱼群体的遗传变异高于国外移居群体;分子方差分析(AMOVA)表明,不同草鱼群体的遗传变异主要来自群体内,而不同地域间的差异极少;群体两两间Fst值比较表明,大多数群体之间遗传差异极显著;由TCS构建的单倍型网络结构图显示,长江草鱼群体是最原始的群体,其他水系草鱼均由长江群体演化而来;通过基因流分析发现,匈牙利多瑙河群体和日本利根川河群体来自长江和黑龙江群体,美国密西西比河群体除引自长江、黑龙江水系外,还有部分引自于珠江水系.%Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) is one of the most important freshwater species in aquaculture. Meanwhile, the grass carp is originally distributes in China, and then it has been introduced into more than 100 countries for aquatic weed control and aquaculture since 1960s. In the past five decades, the grass carps have been adapted to the local environment and developed local groups. However, the genetic variation among the grass carps in native and introduced regions, as well the genetic phylogeny, is not clear. Meanwhile, there is no available literature to clarify which river systems in China are the most likely origins of colonized populations in introduced regions. In this study, partial sequences of the mitochondrial D-Loop (764bp), COII + tRNA (719bp) were analyzed from native (the Yangtze, Amur and Pearl Rivers in China) and introduced (the Danube River in Hungary, the Mississippi River in USA and the Tonegawa River in Japan) populations of the

  12. Effects of Freshwater Mussels Hyriopsis cumingii on Plankton Community Structure in an Intensive Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus Pond%河蚌对草鱼混养精养池塘中浮游植物群落结构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑宗林; 郑曙明; 王广军; 赵峥

    2015-01-01

    Twenty thousand 1 year old freshwater mussel H yriopsis cumingii was stocked into 2 grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus (with body weight of 50 g) ponds of each 0 .8 hm2 and water depth of 1 .8 m at stocking density of 12 000 per pond polycultured with silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix with body weight of 24—100 g at stocking density of 500 individuals per pond and bighead carp A ristichthys no-bilis with body weight of 150 g at stocking density of 100 individuals per pond ,2 same size and stocking ponds without freshwater mussel as control ponds .The species and biomass of phytoplankton were deter-mined in the ponds in a 24 day interval to look insight on effects of freshwater mussel on phytoplankton community structure .The results showed that there were the phytoplankton of 94 species ,48 genera ,6 phyla in the fish-mussel polyculture ponds ,while 91 species ,42 genera ,6 phyla were observed in the con-trol ponds ,with the dominant species accounting for 47 .8% in the fish-mussel polyculture ponds ,and 41.8% in the control ponds ,with Cyclotella and Synedra in Bacillariophyta ,besides Chlorella ,Scenedes-mus and Closterium in Chlorophyta .The Shannon-Wiener diversity index of phytoplankton was found from 1.24 to 1 .41 in the fish mussel polyculture ponds and from 1 .26 to 1 .36 in the control ponds .The density of the phytoplankton were varied from 539 .23 × 104ind/L to 1289 .53 × 104ind/L in the fish-mussel polycul-ture ponds and from 669 .57 × 104 ind/L to 1608 .50 × 104 ind/L in the control ponds ,with the biomass of 6 .68—12 .47 mg/L in the fish-mussel polyculture ponds and 8 .40—18 .62 mg/L in the control ponds .The growth and reproduction of phytoplankton was to some extent restrained in the fish mussel plyculture ponds ,indicating that fish- mussel polyculture can change phytoplankton community structure ,and en-hance the ability to automatically adjust the water ,and more conducive to aquaculture .%试验池塘4口 ,每口面积0 .8 hm2

  13. 芽孢杆菌对草鱼生长和肠粘膜抗氧化功能及养殖水质的影响%Effects of Bacillus on Water Quality, Growth and Antioxidant Activity of Intestinal Mucosa of Ctenopharyngodon idellus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李卫芬; 邓斌; 陈南南; 梁权; 周绪霞

    2012-01-01

    A 45d culture experiment was conducted to study the effect of Bacillus on growth, antioxidant activity of intestinal mucosa of grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idellus) and water quality. 450 grass carps with initial average weight of (51.0 ± 2.3) g were randomly divided into 3 groups (control group, treatment group 1 and 2 ; three rep- licates for each group and 50 fish per replicate). Control group was fed with the basal diet, Group 1 were fed the basal diet supplemented with Bacillus complex ( proportion of mixture of B. subtilis and B. amyloliquefaciens : 1 : 1 ; 105 cfu/g) , and Group 2 were fed the basal diet supplemented with B. subtilis only (105efu/g). The results indi- cated that compared with the control group, water nitrite nitrogen level in Group 1 and Group 2 significantly de- creased from the 21^st day to the end of the experiment (except on the 35th day for group 1, P 〈0.01 ) ; and ammo- nium nitrogen level in group 2 also decreased significantly on the 21^st and 35^th day. No significant differences were found for water pH and nitrate nitrogen level among the three groups. Supplementation of Bacillus also decreased the death rate ( P 〈 0.05 ) and improved the growth performance of grass carps. Compared with the control group, WGR of Group 1 and Group 2 increased by 52.93% (P 〈0.01 ) and 21.78% (P 〈0.05), and ADFI increased by 44.44% (P 〈0.01 ) and 16.67% (P 〈0.05), respectively; and compared with Group 2, supplementation of complex Bacillus increased both WGR and ADFI of grass carp significantly (25.58% and 23.81% , respectively, P 〈 0.01 ). Further study showed that supplementation of Bacillus improved partial antioxidant capacity of intestinal mucosa of grass carp, as was evidenced by increased activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). it can be concluded that, Bacillus supplementation in basal diets can improve water quality and antioxi- dant capacity of

  14. 青鱼、草鱼、鲢鱼和鳙鱼组蛋白 H2A N-端基因克隆及其衍生抗菌肽%Cloning and Derived Antibacterial Peptides of Histone H2A Gene in Black Carp Mylopharyngodon piceus,Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus,Silver Carp Hy pophthalmichthys molitrix and Bighead Carp Aristichthys nobilis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武向敏; 赵燕静; 孔祥会; 江红霞; 李莉; 聂国兴; 李学军

    2014-01-01

    采用RT-PCR方法,以青鱼、草鱼、鲢鱼和鳙鱼肌肉提取总 RNA 为模板,运用 GenBank中BLAST 同源性搜索,寻找亲缘关系相近的鱼类基因序列,采用Primer5设计简并引物,进行 H2A N-端序列扩增,通过胶回收和连接,然后转化到载体中进行克隆测序,分别获得青鱼、草鱼、鲢鱼和鳙鱼组蛋白 H2A N-端基因序列,长为364 bp ,分析发现均属于不稳定蛋白质,等电点为10.48~11.02,平均亲水性为0.179~0.264。序列同源性比对结果显示,青鱼、草鱼、鲢鱼和鳙鱼同狭孔金线鲃和斑马鱼基因H2A编码蛋白质同源性极高,达到85%以上,与其他物种同源性较低,其中狭孔金线鲃与青鱼、草鱼、鲢鱼和鳙鱼的亲缘关系比斑马鱼更近,分子系统学分析也支持这一结果。青鱼、草鱼、鲢鱼和鳙鱼H2A衍生抗菌肽与庸鲽 Hipposin抗菌肽同源性极高,不仅存在碱性氨基酸,还存在酸性氨基酸。组蛋白 H2A N-端可衍生 Hipposin类抗菌肽,均为阳离子α螺旋结构抗菌肽。%Antimicrobial peptide derived from Histone H2A ,one of the chromosome structure protein ,is a cationic antimicrobial peptide showing a potential to substitute antibiotics .The characterization of histone H2A and the derivative antibacterial peptides are important for understanding of the mechanism and antibacterial difference among peptides derived from different H 2A genes in different fish .In this study , RT‐PCR was used to amply the H2A cDNA with the total RNA as the template in black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus , grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus , silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and bighead carp A ristichthys nobilis .The homologous H2A gene sequences were selected in the BLAST in GenBank ,and aligned in software Mega5 . The universal primers were designed in software Primer5 to amplify H2A genes collected and linked with a T‐vector ,and transferred into the

  15. cDNA cloning and function of insulin-like growth factor-I receptor gene (Igf-Ir) in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus)%草鱼胰岛素样生长因子1受体基因cDNA全序列的克隆及功能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周春雪; 蒋霞云; 陈杰; 邹曙明

    2014-01-01

    , the IGF-IR mRNA signal was strong in brain, spinal cord, and in rapidly growing regions such as tail-fin tip. Our results provide insight into the IGF-IR signaling pathways and provide a basis for future genetic breeding of grass carp.%本研究采用cDNA末端快速扩增法(RACE)克隆了草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)IGF-IR基因全长cDNA序列,并对该基因在草鱼不同时期胚胎和成鱼不同组织中的表达进行了分析。序列分析表明,草鱼IGF-IR基因cDNA序列全长5741 bp,包括5′端非翻译区822 bp,3′端非翻译区581 bp,开放阅读框4338 bp,共编码1445个氨基酸。序列比对结果显示,草鱼 IGF-IR 可能属于 a 型,该基因编码的氨基酸序列与鲤(Cyprinus carpio)IGF-IRa、斑马鱼(Danio rerio)IGF-IRa和人类(Homo sapiens)IGF-IR的相似性分别为95%、93%和66%,具有较高的同源性,表明该基因在长期进化中具有较高的保守性。RT-PCR结果表明,该基因从16 hpf(hours post fertilization)胚胎期到出苗期都有表达,在成鱼大部分组织中均有表达。原位杂交结果显示,草鱼IGF-IR mRNA在不同时期胚胎组织中广泛存在,其中在脑部、脊索和尾部等生长旺盛组织的细胞中表达量较高。本研究为进一步探索草鱼IGF-IR基因在生长发育信号通路中的作用和育种提供了基础资料。

  16. Effect of phytase on growth,body composition and phosphorus content in tissues of juvenile grass carp(Ctenopharyngodon idellus) fed plant protein based diet%饲料中添加植酸酶对草鱼生长、体组成及各组织磷含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马恒甲; 叶金云; 郭建林; 王友慧; 沈斌乾; 陈建明; 潘茜

    2011-01-01

    level of phytase was 1 000 U/kg-1 250 U/kg,the SGR,PER and phosphorus content of grass carp were enhanced,and FCR was improved compared with negative control group.If you want to reduce the supplemented level of monobasic calcium phosphate,the suitable supplemented level of phytase was 1 000 U/kg-1 250 U/kg.%选用初重为(39.68±3.05)g的草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)幼鱼作为试验对象,在全植物蛋白基础饲料中添加植酸酶,设5种不同的植酸酶添加水平(500 U/kg、750 U/kg、1 000 U/kg、1 250 U/kg、2 500 U/kg),另设2个对照组,对照组1:全植物蛋白基础饲料中只添加1.5%的无机磷;对照组2:全植物蛋白基础饲料不添加植酸酶和无机磷,通过60 d的试验,探讨和研究植酸酶对草鱼生长、体组成及各组织磷含量的影响。结果表明,对照组1鱼体的特定生长率最大,饲料系数显著低于其它各组(P〈0.05);与对照组2相比较,全植物蛋白饲料中添加植酸酶后,当植酸酶添加水平大于1 000 U/kg时,草鱼的饲料系数显著降低、蛋白质效率得到显著提高;植酸酶对草鱼的形体指标没有显著影响;当植酸酶添加水平大于1 000 U/kg时鱼体粗脂肪含量有所降低;当植酸酶添加水平为1 000 U/kg时,其肌肉粗脂肪含量显著提高;添加植酸酶后鱼体、肌肉和脊椎骨中的磷含量有一定提高,且当植酸酶添加水平为1 250 U/kg时,肌肉和脊椎骨中的磷含量显著提高。结果表明,当植酸酶添加水平在1 000 U/kg~1250 U/kg时,与对照组2相比较,全植物蛋白饲料中添加植酸酶可提高草鱼的特定生长率和蛋白质效率、降低饲料系数,并显著提高草鱼磷的积累。若欲减少无机磷添加量,建议植酸酶添加水平为1 000 U/kg~1 250 U/kg。

  17. 饲料中氧化鱼油对草鱼生长及肌肉脂肪酸组成的影响%Effects of Dietary Oxidizes Fish Oil on Growth and Muscle Fatty Acid Composition of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈科全; 叶元土; 蔡春芳; 黄雨薇; 吴韬; 林秀秀; 罗其刚; 张宝彤; 萧培珍

    2015-01-01

    A 72-day experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of dietary oxidized fish oil on growth and muscle fatty acid composition of grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idellus) . Soybean oil, fish oil and oxi-dized fish oil as lipid sources, five isonitrogenous and isoenergetic semi-purified diets were formulated with 6%soybean oil (6S group), 6% fish oil (6F group), 2% oxidized fish oil+4% soybean oil (2OF group), 4%oxidized fish oil+2% soybean oil (4OF group) and 6% oxidized fish oil (6OF group), respectively. A total of 350 grass carp with the average body weight of (74.82±1.49) g were randomly assigned to 5 groups with 3 replicates per group and 20 fish per replicate. The results showed as follows:compared with 6S group, the spe-cific gain rate ( SGR) of grass carp in 6F, 2OF, 4OF and 6OF groups was decreased by 5.81% to 11.50%, the feed conversion ratio ( FCR) was increased by 8.64% to 17.28%, and the differences were significant ( P<0.05) . The content of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids ( PUFA) was positively correlated ( power function) with the SGR of grass carp. On the contrary, the dietary acid value ( AV) , peroxide value ( POV) and malon-dialdehyde ( MDA) content were negatively correlated ( power function) with SGR of grass carp, and posi-tively correlated ( power function) with FCR. It meant that, a little AV, POV or MDA content in diets could decrease the growth of grass carp, and reduce the utilization rate of protein and the content of muscle PUFA, and disturb the lipid metabolism. With the further increase of dietary AV, POV and MDA content, the influ-ence of dietary AV, POV and MDA content on growth rate and feed efficiency were stabled in the high level. Results indicate that, on one hand the fish oil provides the diatary unsaturated fatty acids, on the other hand the side effects of the oxidized product for growth of grass carp also significantly show. The key to improve the ef-ficiency of grass carp utilize the lipids is to keep suitable

  18. Nano-Electronics and Bio-Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Deepak; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Viewgraph presentation on Nano-Electronics and Bio-Electronics is discussed. Topics discussed include: NASA Ames nanotechnology program, Potential Carbon Nanotube (CNT) application, CNT synthesis,Computational Nanotechnology, and protein nanotubes.

  19. Electronics for LHC Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This document gathers the abstracts of most presentations made at this workshop on electronics for the large hadron collider (LHC) experiments. The presentations were arranged into 6 sessions: 1) electronics for tracker, 2) trigger electronics, 3) detector control systems, 4) data acquisition, 5) electronics for calorimeters and electronics for muons, and 6) links, power systems, grounding and shielding, testing and quality assurance.

  20. Interface Electronic Circuitry for an Electronic Tongue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keymeulen, Didier; Buehler, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Electronic circuitry has been developed to serve as an interface between an electronic tongue and digital input/output boards in a laptop computer that is used to control the tongue and process its readings. Electronic tongues can be used for a variety of purposes, including evaluating water quality, analyzing biochemicals, analyzing biofilms, and measuring electrical conductivities of soils.

  1. One carp, two carp: are there more carp in the Wailoa River?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundy, Bruce C; Nico, Leo; Tagawa, Annette

    2015-01-01

    The February, 2015 issue of Hawaii Fishing News included the annual list of Hawai`i records for the largest fish of various species caught in the state. Among the new records was one for a 15-pound grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) caught by Avery Berido in the Wailoa River at Hilo on September 13, 2013. A photograph taken by Mr. Berido of the record grass carp garnered our attention because pictured fish looked quite similar to another Asian carp species, the black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus). Mr. Berido informed us that he also captured a 10-pound grass carp from the same river in June, 2013. After close examination of all of the photographs provided by Mr. Berido, we concluded that both fish from the Wailoa River were unusually dark grass carp, not black carp.

  2. Tools for assessing kinship, population structure, phylogeography, and interspecific hybridization in Asian carps invasive to the Mississippi River, USA: isolation and characterization of novel tetranucleotide microsatellite DNA loci in silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, T.L.; Eackles, M.S.; Chapman, D.C.

    2011-01-01

    We document the isolation and characterization of novel tetranucleotide microsatellite DNA markers for the invasive silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and provide the results of cross-species amplification for three additional invasive carp species: bighead (H. nobilis), grass (Ctenopharyngodon idella) and black (Mylopharyngodon piceus). In the target species these markers yielded levels of allelic diversity (average 4.4 alleles/locus) and heterozygosity (average 54.7%) sufficient to: (1) provide unique multilocus genotypes; (2) delineate kinship relationships; (3) differentiate populations/species; (4) estimate effective population sizes; and (5) provide unique demographic perspectives for control or eradication. Currently these markers are being utilized to determine the degree of introgressive hybridization between H. molitrix and H. nobilis, to quantify gene flow between different sub-basins established in the central United States, and to assess the demographic status of sub-basin groups. This information will be critically important in the management/control of these invasive species.

  3. Composite fish culture for mosquito control in rice fields in southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, T J; Chandrasekaran, B; Reuben, R

    1994-09-01

    Composite culture of edible fishes (common carp, Cryprinus carpio; silver carp, Hypopthalmithys molitrix, grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella; catla, Catla catla; rohu, Labeo rohita; and mrigal, Cirrhinus mrigala) in rice fields in the Cauvery delta of Tamil Nadu, southern India, resulted in 81.0% reduction in the immature mosquito population of anophelines and 83.5% of culicines. Analysis of fish feces for mosquito larval head capsules showed that common carp and silver carp are effective larvivores. The selective feeding of common carp on culicines and silver carp on anophelines is correlated to their trophic niches. Net profit in the fish-cum-rice fields was 2.5 times greater than fields in which rice alone was cultured. Hence, rice-cum-fish culture can be recommended to the farming community in this area.

  4. Determination of the acute toxicity of isoniazid to three invasive carp species and rainbow trout in static exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, Theresa M.; Hubert, Terrance D.

    2015-01-01

    Three invasive fishes of considerable concern to aquatic resource managers are the Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (bighead carp),Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (silver carp), and Ctenopharyngodon idella (grass carp), collectively known as Asian carps. There is a need for an effective chemical control agent for Asian carps. Isoniazid was identified as a potential toxicant for grass carp. The selective toxicity of isoniazid to grass carp was verified as a response to an anecdotal report received in 2013. In addition, the toxicity of isoniazid to bighead carp, silver carp, and Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout) was evaluated. Isoniazid was not toxic to grass carp at the reported anecdotal concentration, which was 13 milligrams per liter. Isoniazid (130 milligrams per liter) was not selectively toxic to bighead carp, silver carp, or grass carp when compared to rainbow trout.

  5. Immunohistochemical localization of urotensin I and other neuropeptides in the caudal neurosecretory system of three species of teleosts and two species of elasmobranchs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, C; Yamada, S; Ichikawa, T; Kobayashi, H

    1986-01-01

    In three species of teleosts - carp Cyprinus carpio; grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella; and crucian carp Carassius auratus - the caudal neurosecretory system displays small, medium-sized and large neurons. Urotensin I (UI)-immunoreactive and UI-nonreactive neurons were found in all three groups; in general, the number of the latter neurons exceeded that of the former. Noteworthy are: (i) UI-immunoreactive fibers in the caudal spinal cord and (ii) dense accumulations of UI-immunoreactive product around the capillaries of the urophysis. In two species of elasmobranchs-cat shark Heterodontus japonicus and swell shark Cephaloscyllium umbratile - neurosecretory neurons decreased in size in rostro-caudal direction. Most of the neurosecretory perikarya, their axons and the corresponding neurohemal areas were UI-immunoreactive, but a small number of secretory neurons was devoid of immunoreaction. Oxytocin, arginine vasopressin, substance P, somatostatin, neurotensin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and gastrin-releasing peptide were not detected in the caudal neurosecretory system of the carp.

  6. The Significance of Protein Components in Heterogeneous Eggs for Embrionic Development and Larvas Persistence of Cyprinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zalepukhin Valeriy Vladimirovich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous heterogeneity of females and their eggs is one of the most important factors of annual generation’s formation in nature-spawn and incubative centers. Its assessment is significant for comprehending the notion of biochemical changes in proximate prespawn period. Between the shares of egg’s biochemical composition of Cyprinidae species only protein and b-lipoproteids levels are incovering constant and authentic correlations with embrionic development and larval survival in the conditions of artificial reproduction. The promotion of protein’s level to 20 – 24 % (in wet weigth in percolating eggs positively affects the fertilization and larvae vitality. This trend is fair for the domesticated and nature-spawn fish. The same significance is important for the b-lipoproteids level in ovular eggs of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella Val.. The optimal concentration is 100-200 mg % in wet weight.

  7. Identification And Study Of Fish Species In Karkheh River (Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoshnood Zahra

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available For the investigation of fish from Karkheh River, sampling was performed in a six month period from August 2014 to January 2015. All sampled fish were measured for biometrical values (length and weight. General results of the sampling and identification of the fish showed the presence of 14 species from four fish families of Cyprinidae, Mugilidae, Siluridae and Macrostomidae, out of which the Cyprinidae family were the most frequent of the sampled fish. The most significant abundance belongs to Cyprinus carpio. The fish sampled in the present study were: Liza abu, Ctenopharyngodon idella, Barbel sp., Cyprinion macrostomum, Barbus sharpeyi, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Barbus esocinus, Barbus barbulus, Barbus luteus, Barbus grypus, Cyprinus carpio, Silurus triostegus, Mastacembelus circumcinctus and Capoeta trutta. Shannon Index results showed that the fish biodiversity in the studyed area followed a uniform path and additionally that the considered area at the studied period has good fish biodiversity.

  8. Checklists of Parasites of Farm Fishes of Babylon Province, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furhan T. Mhaisen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Literature reviews of all references concerning the parasitic fauna of fishes in fish farms of Babylon province, middle of Iraq, showed that a total of 92 valid parasite species are so far known from the common carp (Cyprinus carpio, the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, and the silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix as well as from three freshwater fish species (Carassius auratus, Liza abu, and Heteropneustes fossilis which were found in some fish farms of the same province. The parasitic fauna included one mastigophoran, three apicomplexans, 13 ciliophorans, five myxozoans, five trematodes, 45 monogeneans, five cestodes, three nematodes, two acanthocephalans, nine arthropods, and one mollusc. The common carp was found to harbour 81 species of parasites, the grass carp 30 species, the silver carp 28 species, L. abu 13 species, C. auratus one species, and H. fossilis one species. A host-parasite list for each fish species was also provided.

  9. Electron beam focusing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dikansky, N.; Nagaitsev, S.; Parkhomchuk, V.

    1997-09-01

    The high energy electron cooling requires a very cold electron beam. Thus, the electron beam focusing system is very important for the performance of electron cooling. A system with and without longitudinal magnetic field is presented for discussion. Interaction of electron beam with the vacuum chamber as well as with the background ions and stored antiprotons can cause the coherent electron beam instabilities. Focusing system requirements needed to suppress these instabilities are presented.

  10. Electronics and Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Previously founded as CCPITMachinery and Electronics Sub-council and CCOIC Machinery and Electronics Chamber of Corn-merce in June, 1988, CCPIT Electronics Sub-Council and CCOIC Electronics Chamber of Commerce were established in May, 1993, and then renamed as CCPIT Electronics and Information Industry Sub-council and CCOIC Electronics and Infor-mation Industry Chamber of Commerce (CCPITECC) in September 1999.

  11. Electronic Correlations in Electron Transfer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulla, Ralf; Tornow, Sabine; Anders, Frithjof

    Electron transfer processes play a central role in many chemical and biological systems. Already the transfer of a single electron from the donor to the acceptor can be viewed as a complicated many-body problem, due to the coupling of the electron to the infinitely many environmental degrees of freedom, realized by density fluctuations of the solvent or molecular vibrations of the protein matrix. We focus on the quantum mechanical modelling of two-electron transfer processes whose dynamics is governed by the Coulomb interaction between the electrons as well as the environmental degrees of freedoms represented by a bosonic bath. We identify the regime of parameters in which concerted transfer of the two electrons occurs and discuss the influence of the Coulomb repulsion and the coupling strength to the environment on the electron transfer rate. Calculations are performed using the non-perturbative numerical renormalization group approach for both equilibrium and non-equilibrium properties.

  12. Electron Microscopy Center (EMC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electron Microscopy Center (EMC) at Argonne National Laboratory develops and maintains unique capabilities for electron beam characterization and applies those...

  13. Cladocers, Copepods and Rotifers in rice-fish culture handled with metsulfuron-methyl and azimsulfuron herbicides and carbofuran insecticide Cladocera, Copepoda e Rotifera em rizipiscicultura tratada com os herbicidas metsulfuron-metílico e azimsulfuron e o inseticida carbofuran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Ineu Golombieski

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the effects of metsulfuron-methyl, azimsulfuron and carbofuran in communities: Cladocers, Copepods and Rotifers that are present in irrigated rice farming with the rice-fish system. The field experiment was conducted in the 2004/05 growing season with eight treatments. The fish species were: Cyprinus carpio, Ctenopharyngodon idella and Aristichthys nobilis, introduced seven days after treatments were applied. Water samples were collected 17 days before and 1st, 3rd, 10th, 18th, 31th, 51th, and 75th days after the agrochemicals were applied for identification and evaluation of the zooplankton. The results indicated that the herbicides did not affect the zooplankton community studied and carbofuran insecticide application provoked negative effects in Cladocers. Copepods and Rotifers were slightly affected by carbofuran.O presente estudo determinou o efeito de metsulfuron-metílico, azimsulfuron e carbofuran nas comunidades: Cladocera, Copepoda e Rotifera presentes em lavouras de arroz irrigado com o sistema de rizipiscicultura. O experimento foi conduzido durante a safra agrícola 2004/05 com oito tratamentos. As espécies de peixes utilizadas foram: Cyprinus carpio, Ctenopharyngodon idella e Aristichthys nobilis, introduzidas sete dias após a aplicação dos tratamentos. Amostras de água foram coletadas 17 dias antes e no(s 1°, 3°, 10°, 18°, 31°, 51° e 75° dias após a aplicação dos tratamentos para a identificação e a avaliação de zooplâncton. Os resultados indicam que os herbicidas estudados não afetaram a comunidade zooplanctônica e a aplicação do inseticida carbofuran provocou efeitos negativos em Cladocera. Copepoda e Rotifera foram pouco afetados pelo carbofuran.

  14. Investigations on Electronic Materials

    OpenAIRE

    E. Pugnor; T. Kormány

    1982-01-01

    Electronics has been described as a materials oriented technology. In this sense a short review is given concerning: the connection of materials characterization to the design and processing of electronic components; the most important materials characterization methods used for electronic materials; the strategy of organizing a complete material characterization system for selected electronic components.

  15. Electron-attachment processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophorou, L. G.; McCorkle, D. L.; Christodoulides, A. A.

    Topics covered include: modes of production of negative ions, techniques for the study of electron attachment processes, dissociative electron attachment to ground state molecules, dissociative electron attachment to hot molecules (effects of temperature on dissociative electron attachment), molecular parent negative ions, and negative ions formed by ion pair processes and by collisions of molecules with ground state and Rydberg atoms.

  16. Electronic Health Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Electronic Health Records KidsHealth > For Teens > Electronic Health Records Print A A A What's in ... t happen overnight, they are coming. Understanding EHRs Electronic health records (EHR) — also called electronic medical records ( ...

  17. Introduction to electronics

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    Electronics in HEP experiments: specificities and evolution The Art of Electronics: is there something beyond Ohm's law? Basic building blocks of Analog electronics: quickly understanding a schematic Charge preamps, current preamps and future preamps, shaping and the rest Electronics noise: fundamental and practical Evolution of technology: ASICs, FPGAs...

  18. Introduction to Electronics course

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva HR-RFA

    2006-01-01

    Electronics in HEP experiments: specificities and evolution The Art of Electronics: is there something beyond Ohm's law? Basic building blocks of Analog electronics: quickly understanding a schematic Charge preamps, current preamps and future preamps, shaping and the rest Electronics noise: fundamental and practical Evolution of technology: ASICs, FPGAs...

  19. Electronic Health Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Electronic Health Records KidsHealth > For Teens > Electronic Health Records A A A What's in this ... t happen overnight, they are coming. Understanding EHRs Electronic health records (EHR) — also called electronic medical records ( ...

  20. Introduction to Electronic Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilbeck, Lettie

    These materials for a five-unit course were developed to introduce secondary and postsecondary students to the use of electronic equipment in marketing. The units cover the following topics: electronic marketing as a valid marketing approach; telemarketing; radio electronic media marketing; television electronic media marketing; and cable TV…

  1. Hybrid printed electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetse, M.; Smits, E.; Rubingh, E.; Teunissen, P.; Kusters, R.; Abbel, R.; Brand, J. van den

    2016-01-01

    Although many electronic functionalities can be realized by printed or organic electronics, short-term marketable products often require robust, reproducible, and nondisturbing technologies. In this chapter we show how hybrid electronics, a combination of printed circuitry, thin-film electronics,

  2. Electron transfer reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Cannon, R D

    2013-01-01

    Electron Transfer Reactions deals with the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions between metal ions in solution, as well as the electron exchange between atoms or molecules in either the gaseous or solid state. The book is divided into three parts. Part 1 covers the electron transfer between atoms and molecules in the gas state. Part 2 tackles the reaction paths of oxidation states and binuclear intermediates, as well as the mechanisms of electron transfer. Part 3 discusses the theories and models of the electron transfer process; theories and experiments involving bridged electron transfe

  3. Electronics engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Mazda, F F

    1989-01-01

    Electronics Engineer's Reference Book, Sixth Edition is a five-part book that begins with a synopsis of mathematical and electrical techniques used in the analysis of electronic systems. Part II covers physical phenomena, such as electricity, light, and radiation, often met with in electronic systems. Part III contains chapters on basic electronic components and materials, the building blocks of any electronic design. Part IV highlights electronic circuit design and instrumentation. The last part shows the application areas of electronics such as radar and computers.

  4. Practical microwave electron devices

    CERN Document Server

    Meurant, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Practical Microwave Electron Devices provides an understanding of microwave electron devices and their applications. All areas of microwave electron devices are covered. These include microwave solid-state devices, including popular microwave transistors and both passive and active diodes; quantum electron devices; thermionic devices (including relativistic thermionic devices); and ferrimagnetic electron devices. The design of each of these devices is discussed as well as their applications, including oscillation, amplification, switching, modulation, demodulation, and parametric interactions.

  5. Electronics engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, L W

    1976-01-01

    Electronics Engineer's Reference Book, 4th Edition is a reference book for electronic engineers that reviews the knowledge and techniques in electronics engineering and covers topics ranging from basics to materials and components, devices, circuits, measurements, and applications. This edition is comprised of 27 chapters; the first of which presents general information on electronics engineering, including terminology, mathematical equations, mathematical signs and symbols, and Greek alphabet and symbols. Attention then turns to the history of electronics; electromagnetic and nuclear radiatio

  6. Fish growth, yield and economics of conventional feed and weed based polyculture in ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Asadujjaman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fish growth, yield and economics of polyculture were evaluated for six months from April to September, 2011 in ponds of Kushtia district, Bangladesh under 4 treatments of feeds and weeds as T0: rice bran, wheat bran and mustard oilcake; T1: Azolla; T2: Grass and T3: Banana leaf. Each treatment had 3 replications. Mean initial stocking weight of fishes like Hypophthalmichthyes molitrix, Catla catla, Labeo rohita, Cirrhinus mrigala, Cyprinus carpio, Ctenopharyngodon idella and Barbonymus gonionotus was 62, 64, 57, 54, 63, 65 and 25 g, respectively. Stocking density (11,115 fishes/ha, liming (250 kg/ha, basal fertilization (Cowdung, 1,500 kg/ha; urea, 60 kg/ha; and Triple Super Phosphate, TSP 60 kg/ha and periodic fertilization (Urea, 2.5 kg/ha/day; and TSP, 2.5 kg/ha/day were same for all the treatments. Water quality parameters (water temperature, transparency, dissolved oxygen, pH, alkalinity and free carbon dioxide were monitored fortnightly and fish growth parameters (weight gain and Specific Growth Rate, SGR were monitored monthly. Treatments did not vary significantly for the mean water quality parameters. Treatment T0 varied more significantly (P<0.05 for the mean final weight, weight gain, SGR, survival rate and yield for almost all the species except C. idella and B. gonionotus. Significantly highest CBR was recorded with treatment T1.

  7. Screening and identification of male-specific DNA fragments in common carps Cyprinus carpio using suppression subtractive hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J J; Du, Q Y; Yue, Y Y; Dang, B J; Chang, Z J

    2010-08-01

    In this study, a sex subtractive genomic DNA library was constructed using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) between male and female Cyprinus carpio. Twenty-two clones with distinguishable hybridization signals were selected and sequenced. The specific primers were designed based on the sequence data. Those primers were then used to amplify the sex-specific fragments from the genomic DNA of male and female carp. The amplified fragments from two clones showed specificity to males but not to females, which were named as Ccmf2 [387 base pairs (bp)] and Ccmf3 (183 bp), respectively. The sex-specific pattern was analysed in a total of 40 individuals from three other different C. carpio. stocks and grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella using Ccmf2 and Ccmf3 as dot-blotting probes. The results revealed that the molecular diversity exists on the Y chromosome of C. carpio. No hybridization signals, however, were detected from individuals of C. idella, suggesting that the two sequences are specific to C. carpio. No significant homologous sequences of Ccmf2 and Ccmf3 were found in GenBank. Therefore, it was interpreted that the results as that Ccmf2 and Ccmf3 are two novel male-specific sequences; and both fragments could be used as markers to rapidly and accurately identify the genetic sex of part of C. carpio. This may provide a very efficient selective tool for practically breeding monosex female populations in aquacultural production.

  8. Single electron-ics with carbon nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Götz, G.T.J.

    2010-01-01

    We experimentally investigate Quantum Dots, formed in Carbon Nanotubes. The first part of this thesis deals with charge sensing on such quantum dots. The charge sensor is a metallic Single-electron-transistor, sensitive to the charge of a single electron on the quantum dot. We use this technique for

  9. Electron-electron interactions in disordered systems

    CERN Document Server

    Efros, AL

    1985-01-01

    ``Electron-Electron Interactions in Disordered Systems'' deals with the interplay of disorder and the Coulomb interaction. Prominent experts give state-of-the-art reviews of the theoretical and experimental work in this field and make it clear that the interplay of the two effects is essential, especially in low-dimensional systems.

  10. VIRTUAL ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS OF THE ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lazarevich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is present new idea of the creation, developments and improvements of the electronic equipment of complex systems by means of the virtual electronic components. The idea of the virtual electronic components is a presentation and perception of the creation and developments of the equipment on two forming: real – in the manner of standard marketed block of the intellectual property and image – in the manner of virtual component. The real component in most cases slows the development of the electronic equipment. The imaginary component is the «locomotive» of development of the electronic equipment. The Imaginary component contains the scientific has brushed against developer. The scientific has brushed against developer reveals of itself in the manner of virtual component on the modern level of the design rates of microelectronics.

  11. Electron transporting semiconducting polymers in organic electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xingang; Zhan, Xiaowei

    2011-07-01

    Significant progress has been achieved in the preparation of semiconducting polymers over the past two decades, and successful commercial devices based on them are slowly beginning to enter the market. However, most of the conjugated polymers are hole transporting, or p-type, semiconductors that have seen a dramatic rise in performance over the last decade. Much less attention has been devoted to electron transporting, or n-type, materials that have lagged behind their p-type counterparts. Organic electron transporting materials are essential for the fabrication of organic p-n junctions, organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs), n-channel organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and complementary logic circuits. In this critical review we focus upon recent developments in several classes of electron transporting semiconducting polymers used in OLEDs, OFETs and OPVs, and survey and analyze what is currently known concerning electron transporting semiconductor architecture, electronic structure, and device performance relationships (87 references).

  12. Biometric indices and size at first sexual maturity of eight alien fish species from Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Yeamin Hossain

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The biometric indices and size at first sexual maturity of eight alien fish species from several water bodies in Bangladesh were studied for the first time. A total of 273 individuals of eight alien fish species (Barbonymus gonionotus, Clarias gariepinus, Ctenopharyngodon idella, Cyprinus carpio, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, H. nobilis, Oreochromis niloticus and Pangasianodon hypophthalmus were collected using traditional fishing gears from June 2014 to May 2015. Among the four condition factors (Allometric condition factor, Fulton’s condition factor, Relative condition factor, and Relative weight studied, Fulton’s condition factor was the best for assessing the well-being of these alien species in their natural habitat, based on the relationships of condition factors with body weight and total length. The calculated form factor was 0.0270 for B. gonionotus, 0.0077 for C. gariepinus, 0.0119 for C. idella, 0.0194 for C. carpio, 0.0101 for H. molitrix, 0.0092 for H. nobilis, 0.0158 for O. niloticus and 0.0105 for P. hypophthalmus. The size at first sexual maturity was estimated in TL as 12.30 cm for B. gonionotus, 25.53 cm for C. gariepinus, 32.80 cm for C. idella, 18.22 cm for C. carpio, 23.92 cm for H. molitrix, 30.18 cm for H. nobilis, 21.78 cm for O. niloticus, and 21.32 cm for P. hypophthalmus. The present study also calculates form factor and first sexual maturity of these alien species from different water-bodies world over. The findings of this study can be very helpful for sustainable management of these alien species in Bangladesh and similar ecosystems.

  13. Effects of nano-TiO2 on perfluorooctanesulfonate bioaccumulation in fishes living in different water layers: Implications for enhanced risk of perfluorooctanesulfonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Liwen; Pan, Xiaoyu; Zhu, Lingyan; Fang, Shuhong; Tian, Shengyan

    2016-01-01

    Nano-titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2) is one of the most universal engineered nano-materials while perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) is a typical new persistent organic pollutant. They are widely used and present in aquatic environment. In this study, a novel semi-static multilayer microcosm was setup to investigate the impacts of nano-TiO2 on PFOS bioaccumulation in fish species [Danio rerio (D. rerio), Ctenopharyngodon idella (C. idella), Hypostomus plecostomus (H. plecostomus)] living in different vertical layers. As a result of aggregation and deposition, the concentration of TiO2 increased from upper to bottom layers in the water column. Concomitantly, due to adsorption of PFOS on the nano-TiO2 particles, PFOS also displayed an increasing trend from upper to bottom layer. Owing to ingestion of the TiO2-PFOS complexes, more PFOS was taken-up by fish. With the aid of intestinal fluid, PFOS was readily released from TiO2 particles and absorbed by fish. As a result, accumulation of PFOS in whole fish was facilitated and the bioaccumulation factors of PFOS in D. rerio, C. idella and H. plecostomus were 3.01, 2.42 and 1.11 times of that in the groups without TiO2. However, TiO2 aggregates were too large to penetrate biological membranes to participate body circulation, and no significant accumulation of TiO2 was observed in fish muscle. The results suggested that the ecological risk of PFOS could be enhanced due to the presence of nano-TiO2 in water.

  14. Electronics for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Shamieh

    2015-01-01

    Explore the basic concepts of electronics, build your electronics workbench, and begin creating fun electronics projects right away! Electronics For Dummies, 3rd Edition is your guide to the world of electronics. Spanning circuitry, wiring, robotics, transmitters, amplifiers, and more, this book demystifies electricity basics and beyond. The third edition offers new content revised to reflect the latest advancements in the electronics field, and it offers full color project examples to spark your creativity and inspire you to put your new skills to use! Packed with projects that can be comple

  15. High energy electron cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkhomchuk, V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-09-01

    High energy electron cooling requires a very cold electron beam. The questions of using electron cooling with and without a magnetic field are presented for discussion at this workshop. The electron cooling method was suggested by G. Budker in the middle sixties. The original idea of the electron cooling was published in 1966. The design activities for the NAP-M project was started in November 1971 and the first run using a proton beam occurred in September 1973. The first experiment with both electron and proton beams was started in May 1974. In this experiment good result was achieved very close to theoretical prediction for a usual two component plasma heat exchange.

  16. RHIC electron lenses upgrades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, X. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Altinbas, Z. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Bruno, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Binello, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Costanzo, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Drees, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Fischer, W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Gassner, D. M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Hock, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Hock, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Harvey, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Luo, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Marusic, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Mi, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Mernick, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Minty, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Michnoff, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Miller, T. A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Pikin, A. I. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Robert-Demolaize, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Samms, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Shrey, T. C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Schoefer, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Tan, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Than, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Thieberger, P. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; White, S. M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2015-05-03

    In the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) 100 GeV polarized proton run in 2015, two electron lenses were used to partially compensate for the head-on beam-beam effect for the first time. Here, we describe the design of the current electron lens, detailing the hardware modifications made after the 2014 commissioning run with heavy ions. A new electron gun with 15-mm diameter cathode is characterized. The electron beam transverse profile was measured using a YAG screen and fitted with a Gaussian distribution. During operation, the overlap of the electron and proton beams was achieved using the electron backscattering detector in conjunction with an automated orbit control program.

  17. Electronic Commerce and Competitive Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    Explains the application of electronic commerce techniques (electronic data interchange (EDI), electronic mail (E-mail), electronic bulletin boards...purchase procedures of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR). Changes to the FAR to recognize electronic commerce are recommended. Also discussed...are opportunities to use electronic commerce and small business and legal considerations of electronic commerce . This report describes how electronic

  18. Certified Electronics Recyclers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn how EPA encourages all electronics recyclers become certified by demonstrating to an accredited, independent third-party auditor and that they meet specific standards to safely recycle and manage electronics.

  19. Chapter 9: Electronics

    OpenAIRE

    Spieler, Helmuth G

    2008-01-01

    Sophisticated front-end electronics are a key part of practically all modern radiation detector systems. This chapter introduces the basic principles and their implementation. Topics include signal acquisition, electronic noise, pulse shaping (analog and digital), and data readout techniques.

  20. Chapter 9: Electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grupen, Claus; Shwartz, Boris A.

    2006-12-19

    Sophisticated front-end electronics are a key part of practically all modern radiation detector systems. This chapter introduces the basic principles and their implementation. Topics include signal acquisition, electronic noise, pulse shaping (analog and digital), and data readout techniques.

  1. Presidential Electronic Records Library

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — PERL (Presidential Electronic Records Library) used to ingest and provide internal access to the Presidential electronic Records of the Reagan, Bush, and Clinton...

  2. THE ELECTRONIC SIGNATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voiculescu Madalina Irena

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Article refers to significance and the digital signature in electronic commerce. Internet and electronic commerce open up many new opportunities for the consumer, yet, the security (or perceived lack of security of exchanging personal and financial data

  3. Electronic Submission of Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide registrants can provide draft and final labels to EPA electronically for our review as part of the pesticide registration process. The electronic submission of labels by registrants is voluntary but strongly encouraged.

  4. Chapter 9: Electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grupen, Claus; Shwartz, Boris A.

    2006-12-19

    Sophisticated front-end electronics are a key part of practically all modern radiation detector systems. This chapter introduces the basic principles and their implementation. Topics include signal acquisition, electronic noise, pulse shaping (analog and digital), and data readout techniques.

  5. Laboratory Handbook Electronics

    CERN Multimedia

    1966-01-01

    Laboratory manual 1966 format A3 with the list of equipment cables, electronic tubes, chassis, diodes transistors etc. One of CERN's first material catalogue for construction components for mechanical and electronic chassis.

  6. Electron shuttles in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kazuya; Manefield, Mike; Lee, Matthew; Kouzuma, Atsushi

    2009-12-01

    Electron-shuttling compounds (electron shuttles [ESs], or redox mediators) are essential components in intracellular electron transfer, while microbes also utilize self-produced and naturally present ESs for extracellular electron transfer. These compounds assist in microbial energy metabolism by facilitating electron transfer between microbes, from electron-donating substances to microbes, and/or from microbes to electron-accepting substances. Artificially supplemented ESs can create new routes of electron flow in the microbial energy metabolism, thereby opening up new possibilities for the application of microbes to biotechnology processes. Typical examples of such processes include halogenated-organics bioremediation, azo-dye decolorization, and microbial fuel cells. Herein we suggest that ESs can be applied widely to create new microbial biotechnology processes.

  7. Electronics materials research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The electronic materials and is aimed at the establishment of quantitative relationships underlying crystal growth parameters, materials properties, electronic characteristics and device applications. The overall program evolves about the following main thrust areas: (1) crystal growth novel approaches to engineering of semiconductor materials; (2) investigation of materials properties and electronic characteristics on a macro and microscale; (3) surface properties and surface interactions with the bulk and ambients; (4) electronic properties controlling device applications and device performance.

  8. Thermography of electronic devices

    OpenAIRE

    Panfilova S. P.; Vlasov A. I.; Gridnev V. N.; Chervinsky A. S.

    2007-01-01

    The possibility of application of thermography to diagnose the electronic devices is analyzed in the article. Typical faults of electronic devices which can be found by means of thermography are given. Advantages of noncontact thermal inspection in comparison with the contact one are described. Some features of thermography of electronic devices are considered. Thermography apparatus is viewed and some pieces of advice about choosing it for electronic devices diagnosis are given. An example o...

  9. Electronics and computer acronyms

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Phil

    1988-01-01

    Electronics and Computer Acronyms presents a list of almost 2,500 acronyms related to electronics and computers. The material for this book is drawn from a number of subject areas, including electrical, electronics, computers, telecommunications, fiber optics, microcomputers/microprocessors, audio, video, and information technology. The acronyms also encompass avionics, military, data processing, instrumentation, units, measurement, standards, services, organizations, associations, and companies. This dictionary offers a comprehensive and broad view of electronics and all that is associated wi

  10. Extreme environment electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Cressler, John D

    2012-01-01

    Unfriendly to conventional electronic devices, circuits, and systems, extreme environments represent a serious challenge to designers and mission architects. The first truly comprehensive guide to this specialized field, Extreme Environment Electronics explains the essential aspects of designing and using devices, circuits, and electronic systems intended to operate in extreme environments, including across wide temperature ranges and in radiation-intense scenarios such as space. The Definitive Guide to Extreme Environment Electronics Featuring contributions by some of the world's foremost exp

  11. Mechanical Engineering for Electronics.

    OpenAIRE

    Was, Loïc

    2012-01-01

    Schlumberger drilling tools are exposed to very hard loading conditions (shocks, vibrations, thermal cycling) while performing a job. As these tools are full of electronics, issues can quickly come from electronics failure. Mechanisms of failure occurring in electronics are very complex but can be predicted in some cases. The first part of the thesis describes in which context mechanical engineering applied to electronics is used in Schlumberger. The different kinds of failure which will be i...

  12. Handbook on electronic commerce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, M. [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology; Blanning, R. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States). Owen Graduate School of Management; Strader, T. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Management Information Systems; Whinston, A. [eds.] [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Management Science and Information Systems

    2000-07-01

    The world is undergoing a revolution to a digital economy, with pronounced implications for corporate strategy, marketing, operations, information systems, customer services, global supply-chain management, and product distribution. This handbook examines the aspects of electronic commerce, including electronic storefront, on-line business, consumer interface, business-to-business networking, digital payment, legal issues, information product development, and electronic business models. Indispensable for academics, students and professionals who are interested in Electronic Commerce and Internet Business. (orig.)

  13. Atomicity in Electronic Commerce,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    tremendous demand for the ability to electronically buy and sell goods over networks. Electronic commerce has inspired a large variety of work... commerce . It then briefly surveys some major types of electronic commerce pointing out flaws in atomicity. We pay special attention to the atomicity...problems of proposals for digital cash. The paper presents two examples of highly atomic electronic commerce systems: NetBill and Cryptographic Postage Indicia.

  14. Syringe-injectable electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Fu, Tian-Ming; Cheng, Zengguang; Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M

    2015-07-01

    Seamless and minimally invasive three-dimensional interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating the syringe injection (and subsequent unfolding) of sub-micrometre-thick, centimetre-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 μm. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with >90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe-injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with three-dimensional structures, including (1) monitoring internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (2) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (3) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables the delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, the delivery of large-volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities, and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics.

  15. Technology of Electronic Signatur

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    An electronic signature uses a hash of message and an asymetrical algorithm of encryption for its generation. During verification of message on receiver side the hash of original message must be identical with the hash of received message. Electronic message is secured autentization of author and integrity of transmission date. By electronic signature it is possible to sign everything what is in digital form.

  16. ELECTRONS IN NONPOLAR LIQUIDS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOLROYD,R.A.

    2002-10-22

    Excess electrons can be introduced into liquids by absorption of high energy radiation, by photoionization, or by photoinjection from metal surfaces. The electron's chemical and physical properties can then be measured, but this requires that the electrons remain free. That is, the liquid must be sufficiently free of electron attaching impurities for these studies. The drift mobility as well as other transport properties of the electron are discussed here as well as electron reactions, free-ion yields and energy levels, Ionization processes typically produce electrons with excess kinetic energy. In liquids during thermalization, where this excess energy is lost to bath molecules, the electrons travel some distance from their geminate positive ions. In general the electrons at this point are still within the coulombic field of their geminate ions and a large fraction of the electrons recombine. However, some electrons escape recombination and the yield that escapes to become free electrons and ions is termed G{sub fi}. Reported values of G{sub fi} for molecular liquids range from 0.05 to 1.1 per 100 eV of energy absorbed. The reasons for this 20-fold range of yields are discussed here.

  17. Syringe injectable electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    Seamless and minimally-invasive three-dimensional (3D) interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating syringe injection and subsequent unfolding of submicrometer-thick, centimeter-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 micrometers. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with > 90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with 3D structures, including (i) monitoring of internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (ii) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (iii) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, delivery of large volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics. PMID:26053995

  18. Arduino electronics blueprints

    CERN Document Server

    Wilcher, Don

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for those who want to learn about electronics and coding by building amazing devices and gadgets with Arduino. If you are an experienced developer who understands the basics of electronics, then you can quickly learn how to build smart devices using Arduino. The only experience needed is a desire to learn about electronics, circuit breadboarding, and coding.

  19. Electron measurement in PHENIX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiba, Y. [Univ. of Tokyo, Tanashi (Japan)

    1995-07-15

    Electron Measurement in PHENIX detector at RHIC is discussed. The yield and S/N ratio at vector meson peaks ({phi}, {omega}, {rho}{sup o}, and J/{psi}) are evaluated. The electrons from open charm decay, and its consequence to the di-electron measurements is discussed.

  20. EFFECTIVE ELECTRONIC TUTORIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei A. Fedoseev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes effective electronic tutorials creation and application based on the theory of pedagogy. Herewith the issues of necessary electronic tutorial functional, ways of the educational process organization with the use of information and communication technologies and the logistics of electronic educational resources are touched upon. 

  1. Polarized Electron Source Developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles K. Sinclair

    1990-02-23

    Presently, only two methods of producing beams of polarized electrons for injection into linear accelerators are in use. Each of these methods uses optical pumping by circularly polarized light to produce electron polarization. In one case, electron polarization is established in metastable helium atoms, while in the other case, the polarized electrons are produced in the conduction band of appropriate semiconductors. The polarized electrons are liberated from the helium metastable by chemi-ionization, and from the semiconductors by lowering the work function at the surface of the material. Developments with each of these sources since the 1988 Spin Physics Conference are reviewed, and the prospects for further improvements discussed.

  2. Soldering in electronics assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Judd, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Soldering in Electronics Assembly discusses several concerns in soldering of electronic assemblies. The book is comprised of nine chapters that tackle different areas in electronic assembly soldering. Chapter 1 discusses the soldering process itself, while Chapter 2 covers the electronic assemblies. Chapter 3 talks about solders and Chapter 4 deals with flux. The text also tackles the CS and SC soldering process. The cleaning of soldered assemblies, solder quality, and standards and specifications are also discussed. The book will be of great use to professionals who deal with electronic assem

  3. Ultracold Ordered Electron Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habs, D.; Kramp, J.; Krause, P.; Matl, K.; Neumann, R.; Schwalm, D.

    1988-01-01

    We have started an experimental program to develop an ultracold electron beam, which can be used together with a standard electron cooling device in the Heidelberg Test Storage Ring TSR. In contrast to the standard-type design using electron beam extraction from a heated cathode, the ultracold beam is produced by photoemission of electrons from a cooled semiconductor crystal irradiated with an intense near-infrared laser light beam. Adiabatic acceleration is expected to provide ordering of the electron beam itself. Besides the cooling of ion beams to extremely low temperatures, with the aim of obtaining crystallization, the ultracold beam will constitute an excellent target for atomic physics experiments.

  4. Ultracold ordered electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habs, D.; Kramp, J.; Krause, P.; Matl, K.; Neumann, R.; Schwalm, D.

    1988-01-01

    We have started an experimental program to develop an ultracold electron beam, which can be used together with a standard electron cooling device in the Heidelberg Test Storage Ring TSR. In contrast to the standard-type design using electron beam extraction beam extraction from a heated cathode, the ultracold beam is produced by photoemission of electrons from a cooled semiconductor crystal irradiated with an intense near-infrared laser light beam. Adiabatic acceleration is expected to provide ordering of the electron beam itself. Besides the cooling of ion beams to extremely low temperatures, with the aim of obtaining crystallization, the ultracold beam will constitute an excellent target for atomic physics experiments.

  5. Electronic equipment packaging technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ginsberg, Gerald L

    1992-01-01

    The last twenty years have seen major advances in the electronics industry. Perhaps the most significant aspect of these advances has been the significant role that electronic equipment plays in almost all product markets. Even though electronic equipment is used in a broad base of applications, many future applications have yet to be conceived. This versatility of electron­ ics has been brought about primarily by the significant advances that have been made in integrated circuit technology. The electronic product user is rarely aware of the integrated circuits within the equipment. However, the user is often very aware of the size, weight, mod­ ularity, maintainability, aesthetics, and human interface features of the product. In fact, these are aspects of the products that often are instrumental in deter­ mining its success or failure in the marketplace. Optimizing these and other product features is the primary role of Electronic Equipment Packaging Technology. As the electronics industry continues to pr...

  6. Advanced adhesives in electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Bailey, C

    2011-01-01

    Adhesives are widely used in the manufacture of electronic devices to act as passive and active components. Recently there has been considerable interest in the use of conductive adhesives. This book reviews key types of conductive adhesives, processing methods, properties and the way they can be modelled as well as potential applications.$bAdhesives for electronic applications serve important functional and structural purposes in electronic components and packaging, and have developed significantly over the last few decades. Advanced adhesives in electronics reviews recent developments in adhesive joining technology, processing and properties. The book opens with an introduction to adhesive joining technology for electronics. Part one goes on to cover different types of adhesive used in electronic systems, including thermally conductive adhesives, isotropic and anisotropic conductive adhesives and underfill adhesives for flip-chip applications. Part two focuses on the properties and processing of electronic ...

  7. Electron crystallography and aquaporins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Andreas D; Hite, Richard K; Engel, Andreas; Fujiyoshi, Yoshinori; Walz, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Electron crystallography of two-dimensional (2D) crystals can provide information on the structure of membrane proteins at near-atomic resolution. Originally developed and used to determine the structure of bacteriorhodopsin (bR), electron crystallography has recently been applied to elucidate the structure of aquaporins (AQPs), a family of membrane proteins that form pores mostly for water but also other solutes. While electron crystallography has made major contributions to our understanding of the structure and function of AQPs, structural studies on AQPs, in turn, have fostered a number of technical developments in electron crystallography. In this contribution, we summarize the insights electron crystallography has provided into the biology of AQPs, and describe technical advancements in electron crystallography that were driven by structural studies on AQP 2D crystals. In addition, we discuss some of the lessons that were learned from electron crystallographic work on AQPs.

  8. Automotive electronics design fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Zaman, Najamuz

    2015-01-01

    This book explains the topology behind automotive electronics architectures and examines how they can be profoundly augmented with embedded controllers. These controllers serve as the core building blocks of today’s vehicle electronics. Rather than simply teaching electrical basics, this unique resource focuses on the fundamental concepts of vehicle electronics architecture, and details the wide variety of Electronic Control Modules (ECMs) that enable the increasingly sophisticated "bells & whistles" of modern designs.  A must-have for automotive design engineers, technicians working in automotive electronics repair centers and students taking automotive electronics courses, this guide bridges the gap between academic instruction and industry practice with clear, concise advice on how to design and optimize automotive electronics with embedded controllers.

  9. Medan Electronic Mall Arsitektur Ikonik

    OpenAIRE

    David,, A.

    2014-01-01

    With present the Medan Electronic Mall is intended to meet the needs of electronic goods from electronic of communication, Office Electronics, Household Electronics, Hobbies or electronic game, Medan Electronic Mall also hosts for the people of North Sumatra Province especially for people of Medan City to get particular information will be the development of electronic goods and also enjoy all kinds of things related to electronics such as Game Center, Cyber/Virtual Game, Internet...

  10. Engineered phages for electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yue

    2016-11-15

    Phages are traditionally widely studied in biology and chemistry. In recent years, engineered phages have attracted significant attentions for functionalization or construction of electronic devices, due to their specific binding, catalytic, nucleating or electronic properties. To apply the engineered phages in electronics, these are a number of interesting questions: how to engineer phages for electronics? How are the engineered phages characterized? How to assemble materials with engineered phages? How are the engineered phages micro or nanopatterned? What are the strategies to construct electronics devices with engineered phages? This review will highlight the early attempts to address these questions and explore the fundamental and practical aspects of engineered phages in electronics, including the approaches for selection or expression of specific peptides on phage coat proteins, characterization of engineered phages in electronics, assembly of electronic materials, patterning of engineered phages, and construction of electronic devices. It provides the methodologies and opens up ex-cit-ing op-por-tu-ni-ties for the development of a variety of new electronic materials and devices based on engineered phages for future applications.

  11. Scanning ultrafast electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ding-Shyue; Mohammed, Omar F; Zewail, Ahmed H

    2010-08-24

    Progress has been made in the development of four-dimensional ultrafast electron microscopy, which enables space-time imaging of structural dynamics in the condensed phase. In ultrafast electron microscopy, the electrons are accelerated, typically to 200 keV, and the microscope operates in the transmission mode. Here, we report the development of scanning ultrafast electron microscopy using a field-emission-source configuration. Scanning of pulses is made in the single-electron mode, for which the pulse contains at most one or a few electrons, thus achieving imaging without the space-charge effect between electrons, and still in ten(s) of seconds. For imaging, the secondary electrons from surface structures are detected, as demonstrated here for material surfaces and biological specimens. By recording backscattered electrons, diffraction patterns from single crystals were also obtained. Scanning pulsed-electron microscopy with the acquired spatiotemporal resolutions, and its efficient heat-dissipation feature, is now poised to provide in situ 4D imaging and with environmental capability.

  12. Scanning ultrafast electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ding-Shyue; Mohammed, Omar F.; Zewail, Ahmed H.

    2010-01-01

    Progress has been made in the development of four-dimensional ultrafast electron microscopy, which enables space-time imaging of structural dynamics in the condensed phase. In ultrafast electron microscopy, the electrons are accelerated, typically to 200 keV, and the microscope operates in the transmission mode. Here, we report the development of scanning ultrafast electron microscopy using a field-emission-source configuration. Scanning of pulses is made in the single-electron mode, for which the pulse contains at most one or a few electrons, thus achieving imaging without the space-charge effect between electrons, and still in ten(s) of seconds. For imaging, the secondary electrons from surface structures are detected, as demonstrated here for material surfaces and biological specimens. By recording backscattered electrons, diffraction patterns from single crystals were also obtained. Scanning pulsed-electron microscopy with the acquired spatiotemporal resolutions, and its efficient heat-dissipation feature, is now poised to provide in situ 4D imaging and with environmental capability. PMID:20696933

  13. Metamaterials for Ballistic Electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Dragoman, D; Dragoman, Daniela; Dragoman, Mircea

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents a metamaterial for ballistic electrons, which consists of a quantum barrier formed in a semiconductor with negative effective electron mass. This barrier is the analogue of a metamaterial for electromagnetic waves in media with negative electrical permittivity and magnetic permeability. Besides applications similar to those of optical metamaterials, a nanosized slab of a metamaterial for ballistic electrons, sandwiched between quantum wells of positive effective mass materials, reveals unexpected conduction properties, e.g. single or multiple room temperature negative differential conductance regions at very low voltages and with considerable peak-to-valley ratios, while the traversal time of ballistic electrons can be tuned to larger or smaller values than in the absence of the metamaterial slab. Thus, slow and fast electrons, analogous to slow and fast light, occur in metamaterials for ballistic electrons.

  14. Electrons in Nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flindt, Christian

    2007-01-01

    or a few electrons. Such few-electron devices are expected to form the building blocks of future electrical circuits and it is thus necessary to develop a thorough theoretical understanding of the physics of electrons in nanostructures. Re- garding applications there is a particular interest......-based communication. The statistical description of electron transport through nanostructures is based on rate equations, and the primary contribution of the thesis in that respect is the development of a method that allows for the calculation of the distribution of electrons passing through a device. The method......This thesis concerns theoretical aspects of electrons in man-made nanostruc- tures. Advances in nanofabrication technology during recent decades have made it possible to produce electrical devices on the nano-scale, whose func- tionality is determined by the quantum mechanical nature of a single...

  15. Single electron spintronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Kari J; Ciudad, David; Marrows, Christopher H

    2011-08-13

    Single electron electronics is now well developed, and allows the manipulation of electrons one-by-one as they tunnel on and off a nanoscale conducting island. In the past decade or so, there have been concerted efforts in several laboratories to construct single electron devices incorporating ferromagnetic components in order to introduce spin functionality. The use of ferromagnetic electrodes with a non-magnetic island can lead to spin accumulation on the island. On the other hand, making the dot also ferromagnetic introduces new physics such as tunnelling magnetoresistance enhancement in the cotunnelling regime and manifestations of the Kondo effect. Such nanoscale islands are also found to have long spin lifetimes. Conventional spintronics makes use of the average spin-polarization of a large ensemble of electrons: this new approach offers the prospect of accessing the quantum properties of the electron, and is a candidate approach to the construction of solid-state spin-based qubits.

  16. Electron transfer in proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, O; Pecht, I

    1991-01-01

    Electron migration between and within proteins is one of the most prevalent forms of biological energy conversion processes. Electron transfer reactions take place between active centers such as transition metal ions or organic cofactors over considerable distances at fast rates and with remarkable...... specificity. The electron transfer is attained through weak electronic interaction between the active sites, so that considerable research efforts are centered on resolving the factors that control the rates of long-distance electron transfer reactions in proteins. These factors include (in addition......-containing proteins. These proteins serve almost exclusively in electron transfer reactions, and as it turns out, their metal coordination sites are endowed with properties uniquely optimized for their function....

  17. Nanocrystals for electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panthani, Matthew G; Korgel, Brian A

    2012-01-01

    Semiconductor nanocrystals are promising materials for low-cost large-area electronic device fabrication. They can be synthesized with a wide variety of chemical compositions and size-tunable optical and electronic properties as well as dispersed in solvents for room-temperature deposition using various types of printing processes. This review addresses research progress in large-area electronic device applications using nanocrystal-based electrically active thin films, including thin-film transistors, light-emitting diodes, photovoltaics, and thermoelectrics.

  18. Technology of Electronic Signatur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Sadovsky

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An electronic signature uses a hash of message and an asymetrical algorithm of encryption for its generation. During verification of message on receiver side the hash of original message must be identical with the hash of received message. Electronic message is secured autentization of author and integrity of transmission date. By electronic signature it is possible to sign everything what is in digital form.

  19. Modern electronic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Watkins, John B

    2013-01-01

    Modern Electronic Materials focuses on the development of electronic components. The book first discusses the history of electronic components, including early developments up to 1900, developments up to World War II, post-war developments, and a comparison of present microelectric techniques. The text takes a look at resistive materials. Topics include resistor requirements, basic properties, evaporated film resistors, thick film resistors, and special resistors. The text examines dielectric materials. Considerations include basic properties, evaporated dielectric materials, ceramic dielectri

  20. Field emission electron source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettl, Alexander Karlwalter; Cohen, Marvin Lou

    2000-01-01

    A novel field emitter material, field emission electron source, and commercially feasible fabrication method is described. The inventive field emission electron source produces reliable electron currents of up to 400 mA/cm.sup.2 at 200 volts. The emitter is robust and the current it produces is not sensitive to variability of vacuum or the distance between the emitter tip and the cathode. The novel emitter has a sharp turn-on near 100 volts.

  1. Introduction to electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Korneff, Theodore

    1966-01-01

    Introduction to Electronics focuses on the study of electronics and electronic devices. Composed of 14 chapters, the book starts with discussions on dc circuits, including resistance, voltmeter, ammeter, galvanometer, internal resistance, and positive and negative currents. This topic is followed by discussions on ac circuits, particularly addressing voltage and current, average power, resistive load, complex plane, and parallel circuits. Discussions also focus on filters and tuned circuits, diodes, and power supplies. Particularly given attention are the processes, diagrams, and analyses

  2. ETHICS AND ELECTRONIC VOTING

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    13 pages; International audience; In the first part, we will define the main properties of a democratic election, providing a typology of electronic devices and give a view on some legal documents pertaining to the matter. In the second part, the ethics of voting will be evaluated: our methodology is detailed, followed by an examination of pure paper-based elections, paperless electronic voting and verifiable electronic voting. The new concept of legally operative transparency is defined and ...

  3. Electronic collection management

    CERN Document Server

    Mcginnis, Suzan D

    2013-01-01

    Build and manage your collection of digital resources with these successful strategies! This comprehensive volume is a practical guide to the art and science of acquiring and organizing electronic resources. The collections discussed here range in size from small college libraries to large research libraries, but all are facing similar problems: shrinking budgets, increasing demands, and rapidly shifting formats. Electronic Collection Management offers new ideas for coping with these issues. Bringing together diverse aspects of collection development, Electronic Collection

  4. Introduction to printed electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Suganuma, Katsuaki

    2014-01-01

    This book describes in detail modern technologies for printed electronics, explaining how nanotechnology and modern printing technology are merging to revolutionize electronics fabrication of thin, lightweight, large, and inexpensive products. Readers will benefit from the explanations of materials, devices and circuits used to design and implement the latest applications of printed electronics, such as thin flexible OLED displays, organic solar cells, OLED lighting, smart wallpaper, sensors, logic, memory and more.

  5. Electronic signal conditioning

    CERN Document Server

    NEWBY, BRUCE

    1994-01-01

    At technician level, brief references to signal conditioning crop up in a fragmented way in various textbooks, but there has been no single textbook, until now!More advanced texts do exist but they are more mathematical and presuppose a higher level of understanding of electronics and statistics. Electronic Signal Conditioning is designed for HNC/D students and City & Guilds Electronics Servicing 2240 Parts 2 & 3. It will also be useful for BTEC National, Advanced GNVQ, A-level electronics and introductory courses at degree level.

  6. Flying Electronic Warfare Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides NP-3D aircraft host platforms for Effectiveness of Navy Electronic Warfare Systems (ENEWS) Program antiship missile (ASM) seeker simulators used...

  7. Smart Electronic Textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Wei; Chen, Peining; He, Sisi; Sun, Xuemei; Peng, Huisheng

    2016-05-17

    This Review describes the state-of-the-art of wearable electronics (smart textiles). The unique and promising advantages of smart electronic textiles are highlighted by comparing them with the conventional planar counterparts. The main kinds of smart electronic textiles based on different functionalities, namely the generation, storage, and utilization of electricity, are then discussed with an emphasis on the use of functional materials. The remaining challenges are summarized together with important new directions to provide some useful clues for the future development of smart electronic textiles.

  8. Electronic Wallets in Danger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Michel Sahut

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The erratic development of electronic wallets (EW illustrates thedifficulties of their adoption by the general public and shopkeepersalike. With exceptions, such as Proton in Europe and Octopus in Asia,a lot of electronic wallets are likely to disappear in the next fewyears. Yet the key factors of success are known by banks which oftenchoose to ignore them. However, the strategic change taken by some inorder to bring a fresh start to electronic wallets like Moneo couldreverse the tendency. Nevertheless, it will still be necessary to waitseveral years before seeing electronic wallets really imposethemselves as a credible alternative to payments in cash.

  9. Analytical Electron Microscope

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Titan 80-300 is a transmission electron microscope (TEM) equipped with spectroscopic detectors to allow chemical, elemental, and other analytical measurements to...

  10. Fundamentals of electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Schubert, Thomas F

    2015-01-01

    This book, Electronic Devices and Circuit Application, is the first of four books of a larger work, Fundamentals of Electronics. It is comprised of four chapters describing the basic operation of each of the four fundamental building blocks of modern electronics: operational amplifiers, semiconductor diodes, bipolar junction transistors, and field effect transistors. Attention is focused on the reader obtaining a clear understanding of each of the devices when it is operated in equilibrium. Ideas fundamental to the study of electronic circuits are also developed in the book at a basic level to

  11. High-power electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Kapitsa, Petr Leonidovich

    1966-01-01

    High-Power Electronics, Volume 2 presents the electronic processes in devices of the magnetron type and electromagnetic oscillations in different systems. This book explores the problems of electronic energetics.Organized into 11 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the motion of electrons in a flat model of the magnetron, taking into account the in-phase wave and the reverse wave. This text then examines the processes of transmission of electromagnetic waves of various polarization and the wave reflection from grids made of periodically distributed infinite metal conductors. Other

  12. Electron correlation in molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, S

    2007-01-01

    Electron correlation effects are of vital significance to the calculation of potential energy curves and surfaces, the study of molecular excitation processes, and in the theory of electron-molecule scattering. This text describes methods for addressing one of theoretical chemistry's central problems, the study of electron correlation effects in molecules.Although the energy associated with electron correlation is a small fraction of the total energy of an atom or molecule, it is of the same order of magnitude as most energies of chemical interest. If the solution of quantum mechanical equatio

  13. Flying Electronic Warfare Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides NP-3D aircraft host platforms for Effectiveness of Navy Electronic Warfare Systems (ENEWS) Program antiship missile (ASM) seeker simulators used...

  14. Electronics pocket book

    CERN Document Server

    Parr, E A

    1981-01-01

    Electronics Pocket Book, Fourth Edition is a nonmathematical presentation of the many varied topics covered by electronics. The book tackles electron physics, electronic components (i.e. resistors, capacitors, and conductors), integrated circuits, and the principles of a.c. and d.c. amplifiers. The text also discusses oscillators, digital circuits, digital computers, and optoelectronics (i.e., sensors, emitters, and devices that utilize light). Communications (such as line and radio communications, transmitters, receivers, and digital techniques); the principles and examples of servosystems; a

  15. Flexible Electronics Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Flexible Electronics Research Facility designs, synthesizes, tests, and fabricates materials and devices compatible with flexible substrates for Army information...

  16. Electron Transfer Chain Catalysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Electron-transfer chain (ETC) catalysis belongs to the family of chain reactions where the electron is the catalyst. The ETC mechanism could be initiated by chemical activation, electrochemistry, or photolysis. If this pathway is applied to the preparation of organometallic complexes, it utilizes the greatly enhanced reactivity of organometallic 17e and 19e radicals. The chemical propagation is followed by the cross electron-transfer while the electron-transfer step is also followed by the chemical propagation, creating a loop in which reactants are facilely transformed into products. Interestingly the overall reaction is without any net redox change.

  17. Electron Transfer Chain Catalysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; LingKang

    2001-01-01

    Electron-transfer chain (ETC) catalysis belongs to the family of chain reactions where the electron is the catalyst. The ETC mechanism could be initiated by chemical activation, electrochemistry, or photolysis. If this pathway is applied to the preparation of organometallic complexes, it utilizes the greatly enhanced reactivity of organometallic 17e and 19e radicals. The chemical propagation is followed by the cross electron-transfer while the electron-transfer step is also followed by the chemical propagation, creating a loop in which reactants are facilely transformed into products. Interestingly the overall reaction is without any net redox change.  ……

  18. Nanosecond electron microscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostanjoglo; Elschner; Mao; Nink; Weingartner

    2000-04-01

    Combining electron optics, fast electronics and pulsed lasers, a transmission and a photoelectron emission microscope were built, which visualize events in thin films and on surfaces with a time resolution of several nanoseconds. The high-speed electron microscopy is capable to track fast laser-induced processes in metals below the ablation threshold, which are difficult to detect by other imaging techniques. The material response to nano- and femtosecond laser pulses was found to be very different. It was dominated by thermo/chemocapillary flow and chemical reactions in the case of nanosecond pulses, and by mechanical deformations and non-thermal electron emission after a femtosecond pulse.

  19. Electron caustic lithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Kennedy

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A maskless method of electron beam lithography is described which uses the reflection of an electron beam from an electrostatic mirror to produce caustics in the demagnified image projected onto a resist–coated wafer. By varying the electron optics, e.g. via objective lens defocus, both the morphology and dimensions of the caustic features may be controlled, producing a range of bright and tightly focused projected features. The method is illustrated for line and fold caustics and is complementary to other methods of reflective electron beam lithography.

  20. Electronics circuits and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    2011-01-01

    The material in Electronics - Circuits and Systems is a truly up-to-date textbook, with coverage carefully matched to the electronics units of the 2007 BTEC National Engineering and the latest AS and A Level specifications in Electronics from AQA, OCR and WJEC. The material has been organized with a logical learning progression, making it ideal for a wide range of pre-degree courses in electronics. The approach is student-centred and includes: numerous examples and activities; web research topics; Self Test features, highlighted key facts, formulae and definitions. Ea

  1. Electronics circuits and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    2007-01-01

    The material in Electronics - Circuits and Systems is a truly up-to-date textbook, with coverage carefully matched to the electronics units of the 2007 BTEC National Engineering and the latest AS and A Level specifications in Electronics from AQA, OCR and WJEC. The material has been organized with a logical learning progression, making it ideal for a wide range of pre-degree courses in electronics. The approach is student-centred and includes: numerous examples and activities; web research topics; Self Test features, highlighted key facts, formulae and definitions. Each chapter ends with a set

  2. (Pulsed electron beam precharger)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finney, W.C. (ed.); Shelton, W.N.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics on electron beam guns: Precharger Modification; Installation of Charge vs. Radius Apparatus; High Concentration Aerosol Generation; and Data Acquisition and Analysis System.

  3. Electronic circuits fundamentals & applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tooley, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Electronics explained in one volume, using both theoretical and practical applications.New chapter on Raspberry PiCompanion website contains free electronic tools to aid learning for students and a question bank for lecturersPractical investigations and questions within each chapter help reinforce learning Mike Tooley provides all the information required to get to grips with the fundamentals of electronics, detailing the underpinning knowledge necessary to appreciate the operation of a wide range of electronic circuits, including amplifiers, logic circuits, power supplies and oscillators. The

  4. Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator (EEBC) was developed to assist organizations in estimating the environmental benefits of greening their purchase,...

  5. Electronic Service Statistics - Quarterly Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This is a quarterly report that compares electronic data vs non-electronic data for electronic services. Report contains six main sections namely, electronic access,...

  6. Optical Electronics. Electronics Module 9. Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franken, Bill

    This module is the ninth of 10 modules in the competency-based electronics series. Introductory materials include a listing of competencies addressed in the module, a parts/equipment list, and a cross reference table of instructional materials. Five instructional units cover: fiber optic cable; optical coupler; lasers and masers; optical displays;…

  7. Notes on Electronic Lexicography

    CERN Document Server

    Parvanov, Yavor

    2011-01-01

    These notes are a continuation of topics covered by V. Selegej in his article "Electronic Dictionaries and Computational lexicography". How can an electronic dictionary have as its object the description of closely related languages? Obviously, such a question allows multiple answers.

  8. Managing electronic records

    CERN Document Server

    McLeod, Julie

    2005-01-01

    For records management courses, this book covers the theory and practice of managing electronic records as business and information assets. It focuses on the strategies, systems and procedures necessary to ensure that electronic records are appropriately created, captured, organized and retained over time to meet business and legal requirements.

  9. STEP electronic system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, R. H.; Johnson, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    The STEP electronic system design is discussed. The purpose of the design is outlined. The electronic system design is summarized and it is found that: an effective conceptual system design is developed; the design represents a unique set of capabilities; makes efficient use of available orbiter resources; the system capabilities exceed identified potential experiment needs.

  10. Electron tunnel sensor technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltman, S. B.; Kaiser, W. J.

    1989-01-01

    The recent development of Scanning Tunneling Microscopy technology allows the application of electron tunneling to position detectors for the first time. The vacuum tunnel junction is one of the most sensitive position detection mechanisms available. It is also compact, simple, and requires little power. A prototype accelerometer based on electron tunneling, and other sensor applications of this promising new technology are described.

  11. Electron scattering violates parity

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Parity violation has been observed in collisions between electrons at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in the US. The resuls, which are in agreement with the Stanford Model of particle physics, also provide a new measurement of the weak charge of the electron (½ page)

  12. Pulsed Plasma Electron Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasik, Yakov

    2008-11-01

    Pulsed (˜10-7 s) electron beams with high current density (>10^2 A/cm^2) are generated in diodes with electric field of E > 10^6 V/cm. The source of electrons in these diodes is explosive emission plasma, which limits pulse duration; in the case E Hadas and Ya. E. Krasik, Europhysics Lett. 82, 55001 (2008).

  13. Electron transfer in peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Afzal; Adhikari, Bimalendu; Martic, Sanela; Munir, Azeema; Shahzad, Suniya; Ahmad, Khurshid; Kraatz, Heinz-Bernhard

    2015-02-21

    In this review, we discuss the factors that influence electron transfer in peptides. We summarize experimental results from solution and surface studies and highlight the ongoing debate on the mechanistic aspects of this fundamental reaction. Here, we provide a balanced approach that remains unbiased and does not favor one mechanistic view over another. Support for a putative hopping mechanism in which an electron transfers in a stepwise manner is contrasted with experimental results that support electron tunneling or even some form of ballistic transfer or a pathway transfer for an electron between donor and acceptor sites. In some cases, experimental evidence suggests that a change in the electron transfer mechanism occurs as a result of donor-acceptor separation. However, this common understanding of the switch between tunneling and hopping as a function of chain length is not sufficient for explaining electron transfer in peptides. Apart from chain length, several other factors such as the extent of the secondary structure, backbone conformation, dipole orientation, the presence of special amino acids, hydrogen bonding, and the dynamic properties of a peptide also influence the rate and mode of electron transfer in peptides. Electron transfer plays a key role in physical, chemical and biological systems, so its control is a fundamental task in bioelectrochemical systems, the design of peptide based sensors and molecular junctions. Therefore, this topic is at the heart of a number of biological and technological processes and thus remains of vital interest.

  14. Single particle electron microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekema, Egbert J.; Folea, Mihaela; Kouril, Roman; Kouřil, Roman

    2009-01-01

    Electron microscopy (EM) in combination with image analysis is a powerful technique to study protein structures at low, medium, and high resolution. Since electron micrographs of biological objects are very noisy, improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio by image processing is an integral part of EM

  15. Electronic Mail Connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Susan A.

    1987-01-01

    Provides an overview of new developments in electronic mail, including the interconnection of online networks, some on an international level; and news on system upgrades of specific information services. The growth of the electronic mail industry and possible future trends are discussed and a glossary of technical terms is included. (CLB)

  16. Electronically Controlled Resistor Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Walter L.

    1987-01-01

    Resistance quickly varied in small steps over wide range. Device with no moving parts provides variable electrical resistance. Used with analog or digital circuity to provide electronic selection of large number of resistance values for testing, simulation, control, or other purposes. Nearest electromechanical equivalent of all-electronic device is potentiometer driven by servomotor.

  17. Electronics and Lithuanian Terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stasys Zajankauskas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available It is found that the vacuum triode, transistor, monolithic circuit and microprocessor were the most important inventions of traditional electronics. Thus, the origins of the traditional electronics should be associated with the invention of the vacuum triode, but not with the invention of vacuum diode. It is shown that the science of electronics is not as young as computer science or up-to-date information technologies: electronics, including active electronics, had already celebrated the centenary, and the period of 2004–2008 is the period of numerous already solid jubilees. Thus, the terminology of electronics is not at initial stage of evolution as well – general terms should be already systematized and normalized. However, Lithuanian terms for electronic devices invented before tens of years and terms for old-defined notions associated with these devices are still varying, some are worsened. Especially, the incorrectly motivated terms used for variations of transistors and microcircuits are analyzed in the article. It is motivated which terms are preferable, systematic and exact. The paper is dedicated to the 50th anniversary of monolithic circuit, as well as the 60th anniversary of transistor, the 40th jubilee of microprocessor and centenary of electronics.

  18. Electronically Induced Phase Transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    ries (w hen the Slater free-electron exchange is used). A systematic the active researcher. study of relativistic electron densities and isomer...comp:wrees aux mesures actuelles d’effet dHvA d’Arko et Schirber. Le calu; du facteur de forme neutronique en presence d’un champ magnetique est en bon

  19. Green and biodegradable electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Irimia-Vladu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We live in a world where the lifetime of electronics is becoming shorter, now approaching an average of several months. This poses a growing ecological problem. This brief review will present some of the initial steps taken to address the issue of electronic waste with biodegradable organic electronic materials. Many organic materials have been shown to be biodegradable, safe, and nontoxic, including compounds of natural origin. Additionally, the unique features of such organic materials suggest they will be useful in biofunctional electronics; demonstrating functions that would be inaccessible for traditional inorganic compounds. Such materials may lead to fully biodegradable and even biocompatible/biometabolizable electronics for many low-cost applications. This review highlights recent progress in these classes of material, covering substrates and insulators, semiconductors, and finally conductors.

  20. LEIR electron cooler status

    CERN Document Server

    Tranquille, G; Parkhomchuk, V; Prieto, V; Sautier, R

    2006-01-01

    The electron cooler for LEIR is the first of a new generation of coolers being commissioned for fast phase space cooling of ion beams in storage rings. It is a stateof- the-art cooler incorporating all the recent developments in electron cooling technology (adiabatic expansion, electrostatic bend, variable density electron beam) and is designed to deliver up to 600 mA of electron current for the cooling and stacking of Pb54+ ions in the frame of the ions for LHC project. In this paper we present our experience with the commissioning of the new device as well as the first results of ion beam cooling with a high-intensity variable-density electron beam.

  1. Electron Cyclotron Emission Radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Cristina

    2009-11-01

    There is much interest in studying plasmas that generate hot electrons. The goal of this project is to develop a wide band electron cyclotron radiometer to measure the non-Maxwellian rapid rises in electron temperature. These rapid increases in temperature will then be correlated to instabilities in the plasma. This project explores a type of noncontact temperature measurement. We will attempt to show the feasibility of electron cyclotron emissions to measure the Maryland Centrifugal Experiment's electron plasma temperature. The radiometer has been designed to have 100dB of gain and a sensitivity of 24mV/dB given by its logarithmic amplifier. If successful, this radiometer will be used as a diagnostic tool in later projects such as the proposed experiment studying magnetic reconnection using solar flux loops.

  2. Practical electronics for inventors

    CERN Document Server

    Scherz, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Spark your creativity and gain the electronics skills required to transform your innovative ideas into functioning gadgets. This hands-on, updated guide outlines electrical principles and provides thorough, easy-to-follow instructions, schematics, and illustrations. Findout how to select components, safely assemble circuits, perform error tests, and build plug-and-play prototypes. Practical Electronics for Inventors, Third Edition, features all-new chapters on sensors, microcontrollers, modular electronics, and the latest software tools. Coverage includes: Resistors, capacitors, inductors, and transformers Diodes, transistors, and integrated circuits Optoelectronics, solar cells, and phototransistors Sensors, GPS modules, and touch screens Op amps, regulators, and power supplies Digital electronics, LCD displays, and logic gates Microcontrollers and prototyping platforms, including Arduino DC motors, RC servos, and stepper motors Microphones, audio amps, and speakers Modular electronics and prototyping.

  3. Simulations of Gaussian electron guns for RHIC electron lens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pikin, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2014-02-28

    Simulations of two versions of the electron gun for RHIC electron lens are presented. The electron guns have to generate an electron beam with Gaussian radial profile of the electron beam density. To achieve the Gaussian electron emission profile on the cathode we used a combination of the gun electrodes and shaping of the cathode surface. Dependence of electron gun performance parameters on the geometry of electrodes and the margins for electrodes positioning are presented.

  4. Electronic Collection Management and Electronic Information Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-01

    TITLE: Electronic Information Management for PfP Nations [La gestion electronique des informations pour les pays du PfP] To order the complete...banking and securities trading. E- commerce has moved into many other areas and it is now possible to purchase a wide variety of goods and services on line...include interactive e- commerce and e-governance services as well as various organizational database management needs (including registrations, membership

  5. Electron Cooling of RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Barton, Donald; Beavis, Dana; Blaskiewicz, Michael; Bluem, Hans; Brennan, Joseph M; Bruhwiler, David L; Burger, Al; Burov, Alexey; Burrill, Andrew; Calaga, Rama; Cameron, Peter; Chang, Xiangyun; Cole, Michael; Connolly, Roger; Delayen, Jean R; Derbenev, Yaroslav S; Eidelman, Yury I; Favale, Anthony; Fedotov, Alexei V; Fischer, Wolfram; Funk, L W; Gassner, David M; Hahn, Harald; Harrison, Michael; Hershcovitch, Ady; Holmes, Douglas; Hseuh Hsiao Chaun; Johnson, Peter; Kayran, Dmitry; Kewisch, Jorg; Kneisel, Peter; Koop, Ivan; Lambiase, Robert; Litvinenko, Vladimir N; MacKay, William W; Mahler, George; Malitsky, Nikolay; McIntyre, Gary; Meng, Wuzheng; Merminga, Lia; Meshkov, Igor; Mirabella, Kerry; Montag, Christoph; Nagaitsev, Sergei; Nehring, Thomas; Nicoletti, Tony; Oerter, Brian; Parkhomchuk, Vasily; Parzen, George; Pate, David; Phillips, Larry; Preble, Joseph P; Rank, Jim; Rao, Triveni; Rathke, John; Roser, Thomas; Russo, Thomas; Scaduto, Joseph; Schultheiss, Tom; Sekutowicz, Jacek; Shatunov, Yuri; Sidorin, Anatoly O; Skrinsky, Aleksander Nikolayevich; Smirnov, Alexander V; Smith, Kevin T; Todd, Alan M M; Trbojevic, Dejan; Troubnikov, Grigory; Wang, Gang; Wei, Jie; Williams, Neville; Wu, Kuo-Chen; Yakimenko, Vitaly; Zaltsman, Alex; Zhao, Yongxiang; ain, Animesh K

    2005-01-01

    We report progress on the R&D program for electron-cooling of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). This electron cooler is designed to cool 100 GeV/nucleon at storage energy using 54 MeV electrons. The electron source will be a superconducting RF photocathode gun. The accelerator will be a superconducting energy recovery linac. The frequency of the accelerator is set at 703.75 MHz. The maximum electron bunch frequency is 9.38 MHz, with bunch charge of 20 nC. The R&D program has the following components: The photoinjector and its photocathode, the superconducting linac cavity, start-to-end beam dynamics with magnetized electrons, electron cooling calculations including benchmarking experiments and development of a large superconducting solenoid. The photoinjector and linac cavity are being incorporated into an energy recovery linac aimed at demonstrating ampere class current at about 20 MeV. A Zeroth Order Design Report is in an advanced draft state, and can be found on the web at http://www.ags...

  6. Dissociative Electron Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arreola, Esmeralda; Esmeralda Arreola Collaboration; Leigh Hargreaves Collaboration

    Since the pioneering work of Boudiaffa et al., it has been understood that electrons, even with energies near or below the ionization threshold, are capable of initiating strand-breaks in human DNA. This discovery raised important questions for cancer treatments, since sub-ionizing electrons are known to be the most copiously produced secondary product of radiation therapy. But even to date these factors are largely excluded from dosimetry calculations. This lack of inclusion is, at least in part, certainly due to the dearth of fundamental data describing low-energy electron interactions with nucleotide molecules that form the basis of DNA. Understanding of how such slow electrons are able to damage DNA remains incomplete, but the strongly peaked nature of Boudiaffa et al.'s data gives strong hints at resonantly driven collision processes. DNA damage is therefore most likely driven by ``dissociative electron attachment'' (DEA). DEA is a rather complicated process to model due to the coupling of electronic and nuclear degrees of freedom in the molecule. At the California State University Fullerton, we are currently commissioning a new spectrometer to study dissociation channels, reaction rates and orientation effects in DEA collisions between slow electrons and nucleotide molecules. At the meeting we will present design parameters and commissioning data for this new apparatus.

  7. Electron heat flux instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Sundas; Sarfraz, M.; Yoon, P. H.; Lazar, M.; Qureshi, M. N. S.

    2017-02-01

    The heat flux instability is an electromagnetic mode excited by a relative drift between the protons and two-component core-halo electrons. The most prominent application may be in association with the solar wind where drifting electron velocity distributions are observed. The heat flux instability is somewhat analogous to the electrostatic Buneman or ion-acoustic instability driven by the net drift between the protons and bulk electrons, except that the heat flux instability operates in magnetized plasmas and possesses transverse electromagnetic polarization. The heat flux instability is also distinct from the electrostatic counterpart in that it requires two electron species with relative drifts with each other. In the literature, the heat flux instability is often called the 'whistler' heat flux instability, but it is actually polarized in the opposite sense to the whistler wave. This paper elucidates all of these fundamental plasma physical properties associated with the heat flux instability starting from a simple model, and gradually building up more complexity towards a solar wind-like distribution functions. It is found that the essential properties of the instability are already present in the cold counter-streaming electron model, and that the instability is absent if the protons are ignored. These instability characteristics are highly reminiscent of the electron firehose instability driven by excessive parallel temperature anisotropy, propagating in parallel direction with respect to the ambient magnetic field, except that the free energy source for the heat flux instability resides in the effective parallel pressure provided by the counter-streaming electrons.

  8. Aerogels for electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrubesh, L.W.

    1994-10-01

    In addition to their other exceptional properties, aerogels also exhibit unusual dielectric and electronic properties due to their nano-sized structures and high porosities. For example, aerogels have the lowest dielectric constants measured for a solid material (having values approaching 1.0); they have exceptionally high dielectric resistivities and strengths (i.e., ability to insulate very high voltages); they exhibit low dielectric loss at microwave frequencies; and some aerogels are electrically conductive and photoconductive. These properties are being exploited to provide the next generation of materials for energy storage, low power consumption, and ultra-fast electronics. We are working toward adapting these unusual materials for microelectronic applications, particularly, making thin aerogel films for dielectric substrates and for energy storage devices such as supercapacitors. Measurements are presented in this paper for the dielectric and electronic properties of aerogels, including the dielectric constant, loss factor, dielectric and electrical conductivity, volume resistivity, and dielectric strength. We also describe methods to form and characterize thin aerogel films which are being developed for numerous electronic applications. Finally, some of the electronic applications proposed for aerogels are presented. Commercialization of aerogels for electronics must await further feasibility, prototype development, and cost studies, but they are one of the key materials and are sure to have a major impact on future electronics.

  9. Coherent electron cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvinenko,V.

    2009-05-04

    Cooling intense high-energy hadron beams remains a major challenge in modern accelerator physics. Synchrotron radiation is still too feeble, while the efficiency of two other cooling methods, stochastic and electron, falls rapidly either at high bunch intensities (i.e. stochastic of protons) or at high energies (e-cooling). In this talk a specific scheme of a unique cooling technique, Coherent Electron Cooling, will be discussed. The idea of coherent electron cooling using electron beam instabilities was suggested by Derbenev in the early 1980s, but the scheme presented in this talk, with cooling times under an hour for 7 TeV protons in the LHC, would be possible only with present-day accelerator technology. This talk will discuss the principles and the main limitations of the Coherent Electron Cooling process. The talk will describe the main system components, based on a high-gain free electron laser driven by an energy recovery linac, and will present some numerical examples for ions and protons in RHIC and the LHC and for electron-hadron options for these colliders. BNL plans a demonstration of the idea in the near future.

  10. Electronic devices and circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pridham, Gordon John

    1968-01-01

    Electronic Devices and Circuits, Volume 1 deals with the design and applications of electronic devices and circuits such as passive components, diodes, triodes and transistors, rectification and power supplies, amplifying circuits, electronic instruments, and oscillators. These topics are supported with introductory network theory and physics. This volume is comprised of nine chapters and begins by explaining the operation of resistive, inductive, and capacitive elements in direct and alternating current circuits. The theory for some of the expressions quoted in later chapters is presented. Th

  11. Power Electronics for Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragicevic, Tomislav; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    A microgrid (MG) is a stand-alone or grid-connected hybrid renewable system that uses distributed renewable and nonrenewable energy sources and energy storage systems (ESSs) to supply power to local loads. The system is ordinarily based on power electronics, with interface converters allowing...... a continuous supply of power in the presence of variable RES production. This chapter describes some specific features of DC MGs in terms of power architecture, control, and protection. It also reviews several uncommon power electronic interfaces. Regarding control, operation without critical communication...... are explained in this chapter. The chapter concludes with a review of power electronic intensive protection solutions for DC MGs....

  12. Quantum electronics basic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Fain, V M; Sanders, J H

    1969-01-01

    Quantum Electronics, Volume 1: Basic Theory is a condensed and generalized description of the many research and rapid progress done on the subject. It is translated from the Russian language. The volume describes the basic theory of quantum electronics, and shows how the concepts and equations followed in quantum electronics arise from the basic principles of theoretical physics. The book then briefly discusses the interaction of an electromagnetic field with matter. The text also covers the quantum theory of relaxation process when a quantum system approaches an equilibrium state, and explai

  13. Electronic components and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Dennis, W H

    2013-01-01

    Electronic Components and Systems focuses on the principles and processes in the field of electronics and the integrated circuit. Covered in the book are basic aspects and physical fundamentals; different types of materials involved in the field; and passive and active electronic components such as capacitors, inductors, diodes, and transistors. Also covered in the book are topics such as the fabrication of semiconductors and integrated circuits; analog circuitry; digital logic technology; and microprocessors. The monograph is recommended for beginning electrical engineers who would like to kn

  14. Consulting in Electronic Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina Loredana Tache

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Economic development of electronic services provide advice and many agents of existingreferral systems to recommend and provide products, information and customized views of thecommunity through a personalized interaction in real time. Distributed systems of autonomous agentsare becoming increasingly important in electronic comet because the basic decisions of agents adviceon trust and reputation are taken in a similar way human society. If these decisions will be as a realconsumer protection, when new aspects of online consumer legislation will become usefulinformation in advice and consulting of electronic commerce.

  15. Electron Beam Materials Irradiators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Marshall R.

    2012-06-01

    Radiation processing is a well established method for enhancing the properties of materials and commercial products by treating them with ionizing energy in the form of high-energy electrons, X-rays, and gamma rays. Beneficial effects include polymerizing, cross-linking, grafting and degrading plastics, sterilizing single-use medical devices, disinfecting and disinfesting fresh foods, purifying drinking water, treating wastewater and other toxic waste materials that harm the environment, and many other applications that are still being evaluated. Industrial electron accelerators of several types have been developed and are being used for these applications. More than 1800 electron accelerators are presently installed in facilities worldwide for these purposes.

  16. Field emission electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Egorov, Nikolay

    2017-01-01

    This book is dedicated to field emission electronics, a promising field at the interface between “classic” vacuum electronics and nanotechnology. In addition to theoretical models, it includes detailed descriptions of experimental and research techniques and production technologies for different types of field emitters based on various construction principles. It particularly focuses on research into and production of field cathodes and electron guns using recently developed nanomaterials and carbon nanotubes. Further, it discusses the applications of field emission cathodes in new technologies such as light sources, flat screens, microwave and X-ray devices.

  17. Semiconductor opto-electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Moss, TS; Ellis, B

    1972-01-01

    Semiconductor Opto-Electronics focuses on opto-electronics, covering the basic physical phenomena and device behavior that arise from the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and electrons in a solid. The first nine chapters of this book are devoted to theoretical topics, discussing the interaction of electromagnetic waves with solids, dispersion theory and absorption processes, magneto-optical effects, and non-linear phenomena. Theories of photo-effects and photo-detectors are treated in detail, including the theories of radiation generation and the behavior of semiconductor lasers a

  18. Principles of quantum electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Marcuse, Dietrich

    1980-01-01

    Principles of Quantum Electronics focuses on the concept of quantum electronics as the application of quantum theory to engineering problems. It examines the principles that govern specific quantum electronics devices and presents their theoretical applications to typical problems. Comprised of 10 chapters, this book starts with an overview of the Dirac formulation of quantum mechanics. This text then considers the derivation of the formalism of field quantization and discusses the properties of photons and phonons. Other chapters examine the interaction between the electromagnetic field and c

  19. VLSI electronics microstructure science

    CERN Document Server

    1982-01-01

    VLSI Electronics: Microstructure Science, Volume 4 reviews trends for the future of very large scale integration (VLSI) electronics and the scientific base that supports its development.This book discusses the silicon-on-insulator for VLSI and VHSIC, X-ray lithography, and transient response of electron transport in GaAs using the Monte Carlo method. The technology and manufacturing of high-density magnetic-bubble memories, metallic superlattices, challenge of education for VLSI, and impact of VLSI on medical signal processing are also elaborated. This text likewise covers the impact of VLSI t

  20. Coding for Electronic Mail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, R. F.; Lee, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Scheme for coding facsimile messages promises to reduce data transmission requirements to one-tenth current level. Coding scheme paves way for true electronic mail in which handwritten, typed, or printed messages or diagrams sent virtually instantaneously - between buildings or between continents. Scheme, called Universal System for Efficient Electronic Mail (USEEM), uses unsupervised character recognition and adaptive noiseless coding of text. Image quality of resulting delivered messages improved over messages transmitted by conventional coding. Coding scheme compatible with direct-entry electronic mail as well as facsimile reproduction. Text transmitted in this scheme automatically translated to word-processor form.

  1. TIS - Beyond Electronic Mail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    AD-AI06 764 AIR FORCE INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH F/G 17/2 TIS - BEYOND ELECTRONIC MAIL .(U) 1979 D L OLSON, N T FLYNN, M I DARWISH...79-22§1_ 4~~~~~~~ SIXi.m.aihl -- . TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD covERED TIS -SBeyond Electronic Mail . TlSS~cnA~r 6 PEFRI4 O11G. REPORT NUMBER Duane L.A:o...single-service provisions of so-called " electronic mail ." Approaches to be used in implementing a TIS are considered, and a time-frame scenario is

  2. Electron paramagnetic resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Al'tshuler, S A

    2013-01-01

    Electron Paramagnetic Resonance is a comprehensive text on the field of electron paramagnetic resonance, covering both the theoretical background and the results of experiment. This book is composed of eight chapters that cover theoretical materials and experimental data on ionic crystals, since these are the materials that have been most extensively studied by the methods of paramagnetic resonance. The opening chapters provide an introduction to the basic principles of electron paramagnetic resonance and the methods of its measurement. The next chapters are devoted to the theory of spectra an

  3. Reliable Electronic Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Nayak

    1960-05-01

    Full Text Available The reliability aspect of electronic equipment's is discussed. To obtain optimum results, close cooperation between the components engineer, the design engineer and the production engineer is suggested.

  4. The art of electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Horowitz, Paul

    2015-01-01

    At long last, here is the thoroughly revised and updated third edition of the hugely successful Art of Electronics. It is widely accepted as the best single authoritative book on electronic circuit design. In addition to new or enhanced coverage of many topics, the Third Edition includes: 90 oscilloscope screenshots illustrating the behavior of working circuits; dozens of graphs giving highly useful measured data of the sort that's often buried or omitted in datasheets but which you need when designing circuits; 80 tables (listing some 1650 active components), enabling intelligent choice of circuit components by listing essential characteristics (both specified and measured) of available parts. The new Art of Electronics ​​retains the feeling of informality and easy access that helped make the earlier editions so successful and popular. It is an indispensable reference and the gold standard​​ for anyone, student or researcher, professional or amateur, who works with electronic circuits.

  5. Electronic Universal Vote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian USCATU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the days of informational society everything is going online. Most aspects of our lives have online components. Since democracy is a big issue, it could not escape this trend. Governments themselves are moving to the online environment for the purpose of improving their internal efficiency and their availability to the citizens, businesses and other parties interested. Since governments are the result of elections, elections have also been touched by the electronic fever. New electronic voting solutions arise and each one brings new debates with many arguments in their favor and against them. Accessibility and ease of use leads the arguments in favor of electronic voting over the internet, while fear of fraud is the main reason people are avoiding electronics and clinging on classic paper ballots.

  6. Electron gun for SSRF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A 100 kV triode-electron-gun has been designed and manufactured for the Linac of Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF). In this paper the performance of the gun and some key components are described.

  7. Pulsed plasma electron sourcesa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasik, Ya. E.; Yarmolich, D.; Gleizer, J. Z.; Vekselman, V.; Hadas, Y.; Gurovich, V. Tz.; Felsteiner, J.

    2009-05-01

    There is a continuous interest in research of electron sources which can be used for generation of uniform electron beams produced at E ≤105 V/cm and duration ≤10-5 s. In this review, several types of plasma electron sources will be considered, namely, passive (metal ceramic, velvet and carbon fiber with and without CsI coating, and multicapillary and multislot cathodes) and active (ferroelectric and hollow anodes) plasma sources. The operation of passive sources is governed by the formation of flashover plasma whose parameters depend on the amplitude and rise time of the accelerating electric field. In the case of ferroelectric and hollow-anode plasma sources the plasma parameters are controlled by the driving pulse and discharge current, respectively. Using different time- and space-resolved electrical, optical, spectroscopical, Thomson scattering and x-ray diagnostics, the parameters of the plasma and generated electron beam were characterized.

  8. Scanning Auger Electron Microscope

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — A JEOL model 7830F field emission source, scanning Auger microscope. Specifications / Capabilities: Ultra-high vacuum (UHV), electron gun range from 0.1 kV to 25 kV,...

  9. Scanning Auger Electron Microscope

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — A JEOL model 7830F field emission source, scanning Auger microscope.Specifications / Capabilities:Ultra-high vacuum (UHV), electron gun range from 0.1 kV to 25 kV,...

  10. Telecommunications--Electronic Mail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Luke E.; Zuckerman, B. Michael

    1989-01-01

    This article identifies resources needed in order for physical education, recreation, and dance professionals to use computer-based telecommunications; discusses electronic mail; and explains how telecommunications can enhance communication in the field, both within and across professions. (IAH)

  11. Introduction to electron crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühlbrandt, Werner

    2013-01-01

    From the earliest work on regular arrays in negative stain, electron crystallography has contributed greatly to our understanding of the structure and function of biological macromolecules. The development of electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) then lead to the first groundbreaking atomic models of the membrane proteins bacteriorhodopsin and light harvesting complex II within lipid bilayers. Key contributions towards cryo-EM and electron crystallography methods included specimen preparation and vitrification, liquid-helium cooling, data collection, and image processing. These methods are now applied almost routinely to both membrane and soluble proteins. Here we outline the advances and the breakthroughs that paved the way towards high-resolution structures by electron crystallography, both in terms of methods development and biological milestones.

  12. Electron and Photon ID

    CERN Document Server

    Hryn'ova, Tetiana; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The identification of prompt photons and the rejection of background coming mostly from photons from hadron decays relies on the high granularity of the ATLAS calorimeter. The electron identification used in ATLAS for run 2 is based on a likelihood discrimination to separate isolated electron candidates from candidates originating from photon conversions, hadron misidentification and heavy flavor decays. In addition, isolation variables are used as further handles to separate signal and background. Several methods are used to measure with data the efficiency of the photon identification requirements, to cover a broad energy spectrum. At low energy, photons from radiative Z decays are used. In the medium energy range, similarities between electrons and photon showers are exploited using Z->ee decays. At high energy, inclusive photon samples are used. The measurement of the efficiencies of the electron identification and isolation cuts are performed with the data using tag and probe techniques with large statis...

  13. Electronics Modernization Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Current electronic packaging designs used in our most recent spacecraft are comprised of technologies from the 1980’s and 1990’s. The current approach...

  14. Electronics for guitarists

    CERN Document Server

    Dailey, Denton J

    2014-01-01

    Electronics for Guitarists focuses on analog circuitry, and is written for the guitarist interested in transistor and vacuum tube-based amplifiers. Topics include discrete transistors and diodes, classical filter circuits, and vacuum tube-based amplifiers.

  15. ELECTRONIC BANKING AND ELECTRONIC COMMERCE IN SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana B. Petrevska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, we may witness to dramatic and visible changes in our life environment. Business ambient for companies is different every day, and it is very hard to predict a direction of future changes. There is an environment characterized by sharp competition and increasing number of competitors, fast technological improvements and highly sophisticated and informed costumers. Technological process influences the humanity strongly, changing the way that people live, work and spend. Electronic commerce and electronic banking has become incontinent, and makes a great part of today's total transactions. There are an increasing number of companies that perform their business that way and make profit. Social networks are proven to be the least expensive way of information exchange, and they are present in almost every part of the world. The globalization has reached the most distant parts of the Earth. Every resistance to new technologies is dangerous and may lead to bankruptcy. Due to the EU expansion, Internet users are to be expected, and prosperity of the e-commerce business models at the same time. In Serbia, electronic commerce is present, but not as developed as in EU countries. E-commerce, however it might be successful throughout the world, it is somewhat slow in its growth in Serbia. The reasons are numerous, and main obstacles are the lack of trust, still limited usage of banking cards, avoiding of e-payments by older population etc. Also, the recent scandals over the misuse of personal data, and e-crime are discouraging factors for the growth of e-trade and ebanking. The younger generations are ever more ready to use e-commerce, since they are open to new technologies and do not have the defensive attitude towards it. E-commerce and e-banking has growing potential even among older population, if the society prevents them from fear and mistrust.

  16. Cooling of electronic equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A. Kristensen, Anders Schmidt

    2003-01-01

    Cooling of electronic equipment is studied. The design size of electronic equipment decrease causing the thermal density to increase. This affect the cooling which can cause for example failures of critical components due to overheating or thermal induced stresses. Initially a pin fin heat sink...... is considered as extruded profiles are inadequate for compact designs. An optimal pin fin shape and configuration is sought also taking manufacturing costs into consideration. Standard methods for geometrical modeling and thermal analysis are applied....

  17. Electronic states of myricetin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vojta, Danijela; Karlsen, Eva; Spanget-Larsen, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Myricetin (3,3',4',5,5',7'-hexahydroxyflavone) was investigated by linear dichroism spectroscopy on molecular samples partially aligned in stretched poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). At least five electronic transitions in the range 40000 – 20000 cm–1 were characterized with respect to their wavenumbers......, relative intensities, and transition moment directions. The observed bands were assigned to electronic transitions predicted with TD-B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p)....

  18. Newnes electronics assembly handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Brindley, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Newnes Electronics Assembly Handbook: Techniques, Standards and Quality Assurance focuses on the aspects of electronic assembling. The handbook first looks at the printed circuit board (PCB). Base materials, basic mechanical properties, cleaning of assemblies, design, and PCB manufacturing processes are then explained. The text also discusses surface mounted assemblies and packaging of electromechanical assemblies, as well as the soldering process. Requirements for the soldering process; solderability and protective coatings; cleaning of PCBs; and mass solder/component reflow soldering are des

  19. Electron Beam Ion Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Zschornacka, G.; Schmidt, M.; Thorn, A.

    2014-01-01

    Electron beam ion sources (EBISs) are ion sources that work based on the principle of electron impact ionization, allowing the production of very highly charged ions. The ions produced can be extracted as a DC ion beam as well as ion pulses of different time structures. In comparison to most of the other known ion sources, EBISs feature ion beams with very good beam emittances and a low energy spread. Furthermore, EBISs are excellent sources of photons (X-rays, ultraviolet, extreme ultraviole...

  20. 4D Electron Tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Oh-Hoon; Zewail, Ahmed H.

    2010-01-01

    Electron tomography provides three-dimensional (3D) imaging of noncrystalline and crystalline equilibrium structures, as well as elemental volume composition, of materials and biological specimens, including those of viruses and cells. We report the development of 4D electron tomography by integrating the fourth dimension (time resolution) with the 3D spatial resolution obtained from a complete tilt series of 2D projections of an object. The different time frames of tomograms constitute a mov...

  1. Mathematics for electronic technology

    CERN Document Server

    Howson, D P

    1975-01-01

    Mathematics for Electronic Technology is a nine-chapter book that begins with the elucidation of the introductory concepts related to use of mathematics in electronic engineering, including differentiation, integration, partial differentiation, infinite series, vectors, vector algebra, and surface, volume and line integrals. Subsequent chapters explore the determinants, differential equations, matrix analysis, complex variable, topography, graph theory, and numerical analysis used in this field. The use of Fourier method for harmonic analysis and the Laplace transform is also described. The ma

  2. Electron scattering experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisenberg, J.

    1984-11-01

    Because of the elementary structure of the electron, it is considered a precise probe of the constituent nature of hadronic matter. Use of the electron as a probe of subnucleonic degrees of freedom in nuclei is discussed in this presentation. Experimentally determined charge distributions for a wide variety of nuclei are presented and compared with shell model calculations which include single particle modes, core polarization, corrections due to delta-hole components, and corrections due to inclusion of meson exchange currents. (AIP)

  3. Electronic Portfolios for Scientists

    OpenAIRE

    Dahn, I.; Christmann, A.

    2007-01-01

    Electronic portfolios (ePortfolios) are electronic versions of paper based portfolios. They are increasingly applied in education. Software for building and maintaining ePortfolios is emerging; open specifications for the exchange of ePortfolios exist. They show the potential to serve as a standard tool for documenting achievements in lifelong learning. In this paper we explore the potential of ePortfolios for scientists.

  4. Electrical and electronic principles

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, SA

    1988-01-01

    Electrical and Electronic Principles, 3 focuses on the principles involved in electrical and electronic circuits, including impedance, inductance, capacitance, and resistance.The book first deals with circuit elements and theorems, D.C. transients, and the series circuits of alternating current. Discussions focus on inductance and resistance in series, resistance and capacitance in series, power factor, impedance, circuit magnification, equation of charge, discharge of a capacitor, transfer of power, and decibels and attenuation. The manuscript then examines the parallel circuits of alternatin

  5. The Recycler Electron Cooler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shemyakin, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Prost, L. R. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2013-03-19

    The Recycler Electron cooler was the first (and so far, the only) cooler working at a relativistic energy (γ = 9.5). It was successfully developed in 1995-2004 and was in operation at Fermilab in 2005-2011, providing cooling of antiprotons in the Recycler ring. This paper describes the cooler, difficulties in achieving the required electron beam parameters and the ways to overcome them, cooling measurements, and details of operation.

  6. Trust in Consumer Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kursawe, Klaus; Katzenbeisser, Stefan

    While Trusted Computing is getting increasing attention in the PC world, consumer electronics devices have limited benefit from the Trusted Computing solutions currently under development. In this paper we outline the different requirements of consumer electronics devices, when compared to the PC world, and point out the technical consequences for standards like the Trusted Computing Group. In addition, we will touch on economic aspects that may inhibit or support Trusted Computing in this domain.

  7. Electron spectroscopy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, John C.

    1992-01-01

    The Surface Science Laboratories at the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) are equipped with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS or ESCA) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) facilities. These techniques provide information from the uppermost atomic layers of a sample, and are thus truly surface sensitive. XPS provides both elemental and chemical state information without restriction on the type of material that can be analyzed. The sample is placed into an ultra high vacuum (UHV) chamber and irradiated with x-rays which cause the ejection of photoelectrons from the sample surface. Since x-rays do not normally cause charging problems or beam damage, XPS is applicable to a wide range of samples including metals, polymers, catalysts, and fibers. AES uses a beam of high energy electrons as a surface probe. Following electronic rearrangements within excited atoms by this probe, Auger electrons characteristic of each element present are emitted from the sample. The main advantage of electron induced AES is that the electron beam can be focused down to a small diameter and localized analysis can be carried out. On the rastering of this beam synchronously with a video display using established scanning electron microscopy techniques, physical images and chemical distribution maps of the surface can be produced. Thus very small features, such as electronic circuit elements or corrosion pits in metals, can be investigated. Facilities are available on both XPS and AES instruments for depth-profiling of materials, using a beam of argon ions to sputter away consecutive layers of material to reveal sub-surface (and even semi-bulk) analyses.

  8. Newnes electronics toolkit

    CERN Document Server

    Phillips, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    Newnes Electronics Toolkit brings together fundamental facts, concepts, and applications of electronic components and circuits, and presents them in a clear, concise, and unambiguous format, to provide a reference book for engineers. The book contains 10 chapters that discuss the following concepts: resistors, capacitors, inductors, semiconductors, circuit concepts, electromagnetic compatibility, sound, light, heat, and connections. The engineer's job does not end when the circuit diagram is completed; the design for the manufacturing process is just as important if volume production is to be

  9. Electronic states of myricetin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vojta, Danijela; Karlsen, Eva; Spanget-Larsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Myricetin (3,3',4',5,5',7'-hexahydroxyflavone) was investigated by linear dichroism spectroscopy on molecular samples partially aligned in stretched poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). At least five electronic transitions in the range 40000 – 20000 cm–1 were characterized with respect to their wavenumbers......, relative intensities, and transition moment directions. The observed bands were assigned to electronic transitions predicted with TD-B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p)....

  10. Electronics 3 checkbook

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, S A; May, A J C

    2013-01-01

    Electronics 3 Checkbook provides a concise coverage of the theories and definitions of concepts in electronics. The book provides problems and worked examples to supplement fuller textbooks of the same subject. The coverage of the text includes decibel measurement, operational amplifiers, DA and AD converters, controlled rectifiers, triggering devices, optoelectronic devices, fiber optics, and power amplifiers. The text will be of great use to electrical engineering students who wish to enhance their understanding of the basics of mechanical and electrical science.

  11. Electron Transfer Pathways in Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Liu

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of the electron salvation process data indicates that the electron transfer between the electron donor and acceptor is hindered by the electron salvation process. It is proposed that the electron transfer in the cell environment must be assisted by intermediate messenger called the “transport protein”.

  12. Thermionics basic principles of electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, J; Ashhurst, W

    2013-01-01

    Basic Principles of Electronics, Volume I : Thermionics serves as a textbook for students in physics. It focuses on thermionic devices. The book covers topics on electron dynamics, electron emission, and the themionic vacuum diode and triode. Power amplifiers, oscillators, and electronic measuring equipment are studied as well. The text will be of great use to physics and electronics students, and inventors.

  13. Netiquette in Electronic Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Kozík

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Electronic mail and electronic communications systems are considered significant and effective tools of communication. One of the most widespread electronic communication tools is e - mail communication. In order to avoid misinterpretation of the report on the side of the recipient, it is need to pay attention to the writing of e - mail messages as well as to their content. With the continuous expansion of the use of electronic communication there have gradually developed certain rules of etiquette in electronic communications. The existing rules of the propriety ones are expressed in the term " etiqutte " and are not automatically applied in the new communications environment - media. For electronic communication, the new rules of etiquette have been stabilised into a term NETIQUETTE. The word netiquette was created by combining words NET (net and ETIKETA (a set of rules of social behavior and habits. Netiquette constitutes the rules of the behavior of users on a network. Although the netiquette is merely "an unwritten set of rules", their not using can be understood as a type of disrespect. Analysis of knowledge of domestic and foreign sources as well as results of a survey confirmed the justification of paying attention to the education of individuals in NETIQUETTE, irrespective of the degree of education.

  14. BOK-Printed Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffarian, Reza

    2013-01-01

    The use of printed electronics technologies (PETs), 2D or 3D printing approaches either by conventional electronic fabrication or by rapid graphic printing of organic or nonorganic electronic devices on various small or large rigid or flexible substrates, is projected to grow exponentially in commercial industry. This has provided an opportunity to determine whether or not PETs could be applicable for low volume and high-reliability applications. This report presents a summary of literature surveyed and provides a body of knowledge (BOK) gathered on the current status of organic and printed electronics technologies. It reviews three key industry roadmaps- on this subject-OE-A, ITRS, and iNEMI-each with a different name identification for this emerging technology. This followed by a brief review of the status of the industry on standard development for this technology, including IEEE and IPC specifications. The report concludes with key technologies and applications and provides a technology hierarchy similar to those of conventional microelectronics for electronics packaging. Understanding key technology roadmaps, parameters, and applications is important when judicially selecting and narrowing the follow-up of new and emerging applicable technologies for evaluation, as well as the low risk insertion of organic, large area, and printed electronics.

  15. Good Security Practices for Electronic Commerce, Including Electronic Data Interchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    FROM - TO) xx-xx-2002 to xx-xx-2002 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Good Security Practices for Electronic Commerce , Including Electronic Data Interchange...Report 12/1/1993 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Good Security Practices for Electronic Commerce , Including Electronic Data Interchange 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6...Maximum 200 Words) Electronic commerce (EC) is the use of documents in electronic form, rather than paper, for carrying out functions of business or

  16. Electron holes in inhomogeneous magnetic field: electron heating and electron hole evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasko, Ivan; Agapitov, Oleksiy; Mozer, Forrest; Artemyev, Anton; Drake, James

    2016-04-01

    Electron holes are electrostatic non-linear structures widely observed in the space plasma, e.g., in reconnecting current sheets, collisionless bow shocks, Earth auroral region and outer radiation belt etc. In the present paper we analyze the process of energy exchange between trapped electrons, untrapped electrons and electron hole propagating in weakly inhomogeneous magnetic field. We show that as electron hole propagates into the region with stronger magnetic field, trapped electrons are heated due to conservation of the first adiabatic invariant. At the same time electron hole may grow or dissipate in dependence on peculiarities of distribution functions of trapped and resonant untrapped electrons. The energy gain of trapped electrons is due to energy losses of resonant electrons and/or decrease of electron hole energy (electrostatic energy and kinetic energy of non-resonant electrons). We stress that taking into account the energy exchange with resonant untrapped electrons increases the heating factor of trapped electrons that is proportional to the magnetic field magnitude in the region up to what electron holes survive. We illustrate the suggested mechanism for H. Schamel's electron holes and show that during propagation along a positive magnetic field gradient their amplitude should grow. Neglect of energy exchange with resonant untrapped electrons would result electron hole dissipation with only modest heating factor of trapped electrons. We argue that the suggested mechanism may be responsible for generation of energetic electrons in the space plasma.

  17. Runaway electrons and ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boozer, Allen H.

    2017-05-01

    The potential for damage, the magnitude of the extrapolation, and the importance of the atypical—incidents that occur once in a thousand shots—make theory and simulation essential for ensuring that relativistic runaway electrons will not prevent ITER from achieving its mission. Most of the theoretical literature on electron runaway assumes magnetic surfaces exist. ITER planning for the avoidance of halo and runaway currents is focused on massive-gas or shattered-pellet injection of impurities. In simulations of experiments, such injections lead to a rapid large-scale magnetic-surface breakup. Surface breakup, which is a magnetic reconnection, can occur on a quasi-ideal Alfvénic time scale when the resistance is sufficiently small. Nevertheless, the removal of the bulk of the poloidal flux, as in halo-current mitigation, is on a resistive time scale. The acceleration of electrons to relativistic energies requires the confinement of some tubes of magnetic flux within the plasma and a resistive time scale. The interpretation of experiments on existing tokamaks and their extrapolation to ITER should carefully distinguish confined versus unconfined magnetic field lines and quasi-ideal versus resistive evolution. The separation of quasi-ideal from resistive evolution is extremely challenging numerically, but is greatly simplified by constraints of Maxwell’s equations, and in particular those associated with magnetic helicity. The physics of electron runaway along confined magnetic field lines is clarified by relations among the poloidal flux change required for an e-fold in the number of electrons, the energy distribution of the relativistic electrons, and the number of relativistic electron strikes that can be expected in a single disruption event.

  18. Beginning analog electronics through projects

    CERN Document Server

    Singmin, Andrew

    2001-01-01

    Analog electronics is the simplest way to start a fun, informative, learning program. Beginning Analog Electronics Through Projects, Second Edition was written with the needs of beginning hobbyists and students in mind. This revision of Andrew Singmin's popular Beginning Electronics Through Projects provides practical exercises, building techniques, and ideas for useful electronics projects. Additionally, it features new material on analog and digital electronics, and new projects for troubleshooting test equipment.Published in the tradition of Beginning Electronics Through Projects an

  19. Cooling system for electronic components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderl, William James; Colgan, Evan George; Gerken, James Dorance; Marroquin, Christopher Michael; Tian, Shurong

    2016-05-17

    Embodiments of the present invention provide for non interruptive fluid cooling of an electronic enclosure. One or more electronic component packages may be removable from a circuit card having a fluid flow system. When installed, the electronic component packages are coincident to and in a thermal relationship with the fluid flow system. If a particular electronic component package becomes non-functional, it may be removed from the electronic enclosure without affecting either the fluid flow system or other neighboring electronic component packages.

  20. Cooling system for electronic components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderl, William James; Colgan, Evan George; Gerken, James Dorance; Marroquin, Christopher Michael; Tian, Shurong

    2015-12-15

    Embodiments of the present invention provide for non interruptive fluid cooling of an electronic enclosure. One or more electronic component packages may be removable from a circuit card having a fluid flow system. When installed, the electronic component packages are coincident to and in a thermal relationship with the fluid flow system. If a particular electronic component package becomes non-functional, it may be removed from the electronic enclosure without affecting either the fluid flow system or other neighboring electronic component packages.

  1. Relative toxicity of oil dispersants to Mytilus viridis and Macrobrachium idella

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSilva, C.; Row, A.

    There was a great variation in the relative toxicity of different oil dispersants. Dispersant IB 2/80 was most toxic and dispersant IB 11/80 was not lethal at the highest concentration tested. The ranking order of the emulsions (oil dispersant...

  2. Microfluidic stretchable RF electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shi; Wu, Zhigang

    2010-12-07

    Stretchable electronics is a revolutionary technology that will potentially create a world of radically different electronic devices and systems that open up an entirely new spectrum of possibilities. This article proposes a microfluidic based solution for stretchable radio frequency (RF) electronics, using hybrid integration of active circuits assembled on flex foils and liquid alloy passive structures embedded in elastic substrates, e.g. polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). This concept was employed to implement a 900 MHz stretchable RF radiation sensor, consisting of a large area elastic antenna and a cluster of conventional rigid components for RF power detection. The integrated radiation sensor except the power supply was fully embedded in a thin elastomeric substrate. Good electrical performance of the standalone stretchable antenna as well as the RF power detection sub-module was verified by experiments. The sensor successfully detected the RF radiation over 5 m distance in the system demonstration. Experiments on two-dimensional (2D) stretching up to 15%, folding and twisting of the demonstrated sensor were also carried out. Despite the integrated device was severely deformed, no failure in RF radiation sensing was observed in the tests. This technique illuminates a promising route of realizing stretchable and foldable large area integrated RF electronics that are of great interest to a variety of applications like wearable computing, health monitoring, medical diagnostics, and curvilinear electronics.

  3. Electron microscope phase enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jian; Glaeser, Robert M.

    2010-06-15

    A microfabricated electron phase shift element is used for modifying the phase characteristics of an electron beam passing though its center aperture, while not affecting the more divergent portion of an incident beam to selectively provide a ninety-degree phase shift to the unscattered beam in the back focal plan of the objective lens, in order to realize Zernike-type, in-focus phase contrast in an electron microscope. One application of the element is to increase the contrast of an electron microscope for viewing weakly scattering samples while in focus. Typical weakly scattering samples include biological samples such as macromolecules, or perhaps cells. Preliminary experimental images demonstrate that these devices do apply a ninety degree phase shift as expected. Electrostatic calculations have been used to determine that fringing fields in the region of the scattered electron beams will cause a negligible phase shift as long as the ratio of electrode length to the transverse feature-size aperture is about 5:1. Calculations are underway to determine the feasibility of aspect smaller aspect ratios of about 3:1 and about 2:1.

  4. Electronic Spectroscopy & Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Maroncelli, Nancy Ryan Gray

    2010-06-08

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on Electronic Spectroscopy and Dynamics was held at Colby College, Waterville, NH from 07/19/2009 thru 07/24/2009. The Conference was well-attended with participants (attendees list attached). The attendees represented the spectrum of endeavor in this field coming from academia, industry, and government laboratories, both U.S. and foreign scientists, senior researchers, young investigators, and students. The GRC on Electronic Spectroscopy & Dynamics showcases some of the most recent experimental and theoretical developments in electronic spectroscopy that probes the structure and dynamics of isolated molecules, molecules embedded in clusters and condensed phases, and bulk materials. Electronic spectroscopy is an important tool in many fields of research, and this GRC brings together experts having diverse backgrounds in physics, chemistry, biophysics, and materials science, making the meeting an excellent opportunity for the interdisciplinary exchange of ideas and techniques. Topics covered in this GRC include high-resolution spectroscopy, biological molecules in the gas phase, electronic structure theory for excited states, multi-chromophore and single-molecule spectroscopies, and excited state dynamics in chemical and biological systems.

  5. Reversibly Bistable Flexible Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Alfaraj, Nasir

    2015-05-01

    Introducing the notion of transformational silicon electronics has paved the way for integrating various applications with silicon-based, modern, high-performance electronic circuits that are mechanically flexible and optically semitransparent. While maintaining large-scale production and prototyping rapidity, this flexible and translucent scheme demonstrates the potential to transform conventionally stiff electronic devices into thin and foldable ones without compromising long-term performance and reliability. In this work, we report on the fabrication and characterization of reversibly bistable flexible electronic switches that utilize flexible n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors. The transistors are fabricated initially on rigid (100) silicon substrates before they are peeled off. They can be used to control flexible batches of light-emitting diodes, demonstrating both the relative ease of scaling at minimum cost and maximum reliability and the feasibility of integration. The peeled-off silicon fabric is about 25 µm thick. The fabricated devices are transferred to a reversibly bistable flexible platform through which, for example, a flexible smartphone can be wrapped around a user’s wrist and can also be set back to its original mechanical position. Buckling and cyclic bending of such host platforms brings a completely new dimension to the development of flexible electronics, especially rollable displays.

  6. Electronic Commerce user manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-10

    This User Manual supports the Electronic Commerce Standard System. The Electronic Commerce Standard System is being developed for the Department of Defense of the Technology Information Systems Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, operated by the University of California for the Department of Energy. The Electronic Commerce Standard System, or EC as it is known, provides the capability for organizations to conduct business electronically instead of through paper transactions. Electronic Commerce and Computer Aided Acquisition and Logistics Support, are two major projects under the DoD`s Corporate Information Management program, whose objective is to make DoD business transactions faster and less costly by using computer networks instead of paper forms and postage. EC runs on computers that use the UNIX operating system and provides a standard set of applications and tools that are bound together by a common command and menu system. These applications and tools may vary according to the requirements of the customer or location and may be customized to meet the specific needs of an organization. Local applications can be integrated into the menu system under the Special Databases & Applications option on the EC main menu. These local applications will be documented in the appendices of this manual. This integration capability provides users with a common environment of standard and customized applications.

  7. Electronic Commerce user manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-10

    This User Manual supports the Electronic Commerce Standard System. The Electronic Commerce Standard System is being developed for the Department of Defense of the Technology Information Systems Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, operated by the University of California for the Department of Energy. The Electronic Commerce Standard System, or EC as it is known, provides the capability for organizations to conduct business electronically instead of through paper transactions. Electronic Commerce and Computer Aided Acquisition and Logistics Support, are two major projects under the DoD's Corporate Information Management program, whose objective is to make DoD business transactions faster and less costly by using computer networks instead of paper forms and postage. EC runs on computers that use the UNIX operating system and provides a standard set of applications and tools that are bound together by a common command and menu system. These applications and tools may vary according to the requirements of the customer or location and may be customized to meet the specific needs of an organization. Local applications can be integrated into the menu system under the Special Databases Applications option on the EC main menu. These local applications will be documented in the appendices of this manual. This integration capability provides users with a common environment of standard and customized applications.

  8. Pulsed electron beam precharger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finney, W.C. (ed.); Shelton, W.N.

    1990-01-01

    Electrostatic collection of a high resistivity aerosol using the Electron Beam Precipitator (EBP) collecting section was demonstrated during this reporting period (Quarter Five). Collection efficiency experiments were designed to confirm and extend some of the work performed under the previous contract. The reason for doing this was to attempt to improve upon the collection efficiency of the precipitator alone when testing with a very high resistivity, moderate-to-high concentration dust load. From the collector shakedown runs, a set of suitable operational parameters were determined for the downstream electrostatic collecting sections of the Electron Beam Precipitator wind tunnel. These parameters, along with those for the MINACC electron beam, will generally be held constant while the numerous precharging parameters are varied to produce an optimum particle charge. The electrostatic collector experiments were part of a larger, comprehensive investigation on electron beam precharging of high resistivity aerosol particles performed during the period covered by Quarters Five, Six, and Seven. This body of work used the same experimental apparatus and procedures and the experimental run period lasted nearly continuously for six months. A summary of the Quarter Five work is presented in the following paragraphs. Section II-A of TPR 5 contains a report on the continuing effort which was expended on the modification and upgrade of the pulsed power supply and the monitoring systems prior to the initiation of the electron beam precharging experimental work.

  9. Electron correlation in beryllium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omiste, Juan J.; Li, Wenliang; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2017-01-01

    We apply a three-dimensional implementation of the time-dependent restricted-active-space self-consistent-field (TD-RASSCF) method to investigate effects of electron correlation in the ground state of Be as well as in its photoionization dynamics by short XUV pulses, including time delay in photo......We apply a three-dimensional implementation of the time-dependent restricted-active-space self-consistent-field (TD-RASSCF) method to investigate effects of electron correlation in the ground state of Be as well as in its photoionization dynamics by short XUV pulses, including time delay...... schemes, and in this way we identify the orbital spaces that are relevant for an accurate description of the photoelectron spectra. Finally, we investigate the effects of electron correlation on the magnitude of the relative Eisenbud-Wigner-Smith (EWS) time delay in the photoionization process into two...... different ionic channels. One channel, the ground-state channel in the ion, is accessible without electron correlation. The other channel is only accessible when including electron correlation. For theory beyond the mean-field time-dependent Hartree-Fock, the EWS time delay for the photon energy analyzed...

  10. Electronic Submissions of Pesticide Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applications for pesticide registration can be submitted electronically, including forms, studies, and draft product labeling. Applicants need not submit multiple electronic copies of any pieces of their applications.

  11. Phasor power electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Rim, Chun T

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive introduction to the principles of power electronics, focusing on the switched transformer concept and phasor transformation techniques as employed in the analysis and design of power electronic circuits. Phasor transformations, as introduced in this book, make the time-varying nature of a switching converter simple and easy to handle, transforming it into an equivalent time-invariant circuit. The book starts with an introduction to the philosophy and fundamental principles of power electronics. The switched transformer concept, which is applicable to any switching converter, is introduced, and it is shown how DC-DC converters analyses are then so straightforward that very little equational manipulation is needed. Then the phasor transformation techniques are comprehensively explained over three parts. Single phase and multi-phase AC systems are dealt with through the single phase phasor transformation and circuit DQ transformation, respectively. A general unified phasor tran...

  12. Understanding the Electron

    CERN Document Server

    Knuth, Kevin H

    2015-01-01

    Well over a century after the discovery of the electron, we are still faced with serious conceptual issues regarding precisely what an electron is. Since the development of particle physics and the Standard Model, we have accumulated a great deal of knowledge about the relationships among various subatomic particles. However, this knowledge has not significantly aided in our understanding of the fundamental nature of any particular elementary subatomic particle. The fact that many particle properties, such as position, time, speed, energy, momentum, and component of spin, are observer-dependent suggests that these relevant variables do not represent properties per se, but rather the relationship between the observer and the observed. That is, they reflect details about how the electron influences the observer, and vice versa. Here we attempt to understand this by considering a simple model where particles influence one another in a discrete and direct fashion. The resulting framework, referred to as Influence...

  13. On Zitterbewegung of Electron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhi-yong; XIONG Cai-dong; ZHOU Ping

    2005-01-01

    Traditionally, all the discussions on zitterbewegung (zbw) of electron are based on relativistic quantum mechanics. In this article, from the viewpoint of quantum field theory and in terms of the creation and annihilation operators as well as the polarization vectors of spin-1 field, a more detailed description and some new perspectives for zbw are obtained. Especially, it is shown that zbw arises from a to-and-fro vacuum polarization that occurring in the neighborhood of electron; the zbw vectors form a vector triplet with total spin projections 0 and ±1 in the direction of the momentum of electron, respectively; the macroscopic velocity of the vacuum medium vanishes in all inertial systems.

  14. Electronic apex locators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, M P J; Chandler, N P

    2004-07-01

    Prior to root canal treatment at least one undistorted radiograph is required to assess canal morphology. The apical extent of instrumentation and the final root filling have a role in treatment success, and are primarily determined radiographically. Electronic apex locators reduce the number of radiographs required and assist where radiographic methods create difficulty. They may also indicate cases where the apical foramen is some distance from the radiographic apex. Other roles include the detection of root canal perforation. A review of the literature focussed first on the subject of electronic apex location. A second review used the names of apex location devices. From the combined searches, 113 pertinent articles in English were found. This paper reviews the development, action, use and types of electronic apex locators.

  15. Electron Technology: ELTE 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisarkiewicz, Tadeusz; Kucewicz, Wojciech

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we present a review of research results and technical accomplishments presented by researchers from technical universities, governmental institutes and research companies during the XIIth Scientific Conference Electron Technology, ELTE 2016. This review is based on materials presented at four topical conference sessions: Microelectronics and Nanoelectronics, Photonics, Materials and Technologies, and Microsystems and also on materials presented by invited speakers at two dedicated sessions. Oral sessions were accompanied by the poster sessions. In effect about 50 papers gathered in this volume reflect the topics discussed at the Conference. A short description of technological and measurement possibilities in the laboratories of Academic Centre for Materials and Nanotechnology and also in the Department of Electronics of the Faculty of Computer Science, Electronics and Telecommunications AGH UST are given.

  16. Microelectronics improves power electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, R.

    1982-07-01

    The share of electric energy consumed by electric drives - called power current - can be used more efficiently by using power electronic regulating processes. Lower cost for power electronic components and progress in circuit technology are the decisive factors for the widespread use of regulating units. Microelectronics permit a cost-beneficial control of power regulating units, are made them more attractive for the user. Technical and economic attractivity of power electronic regulating processes have increased. These processes are mainly used for adjusting engine speed to the other process engineering parameters like pressure, output or speed. Optimization of power-current consuming processes are expected to achieve an energy saving potential of 15 TWh by the year 1995.

  17. 4D Electron Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Oh-Hoon; Zewail, Ahmed H.

    2010-06-01

    Electron tomography provides three-dimensional (3D) imaging of noncrystalline and crystalline equilibrium structures, as well as elemental volume composition, of materials and biological specimens, including those of viruses and cells. We report the development of 4D electron tomography by integrating the fourth dimension (time resolution) with the 3D spatial resolution obtained from a complete tilt series of 2D projections of an object. The different time frames of tomograms constitute a movie of the object in motion, thus enabling studies of nonequilibrium structures and transient processes. The method was demonstrated using carbon nanotubes of a bracelet-like ring structure for which 4D tomograms display different modes of motion, such as breathing and wiggling, with resonance frequencies up to 30 megahertz. Applications can now make use of the full space-time range with the nanometer-femtosecond resolution of ultrafast electron tomography.

  18. Electronic network links physicists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Now that AGU is a member of the American Institute of Physics (AIP) (see item on page 150), AGU members may access Pi-NET, the Physics Information Network developed by AIP on behalf of its member societies. The electronic network will be available after March 31, 1986, to members of AIP member and affiliate societies for the cost of a local telephone call.This electronic database service provides listings of job opportunities in physics, calendars of meetings, advance abstracts of more than 40 journals published by AIP and member societies, brief announcements and news items, titles of journal articles from AIP's Searchable Physics Information Notices (SPIN) database, and an electronic catalog and on-line ordering of publications from AIP and member societies. AGU journals will be included in the database shortly.

  19. Laser assisted electron dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bray, Alexander William

    2016-01-01

    We apply the convergent close-coupling (CCC) formalism to analyse the processes of laser assisted electron impact ionisation of He, and the attosecond time delay in the photodetachment of the H^{-} ion and the photoionisation of He. Such time dependent atomic collision processes are of considerable interest as experimental measurements on the relevant timescale (attoseconds 10^{-18} s) are now possible utilising ultrafast and intense laser pulses. These processes in particular are furthermore of interest as they are strongly influenced by many-electron correlations. In such cases their theoretical description requires a more comprehensive treatment than that offered by first order perturbation theory. We apply such a treatment through the use of the CCC formalism which involves the complete numeric solution of the integral Lippmann-Schwinger equations pertaining to a particular scattering event. For laser assisted electron impact ionisation of He such a treatment is of a considerably greater accuracy than the...

  20. Relativistic Runaway Electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breizman, Boris

    2014-10-01

    This talk covers recent developments in the theory of runaway electrons in a tokamak with an emphasis on highly relativistic electrons produced via the avalanche mechanism. The rapidly growing population of runaway electrons can quickly replace a large part of the initial current carried by the bulk plasma electrons. The magnetic energy associated with this current is typically much greater than the particle kinetic energy. The current of a highly relativistic runaway beam is insensitive to the particle energy, which separates the description of the runaway current evolution from the description of the runaway energy spectrum. A strongly anisotropic distribution of fast electrons is generally prone to high-frequency kinetic instabilities that may cause beneficial enhancement of runaway energy losses. The relevant instabilities are in the frequency range of whistler waves and electron plasma waves. The instability thresholds reported in earlier work have been revised considerably to reflect strong dependence of collisional damping on the wave frequency and the role of plasma non-uniformity, including radial trapping of the excited waves in the plasma. The talk also includes a discussion of enhanced scattering of the runaways as well as the combined effect of enhanced scattering and synchrotron radiation. A noteworthy feature of the avalanche-produced runaway current is a self-sustained regime of marginal criticality: the inductive electric field has to be close to its critical value (representing avalanche threshold) at every location where the runaway current density is finite, and the current density should vanish at any point where the electric field drops below its critical value. This nonlinear Ohm's law enables complete description of the evolving current profile. Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Contract No. DEFG02-04ER54742 and by ITER contract ITER-CT-12-4300000273. The views and opinions expressed herein do not necessarily reflect those of

  1. Electron-electron correlations in liquid s-p metals

    CERN Document Server

    Leys, F E

    2003-01-01

    We present calculations for the valence electron-electron structure factor in liquid Mg near freezing, assuming knowledge of the jellium result. On the basis of this, we predict significant corrections to jellium short-range correlations in liquid s-p metals and in particular an increase in the electron-electron contact probability.

  2. Electron kinetics in capacitively coupled plasmas modulated by electron injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya; Peng, Yanli; Innocenti, Maria Elena; Jiang, Wei; Wang, Hong-yu; Lapenta, Giovanni

    2017-09-01

    The controlling effect of an electron injection on the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) and on the energetic electron flux, in a capacitive radio-frequency argon plasma, is studied using a one-dimensional particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo collisions model. The input power of the electron beam is as small as several tens of Watts with laboratory achievable emission currents and energies. With the electron injection, the electron temperature decreases but with a significant high energy tail. The electron density, electron temperature in the sheath, and electron heating rate increase with the increasing emission energy. This is attributed to the extra heating of the energetic electrons in the EEDF tail. The non-equilibrium EEDF is obtained for strong non-local distributions of the electric field, electron heating rate, excitation, and ionization rate, indicating the discharge has transited from a volume heating (α-mode dominated) into a sheath heating (γ-mode dominated) type. In addition, the electron injection not only modifies the self-bias voltage, but also enhances the electron flux that can reach the electrodes. Moreover, the relative population of energetic electrons significantly increases with the electron injection compared to that without the electron injection, relevant for modifying the gas and surface chemistry reactions.

  3. Advances in quantum electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Goodwin, D W

    1974-01-01

    Advances in Quantum Electronics, Volume 2 deals with the effects of quantum mechanics on the behavior of electrons in matter. This book is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1 reviews the statistical properties of optical fields and spectral processing techniques, including the use of photon correlation techniques to measure scattering effects in a number of different media. The use of optical E.P.R. and excitation spectroscopic techniques and techniques for establishing the location of impurity ions in the chalcogenides are describe in Chapter 2. The last chapter surveys the field of mode l

  4. Recycling of electronic scrap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Jens Brøbech

    This Ph.D. thesis deals with the growingly important field of electronics recycling with special attention to the problem of printed circuit board recycling. A literature survey of contemporary electronics recycling and printed circuit board recycling is presented.Further, an analysis of the role...... in the metals producing industry is presented and tested on two printed circuit board scrap cases. The underlying idea for the method is that complex scrap should be introduced in the matrix of man-made material flows at recipient points where the scrap constitutes the least environmental problem and where...

  5. Advances in electronic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Kasper, Erich; Grimmeiss, Hermann G

    2008-01-01

    This special-topic volume, Advances in Electronic Materials, covers various fields of materials research such as silicon, silicon-germanium hetero-structures, high-k materials, III-V semiconductor alloys and organic materials, as well as nano-structures for spintronics and photovoltaics. It begins with a brief summary of the formative years of microelectronics; now the keystone of information technology. The latter remains one of the most important global technologies, and is an extremely complex subject-area. Although electronic materials are primarily associated with computers, the internet

  6. Electronically configured battery pack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemper, D.

    1997-03-01

    Battery packs for portable equipment must sometimes accommodate conflicting requirements to meet application needs. An electronically configurable battery pack was developed to support two highly different operating modes, one requiring very low power consumption at a low voltage and the other requiring high power consumption at a higher voltage. The configurable battery pack optimizes the lifetime and performance of the system by making the best use of all available energy thus enabling the system to meet its goals of operation, volume, and lifetime. This paper describes the cell chemistry chosen, the battery pack electronics, and tradeoffs made during the evolution of its design.

  7. Conventional transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winey, Mark; Meehl, Janet B; O'Toole, Eileen T; Giddings, Thomas H

    2014-02-01

    Researchers have used transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to make contributions to cell biology for well over 50 years, and TEM continues to be an important technology in our field. We briefly present for the neophyte the components of a TEM-based study, beginning with sample preparation through imaging of the samples. We point out the limitations of TEM and issues to be considered during experimental design. Advanced electron microscopy techniques are listed as well. Finally, we point potential new users of TEM to resources to help launch their project.

  8. Electronics for technicians

    CERN Document Server

    Crane, P W

    2013-01-01

    Electronics for Technicians covers the basic fundamentals of electronics, including the operation of devices and circuits. The book is meant to help the technician to obtain numerical answers to actual circuit problems. This volume consists of seven chapters, the first of which introduces the reader to the basic rules for circuits containing resistive and reactive elements. Charge and discharge of a capacitor through a resistor is discussed, along with charge and discharge of an inductance through a resistance, application of sinusoidal voltages to simple networks, and series and parallel LCR

  9. Precision electron polarimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chudakov, E. [Jefferson Lab 12000 Jefferson Ave, STE 16, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)

    2013-11-07

    A new generation of precise Parity-Violating experiments will require a sub-percent accuracy of electron beam polarimetry. Compton polarimetry can provide such accuracy at high energies, but at a few hundred MeV the small analyzing power limits the sensitivity. Mo/ller polarimetry provides a high analyzing power independent on the beam energy, but is limited by the properties of the polarized targets commonly used. Options for precision polarimetry at 300 MeV will be discussed, in particular a proposal to use ultra-cold atomic hydrogen traps to provide a 100%-polarized electron target for Mo/ller polarimetry.

  10. Pulsed Electron Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Germann, Matthias; Escher, Conrad; Fink, Hans-Werner

    2013-01-01

    A technique of pulsed low-energy electron holography is introduced that allows for recording highly resolved holograms within reduced exposure times. Therefore, stacks of holograms are accumulated in a pulsed mode with individual acquisition times as short as 50 {\\mu}s. Subsequently, these holograms are aligned and finally superimposed. The resulting holographic record reveals previously latent high-order interference fringes and thereby pushing interference resolution into the sub-nanometer regime. In view of the non-damaging character of low-energy electrons, the method is of particular interest for structural analysis of fragile biomolecules.

  11. Electronics 2 checkbook

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, S A

    2013-01-01

    Electronics 2 Checkbook is an 11-chapter text that presents problems and worked examples to establish and exemplify the theory contained in technical syllabuses, with a particular emphasis on electronics.The introductory chapters review the elementary theory of semiconductors and the p-n junction diode. The subsequent chapters deal with the applications of diode, the characteristics of bipolar transistors, and the mode of operation of small signal amplifiers. These topics are followed by discussions of the function of the field-effect transistor and power supplies. The concluding chapters expl

  12. VLSI electronics microstructure science

    CERN Document Server

    1981-01-01

    VLSI Electronics: Microstructure Science, Volume 3 evaluates trends for the future of very large scale integration (VLSI) electronics and the scientific base that supports its development.This book discusses the impact of VLSI on computer architectures; VLSI design and design aid requirements; and design, fabrication, and performance of CCD imagers. The approaches, potential, and progress of ultra-high-speed GaAs VLSI; computer modeling of MOSFETs; and numerical physics of micron-length and submicron-length semiconductor devices are also elaborated. This text likewise covers the optical linewi

  13. Electronic Word of Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunst, Katrine

    It is widely recognized that the transition from Word-of-mouth (WOM) to electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) allows for a wider and faster spread of information. However, little attention has been given to how digital channels expand the types of information consumers share. In this paper, we argue...... of the concepts do not capture this new kind of consumer-to-consumer information transfer about products and services. Consequently, we suggest an extension of those concepts: Electronic Word of Behavior....

  14. Modern electronic maintenance principles

    CERN Document Server

    Garland, DJ

    2013-01-01

    Modern Electronic Maintenance Principles reviews the principles of maintaining modern, complex electronic equipment, with emphasis on preventive and corrective maintenance. Unfamiliar subjects such as the half-split method of fault location, functional diagrams, and fault finding guides are explained. This book consists of 12 chapters and begins by stressing the need for maintenance principles and discussing the problem of complexity as well as the requirements for a maintenance technician. The next chapter deals with the connection between reliability and maintenance and defines the terms fai

  15. Practical electronics handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Sinclair, Ian R

    1988-01-01

    Practical Electronics Handbook, Second Edition covers information useful in electronics, with focus on mathematical conventions. The handbook discusses the passive (resistors, capacitors, band coding, and inductors) and active discrete (diodes, transistors and negative feedback) components; discrete component circuits; and transferring digital data. Linear I.C.s, which are the single-chip arrangements of amplifier circuits that are intended to be biased and operated in a linear way, and digital I.C.s, which process signals and consist of two significant voltage levels, are also considered. T

  16. Gallium nitride electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Siddharth; Jena, Debdeep

    2013-07-01

    In the past two decades, there has been increasing research and industrial activity in the area of gallium nitride (GaN) electronics, stimulated first by the successful demonstration of GaN LEDs. While the promise of wide band gap semiconductors for power electronics was recognized many years before this by one of the contributors to this issue (J Baliga), the success in the area of LEDs acted as a catalyst. It set the field of GaN electronics in motion, and today the technology is improving the performance of several applications including RF cell phone base stations and military radar. GaN could also play a very important role in reducing worldwide energy consumption by enabling high efficiency compact power converters operating at high voltages and lower frequencies. While GaN electronics is a rapidly evolving area with active research worldwide, this special issue provides an opportunity to capture some of the great advances that have been made in the last 15 years. The issue begins with a section on epitaxy and processing, followed by an overview of high-frequency HEMTs, which have been the most commercially successful application of III-nitride electronics to date. This is followed by review and research articles on power-switching transistors, which are currently of great interest to the III-nitride community. A section of this issue is devoted to the reliability of III-nitride devices, an area that is of increasing significance as the research focus has moved from not just high performance but also production-worthiness and long-term usage of these devices. Finally, a group of papers on new and relatively less studied ideas for III-nitride electronics, such as interband tunneling, heterojunction bipolar transistors, and high-temperature electronics is included. These areas point to new areas of research and technological innovation going beyond the state of the art into the future. We hope that the breadth and quality of articles in this issue will make it

  17. Electronics made simple

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, George H

    1987-01-01

    Electronics: Made Simple covers the fundamental principles, basic devices, characteristics, and application of electronic equipment.This book is divided into 15 chapters and begins with reviews of the properties and behavior of resistors, capacitors, inductors, and semiconductor devices. Considerable chapters deal with how these devices can be assembled into useful fundamental circuits such as amplifiers, oscillators and power supplies. These topics are followed by discussions of the importance of integrated circuits and the use of digital equipment and photocells in control and computing appa

  18. Electronic components and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Sangwine, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    Most introductory textbooks in electronics focus on the theory while leaving the practical aspects to be covered in laboratory courses. However, the sooner such matters are introduced, the better able students will be to include such important concerns as parasitic effects and reliability at the very earliest stages of design. This philosophy has kept Electronic Components and Technology thriving for two decades, and this completely updated third edition continues the approach with a more international outlook.Not only does this textbook introduce the properties, behavior, fabrication, and use

  19. Nanotube electronics and optoelectronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phaedon Avouris

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Among the many materials that have been proposed to supplement and, in the long run, possibly succeed Si as a basis for nanoelectronics, carbon nanotubes (CNTs have attracted the most attention. CNTs are quasi-one-dimensional materials with unique properties ideally suited for electronics. We briefly discuss the electrical and optical properties of CNTs and how they can be employed in electronics and optoelectronics. We focus on single CNT transistors, their fabrication, assembly, doping, electrical characteristics, and integration. We also address the possible use of CNTs in optoelectronic devices such as electroluminescent light emitters and photodetectors.

  20. Relativistic electronic dressing

    CERN Document Server

    Attaourti, Y

    2002-01-01

    We study the effects of the relativistic electronic dressing in laser-assisted electron-hydrogen atom elastic collisions. We begin by considering the case when no radiation is present. This is necessary in order to check the consistency of our calculations and we then carry out the calculations using the relativistic Dirac-Volkov states. It turns out that a simple formal analogy links the analytical expressions of the differential cross section without laser and the differential cross section in presence of a laser field.

  1. Diagnostic electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickersin, G.R.

    1988-01-01

    In this book the author presents a comprehensive reference text on diagnostic electron microscopy. Throughout the book he illustrates how ultrastructural identification can be helpful for the recognition of cell type and the identification of mechanisms of pathogenesis in various diseases. In addition to electron microscopy photographs, there are also numerous light microscopy photographs for comparison. This text presents the classification of neoplasms in the order and arrangement most familiar to the pathologist. Contents: Introduction; Diagram of a Normal Cell; Normal Cell Function; Embryology; Neoplasms; Infectious Agents; Metabolic Diseases; Renal Diseases; Skeletal Muscle and Peripheral Nerve Diseases; Index.

  2. Electronic logic circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, J

    2013-01-01

    Most branches of organizing utilize digital electronic systems. This book introduces the design of such systems using basic logic elements as the components. The material is presented in a straightforward manner suitable for students of electronic engineering and computer science. The book is also of use to engineers in related disciplines who require a clear introduction to logic circuits. This third edition has been revised to encompass the most recent advances in technology as well as the latest trends in components and notation. It includes a wide coverage of application specific integrate

  3. Precision electron polarimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chudakov, Eugene A. [JLAB

    2013-11-01

    A new generation of precise Parity-Violating experiments will require a sub-percent accuracy of electron beam polarimetry. Compton polarimetry can provide such accuracy at high energies, but at a few hundred MeV the small analyzing power limits the sensitivity. M{\\o}ller polarimetry provides a high analyzing power independent on the beam energy, but is limited by the properties of the polarized targets commonly used. Options for precision polarimetry at ~300 MeV will be discussed, in particular a proposal to use ultra-cold atomic hydrogen traps to provide a 100\\%-polarized electron target for M{\\o}ller polarimetry.

  4. Improved electron transport layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention provides: a method of preparing a coating ink for forming a zinc oxide electron transport layer, comprising mixing zinc acetate and a wetting agent in water or methanol; a coating ink comprising zinc acetate and a wetting agent in aqueous solution or methanolic solution...

  5. Using Electronic Portfolios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Deb

    2012-01-01

    The digitized collections of artifacts known as electronic portfolios are creating solutions to a variety of performance improvement needs in ways that are cost-effective and improve both individual and group learning and performance. When social media functionality is embedded in e-portfolios, the tools support collaboration, social learning,…

  6. Quantitative Electron Nanodiffraction.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spence, John [Arizona State Univ., Mesa, AZ (United States)

    2015-01-30

    This Final report summarizes progress under this award for the final reporting period 2002 - 2013 in our development of quantitive electron nanodiffraction to materials problems, especially devoted to atomistic processes in semiconductors and electronic oxides such as the new artificial oxide multilayers, where our microdiffraction is complemented with energy-loss spectroscopy (ELNES) and aberration-corrected STEM imaging (9). The method has also been used to map out the chemical bonds in the important GaN semiconductor (1) used for solid state lighting, and to understand the effects of stacking sequence variations and interfaces in digital oxide superlattices (8). Other projects include the development of a laser-beam Zernike phase plate for cryo-electron microscopy (5) (based on the Kapitza-Dirac effect), work on reconstruction of molecular images using the scattering from many identical molecules lying in random orientations (4), a review article on space-group determination for the International Tables on Crystallography (10), the observation of energy-loss spectra with millivolt energy resolution and sub-nanometer spatial resolution from individual point defects in an alkali halide, a review article for the Centenary of X-ray Diffration (17) and the development of a new method of electron-beam lithography (12). We briefly summarize here the work on GaN, on oxide superlattice ELNES, and on lithography by STEM.

  7. Inventing the Electronic University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Higher education is confronting a fundamental change. The transition from print on paper to digital and electronic technologies is transforming instruction, scholarly communication, and the storage and preservation of knowledge. What is required is not the automation of old systems, but the restructuring of institutions. The drive for autonomy,…

  8. Power Electronics Thermal Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, Gilberto [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-07

    Thermal modeling was conducted to evaluate and develop thermal management strategies for high-temperature wide-bandgap (WBG)-based power electronics systems. WBG device temperatures of 175 degrees C to 250 degrees C were modeled under various under-hood temperature environments. Modeling result were used to identify the most effective capacitor cooling strategies under high device temperature conditions.

  9. Polymer Electronics, Quo Vadis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiechi, Ryan C.; Hummelen, Jan C.

    2012-01-01

    At the heart of polymer electronics lies more than three decades of research into conjugated polymers. The future of these materials is intimately tied to the development of organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices that can compete with traditional, inorganic devices in efficiency and cost. In addition to

  10. Polymer Electronics, Quo Vadis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiechi, Ryan C.; Hummelen, Jan C.

    2012-01-01

    At the heart of polymer electronics lies more than three decades of research into conjugated polymers. The future of these materials is intimately tied to the development of organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices that can compete with traditional, inorganic devices in efficiency and cost. In addition to

  11. Electronic Inspection of Beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmo, Victor J.; Gammell, Paul M.; Clark, Jerry

    1987-01-01

    Two proposed methods for grading beef quality based on inspection by electronic equipment: one method uses television camera to generate image of a cut of beef as customer sees it; other uses ultrasonics to inspect live animal or unsliced carcasses. Both methods show promise for automated meat inspection.

  12. The electronic stethoscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Shuang; Tan, Ru San; Chai, Kevin Tshun Chuan; Wang, Chao; Ghista, Dhanjoo; Zhong, Liang

    2015-07-10

    Most heart diseases are associated with and reflected by the sounds that the heart produces. Heart auscultation, defined as listening to the heart sound, has been a very important method for the early diagnosis of cardiac dysfunction. Traditional auscultation requires substantial clinical experience and good listening skills. The emergence of the electronic stethoscope has paved the way for a new field of computer-aided auscultation. This article provides an in-depth study of (1) the electronic stethoscope technology, and (2) the methodology for diagnosis of cardiac disorders based on computer-aided auscultation. The paper is based on a comprehensive review of (1) literature articles, (2) market (state-of-the-art) products, and (3) smartphone stethoscope apps. It covers in depth every key component of the computer-aided system with electronic stethoscope, from sensor design, front-end circuitry, denoising algorithm, heart sound segmentation, to the final machine learning techniques. Our intent is to provide an informative and illustrative presentation of the electronic stethoscope, which is valuable and beneficial to academics, researchers and engineers in the technical field, as well as to medical professionals to facilitate its use clinically. The paper provides the technological and medical basis for the development and commercialization of a real-time integrated heart sound detection, acquisition and quantification system.

  13. The Art of Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Paul; Hill, Winfield

    2015-04-01

    1. Foundations; 2. Bipolar transistors; 3. Field effect transistors; 4. Operational amplifiers; 5. Precision circuits; 6. Filters; 7. Oscillators and timers; 8. Low noise techniques and transimpedance; 9. Power regulation; 10. Digital electronics; 11. Programmable logic devices; 12. Logical interfacing; 13. Digital meets analog; 14. Computers, controllers, and data links; 15. Microcontrollers.

  14. Unconditionally Secure Electronic Voting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Akira; Imai, Hideki

    In this chapter, we will show how to achieve unconditional or information-theoretic security in electronic voting with the following property: 1 Even all voters and tallying authorities have unbounded computing power, the distorted integrity of the voting results can be detected and proved incorrect by every honest voter,

  15. Electronic waste recycling techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Bernardes, Andréa

    2015-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the characterization of electronic waste. In addition, processing techniques for the recovery of metals, polymers and ceramics are described. This book serves as a source of information and as an educational technical reference for practicing scientists and engineers, as well as for students.

  16. Using Electronic Portfolios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Deb

    2012-01-01

    The digitized collections of artifacts known as electronic portfolios are creating solutions to a variety of performance improvement needs in ways that are cost-effective and improve both individual and group learning and performance. When social media functionality is embedded in e-portfolios, the tools support collaboration, social learning,…

  17. Electron microscope studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crewe, A.V.; Kapp, O.H.

    1990-08-01

    Our laboratory has made significant progress this year in devising improved electron-optical systems, in studying invertebrate hemoglobins with the STEM, and in achieving a workable sub-angstrom STEM. Our goal in electron optics is to improve resolution by producing spherical and chromatic aberration coefficients with signs opposite those of magnetic lenses. We have progressed toward this goal through calculations that explore the addition of electrodes to electron mirrors to reduce these two geometric aberrations and by devising a beam separation system that won't introduce asymmetrical aberrations. Some promising new designs of magnetic lenses for SEM applications have also been investigated. We have continued our exploration of the quaternary structure of the invertebrate hemoglobins and are now among the top laboratories in this area of expertise. In addition, we have overcome many of our electronic difficulties on the sub-angstrom STEM and have made significant progress toward achieving an operational system. The addition of an IBM RISC-6000 workstation to our lab has significantly increased our image processing capabilities.

  18. The Electronic Student Portfolio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasick, Emily; McLaren, Clemence

    1995-01-01

    Describes the use of electronic portfolios in one Hawaiian secondary literature class. Students went through their journals, picked two entries that best represented their growth in reading during the course, and explained why. Next they created a presentation about their growth and enjoyment of literature using multimedia technology. (SM)

  19. Electronic and Microelectronic Capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    22 3.9 Aztec Products Custom Wet-Chemistry Line ........................................... 22 3.10 KotIrnorgen...Cofight Vertical Rotary Etcher............*....................................................... 22 11. Aztec Products Custom Wet-Chemistry Line...state of the art in thick film hybrid fabrication methods, microelectronic fabrication and assembly, PC board fabrication, and electronic board assembly

  20. Electronic Resource Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Ellingsen

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Computer applications which deal with electronic resource management (ERM are quite a recent development. They have grown out of the need to manage the burgeoning number of electronic resources particularly electronic journals. Typically, in the early years of e-journal acquisition, library staff provided an easy means of accessing these journals by providing an alphabetical list on a web page. Some went as far as categorising the e-journals by subject and then grouping the journals either on a single web page or by using multiple pages. It didn't take long before it was recognised that it would be more efficient to dynamically generate the pages from a database rather than to continually edit the pages manually. Of course, once the descriptive metadata for an electronic journal was held within a database the next logical step was to provide administrative forms whereby that metadata could be manipulated. This in turn led to demands for incorporating more information and more functionality into the developing application.

  1. Selection of Electronic Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weathers, Barbara

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the impact of electronic resources on collection development; selection of CD-ROMs, (platform, speed, video and sound, networking capability, installation and maintenance); selection of laser disks; and Internet evaluation (accuracy of content, authority, objectivity, currency, technical characteristics). Lists Web sites for evaluating…

  2. Electron-Cyclotron Waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, E.

    1994-01-01

    The essential elements of the theory of electron cyclotron waves are reviewed, The two main electro-magnetic modes of propagation are identified and their dispersion and absorption properties are discussed. The importance of the use of the relativistic resonance condition is stressed.

  3. Advanced Electronic Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-15

    Silicon De- D.,I. Silversmith Solid State Technol. 23, 88 vices Formed by Ion Iniplanta- 1. W. Mountain (1980) tion and Laser Annealing S.C. Munroe M...J. Silversmith Photodeposition R. M. Osgood, Jr. 5075 Picosecond Optical Sampling H. A. Haus* Accepted by IEEE J. Quantum S.T. Kirsch Electron. K

  4. Cold electronics: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschman, R. K.

    Low-temperature operation is being applied and contemplated for electronic systems ranging from single-transistor circuits for basic research to VLSI integrated circuits for ultra-fast computers. It is seen as both a means of extracting better performance from present technology and as an important ingredient of the next generation of devices and circuits. This overview is concerned with electronics based on semiconductors; for low temperatures the primary material is Si, although GaAs also has considerable potential, and the primary device is the field-effect transistor in various forms. Reduced temperature operation offers improvements in performance through improvement of materials-related properties such as electronic carrier mobility, thermal conductivity, and electrical conductivity. Substantial improvements in reliability are also expected since degradation mechanisms are thermally activated; however, this could be negated unless problems of thermal expansion mismatch and cycling are overcome. Refrigeration continues to be a central concern; mechanical cycles are still the mainstay and progress is being made in systems applicable to electronics, although further development is needed.

  5. The Electronic Battle Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouin, Denis; Turcotte, Guy; Lebel, Eric; Gilbert, Annie

    2000-08-01

    The Electronic Battle Box is an integrated suite of planning and decision-aid tools specially designed to facilitate Canadian Armed Force Officers during their training and during their tasks of preparing and conducting military operations. It is the result of a collaborative effort between the Defence Research Establishment Valcartier, the Directorate of Army Doctrine (DAD), the Directorate of Land Requirements (DLR), the G4 staff of 1Cdn Div HQ and CGI Information and Management Consultants Inc. Distributed on CD-ROM, the Electronic Battle Box contains efficient and user-friendly tools that significantly reduce the planning time for military operations and ensure staff officers a better focus on significant tasks. Among the tools are an OrBat Browser and an Equipment Browser allowing to view and edit military organizations, a Task Browser providing facilities to prepare plans using Gantt charts, a Logistic Planner allowing to estimate supply requirements applying complex calculations, and Road, Air and Rail Movement Planners. EBB also provides staff officers with a large set of doctrinal documents in an electronic format. This paper provides an overview of the various tools of the Electronic Battle Box.

  6. The electronic neighbourhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rüdiger, Bjarne; Tournay, Bruno

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a 3-year research project. The Electronic Neighbourhood (2000-2004). Researchers have developed and tested a digital model of the urban area and other digital tools for supporting the dialogue and cooperation between professionals and citizens in an urban...... regeneration project in Copenhagen....

  7. Electronics and Electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nièpce, J.-C.; Givord, D.

    Multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCC) are the capacitors most commonly used in electronic circuits (television, radio, telephone, automobile, aeronautics, space, etc.). The main advantages are low cost, small size, a good level of chemical inertness, due to the fact that they are made from chemically very stable oxide ceramics, and hence good stability in time.

  8. ELECTRON COOLING FOR RHIC.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BEN-ZVI,I.

    2001-05-13

    The Accelerator Collider Department (CAD) at Brookhaven National Laboratory is operating the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), which includes the dual-ring, 3.834 km circumference superconducting collider and the venerable AGS as the last part of the RHIC injection chain. CAD is planning on a luminosity upgrade of the machine under the designation RHIC II. One important component of the RHIC II upgrade is electron cooling of RHIC gold ion beams. For this purpose, BNL and the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics in Novosibirsk entered into a collaboration aimed initially at the development of the electron cooling conceptual design, resolution of technical issues, and finally extend the collaboration towards the construction and commissioning of the cooler. Many of the results presented in this paper are derived from the Electron Cooling for RHIC Design Report [1], produced by the, BINP team within the framework of this collaboration. BNL is also collaborating with Fermi National Laboratory, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility and the University of Indiana on various aspects of electron cooling.

  9. Active devices for electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Sowa, Walter A

    1971-01-01

    An introduction to semiconductors ; the p-n junction ; the junction transistor ; electrical characteristics and ratings ; basic transistor amplifiers ; the field-effect transistor ; the unijunction transistor (UJT) ; the silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) ; the DIAC and TRIAC ; light operated devices ; integrated circuits (ICs) ; other solid-state devices of interest ; electron tubes.

  10. Nucleus Driven Electronic Pulsation

    CERN Document Server

    Ludwig, H; Xue, S -S

    2014-01-01

    We derive and solve by the spectral method the equations for a neutral system of ultra-relativistic electrons that are compressed to the radius of the nucleus and subject to a driving force. This driving force can be thought of as originating from a nuclear breathing mode, a possibility we discuss in detail.

  11. Electronically Enhanced Classroom Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Stephen; Cargill, Julie; Cutts, Quintin

    A design rationale for introducing electronic equipment (a group response system) for student interaction in lecture theaters is presented, linking the instructional design to theory. The effectiveness of the equipment for learning depends mostly on what pedagogic method is employed. Various alternative types are introduced, including: assessment;…

  12. Adaptive municipal electronic forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, Pieter; Dijk, van Betsy; Bondarouk, Tanya; Ruël, Huub; Guiderdoni-Jourdain, Karine; Oiry, Ewan

    2009-01-01

    Adaptation of electronic forms (e-forms) seems to be a step forward to reduce the burden for people who fill in forms. Municipalities more and more offer e-forms online that can be used by citizens to request a municipal product or service or by municipal employees to place a request on behalf of a

  13. Forensic Scanning Electron Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, R. H.

    1983-03-01

    The scanning electron microscope equipped with an x-ray spectrometer is a versatile instrument which has many uses in the investigation of crime and preparation of scientific evidence for the courts. Major applications include microscopy and analysis of very small fragments of paint, glass and other materials which may link an individual with a scene of crime, identification of firearms residues and examination of questioned documents. Although simultaneous observation and chemical analysis of the sample is the most important feature of the instrument, other modes of operation such as cathodoluminescence spectrometry, backscattered electron imaging and direct x-ray excitation are also exploited. Marks on two bullets or cartridge cases can be compared directly by sequential scanning with a single beam or electronic linkage of two instruments. Particles of primer residue deposited on the skin and clothing when a gun is fired can be collected on adhesive tape and identified by their morphology and elemental composition. It is also possible to differentiate between the primer residues of different types of ammunition. Bullets may be identified from the small fragments left behind as they pass through the body tissues. In the examination of questioned documents the scanning electron microscope is used to establish the order in which two intersecting ink lines were written and to detect traces of chemical markers added to the security inks on official documents.

  14. Newnes electronics assembly pocket book

    CERN Document Server

    Brindley, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Produced in association with the Engineering Training Authority with contributions from dozens of people in the electronics industry. The material covers common skills in electrical and electronic engineering and concentrates mainly on wiring and assembly. 'Newnes Electronics Assembly Pocket Book' is for electronics technicians, students and apprentices.

  15. Electronic Library: A TERI Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Debal C.; Deb, Subrata; Kumar, Satish

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the development of Electronic Library at TERI (The Energy and Resources Institute, New Delhi). Highlights include: hardware and software used; the digital library/Virtual Electronic Library; directory of Internet journals; virtual reference resources; electronic collection/Physical Electronic Library; downloaded online full-length…

  16. The electronic structures of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Coles, B R

    2013-01-01

    The Electronic Structures of Solids aims to provide students of solid state physics with the essential concepts they will need in considering properties of solids that depend on their electronic structures and idea of the electronic character of particular materials and groups of materials. The book first discusses the electronic structure of atoms, including hydrogen atom and many-electron atom. The text also underscores bonding between atoms and electrons in metals. Discussions focus on bonding energies and structures in the solid elements, eigenstates of free-electron gas, and electrical co

  17. Basic principles of electronics thermionics

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, J

    2013-01-01

    Basic Principles of Electronics, Volume I: Thermionics covers topics related to thermionic devices. The book starts by providing a physical background about electronics, including structure of matter, ionic, chemical and covalent combination, crystalline structure, conductors and insulators, and thermionic emission. The text then discusses electron dynamics; the characteristics and properties of electrons in solids; electron emission; and thermionic emission in a vacuum diode or triode. The development of the vacuum triode; gas-filled valves; and power amplifiers are also considered. The book

  18. Electronic Commerce Removing Regulatory Impediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-01

    AD-A252 691 ELECTRONIC COMMERCE Removing Regulatory Impediments ~DuiG A% ELECTE I JUL1 8 1992 0 C D Daniel J. Drake John A. Ciucci ... - ""N ST AT KE...Management Institute 6400 Goldsboro Road Bethesda, Maryland 20817-5886 92 LMI Executive Summary ELECTRONIC COMMERCE : REMOVING REGULATORY IMPEDIMENTS... Electronic Commerce techniques, such as electronic mail and electronic data interchange (EDI), enable Government agencies to conduct business without the

  19. Electron scattering for exotic nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Toshimi Suda

    2014-11-01

    A brand-new electron scattering facility, the SCRIT Electron Scattering Facility, will soon start its operation at RIKEN RI Beam Factory, Japan. This is the world’s first electron scattering facility dedicated to the structure studies of short-lived nuclei. The goal of this facility is to determine the charge density distributions of short-lived exotic nuclei by elastic electron scattering. The first collision between electrons and exotic nuclei will be observed in the year 2014.

  20. PREFACE: Correlated Electrons (Japan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Kazumasa

    2007-03-01

    This issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter is dedicated to results in the field of strongly correlated electron systems under multiple-environment. The physics of strongly correlated electron systems (SCES) has attracted much attention since the discovery of superconductivity in CeCu_2 Si_2 by Steglich and his co-workers a quater-century ago. Its interest has been intensified by the discovery of high-Tc superconductivity in a series of cuprates with layered perovskite structure which are still under active debate. The present issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter present some aspects of SCES physics on the basis of activities of a late project "Centre-Of-Excellence" supported by MEXT (Ministry of Education, Sports, Science, Culture and Technology of the Japanese Government). This project has been performed by a condensed matter physics group in the faculties of science and engineering science of Osaka University. Although this project also covers correlated phenomena in optics and nano-scale systems, we focus here on the issues of SCES related to superconductivity, mainly unconventional. The present issue covers the discussions on a new mechanism of superconductivity with electronic origin (critical valence fluctuation mechanism), interplay and unification of magnetism and superconductivity in SCES based on a systematic study of NQR under pressure, varieties of Fermi surface of Ce- and U-based SCES probed by the de Haas-van Alphen effect, electronic states probed by a bulk sensitive photoemission spectroscopy with soft X-ray, pressure induced superconductivity of heavy electron materials, pressure dependence of superconducting transition temperature based on a first-principle calculation, and new superconductors under very high-pressure. Some papers offer readers' reviews of the relevant fields and/or include new developments of this intriguing research field of SCES. Altogether, the papers within this issue outline some aspects of electronic states

  1. Electronic health record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kierkegaard, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    The European Commission wants to boost the digital economy by enabling all Europeans to have access to online medical records anywhere in Europe by 2020. With the newly enacted Directive 2011/24/EU on Patients’ Rights in cross border healthcare due for implementation by 2013, it is inevitable...... that a centralised European health record system will become a reality even before 2020. However, the concept of a centralised supranational central server raises concern about storing electronic medical records in a central location. The privacy threat posed by a supranational network is a key concern. Cross border...... and Interoperable electronic health record systems make confidential data more easily and rapidly accessible to a wider audience and increases the risk that personal data concerning health could be accidentally exposed or easily distributed to unauthorised parties by enabling greater access to a compilation...

  2. Electronic health records

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kierkegaard, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    The European Commission wants to boost the digital economy by enabling all Europeans to have access to online medical records anywhere in Europe by 2020. With the newly enacted Directive 2011/24/EU on patients’ rights in cross-border healthcare due for implementation by 2013, it is inevitable...... that a centralised European health record system will become a reality even before 2020. However, the concept of a centralised supranational central server raises concern about storing electronic medical records in a central location. The privacy threat posed by a supranational network is a key concern. Cross......-border and Interoperable electronic health record systems make confidential data more easily and rapidly accessible to a wider audience and increase the risk that personal data concerning health could be accidentally exposed or easily distributed to unauthorised parties by enabling greater access to a compilation...

  3. Uniform quantized electron gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høye, Johan S.; Lomba, Enrique

    2016-10-01

    In this work we study the correlation energy of the quantized electron gas of uniform density at temperature T  =  0. To do so we utilize methods from classical statistical mechanics. The basis for this is the Feynman path integral for the partition function of quantized systems. With this representation the quantum mechanical problem can be interpreted as, and is equivalent to, a classical polymer problem in four dimensions where the fourth dimension is imaginary time. Thus methods, results, and properties obtained in the statistical mechanics of classical fluids can be utilized. From this viewpoint we recover the well known RPA (random phase approximation). Then to improve it we modify the RPA by requiring the corresponding correlation function to be such that electrons with equal spins can not be on the same position. Numerical evaluations are compared with well known results of a standard parameterization of Monte Carlo correlation energies.

  4. Basics of RF electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Gallo, A

    2011-01-01

    RF electronics deals with the generation, acquisition and manipulation of high-frequency signals. In particle accelerators signals of this kind are abundant, especially in the RF and beam diagnostics systems. In modern machines the complexity of the electronics assemblies dedicated to RF manipulation, beam diagnostics, and feedbacks is continuously increasing, following the demands for improvement of accelerator performance. However, these systems, and in particular their front-ends and back-ends, still rely on well-established basic hardware components and techniques, while down-converted and acquired signals are digitally processed exploiting the rapidly growing computational capability offered by the available technology. This lecture reviews the operational principles of the basic building blocks used for the treatment of high-frequency signals. Devices such as mixers, phase and amplitude detectors, modulators, filters, switches, directional couplers, oscillators, amplifiers, attenuators, and others are d...

  5. Electron-molecule collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Takayanagi, Kazuo

    1984-01-01

    Scattering phenomena play an important role in modern physics. Many significant discoveries have been made through collision experiments. Amongst diverse kinds of collision systems, this book sheds light on the collision of an electron with a molecule. The electron-molecule collision provides a basic scattering problem. It is scattering by a nonspherical, multicentered composite particle with its centers having degrees of freedom of motion. The molecule can even disintegrate, Le., dissociate or ionize into fragments, some or all of which may also be molecules. Although it is a difficult problem, the recent theoretical, experimental, and computational progress has been so significant as to warrant publication of a book that specializes in this field. The progress owes partly to technical develop­ ments in measurements and computations. No less important has been the great and continuing stimulus from such fields of application as astrophysics, the physics of the earth's upper atmosphere, laser physics, radiat...

  6. Conversion electron surface imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Irwin, G M; Wehner, A

    1999-01-01

    A method of imaging the Moessbauer absorption over the surface of a sample based on counting conversion electrons emitted from the surface following resonant absorption of gamma radiation is described. This Conversion Electron Surface Imaging (CESI) method is somewhat analogous to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), particularly chemical shift imaging, and similar tomographic reconstruction techniques are involved in extracting the image. The theory behind the technique and a prototype device is described, as well as the results of proof-of-principle experiments which demonstrate the function of the device. Eventually this same prototype device will be part of a system to determine the spatial variation of the Moessbauer spectrum over the surface of a sample. Applications include imaging of variations of surface properties of steels and other iron containing alloys, as well as other surfaces over which sup 5 sup 7 Fe has been deposited.

  7. Semiconductor Physical Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Sheng

    2006-01-01

    Semiconductor Physical Electronics, Second Edition, provides comprehensive coverage of fundamental semiconductor physics that is essential to an understanding of the physical and operational principles of a wide variety of semiconductor electronic and optoelectronic devices. This text presents a unified and balanced treatment of the physics, characterization, and applications of semiconductor materials and devices for physicists and material scientists who need further exposure to semiconductor and photonic devices, and for device engineers who need additional background on the underlying physical principles. This updated and revised second edition reflects advances in semicondutor technologies over the past decade, including many new semiconductor devices that have emerged and entered into the marketplace. It is suitable for graduate students in electrical engineering, materials science, physics, and chemical engineering, and as a general reference for processing and device engineers working in the semicondi...

  8. Keeping electronic records secure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, David

    2013-10-01

    Are electronic engineering maintenance records relating to the hospital estate or a medical device as important as electronic patient records? Computer maintenance management systems (CMMS) are increasingly being used to manage all-round maintenance activities. However, the accuracy of the data held on them, and a level of security that prevents tampering with records, or other unauthorised changes to them to 'cover' poor practice, are both essential, so that, should an individual be injured or killed on hospital grounds, and a law suit follow, the estates team can be confident that it has accurate data to prove it has fulfilled its duty of care. Here David Easton MSc CEng FIHEEM MIET, director of Zener Engineering Services, and chair of IHEEM's Medical Devices Advisory Group, discusses the issues around maintenance databases, and the security and integrity of maintenance data.

  9. Electron beam silicon purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravtsov, Anatoly [SIA ' ' KEPP EU' ' , Riga (Latvia); Kravtsov, Alexey [' ' KEPP-service' ' Ltd., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-15

    Purification of heavily doped electronic grade silicon by evaporation of N-type impurities with electron beam heating was investigated in process with a batch weight up to 50 kilos. Effective temperature of the melt, an indicative parameter suitable for purification process characterization was calculated and appeared to be stable for different load weight processes. Purified material was successfully approbated in standard CZ processes of three different companies. Each company used its standard process and obtained CZ monocrystals applicable for photovoltaic application. These facts enable process to be successfully scaled up to commercial volumes (150-300 kg) and yield solar grade silicon. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. Electron Beam Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Zschornacka, G.; Thorn, A.

    2013-12-16

    Electron beam ion sources (EBISs) are ion sources that work based on the principle of electron impact ionization, allowing the production of very highly charged ions. The ions produced can be extracted as a DC ion beam as well as ion pulses of different time structures. In comparison to most of the other known ion sources, EBISs feature ion beams with very good beam emittances and a low energy spread. Furthermore, EBISs are excellent sources of photons (X-rays, ultraviolet, extreme ultraviolet, visible light) from highly charged ions. This chapter gives an overview of EBIS physics, the principle of operation, and the known technical solutions. Using examples, the performance of EBISs as well as their applications in various fields of basic research, technology and medicine are discussed.

  11. Pursuing prosthetic electronic skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chortos, Alex; Liu, Jia; Bao, Zhenan

    2016-09-01

    Skin plays an important role in mediating our interactions with the world. Recreating the properties of skin using electronic devices could have profound implications for prosthetics and medicine. The pursuit of artificial skin has inspired innovations in materials to imitate skin's unique characteristics, including mechanical durability and stretchability, biodegradability, and the ability to measure a diversity of complex sensations over large areas. New materials and fabrication strategies are being developed to make mechanically compliant and multifunctional skin-like electronics, and improve brain/machine interfaces that enable transmission of the skin's signals into the body. This Review will cover materials and devices designed for mimicking the skin's ability to sense and generate biomimetic signals.

  12. Pulsed electron beam precharger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finney, W.C. (ed.); Shelton, W.N.

    1991-01-01

    Electron beam precharging of a high resistivity aerosol was successfully demonstrated during this reporting period (Quarters Five and Six). The initial E-beam particle precharging experiments completed this term were designed to confirm and extend some of the work performed under the previous contract. There are several reasons for doing this: (1) to re-establish a baseline performance criterion for comparison to other runs, (2) to test several recently upgraded or repaired subsystems, and (3) to improve upon the collection efficiency of the electron beam precipitator when testing precharging effectiveness with a very high resistivity, moderate-to-high concentration dust load. In addition, these shakedown runs were used to determine a set of suitable operational parameters for the wind tunnel, the electrostatic collecting sections, and the MINACC E-beam accelerator. These parameters will generally be held constant while the precharging parameters are varied to produce an optimum particle charge.

  13. Power electronics reliability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplar, Robert James; Brock, Reinhard C.; Marinella, Matthew; King, Michael Patrick; Stanley, James K.; Smith, Mark A.; Atcitty, Stanley

    2010-10-01

    The project's goals are: (1) use experiments and modeling to investigate and characterize stress-related failure modes of post-silicon power electronic (PE) devices such as silicon carbide (SiC) and gallium nitride (GaN) switches; and (2) seek opportunities for condition monitoring (CM) and prognostics and health management (PHM) to further enhance the reliability of power electronics devices and equipment. CM - detect anomalies and diagnose problems that require maintenance. PHM - track damage growth, predict time to failure, and manage subsequent maintenance and operations in such a way to optimize overall system utility against cost. The benefits of CM/PHM are: (1) operate power conversion systems in ways that will preclude predicted failures; (2) reduce unscheduled downtime and thereby reduce costs; and (3) pioneering reliability in SiC and GaN.

  14. Recycling of electronic scrap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Jens Brøbech

    This Ph.D. thesis deals with the growingly important field of electronics recycling with special attention to the problem of printed circuit board recycling. A literature survey of contemporary electronics recycling and printed circuit board recycling is presented.Further, an analysis of the role...... in the metals producing industry is presented and tested on two printed circuit board scrap cases. The underlying idea for the method is that complex scrap should be introduced in the matrix of man-made material flows at recipient points where the scrap constitutes the least environmental problem and where...... resource recovery is largest. It is clearly shown with the two printed circuit board scrap cases that the currently used copper recycling scenario is environmentally inferior to the tin and lead primary production scenarios. The method is a novelty, since no-one has previously put forward a method...

  15. Electronics Technician 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1957-01-01

    grade of of a strong, pliable wood strip and securing sandpaper (No. 00) may be used. Sandpapering the canvas with rivets, as shown in figure is also...and use properly personnel. insulated tools; cover the deck with an approved All electronics personnel must become thor- insulating material; and make...not struction, the worker must be insulated from be broken except when absolutely necessary and accidental grounding by the use of approved authorized

  16. Runaway electrons and Bremsstrahlung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helander, Per

    2016-09-01

    If an electric field is applied to a plasma, it causes ‘runaway’ acceleration of some electrons—a phenomenon that has been known for almost a century. A paper by Embréus et al (2016 New J. Phys. 18 093023) calculates how the emission of Bremsstrahlung affects the upper end of the energy spectrum of these electrons, and finds that it is important to carefully account for finite energy of the emitted photons.

  17. Shipboard electronics thermoacoustic cooler

    OpenAIRE

    Ballister, Stephen C.; McKelvey, Dennis J.

    1995-01-01

    A thermoacoustic refrigerator that was optimized for preservation of biological samples in space, was modified for use as a cooler for the CV-2095 shipboard radar electronics rack. The thermoacoustic cooler was tested in the laboratory and demonstrated at sea aboard USS DEYO (DD-989). In the laboratory, using a calibrated heat load, the data acquisition system was able to account for the total energy balance to within 4%. At the highest operating power aboard ship, 226.6 Watts of acoustic pow...

  18. Electronic healthcare information security

    CERN Document Server

    Dube, Kudakwashe; Shoniregun, Charles A

    2010-01-01

    The ever-increasing healthcare expenditure and pressing demand for improved quality and efficiency of patient care services are driving innovation in healthcare information management. The domain of healthcare has become a challenging testing ground for information security due to the complex nature of healthcare information and individual privacy. ""Electronic Healthcare Information Security"" explores the challenges of e-healthcare information and security policy technologies. It evaluates the effectiveness of security and privacy implementation systems for anonymization methods and techniqu

  19. Electronic Braille Document Reader

    OpenAIRE

    Arif, Shahab; Holmes, Violeta

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation into developing a portable Braille device which would allow visually impaired individuals to read electronic documents by actuating Braille text on a finger. Braille books tend to be bulky in size due to the minimum size requirements for each Braille cell. E-books can be read in Braille using refreshable Braille displays connected to a computer. However, the refreshable Braille displays are expensive, bulky and are not portable. These factors restrict blin...

  20. Towards Hypermedia Electronic Publishing

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantas, Dimitri; Morin, Jean-Henry

    1995-01-01

    The most important problem that decision makers face in today's ever increasing information flux is how to find efficiently and fast the useful information. Hypermedia Electronic Publishing systems, supporting active information distribution and offering hypertext browsing facilities, provide a promising solution to this problem. Nevertheless several issues, like value added services, retrieval and access mechanism, information marketing as well as financial and security aspects should be res...

  1. Xyce parallel electronic simulator.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiter, Eric R; Mei, Ting; Russo, Thomas V.; Rankin, Eric Lamont; Schiek, Richard Louis; Thornquist, Heidi K.; Fixel, Deborah A.; Coffey, Todd S; Pawlowski, Roger P; Santarelli, Keith R.

    2010-05-01

    This document is a reference guide to the Xyce Parallel Electronic Simulator, and is a companion document to the Xyce Users Guide. The focus of this document is (to the extent possible) exhaustively list device parameters, solver options, parser options, and other usage details of Xyce. This document is not intended to be a tutorial. Users who are new to circuit simulation are better served by the Xyce Users Guide.

  2. Electrical and electronic principles

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, S A

    1991-01-01

    Electrical and Electronic Principles, 2, Second Edition covers the syllabus requirements of BTEC Unit U86/329, including the principles of control systems and elements of data transmission. The book first tackles series and parallel circuits, electrical networks, and capacitors and capacitance. Discussions focus on flux density, electric force, permittivity, Kirchhoff's laws, superposition theorem, arrangement of resistors, internal resistance, and powers in a circuit. The text then takes a look at capacitors in circuit, magnetism and magnetization, electromagnetic induction, and alternating v

  3. Computational Electronics and Electromagnetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeFord, J.F.

    1993-03-01

    The Computational Electronics and Electromagnetics thrust area is a focal point for computer modeling activities in electronics and electromagnetics in the Electronics Engineering Department of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Traditionally, they have focused their efforts in technical areas of importance to existing and developing LLNL programs, and this continues to form the basis for much of their research. A relatively new and increasingly important emphasis for the thrust area is the formation of partnerships with industry and the application of their simulation technology and expertise to the solution of problems faced by industry. The activities of the thrust area fall into three broad categories: (1) the development of theoretical and computational models of electronic and electromagnetic phenomena, (2) the development of useful and robust software tools based on these models, and (3) the application of these tools to programmatic and industrial problems. In FY-92, they worked on projects in all of the areas outlined above. The object of their work on numerical electromagnetic algorithms continues to be the improvement of time-domain algorithms for electromagnetic simulation on unstructured conforming grids. The thrust area is also investigating various technologies for conforming-grid mesh generation to simplify the application of their advanced field solvers to design problems involving complicated geometries. They are developing a major code suite based on the three-dimensional (3-D), conforming-grid, time-domain code DSI3D. They continue to maintain and distribute the 3-D, finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) code TSAR, which is installed at several dozen university, government, and industry sites.

  4. Electronics Industry Study Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    which has reduced the use and allure of stock options . Another electronics industry official captured this problem saying, “It’s not that the talent...capital gains tax. China reduces its 17% nominal value-added tax to 3% for domestically manufactured semiconductors. China also taxes stock ... options at par value and has no capital gains tax. New fabs in Singapore receive a ten year tax exemption followed by a five year period of reduced tax

  5. Power Electronics System Communications

    OpenAIRE

    Milosavljevic, Ivana

    1999-01-01

    This work investigates communication issues in high-frequency power converters. A novel control communication network (Power Electronics System Network or PES Net) is proposed for modular, medium and high-power, converters. The network protocol, hardware and software are designed and implemented. The PES Net runs at 125 Mb/s over plastic optical fiber allowing converter switching frequencies in excess of 100 kHz. Communication control is implemented in a fie...

  6. Supernova electron capture rates

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez-Pinedo, G

    1999-01-01

    We have calculated the Gamow-Teller strength distributions for the ground states and low lying states of several nuclei that play an important role in the precollapse evolution of supernova. The calculations reproduce the experimental GT distributions nicely. The GT distribution are used to calculate electron capture rates for typical presupernova conditions. The computed rates are noticeably smaller than the presently adopted rates. The possible implications for the supernova evolution are discussed.

  7. ELECTRONIC COMMERCE PORTAL

    OpenAIRE

    Georgeta Soava

    2011-01-01

    Today companies are faced with the need to exploit technology changing computer environments, in order to improve customer satisfaction and reduce costs. A successful approach to electronic portals is an effective demonstration of the new ways of relating to the client. The objectives that we have considered for the realization of e-commerce portal can be summarized as follows: structured communication, effective collaboration, complet and closed circuit of orders and deliveries, inventory op...

  8. FRAUD IN ELECTRONIC COMMERCE

    OpenAIRE

    Valentin-Stelian Badescu

    2013-01-01

    Electronic commerce is experiencing a great extent, and about the same extent fraud seeks - and sometimes is the place to impressive levels. Moreover, computer fraud and, the actors' they do not seem to suffer from the global economic recession and get as sophisticated as a legitimate business model and one of the most important dimensions of the work of modern organizations is the manipulation of information (collection, processing, storage, distribution, etc.). This component informational ...

  9. The electronic approach VSCF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladky, Mark

    The advantages of the high-power electronic approach to variable speed constant frequency (VSCF) systems are examined. It is shown, in particular, how the inherent flexibility of the VSCF approach allows it to be configured for different applications, contributing to the evolution towards the more electric aircraft. The discussion covers criteria for selection, aircraft electric power system architectures, power level, performance, reliability, and maintainability. The future trends of the VSCF converter technology are also briefly discussed.

  10. Electron cryomicroscopy methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, V M

    2001-10-01

    Electron cryomicroscopy methods comprise a rapidly expanding field providing insights into the structure and function of biological macromolecules and their supramolecular assemblies. The 3.8 A resolution structure of the membrane protein aquaporin, a view of the herpesvirus capsid at 8.5 A and the 10 A resolution structure of the spliceosomal U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein complex are three outstanding examples emphasizing the versatility of this technique.

  11. CERN Electronics Pool presentations

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    The CERN Electronics Pool has organised a series of presentations in collaboration with oscilloscope manufacturers. The last one will take place according to the schedule below.   Time will be available at the end of the presentation to discuss your personal needs. The Agilent presentation had to be postponed and will be organised later. -     Lecroy: Thursday, 24 November 2011, in 530-R-030, 14:00 to 16:30.

  12. Implantable electronic medical devices

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzpatrick, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Implantable Electronic Medical Devices provides a thorough review of the application of implantable devices, illustrating the techniques currently being used together with overviews of the latest commercially available medical devices. This book provides an overview of the design of medical devices and is a reference on existing medical devices. The book groups devices with similar functionality into distinct chapters, looking at the latest design ideas and techniques in each area, including retinal implants, glucose biosensors, cochlear implants, pacemakers, electrical stimulation t

  13. Sculpturing the Electron Wave Function

    CERN Document Server

    Shiloh, Roy; Lilach, Yigal; Arie, Ady

    2014-01-01

    Coherent electrons such as those in electron microscopes, exhibit wave phenomena and may be described by the paraxial wave equation. In analogy to light-waves, governed by the same equation, these electrons share many of the fundamental traits and dynamics of photons. Today, spatial manipulation of electron beams is achieved mainly using electrostatic and magnetic fields. Other demonstrations include simple phase-plates and holographic masks based on binary diffraction gratings. Altering the spatial profile of the beam may be proven useful in many fields incorporating phase microscopy, electron holography, and electron-matter interactions. These methods, however, are fundamentally limited due to energy distribution to undesired diffraction orders as well as by their binary construction. Here we present a new method in electron-optics for arbitrarily shaping of electron beams, by precisely controlling an engineered pattern of thicknesses on a thin-membrane, thereby molding the spatial phase of the electron wav...

  14. The SPEDE electron spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    O'Neill, George

    This thesis presents SPEDE (SPectrometer for Electron DEtection) and documents its construction, testing and performance during commissioning at Jyvaskyla, Finland, before deployment at the HIE-ISOLDE facility at CERN coupled with the MINIBALL array to perform in-beam electron-gamma spectroscopy using post-accelerated radioactive ion beams. Commissioning experiments took place in two two-day stints during spring 2015, coupled with several JUROGAMII gamma-detectors. This spectrometer will help aid in fully understanding exotic regions of the nuclear chart such as regions with a high degree of octupole deformation, and in those nuclei exhibiting shape coexistence. For the rst time, electron spectroscopy has been performed at the target position from states populated in accelerated nuclei via Coulomb excitation. The FWHM of SPEDE is approximately 7 keV at 320 keV, and Doppler correction was possible to improve Doppler broadened peaks. The results are intended to give the reader a full understanding of the dete...

  15. Transformational silicon electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto

    2014-02-25

    In today\\'s traditional electronics such as in computers or in mobile phones, billions of high-performance, ultra-low-power devices are neatly integrated in extremely compact areas on rigid and brittle but low-cost bulk monocrystalline silicon (100) wafers. Ninety percent of global electronics are made up of silicon. Therefore, we have developed a generic low-cost regenerative batch fabrication process to transform such wafers full of devices into thin (5 μm), mechanically flexible, optically semitransparent silicon fabric with devices, then recycling the remaining wafer to generate multiple silicon fabric with chips and devices, ensuring low-cost and optimal utilization of the whole substrate. We show monocrystalline, amorphous, and polycrystalline silicon and silicon dioxide fabric, all from low-cost bulk silicon (100) wafers with the semiconductor industry\\'s most advanced high-κ/metal gate stack based high-performance, ultra-low-power capacitors, field effect transistors, energy harvesters, and storage to emphasize the effectiveness and versatility of this process to transform traditional electronics into flexible and semitransparent ones for multipurpose applications. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  16. Electronic Recruitment at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The Human Resources Department switches to electronic recruitment. From now on whenever you are involved in a recruitment action you will receive an e-mail giving you access to a Web folder. Inside you will find a shortlist of applications drawn up by the Human Resources Department. This will allow you to consult the folder, at the same time as everyone else involved in the recruitment process, for the vacancy you are interested in. This new electronic recruitment system, known as e-RT, will be introduced in a presentation given at 10 a.m. on 11 February in the Main Auditorium. Implemented by AIS (Administrative Information Services) and the Human Resources Department, e-RT will cover vacancies open in all of CERN's recruitment programmes. The electronic application system was initially made available to technical students in July 2003. By December it was extended to summer students, fellows, associates and Local Staff. Geraldine Ballet from the Recruitment Service prefers e-RT to mountains of paper! The Hu...

  17. Pulsed electron beam precharger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finney, W.C. (ed.); Shelton, W.N.

    1991-01-01

    During the previous reporting period (Quarter Six), the charging and removal of a fine, high resistivity aerosol using the advanced technology of electron beam precipitation was successfully accomplished. Precharging a dust stream circulating through the EBP wind tunnel produced collection efficiency figures of up to 40 times greater than with corona charging and collection alone (Table 1). The increased system collection efficiency attributed to electron beam precharging was determined to be the result of increased particle charge. It was found that as precharger electric field was raised, collection efficiency became greater. In sequence, saturation particle charge varies with the precharger electric field strength, particle migration velocity varies with the precharger and collector electric field, and collection efficiency varies with the migration velocity. Maximizing the system collection efficiency requires both a high charging electric field (provided by the E-beam precharger), and a high collecting electric field (provided by the collector wires and plates). Because increased particle collection efficiency is directly attributable to higher particle charge, the focus of research during Quarter Seven was shifted to learning more about the actual charge magnitude on the aerosol particles. Charge determinations in precipitators have traditionally been made on bulk dust samples collected from the flue gas stream, which gives an overall charge vs. mass (Q/M) ratio measurement. More recently, techniques have been developed which allow the measurement of the charge on individual particles in a rapid and repeatable fashion. One such advanced technique has been developed at FSU for use in characterizing the electron beam precharger.

  18. Electronic Health Object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nabil Almunawar PhD

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Electronic health records (EHRs store health-related patient information in an electronic format, improving the quality of health care management and increasing efficiency of health care processes. However, in existing information systems, health-related records are generated, managed, and controlled by health care organizations. Patients are perceived as recipients of care and normally cannot directly interact with the system that stores their health-related records; their participation in enriching this information is not possible. Many businesses now allow customers to participate in generating information for their systems, strengthening customer relationships. This trend is supported by Web 2.0, which enables interactivity through various means, including social networks. Health care systems should be able to take advantage of this development. This article proposes a novel framework in addressing the emerging need for interactivity while preserving and extending existing electronic medical data. The framework has 3 dimensions of patient health record: personal, social, and medical dimensions. The framework is designed to empower patients, changing their roles from static recipient of health care services to dynamic and active partners in health care processes.

  19. Nanotechnology in paper electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna; Österbacka, Professor Ronald; Han, Jin-Woo, Dr

    2014-03-01

    The ability to put cutting edge technology on paper—not in words but in a working physical form—has been attracting an increasing number of researchers over the past decade. Paper has many advantages that make it attractive for flexible electronics: it is relatively environmentally benign; it is renewable; it can be recycled; it is light weight; production processes for paper are well advanced; and it is inexpensive. This special issue, with guest editors Ronald Österbacka from Åbo Akademi University in Finland and Jin-Woo Han from the NASA AMES Research Center, features some of the latest in paper electronics research, including developments towards applications in displays, sensing and alternative energy sources, as well as fundamental studies to further our understanding of how paper can be most effectively used in electronics. As Andrew Steckl and colleagues in the US point out, 'Cellulose-based paper substrates were implemented as an electronic substrate as early as 1969, with most advancement occurring in the past decade largely due to technology improvements in thin film deposition and organic materials' [1, 2]. They report a detailed comparison between paper, standard liquid crystal display rigid glass and flexible glass for hosting pentacene organic thin film transistors, and obtain promising results for future paper-based devices. As most meaningful electronic devices rely on transistors to function, transistors feature quite prominently in this special issue. Rodrigo Martins and colleagues in France and Portugal study the effect of fibre type, structure and dimension on paper-based transistors and reveal further insights into how paper properties affect device performance [3]. Qing Wan and colleagues in China bring the state of the art in transistor technology to paper substrates [4], fabricating indium-zinc-oxide (IZO)-based protonic/electronic hybrid thin film transistors on paper and showing that they can be used as artificial synapses. Like the

  20. Electron acoustic solitary waves with kappa-distributed electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devanandhan, S; Singh, S V; Lakhina, G S, E-mail: satyavir@iigs.iigm.res.in [Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, New Panvel (West), Navi Mumbai (India)

    2011-08-01

    Electron acoustic solitary waves are studied in a three-component, unmagnetized plasma composed of hot electrons, fluid cold electrons and ions having finite temperatures. Hot electrons are assumed to have kappa distribution. The Sagdeev pseudo-potential technique is used to study the arbitrary amplitude electron-acoustic solitary waves. It is found that inclusion of cold electron temperature shrinks the existence regime of the solitons, and soliton electric field amplitude decreases with an increase in cold electron temperature. A decrease in spectral index, {kappa}, i.e. an increase in the superthermal component of hot electrons, leads to a decrease in soliton electric field amplitude as well as the soliton velocity range. The soliton solutions do not exist beyond T{sub c}/T{sub h}>0.13 for {kappa}=3.0 and Mach number M=0.9 for the dayside auroral region parameters.